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Sample records for cell carcinoma subtypes

  1. Ethnic variation of the histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commonest histological variant in each of the ethnic groups, irrespective of sex, was clear cell carcinoma which accounted for 79.7% of all the histological subtypes found in Chinese, for 70.5% in Malaysian and 77.4% in Indian patients. The sarcomatoid histological subtype was found in 4.3% of the studied population ...

  2. DNA methylation profiling distinguishes histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy A.; Alokail, Majed; Gentle, Dean; Yao, Masahiro; Kovacs, Gyula; Maher, Eamonn R.

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for around 3% of cancers in the UK, and both incidence and mortality are increasing with the aging population. RCC can be divided into several subtypes: conventional RCC (the most common, comprising 75% of all cases), papillary RCC (15%) and chromophobe RCC (5%). Renal oncocytoma is a benign tumor and accounts for 5% of RCC. Cancer and epigenetics are closely associated, with DNA hypermethylation being widely accepted as a feature of many cancers. In this study the DNA methylation profiles of chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytomas were investigated by utilizing the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Cancer-specific hypermethylation was identified in 9.4% and 5.2% of loci in chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytoma samples, respectively, while the majority of the genome was hypomethylated. Thirty (hypermethylated) and 41 (hypomethylated) genes were identified as differentially methylated between chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytomas (p renal oncocytoma in relation to the other histological subtypes, providing insight into the pathology of RCC subtypes and classification of renal tumors. PMID:23428843

  3. [Subtype analysis and clinical significance of HPV infection in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and precancerous lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Linlin; Sun, Na; Sun, Guangbin; Fang, Qin; Meng, Yang; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Meng, Lingchao

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the correlation of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and precancerous lesion with HPV infection subtypes and possible clinical relationship. Eighty-three cases in paraffin embedded tissues were detected with thirty seven HPV subtypes by flow-through hybridization and gene chip (HybriMax), including 31 cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, 52 cases of precancerous lesions (29 cases of vocal cord leukoplakia and 23 cases of laryngeal papilloma), and 36 cases of vocal cord polyp as normal vocal mucosa were used as control. The total positive rate of HPV was 19.4% in the group of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (6/31), 0 in vocal cord leukoplakia, 65.2% in laryngeal papilloma (15/23), and the control group were all negative, HPV virus subtype of HPV-positive laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were all high-risk HPV16; and there were 6 HPV virus subtypes in laryngeal papilloma (8: HPV6,4: HPV52, 1: HPV11, 1: HPV18, 2: HPV45, 3: HPV16), individual mixing two or more subtypes infection. HPV infection of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and precancerous lesions has no statistically significant difference according to gender, high low-risk subtypes. HPV infection related to laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and precancerous lesions, but no significant correlation with the subtype distribution of high and low risk; HPV detection is making positive sense to clinical diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma and precancerous lesions as well as the development of specific HPV subtype vaccine.

  4. Lung Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Gene Expression Subtypes Demonstrate Significant Differences in Tumor Immune Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruki, Hawazin; Mayhew, Gregory M; Serody, Jonathan S; Hayes, D Neil; Perou, Charles M; Lai-Goldman, Myla

    2017-06-01

    Molecular subtyping of lung adenocarcinoma (AD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) reveal biologically diverse tumors that vary in their genomic and clinical attributes. Published immune cell signatures and several lung AD and SCC gene expression data sets, including The Cancer Genome Atlas, were used to examine immune response in relation to AD and SCC expression subtypes. Expression of immune cell populations and other immune related genes, including CD274 molecule gene (CD274) (programmed death ligand 1), was investigated in the tumor microenvironment relative to the expression subtypes of the AD (terminal respiratory unit, proximal proliferative, and proximal inflammatory) and SCC (primitive, classical, secretory, and basal) subtypes. Lung AD and SCC expression subtypes demonstrated significant differences in tumor immune landscape. The proximal proliferative subtype of AD demonstrated low immune cell expression among ADs whereas the secretory subtype showed elevated immune cell expression among SCCs. Tumor expression subtype was a better predictor of immune cell expression than CD274 (programmed death ligand 1) in SCC tumors but was a comparable predictor in AD tumors. Nonsilent mutation burden was not correlated with immune cell expression across subtypes; however, major histocompatibility complex class II gene expression was highly correlated with immune cell expression. Increased immune and major histocompatibility complex II gene expression was associated with improved survival in the terminal respiratory unit and proximal inflammatory subtypes of AD and in the primitive subtype of SCC. Molecular expression subtypes of lung AD and SCC demonstrate key and reproducible differences in immune host response. Evaluation of tumor expression subtypes as potential biomarkers for immunotherapy should be investigated. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrasound as predictor of histologic subtypes linked to recurrence in basal cell carcinoma of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortsman, X; Vergara, P; Castro, A; Saavedra, D; Bobadilla, F; Sazunic, I; Zemelman, V; Wortsman, J

    2015-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) recurrences, especially in the facial region, represent a complex cosmetic problem. To date the possibility of predicting recurrence is supported solely by the histologic subtype. To evaluate the relationship between BCC histologic subtypes linked to high and low risk of recurrence and the presence of hyperechoic spots on sonography. Retrospective analysis of the pre-surgical ultrasound examinations of primary BCC tumours with visualization and counting of intra-tumoural hyperechoic spots. The data were then correlated with the corresponding histologic subtype. Thirty one patients with histologically proven BCC were included in the study. Hyperechoic spots were detected in all cases and there was a positive, statistically significant association between hyperechoic spots count and high recurrence risk histologic subtypes. Higher hyperechoic spots count was found in the recurrence-prone micronodular, sclerosing variant and morpheiform BCC subtypes. Low risk and high risk of recurrence showed a significant difference on the mean hyperechoic spots count of 5.5 (range: 3-25) and 8 (4-81). A cut-off point ≥7 hyperechoic spots presented a sensitivity of 79% and specificity of 53% for predicting the high risk of recurrence subtypes. The presence and count of hyperechoic spots within BCC lesions may help predicting the high risk of recurrence histologic subtypes. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  6. Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Breast: A Rare Breast Cancer Subtype - Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Ratti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glycogen-rich clear cell breast carcinoma is a rare histological breast cancer subtype. Its prognosis may vary depending on specific clinical and pathological characteristics such as low grade, strong positivity of estrogen receptor (ER expression and early diagnosis. Case Presentation: We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a bleeding 10-cm-diameter mass in the left breast. The histological examination showed a poorly differentiated tumor with malignant cells characterized by abundant clear cytoplasm. The diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma was based on the histological characteristics of the tumor, and a nonmammary origin was initially ruled out. The tumor was triple negative [i.e. ER, progesterone receptor (PR and HER2 negative]. Four months after the initial locoregional treatment, the patient developed lung and distant lymph node metastases. Conclusions: Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor. Early diagnosis, absence of lymph node metastases and ER/PR positivity are associated with a better prognosis, as in other common breast cancer subtypes.

