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Sample records for cell constituents

  1. Tobacco constituents are mitogenic for arterial smooth-muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.G.; Hajjar, D.P.; Hefton, J.M.

    1985-07-01

    Tobacco glycoprotein (TGP) purified from flue-cured tobacco leaves, tar-derived material (TAR), the water soluble, nondialyzable, delipidized extract of cigarette smoke condensate, rutin-bovine serum albumin conjugates, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid are mitogenic for bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells, but not adventitial fibroblasts. The mitogenicity appears to depend on polyphenol epitopes on carrier molecules. Ellagic acid, another plant polyphenol, inhibited arterial smooth-muscle proliferation. These results suggest that a number of ubiquitous, plant-derived substances may influence smooth-muscle cell proliferation in the arterial wall.

  2. Coating with luminal gut-constituents alters adherence of nanoparticles to intestinal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Sinnecker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropogenic nanoparticles (NPs have found their way into many goods of everyday life. Inhalation, ingestion and skin contact are potential routes for NPs to enter the body. In particular the digestive tract with its huge absorptive surface area provides a prime gateway for NP uptake. Considering that NPs are covered by luminal gut-constituents en route through the gastrointestinal tract, we wanted to know if such modifications have an influence on the interaction between NPs and enterocytes.Results: We investigated the consequences of a treatment with various luminal gut-constituents on the adherence of nanoparticles to intestinal epithelial cells. Carboxylated polystyrene particles 20, 100 and 200 nm in size represented our anthropogenic NPs, and differentiated Caco-2 cells served as model for mature enterocytes of the small intestine. Pretreatment with the proteins BSA and casein consistently reduced the adherence of all NPs to the cultured enterocytes, while incubation of NPs with meat extract had no obvious effect on particle adherence. In contrast, contact with intestinal fluid appeared to increase the particle-cell interaction of 20 and 100 nm NPs.Conclusion: Luminal gut-constituents may both attenuate and augment the adherence of NPs to cell surfaces. These effects appear to be dependent on the particle size as well as on the type of interacting protein. While some proteins will rather passivate particles towards cell attachment, possibly by increasing colloid stability or camouflaging attachment sites, certain components of intestinal fluid are capable to modify particle surfaces in such a way that interactions with cellular surface structures result in an increased binding.

  3. Chemical constituents and antiproliferative effects of cultured Mougeotia nummuloides and Spirulina major against cancerous cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erenler, Ramazan; Pabuccu, Koksal; Yaglioglu, Ayse Sahin; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Gul, Fatih

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effect of Mougeotia nummuloides and Spirulina major on Vero cells (African green monkey kidney), C6 cells (rat brain tumor cells) and HeLa cells (human uterus carcinoma) was investigated in vitro. The antiproliferative effect of the methanol extract of M. nummuloides and S. major compared with 5-fluorourasil (5-FU) and cisplatin was tested at various concentrations using the BrdU Cell Proliferation ELISA. Both M. nummuloides and S. major extracts significantly inhibited the proliferation of Vero, HeLa and C6 cancer cell lines with IC50 and IC75 values. The M. nummuloides extract exhibited higher activity than 5-FU and cisplatin on Vero and C6 cells at high concentrations. The S. major extract revealed better antifproliferative activity than standards against Vero cells at 500 μg/mL. The compounds of methanol extracts were determined by GC-MS after the silylation process. Trehalose, monostearin and 1-monopalmitin were detected as major products in the M. nummuloides extract where as in the S. major extract; monostearin, 1-monopalmitin and hexyl alcohol were the main constituents.

  4. Synergy and antagonism of active constituents of ADAPT-232 on transcriptional level of metabolic regulation of isolated neuroglial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander George Panossian; Rebecca eHamm; Onat eKadioglu; Georg Carl Wikman; Thomas eEfferth

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression profiling was performed on the human neuroglial cell line T98G after treatment with adaptogen ADAPT-232 and its constituents – extracts of Eleutherococcus senticosus root, Schisandra chinensis berry, and Rhodiola rosea root as well as several constituents individually, namely, eleutheroside E, schizandrin B, salidroside, triandrin, and tyrosol. A common feature for all tested adaptogens was their effect on G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways, i.e. cAMP, phosph...

  5. Synergy and Antagonism of Active Constituents of ADAPT-232 on Transcriptional Level of Metabolic Regulation of Isolated Neuroglial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Panossian, Alexander; Hamm, Rebecca; Kadioglu, Onat; Wikman, Georg; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression profiling was performed on the human neuroglial cell line T98G after treatment with adaptogen ADAPT-232 and its constituents – extracts of Eleutherococcus senticosus root, Schisandra chinensis berry, and Rhodiola rosea root as well as several constituents individually, namely, eleutheroside E, schizandrin B, salidroside, triandrin, and tyrosol. A common feature for all tested adaptogens was their effect on G-protein-coupled receptor signaling pathways, i.e., cAMP, phospholipas...

  6. Chemopreventive Effects of Peucedanum praeruptorum DUNN and Its Major Constituents on SGC7901 Gastric Cancer Cells

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    Qingshan Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of Peucedanum praeruptorum DUNN methanolic extract (PPME and its major constituents on SGC7901 human gastric cancer cells were evaluated. Two pyranocoumarins, namely, (± praeruptorin A (PA and (± praeruptorin B (PB, were isolated from PPME. A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method was developed to determine the contents of PA and PB in PPME. The antiproliferative and cytotoxic actions of PPME were observed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assays. At 300 µg/mL, PPME inhibited cell growth by 51.2% (P < 0.01, probably linked to the high concentration of PA and PB. Both PA and PB exhibited antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities on the SGC7901 cells. Furthermore, the active principle compound, PA, also enhanced the actions of doxorubincin (DOX on SGC7901 cells. Cell growth decreased higher with the combined treatment of PA and DOX than that with the chemotherapy agent applied alone, suggesting that PA could reduce the dose of DOX for the desired effects.

  7. The Immuno-Regulatory Effects of Schisandra chinensis and Its Constituents on Human Monocytic Leukemia Cells

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    Mei-Hsien Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases occur when the immune system is weakened. Intracellular signals activate immuno-responsive cells to produce cytokines that modulate the immune response. Schisandra chinensis has been used traditionally to treat general fatigue, neurasthenia, and spontaneous sweating. In the present study, the effect of constituents of S. chinensis on cytokine release by human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1 was tested using microparticle-based flow cytometric analysis. Two major lignans, schizandrin (Sch and gomisin A (Gom A, were identified and shown to induce interleukin (IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β, and granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF release by THP-1 cells. By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR or quantitative real-time PCR, there was a dose-dependent increase of IL-8, MIP-1β and GM-CSF mRNA levels. Thus, Sch and Gom A from S. chinensis enhance cytokine release by THP-1 cells and this effect occurs through mRNA upregulation. Upregulation of MIP-1β and GM-CSF in particular may have clinical applications. Therefore, S. chinensis may be therapeutically beneficial by promoting humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.

  8. Sucralose sweetener in vivo effects on blood constituents radiolabeling, red blood cell morphology and radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in rats

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    Rocha, G.S.; Pereira, M.O. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010180 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Benarroz, M.O.; Frydman, J.N.G.; Rocha, V.C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pereira, M.J. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Fisiologia, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Biomedico, Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Rua Frei Caneca, 94, Rio de Janeiro 20211040 (Brazil); Medeiros, A.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010180 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Bernardo-Filho, M. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Coordenadoria de Pesquisa Basica, Praca Cruz Vermelha, 23, 20230130 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Effects of sucralose sweetener on blood constituents labelled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) on red blood cell (RBC) morphology, sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) biodistribution in rats were evaluated. Radiolabeling on blood constituents from Wistar rats was undertaken for determining the activity percentage (%ATI) on blood constituents. RBC morphology was also evaluated. Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA biodistribution was used to determine %ATI/g in organs. There was no alteration on RBC blood constituents and morphology %ATI. Sucralose sweetener was capable of altering %ATI/g of the radiopharmaceuticals in different organs. These findings are associated to the sucralose sweetener in specific organs.

  9. Immunolocalization of epithelial and mesenchymal matrix constituents in association with inner enamel epithelial cells.

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    Bosshardt, D D; Nanci, A

    1998-02-01

    After crown formation, the enamel organ reorganizes into Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS). Although it is generally accepted that HERS plays an inductive role during root formation, it also has been suggested that it may contribute enamel-related proteins to cementum matrix. By analogy to the enamel-free area (EFA) in rat molars, in which epithelial cells express not only enamel proteins but also "typical" mesenchymal matrix constituents, it has been proposed that HERS cells may also have the potential to produce cementum proteins. To test this hypothesis, we examined the nature of the first matrix layer deposited along the cervical portion of root dentin and the characteristics of the associated cells. Rat molars were processed for postembedding colloidal gold immunolabeling with antibodies to amelogenin (AMEL), ameloblastin (AMBN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and osteopontin (OPN). To minimize the possibility of false-negative results, several antibodies to AMEL were used. The labelings were compared with those obtained at the EFA. Initial cementum matrix was consistently observed at a time when epithelial cells from HERS covered most of the forming root surface. Cells with mesenchymal characteristics were rarely seen in proximity to the matrix. Both the EFA matrix and initial cementum exhibited collagen fibrils and were intensely immunoreactive for BSP and OPN. AMEL and AMBN were immunodetected at the EFA but not over the initial cementum proper. These two proteins were, however, present at the cervical-most portion of the root where enamel matrix extends for a short distance between dentin and cementum. These data suggest that epithelial cells along the root surface are likely responsible for the deposition of the initial cementum matrix and therefore, like the cells at the EFA, may be capable of producing mesenchymal proteins.

  10. Interference of cranberry constituents in cell-cell signaling system of Vibrio harveyi.

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    Feldman, Mark; Weiss, Ervin I; Ofek, Itzhak; Steinberg, Doron

    2009-10-01

    Cranberry juice has long been recognized in folk medicine as a therapeutic agent, mainly in urinary track infections. It acts as an antibiofilm agent against various pathogens. Quorum sensing is process where bacteria communicate with each other via signal molecules known as autoinducers. This process is strongly involved in various bacterial pathological and physiological pathways. Various strains of Vibrio harveyi bacteria were incubated with different concentrations of nondialyzable material of cranberry (NDM) with or without addition of exogenous autoinducer. Bioluminescence regulated by the autoinducers was measured in GENios reader. Effect of NDM alone or NDM supplemented with autoinducer on quorum sensing was determined as change in bioluminescence in each treated sample compared to appropriate control in every strain. Using model of V. harveyi, we found an inhibitory effect of cranberry constituents on bacterial signaling system. This effect was reversible, since exogenous autoinducer was able to recover bioluminescence which was decreased by NDM. We hypothesized that cranberry NDM interacts with V. harveyi quorum sensing by competition with autoinducer for binding to autoinducer sensor.

  11. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

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    Benarroz, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, G.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frydman, J.N.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m({sup 99m}Tc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

  12. Molecular constituents of the extracellular matrix in rat liver mounting a hepatic progenitor cell response for tissue repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestentoft, Peter Siig; Jelnes, Peter; Andersen, Jesper Bøje

    2013-01-01

    Tissue repair in the adult mammalian liver occurs in two distinct processes, referred to as the first and second tiers of defense. We undertook to characterize the changes in molecular constituents of the extracellular matrix when hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) respond in a second tier of defense...

  13. Spectroscopic characterization of cell membranes and their constituents of the plant-associated soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnev, A. A.; Antonyuk, L. P.; Matora, L. Yu.; Serebrennikova, O. B.; Sumaroka, M. V.; Colina, M.; Renou-Gonnord, M.-F.; Ignatov, V. V.

    1999-05-01

    Structural and compositional features of bacterial membranes and some of their isolated constituents (cell surface lipopolysaccharide, phospholipids) of the plant-growth-promoting diazotrophic rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense (wild-type strain Sp245) were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and some other techniques. FTIR spectra of the cell membranes were shown to comprise the main vibration modes of the relevant lipopolysaccharide and protein components which are believed to be involved in associative plant-bacterium interactions, as well as of phospholipid constituents. The role and functions of metal cations in the structural organization and physicochemical properties of bacterial cell membranes are also discussed considering their accumulation in the membranes from the culture medium.

  14. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum treatment on radiolabeling of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, Monica Oliveira; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, Gabrielle de Souza; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Geller, Mauro [Centro Universitario Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Biomedico. Dept. de Fisiologia Humana

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vivo treatment with an aqueous cinnamon extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc and on the morphology of red blood cells from Wistar rats. Animals were treated with cinnamon extract at different doses and for different periods of time. As controls, animals treated with 0.9% NaCl. Labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc was performed. Plasma, blood cells and insoluble fractions were isolated. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Also, blood smears were prepared to morphological analysis of red blood cells from. Data showed that in vivo cinnamon extract did not significantly (p>0.05) modify the %ATI of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells. The results suggest that in vivo aqueous cinnamon could not affect the membrane structures involved in transport of ions or the oxidation state of stannous and pertechnetate ions. (author)

  15. Cytotoxic activity of isolated constituents from leaves of Premna serratifolia on MCF-7 and HT-29 cell lines

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    Mahesh Biradi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Premna serratifolia (Syn: Premna integrifolia is an important medicinal herb known as “Agnimantha” in Ayurveda and traditionally used for anticancer activity. The objective of present study was to isolate the cytotoxic phytoconstituents from the n-hexane soluble fraction of P. serratifolia leaf extract. Unsaponifiable portion of n-hexane soluble fraction was subjected to silica based column chromatography. The major constituents present in all the sub-fractions were identified by TLC and phytochemical tests. Two constituents were isolated and they were purified. Sub-fractions with isolates were tested for cytotoxic effect by BSL bioassay. Two isolates were found to be active and which were tested on cancer cell lines MCF-7 and HT-29 for their cytotoxicity. Among two isolates, one compound has shown significant cytotoxicity. From the results we conclude that the plant isolates showed cytotoxicity against selected human cancer cell lines.

  16. Inhibitory effects of Morinda citrifolia extract and its constituents on melanogenesis in murine B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Megumi; Itoh, Kimihisa; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Morinda citrifolia (noni) extract and its constituents on α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated melanogenesis in cultured murine B16 melanoma cells (B16 cells). A 50% ethanolic extract of noni seeds (MCS-ext) showed significant inhibition of melanogenesis with no effect on cell proliferation. MCS-ext was more active than noni leaf and fruit flesh extracts. Activity guided fractionation of MCS-ext led to the isolation of two lignans, 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (1) and americanin A (2), as active constituents. To elucidate the mechanism of melanogenesis inhibition by the lignans, α-MSH-stimulated B16 cells were treated with 1 (5 μM) and 2 (200 μM). Time-dependent increases of intracellular melanin content and tyrosinase activity, during 24 to 72 h, were inhibited significantly by treatment with the lignans. The activity of 1 was greater than that of 2. Western blot analysis suggested that the lignans inhibited melanogenesis by down regulation of the levels of phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, resulting in suppression of tyrosinase expression.

  17. Studies on the Identification of Constituents in Ethanol Extract of Radix Glycyrrhizae and Their Anti-Primary Hepatoma Cell Susceptibility

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    Jie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the chemical constituents of Radix Glycyrrhizae and to apply the resulting natural products in the study of drug susceptibility of hepatoma cells so as to provide a scientific basis for quality standards and clinical application of medicinal Radix Glycyrrhizae. Chromatographic materials were used for isolation and purification; structural identification was performed based on physicochemical properties and spectral data. MTT colorimetry was used to detect the proliferation inhibition rate against primary hepatoma cells by natural products, and flow cytometry was used to detect the changes in cell cycle progression. Five compounds were isolated and identified, namely, liquiritigenin (1, liquiritin (2, isoliquiritigenin (3, betulinic acid (4, and oleanolic acid (5. In the study, 5-FU (5-fluorouracil is used as a positive control to the hepatoma cells. Primary hepatoma cells were highly susceptible to 5-FU and liquiritigenin, both of which markedly inhibited the proliferation of hepatoma cells; flow cytometry results showed an increase in G0/G1 phase cells, a decrease in S phase cells, and a relative increase in G2/M phase cells. Primary hepatoma cells are highly susceptible to liquiritigenin, a natural product; the testing of tumor cell susceptibility is of important significance to the improvement of therapeutic effect of cancer.

  18. Green tea constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate selectively inhibits COX-2 without affecting COX-1 expression in human prostate carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tajamul; Gupta, Sanjay; Adhami, Vaqar M; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2005-02-10

    Overexpression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 has been implicated in many pathologic conditions, including cancer. One practical inference of this finding is that sustained inhibition of COX-2 could serve as a promising target for prevention or therapy of cancer. Conventional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and recently developed COX-2-specific inhibitors have shown considerable promise in prevention of some forms of human cancer; however, its application is limited due to severe toxic side effects on normal cells. Therefore, there is a need to define novel, nontoxic dietary constituents with proven chemopreventive effects through other pathways that also possess COX-2 but not COX-1 inhibitory activity. Recent studies on green tea and its major polyphenolic constituent (-)epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) have established its remarkable cancer preventive and some cancer therapeutic effects. Here, we show that EGCG inhibits COX-2 without affecting COX-1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels, in androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-insensitive PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells. Based on our study, it is tempting to suggest that a combination of EGCG with chemotherapeutic drugs could be an improved strategy for prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.

  19. Growth Inhibition, Induction of Apoptosis by Green Tea Constituent (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate in Cultured Rabbit Lens Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenyong Huang; Shaozhen Li; Junwen Zeng; Yizhi Liu; Mingxing Wu; Ming Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effect of green tea extract (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)in cultured rabbit lens epithelial cells in order to pave a new way to postcapsular opacity (PCO) prevention.Methods: Cell survival rate was measured by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) coloimetric assay. Cell apoptosis was detected by electron microscopy, Hochest 33258 stain and flow cytometer. DNA fragment was detected using agarose gel electrophoresis.Result: Proliferation of the cultured rabbit lens epithelia cells was inhibited by EGCG in a dose and time dependent manner. Morphologic study showed that the cells became shrunk, round shaped with their nuclei condensed and broken. Apoptotic bodies were also seen under electron microscope and in Hochest 33258 stain assay 24 hours after EGCG was added to the medium. DNA ladders were shown in agarose gel eletrophoresis.In flow cytometry assay, apoptosis peak was also evident.Conclusion: Green Tea Constituent(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate could inhibit cultured rabbit lens epithelial cells proliferation by inducing their apoptosis in the concentration used by us, which indicates that it is possible to prevent PCO by using herb extract.

  20. Changes of Constituents and Activity to Apoptosis and Cell Cycle During Fermentation of Tea

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    Wei Shi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tea is believed to be beneficial for health, and the effects of the fermentation process on its contributions to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of gastric cancer cells have not been completely investigated. In this study, the chemical components in green tea, black tea and pu-erh tea aqueous extracts were analyzed and compared. The polysaccharide and caffeine levels were substantially higher in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, while the polyphenol level was higher in the unfermented green tea. Hence, a treatment of tea aqueous extract and the components, which are emerging as promising anticancer agents, were pursued to determine whether this treatment could lead to enhance apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, the cell viability and flow cytometry analysis for apoptotic cells indicated effects in a dose-dependent inhibition manner for the three tea treatment groups. The apoptosis rates were found to be elevated after 48 h of treatment with 31.2, 125, and 500 μg/mL of green tea extract, the higher catechins content may be involved in the mechanism. Cell cycle was arrested in S phase in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, and the populations were significantly decreased in G2/M phases, possibly due to the oxidation of tea polyphenols, which causes an increase of theabrownins. CCC-HEL-1 normal cells were not sensitive to tea extract. These findings suggest that the fermentation process causes changes of the compounds which might be involved in the changes of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest.

  1. Synergy and antagonism of active constituents of ADAPT-232 on transcriptional level of metabolic regulation of isolated neuroglial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander George Panossian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling was performed on the human neuroglial cell line T98G after treatment with adaptogen ADAPT-232 and its constituents – extracts of Eleutherococcus senticosus root, Schisandra chinensis berry, and Rhodiola rosea root as well as several constituents individually, namely, eleutheroside E, schizandrin B, salidroside, triandrin, and tyrosol. A common feature for all tested adaptogens was their effect on G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR signaling pathways, i.e. cAMP, phospholipase C and phosphatidylinositol signal transduction pathways. Adaptogens may reduce the cAMP level in brain cells by downregulation of adenylate cyclase gene ADC2Y and upregulation of phosphodiestherase gene PDE4D that is essential for energy homeostasis as well as for switching from catabolic to anabolic states and vice versa. All tested adaptogens up-regulated the PLCB1 gene, which encodes phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks, key players for the regulation of NF-B-mediated defense responses. Other common targets of adaptogens included genes encoding ERα estrogen receptor(2.9-22.6 fold down-regulation, cholesterol ester transfer protein (5.1-10.6 fold down-regulation, heat shock protein Hsp70 (3.0-45.0 fold up-regulation, serpin peptidase inhibitor (neuroserpin, and 5-HT3 receptor of serotonin (2.2-6.6 fold down-regulation. These findings can be reconciled with the observed beneficial effects of adaptogens in behavioral, mental and aging-associated disorders. Combining two or more active substances in one mixture significantly changes deregulated genes profiles: synergetic interactions result in activation of genes that none of the individual substances affected, while antagonistic interactions result in suppression some genes activated by individual substances. Merging of deregulated genes array profiles and intracellular networks is specific to the new substance with unique pharmacological

  2. Cytotoxic activity of phenolic constituents from Echinochloa crus-galli against four human cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Gad El Molla; Amira Abdel Motaal; Hala El Hefnawy; Ahlam El Fishawy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv., Poaceae, grains are used as a feed for birds and millet for humans. The sulforhodamine B assay was used to assess its cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines. The ethanolic extract (70%) proved to be most active against HCT-116 and HELA cell lines (IC50 = 11.2 ± 0.11 and 12.0 ± 0.11 µg/ml, respectively). On the other hand, the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited their highest activities against HCT-116 cell lines. The chlo...

  3. Tetracycline rapidly reaches all the constituent cells of uropathogenic Escherichia coli biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, G.; Wood, P.; Dixon, L.; Keyhan, M.; Matin, A.; Demain, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a method for visualizing Escherichia coli cells that are exposed to tetracycline in a biofilm, based on a previous report that liposomes containing the E. coli TetR(B) protein fluoresce when exposed to this antibiotic. By our method, cells devoid of TetR(B) also exhibited tetracycline-dependent fluorescence. At 50 microg of tetracycline ml(-1), planktonic cells of a uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strain developed maximal fluorescence after 7.5 to 10 min of exposure. A similar behavior was exhibited by cells in a 24- or 48-h UPEC biofilm, as examined by confocal laser microscopy, regardless of whether they lined empty spaces or occupied densely packed regions. Further, a comparison of phase-contrast and fluorescent images of corresponding biofilm zones showed that all the cells fluoresced. Thus, all the biofilm cells were exposed to tetracycline and there were no pockets within the biofilm where the antibiotic failed to reach. It also appeared unlikely that niches of reduced exposure to the antibiotic existed within the biofilms.

  4. Activation of cell-mediated immunity by Morinda citrifolia fruit extract and its constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Abe, Yumi; Futamura-Masudaa, Megumi; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2014-04-01

    Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as noni, is a traditional natural medicine in French Polynesia and Hawaii. Functional foods derived from M. citrifolia fruit have been marketed to help prevent diseases and promote good health. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of M. citrifolia fruit on cell-mediated immunity. In the picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis test, M. citrifolia fruit extract (Noni-ext) inhibited the suppression of cell-mediated immunity by immunosuppressive substances isolated from freeze-dried ascites of Ehrlich carcinoma-bearing mice (EC-sup). In addition, Noni-ext inhibited reduction of IL-2 production in EC-sup-treated mice and activated natural killer cells in normal mice. These results suggest that Noni-ext has multiple effects on the recovery of cell-mediated immunity. Furthermore, we investigated the active principles of Noni-ext and identified an iridoid glycoside, deacetylasperulosidic acid. Oral administration of deacetylasperulosidic acid inhibited the reduction of ear swelling, and also cancelled the suppression of IL-2 production along with the activation of natural killer cells in the same manner as that of Noni-ext.

  5. Constituents of French Marigold (Tagetes patula L. Flowers Protect Jurkat T-Cells against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakli Chkhikvishvili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of French marigold (Tagetes patula L. are widely used in folk medicine, in particular for treating inflammation-related disorders. However, cellular mechanisms of this activity demand further investigation. In the present work, we studied the potential of T. patula compounds to alleviate the oxidative stress in hydrogen peroxide-challenged human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cells. Crude extracts of marigold flowers and purified fractions containing flavonoids patuletin, quercetagetin, and quercetin and their derivatives, as well as the carotenoid lutein, were brought in contact with Jurkat cells challenged with 25 or 50 μM H2O2. Hydrogen peroxide caused oxidative stress in the cells, manifested as generation of superoxide and peroxyl radicals, reduced viability, arrested cell cycle, and enhanced apoptosis. The stress was alleviated by marigold ingredients that demonstrated high radical-scavenging capacity and enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes involved in neutralization of reactive oxygen species. Flavonoid fraction rich in quercetin and quercetagetin showed the highest cytoprotective activity, while patuletin in high dose exerted a cytotoxic effect associated with its anticancer potential. T. patula compounds enhanced the production of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant interleukin-10 (IL-10 in Jurkat cells. Both direct radical-scavenging capacity and stimulation of protective cellular mechanisms can underlay the anti-inflammatory properties of marigold flowers.

  6. The chemical constituents of the tissue culture cells of Daphne giraldii cullus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Hua Wu; Li Bo Wang; Hui Yuan Gao; Jian Huang; Bo Hang Sun; Shu Hui Li; Li Jun Wu

    2009-01-01

    Three compounds were isolated from the tissue culture cells of Daphne giraldii cullus, their structures were identified as daphneolone (1), S-(+)-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-5-phenyl-1-pentanone (2), S-(+)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-5-phenyl-1-pentanone (3), and among them, 2 was a new compound, 3 was a novel natural product.

  7. Effects of clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the morphology of red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoli, Severo de; Giani, Tania Santos; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: severodepaoli@gmail.com; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Pesquisa Basica

    2007-09-15

    Clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.) has been used for clinical procedures. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used in nuclear medicine. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of clove extract on the labeling blood constituents with 99mTc and on the morphology of red blood cells. Blood samples were incubated with clove, stannous chloride and 99mTc. Plasma, blood cells, insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells were separated. The radioactivity was counted and percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) to each blood fraction was calculated. The shape and morphometric parameter (perimeter/area ratio) were evaluated. Clove extract altered significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI of blood constituents and the shape of red blood cells without modifying the perimeter/area ratio. The results indicate that clove extract presents chemical compounds that interfere with the radiolabeling of blood constituents and alter the morphology of red blood cells by oxidative/chelating actions or interacting with the cellular membrane structure. (author)

  8. Cytotoxic activity of phenolic constituents from Echinochloa crus-galli against four human cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Gad El Molla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. Beauv., Poaceae, grains are used as a feed for birds and millet for humans. The sulforhodamine B assay was used to assess its cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines. The ethanolic extract (70% proved to be most active against HCT-116 and HELA cell lines (IC50 = 11.2 ± 0.11 and 12.0 ± 0.11 µg/ml, respectively. On the other hand, the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited their highest activities against HCT-116 cell lines. The chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions were subjected to several chromatographic separations to render pure phenolic compounds (1-8. Compounds 1-8 were identified as: 5,7-dihydroxy-3′,4′,5′-trimethoxy flavone, 5,7,4′-trihydroxy-3′,5′-dimethoxy flavone (tricin, quercetin, flavone, apigenin-8-C-sophoroside, 2-methoxy-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. All the isolated phenolic compounds exhibited various significant activities against the four human carcinoma where the methoxylated flavones (1 and 2 were the most active, in a way comparable to the anticancer drug Doxorubicin®. Thus, these methoxylated flavonoids may be considered as lead compounds for the treatment of cancer, which supports previous claims of E. crus-galli traditional use. This is the first report of the occurrence of these phenolic compounds in E. crus-galli.

  9. Synergy and Antagonism of Active Constituents of ADAPT-232 on Transcriptional Level of Metabolic Regulation of Isolated Neuroglial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panossian, Alexander; Hamm, Rebecca; Kadioglu, Onat; Wikman, Georg; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression profiling was performed on the human neuroglial cell line T98G after treatment with adaptogen ADAPT-232 and its constituents - extracts of Eleutherococcus senticosus root, Schisandra chinensis berry, and Rhodiola rosea root as well as several constituents individually, namely, eleutheroside E, schizandrin B, salidroside, triandrin, and tyrosol. A common feature for all tested adaptogens was their effect on G-protein-coupled receptor signaling pathways, i.e., cAMP, phospholipase C (PLC), and phosphatidylinositol signal transduction pathways. Adaptogens may reduce the cAMP level in brain cells by down-regulation of adenylate cyclase gene ADC2Y and up-regulation of phosphodiesterase gene PDE4D that is essential for energy homeostasis as well as for switching from catabolic to anabolic states and vice versa. Down-regulation of cAMP by adaptogens may decrease cAMP-dependent protein kinase A activity in various cells resulting in inhibition stress-induced catabolic transformations and saving of ATP for many ATP-dependant metabolic transformations. All tested adaptogens up-regulated the PLCB1 gene, which encodes phosphoinositide-specific PLC and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks), key players for the regulation of NF-κB-mediated defense responses. Other common targets of adaptogens included genes encoding ERα estrogen receptor (2.9-22.6 fold down-regulation), cholesterol ester transfer protein (5.1-10.6 fold down-regulation), heat shock protein Hsp70 (3.0-45.0 fold up-regulation), serpin peptidase inhibitor (neuroserpin), and 5-HT3 receptor of serotonin (2.2-6.6 fold down-regulation). These findings can be reconciled with the observed beneficial effects of adaptogens in behavioral, mental, and aging-associated disorders. Combining two or more active substances in one mixture significantly changes deregulated genes profiles: synergetic interactions result in activation of genes that none of the individual substances affected, while antagonistic

  10. Melanogenesis stimulation in murine b16 melanoma cells by umberiferae plant extracts and their coumarin constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hideaki; Hirata, Noriko; Kawaguchi, Yoshiko; Yamazaki, Miho; Naruto, Shunsuke; Shibano, Makio; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Baba, Kimiye; Kubo, Michinori

    2005-07-01

    Melanogenesis stimulation activities of seven ethanolic extracts obtained from Umbelliferae plants used as Chinese crude drugs, namely the roots of Angelica dahurica BENTH. et HOOK., A. biserrata SHEN et YUAN, Notopterygium incisum TING, Heracleum lanatum MICHX., and H. candicans WALL., and the fruits of Cinidium monnieri (L.) CUSSON and C. formosanum YABE, were examined by using cultured murine B16 melanoma cells. Among them, the extract (5, 25 microg/ml) of H. lanatum showed a potent stimulatory effect on melanogenesis with significant enhancement of cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The melanogenesis stimulatory effects of sixteen coumarins (1-16) isolated from the seven Umbelliferae crude drugs were also examined. Among them, linear-furocoumarins [psoralen (1), xanthotoxin (2), bergapten (3), and isopimpinellin (4)] and angular-furocoumarin [sphondin (13)] exhibited potent melanogenesis stimulation activity. From the view point of structure-activity relationships, it may be assumed that a linear-furocoumarin ring having a hydrogen and/or methoxyl group at 5 and 8 positions such as 1, 2, 3 and 4 was preferable for the melanogenesis stimulation activity. The introduction of a prenyl group into the furocoumarin ring was disadvantageous. Coumarin derivatives having a simple coumarin ring were inactive.

  11. Influence from sea water constituents on the efficiency of water electrolysis by PEM-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersted, Karsten; Bentzen, Janet Jonna; Yde-Andersen, S.

    Among the sea-water specific impurities tested, magnesium has the most profound effect on PEM-cell degradation. Significant amounts of the cation was retrieved in the NAFION®-membrane structure after testing. Degradation was seen from a magnesium concentration as low as 3 10-7 mol/l, and increasing...... with concentration it led to a 86% increase of the area specific resistance at a concentration of 3 10-5 mol/l; equivalent to a conductivity of ~5 μS/cm. Other species (Cl-, Na+, SO4 2- ) seems to affect, though slowly, the performance negatively. If PEM will be used for electrolysis it seems therefore necessary...... to purify the feed water to ~1 μS/cm or even further while particularly focusing on the concentrations of polyvalent cations. e.g. magnesium....

  12. Bioactive chemical constituents of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes extract inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Lateef, Ezzat; Mahmoud, Faten; Hammam, Olfat; El-Ahwany, Eman; El-Wakil, Eman; Kandil, Sherihan; Abu Taleb, Hoda; El-Sayed, Mortada; Hassenein, Hanaa

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify the chemical constituents of the methanolic extract of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes and their inhibitory effect on a hepatoma cell line. The methanolic extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify the volatile constituents and the other part of the same extract was subjected to liquid column chromatographic separation to isolate curcumin. The inhibition of cell growth in the hepatoma cell line and the cytopathological changes were studied. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fifty compounds in the methanolic extract of C. longa. The major compounds were ar-turmerone (20.50 %), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.20 %) and curcumenol (5.11 %). Curcumin was identified using IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The inhibition of cell growth by curcumin (IC50 = 41.69 ± 2.87 μg mL-1) was much more effective than that of methanolic extract (IC50 = 196.12 ± 5.25 μg mL-1). Degenerative and apoptotic changes were more evident in curcumin- treated hepatoma cells than in those treated with the methanol extract. Antitumor potential of the methanolic extract may be attributed to the presence of sesquiterpenes and phenolic constituents including curcumin (0.051 %, 511.39 μg g-1 dried methanol extract) in C. longa rhizomes.

  13. Antiproliferation and cell apoptosis inducing bioactivities of constituents from Dysosma versipellis in PC3 and Bcap-37 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Baoan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, interest in phytochemicals from traditional Chinese medicinal herbs with the capability to inhibit cancer cells growth and proliferation has been growing rapidly due to their nontoxic nature. Dysosma versipellis as Bereridaceae plants is an endemic species in China, which has been proved to be an important Chinese herbal medicine because of its biological activity. However, systematic and comprehensive studies on the phytochemicals from Dysosma versipellis and their bioactivity are limited. Results Fifteen compounds were isolated and characterized from the roots of Dysosma versipellis, among which six compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. The inhibitory activities of these compounds were investigated on tumor cells PC3, Bcap-37 and BGC-823 in vitro by MTT method, and the results showed that podophyllotoxone (PTO and 4'-demethyldeoxypodophyllotoxin (DDPT had potent inhibitory activities against the growth of human carcinoma cell lines. Subsequent fluorescence staining and flow cytometry analysis indicated that these two compounds could induce apoptosis in PC3 and Bcap-37 cells, and the apoptosis ratios reached the peak (12.0% and 14.1% after 72 h of treatment at 20 μM, respectively. Conclusions This study suggests that most of the compounds from the roots of D. versipellis could inhibit the growth of human carcinoma cells. In addition, PTO and DDPT could induce apoptosis of tumor cells.

  14. An aqueous extract of Ammi visnaga fruits and its constituents khellin and visnagin prevent cell damage caused by oxalate in renal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanachayangkul, P; Byer, K; Khan, S; Butterweck, V

    2010-07-01

    Teas prepared from the fruits of Ammi visnaga L. (syn. "Khella") have been traditionally used in Egypt as a remedy to treat kidney stones. It was the aim of our study to evaluate the effect of a Khella extract (KE) as well as the two major constituents khellin and visnagin on renal epithelial injury using LLC-PK1 and Madin-Darby-canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Both cell lines provide suitable model systems to study cellular processes that are possibly involved in the development of a renal stone. LLC-PK1 and MDCK cell lines were exposed to 300 microM oxalate (Ox) or 133 microg/cm(2) calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) in presence or absence of 10, 50, 100 or 200 microg/mL KE. To evaluate cell damage, cell viability was assessed by determining the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). KE (e.g. 100 microg/ml) significantly decreased LDH release from LLC-PK1 (Ox: 8.46+0.76%; Ox + 100 microg/ml KE: 5.41+0.94%, p<0.001) as well as MDCK cells (Ox: 30.9+6.58%; Ox+100 microg/ml KE: 17.5+2.50%, p<0.001), which indicated a prevention of cell damage. Similar effects for KE were observed in both cell lines when COM crystals were added. In LLC-PK1 cells khellin and visnagin both decreased the % LDH release significantly in cells that were pretreated with Ox or COM crystals. However, khellin and visnagin exhibited different responses in MDCK cells. Whereas khellin slightly reduced the % LDH release after exposure of the cells to Ox and COM crystals, visnagin significantly decreased % LDH release only after COM crystal exposure. Overall both compounds were more active in LLC-PK1 than in MDCK cells. In summary, exposure of renal epithelial cells to Ox or COM crystals was associated with a significant release of LDH indicating cell injury. Our data demonstrate that KE as well as khellin and visnagin could prevent renal epithelial cell damage caused by Ox and COM and could therefore play a potential role in the prevention of stone formation associated with hyperoxaluria.

  15. Inhibitory activity of Socheongryong‑tang and its constituent components against the production of RANTES, eotaxin, eotaxin‑3 and MMP‑9 from BEAS‑2B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junh-Hoon; Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Lim, Hye-Sun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2014-12-01

    Socheongryeong‑tang (SCRT) is a herbal formula previously used to treat pulmonary diseases primarily caused by the common cold virus, including airway inflammation, asthma and allergy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of SCRT water extract and its 13 constituent components on chemokine and enzyme production in the human bronchial epithelium cell line BEAS‑2B when induced by tumor necrosis factor‑α and interleukin‑4. The chemokines examined included regulated on activation of normal T‑cell‑expressed‑and‑secreted (RANTES), eotaxin and eotaxin‑3. The SCRT water extract demonstrated a dose‑dependent inhibition of RANTES, eotaxin, eotaxin‑3 and matrix metalloproteinase‑9 (MMP‑9) in BEAS‑2B cells. The 13 constituent compounds of SCRT water extract were quantitatively determined, and it was found that gallic acid, 6‑gingerol and methyl eugenol produced the most potent inhibition of RANTES, eotaxin and eotaxin‑3 as well as MMP‑9 activity regardless of their concentration in SCRT water extract. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that the inhibitory effect of these three compounds contributed to that of SCRT water extract. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that the inhibitory effects of SCRT on chemokine and enzyme production in BEAS‑2B cells was associated with three of its constituent compounds, gallic acid, 6‑gingerol and methyl eugenol. This therefore suggested the potential use of these compounds as anti‑inflammatory agents.

  16. Safranal, a Crocus sativus L constituent suppresses the growth of K-562 cells of chronic myelogenous leukemia. In silico and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geromichalos, George D; Papadopoulos, Theophanis; Sahpazidou, Despina; Sinakos, Zacharias

    2014-12-01

    Crocin, a main constituent of Crocus sativus L (saffron), has been found to inhibit the growth of K-562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells expressing Bcr-Abl protein tyrosine kinase activity. The aim of our study is to investigate the ability of the bioactive saffron's constituents, crocin (CRC) and safranal (SFR), to inhibit the Bcr-Abl protein activity employing an in silico approach, as well as the in vitro effect of these compounds on K-562 growth and gene expression of Bcr-Abl. In silico molecular docking studies revealed that mostly SFR can be attached to Bcr-Abl protein, positioned inside the protein's binding cavity at the same place with the drug used in the treatment of CML, imatinib mesylate (IM). The predicted polar interactions and hydrophobic contacts constructing a hydrophobic cavity inside the active site, explain the observed inhibitory activity. Cytotoxicity experiments showed that SFR and CRC mediate cytotoxic response to K562 cells. In vitro studies on the expression of Bcr-Abl gene revealed that SFR and in a lesser degree IM inhibited the expression of the gene, while in contrast CRC induced an increase. The ultimate goal was to evaluate the existence of a potential antitumor activity of saffron's constituents SFR and CRC.

  17. Effect of an Arctium lappa (burdock) extract on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the morphology of the red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Rosane de Figueiredo; Rebello, Bernardo Machado; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: nevesrosane@yahoo.com.br; Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Caldas, Luiz Querino de Araujo [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Medicas; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Pesquisa

    2007-09-15

    Arctium lappa (burdock) has been used to treat inflammatory processes. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) have been utilized in nuclear medicine. It was evaluated the influence of a burdock extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc and on the morphometry of red blood cells. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with burdock extract and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. Plasma and blood cells, soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) were determined. Morphology and morphometric (perimeter/area ratio) measurements of red blood cells (RBC) were performed. The incubation with burdock extract significantly (p<0.05) altered the %ATI on the blood compartments and the perimeter/area ratio of RBC, as well as, induced modifications on the shape of RBC. Alterations on membrane could justify the decrease of labeling of blood cells with {sup 99m}Tc obtained in this study. (author)

  18. Allyl isothiocyanate, a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, inhibits proliferation of human prostate cancer cells by causing G2/M arrest and inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Srivastava, Sanjay K; Lew, Karen L; Zeng, Yan; Hershberger, Pamela; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Singh, Shivendra V

    2003-05-01

    Dietary isothiocyanates (ITCs) are highly effective in affording protection against chemically induced cancers in laboratory animals. In the present study, we demonstrate that allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, significantly inhibits proliferation of cultured PC-3 (androgen-independent) and LNCaP (androgen-dependent) human prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) of approximately 15-17 micro M. On the other hand, survival of a normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC) was minimally affected by AITC even at concentrations that were highly cytotoxic to the prostate cancer cells. Reduced proliferation of PC-3 as well as LNCaP cells in the presence of AITC correlated with accumulation of cells in G(2)/M phase and induction of apoptosis. In contrast, AITC treatment failed to induce apoptosis or cause G(2)/M phase arrest in PrEC cells. A 24 h treatment of PC-3 and LNCaP cells with 20 micro M AITC caused a significant decrease in the levels of proteins that regulate G(2)/M progression, including Cdk1 (32-50% reduction), Cdc25B (44-48% reduction) and Cdc25C (>90% reduction). A significant reduction in the expression of cyclin B1 protein (approximately 45%) was observed only in LNCaP cells. A 24 h exposure of PC-3 and LNCaP cells to an apoptosis-inducing concentration of AITC (20 micro M) resulted in a significant decrease (31-68%) in the levels of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in both cell lines, and approximately 58% reduction in Bcl-X(L) protein expression in LNCaP cells. In conclusion, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that AITC, and possibly other ITCs, may find use in the treatment of human prostate cancers.

  19. Honokiol, a constituent of Magnolia species, inhibits adrenergic contraction of human prostate strips and induces stromal cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Herrmann

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Honokiol inhibits smooth muscle contraction in the human prostate, and induces cell death in cultured stromal cells. Because prostate smooth muscle tone and prostate growth may cause LUTS, it appears possible that honokiol improves voiding symptoms.

  20. Leptospermum flavescens Constituent-LF1 Causes Cell Death through the Induction of Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suerialoasan Navanesan

    Full Text Available Leptospermum flavescens Sm. (Myrtaceae, locally known as 'Senna makki' is a smallish tree that is widespread and recorded to naturally occur in the montane regions above 900 m a.s.l from Burma to Australia. Although the species is recorded to be used traditionally to treat various ailments, there is limited data on biological and chemical investigations of L. flavescens. The aim of the present study was to investigate and understand the ability of L. flavescens in inducing cell death in lung cancer cells. The cytotoxic potentials of the extraction yields (methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate and water extracts as wells as a semi pure fraction, LF1 were evaluated against two human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines (A549 and NCI-H1299 using the MTT assay. LF1 showed the greatest cytotoxic effect against both cell lines with IC50 values of 7.12 ± 0.07 and 9.62 ± 0.50 μg/ml respectively. LF1 treated cells showed a sub-G1 region in the cell cycle analysis and also caused the presence of apoptotic morphologies in cells stained with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. Treatment with LF1 manifested an apoptotic population in cells that were evaluated using the Annexin V/ propidium iodide assay. Increasing dosage of LF1 caused a rise in the presence of activated caspase-3 enzymes in treated cells. Blockage of cell cycle progression was also observed in LF1-treated cells. These findings suggest that LF1 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in treated lung cancer cells. Further studies are being conducted to isolate and identify the active compound as well to better understand the mechanism involved in inducing cell death.

  1. Bioactive Constituents of Zanthoxylum rhetsa Bark and Its Cytotoxic Potential against B16-F10 Melanoma Cancer and Normal Human Dermal Fibroblast (HDF) Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Ramesh Kumar; Ahmad, Syahida; Abas, Faridah; Safinar Ismail, Intan; Rukayadi, Yaya; Tayyab Akhtar, Muhammad; Shaari, Khozirah

    2016-05-24

    Zanthoxylum rhetsa is an aromatic tree, known vernacularly as "Indian Prickly Ash". It has been predominantly used by Indian tribes for the treatment of many infirmities like diabetes, inflammation, rheumatism, toothache and diarrhea. In this study, we identified major volatile constituents present in different solvent fractions of Z. rhetsa bark using GC-MS analysis and isolated two tetrahydrofuran lignans (yangambin and kobusin), a berberine alkaloid (columbamine) and a triterpenoid (lupeol) from the bioactive chloroform fraction. The solvent fractions and purified compounds were tested for their cytotoxic potential against human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and mouse melanoma (B16-F10) cells, using the MTT assay. All the solvent fractions and purified compounds were found to be non-cytotoxic to HDF cells. However, the chloroform fraction and kobusin exhibited cytotoxic effect against B16-F10 melanoma cells. The presence of bioactive lignans and alkaloids were suggested to be responsible for the cytotoxic property of Z. rhetsa bark against B16-F10 cells.

  2. Bioactive Constituents of Zanthoxylum rhetsa Bark and Its Cytotoxic Potential against B16-F10 Melanoma Cancer and Normal Human Dermal Fibroblast (HDF Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar Santhanam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zanthoxylum rhetsa is an aromatic tree, known vernacularly as “Indian Prickly Ash”. It has been predominantly used by Indian tribes for the treatment of many infirmities like diabetes, inflammation, rheumatism, toothache and diarrhea. In this study, we identified major volatile constituents present in different solvent fractions of Z. rhetsa bark using GC-MS analysis and isolated two tetrahydrofuran lignans (yangambin and kobusin, a berberine alkaloid (columbamine and a triterpenoid (lupeol from the bioactive chloroform fraction. The solvent fractions and purified compounds were tested for their cytotoxic potential against human dermal fibroblasts (HDF and mouse melanoma (B16-F10 cells, using the MTT assay. All the solvent fractions and purified compounds were found to be non-cytotoxic to HDF cells. However, the chloroform fraction and kobusin exhibited cytotoxic effect against B16-F10 melanoma cells. The presence of bioactive lignans and alkaloids were suggested to be responsible for the cytotoxic property of Z. rhetsa bark against B16-F10 cells.

  3. Melanogenesis stimulation in murine B16 melanoma cells by Piper nigrum leaf extract and its lignan constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hideaki; Kawaguchi, Yoshiko; Yamazaki, Miho; Hirata, Noriko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Asanuma, Yusuke; Kaihatsu, Takayuki; Kubo, Michinori

    2004-10-01

    A methanolic extract from the leaves of Piper nigrum L. showed a significant stimulatory effect on melanogenesis in cultured murine B16 melanoma cells. Activity-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract led to the isolation of two known lignans, (-)-cubebin (1) and (-)-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-desmethylenedioxycubebin (2), together with a new lignan, (-)-3-desmethoxycubebinin (3). Among these lignans, 1 and 2 showed a significant stimulatory activity of melanogenesis without any significant effects on cell proliferation.

  4. Polyphosphate kinases modulate Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane constituents and alter its capacity to invade and survive in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Madrid, Jesús Arcos; Kumar, Anand; Torrelles, Jordi B; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-12-30

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Polyphosphate kinases 1 and 2 (PPK1 and PPK2) regulate several cellular processes, including the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Despite their importance, whether PPK1 and PPK2 modulate the composition of C. jejuni outer membrane constituents (OMCs) and consequently impact its interaction with host cells remains unknown. Our comparative analysis between C. jejuni wild type, Δppk1, and Δppk2 strains showed qualitative and quantitative differences in the total OMC composition among these strains. Importantly, these OMC variations observed on the C. jejuni polyphosphate kinase mutants are directly related to their capacity to invade, survive, and alter the immune response of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Specifically, sub-fractionation of the C. jejuni OMC indicated that OMC proteins are uniquely associated with bacterial invasion, whereas C. jejuni OMC proteins, lipids, and lipoglycans are all associated with C. jejuni intracellular survival. This study provides new insights regarding the function of polyphosphate kinases and their role in C. jejuni infection.

  5. Effect of an Arctium lappa (burdock extract on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the morphology of the red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane de Figueiredo Neves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctium lappa (burdock has been used to treat inflammatory processes. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc have been utilized in nuclear medicine. It was evaluated the influence of a burdock extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc and on the morphometry of red blood cells. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with burdock extract and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. Plasma and blood cells, soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI were determined. Morphology and morphometric (perimeter/area ratio measurements of red blood cells (RBC were performed. The incubation with burdock extract significantly (pArctium lappa (bardana tem sido utilizada na medicina popular para o tratamento de processos inflamatórios. Constituintes sangüíneos marcados com tecnécio-99m (99mTc são utilizados na medicina nuclear para obtenção de imagens. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a influência de um extrato de bardana na marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc e na morfologia de hemácias. Amostras de sangue de ratos Wistar foram incubadas com extrato de bardana e o processo de radiomarcação de constituintes sangüíneos foi realizado. Plasma e células sangüíneas, frações solúvel e insolúvel do plasma e das células sangüíneas foram separadas, a radioatividade em cada fração foi contada e as porcentagens de radioatividade (%ATI foram determinadas. A morfologia e a relação perímetro/área das hemácias foram avaliadas. A incubação de sangue com o extrato de bardana alterou significativamente (p<0.05 a %ATI a distribuição de radioatividade nos compartimentos plasmático e celular. A relação perímetro/área de hemácias, bem como a forma das hemácias também sofreram alterações Modificações na membrana poderiam justificar a diminuição da marcação das c

  6. Lymph-migrating, tissue-derived dendritic cells are minor constituents within steady-state lymph nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubzick, Claudia; Bogunovic, Milena; Bonito, Anthony J.; Kuan, Emma L.; Merad, Miriam; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.

    2008-01-01

    Observations that dendritic cells (DCs) constitutively enter afferent lymphatic vessels in many organs and that DCs in some tissues, such as the lung, turnover rapidly in the steady state have led to the concept that a major fraction of lymph node DCs are derived from migratory DCs that enter the lymph node through upstream afferent lymphatic vessels. We used the lysozyme M–Cre reporter mouse strain to assess the relationship of lymph node and nonlymphoid organ DCs. Our findings challenge the...

  7. Effect of a peel passion fruit flour (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) extract on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the morphology of red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebello, Bernardo Machado; Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; Ribeiro, Camila Godinho; Neves, Rosane de Figueiredo; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: rebellobm@uol.com.br; Caldas, Luis Querino de Araujo [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Medicas

    2007-09-15

    Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (maracuja) is a fruit consumed in Brazil and worldwide. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used in nuclear medicine. The effect of P. flavicarpa extract on the radiolabeling of blood constituents and on red blood cells morphology was evaluated. Blood samples from Wistar rats was incubated with P. flavicarpa extract. After that, the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc was carried out. Samples of plasma and blood cells were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid to isolate the soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells. The radioactivity in each fractions was counted and the percentage of radioactivity was determined. Blood smears were also prepared to morphological evaluation and perimeter/area ratio determination. P. flavicarpa extract altered (p<0.05) the fixation of {sup 99m}Tc on plasma proteins and the perimeter/area ratio of red blood cells. Substances present in P. flavicarpa extract could affect the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc acting in specific targets as membrane of red blood cells. (author)

  8. Global Gene Expression Alterations as a Crucial Constituent of Human Cell Response to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Mykyta; Neumann, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) is inevitable to humans in real-life scenarios; the hazards of IR primarily stem from its mutagenic, carcinogenic, and cell killing ability. For many decades, extensive research has been conducted on the human cell responses to IR delivered at a low dose/low dose (LD) rate. These studies have shown that the molecular-, cellular-, and tissue-level responses are different after low doses of IR (LDIR) compared to those observed after a short-term high-dose IR exposure (HDIR). With the advent of high-throughput technologies in the late 1990s, such as DNA microarrays, changes in gene expression have also been found to be ubiquitous after LDIR. Very limited subset of genes has been shown to be consistently up-regulated by LDIR, including CDKN1A. Further research on the biological effects and mechanisms induced by IR in human cells demonstrated that the molecular and cellular processes, including transcriptional alterations, activated by LDIR are often related to protective responses and, sometimes, hormesis. Following LDIR, some distinct responses were observed, these included bystander effects, and adaptive responses. Changes in gene expression, not only at the level of mRNA, but also miRNA, have been found to crucially underlie these effects having implications for radiation protection purposes. PMID:26729107

  9. Global Gene Expression Alterations as a Crucial Constituent of Human Cell Response to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykyta Sokolov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR is inevitable to humans in real-life scenarios; the hazards of IR primarily stem from its mutagenic, carcinogenic, and cell killing ability. For many decades, extensive research has been conducted on the human cell responses to IR delivered at a low dose/low dose (LD rate. These studies have shown that the molecular-, cellular-, and tissue-level responses are different after low doses of IR (LDIR compared to those observed after a short-term high-dose IR exposure (HDIR. With the advent of high-throughput technologies in the late 1990s, such as DNA microarrays, changes in gene expression have also been found to be ubiquitous after LDIR. Very limited subset of genes has been shown to be consistently up-regulated by LDIR, including CDKN1A. Further research on the biological effects and mechanisms induced by IR in human cells demonstrated that the molecular and cellular processes, including transcriptional alterations, activated by LDIR are often related to protective responses and, sometimes, hormesis. Following LDIR, some distinct responses were observed, these included bystander effects, and adaptive responses. Changes in gene expression, not only at the level of mRNA, but also miRNA, have been found to crucially underlie these effects having implications for radiation protection purposes.

  10. Protective effect of keishi-bukuryo-gan and its constituent medicinal plants against nitric oxide donor-induced neuronal death in cultured cerebellar granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Y; Yokoyama, K; Goto, H; Sekiya, N; Mantani, N; Tahara, E; Hikiami, H; Terasawa, K

    2004-07-01

    Keishi-bukuryo-gan (Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan) (KBG) is a traditional Chinese/Japanese medical (Kampo) formulation that has been administered to patients with "Oketsu" (blood stagnation) syndrome. In the process of neuronal cell death induced by brain ischemia, excessive generation of nitric oxide (NO) free radicals is implicated in the neurotoxicity. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of KBG and its constituent medicinal plants against NO donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and 2,2'-(hydroxynitrosohydrazino)bis-ethanamine (NOC18)-induced neuronal death in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells (CGCs). MTT assay showed cell viability to be significantly increased by the addition of KBG extract (KBGE) (100 microg/ml), Cinnamomi Cortex extract (CCE) (3, 10 and 30 microg/ml), Paeoniae Radix extract (PRE) (100 microg/ml) and Moutan Cortex extract (MCE) (10 and 30 microg/ml) compared with exposure to SNP (30 microM, 24 h) only. Also, cell viability was significantly increased by the addition of KBGE (100 and 300 microg/ml), CCE (30 and 100 microg/ml), PRE (100 and 300 microg/ml) and MCE (30 and 100 microg/ml) compared with exposure to NOC 18 (100 microM, 48 h) only. Persicae Semen extract and Hoelen extract did not protect against NO donor-induced neuronal death. These results suggest that KBG has protective effect against NO-mediated neuronal death in cultured CGCs and that it is derived from Cinnamomi Cortex, Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Cortex.

  11. Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) fruit juice and two major constituents thereof exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in human gingival and oral gum epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josino Soares, Denise; Walker, Jessica; Pignitter, Marc; Walker, Joel Michael; Imboeck, Julia Maria; Ehrnhoefer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-11-01

    Pitanga, Eugenia uniflora L., is a tropical fruit, which may be consumed as juice. While beneficial health effects of Eugenia uniflora L. leaf extracts have extensively been studied, limited data are available on an anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice. The aim of the presented study was to investigate anti-inflammatory properties of pitanga juice with regards to a prevention of inflammation-related periodontal diseases. For this purpose, six healthy volunteers swirled pitanga juice, containing 35% pitanga pulp, for 10 min. Thereafter, oral gum epithelial cells were harvested using a sterile brush and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG-LPS) for 6 h. Furthermore, human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) were used to elucidate the anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice constituents, cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one, in juice representative concentrations of 119 μg ml(-1) and 30 μg ml(-1), respectively. For the first time, an anti-inflammatory impact of pitanga juice on gingival epithelial cells was shown by means of an attenuation of IL-8 release by 55 ± 8.2% and 52 ± 11% in non-stimulated and PG-LPS-stimulated cells, respectively. In addition, both cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one reduced the LPS-stimulated CXCL8 mRNA expression by 50 ± 15% and 37 ± 18% and IL-8 release by 52 ± 9.9% and 45 ± 3.7% in HGF-1 cells, when concomitantly incubated with 10 μg ml(-1)PG-LPS for 6 h, revealing an anti-inflammatory potential of the volatile compound oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one for the first time.

  12. Lymph-migrating, tissue-derived dendritic cells are minor constituents within steady-state lymph nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubzick, Claudia; Bogunovic, Milena; Bonito, Anthony J.; Kuan, Emma L.; Merad, Miriam; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.

    2008-01-01

    Observations that dendritic cells (DCs) constitutively enter afferent lymphatic vessels in many organs and that DCs in some tissues, such as the lung, turnover rapidly in the steady state have led to the concept that a major fraction of lymph node DCs are derived from migratory DCs that enter the lymph node through upstream afferent lymphatic vessels. We used the lysozyme M–Cre reporter mouse strain to assess the relationship of lymph node and nonlymphoid organ DCs. Our findings challenge the idea that a substantial proportion of lymph node DCs derive from the upstream tissue during homeostasis. Instead, our analysis suggests that nonlymphoid organ DCs comprise a major population of DCs within lymph nodes only after introduction of an inflammatory stimulus. PMID:18981237

  13. Effects of Medium Constituents on Growth and Canthinone Accumulation in Cell Suspension Cultures of Eurycoma longifolia Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUTHFI AZIZ MAHMUD SIREGAR

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of various macronutrients, micronutrients and sucrose on growth and canthinone alkaloid production in cell suspension cultures of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack was investigated. The optimum macronutrients and micronutrients content for the high alkaloid production of E. longifolia Jack was different to that found in the Murashige and Skoog (MS medium. The highest amount of alkaloids, 9-hydroxycanthin-6-one and 9-methoxycanthin-6-one, could be obtained from E. longifolia Jack cells cultured in modified MS liquid medium that containing macronutrients: 21.50 mM NH4NO3, 14.25 mM KNO3, 7.50 mM CaCl2•2H2O, 2.50 mM MgSO4•7H2O, 1.45 mM KH2PO4, while content of micronutrients was 0.233 mM FeNa-EDTA, 0.215 mM MnSO4•4H2O and without CuSO4•5H2O. Increased sucrose concentration to 4.00% (w/v in modified MS liquid medium could increase total of two-alkaloid. The modification of macronutrients and micronutrients concentration based the optimum production of biomass was obtained MSBs medium that producing high biomass but also increasing the production of 9-hydroxycanthin-6-one. The modification of macronutrients or macronutrients and micronutrients based the optimum total of two-alkaloid was obtained MSC and MSD medium that producing low fresh weight but producing the high 9-hydroxycanthin-6-one.

  14. The hop constituent xanthohumol exhibits hepatoprotective effects and inhibits the activation of hepatic stellate cells at different levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskirchen, Ralf; Mahli, Abdo; Weiskirchen, Sabine; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid of the female inflorescences of the hop plant. In recent years, various beneficial xanthohumol effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic activities, and anticancer effects have been revealed. This review summarizes present studies indicating that xanthohumol also inhibits several critical pathophysiological steps during the development and course of chronic liver disease, including the activation and pro-fibrogenic genotype of hepatic stellate cells. Also the various mechanism of action and molecular targets of the beneficial xanthohumol effects will be described. Furthermore, the potential use of xanthohumol or a xanthohumol-enriched hop extract as therapeutic agent to combat the progression of chronic liver disease will be discussed. It is notable that in addition to its hepatoprotective effects, xanthohumol also holds promise as a therapeutic agent for treating obesity, dysregulation of glucose metabolism and other components of the metabolic syndrome including hepatic steatosis. Thus, therapeutic xanthohumol application appears as a promising strategy, particularly in obese patients, to inhibit the development as well as the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  15. The hop constituent xanthohumol exhibits hepatoprotective effects and inhibits the activation of hepatic stellate cells at different levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eWeiskirchen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid of the female inflorescences of the hop plant. In recent years, various beneficial xanthohumol effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic activities, and anticancer effects have been revealed. This review summarizes present studies indicating that xanthohumol also inhibits several critical pathophysiological steps during the development and course of chronic liver disease, including the activation and pro-fibrogenic genotype of hepatic stellate cells. Also the various mechanism of action and molecular targets of the beneficial xanthohumol effects will be described. Furthermore, the potential use of xanthohumol or a xanthohumol-enriched hop extract as therapeutic agent to combat the progression of chronic liver disease will be discussed. It is notable that in addition to its hepatoprotective effects, xanthohumol also holds promise as a therapeutic agent for treating obesity, dysregulation of glucose metabolism and other components of the metabolic syndrome including hepatic steatosis. Thus, therapeutic xanthohumol application appears as a promising strategy, particularly in obese patients, to inhibit the development as well as the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  16. Uncatalysed and potassium-catalysed pyrolysis of the cell-wall constituents of biomass and their model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowakowski, Daniel J.; Jones, Jenny M. [Energy and Resources Research Institute, School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering (SPEME), University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    Cell-wall components (cellulose, hemicellulose (oat spelt xylan), lignin (Organosolv)), and model compounds (levoglucosan (an intermediate product of cellulose decomposition) and chlorogenic acid (structurally similar to lignin polymer units)) have been investigated to probe in detail the influence of potassium on their pyrolysis behaviours as well as their uncatalysed decomposition reaction. Cellulose and lignin were pretreated to remove salts and metals by hydrochloric acid, and this dematerialized sample was impregnated with 1% of potassium as potassium acetate. Levoglucosan, xylan and chlorogenic acid were mixed with CH{sub 3}COOK to introduce 1% K. Characterisation was performed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). In addition to the TGA pyrolysis, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PY-GC-MS) analysis was introduced to examine reaction products. Potassium-catalysed pyrolysis has a huge influence on the char formation stage and increases the char yields considerably (from 7.7% for raw cellulose to 27.7% for potassium impregnated cellulose; from 5.7% for raw levoglucosan to 20.8% for levoglucosan with CH{sub 3}COOK added). Major changes in the pyrolytic decomposition pathways were observed for cellulose, levoglucosan and chlorogenic acid. The results for cellulose and levoglucosan are consistent with a base catalysed route in the presence of the potassium salt which promotes complete decomposition of glucosidic units by a heterolytic mechanism and favours its direct depolymerization and fragmentation to low molecular weight components (e.g. acetic acid, formic acid, glyoxal, hydroxyacetaldehyde and acetol). Base catalysed polymerization reactions increase the char yield. Potassium-catalysed lignin pyrolysis is very significant: the temperature of maximum conversion in pyrolysis shifts to lower temperature by 70 K and catalysed polymerization reactions increase the char yield from 37% to 51%. A similar trend

  17. Alkaloid constituents from flower buds and leaves of sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera, Nymphaeaceae) with melanogenesis inhibitory activity in B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Seikou; Nakashima, Souichi; Tanabe, Genzo; Oda, Yoshimi; Yokota, Nami; Fujimoto, Katsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Sakuma, Rika; Ohta, Tomoe; Ogawa, Keiko; Nishida, Shino; Miki, Hisako; Matsuda, Hisashi; Muraoka, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2013-02-01

    Methanolic extracts from the flower buds and leaves of sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera, Nymphaeaceae) were found to show inhibitory effects on melanogenesis in theophylline-stimulated murine B16 melanoma 4A5 cells. From the methanolic extracts, a new alkaloid, N-methylasimilobine N-oxide, was isolated together with eleven benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. The absolute stereostructure of the new alkaloid was determined from chemical and physicochemical evidence. Among the constituents isolated, nuciferine, N-methylasimilobine, (-)-lirinidine, and 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-6a,7-dehydroaporphine showed potent inhibition of melanogenesis. Comparison of the inhibitory activities of synthetic related alkaloids facilitated characterization of the structure-activity relationships of aporphine- and benzylisoquinoline-type alkaloids. In addition, 3-30 μM nuciferine and N-methylasimilobine inhibited the expression of tyrosinase mRNA, 3-30 μM N-methylasimilobine inhibited the expression of TRP-1 mRNA, and 10-30 μM nuciferine inhibited the expression of TRP-2 mRNA.

  18. Chemical constituents of Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Negi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus species (family Liliaceae are medicinal plants of temperate Himalayas. They possess a variety of biological properties, such as being antioxidants, immunostimulants, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxytocic, and reproductive agents. The article briefly reviews the isolated chemical constituents and the biological activities of the plant species. The structural formula of isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are also given.

  19. Cell wall protein and glycoprotein constituents of Aspergillus fumigatus that bind to polystyrene may be responsible for the cell surface hydrophobicity of the mycelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñalver, M C; Casanova, M; Martínez, J P; Gil, M L

    1996-07-01

    Cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of Aspergillus fumigatus grown both in complex medium (yeast extract/peptone/dextrose; YPD) and minimal (Vogel's N) medium was monitored by assessing attachment of polystyrene microspheres to the cell surface. It was found that mature mycelium was hydrophobic. Treatment of intact mycelium with beta-mercaptoethanol (beta ME) abolished binding of the microspheres to hyphal elements, and coating of the microspheres with beta ME extracts from mycelium inhibited their attachment to intact mycelial cells. A. fumigatus mycelium was tagged in vivo with biotin and treated with beta ME. The beta ME extracts were analysed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with both peroxidase-conjugated-ExtrAvidin and concanavalin A (ConA). This procedure allowed identification of cell wall surface proteins and glycoproteins. Rabbit polyclonal antisera were raised against beta ME extracts obtained from cells grown in YPD and Vogel's N media. These antisera defined some major cell-wall-bound antigens. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis of the cell wall material released by beta ME and adsorbed on polystyrene microspheres revealed about 19 protein species with apparent molecular masses ranging from 20 to 70 kDa, and two high-molecular-mass glycoproteins of 115 and 210 kDa. Treatment of cells grown in YPD, but not those grown in Vogel's N medium, with beta ME released a 55 kDa polypeptide able to adsorb to polystyrene microspheres that was detectable with the antisera. The ability to bind to polystyrene particles exhibited by several protein and glycoprotein species released by beta ME treatment suggested that these cell wall moieties possess exposed hydrophobic domains that could be responsible for the CSH of mycelium.

  20. [10]-Gingerol, a major phenolic constituent of ginger root, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Megan M; McConnery, Jason R; Hoskin, David W

    2017-03-16

    The ginger rhizome is rich in bioactive compounds, including [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [10]-gingerol; however, to date, most research on the anti-cancer activities of gingerols have focused on [6]-gingerol. In this study, we compared [10]-gingerol with [8]-gingerol and [6]-gingerol in terms of their ability to inhibit the growth of human and mouse mammary carcinoma cells. A colorimetric assay based on the enzymatic reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide revealed that [10]-gingerol was more potent than [6]-gingerol and at least as potent as [8]-gingerol for the inhibition of triple-negative human (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468) and mouse (4T1, E0771) mammary carcinoma cell growth. Further investigation of [10]-gingerol showed that it suppressed the growth of estrogen receptor-bearing (MCF-7, T47D) and HER2-overexpressing (SKBR3) breast cancer cells. The inhibitory effect of [10]-gingerol on the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells was associated with a reduction in the number of rounds of cell division and evidence of S phase-cell cycle arrest, as well as induction of apoptosis due to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and the release of proapoptotic mitochondrial cytochrome c and SMAC/DIABLO into the cytoplasm. Surprisingly, killing of MDA-MB-231 cells by [10]-gingerol was not affected by a pan-caspase inhibitor (zVAD-fmk) or an anti-oxidant (N-acetylcysteine), suggesting that the cytotoxic effect of [10]-gingerol did not require caspase activation or the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that further investigation of [10]-gingerol is warranted for its possible use in the treatment of breast cancer.

  1. 21 CFR 610.15 - Constituent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.15 Constituent materials. (a) Ingredients... culture produced vaccines. Extraneous protein known to be capable of producing allergenic effects in human subjects shall not be added to a final virus medium of cell culture produced vaccines intended...

  2. Studies on cytotoxic constituents from the leaves of Elaeagnus oldhamii Maxim. in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chi-Ren; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Wang, Ching-Ying; Yang, Chang-Syun; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2014-07-04

    Elaeagnus oldhamii Maxim. is a commonly used traditional herbal medicine. In Taiwan the leaves of E. oldhamii Maxim. are mainly used for treating lung disorders. Twenty five compounds were isolated from the leaves of E. oldhamii Maxim. in the present study. These included oleanolic acid (1), 3-O-(Z)-coumaroyl oleanolic acid (2), 3-O-(E)-coumaroyl oleanolic acid (3), 3-O-caffeoyl oleanolic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), 3-O-(Z)-coumaroyl ursolic acid (6), 3-O-(E)-coumaroyl ursolic acid (7), 3-O-caffeoyl ursolic acid (8), 3β, 13β-dihydroxyolean-11-en-28-oic acid (9), 3β, 13β-dihydroxyurs-11-en-28-oic acid (10), uvaol (11), betulin (12), lupeol (13), kaempferol (14), aromadendrin (15), epigallocatechin (16), cis-tiliroside (17), trans-tiliroside (18), isoamericanol B (19), trans-p-coumaric acid (20), protocatechuic acid (21), salicylic acid (22), trans-ferulic acid (23), syringic acid (24) and 3-O-methylgallic acid (25). Of the 25 isolated compounds, 21 compounds were identified for the first time in E. oldhamii Maxim. These included compounds 1, 4, 5 and 8-25. These 25 compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against the growth of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells by the MTT assay, and the corresponding structure-activity relationships were discussed. Among these 25 compounds, compound 6 displayed the best activity against the A549 cell line in vitro (CC50=8.56±0.57 μg/mL, at 48 h of MTT asssay). Furthermore, compound 2, 4, 8 and 18 exhibited in vitro cytotoxicity against the A549 cell line with the CC50 values of less than 20 μg/mL at 48 h of MTT asssay. These five compounds 2, 4, 6, 8 and 18 exhibited better cytotoxic activity compared with cisplatin (positive control, CC50 value of 14.87±1.94 μg/mL, at 48 h of MTT asssay). The result suggested that the five compounds might be responsible for its clinical anti-lung cancer effect.

  3. Studies on Cytotoxic Constituents from the Leaves of Elaeagnus oldhamii Maxim. in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ren Liao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Elaeagnus oldhamii Maxim. is a commonly used traditional herbal medicine. In Taiwan the leaves of E. oldhamii Maxim. are mainly used for treating lung disorders. Twenty five compounds were isolated from the leaves of E. oldhamii Maxim. in the present study. These included oleanolic acid (1, 3-O-(Z-coumaroyl oleanolic acid (2, 3-O-(E-coumaroyl oleanolic acid (3, 3-O-caffeoyl oleanolic acid (4, ursolic acid (5, 3-O-(Z-coumaroyl ursolic acid (6, 3-O-(E-coumaroyl ursolic acid (7, 3-O-caffeoyl ursolic acid (8, 3β, 13β-dihydroxyolean-11-en-28-oic acid (9, 3β, 13β-dihydroxyurs-11-en-28-oic acid (10, uvaol (11, betulin (12, lupeol (13, kaempferol (14, aromadendrin (15, epigallocatechin (16, cis-tiliroside (17, trans-tiliroside (18, isoamericanol B (19, trans-p-coumaric acid (20, protocatechuic acid (21, salicylic acid (22, trans-ferulic acid (23, syringic acid (24 and 3-O-methylgallic acid (25. Of the 25 isolated compounds, 21 compounds were identified for the first time in E. oldhamii Maxim. These included compounds 1, 4, 5 and 8–25. These 25 compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against the growth of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells by the MTT assay, and the corresponding structure-activity relationships were discussed. Among these 25 compounds, compound 6 displayed the best activity against the A549 cell line in vitro (CC50 = 8.56 ± 0.57 μg/mL, at 48 h of MTT asssay. Furthermore, compound 2, 4, 8 and 18 exhibited in vitro cytotoxicity against the A549 cell line with the CC50 values of less than 20 μg/mL at 48 h of MTT asssay. These five compounds 2, 4, 6, 8 and 18 exhibited better cytotoxic activity compared with cisplatin (positive control, CC50 value of 14.87 ± 1.94 μg/mL, at 48 h of MTT asssay. The result suggested that the five compounds might be responsible for its clinical anti-lung cancer effect.

  4. Antimelanoma and Antityrosinase from Alpinia galangal Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Yu Lo; Po-Len Liu; Li-Ching Lin; Yen-Ting Chen; You-Cheng Hseu; Zhi-Hong Wen; Hui-Min Wang

    2013-01-01

    Two compounds, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (BHPHTO) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) they have been isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia galangal, and the structures of both pure constituents were determined using spectroscopic analyses. The study examined the bioeffectivenesses of the two compounds on the human melanoma A2058 and showed that significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in the cell viability assay. This research was also taken on the tests t...

  5. Constituents of Doubly Periodic Instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, C; Ford, Chris; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2002-01-01

    Using the Nahm transform we investigate doubly periodic charge one SU(2) instantons with radial symmetry. Two special points where the Nahm zero modes have softer singularities are identified as constituent locations. To support this picture, the action density is computed analytically and numerically within a two dimensional slice containing the two constituents. For particular values of the parameters the torus can be cut in half yielding two copies of a twisted charge 1/2 instanton. Such objects comprise a single constituent.

  6. β-Amyloid1-42, HIV-1Ba-L (clade B infection and drugs of abuse induced degeneration in human neuronal cells and protective effects of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera and its constituent Withanolide A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesava Rao Venkata Kurapati

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by progressive dysfunction of memory and higher cognitive functions with abnormal accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles throughout cortical and limbic brain regions. Withania somnifera (WS also known as 'ashwagandha' (ASH is used widely in Ayurvedic medicine as a nerve tonic and memory enhancer. However, there is paucity of data on potential neuroprotective effects of ASH against β-Amyloid (1-42 (Aβ induced neuropathogenesis. In the present study, we have tested the neuroprotective effects of Methanol: Chloroform (3:1 extract of ASH and its constituent Withanolide A (WA against Aβ induced toxicity, HIV-1(Ba-L (clade B infection and the effects of drugs of abuse using a human neuronal SK-N-MC cell line. Aβ when tested individually, induced cytotoxic effects in SK-N-MC cells as shown by increased trypan blue stained cells. However, when ASH was added to Aβ treated cells the toxic effects were neutralized. This observation was supported by cellular localization of Aβ, MTT formazan exocytosis, and the levels of acetylcholinesterase activity, confirming the chemopreventive or protective effects of ASH against Aβ induced toxicity. Further, the levels of MAP2 were significantly increased in cells infected with HIV-1(Ba-L (clade B as well as in cells treated with Cocaine (COC and Methamphetamine (METH compared with control cells. In ASH treated cells the MAP2 levels were significantly less compared to controls. Similar results were observed in combination experiments. Also, WA, a purified constituent of ASH, showed same pattern using MTT assay as a parameter. These results suggests that neuroprotective properties of ASH observed in the present study may provide some explanation for the ethnopharmacological uses of ASH in traditional medicine for cognitive and other HIV associated neurodegenerative disorders and further ASH could be a potential novel drug to

  7. Constituents of the anti-asthma herbal formula ASHMITM synergistically inhibit IL-4 and IL-5secretion by murine Th2 memory cells, and eotaxin by human lung fibroblasts in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bolleddula Javaprakasam; Nan Yang; Ming-Chun Wen; Rong Wang; Joseph Goldfarb; Hugh Sampson; Xiu-Min Li

    2013-01-01

    OBJECITVE:Anti-asthma herbal medicine intervention (ASHMITM),a combination of three traditional Chinese medicinal herbs developed in our laboratory,has demonstrated efficacy in both mouse models of allergic asthma,and a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial in patients with asthma.This study was designed to determine if the anti-inflammatory effects of individual herbal constituents of ASHMITM exhibited synergy.METHODS:Effects of ASHMI and its components aqueous extracts of Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum),Kushen (Sophora flavescens) and Gancao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis),on Th2 cytokine secretion by murine memory Th2 cells (D10.G4.1) and eotaxin-1 secretion by human lung fibroblast (HLF-1) cells were determined by measuring levels in culture supernatants by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay.Potential synergistic effects were determined by computing interaction indices from concentration-effect curve parameters.RESULTS:Individual Lingzhi,Kushen and Gancao extracts and ASHMI (the combination of individual extracts) inhibited production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 by murine memory Th2 cells and eotaxin-1 production by HLF-1 cells.The mean 25%-inhibitory-concentration (IC25)values (mg/mL)forASHMI,Lingzhi,Kushen and Gancaofor IL-4 production were 30.9,79.4,123,and 64.6,respectively; for IL-5 production were 30.2,263,123.2 and 100,respectively;for eotaxin-1 were 13.2,16.2,30.2,and 25.1,respectively.The IC50values (mg/mL) for ASHMI,Lingzhi,Kushen and Gancao for IL-4 production were 158.5,239.9,446.7,and 281.8,respectively; for eotaxin-1 were 38.1,33.1,100,and 158.5,respectively.The interaction indices of ASHMI constituents at IC25 were 0.35 for IL-4,0.21 for IL-5 and 0.59 for eotaxin-1.The interaction indices at IC50 values were 0.50 for IL-4 and 0.62 for eotaxin-1 inhibition.Inhibition of IL-5 did not reach IC50 values.All interaction indices were below 1 which indicated synergy.CONCLUSION:By comparing the interaction index values,we find that constituents in

  8. Antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer cells treated in vitro with constituents of a product derived from Pistacia lentiscus L. var. chia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, K V; Prince, J; Han, Z; Dimas, K; Cladaras, M; Wyche, J H; Sitaras, N M; Pantazis, P

    2007-04-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that a 50% ethanol extract of the plant-derived product, Chios mastic gum (CMG), contains compounds which inhibit proliferation and induce death of HCT116 human colon cancer cells in vitro. CMG-treatment induces cell arrest at G(1), detachment of the cells from the substrate, activation of pro-caspases-8, -9 and -3, and causes several morphological changes typical of apoptosis in cell organelles. These events, furthermore, are time- and dose-dependent, but p53- and p21-independent. Apoptosis induction by CMG is not inhibited in HCT116 cell clones expressing high levels of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, or dominant-negative FADD, thereby indicating that CMG induces cell death via a yet-to-be identified pathway, unrelated to the death receptor- and mitochondrion-dependent pathways. The findings presented here suggest that CMG (a) induces an anoikis form of cell death in HCT116 colon cancer cells that includes events associated with caspase-dependent pathways; and (b) might be developed into a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human colon and other cancers.

  9. In vitro and in vivo studies of an aqueous extract of Matricaria recutita (German chamomile) on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, on the morphology of red blood cells and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pinto, Angélica B.; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D.; Carvalho, Jorge J.; Pereira, Mário J. S.; Fonseca, Adenilson S.; Bernardo-Filho, Mário

    2013-01-01

    Background: Natural products might alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) and these results may be correlated with modifications of the shape of the red blood cells (RBC). The biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals can be also altered. Objective: This investigation aimed to determine biological effects of an aqueous extract of chamomile (CE). Materials and Methods: To study the effect of the CE on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc, in vitro and in vivo assays were performed. The effect of the CE on the morphology of RBC was observed under light microscope. The images were acquired, processed, and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC determined. To analyze the effect of the CE on biodistribution of the sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in Wistar rats, these animals were treated or not with a CE. Na99mTcO4 was injected, the rats were sacrificed, the organs were removed, weighted and percentage of radioactivity/gram calculated. Result: In the in vitro experiment, the radioactivity on blood cells compartment and on insoluble fractions of plasma was diminished. The shape and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC were altered in in vitro assays. An increase of the percentage of radioactivity of Na99mTcO4 was observed in stomach after in vivo treatment. Conclusion: These results could be due to substances of the CE or by the products of the metabolism of this extract in the animal organism. These findings are examples of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, which could lead to misdiagnosis in clinical practice with unexpected consequences. PMID:24143045

  10. Anti-proliferative effects of raw and steamed extracts of Panax notoginseng and its ginsenoside constituents on human liver cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neo Soek-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Panax notoginseng is a potential source of anticancer compounds. This study aims to investigate the effects of steaming on the chemical profile of P. notoginseng and the anti-proliferative effects of P. notoginseng on liver cancer cells. Methods Samples of powdered raw P. notoginseng roots were steamed for various durations. Extracts of the raw and steamed samples were subjected to ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS analysis for chemical profiling. The anti-proliferative effects on three human liver cancer cells, namely SNU449, SNU182 and HepG2, were evaluated using colorimetric WST-1 assay. Results Steaming changed chromatographic and pharmacological profiles of P. notoginseng, causing differences in activities such as inhibition of cancer growth. Steamed P. notoginseng exhibited greater anti-proliferative effects against liver cancer cells (SNU449, SNU182 and HepG2 than its raw form; steaming up to 24 hours increased bioactivities. Steaming increased the concentrations of ginsenoside Rh2, Rk1, Rk3 and 20S-Rg3 and enhanced growth inhibition of liver cancer cells. Conclusion Steaming changes the chemical profile as well as anti-cancer biological activities of P. notoginseng. Steamed P. notoginseng contains potential compounds for the treatment of liver cancer.

  11. Pomegranate Bioactive Constituents Suppress Cell Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in an Experimental Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Role of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Bhatia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and chemoprevention represents a viable approach in lowering the mortality of this disease. Pomegranate fruit, an abundant source of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals, is gaining tremendous attention for its wide-spectrum health benefits. We previously reported that a characterized pomegranate emulsion (PE prevents diethylnitrosamine (DENA-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis though inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB. Since NF-κB concurrently induces Wnt/β-catenin signaling implicated in cell proliferation, cell survival, and apoptosis evasion, we examined antiproliferative, apoptosis-inducing and Wnt/β-catenin signaling-modulatory mechanisms of PE during DENA rat hepatocarcinogenesis. PE (1 or 10 g/kg was administered 4 weeks before and 18 weeks following DENA exposure. There was a significant increase in hepatic proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen and alteration in cell cycle progression (cyclin D1 due to DENA treatment, and PE dose dependently reversed these effects. PE substantially induced apoptosis by upregulating proapoptotic protein Bax and downregulating antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. PE dose dependently reduced hepatic β-catenin and augmented glycogen synthase kinase-3β expression. Our study provides evidence that pomegranate phytochemicals exert chemoprevention of hepatic cancer through antiproliferative and proapoptotic mechanisms by modulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PE, thus, targets two interconnected molecular circuits (canonical NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin pathways to exert chemoprevention of HCC.

  12. Neuritogenic Monoglyceride Derived from the Constituent of a Marine Fish for Activating the PI3K/ERK/CREB Signalling Pathways in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A neuritogenic monoglyceride, 1-O-(myristoyl glycerol (MG, was isolated from the head of Ilisha elongate using a PC12 cell bioassay system, and its chemical structure was elucidated using spectroscopic methods. MG significantly induced 42% of the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells at a concentration of 10 μM. To study the structure-activity relationships of MG, a series of monoglycerides was designed and synthesised. Bioassay results indicated that the alkyl chain length plays a key role in the neuritogenic activity of the monoglycerides. The groups that link the propane-1,2-diol and alkyl chain were also investigated. An ester linkage, rather than an amido one, was found to be optimal for neuritogenic activity. Therefore, 1-O-(stearoyl glycerol (SG, which induces 57% of the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells at 10 μM, was determined to be a lead compound for neuritogenic activity. We then investigated the mechanism of action of neurite outgrowth induced by SG on PC12 cells using protein specific inhibitors and Western blot analysis. The mitogen-activated kinase/ERK kinase (MEK inhibitor U0126 and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K inhibitor LY294002 significantly decreased neurite outgrowth. At the same time, SG increased phosphorylation of CREB in protein level. Thus, SG-induced neuritogenic activity depends on the activation of the extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK, cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB and PI3K signalling pathways in PC12 cells.

  13. Salvia miltiorrhiza water-soluble extract, but not its constituent salvianolic acid B, abrogates LPS-induced NF-κB signalling in intestinal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J S; Narula, A S; Jobin, C

    2005-01-01

    Herbal medicine has become an increasing popular therapeutic alternative among patients suffering from various inflammatory disorders. The Salvia miltiorrhizae water-soluble extract (SME) have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. However, the mechanism of action and impact of SME on LPS-induced gene expression is still unknown. We report that SME significantly abrogated LPS-induced IκB phosphorylation/degradation, NF-κB transcriptional activity and ICAM-1 gene expression in rat IEC-18 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that LPS-induced RelA recruitment to the ICAM-1 gene promoter was inhibited by SME. Moreover, in vitro kinase assay showed that SME directly inhibits LPS induced IκB kinase (IKK) activity in IEC-18 cells. To investigate the physiological relevance of SME inhibitory activity on NF-κB signalling, we used small intestinal explants and primary intestinal epithelial cells derived from a transgenic mouse expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the transcriptional control of NF-κB cis-elements (cis-NF-κBEGFP). SME significantly blocked LPS-induced EGFP expression and IκBα phosphorylation in intestinal explants and primary IECs, respectively. However, salvianolic acid B, an activate component of SME did not inhibit NF-κB transcriptional activity and IκB phosphorylation/degradation in IEC-18 cells. These results indicate that SME blocks LPS-induced NF-κB signalling pathway by targeting the IKK complex in intestinal epithelial cells. Modulation of bacterial product-mediated NF-κB signalling by natural plant extracts may represent an attractive strategy towards the prevention and treatment of intestinal inflammation. PMID:15996193

  14. Departmental Excellence: Constituencies in Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Ronald C.; Fritz, Janie M. Harden

    1999-01-01

    Places the question of departmental excellence within "the winds of historicity and temporality" and the political demands of multiple constituencies. Concludes that the task for every department that wants to pursue excellence is to know, understand, and operate within the hidden curriculum of a campus that socializes faculty to the…

  15. Chemical constituents from Schisandra sphenanthera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Tao Li; Zhi Ying Weng; Jian Xin Pu; Han Dong Sun

    2008-01-01

    The chemical constituents of the stems of Schisandra sphenanthera are described for the first time. This investigation has resulted in the isolation of a new phenolic glycoside (1), along with seven known compounds. The structure of 1 was assigned by using spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR spectra.

  16. Antifungal constituents of Melicope borbonica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Adsersen, Anne; Bremner, Paul

    2004-01-01

    , as the major constituents. All three compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Penicillium expansum, in accordance with the traditional use of the plant. Moreover, 2,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone (methylxanthoxylin), three other coumarins [7-(3-methyl-2-butenyloxy)-6...

  17. Antimelanoma and antityrosinase from Alpinia galangal constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chih-Yu; Liu, Po-Len; Lin, Li-Ching; Chen, Yen-Ting; Hseu, You-Cheng; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hui-Min

    2013-01-01

    Two compounds, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (BHPHTO) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) they have been isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia galangal, and the structures of both pure constituents were determined using spectroscopic analyses. The study examined the bioeffectivenesses of the two compounds on the human melanoma A2058 and showed that significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in the cell viability assay. This research was also taken on the tests to B16-F10 cell line and showed minor inhibitory consequences of cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin contents. Our results revealed the anticancer effects of A. galangal compounds, and therefore, the target compounds could be potentially applied in the therapeutic application and the food industry.

  18. Antimelanoma and Antityrosinase from Alpinia galangal Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yu Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two compounds, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (BHPHTO and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC they have been isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia galangal, and the structures of both pure constituents were determined using spectroscopic analyses. The study examined the bioeffectivenesses of the two compounds on the human melanoma A2058 and showed that significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in the cell viability assay. This research was also taken on the tests to B16-F10 cell line and showed minor inhibitory consequences of cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin contents. Our results revealed the anticancer effects of A. galangal compounds, and therefore, the target compounds could be potentially applied in the therapeutic application and the food industry.

  19. Olive oil and its phenolic constituent tyrosol attenuates dioxin-induced toxicity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells via an antioxidant-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiselvan, Ilavarasi; Dicson, Sheeja Malar; Kasi, Pandima Devi

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil (OO) and its phenolic compounds are reported to possess many potential biological effects, which are ascribed to its powerful antioxidant property. In this study, we have assessed whether OO and its phenolic compound tyrosol (TY) could mitigate 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced oxidative damages in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The results showed that exposure of PBMC to 10 nM TCDD caused significant cell death and elevated cellular concentrations of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. Comet assay indicated that OO and TY protected DNA damage against dioxin toxicity. In addition, alterations in levels of antioxidant enzymes were substantially prevented by OO and TY. TCDD-induced CYP1A1 activity and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential were significantly reduced by the administration of OO and TY. The results suggested that dietary modifications incorporating diets rich in OO and associated phenolics could prove beneficial in protecting individuals against toxicity induced by dioxins.

  20. Cytotoxic Effect and Constituent Profile of Alkaloid Fractions from Ethanolic Extract of Ficus septica Burm. f. Leaves on T47D Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Akbar, Fiki Fatihah; Wiyani, Anggie; Sudarsono

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the profile of alkaloids in two ethyl acetate soluble fractions, namely fractions A and B from an ethanolic extract of Ficus septica leaves and cytotoxic effect on T47D breast cancer cells. Preparation of both fractions involved maceration of leaves with 70% (v/v) ethanol, filtration with Al2O3, precipitation with 0.1 N HCl, Mayer reagent, and 0.1 N NaOH, and also partition with ethyl acetate. Qualitative thin layer chromatography (TLC) was conducted to determine the profile of alkaloids in the two fractions, using alkaloid specific reagents such as Dragendorff, sodium nitrite, and Van Urk-Salkowski. Cytotoxic effects of both fractions on T47D cells were evaluated using MTT assay with a concentration series of 1.56; 3.12; 6.25; 12.5; 25 and 50 μg/mL. The TLC test showed that fractions A and B contained alkaloids with Rx values of 0.74 and 0.80 for fraction A and 0.74, 0.84, 0.92 for fraction B with regard to yohimbine using the mobile phase of n-buthanol:glacial acetic acid:distilled water (3:1:1 v/v/v). Moreover, an indole alkaloid was detected with Rx values of 0.80 and 0.84, respectively. Fractions A and B exhibited high cytotoxic effects on T47D cells with IC50 values of 2.57 and 2.73 μg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, overall the results of this study showed that fractions of Ficus septica contain alkaloids including indole alkaloid or its derivatives and possess a cytotoxic effect on T47D cells. This research supports the idea that alkaloids in F. septica have anticancer activity.

  1. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Ambrosio, Steven M.; Han, Chunhua; Pan, Li; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Ding, Haiming

    2011-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003), was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compound 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not compound 1, prevented EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). When compounds 1 and 2 were combined they synergistically inhibited c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation, and human oral cancer cell proliferation. The present data suggest that the potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins that target two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. PMID:21596018

  2. Constituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    2004-01-01

    Taking language as a special, second-order representational system, the article explores some consequences of this view for syntactico-semantic analysis, in particular for the notion of argument structure.......Taking language as a special, second-order representational system, the article explores some consequences of this view for syntactico-semantic analysis, in particular for the notion of argument structure....

  3. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ambrosio, Steven M. [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Han, Chunhua [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pan, Li; Douglas Kinghorn, A. [Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ding, Haiming, E-mail: ding.29@osu.edu [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} The aliphatic acetogenins [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] (1) and [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate] (2) isolated from avocado fruit inhibit phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). {yields} Aliphatic acetogenin 2, but not 1, prevents EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). {yields} Combination of both aliphatic acetogenins synergistically inhibits c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation and human oral cancer cell proliferation. {yields} The potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins targeting two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. {yields} Providing a double hit on a critical cancer pathway such as EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 by phytochemicals like those found in avocado fruit could lead to more effective approach toward cancer prevention. -- Abstract: Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003) was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not

  4. Effects of pomegranate chemical constituents/intestinal microbial metabolites on CYP1B1 in 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimsetty, Sashi G; Bialonska, Dobroslawa; Reddy, Muntha K; Thornton, Cammi; Willett, Kristine L; Ferreira, Daneel

    2009-11-25

    The cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP1B1, is an established target in prostate cancer chemoprevention. Compounds inhibiting CYP1B1 activity are contemplated to exert beneficial effects at three stages of prostate cancer development, that is, initiation, progression, and development of drug resistance. Pomegranate ellagitannins/microbial metabolites were examined for their CYP1B1 inhibitory activity in a recombinant CYP1B1-mediated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay. Urolithin A, a microbial metabolite, was the most potent uncompetitive inhibitor of CYP1B1-mediated EROD activity, exhibiting 2-fold selectivity over CYP1A1, while urolithin B was a noncompetitive inhibitor with 3-fold selectivity. The punicalins and punicalagins exhibited potent CYP1A1 inhibition with 5-10-fold selectivity over CYP1B1. Urolithins, punicalins, and punicalagins were tested for their 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced CYP1 inhibitory activity in the 22Rv1 prostate cancer cell line. Urolithins A and B showed a decrease in their CYP1-mediated EROD inhibitory IC50 values upon increasing their treatment times from 30 min to 24 h. Urolithin C, 8-O-methylurolithin A, and 8,9-di-O-methylurolithin C caused a potent CYP1-mediated EROD inhibition in 22Rv1 cells upon 24 h of incubation. Neutral red uptake assay results indicated that urolithin C, 8-O-methylurolithin A, and 8,9-di-O-methylurolithin C induced profound cytotoxicity in the proximity of their CYP1 inhibitory IC50 values. Urolithins A and B were studied for their cellular uptake and inhibition of TCDD-induced CYP1B1 expression. Cellular uptake experiments demonstrated a 5-fold increase in urolithin uptake by 22Rv1 cells. Western blots of the CYP1B1 protein indicated that the urolithins interfered with the expression of CYP1B1 protein. Thus, urolithins were found to display a dual mode mechanism by decreasing CYP1B1 activity and expression.

  5. Enhancement of insulin release from the beta-cell line INS-1 by an ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata and its major constituent roseoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankish, Neil; de Sousa Menezes, Fábio; Mills, Clive; Sheridan, Helen

    2010-07-01

    Plants of the genus Bauhinia are used in several countries worldwide for the treatment of diabetes, and several related species have been shown to have hypoglycaemic effects in vivo in both normoglycaemic and alloxan- and streptozotocin-treated animal models. In this study, the insulin-secreting cell line INS-1 was used to examine the effects of the crude ethanolic extract of leaves of B. variegata L. var. Candida Voidt and its major metabolite (6 S,7 E,9 R)-9-hydroxymegastigma-4,7-dien-3-one-9- beta-glycopyraroside (roseoside) on insulinotropic activity. The crude extracts and the major metabolite were shown to increase insulin secretion in a dose-dependant manner.

  6. [Chemical constituents of Desmodium sambuense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuankuan; Zhang, Qianjun; Huang, Zhongbi; Chen, Qing; Yao, Rongjun

    2010-09-01

    The chemical constituents of Desmodium sambuense were studied. Chromatographic techniques were applied to isolate and purify the constituents, and the structures were identified on the basis of physico-chemical and spectroscopeic methods. Thirteen compounds were isolated from the 75% ethanol extract of Desmodium sambuens and elucidated as beta-amyrin(1), betulic acid(2), daucosterol(3), triacontanoic acid(4), lup-20(29)-en-3-one(5), tetracosanoic-2,3-dihydroxypropylester(6), stigmast-5-ene-3beta, 7alpha-ol (7),methyl phaeophorbidea(8), o-hydroxy benzoic acid(9),beta-sitosterol(10),d-catechin(11), luteolin (12), epigallocatechin (13). All of the compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  7. Transport of Schisandra chinensis extract and its biologically-active constituents across Caco-2 cell monolayers - an in-vitro model of intestinal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madgula, Vamsi L M; Avula, Bharathi; Choi, Young W; Pullela, Srinivas V; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Khan, Shabana I

    2008-03-01

    We have determined the intestinal transport of Schisandra chinensis extract and its lignans (gomisin A, gomisin N and schisandrin C) in the Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The transport across monolayers was examined for 2 h in absorptive and secretory directions. Quantitation of lignans was performed by HPLC. Out of the three lignans, gomisin A exhibited bi-directional transport, with P(app) values in the range of 25-29 x 10(-6) cm s(-1), indicating a passive diffusion. Gomisin N, mixture and Schisandra extract displayed a higher transport in the secretory direction with efflux ratios in the range of 2.2-5.2. The efflux was decreased in the presence of inhibitors of multidrug resistance protein (MRP) transporter (MK-571) and P-glycoprotein (verapamil) indicating a possible involvement of an efflux pump and MRP in the transport of Schisandra lignans. Poor transport of schisandrin C was observed which could not be quantitated. The permeability of gomisin A in the isolated form was significantly different compared with the mixture or extract.

  8. Curcumin, the main active constituent of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), induces apoptosis in hepatic stellate cells by modulating the abundance of apoptosis-related growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ya-Jun; Kuchta, Kenny; Lv, Xia; Lin, Yu; Ye, Guo-Rong; Liu, Xu-You; Song, Hui-Dong; Wang, Le-Xin; Kobayashi, Yuta; Shu, Jian-Chang

    2015-11-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanism of action of curcumin against hepatic fibrosis, cultured rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC) (HSC-T6) were incubated with curcumin for 24 h, after which apoptosis was measured by flow-cytometry. The protein levels of the pro-apoptotic factors Fas and p53b as well as of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 were monitored by immunocytochemical ABC staining after incubation with curcumin for 24 h. In the case of 20 μM curcumin, not only was the respective apoptosis index increased, but also the abundance of the pro-apoptotic factors Fas and p53 were amplified, whereas that of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 decreased. All these effects were highly reproducible (P<0.05). Consequently, curcumin has an up-regulating effect on pro-apoptotic factors like Fas and p53 as well as a down-regulating effect of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2, thus inducing apoptosis in HSC.

  9. Inhibitory Effect on β-Hexosaminidase Release from RBL-2H3 Cells of Extracts and Some Pure Constituents of Benchalokawichian, a Thai Herbal Remedy, Used for Allergic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thana Juckmeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Benchalokawichian (BCW, a Thai traditional herbal formulation, has long been used as antipyretic and to treat skin disorders. It comprises roots from five herbs: Ficus racemosa, Capparis micracantha, Clerodendrum petasites, Harrisonia perforata, and Tiliacora triandra. This polyherbal remedy has recently been included in the Thailand National List of Essential Medicines (Herbal Products list. Methodology. A Bioassay-guided fractionation technique was used to evaluate antiallergy activities of crude extracts, and those obtained by the multistep column chromatography isolation of pure compounds. Inhibitory effect on the release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells was used to determine antiallergic activity. Results. Two pure compounds from BCW formulation showed higher antiallergic activity than crude or semipure extracts. Pectolinarigenin showed the highest antiallergic activity, followed by O-methylalloptaeroxylin, with IC50 values of 6.3 μg/mL and 14.16 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the highest activities of pure compounds were significantly higher than chlorpheniramine (16.2 μg/mL. Conclusions. This study provides some support for the use of BCW in reducing itching and treatment of other skin allergic disorders. The two isolated constituents exhibited high antiallergic activity and it is necessary to determine their mechanism of action. Further phytochemical and safety studies of pure compounds are required before development of these as antiallergy commercial remedies.

  10. A new approach to clausal constituent order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hengeveld

    2013-01-01

    This chapter studies the consequences of the FDG approach to constituent ordering for the typology of constituent orders at the clausal level. After introducing the theoretical framework, it is argued that the fact that FDG in its dynamic approach to constituent ordering uses four absolute positions

  11. INNOVATION CONSTITUENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zhylinska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates an innovation constituent of sustainable development along with environmental, social and economic pillars of the concept. Determining of implementation details of innovation activity by J. Schumpeter is a theoretical prerequisite to understanding of innovation constituent. An innovator-entrepreneur provides a customer with an information image of 'new combinations.' The image is created by identifying customer's future needs, which outline business aims, subject and appropriate means for creating the innovation products. However, consumer choice is largely motivated by values and specific rules of behavior. The rules of consumer society that in the industrial age become the motive, morality and institution, did not consider the reproductive capabilities of the environment. This disagreement was previously presented in The Limits to Growth by the Club of Rome and was reflected in the concept of sustainable development, which gained immense significance after the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987 (Our Common Future. The study highlights importance for establishment of new social values that motivate innovators to change their thinking, comprehend their responsibility not only to consumers but also to the environment and future generations. The Rio+20 Corporate Sustainability Forum: Innovation and Collaboration for the Future We want, organized by the UN Global Compact, demonstrates the interest of entrepreneurs in practical implementation of the concept of sustainable development, through an effective innovation activity. The paper summarizes management tools for implementing business commitments to action in priority areas of ensuring sustainable development: Energy & Climate, Water & Ecosystems, Agriculture & Food, Economics & Finance of Sustainable Development, Social Development, and Urbanization & Cities. Main stages of changes in companies are outlined for making responsible

  12. [Chemical constituents of Physalis pubescens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li-ping; Cheng, Fan-qin; Ji, Long; Yu, He-yong

    2015-11-01

    Chemical constituents of 95% ethanol extract of the dried persistent calyx of Physalis pubescens were investigated. By chromatography on a silica gel column and reverse-phase preparative HPLC, 10 compounds were isolated from the dichloromethane fraction. Based on the MS and 1D/2D NMR data, these compounds were identified as 5-O-(E-feruloyl) blumenol (1), isovanillin (2), (E) -ethyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acrylate (3), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde(4), 4-methylphenol (5), (E) -methyl cinnamate (6), 7,3',4' trimethoxyquercetin (7), 5,3', 5'-trihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone(8), danielone (9), and 5,5'-diisobutoxy-2,2'-bifuran (10).

  13. Volatile Constituents of Zhumaria Majdae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdanparst

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Capillary gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC- MS analyses of a sample of essential oil of zhumaria Linalool ned by simple water distillation of the pulverized air - dired leaves and flowers of the plant indicated that Linalool and comphor are the two major constituents of the volatile oil. Sylvestrene , y -terpinene, a- Pinene, b - carene, camphene, and Epiborneol constitute the other main components of the essential oil. The GC - MS chromatogram indicated the presence of more than fifty - components in the oil, most of them were present in trace amounts. In this study, the chemical structures of twenty of these consti tuents were elucidated using GC - MS analysis.

  14. The inorganic constituents of echinoderms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, F.W.; Wheeler, W.C.

    1915-01-01

    In a recent paper on the composition of crinoid skeletons we showed that crinoids contain large quantities of magnesia, and that its proportion varies with the temperature of the water in which the creatures live. This result was so novel and surprising that it seemed desirable to examine other echinoderms and to ascertain whether they showed the same characteristics and regularity. A number of sea urchins and starfishes were therefore studied, their inorganic constituents being analyzed in the same manner as those of the crinoids

  15. Chemical Constituents of Euphorbia ebracteolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIHai-ming; MINZhi-da

    2004-01-01

    Aim To study the chemical constituents of Euphorb/a ebracteolata Hayata. Methods Column chromatography was used in the isolation procedure, while the structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectral data. Results Six compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as baccatin (1), 3-acetyl-β-amyrin (2), 3,3'-diacetyl-4,4'-dim-ethoxy- 2,2', 6,6'-tetrah ydroxy diphenylmethane (3), 2,4- dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl acetophenone (4), β-sitosterol(5), and daucosterol (6). Conclusion Baccatin was obtained from Euphorbia ebracteolata for the first time.

  16. Shikonin, a constituent of Lithospermum erythrorhizon exhibits anti-allergic effects by suppressing orphan nuclear receptor Nr4a family gene expression as a new prototype of calcineurin inhibitors in mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Hayashi, Shusaku; Umezaki, Masahito; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kageyama-Yahara, Natsuko; Kondo, Takashi; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2014-12-05

    Over the last few decades, food allergy (FA) has become a common disease in infants in advanced countries. However, anti-allergic medicines available in the market have no effect on FA, and consequently effective drug therapies for FA are not yet available. We have already demonstrated that mucosal mast cells play an essential role in the development of FA in a murine model. Thus, we screened many constituents from medicinal herbs for the ability to inhibit rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 mast-like cell degranulation, and found that shikonin, a naphthoquinone dye from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, exhibited the most potent inhibitory effect among them. Furthermore, shikonin extremely inhibited the IgE/antigen-induced and calcium ionophore-induced upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA expression in mucosal-type bone marrow-derived mast cells (mBMMCs). Global gene expression analysis confirmed by real-time PCR revealed that shikonin drastically inhibited the IgE/antigen-induced and calcium ionophore-induced upregulation of mRNA expression of the nuclear orphan receptor 4a family (Nr4a1, Nr4a2 and Nr4a3) in mBMMCs, and knockdown of Nr4a1 or Nr4a2 suppressed the IgE/antigen-induced upregulation of TNF-α mRNA expression. Computational docking simulation of a small molecule for a target protein is a useful technique to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of drugs. Therefore, the simulation revealed that the predicted binding sites of shikonin to immunophilins (cyclophilin A and FK506 binding protein (FKBP) 12) were almost the same as the binding sites of immunosuppressants (cyclosporin A and FK506) to immunophilins. Indeed, shikonin inhibited the calcineurin activity to a similar extent as cyclosporin A that markedly suppressed the IgE/antigen-enhanced mRNA expression of TNF-α and the Nr4a family in mBMMCs. These findings suggest that shikonin suppresses mucosal mast cell activation by reducing Nr4a family gene expression through the

  17. Antibacterial constituents from Melodinus suaveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Ling; Lunga, Paul-Keilah; Zhao, Yun-Li; Qin, Xu-Jie; Yang, Xing-Wei; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the non-alkaloidal chemical constituents of the stems and leaves of Melodinus suaveolens and their antibacterial activities. Compounds were isolated and purified by repeated silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, RP18, and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by comparison with published spectroscopic data, as well as on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The antibacterial screening assays were performed by the dilution method. Fourteen compounds were isolated, and identified as lycopersene (1), betulinic aldehyde (2), 3β-acetoxy-22,23,24,25,26,27-hexanordammaran-20-one (3), 3a-acetyl-2, 3, 5-trimethyl-7a-hydroxy-5-(4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecanyl)-1,3a,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-4-oxainden-1-one (4), 3β-hydroxy-28-norlup-20(29)-ene-17β-hydroperoxide (5), 3β-hydroxy-28-norlup-20(29)-ene-17α-hydroperoxide (6), β-sitosterol (7), 28-nor-urs-12-ene-3β, 17β-diol (8), α-amyrin (9), ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (10), 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-olide (11), betulin (12), obtusalin (13), and ursolic acid (14). Among the isolates, compounds 1, 2, 6, 8, 10, and 14 showed potent antibacterial activities against the four bacteria. This is the first report of the antibacterial activity of the constituents of Melodinus suaveolens.

  18. Manipulation of Cellular Processing Bodies and Their Constituents by Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Pattnaik, Asit K.; Dinh, Phat X.

    2013-01-01

    The processing bodies (PBs) are a form of cytoplasmic aggregates that house the cellular RNA decay machinery as well as many RNA-binding proteins and mRNAs. The PBs are constitutively present in eukaryotic cells and are involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis by regulating RNA metabolism, cell signaling, and survival. Virus infections result in modification of the PBs and their constituents. Many viruses induce compositionally altered PBs, while many others use specific components of the...

  19. Nuclear Structure Functions from Constituent Quark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Arash, F; Arash, Firooz; Atashbar-Tehrani, Shahin

    1999-01-01

    We have used the notion of the constituent quark model of nucleon, where a constituent quark carries its own internal structure, and applied it to determine nuclear structure functions ratios. It is found that the description of experimental data require the inclusion of strong shadowing effect for $x<0.01$. Using the idea of vector meson dominance model and other ingredients this effect is calculated in the context of the constituent quark model. It is rather striking that the constituent quark model, used here, gives a good account of the data for a wide range of atomic mass number from A=4 to A=204.

  20. [Chemical constituents of Poria cocos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Chao; Wang, Hong-Qing; Li, Jia-Chun; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2014-03-01

    The chemical constituents of Poria cocos were studied by means of silica gel, ODS column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Thirteen compounds were isolated from this plant. By analysis of the ESI-MS and NMR data, the structures of these compounds were determined as tumulosic acid (1), dehydrotumulosic acid (2), 3beta, 5alpha-dihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-dien-6-one (3), 3beta, 5alpha, 9alpha-trihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-diene -6-one (4), ergosta-7, 22-diene-3-one (5), 6, 9-epoxy-ergosta-7,22-diene-3-ol (6), ergosta-4,22-diene-3-one (7), 3beta, 5alpha, 6beta-trihydroxyl-ergosta-7,22-diene (8), ergosta-5, 6-epoxy-7,22-dien-3-ol (9), beta-sitosterol (10), ribitol (11), mannitol (12), and oleanic acid 3-O-acetate (13), respectively. Compounds 3-13 were isolated from the P. cocos for the first time.

  1. Chemical constituents of Cinnamomum cebuense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Consolacion Y.Ragasa; Dinah L.Espineli; Esperanza Maribel G.Agoo; Ramon S.del Fierro

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the chemical constituents of Cinnamomum cebuense,an endemic and critically endangered tree found only in Cebu,Philippines.METHODS:The compounds were isolated by silica gel chromatography.The structures of the isolates were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy.RESULTS:The dichloromethane (DCM) extract of the bark of C.cebuense afforded a new monoterpene natural product 1 and a new sesquiterpene 2,along with the known compounds,4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde (3),4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (4),α-terpineol (5) and humulene (6).The DCM extract of the leaves of C.cebuense yielded 6,β-caryophyllene (7),squalene (8),and a mixture of α-amyrin (9),β-amyrin (10) and bauerenol (11).The structures of 1-7 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy,while the structures of 8-11 were identified by comparison of their 13C NMR data with those reported in the literature.CONCLUSION:The bark of C.cebuense afforded monoterpenes,sesquiterpenes and phenolics,while the leaves yielded sesquiterpenes and triterpenes.

  2. Scheil-Gulliver Constituent Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Arthur D.; Eriksson, Gunnar; Bale, Christopher W.

    2017-03-01

    During solidification of alloys, conditions often approach those of Scheil-Gulliver cooling in which it is assumed that solid phases, once precipitated, remain unchanged. That is, they no longer react with the liquid or with each other. In the case of equilibrium solidification, equilibrium phase diagrams provide a valuable means of visualizing the effects of composition changes upon the final microstructure. In the present study, we propose for the first time the concept of Scheil-Gulliver constituent diagrams which play the same role as that in the case of Scheil-Gulliver cooling. It is shown how these diagrams can be calculated and plotted by the currently available thermodynamic database computing systems that combine Gibbs energy minimization software with large databases of optimized thermodynamic properties of solutions and compounds. Examples calculated using the FactSage system are presented for the Al-Li and Al-Mg-Zn systems, and for the Au-Bi-Sb-Pb system and its binary and ternary subsystems.

  3. Doubly Periodic Instantons and their Constituents

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, C; Ford, Chris; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2002-01-01

    Using the Nahm transform we investigate doubly periodic charge one SU(2) instantons with radial symmetry. Two special points where the Nahm zero modes have softer singularities are identified as the locations of instanton core constituents. For a square torus this constituent picture is closely reflected in the action density. In rectangular tori with large aspect ratios the cores merge to form monopole-like objects. For particular values of the parameters the torus can be cut in half yielding two copies of a twisted charge 1/2 instanton. These findings are illustrated with plots of the action density within a two-dimensional slice containing the constituents.

  4. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  5. NN Interaction in Chiral Constituent Quark Models

    CERN Document Server

    Valcarce, A; González, P

    2003-01-01

    We review the actual state in the description of the NN interaction by means of chiral constituent quark models. We present a series of relevant features that are nicely explained within the quark model framework.

  6. Chiral symmetry and the constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya

    1995-01-01

    New results on baryon structure and spectrum developed in collaboration with Dan Riska [1-4] are reported. The main idea is that beyond the chiral symmetry spontaneous breaking scale light and strange baryons should be considered as systems of three constituent quarks with an effective confining interaction and a chiral interaction that is mediated by the octet of Goldstone bosons (pseudoscalar mesons) between the constituent quarks.

  7. Baryons in chiral constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya

    1996-01-01

    Beyond the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking scale light and strange baryons should be considered as systems of three constituent quarks with an effective confining interaction and a flavor-spin chiral interaction that is mediated by the octet of Goldstone bosons (pseudoscalar mesons) between the constituent quarks. One cannot exclude, however, the possibility that this flavor-spin interaction has an appreciable vector- and higher meson exchange component.

  8. Cytotoxic constituents of ethyl acetate fraction from Dianthus superbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chengli; Zhang, Wu; Li, Jie; Lei, Jiachuan; Yu, Jianqing

    2013-01-01

    The ethyl acetate fraction (EE-DS) from Dianthus superbus was found to possess the cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in previous study. To investigate cytotoxic constituents, the bioassay-guided isolation of compounds from EE-DS was performed. Two dianthramides (1 and 2), three flavonoids (3-5), two coumarins (6 and 7) and three other compounds (8-10) were obtained. Structures of isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Cytotoxicity of the compounds against HepG2 cells was evaluated. Compound 1 showed the strongest cytotoxicity, compounds 10, 4, 3 and 5 had moderate cytotoxicity.

  9. Gluonic structure of the constituent quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochelev, Nikolai, E-mail: kochelev@theor.jinr.ru [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow Region, 141980 (Russian Federation); Lee, Hee-Jung [Department of Physics Education, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Baiyang; Zhang, Pengming [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-06-10

    Based on both the constituent quark picture and the instanton model for QCD vacuum, we calculate the unpolarized and polarized gluon distributions in the constituent quark and in the nucleon. Our approach consists of the two main steps. At the first step, we calculate the gluon distributions inside the constituent quark generated by the perturbative quark–gluon interaction, the non-perturbative quark–gluon interaction, and the non-perturbative quark–gluon–pion anomalous chromomagnetic interaction. The non-perturbative interactions are related to the existence of the instantons, strong topological fluctuations of gluon fields, in the QCD vacuum. At the second step, the convolution model is applied to derive the gluon distributions in the nucleon. A very important role of the pion field in producing the unpolarized and the polarized gluon distributions in the hadrons is discovered. We discuss a possible solution of the proton spin problem.

  10. Progress on the study of effective constituent of Chinese medicinals inducing cervical cancer Hela cell apoptosis%中药有效成分影响宫颈癌 Hela 细胞凋亡机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史海敏; 丁库克; 张新

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing of cervical cancer incidence , the effects of Chinese medicinals in treating cervical cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy side reaction and postoperative complications were gradually attached importance to .Influencing Bax/Bcl-2 family, Caspase family , Fas/Fasl system and the expression of some related genes could induce cervical cancer Hela cells apoptosis .This article focuses on several kinds of Chinese medicinals , summarizes the faction of the mechanism of effective constituent of these Chinese medicinals in cervical cancer Hela cells apoptosis .For example , the effective constituent of curcuma zedoaria promotes Hela cell apoptosis by down-regulated expression of Bcl-2.The procedure of promoting He-la cell apoptosis of Trichosanthin has relationship with Caspase famlily .The purposes of researching Chinese medicine effective constituent influnes cervical cancer Hela cell apoptosis are providing the scientific basis for treating cervical cancer with Chinese medicine and ideas about filtering new medicines for the cancer .%目的:随着宫颈癌发病率的逐年上升,中药在治疗宫颈癌放化疗副反应及术后并发症中的作用逐渐被重视。大量研究发现诱导宫颈癌Hela细胞凋亡可以通过影响Bcl-2基因家族、Caspase蛋白酶家族、Fas/Fasl基因系统、某些相关基因的表达等方式来实现。文章从目前国内外研究比较热门的一些中药入手,综述这些中药的有效成分在宫颈癌Hela细胞凋亡中的作用。例如文中提到中药温莪术有效成分β-榄香烯是通过下调Bcl-2基因表达来促进Hela凋亡;栝楼根的有效活性成分天花粉蛋白促凋亡过程与Caspase家族有关;薏苡仁酯诱导Fas表达上调、Fasl表达下调来促进宫颈癌Hela细胞凋亡。研究中药有效成分影响宫颈癌Hela细胞凋亡机制的目的是为临床应用中药治疗宫颈癌提供科学依据和筛选抗宫颈癌新药提供思路。

  11. A new biocompatible nanocomposite as a promising constituent of sunscreens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Rehab M., E-mail: rehabamin@niles.edu.eg [Department of Laser Applications in Photochemistry, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University (Egypt); Elfeky, Souad A. [Department of Laser Applications in Photochemistry, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University (Egypt); University of Bath, Department of Chemistry, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Verwanger, Thomas; Krammer, Barbara [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2016-06-01

    Skin naturally uses antioxidants to protect itself from the damaging effects of sunlight. If this is not sufficient, other measures have to be taken. Like this, hydroxyapatite has the potential to be applied as an active constituent of sunscreens since calcium phosphate absorbs in the ultraviolet region (UV). The objective of the present work was to synthesize a hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposite (HAp/AA-NC) as a new biocompatible constituent of sunscreens and to test its efficiency with skin cell models. The synthesized HAp/AA-NC was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, absorption spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction analysis. The protective effect of the construct was tested with respect to viability and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of primary human dermal fibroblasts (SKIN) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). Both cell lines were irradiated with UV light, λ{sub max} = 254 nm with a fluence of 25 mJ cm{sup −2} to mimic the effect of UV radiation of sunlight on the skin. Results showed that HAp/AA-NC had a stimulating effect on the cell viability of both, HaCaT and SKIN cells, relative to the irradiated control. Intracellular ROS significantly decreased in UV irradiated cells when treated with HAp/AA-NC. We conclude that the synthesized HAp/AA-NC have been validated in vitro as a skin protector against the harmful effect of UV-induced ROS. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposites were synthesized and characterized. • The prepared composites had a stimulating effect on the skin cell viability. • Reactive oxygen species decreased in UV-irradiated nanocomposite treated cells. • Hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposites could be used in sunscreens.

  12. The Cytotoxic Constituents from Marine-derived Streptomyces 3320#

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The present work studies the chemical constituents from marine-derived streptomyces 3320# and their antitumor activities. The n-BuOH extract of the ferment broth of 3320# was chromatographed on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS columns and HPLC to separate the compounds with antitoumor activities. Their structures were identified using IR, UV, NMR, MS spectroscopic techniques and compared with published data. The antitumor activities of the isolates were assayed using SRB method and flow cytometry assay, accompanied with the morphological observation of the cells under light microscope against mammalian tsFT210 cells. Ten compounds, cyclo-(Ala-Leu) 1, cyclo-(Ala-Ile) 2, cyclo-(Ala-Val) 3, cyclo-(Phe- Pro) 4, cyclo-(Phe-Gly) 5, cyclo-(Leu-Pro) 6, 1-methyl-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid 7, N-(4-hydroxyphenethyl) acetamide 8, 4-methyoxy-1-(2-hydroxy) ethylbenzene 9 and uridine 10, were isolated from the ferment broth of streptomyces 3320#. Among them, compounds 6, 7, 8 and 10 showed potent cytotoxicity against the tsFT210 cell with the IC50 values of 3 . 6, 7 . 2, 5 . 2 and 1 . 6 mmol L - 1, respectively. Compounds 8, 10 also exhibited apoptosis inducing activity under 2 . 0 mmol L - 1. Compounds 6, 7, 8 and 10 are the principle bioactive constituents responsible for the antitumor activities of marine streptomyces 3320# . Compound 7 was isolated from this species for the first time.

  13. Stromal cells from human long-term marrow cultures, but not cultured marrow fibroblasts, phagocytose horse serum constituents: studies with a monoclonal antibody that reacts with a species-specific epitope common to multiple horse serum proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbord, P; Tippens, D; Wight, T S; Gown, A M; Singer, J W

    1987-01-01

    This report describes an IgG1 mouse monoclonal antibody derived after immunization of mice with washed stromal cells from human, long-term bone marrow cultures. The antigen recognized by the antibody (BMS-1) is a carbohydrate-containing prosthetic group that is common to and specific for multiple horse serum proteins. These proteins are avidly ingested by stromal cells and concentrated in endocytic vesicles. Cultured smooth muscle cells took up the horse proteins in a similar manner to marrow stromal cells while cultured marrow fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and hepatoma cells did not. These data indicate that marrow stromal cells specifically accumulate horse serum proteins which might partially explain the horse serum requirement for long-term marrow culture maintenance. The data also suggest further similarities between marrow stromal and smooth muscle cells and additional differences between marrow fibroblasts and marrow stromal cells.