  7. Classifying distinct basal cell carcinoma subtype by means of dermatoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Caterina; Lallas, Aimilios; Kyrgidis, Athanassios; Rabinovitz, Harold; Moscarella, Elvira; Ciardo, Silvana; Zalaudek, Iris; Oliviero, Margaret; Losi, Amanda; Gonzalez, Salvador; Guitera, Pascale; Piana, Simonetta; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    The current guidelines for the management of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) suggest a different therapeutic approach according to histopathologic subtype. Although dermatoscopic and confocal criteria of BCC have been investigated, no specific studies were performed to evaluate the distinct reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) aspects of BCC subtypes. To define the specific dermatoscopic and confocal criteria for delineating different BCC subtypes. Dermatoscopic and confocal images of histopathologically confirmed BCCs were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of predefined criteria. Frequencies of dermatoscopic and confocal parameters are provided. Univariate and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Discriminant analyses were performed to define the independent confocal criteria for distinct BCC subtypes. Eighty-eight BCCs were included. Dermatoscopically, superficial BCCs (n=44) were primarily typified by the presence of fine telangiectasia, multiple erosions, leaf-like structures, and revealed cords connected to the epidermis and epidermal streaming upon RCM. Nodular BCCs (n=22) featured the classic dermatoscopic features and well outlined large basaloid islands upon RCM. Infiltrative BCCs (n=22) featured structureless, shiny red areas, fine telangiectasia, and arborizing vessels on dermatoscopy and dark silhouettes upon RCM. The retrospective design. Dermatoscopy and confocal microscopy can reliably classify different BCC subtypes. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Developing a radiomics framework for classifying non-small cell lung carcinoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongdong; Zang, Yali; Dong, Di; Zhou, Mu; Gevaert, Olivier; Fang, Mengjie; Shi, Jingyun; Tian, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Patient-targeted treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) has been well documented according to the histologic subtypes over the past decade. In parallel, recent development of quantitative image biomarkers has recently been highlighted as important diagnostic tools to facilitate histological subtype classification. In this study, we present a radiomics analysis that classifies the adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). We extract 52-dimensional, CT-based features (7 statistical features and 45 image texture features) to represent each nodule. We evaluate our approach on a clinical dataset including 324 ADCs and 110 SqCCs patients with CT image scans. Classification of these features is performed with four different machine-learning classifiers including Support Vector Machines with Radial Basis Function kernel (RBF-SVM), Random forest (RF), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), and RUSBoost algorithms. To improve the classifiers' performance, optimal feature subset is selected from the original feature set by using an iterative forward inclusion and backward eliminating algorithm. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that radiomics features achieve encouraging classification results on both complete feature set (AUC=0.89) and optimal feature subset (AUC=0.91).

  9. Spectrum of diverse genomic alterations define non–clear cell renal carcinoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Bijay S; Zhang, Na; Toffessi-Tcheuyap, Vanina; Nguyen, Thong T; Pahuja, Kanika Bajaj; Chen, Ying-Jiun; Saleem, Sadia; Chaudhuri, Subhra; Heldens, Sherry; Jackson, Marlena; Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Guillory, Joseph; Toy, Karen; Ha, Connie; Harris, Corissa J; Holloman, Eboni; Hill, Haley M; Stinson, Jeremy; Rivers, Celina Sanchez; Janakiraman, Vasantharajan; Wang, Weiru; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V; Haverty, Peter M; Chow, Bernard; Gehring, Julian S; Reeder, Jens; Pau, Gregoire; Wu, Thomas D; Margulis, Vitaly; Lotan, Yair; Sagalowsky, Arthur; Pedrosa, Ivan; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Brugarolas, James; Seshagiri, Somasekar

    2015-01-01

    To further understand the molecular distinctions between kidney cancer subtypes, we analyzed exome, transcriptome and copy number alteration data from 167 primary human tumors that included renal oncocytomas and non–clear cell renal cell carcinomas (nccRCCs), consisting of papillary (pRCC), chromophobe (chRCC) and translocation (tRCC) subtypes. We identified ten significantly mutated genes in pRCC, including MET, NF2, SLC5A3, PNKD and CPQ. MET mutations occurred in 15% (10/65) of pRCC samples and included previously unreported recurrent activating mutations. In chRCC, we found TP53, PTEN, FAAH2, PDHB, PDXDC1 and ZNF765 to be significantly mutated. Gene expression analysis identified a five-gene set that enabled the molecular classification of chRCC, renal oncocytoma and pRCC. Using RNA sequencing, we identified previously unreported gene fusions, including ACTG1-MITF fusion. Ectopic expression of the ACTG1-MITF fusion led to cellular transformation and induced the expression of downstream target genes. Finally, we observed upregulation of the anti-apoptotic factor BIRC7 in MiTF-high RCC tumors, suggesting a potential therapeutic role for BIRC7 inhibitors. PMID:25401301

  10. An investigation of risk factors for renal cell carcinoma by histologic subtype in two case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Purdue, Mark P.; Moore, Lee E.; Merino, Maria J.; Boffetta, Paolo; Colt, Joanne S.; Schwartz, Kendra L.; Bencko, Vladimir; Davis, Faith G.; Graubard, Barry I.; Janout, Vladimir; Ruterbusch, Julie J.; Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer; Cote, Michele L.; Shuch, Brian; Mates, Dana

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether renal cell carcinoma (RCC) histologic subtypes possess different etiologies, we conducted analyses of established RCC risk factors by subtype (clear cell, papillary, chromophobe) in two case-control studies conducted in the United States (1,217 cases, 1,235 controls) and Europe (1,097 cases, 1,476 controls). Histology was ascertained for 706 U.S. cases (58% of total) and 917 European cases (84%) through a central slide review conducted by a single pathologist. For the r...