  14. Inorganic constituents of some Turkish lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Taptik, Y.; Yavuz, R.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    1996-12-31

    In this study the mineral matter contents of two different Turkish lignite samples from Cayirhan and Tuncbilek regions were isolated by means of mild oxidation of organic matrix applying H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/HCOOH treatment. The isolated minerals were analyzed by XRD and FTIR techniques and constituents of the minerals were investigated qualitatively.

  15. Adsorption of Wine Constituents on Functionalized Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A

    2016-10-18

    The adsorption of macromolecules on solid surfaces is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology, biomaterials, biotechnological, and food processes. In the field of oenology adsorption of wine macromolecules such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and proteins is much less desirable on membrane materials because of fouling and reduced filtering performance. On the other hand, adsorption of these molecules on processing aids is very beneficial for achieving wine clarity and stability. In this article, the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of white, rosé, and red wine constituents was evaluated. Allylamine, acrylic acid, and ethanol were selected as precursors for plasma polymerization in order to generate coatings rich in amine, carboxyl, and hydroxyl chemical groups, respectively. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the ability of different surface chemical functionalities to adsorb wine constituents were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results demonstrated that the amine and carboxyl modified surfaces encourage adsorption of constituents from white wine. The hydroxyl modified surfaces have the ability to preferentially adsorb rosé wine constituents, whereas red wine adsorbed to the highest extent on acrylic acid surface.

  16. Adsorption of Wine Constituents on Functionalized Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mierczynska-Vasilev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of macromolecules on solid surfaces is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology, biomaterials, biotechnological, and food processes. In the field of oenology adsorption of wine macromolecules such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and proteins is much less desirable on membrane materials because of fouling and reduced filtering performance. On the other hand, adsorption of these molecules on processing aids is very beneficial for achieving wine clarity and stability. In this article, the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of white, rosé, and red wine constituents was evaluated. Allylamine, acrylic acid, and ethanol were selected as precursors for plasma polymerization in order to generate coatings rich in amine, carboxyl, and hydroxyl chemical groups, respectively. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and the ability of different surface chemical functionalities to adsorb wine constituents were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The results demonstrated that the amine and carboxyl modified surfaces encourage adsorption of constituents from white wine. The hydroxyl modified surfaces have the ability to preferentially adsorb rosé wine constituents, whereas red wine adsorbed to the highest extent on acrylic acid surface.

  17. Patch testing with constituents of Compositae mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    Background. The development of mixes containing Compositae plant extracts has improved the diagnosis of Compositae contact allergy, but none of them has fulfilled the criteria for an ideal European plant mix. Objective. To evaluate which constituents of two commercial Compositae mixes were most u...

  18. Mesons in the Constituent Quark Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; PING Jia-Lun

    2007-01-01

    The quark-antiquark (q(-q)) spectrum is studied by solving the Schrǒdinger equation in the framework of non-relativistic constituent quark model. An overall good fit to the experimental data of meson is obtained. The interactions between quark and antiquark consist of quadratic colour confinement-exchange, one-gluon-exchange, and Goldstone-boson-exchange potentials.

  19. Studies on Chemical Constituents From Artabotrys Hainanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guangying; SONG Xiao-Ping; HAN Chang-ri

    2004-01-01

    Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries are plants of the Annonaccac family artabotrys genus,which includes an estimated 100 types of plants distributed mainly in the tropical zone and the subtropics areas. Four types of the plants are discovered in our country, two of which, A.Hongkongensis Hance and A. hexapetalus (Linn. F.) Bhandari, in Guangdong Province, and the other two, A. Pilosus and A. Hainanensis R.E. Fries, in Hainan Province. The latter are widely distributed in Hainan Island with very rich reserves. They have long been used among the ordinary people as medicinal plants with antipyretic, antidotal, antiphlogistic and analgesic effects and are often used for malaria. Scholars from home and abroad have paid much attention to the plants of the Annonaccac family for their containing anti-tumor activities, and after early or late research of the chemical constituents of the root, stem (derm), leaf and fruit of many types of plants of Artabotrys genus, more than 40 compounds including alkaloid, flavone and terpenoid have been isolated and obtained. Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries are Hainan endemic plants and there has been no report on the research of their chemical constituents and biological activities so far. In order to find new constituents of pharmacologic activity, we have researched the chemical constituents of the leaf and stem.The crude drugs were collected from Hainan Jianfeng Mountain and were identified as Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries of the Annonaccac family artabotrys genus. Its sample specimen is now kept in Chemistry Department of Hainan Normal University.After isolation and identification of constituent, six compounds were isolated from the leaf of Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries and elucidated as β -sitosterol (Ⅰ), catechin (Ⅱ), mangiferin (Ⅲ),(Ⅳ), (Ⅴ), (Ⅵ). All the compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time. Compounds Ⅱ, Ⅲ,Ⅳ, Ⅴ and Ⅵ were obtained from the genus of Artabotrys for the first time.

  20. Pharmacological profile of extracts of Pelargonium sidoides and their constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Herbert; Kayser, Oliver; Radtke, Oliver A; Kiderlen, Albrecht F; Koch, Egon

    2003-01-01

    In areas of southern Africa, aqueous extracts from the roots of Pelargonium sidoides are employed to cure various disorders. Nowadays, a modern formulation (EPs 7630), elaborated from the traditional herbal medicine, is successfully used for the treatment of respiratory tract diseases. We previously observed that root extracts of P. sidoides and their representative constituents exhibit moderate antibacterial and significant immunomodulatory capabilities. The present study was performed to further assess the efficacy and mode of action for these pharmacological activities. The results indicate that P. sidoides extracts may well possess antimycobacterial activity as claimed in traditional uses. Furthermore, significant antibacterial properties against multi-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains as well as TNF-inducing potencies and prominent interferon-like activities in supernatants of sample-activated bone marrow-derived macrophages were observed using several functional assays. In addition, EPs 7630 stimulated the synthesis of IFN-beta in MG 63 cells as demonstrated by a specific enzyme immunoassay. For gallic acid, a characteristic constituent, evidence for the expression of iNOS and TNF-alpha transcripts in stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and, hence, activation at the transcriptional level was revealed by RT-PCR. The present results, when taken together with the recently reported pharmacological activities, provide for a rationale basis of the utilization of EPs 7630 in the treatment of respiratory tract infections.

  1. Thymus mastichina: chemical constituents and their anti-cancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, Joana; Máximo, Patrícia; Cabrita, Eurico; Lourenço, Ana; Oliva, Abel; Almeida, Joana; Filipe, Mariana; Cruz, Pedro; Barcia, Rita; Santos, Miguel; Cruz, Helder

    2012-11-01

    The cytotoxicity-guided study of the dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of Thymus mastichina L. using the HCT colon cancer cell line allowed the identification of nine compounds, sakuranetin (1), sterubin (2), oleanolic acid (3), ursolic acid (4), lutein (5), beta-sitosterol (6), rosmarinic acid (7), 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (8), and 6-hydroxyapigenin-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (9). All compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against the HCT colon cancer cell line. Compound 4 showed cytotoxicity with GI50 value of 6.8 microg/mL. A fraction composed of a mixture (1:1) of triterpenoid acids 3 and 4 displayed improved cytotoxicity with a GI50 of 2.8 microg/mL suggesting a synergistic behavior. This is the first report on the chemical constituents of Thymus mastichina L. based on structural assignments by spectroscopic analysis. The presence of these constituents identified by colon cancer cytotoxicity-guided activity indicates that extracts of T. mastichina L. may have a protective effect against colon cancers.

  2. Chemical Constituents from Roots of Flemingia philippinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Man-qin; DENG Dun; FENG Shi-xiu; HUANG Ri-ming; TIAN Shuai; QIU Sheng-xiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents from the roots of Flemingia philippinensis.Methods The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by combination of silica gel column,Sephadex LH-20,polyamide,and ODS column chromatography.The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by means of spectral data.Results Ten compounds were isolated from F.philippinensis and identified as isoderrone (1),dalparvin A (2),prunetin (3),7,3'-dihydroxy-5,4',5'-trimethoxyisoflavone (4),pratensein-7-O-β-D-glucoside (5),sissotrin (6),sophororicoside (7),formononetin (8),orobol (9),and biochanin A (10).Conclusion Compounds 1-6 are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  3. The volatile constituents of Salvia leucantha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Luis B; Visbal, Tomas; Morillo, Marielba; de Rojas, Yndra Cordero; Arzola, Juan Carmona; Usubillaga, Alfredo

    2010-06-01

    Salvia leucantha Cav. (Lamiaceae), native to Mexico, is found in Venezuela in parks and gardens. Hydrodistillation of the fresh leaves of this plant yielded 0.05% of essential oil. GC and GC/MS analyses permitted the identification of 30 compounds, which made up 95.9% of the oil. The most abundant constituents were bornyl acetate (24.1%), beta-gurjunene (14.8%), beta-caryophyllene (14.1%), dillapiol (11.0%) and bicyclogermacrene (8.9%).

  4. Neuron Protective Constituents from Rheum Nanum and Rheum Sublanceolatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Lan; LEI Fan; XING Dongming; WANG Wei; ZHENG Junhua

    2005-01-01

    The neuron protective activity of the chemical constituents from Rheum nanum and Rheum sublanceolatum in vitro was investigated using cultured embryonic mouse cortical cells exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation. The protective effect was quantitatively evaluated by measuring the lactate dehydrogenase release rate. Most of the compounds reduce the lactate dehydrogenase release rate, including emodin, chrysophanol-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 6-hydroxymusizin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, gnetin C, torachrysone-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and maesopsin, and all possess potent neuron protective activity. Chrysophanol and aloe-emodin exhibit neuron protection only at low concentrations. Emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside protects the neuron cells at high concentration. Aloe-emodin-8-O-β-D- glucopyranoside is inactive.

  5. Anthelmintic constituents from ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Lu, Chin-Mei; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Wang, Jiun-Jye; Lee, June-Der; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the anthelmintic activity of gingerenone A, [6]-dehydrogingerdione, [4]-shogaol, 5-hydroxy-[6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol, [6]-gingerol, [10]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol, hexahydrocurcumin, 3R,5S-[6]-gingerdiol and 3S,5S-[6]-gingerdiol, a constituent isolate from the roots of ginger, for the parasite Hymenolepis nana. The cestocidal activity or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement (oscillation/peristalsis) in H. nana of above constituents was reached from 24 to 72h in a time- and dose-dependent manner, respectively. The [10]-shogaol and [10]-gingero1 have maximum lethal efficacy and loss of spontaneous movement than the others at 24-72h. In addition, worms treated with 1 and 10μM [10]-gingero1, more than 30% had spontaneous movement of oscillation at 72h but [10]-shogaol at 72h only about 15-20% of oscillation. This showing that [10]-gingero1 had less loss of spontaneous movement efficacy than [10]-shogaol. After exposure to 200μM [10]-shogaol, 100% of H. nana had died at 12h rather than died at 24h for [10]-gingerol, showing that [10]-gingero1 had less lethal efficacy than [10]-shogaol. In addition, these constituents of ginger showed effects against peroxyl radical under cestocidal activity. In order to evaluate the cestocidal activity and cytokine production caused by ginger's extract R0 in the H. nana infected mice, we carried out in vivo examination about H. nana infected mice BALB/c mice were inoculated orally with 500 eggs. After post-inoculation, R0 (1g/kg/day) was administered orally for 10 days. The R0 exhibited cestocidal activity in vivo of significantly reduced worms number and cytokines production by in vitro Con A-stimulated spleen cells showed that INF-γ and IL-2 were significantly increases by R0. IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 were significantly decreases and Murine KC and IL-12 were not significantly changes by R0. Together, these findings first suggest that these constituents of ginger might be used as cestocidal

  6. ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF ISOLATED CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM MILIUSA SMITHIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonthicha Naphong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Miliusa plants belonging to the family Annonaceae are found in Thailand and have been used as Thai traditional medicines. There have been a few previously reports on the chemical constituents of plants in this genus, describing the presence of aporphine alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, styrylpyrones, bis-styryls and homogentisic acid derivatives. Miliusa smithiae, a new species for Thailand and world, has not been studied chemical composition. The present study described phytochemical study of the leaves and twigs of M. smithiae together with their cytotoxicity. The M. smithiae was selected and percolated with hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. The extracts were purified and elucidated chemical structures. The constituent of ethyl acetate extract of M. smithiae has been investigated. We isolated and identified two flavonoid derivatives, 5-hydroxy-3,7,4′-trimetoxyflavone (1 and 5,3′-dihydroxy-3,7,4′-trimetoxyflavone (2. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Studies on ethyl acetate extract of M. smithiae has now resulted the isolation and structural characterization of two flavonoids. Their anticancer activities were evaluated using SRB assays. In this method, compound 2 showed potential activity in cell lines.

  7. Constituent contacts can influence how legislators vote

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Does calling your legislator actually lead to results for those who are passionately for or against\\ud certain legislation? In new research, using a randomized field experiment, Daniel Bergan finds\\ud that it does. Those legislators who received at least one phone call from a constituent asking\\ud them to support a certain bill were 11-12 percent more likely to support the legislation, an effect\\ud independent of the legislators’ party, gender or the competitiveness of their district.

  8. Successes and failures of the constituent quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Our approach considers the model as a possible bridge between QCD and the experimental data and examines its predictions to see where these succeed and where they fail. We also attempt to improve the model by looking for additional simple assumptions which give better fits to the experimental data. But we avoid complicated models with too many ad hoc assumptions and too many free parameters; these can fit everything but teach us nothing. We define our constituent quark model by analogy with the constituent electron model of the atom and the constituent nucleon model of the nucleus. In the same way that an atom is assumed to consist only of constituent electrons and a central Coulomb field and a nucleus is assumed to consist only of constituent nucleons hadrons are assumed to consist only of their constituent valence quarks with no bag, no glue, no ocean, nor other constituents. Although these constituent models are oversimplified and neglect other constituents we push them as far as we can. Atomic physics has photons and vacuum polarization as well as constituent electrons, but the constituent model is adequate for calculating most features of the spectrum when finer details like the Lamb shift are neglected. 54 references.

  9. Potential antidepressant constituents of Nigella sativa seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab S Elkhayat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nigella sativa Linn. is well known seed in the Middle East, Asia, and the Far East as a natural remedy for many ailments and as a flavoring agent proclaimed medicinal usage dating back to the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. An authentic saying of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him about black seed is also quoted in Al-Bukhari. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the antidepressant effect and isolate the potential antidepressant constituents of the polar extract of N. sativa seeds. Materials and Methods: The antidepressant effect was evaluated through the immobility duration in tail suspension and forced swim tests (FSTs. Albino mice were orally treated with N. sativa polar extract and its RP-18 column chromatography fractions (50 and 100 mg/kg,. Results: The polar extract and two of its sub-fractions were significantly able to decrease the immobility time of mice when subjected to both tail suspension and FSTs, the effects are comparable to standard drug (Sertraline, 5 mg/kg. However, these treatments did not affect the number of crossings and rearing in the open field test. Phytochemical investigation of the two active fractions led to the isolation of quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside 1, quercetin-7-O-β-D-gluco- pyranoside 2, tauroside E 3, and sapindoside B as the potential antidepressant constituents.

  10. Decaying hadrons within constituent-quark models

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinhappel, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Within conventional constituent-quark models hadrons come out as stable bound states of the valence (anti)quarks. Thereby the resonance character of hadronic excitations is completely ignored. A more realistic description of hadron spectra can be achieved by including explicit mesonic degrees of freedom, which couple directly to the constituent quarks. We will present a coupled-channel formalism that describes such hybrid systems in a relativistically invariant way and allows for the decay of excited hadrons. The formalism is based on the point-form of relativistic quantum mechanics. If the confining forces between the (anti)quarks are described by instantaneous interactions it can be formally shown that the mass-eigenvalue problem for a system that consists of dynamical (anti)quarks and mesons reduces to a hadronic eigenvalue problem in which the eigenstates of the pure confinement problem (bare hadrons) are coupled via meson loops. The only point where the quark substructure enters are form factors at the m...

  11. ASSESSING UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PERFORMANCE WITH MULTIPLE CONSTITUENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Liang Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research performance of the university is critical to the national competitiveness. Previous research has established that research performance is based on scholarly publishing. Several studies suggested that journal ranking is the important research quality indicator. However, unilateral measurement for the research performance will seriously corrode the development of university research work. Assessing university research performance with multiple constituencies is a better to enhance the university research. Although substantial studies have been performed on the critical factors that affect knowledge exploration in the university, those in knowledge exploitation are still lacking. With the multiple constituencies, a fully understanding of research performance can be gained. In the research model, knowledge exploration represents the academic research and knowledge exploitation represents the university–industry collaboration. Data collected from 124 university data in online database. The study shows that knowledge exploration and exploitation both are significant positive predictors of university competitiveness. University resources play important roles to affect both knowledge exploration and exploitation in the university. The study also shows that higher knowledge exploration will enhance knowledge exploitation. Implications for theory and practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  12. Baryons in a chiral constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya

    1998-01-01

    In the low-energy regime light and strange baryons should be considered as systems of constituent quarks with confining interaction and a chiral interaction that is mediated by Goldstone bosons as well as by vector and scalar mesons. The flavor-spin structure and sign of the short-range part of the spin-spin force reduces the $SU(6)_{FS}$ symmetry down to $SU(3)_F \\times SU(2)_S$, induces hyperfine splittings and provides correct ordering of the lowest states with positive and negative parity. There is a cancellation of the tensor force from pseudoscalar- and vector-exchanges in baryons. The spin-orbit interactions from $\\rho$-like and $\\omega$-like exchanges also cancel each other in baryons while they produce a big spin-orbit force in NN system. A unified description of light and strange baryon spectra calculated in a semirelativistic framework is presented. It is demonstrated that the same short-range part of spin-spin interaction between the constituent quarks induces a strong short-range repulsion in $NN...

  13. Chemical constituents from Cornus officinalis and their biological activity 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Ying Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the chemical constituents from Cornus officinalis Sieb., Et Zucc, and their peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs agonist activity. Materials and Methods: The leaves of C. officinalis were extracted three times with 90% EtOH at room temperature. The ethanol extracts were combined and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield residue, which was isolated and purified by silica gel and reverse-phase C 18 column chromatography. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and their physiochemical characteristics. Cell-based luciferase reporter gene assays were used to evaluate PPARα/γ agonistic activities. Results: Five compounds were isolated and elucidated as 10-hydroxyhastatoside (1, β-dihydrocornin (2, isoquercitrin (3, loganin (4 and oleanolic acid (5. Conclusion: Compounds 1 and 2 were obtained from C. officinalis for the first time. Compound 3 exhibited moderate agonistic activities for PPARα, with EC 50 values of 29.5 μM.

  14. Bio-Functional Constituents from the Stems of Liriodendron tulipifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yi Chen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Four known compounds have been isolated from the stems of Liriodendron tulipifera, and the structures of these pure constituents were determined using spectroscopic analysis. Isolated compounds were screened for free radical scavenging ability, metal chelating power assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP. The anti-tyrosinase effects of L. tulipifera compounds were calculated the inhibition of hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-dopa according to an in vitro mushroom tyrosinase assay. The study also examined the bio-effects of the four compounds on the human melanoma A375.S2, and showed that liriodenine (1 and (--norglaucine (4 significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in the cell viability assay. Wound healing results indicated that liriodenine (1, (--glaucine (3 and (--norglaucine (4 exerted anti-migration potential. Interestingly, (--glaucine (3, neither liriodenine (1 nor (--norglaucine (4 showed promising anti-migration potential without inducing significant cytotoxicity. Furthermore, a dramatically increased level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS was detected from (--glaucine (3. The cell cycle assessment demonstrated a moderate G2/M accumulation by (--glaucine (3. The above results revealed the anti-cancer effects of L. tulipifera compounds, especially on the anti-migration ability indicating the promising chemopreventive agents to human skin melanoma cells.

  15. Not Just a Sum? Identifying Different Types of Interplay between Constituents in Combined Interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrijn Van Deun

    Full Text Available Experiments in which the effect of combined manipulations is compared with the effects of their pure constituents have received a great deal of attention. Examples include the study of combination therapies and the comparison of double and single knockout model organisms. Often the effect of the combined manipulation is not a mere addition of the effects of its constituents, with quite different forms of interplay between the constituents being possible. Yet, a well-formalized taxonomy of possible forms of interplay is lacking, let alone a statistical methodology to test for their presence in empirical data.Starting from a taxonomy of a broad range of forms of interplay between constituents of a combined manipulation, we propose a sound statistical hypothesis testing framework to test for the presence of each particular form of interplay. We illustrate the framework with analyses of public gene expression data on the combined treatment of dendritic cells with curdlan and GM-CSF and show that these lead to valuable insights into the mode of action of the constituent treatments and their combination.R code implementing the statistical testing procedure for microarray gene expression data is available as supplementary material. The data are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus with accession number GSE32986.

  16. Deicing chemicals as source of constituents of highway runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The dissolved major and trace constituents of deicing chemicals as a source of constituents in highway runoff must be quantified for interpretive studies of highway runoff and its effects on surface water and groundwater. Dissolved constituents of the deicing chemicals-sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and premix (a mixture of sodium and calcium chloride)-were determined by analysis of salt solutions created in the laboratory and are presented as mass ratios to chloride. Deicing chemical samples studied are about 98 and 97 percent pure sodium chloride and calcium chloride, respectively: however, each has a distinct major and trace ion constituent signature. The greatest impurity in sodium chloride road sail samples was sulfate, followed by calcium, potassium, bromide, vanadium, magnesium, fluoride, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. The greatest impurity in the calcium chloride road salt samples was sodium, followed by potassium, sulfate, bromide, silica, fluoride. strontium, magnesium, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. Major constituents of deicing chemicals in highway runoff may account for a substantial source of annual chemical loads. Comparison of estimated annual loads and first flush concentrations of deicing chemical constituents in highway runoff with those reported in the literature indicate that although deicing chemicals are not a primary source of trace constituents, they are not a trivial source, either. Therefore, deicing chemicals should be considered as a source of many major and trace constituents in highway and urban runoff.

  17. Constituent gluons and the static quark potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greensite, Jeff [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States); Szczepaniak, Adam P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We suggest that Hamiltonian matrix elements between physical states in QCD might be approximated, in Coulomb gauge, by "lattice-improved" tree diagrams; i.e. tree diagram contributions with dressed ghost, transverse gluon, and Coulomb propagators obtained from lattice simulations. Such matrix elements can be applied to a variational treatment of hadronic states which include constituent gluons. As an illustration and first application of this hybrid approach, we derive a variational estimate of the heavy quark potential for distances up to 2.5 fm. The Coulomb string tension in SU(3) gauge theory is about a factor of four times greater than the asymptotic string tension. In our variational approach, using for simplicity a single variational parameter, we can reduce this overshoot by nearly the factor required. The building blocks of our approach are Coulomb gauge propagators, and in this connection we present new lattice results for the ghost and transverse gluon propagators in position space.

  18. Multi-Constituent Simulation of Thrombus Deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wagner, William R; Antaki, James F

    2016-01-01

    Based on the transport model of Sorensen et al. (1999), an improved mathematical model describing the process of thrombus deposition and growth was developed. Blood is treated as a multi-constituent mixture comprised of a linear fluid phase and a thrombus phase. The transport and reactions of 10 chemical and biological species are modeled using a system of coupled convection-reaction-diffusion (CRD) equations. These represent three main processes: initiation, propagation and stabilization. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using the libraries of OpenFOAM were performed for two illustrative benchmark problems: mural thrombus growth in an injured blood vessel and thrombus deposition in a small (125 x 95 micros) crevice observed in vitro. For both problems, the simulated thrombus deposition agreed very well with experimental observations, both spatially and temporally. These promising results encourage further simulations to investigate clinical conditions and design factors that affect the risk of t...

  19. Mortar constituent of concrete under cyclic compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, A.; Darwin, D.

    1980-10-01

    The behavior of the mortar constituent of concrete under cyclic compression was studied and a simple analytic model was developed to represent its cyclic behavior. Experimental work consisted of monotonic and cyclic compressive loading of mortar. Two mixes were used, with proportions corresponding to concretes having water cement ratios of 0.5 and 0.6. Forty-four groups of specimens were tested at ages ranging from 5 to 70 days. complete monotonic and cyclic stress strain envelopes were obtained. A number of loading regimes were investigated, including cycles to a constant maximum strain. Major emphasis was placed on tests using relatively high stress cycles. Degradation was shown to be a continuous process and a function of both total strain and load history. No stability or fatigue limit was apparent.

  20. Chemical Constituents in Charred Sanguisorbae Radix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-li; ZHONG Ying; XIA Hong-min; ZHOU Qian; LV Jia

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents in the effective fractions of charred Sanguisorbae Radix.Methods The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography and their structures were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis.Results Five compounds were isolated and identified as 3 β-hydroxy-28-norurs-17,19,21-trien (1),3 β-hydroxy-28-norurs-12,17-dien (2),3 β,19α-dihydroxyurs-13 (18)-en-28-oic acid (3),3β-[(α-L-arabin-opyranosyl) oxy]-28-norurs-12,17-dien (4),and pomolic acid (5).Conclusion Compounds 1,3,and 4 are novel compounds belong to triterpenoids and triterpenoid saponins,named as sanguisorbigenins Z,Y1,and Y2,respectively.

  1. 滇产植物乌墨中胰岛素增敏活性成分%Effect of Chemical Constituents from Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae)on Glucose Uptake in Insulin-resistant L6 Cells*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李石飞; 黄年旭; 郝小江; 李玲; 李顺林

    2009-01-01

    Eight known compounds isolated from the roots of Syzygium cumini were evaluated for their ability to enhance the glucose consumption in insulin-resistant L6 muscle cells induced by high concentration-insulin and glucose. All of compounds significantly enhanced the glucose consumption of insulin-resistant cells in the presence and absence of insulin. The glucose consumption was increased 17.35% and 51.11% by compound 1 (friedelin) at a concentration of 10 μg ml~(-1) without insulin and by compound 8 (5, 7, 3', 4', 5'-pentahydroxyflavone) at a concentration of 0.1 μg ml~(-1) with insulin, respectively.%从乌墨(Syzygium cumini)根的甲醇提取物中分离鉴定8个已知化合物,并对其进行了经高糖、高胰岛素处理后胰岛素抵抗L6肌管细胞糖摄取活性的筛选.初步研究结果表明,其中7个化合物在有无胰岛素刺激下均能明显促进葡萄糖的利用.在无胰岛素刺激状态下,浓度为10 μg ml~(-1)时,无羁萜(1)的葡萄糖消耗量比抵抗细胞增加了17.35%;在有胰岛素刺激状态下,浓度为0.1 μg ml~(-1),5, 7, 3′, 4′, 5′-五羟基黄酮(8)葡萄糖消耗量比抵抗细胞增加了51.11%.

  2. Information focus, syntactic weight and postverbal constituent order in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Heidinger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Spanish, postverbal constituents – such as direct object, locative adjunct or depicitive – can be ordered in different ways (e.g. Juan bailó desnudo en su casa vs. Juan bailó en su casa desnudo. The present paper examines two possible factors for postverbal constituent order: information focus and syntactic weight. Based on data from a perception experiment it will be shown that information focus and syntactic weight indeed influence in postverbal constituent order in Spanish: both the focalization of a constituent and the increase of the weight of a constituent increase the frequency with which the respective constituent takes up the sentence final position. As concerns the strength of the two factors, our results suggest that information focus and syntactic weight influence in postverbal constituent order to a similar extent. As concerns the syntatic position of narrow information focus in Spanish, our results show that the sentence final position is the preferred position for narrowly focused constituents, but such constituents are not limited to the sentence final position.

  3. Constituent Model of Extremal non-BPS Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Gimon, Eric; Larsen, Finn; Simon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    We interpret extremal non-BPS black holes in four dimensions as threshold bound states of four 1/2-BPS constituents. We verify the no-force condition for each of the primitive constituents in the probe approximation. Our computations are for a seed solution with $\\bar{D0}-D4$ charges and equal $B$-fields, but symmetries extend the result to any U-dual frame. We make the constituent model for the $D0-D6$ system explicit, and also discuss a duality frame where the constituents are $D3$ branes a...

  4. Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phomasp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidayat Hussain; Siegfried Draeger; Barbara Schulz; Karsten Krohn; Ines Kock; Ahmed Al-Harrasi; Ahmed Al-Rawahi; Ghulam Abbas; Ivan R Green; Afzal Shah; Amin Badshah; Muhammad Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phomasp. and the tentative identification of their active constituents.Methods:The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using theAgarWellDiffusionMethod. Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and their structures were assigned using1H and13CNMR spectra,DEPT,2DCOSY,HMQC andHMBC experiments.Results:The ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp. showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and algicidal properties.One new dihydrofuran derivative, named phomafuranol(1), together with three known compounds, phomalacton(2),(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3) and emodin(4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp.Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton(2) displayed strong antibacterial, good antifungal and antialgal activities.Similarly(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (3) and emodin(4) showed good antifungal, antibacterial and algicidal properties.Conclusions:Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungusPhomasp. and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate thatPhomasp. and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Antioxidant Constituents of Cotoneaster melanocarpus Lodd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelheid H. Brantner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of Cotoneaster melanocarpus Lodd. and the identification of antioxidant active constituents of this plant. C. melanocarpus Lodd. is a shrub indigenous to Mongolia and used in Traditional Mongolian Medicine as a styptic. Before extraction, the plant material was separated into three parts: young sterile shoots, older stems and leaves. All these parts were extracted with water, methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and hexane, successively. The methanolic extract of the sterile shoots showed the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay (IC50 30.91 ± 2.97 µg/mL. This active extract was further analyzed with chromatographic methods. TLC fingerprinting and HPLC indicated the presence of the flavonol glycosides quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin, quercetin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercetin, ursolic acid as well as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid. The findings were substantiated with LC-MS. All identified compounds have antioxidant properties and therefore contribute to the radical scavenging activity of the whole plant.

  6. Multi-Constituent Simulation of Thrombus Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Jamiolkowski, Megan A.; Wagner, William R.; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a spatio-temporal mathematical model for simulating the formation and growth of a thrombus. Blood is treated as a multi-constituent mixture comprised of a linear fluid phase and a thrombus (solid) phase. The transport and reactions of 10 chemical and biological species are incorporated using a system of coupled convection-reaction-diffusion (CRD) equations to represent three processes in thrombus formation: initiation, propagation and stabilization. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using the libraries of OpenFOAM were performed for two illustrative benchmark problems: in vivo thrombus growth in an injured blood vessel and in vitro thrombus deposition in micro-channels (1.5 mm × 1.6 mm × 0.1 mm) with small crevices (125 μm × 75 μm and 125 μm × 137 μm). For both problems, the simulated thrombus deposition agreed very well with experimental observations, both spatially and temporally. Based on the success with these two benchmark problems, which have very different flow conditions and biological environments, we believe that the current model will provide useful insight into the genesis of thrombosis in blood-wetted devices, and provide a tool for the design of less thrombogenic devices. PMID:28218279

  7. Studies on the Chemical Constituents from Marine Bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Rong Tian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical constituents of marine bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana inhabiting Huang Island of China. Three aromatic compounds, p-methylsulfonylmethyl-phenol (1, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4 and methylparaben (5, nine alkaloids, 7-bromoquinolin-4(1H-one (2, 7-bromo-2,4(1H,3H-quinazolinedione (3, benzamide (6, phenylacetamide (7, 4(3H-quinazolinone (8, thymine (9, uracil (10, hypoxanthine (11 and tryptophan (12, together with two glycerol derivatives, glycerol (13 and monoheneicosanoin (14, were isolated for the first time from this marine bryozoan. Among the isolates, compounds 1 and 2 were new natural products, and their spectral traits were reported for the first time. The structures of the two compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including HR-ESI-MS, EI-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. The isolated compounds 1–3 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against HL-60 human myeloid leukemia cell line. The results showed that bromated alkaloid (3 appeared strong cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells with IC 50 value of 11.87 µg/mL, while compounds 1 and 2 were inactivity.

  8. Light baryons in a constituent quark model with chiral dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya; Plessas, W

    1996-01-01

    It is shown from rigorous three-body Faddeev calculations that the masses of all 14 lowest states in the N and \\Delta spectra can be described within a constituent quark model with a Goldstone-boson-exch ange interaction plus linear confinement between the constituent quarks.

  9. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION OF VOTERS PER CONSTITUENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Marošević

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two different approaches on the basis how to generate constituencies. The first one is based on cluster analysis by means of which approach can get compact constituencies having an approximately equal number of voters. An optimal number of constituencies can be obtained by using this method. The second approach is based on partitioning the country into several areas with respect to territorial integrity of bigger administrative units. The units obtained in this way will represent constituencies which do not necessarily have to have an approximately equal number of voters. Each constituency is associated with a number of representatives that is proportional to its number of voters, so the problem is reduced to the integer approximation problem. Finally, these two approaches are combined and applied on the Republic of Croatia.

  10. Antiinflammatory, Antioxidant, and Immunomodulatory Effects of Crocus sativus L. and its Main Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2016-07-01

    Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus), commonly known as saffron, is used as a food additive, preservative, and medicinal herb. Traditionally, it has been used as an alternative treatment for different diseases. C. sativus' medicinal effects are related to its major constituents like crocins, crocetin, and safranal. According to the literature, C. sativus and its constituents could be considered as an effective treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, coronary artery diseases, asthma, bronchitis, colds, fever, diabetes, and so on. Recently, numerous studies have reported such medicinal properties and found that the underlying mechanisms of action may be mediated by antioxidant, inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. C. sativus enhances the antioxidant capacity and acts as a free radical scavenger. As an antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory agent, it modulates inflammatory mediators, humoral immunity, and cell-mediated immunity responses. This review highlights in vitro and animal findings regarding antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of C. sativus and its constituents. Present review found that the C. sativus and its main constituents such as safranal, crocins, and crocetin could be effective against various diseases because of their antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and immunomodulatory effects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory and Neuroprotective Effects of Constituents Isolated from Rhodiola rosea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonju Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the biological activity of Rhodiola rosea, the protein expression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines was measured after the activation of murine microglial BV2 cells by LPS under the exposure of constituents of Rhodiola rosea: crude extract, rosin, rosarin, and salidroside (each 1–50 μg/mL. The LPS-induced expression of iNOS and cytokines in BV2 cells was suppressed by the constituents of Rhodiola rosea in a concentration-dependent manner. Also the expression of the proinflammatory factors iNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the kidney and prefrontal cortex of brain in mice was suppressed by the oral administration of Rhodiola rosea crude extract (500 mg/kg. To determine the neuroprotective effect of constituents of Rhodiola rosea, neuronal cells were activated by L-glutamate, and neurotoxicity was analyzed. The L-glutamate-induced neurotoxicity was suppressed by the treatment with rosin but not by rosarin. The level of phosphorylated MAPK, pJNK, and pp38 was increased by L-glutamate treatment but decreased by the treatment with rosin and salidroside. These results indicate that Rhodiola rosea may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of inflammation and neurodegenerative disease.

  12. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Testing for Toxic Constituents of Comfrey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, John J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the possibilities of toxins present in medicinal herbs. Describes an experiment in which toxic constituents can be selectively detected by thin-layer chromatography and NMR spectroscopy. (TW)

  13. Tabanone a new phytotoxic constituent of cogongrass (Imperta culindrica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.] is a troublesome invasive weedy species with reported allelopathic properties. The phytotoxicity of different constituents isolated from roots and aerial parts of this species was evaluated on Lactuca sativa and Agrostis stolonifera. No significant phytot...

  14. Distributions and correlations of constituent quarks in jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑞典; 蔡勖; 钱婉燕; 杨纯斌

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the quark recombination model, we study the momentum distributions and correlations of constituent quarks in jets by analyzing the final state hadrons generated by PYTHIA for the hard parton fragmentation processes in vacuum. Parameterizat

  15. Chemical Constituents from the Stems of Morinda citrifolia Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Sattar, Fouzia A; Begum, Sabira; Gulzar, Tahsin; Ahmad, Fayaz

    2007-07-01

    Studies on the chemical constituents of the stems of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. have led to the isolation of two new compounds, morindicone (9-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-methyl-3,10-anthracenedione, 1) and morinthone (4-methoxy-3-heptadecylxanthone, 2), as well as two known constituents, 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (3) and 2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis including 2D NMR techniques.

  16. Studies of Chemical Constituents and Their Antioxidant Activities From Astragalus mongholicus Bunge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DE-HONG YU; YONG-MING BAO; CHAO-LIANG WEI; LI-JIA AN

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antioxidant activities of different chemical constituents from Astragalus mongholicus Bunge and their protection against xanthine (XA)/xanthine oxidase (XO)-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. Methods The compounds of Astragalus mongholicus Bunge were isolated by chromatography and the structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data interpretation. Their antioxidant activities were detected by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities in a cell-free system. Meanwhile, the effects against XA/XO-induced toxicity were assessed using MTT assay in PC12 cells. Results Ten principal constituents were isolated and identified as formononetin (I), ononin (II), calycosin (III), calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (IV), 9,10-dimethoxypterocarpan-3-O-β-D-glucoside (V), adenosine (VI), pinitol (VII), daucosterol (VIII), β-sitoster (IX) and saccharose (X) from Astragalus mongholicus Bunge. The compounds I, III, and IV scavenged DPPH free radicals in vitro. Formononetin and calycosin were found to inhibit XA/XO-induced cell injury significantly, with an estimated EC50 of 50 ng/mL. Conclusion Compound Ⅱ, Ⅵ, and Ⅶ are first reported in this plant. Calycosin exhibits the most potent antioxidant activity both in the cell-free system and in the cell system.

  17. Cytotoxic constituents of the bark of Plumeria rubra collected in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardono, L B; Tsauri, S; Padmawinata, K; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D

    1990-01-01

    By bioactivity-directed fractionation, six cytotoxic constituents have been characterized from the bark of Plumeria rubra collected in Indonesia. Three iridoids, fulvoplumierin [1], allamcin [2], and allamandin [3], as well as 2,5-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone [4], were found to be active constituents of the P. rubra petroleum-ether- and CHCl3-soluble extracts. Cytotoxic compounds isolated from the H2O-soluble extract of the bark were the iridoid plumericin [5], and the lignan liriodendrin [6]. Each of these substances was found to demonstrate general cytotoxic activity when evaluated with a panel of cell lines composed of murine lymphocytic leukemia (P-388) and a number of human cancer cell-types (breast, colon, fibrosarcoma, lung, melanoma, KB). Five additional iridoids, 15-demethylplumieride [7], plumieride [8], alpha-allamcidin [9], beta-allamcidin [10], and 13-O-trans-p-coumaroylplumieride [11], were obtained as inactive constituents. Compound 7 was found to be a novel natural product, and its structure was determined by spectroscopic methods and by conversion to plumieride [8]. The configuration of the C-4 stereocenter was unambiguously assigned for compounds 9 and 10, and certain nmr reassignments have been provided for compound 1.

  18. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccimiglio, John; Alipour, Misagh; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Gottardo, Christine; Suntres, Zacharias

    2016-01-01

    Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s) or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol.

  19. [Effect and mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine and their active constituents in postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Piwen; Niu, Jianzhao; David, Yue-Wei Lee; Wang, Jifeng; Sun, Yanling; Li, Yadong

    2012-06-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is one of the commonest systemic bone metabolism diseases among menopausal women, mainly caused by lowering internal estrogen. Although Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) is an effective method in clinical practice for years, it shows side-effect in increasing gynecological carcinoma. It has already been proved by clinical tests that multiple traditional Chinese medicine formulas and their monomer ingredients and phytoestrogen-like active constituents contained in traditional Chinese medicines are effective on treating osteoporosis with relatively less side-effects comparing with HRT. They show protective and therapeutic effects by acting on estrogen receptors of targeted tissues and targeted cells and then affecting expressions of bone metabolism-related regulatory proteins and factors in downstream signal conduct paths. Recent studies on estrogen related receptor (ERR) provide new possibilities and pathways for mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine and their active constituents in osteoporosis.

  20. Protective effects of Nitraria retusa extract and its constituent isorhamnetin against amyloid β-induced cytotoxicity and amyloid β aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Akihisa; Usui, Takeo; Zar Kalai, Feten; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko; Nagumo, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Nitraria retusa is a halophyte species that is distributed in North Africa and used as a traditional medicinal plant. In this study, N. retusa ethanol extract and its constituent isorhamnetin (IRA) protected against amyloid β (Aβ)-induced cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. An in vitro Aβ aggregation assay suggested that IRA destabilizes Aβ fibrils.

  1. Cytotoxic withanolide constituents of Physalis longifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaping; Samadi, Abbas K; Gallagher, Robert J; Araya, Juan J; Tong, Xiaoqin; Day, Victor W; Cohen, Mark S; Kindscher, Kelly; Gollapudi, Rao; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2011-12-27

    Fourteen new withanolides, 1-14, named withalongolides A-N, respectively, were isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis longifolia together with eight known compounds (15-22). The structures of compounds 1-14 were elucidated through spectroscopic techniques and chemical methods. In addition, the structures of withanolides 1, 2, 3, and 6 were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Using a MTS viability assay, eight withanolides (1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 15, 16, and 19) and four acetylated derivatives (1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b) showed potent cytotoxicity against human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (JMAR and MDA-1986), melanoma (B16F10 and SKMEL-28), and normal fetal fibroblast (MRC-5) cells with IC₅₀ values in the range between 0.067 and 9.3 μM.

  2. Combined experimental and DFT-TDDFT study of photo-active constituents of Canarium odontophyllum for DSSC application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, Piyasiri; Kooh, Muhammad Raziq Rahimi; Kumara, N. T. R. N.; Lim, Andery; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; Voo, Nyuk Yoong; Lim, Chee Ming

    2013-10-01

    The active constituents of Canarium odontophyllum (COP) were investigated experimentally and theoretically for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. Three main flavonoid pigments (cyanidin, pelargonidin and maritimein) were detected in COP showing photo-energy conversion efficiencies of 1.43%, 0.87% and 0.60%, respectively. The molecular geometries, electronic structures, optical absorption spectra and proton affinity of these molecules were investigated with DFT/TDDFT. All three molecules displayed π→π* transition dominant in HOMO→LUMO transition. The anchoring groups onto TiO2 surface were deduced from combined experimental and calculated data. All the constituents of COP are potential sensitizers for DSSC.

  3. Constituents of Corynaea crassa "Peruvian Viagra"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo R. Malca Garcia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A phytochemical investigation of methanol and n-hexane extracts of tuber/roots of Corynaea crassa Hook. f., Balanophoraceae, led to the isolation and characterization of β-sitosterol, lupenone, β-amyrone, lupeol, and β-amyrine. Unusual complex 1:1 mixtures of lupenone/β-amyrone and lupeol/β-amyrine obtained from the extracts were identified by NMR and HR-MS experiments. The structure of the 1:1 lupenone/β-amyrone mixture was confirmed by X-ray analysis. These triterpene ketone derivatives, only distinguished either by 5- or 6-membered E ring, co-crystallize in one common unit cell in the solid state.

  4. Volatile constituents of Pinus roxburghii from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Is one of 3 species of pine found in Nepal, the oil of which is traditionally used to treat cuts, wounds, boils, and blisters. Objective: To obtain, analyze, and examine the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils of P. roxburghii. Materials and Methods: Three plant parts (cone, needle, and bark of Pinus roxburghii were collected in Biratnagar, Nepal. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS. The needle and cone essential oils were screened for anti-microbial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger; brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality; and in-vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. Results: GC-MS analysis for the cone oil revealed 81 compounds with 78 components being identified (95.5% of the oil while 98.3% of needle oil was identified to contain 68 components and 98.6% of the bark oil (38 components was identified. The 3 essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes, particularly (E-caryophyllene (26.8%-34.5% and α-humulene (5.0%-7.3% as well as monoterpene alcohols terpinen-4-ol (4.1%-30.1% and α-terpineol(2.8%-5.0%. The monoterpene δ-3-carene was present only in needle and cone essential oils (2.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Bio-activity assays of the cone essential oil of P. roxburghii showed remarkable cytotoxic activity (100% killing of MCF-7 cells at 100 μg/mL along with notable brine shrimp lethality (LC50 =11.8 μg/mL. The cone essential oil did not show anti-bacterial activity, but it did exhibit anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC=39 μg/mL. Conclusion: The bioactivity of P. roxburghii essential oil is consistent with its traditional medicinal use.

  5. Use of environmental tobacco smoke constituents as markers for exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaKind, J.S. [LaKind Associates (United States); Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Naiman, D.Q. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Ginevan, M.E. [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States); Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G. [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, the authors discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 1 1/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. The authors considered the relation between nicotine and saliva cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level.

  6. Phytochemical analysis and antileukemic activity of polyphenolic constituents of Toona sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumu, Akinori; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Efdi, Mai; Adfa, Morina; Hayashi, Masahiro; Tanaka, Kaori; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2014-09-01

    Toona sinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine belonging to the Meliaceae family. The aim of this study was to identify the potential compounds responsible for anticancer activity of T. sinensis. The EtOAc extracts of leaves and woods of T. sinensis inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Our phytochemical research of these extracts led to the isolation of various polyphenolic constituents. The chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses. Among isolates, gallic acid and loropetalin D showed inhibition of cell proliferation and possible induction of apoptosis in these cells. Overall, our results revealed the importance of T. sinensis as a chemopreventive medicinal plant. In addition, an analysis of structure-activity relationship indicated that the number of galloyl groups affects their antileukemic potency.

  7. Methods of using adsorption media for separating or removing constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Troy J.; Herbst, R. Scott; Mann, Nicholas R.; Todd, Terry A.

    2011-10-25

    Methods of using an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises contacting an adsorption medium with a feed stream comprising at least one constituent and removing the at least one constituent from the feed stream. The adsorption medium comprises a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) matrix and at least one metal hydroxide homogenously dispersed therein. The adsorption medium may comprise from approximately 15 wt % to approximately 90 wt % of the PAN and from approximately 10 wt % to approximately 85 wt % of the at least one metal hydroxide. The at least one metal hydroxide may be selected from the group consisting of ferric hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, lanthanum hydroxide, cerium hydroxide, titanium hydroxide, copper hydroxide, antimony hydroxide, and molybdenum hydroxide.

  8. Effective Q-Q Interactions in Constituent Quark Models

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya; Plessas, W; Varga, K; Wagenbrun, R F

    1998-01-01

    We study the performance of some recent potential models suggested as effective interactions between constituent quarks. In particular, we address constituent quark models for baryons with hybrid Q-Q interactions stemming from one-gluon plus meson exchanges. Upon recalculating two of such models we find them to fail in describing the N and \\Delta spectra. Our calculations are based on accurate solutions of the three-quark systems in both a variational Schrödinger and a rigorous Faddeev approach. It is argued that hybrid {Q-Q} interactions encounter difficulties in describing baryon spectra due to the specific contributions from one-gluon and pion exchanges together. In contrast, a chiral constituent quark model with a Q-Q interaction solely derived from Goldstone-boson exchange is capable of providing a unified description of both the N and \\Delta spectra in good agreement with phenomenology.

  9. New phorbol ester constituents from croton oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Eighteen phorbol and 4-deoxy-4..cap alpha..-phorbol mono-and diesters have been isolated from croton oil, the seed oil of Croton tiglium L., using a rapid and efficient purification procedure consisting of initial solvent partition followed by droplet counter-current chromatography, reversed-phase chromatography, and preparative thin-layer chromatography. Their structures were determined using physical and spectral characteristics and by hydrolysis and/or synthetic experiments. In this manner, six known long-chain phorbol diesters were isolated, comprising 12-O-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate, 12-O-dodecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, 12-O-hexadecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, 12-O-..cap alpha..-methylbutyrylphorbol-13-decanoate, and 12-O-acetylphorbol-13-decanoate. In addition, five new short-chain phorbol diesters were isolated, namely, 12-O-tigylphorbol-13-isobutyrate, 12-O-..cap alpha..-methylbutyrylphorbol-13-isobutyrate, 12-O-tiglylphorbol-13-..cap alpha..-methylbutyrate, 12-O-tiglylphorbol-13-acetate, and 12-O-..cap alpha..-methylbutyrylphorbol-13-acetate. A sixth diester obtained, phorbol-12,13-diacetate, has not been isolated previously from any natural source. A complete /sup 1/H nuclear magnetic spectroscopic assignment of phorbol-12,13,20-triacetate was made using two-dimensional /sup 1/H-/sup 1/H shift correlation, nuclear Overhauser, and /sup 1/H-/sup 13/C shift correlation spectroscopies. Evaluation of twenty four croton oil diterpene isolates and derivatives in the in vitro P-388 lymphocytic leukemia and KB nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell bioassay systems revealed 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate to be the most cytotoxic.

  10. Chemical constituents from the leaves ofCerbera manghas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiao-po; Pei Yue-hu; Liu Ming-sheng; Kang Sheng-li; Zhang Jun-qing

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study the chemical constituents in leaves ofCebera manghas.Methods: Chemical constituents were isolated by using various column chromatography and the structures were elucidated on basis of physicochemical constants and spectral data analysis.Results: Nine compounds were obtained including p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (1), benzamide (2), n-hexadecane acid monoglyceride(3), loliolide(4), β-sitosterol(5), cerberin(6), neriifolin(7), cerleaside A(8), daucosterol (9).Conclusions: Compounds 1-4 are obtained from this genus for the first time.

  11. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  12. Nigella sativa and its active constituent thymoquinone in oral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAttas, Safia A.; Zahran, Fat’heya M.; Turkistany, Shereen A.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we summarized published reports that investigated the role of Nigella sativa (NS) and its active constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) in oral health and disease management. The literature studies were preliminary and scanty, but the results revealed that black seed plants have a potential therapeutic effect for oral and dental diseases. Such results are encouraging for the incorporation of these plants in dental therapeutics and hygiene products. However, further detailed preclinical and clinical studies at the cellular and molecular levels are required to investigate the mechanisms of action of NS and its constituents, particularly TQ. PMID:26905343

  13. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-orbit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Phillip M.; Wiedemann, Rachel; Matty, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. A number of limited-life components require periodic change-out, including the ORU 02 analyzer and the ORU 08 Verification Gas Assembly. The most recent ORU 02 and ORU 08 assemblies are operating nominally. For ORU 02, the ion source filaments and ion pump lifetime continue to be key determinants of MCA performance. Additionally, testing is underway to evaluate the capacity of the MCA to analyze ammonia. Finally, plans are being made to bring the second MCA on ISS to an operational configuration.

  14. Modeling of constituent redistribution in U Pu Zr metallic fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Hayes, S. L.; Hofman, G. L.; Yacout, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    A computer model was developed to analyze constituent redistribution in U-Pu-Zr metallic nuclear fuels. Diffusion and thermochemical properties were parametrically determined to fit the postirradiation data from a fuel test performed in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). The computer model was used to estimate redistribution profiles of fuels proposed for the conceptual designs of small modular fast reactors. The model results showed that the level of redistribution of the fuel constituents of the designs was similar to the measured data from EBR-II.

  15. Flux of selected body fluid constituents and benzylpenicillin in polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahm, J; Lessel, R; Ditlev, S

    2012-01-01

    physiological and non-physiological constituents very efficiently with the surrounding medium. The efflux (J, mole/(cm(2) ¿×¿s), 25¿°C, pH 7.2) of water (4.4¿×¿10(-5) ), chloride (2.4¿×¿10(-7) ), urea (1.0¿×¿10(-9) ), and glucose (1.1¿×¿10(-9) ) was 3-40x greater than in human red blood cells. PAAG was also...

  16. Constituent Aspects of Workplace Guidance in Secondary VET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Robert; Klarus, Ruud; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present an integrated model of workplace guidance to enhance awareness of what constitutes good guidance, to improve workplace guidance practices in vocational education and training. Design/methodology/approach: To identify constituent aspects of workplace guidance, a systematic search of Web of Science was conducted,…

  17. Evidence for the VP Constituent from Child Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-mee Yu; Hong, Ki-Sun

    An examination of children's sentence structure in Korean argues for a verb phrase (VP) constituent in child grammar, but suggests that this does not necessarily support its existence in adult Korean grammar. Korean children, it is noted, generally restrict their sentences to one word order, subject-object-verb, despite the existence of another…

  18. Antiparasitic, Nematicidal and Antifouling Constituents from Juniperus Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Juniperus procera berries yielded antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents, including a wide range of known abietane, pimarane and labdane diterpenes. Among these, abieta-7,13-diene (1) demonstrated in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium f...

  19. Volatile Constituents of Three Invasive Weeds of Himalayan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra C. Padalia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of three most common aromatic exotic weeds viz. Lantana camara L., Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng and Ageratum conyzoides L. of the Uttarakhand, India were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil of Lantana camara L. was dominated by sesquiterpenoids (70.8% represented by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (68.7% with germacrene D (27.9%, germacrene B (16.3%, b-caryophyllene (9.6%, b-selinene (6.2%, α-humulene (5.8% as major constituents. Other constituents in significant amount were sabinene (5.6% and 1,8-cineole (4.8%. Amorphenes viz. amorph-4-en-7-ol (9.6%, 3-acetoxyamorpha-4,7(11-dien-8-one (7.8% and amorph-4,7(11-dien-8-one (5.7% were identified as the marker constituents of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng along with p-cymene (16.6%, bornyl acetate (15.6% and camphene (8.9%. On the contrary, the essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. was characterized by the presence of high percentages of ageratochromene (precocene II, 42.5%, β-caryophyllene (20.7%, demethoxyageratochromene (precocene I, 16.7%, a-humulene (6.6% and p-cymene (3.3%.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 192 - Listed Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Listed Constituents I Appendix I to Part 192 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS Pt. 192,...

  1. Further constituents from the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warashina, Tsutomu; Nagatani, Yoshimi; Noro, Tadataka

    2005-03-01

    Further study on the constituents from the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC) Standley afforded twelve compounds, consisting of four iridoid glycosides, one phenylethanoid glycoside, five phenolic glycosides, and one lignan glycoside, along with seven known compounds. The structures of these compounds were determined based on the interpretation of their NMR and MS measurements and by chemical evidence.

  2. Distributions and correlations of constituent quarks in jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Rui-Dian; CAI Xu; QIAN Wan-Yan; YANG Chun-Bin

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the quark recombination model, we study the momentum distributions and cor- relations of constituent quarks in jets by analyzing the final state hadrons generated by PYTHIA for the hard parton fragmentation processes in vacuum. Parameterizations for the distributions are tabulated.

  3. A simple DOP model for constituency parsing of Italian sentences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sangati

    2009-01-01

    We present a simplified Data-Oriented Parsing (DOP) formalism for learning the constituency structure of Italian sentences. In our approach we try to simplify the original DOP methodology by constraining the number and type of fragments we extract from the training corpus. We provide some examples o

  4. Towards Verification of Constituent Systems through Automated Proof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couto, Luis Diogo Monteiro Duarte; Foster, Simon; Payne, R

    2014-01-01

    to specify contractual obligations on the constituent systems of a SoS. To support verification of these obligations we have developed a proof obligation generator and theorem prover plugin for Symphony. The latter uses the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover to automatically discharge the proof obligations arising...

  5. Self-collimation in photonic crystals with anisotropic constituents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. W. Haus; M. Siraj; P. Prasad; P. Markowicz

    2007-01-01

    @@ In a photonic crystal composed of anisotropic constituents we quantify the range of input angles and the degree of collimation of the beam inside the crystal. The optical properties of a photobleached 4-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST) crystal are used in our model to demonstrate the efficacy of the self-collimation features.

  6. LC-MS characterization of constituents of mesquite flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using an LC-MS method in conjunction with two complementary types of chromatographic retention modes—namely reversed phase and aqueous normal phase (ANP)—various compounds present in mesquite flour extracts were identified. Because of the diverse types of chemical constituents found in such natural ...

  7. Micromechanics-Based Progressive Failure Analysis of Composite Laminates Using Different Constituent Failure Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Albert M.; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Predicting failure in a composite can be done with ply level mechanisms and/or micro level mechanisms. This paper uses the Generalized Method of Cells and High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells micromechanics theories, coupled with classical lamination theory, as implemented within NASA's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells. The code is able to implement different failure theories on the level of both the fiber and the matrix constituents within a laminate. A comparison is made among maximum stress, maximum strain, Tsai-Hill, and Tsai-Wu failure theories. To verify the failure theories the Worldwide Failure Exercise (WWFE) experiments have been used. The WWFE is a comprehensive study that covers a wide range of polymer matrix composite laminates. The numerical results indicate good correlation with the experimental results for most of the composite layups, but also point to the need for more accurate resin damage progression models.

  8. Hydrophobic constituents and their potential anticancer activities from Devil’s Club Oplopanax horridus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi; Du, Guang-Jian; Qi, Lian-Wen; Williams, Stainley; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Devil’s Club Oplopanax horridus (Sm.) Miq. is a widely used folk medicine in the Pacific Northwest such as Alaska and British Columbia for treating a variety of ailments including arthritis, cold, fever, infections, diabetes and cancer. Aim of the study To investigate hydrophobic constituents and their potential anticancer activity from Devil’s Club O. horridus. Materials and methods The root bark of O. horridus (Sm.) Miq was isolated by chromatographic techniques. Structures of isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods and comparison with published data. The anti-proliferation of isolated hydrophobic constituents in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, human colon cancer SW-480 and HCT-116 cells were tested. The potential mechanism of anti-proliferation was also investigated using cell cycle and apoptosis assays. Results and discussion Six compounds were isolated and structurally identified as 9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,11,16-triol, 1-acetate (1), oplopandiol acetate (2), falcarindiol (3), oplopandiol (4), trans-nerolidol (5) and t-cadinol (6). These compounds showed potential anticancer activities on human breast cancer and colon cancer cells, of which compound 3 possesses the strongest activity. Further cell cycle and apoptosis test by flow cytometry showed the polyacetylenes 1–4 induced HCT-116 cell arresting in G2/M phase and inhibited proliferation by the induction of apoptosis at both earlier and later stage. Conclusion These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of O. horridus as well as some of the isolated compounds in the treatment of cancer. PMID:20723598

  9. Extract of lotus leaf ( Nelumbo nucifera ) and its active constituent catechin with insulin secretagogue activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun Fa; Chen, Ya Wen; Yang, Ching Yao; Lin, Hui Yi; Way, Tzong Der; Chiang, Wenchang; Liu, Shing Hwa

    2011-02-23

    The effect of lotus leaf ( Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) on diabetes is unclear. We hypothesized that lotus leaf can regulate insulin secretion and blood glucose levels. The in vitro and in vivo effects of lotus leaf methanolic extract (NNE) on insulin secretion and hyperglycemia were investigated. NNE increased insulin secretion from β cells (HIT-T15) and human islets. NNE enhanced the intracellular calcium levels in β cells. NNE could also enhance phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK)1/2 and protein kinase C (PKC), which could be reversed by a PKC inhibitor. The in vivo studies showed that NNE possesses the ability to regulate blood glucose levels in fasted normal mice and high-fat-diet-induced diabetic mice. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo effects of the active constituents of NNE, quercetin, and catechin, on glucose-induced insulin secretion and blood glucose regulation were evaluated. Quercetin did not affect insulin secretion, but catechin significantly and dose-dependently enhanced insulin secretion. Orally administered catechin significantly reversed the glucose intolerance in high-fat-diet-induced diabetic mice. These findings suggest that NNE and its active constituent catechin are useful in the control of hyperglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus through their action as insulin secretagogues.

  10. Identification of the chemical constituents in aqueous extract of Zhi-Qiao and evaluation of its antidepressant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhou, Chao; Jia, Hongmei; Ma, Zhuo; Zou, Zhongmei

    2015-04-16

    The immature fruit of Citrus aurantium L. (Zhi-Qiao, ZQ) has been used as a traditional medicine in China. Our previous study has shown that ZQ decoction may contribute to the antidepressant-like action of Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San. However, there are no reports on the chemical constituents of ZQ aqueous extract or its anti-depression effects. Firstly, this research reported the on-line identification of the chemical constituents in the aqueous extract of ZQ by coupling ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). A total of 31 chemical constituents were identified in ZQ aqueous extract, including one tannic acid, five flavones, 13 flavanones, one limonoid, three coumarins, three cyclic peptides, and five polymethoxylated flavonoids. The antidepressant effect of ZQ aqueous extract was evaluated in vivo and the results indicated that the mice immobility time during the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test were significantly reduced with ZQ treatment. MTT assays showed both ZQ aqueous extract and its major constituents (naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, and nobiletin) had neuroprotective effect on corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. The in vivo and in vitro results suggest that ZQ has an antidepressant effect.