  11. Survival rate variation with different histological subtypes of poor prognostic male anal squamous cell carcinoma: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Kelash; Vikash, Sindhu; Chen, Liaobin; Li, Jingfeng

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective The prognosis of male anal squamous cell carcinoma (MASCC) and female anal squamous cell carcinoma (FASCC) is variable. The influence of tumor subtype on the survival rate and gender is poorly known. Our study is the largest population-based study and aims to outline the difference in survival between MASCC and FASCC patients. Methods A retrospective population-based study was performed to compare the disease-specific mortalities (DSMs) between genders related to the tumor subtypes. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program database was employed to obtain the data from January 1988 to December 2014. Results A total of 4,516, (3,249 males and 1,267 females), patients with anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC) were investigated. The 5-year DSMs were 24.18% and 18.08% for men and women, respectively. The univariate analysis of the male basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) and cloacogenic carcinoma (CC) patients demonstrated higher DSMs (P <0.001). Moreover, in the multivariate analysis, BSCC and CC were associated with soaring DSMs in male patients (P < 0.05). Conclusions In the cohort of BSCC and CC patients, male patients demonstrated a considerable decrease in survival rate compared to females. A more precise classification of ASCC and individualized management for MASCC are warranted. PMID:29137429

  12. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma: discrimination from other renal cell carcinoma subtypes and oncocytoma at multiphasic multidetector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jonathan R; Margolis, Daniel; Sauk, Steven; Pantuck, Allan J; Sayre, James; Raman, Steven S

    2013-05-01

    To determine whether enhancement at multiphasic multidetector computed tomography (CT) can help differentiate clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from oncocytoma, papillary RCC, and chromophobe RCC. With institutional review board approval for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, the pathology database was queried to derive a cohort of 298 cases of RCC and oncocytoma with preoperative multiphasic multidetector CT with as many as four phases (unenhanced, corticomedullary, nephrographic, and excretory). A total of 170 clear cell RCCs, 57 papillary RCCs, 49 oncocytomas, and 22 chromophobe RCCs were evaluated for multiphasic enhancement and compared by using t tests. Cutoff analysis was performed to determine optimal threshold levels to discriminate among the four groups. Mean enhancement of clear cell RCCs and oncocytomas peaked in the corticomedullary phase; mean enhancement of papillary and chromophobe RCCs peaked in the nephrographic phase. Enhancement of clear cell RCCs was greater than that of oncocytomas in the corticomedullary (125 HU vs 106 HU, P = .045) and excretory (80 HU vs 67 HU, P = .034) phases. Enhancement of clear cell RCCs was greater than that of papillary RCCs in the corticomedullary (125 HU vs 54 HU, P oncocytoma, papillary RCC, and chromophobe RCC with accuracies of 77% (83 of 108 cases), 85% (101 of 119 cases), and 84% (81 of 97 cases). Enhancement at multiphasic multidetector CT, if prospectively validated, may assist in the discrimination of clear cell RCC from oncocytoma, papillary RCC, and chromophobe RCC. © RSNA, 2013.

  13. Differentiation of Basal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes in Multi-Beam Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography (MSS-OCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekings, Adam; Utz, Sarah; Ulrich, Martina; Bienenfeld, Amanda; Nandanan, Naveen; Fisher, Juliya; McKenzie, Gordon; Siegel, Daniel M; Feldman, Eleanor; Markowitz, Orit

    2016-05-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique that enables real-time in-vivo examination of tissue. This technology provides the clinician with the potential to use a non-invasive tool in the identification and diagnosis of many skin lesions. However, the diagnostic features of basal cell carcinoma have not yet been described with comparison to their histopathology. To identify and describe key features of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and its subtypes as they present in multi-beam Swept Source - OCT (MSS-OCT), and to correlate those against conventional histopathology. A total of 40 lesions were assessed by MSS-OCT prior to biopsy. 60-slice OCT images of the lesions were obtained and correlated with histology sections taken in the same plane. OCT scans were assessed retrospectively by a panel to determine the OCT criteria for BCC and its subtypes. The following diagnostic criteria were identified: hyporeflective ovoid structures (40/40), dark halo boundaries (38/40), epidermal thinning (28/40), and collagen compression (14/40). Lesional tissue also showed a destruction of layers when compared to the surrounding normal tissue. In addition to the shared criteria, other subtypes showed distinct diagnostic criteria. With its higher sensitivity, using MSS-OCT allowed for non-invasive, accurate identification of the key diagnostic features of BCC and its subtypes with high correlation to the histopathologic features found with biopsy. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(5):545-550.

  14. Expression of CD44 and P53 in renal cell carcinoma: Association with tumor subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Noroozinia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is a common malignancy of the kidney and accurate prediction of prognosis is valuable for the design of adjuvant therapy and counseling and effective scheduling of follow-up visits. Molecular genetic investigations of CD44 and P53 in RCC may be helpful in this regard. We studied the CD44 and P53 expressions semi-quantitatively on paraffin-embedded specimens of 64 RCC patients (37 male/27 female who underwent surgery from 2003 to 2008 by immunohistochemistry and analyzed the correlation of P53 and CD44 expression in RCC and outcome. Thirteen of 64 (20.3% specimens were P53 positive, 30/64 (46.9% were CD44 positive and five tumors with positive P53 expressed CD44 protein (P = 0.5. A statistically significant correlation was not found between CD44 and P53 expression (P = 0.5 and age (P = 0.07, sex (P= 0.3, tumor size (P = 0.7, grade (P = 0.23, vascular invasion (P = 1.00 and ureteral invasion (P = 1.00. Furthermore, a significant correlation was not found between P53 expression with age (P = 0.3, sex (P = 0.7, tumor size (P = 0.7, grade (P = 0.1, vascular inva-sion (P = 1.00 and ureteral invasion (P = 1.00. According to our findings, only P53 expression is generally accompanied by non-conventional subtype tumor.

  15. An investigation of risk factors for renal cell carcinoma by histologic subtype in two case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue, Mark P; Moore, Lee E; Merino, Maria J; Boffetta, Paolo; Colt, Joanne S; Schwartz, Kendra L; Bencko, Vladimir; Davis, Faith G; Graubard, Barry I; Janout, Vladimir; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer; Cote, Michele L; Shuch, Brian; Mates, Dana; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Foretova, Lenka; Rothman, Nathaniel; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Matveev, Vsevolod; Wacholder, Sholom; Zaridze, David; Linehan, W Marston; Brennan, Paul; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2013-06-01

    To investigate whether renal cell carcinoma (RCC) histologic subtypes possess different etiologies, we conducted analyses of established RCC risk factors by subtype (clear cell, papillary and chromophobe) in two case-control studies conducted in the United States (1,217 cases, 1,235 controls) and Europe (1,097 cases, 1,476 controls). Histology was ascertained for 706 U.S. cases (58% of total) and 917 European cases (84%) through a central slide review conducted by a single pathologist. For the remaining cases, histology was abstracted from the original diagnostic pathology report. Case-only analyses were performed to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) summarizing subtype differences by age, sex and race. Case-control analyses were performed to compute subtype-specific ORs for other risk factors using polytomous regression. In case-only analyses, papillary cases (N = 237) were older (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.1-1.4 per 10-year increase), less likely to be female (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4-0.8) and more likely to be black (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.8-3.9) as compared to clear cell cases (N = 1,524). In case-control analyses, BMI was associated with clear cell (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.1-1.3 per 5 kg/m(2) increase) and chromophobe RCC (N = 80; OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.1-1.4), but not papillary RCC (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2; test versus clear cell, p = 0.006). No subtype differences were observed for associations with smoking, hypertension or family history of kidney cancer. Our findings support the existence of distinct age, sex and racial distributions for RCC subtypes, and suggest that the obesity-RCC association differs by histology. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  16. In vivo differentiation of common basal cell carcinoma subtypes by microvascular and structural imaging using dynamic optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themstrup, Lotte; De Carvalho, Nathalie; Nielsen, Sabrina M; Olsen, Jonas; Ciardo, Silvana; Schuh, Sandra; Nørnberg, Birgit M-H; Welzel, Julia; Ulrich, Martina; Pellacani, Giovanni; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2018-02-01

    The subtype of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) influences the choice of treatment. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging tool, and a recent development of an angiographic version of OCT has extended the application of OCT to image the cutaneous microvasculature (so-called dynamic OCT, D-OCT). This study explores D-OCT's ability to differentiate the common BCC subtypes by microvascular and structural imaging. Eighty-one patients with 98 BCC lesions, consisting of three subtypes: 27 superficial BCC (sBCC), 55 nodular BCC (nBCC) and 16 infiltrative BCC (iBCC) were D-OCT scanned at three European dermatology centres. Blinded evaluations of microvascular and structural features were performed, followed by extensive statistical analysis of risk ratio (RR) and multiple correspondence analysis. nBCC lesions displayed most characteristic structural and vascular features. Serpiginous vessels, branching vessels, vessels creating a circumscribed figure and sharply demarcated hyporeflective ovoid structures in the dermis were all associated with a higher risk of the subtype being nBCC. The presence of highly present lines and dark peripheral borders at the margin of ovoid structures was negatively associated with iBCC. Lastly, the finding of hyporeflective ovoid structures protruding from epidermis correlated with sBCC. We identified various microvascular and structural D-OCT features that may aid non-invasive identification of BCC subtypes. This would allow clinicians to individualize and optimize BCC treatment as well as aid follow-up of non-surgical treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Diffusion-weighted MRI in renal cell carcinoma: A surrogate marker for predicting nuclear grade and histological subtype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Ankur; Sharma, Raju; Bhalla, Ashu S.; Gamanagatti, Shivanand (Dept. of Radiodiagnosis, All India Inst. of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi (India)), Email: raju152@yahoo.com; Seth, Amlesh (Dept. of Urology, All India Inst. of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi (India)); Iyer, Venkateswaran K.; Das, Prasenjit (Dept. of Pathology, All India Inst. of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi (India))

    2012-04-15

    Background: Though previous investigators have attempted to evaluate its utility in characterization of focal renal lesions, diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW MRI) in renal diseases is still an evolving field and its role in predicting the aggressiveness of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is yet to be established. Purpose: To assess whether apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values can be used to determine the nuclear grade and histological subtype of RCCs and to identify the tumor attributes contributing to variation in ADC values. Material and Methods: The institutional ethics committee waived the requirement of informed consent for this retrospective study. The study cohort consisted of 33 patients who underwent MRI (with diffusion-weighted imaging at b values of 0 and 500 s/mm2) and were found to have 36 pathologically-proven RCCs. ADC values were determined for solid portions of RCC, cystic/hemorrhagic areas, and normal renal parenchyma. Histological subtype, nuclear grade, and cell count were determined for each lesion. ADC values were compared between different grades and subtypes and correlation with cell count was investigated. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn to establish cut-off ADC values. Results: There were 23 low grade (grades I and II) and 13 high grade tumors (grades III and IV). There were 32 clear-cell and four non-clear-cell RCCs. A decreasing trend of ADC values was seen with increasing grade and mean ADC of high grade RCC was significantly lower than low grade (1.3145 vs 1.6982 x 10-3 mm2/s) (P = 0.005). Mean ADC for clear-cell RCC was significantly higher than non-clear-cell RCC (1.6245 vs. 1.0412 x 10-3 mm2/s) (P = 0.005). ADC values higher than 1.7960 x 10-3 mm2/s were seen only with low grade and values greater than 1.4904 x 10-3 mm2/s were seen only with clear-cell RCC. Conclusion: ADC values provide a non-invasive means to predict the nuclear grade and histological subtype of RCC. Cellularity and morphology are other

  18. In vivo assessment of optical properties of basal cell carcinoma and differentiation of BCC subtypes by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc; Suppa, Mariano; Miyamoto, Makiko

    2016-01-01

    High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) features of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have recently been defined. We assessed in vivo optical properties (IV-OP) of BCC, by HD-OCT. Moreover their critical values for BCC subtype differentiation were determined. The technique of semi-log plot...