  11. Identification of the Chemical Constituents in Aqueous Extract of Zhi-Qiao and Evaluation of Its Antidepressant Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The immature fruit of Citrus aurantium L. (Zhi-Qiao, ZQ has been used as a traditional medicine in China. Our previous study has shown that ZQ decoction may contribute to the antidepressant-like action of Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San. However, there are no reports on the chemical constituents of ZQ aqueous extract or its anti-depression effects. Firstly, this research reported the on-line identification of the chemical constituents in the aqueous extract of ZQ by coupling ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. A total of 31 chemical constituents were identified in ZQ aqueous extract, including one tannic acid, five flavones, 13 flavanones, one limonoid, three coumarins, three cyclic peptides, and five polymethoxylated flavonoids. The antidepressant effect of ZQ aqueous extract was evaluated in vivo and the results indicated that the mice immobility time during the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test were significantly reduced with ZQ treatment. MTT assays showed both ZQ aqueous extract and its major constituents (naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, and nobiletin had neuroprotective effect on corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. The in vivo and in vitro results suggest that ZQ has an antidepressant effect.

  12. A Euclidean bridge to the relativistic constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, T J; Miller, Gerald A

    2016-01-01

    ${\\bf Background}$ Knowledge of nucleon structure is today ever more of a precision science, with heightened theoretical and experimental activity expected in coming years. At the same time, a persistent gap lingers between theoretical approaches grounded in Euclidean methods (e.g., lattice QCD, Dyson-Schwinger Equations [DSEs]) as opposed to traditional Minkowski field theories (such as light-front constituent quark models). ${\\bf Purpose}$ Seeking to bridge these complementary worldviews, we explore the potential of a Euclidean constituent quark model (ECQM). This formalism enables us to study the gluonic dressing of the quark-level axial-vector vertex, which we undertake as a test of the framework. ${\\bf Method}$ To access its indispensable elements with a minimum of inessential detail, we develop our ECQM using the simplified quark $+$ scalar diquark picture of the nucleon. We construct a hyperspherical formalism involving polynomial expansions of diquark propagators to marry our ECQM with the results of ...

  13. [Advances in chemical constituents and bioactivity of Salvia genus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qing; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-06-01

    The genus Salvia in the family Lamiaceae with nearly 1 000 species, is widespread in temperate and tropical regions around the world. Many species of genus Salvia are important medicinal plants with a long history of which Danshen (the dried roots and rhizomes of S. miltiorrhiza) is one of the most popular herbal traditional medicines in Asian countries. The chemical constituents from Salvia plants mainly contain sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids and polyphenols etc, which exhibit antibacterial, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antiplatelet aggregation activities and so on. In this article, the development of new constituents and their biological activities of Salvia genus in the past five years were reviewed and summarized for its further development and utilization.

  14. Exploration of hyperfine interaction between constituent quarks via eta productions

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jun; Xu, H S

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the different exchange freedom, one gluon, one pion or Goldstone boson, in constituent quark model is investigated, which is responsible to the hyperfine interaction between constituent quarks, via the combined analysis of the eta production processes, $\\pi^{-}p\\rightarrow\\eta n$ and $\\gamma p\\rightarrow\\eta p$. With the Goldstone-boson exchange, as well as the one-gluon or one-pion exchange, both the spectrum and observables, such as, the differential cross section and polarized beam asymmetry, are fitted to the suggested values of Particle Data Group and the experimental data. The first two types of exchange freedoms give acceptable description of the spectrum and observables while the one pion exchange can not describe the observables and spectrum simultaneously, so can be excluded. The experimental data for the two processes considered here strongly support the mixing angles for two lowest S11 sates and D13 states as about -30 and 6 degree respectively.

  15. Toxicology effects of saffron and its constituents: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Hasan Badie; Mehri, Soghra; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has been considered as a medicinal plant since ancient times and also widely used as food additive for its color, taste and odor. The pharmacological properties of saffron and its main constituents, crocin and safranal have been evaluated using different in vivo and in vitro models. Additionally, other lines of studies have found toxicological effects of saffron. However, a comprehensive review that covers all aspects of its toxicity has not been published yet. The current study provides classified information about the toxic effects of saffron and its constituents in various exposure conditions including acute, sub-acute, sub-chronic and chronic studies. Therapeutic doses of saffron exhibits no significant toxicity in both clinical and experimental investigations. PMID:28293386

  16. Metacognition and its Constituent Parts (Concept and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Suchanova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the conception and classification of metacognition and its constituent parts. The term is being tackled through a range of definitions in an attempt to make readers acquainted with the perception of this term abroad. A detailed description of metacognition constituent parts (metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive skills is given, which helps to analyze this phenomenon comprehensively. One of the conclusions made is that education of metacognitive components leads the learners towards autonomous foreign language enrichment, encourage their motivation. As a result their knowledge becomes long-term, learners‘marks are higher. Metacognition is a very important as well as an inherent part of the autonomous foreign language enrichment process.

  17. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activities of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan-Li; Gan, Xiao-Qing; Fan, Qing-Fei; Yang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Hua-Bin; Song, Qi-Shi

    2017-04-06

    In this study, 44 compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark, a traditional Dai herbal medicine, were identified by GC-MS. Major components included 3(2H)-benzofuranone, asarinin and (dimethoxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzene. A total of 18 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of Maqian bark by column chromatography and identified by chemical and spectral analyses. Rhoifoline B, zanthoxyline dimethoxy derivative, N-nortidine, nitidine, decarine are the major alkaloids. Both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant inhibition on NO production, which imply anti-inflammatory activity, in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells without cell toxicity. Decarine is the major anti-inflammatory constituent with NO IC50 values of 48.43 μM on RAW264.7 cells. The petroleum ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract and decarine showed anti-inflammatory activities through inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells without cell toxicity too. Decarine showed anti-inflammatory activity on human colon cells by reducing IL-6 and IL-8 production in TNF-α+IL-1β-induced Caco-2 cells. These results support the use of Maqian bark as a remedy for enteritis and colitis recorded by Dai medicine in China, and elucidate the major pharmacological compounds in Maqian bark.

  18. UKRAINIAN CONSTITUENT OF AMERICAN MULTICULTURALISM: ETHNIC AND CULTURAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Dumchak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the features of the Ukrainian constituent of American multiculturalism of the second half of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. Multicultural trends actively developing in the context of the American mainstream are characterized. The scientific research analyzes the literary activity of Ukrainian-American representatives of multicultural literature; it outlines the problems of writers’ works of art from ethno-cultural point of view.

  19. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF THE FRUIT OF CORIANDRUM SATIVUML. FROM ISFAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIREZA GHANNADI

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. which is cultivated in Isfahan was isolated by steam distillation and analyzed by TLC, GC, GC/MS and ^-NMR. Eight compounds representing 95.3% of the total components were characterized. Linalool (56.2%, y- terpinene (12.0% and 5-3-carene (9.7% were the major constituents of the oil which were obtained in 0.68% (V/W yield.

  20. Triterpenoidal constituents of the leaves of Carissa carandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Ghani, Usman; Ali, Syed Tahir; Usmani, Shahid Badar; Begum, Sabira

    2003-06-01

    Studies undertaken on the fresh leaves of Carissa carandas have led to the isolation of four pentacyclic triterpenoids (1-4) including one new constituent carissin (1) and two hitherto unreported compounds 2 and 3. The structure of the new triterpenoid has been elucidated as 3beta-hydroxy-27-E-feruloyloxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid. Compelete assignment of the protons of 2 has also been made based on 2D NMR studies.

  1. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and its bioactive constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laribi, Bochra; Kouki, Karima; M'Hamdi, Mahmoud; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2015-06-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a member of the Apiaceae family, is among most widely used medicinal plant, possessing nutritional as well as medicinal properties. Thus, the aim of this updated review is to highlight the importance of coriander as a potential source of bioactive constituents and to summarize their biological activities as well as their different applications from data obtained in recent literature, with critical analysis on the gaps and potential for future investigations. A literature review was carried out by searching on the electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar for studies focusing on the biological and pharmacological activities of coriander seed and herb bioactive constituents. All recent English-language articles published between 2000 and 2014 were searched using the terms 'C. sativum', 'medicinal plant', 'bioactive constituents', and 'biological activities'. Subsequently, coriander seed and herb essential oils have been actively investigated for their chemical composition and biological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anxiolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant and anti-cancer activities, among others. Although coriander has been reported to possess a wide range of traditional medicinal uses, no report is available in its effectiveness use in reactive airway diseases such as asthma and bronchiolitis. In brief, the information presented herein will be helpful to create more interest towards this medicinal species by defining novel pharmacological and clinical applications and hence, may be useful in developing new drug formulations in the future or by employing coriander bioactive constituents in combination with conventional drugs to enhance the treatment of diseases such as Alzheimer and cancer.

  2. Preventive and Prophylactic Mechanisms of Action of Pomegranate Bioactive Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Viladomiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate fruit presents strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and antitumoral properties, thus leading to an increased popularity as a functional food and nutraceutical source since ancient times. It can be divided into three parts: seeds, peel, and juice, all of which seem to have medicinal benefits. Several studies investigate its bioactive components as a means to associate them with a specific beneficial effect and develop future products and therapeutic applications. Many beneficial effects are related to the presence of ellagic acid, ellagitannins (including punicalagins, punicic acid and other fatty acids, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, anthocyanins, estrogenic flavonols, and flavones, which seem to be its most therapeutically beneficial components. However, the synergistic action of the pomegranate constituents appears to be superior when compared to individual constituents. Promising results have been obtained for the treatment of certain diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, intestinal inflammation, and cancer. Although moderate consumption of pomegranate does not result in adverse effects, future studies are needed to assess safety and potential interactions with drugs that may alter the bioavailability of bioactive constituents of pomegranate as well as drugs. The aim of this review is to summarize the health effects and mechanisms of action of pomegranate extracts in chronic inflammatory diseases.

  3. Multi-satellite ocean tide modelling - the K-1 constituent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    1997-01-01

    All major ocean tide constituents are aliased into signals with periods less than 90 days from TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry, except the K-1 constituent. The aliased K-1 has a period of 173 days. Consequently, it might be confounded with height variations caused by the semiannual cycle having a period......, where the presence of crossing tracks cannot separate K-1 from the semiannual signal from TOPEX/POSEIDON, the importance of including ERS-1 and GEOSAT observations was demonstrated. A comparison with 29 pelagic and coastal tide gauges in the Southern Ocean south of 50 degrees S gave 5.59 (M-2), 2.27 (S......-2) and 5.04 (K-1) cm RMS agreement for FES95.1 ocean tide model. The same comparison for the best empirical estimated constituents based on TOPEX/POSEIDON + ERS-1 + GEOSAT gave 4.32, 2.21, and 4.29 cm for M-2, S-2 and K-1, respectively....

  4. Preventive and prophylactic mechanisms of action of pomegranate bioactive constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viladomiu, Monica; Hontecillas, Raquel; Lu, Pinyi; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit presents strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and antitumoral properties, thus leading to an increased popularity as a functional food and nutraceutical source since ancient times. It can be divided into three parts: seeds, peel, and juice, all of which seem to have medicinal benefits. Several studies investigate its bioactive components as a means to associate them with a specific beneficial effect and develop future products and therapeutic applications. Many beneficial effects are related to the presence of ellagic acid, ellagitannins (including punicalagins), punicic acid and other fatty acids, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, anthocyanins, estrogenic flavonols, and flavones, which seem to be its most therapeutically beneficial components. However, the synergistic action of the pomegranate constituents appears to be superior when compared to individual constituents. Promising results have been obtained for the treatment of certain diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, intestinal inflammation, and cancer. Although moderate consumption of pomegranate does not result in adverse effects, future studies are needed to assess safety and potential interactions with drugs that may alter the bioavailability of bioactive constituents of pomegranate as well as drugs. The aim of this review is to summarize the health effects and mechanisms of action of pomegranate extracts in chronic inflammatory diseases.

  5. Fatty acid composition and possible health effects of coconut constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehowich, D J; Gomes, A V; Barnes, J A

    2000-06-01

    The link between excessive consumption of dietary saturated fats and coronary heart disease (CHD) is now well established. Because of its high content of saturated fatty acids, the consumption of foods containing coconut oil may therefore be a risk factor for CHD. While the fatty acid composition of coconut oil is well established, relatively little is known about the other constituents of coconut: the milk, water, cream and meat fractions. In this study, we show that while the water fraction is low in lipid content, the milk contains about 24% of the fat content of oil and the cream and meat fractions about 34%. The other coconut constituents contain significant amounts of medium-chain triglycerides that are formed from fatty acids of chain length 8:0 to 14:0. It is these fatty acids, primarily 14:0, that are thought to be atherogenic. On the other hand, medium-chain triglycerides may be advantageous under some circumstances in that they are absorbed intact and do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes. As a result, medium-chain triglycerides provide a ready source of energy and may be useful in baby foods or in diet therapy. Nevertheless, the possible negative effects of the saturated fatty acids and the absence of the essential fatty acid linolenic acid from all coconut constituents suggest that the coconut milk, oil and cream should not be used on a regular basis in adults.

  6. Volatile Constituents of Three Piper Species from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieua, Le D; Hoic, Tran M; Thangda, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2015-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of three Piper plants grown in Vietnam are reported. The analysis was achieved by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of the leaf oil of Piper majusculum Blume were β-caryophyllene (20.7%), germacrene D (18.6%) and β-elemene (11.3%). The quantitatively significant compounds of the volatile oils of P. harmandii C. DC were sabinene (leaves, 14.5%; stems, 16.2%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.0%; stems, 29.40%) and benzyl salicylate (leaves, 14.1%; stems, 24.3%). Also, α-cadinol (17.0%) was identified in large proportion in the leaf oil. However, sabinene (leaves, 17.9%; stems, 13.5%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.5%; stems, 32.5%) and β-eudesmol (leaves, 13.8%; stems, 8.4%) were the main constituents of P. brevicaule C. DC. This is the first report on the volatile constituents of both P. harmandii and P. brevicaule.

  7. The use of stable isotopes to trace oil sands constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farwell, A.J.; Nero, V.; Dixon, D.G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2002-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the biological effects of oil sands mining operations on aquatic ecosystems. The study focused on the Athabasca oil sand deposit, the largest of 4 deposits in northern Alberta. In particular, the study examined the cycling of oil sand constituents in Benthic invertebrates collected from test pits at Syncrude Canada Ltd.. The invertebrates were similar in size, but different in the quantity of process-affected water or mature fine tailings containing residual bitumen. Dragonflies and damselflies in particular, showed trends of depletion for the carbon 13 isotope and enrichment in nitrogen 15 isotope in pits where levels of process affected water was high. The depletion of carbon 13 isotope suggests that oil sand constituents assimilate into the benthic food chain. The greatest carbon 13 depletion, which was approximately 27 per cent, was found to be in test pits with high turbidity. This implies that oil sands constituents degrade microbially instead of by photosynthetic production. All benthic invertebrate group demonstrated an incremental enrichment in nitrogen 15 isotope from the control pit to the pit with greatest levels of mature fine tailings.

  8. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-Orbit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Philip M.; Thoresen, Souzan; Granahan, John; Matty, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is an integral part of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The MCA is a mass spectrometer-based instrument designed to provide critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents; nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor. These gases are sampled continuously and automatically in all United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) modules via the Sample Distribution System (SDS). The MCA is the primary tool for management of atmosphere constituents and is therefore critical for ensuring a habitable ISS environment during both nominal ISS operations and campout EVA preparation in the Airlock. The MCA has been in operation in the US Destiny Laboratory Module for over 10 years, and a second MCA has been delivered to the ISS for Node 3 operation. This paper discusses the performance of the MCA over the two past year, with particular attention to lessons learned regarding the operational life of critical components. Recent data have helped drive design upgrades for a new set of orbit-replaceable units (ORUs) currently in production. Several ORU upgrades are expected to increase expected lifetimes and reliability.

  9. Neurite outgrowth-promoting active constituents of the Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Ikeda, Ryuya; Gao, Hui Yuan; Muto, Norio; Otaki, Keisuke; Sano, Toshikazu; Kawahara, Nobuo; Nakane, Takahisa

    2008-01-01

    In the screening of biologically active constituents from woody plants, the methanol extract of leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa showed potent neurite outgrowth-promoting activity in neuronal PC12 cells. The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the methanol extract showed potent activity and was separated by means of various chromatographic methods to give the two new compounds 1 and 2, as well as 11 known lignan and sesquiterpene derivatives. The structures of the new compounds were determined to be 9-O-acetyldihydrosesamin (1) and 9-O-(11-hydroxyeudesman-4-yl)dihydrosesamin (2), respectively, in NMR studies including 2D-NMR experiments. Of the 13 compounds, the known compound hinokinin (5) and the new compound 2 showed potent neurite outgrowth-promoting activity in PC 12 cells.

  10. Interactions of a Tetrazine Derivative with Biomembrane Constituents: A Langmuir Monolayer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Hagimori, Masayori; Mukai, Takahiro; Shibata, Osamu

    2016-07-05

    Tetrazine (Tz) is expected to be used for bioimaging and as an analytical reagent. It is known to react very fast with trans-cyclooctene under water in organic chemistry. Here, to understand the interaction between Tz and biomembrane constituents, we first investigated the interfacial behavior of a newly synthesized Tz derivative comprising a C18-saturated hydrocarbon chain (rTz-C18) using a Langmuir monolayer spread at the air-water interface. Surface pressure (π)-molecular area (A) and surface potential (ΔV)-A isotherms were measured for monolayers of rTz-C18 and biomembrane constituents such as dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE), palmitoyl sphingomyelin (PSM), and cholesterol (Ch). The lateral interaction between rTz-C18 and the lipids was thermodynamically elucidated from the excess Gibbs free energy of mixing and two-dimensional phase diagram. The binary monolayers except for the Ch system indicated high miscibility or affinity. In particular, rTz-C18 was found to interact more strongly with DPPE, which is a major constituent of the inner surface of cell membranes. The phase behavior and morphology upon monolayer compression were investigated by using Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), fluorescence microscopy (FM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The BAM and FM images of the DPPC/rTz-C18, DPPG/rTz-C18, and PSM/rTz-C18 systems exhibited a coexistence state of two different liquid-condensed domains derived mainly from monolayers of phospholipids and phospholipids-rTz-C18. From these morphological observations, it is worthy to note that rTz-C18 is possible to interact with a limited amount of the lipids except for DPPE.

  11. 75 FR 39450 - Terpene Constituents of the Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Terpene Constituents of the Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides near ambrosioides... establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Terpene Constituents of the... the need to establish a maximum permissible level for residues of Terpene Constituents of the...

  12. Essential oil of Croton zehntneri and its main constituent anethole block excitability of rat peripheral nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; Ferreira-da-Silva, Francisco Walber; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Albuquerque, Aline Alice Cavalcante; do Vale, Otoni Cardoso; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique

    2015-03-01

    Croton zehntneri is an aromatic plant native to Northeast Brazil and employed by local people to treat various diseases. The leaves of this plant have a rich content of essential oil. The essential oil of C. zehntneri samples, with anethole as the major constituent and anethole itself, have been reported to have several pharmacological activities such as antispasmodic, cardiovascular, and gastroprotective effects and inducing the blockade of neuromuscular transmission and antinociception. Since several works have demonstrated that essential oils and their constituents block cell excitability and in view of the multiple effects of C. zehntneri essential oil and anethole on biological tissues, we undertook this investigation aiming to characterize and compare the effects of this essential oil and its major constituent on nerve excitability. Sciatic nerves of Wistar rats were used. They were mounted in a moist chamber, and evoked compound action potentials were recorded. Nerves were exposed in vitro to the essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole (0.1-1 mg/mL) up to 180 min, and alterations in excitability (rheobase and chronaxie) and conductibility (peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity) parameters of the compound action potentials were evaluated. The essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole blocked, in a concentration-dependent manner with similar pharmacological potencies (IC50: 0.32 ± 0.07 and 0.22 ± 0.11 mg/mL, respectively), rat sciatic nerve compound action potentials. Strength-duration curves for both agents were shifted upward and to the right compared to the control curve, and the rheobase and chronaxie were increased following essential oil and anethole exposure. The time courses of the essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole effects on peak-to-peak amplitude of compound action potentials followed an exponential decay and reached a steady state. The essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole caused a similar reduction in

  13. Micromechanics Modeling of Composites Subjected to Multiaxial Progressive Damage in the Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Amold, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    The high-fidelity generalized method of cells composite micromechanics model is extended to include constituent-scale progressive damage via a proposed damage model. The damage model assumes that all material nonlinearity is due to damage in the form of reduced stiffness, and it uses six scalar damage variables (three for tension and three for compression) to track the damage. Damage strains are introduced that account for interaction among the strain components and that also allow the development of the damage evolution equations based on the constituent material uniaxial stress strain response. Local final-failure criteria are also proposed based on mode-specific strain energy release rates and total dissipated strain energy. The coupled micromechanics-damage model described herein is applied to a unidirectional E-glass/epoxy composite and a proprietary polymer matrix composite. Results illustrate the capability of the coupled model to capture the vastly different character of the monolithic (neat) resin matrix and the composite in response to far-field tension, compression, and shear loading.

  14. Isolation and characterisation of novel antioxidant constituents of Croton zambesicus leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderogba, M A; McGaw, L J; Bezabih, M; Abegaz, B M

    2011-08-01

    A 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-activity-directed fractionation was used to target antioxidant constituents of the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from a 20% aqueous methanol crude extract of Croton zambesicus leaf. Repeated column chromatography of the fraction on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 led to the isolation of a new natural product, identified as quercetin-3-O-β-6″(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside-3'-methyl ether, helichrysoside-3'-methyl ether (1), along with kaempferol-3-O-β-6″(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside, tiliroside (2) and apigenin-6-C-glucoside, isovitexin (3) as the antioxidant constituents. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques, namely NMR (1D and 2D) and mass spectrometry. Compounds 1 and 2 are reported from this species for the first time. In the qualitative antioxidant assay, the three isolated compounds instantly bleached the DPPH (0.2% MeOH) purple colour indicating antioxidant activity. In the quantitative antioxidant assay, all the isolated compounds demonstrated weak antioxidant activity compared to quercetin and rutin used as positive control antioxidant agents. The compounds displayed little to no cytotoxicity against Vero cells in an in vitro assay. The presence of these antioxidant compounds in the leaf extract of C. zambesicus could provide a rationale for the ethnomedicinal use of the plant in the management of oxidative-stress-related diseases in folk medicine.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory and Free Radial Scavenging Activities of the Constituents Isolated from Machilus zuihoensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-Tein Chen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A new biflavonol glycoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-(3¢→O-3¢¢¢- quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (9, together with eight known compounds was isolated for the first time from the leaves of Machilus zuihoensis Hayata (Lauraceae. The structure of compound 9 was elucidated by various types of spectroscopic data analysis. Analysis of the biological activity assay found that compound 9 showed significant superoxide anion scavenging activity (IC50 is 30.4 μM and markedly suppressed LPS-induced high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1 protein secretion in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, the HMGB-1 protein secretion was also inhibited by quercitrin (3, ethyl caffeate (6, and ethyl 3-O-caffeoylquinate (7 treatment. In the LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activation analysis, two known compounds, quercetin (1 and ethyl caffeate (6, were found to markedly suppress nitric oxide (NO production (IC50 value, 27.6 and 42.9 μM, respectively in RAW264.7 cells. Additionally, it was determined that ethyl caffeate (6 down-regulated mRNA expressions of iNOS, IL-1β, and IL-10 in the LPS-treatment of RAW264.7 cells via a suppressed NF-kB pathway. These results suggested for the first time that the new compound 9 and other constituents isolated from M. zuihoensis have potential anti-inflammatory and superoxide anion scavenging effects. These constituents may be useful for treating various inflammatory diseases.

  16. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse.

  17. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents’ corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future.

  18. Femtosecond fluorescence studies of DNA/RNA constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, T; Banyasz, A; Markovitsi, D [Laboratoire Francis Perrin, CEA/DSM/IRAMIS/SPAM - CNRS URA 2453 CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Improta, R, E-mail: thomas.gustavsson@cea.fr [Permanent address : Istituto Biostrutture e Bioimmagini - CNR, Via Mezzocannone 16, 80134 Napoli (Italy)

    2011-01-01

    In this overview, femtosecond fluorescence studies of various DNA constituents are presented, ranging from the monomeric chromophores to different model helices. In order to interpret the experimental results in terms of fundamental processes on the molecular scale they are discussed in the light of recent theoretical calculations. The ultrafast fluorescence decay observed for the monomers is explained by the involvement of highly efficient conical intersections (CI) between the first singlet excited state and the ground state. For the model helices, the picture is more complex, but fluorescence anisotropy data reveal collective effects.

  19. Constituents of Moquinia kingii Constituintes de Moquinia kingii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisandra Cristina Schinor

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of the constituents of total plant (aerial parts and roots of Moquinia kingii afforded three flavonoids described for the first time in the tribe Moquinieae. In addition sesquiterpene lactone and triterpenes were isolated. Structures were established by spectroscopic studies.A extração da planta total (partes aéreas e raiz de Moquinia kingii forneceu três flavonóides, descritos pela primeira vez na tribo Moquinieae, além de lactona sesquiterpênica e triterpenos. As estruturas foram determinadas por estudos espectroscópicos.

  20. Water-soluble constituents from aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, M-A; Kuo, Y-H

    2006-01-01

    Three new water-soluble constituents [ficuscarpanoside B (1), (7E,9Z)-dihydrophaseic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4) and ficuscarpanic acid (6)] and the natural product 2,2'-dihydroxyl ether (7) have been isolated, together with three known compounds [(7S,8R)-syringoylglycerol (2), (7S,8R)-syringoylglycerol-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3) and icariside D2 (5)] from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa. Identification of their structures was achieved by 1D and 2D NMR experiments, including 1H-1H COSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC methods and FAB mass spectral data.

  1. BPS states in M-theory and twistorial constituents

    CERN Document Server

    Bandos, I A; Izquierdo, J M; Lukierski, J; Bandos, Igor A.; Azcarraga, Jose A. de; Izquierdo, Jose M.; Lukierski, Jerzy

    2001-01-01

    We provide a complete algebraic description of BPS states in M-theory in terms of primary constituents that we call BPS preons. We argue that any BPS state preserving k of the 32 supersymmetries is a composite of (32-k) BPS preons. In particular, the BPS states corresponding to the basic M2 and M5 branes are composed of 16 BPS preons. By extending the M-algebra to a generalized D=11 conformal superalgebra osp(1|64) we relate the BPS preons with its fundamental representation, the D=11 supertwistors.

  2. Chemical Constituents of the Roots of Vernonia cumingiana Benth.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Hua LIU; Jing-Quan YUAN; Mao-Rong SUO; Jun-Shan YANG

    2005-01-01

    To search for new and bioactive constituents from traditional Chinese medicines, a new steroidal saponin, named vernonioside G (1), was isolated from the roots of Vernonia cumingiana Benth. (Compositae).The structure of vernonioside G was elucidated using spectral methods, particularly two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Together with the new compound, eight known compounds were also isolated and identified from the roots of V. cumingiana, among which, VE-1 (2) and 24-methylenelanost-9(11)-en-3β-ol acetate (3) were assigned NMR data for the first time and compound 3 was obtained as a natural product from a plant for the first time.

  3. Summary Review of the Aquatic Toxicology of Munitions Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    environment. ERDC/EL TR-13-8 5 3 Overview of Munitions Constituents Modern military explosives have an extensive history over the past 100 years, and...or diamine derivatives (Monteil- Rivera et al. 2009). DNTs have also been associated, either as precursors or by-products, with the synthesis of...picric acid and ammonia . First prepared in 1841, it was adopted for use as a bursting-charge explosive by the U.S. Navy in 1907. From 1917 to WWII

  4. The grammar of visual narrative: Neural evidence for constituent structure in sequential image comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Neil; Jackendoff, Ray; Holcomb, Phillip J; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2014-11-01

    Constituent structure has long been established as a central feature of human language. Analogous to how syntax organizes words in sentences, a narrative grammar organizes sequential images into hierarchic constituents. Here we show that the brain draws upon this constituent structure to comprehend wordless visual narratives. We recorded neural responses as participants viewed sequences of visual images (comics strips) in which blank images either disrupted individual narrative constituents or fell at natural constituent boundaries. A disruption of either the first or the second narrative constituent produced a left-lateralized anterior negativity effect between 500 and 700ms. Disruption of the second constituent also elicited a posteriorly-distributed positivity (P600) effect. These neural responses are similar to those associated with structural violations in language and music. These findings provide evidence that comprehenders use a narrative structure to comprehend visual sequences and that the brain engages similar neurocognitive mechanisms to build structure across multiple domains.

  5. Analysis of hallucinogenic constituents in Amanita mushrooms circulated in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Kenji; Mohri, Hiroyuki; Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Iwata, Yuko; Gohda, Akinaga; Fukushima, Sunao; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kishi, Tohru

    2006-12-20

    The constituents of seven mushrooms sold as Amanita muscaria or Amanita pantherina (five A. muscaria and two A. pantherina) and four "extracts purported to contain A. muscaria" products that are currently circulated in Japan were determined. All mushroom samples were identified as A. muscaria or A. pantherina by macroscopic and microscopic observation. The dissociative constituents, ibotenic acid (IBO) and muscimol (MUS), were extracted with 70% methanol twice and determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The IBO (as the hydrate)/MUS contents were in the range of muscaria and 188-269ppm/1554-1880ppm in the cap of A. pantherina. In the caps, these compounds had a tendency to be more concentrated in the flesh than in the cuticle. On the other hand, the IBO/MUS contents in the stem were far lower than in the caps. In the "extracts purported to contain A. muscaria" products, IBO/MUS were detected below the lower limit of calibration curve (Amanita mushrooms that are circulated in the drug market.

  6. Antioxidant and Anti-Fatigue Constituents of Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangbo Xia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench, a healthy vegetable, is widely spread in tropical and subtropical areas. Previous studies have proven that okra pods possess anti-fatigue activity, and the aim of this research is to clarify the anti-fatigue constituents. To achieve this, we divided okra pods (OPD into seeds (OSD and skins (OSK, and compared the contents of total polysaccharides, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, isoquercitrin, and quercetin-3-O-gentiobiose and the antioxidant activity in vitro and anti-fatigue activity in vivo between OSD and OSK. The contents of total polyphenols and total polysaccharides were 29.5% and 14.8% in OSD and 1.25% and 43.1% in OSK, respectively. Total flavonoids, isoquercitrin and quercetin-3-O-gentiobiose (5.35%, 2.067% and 2.741%, respectively were only detected in OSD. Antioxidant assays, including 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and reducing power test, and weight-loaded swimming test showed OSD possessed significant antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects. Moreover, biochemical determination revealed that that anti-fatigue activity of OSD is caused by reducing the levels of blood lactic acid (BLA and urea nitrogen (BUN, enhancing hepatic glycogen storage and promoting antioxidant ability by lowering malondialdehyde (MDA level and increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX levels. These results proved okra seeds were the anti-fatigue part of okra pods and polyphenols and flavonoids were active constituents.

  7. Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae: CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa G. Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical study of hexane extract from leaves of Salacia crassifolia resulted in the isolation of 3β-palmitoxy-urs-12-ene, 3-oxofriedelane, 3β-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-28-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one, 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid, 3β-hydroxy-olean-9(11:12-diene and the mixture of α-amirin and β-amirin. β-sitosterol, the polymer gutta-percha, squalene and eicosanoic acid were also isolated. The chemical structures of these constituents were established by IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Crude extracts and the triterpenes were tested against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis and no activity was observed under the in vitro assay conditions. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol crude extracts, and the constituent 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid and 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus sanguinis and Candida albicans.

  8. Rubus Fruticosus L.: Constituents, Biological Activities and Health Related Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.

  9. Standard Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods determine the constituent content of composite materials by one of two approaches. Method I physically removes the matrix by digestion or ignition by one of seven procedures, leaving the reinforcement essentially unaffected and thus allowing calculation of reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume) as well as percent void volume. Method II, applicable only to laminate materials of known fiber areal weight, calculates reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume), and the cured ply thickness, based on the measured thickness of the laminate. Method II is not applicable to the measurement of void volume. 1.1.1 These test methods are primarily intended for two-part composite material systems. However, special provisions can be made to extend these test methods to filled material systems with more than two constituents, though not all test results can be determined in every case. 1.1.2 The procedures contained within have been designed to be particularly effective for ce...

  10. Invitro antioxidant activity of selected antiasthmatic herbal constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilani, P; Kasthuribai, N; Duraisamy, B; Dhamodaran, P; Ravichandran, S; Ilango, K; Suresh, B

    2009-04-01

    Asthmatic patients are more subjected to continuous oxidative stress. Roosting the antioxidant defenses of asthma patient could be beneficial as it may help thwart symptoms of the lung disease and asthma. Considering these facts different plant extracts and phytoconstituents with proven anti asthmatic property had been subjected to antioxidant study at various combinations using Diphenyl Vicryl Hydrazyl radical scavenging method, Hydrogen Peroxide radical scavenging method, Nitric oxide radical inhibition method, ABTS radical scavenging method and Lipid peroxidation assay method.All the selected herbal based constituents and extracts at different combination showed a potent antioxidant activiy by Nitric oxide radical inhibition activiy method followed by ABTS method. The present finding suggests that the selected plant based anti asthmatic constituents namely Coleus extract (10% Forskolin), Piper longum extract (20% Piperine), CurcuminC3Complex (60% Curcumin), Vasaka (30% Vasicinone), Forskolin (95%), Pperine (98%), Curcumin C3 Complex (98.5%) and Vasicinone (75%) could be utilised in alternate anti asthmatic therapy, since they play a vital role in scavenging Nitric oxide which could prevent the bronchial inflammation in asthmatic patients.

  11. Volatile Constituents of Three Myrsine L. Species from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur L. Corrêa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Myrsine rubra, Myrsine gardneriana and Myrsine parvifolia and the fruits of Myrsine parvifolia were elucidated by a combination of GC and GC-MS analyses. The main constituents of the native M. parvifolia were caryophyllene oxide (14.4%, β-caryophyllene (12.6% and γ-Muurolene (7.9% of the leaves oil and β-caryophyllene (11.7%, δ-Cadinene (7.1% of the fruit oil. The volatile oil of the endemic M. rubra leaves was dominated by β-caryophyllene (17.2%, γ-Muurolene (11.1%, Germacrene B (10.0%. The essential oil of the native M. gardneriana leaves was characterized by β-caryophyllene (18.0%, γ-Muurolene (8.4%. These three Myrsine species are similar in the dominance of sesquiterpenes. By contrast, monoterpenes were found only in the volatile oil from the fruits of M. parvifolia. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on the volatile constituents of M. rubra, M. gardneriana, M. parvifolia.

  12. Determination of antioxidant constituents in cactus pear fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, José A; Almela, Luís; Obón, José M; Castellar, Rosario

    2010-09-01

    An analytical study was carried out on the presence of antioxidant constituents and the in vitro antioxidant capacity in the extracts of three species of Spanish red-skinned cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia undulata and Opuntia stricta). The cactus pear fruit extracts were analyzed for determined constituents: ascorbic acid, flavonoids (quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, kaempferol and luteolin), betalains, taurine, total carotenoids and total phenolics. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by means of two different methods: the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical method. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extract had the strongest antioxidant capacity and taurine content. O. stricta fruits were the richest in ascorbic acid and total phenolics, whereas O. undulata fruits showed the highest carotenoid content. Quercetin and isorhamnetin were the main flavonoids detected. This study provides basic information on the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in extracts of cactus pear fruits, in order to consider these extracts as ingredient for the production of health-promoting food.

  13. Inhibitory effects of coumarin and acetylene constituents from the roots of Angelica furcijuga on D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in mice and on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Nishida, Norihisa; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Ohgushi, Teruki; Kubo, Mizuho; Morikawa, Toshio; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2006-01-15

    The methanolic extract (200 mg/kg, p.o. and i.p.), principal coumarin constituents (isoepoxypteryxin, anomalin, and praeroside IV), and a polyacetylene constituent (falcarindiol) (25 mg/kg, i.p.) from the roots of Angelica furcijuga protected the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. In in vitro experiments, coumarin constituents (hyuganins A-D, anomalin, pteryxin, isopteryxin, and suksdorfin) and polyacetylene constituents [(-)-falcarinol and falcarindiol] substantially inhibited LPS-induced NO and/or TNF-alpha production in mouse peritoneal macrophages, and isoepoxypteryxin inhibited D-GalN-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Furthermore, hyuganin A, anomalin, and isopteryxin inhibited the decrease in cell viability by TNF-alpha in L929 cells.

  14. Protection against neurodegenerative diseases of Iris pseudopumila extracts and their constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Filomena; Rigano, Daniela; Menichini, Federica; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Senatore, Felice

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes for the first time the in vitro properties of Iris pseudopumila flowers and rhizomes extracts and their constituents. The methanolic extract of rhizomes showed significant anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of NO production in the murine monocytic macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Among the isolated compounds, those which most effectively inhibited LPS-induced NO production were irisolidone and 7-methyl-tectorigenin-4'-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside], with IC(50) values of 23.6 microM and 29.4 microM respectively. Isoorientin and isovitexin exhibited the most promising activity against AChE with IC(50) of 26.8 microM and 36.4 microM, respectively. The same compounds exhibited also the higher activity against BChE.

  15. Antimicrobial, antiviral and cytotoxic activity of extracts and constituents from Polygonum spectabile Mart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Geraldo Célio; Kroon, Erna Gessien; Duarte, Maria Gorette R; Braga, Fernão Castro; de Souza Filho, José Dias; de Oliveira, Alaíde Braga

    2010-10-01

    Polygonum spectabile is used in Brazil for treatment of several infection diseases. Extracts and constituents isolated from this species were evaluated for cytotoxicity and effects on 15 bacterias and yeasts as well on 4 viruses strains (HHV-1, VACV-WR, EMCV, DEN-2). Less polar extracts were effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtillis, Micrococcus luteus, M. canis and Tricophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum. Two known chalcones and 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-β-sitosterol were isolated. The ethanol extract was the only one to show antiviral activity (CE50 chalcone has inhibited the growth of several bacteria and was significantly active against dermathophytes. The 3 compounds isolated have shown moderate cytotoxicity against Vero and LLCMK(2) cells (CC(50) antimicrobial agent.

  16. Polar constituents, protection against reactive oxygen species, and nutritional value of Chinese artichoke (Stachys affinis Bunge).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Alessandro; Frezza, Claudio; Celona, Diana; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Serafini, Mauro; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Fiorini, Dennis; Ferraro, Stefano; Maggi, Filippo; Lizzi, Anna Rita; Celenza, Giuseppe

    2017-04-15

    In the present work, we studied the chemical composition of Chinese artichoke (S. affinis tubers) by analyzing its polar constituents and its macro- and micro- nutrients. A total of nine compounds were isolated from the tuber ethanolic extract and structurally elucidated by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). The marker compounds identified were oligosaccharide stachyose and the organic acid, succinic acid, as well as phenylethanoid and iridoid glycosides. The macronutrient profile was dominated by carbohydrates (36.9% dw), whereas potassium (2.36%) was the most abundant micro-nutrient. The tuber ethanolic extract was able to efficiently protect human cells (Caco-2, SHSY-5Y and K562) against t-BHP-induced oxidative damage.

  17. The cytotoxicity and chemical constituents of the hexane fraction of Typhonium flagelliforme (Araceace).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, C Y; Chan, K L; Sam, T W; Hitotsuyanagi, Y; Takeya, K

    2001-09-01

    The plant, Typhonium flagelliforme (Araceae), commonly known as the "rodent tuber" in Malaysia, is often used as an essential ingredient of herbal remedies for alternative cancer therapies. The hexane extract of this plant was evaluated for cytotoxic activity against in vitro culture on P388 murine leukaemia cells and showed weak IC(50) of 15 microg/ml. The partial chemical constituents were identified as methyl esters of hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid. In addition, several common aliphatics were identified as dodecane, tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, heptadecane, octadecane, nonadecane and eicosane. The unique methyl ester of 13-phenyltridecanoic acid was isolated and positively identified using spectroscopic methods. None of the identified compounds showed or are known to have cytotoxic behaviour.

  18. A New Abietene Diterpene and Other Constituents from Kaempferia angustifolia Rosc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Manaf Ali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A new abietene diterpene, kaempfolienol (5S,6S,7S,9S,10S,11R,13S-abiet-8(14-enepenta-6,7,9,11,13-ol, 1, was isolated from a rhizome extract of Kaempferia angustifolia Rosc. along with the known compounds crotepoxide, boesenboxide, zeylenol, 2′-hydroxy-4,4′,6′-trimethoxychalcone, (24S-24-methyl-5α-lanosta-9(11,25-dien-3β-ol, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. The structures of all compounds were elucidated on the basis of mass spectroscopic and NMR data. Zeylenol (2, the major constituent of the plant, was derivatized into diacetate, triacetate and epoxide derivatives through standard organic reactions. The cytotoxic activity of compounds 1, 2 and the zeylenol derivatives was evaluated against the HL-60, MCF-7, HT-29 and HeLa cell lines.

  19. Modeling of Alkane Oxidation Using Constituents and Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Jasette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

    2010-01-01

    It is currently not possible to perform simulations of turbulent reactive flows due in particular to complex chemistry, which may contain thousands of reactions and hundreds of species. This complex chemistry results in additional differential equations, making the numerical solution of the equation set computationally prohibitive. Reducing the chemical kinetics mathematical description is one of several important goals in turbulent reactive flow modeling. A chemical kinetics reduction model is proposed for alkane oxidation in air that is based on a parallel methodology to that used in turbulence modeling in the context of the Large Eddy Simulation. The objective of kinetic modeling is to predict the heat release and temperature evolution. This kinetic mechanism is valid over a pressure range from atmospheric to 60 bar, temperatures from 600 K to 2,500 K, and equivalence ratios from 0.125 to 8. This range encompasses diesel, HCCI, and gas-turbine engines, including cold ignition. A computationally efficient kinetic reduction has been proposed for alkanes that has been illustrated for n-heptane using the LLNL heptane mechanism. This model is consistent with turbulence modeling in that scales were first categorized into either those modeled or those computed as progress variables. Species were identified as being either light or heavy. The heavy species were decomposed into defined 13 constituents, and their total molar density was shown to evolve in a quasi-steady manner. The light species behave either in a quasi-steady or unsteady manner. The modeled scales are the total constituent molar density, Nc, and the molar density of the quasi-steady light species. The progress variables are the total constituent molar density rate evolution and the molar densities of the unsteady light species. The unsteady equations for the light species contain contributions of the type gain/loss rates from the heavy species that are modeled consistent with the developed mathematical

  20. Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Volatile Constituents from Fresh Fruits of Alchornea cordifolia and Canthium subcordatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel E. Essien

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance has been increasingly reported worldwide and is one of the major causes of failure in the treatment of infectious diseases. Natural-based products, including plant secondary metabolites (phytochemicals, can be exploited to ameliorate the problem of microbial resistance. The fruit essential oils of Alchornea cordifolia and Canthium subcordatum were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The essential oils were subjected to in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activity screening. Thirty-eight compounds comprising 97.7% of A. cordifolia oil and forty-six constituents representing 98.2% of C. subcordatum oil were identified. The major components in A. cordifolia oil were methyl salicylate (25.3%, citronellol (21.4%, α-phellandrene (7.4%, terpinolene (5.7% and 1,8-cineole (5.5%. Benzaldehyde (28.0%, β-caryophyllene (15.5%, (E,E-α-farnesene (5.3% and methyl salicylate (4.5% were the quantitatively significant constituents in C. subcordatum fruit essential oil. A. cordifolia essential oil demonstrated potent in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 78 μg/mL and marginal antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC = 156 μg/mL. C. subcordatum showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and S. aureus (MIC = 156 μg/mL and notable antifungal activity against A. niger (MIC = 39 μg/mL. However, no appreciable cytotoxic effects on human breast carcinoma cells (Hs 578T and human prostate carcinoma cells (PC-3 were observed for either essential oil. The antimicrobial activities of A. cordifolia and C. subcordatum fruit essential oils are a function of their distinct chemical profiles; their volatiles and biological activities are reported for the first time.

  1. Cytotoxic Effects of Salvinorin A, A Major Constituent of Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Ana; Silva, Sara M; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    S. divinorum is a psychoactive plant that has been consumed as a recreational drug of abuse in the last years. Salvinorin A is its main constituent, and is responsible for the observed psychoactive effects. Both S. divinorum and salvinorin A have become controlled drugs in several countries, but they are not listed in the Schedules of the United Nations Drug Conventions. Regarding the effects of S. divinorum consumption, almost all studies are based on in vivo or on surveys, and there are no studies in vitro on its toxicity. Furthermore, all studies are focused on the acute toxicological effects of the plant. So, it is of utmost importance to further investigate the effects of S. divinorum and salvinorin A, particularly using in vitro models, after prolonged exposures. In this context, the present work evaluated the in vitro toxicity induced by S. divinorum or salvinorin A in six cell lines, through MTT assays and LC50 determination. Overall, results showed that both S. divinorum and salvinorin A are cytotoxic, dose- and time-dependent. Also, Hep G2 and Caco 2 (to a lesser extent) cells showed lower sensitivity to S. divinorum and salvinorin A when compared to the other studied cell lines. To our knowledge, this is the first work focused on the in vitro toxicity of S. divinorum and salvinorin A using a variety of cell lines, which are extensively described in literature and have been widely used in several in vitro studies.

  2. HPLC-MS and GC-MS analyses combined with orthogonal partial least squares to identify cytotoxic constituents from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianlan; Zhang, Huan; Li, Zidan; Zhang, Xiaohang; Su, Xin; Li, Yan; Qiao, Bin; Yuan, Yingjin

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the fingerprints of 48 batches of turmeric total extracts (TTE) by HPLC-MS-MS and GC-MS analyses and 43 characteristic peaks (22 constituents from HPLC-MS-MS; 21 from GC-MS) were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. An MTT {3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide} assay was implemented to measure the cytotoxicity of the TTE against HeLa cells. Then we utilized orthogonal partial least squares analysis, which correlated the chemical composition of the TTE to its cytotoxic activity, to identify potential cytotoxic constituents from turmeric. The result showed that 19 constituents contributed significantly to the cytotoxicity. The obtained result was verified by canonical correlation analysis. Comparison with previous reports also indicated some interaction between the curcuminoids and sesquiterpenoids in turmeric.

  3. Achieving ICME with Multiscale Modeling: The Effects of Constituent Properties and Processing on the Performance of Laminated Polymer Matrix Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan Jorge; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) is a useful approach for tailoring the performance of a material. For fiber-reinforced composites, not only do the properties of the constituents of the composite affect the performance, but so does the architecture (or microstructure) of the constituents. The generalized method of cells is demonstrated to be a viable micromechanics tool for determining the effects of the microstructure on the performance of laminates. The micromechanics is used to predict the inputs for a macroscale model for a variety of different fiber volume fractions, and fiber architectures. Using this technique, the material performance can be tailored for specific applications by judicious selection of constituents, volume fraction, and architectural arrangement given a particular manufacturing scenario

  4. Inhibition of human breast cancer xenograft growth by cruciferous vegetable constituent benzyl isothiocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warin, Renaud; Xiao, Dong; Arlotti, Julie A; Bommareddy, Ajay; Singh, Shivendra V

    2010-05-01

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), a constituent of cruciferous vegetables such as garden cress, inhibits growth of human breast cancer cell lines in culture. The present study was undertaken to determine in vivo efficacy of BITC against MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts. The BITC administration retarded growth of MDA-MB-231 cells subcutaneously implanted in female nude mice without causing weight loss or any other side effects. The BITC-mediated suppression of MDA-MB-231 xenograft growth correlated with reduced cell proliferation as revealed by immunohistochemical analysis for Ki-67 expression. Analysis of the vasculature in the tumors from BITC-treated mice indicated smaller vessel area compared with control tumors based on immunohistochemistry for angiogenesis marker CD31. The BITC-mediated inhibition of angiogenesis in vivo correlated with downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 protein levels in the tumor. Consistent with these results, BITC treatment suppressed VEGF secretion and VEGF receptor 2 protein levels in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, the BITC-treated MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited reduced capacity for migration compared with vehicle-treated control cells. In contrast to cellular data, BITC administration failed to elicit apoptotic response as judged by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates in vivo anti-cancer efficacy of BITC against MDA-MB-231 xenografts in association with reduced cell proliferation and suppression of neovascularization. These preclinical observations merit clinical investigation to determine efficacy of BITC against human breast cancers.

  5. Chemical constituents and antihistamine activity of Bixa orellana leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yoke Keong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bixa orellana L. has been traditionally used in Central and South America to treat a number of ailments, including internal inflammation, and in other tropical countries like Malaysia as treatment for gastric ulcers and stomach discomfort. The current study aimed to determine the major chemical constituents of the aqueous extract of B. orellana (AEBO and to evaluate the antihistamine activity of AEBO during acute inflammation induced in rats. Methods Acute inflammation was produced by subplantar injection of 0.1 mL of 0.1% histamine into the right hind paw of each rat in the control and treatment groups. The degree of edema was measured before injection and at the time points of 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after injection. Changes of peritoneal vascular permeability were studied using Evans blue dye as a detector. Vascular permeability was evaluated by the amount of dye leakage into the peritoneal cavity in rats. To evaluate the inhibitory effect of AEBO on biochemical mediators of vascular permeability, the levels of nitric oxide (NO and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were determined in histamine-treated paw tissues. The major constituents of AEBO were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Results AEBO produced a significant inhibition of histamine-induced paw edema starting at 60 min time point, with maximal percentage of inhibition (60.25% achieved with a dose of 150 mg/kg of AEBO at 60 min time point. Up to 99% of increased peritoneal vascular permeability produced by histamine was successfully suppressed by AEBO. The expression of biochemical mediators of vascular permeability, NO and VEGF, was also found to be downregulated in the AEBO treated group. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis revealed that the major constituent in AEBO was acetic acid. Conclusions The experimental findings demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory activity of AEBO was

  6. Comparison of Bottom Friction Formulations for Single-Constituent Tidal Simulations in Kyunggi Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. C.; Kim, C. S.; Jung, K. T.

    2001-11-01

    This paper investigates the influence of bottom friction on the tidal elevation in Kyunggi Bay, located west of Korea, by comparing the linear, linearized and quadratic bottom friction formulations, deducing an optimal bottom friction coefficient (BFC) for each formulation in single-constituent simulations. Model results are compared with observed tidal amplitudes and phases at 52 locations. The linear friction formulation with an optimal BFC produces the observed tidal elevation satisfactorily for all consitutents. However, the optimal linear BFC in Kyunggi Bay is one order smaller than that used in global tide calculations. The optimal BFC in the linearized formulation for the M 2tide is identical to the theoretical value given by Pingree (1983). The optimal linearized BFCs for other constituents are approximately 90% of optimal quadratic BFC for the M 2tide alone. Experiments with a range of quadratic BFCs show that the optimal BFCs for single-constituent tide are quite different from constituent by constituent, giving considerably large values of BFC except for the M 2tide. The single-constituent simulation shows that the optimal quadratic BFC for S 2(K 1) only is about 4 (10) times larger than that for M 2only. Multi-constituent simulation and single-constituent experiments with the force argument (Bowers et al., 1991) clearly show that the BFC in single-constituent simulations should be increased to incorporate the bulk effects of other constituents.

  7. Antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of the constituents of Turraea robusta and Turraea nilotica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irungu, Beatrice N.; Adipo, Nicholas; Orwa, Jennifer A.; Kimani, Francis; Heydenreich, Matthias; Midiwo, Jacob O.; Martin Björemark, Per; Håkansson, Mikael; Yenesew, Abiy; Erdélyi, Máté

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Turraea robusta and Turraea nilotica are African medicinal plants used for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including malaria. The genus Turraea is rich in limonoids and other triterpenoids known to possess various biological activities. Materials and methods From the stem bark of T. robusta six compounds, and from various parts of T. nilotica eleven compounds were isolated by the use of a combination of chromatographic techniques. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using NMR and MS, whilst the relative configuration of one of the isolated compounds, toonapubesin F, was established by X-ray crystallography. The antiplasmodial activities of the crude extracts and the isolated constituents against the D6 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum were determined using the semiautomated micro dilution technique that measures the ability of the extracts to inhibit the incorporation of (G-3H, where G is guanine) hypoxanthine into the malaria parasite. The cytotoxicity of the crude extracts and their isolated constituents was evaluated against the mammalian cell lines African monkey kidney (vero), mouse breast cancer (4T1) and human larynx carcinoma (HEp2). Results The extracts showed good to moderate antiplasmodial activities, where the extract of the stem bark of T. robusta was also cytotoxic against the 4T1 and the HEp2 cells (IC50<10 μg/ml). The compounds isolated from these extracts were characterized as limonoids, protolimonoids and phytosterol glucosides. These compounds showed good to moderate activities with the most active one being azadironolide, IC50 2.4±0.03 μM and 1.1±0.01 μM against the D6 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively; all other compounds possessed IC50 14.4–40.5 μM. None of the compounds showed significant cytotoxicity against vero cells, yet four of them were toxic against the 4T1 and HEp2 cancer cell lines with piscidinol A having IC50 8.0±0.03 and 8.4

  8. Inactivation of spoiling microorganisms in apple juice by a combination of essential oils' constituents and physical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueca, Beatriz; Ramírez, Nayeli; Arvizu-Medrano, Sofía M; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    A combination of different hurdles, such as mild heat (54 ℃ for 10 min) or pulsed electric field (25 pulses; 25 kV/cm; 3.35 kJ/cm per pulse) treatments and essential oils constituents (carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene), to reduce spoiling bacteria and yeasts in apple juice was evaluated. For this purpose, the heat and pulsed electric field resistances of five strains of Leuconostoc spp. and five Saccharomyces spp. strains were assayed, achieving different inactivation levels for each treatment and strain. For instance, Leuconostoc fallax 74, the most heat-resistant strain, was the second-most sensitive strain to pulsed electric field. The most resistant strains were exposed to combined processes of heat or pulsed electric field and 0.2 µl/ml essential oils constituents. The combination of heat and essential oils constituents proved to be synergistic against both microorganisms in apple juice. The most effective was the combination of mild heat and carvacrol, which caused the inactivation of 99% of L. fallax 74 and 99.99% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CECT 1172 cells. Therefore, this study shows the great potential of carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene in combined treatments with mild heat to achieve a higher degree of inactivation of spoiling microorganisms in apple juice, and thus, to extend its shelf life.

  9. Involvement of extracellular matrix constituents in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J

    1995-06-01

    It has recently been established that the extracellular matrix is required for normal functional differentiation of mammary epithelia not only in culture, but also in vivo. The mechanisms by which extracellular matrix affects differentiation, as well as the nature of extracellular matrix constituents which have major impacts on mammary gland function, have only now begun to be dissected. The intricate variety of extracellular matrix-mediated events and the remarkable degree of plasticity of extracellular matrix structure and composition at virtually all times during ontogeny, make such studies difficult. Similarly, during carcinogenesis, the extracellular matrix undergoes gross alterations, the consequences of which are not yet precisely understood. Nevertheless, an increasing amount of data suggests that the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-receptors might participate in the control of most, if not all, of the successive stages of breast tumors, from appearance to progression and metastasis.

  10. Palaeophytochemical Constituents of Cretaceous Ginkgo coriacea Florin Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Xing Zhao; Cheng-Sen Li; Xiao-Dong Luo; Yu-Fei Wang; Jun Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the organic solvent extract of Cretaceous Ginkgo coriacea Florin leaves by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), analogous to those from extant leaves of Ginkgo biloba L., led to the detection of a group of natural flavonoids and other volatiles. The similarity of the chemical constituents in these two species of Ginkgo suggest that the secondary metabolism of extant G. biloba is close to that of the Cretaceous species. The remaining natural products may be one explanation why the leaves of the Cretaceous G. coriacea have been preserved morphologically in fossilization. The detection of flavonoids suggests that the leaves of G. coriacea experienced a mild post-depositional environment during their fossilization. This appears to be the oldest occurrence of flavonoids in plant fossils.

  11. Optical dispersion of composite particles consisting of millicharged constituents

    CERN Document Server

    Kvam, Audrey K

    2016-01-01

    Composite dark matter (DM) comprised of electrically charged constituents can interact with the electromagnetic field via the particle's dipole moment. This interaction results in a dispersive optical index of refraction for the DM medium. We compute this refractive index for atomic dark matter and more strongly bound systems, modeled via a harmonic oscillator potential. The dispersive nature of the index will result in a time lag between high and low energy photons simultaneously emitted from a distant astrophysical observable. This time lag, due to matter dispersion, could confound potential claims of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) which can also result in such time lags. We compare the relative size of the two effects and determine that the dispersion due to DM is dwarfed by potential LIV effects for energies below the Planck scale.

  12. Modulatory Mechanism of Nociceptive Neuronal Activity by Dietary Constituent Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoru Takeda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes to somatic sensory pathways caused by peripheral tissue, inflammation or injury can result in behavioral hypersensitivity and pathological pain, such as hyperalgesia. Resveratrol, a plant polyphenol found in red wine and various food products, is known to have several beneficial biological actions. Recent reports indicate that resveratrol can modulate neuronal excitability, including nociceptive sensory transmission. As such, it is possible that this dietary constituent could be a complementary alternative medicine (CAM candidate, specifically a therapeutic agent. The focus of this review is on the mechanisms underlying the modulatory effects of resveratrol on nociceptive neuronal activity associated with pain relief. In addition, we discuss the contribution of resveratrol to the relief of nociceptive and/or pathological pain and its potential role as a functional food and a CAM.

  13. Profiling proteins in nutraceutical formulations: characterization of the constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomaria, Alessia; Nepravishta, Ridvan; Marchetti, Mario; Paci, Maurizio

    2016-03-01

    Several nutraceutical preparations containing proteins, amino acids and other small molecules are nowadays present on the market. In this work we propose NMR spectroscopy such as (1)H NMR, (1)H-(1)H TOCSY and DOSY for their constituents characterization, identification and profiling, comparing these results with those obtained by electrophoretic technique such as SDS-PAGE. The (1)H NMR spectroscopy was applied for measurements of the amino acids and other small compounds added from the manufacturer. Further the autocorrelation function obtained from the one dimensional spectrum was used without the complete assignment of the resonances of the NMR spectrum of proteins for the evaluation of the folding quality and stability. Finally the DOSY NMR technique was performed on the samples for the characterization of the mean molecular weight range of proteins. All this features considered together create an important set of data useful for the evaluation of the protein profiling and the characterization of such formulations.

  14. [Chemical constituents in higher polar substances from Desmodium caudatum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Wang, Di; Wang, Guang-Hui; Guo, Zhi-Jian; Zou, Xiu-Hong; Lin, Ting; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2014-08-01

    In this study the chemical constituents of the higher polar sustances from Desmodium caudatum were investigated.The compounds were isolated by using column chromatographies over silicagel, polyamide, ODS, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC. The structures of these compounds were identified on the basis of NMR and MS spectra. Thirteen compounds were obtained and their structures were identified as vanillin(1), loliolide(2), indole-3-carboxaldehyde(3), salicylic acid(4), swertisin(5), saccharumoside C(6), isosinensin (7), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (8), isovitexin (9), vitexin (10), nothofagin(11), resveratroloside (12), and 2"-α-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-methylvitexin (13). Except for compound 5, the remaining compounds were isolated from D. caudatum for the first time. Compounds 2, 3, 6-8, 11-13 were separated from the genus Desmodium for the first time.

  15. Hospital survival in a competitive environment: the competitive constituency model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehreth, J

    1993-01-01

    Organizational theory is extended to develop a method for administrators to assess hospital effectiveness in a competitive environment. First, the literature pertaining to organizational effectiveness and survival is synthesized to show the lack of consideration for the effects of competition. Second, the article integrates the effects of competition on organizational effectiveness through a competitive constituency model. A step-by-step procedure is proposed to apply the theory in an organizational setting. The model explicitly addresses differences in power relations between hospitals, their competition, and their stakeholders. The relative nature of effectiveness is explored by comparing the hospital to its competition using criteria developed through specific goals of stakeholders. The distinction between managerial and organizational effectiveness constructs is clarified. Finally, the practical application of this model is demonstrated by assessing the effectiveness of a hospital in the competitive environment of Seattle, Washington, where two hospitals have recently closed.