  19. Mitochondrial D310 D-Loop instability and histological subtypes in radiation-induced cutaneous basal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Paula; Pereira, Dina; Mendes, Adélia; Batista, Rui; da Silva, André Ferreira; Guimarães, Isabel; Honavar, Mrinalini; Teixeira-Gomes, José; Lopes, José Manuel; Máximo, Valdemar; Soares, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent skin cancer. An elevated prevalence of BCC has been associated with radiation, namely after the Tinea capitis epilation treatment, being these tumors described as more aggressive. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been reported in many human tumors, but their occurrence in BCC is poorly documented. The purpose of this work was to evaluate BCC histological subtypes in individuals subjected to X-ray epilation for Tinea capitis treatment when compared to non-irradiated patients. Moreover we also wanted to evaluate mitochondrial D-Loop instability in both groups of BCCs in order to compare the frequency of D-Loop mutations in post-irradiation BCC versus sporadic BCC. 228 histological specimens corresponding to BCCs from 75 irradiated patients and 60 non-irradiated patients were re-evaluated for histological subtype. Subsequently, we sequenced the D-Loop 310 repeat in blood, oral mucosa, tumor lesions and, whenever available, non-tumoral adjacent tissue from these patients. The infiltrative subtype of BCC, considered to be more aggressive, was significantly more frequent in irradiated patients. BCC D-Loop D310 mutation rate was significantly higher in irradiated BCCs than in the non-irradiated ones. Moreover, it was associated with a higher irradiation dose. The presence of mtDNA heteroplasmy in patients' blood was associated with a higher mutation rate in the BCCs suggesting that a more unstable genotype could predispose to mtDNA somatic mutation. Our results suggest that radiation-induced BCCs may be considered to be more aggressive tumors. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of mtDNA D-Loop mutations in tumors from irradiated patients. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Usefulness of High-Frequency Ultrasound in the Classification of Histologic Subtypes of Primary Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ibáñez, C; Blazquez-Sánchez, N; Aguilar-Bernier, M; Fúnez-Liébana, R; Rivas-Ruiz, F; de Troya-Martín, M

    Incisional biopsy may not always provide a correct classification of histologic subtypes of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). High-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) imaging of the skin is useful for the diagnosis and management of this tumor. The main aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of HFUS compared with punch biopsy for the correct classification of histologic subtypes of primary BCC. We also analyzed the influence of tumor size and histologic subtype (single subtype vs. mixed) on the diagnostic yield of HFUS and punch biopsy. Retrospective observational study of primary BCCs treated by the Dermatology Department of Hospital Costa del Sol in Marbella, Spain, between october 2013 and may 2014. Surgical excision was preceded by HFUS imaging (Dermascan C © , 20-MHz linear probe) and a punch biopsy in all cases. We compared the overall diagnostic yield and accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value [PPV], and negative predictive value [NPV]) of HFUS and punch biopsy against the gold standard (excisional biopsy with serial sections) for overall and subgroup results. We studied 156 cases. The overall diagnostic yield was 73.7% for HFUS (sensitivity, 74.5%; specificity, 73%) and 79.9% for punch biopsy (sensitivity, 76%; specificity, 82%). In the subgroup analyses, HFUS had a PPV of 93.3% for superficial BCC (vs. 92% for punch biopsy). In the analysis by tumor size, HFUS achieved an overall diagnostic yield of 70.4% for tumors measuring 40mm 2 or less and 77.3% for larger tumors; the NPV was 82% in both size groups. Punch biopsy performed better in the diagnosis of small lesions (overall diagnostic yield of 86.4% for lesions ≤40mm 2 vs. 72.6% for lesions >40mm 2 ). HFUS imaging was particularly useful for ruling out infiltrating BCCs, diagnosing simple, superficial BCCs, and correctly classifying BCCs larger than 40mm 2 . Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Sorafenib enriches epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive tumor initiating cells and exacerbates a subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma through TSC2-AKT cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dong-Xian; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Jiang-Sha; Long, Ling-Yun; Chen, Tian-Wei; Zhang, Er-Bin; Feng, Yuan-Yuan; Bao, Wen-Dai; Deng, Yue-Zhen; Qiu, Lin; Zhang, Xue-Li; Koeffler, H Phillip; Cheng, Shu-qun; Li, Jing-Jing; Xie, Dong

    2015-12-01

    Sorafenib is a specific adenosine triphosphate-competitive RAF inhibitor used as a first-line treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the responses are variable, reflecting heterogeneity of the disease, while the resistance mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report that sorafenib treatment can exacerbate disease progression in both patient-derived xenografts and cell line-derived xenografts and that the therapeutic effect of the drug inversely covaries to the ratio of epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive cells, which may be tumor initiating cells in HCC. The TSC2-AKT cascade mediates this sorafenib resistance. In response to sorafenib treatment, formation of the TSC1/2 complex is enhanced, causing increased phosphorylation of AKT, which contributes to up-regulation of "stemness"-related genes in epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive cells and enhancement of tumorigenicity. The expression of TSC2 negatively correlated with prognosis in clinical sorafenib therapy. Furthermore, all-trans retinoic acid decreased AKT activity, reduced the epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive cell population enriched by sorafenib, and potentiated the therapeutic effect of sorafenib in the patient-derived xenograft model. Our findings suggest that a subtype of HCC is not suitable for sorafenib therapy; this resistance to sorafenib can be predicted by the status of TSC2, and agents inducing differentiation of tumor initiating cells (e.g., all-trans retinoic acid) should improve the prognosis of this subtype of HCC. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Primary Cutaneous Carcinosarcoma of the Basal Cell Subtype Should Be Treated as a High-Risk Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeault, Emilie; Alain, Jimmy; Gagné, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous carcinosarcoma is a rare primary tumor of the skin, characterized by biphasic epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation. Due to the limited number of cases reported, there is no consensus regarding treatment and prognosis. Some authors suggest that cutaneous carcinosarcomas should be viewed as aggressive tumors, with ancillary imaging used to evaluate potential metastatic disease. Other reports demonstrate an indolent disease course, especially with epidermal-type cutaneous carcinosarcomas. We report a case of cutaneous carcinosarcoma, which we treated with electrodessication and curettage following a shave biopsy. The tumor had an epithelial component resembling a basal cell carcinoma and a fibrosarcomatous stroma. At 1-year follow-up, our patient did not show evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Our case suggests that a cutaneous carcinosarcoma with an epithelial component composed of basal cell carcinoma can be regarded as a high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancer. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Subtyping of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma in Fine Needle Aspiration Specimens: A Study of 252 Patients with Surgical Correlations

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    Beyhan Varol Mollamehmetoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA cytology performed by either transthoracic or transbronchial procedures is an important approach to obtain tumor tissue for histological diagnosis. We investigated the accuracy of FNA in differentiating NSCLCs of adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma histological types to correlate cytological findings with histological features and immunohistochemistry confirmation in some cases. Methods: From 2010 to 2015, a total of 635 transbronchial needle aspirations or transthoracic needle aspirations were performed. 332 cases were diagnosed as NSCLC, with or without an indication of a specific subtype, while 303 cases were not diagnosed as NSCLC. Out of 332 cases diagnosed as NSCLC, 252 had a histological follow-up. Subsequently, histological samples included 161 surgical resections and 91 biopsies. In cases with histopathological diagnosis accompanied by FNA cytology, an immunohistochemical study was carried out and the diagnostic results of the two methods were compared to each other. Results: The specific subtype of NSCLC was provided in 217 cases (86% based on cytomorphology which included 115 adenocarcinomas (46% and 102 squamous cell carcinomas (40%. The diagnosis NSCLC-NOS by FNA was set in 35 cases. At histology, 251 cases (99.6% were sub-classified: 122 adenocarcinomas (48%, 104 squamous cell carcinomas (41%, 11 large cell carcinomas (4% , and 14 adenosquamous carcinomas (6%. Agreement between cytological and histological typing was found in 181 of 197 cases (92% (K=0.837; p<0.001. Conclusion: Our study proved that most NSCLC can be sub-classified as adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma by FNA through cytomorphology and the application of immunocytochemistry.

  4. Performance of Relative Enhancement on Multiphasic MRI for the Differentiation of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) From Papillary and Chromophobe RCC Subtypes and Oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jonathan R; Coy, Heidi; Kim, Hyun J; Douek, Michael; Lo, Pechin; Pantuck, Allan J; Raman, Steven S

    2017-04-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the performance of relative enhancement on multiphasic MRI to differentiate clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from other RCC subtypes (papillary and chromophobe) and oncocytoma. For this study, we derived a cohort of 34 clear cell RCCs, nine oncocytomas, 12 papillary RCCs, and 10 chromophobe RCCs with a preoperative multiphasic dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI study with up to four phases (i.e., unenhanced, corticomedullary, nephrographic, excretory) from 2005 to 2016. These groups were evaluated for multiphasic enhancement and were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. ROC curves were constructed and logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the performance of multiphasic enhancement in differentiating clear cell RCCs from the other three groups. Clear cell RCCs exhibited significantly greater relative signal intensity compared with uninvolved renal cortex in the corticomedullary phase (mean, 2.9) than oncocytomas (-21.7, p = 0.001), papillary RCCs (-53.0, p oncocytomas with an AUC of 0.90 and with an accuracy of 84% (32/38), sensitivity of 90% (27/30), and specificity of 63% (5/8) after controlling for lesion size, patient age, and patient sex. Relative corticomedullary signal intensity differentiated clear cell RCCs from oncocytomas and other RCC subtypes with an AUC of 0.93 and with an accuracy of 90% (53/59), sensitivity of 90% (27/30), and specificity of 90% (26/29) after controlling for lesion size, patient age, and patient sex. Multiphasic MRI enhancement may assist in differentiating clear cell RCC from oncocytomas and other RCC subtypes, if validated in prospective studies.

  5. GATA3 immunohistochemistry expression in histologic subtypes of primary breast carcinoma and metastatic breast carcinoma cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deftereos, Georgios; Sanguino Ramirez, Angela M; Silverman, Jan F; Krishnamurti, Uma

    2015-09-01

    GATA3 plays a role in cell proliferation and differentiation in many tissues, including breast, and it has been suggested that GATA3 expression correlates with ER expression. However, little is known on GATA3 expression in various subtypes of breast carcinoma, its utilization in cytology, and on how GATA3 performs in comparison with GCDFP-15 and mammaglobin. Eighty-four histology cases of breast carcinoma of various subtypes, including 28 triple-negative breast carcinomas, along with 20 cytology cases of metastatic breast carcinoma and 12 cytology cases of ER-positive metastatic gynecologic malignancies, were stained for GATA3, GCDFP-15, and mammaglobin. In non-triple-negative breast carcinomas (n=56), GATA3 showed 100% sensitivity, higher than GCDFP-15 (42.8%; Pcytology cases, 100% stained with GATA3, higher than GCDFP-15 (20%; Pgynecologic malignancies. Thus, in working up ER-positive metastatic malignancies GATA3 demonstrates specificity for breast.