  16. Chemical Constituents of Schisandra rubriflora Rehd.et Wils.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan-Peng LI; Jing-Feng ZHAO; Yong-Qiang TU; Xiao-Dong YANG; Hong-Bin ZHANG; Liang LI

    2005-01-01

    Schisandra rubriflora Rehd. et Wils. is a traditional Chinese medicine. To search for new and bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicines and provide scientific evidence for taxonomy, the chemical constituents ofthe plant were investigated by various column chromatography methods (silica gel,Sephadex LH-20, and RP-18). From the aerial parts ofS. rubriflora, three new megastigmane glycosides,namely (3S, 5R, 6S, 9R)-megastigmane-3, 9-diol 3-O-[α-L-arabionfuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside](1), 7-megastigmene-3-ol-9-one 3-O-[o-L-arabionfuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside] (2), and megastigmane-3α, 4β, 9ξ-triol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), along with 14 known compounds, were isolated.The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  17. Optical dispersion of composite particles consisting of millicharged constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvam, Audrey K.; Latimer, David C.

    2016-08-01

    Composite dark matter (DM) comprised of electrically charged constituents can interact with the electromagnetic field via the particle's dipole moment. This interaction results in a dispersive optical index of refraction for the DM medium. We compute this refractive index for atomic DM and more strongly bound systems, modeled via a harmonic oscillator potential. The dispersive nature of the index will result in a time lag between high and low energy photons simultaneously emitted from a distant astrophysical observable. This time lag, due to matter dispersion, could confound potential claims of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) which can also result in such time lags. We compare the relative size of the two effects and determine that the dispersion due to DM is dwarfed by potential LIV effects for energies below the Planck scale.

  18. Chemical constituents of Panax ginseng exposed to. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joongho; Belanger, J.M.R.; Sigouin, M.; Lanthier, J.; Willemot, C.; Pare, J.R.J. (Agriculture Canada, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec (Canada))

    1990-03-01

    Chemical constituents were monitored to assess the biochemical and nutritional safety of Panax ginseng powders that were irradiated at doses of 1-10 kGy. Quantitative analysis has shown that the main effective components - saponins - are not altered by {sup 60}Co {gamma} irradiation. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was not affected by the treatment. Negligible changes were observed in the free carbohydrate contents. Doses of more than 5 kGy caused significant decreases in sulfur-containing amino acids and in tyrosine. At doses of 10 kGy, free amino acids, such as proline and lysine, showed an appreciable increase. The composition in minerals was not altered irrespective of the applied doses.

  19. Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Geranium wallichianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad I. Choudhary

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of the chemical constituents of the whole plant of Geranium wallichianum (Geraniaceae has resulted in the isolation and characterization of six compounds. These six compounds were identified as ursolic acid (1, β-sitosterol (2, stigmasterol (3,b-sitosterol galactoside (4, herniarin (5, and 2,4,6-trihydroxyethylbenzoate (6 which were isolated for the first time from Geranium wallichianum. The above compounds were individually identified by spectroscopic analyses and comparisons with reported data. The antioxidant potential of Geranium wallichianum extracts has been investigated by DPPH radical scavenging assay and EtOAc extract was found to be most potent with IC50 19.05 ug/mL

  20. Antifungal Constituents from the Roots of Piper dilatatum Rich.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruilan Alves dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The compounds (+-(7S,8R-epoxy-5,6-didehydrokavain (1, flavokavain B (2, β-sitosterol (3, and stigmasterol (4 are reported here as chemical constituents of Piper dilatatum Rich. (Piperaceae. Their structures were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic data (1H and 13C NMR, MS, and IR. The antifungal activities of pyrone 1 (1 μg and chalcone 2 (100 μg were determined by means of direct bioautography against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum. Results indicate P. dilatatum as a candidate for the development of novel antifungal phytotherapic products as well as point out pyrone 1 as a promising hit compound in the quest for novel antifungal agents.

  1. Double parton distributions in Light-Front constituent quark models

    CERN Document Server

    Rinaldi, Matteo; Traini, Marco; Vento, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Double parton distribution functions (dPDF), accessible in high energy proton-proton and proton nucleus collisions, encode information on how partons inside a proton are correlated among each other and could represent a tool to explore the 3D proton structure. In recent papers, double parton correlations have been studied in the valence quark region, by means of constituent quark models. This framework allows to understand clearly the dynamical origin of the correlations and to establish which, among the features of the results, are model independent. Recent relevant results, obtained in a relativistic light-front scheme, able to overcome some drawbacks of previous calculations, such as the poor support, will be presented. Peculiar transverse momentum correlations, generated by the correct treatment of the boosts, are obtained. The role of spin correlations will be also shown. In this covariant approach, the symmetries of the dPDFs are unambiguously reproduced. The study of the QCD evolution of the model resu...

  2. Chemical constituents of marijuana: the complex mixture of natural cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Slade, Desmond

    2005-12-22

    The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) and products thereof (such as marijuana, hashish and hash oil) have a long history of use both as a medicinal agent and intoxicant. Over the last few years there have been an active debate regarding the medicinal aspects of cannabis. Currently cannabis products are classified as Schedule I drugs under the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Controlled Substances act, which means that the drug is only available for human use as an investigational drug. In addition to the social aspects of the use of the drug and its abuse potential, the issue of approving it as a medicine is further complicated by the complexity of the chemical make up of the plant. This manuscript discusses the chemical constituents of the plant with particular emphasis on the cannabinoids as the class of compounds responsible for the drug's psychological properties.

  3. Macro- and microhardness of IN-713C nickel superalloy constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Binczyk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the effect of modification and cooling rate on the macrohardness of castings and microhardness of phase constituents in IN-713C nickel superalloy were described. As an inoculant, cobalt aluminate CoAl2O4 in composition with aluminium powder and colloidal silica was used. Changes in the cooling rate were obtained using a cast stepped test piece with steps of 6, 11 and 17 mm thickness. Macrohardness of the cast test piece steps was measured by Brinell technique, while Vickers method was used to measure the microhardness of γ and γ’ phases present in the alloy matrix, as well as the hardness of eutectic carbide precipitates.A significant effect of the cooling rate and modification treatment on the results of the measurements was stated, and difficulties in performing correctly the microhardness measurements due to the precipitates dimensions, especially after the modification treatment, were highlighted.

  4. Chemical constituents isolated from Zygophyllum melongena Bunge growing in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganbaatar, Chunsriimyatav; Gruner, Margit; Tunsag, Jigjidsuren; Batsuren, Dulamjav; Ganpurev, Batsuren; Chuluunnyam, Lkhamjav; Sodbayar, Batsuren; Schmidt, Arndt W; Knölker, Hans-Joachim

    2016-07-01

    We report the first investigation of the chemical constituents of Zygophyllum melongena Bunge, a species growing in Mongolia. The quinovic acid glycosides 3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)quinovic acid and 3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)quinovic acid (28→1)-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester were identified in the chloroform fraction along with the flavonoid glycoside astragalin. The n-butanol fraction contained (+)-D-pinitol as the major component, a cyclitol with anti-diabetic properties. The structures of the isolated natural products were confirmed using ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and ROESY). This is the first report of the isolation of (+)-D-pinitol from the genus Zygophyllum.

  5. Modelling bioaccumulation of oil constituents in aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hoop, Lisette; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Schipper, Aafke M; Veltman, Karin; De Laender, Frederik; Viaene, Karel P J; Klok, Chris; Hendriks, A Jan

    2013-11-15

    Crude oil poses a risk to marine ecosystems due to its toxicity and tendency to accumulate in biota. The present study evaluated the applicability of the OMEGA model for estimating oil accumulation in aquatic species by comparing model predictions of kinetic rates (absorption and elimination) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) with measured values. The model was a better predictor than the means of the measurements for absorption and elimination rate constants, but did not outperform the mean measured BCF. Model estimates and measurements differed less than one order of magnitude for 91%, 80% and 61% of the absorption and elimination rates and BCFs of all oil constituents, respectively. Of the "potentially modifying" factors: exposure duration, biotransformation, molecular mass, and water temperature, the last two tended to influence the performance of the model. Inclusion of more explanatory variables in the bioaccumulation model, like the molecular mass, is expected to improve model performance.

  6. Antifungal action and antiaflatoxigenic properties of some essential oil constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, A L

    1994-08-01

    The effect of 20 essential oil constituents on Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production was tested at the level of 1000 ppm. Some of the tested oils exhibited inhibitory effects on fungal growth and toxin formation. Five oils, namely geraniol, nerol and citronellol (aliphatic oils), cinnamaldehyde (aromatic aldehyde) and thymol (phenolic ketone), completely suppressed growth and aflatoxin synthesis. Trials for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of these oils revealed that geraniol, nerol and citronellol were effective at 500 ppm, while thymol and cinnamaldehyde were highly effective at doses as low as 250 and 200 ppm, respectively. It was observed that citral, citronellol and eugenol prevented fungal growth and toxin formation for up to 8 d. However, after 15 d of incubation, toxin production was greater than the controls.

  7. Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

  8. Decaying Dark Atom Constituents and Cosmic Positron Excess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belotsky, K.; Khlopov, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a scenario where dark matter is in the form of dark atoms that can accommodate the experimentally observed excess of positrons in PAMELA and AMS-02 while being compatible with the constraints imposed on the gamma-ray ux from Fermi/LAT. This scenario assumes that the dominant component...... of dark matter is in the form of a bound state between a helium nucleus and a -2 particle and a small component is in the form of a WIMP-like dark atom compatible with direct searches in underground detectors. One of the constituents of this WIMP-like state is a +2 metastable particle with a mass of 1 Te...

  9. Tyrosinase Inhibitory Chemical Constituents from Cleyera japonica Thunberg Branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Eun Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided investigation of the branches of Cleyera japonica led to the isolation of four phenolic constituents: 3,3’-di-O-methylellagic acid (1, 3,3’-di-O-methylellagic acid 4’-O-β-D-xylofuranoside (2, 3,5,7-trihydroxychromone 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside (3 and aviculin (4. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral studies, as well as by comparison with literature data. Tyrosinase inhibition activities were carried out for the isolated compounds using arbutin as a positive control. Among them, compound 2 was identified as a potent tyrosinase inhibitor. It inhibited mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 value of 0.078 mM, which is about three times more active than arbutin (IC50 =0.25 mM. All of the compounds 1-4 were isolated for the first time from this plant.

  10. Euclidean bridge to the relativistic constituent quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, T. J.; Alberg, Mary; Miller, Gerald A.

    2017-03-01

    Background: Knowledge of nucleon structure is today ever more of a precision science, with heightened theoretical and experimental activity expected in coming years. At the same time, a persistent gap lingers between theoretical approaches grounded in Euclidean methods (e.g., lattice QCD, Dyson-Schwinger equations [DSEs]) as opposed to traditional Minkowski field theories (such as light-front constituent quark models). Purpose: Seeking to bridge these complementary world views, we explore the potential of a Euclidean constituent quark model (ECQM). This formalism enables us to study the gluonic dressing of the quark-level axial-vector vertex, which we undertake as a test of the framework. Method: To access its indispensable elements with a minimum of inessential detail, we develop our ECQM using the simplified quark + scalar diquark picture of the nucleon. We construct a hyperspherical formalism involving polynomial expansions of diquark propagators to marry our ECQM with the results of Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) analyses, and constrain model parameters by fitting electromagnetic form factor data. Results: From this formalism, we define and compute a new quantity—the Euclidean density function (EDF)—an object that characterizes the nucleon's various charge distributions as functions of the quark's Euclidean momentum. Applying this technology and incorporating information from BSE analyses, we find the quenched dressing effect on the proton's axial-singlet charge to be small in magnitude and consistent with zero, while use of recent determinations of unquenched BSEs results in a large suppression. Conclusions: The quark + scalar diquark ECQM is a step toward a realistic quark model in Euclidean space, and needs additional refinements. The substantial effect we obtain for the impact on the axial-singlet charge of the unquenched dressed vertex compared to the quenched demands further investigation.

  11. The Enactment of Constituent Power in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Khalil

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Most modern states have adopted written and rigid constitutions. The existence of a constitution presupposes a constituent power, distinguished from other constituted powers, created by the constitution itself, and a constituent power presupposes the ability of a society to develop its capacity to act as a collective, in order to gain (or regain an active role in the organization of the lives of individuals and their social relationships with one another. For Pan-Arabism defenders, the (Arab nation exists as a cohesive group with its own unique characteristics, deriving from a common language, history and traditions. The ethnic concept of nation initially helped to justify an Arab revolution against other Muslims, but it was unable to distinguish individual Arab peoples or justify territorial Arab states. It was unavoidable then to switch to narrower concept of nation that covers citizens within defined state borders and living under the same laws. Despite the reference to the principle of popular sovereignty in most Arab Constitutions and the increasing attachment to territorially-defined states, there exists wide popular discontent with Arab regimes that continue to legitimize their authority based on Arab or Islamic nationalist discourses. Constitutions may fill the gap of legitimacy crisis in contemporary Arab States. They are a necessary tool for the nation to express its will but also for the individuals and communities within the state to protect themselves from the nation itself and from its expression, the state. Accordingly, there shall be red lines where the people, or their representatives, shall not transgress. Those red lines may be enumerated in a text, with particular legal inviolability that will be difficult (almost impossible to amend without joining a general consensus, that is not the equivalent to unanimity (difficult to obtain nor majority (easy to realize.

  12. Jupiter's Mid-Infrared Aurora: Solar Connection and Minor Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodore; Livengood, T.A.; Fast, K.E.; Hewagama, T.; Schmilling, F.; Sonnabend, G.; Delgado, J.

    2009-01-01

    High spectral resolution in the 12 pin region of the polar regions of Jupiter reveal unique information on auroral phenomena and upper stratospheric composition. Polar aurorae in Jupiter's atmosphere radiate; throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from X-ray through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 5 - 20 micron wavelength). Voyager IRIS data and ground-based. spectroscopic measurements of Jupiter's northern mid-IR aurora acquired since 1982, reveal a correlation between auroral brightness and solar activity that has not been observed in Jovian aurora at other wavelengths. Over nearly three solar cycles, Jupiter auroral ethane, emission brightness and solar 10.7-cm radar flux and sunspot number are positively correlated with high confidence. Ethane line emission intensity varies over tenfold between low and high scalar activity periods. Detailed measurements have been made using the GSFC HIPWAC spectrometer at the NASA IRTF since the last solar maximum, following the mid-IR emission through the declining phase toward solar minimum. An even more convincing correlation with solar activity is evident in these data. The spectra measured contain features that cannot be attributed to ethane and are most likely spectra of minor constituents whose molecular bands overlap the v9 band of ethane. Possible candidates are allene, propane, and other higher order hydrocarbons. These features appear to be enhanced in the active polar regions. Laboratory measurements at comparable spectral resolution of spectra of candidate molecules will be used to identify the constituents. Current analyses of these results will be described, including planned measurements on polar ethane line emission scheduled through the rise of the next solar maximum beginning in 2009, with a steep gradient to a maximum in 2012. This work is relevant to the Juno mission and to the development of the NASA/ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission.

  13. Frying temperatures and minor constituents of oils and fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boskou, Dimitrios

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Two important classes of minor constituents of oils and fats are tocopherols and sterols. Both these classes are biologically active and they also affect the stability and performance of an oil at elevated temperatures. Tocopherols are phenolic antioxidants that react with free radicals and their concentration is reduced signifantly when the oil is heated. α-TocopheroI is lost faster during deep-fat frying than the beta, gamma and delta homologues. In the presence of stronger antioxidants, natural or synthetic, losses of α-tocopherol can be eliminated. Unchanged phytosterols naturally present in vegetable oils are believed to be beneficial for the health. Depending on the chemical structure, phytosterols may act as prooxidants or antioxidants. Sterols with an ethylidene group in the side chain have been found effective in retarding polymerisation at temperatures similar to those of deep-fat frying. Under unfavourable conditions (high temperature, presence of air oxidation products are formed from sterols and a marked increase in the oxidation rate of the fat is observed. Oxidation products of the main phytosterols, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, are: hydrocarbons (3,5-diene and 3,5,22-triene, mono-, di- and triunsaturated ketosteroids (4-en-3-one, 3,5-dien-7-one, 3,5,22-trien-7-one, 5,6-epoxy derivatives, 3,7-diols and pregnane derivatives. Other minor constituents which may affect the rate of degradation of unsaturated triacylglycerols at high temperatures are squalene, pigments and phospholipids. Squalene and phospholipids have both been reported to retard the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids under simulated frying conditions. High chlorophyll levels were found to increase the rate of tocopherol decomposition and formation of polymers in rape seed oil heated at 180°C.

  14. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Constituents Isolated from the Metabolites of Endophytic Fungus DO14 from Dendrobium officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Shang Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two novel cytotoxic and antifungal constituents, (4S,6S-6-[(1S,2R-1, 2-dihydroxybutyl]-4-hydroxy-4-methoxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one (1, (6S,2E-6-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-oxodec-2-enoic acid (2, together with three known compounds, LL-P880γ (3, LL-P880α (4, and Ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3b-ol (5 were isolated from the metabolites of endophytic fungi from Dendrobium officinale. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods. All the isolated compounds 1–5 were evaluated by cytotoxicity and antifungal effects. Our present results indicated that compounds 1–4 showed notable anti-fungal activities (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC ≤ 50 μg/mL for all the tested pathogens including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus fumigatus. In addition, compounds 1–4 possessed notable cytotoxcities against human cancer cell lines of HL-60 cells with the IC50 values of below 100 μM. Besides, compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 showed strong cytotoxities on the LOVO cell line with the IC50 values were lower than 100 μM. In conclusion, our study suggested that endophytic fungi of D. officinale are great potential resources to discover novel agents for preventing or treating pathogens and tumors.

  15. Global Foodomics strategy to investigate the health benefits of dietary constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; García-Cañas, Virginia; Simó, Carolina; Celebier, Mustafa; Rocamora-Reverte, Lourdes; Gómez-Martínez, Angeles; Herrero, Miguel; Castro-Puyana, María; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Ibáñez, Elena; Ferragut, José A; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2012-07-27

    A global methodology, called Foodomics, which allows carrying out a comprehensive evaluation of the health benefits of food ingredients is presented in this work. The new methodology is based on the combination of several analytical platforms and data processing for Transcriptomics, Proteomics and Metabolomics studies, allowing the determination of changes induced by food ingredients at molecular level. Both, the whole methodological development and its potential are presented through the investigation of a case study following a hypothesis-free strategy. Namely, the chemopreventive effect of polyphenols from rosemary was examined on the total gene, protein and metabolite expression in human HT29 colon cancer cells. Conclusions on the bioactivity of polyphenols against colon cancer cells based on the results from each single platform (Transcriptomics, Proteomics or Metabolomics) are compared with the conclusions based on the integration of the whole results from the three platforms, corroborating the interest of using a global integrative strategy as Foodomics. To our knowledge, although many papers and reviews have been published on this topic, this is the first time that Transcriptomics, Proteomics and Metabolomics platforms are put together to study the health benefits from dietary ingredients against colon cancer cells at gene, protein and metabolite level. Advantages, drawbacks and current challenges of this global analytical strategy are discussed in this work. The results from our study provide new insights on the biological mechanisms involved in the cancer risk reduction properties of dietary constituents.

  16. Cytotoxic activity and constituents of the volatile oil from the roots of Patrinia scabra Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongxiang; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjian

    2005-10-01

    The volatile oil from the roots of Patrinia scabra Bunge was isolated by steam distillation, and separated into four major fractions (Fr. A-D) by means of column chromatography. A total of 39 compounds (1-39) were identified by GC/MS analysis, and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against human ovarian carcinoma cells (HO-8910) and human hepatoma cells (Bel-7402) (Table 1). Fr. A showed the strongest inhibitory effect on HO-8910 (IC50 = 21 microg/ml) and Bel-7402 cells (16 mcirog/ml), whereas Fr. B was the least active (>100 microg/ml). By comparison of the constituents of the four fractions, we assume that the cytotoxicity of the volatile oil of P. scabra is mainly due to the lignans and azulenes, rather than to caryophyllene oxide I (18). Our results suggest that the volatile oil of P. scabra possesses potent and tumor-specific cytotoxicity, and could serve as a possible candidate for future cancer chemotherapy.

  17. EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENT IN CONVENTIONAL AND NON CONVENTIONAL SPECIES OF CURCUMA

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena Jyoti; Sahu Rajeshwari

    2012-01-01

    Plants and plant based medicaments are the basis of many of the modern pharmaceutical we use today for our various aliment. Plant show medicinal properties as it contain phytochemical constituent. Phytochemical constituent are non nutritive plant chemical that have disease preventive properties .This paper reports an investigation of phytochemical constituent present in the Methanolic crude rhizome extract of conventional and non conventional Curcuma species i.e Curcuma caecia , Curcuma amad...

  18. Antitumor Activity of Kielmeyera Coriacea Leaf Constituents in Experimental Melanoma, Tested in Vitro and in Vivo in Syngeneic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rogério Figueiredo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The antitumor activity of Kielmeyera coriacea (Clusiaceae, a medicinal plant used in the treatment of parasitic, as well as fungal and bacterial infections by the Brazilian Cerrado population, was investigated. Methods: A chloroform extract (CE of K. coriacea was tested in the murine melanoma cell line (B16F10-Nex2 and a panel of human tumor cell lines. Tumor cell migration was determined by the wound-healing assay and the in vivo antitumor activity of CE was investigated in a melanoma cell metastatic model. 1H NMR and GC/MS were used to determine CE chemical composition. Results: We found that CE exhibited strong cytotoxic activity against murine melanoma cells and a panel of human tumor cell lines in vitro. CE also inhibited growth of B16F10-Nex2 cells at sub lethal concentrations, inducing cell cycle arrest at S phase, and inhibition of tumor cell migration. Most importantly, administration of CE significantly reduced the number of melanoma metastatic nodules in vivo. Chemical analysis of CE indicated the presence of the long chain fatty compounds, 1-eicosanol, 1-docosanol, and 2-nonadecanone as main constituents. Conclusion: These results indicate that K. coriacea is a promising medicinal plant in cancer therapy exhibiting antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo against different tumor cell lines.

  19. Crocus sativus stigma extract and its major constituent crocin possess significant antiproliferative properties against human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Anna M; Mancini, Andrea; Lizzi, Anna Rita; De Simone, Angela; Marroccella, Carmine Esposito; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Tatone, Carla; Festuccia, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative effects of saffron extract (SE) and its major constituent crocin on 5 different malignant and 2 nonmalignant prostate cancer cell lines. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the purity and content of crocin were determined. All cells were incubated with different concentrations of SE or crocin for 48 h. Cell cycle and apoptosis were also evaluated. In a time- and concentration-dependent manner, both SE and crocin reduced cell proliferation in all malignant cell lines with IC50 values ranging between 0.4 and 4 mg/ml for SE and between 0.26 and 0.95 mM/ml for crocin. Nonmalignant cells were not affected. Flow cytometry profiles revealed that most cells were arrested at G0/G1 phase with a significant presence of apoptotic cells. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of Bcl-2 was strikingly downregulated, whereas Bax was upregulated. Analysis of caspase activity indicated a caspase-dependent pathway with involvement of caspase-9 activation, suggesting an intrinsic pathway. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that both SE and crocin can inhibit cell proliferation, arrest cell cycle progression, inducing apoptosis in prostate cancer. Consequently, these agents could potentially be used as a chemopreventive as well as a chemotherapeutic agent for prostate cancer management.

  20. Chemical Constituents in Essential Oils from Elsholtzia ciliata and Their Antimicrobial Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Guang-hui

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the chemical constituents in the essential oils from the leaves,flowers,and seeds of Elsholtzia ciliata and their antimicrobial activities.Methods The chemical constituents in essential oils were extracted by the hydro-distillation method and analyzed by GC-MS.The chemical constituents in essential oils were identified on the basis of comparison on their retention indices and MS spectrum with published data.Moreover,the antimicrobial activities of the chemical constituents in the oils against the growth of six bacteria strains and one pathogenic yeast strain were evaluated by using minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration methods.Results A total of 58 compounds were identified,while compounds 31,35,and 36 were identified in the essential oils from the leaves,flowers,and seeds,respectively.Fifteen compounds were identified as shared constituents in the leaves,flowers,and seeds.The chemical constituents in the essential oils showed the inhibitory activities against the six bacteria strains and the yeast strain.Conclusion The major constituents are different in the essential oils of the leaves,flowers,and seeds.The major chemical constituents in the essential oils are monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids.And the chemical constituents in the essential oils obtained from the leaves show higher inhibitory activities especially against Bacillus subtillis CMCC63501 and Escherichia coli ATCC25922.

  1. Abundance, source, and mode of occurrence of the inorganic constituents in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelman, R. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The inorganic constituents, minerals and organically bound inorganic elements are commonly minor components of coal. Nevertheless, they can exert a significant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal. Some of the more common ways in which the inorganic constituents influence coal utilization are listed. Inorganic constituents affect virtually every aspect of coal utilization, from prospecting and mining to the disposal of cleaning and combustion wastes. In this chapter the more important inorganic constituents in coal are identified and their sources, distribution, modes of occurrence, and significance discussed. 60 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. An extract of a formula used in the traditional chinese medicine (Buzhong Yi Qi Wan) alters the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giani, Tania Santos; Paoli, Severo de; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: tgiani@gmail.com; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio; Maiworm, Adalgisa Ieda; Santos Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica

    2007-09-15

    Buzhong Yi Qi Wan (Buzhong) is a medicinal herb widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat the digestive and circulatory systems. Red blood cell and plasma proteins labeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) are used in nuclear medicine. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of an aqueous Buzhong extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc. Heparinized blood (Wistar rats) was incubated in vitro with different Buzhong extract concentrations and {sup 99m}Tc-labeling was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC) fractions were isolated. The radioactivity on blood constituents was determined and the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Buzhong extract at the highest concentrations used altered significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI in blood constituents. Substances present in the Buzhong extract could alter the cellular membrane and/or generation of free radicals that have oxidant properties modifying the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc. (author)

  3. A Euclidean bridge to the relativistic constituent quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Timothy; Alberg, Mary; Miller, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    We explore the potential of a Euclidean constituent quark model (ECQM) to bridge the lingering gap between Euclidean and Minkowski field theories in studies of nucleon structure. Specifically, we develop our ECQM using a simplified quark-scalar diquark picture of the nucleon as a first calculation. Our treatment in Euclidean space necessitates a hyperspherical formalism involving polynomial expansions of diquark propagators in order to marry our ECQM with results from Bethe-Salpeter Equation (BSE) analyses. From this framework, we define and compute a new quantity - a Euclidean density function (EDF) - an object that characterizes the nucleon's various charge distributions as functions of the quark's Euclidean momentum. Applying this technology and incorporating information from BSE analyses, we find the quenched dressing effect on the proton's axial-singlet charge to be small in magnitude and consistent with zero, while use of recent determinations of unquenched BSEs results in a large suppression. The substantial effect we obtain for the impact on the axial-singlet charge of the unquenched dressed vertex compared to the quenched demands further investigation. Work supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-97ER-41014 and NSF Grant No. 1516105.

  4. Identification of possible cigarette smoke constituents responsible for muscle catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Kaisari, Sharon; Aizenbud, Dror; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2012-08-01

    The age-related loss of muscle mass and strength also known as sarcopenia is significantly influenced by life style factors such as physical inactivity and impaired nutrition. Cigarette smoking is another life style habit that has been shown to be associated with sarcopenia and to affect skeletal muscle. Even today, smoking is still prevalent worldwide and is probably the most significant source of toxic chemicals exposure to humans. Cigarette smoke (CS) is a complex aerosol consisting of thousands of various constituents including reactive oxygen and nitrogen free radicals, toxic aldehydes and more. Previous epidemiological studies have identified tobacco smoking as a risk factor for sarcopenia. Clinical, in vivo and in vitro studies have revealed CS-induced skeletal muscle damage due to impaired muscle metabolism, increased inflammation and oxidative stress, over-expression of atrophy related genes and activation of various intracellular signaling pathways. This review aims to discuss and identify the components of CS that may promote catabolism of skeletal muscle.

  5. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. (ed.); Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexingt

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles What determines their composition Whether or not particles deposit How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  6. Estimation of Quercetin, an Anxiolytic Constituent, in Elaeocarpus ganitrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Pal S. Ishar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Having established quercetin as the anxiolytic constituent of Elaeocarpus ganitrus, it was decided to use it as marker to standardize the plant material. Quercetin was used as an external standard for determining its content in E. ganitrus beads by TLC densitometry. An HPTLC densitometric method has been developed to estimate quercetin inE. ganitrus beads so that plant can be standardized on the basis of its bioactive marker. Two methods were followed for preparing the test samples for determining the quercetin content. Initially, quercetin was determined in the ethanol extract of the plant material. It was also determined in the acid hydrolyzed ethanol extract, in order to free quercetin from its O-glycoside. Quercetin content in the hydrolyzed ethanol extract (0.11% w/w of E. ganitrus beads was found to be about 4 times more than in the ethanol extract prepared by direct method (0.03% w/w. Results showed that quercetin occurs in E. ganitrus beads in the form of glycoside.

  7. Essential Oil Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Asplenium Ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Saoussen; Snène, Ali; El Mokni, Ridha; Faidi, Khaled; Falconieri, Danilo; Dhaouadi, Hatem; Piras, Alessandra; Mighri, Zine; Porcedda, Silvia

    2016-09-01

    Two fern species Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. and Asplenium trichomanes L. collected from the Kroumiria region (Northwest of Tunisia) were individually submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger type apparatus. Volatile organic compounds were identified by GC-MS and GC-FID. Thus, 35 compounds were identified in A. adiantum-nigrum essential oil accounting for 77.5% of the whole constituents dominated by palmitic acid (34.5%); however, only 29 volatiles were identified in A. trichomanes showing a high amount of phytol, an odorous diterpene alcohol, representing 14.4% of the total oil contents. The total phenolic content and the antioxidant effects of crude extracts from both pteridophytes were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging assays, respectively. A. adiantum-nigrum ethyl acetate extract is shown to be lower in total phenolic contents (49.3 mg gallic acid equivalent/g) than similar extract from A. trichomanes (55.4 mg GAE/g).

  8. Inorganic constituents in herbal medicine by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN- SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The demand for herbal medicines is growing worldwide. The expansion of interest has required the standardization of the sector with implementation and constant review of technical standards for production and marketing of these medicines in order to ensure the safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. According to data from the World Health Organization, approximately 80% of world population has resorted to the benefits of certain herbs with therapeutic action popularly recognized. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the population, it is a consensus that scientific studies on the subject are insufficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to stimulate such studies in view of the importance of the results of both individual and social field. The determination of major, minor and trace elements and the research of metabolic processes and their impacts on human health are of great importance due to the growth of environmental pollution that directly affects the plants and therefore the phytotherapics. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the content of inorganic constituents in herbal medicine: moisture, total ash and the elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis in order to verify the quality of the products. It was observed that the elemental concentrations varied in a wide range from plant to plant and elements with higher concentrations were Ba, Fe, Cr and Zn. (author)

  9. Water-Soluble Constituents of Cudrania tricuspidata (Carr.) Bur.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-Ping Zheng; Jing-Yu Liang; Li-Hong Hu

    2006-01-01

    In order to find new structural and biologically active compounds, the constituents of the bark of Cudrania tricuspidata (Carr.) Bur. were investigated and a new 6-p-hydroxybenzyltaxifolin glucoside, named tricusposide (compound 1), together with 16 known compounds, was isolated by solvent partition,macroporous adsorption resin AB-8, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography. Using spectroscopic methods, the structures of the compounds were elucidated as 6-p-hydroxybenzyl taxifolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (compound 1), dihydroquerctin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (compound 2), dihydrokaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (compound 3), dihydroquercetin (compound 4), peonoside (compound 5), sphaerobioside (compound 6), quercimeritrin (compound 7), genistein (compound 8), aromadendrin (compound 9), kaempferol (compound 10), genistin (compound 11), 3,4-dihydroxystyryl alcohol (compound 12), sucrose (compound 13), 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone (compound 14), gericudranin E (compound 15), gericudranin C (compound 16),and orobol (compound 17). Compounds 2-6, 8, 9, 12-14, and 17 were isolated from this genus for the first time.

  10. How likely are constituent quanta to initiate inflation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasha Berezhiani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose an intuitive framework for studying the problem of initial conditions in slow-roll inflation. In particular, we consider a universe at high, but sub-Planckian energy density and analyze the circumstances under which it is plausible for it to become dominated by inflated patches at late times, without appealing to the idea of self-reproduction. Our approach is based on defining a prior probability distribution for the constituent quanta of the pre-inflationary universe. To test the idea that inflation can begin under very generic circumstances, we make specific – yet quite general and well grounded – assumptions on the prior distribution. As a result, we are led to the conclusion that the probability for a given region to ignite inflation at sub-Planckian densities is extremely small. Furthermore, if one chooses to use the enormous volume factor that inflation yields as an appropriate measure, we find that the regions of the universe which started inflating at densities below the self-reproductive threshold nevertheless occupy a negligible physical volume in the present universe as compared to those domains that have never inflated.

  11. Lipophilic Constituents of Rumex vesicarius L. and Rumex dentatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Abou Elfotoh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rumex dentatus L. and Rumex vesicarius L., of the family Polygonaceae, are edible herbs growing wild in Egypt. Their lipoid constituents were examined by both liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Their essential oil compositions consisted mainly of thujene, limonene, fenchon, estragole, and anethole but at largely different concentration. Fatty acid compositions were similar among the two species and consisting of palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, with R. vesicarius containing much higher level of omega-3-fatty acids. Both of the crude lipid extracts of the two species showed strong antioxidant activity as a radical quenching agent against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH systems. Antioxidant activities were mostly associated with the polar lipid fractions. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC, both in the normal and reversed phase,as well as liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS in the positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI, showed unique chemical profile for each species that can be useful for species identification and quality control of herbal drug formulations. R. vesicarius was characterized by abundances of flavonoids and R. dentatus was abundant in anthraquinones and chromones.

  12. Double parton correlations in Light-Front constituent quark models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldi Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Double parton distribution functions (dPDF represent a tool to explore the 3D proton structure. They can be measured in high energy proton-proton and proton nucleus collisions and encode information on how partons inside a proton are correlated among each other. dPFDs are studied here in the valence quark region, by means of a constituent quark model, where two particle correlations are present without any additional prescription. This framework allows to understand the dynamical origin of the correlations and to clarify which, among the features of the results, are model independent. Use will be made of a relativistic light-front scheme, able to overcome some drawbacks of the previous calculation. Transverse momentum correlations, due to the exact treatment of the boosts, are predicted and analyzed. The role of spin correlations is also shown. Due to the covariance of the approach, some symmetries of the dPDFs are seen unambigously. For the valence sector, also the study of the QCD evolution of the model results, which can be performed safely thanks to the property of good support, has been also completed.

  13. Constituents of volatile organic compounds of evaporating essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lo, Cho-Ching; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-12-01

    Essential oils containing aromatic compounds can affect air quality when used indoors. Five typical and popular essential oils—rose, lemon, rosemary, tea tree and lavender—were investigated in terms of composition, thermal characteristics, volatile organic compound (VOC) constituents, and emission factors. The activation energy was 6.3-8.6 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.8, and the frequency factor was 0.01-0.24 min -1. Toluene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene and m-diethylbenzene were the predominant VOCs of evaporating gas of essential oils at 40 °C. In addition, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m-diethylbenzene, and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene revealed high emission factors during the thermogravimetric (TG) analysis procedures. The sequence of the emission factors of 52 VOCs (137-173 mg g -1) was rose ≈ rosemary > tea tree ≈ lemon ≈ lavender. The VOC group fraction of the emission factor of aromatics was 62-78%, paraffins were 21-37% and olefins were less than 1.5% during the TG process. Some unhealthy VOCs such as benzene and toluene were measured at low temperature; they reveal the potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

  14. Bifunctional alkyl nitrates - trace constituents of the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastler, J. [Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, University of Ulm (Germany); Ballschmiter, K. [Center of Technology Assessment in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    Mono- and multifunctional esters of nitric acid (alkyl nitrates or organonitrates) form very complex mixtures of organic trace constituents in air. An analytical method was developed which combines selectivity in separation and detection in order to simplify this complexity in analytical terms. Mononitrates, dinitrates, keto nitrates, hydroxy nitrates of alkanes and alkenes, respecitvely, and bifunctional terpene nitrates were synthesized as reference substances. A specially developed new HPLC stationary phase (organonitrate phase) allows a group separation of mono-, di-, and hydroxy nitrates. After the HPLC preseparation the single components were finally separated by capillary HRGC-ECD and HRGC-MSD on polar and non-polar stationary phases. Mass spectrometric detection in the selected-ion-mode using the highly selective NO{sub 2}{sup +} fragment (m/z = 46 amu) led to very good selectivities for the nitric acid ester moiety. The analysis of a 100 m{sup 3} ambient air sample using this new analytical protocol allowed the identification of seven hydroxy nitrates and 24 dinitrates ranging from C2 to C7, 22 of them for the first time ever. (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 20 refs.

  15. Constituent quark and baryon spectra from a modified Perturbative QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Cabo Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Madrazo, Marcos Rigol

    2000-01-01

    A recently proposed perturbative expansion for QCD incorporating gluon condensation is employed to evaluate the quark and gluon self-energy corrections in the simplest approximations. The results predict mass values of the order of 1/3 of the nucleon mass for the light quarks u,d and s and a monotonously growing variation with the current mass values. The mass spectrum of the ground states within the various groups of baryonic resonances and a class of vector meson ones is well predicted by the simple addition of the calculated constituent quark masses. In connection with the self-energy, it follows that the gluonic mass shell becomes tachyonic in the considered approximation. In order to obtain the above mentioned results was evaluated as a function of the condensate paramater up to order g^2 and then this parameter fixed to give the accepted numerical value of . The discussion leads us to conjecture that the procedure, after also introducing quark condensates in the same token as the gluonic ones, could a...

  16. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuardi A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD, a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.

  17. 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibition of the Fructus of Foeniculum vulgare and Its Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je Hyeong; Lee, Dong Ung; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2012-01-01

    The fruits of Foeniculum vulgare (Foeniculi Fructus) have been widely used in Chinese medicine as an antiemetic, ameliorating stomach ailments and as an analgesic. In order to establish its potential for antiallergic use, inhibitory actions of the fruiton 5-lipoxgenase (5-LOX) and β-hexosaminidase release were evaluated. The 70% ethanol extract of this plant material (FR) considerably inhibited 5-LOX-catalyzed leukotriene production from A23187-induced rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells. The IC50 was 3.2 μg/ml. From this extract, 12 major compounds including sabinene, fenchone, γ-terpinene, α-pinene, limonene, p-anisylacetone, p-anisylaldehyde, estragole (4-allylanisole), trans-anethole, scopoletin, bergapten and umbelliferone were isolated. And it was found that several terpene derivatives including γ-terpinene and fenchone as well as phenylpropanoid, trans-anethole, showed considerable inhibitory action of 5-LOX. In particular, the IC50 of trans-anethole was 51.6 μ M. In contrast, FR and the isolated compounds did not show considerable inhibitory activity on the degranulation reaction of β-hexosaminidase release from antigen-treated RBL-2H3 cells. Against arachidonic acid-induced ear edema in mice, FR and trans-anethole showed significant inhibition by oral administration at doses of 100-400 mg/kg. In conclusion, FR and several major constituents are 5-LOX inhibitors and they may have potential for treating 5-LOX-related disorders.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF SEASONS ON BLOOD CONSTITUENTS OF DROMEDARY CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. BABEKER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in White Nile State, Sudan for a period of one year, and was designed to investigate the effect of seasons on the blood constituents of dromadery camel (Camelus dromedarius. One hundred and four Samples different sex and age were collected in July (Rainy Season, September (Rainy hot summer, October (Dry wet winter and April (Dry hot summer. The effect of season on some blood hematology, metabolites, enzymes and minerals profile was studied. The results showed higher significant level were: Monocytes, total protein and Glutamic- Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GPT during rainy season, while MCV, MCH, lymphocytes, Eosinophils and Basophils in rainy hot summer, whereas within dry wet winter were: glucose, albumin and k, even in dry hot summer were: MCHC, total white blood cells, neutrophils, uric acid, creatinine, Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT and Ca. The results also indicate that the fluctuations of seasons were observed in red blood cells, hematocrit (PCV and E.S.R as lower level. Therefore, it could be valuable to provide that the dromedary camels adapted to tropical conditions.

  19. [Advances in studies on chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Qian-Jun; Kang, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Qing-Di

    2013-12-01

    The chemical constituents isolated from Desmodium species (Leguminosae) included terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids compounds. Modem pharmacological studies have showed that the Desmodium species have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, antipyretic, analgesic and choleretic activity. This article mainly has reviewed the research advances of chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species since 2003.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 258 - Constituents for Detection Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Constituents for Detection Monitoring... for Detection Monitoring Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Inorganic Constituents: (1) Antimony (Total) (2) Arsenic (Total) (3) Barium (Total) (4) Beryllium (Total) (5) Cadmium (Total) (6) Chromium (Total)...

  1. 75 FR 33814 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee:...

  2. Isolation and structural elucidation of chemical constituents from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Sattar, Fouzia A; Ahmad, Fayaz; Begum, Sabira

    2007-08-01

    The fruits of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new constituent, morinaphthalenone (1), and three known constituents, scopoletin (2), 1, 3-dimethoxy-anthraquinone (3) and 1, 2-dihydroxy-anthraquinone (4). The structures of these isolated compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-NMR (COSY-45, HMQC, HMBC) techniques, as well as by comparison with published values.

  3. Metabolic Inflammation-Differential Modulation by Dietary Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Claire L.; Elaine B. Kennedy; Roche, Helen M.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity arises from a sustained positive energy balance which triggers a pro-inflammatory response, a key contributor to metabolic diseases such as T2D. Recent studies, focused on the emerging area of metabolic-inflammation, highlight that specific metabolites can modulate the functional nature and inflammatory phenotype of immune cells. In obesity, expanding adipose tissue attracts immune cells, creating an inflammatory environment within this fatty acid storage organ. Resident immune cells ...

  4. Phytochemical Analysis and Anti-cancer Investigation of Boswellia serrata Bioactive Constituents In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hanaa H; Abd-Rabou, Ahmed A; Hassan, Amal Z; Kotob, Soheir E

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major health obstacle around the world, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) as major causes of morbidity and mortality. Nowadays, there isgrowing interest in the therapeutic use of natural products for HCC and CRC, owing to the anticancer activity of their bioactive constituents. Boswellia serrata oleo gum resin has long been used in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate a variety of health problems such as inflammatory and arthritic diseases. The current study aimed to identify and explore the in vitro anticancer effect of B. Serrata bioactive constituents on HepG2 and HCT 116 cell lines. Phytochemical analysis of volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo gum resin was carried out using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Oleo-gum-resin of B. Serrata was then successively extracted with petroleum ether (extract 1) and methanol (extract 2). Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis of the lipoidal matter was also performed. In addition, a methanol extract of B. Serrata oleo gum resin was phytochemically studied using column chromatography (CC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) to obtain four fractions (I, II, III and IV). Sephadex columns were used to isolate β-boswellic acid and identification of the pure compound was done using UV, mass spectra, 1H NMR and 13C NMR analysis. Total extracts, fractions and volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo-gum resin were subsequently applied to HCC cells (HepG2 cell line) and CRC cells (HCT 116 cell line) to assess their cytotoxic effects. GLC analysis of the lipoidal matter resulted in identification of tricosane (75.32%) as a major compound with the presence of cholesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. Twenty two fatty acids were identified of which saturated fatty acids represented 25.6% and unsaturated fatty acids 74.4% of the total saponifiable fraction. GC/MS analysis of three chromatographic fractions (I,II and III) of B. Serrata oleo gum resin revealed the

  5. Antioxidant activities of the constituents of Picris echoides

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    MILUTIN STEFANOVIC

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Some flavonoids with antioxidant properties from the aerial parts of the plant species Picris echoides (family Asteraceae were identified. Upon chromatography, the ethyl acetate extract afforded flavonoids, such as: flavone apigenin (1 and its glucoside, cosmosiin (2, as well as common plant constituents from this family, flavonol galetin (3, 3,4’,5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavone and 4,4’,6,7-tetrahydroxyaurone (4. The structure of the aurone 4 has not been described so far in the literature and presented a very rare type of aurone skeleton. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by interpretation of their physical and spectral data. The antioxidant activities of different extracts from Picris echoides were measured by the Schaal oven test at 60ºC and by the Rancimat method at 100ºC. Water/ethanol extracts (2:8, v/v, in concentrations of 0.02 and 0.05 %, showed lower activity than commercial tocopherol (Tch. On the contrary, the purified ethyl acetate extracts showed a strong concentration-dependent antioxidant effect. The investigation demonstrated that galetin was the main flavonol from this origin. According to the results of the two methods, galetin (3 showed a two-fold better activity than did Tch and a lower activity than did butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA. The aurone 4 exhibited significantly lower antioxidant activity than did galetin at the same concentration level. Thus, the plant species P. echoides is a new and favorable source of natural lipid antioxidants.

  6. Compost versus vermicompost as substrate constituents for rooting shrub cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornes, F.; Mendoza-Hernandez, D.; Belda, R. M.

    2013-06-01

    The feasibility of composted (C), composted plus vermicomposted (V1) and straight vermicomposted (V2) tomato crop waste as component of rooting media for Euonymus japonicus Microphylla and Lavandula angustifolia vegetative propagation was studied. Mixes of C, V1 and V2 with coir fibre (CF) at the proportions 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100 (v:v) were assayed. Physical, physico-chemical and nutritional characteristics of all materials and mixes were determined and correlated with cutting rooting and growth performances. The compost and the two vermicomposts were markedly different from CF. They had higher bulk density and lower total porosity than CF. Compost had lower water-holding capacity and shrinkage in response to drying than vermicomposts and CF. Compost and vermicomposts were alkaline materials whilst CF was almost neutral. Electrical conductivity (EC) was low in CF and vermicomposts, and high in compost due to the high mineral contents, mainly of K+, SO{sub 4} {sup 2}- and Na+ in this material. EC and the ions contributing to it (K+, SO{sub 4} {sup 2}-, Na+) showed highly significative inverse correlations with rooting percentage for the two species and with root and shoot growth but only for E. japonicus. Due to its high EC, compost C (average rooting = 22.5%) performed worse than vermicomposts V1 (av. rooting = 97%) and V2 (av. rooting = 98%) whilst the latter performed similarly to CF control (av. rooting = 100%). Thus vermicomposts appeared to be more appropriate than compost as rooting media constituent. (Author) 39 refs.

  7. Adverse reactions to food constituents: allergy, intolerance, and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, D; Yuan, Y; Joneja, J; Scott, F; Szilagyi, A; Amiot, J; Zarkadas, M

    1997-04-01

    Food allergies and intolerance represent important health concerns to consumers who are predisposed to these illnesses. Unlike many current food safety issues, food sensitivities are complicated by both complex and multiple individual adverse reactions, which can vary from emotional to pathophysiological ailments. In some instances, the underlying mechanisms that result in the development of food allergies or intolerance have marked differences but produce common symptoms. The present-day diagnosis of these disorders can be impeded by intrinsic limitations in generating accurate information from patient history and biochemical, physicochemical, and immunochemical tests. Oral challenge tests represent effective methods for confirming and testing food allergens and food intolerance; however, these procedures are often restricted to clinical trials. It is important to be able to distinguish among food allergy, intolerance, and autoimmune disease in the management of these disorders. The role of food in the development of autoimmune disease may be exemplified by celiac disease, a food-induced enteropathy, requiring exposure to prolamins in wheat, rye, and barley. Various wheat and soy protein sources, including the soy protein isolates used to make infant formulas, have been related to juvenile or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), a common chronic disease of childhood. Employing food process technologies to eliminate food constituents with potential for intolerance in some individuals is a potentially viable approach for reducing risk to food-related disorders. Finally, the development of food labelling regulations that require the identification of potential food allergens or agents for intolerance in the ingredient declaration on prepackaged food is a positive step toward the prevention of severe adverse reactions in hypersensitive individuals.

  8. Ginkgo biloba extract alters the binding of the sodium [{sup 123}I] iodide (Na{sup 123}I) on blood constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleixo, Luiz Claudio Martins [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, 28 de Setembro, 87, 20551-030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Via Cinco s/n, 21945-450 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias, E-mail: srfmoreno@hotmail.com [Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24030-210, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Medicas, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24030-210, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Freitas, Rosimeire de Souza [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, 28 de Setembro, 87, 20551-030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Thomaz, Helio [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Via Cinco s/n, 21945-450 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, 28 de Setembro, 87, 20551-030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    We evaluated the in vitro effect of an aqueous extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) on the distribution in blood cells (BC) and plasma (P) and on the binding of Na{sup 123}I to the blood constituents using precipitation with trichloroacetic acid. The radioactivity percentages insoluble (SF) and insoluble fraction (IF) of blood constituents were determined. The EGb interfered (p<0.05) on the distribution of Na{sup 123}I in the P (from 69.64 to 86.13) and BC (from 30.36 to 13.87) and altered the fixation of the Na{sup 123}I in IF-P and in IF-BC. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction between the Ginkgo biloba and blood constituents radiolabeled. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modification of the binding of sodium iodide (Na{sup 123}I) to the blood constituents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This alteration should have influence in a diagnosis of nuclear medicine.

  9. Combination of the essential oil constituents citral, eugenol and thymol enhance their inhibitory effect on Crithidia fasciculata and Trypanosoma cruzi growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila M. O. Azeredo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effect of the combination of citral, eugenol and thymol, respectively the main constituents of essential oils of Cympobogon citratus (DC Stapf, Poaceae (lemon grass, Syzygium aromaticum(L. Merr. & L.M. Perry, Myrtaceae (clove and Thymus vulgarisL., Lamiaceae (thyme, on the proliferation of the trypanosomatids Crithidia fasciculataand Trypanosoma cruzi.The constituents were initially added individually at different concentrations to C. fasciculatacultures to estimate the IC50/24h. Concentrations in a triple combination were about 2 times and 16.5 times lower against C. fasciculata and T. cruzi, respectively, as compared to isolated compounds. Incubation of C. fasciculatawith the trypanocydal agent benznidazole did not affect parasite growth at concentrations up to 500 µg/ml, but the IC50 of this drug against T. cruziwas 15.8 µg/ml, a value about 2-5 times higher than that of constituents in the triple combination. Analysis of treated C. fasciculata by scanning electron microscopy showed rounding of the cell body. Our data show that combination of essential oil constituents resulted in increased inhibitory activity on growth of both non-pathogenic and pathogenic trypanosomatid species and indicate that the non-patogenic C. fasciculata may represent a resistant model for drug screening in trypanosomatids.

  10. Caffeic acid and glycerol are constituents of the suberin layers in green cotton fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, A; Jenny, T; Amrhein, N; Ryser, U

    1993-03-01

    The fibres of the green-lint mutant (Lg) of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) are suberized and contain a large proportion of wax. The unidentified components of the wax were separated into a colourless fluorescent fraction and a yellow pigmented fraction. Using ultraviolet spectroscopy and nuclear-magneticresonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy, esterified trans-caffeic acid was identified as the only phenolic component in the colourless fraction. This fraction was further purified and was shown to contain caffeic acid esterified to fatty acids (mainly ω-hydroxy fatty acids), and glycerol in molar ratios of 4∶5∶5. When 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4. 3. 1. 5.) was added to ovules cultured in vitro, at the beginning of secondary wall formation, the fibres remained white and the colourless caffeic-acid derivative and the yellow compounds could no longer be detected by ultraviolet spectroscopy. Fibres grown in the presence of AIP were also examined in the electron microscope. Secondary cell walls were present in the treated fibres, but the electron-opaque suberin layers were replaced by apparently empty spaces. This result indicates that cinnamic-acid derivatives are covalently linked to suberin and have a structural role within the polymer or are involved in anchoring the polymer to the cellulosic secondary wall. Purified cell walls of green cotton fibres contained about 1% (of the dry weight) of bound glycerol, 0.9% of the glycerol being extractable with the wax fraction and 0.1% remaining in the cell-wall residue. The corresponding values for white fibres were 0.03% (total), 0.02% (wax), and 0.01% (cell-wall residue). Fibres synthesizing their secondary walls in the presence of AIP contained about normal amounts of bound glycerol in the wax fraction, but glycerol accumulation in the cell-wall residue was inhibited by about 95%. These observations indicate that glycerol is an important constituent of cotton

  11. Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents inhibit in vitro growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday-Provencio, Samuel; Diaz, Gabriela; Rascon, Lucila; Quintero, Jael; Alday, Efrain; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Astiazaran, Humberto; Hernandez, Javier; Velazquez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Propolis is a cereus resin with a complex chemical composition that possesses a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-Giardia lamblia activity of Sonoran propolis collected from three different areas of Sonoran Desert in northwestern Mexico (Caborca, Pueblo de Alamos, and Ures) and some of its chemical constituents. Additionally, we also analyzed the seasonal effect on the anti-G. lamblia activity of propolis. G. lamblia trophozoite cultures were treated with different concentrations of Sonoran propolis or chemical compounds during 48 h cell proliferation and cell viability were determined. Ures propolis showed the highest inhibitory activity against G. lamblia (IC50 63.8 ± 7.1 µg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner (Ures > Pueblo de Alamos > Caborca). Season had a significant effect on the in vitro anti-G. lamblia activity of Ures propolis. Summer propolis showed the highest inhibitory effect on the G. lamblia trophozoite growth (IC50 23.8 ± 2.3 µg/mL), followed by propolis collected during winter (IC50 59.2 ± 34.7 µg/mL), spring (IC50 102.5 ± 15.3 µg/mL), and autumn (IC50 125.0 ± 3.1 µg/mL). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an Ures propolis exclusive constituent, had the highest growth-inhibitory activity towards G. lamblia [IC50 63.1 ± 0.9 µg/mL (222.1 ± 3.2 µM)]. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that caffeic acid phenethyl ester possesses antiparasitic activity against G. lamblia. Naringenin [IC50 125.7 ± 20.7 µg/mL (461.8 ± 76.3 µM)], hesperetin [IC50 149.6 ± 24.8 µg/mL (494.9 ± 82.2 µM)], and pinocembrin [IC50 174.4 ± 26.0 µg/mL (680.6 ± 101.7 µM)] showed weak anti-G. lamblia activity. On the other hand, chrysin and rutin did not show significant antiparasitic activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents had inhibitory effects on the

  12. The effect of an extract from Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the survival of Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of an aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) and on the survival of cultures of Escherichia coli treated with stannous chloride. Blood samples from Wistar rats were treated with reishi extract, radiolabeling procedure was performed, plasma (P), blood cells (BC) and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) fractions of P and BC were separated. The radioactivity was counted for the determination of the ...

  13. NMR-based metabolomic investigation of bioactivity of chemical constituents in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Giusti, M Monica; Johnson, Jodee L; Rinaldi, Peter L; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Bomser, Joshua A; Miller, A Raymond; Hardy, James K; Reese, R Neil

    2014-02-26

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) (BR) fruit extracts with differing compound profiles have shown variable antiproliferative activities against HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. This study used partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis to develop a high-resolution (1)H NMR-based multivariate statistical model for discerning the biological activity of BR constituents. This model identified specific bioactive compounds and ascertained their relative contribution against cancer cell proliferation. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside were the predominant contributors to the extract bioactivity, but salicylic acid derivatives (e.g., salicylic acid glucosyl ester), quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, methyl ellagic acid derivatives (e.g., methyl ellagic acetyl pentose), and citric acid derivatives also contributed significantly to the antiproliferative activity of the berry extracts. This approach enabled the identification of new bioactive components in BR fruits and demonstrates the utility of the method for assessing chemopreventive compounds in foods and food products.

  14. Cytotoxic Constituents from the Rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Abdalla Ahmed Hamdi; Syarifah Nur Syed Abdul Rahman; Khalijah Awang; Norhanom Abdul Wahab; Chung Yeng Looi; Noel Francis Thomas; Sri Nurestri Abd Malek

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma zedoaria also known as Temu putih is traditionally used in food preparations and treatment of various ailments including cancer. The cytotoxic activity of hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and the methanol-soxhlet extracts of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes was tested on two human cancer cell lines (Ca Ski and MCF-7) and a noncancer cell line (HUVEC) using MTT assay. Investigation on the chemical components in the hexane and dichloromethane fractions gave 19 compounds, namel...

  15. Bioactive constituents from Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. and Rhus coriaria L

    OpenAIRE

    Shabana, Marawan M.; Aly M El Sayed; Miriam F Yousif; El Sayed, Abeer M.; Sleem, Amany A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The leaf ethanol extract of Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. has evidenced medicinal value due to its hepatoprotective activity. It demonstrated inhibitory effects on test standard microbes approximated to 40% the potency of ofloxacin and fluconazole. The same extract evidenced in vitro cytotoxicity on human cell lines, liver carcinoma HEPG2, larynx carcinoma HEP2, and colon carcinoma HCT116 cell lines when compared to doxorubicin. Materials and Methods: Fractionation of the leaf ethan...

  16. Pauses in theatrical interpretation: delimitation of prosodic constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço Chacon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We intend to observe the function of a linguistic resource – the pause – in theatrical interpretation. Connected to the field of speech therapy, we search for theoretical support in the Linguistics field, mainly in prosodic phonology – specifically, we highlight intonational phrase and phonological utterance, prosodic constituents –, proposing a dialogue between these fields, regarding the work with actors. In speech therapy literature, the work with actors focuses, centrally, in organic issues involved in the vocal process, such as “misuse” or “voice abuse”. To a smaller extent, we find, in this literature, researches that emphasize issues regarding interpretation and expressive resources, besides a few emphasizing the importance of linguistic resources in interpretation. Differently, in linguistics literature, the pause is approached, to a larger extent, from the phonetic perspective, related to several language levels. In this research, we analyzed audio recordings of four actors from a same theatrical group, acting the theatrical text Brutas flores, focused on these aims: (1 detect the place where pauses happen in the interpretation of a single text by four actors; (2 survey physical characteristics of length of these pauses; (3 check to what extent the length of a pause is related to the place where it happens, regarding the prosodic limits of intonational phrases (I and phonological utterance (U. We could observe that, although the interpretation is characterized by the subjectivity of the actor, the interpretation is constructed based in the possibilities offered by the prosodic organization of the text itself, being more or less flexible.We were also able to confirm, by considering the length of VVs units containing pauses, the prosodic hierarchy proposed by Nespor & Vogel, once the length of these units in U's limits was significantly higher than the length in I's limits. Thus, our results reinforce the premise that a

  17. Advanced olive selections with enhanced quality for minor constituents

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    Velasco, L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Squalene, phytosterols and tocopherols are minor constituents of paramount importance for the olive fruit and oil quality. The objective of this research was to conduct a two-year evaluation of these compounds in the fruits of seven advanced breeding selections. They were mainly selected for early bearing and high oil content from progenies of crosses between the cultivars ‘Arbequina’ and ‘Picual’. An analysis of variance showed high genotypic effects, non-significant year effects, and genotype x year interactions of low magnitude. The selections showed great variability for the traits, surpassing in some cases the parental values. One selection with total tocopherol content of 263 mg·kg−1 fruit flesh, compared to a maximum of 148 mg·kg −1 in the parents, and another one with Δ5-avenasterol concentration of 30.7% of total sterols, compared to a maximum of 22.1% in the parents, were the most relevant phenotypes. These selections may play an important role for improving olive fruit and oil quality for specific market niches.Compuestos como el escualeno, los fitoesteroles y los tocoferoles tienen una enorme importancia para la calidad del fruto y del aceite de oliva. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la evaluación durante dos años de estos compuestos en los frutos de siete selecciones avanzadas de olivo, seleccionadas principalmente para entrada temprana en producción y alto contenido en aceite a partir de las descendencias de cruzamientos entre los cultivares ‘Arbequina’ y ‘Picual’. El análisis de la varianza mostró, para la mayoría de los caracteres, un elevado efecto del genotipo, ausencia de efecto del factor año, e interacciones entre año y genotipo de baja magnitud. Las selecciones mostraron gran variabilidad para todos los caracteres, sobrepasando en algunos casos los valores de los parentales. Entre las selecciones con valores superiores a los parentales, destacaron una selección con un contenido en tocoferoles

  18. Role of clay constituents in stone decay processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veniale, F.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Stone alterability/durability is depending upon a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors among which "clay minerals" constituents, either diffused throughout the stone framework or as coating-filling of void spaces, can play an important role. Swelling-shrinking and aggregation-disaggregation phenomena occurring by interaction of argillaceous particles with water and other fluids can cause destructuration of the stone resulting in a variety of pathologies. Also salt crystallization which is depending on fluid transfer, moisture evaporation and ion concentration in the circulating solutions, can be influenced by clay mineral reactivity. Furthermore, saline solutions can drastically change the clay minerals behaviour, resulting in enhanced "osmotic" swelling and variations in clay aggregation geometry; these phenomena resulting in significant stone damage. Case histories concerning several lithotypes used for monumental buildings and artistic manufacts are reported for showing the role of different clay mineral types in determining trend and intensity of decay processes.

    Varios factores, tanto intrínsecos como extrínsecos, pueden condicionar la alterabilidad/durabilidad de materiales pétreos. Entre ellos, la presencia de minerales arcillosos, bien como constituyentes difusos o recubriendo-rellenando huecos, puede jugar un papel importante. El resultado de la interacción de las partículas arcillosas y el agua (u otros fluidos da lugar a patologías que son consecuencia de una serie de daños internos producidos por las continuas variaciones plásticas, asociadas a parámetros físicos y cristaloquímicos de este tipo de minerales. Entre los que podemos citar la desestructuración de la piedra (bien por agregación-desagregación de las partículas arcillosas o por procesos de hinchamiento-contracción que está asociado, por ejemplo, con la cristalización de sales, producida por la transferencia de fluidos a su través, o a

  19. Carbonyl Alkyl Nitrates as Trace Constituents in Urban Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woidich, S.; Gruenert, A.; Ballschmiter, K.

    2003-04-01

    Organic nitrates, esters of nitric acid, significantly contribute to the entire pool of odd nitrogen (NOY) in the atmosphere. Organic nitrates are formed in NO rich air by degradation of alkanes and alkenes initiated by OH and NO3 radicals during daytime and nighttime, respectively. Bifunctional organonitrates like the alkyl dinitrates and hydroxy alkyl nitrates are formed primarily from alkenes. The two main sources for Alkenes are traffic emissions and naturally occurring terpenes. So far a broad spectrum of alkyl dinitrates and hydroxy alkyl nitrates including six different isoprene nitrates has been identified in urban and marine air (1-3). We report here for the first time about the group of C4 C7 carbonyl alkyl nitrates as trace constituents in urban air collected on the campus of the University of Ulm Germany, and in the downtown area of Salt Lake City, Utah. Air sampling was done by high volume sampling (flow rate 25 m3/h) using a layer of 100 g silica gel (particle diameter 0.2 - 0.5 mm) as adsorbent. The organic nitrates were eluted from the silica gel by pentane/acetone (4:1, w/w) and the extract was concentrated to a volume of 500 µL for a group separation using normal phase HPLC. Final analysis was performed by high resolution capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection as well as by mass selective detection in the (CH4)NCI mode using NO2- = m/e 46 as the indicator mass. The carbonyl alkyl nitrates were identified by self synthesized reference standards . So far we have identified eight non-branched a-carbonyl alkyl nitrates (vicinal carbonyl alkyl nitrates), two b-carbonyl alkyl nitrates and one g-carbonyl alkyl nitrate with carbon chains ranging from C4 to C7. The mixing ratios are between 0.05 and 0.30 ppt(v) for daytime samples and are two to three times higher for samples taken at night. (1) M. Schneider, O. Luxenhofer, Angela Deißler, K. Ballschmiter: 2C1-C15 Alkyl Nitrates, Benzyl Nitrate, and Bifunctional Nitrates

  20. Organic Nitrates: A Complex Family of Atmospheric Trace Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballschmiter, K.; Fischer, R. G.; Grünert, A.; Kastler, J.; Schneider, M.; Woidich, S.

    2003-04-01

    Biogenic and geogenic hydrocarbons are the precursors of organic nitrates that are formed as tropospheric photo-oxidation products in the presence of NOx. Air chemistry leads to a very complex pattern of nitric acid esters: alkyl nitrates, aryl-alkyl nitrates, and bifunctional nitrates like alkyl dinitrates, hydroxy alkyl nitrates and carbonyl alkyl nitrates. We have analyzed the pattern of organic nitrates in air samples after adsorption/thermal desorption (low volume sampling-LVS) or adsorption/solvent desorption (high volume sampling-HVS) by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture (ECD) and mass spectrometric detection (MSD) using air aliquotes of 100 up to 3000 liters on column. The complexity of the organic nitrates found in air requires a group pre-separation by normal phase liquid chromatography. A detection limit per compound of 0.005 ppt(v) is achieved by our approach. We have synthesized a broad spectrum of organic nitrates as reference compounds. Air samples were taken from central Europe, the US West (Utah, Nevada, California), and the North- and South Atlantic including Antarctica. Levels and patterns of the regional and global occurrence of the various groups of C1-C12 organic nitrates including dinitrates and hydroxy nitrates and nitrates of isoprene (2-methylbutadiene) are presented. Werner G., J. Kastler, R. Looser, K. Ballschmiter: "Organic nitrates of isoprene as atmospheric trace compounds" Angewandte Chemie - International Edition (1999) 38: 1634-1637. Woidich S., O. Froescheis, O. Luxenhofer, K. Ballschmiter: "EI- and NCI-mass spectrometry of arylalkyl nitrates and their occurrence in urban air" Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. (1999) 364 : 91-99. Kastler, J; Jarman, W; Ballschmiter, K.: "Multifunctional organic nitrates as constituents in European and US urban photo-smog" Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. (2000) 368:244-249. Schneider M., K. Ballschmiter: "C3-C14 alkyl nitrates in remote South Atlantic air" Chemosphere (1999) 38: 233-244. Fischer

  1. Chemical and Biological Analyses of the Essential Oils and Main Constituents of Piper Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Laura Leon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained from leaves of Piper duckei and Piper demeraranum by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main constituents found in P. demeraranum oil were limonene (19.3% and β-elemene (33.1% and in P. duckei oil the major components found were germacrene D (14.7% and trans-caryophyllene (27.1%. P. demeraranum and P. duckei oils exhibited biological activity, with IC50 values between 15 to 76 μg mL−1 against two Leishmania species, P. duckei oil being the most active. The cytotoxicity of the essential oils on mice peritoneal macrophage cells was insignificant, compared with the toxicity of pentamidine. The main mono- and sesquiterpene, limonene (IC50 = 278 μM and caryophyllene (IC50 = 96 μM, were tested against the strains of Leishmania amazonensis, and the IC50 values of these compounds were lower than those found for the essential oils of the Piper species. The HET-CAM test was used to evaluate the irritation potential of these oils as topical products, showing that these oils can be used as auxiliary medication in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, with less side effects and lower costs.

  2. PLS-Prediction and Confirmation of Hydrojuglone Glucoside as the Antitrypanosomal Constituent of Juglans Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellendorff, Therese; Brun, Reto; Kaiser, Marcel; Sendker, Jandirk; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Naphthoquinones (NQs) occur naturally in a large variety of plants. Several NQs are highly active against protozoans, amongst them the causative pathogens of neglected tropical diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. Prominent NQ-producing plants can be found among Juglans spp. (Juglandaceae) with juglone derivatives as known constituents. In this study, 36 highly variable extracts were prepared from different plant parts of J. regia, J. cinerea and J. nigra. For all extracts, antiprotozoal activity was determined against the protozoans Trypanosoma cruzi, T. brucei rhodesiense and Leishmania donovani. In addition, an LC-MS fingerprint was recorded for each extract. With each extract's fingerprint and the data on in vitro growth inhibitory activity against T. brucei rhodesiense a Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression model was calculated in order to obtain an indication of compounds responsible for the differences in bioactivity between the 36 extracts. By means of PLS, hydrojuglone glucoside was predicted as an active compound against T. brucei and consequently isolated and tested in vitro. In fact, the pure compound showed activity against T. brucei at a significantly lower cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells than established antiprotozoal NQs such as lapachol.

  3. Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (Lamiaceae Essential Oil and Its Main Constituent Piperitenone Oxide: Biological Activities and Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijat Božović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since herbal medicines play an important role in the treatment of a wide range of diseases, there is a growing need for their quality control and standardization. Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (MS is an aromatic herb with fruit and a spearmint flavor, used in the Mediterranean areas as a traditional medicine. It has an extensive range of biological activities, including cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypotensive and insecticidal properties, among others. This study aims to review the scientific findings and research reported to date on MS that prove many of the remarkable various biological actions, effects and some uses of this species as a source of bioactive natural compounds. On the other hand, piperitenone oxide (PO, the major chemical constituent of the carvone pathway MS essential oil, has been reported to exhibit numerous bioactivities in cells and animals. Thus, this integrated overview also surveys and interprets the present knowledge of chemistry and analysis of this oxygenated monoterpene, as well as its beneficial bioactivities. Areas for future research are suggested.

  4. PLS-Prediction and Confirmation of Hydrojuglone Glucoside as the Antitrypanosomal Constituent of Juglans Spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Ellendorff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Naphthoquinones (NQs occur naturally in a large variety of plants. Several NQs are highly active against protozoans, amongst them the causative pathogens of neglected tropical diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. Prominent NQ-producing plants can be found among Juglans spp. (Juglandaceae with juglone derivatives as known constituents. In this study, 36 highly variable extracts were prepared from different plant parts of J. regia, J. cinerea and J. nigra. For all extracts, antiprotozoal activity was determined against the protozoans Trypanosoma cruzi, T. brucei rhodesiense and Leishmania donovani. In addition, an LC-MS fingerprint was recorded for each extract. With each extract’s fingerprint and the data on in vitro growth inhibitory activity against T. brucei rhodesiense a Partial Least Squares (PLS regression model was calculated in order to obtain an indication of compounds responsible for the differences in bioactivity between the 36 extracts. By means of PLS, hydrojuglone glucoside was predicted as an active compound against T. brucei and consequently isolated and tested in vitro. In fact, the pure compound showed activity against T. brucei at a significantly lower cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells than established antiprotozoal NQs such as lapachol.

  5. TatE as a Regular Constituent of Bacterial Twin-arginine Protein Translocases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Ekaterina; Fröbel, Julia; Blümmel, Anne-Sophie; Müller, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    Twin-arginine translocation (Tat) systems mediate the transmembrane translocation of completely folded proteins that possess a conserved twin-arginine (RR) motif in their signal sequences. Many Tat systems consist of three essential membrane components named TatA, TatB, and TatC. It is not understood why some bacteria, in addition, constitutively express a functional paralog of TatA called TatE. Here we show, in live Escherichia coli cells, that, upon expression of a Tat substrate protein, fluorescently labeled TatE-GFP relocates from a rather uniform distribution in the plasma membrane into a number of discrete clusters. Clustering strictly required an intact RR signal peptide and the presence of the TatABC subunits, suggesting that TatE-GFP associates with functional Tat translocases. In support of this notion, site-specific photo cross-linking revealed interactions of TatE with TatA, TatB, and TatC. The same approach also disclosed a pronounced tendency of TatE and TatA to hetero-oligomerize. Under in vitro conditions, we found that TatE replaces TatA inefficiently. Our collective results are consistent with TatE being a regular constituent of the Tat translocase in E. coli.

  6. Permeation of bioactive constituents from Arnica montana preparations through human skin in-vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekko, I A; Bonner, M C; Bowen, R D; Williams, A C

    2006-09-01

    This study investigated and characterised transdermal permeation of bioactive agents from a topically applied Arnica montana tincture. Permeation experiments conducted over 48 h used polydimethylsiloxane (silastic) and human epidermal membranes mounted in Franz-type diffusion cells with a methanol-water (50:50 v/v) receptor fluid. A commercially available tincture of A. montana L. derived from dried Spanish flower heads was a donor solution. Further donor solutions prepared from this stock tincture concentrated the tincture constituents 1, 2 and 10 fold and its sesquiterpene lactones 10 fold. Permeants were assayed using a high-performance liquid chromatography method. Five components permeated through silastic membranes providing peaks with relative retention factors to an internal standard (santonin) of 0.28, 1.18, 1.45, 1.98 and 2.76, respectively. No permeant was detected within 12 h of applying the Arnica tincture onto human epidermal membranes. However, after 12 h, the first two of these components were detected. These were shown by Zimmermann reagent reaction to be sesquiterpene lactones and liquid chromatography/diode array detection/mass spectrometry indicated that these two permeants were 11,13-dihydrohelenalin (DH) analogues (methacrylate and tiglate esters). The same two components were also detected within 3 h of topical application of the 10-fold concentrated tincture and the concentrated sesquiterpene lactone extract.

  7. Chemical and biological analyses of the essential oils and main constituents of Piper species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura do Carmo, Dominique F; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; Machado, Gérzia M C; Leon, Leonor Laura; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de Andrade

    2012-02-13

    The essential oils obtained from leaves of Piper duckei and Piper demeraranum by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main constituents found in P. demeraranum oil were limonene (19.3%) and β-elemene (33.1%) and in P. duckei oil the major components found were germacrene D (14.7%) and trans-caryophyllene (27.1%). P. demeraranum and P. duckei oils exhibited biological activity, with IC(50) values between 15 to 76 μg mL(-1) against two Leishmania species, P. duckei oil being the most active. The cytotoxicity of the essential oils on mice peritoneal macrophage cells was insignificant, compared with the toxicity of pentamidine. The main mono- and sesquiterpene, limonene (IC(50) = 278 μM) and caryophyllene (IC(50) = 96 μM), were tested against the strains of Leishmania amazonensis, and the IC(50) values of these compounds were lower than those found for the essential oils of the Piper species. The HET-CAM test was used to evaluate the irritation potential of these oils as topical products, showing that these oils can be used as auxiliary medication in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, with less side effects and lower costs.

  8. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ABREU P.R.C.; ALMEIDA M.C.; BERNARDO R.M.; BERNARDO L.C.; BRITO L.C.; GARCIA E.A.C.; FONSECA A.S.; BERNARDO-FILHO M.

    2006-01-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract.

  9. Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (Lamiaceae) Essential Oil and Its Main Constituent Piperitenone Oxide: Biological Activities and Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božović, Mijat; Pirolli, Adele; Ragno, Rino

    2015-05-13

    Since herbal medicines play an important role in the treatment of a wide range of diseases, there is a growing need for their quality control and standardization. Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (MS) is an aromatic herb with fruit and a spearmint flavor, used in the Mediterranean areas as a traditional medicine. It has an extensive range of biological activities, including cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypotensive and insecticidal properties, among others. This study aims to review the scientific findings and research reported to date on MS that prove many of the remarkable various biological actions, effects and some uses of this species as a source of bioactive natural compounds. On the other hand, piperitenone oxide (PO), the major chemical constituent of the carvone pathway MS essential oil, has been reported to exhibit numerous bioactivities in cells and animals. Thus, this integrated overview also surveys and interprets the present knowledge of chemistry and analysis of this oxygenated monoterpene, as well as its beneficial bioactivities. Areas for future research are suggested.

  10. Antiviral activity and possible mechanism of action of constituents identified in Paeonia lactiflora root toward human rhinoviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luong Thi My Ngan

    Full Text Available Human rhinoviruses (HRVs are responsible for more than half of all cases of the common cold and cost billions of USD annually in medical visits and missed school and work. An assessment was made of the antiviral activities and mechanisms of action of paeonol (PA and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (PGG from Paeonia lactiflora root toward HRV-2 and HRV-4 in MRC5 cells using a tetrazolium method and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results were compared with those of a reference control ribavirin. Based on 50% inhibitory concentration values, PGG was 13.4 and 18.0 times more active toward HRV-2 (17.89 μM and HRV-4 (17.33 μM in MRC5 cells, respectively, than ribavirin. The constituents had relatively high selective index values (3.3->8.5. The 100 μg/mL PA and 20 μg/mL PGG did not interact with the HRV-4 particles. These constituents inhibited HRV-4 infection only when they were added during the virus inoculation (0 h, the adsorption period of HRVs, but not after 1 h or later. Moreover, the RNA replication levels of HRVs were remarkably reduced in the MRC5 cultures treated with these constituents. These findings suggest that PGG and PA may block or reduce the entry of the viruses into the cells to protect the cells from the virus destruction and abate virus replication, which may play an important role in interfering with expressions of rhinovirus receptors (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and low-density lipoprotein receptor, inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor, interferon beta, and IL-1β, and Toll-like receptor, which resulted in diminishing symptoms induced by HRV. Global efforts to reduce the level of synthetic drugs justify further studies on P. lactiflora root-derived materials as potential anti-HRV products or lead molecules for the prevention or treatment of HRV.

  11. [Pharmaceutical food science: search for anti-obese constituents from medicinal foods-anti-hyperlipidemic saponin constituents from the flowers of Bellis perennis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshio; Muraoka, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2010-05-01

    Among a variety of food materials, some are being used as resources of traditional, alternative, and/or complementary medicines all over the world. These medicinal foods are known to have not only nutritive and taste values but also medicinal effects, and they are prescribed in various traditional preparations. Regarding this point, we focused on exploring bioactive constituents in these medicinal foods, which would be applicable to remedy so-called metabolic syndrome. In this review, our recent studies on anti-hyperlipidemic saponin constituents from flowers of Bellis perennis are described.

  12. Antioxidant and Anticancer Constituents from the Leaves of Liriodendron tulipifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Fei Kang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen compounds were extracted and purified from the leaves of Liriodendron tulipifera. These compounds include aporphines, oxoaporphine, coumarin, sesquiterpene lactone, benzenoids, cyclitol and steroids. (+-Norstephalagine (2 (an aporphine and scopoletin (8 (a coumarin were isolated from Liriodendron tulipifera leaves from the first time. The identified compounds were screened for their antiradical scavenging, metal chelating and ferric reducing power activities. The results have showed that these compounds have antioxidative activity. The study has also examined the chemopreventive property of the isolated compounds against human melanoma cells A375. The results shown that (−-anonaine (1, (−-liridinine (3, (+-lirinidine (6, lysicamine (7 and epitulipinolide diepoxide (9 significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells. These results revealed that these compounds have antioxidative activity and chemopreventive activity in skin melanoma cells.

  13. The Constituents of Michelia compressa var. formosana and Their Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yi Chan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the heartwood of Michelia compressa afforded forty-four compounds, which were identified by comparison of experimental and literature analytical and spectroscopic data. Some compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and anticancer bioactivities. The result showed that soemerine (1 and cyathisterol (2 exhibited significant nitric oxide (NO inhibition, with IC50 values of 8.5 ± 0.3 and 9.6 ± 0.5 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, liriodenine (3 and oliveroline (4 exhibited cytotoxicity to human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC-TW01, non-small cell lung carcinoma (NCI-H226, T cell leukemia (Jurkat, renal carcinoma (A498, lung carcinoma (A549 and fibrosarcoma (HT1080 cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 15.7–3.68 μM.

  14. Chemical Constituents of Excoecaria acerifolia and Their Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Li Zhao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A new kaurane diterpenoid, 3α,18-dihydroxy-3β,20-epoxykaur-15-ene (1, was isolated from the aerial parts of Excoecaria acerifolia (Euphorbiaceae together with 16 known compounds. Their structures were identified by extensive spectral analysis, especially 2D NMR techniques. Antiangiogenic effects of compounds 1-6 and 9-17 were evaluated using a zebrafish model, with compound 9 being active in this bioassay. At the same time, compounds 4, 6, 10, 11 showed activity in inhibiting the growth of A549 lung cancer cells, and the compound 10 also showed apoptosis-inducing effects on A549 lung cancer cells.

  15. Isolation,Identification and Cancer Cell Anti-proliferative Activity of Fomitopsis officinalis Fruit Body Constituents%药用拟层孔菌子实体的化学成分及其对肿瘤细胞增殖抑制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池梦怡; 贾力耕; 包海鹰

    2014-01-01

    Eight compounds,isolated and purified from Fomitopsis officinalis fruit bodies by silica gel column chromatography,Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and recrystallization,were identified by NMR and mass spectrometry as 4,6,8 (14),22 (23)-tetraen-3-one-ergos-tane,ergosta-7,22,dien-3β-ol,3-keto-dehydrosulfurenic acid,dehydroeburicoic acid,dehydroeburiconic acid,and fomefficinic acids A,B and C. 4,6,8 (14),22 (23)-tetraen-3-one-ergostane has been isolated from F.officinalis fruit bodies for the first time.Fomefficinic acids A and C,3-keto-dehydrosulfurenic acid and dehydroeburicoic acid were obtained in high yield and tested for anti-proliferative activity against two human cancer cell lines.Fomefficinic acids A and C,and 3-keto-dehydrosulfurenic acid,inhibited the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells,while fomefficinic acids A and C inhibited the growth of SMMC-7721 human liver cancer cells.%通过硅胶柱层析法、Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱层析法和重结晶法,分离纯化药用拟层孔菌(Fomitopsis officinalis)子实体中的化学成分,依据化合物的物理性质,运用核磁共振谱(nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR)、质谱(mass spectrometry,MS)等波谱法分析鉴定化合物结构,并选用得率较高的4种化合物进行体外抗肿瘤实验。共分离出8个化合物,为4,6,8(14),22(23)-四烯-3-酮-麦角甾烷、麦角甾-7,22-二稀-3β-醇、3-酮基-去氢硫色多孔菌酸、去氢齿孔酸、阿里红酸A、去氢齿孔酮酸、阿里红酸 C、阿里红酸 B。其中化合物4,6,8(14),22(23)-四烯-3-酮-麦角甾烷为首次从药用拟层孔菌子实体中分离得到。阿里红酸A、阿里红酸 C、3-酮基-去氢硫色多孔菌酸抑制人乳腺癌细胞MCF-7活性较好,阿里红酸A、阿里红酸 C 抑制人肝癌细胞 SMMC-7721活性较好。

  16. Essential oil constituents and their biological activities from the leaves of Cassia fistula growing in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassia fistula L. (Fabaceae fruit is used traditionally in Nepal as an antipyretic and to treat constipation, while the leaves are used to treat jaundice, piles, rheumatism, ulcers, insect bites, facial paralysis and skin eruptions. C. fistula leaves are important ingredients in Ayurvedic medicine. This study was undertaken to characterize the volatile constituents of C. fistula leaves and to evaluate their antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. The essential oil from the leaves of Cassia fistula collected from Biratnagar, Nepal, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Antimicrobial activities (minimum inhibitory concentration against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans, were determined using the microbroth dilution technique, in-vitro cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 human adenocarcinoma cells was determined using the MTT method. C. fistula leaf oil was composed of only seven components, all of which were identified: eugenol (25.0%, (E-phytol (21.5%, camphor (13.5%, limonene (11.0%, salicyl alcohol (10.4%, linalool (9.9%, and 4- hydroxybenzyl alcohol (8.7%. The leaf oil showed antifungal activity against A. niger (MIC = 78 μg/mL and C. albicans (MIC = 313 μg/mL, but only marginal cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells (19.63 ± 11.89% kill at 100 μg/mL. All of the individual essential oil components were screened for activity. Eugenol exhibited antifungal properties (MIC on A. niger = 78 μg/mL and limonene and phytol were cytotoxic (IC50 = 74.7 and 54.3 μg/mL, respectively.

  17. Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurenka, Julie S

    2009-06-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine as a treatment for inflammatory conditions. Turmeric constituents include the three curcuminoids: curcumin (diferuloylmethane; the primary constituent and the one responsible for its vibrant yellow color), demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, as well as volatile oils (tumerone, atlantone, and zingiberone), sugars, proteins, and resins. While numerous pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, have been attributed to curcumin, this article focuses on curcumin's anti-inflammatory properties and its use for inflammatory conditions. Curcumin's effect on cancer (from an anti-inflammatory perspective) will also be discussed; however, an exhaustive review of its many anticancer mechanisms is outside the scope of this article. Research has shown curcumin to be a highly pleiotropic molecule capable of interacting with numerous molecular targets involved in inflammation. Based on early cell culture and animal research, clinical trials indicate curcumin may have potential as a therapeutic agent in diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, arthritis, and chronic anterior uveitis, as well as certain types of cancer. Because of curcumin's rapid plasma clearance and conjugation, its therapeutic usefulness has been somewhat limited, leading researchers to investigate the benefits of complexing curcumin with other substances to increase systemic bioavailability. Numerous in-progress clinical trials should provide an even deeper understanding of the mechanisms and therapeutic potential of curcumin.

  18. The berry constituents quercetin, kaempferol, and pterostilbene synergistically attenuate reactive oxygen species: involvement of the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Constance Lay Lay; Guo, Yue; Yang, Anne Yuqing; Paredes-Gonzalez, Ximena; Ramirez, Christina; Pung, Douglas; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2014-10-01

    Quercetin, kaempferol, and pterostilbene are abundant in berries. The anti-oxidative properties of these constituents may contribute to cancer chemoprevention. However, their precise mechanisms of action and their combinatorial effects are not completely understood. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) regulates anti-oxidative stress enzymes and Phase II drug metabolizing/detoxifying enzymes by binding to antioxidant response element (ARE). This study aimed to investigate the anti-oxidative stress activities of quercetin, kaempferol, and pterostilbene individually and in combination, as well as the involvement of the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway. Quercetin, kaempferol, and pterostilbene all exhibited strong free-radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay. The MTS assay revealed that low concentration combinations we tested were relatively non-toxic to HepG2-C8 cells. The results of the DCFH-DA assay and combination index (CI) indicated that quercetin, kaempferol, and pterostilbene attenuated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels when pretreated individually and had synergistic effects when used in combination. In addition, the combination treatment significantly induced ARE and increased the mRNA and protein expression of Nrf2-regulated genes. Collectively, our study demonstrated that the berry constituents quercetin, kaempferol, and pterostilbene activated the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway and exhibited synergistic anti-oxidative stress activity at appropriate concentrations.

  19. Eskimo plasma constituents, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibit the release of atherogenic mitogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D L; Willis, A L; Nguyen, N; Conner, D; Zahedi, S; Fulks, J

    1989-01-01

    Studies in man and laboratory animals suggest that omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid constituents of fish oils have antiatherosclerotic properties. We have studied the effects of several such polyunsaturated fatty acids for ability to modify the in vitro release of mitogens from human platelets. Such mitogens may produce the fibro-proliferative component of atherosclerotic plaques. Both 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and 4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3), major constituents of fish oils, inhibited adenosine diphosphate-induced aggregation of platelets and the accompanying release of mitogens. These effects are dose dependent. Linolenic acid (18:3 omega 3), the biosynthetic precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid, also inhibited platelet aggregation and mitogen release. Eicosapentaenoic acid also inhibited mitogen release from human monocyte-derived macrophages, which, in vivo, are an additional source of mitogens during atherogenesis. Potent inhibition of human platelet aggregation and mitogen release was also seen with dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid 20:3 omega 6), whose levels are reportedly elevated in Eskimos subsisting on marine diets. We conclude that diets that elevate plasma and/or tissue levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid precursor gamma-linolenic acid (18:3 omega 6) may exert antiatherosclerotic effects by inhibiting the release of mitogens from platelets and other cells.

  20. The Essential Oil Constituents of Zornia diphylla (L. Pers, and Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Activities of the Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveendrakurup Arunkumar, , and

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil obtained from hydrodistillation of Zornia diphylla (L. Pers (whole plant was analyzed by gas chromatographic techniques. Thirty seven compounds comprising 96.3% of the oil were identified by GC-MS. Monoterpenoids predominated the oil (83.9% and the major constituent was sabinene (43.1% followed by terpinene 4-ol (13.2%. The oil was screened for antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. Sabinene was tested for its anti-microbial property. The essential oil showed significant in vitro antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi, one of the causative organisms of food poisoning. Sabinene exhibited promising anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities. The essential oil showed anti-inflammatory activity against carageennan-induced paw edema in rats. The oil (50 µg/mL was devoid of any significant in vitro cytotoxicity to thymocytes, macrophages and Dalton’s lympohoma ascitis cells. This is the first report on the essential oil constituents of Zornia diphylla (L. Pers.

  1. Antiplatelet effects of Rhus verniciflua stokes heartwood and its active constituents--fisetin, butein, and sulfuretin--in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Hyeong; Kim, Mikyung; Chang, Kyung-Hwa; Hong, Cheol Yi; Na, Chun-Soo; Dong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Dongho; Lee, Moo-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Rhus verniciflua stokes (RVS) is known to promote blood circulation by preventing blood stasis, although the active ingredients and the underlying mechanism are unclear. Platelets are the primary cells that regulate circulation and contribute to the development of diverse cardiovascular diseases by aggregation and thrombosis. The study assessed the antiplatelet activity of RVS and sought to identify the active constituents. Pretreatment of washed platelets with RVS heartwood extract blunted the aggregatory response of platelets to collagen. In the subfractions, fisetin, butein, and sulfuretin were identified as effective inhibitors of platelet aggregation by collagen, thrombin, and adenosine-5'-diphosphate. Antiplatelet activities of all three compounds were concentration dependent, and fisetin had longer in vitro duration of action compared with butein or sulfuretin. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by collagen was prevented by fisetin, whereas butein and sulfuretin failed to inhibit ERK and p38 activation was not affected by any of the compounds. Rats orally administered 100 mg/(kg·day(-1)) fisetin for 7 days were resistant to arterial thrombosis, although total extract of RVS heartwood exhibited little effect at a dose of 1000 mg/(kg·day(-1)). RVS heartwood may have cardiovascular protective activity by inhibiting platelet aggregation. The active constituents are fisetin, butein, and sulfuretin, and fisetin is orally effective against thrombosis.

  2. Determination of constituents of essential oil from Angelica sinensis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ming-jian; SUN Xian-jun; DAI Yuan-hui; GUO Fang-qiu; HUANG Lan-fang; LIANG Yi-zeng

    2005-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with chemometric resolution upon two-dimensional data was employed to analyze the constituents of essential oils of Angelica sinensis. Constituents in essential oils of Angelica sinensis root were identified by GC-MS with the help of subwindow factor analysis (SFA) method resolving two-dimensional original data into mass spectra and chromatograms. 76 of 97 separated constituents in essential oil of Angelica sinensis root were identified and quantified, and they account for about 91.36% of the total content. The results show that ligustilide, butylene phthalide, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, carvacrol, allo-ocimene,2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo-[3,1,1]hept-2-ene are the main constituents in essential oil of Angelica sinensis root.

  3. The infrared emission spectra of compositionally inhomogeneous aggregates composed of irregularly shaped constituents

    CERN Document Server

    Min, M; Waters, L B F M; De Koter, A

    2008-01-01

    In order to deduce properties of dust in astrophysical environments where dust growth through aggregation is important, knowledge of the way aggregated particles interact with radiation, and what information is encoded in the thermal radiation they emit, is needed. The emission characteristics are determined by the size and structure of the aggregate and the composition and shape of the constituents. We thus aim at performing computations of compositionally inhomogeneous aggregates composed of irregularly shaped constituents. In addition we aim at developing an empirical recipe to compute the optical properties of such aggregates in a fast and accurate manner. We performed CDA computations for aggregates of irregularly shaped particles with various compositions. The constituents of the aggregate are assumed to be in the Rayleigh regime, and in addition we assume that the dominant interaction of the aggregate constituents is through dipole-dipole interactions. We computed the spectral structure of the emission...

  4. 76 FR 50226 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen (CA), respiratory toxicant (RT), cardiovascular toxicant (CT... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  5. Quantitative evaluation of charge-reduction effect in cluster constituent ions passing through a foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, A., E-mail: chiba.atsuya@jaea.go.jp [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Saitoh, Y.; Narumi, K.; Yamada, K. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kaneko, T. [Department of Applied Physics, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, kita-ku, Okayama-shi, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Swift cluster ions, which cause characteristic irradiation effects on a solid surface, have a possibility of establishing a new ion irradiation technique for high-sensitivity surface analysis and innovative surface modification. However, the mechanism of cluster irradiation effects has not been understood completely. We have focused on the charge reduction effect in some physical phenomena and performed a quantitative evaluation of the relationship between the charge state and the interatomic distance of the constituent ions moving in the solid. This technique is based on the refined analysis of the divergence angle of the constituent ions resulting from the foil-induced dissociation of the two-atomic molecular ion. The results derived from this analytical approach clearly showed the correlation between the average charge and the interatomic distance of the constituent ions and implied that the average charge of the constituent ions emerging from the foil varies according to the interatomic distance at the instant of cluster dissociation.

  6. Metabolic Inflammation-Differential Modulation by Dietary Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Claire L; Kennedy, Elaine B; Roche, Helen M

    2016-04-27

    Obesity arises from a sustained positive energy balance which triggers a pro-inflammatory response, a key contributor to metabolic diseases such as T2D. Recent studies, focused on the emerging area of metabolic-inflammation, highlight that specific metabolites can modulate the functional nature and inflammatory phenotype of immune cells. In obesity, expanding adipose tissue attracts immune cells, creating an inflammatory environment within this fatty acid storage organ. Resident immune cells undergo both a pro-inflammatory and metabolic switch in their function. Inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and IL-1β, are induced by saturated fatty acids and disrupt insulin signaling. Conversely, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids do not interrupt metabolism and inflammation to the same extent. AMPK links inflammation, metabolism and T2D, with roles to play in all and is influenced negatively by obesity. Lipid spillover results in hepatic lipotoxicity and steatosis. Also in skeletal muscle, excessive FFA can impede insulin's action and promote inflammation. Ectopic fat can also affect pancreatic β-cell function, thereby contributing to insulin resistance. Therapeutics, lifestyle changes, supplements and dietary manipulation are all possible avenues to combat metabolic inflammation and the subsequent insulin resistant state which will be explored in the current review.

  7. Metabolic Inflammation-Differential Modulation by Dietary Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L. Lyons

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity arises from a sustained positive energy balance which triggers a pro-inflammatory response, a key contributor to metabolic diseases such as T2D. Recent studies, focused on the emerging area of metabolic-inflammation, highlight that specific metabolites can modulate the functional nature and inflammatory phenotype of immune cells. In obesity, expanding adipose tissue attracts immune cells, creating an inflammatory environment within this fatty acid storage organ. Resident immune cells undergo both a pro-inflammatory and metabolic switch in their function. Inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and IL-1β, are induced by saturated fatty acids and disrupt insulin signaling. Conversely, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids do not interrupt metabolism and inflammation to the same extent. AMPK links inflammation, metabolism and T2D, with roles to play in all and is influenced negatively by obesity. Lipid spillover results in hepatic lipotoxicity and steatosis. Also in skeletal muscle, excessive FFA can impede insulin’s action and promote inflammation. Ectopic fat can also affect pancreatic β-cell function, thereby contributing to insulin resistance. Therapeutics, lifestyle changes, supplements and dietary manipulation are all possible avenues to combat metabolic inflammation and the subsequent insulin resistant state which will be explored in the current review.

  8. Cytotoxic Constituents from the Rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Abdalla Ahmed Hamdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma zedoaria also known as Temu putih is traditionally used in food preparations and treatment of various ailments including cancer. The cytotoxic activity of hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and the methanol-soxhlet extracts of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes was tested on two human cancer cell lines (Ca Ski and MCF-7 and a noncancer cell line (HUVEC using MTT assay. Investigation on the chemical components in the hexane and dichloromethane fractions gave 19 compounds, namely, labda-8(17,12 diene-15,16 dial (1, dehydrocurdione (2, curcumenone (3, comosone II (4, curcumenol (5, procurcumenol (6, germacrone (7, zerumbone epoxide (8, zederone (9, 9-isopropylidene-2,6-dimethyl-11-oxatricyclo[6.2.1.01,5]undec-6-en-8-ol (10, furanodiene (11, germacrone-4,5-epoxide (12, calcaratarin A (13, isoprocurcumenol (14, germacrone-1,10-epoxide (15, zerumin A (16, curcumanolide A (17, curcuzedoalide (18, and gweicurculactone (19. Compounds (1–19 were evaluated for their antiproliferative effect using MTT assay against four cancer cell lines (Ca Ski, MCF-7, PC-3, and HT-29. Curcumenone (3 and curcumenol (5 displayed strong antiproliferative activity (IC50=8.3±1.0 and 9.3±0.3 μg/mL, resp. and were found to induce apoptotic cell death on MCF-7 cells using phase contrast and Hoechst 33342/PI double-staining assay. Thus, the present study provides basis for the ethnomedical application of Curcuma zedoaria in the treatment of breast cancer.

  9. Cytotoxic constituents from the rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Hamdi, Omer Abdalla; Syed Abdul Rahman, Syarifah Nur; Awang, Khalijah; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Looi, Chung Yeng; Thomas, Noel Francis; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma zedoaria also known as Temu putih is traditionally used in food preparations and treatment of various ailments including cancer. The cytotoxic activity of hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and the methanol-soxhlet extracts of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes was tested on two human cancer cell lines (Ca Ski and MCF-7) and a noncancer cell line (HUVEC) using MTT assay. Investigation on the chemical components in the hexane and dichloromethane fractions gave 19 compounds, namely, labda-8(17),12 diene-15,16 dial (1), dehydrocurdione (2), curcumenone (3), comosone II (4), curcumenol (5), procurcumenol (6), germacrone (7), zerumbone epoxide (8), zederone (9), 9-isopropylidene-2,6-dimethyl-11-oxatricyclo[6.2.1.0(1,5)]undec-6-en-8-ol (10), furanodiene (11), germacrone-4,5-epoxide (12), calcaratarin A (13), isoprocurcumenol (14), germacrone-1,10-epoxide (15), zerumin A (16), curcumanolide A (17), curcuzedoalide (18), and gweicurculactone (19). Compounds (1-19) were evaluated for their antiproliferative effect using MTT assay against four cancer cell lines (Ca Ski, MCF-7, PC-3, and HT-29). Curcumenone (3) and curcumenol (5) displayed strong antiproliferative activity (IC50 = 8.3 ± 1.0 and 9.3 ± 0.3 μg/mL, resp.) and were found to induce apoptotic cell death on MCF-7 cells using phase contrast and Hoechst 33342/PI double-staining assay. Thus, the present study provides basis for the ethnomedical application of Curcuma zedoaria in the treatment of breast cancer.

  10. Identification of Nematicidal Constituents of Notopterygium incisum Rhizomes against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Gai Liu; Daowan Lai; Qi Zhi Liu; Ligang Zhou; Zhi Long Liu

    2016-01-01

    During a screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, the ethanol extract of Notopterygium incisum rhizomes was found to possess strong nematicidal activity against the two species of nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Meloidogyne incognita. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the four constituents were isolated from the ethanol extract and identified as columbianetin, falcarindiol, falcarinol, and isoimperatorin. Among the four isolated constituents, tw...

  11. BIODETERIORATION OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS IN DRUG TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS LINN. ROOTS DUE TO SPOILAGE OF FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rashidi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Total 15 fungi were obtained to be associated with the roots of Tribulus terrestris Linn. Roots stored at different relative humidities 30, 50, 75, 96 and 100% RH for 90 days. Quantitative estimation of main chemical constituents such as phenols, proteins, alkaloids, glycosides and sugars in relation to association of fungi were done. The drug stored at above 75% relative humidity showed maximum percentage incidence of fungi as well as deterioration of chemical constituents.

  12. Therapeutic Implications of Black Seed and Its Constituent Thymoquinone in the Prevention of Cancer through Inactivation and Activation of Molecular Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad H. Rahmani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cancer is probably the most dreaded disease in both men and women and also major health problem worldwide. Despite its high prevalence, the exact molecular mechanisms of the development and progression are not fully understood. The current chemotherapy/radiotherapy regime used to treat cancer shows adverse side effect and may alter gene functions. Natural products are generally safe, effective, and less expensive substitutes of anticancer chemotherapeutics. Based on previous studies of their potential therapeutic uses, Nigella sativa and its constituents may be proved as good therapeutic options in the prevention of cancer. Black seeds are used as staple food in the Middle Eastern Countries for thousands of years and also in the treatment of diseases. Earlier studies have shown that N. sativa and its constituent thymoquinone (TQ have important roles in the prevention and treatment of cancer by modulating cell signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the role of N. sativa and its constituents TQ in the prevention of cancer through the activation or inactivation of molecular cell signaling pathways.

  13. Anti-Oxidative Constituents of Ethanol Extract from Buckwheat Seeds by HPLC-Electro-Spray MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ya-ping; TIAN Cheng-rui; CAO Wei

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates major anti-oxidative constituents of ethanol extracts from the seeds of common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat.Ethanol extracts from buckwheat seeds were arranged to react with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)free radical.HPLC was used to identify anti-oxidative constituents of the ethanol extracts,and electro-spray MS was used,to characterize the structures of these identified anti-oxidative constituents to confirm them.The ethanol extracts of common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat seeds both had DPPH free radical-scavenging effect;HPLC analysis showed that the ethanol extracts of both common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat seeds presented two main anti-oxidation peaks,which cOrrespondingly had same chromatographic retention times and spectral information;electro-spray MS analysis showed that the molecular weights and MS fragmentation patterns of the anti-oxidative constituents in the ethanol extracts from buckwheat seeds were the same as those of rutin and quercetin in the control samples.HPLC- MS/MS was capable of being used to rapidly identify anti-oxidative constituents in the extract of buckwheat seeds,and the main anti-oxidative constituents of buckwheat seed extract were mainly rutin and quercetin,and the anti-oxidative activity of quercetin was higher than that of rutin.

  14. Surface modification influencing adsorption of red wine constituents: The role of functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A.

    2016-11-01

    The adsorption of wine constituents at solid surfaces is important in applications such as filtration and membrane fouling, binding to tanks and fittings and interactions with processing aids such as bentonite. The interaction of wine constituents with surfaces is mediated through adsorbed wine components, where the type of constituents, amount, orientation, and conformation are of consequence for the surface response. This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of red wine constituents. Plasma-polymerized films rich in amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, formyl and methyl functional groups were generated on solid substrates whereas, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride was covalently attached to allylamine plasma-polymer modified surface and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) was electrostatically adsorbed to an amine plasma-polymerized surface. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ability of different substrates to adsorb red wine constituents was evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that substrates modified with -SO3H and -COOH groups can adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds whereas -NH2 and -NR3 groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. Red wine constituents after filtration were adsorbed in higher extend on -NR3 and -CHO surfaces. The -OH modified surfaces had the lowest ability to absorb wine components.

  15. Effect of coffee reduction on constituent concentration in an energy-efficient process of ultrasonic extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Cheng-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is one of the popular beverage; its constituents include caffeine, oxidation resistant aromatic constituents, protein, tannin, and fat. It is indicated in literatures that a proper amount of coffee stimulates the brain and enhances memory, but excessive coffee causes negative results, such as coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, heart disease and kidney disease. This study used high-performance ultrasonic process to discuss the effect of pulverized coffee reduction on the constituent concentration. It further compared the constituent concentrations obtained in different extraction periods. The experimental results show that the coffee aroma constituents can be extracted effectively by ultrasonic process without any organic solvent, and the constituent concentration does not decrease with the addition of pulverized coffee. Therefore, the consumption of pulverized coffee can be reduced greatly by using the proposed. The time of extraction process can be shortened, so as to save energy. The most important point is to reduce the enterprises manufacturing cost and to increase the profit.

  16. Counting constituents in molecular complexes by fluorescence photon antibunching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, S; Laurence, T; Hollars, C; Huser, T

    2007-04-17

    Modern single molecule fluorescence microscopy offers new, highly quantitative ways of studying the systems biology of cells while keeping the cells healthy and alive in their natural environment. In this context, a quantum optical technique, photon antibunching, has found a small niche in the continuously growing applications of single molecule techniques to small molecular complexes. Here, we review some of the most recent applications of photon antibunching in biophotonics, and we provide a guide for how to conduct photon antibunching experiments at the single molecule level by applying techniques borrowed from time-correlated single photon counting. We provide a number of new examples for applications of photon antibunching to the study of multichromophoric molecules and small molecular complexes.

  17. Cytototoxic constituents from the bark of Chisocheton cumingianus (Meliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katja, Dewa Gede; Farabi, Kindi; Nurlelasari; Harneti, Desi; Mayanti, Tri; Supratman, Unang; Awang, Khalijah; Hayashi, Hideo

    2017-02-01

    A new lanostane-type triterpenoid, 3β-hydroxy-25-ethyl-lanost-9(11),24(24')-diene (1), along with 3β-hydroxy-lanost-7-ene (2) and β-sitosterol-3-O-acetate (3) was isolated from the stem bark of C. cumingianus. The chemical structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. All of the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against P-388 murine leukemia cells. Compounds 1-3 showed cytotoxicity against P-388 murine leukemia cells with IC50 values of 28.8 ± 0.10, 4.29 ± 0.03, and 100.18 ± 0.16 μg/ml, respectively.

  18. Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones and other constituents of Centaurea omphalotricha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolli, El Hadj; Leon, Francisco; Benayache, Samir, E-mail: jfleon@ipna.csic.es, E-mail: sbenayache@yahoo.com [Laboratoire de Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles et Synthese de Substances Bioactives, Equipe Associee a l' A.N.D.R.S., Universite Mentouri, Constantine (Algeria); Benayache, Fadila [Laboratoire de Phytochimie et Analyses Physico-Chimiques et Biologiques, Universite Mentouri, Constantine (Algeria); Estevez, Sara; Quintana, Jose; Estevez, Francisco [Departamento de Bioquimica, Unidad Asociada al CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigacion del Cancer, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Gran Canaria (Spain); Brouard, Ignacio; Bermejo, Jaime [Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2012-05-15

    Phytochemical research of the aerial parts of Centaurea omphalotricha led to the isolation of three new sesquiterpene lactones, 4'-acetyl cynaropicrin, 4'-acetyl cebellin F and 15-acetyl dehydromelitensin, together with twelve known compounds, seven sesquiterpene lactones, two isoprenoids and three flavonoids. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by means of extensive 1D and 2D NMR, and MS, and by comparison with reported data in the literature. The effect of sesquiterpene lactones on the viability of the human tumor cell lines HL-60 and U937 was also investigated and 3-acetyl cynaropicrin, and 4'-acetyl cynaropicrin were found to be the most cytotoxic compounds against human leukemia cells with an IC{sub 50} values of 2.0 =- 0.9 and 5.1 +- 0.4 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  19. Constituents from the bark resin of Schinus molle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Rodolfo Malca-García

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A total of five terpenes was isolated from the bark resin of Schinus molle L., Anacardiaceae, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Among these compounds the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon terebinthene showed significant growth inhibitory activity against human colon carcinoma HCT-116 cells. Furthermore, terebinthene and pinicolic acid (5 also showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633.

  20. Ceramides and cytotoxic constituents from Ficus glumosa Del. (Moraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nana, Frederic; Sandjo, Louis Pergaud; Keumedjio, Felix; Ambassa, Pantaleon [Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde (Cameroon); Malik, Rizwana [H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi (Pakistan); Kuete, Victor; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal [Department of Biochemistry, University of Dschang, Dschang (Cameroon); Rincheval, Vincent [Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire Batiment Fermat, University of Versailles, St Quentin-en-Yvelines (France); Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Traditional Pharmacopeia, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2012-03-15

    Chemical investigation of the stem bark of Ficus glumosa (Moraceae) yielded two new ceramides (2R,7E)-2-hydroxy-N-[(2S,3S,4R)-1,3,4-trihydroxyhexadecan-2-yl] hexacos-7-enamide and (2R)-N-{l_brace}(2S,3S,4R,9Z)-1-O-[({beta}-D-glucopyranosyl]-3,4-dihydroxyheptadec -9-en-2-yl{r_brace}-2-hydroxypentacosanamide together with twenty one known compounds. The structures were established using NMR data, mass spectrometry, chemical transformation and by comparison with the reported data. Twenty one compounds were further tested against the prostate cancer PC-3 cell line and six of them revealed cytotoxic effect. Dongnoside E was the most active compound with an IC{sub 50} 0.75 {mu}mol L{sup -1}against the cancer cells line PC-3 while the reference drug doxorubicin displayed 0.91 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. This compound also proved to inhibit the cell growth of the fibrosarcoma cancer HT1080 (IC{sub 50} 0.7 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). (author)

  1. Phenolic constituents, hepatoprotective and cytotoxic activities of Pluchea dioscoridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Abdelhamed Eltoumy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The hepatoprotective effect of aqueous ethanol extract of Pluchea dioscoridis aerial parts was investigated against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. The hepatoprotective activity of P. dioscoridis was evaluated by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes activities: aspartat amino transferase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and gamaglutamyl (γ-GT. The histological studies were also carried out to support the above parameters. Administration of P. dioscoridis (100 mg/kg markedly prevented CCl4 –indeduced elevation of serum AST, ALT, ALP and γ-GT activities. A phytochemical study of P. dioscoridis resulted in the isolation of Kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside (1, Quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside (Rutin (2, 5, 7, 4ʼ-trihydroxy 8-C-glucopyranoside (vitexin (3, 5, 7, 4ʼ-trihydroxy 6-C-glucopyranoside (isovitexin (4, Quercetin-3-O-α-L- rhamnopyranoside (5, Kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (6, Quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (7, Kaempferol (8 and Quercetin (9. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by chromatography, UV and 1D/2D 1H/13C NMR spectroscopy.  Hepatoprotective effect of P. dioscoridis is probably due to combined action of flavonoids. The cytotoxicity of the aqueous ethanol extract was tested against five human tumor cell lines namely; HCT116, MCF7, HepG2, HeLa and HEp2. The extract showed the highest activity against human epidermoid larynx carcinoma cells (HEp2 cell line with IC50 of 10.2 µg/ml.Industrial Relevance. Natural products of plant origin are important sources for the discovery of new drugs. The outcome of our study depicts the potential of the aqueous ethanolic extract of P. dioscoridis as anticancer and hepatoprotective agent. The obtained data suggests that P. dioscoridis extract showed a potent cell growth inhibition activity on all tested cancer cell lines, in a dose

  2. Chemical Constituents of the Root of Jasminum giraldii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qibing Mei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new compounds, ethylconiferin (1 and (−-lariciresinol 4-(6'''-O-cinnamyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (2, along with the three known compounds (+-pinoresinol (3, (+-cycloolivil (4, nobiletin (5, were isolated from the root of Jasminum girialdii. All these compounds were isolated for the first time from this source. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxic activity of these compounds was evaluated. The results showed that none of the compounds had any significant inhibitory activities on the proliferation of HCT-116 and SW-620 cells.

  3. Cytotoxic Constituents from bark and leaves of Amyris pinnata Kunth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Cuca-Suarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From leaves and bark of Amyris pinnata Kunth twelve compounds were isolated, corresponding to six lignans 1-6, three coumarins 7-9, a sesquiterpene 10, an oxazole alkaloid 11, and a prenylated flavonoid 12,. Metabolites were identified by spectroscopic techniques ( 1H and 13C NMR, EIMS and by comparison with published data in the literature. C ytotoxicity against leukemia, solid tumors, and normal cells was evaluated for all isolated compounds. Lignans were found to be the most cytotoxic compounds occurring in A. pinnata.

  4. Chemical constituents, anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil from Anaphalis lacteal grown in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-Jun; Liao, Zhi-Xin; Liu, Chao; Sun, Jin-Yue

    2015-01-01

    The chemical constituent of the essential oil from Anaphalis lacteal was determined; 31 compounds, representing 93.91% of the total oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Three Gram-positive bacteria species, three Gram-negative bacteria species and four fungi were used to determine antimicrobial activity; the results revealed that the essential oil had a remarkable antimicrobial effect against bacteria and a susceptive effect against fungus. The oil also possessed more efficient free-radical scavenging activities than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value 31 μg/mL (40 μg/mL for BHT). MTT assay illustrated that the oil expressed certain effect in inhibiting the growth of HeLa and Hep-6 cancer cells.

  5. Activity-guided isolation of constituents of Tephrosia purpurea with the potential to induce the phase II enzyme, quinone reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L C; Gerhäuser, C; Song, L; Farnsworth, N R; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D

    1997-09-01

    An isoflavone, 7,4'-dihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyisoflavone (1), and a chalcone, (+)-tephropurpurin (2), both novel compounds, as well as six constituents of known structure, (+)-purpurin (3), pongamol (4), lanceolatin B (5), (-)-maackiain (6), (-)-3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-8,9-methylene-dioxypterocarpan (7), and (-)-medicarpin (8), were obtained as active compounds from Tephrosia purpurea, using a bioassay based on the induction of quinone reductase (QR) activity with cultured Hepa 1c1c7 mouse hepatoma cells. Additionally, three inactive compounds of known structure, 3'-methoxydaidzein, desmoxyphyllin B, and 3,9-dihydroxy-8-methoxycoumestan, were isolated and identified. The structure elucidation of compounds 1 and 2 was carried out by spectral data interpretation.

  6. AMD-associated genes encoding stress-activated MAPK pathway constituents are identified by interval-based enrichment analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul SanGiovanni

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether common DNA sequence variants within groups of genes encoding elements of stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways are, in aggregate, associated with advanced AMD (AAMD. METHODS: We used meta-regression and exact testing methods to identify AAMD-associated SNPs in 1177 people with AAMD and 1024 AMD-free elderly peers from 3 large-scale genotyping projects on the molecular genetics of AMD. SNPs spanning independent AAMD-associated genomic intervals were examined with a multi-locus-testing method (INRICH for enrichment within five sets of genes encoding constituents of stress-activated MAPK signaling cascades. RESULTS: Four-of-five pathway gene sets showed enrichment with AAMD-associated SNPs; findings persisted after adjustment for multiple testing in two. Strongest enrichment signals (P = 0.006 existed in a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK/MAPK cascade (Science Signaling, STKE CMP_10827. In this pathway, seven independent AAMD-associated regions were resident in 6 of 25 genes examined. These included sequence variants in: 1 three MAP kinase kinase kinases (MAP3K4, MAP3K5, MAP3K9 that phosphorylate and activate the MAP kinase kinases MAP2K4 and MAP2K7 (molecules that phosphorylate threonine and tyrosine residues within the activation loop of JNK; 2 a target of MAP2K7 (JNK3A1 that activates complexes involved in transcriptional regulation of stress related genes influencing cell proliferation, apoptosis, motility, metabolism and DNA repair; and 3 NR2C2, a transcription factor activated by JNK1A1 (a drugable molecule influencing retinal cell viability in model systems. We also observed AAMD-related sequence variants resident in genes encoding PPP3CA (a drugable molecule that inactivates MAP3K5, and two genes (TGFB2, TGFBR2 encoding factors involved in MAPK sensing of growth factors/cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Linkage disequilibrium (LD-independent genomic enrichment analysis yielded

  7. Surface modification influencing adsorption of red wine constituents: The role of functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka, E-mail: agnieszka.mierczynska-vasilev@awri.com.au; Smith, Paul A., E-mail: paul.smith@awri.com.au

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Chemical surface composition affects behaviour of wine adsorption. • SO{sub 3}H and COOH groups adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds. • NH{sub 2} and NR{sub 3} groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. • Red wine constituents after filtration adsorbed more on NR{sub 3} and CHO surfaces. - Abstract: The adsorption of wine constituents at solid surfaces is important in applications such as filtration and membrane fouling, binding to tanks and fittings and interactions with processing aids such as bentonite. The interaction of wine constituents with surfaces is mediated through adsorbed wine components, where the type of constituents, amount, orientation, and conformation are of consequence for the surface response. This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of red wine constituents. Plasma-polymerized films rich in amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, formyl and methyl functional groups were generated on solid substrates whereas, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride was covalently attached to allylamine plasma-polymer modified surface and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) was electrostatically adsorbed to an amine plasma-polymerized surface. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ability of different substrates to adsorb red wine constituents was evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that substrates modified with −SO{sub 3}H and –COOH groups can adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds whereas −NH{sub 2} and −NR{sub 3} groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. Red wine constituents after filtration were adsorbed in higher extend on −NR{sub 3} and –CHO surfaces. The –OH modified surfaces had the lowest ability to absorb wine components.

  8. Bioactive constituents from Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. and Rhus coriaria L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marawan M Shabana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The leaf ethanol extract of Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. has evidenced medicinal value due to its hepatoprotective activity. It demonstrated inhibitory effects on test standard microbes approximated to 40% the potency of ofloxacin and fluconazole. The same extract evidenced in vitro cytotoxicity on human cell lines, liver carcinoma HEPG2, larynx carcinoma HEP2, and colon carcinoma HCT116 cell lines when compared to doxorubicin. Materials and Methods: Fractionation of the leaf ethanol extract led to the isolation of the polyphenols, ethyl gallate, and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, a hydrocarbon, hendecane, the fatty acid ester, methyl linoleate, and four triterpenoids, betulonic acid, 3-acetyl-methyl betulinate, lupenone and lupeol for the first time, in addition to the previously reported phenol acids and flavonoids, gallic acid, methyl gallate, quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-galactoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside. Results: The ethanol extract of the fruit of the genetically related Rhus coriaria L., known as sumac, afforded protocatechuic acid, isoquercitrin, and myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside from the fruits for the first time, in addition to the previously reported phenol acids and flavonoids, gallic acid, methyl gallate, kaempferol, and quercetin. Conclusion: The leaf ethanol extract of H. caffrum Bernh. exhibited variable anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities, besides the hepatoprotective, in vitro cytotoxic and anti-microbial activities.

  9. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, a constituent of a herbal medicine from Boswellia serrata resin, attenuates experimental ileitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieglstein, C F; Anthoni, C; Rijcken, E J; Laukötter, M; Spiegel, H U; Boden, S E; Schweizer, S; Safayhi, H; Senninger, N; Schürmann, G

    2001-04-01

    The gum resin extract from Boswellia serrata (H15), an herbal product, was recently shown to have positive therapeutic effects in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanisms and constituents responsible for these effects are poorly understood. This study examined the effect of the Boswellia extract and its single constituent acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in an experimental model of IBD. Ileitis was induced by two subcutaneous injections of indomethacin (7.5 mg/kg) in Sprague-Dawley rats 24 h apart. Rats also received oral treatment with the Boswellia extract (H15) or AKBA at two different doses (low and high) equivalent to recommendations in human disease over 2 days. Controls received only the carriers NaHCO3 (subcutaneously) and tylose (orally). Effects of treatment were assessed by intravital microscopy in ileal submucosal venules for changes in the number of rolling and adherent leukocytes and by macroscopic and histological scoring. Increased leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesive interactions and severe tissue injury accompanied indomethacin-induced ileitis. Treatment with the Boswellia extract or AKBA resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in rolling (up to 90%) and adherent (up to 98%) leukocytes. High-dose Boswellia extract as well as both low- and high-dose AKBA significantly attenuated tissue injury scores. Oral therapy with the Boswellia extract or AKBA significantly reduces macroscopic and microcirculatory inflammatory features normally associated with indomethacin administration, indicating that the anti-inflammatory actions of the Boswellia extract in IBD may be due in part to boswellic acids such as AKBA.