  6. Kisspeptin and GPR54 immunoreactivity in a cohort of 518 patients defines favourable prognosis and clear cell subtype in ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Leah M; Klausen, Christian; Kalloger, Steve; Köbel, Martin; McKinney, Steven; Santos, Jennifer L; Kenney, Challayne; Mehl, Erika; Gilks, C Blake; Leung, Peter; Swenerton, Ken; Huntsman, David G; Aparicio, Samuel A J

    2007-11-15

    Kisspeptins and their G-protein coupled receptor, GPR54 are required for GnRH release and have been associated with anti-metastatic tumour cell behaviour in model systems. The latter might suggest that their overexpression would be associated with a better prognosis in cancer. However, kisspeptin/GPR54 interactions (autocrine, paracrine, and/or endocrine) could also impact tumour behaviour in a negative manner. Here, for the first time, we associate the immunoreactivity of the kisspeptin/GPR54 ligand-receptor pair with favourable prognosis in a large cohort of ovarian carcinomas. Immunohistochemical analysis for kisspeptin and GPR54 was performed on a tissue microarray (TMA) consisting of 518 early stage ovarian carcinomas, all with linked clinical outcome data. The TMA was scored using a staining intensity scale of 0 (negative), +1 (mild-moderate), and +2 (strong). Strong staining cases were considered either kisspeptin or GPR54 positive and designated as 1, while all other cases were considered negative and designated 0. All statistical analysis was conducted using two-sided tests and a p value equal to or less than 0.05 was considered significant. Kisspeptin and GPR54 immunoreactive cases show a favourable prognosis in univariable disease specific survival (p = 0.0023, p = 0.0092), as well as in overall survival (p = 0.0006, p = 0.0002). Furthermore, kisspeptin is an independent marker for favourable prognosis as determined by multivariable disease specific (p = 0.0046) and overall survival analysis (p = 0.0170), while GPR54 is an independent marker for overall survival only (p = 0.0303). Both kisspeptin positive and GPR54 positive cases are strongly associated with the ovarian carcinoma clear cell subtype (p GPR54 is significantly associated with favourable prognosis in overall survival within the clear cell subtype (p = 0.0102). Kisspeptin and GPR54 immunoreactivity are significantly associated with favourable prognosis in both disease specific and overall

  7. Different subtypes of carcinoma in situ of the bladder do not have a different prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comperat, E.; Jacquet, S.F.; Varinot, J.; Conort, P.; Roupret, M.; Chartier-Kastler, E.; Bitker, M.O.; Witjes, J.A.; Cussenot, O.

    2013-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a high-grade lesion with different subtypes (large cell pleomorphic (LCP), large cell nonpleomorphic (LC), small cell and clinging (CL)). We explored the frequency of different subtypes in primary CIS and compared different patterns with outcome. We explored

  8. Identification of Subtype-Specific Prognostic Genes for Early-Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Using an Embedded Feature Selection Algorithm.

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    Suyan Tian

    Full Text Available The existence of fundamental differences between lung adenocarcinoma (AC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in their underlying mechanisms motivated us to postulate that specific genes might exist relevant to prognosis of each histology subtype. To test on this research hypothesis, we previously proposed a simple Cox-regression model based feature selection algorithm and identified successfully some subtype-specific prognostic genes when applying this method to real-world data. In this article, we continue our effort on identification of subtype-specific prognostic genes for AC and SCC, and propose a novel embedded feature selection method by extending Threshold Gradient Descent Regularization (TGDR algorithm and minimizing on a corresponding negative partial likelihood function. Using real-world datasets and simulated ones, we show these two proposed methods have comparable performance whereas the new proposal is superior in terms of model parsimony. Our analysis provides some evidence on the existence of such subtype-specific prognostic genes, more investigation is warranted.

  9. Integrated Phenotypic/Genotypic Analysis of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes: Identification of Prognostic Markers, Cancer-related Pathways, and Implications for Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeb, Rola M; Plant, Pamela; Tawedrous, Eriny; Krizova, Adriana; Brimo, Fadi; Evans, Andrew J; Wala, Samantha Jane; Bartlett, John; Ding, Qiang; Boles, Dina; Rotando, Fabio; Farag, Mina; Yousef, George M

    2016-09-22

    Two histologic subtypes are recognized for papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). Studies have shown that the subtypes differ in characteristic genetic alterations and clinical behavior. Clinically, the subtypes are managed similarly. To analyze the biological differences between the two PRCC histological subtypes, in order to further guide their clinical management. PRCC cohort consisting of 317 patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas database and our institution. Patients were stratified according to histologic criteria as type 1, type 2, or not otherwise specified (NOS). Gene and miRNA expression data for the cohort were examined via unsupervised and supervised clustering. Significant molecular signatures for each subtype were used to unravel the implicated molecular pathways via bioinformatics analysis. Survival was compared between the subtypes. Newly discovered biomarkers were used to further stratify survival of patients in the NOS category. Tumor genotyping revealed two distinct PRCC subtypes. The top molecular pathways enriched in PRCC1 were WNT, Hedgehog, and Notch signaling (p=0.001-0.01); highlighting an embryonic developmental theme to the pathogenesis of this subtype. PRCC2 showed enrichment in the mTOR, VEGF (p=7.49E-09) and HIF (p=7.63E-05) signaling pathways. Overall survival and disease-free survival significantly differed between the types. ABCC2 expression was identified as a significant prognostic biomarker for the NOS group in univariate (log rank p11.63) and multivariate analysis (p=0.003; HR >2.12). ABCC2 expression and its effect on survival should be further validated at the protein level. The classical PRCC types 1 and 2 have two distinct genotypes. We unraveled pathways that indicate that the two types could potentially respond differently to current therapies. We also identified biomarkers that stratify tumors within the PRCC NOS category into prognostic subgroups. Our findings highlight the need for molecular markers to accurately

  10. Kisspeptin and GPR54 immunoreactivity in a cohort of 518 patients defines favourable prognosis and clear cell subtype in ovarian carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehl Erika