  10. In vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic and Radical Scavenging Activities and Chemical Constituents of the Endemic Thymus laevigatus (Vahl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Al-Fatimi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Thymus laevigatus (Vahl, Lamiaceae (Labiatae, an endemic species of Yemen, are traditionally used in the treatment of various disorders including stomach and respiratory system. In a first biological and chemical study of this endemic species we investigated antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of different extracts of the leaves of this plant. The preliminary phytochemical screening of extracts composition was performed by TLC while the composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Twelve constituents were detected from the essential oil, which constituted 99.6 % of the total amount. The major constituents of the oil were: carvacrol (84.3 %, p-cymene (4.1 % p-mentha-1, 4-diene (4.0 % and trans-anethole (3.6%. The main active components were identified by TLC as carvacrol and anethole for dichloromethane extract and as non-volatile phenols and flavonoids for the methanol extract. The methanol, dichloromethane and aqueous extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activities against five bacteria strains and six human pathogenic fungi. Both methanol and dichloromethane showed strong activities against most human pathogenic strains. In the contrast, methanol extract showed broader and stronger antibacterial activities than the dichloromethane extract, especially against the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The methanol extract showed the same strong radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay (14.9mg/ml, when compared to the standard antioxidant, ascorbic acid. In contrast, the cytotoxic activity of the methanol against FL cells, a human amniotic epithelial cell line, was only moderate (IC50 298, 8 mg/ml. On the contrary, the water extract did not show any biological activity. Results presented here suggest that the essential oil and extracts of Thymus laevigatus possess strong antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and therefore, they can be used as a natural preservative ingredient

  11. The effect of glucantime on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, Cecilia Maria Carvalho Xavier [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias. Dept. de Microbiologia e Parasitologia]. E-mail: cechol@ufrnet.br; Leite, Rodrigo Carvalho Holanda [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Curso Medico; Catanho, Maria Teresa Jansem; Souza, Grace Maria Lima [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: The labeling of red blood cells (C) with {sup 99m}Tc is employed in clinical nuclear medicine for a variety of diagnostic procedures. Drugs can alter this labeling method and modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceuticals. In this paper, the influence of glucan time on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was reported. Methods: Blood was withdrawn from rats and incubated with glucan time. Stannous chloride and {sup 99m}Tc were added. After centrifugation, plasma (P) and (C) were isolated. Samples of P and C were precipitated with TCA 5%, centrifuged and insoluble (IF) and soluble fractions (SF) separated. The percentages of total activity injected (%ATI) in C, IF-P and IF-C were calculated (p<0.05). Results: The %ATI on C decreased from control to following concentrations of glucan time (6.25%;12.5%;25%;50%;100%), respectively: 94.06{+-}1.29 (control) to 77.15{+-}2.79; to 76.68 {+-}1.88; to 75.15{+-}2.79; to 72.64{+-}4.40 and to 63.05{+-}3.84. On IF-C the %ATI decreased from control to all the concentrations of glucan time (3.125%;6.25%;12.5%;25%;50%; 100%), respectively: 93.34{+-}1.18 (control) to 78.81{+-}2.76; to 74.76{+-}4.82; to 74.02{+-}5.32; to 64.35{+-}4.82; to 62.81{+-}1.97 and to 54.55{+-}3.58. Conclusions: This effect was probably due to products present in this drug that may complex with ions (Sn{sup +2} and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) or have a direct or indirect effect on intracellular stannous ion concentration. (author)

  12. Chemical constituents and sources of ambient particulate air pollution and biomarkers of endothelial function in a panel of healthy adults in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Shaowei; Yang, Di; Pan, Lu; Shan, Jiao; Li, Hongyu; Wei, Hongying [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China); Wang, Bin [Institute of Reproductive & Child Health, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China); Huang, Jing [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China); Baccarelli, Andrea A. [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Shima, Masayuki [Department of Public Health, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Deng, Furong, E-mail: lotus321321@126.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China); Guo, Xinbiao, E-mail: guoxb@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China)

    2016-08-01

    Background: Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with endothelial dysfunction as reflected by short-term alterations in circulating biomarkers, but the chemical constituents and pollution sources behind the association has been unclear. Methods: We investigated the associations between various ambient air pollutants including gases and 31 chemical constituents and seven sources of fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) and biomarkers of endothelial function, including endothelin-1 (ET-1), E-selectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), based on 462 repeated measurements in a panel of 40 college students who were followed for three study periods before and after relocating from a suburban area to an urban area in Beijing, China in 2010–2011. Air pollution data were obtained from central air-monitoring stations. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the changes in biomarkers associated with exposures. Results: Total PM{sub 2.5} mass showed few appreciable associations with examined biomarkers. However, several PM{sub 2.5} constituents and related sources showed significant associations with examined biomarkers. PM{sub 2.5} from dust/soil and several crustal and transition metals, including strontium, iron, titanium, cobalt and magnesium, were significantly associated with increases in ET-1 at 1-day average; manganese and potassium were significantly associated with increases in ICAM-1 at 2-day average; and PM{sub 2.5} from industry and metal cadmium were significantly associated with decreases in VCAM-1 at 1-day average. In addition, carbon monoxide was significantly associated with increasing ICAM-1 at 1-day and 2-day averages, whereas nitric oxide was significantly associated with decreasing ICAM-1 at 1-day and 3-day averages. Conclusions: Our results suggest that certain PM{sub 2.5} metal constituents were more closely associated with circulating biomarkers of endothelial function

  13. [Triterpenes constituents from male flowers of Eucommia ulmoides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan-Xia; Wang, Teng-Yu; Zhang, Yao-Wen; Huang, Yu-Mei; Ma, Lin; Li, Dong-dong; Dou, De-Qiang; Li, Qin

    2014-11-01

    Nine triterpenes compounds were isolated from the male flowers of Eucommia ulmoides by recrystallization and chromatographic techniques over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and RP-18 gel. Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of spectral analysis and as 3-oxo-12-en-ursane-28-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl (1 --> 6) -β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 2α, 3β-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid(28 --> 1) -β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2), ursolic acid (3), α-amyrin (4), uvaol (5), ursolic acid acetate (6), 3-O-acetate oleanoic acid (7), betulinic acid (8), and betulinol (9). Compound 1 was a new compound, and compounds 2, 4-7 were isolated from the Eucommiu genus for the first time. Cytotoxic activity was tested for all the compounds against K562 and HepG2 cells. The results showed that only compound 3, exhibited cytotoxic activity.

  14. Chemical constituents from the leaves of Juglans mandshurica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Da Lei; Zhang, Chang Hao; Luo, Jie; Jin, Mei; Zheng, Ming Shan; Cui, Jiong Mo; Son, Jong Keun; Li, Gao

    2015-04-01

    Two new (1 and 3) and two known diarylheptanoids (2 and 4), along with two tetralones (5 and 6), one naphthoquinone (7), four phenylpropanoids (8-11), and one phenol (12) were isolated from the leaves of Juglans mandshurica. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical data. Compounds 2 and 10 are firstly isolated from this plant and 8 and 12 were isolated from the Juglans genus for the first time. Among these compounds, only 7 exhibited moderate cytotoxicities against cultured MGC-803, A549, K562, and HeLa tumor cell lines with IC50 values of 25.90, 28.60, 39.06, 44.90 μM, respectively.

  15. Polyphenolic Constituents and Antioxidant Potential of Geranium stepporum Davis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Şöhretoğlu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude MeOH extract prepared from the aerial parts of G. stepporum and its EtOAc, n-BuOH, H 2O subextracts were screened for their inhibitory activity on H 2O 2-induced lipid peroxidation in human red blood cells. The EtOAc subextract was found to be the most active one and its chemical composition was further analysed. Six polyphenolic secondary metabolites including quercetin (1 , rutin (2 , methyl gallate (3 , pusilagin (4 , 1,3,6-tri- O -galloyl- β -glucospyranose (5 and 1,2,3,4,6-penta- O -galloyl- β -glucopyranose (6 were isolated from the EtOAc extract by successive chromatographic methods ( Sephadex CC, silica gel CC and P-TLC. The structures of the isolates were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS. This is the first report of occurrence of hydrolysable tannins in G. stepporum .

  16. Bioactive constituents from the leaves of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakdarat, Santi; Shuyprom, Aussavashai; Pientong, Chamsai; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya; Thongchai, Sasithorn

    2009-03-01

    Three chlorophyll derivatives (phaeophytins) were isolated from the chloroform extract of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves by means of chromatographic techniques and bioactivity-guided fractionation to give three pure compounds. Structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was carried out on the basis of spectral analyses. Three of these were known compounds with structures related to chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b namely 13(2)-hydroxy-(13(2)-R)-phaeophytin b, 13(2)-hydroxy-(13(2)-S)-phaeophytin a and 13(2)-hydroxy-(13(2)-R)-phaeophytin a. These compounds, which have not previously been reported in this plant, were shown to have anti-herpes simplex activity. They exhibited anti-HSV-1F activity at subtoxic concentrations. Their inhibitory activity affected the virus before viral entry to the host cells. This effect might be virucidal or interference with viral adsorption or penetration.

  17. Cytotoxic Constituents from the Leaves of Zanthoxylum schinifolium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhe; Min, Byung Sun; Kim, Ae Kyong; Woo, Mi Hee [Catholic Univ. of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Do Youn; Kim, Young Ho [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The roots, stems, pericarps, and seeds of Z. schinifolium were each extracted with MeOH, and the leaves were extracted with 80% MeOH and concentrated. These extracts were examined on MTT for cytotoxicity against Jurkat T cell clone E6.1. The results showed that the leaves extract had the strongest MTT cytotoxicity. The MeOH extract of Z. schinifolium leaves was subsequently fractionated into four parts: methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water. These fractions were examined on MTT for cytotoxicity. The results showed that the methylene chloride fraction exhibited the strongest MTT cytotoxicity. Chromatographic separation of the methylene chloride and butanol fractions had yielded a quinolin (1), three phenylpropanoids (2, 3, 12), four coumarins (4 ∼ 7), three triterpenoids (8 ∼ 10), an alkaloid (11), an alcohol glucoside (13) and three monoterpene glucosides (14, 15, 16). One of these compounds were identified as new threo-6-amino-5-hydroxy-5-methyl-1,3-oxazinan-4-one (11) together with fifteen known, 3-heptyl-2-methylisoquinolin-1(2H)-one (1), integrifoliodiol (2), cuspidiol (3), bergapten (4), aurapten (5), 8-hydroxy-7-methoxy-chromen-2-one (6), 6,7-dimethoxy-2H-naphthalen-1-one (7), lupeol (8), lupeone (9), β-sitosterol (10), syringin (12), 2-propyl alchol β-D-glucopyranoside (13), vomifoliol-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (14), betulalbuside A (15) and cnidioside C (16) on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidences. All of the compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant except 5 and 7. In the MTT cytotoxicity assay against Jurkat T cell clone E6.1, IC{sub 50} values of cuspidiol (3) and auraptene (5) were obtained at 7.3 μg/mL and 16.5 μg/mL, respectively.

  18. Chemical Constituents from Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Abdel-Sattar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of screening program of Saudi plants for their potential biological activity, the methanolic extract of Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula as well as its different fractions were tested for its possible cytoxicity in prostate cancer (PC3 and colon cancer (HT29 cell lines using the MTT assay. In the present study, three spirostan saponins and one flavonoid glycoside were isolated from the active n-butanol fraction through a bio-guided fractionation approach. Two new saponin glycosides were identified as 23-β-D-glucopyranosyl (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2 and (25R-spirost-5-en-3-ol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3]-β-D-galactopyranoside (3. In addition, two known compounds were also isolated and identified as isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6 β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (4. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on their MS, one dimensional and extensive two dimensional NMR spectral data. Among the isolated metabolites, compound 3 showed the highest cytotoxic activity in both PC3 and HT29 cell lines with an IC 50 values of 14.8 and 19.5 m g/mL, respectively.

  19. Allyl isothiocyanate, a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, inhibits growth of PC-3 human prostate cancer xenografts in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sanjay K; Xiao, Dong; Lew, Karen L; Hershberger, Pamela; Kokkinakis, Demetrius M; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Singh, Shivendra V

    2003-10-01

    We have shown previously that allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, significantly inhibits survival of PC-3 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in culture, whereas proliferation of a normal prostate epithelial cell line is minimally affected by AITC even at concentrations that are highly cytotoxic to the prostate cancer cells. The present studies were designed to test the hypothesis that AITC administration may retard growth of human prostate cancer xenografts in vivo. Bolus i.p. injection of 10 micromol AITC, three times per week (Monday, Wednesday and Friday) beginning the day of tumor cell implantation, significantly inhibited the growth of PC-3 xenograft (P < 0.05 by two-way ANOVA). For example, 26 days after tumor cell implantation, the average tumor volume in control mice (1025 +/- 205 mm3) was approximately 1.7-fold higher compared with AITC-treated mice. Histological analysis of tumors excised at the termination of the experiment revealed a statistically significant increase in number of apoptotic bodies with a concomitant decrease in cells undergoing mitosis in the tumors of AITC-treated mice compared with that of control mice. Western blot analysis indicated an approximately 70% reduction in the levels of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in the tumor lysate of AITC-treated mice compared with that of control mice. Moreover, the tumors from AITC-treated mice, but not control mice, exhibited cleavage of BID, which is known to promote apoptosis. Statistically significant reduction in the expression of several proteins that regulate G2/M progression, including cyclin B1, cell division cycle (Cdc)25B and Cdc25C (44, 45 and 90% reduction, respectively, compared with control), was also observed in the tumors of AITC-treated mice relative to control tumors. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that AITC administration inhibits growth of PC-3 xenografts in vivo by inducing apoptosis and reducing mitotic activity.

  20. Removal of carbon constituents from hospital solid waste incinerator fly ash by column flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanqiao; Wei, Guoxia; Zhang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Hospital solid waste incinerator (HSWI) fly ash contains a large number of carbon constituents including powder activated carbon and unburned carbon, which are the major source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in fly ash. Therefore, the removal of carbon constituents could reduce PCDD/Fs in fly ash greatly. In this study, the effects of the main flotation parameters on the removal of carbon constituents were investigated, and the characteristics of the final product were evaluated. The results showed that loss on ignition (LOI) of fly ash increased from 11.1% to 31.6% during conditioning process. By optimizing the flotation parameters at slurry concentration 0.05 kg/l, kerosene dosage 12 kg/t, frother dosage 3 kg/t and air flow rate 0.06 m(3)/h, 92.7% of the carbon constituents were removed from the raw fly ash. Under these conditions, the froth product has LOI of 56.35% and calorific values of 12.5 MJ/kg, LOI in the tailings was below 5%, and the total toxic equivalent (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs decreased from 5.61 ng-TEQ/g in the raw fly ash to 1.47 ng-TEQ/g in the tailings. The results show that column flotation is a potential technology for simultaneous separation of carbon constituents and PCDD/Fs from HSWI fly ash.

  1. Aromatic constituents in fresh leaves of Lingtou Dancong Tea induced by drought stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Panrong; LIU Chunyan; LIU Kebin

    2007-01-01

    The effect of different degrees of drought stress on the aromatic constituents and their relative contents in fresh leaves ofLingtou Dancong tea plants was studied in this paper.The results showed that drought stress could evidently increase the kinds of aromatic components in the fresh leaves.The largest number of kinds(58)of the aromatic constituents was detected when soil relative water content was 53.90% among all the designed treatments,while the lowest number was found under a soil relative water content of 99.75%.The total amount of relative contents of 17 kinds of aromatic components such as linalool etc.,increased with drought stress,whereas 12 kinds of aromatic components such as tetradecanoic acid etc.,decreased with drought stress. Linalool,linalool oxide,tetradecane, 10-methylnonadecane, and dodecanal showed high contents under the soil relative water content of 53.90%;Cyclohexane,1-hexadecene,and 1tricosanolonly were induced in the soil relative water content of 53.90% and 29.25%;while drought stress could inhibit the synthesis of constituents of 7 kinds such as nonanedioic acid monomethyl ester,etc.Different degrees of drought stress could induce various kinds of aromatic constituents,and the number of aromatic constituents induced in fresh leaves increased with the strengthening of drought stress.

  2. The effect of the extract of Crocus sativus and its constituent safranal, on lung pathology and lung inflammation of ovalbumin sensitized guinea-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, M H; Tabatabaee, A; Byrami, G

    2012-07-15

    Different pharmacological effects of Crocus sativus have been demonstrated on guinea pig tracheal chains in previous studies. In the present study, the prophylactic effect of the extract of C. sativus and its constituent, safranal on lung pathology and total and differential white blood cells (WBC) of sensitized guinea pigs was examined. Guinea pigs were sensitized with injection and inhalation of ovalbumin (OA). One group of sensitized guinea pigs were given drinking water alone (group S) and three groups were given drinking water containing three concentrations of safranal (S+SA1, S+SA2 and S+SA3 groups), three groups, drinking water containing three concentrations of extract (S+CS1, S+CS2 and S+CS3 groups) and one group drinking water containing one concentration of dexamethasone (S+D group) (n=6, for all groups). The lung pathology was evaluated in control, non treated and treated sensitized groups. Total and differential WBC counts of lung lavage were also examined. All pathological indices in group S showed significant increased compared to control group (psativus and its constituent safranal on lung inflammation of sensitized guinea pigs. The results also showed that the effect of the plant is perhaps due to its constituent safranal.

  3. Prioritization of constituents for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Valder, Joshua F.; Carter, Janet M.; Zogorski, John S.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2,541 constituents were evaluated and prioritized for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States. This prioritization was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in preparation for the upcoming third decade (Cycle 3; 2013–23) of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This report provides the methods used to prioritize the constituents and the results of that prioritization. Constituents were prioritized by the NAWQA National Target Analyte Strategy (NTAS) work group on the basis of available information on physical and chemical properties, observed or predicted environmental occurrence and fate, and observed or anticipated adverse effects on human health or aquatic life. Constituents were evaluated within constituent groups that were determined on the basis of physical or chemical properties or on uses or sources. Some constituents were evaluated within more than one constituent group. Although comparable objectives were used in the prioritization of constituents within the different constituent groups, differences in the availability of information accessed for each constituent group led to the development of separate prioritization approaches adapted to each constituent group to make best use of available resources. Constituents were assigned to one of three prioritization tiers: Tier 1, those having the highest priority for inclusion in ambient monitoring of water or sediment on a national or regional scale (including NAWQA Cycle 3 monitoring) on the basis of their likelihood of environmental occurrence in ambient water or sediment, or likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; Tier 2, those having intermediate priority for monitoring on the basis of their lower likelihood of environmental occurrence or lower likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; and Tier 3, those having low or no priority for monitoring on the basis of evidence of nonoccurrence or lack of

  4. Phenolic Constituents of Medicinal Plants with Activity against Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Nan Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs affect over one billion people all over the world. These diseases are classified as neglected because they impact populations in areas with poor financial conditions and hence do not attract sufficient research investment. Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei, is one of the NTDs. The current therapeutic interventions for T. brucei infections often have toxic side effects or require hospitalization so that they are not available in the rural environments where HAT occurs. Furthermore, parasite resistance is increasing, so that there is an urgent need to identify novel lead compounds against this infection. Recognizing the wide structural diversity of natural products, we desired to explore and identify novel antitrypanosomal chemotypes from a collection of natural products obtained from plants. In this study, 440 pure compounds from various medicinal plants were tested against T. brucei by in a screening using whole cell in vitro assays. As the result, twenty-two phenolic compounds exhibited potent activity against cultures of T. brucei. Among them, eight compounds—4, 7, 11, 14, 15, 18, 20, and 21—showed inhibitory activity against T. brucei, with IC50 values below 5 µM, ranging from 0.52 to 4.70 μM. Based on these results, we attempt to establish some general trends with respect to structure-activity relationships, which indicate that further investigation and optimization of these derivatives might enable the preparation of potentially useful compounds for treating HAT.

  5. Chemical constituents from Piper hainanense and their cytotoxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Ni; Xin, Ying; Ling, Yi; Li, Xing-Cong; Hao, Chao-Yun; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Two new compounds, (Z,R)-1-phenylethylcinnamate (1) and (1R,2R,3R,6S)-pipoxide (2) were isolated from the aerial part of Piper hainanense, along with 12 known compounds, including nine benzene derivatives (4-11), one isobutylamide (12), and two polyoxygenated cyclohexene derivatives (13-14). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of the HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, and ECD in cases of 2 and 3. The absolute configuration of ellipeiopsol B (3) was determined for the first time. All these compounds 1-14 were reported from the titled plant for the first time. Most of the isolates were tested for their cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines. Four of which, 2, 3, 9, 14 showed moderate bioactivities. Among them, the new compound 2 showed potential cytotoxicity against SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW-480 with IC50 values of 9.7, 15.0, and 13.2 μM, respectively.

  6. Microscopy Techniques for Analysis of Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Graham J C; Wronski, Zbigniew

    2015-12-01

    With the need for improvements in the performance of rechargeable batteries has come the necessity to better characterize cell electrodes and their component materials. Electron microscopy has been shown to reveal many important features of microstructure that are becoming increasingly important for understanding the behavior of the components during the many charge/discharge cycles required in modern applications. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of how the full suite of techniques available using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy was applied to the case of materials for the positive electrode in nickel metal hydride rechargeable battery electrodes. Embedding and sectioning of battery-grade powders with an ultramicrotome was used to produce specimens that could be readily characterized by TEM. Complete electrodes were embedded after drying, and also after dehydration from the original wet state, for examination by optical microscopy and using focused ion beam techniques. Results of these studies are summarized to illustrate the significance of the microstructural information obtained.

  7. Comparison of the anti-inflammatory active constituents and hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in two Senecio plants and their preparations by LC-UV and LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pinghong; Wang, Yi; Chen, Lulin; Jiang, Wei; Niu, Yan; Shao, Qing; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Quancheng; Yan, Licheng; Wang, Shufang

    2015-11-10

    Two Senecio plants, Senecio cannabifolius Less. and its variety S. cannabifolius Less. var. integrifolius (Kiodz.) Kidam., were both used as the raw material of Feining granule, a traditional Chinese medicine product for treating respiratory diseases. In this study, the chemical profiles of these two plants were investigated and compared by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A total number of 83 constituents, including 55 organic acids, 11 flavonoids, 4 alkaloids, 3 terpenes and 10 other types of compounds, were characterized. The results indicated that the levels of most flavonoids were higher in S. cannabifolius than in S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius, however, the levels of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were higher in S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius than in S. cannabifolius. Fifteen constituents were evaluated on lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced RAW 264.7 cells, and eleven of them showed inhibition effect against nitric oxide (NO) production. Finally, the levels of ten major constituents (including seven anti-inflammatory active ones) and two PAs in Feining granule from two Senecio plants were determined and compared by the LC-UV and LC-MS methods, respectively. It was found that one organic acid (homogentisic acid) and two PAs (seneciphylline and senecionine) had higher contents in the preparation of S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius than in that of S. cannabifolius, however, the situations were inverse for the levels of four organic acids and flavonoids (chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, and isochlorogenic acid B). Based on the above results, S. cannabifolius might be a better raw material for Feining granule than S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius, because it contained more anti-inflammatory constituents and less hepatotoxic PAs than the latter. However, more pharmacological evaluations should be carried out to support the selection. The results in this study were helpful

  8. Chemical constituents of Marrubium vulgare as potential inhibitors of nitric oxide and respiratory burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Farzana; Rasoola, Shagufta; Shah, Zafar Ali; Soomro, Samreen; Jabeen, Almas; Mesaik, M Ahmed; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2014-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the whole plant of Marrubium vulgare L., led to the isolation of three new secondary metabolites, 11-oxomarrubiin (1), vulgarcoside A (2) and 3-hydroxyapigenin-4'-O-(6"-O-p-coumaroyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), along with four known constituents 4-7 from the polar fractions of the methanolic extract. The structures of all compounds were deduced on the basis of NMR data and HRESI-MS measurements. The new constituents 1-3 exhibited moderate to low level of inhibition on nitric oxide (NO.) production. The compound 2 also showed a moderate inhibition on pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. The new constituents 1-3 showed no inhibitory effect on Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Arctium lappa constituents against microorganisms commonly found in endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Juliana Vianna; Bergamo, Débora Cristina Baldoqui; Pereira, José Odair; França, Suzelei de Castro; Pietro, Rosemeire Cristina Linhares Rodrigues; Silva-Sousa, Yara T Corrêa

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated in vitro the antimicrobial activity of rough extracts from leaves of Arctium lappa and their phases. The following microorganisms, commonly found in the oral cavity, specifically in endodontic infections, were used: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. The agar-diffusion method allowed detection of the hexanic phase as an inhibitor of microbial growth. Bioautographic assays identified antimicrobial substances in the extract. The results showed the existence, in the rough hexanic phase and in its fractions, of constituents that have retention factors (Rf) in three distinct zones, thereby suggesting the presence of active constituents with chemical structures of different polarities that exhibited specificity against the target microorganisms. It may be concluded that the Arctium lappa constituents exhibited a great microbial inhibition potential against the tested endodontic pathogens.

  10. Methods of removing a constituent from a feed stream using adsorption media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Troy J.; Mann, Nicholas R.; Todd, Terry A.; Herbst, Ronald S.

    2011-05-24

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  11. Modeling effects of constituents and dispersoids on tensile ductility of aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Min; CHEN Kang-hua; QI Xiong-wei

    2007-01-01

    The modeling effects of constituents and dispersoids on the tensile ductility of aluminum alloy were studied. The results show that the tensile ductility decreases with the increase of the volume fraction and size of constituents. Thus, purification can improve the tensile ductility by decreasing the volume fraction of constituents (normally compositions of Fe and Si) and the first-class microcracks. The model also indicates that the tensile ductility decreases with the increase in the volume fraction of dispersoids. Decreasing the volume fraction of dispersoids along the grain boundaries by proper heat-treatment and improving the cohesion strength between dispersoids and matrix can also improve the tensile ductility by decreasing the volume fraction of the second-class microcracks.

  12. Intravascular photoacoustic detection of vulnerable plaque based on constituent selected imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jian; Xing Da, E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a disease of the large arteries, is the primary cause of heart disease and stroke. Over decades, atherosclerosis is characterized by thickening of the walls of the arteries, only advanced atherosclerotic disease could be observed. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid imaging technique that combines the advantages of high spatial resolution of ultrasound with contrast of optical absorption. In this paper, we present an intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging system to characterize vulnerable plaques by using the optical absorption contrast between different constituents. Epidemiological studies have revealed several important plaque constituents associated with early atherosclerosis, such as macrophage, cholesterol, lipid, calcification, and so on. We chose a section of lipid rich atherosclerosis artery and a section of normal artery as the phantom. Two IVPA images of them are given to show the difference between sick and normal. As a new method of detecting vulnerable plaque, IVPA constituents imaging will provide more details for diagnosis that offer an enticing prospect in early detecting of atherosclerosis.

  13. Chemical-Help Application for Classification and Identification of Stormwater Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.; Driskell, Timothy R.; Nunes, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    A computer application called Chemical Help was developed to facilitate review of reports for the National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS). The application provides a tool to quickly find a proper classification for any constituent in the NDAMS review sheets. Chemical Help contents include the name of each water-quality property, constituent, or parameter, the section number within the NDAMS review sheet, the organizational levels within a classification hierarchy, the database number, and where appropriate, the chemical formula, the Chemical Abstract Service number, and a list of synonyms (for the organic chemicals). Therefore, Chemical Help provides information necessary to research available reference data for the water-quality properties and constituents of potential interest in stormwater studies. Chemical Help is implemented in the Microsoft help-system interface. (Computer files for the use and documentation of Chemical Help are included on an accompanying diskette.)

  14. Smooth muscle relaxant activity of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents: possible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Saffron, Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) is rich in carotenoids and used in traditional medicine for treatment of various conditions such as coughs, stomach disorders, amenorrhea, asthma and cardiovascular disorders. These therapeutic effects of the plant are suggested to be due to its relaxant effect on smooth muscles. The effect of C. sativus and its constituents on different smooth muscles and the underlying mechanisms have been studied. Several studies have shown the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents including safranal, crocin, crocetin and kaempferol on blood vessels. In addition, it was reported that saffron stigma lowers systolic blood pressure. The present review highlights the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents on various smooth muscles. The possible mechanisms of this relaxing effect including activation of ß2-adrenoceptors, inhibition of histamine H1 and muscarinic receptors and calcium channels and modulation of nitric oxide (NO) are also reviewed.

  15. Smooth muscle relaxant activity of Crocus sativus (saffron and its constituents: possible mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mokhtari-Zaer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Saffron, Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus is rich in carotenoids and used in traditional medicine for treatment of various conditions such as coughs, stomach disorders, amenorrhea, asthma and cardiovascular disorders. These therapeutic effects of the plant are suggested to be due to its relaxant effect on smooth muscles. The effect of C. sativus and its constituents on different smooth muscles and the underlying mechanisms have been studied. Several studies have shown the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents including safranal, crocin, crocetin and kaempferol on blood vessels. In addition, it was reported that saffron stigma lowers systolic blood pressure. The present review highlights the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents on various smooth muscles. The possible mechanisms of this relaxing effect including activation of ß2-adrenoceptors, inhibition of histamine H1 and muscarinic receptors and calcium channels and modulation of nitric oxide (NO are also reviewed.

  16. Monitoring degradation of oil sands constituents and foodweb dynamics in aquatic reclamation using stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farwell, A.J.; Butler, B.J.; Dixon, D.G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Mackinnon, M.D. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The process of extracting bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands deposits in northern Alberta generates large volumes of process-affected water with highly toxic constituents such as naphthenic acids. Napthenic acids can biodegrade and become less toxic in reclaimed aquatic systems. This study used stable isotopes to examine the cycling of oil sands constituents in aquatic systems. Benthic invertebrates were collected from test pits at Syncrude Canada Ltd. Dragonflies and damselflies showed trends in carbon 13 depletion and nitrogen 15 enrichment in pits with high levels of process-affected water. Chironomids and amphipods showed only nitrogen 15 enrichment. Carbon 13 depletion suggests invertebrate assimilation and incorporation of oil sands constituents through the microbial foodweb. It is important to define the isotope pathway of naphthenic acid degradation because naphthenic acids could represent a major source of carbon in reclaimed systems.

  17. Anti-hepatitis B virus active constituents from Swertia chirayita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ning-Jia; Geng, Chang-An; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Yun-Bao; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Wang, Ju-Le; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Four new compounds swertiachiralatone A (1), swertiachoside A (2), swertiachirdiol A (3) and swertiachoside B (4), together with twenty-six known ones were isolated from the ethanol extract of Swertia chirayita. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D- and 2D-NMR, HRESIMS, UV, IR and [α]D). All compounds were evaluated for anti-hepatitis B virus (anti-HBV) activities on HepG 2.2.15 cells line in vitro, of which compounds 14 and 19 showed inhibitory activity on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) secretion with IC50 values of 0.31 ± 0.045 and 1.49 ± 0.033 mM; compounds 14 and 28 exhibited activity against hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) secretion with IC50 values of 0.77 ± 0.076 and 5.92 ± 1.02 mM; and eight compounds (8,9,13,14,24-26,29) possessed activity against HBV DNA replication with IC50 values of 0.07-0.33 mM. In particular (+)-cycloolivil-4'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (14) exhibited inhibition not only on the secretions of HBsAg and HBeAg with IC50 values of 0.31 ± 0.045 mM (SI=4.29) and 0.77 ± 0.076 mM (SI=1.75), respectively, but also on HBV DNA replication with an IC50 value of 0.29 ± 0.034 mM (SI=4.66).

  18. Protective Effects of Rosa damascena and Its Active Constituent on Aβ(25–35-Induced Neuritic Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Awale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterized by multiple cognitive deficits and causes progressive neurodegeneration leading eventually to death. The incidence of dementia is increasing worldwide with the increase in ageing population. However, no effective treatment is available yet. It has been hypothesized that drugs activating neurite outgrowth might induce neuronal reconstruction and help in the recovery of brain function. Working on this hypothesis, we recently observed that the chloroform extract of the Rosa damascena significantly induced the neurite outgrowth activity and inhibited the Aβ(25–35-induced atrophy and cell death. Further workup led the isolation of a very long polyunsaturated fatty acid having molecular formula C37H64O2 as an active constituent. The structure of this compound was established by extensive analysis of fragmentations observed in EI-MS mode. The isolated compound protected Aβ(25–35-induced atrophy and displayed strong neurite outgrowth activity. The length of dendrite in the cells treated with this compound were comparable to those of nerve growth factor (NGF treated cells.

  19. Effect of Coleus forskohlii and its major constituents on cytochrome P450 induction

    OpenAIRE

    Hebbani Nagarajappa, Shivaprasad; Pandit, Subrata; Divanji, Manohar; Mariyanna, Bhanumathy; Kumar, Pavan; Godavarthi, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Coleus forskohlii Briq. has been used traditionally for the treatment of several ailments since antiquity in Ayurveda. In the present study, an approach has been made to evaluate the effect of C. forskohlii and its major constituents on cytochrome P450 (CYP3A, CYP2B, and CYP2C) mRNA expression in rat hepatocytes. To gain better understanding of the herb–drug interaction potential of the chemical constituents present in C. forskohlii, the extract was subjected to column chromatography followed...

  20. Indicator bacteria and associated water quality constituents in stormwater and snowmelt from four urban catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galfi, H.; Österlund, H.; Marsalek, J.; Viklander, M.

    2016-08-01

    Four indicator bacteria were measured in association with physico-chemical constituents and selected inorganics during rainfall, baseflow and snowmelt periods in storm sewers of four urban catchments in a northern Swedish city. The variation patterns of coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens concentrations were assessed in manually collected grab samples together with those of phosphorus, nitrogen, solids, and readings of pH, turbidity, water conductivity, temperature and flow rates to examine whether these constituents could serve as potential indicators of bacteria sources. A similar analysis was applied to variation patterns of eight selected inorganics typical for baseflow and stormwater runoff to test the feasibility of using these inorganics to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of inflow into storm sewers. The monitored catchments varied in size, the degree of development, and land use. Catchment and season (i.e., rainy or snowmelt periods) specific variations were investigated for sets of individual stormwater samples by the principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the constituents with variation patterns similar to those of indicator bacteria, and to exclude the constituents with less similarity. In the reduced data set, the similarities were quantified by the clustering correlation analysis. Finally, the positive/negative relationships found between indicator bacteria and the identified associated constituent groups were described by multilinear regressions. In the order of decreasing concentrations, coliforms, E. coli and enterococci were found in the highest mean concentrations during both rainfall and snowmelt generated runoff. Compared to dry weather baseflow, concentrations of these three indicators in stormwater were 10 (snowmelt runoff) to 102 (rain runoff) times higher. C. perfringens mean concentrations were practically constant regardless of the season and catchment. The type and number of

  1. Isolation and structure determination of two new constituents from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Sattar, Fouzia A; Ahmad, Fayaz; Begum, Sabira

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the chemical constituents of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn. have led to the isolation of two new compounds, morinaphthalene (=1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, (1); and morindafurone (=5-hydroxy-1,10b-dihydro-6H-anthra [1,9-bc] furan-6-one, (2); as well as two known constituents, 1,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-9-anthrone (3) and 2,4-dimethoxy-9-anthrone (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis including 2D NMR techniques.

  2. PRIORITY SUPPORT POLICY REGARDING CONSTITUENT ENTITIES BEING THE «ENGINES» OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumayev E. A.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Two principal directions of state regional policy adoption have been considered: «equalization» and support of the «engine» constituent entities. Drawbacks of the priority support policy of the most developed entities have been singled out. Recommendations have been formulated; following them will make it possible to eliminate the revealed drawbacks and to use the priority support of the «engine» constituent entities in the context of the state regional policy adoption as a top-priority. Foreign experience of adopting regional policy has been employed in the course of writing the paper (European Union, China, France.

  3. Novel method for isolation of major phenolic constituents from cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramashivappa, R; Kumar, P P; Vithayathil, P J; Rao, A S

    2001-05-01

    Commercially available cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid (CNSL) mainly contains the phenolic constituents anacardic acid, cardol, and cardanol. These phenolic constituents are themselves heterogeneous, and each of them contains saturated, monoene, diene, and trienes in the fifteen-carbon side chain. This communication describes the separation of anacardic acid, cardol, and cardanol for industrial application. Anacardic acid was selectively isolated as calcium anacardate. The acid-free CNSL was treated with liquor ammonia and extracted with hexane/ethyl acetate (98:2) to separate the mono phenolic component, cardanol. Subsequently, ammonia solution was extracted with ethyl acetate/hexane (80:20) to obtain cardol.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of the Chemical Constituents of Anacardium occidentale Cracked Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Fadeyi *

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The cracked bark of Anacardium occidentale were dried under ambient conditions, chopped into bits and the ethanolic extract of the cracked bark was obtained by cold extraction. Phytochemical screening was conducted to identify the types of secondary metabolites present using standard procedures. The profiles of the chemical constituents present were established using Thin Layer and Column Chromatography methods. Thus, pure chemical constituents were isolated from the cracked bark of Anacardium occidentale. The isolated compounds were characterized using FT-IR and their structures determined using data obtained from GC-MS spectrum.

  5. Effect of a commercial extract of Paullinia cupana (guarana) on the binding of 99mTc-DMSA on blood constituents: An in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, R.S. [Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87 Fundos, 4 Andar, Rio de Janeiro 20551-030 (Brazil); Moreno, S.R.F. [Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87 Fundos, 4 Andar, Rio de Janeiro 20551-030 (Brazil); Lima-Filho, G.L. [Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87 Fundos, 4 Andar, Rio de Janeiro 20551-030 (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S. [Departamento de Farmacologia e Psicobiologia, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87 Fundos, 5 Andar, Rio de Janeiro, 20551-030 (Brazil)]. E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Bernardo-Filho, M. [Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87 Fundos, 4 Andar, Rio de Janeiro 20551-030 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Coordenadoria de Pesquisa, Praca Cruz Vermelha 23, Rio de Janeiro, 20230-130 (Brazil)

    2007-05-15

    We studied the influence of a commercial extract of Paullinia cupana (guarana) on the binding of technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid ({sup 99m}Tc-DMSA) on blood constituents. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) from Wistar rats (control and treated) were separated. P and BC were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or ammonium sulphate (AS) and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) isolated. The percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in each fraction was determined. The treatment influenced the %ATI in IF-P and in IF-BC isolated by TCA precipitation.

  6. Biobased Contents of Natural Rubber Model Compound and Its Separated Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Kunioka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Production of rubber products with biobased constituents from biomass resources is desirable for conserving our planet’s limited resources and preventing global warming. Herein, a natural rubber model compound was produced to determine the biobased contents as per various indices for calculating the amount of biomass resources used in rubber products. The biobased mass and biobased carbon contents of the natural rubber model compound were 38.7% and 39.2%, respectively, which were calculated from the feed amounts of the constituents as per the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/the draft of International Standard (DIS 16620-2 and 16620-4. The model compound was separated into its constituents such as polymer, additive, carbon black, and zinc oxide using ISO 1407, 4650, 7720-2, and 9924-3. The biobased carbon content of this model compound was 37.6%, calculated from the percent of modern carbon (pMC, which was measured directly using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS. The calculated values for this model compound agreed with those calculated from the feed amounts of the constituents. Thus, it was confirmed that these calculation and determination methods of the biobased mass and the biobased carbon contents for rubber products should be published as new ISO international standards after a discussion at technical committee 45, “rubber and rubber products” to evaluate rubber products with larger biobased contents of natural rubber and other biobased ingredients.

  7. Analysis on Volatile Constituents in Leaves and Fruits of Ficus carica by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; TIAN Yu-zeng; SUN Bao-ya; YANG Dan; CHEN Ji-ping; MEN Qi-ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify and analyze the volatile constituents in the leaves and fruits ofFicus carica.Methods Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used.Results The major components detected in volatile oil of the leaves were psoralen (10.12%),β-damascenone (10.17%),benzyl alcohol (4.56%),behenic acid (4.79%),and bergapten (1.99%),etc.The major components detected in volatile oil of the fruits were furfural (10.55%),5-methyl-2-furaldehyde (10.1%),and benzeneacetaldehyde (6.59%),etc.Conclusion A total of 121 volatile constituents are identified in the leaves and 108 in the fruits ofF.carica,among which 103 constituents are identified for the first time in the leaves and 100 in the fruits.Eighteen volatile constituents are identified in both leaves and fruits.

  8. Innovative framework to simulate the fate and transport of nonconservative constituents in urban combined sewer catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, V. M.; Quijano, J. C.; Schmidt, A.; Garcia, M. H.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a probabilistic model to simulate the fate and transport of nonconservative constituents in urban watersheds. The approach implemented here extends previous studies that rely on the geomorphological instantaneous unit hydrograph concept to include nonconservative constituents. This is implemented with a factor χ that affects the transfer functions and therefore accounts for the loss (gain) of mass associated with the constituent as it travels through the watershed. Using this framework, we developed an analytical solution for the dynamics of dissolved oxygen (DO) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in urban networks based on the Streeter and Phelps model. This model breaks down the catchment into a discreet number of possible flow paths through the system, requiring less data and implementation effort than well-established deterministic models. Application of the model to one sewer catchment in the Chicago area with available BOD information proved its ability to predict the BOD concentration observed in the measurements. In addition, comparison of the model with a calibrated Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) of another sewer catchment from the Chicago area showed that the model predicted the BOD concentration as well as the widely accepted SWMM. The developed model proved to be a suitable alternative to simulate the fate and transport of constituents in urban catchments with limited and uncertain input data.

  9. Modeling morphosyntactic agreement in constituency-based parsing of modern Hebrew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsarfaty, R.; Sima'an, K.

    2010-01-01

    We show that naïve modeling of morphosyn-tactic agreement in a Constituency-Based (CB) statistical parsing model is worse than none, whereas a linguistically adequate way of modeling inflectional morphology in CB parsing leads to improved performance. In particular, we show that an extension of the

  10. Arterial mechanics considering the structural and mechanical contributions of ECM constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunjie; Zeinali-Davarani, Shahrokh; Zhang, Yanhang

    2016-08-16

    Considering the organization and engagement behavior of different extracellular matrix (ECM) constituents in the medial and adventitial layer of the arterial wall, in this study, we proposed a new constitutive model of ECM mechanics that considers the distinct structural and mechanical contributions of medial elastin, medial collagen, and adventitial collagen, to incorporate the constituent-specific fiber orientation and the sequential fiber engagement in arterial mechanics. Planar biaxial tensile testing method was used to characterize the orthotropic and hyperelastic behavior of porcine thoracic aorta. Fiber distribution functions of medial elastin, medial collagen, and adventitial collagen were incorporated into the constitutive model. Considering the sequential engagement of ECM constituents in arterial mechanics, a recruitment density function was incorporated into the model to capture the delayed engagement of adventitial collagen. A freely jointed chain model was used to capture the mechanical behavior of elastin and collagen at the fiber level. The tissue-level ECM mechanics was obtained by incorporating fiber distribution, engagement, and elastin and collagen content. The multi-scale constitutive model considering the structural and mechanical contributions of the three major ECM constituents allows us to directly incorporate information obtained from quantitative multi-photon imaging and analysis, and biochemical assay for the prediction of tissue-level mechanical response. Moreover, the model shows promises in fitting and predicting with a small set of material parameters, which has physical meanings and can be related to the structure of the ECM.

  11. Curvature-driven lateral segregation of membrane constituents in Golgi cisternae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derganc, Jure

    2007-12-01

    Lateral segregation of mobile membrane constituents (e.g. lipids, proteins or membrane domains) into the regions of their preferred curvature relaxes stresses in the membrane. The equilibrium distribution of the constituents in the membrane is thus a balance between the gains in the membrane elastic energy and the segregation-induced loss of entropy. The membrane in the Golgi cisternae is particularly susceptible to the curvature-driven segregation because it possesses two very different curvatures—the highly curved membrane in the cisternal rims and the flat membrane in the cisternal sides. In this work, we calculate the extent of lateral segregation in the Golgi cisternae in the case where the segregation is driven by the Helfrich bending energy. It is assumed that the membrane bending constant and spontaneous curvature depend on the local membrane composition. A simple analytical expression for the extent of the lateral segregation is derived. The results show that the segregation depends on the ratio between the bending constant and the thermal energy, the difference of the preferred curvatures of the constituents and the sizes of the constituents. Applying the model to a typical Golgi cisterna, it was found that entropy can effectively limit the extent of the curvature-driven lateral segregation.

  12. Analysis of Evidence Supporting the Educational Leadership Constituent Council 2011 Educational Leadership Program Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Pamela D.; Anderson, Erin; Reynolds, Amy L.; Mawhinney, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    This document analysis provides a summary of the research from high-impact journals published between 2008 and 2013 with the explicit purpose of determining the extent to which the current empirical evidence supports the individual 2011 Educational Leadership Constituent Council Program Standards and their elements. We found that the standards are…

  13. 40 CFR 227.6 - Constituents prohibited as other than trace contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulated under the FWPCA; (5) Known carcinogens, mutagens, or teratogens or materials suspected to be carcinogens, mutagens, or teratogens by responsible scientific opinion. (b) These constituents will be... compounds identified as carcinogens, mutagens, or teratogens for which criteria have not been included...

  14. Effects of ginger and its pungent constituents on transient receptor potential channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Soo; Hong, Chan Sik; Lee, Sang Weon; Nam, Joo Hyun; Kim, Byung Joo

    2016-12-01

    Ginger extract is used as an analeptic in herbal medicine and has been reported to exert antioxidant effects. Transient receptor potential (TRP) canonical 5 (TRPC5), TRP cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7; melastatin 7), and TRP cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1; ankyrin 1) are non-selective cation channels that are modulated by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and subsequently control various cellular processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ginger and its pungent constituents modulate these channels and exert antioxidant effects. It was found that TRPC5 and TRPA1 currents were modulated by ginger extract and by its pungent constituents, [6]-gingerol, zingerone and [6]-shogaol. In particular, [6]-shogaol markedly and dose-dependently inhibited TRPC5 currents with an IC50 of value of ~18.3 µM. Furthermore, the strong dose-dependent activation of TRPA1 currents by [6]-shogaol was abolished by A‑967079 (a selective TRPA1 inhibitor). However, ginger extract and its pungent constituents had no effect on TRPM7 currents. These results suggest the antioxidant effects of ginger extract and its pungent constituents are mediated through TRPC5 and TRPA1, and that [6]-shogaol is predominantly responsible for the regulation of TRPC5 and TRPA1 currents by ginger extract.

  15. Acute effects of dietary constituents on motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-12-01

    Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies.

  16. Geography's American Constituency: Results from the AGS Geographic Knowledge and Values Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Stephanie L.; Dobson, Jerome E.; Wood, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Does geography have an American constituency? Setbacks for the discipline at all levels of education over the past 65 years would suggest that geography is universally unpopular in the United States, but is that really true? The American Geographical Society (AGS) polled adult US residents on their understanding of the discipline itself and…

  17. Development of bioconjugate from Streptomyces tyrosinase and gold nanoparticles for rapid detection of phenol constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, Mazhari Bi Bi; Madhusudhan, D N; Raghavendra, H; Dastager, Syed G; Dayanand, Agsar

    2014-11-01

    Most of the phenol compounds are toxic and have been considered as hazardous pollutants. Several physicochemical and biological methods are available to detect and monitor the phenol pollutants in water and soil. In the present study, phenol constituents of winery, paper and plastic industrial effluents were successfully detected employing tyrosinase-gold nanoparticles bioconjugate. The synthesis of extracellular tyrosinase and gold nanoparticles was achieved by a single isolate of Streptomyces sp. DBZ-39. Enhanced production (369.41 IU) of tyrosinase was produced in submerged bioprocess employing response surface method with central composite design. Extracellular gold nanoparticles synthesized (12-18 nm) by Streptomyces sp. DBZ-39 were characterized with TEM, EDAX and FTIR analysis. A rapid detection (within 10 min) of phenol constituents from winery effluents was achieved by bioconjugate, when compared to tyrosinases and gold nanoparticles independently. Streptomyces tyrosinase could exhibit relatively a better performance than commercially available mushroom tyrosinase in the detection of phenol constituents. Winery effluent has shown much higher content (0.98 O.D) of phenol constituents than paper and plastic effluents based on the intensity of color and U.V absorption spectra.

  18. Anti-Aromatase Activity of the Constituents from Damiana (Turnera diffusa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. Ex Schult) has traditionally been used as an herbal aphrodisiac. Aim of the study: The study was aimed to investigate the anti-aromatse activity and the estrogenic activity of the constituents isolated from T. diffusa. Material and me...

  19. In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts and isolated constituents of Rubus ulmifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzi, L; Caponi, C; Catalano, S; Cioni, P L; Morelli, I

    2002-02-01

    The antimicrobial activity on bacteria and fungi of increasing polarity extracts of Rubus ulmifolius and that of some isolated constituents, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide; kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide, gallic acid, ferulic acid and tiliroside was evaluated. The phenolic and tannins fractions showed an high antimicrobial activity.

  20. Volatile constituents of commercial imported and domestic black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile constituents of commercial black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea) from the United States, Spain, Egypt and Morocco were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dynamic headspace sampling was used to isolate a variety of aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ...

  1. Isolation and chemical characterization of resistant macromolecular constituents in microalgae and marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelin, F.

    1996-01-01

    The recognition of novel, insoluble and non-hydrolysable macromolecular constituents in protective tissues of fresh-water algae and higher plants has had a major impact on our understanding of the origin and fate of sedimentary organic matter (OM) in terrestrial and lacustrine deposits. The investig

  2. Identification of Nematicidal Constituents of Notopterygium incisum Rhizomes against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During a screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, the ethanol extract of Notopterygium incisum rhizomes was found to possess strong nematicidal activity against the two species of nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Meloidogyne incognita. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the four constituents were isolated from the ethanol extract and identified as columbianetin, falcarindiol, falcarinol, and isoimperatorin. Among the four isolated constituents, two acetylenic compounds, falcarindiol and falcarinol (2.20–12.60 μg/mL and 1.06–4.96 μg/mL, respectively exhibited stronger nematicidal activity than two furanocoumarins, columbianetin, and isoimperatorin (21.83–103.44 μg/mL and 17.21–30.91 μg/mL, respectively against the two species of nematodes, B. xylophilus and M. incognita. The four isolated constituents also displayed phototoxic activity against the nematodes. The results indicate that the ethanol extract of N. incisum and its four isolated constituents have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  3. Identification of Nematicidal Constituents of Notopterygium incisum Rhizomes against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gai; Lai, Daowan; Liu, Qi Zhi; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi Long

    2016-09-23

    During a screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, the ethanol extract of Notopterygium incisum rhizomes was found to possess strong nematicidal activity against the two species of nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Meloidogyne incognita. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the four constituents were isolated from the ethanol extract and identified as columbianetin, falcarindiol, falcarinol, and isoimperatorin. Among the four isolated constituents, two acetylenic compounds, falcarindiol and falcarinol (2.20-12.60 μg/mL and 1.06-4.96 μg/mL, respectively) exhibited stronger nematicidal activity than two furanocoumarins, columbianetin, and isoimperatorin (21.83-103.44 μg/mL and 17.21-30.91 μg/mL, respectively) against the two species of nematodes, B. xylophilus and M. incognita. The four isolated constituents also displayed phototoxic activity against the nematodes. The results indicate that the ethanol extract of N. incisum and its four isolated constituents have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  4. A review of current smoke constituent measurement activities and aspects of yield variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkis, Stephen W; Meger, Michael; Wuttke, Roland

    2012-02-01

    An increasing number of initiatives to regulate cigarette smoke constituents beyond 'tar', nicotine and carbon monoxide are being launched. The objective of existing and proposed regulation is presumably either to gain a better understanding of product performance, to be able to discriminate between products, or to impose limits for selected constituents. However, without standardized analytical methods and measurement tolerances a meaningful comparison of data or verification against regulated limits is challenging if not impossible. Hence, an understanding of the validity and limitations of generated data is important for industry and regulators alike to avoid unjustified 'out-of-compliance' situations, and consequent competitive and reputational concerns for manufacturers. This paper reviews smoke constituent regulation and provides examples of technical challenges and good practice. It discusses approaches used to standardize measurements; the role of the International Organization for Standardization; factors influencing result variability and limitations and possible misinterpretations of generated data. If smoke constituents regulation is to be introduced, a standardized, science-based approach must be the pre-requisite for the generation and comparison of data. Potential analytical and technical issues must be resolved in discussion, both before and after the implementation of regulation, to the benefit of the public, regulators and manufacturers.

  5. The flavonoid herbacetin diglucoside as a constituent of the lignan macromolecule from flaxseed hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, K.; Vincken, J.P.; Verhoef, R.P.; Oostveen, van W.H.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Lignans in flaxseed are known to be part of a macromolecule in which they are connected through the linker-molecule hydroxy-methyl-glutaric acid (HMGA). In this study, the lignan macromolecule was extracted from flaxseed hulls and degraded to its monomeric constituents by complete saponification. Be

  6. Constituent quarks and the gluonic contribution to the spin of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldahoumi, Gamal

    2009-01-15

    The internal structure of the nucleon is more complicated than expected in a simple quark model. In particular, the portion of the nucleon spin carried by the spins of the quarks is not, as expected, of the order of one, but according to the experimental data much smaller. In this thesis we study the spin structure of the proton in quantum chromodynamics. The constituent quark model, based on SU(6), predicts that the spin of the proton should be carried by the quarks, in disagreement with the experiments. It appears strange, that the theoretical model works so well for the magnetic moments of the nucleons, but not for the spin, although the spin and the magnetic moments are closely related to each other. We shall resolve this problem by assuming that the constituent quarks have an internal structure on their own. Thus a constituent quark has a dynamical structure, and we can introduce notions like the quark or gluon distributions inside a constituent quark. In the light of new experimental data from HERMES, COMPASS, JLab, and RHIC-spin, the current status of our knowledge of the spin structure is discussed in the two theoretical frameworks: the naive parton model, and the QCD evolved parton model. QCD a is successful theory, both in perturbative and non-perturbative regions, but the spin of the nucleon still needs to be explained within QCD. (orig.)

  7. Principal Leadership: Applying the New Educational Leadership Constituent Council (ELCC) Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, Elaine L.

    This book was written to address the new standards for the preparation and development of school principals, created jointly by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and the Interstate School Leader Licensure Consortium (ISLLC). These standards, known as the Educational Leadership Constituent Council standards,…

  8. Identification of antibacterial and antioxidant constituents of the essential oils of Cynanchum chinense and Ligustrum compactum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lan; Ren, Ji-Xiang; Nan, Hong-Mei; Liu, Bao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the essential oils from Cynanchum chinense and Ligustrum compactum and isolation of antioxidant and antibacterial constituents from the essential oils. Thirty-eight components were identified in essential oils. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, guaiacol, linalool and 2-phenylethanol were isolated and identified as active constituents. Both L. compactum flower oil and 2-phenylethanol showed high antibacterial performance, with inhibition zone from 22.8 ± 0.8 to 11.9 ± 2.0 mm at highest concentration, and minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.25% to 1%. In both DPPH and ABTS assay, the active constituent guaiacol (IC50 = 4.15 ± 0.72 and 9.12 ± 0.98 μg mL(-1), respectively) exhibited high antioxidant activity, and the oils showed moderate antioxidant activity. These results indicate potential efficacy of active constituents and essential oils of L. compactum and C. chinense to control food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.

  9. Bioactivation and genotoxicity of the herbal constituents safrole, estragole and methyleugenol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, S.M.F.

    2007-01-01

    The herbal constituents safrole, estragole, and methyleugenol, belonging to the chemical class of the alkenylbenzenes, are genotoxic and carcinogenic compounds. The genotoxicity of these alkenylbenzenes proceeds via electrophilic metabolites generated bycytochromeP450 enzym

  10. St. John's Wort constituents modulate P-glycoprotein transport activity at the blood-brain barrier.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ott, M.; Huls, M.; Cornelius, M.G.; Fricker, G.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term signaling effects of St. John's Wort (SJW) extract and selected SJW constituents on the blood-brain barrier transporter P-glycoprotein and to describe the role of PKC in the signaling. METHODS: Cultured porcine brain capillary endo

  11. Re-Evaluating and Exploring the Contributions of Constituency Grammar to Semantic Role Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li

    2009-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Gildea and Jurafsky (2000), semantic role labeling (SRL) researchers have been trying to determine the appropriate syntactic/semantic knowledge and statistical algorithms to tackle the challenges in SRL. In search of the appropriate knowledge, SRL researchers shifted from constituency grammar to dependency grammar around…

  12. Kavain, the Major Constituent of the Anxiolytic Kava Extract, Potentiates GABAA Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chua, Han Chow; Christensen, Emilie H T; Hoestgaard-Jensen, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of the pepper plant kava (Piper methysticum) are effective in alleviating anxiety in clinical trials. Despite the long-standing therapeutic interest in kava, the molecular target(s) of the pharmacologically active constituents, kavalactones have not been established. γ-Aminobutyric acid...

  13. Concise large-scale synthesis of psilocin and psilocybin, principal hallucinogenic constituents of "magic mushroom".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, Osamu; Hakamata, Wataru; Goda, Yukihiro

    2003-06-01

    The concise large-scale syntheses of psilocin (1) and psilocybin (2), the principal hallucinogenic constituents of "magic mushroom", were achieved without chromatographic purification. The key step in the synthesis of 2 was the isolation of the dibenzyl-protected intermediate (7) as a zwitterionic derivative (8), which was completely identified by means of 2D NMR analyses.

  14. Understanding Physical Developer (PD): Part II--Is PD targeting eccrine constituents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hunty, Mackenzie; Moret, Sébastien; Chadwick, Scott; Lennard, Chris; Spindler, Xanthe; Roux, Claude

    2015-12-01

    Physical developer (PD) is a fingermark development technique that deposits silver onto fingermark ridges. It is the only technique currently in routine operational use that gives results on porous substrates that have been wet. There is a reasonable understanding of the working solution chemistry, but the chemical constituent(s) contained in fingermark residue that are specifically targeted by PD are largely unknown. A better understanding of the PD technique will permit a more informed selection of alternative or complementary detection methods, and greater usage in operational laboratories. Recent research by our group has shown that PD does not selectively target the lipids present in the residue. This research investigated the hypothesis that PD targets the eccrine constituents in fingermark residue. This was tested by comparison of PD and indanedione-zinc (Ind-Zn) treated natural fingermarks that had been deposited successively, and marks that had been deposited with a ten second interval in between depositions. Such an interval allows for the regeneration of secretions from the pores located on the ridges of the fingers. On fingermark depletions with no time interval between depositions, PD and Ind-Zn treated depletions successively (and comparatively) decreased in development intensity as the amount of residue diminished. Short time intervals in between successive depletions resulted in additional secretions from the pores intermittently occurring, the increased development of which was visualised by treatment with both PD and Ind-Zn. The changes in development intensity were seen with both techniques on the same split depletions in a series, comparably and proportionately. These results indicate that the components targeted by PD are contained in the material excreted by the friction ridge pores through its mirrored development with Ind-Zn. Repetition of the experiments on marks that only contained eccrine material showed good Ind-Zn development but poor

  15. Constituent concentrations, loads, and yields to Beaver Lake, Arkansas, water years 1999-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolyard, Susan E.; De Lanois, Jeanne L.; Green, W. Reed

    2010-01-01

    Beaver Lake is a large, deep-storage reservoir used as a drinking-water supply and considered a primary watershed of concern in the State of Arkansas. As such, information is needed to assess water quality, especially nutrient enrichment, nutrient-algal relations, turbidity, and sediment issues within the reservoir system. Water-quality samples were collected at three main inflows to Beaver Lake: the White River near Fayetteville, Richland Creek at Goshen, and War Eagle Creek near Hindsville. Water-quality samples collected over the period represented different flow conditions (from low to high). Constituent concentrations, flow-weighted concentrations, loads, and yields from White River, Richland Creek, and War Eagle Creek to Beaver Lake for water years 1999-2008 were documented for this report. Constituents include total ammonia plus organic nitrogen, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, dissolved orthophosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus), total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, total organic carbon, and suspended sediment. Linear regression models developed by computer program S-LOADEST were used to estimate loads for each constituent for the 10-year period at each station. Constituent yields and flow-weighted concentrations for each of the three stations were calculated for the study. Constituent concentrations and loads and yields varied with time and varied among the three tributaries contributing to Beaver Lake. These differences can result from differences in precipitation, land use, contributions of nutrients from point sources, and variations in basin size. Load and yield estimates varied yearly during the study period, water years 1999-2008, with the least nutrient and sediment load and yields generally occurring in water year 2006, and the greatest occurring in water year 2008, during a year with record amounts of precipitation. Flow-weighted concentrations of most constituents were greatest at War Eagle Creek near Hindsville

  16. Antimicrobial and Antioxidative Activities of Bioactive Constituents from Hydnophytum formicarum Jack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virapong Prachayasittikul

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydnophytum formicarum Jack. (Rubiaceae is a medicinal plant whose tuberspossesses cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory and antiparasitic effects and have been usedfor the treatment of hepatitis, rheumatism and diarrhea. Herein we report the isolation of itsactive constituents and the testing of their antimicrobial activity against 27 strains ofmicroorganisms using an agar dilution method and of their antioxidative activity using theDPPH and SOD assays. The results show that the crude hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate and methanol extracts exert such activities. Particularly, the crude ethyl acetateextract exhibits antigrowth activity against many Gram-positive and Gram-negativebacteria with MIC 256 μg/mL. Shewanella putrefaciens ATCC 8671 is completelyinhibited at a lower MIC (128 μg/mL. Interestingly, Corynebacterium diphtheriae NCTC10356 is inhibited by all the tested extracts. Significantly, the ethyl acetate extract is alsothe most potent antioxidant, showing 83.31% radical scavenging activity with IC50 8.40μg/mL in the DPPH assay. The other extracts display weak to moderate antioxidativeMolecules 2008, 13905activities, ranging from 28.60-56.80% radical scavenging. The SOD assay shows thatmethanol extract exhibits the highest activity (74.19% inhibition of superoxide radical.The dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts display comparable SOD activity. Thepromising bioactivities of the crude ethyl acetate extract guided the first isolation ofbioactive flavonoid and phenolic compounds: isoliquiritigenin (2, protocatechualdehyde(3, butin (4 and butein (5 from this species. Their structures have been fully establishedby 1D and 2D NMR. In addition, stigmasterol was isolated from the crude hexane anddichloromethane extracts. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of compounds 3-5were evaluated. The tested compounds were inactive against HuCCA-1 and KB cell lines,showing ED50> 10 μg/mL. Protocatechualdehyde (3

  17. The Effects of Filter Ventilation on Flavor Constituents in Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Y

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The deliveries of 20 added flavor constituents, total particulate matter (TPM, nicotine, ‘tar’ carbon monoxide and water in cigarette mainstream smoke were studied when filter ventilation was 0, 10%, 30%, 50% and 70%, respectively. The flavor substance test was done by addition of standard samples. The flavor constituents in cigarette smoke condensate were separated by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE and capillary gas chromatography (GC. The flavor constituents were identified and determined quantitatively by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and GC. The flavors studied were methylpyrazine, furaldehyde, 5-methylfuraldehyde, benzaldehyde, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, trimethylpyrazine, 2-acetylpyridine, phenylacetaldehyde, acetophenone, linalool, b-phenylethyl alcohol, isophorone, oxoisophorone, benzyl acetate, menthol, ethyl octanoate, b-damascenone, b-damascone, geranylacetone and b-ionone. The deliveries of TPM, nicotine, ‘tar’ carbon monoxide and water in mainstream smoke were determined according to International Standard methods. It was found that the flavor constituents and routine components in mainstream smoke decreased in different proportions as the filter ventilation increased. Carbon monoxide and ‘tar’ decreased more than nicotine. The flavor constituents with lower boiling points and lower molecular weights decreased more than those with higher boiling points and higher molecular weights. With the increase of filter ventilation, not only is the amount of smoke components reduced and the smoke taste weakened, but also the composition of smoke is modified and the quality of aroma changed slightly. These findings should be considered when developing low-‘tar’ cigarettes through the use of filter ventilation technology.

  18. Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Hui Jin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As cancer stem cells (CSCs are postulated to play critical roles in cancer development, including metastasis and recurrence, CSC imaging would provide valuable information for cancer treatment and lead to CSC-targeted therapy. To assess the possibility of in vivo CSC targeting, we conducted basic studies on radioimmunotargeting of cancer cells positive for CD133, a CSC marker recognized in various cancers. Antibodies against CD133 were labeled with 125I, and their in vitro cell binding properties were tested. Using the same isotype IgG as a control, in vivo biodistribution of the labeled antibody retaining immunoreactivity was examined in mice bearing an HCT116 xenograft in which a population of the cancer cells expressed CD133. Intratumoral distribution of the labeled antibody was examined and compared to the CD133 expression pattern. The 125I-labeled anti-CD133 antibody showed a modest but significantly higher accumulation in the HCT116 xenograft compared to the control IgG. The intratumoral distribution of the labeled antibody mostly overlapped with the CD133 expression, whereas the control IgG was found in the area close to the necrotic tumor center. Our results indicate that noninvasive in vivo targeting of CSCs could be possible with radiolabeled antibodies against cell membrane markers.

  19. Inhibition and inactivation of Salmonella typhimurium biofilms from polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces by essential oils and phenolic constituent carvacrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Kamlesh A; Oladunjoye, Ademola; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Schilling, M Wes; Silva, Juan L; Mikel, Benjy; Bailey, R Hartford

    2013-02-01

    Persistence of Salmonella biofilms within food processing environments is an important source of Salmonella contamination in the food chain. In this study, essential oils of thyme and oregano and their antimicrobial phenolic constituent carvacrol were evaluated for their ability to inhibit biofilm formation and inactivate preformed Salmonella biofilms. A crystal violet staining assay and CFU measurements were utilized to quantify biofilm cell mass, with evaluating factors such as strain variation, essential oil type, their concentrations, exposure time, as well as biofilm formation surface. Of the three Salmonella strains, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 23564 and Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 19585 produced stronger biofilms than Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028. Biofilm formation by different Salmonella strains was 1.5- to 2-fold higher at 22°C than at 30 or 37°C. The presence of nonbiocidal concentrations of thyme oil, oregano oil, and phenolic carvacrol at 0.006 to 0.012% suppressed Salmonella spp. biofilm formation 2- to 4-fold, but could not completely eliminate biofilm formation. There was high correlation in terms of biofilm inactivation, as determined by the crystal violet-stained optical density (at a 562-nm wavelength) readings and the viable CFU counts. Reduction of biofilm cell mass was dependent on antimicrobial concentration. A minimum concentration of 0.05 to 0.1% of these antimicrobial agents was needed to reduce a 7-log CFU biofilm mass to a nondetectable level on both polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces within 1 h of exposure time.

  20. A network of 2-4 nm filaments found in sea urchin smooth muscle. Protein constituents and in situ localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pureur, R P; Coffe, G; Soyer-Gobillard, M O; de Billy, F; Pudles, J

    1986-01-01

    In this report the coisolation of two proteins from sea urchin smooth muscle of apparent molecular weights (Mr) 54 and 56 kD respectively, as determined on SDS-PAGE, is described. Like the intermediate filament proteins, these two proteins are insoluble in high ionic strength buffer solution. On two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and by immunological methods it is shown that these proteins are not related (by these criteria) to rat smooth muscle desmin (54 kD) or vimentin (56 kD). Furthermore, in conditions where both desmin and vimentin assemble in vitro into 10 nm filaments, the sea urchin smooth muscle proteins do not assemble into filaments. Ultrastructural studies on the sea urchin smooth muscle cell show that the thin and thick filaments organization resembles that described in the vertebrate smooth muscle. However, instead of 10 nm filaments, a network of filaments, 2-4 nm in diameter, is revealed, upon removal of the thin and thick filaments by 0.6 M KCl treatment. By indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and in particular by immunocytochemical electron microscopy studies on the sea urchin smooth muscle cell, it is shown that the antibodies raised against both 54 and 56 kD proteins appear to specifically label these 2-4 nm filaments. These findings indicate that both the 54 and 56 kD proteins might be constituents of this category of filaments. The possible significance of this new cytoskeletal element, that we have named echinonematin filaments, is discussed.

  1. In vitro effects of standardized extract of Bacopa monniera and its five individual active constituents on human P-glycoprotein activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajbir; Rachumallu, Ramakrishna; Bhateria, Manisha; Panduri, Jagadeesh; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2015-01-01

    1. For centuries Bacopa monniera (BM) has been used as an herbal drug for the treatment of various mental ailments. A chemically standardized alcoholic extract of BM is clinically available over the counter herbal remedy for memory enhancement in children and adults. Consumption of herbal preparations has been reported to alter the function of membrane transporters, especially P-glycoprotein (P-gp), ATP-dependent drug efflux transporter responsible for the development of herb-drug interactions. 2. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effect of BM extract and its five individual active constituents (namely, bacopaside I, bacopaside II and bacopasaponin C, bacoside A and bacoside A3) on P-gp function using luminescent P-gp ATPase assay and Rh123 transport assay across human MDR1 gene transfected LLC-GA5-COL150 cell line. 3. It was observed that BM extract and its five individual constituents inhibited both basal activity as well as verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity, suggesting their affinity towards P-gp. Further, BM and its five active constituents inhibited the rhodamine 123 (Rh123) transport across LLC-GA5-COL150 cell monolayer with bacopaside II being the most potent inhibitor of P-gp, which decreased P-gp efflux ratio of Rh123 by fourfold in comparison to control. 4. Our finding may prove beneficial in predicting the potential herb-drug interactions of BM on concomitant medication with P-gp substrate drugs in clinical settings.

  2. Constituent properties of licorices derived from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. glabra, or G. inflata identified by genetic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kenji; Shiba, Mao; Nakamura, Rie; Morota, Takashi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2007-07-01

    Constituent properties of licorices derived from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. glabra, and G. inflata are revealed by comparing 117 of licorice identified using four genetic markers; internal tracscribed spacer (ITS) on nuclear ribosomal DNA, rbcL gene, matK gene, and trnH-trnK1 intergenic region on chloroplast DNA. Regarding six main constituents of licorice; glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, liquiritin apioside, isoliquiritin, isoliquiritin apioside, and liquiritigenin, the constituent property of G. glabra resembles to that of G. inflata. On the other hand, the constituent property of G. uralensis is not similar to that of G. glabra or G. inflata and is characterized by a wide content variation of the six constituents compared to those of G. glabra and/or G. inflata. The mean contents of liquiritin, isoliquiritin, or liquilitigenin in G. uralensis are significantly higher than those of G. glabra or G. inflata. Therefore, the licorice species should be selected depending on these constituent properties for the traditional Chinese medicines or the Japanese Kampo medicines. Additionally, glycycoumarin, glabridin, and licochalcone A were reconfirmed as the species-specific typical constituents of G. uralensis, G. glabra, and G. inflata respectively. Therefore, it is resulted that the determination of the three species-specific constituents may be useful for the species identification of licorice. However, since 6% of licorice examined and hybrids were exceptions to the rule, their genetic information is necessary for the accurate species identification of licorice.

  3. Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, S.; Hickman, A. E.; Jahn, O.; Gregg, W. W.; Mouw, C. B.; Follows, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    We present a numerical model of the ocean that couples a three-stream radiative transfer component with a marine biogeochemical-ecosystem component in a dynamic three-dimensional physical framework. The radiative transfer component resolves the penetration of spectral irradiance as it is absorbed and scattered within the water column. We explicitly include the effect of several optically important water constituents (different phytoplankton functional types; detrital particles; and coloured dissolved organic matter, CDOM). The model is evaluated against in situ-observed and satellite-derived products. In particular we compare to concurrently measured biogeochemical, ecosystem, and optical data along a meridional transect of the Atlantic Ocean. The simulation captures the patterns and magnitudes of these data, and estimates surface upwelling irradiance analogous to that observed by ocean colour satellite instruments. We find that incorporating the different optically important constituents explicitly and including spectral irradiance was crucial to capture the variability in the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll a (Chl a) maximum. We conduct a series of sensitivity experiments to demonstrate, globally, the relative importance of each of the water constituents, as well as the crucial feedbacks between the light field, the relative fitness of phytoplankton types, and the biogeochemistry of the ocean. CDOM has proportionally more importance at attenuating light at short wavelengths and in more productive waters, phytoplankton absorption is relatively more important at the subsurface Chl a maximum, and water molecules have the greatest contribution when concentrations of other constituents are low, such as in the oligotrophic gyres. Scattering had less effect on attenuation, but since it is important for the amount and type of upwelling irradiance, it is crucial for setting sea surface reflectance. Strikingly, sensitivity experiments in which absorption by any of the

  4. IMMEDIATE CONSTITUENT ANALYSIS (IC analysis DİREKT BİLEŞENLER ANALİZİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer MALKOÇ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available IC analysis is a method of sentence analysis first explicitly introduced by American linguist Leonard Bloomfield in his book, Language, in 1933, though the underlying principle is common both to the traditional practice of parsing and to many modern systems of grammatical analysis. In IC analysis, a sentence is divided up into major divisions or immediate constituents, and these constituents are in turn divided into further immediate constituents. This process continues until irreducible constituents are reached, i.e., until each constituent consists of only a word or meaningful part of a word. The important tests used to analyze the sentences are deletion, permutation, transformation, and substitution tests.The end result of an IC analysis is often presented in a visual diagrammatic form that reveals the hierarchical immediate constituent structure of a sentence Direkt bileşenler analiz metodu Amerikalı dil bilimci Leonard Bloomfield tarafından 1933 yılında sentaks alanında başlatılmış, daha sonraki yıllarda fonetik ve morfoloji alanlarında da uygulanmıştır. Bu analiz metodunun amacı tümce veya kelime gruplarının parçalanması ve tasnif edilmesi işleminden ibarettir. Tümcelerin parçalanması en küçük dil birimine kadar kademe kademe yapılmalı ve bileşenlerin sınıflandırılmasında ise ana öbeğe veya ana gövdeye daha yakın olan unsurlar ile ikincil öğeler analizin amacına uygun olarak belirtilmelidir. Bu işlemler yapılırken Yok Etme Testi, Yer Değiştirme Testi, Dönüştürme Testi, Yerine Koyma Testi gibi metotlardan faydalanılır. Bu prensipler çerçevesinde yapılan analizin sonuçları hiyerarşik yapıları göstermek için bir grafikle özetlenir

  5. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of the volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl grown in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, Mona E; Shams, Manal M; Afifi, Manal S

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata and Nephrolepis cordifolia obtained by hydro-distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. The essential oils exhibited potential antibacterial and antifungal activities against a majority of the selected microorganisms. NEA oil showed promising cytotoxicity in breast, colon and lung carcinoma cells. The results presented indicate that NEA oil could be useful alternative for the treatment of dermatophytosis. Comparative investigation of hydro-distilled volatile constituents from aerial parts (A) of Nephrolepis exaltata (NE) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (NC) (Family Nephrolepidaceae) was carried out. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that oils differ in composition and percentages of components. Oxygenated compounds were dominant in NEA and NCA. 2,4-Hexadien-1-ol (16.1%), nonanal (14.4%), β-Ionone (6.7%) and thymol (2.7%) were predominant in NEA. β-Ionone (8.0%), eugenol (7.2%) and anethol (4.6%) were the main constituents in NCA. Volatile samples were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities using agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using viability assay in breast (MCF-7), colon (HCT-116) and lung carcinoma (A-549) cells by the MTT assay. The results revealed that NEA oil exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against most of the tested organisms and showed promising cytotoxicity.

  6. Antiprotozoal Activity of Buxus sempervirens and Activity-Guided Isolation of O-tigloylcyclovirobuxeine-B as the Main Constituent Active against Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia B. Althaus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Buxus sempervirens L. (European Box, Buxaceae has been used in ethnomedicine to treat malaria. In the course of our screening of plant extracts for antiprotozoal activity, a CH2Cl2 extract from leaves of B. sempervirens showed selective in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum (IC50 = 2.79 vs. 20.2 µg/mL for cytotoxicity against L6 rat cells. Separation of the extract by acid/base extraction into a basic and a neutral non-polar fraction led to a much more active and even more selective fraction with alkaloids while the fraction of non-polar neutral constituents was markedly less active than the crude extract. Thus, the activity of the crude extract could clearly be attributed to alkaloid constituents. Identification of the main triterpene-alkaloids and characterization of the complex pattern of this alkaloid fraction was performed by UHPLC/+ESI-QTOF-MS analyses. ESI-MS/MS target-guided larger scale preparative separation of the alkaloid fraction was performed by ‘spiral coil-countercurrent chromatography’. From the most active subfraction, the cycloartane alkaloid O-tigloylcyclovirobuxeine-B was isolated and evaluated for antiplasmodial activity which yielded an IC50 of 0.455 µg/mL (cytotoxicity against L6 rat cells: IC50 = 9.38 µg/mL. O-tigloylcyclovirobuxeine-B is thus most significantly responsible for the high potency of the crude extract.

  7. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory potential and chemical constituents of Origanum dubium Boiss., growing wild in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioti, Anastasia; Milošević-Ifantis, Tanja; Pachopos, Nikitas; Niryiannaki, Niki; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Skaltsa, Helen

    2015-02-01

    Origanum dubium Boiss. is a flavouring herb widely used in Cyprus. In this study, both lipophilic and polar extracts of the aerial parts of O. dubium were investigated for their chemical contents and their antioxidant potential. Overall, 20 constituents were isolated and identified, belonging mainly to three significant classes of compounds: terpenes, phenolic derivatives, such as hydroquinone glycosides and flavonoids and alicyclic derivatives. None of them was previously reported as constituent of O. dubium The inhibitory potencies of all total extracts and the isolated compounds on lipid peroxidation and their interaction with 1,1-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity is discussed. The polar extract showed strong interaction with DPPH stable radical and significant inhibition of lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation.

  8. Biodegradability engineering of biodegradable Mg alloys: Tailoring the electrochemical properties and microstructure of constituent phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Pil-Ryung; Han, Hyung-Seop; Yang, Gui-Fu; Kim, Yu-Chan; Hong, Ki-Ha; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Jung, Jae-Young; Ahn, Jae-Pyeong; Kim, Young-Yul; Cho, Sung-Youn; Byun, Ji Young; Lee, Kang-Sik; Yang, Seok-Jo; Seok, Hyun-Kwang

    2013-08-01

    Crystalline Mg-based alloys with a distinct reduction in hydrogen evolution were prepared through both electrochemical and microstructural engineering of the constituent phases. The addition of Zn to Mg-Ca alloy modified the corrosion potentials of two constituent phases (Mg + Mg2Ca), which prevented the formation of a galvanic circuit and achieved a comparable corrosion rate to high purity Mg. Furthermore, effective grain refinement induced by the extrusion allowed the achievement of much lower corrosion rate than high purity Mg. Animal studies confirmed the large reduction in hydrogen evolution and revealed good tissue compatibility with increased bone deposition around the newly developed Mg alloy implants. Thus, high strength Mg-Ca-Zn alloys with medically acceptable corrosion rate were developed and showed great potential for use in a new generation of biodegradable implants.

  9. Simultaneous determination of four bioactive constituents in Liuwei Dihuang Pills by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinfeng; Wang, Yue; Sun, Yuqing

    2007-09-03

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method for the simultaneous determination of four bioactive constituents (morroniside, loganin, paeoniflorin and paeonal) in the Chinese patent medicine Liuwei Dihuang Pills is established. A carrier composed of 0.2M boric acid, 0.02 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 5% acetonitrile (pH was adjusted to 10.5 with 0.1 M NaOH) is found to be the most suitable electrolyte for this separation. The four constituents in Liuwei Dihuang Pills can be easily determined within 16 min. Optimization of separation is realized with the univariate approach by studying the effects of four factors relevant to run buffer on migration times.

  10. Cancer Chemoprevention Effects of Ginger and its Active Constituents: Potential for New Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Qi, Lian-Wen; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Ginger is a commonly used spice and herbal medicine worldwide. Besides its extensive use as a condiment, ginger has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the management of various medical conditions. In recent years, ginger has received wide attention due to its observed antiemetic and anticancer activities. This paper reviews the potential role of ginger and its active constituents in cancer chemoprevention. The phytochemistry, bioactivity, and molecular targets of ginger constituents, especially 6-shogaol, are discussed. The content of 6-shogaol is very low in fresh ginger, but significantly higher after steaming. With reported anti-cancer activities, 6-shogaol can be served as a lead compound for new drug discovery. The lead compound derivative synthesis, bioactivity evaluation, and computational docking provide a promising opportunity to identify novel anticancer compounds originating from ginger.

  11. Inhibitory effects of constituents of Morinda citrifolia seeds on elastase and tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Fukuhama, Akiko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Fujita, Tadashi; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-07-01

    A 50% ethanolic extract (MCS-ext) from seeds of Morinda citrifolia ("noni" seeds) showed more potent in vitro inhibition of elastase and tyrosinase, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than extracts of M. citrifolia leaves or flesh. Activity-guided fractionation of MCS-ext using in vitro assays led to the isolation of ursolic acid as an active constituent of elastase inhibitory activity. 3,3'-Bisdemethylpinoresinol, americanin A, and quercetin were isolated as active constituents having both tyrosinase inhibitory and radical scavenging activities. Americanin A and quercetin also showed superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity. These active compounds were isolated from noni seeds for the first time.

  12. Metabolism by grasshoppers of volatile chemical constituents from Mangifera indica and Solanum paniculatum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clécio S; Ramos, Natália S M; Da Silva, Rodolfo R; Da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Almeida, Argus V

    2012-12-01

    The chemical volatiles from plant leaves and their biological activities have been extensively studied. However, no studies have addressed plant-chemical volatiles after undergoing the digestive process in host insects. Here we describe for the first time chemical profiles of volatile constituents from Solanum paniculatum and Mangifera indica leaves metabolized by grasshoppers. Both profiles were qualitatively and quantitatively different from the profiles of non-metabolized leaves. The amount of nerolidol, the major constituent of S. paniculatum leaves, decreased and other sesquiterpenes, such as spathulenol, were formed during the digestive process of the grasshopper Chromacris speciosa. In M. indica, the presence of phenylpropanoids was observed (dillapiole, Z-asarone, E-asarone and γ-asarone) in the leaves metabolized by the grasshopper Tropidacris collaris, but these compounds were not found in the non-metabolized leaves.

  13. Therapeutics Role of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Their Active Constituents in Diseases Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzohairy, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a member of the Meliaceae family and its role as health-promoting effect is attributed because it is rich source of antioxidant. It has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Unani medicines worldwide especially in Indian Subcontinent in the treatment and prevention of various diseases. Earlier finding confirmed that neem and its constituents play role in the scavenging of free radical generation and prevention of disease pathogenesis. The studies based on animal model established that neem and its chief constituents play pivotal role in anticancer management through the modulation of various molecular pathways including p53, pTEN, NF-κB, PI3K/Akt, Bcl-2, and VEGF. It is considered as safe medicinal plants and modulates the numerous biological processes without any adverse effect. In this review, I summarize the role of Azadirachta indica in the prevention and treatment of diseases via the regulation of various biological and physiological pathways.

  14. GC-MS ANALYSIS OF SOME BIOACTIVE CONSTITUENTS OF THE LEAVES OF DESMODIUM GYRANS DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Gopalakrishnan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Desmodium gyrans DC is one of the medicinally valuable plants belonging to the family Fabaceae, commonly known as “Thozhukanni” in Tamil and ‘ Namaskari’ in Sanskrit. Traditionally leaves are used as antidote, cardiac-tonic and for wound healing. In the present study the ethanolic extract of Desmodium gyrans has been subjected to GC-MS analysis. Eighteen chemical constituents have been identified, The major chemical constituents are: 4,5-Dihydro-2-amino-4-(2,4-dichlorophenyl-7-methyl-5-oxo- pyrano[3,2-c]pyran-3-carbonitrile (59.07%, Pentaborane (13.86%, Pentanedinitrile (6.63% and 3-Chloro-1-butyne, (4.82%.

  15. Calculation of the Isgur-Wise function from a light-front constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Simula, S

    1996-01-01

    The space-like elastic form factor of heavy-light pseudoscalar mesons is investigated within a light-front constituent quark model in order to evaluate the Isgur-Wise form factor. The relativistic composition of the constituent quark spins is properly taken into account using the Melosh rotations, and various heavy-meson wave function are considered, including the eigenfunctions of an effective light-front mass operator reproducing meson mass spectra. It is shown that in a wide range of values of the recoil the Isgur-Wise form factor exhibits a moderate dependence upon the choice of the heavy-meson wave function and is mainly governed by the effects of the confinement scale.

  16. Combinatorial synthesis by nature: volatile organic sulfur-containing constituents of Ruta chalepensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Sina; Niclass, Yvan; van de Waal, Matthijs; Starkenmann, Christian

    2006-09-01

    Ongoing interest in discovering new natural fragrance and flavor ingredients prompted us to examine a solvent extract of sulfurous-sweaty smelling Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) plant material more closely. Twenty-one sulfur-containing constituents of similar structures were identified by GC/MS techniques. Amongst them, 14 have never been described to occur in nature. The compounds 1-18 belong to a family of natural flavor and fragrance molecules having a 1,3-positioned O,S moiety in common. The identities of the natural constituents were confirmed by comparison with synthetic reference samples, and the organoleptic properties of the latter were studied. The relative and absolute configurations of the four stereoisomers of 4-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (5) were established by stereoselective synthesis. The natural isomers consisted of a 65 : 35 mixture of (3R,4S)-5 and (3S,4S)-5.

  17. Melastoma malabathricum (L. Smith Ethnomedicinal Uses, Chemical Constituents, and Pharmacological Properties: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohd. Joffry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomataceae is one of the 22 species found in the Southeast Asian region, including Malaysia. Considered as native to tropical and temperate Asia and the Pacific Islands, this commonly found small shrub has gained herbal status in the Malay folklore belief as well as the Indian, Chinese, and Indonesian folk medicines. Ethnopharmacologically, the leaves, shoots, barks, seeds, and roots of M. malabathricum have been used to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, hemorrhoids, cuts and wounds, toothache, and stomachache. Scientific findings also revealed the wide pharmacological actions of various parts of M. malabthricum, such as antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antidiarrheal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. Various types of phytochemical constituents have also been isolated and identifed from different parts of M. malabathricum. Thus, the aim of the present review is to present comprehensive information on ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of M. malabathricum.

  18. Pion generalized parton distributions within a fully covariant constituent quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanelli, Cristiano [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Lab. for Nuclear Science; Pace, Emanuele [' ' Tor Vergata' ' Univ., Rome (Italy). Physics Dept.; INFN Sezione di TorVergata, Rome (Italy); Romanelli, Giovanni [Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom). STFC; Salme, Giovanni [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Salmistraro, Marco [Rome La Sapienza Univ. (Italy). Physics Dept.; I.I.S. G. De Sanctis, Rome (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    We extend the investigation of the generalized parton distribution for a charged pion within a fully covariant constituent quark model, in two respects: (1) calculating the tensor distribution and (2) adding the treatment of the evolution, needed for achieving a meaningful comparison with both the experimental parton distribution and the lattice evaluation of the so-called generalized form factors. Distinct features of our phenomenological covariant quark model are: (1) a 4D Ansatz for the pion Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, to be used in the Mandelstam formula for matrix elements of the relevant current operators, and (2) only two parameters, namely a quark mass assumed to be m{sub q} = 220 MeV and a free parameter fixed through the value of the pion decay constant. The possibility of increasing the dynamical content of our covariant constituent quark model is briefly discussed in the context of the Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude. (orig.)

  19. Optimization of process conditions for removal of cadmium using bioactive constituents of Moringa oleifera seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, P; Muyibi, S A; Syarif, W M

    2008-07-01

    Pollutants, especially heavy metals like cadmium, Chromium, lead and mercury, play a significant role in causing various water-borne diseases to humans. This study evaluates the sorption properties of bioactive constituents of Moringa oleifera seeds for decontamination of cadmium at laboratory scale. The performance of the bioactive constituent extracted by salt extraction method was enhanced by process optimization with various concentration of bioactive dosages, agitation speed, contact time, pH and heavy metal concentrations. Statistical optimization was carried out for evaluating the polynomial regression model through effect of linear, quadratic and interaction of the factors. The maximum removal of cadmium was 72% by using 0.2 g/l of bioactive dosage.

  20. Bio-assay guided isolation of alpha-glucosidase inhibitory constituents from Eclipta alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Gaonkar, Raghuvir H; Ghosh, Rina; Pal, Bikas C

    2012-08-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk is used traditionally in diabetes mellitus in India and the plant extract is reported to possess anti-diabetic activity. A bioactivity-guided isolation approach based on alpha-glucosidase inhibition was used to identify the constituents contributing towards the inhibition of the enzyme and probably contributing towards its anti-diabetic activity. Four echinocystic acid glycosides were thus isolated, of which eclalbasaponin VI, isolated from the n-butanol fraction, was found to be the most potent (IC50 54.2 +/- 1.3 microM). The compound is an uncompetitive type of inhibitor with Ki 26.1 microM. A quantitative estimation of the constituents was established using RP-HPLC.

  1. Parton Distribution in Pseudoscalar Mesons with a Light-Front Constituent Quark Model

    CERN Document Server

    de Melo, J P B C; Tsushima, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    We compute the distribution amplitudes of the pion and kaon in the light-front constituent quark model with the symmetric quark-bound state vertex function. In the calculation we explicitly include the flavor-SU(3) symmetry breaking effect in terms of the constituent quark masses of the up (down) and strange quarks. To calculate the kaon parton distribution functions~(PDFs), we use both the conditions in the light-cone wave function, i.e., when $\\bar{s}$ quark is on-shell, and when $u$ quark is on-shell, and make a comparison between them. The kaon PDFs calculated in the two different conditions clearly show asymmetric behaviour due to the flavor SU(3)-symmetry breaking implemented by the quark masses.

  2. Do specific dietary constituents and supplements affect mental energy? Review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorby, Heather E; Brownawell, Amy M; Falk, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    The numbers of marketing claims and food, beverage, and drug products claiming to increase mental energy have risen rapidly, thus increasing the need for scientific specificity in marketing and food label claims. Mental energy is a three-dimensional construct consisting of mood (transient feelings about the presence of fatigue or energy), motivation (determination and enthusiasm), and cognition (sustained attention and vigilance). The present review focuses on four dietary constituents/supplements (Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, glucose, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) to illustrate the current state of the literature on dietary constituents and mental energy. The strongest evidence suggests effects of Ginkgo biloba on certain aspects of mood and on attention in healthy subjects, as well as associations between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and reduced risk of age-related cognitive decline. Limitations of the current data and challenges for future research are discussed.

  3. Non-polar Solvent Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Volatile Constituents from Dried Zingiber Officinale Rosc.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong; WANG Zi-Ming; WANG Yu-Tang; LI Tie-Chun; CHENG Jian-Hua; LIU Zhong-Ying; ZHANG Han-Qi

    2007-01-01

    A new method, non-polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction (NPSMAE), was applied to the extraction of essential oil from Zingiber officinale Rosc. in closed-vessel system. By adding microwave absorption mediumcarbonyl iron powders (CIP) into extraction system, the essential oil was extracted by the non-polar solvent (ether)which can be heated by CIP. The constituents of essential oil obtained by NPSMAE were comparable with those obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) by GC-MS analysis, which indicates that NPSMAE is a feasible way to extract essential oil from dried plant materials. The NPSMAE took much less extraction time (5 min) than HD (180 min),and its extraction efficiency was much higher than that of conventional polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction (PSMAE) and mixed solvent microwave-assisted extraction (MSMAE). It can be a good alternative for the extraction of volatile constituents from dried plant samples.

  4. Macro and trace mineral constituents and radionuclides in mushrooms: health benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Borovička, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews and updates data on macro and trace elements and radionuclides in edible wild-grown and cultivated mushrooms. A huge biodiversity of mushrooms and spread of certain species over different continents makes the study on their multi-element constituents highly challenging. A few edible mushrooms are widely cultivated and efforts are on to employ them (largely Agaricus spp., Pleurotus spp., and Lentinula edodes) in the production of selenium-enriched food (mushrooms) or nutraceuticals (by using mycelia) and less on species used by traditional medicine, e.g., Ganoderma lucidum. There are also attempts to enrich mushrooms with other elements than Se and a good example is enrichment with lithium. Since minerals of nutritional value are common constituents of mushrooms collected from natural habitats, the problem is however their co-occurrence with some hazardous elements including Cd, Pb, Hg, Ag, As, and radionuclides. Discussed is also the problem of erroneous data on mineral compounds determined in mushrooms.

  5. Changing constituents of genitourinary cancer in recent 50 years in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾方六

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess the changes in constituents of genitourinary cancer inpatients in Beijing following the growing economy of China.Methods Urological inpatients treated from January 1951 to December 2000 at the Institute of Urology, Peking University were studied restrospectively.Results In the period of about 50 years 28 474 urological inpatients were reviewed. Cancer patients aged 0-25 years and 26-50 years comprised 19.5% and 28.2%, respectively. Since the 1970s the incidence rates of renal cancer and prostate cancer increased dramatically from 10.4% to 28.7% and from 3.3% to 13.4%, respectively.Conclusion The introduction of new diagnostic instruments, the expansion of the aged population and a high fat diet are considered to be responsible for the change of constituents of genitourimary concer inpatients.

  6. A recent review on phytochemical constituents and medicinal properties of kesum (Polygonum minus Huds.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paritala Vikram; Kishore Kumar Chiruvella; Ilfah Husna Abdullah Ripain; Mohammed Arifullah

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants and herbal preparations are gaining renowned interest in scientific communities nowadays due to their reliable pharmacological actions and affordability to common people which makes them effective in control of various diseases. Polygonum minus (Polygonaceae) locally known as kesum is an aromatic plant commonly used in Malay delicacies. The plant is having potential applications due to its high volatile oil constituents in perfumes and powerful antioxidant activity. It has been used traditionally to treat various ailments including dandruff. The research has been carried out by various researchers using different in vitro and in vivo models for biological evaluations to support these claims. This review paper may help upcoming research activities on Polygonum minus by giving up to date information on the phytochemical constituents and medicinal properties of kesum to a possible extent with relevant data.

  7. Elemental Constituents of Particulate Matter and Newborn's Size in Eight European Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Gehring, Ulrike; Beelen, Rob

    2016-01-01

    % confidence interval: 1.17, 1.58). Increased nickel and zinc in PM2.5 concentrations were also associated with an increased risk of LBW. Head circumference was reduced at higher exposure to all elements except potassium. All associations with sulfur were most robust to adjustment for PM2.5 mass concentration......BACKGROUND: The health effects of suspended particulate matter (PM) may depend on its chemical composition. Associations between maternal exposure to chemical constituents of PM and newborn's size have been little examined. AIM: We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to elemental...... cohorts comprising 34,923 singleton births in 1994-2008. Annual average concentrations of elemental constituents of PM smaller than 2.5 and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy were estimated using land-use regression models. Adjusted associations between each birth...

  8. Unique Medicinal Properties of Withania somnifera: Phytochemical Constituents and Protein Component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Parvaiz A; Singh, Laishram R; Kamal, Mohammad A; Dar, Tanveer A

    2016-01-01

    Withania somnifera is an important medicinal herb that has been widely used for the treatment of different clinical conditions. The overall medicinal properties of Withania somnifera make it a viable therapeutic agent for addressing anxiety, cancer, microbial infection, immunomodulation, and neurodegenerative disorders. Biochemical constituents of Withania somnifera like withanolideA, withanolide D, withaferin A and withaniamides play an important role in its pharmacological properties. Proteins like Withania somnifera glycoprotein and withania lectin like-protein possess potent therapeutic properties like antimicrobial, anti-snake venom poison and antimicrobial. In this review, we have tried to present different pharmacological properties associated with different extract preparations, phytochemical constituents and protein component of Withania somnifera. Future insights in this direction have also been highlighted.

  9. Constituent Quarks and Gluons, Polyakov loop and the Hadron Resonance Gas Model

    CERN Document Server

    Megias, E; Salcedo, L L

    2013-01-01

    Based on first principle QCD arguments, it has been argued in arXiv:1204.2424[hep-ph] that the vacuum expectation value of the Polyakov loop can be represented in the hadron resonance gas model. We study this within the Polyakov-constituent quark model by implementing the quantum and local nature of the Polyakov loop hep-ph/0412308, hep-ph/0607338. The existence of exotic states in the spectrum is discussed.

  10. Antifungal activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts and its active constituent glabridin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Atiya; Gupta, Vivek K; Luqman, Suaib; Negi, Arvind S; Kumar, J K; Shanker, Karuna; Saikia, Dharmendra; Srivastava, Suchita; Darokar, M P; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2009-08-01

    Glabridin, an active constituent of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots, was found to be active against both yeast and filamentous fungi. Glabridin also showed resistance modifying activity against drug resistant mutants of Candida albicans at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 31.25-250 microg/mL. Although the compound was reported earlier to be active against Candida albicans, but this is the first report of its activity against drug resistant mutants.

  11. Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, S.; Hickman, A. E.; Jahn, O.; Gregg, W. W.; Mouw, C. B.; Follows, M. J.

    2015-02-01

    We present a numerical model of the ocean that couples a three-stream radiative transfer component with a marine biogeochemical-ecosystem in a dynamic three-dimensional physical framework. The radiative transfer component resolves spectral irradiance as it is absorbed and scattered within the water column. We explicitly include the effect of several optically important water constituents (the phytoplankton community, detrital particles, and coloured dissolved organic matter, CDOM). The model is evaluated against in situ observed and satellite derived products. In particular we compare to concurrently measured biogeochemical, ecosystem and optical data along a north-south transect of the Atlantic Ocean. The simulation captures the patterns and magnitudes of these data, and estimates surface upwelling irradiance analogous to that observed by ocean colour satellite instruments. We conduct a series of sensitivity experiments to demonstrate, globally, the relative importance of each of the water constituents, and the crucial feedbacks between the light field and the relative fitness of phytoplankton types, and the biogeochemistry of the ocean. CDOM has proportionally more importance at short wavelengths and in more productive waters, phytoplankton absorption is especially important at the deep chlorophyll a (Chl a) maximum, and absorption by water molecules is relatively most important in the highly oligotrophic gyres. Sensitivity experiments in which absorption by any of the optical constituents was increased led to a decrease in the size of the oligotrophic regions of the subtropical gyres: lateral nutrient supplies were enhanced as a result of decreasing high latitude productivity. Scattering does not as strongly affect the ecosystem and biogeochemistry fields within the water column but is important for setting the surface upwelling irradiance, and hence sea surface reflectance. Having a model capable of capturing bio-optical feedbacks will be important for

  12. A reactive nitrone-based organogel that self-assembles from its constituents in chloroform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Josh E; Philp, Douglas

    2016-04-11

    The reversible reaction of an aldehyde with a hydroxylamine affords a nitrone which is capable of forming a stiff gel with chloroform at concentrations as low as 0.20 wt% (6 mM). The gelator forms dynamically from its constituents and the gel assembly can be degraded in a controlled manner through a recognition-mediated reaction that targets the nitrone component of the gel network.

  13. Effect of acidulants on the recovery of milk constituents and quality of Mozzarella processed cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Karuna; Bajwa, Usha

    2015-03-01

    The investigation was undertaken to study the effect of acidulants on the recovery of milk constituents and composition of Mozzarella pre-cheese and physical, chemical and sensory characteristics and texture profile analysis (TPA) of processed cheese prepared there from. The pre-cheese was made by direct acidification technique using citric, acetic and lactic acid and processed with 1 % tri-sodium citrate. The acidulants significantly (p cheese. These also had a significant (p processed cheese.

  14. Constituent Quarks and Gluons, Polyakov loop and the Hadron Resonance Gas Model *,**

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megías E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on first principle QCD arguments, it has been argued in [1] that the vacuum expectation value of the Polyakov loop can be represented in the hadron resonance gas model. We study this within the Polyakov-constituent quark model by implementing the quantum and local nature of the Polyakov loop [2, 3]. The existence of exotic states in the spectrum is discussed.

  15. A new way for chemical degradation of plastic by natural volatile constituents of Ledum palustre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIU Zhilong; ZHU Xiuling; ZHANG Daijia; YIN Jianzhong; WANG Dehe; AN Lijia

    2003-01-01

    A novel phenomenon of degradation of polypropylene plastic by volatile constituents of Ledum palustre is reported in this study. The characteristic of degradation is described by tensile strength, melting point, and scanning electron micrographs as well as optical micrographs. The chemical composition of volatile oil of Ledum palustre is analyzed by gas chrography and mass spectrometry. The mechanism of degradation and problems needed to be solved are also discussed.

  16. Volatile Constituents of Different Plant Parts and Populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Vučković; Ljubodrag Vujisić; Marina Todosijević; Danijela Stešević; Slobodan Milosavljević; Sne žana Trifunović

    2014-01-01

    The volatile constituents of different plant parts and populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 12 samples were examined and 45 compounds were identified. The volatile content of different M. aurea populations was very similar, while the volatile fractions obtained from different plant parts showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The most abundant compounds fou...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 258 - List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Acenaphthylene Acetone 67-64-1 2-Propanone Acetonitrile; Methyl cyanide 75-05-8 Acetonitrile Acetophenone 98-86-2...)- beta-BHC 319-85-7 Cyclohexane, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloro-,(1α,2β,3α,4β,5α,6β)- delta-BHC 319-86-8... 258—List of Hazardous Inorganic and Organic Constituents Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical...

  18. The effect of instanton-induced interaction on -wave meson spectra in constituent quark model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhavyashri; S Sarangi; Godfrey Saldanha; K B Vijaya Kumar

    2008-01-01

    The mass spectrum of the -wave mesons is considered in a non-relativistic constituent quark model. The full Hamiltonian used in the investigation includes the kinetic energy, the confinement potential, the one-gluon-exchange potential (OGEP) and the instanton-induced quark-antiquark interaction (III). A good description of the mass spectrum is obtained. The respective role of III and OGEP in the P-wave meson spectrum is discussed.

  19. Attenuation of quorum sensing-regulated behaviour by Tinospora cordifolia extract & identification of its active constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Viraj C Gala; Nithya R John; Bhagwat, Ashok M.; Ajit G Datar; Kharkar, Prashant S.; Desai, Krutika B.

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: The pathogenicity of the nosocomial pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii is regulated by their quorum sensing (QS) systems. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of the cold ethyl acetate extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem on virulence and biofilm development in the wild type and clinical strains of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. The study was further aimed to identify the probable active constituents in the plant ext...

  20. Selected constituents in the smokes of foreign commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    The tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide contents of the smokes of 220 brands of foreign commercial cigarettes are reported. In some instances, filter cigarettes of certain brands were found to deliver as much or more smoke constituents than their nonfilter counterparts. Also, data indicated that there can be a great variation in the tar, nicotine, or carbon monoxide content of the smoke of samples of a given brand of cigarettes, depending on the nation in which they are purchased. 24 tables.

  1. Tax security as constituent of economic security of Ukrainian enterprises in the conditions of crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlichenko, V.

    2015-01-01

    In the article one of constituents of economic security of enterprise -  tax security is investigated. The existing determinations of this concept are analysed and the most adequate is chosen: this " financial-economic state of taxpayer, providing minimization of tax risks, at that from the side of managing subject fully and the charged extra taxes are paid in time, and from the side of executive and legislative branches statutory defence of taxpayer" is provided.The location and role of tax ...

  2. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of Ajania fruticulosa Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun-Yu; Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Ji

    2016-08-01

    The insecticidal activity and chemical constituents of the essential oil from Ajania fruticulosa were investigated. Twelve constituents representing 91.0% of the essential oil were identified, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (41.40%), (+)-camphor (32.10%), and myrtenol (8.15%). The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults with LD50 values of 105.67 μg/adult and 89.85 μg/cm(2) , respectively. The essential oil also showed fumigant toxicity against two species of insect with LC50 values of 11.52 and 0.65 mg/l, respectively. 1,8-Cineole exhibited excellent fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 5.47 mg/l) against T. castaneum. (+)-Camphor showed obvious fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.43 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. Myrtenol showed contact toxicity (LD50  = 29.40 μg/cm(2) ) and fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.50 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. 1,8-Cineole and (+)-camphor showed strong insecticidal activity to some important insects, and they are main constituents of A. fruticulosa essential oil. The two compounds may be related to insecticidal activity of A. fruticulosa essential oil against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila.

  3. Contribution of Structure and Morphology of Design Constituents to Performance Improvement of Multilayer Polaritonic Photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Yastrubchak

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to estimate contribution of structure and morphology of the individual design constituents to performance improvement of multilayer polaritonic photodetector (optochemical sensor. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR in the surface barrier heterostructure (SBH with the corrugated interface is used as the basic principle underlying the device operation. The demonstration of correlation of the contribution with the enhanced SBH features was performed through the adequate characterization tool.

  4. Water-soluble phenylpropanoid constituents from aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ming-An; Chen, Pei-Qing; Wang, Si-Bing

    2007-07-20

    New water-soluble phenylpropanoid constituents, ficuscarpanoside A, guaiacylglycerol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and erythro-guaiacylglycerol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, along with known guaiacylglycerol, erythro-guaiacylglycerol, 4-methoxy guaiacylglycerol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy phenyl) propan-1,2-diol, have been isolated from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  5. Identification of Insecticidal Constituents from the Essential Oil of Valeriana jatamansi Jones against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of Valeriana jatamansi Jones roots against booklice, Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, and to isolate insecticidal constituents from the oil. Essential oil of V. jatamansi was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 27 components in the essential oil were identified. The major compounds were patchoulol (24.3%, α-bulnesene (13.8%, isovaleric acid (12.9%, α-guaiene (8.7%, and 3-methylvaleric acid (8.4%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, isovaleric acid, 3-methylvaleric acid, and patchoulol were isolated and identified as the active constituents. The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LC50 value of 236.4 μg/cm2. Patchoulol (LC50 = 61.35 μg/cm2 exhibited stronger acute toxicity than 3-methylvaleric acid (LC50 = 210.69 μg/cm2 against the booklice. The essential oil also possessed fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LC50 value of 6.0 mg/L, while 3-methylvaleric acid and isovaleric acid had LC50 values of 5.53 mg/L and 5.67 mg/L against the booklice, respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil and its constituent compounds have potential to develop into natural insecticides or fumigants for control of insects in stored grains.

  6. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from leaves of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Souza Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Annona vepretorum (AV is a native tree from Caatinga biome (semiarid region of Brazil popularly known as “araticum” and “pinha da Caatinga.” Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity (AA of the essential oil from the leaves from AV (EO Av collected in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Fresh leaves of AV were cut into pieces, and subjected to distillation for 2 h in a clevenger type apparatus. Gas chromatograph (GC analyses were performed using a mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector. The identification of the constituents was assigned on the basis of comparison of their relative retention indices. The antioxidant ability of the EO was investigated through two in vitro models such as radical scavenging activity using 2,2 diphenyl 1 picrylhydrazyl method and β-carotene linoleate model system. The positive controls (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene were those using the standard solutions. Assays were carried out in triplicate. Results: The oil showed a total of 21 components, and 17 were identified, representing 93.9% of the crude EO. Spathulenol (43.7%, limonene (20.5%, caryophyllene oxide (8.1% and a pinene (5.5% were found to be the major individual constituents. Spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide could be considered chemotaxonomic markers of these genera. The EO demonstrated weak AA.

  7. Effect of Coleus forskohlii and its major constituents on cytochrome P450 induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbani Nagarajappa, Shivaprasad; Pandit, Subrata; Divanji, Manohar; Mariyanna, Bhanumathy; Kumar, Pavan; Godavarthi, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Coleus forskohlii Briq. has been used traditionally for the treatment of several ailments since antiquity in Ayurveda. In the present study, an approach has been made to evaluate the effect of C. forskohlii and its major constituents on cytochrome P450 (CYP3A, CYP2B, and CYP2C) mRNA expression in rat hepatocytes. To gain better understanding of the herb-drug interaction potential of the chemical constituents present in C. forskohlii, the extract was subjected to column chromatography followed by standardization with respect to forskolin, 1-deoxyforskolin, and 1,9-dideoxyforskolin using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Hepatocytes were treated with extracts, fractions, and phytoconstituents, followed by extraction and purification of total mRNA. Study of mRNA expression was carried out through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results revealed that the test substances did not show any significant mRNA expression compared to the control against CYP3A, CYP2B, and CYP2C. Positive controls such as dexamethasone and rifampin showed significantly high (p forskohlii and its major constituents may not be involved in CYP450 induction-based drug interaction.

  8. Indirect methods of retrieval of important mesospheric gas constituents from available measurements data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Mikhail; Nechaev, Anton; Belikovich, Mikhail; Ermakova, Tatiana; Feigin, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Observation of minor gas constituents is traditionally considered as one of the fundamental problems in investigations of the Earth's mesosphere and mesopause region. Since direct and regular measurements are still rather scanty, indirect methods are a useful tool. Based on a priori assumptions about possible relationships between measured and retrieved characteristics (for example, photochemical models), they allow one to obtain additional information about the important constituents from available experimental data. In this presentation we discuss, firstly, the restrictions on the use of the ozone steady state equilibrium condition for the retrieval of atomic oxygen and hydrogen concentrations from O2 and OH airglow emissions ratios and O3 concentration measurements. Secondly, we present a statistical Bayesian procedure of retrieving the concentrations of important constituents in mesosphere from available satellite and ground based experimental data. The technique is based on the application of the so-called basic dynamic model of mesospheric photochemistry, which is simplified mathematically correctly in a special manner and describes the most significant reactions between components of the families of odd hydrogen and oxygen. The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (Contract No. 15-17-10024).

  9. Anti-angiogenic activity of Morinda citrifolia extracts and its chemical constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Hooi-Kheng; Seow, Lay-Jing; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Abdul Majid, Amin Malik Shah; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Ismail, Norhayati; Ismail, Zhari

    2012-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. has been used for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-angiogenic effect of M. citrifolia fruits and leaves. Anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in vivo using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Bioactivity-guided fractionation and isolation were performed to identify the active constituent, and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis was then used to quantify the amount of this active constituent in the active extracts and fraction. The methanol extracts of fruits and leaves of M. citrifolia and the subsequent chloroform fraction of the fruit methanolic extract were found to have potential anti-angiogenic activity and were more potent compared to suramin. Scopoletin was identified as one of the chemical constituents that may be partly responsible for the anti-angiogenic activity of M. citrifolia fruits. The present findings further support the use of M. citrifolia in cancer or other pathological conditions related to angiogenesis.

  10. Growing media constituents determine the microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media for horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Oliver; Reheul, Dirk; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Perneel, Maaike; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Boon, Nico

    2016-05-01

    Vegetables and fruits are an important part of a healthy food diet, however, the eco-sustainability of the production of these can still be significantly improved. European farmers and consumers spend an estimated €15.5 billion per year on inorganic fertilizers and the production of N-fertilizers results in a high carbon footprint. We investigated if fertilizer type and medium constituents determine microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media and can be used as a next step towards a more sustainable horticulture. We demonstrated that growing media constituents showed differences in urea hydrolysis, ammonia and nitrite oxidation and in carbon dioxide respiration rate. Interestingly, mixing of the growing media constituents resulted in a stimulation of the function of the microorganisms. The use of organic fertilizer resulted in an increase in amoA gene copy number by factor 100 compared to inorganic fertilizers. Our results support our hypothesis that the activity of the functional microbial community with respect to nitrogen turnover in an organic growing medium can be improved by selecting and mixing the appropriate growing media components with each other. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional microbial community in growing media and its potential role towards a more responsible horticulture.

  11. Volatile Constituents, Inorganic Elements and Primary Screening of Bioactivity of Black Coral Cigarette Holders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganggang Shi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Black corals (BC have been used for a long time in Chinese medicine, and may have some pharmaceutical functions when used as material for cigarette holders in southeast China. This study is aimed to investigate the bioactivities of volatile constituents in BC and to explore the folklore behind the use of BC cigarette holders (BCCHs. We extracted the volatile constituents of BC by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with carbon dioxide (CO2-SFE, then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In total, 15 components were reliably identified in BC and found to be biologically active. These included triethyl phosphate, butylated hydroxytoluene, cedrol, n-hexadecanoic acid, squalene, and cholesterol. Meanwhile 13 inorganic elements (P, Ca, Mg, S, B, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, etc. were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometer (ICPS. In the bioactivity tests, the BC extract (BCE showed a scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals and hydroxyl radicals by phenanthroline-Fe (II oxidation and moderate inhibition of Gram-positive microorganisms. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of BC, which are related to the active chemical composition, may explain the perceived benefit for cigarette smokers who use BCCHs.

  12. Identifying constituents of whey protein concentrates that reduce the pink color defect in cooked ground turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammel, L M; Claus, J R; Greaser, M L; Lucey, J A

    2007-12-01

    Whey protein concentrate constituents were tested for their ability to reduce naturally occurring pink color defect and pink cooked color induced by sodium nitrite (10ppm) and nicotinamide (1.0%) in ground turkey. β-lactoglobulin (1.8%), α-lactalbumin (0.8%), bovine serum albumin (0.15-0.3%), lactose (1.0-3.0%), potassium chloride (500-1500ppm), and ferrous iron chloride (0.3-30ppm) had no effects on cooked pink color. Lactoferrin (30-5000ppm) increased or decreased pink color depending on its concentration in samples without added sodium nitrite or nicotinamide. Annatto (0.1-1.0ppm) reduced pink color whereas the higher concentration of magnesium chloride (22-88ppm) and ferric iron chloride (0.3-30ppm) increased pink color in samples with added nicotinamide. Calcium chloride (160-480ppm) was the only tested constituent that consistently reduced pink cooked color in samples with and without added nitrite and nicotinamide. Due to the variability of whey protein concentrates and the number of constituents that do not reduce pink cooked color, the addition of calcium alone or dried milk minerals containing calcium, phosphate, and citrate, represents a better means to regularly prevent the pink color defect in cooked ground turkey.

  13. A comprehensive review on vanilla flavor: extraction, isolation and quantification of vanillin and others constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Arun K; Sharma, Upendra K; Sharma, Nandini

    2008-06-01

    Vanilla, being the world's most popular flavoring materials, finds extensive applications in food, beverages, perfumery and pharmaceutical industry. With the high demand and limited supply of vanilla pods and the continuing increase in their cost, numerous efforts of blending and adulteration in natural vanilla extracts have been reported. Thus, to ensure the quality of vanilla extracts and vanilla-containing products, it is important to develop techniques to verify their authenticity. Quantitatively, vanillin is the major compound present in the vanilla pods and the determination of vanillin is a vital consideration in natural vanilla extracts. This paper provides a comprehensive account of different extraction processes and chromatographic techniques applied for the separation, identification and determination of chemical constituents of vanilla. The review also provides an account of different methods applied for the quantification and the authentification of chemical constituents of vanilla extract. As the various properties of vanilla are attributed to its main constituent vanillin, its physico-chemical and bioactive properties have also been outlined.

  14. In vitro evaluation of Bacopa monniera extract and individual constituents on human recombinant monoamine oxidase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajbir; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Bhateria, Manisha; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2014-09-01

    Bacopa monniera is a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant that has been used worldwide for its nootropic action. Chemically standardized extract of B. monniera is now available as over the counter herbal remedy to enhance memory in children and adults. Considering the nootropic action of B. monniera, we evaluated the effect of clinically available B. monniera extract and six of B. monniera constituents (bacoside A3, bacopaside I, bacopaside II, bacosaponin C, bacosine, and bacoside A mixture) on recombinant human monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes. The effect of B. monniera extract and individual constituents on human recombinant MAO-A and MAO-B enzymes was evaluated using MAO-Glo(TM) assay kit (Promega Corporation, USA), following the instruction manual. IC50 and mode of inhibition were measured for MAO enzymes. Bacopaside I and bacoside A mixture inhibited the MAO-A and MAO-B enzymes. Bacopaside I exhibited mixed mode of inhibition with IC50 and Ki values of 17.08 ± 1.64 and 42.5 ± 3.53 µg/mL, respectively, for MAO-A enzyme. Bacopaside I is the major constituent of B. monniera, which inhibited the MAO-A enzyme selectively.

  15. Evaluation of selected honey and one of its phenolic constituent eugenol against L1210 lymphoid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mondhe, Dilip; Wani, Z A; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    People affected with leukemia are on the rise and several strategies were employed to thwart this deadly disease. Recent decade of research focuses on phenolic constituents as a tool for combating various inflammatory, cancer, and cardiac diseases. Our research showed honey and its phenolic constituents as crusaders against cancer. In this work, we explored the antileukemic activity of selected honey and one of its phenolic constituent eugenol against L1210 leukemia animal model. Results of this experiment showed that the selected honey samples as well as eugenol after intraperitoneal injection could not increase the median survival time (MST) of animals. Further, there was only slight marginal increase in the %T/C values of honey and eugenol treated groups. The number of phenolics present in the honey may not be a prime factor to promote antileukemic effect since there was no difference in the MST of two different honeys tested. This study limits the use of selected honey and eugenol against leukemia animal model.

  16. Variation in the volatile constituents of Artemisia annua var. CIM-Arogya during plant ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju

    2011-02-01

    The essential oils yield and composition of the aerial parts of A. annua var. CIM-Arogya grown in Uttarakhand, India were analyzed and compared by capillary GC and GC-MS at different stages of development. The analysis led to the identification of 81 constituents forming 91.0%-97.1% of the essential oils compositions. The essential oil content of the aerial parts was found to vary from 0.3% to 0.7% at different stages of growth. A. annua crop harvested at full flowering and seed setting stage gave higher yield of essential oil (0.6%, 0.7%) than that harvested at pre flowering (0.5%), late vegetative (0.4%, 0.5%), mid vegetative (0.4%, 0.4%) and early vegetative stages (0.3%, 0.3%). The essential oils at different stages of growth showed monoterpenoids (38.5%-72.0%) and sesquiterpenoids (22.2%-48.2%) as major grouped constituents. The major constituents identified were camphor (22.8%-42.6%), 1,8-cineole (3.7%-8.4%), linalool (<0.1%-11.9%), beta-caryophyllene (2.0%-9.2%), (E)-beta-farnesene (1.3%-8.5%), germacrene D (0.5%-7.3%) and 1-epi-cubenol (0.7%-5.2%) in essential oil samples collected at different crop stages.

  17. Volatile constituents, inorganic elements and primary screening of bioactivity of black coral cigarette holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xueting; Chen, Yicun; Chen, Weizhou; Lei, Huaping; Shi, Ganggang

    2011-01-01

    Black corals (BC) have been used for a long time in Chinese medicine, and may have some pharmaceutical functions when used as material for cigarette holders in southeast China. This study is aimed to investigate the bioactivities of volatile constituents in BC and to explore the folklore behind the use of BC cigarette holders (BCCHs). We extracted the volatile constituents of BC by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide (CO₂-SFE), then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 15 components were reliably identified in BC and found to be biologically active. These included triethyl phosphate, butylated hydroxytoluene, cedrol, n-hexadecanoic acid, squalene, and cholesterol. Meanwhile 13 inorganic elements (P, Ca, Mg, S, B, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, etc.) were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometer (ICPS). In the bioactivity tests, the BC extract (BCE) showed a scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals and hydroxyl radicals by phenanthroline-Fe (II) oxidation and moderate inhibition of Gram-positive microorganisms. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of BC, which are related to the active chemical composition, may explain the perceived benefit for cigarette smokers who use BCCHs.

  18. Acetylsalicylic acid and labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia e Psicobiologia; Frydman, Jacques Natan Grinapel; Rocha, Vanessa Camara da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2005-10-15

    Acetylsalicylic acid is the drug most used an anti-inflammatory agent and for secondary prevention of thrombotic phenomenon. Drugs can modify the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99m Tc). The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of in vitro or in vivo assays with acetylsalicylic acid on the labeling of the blood constituents with 99m Tc. In vitro assay was performed with samples of whole blood from Wistar rats incubated with acetylsalicylic acid (1.0 mg/ml) for one hour before the 99m Tc-labeling process. For in vivo assay, Wistar rats were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (1.5 mg/kg) during one hour, and the whole blood was withdrawn for the 99m Tc-labeling process. Saline was used in control groups. Data showed that the fixation of 99m Tc to the blood constituents was not significantly (p>0.05) modified in in vitro and in vivo assays with acetylsalicylic acid, at least not when the experiments were carried out with the doses normally used in human beings. (author)

  19. An aqueous extract of Vitex agnus castus alters the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria Regina de Macedo; Ribeiro, Camila Godinho; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Neves, Rosane de Figueiredo; Catanho, Maria Teresa Jansem de Almeida [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: mariaregina.mr@terra.com.br; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2007-09-15

    The development of experimental assays to study properties of herbal medicine is worthwhile. Vitex agnus castus (VAC) is utilized in popular medicine and some actions have been attributed to its extract. Blood cells (BC) and plasma proteins are labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) and have been used in nuclear medicine, as in basic research. This procedure uses a reducing agent and stannous ion is utilized. There are reports that drugs can alter this labeling process. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of an aqueous extract of VAC on the labeling of blood constituents with Tc-99m. Blood was incubated with VAC, stannous chloride and Tc-99m, as sodium pertechnetate, and centrifuged. Samples of BC and plasma were separated, aliquots of BC and plasma were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid to obtain soluble and insoluble fractions and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was determined. The results show a statistical (p<0.05) alteration in the %ATI on blood compartments and on the insoluble fractions of plasma and BC. Probably, this extract would have chemical compounds with oxidant properties. (author)

  20. Impact of selected wastewater constituents on the removal of sulfonamide antibiotics via ultrafiltration and micellar enhanced ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exall, Kirsten; Balakrishnan, Vimal K; Toito, John; McFadyen, Renée

    2013-09-01

    To better understand the environmental mobility of sulfonamide antibiotics and develop improved processes for their removal during wastewater treatment, stirred cell ultrafiltration (UF) experiments were conducted using both synthetic and real wastewater effluent. The interactions between selected sulfonamides (sulfaguanidine, sulfathiazole and sulfamerazine), solids and dissolved organic matter were systematically explored. The further impact of micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF), a process in which surfactants are added at micellar concentrations to enhance removal of various trace contaminants from aqueous streams, was then explored by using a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Ultrafiltration of sulfonamides in the absence of other materials generally removed only 15-20% of the antibiotics. The presence of micellar solutions of CTAB generally improved removal of sulfonamides over UF alone, with rejections ranging from 20 to 74%. Environmental solids (sediment) further increased retention of sulfonamides using both UF and MEUF, but the presence of DOM did not influence rejection. Similar trends were observed on UF and MEUF of real effluent samples that had been spiked with the sulfonamides, confirming the environmental relevance of the observed interactions between sulfonamides, surfactant, and wastewater constituents. The results demonstrate that MEUF processes can be designed for the selective removal of such trace contaminants as sulfonamide antibiotics.