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kisspeptins and their G-protein coupled receptor, GPR54 are required for GnRH release and have been associated with anti-metastatic tumour cell behaviour in model systems. The latter might suggest that their overexpression would be associated with a better prognosis in cancer. However, kisspeptin/GPR54 interactions (autocrine, paracrine, and/or endocrine could also impact tumour behaviour in a negative manner. Here, for the first time, we associate the immunoreactivity of the kisspeptin/GPR54 ligand-receptor pair with favourable prognosis in a large cohort of ovarian carcinomas. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis for kisspeptin and GPR54 was performed on a tissue microarray (TMA consisting of 518 early stage ovarian carcinomas, all with linked clinical outcome data. The TMA was scored using a staining intensity scale of 0 (negative, +1 (mild-moderate, and +2 (strong. Strong staining cases were considered either kisspeptin or GPR54 positive and designated as 1, while all other cases were considered negative and designated 0. All statistical analysis was conducted using two-sided tests and a p value equal to or less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results Kisspeptin and GPR54 immunoreactive cases show a favourable prognosis in univariable disease specific survival (p = 0.0023, p = 0.0092, as well as in overall survival (p = 0.0006, p = 0.0002. Furthermore, kisspeptin is an independent marker for favourable prognosis as determined by multivariable disease specific (p = 0.0046 and overall survival analysis (p = 0.0170, while GPR54 is an independent marker for overall survival only (p = 0.0303. Both kisspeptin positive and GPR54 positive cases are strongly associated with the ovarian carcinoma clear cell subtype (p Conclusion Kisspeptin and GPR54 immunoreactivity are significantly associated with favourable prognosis in both disease specific and overall survival, as well as being significantly associated with the clear

  11. Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma.

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    Jyotsna Vijaykumar Wader

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the kidney comprised of different histological variants. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC mainly diagnosed in the sixth decade of life. It is important to identify this entity because it has significantly better prognosis than the clear cell (conventional and papillary renal cell carcinomas. The chromophobe renal cell carcinoma should be differentiated from oncocytoma and clear cell carcinoma. We report a case of a 70 year-old male who presented with a six month history of hematuria, left sided flank pain and a palpable non-tender lump in the left lumbar region. On radiology, the possibility of a left renal neoplasm was raised. A left radical nephrectomy was done and histopathological diagnosis of Type 2 (mixed chromophobe renal cell carcinoma was given. We present this case owing to its relative rarity of incidence, difficulties encountered and differential diagnoses to be considered during diagnosis as the prognosis and management protocols differ with different variants.

  12. In vivo assessment of optical properties of basal cell carcinoma and differentiation of BCC subtypes by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc; Suppa, Mariano; Miyamoto, Makiko

    2016-01-01

    part of epidermis and (ii) increased epidermal thickness (E-T). IV-OP of nodular BCC with good to high DA and NPV were (i) less negative µraf in papillary dermis compared to normal adjacent skin and (ii) significantly decreased E-T and papillary dermal thickness (PD-T). In infiltrative BCC (i) high......High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) features of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have recently been defined. We assessed in vivo optical properties (IV-OP) of BCC, by HD-OCT. Moreover their critical values for BCC subtype differentiation were determined. The technique of semi-log plot...... whereby an exponential function becomes linear has been implemented on HD-OCT signals. The relative attenuation factor (µraf ) at different skin layers could be assessed.. IV-OP of superficial BCC with high diagnostic accuracy (DA) and high negative predictive values (NPV) were (i) decreased µraf in lower...

  13. The expression of the truncated isoform of somatostatin receptor subtype 5 associates with aggressiveness in medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molè, Daniela; Gentilin, Erica; Ibañez-Costa, Alejandro; Gagliano, Teresa; Gahete, Manuel D; Tagliati, Federico; Rossi, Roberta; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa; Pansini, Giancarlo; Luque, Raúl M; Castaño, Justo P; degli Uberti, Ettore; Zatelli, Maria Chiara

    2015-11-01

    The truncated somatostatin receptor variant sst5TMD4 associates with increased invasiveness and aggressiveness in breast cancer. We previously found that sst5 activation may counteract sst2 selective agonist effects in a medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cell line, the TT cells, and that sst5TMD4 is overexpressed in poorly differentiated thyroid cancers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate sst5TMD4 expression in a series of human MTC and to explore the functional role of sst5TMD4 in TT cells. We evaluated sst5TMD4 and sst5 expression in 36 MTC samples. Moreover, we investigated the role of sst5TMD4 in TT cells evaluating cell number, DNA synthesis, free cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), calcitonin and vascular endothelial growth factor levels, cell morphology, protein expression, and invasion. We found that in MTC the balance between sst5TMD4 and sst5 expression influences disease stage. sst5TMD4 overexpression in TT cells confers a greater growth capacity, blocks sst2 agonist-induced antiproliferative effects, modifies the cell phenotype, decreases E-cadherin and phosphorylated β-catenin levels, increases vimentin, total β-catenin and phosphorylated GSK3B levels (in keeping with the development of epithelial to mesenchymal transition), and confers a greater invasion capacity. This is the first evidence indicating that sst5TMD4 is expressed in human MTC cells, where it associates with more aggressive behavior, suggesting that sst5TMD4 might play a functionally relevant role.

  14. Common Molecular Subtypes Among Asian Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaisaingmongkol, Jittiporn; Budhu, Anuradha; Dang, Hien

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are clinically disparate primary liver cancers with etiological and biological heterogeneity. We identified common molecular subtypes linked to similar prognosis among 199 Thai ICC and HCC patients through systems integratio...... metabolism. These molecular subtypes are found in 582 Asian, but less so in 265 Caucasian patients. Thus, Asian ICC and HCC, while clinically treated as separate entities, share common molecular subtypes with similar actionable drivers to improve precision therapy....

  15. Clinically-inspired automatic classification of ovarian carcinoma subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha BenTaieb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: It has been shown that ovarian carcinoma subtypes are distinct pathologic entities with differing prognostic and therapeutic implications. Histotyping by pathologists has good reproducibility, but occasional cases are challenging and require immunohistochemistry and subspecialty consultation. Motivated by the need for more accurate and reproducible diagnoses and to facilitate pathologists′ workflow, we propose an automatic framework for ovarian carcinoma classification. Materials and Methods: Our method is inspired by pathologists′ workflow. We analyse imaged tissues at two magnification levels and extract clinically-inspired color, texture, and segmentation-based shape descriptors using image-processing methods. We propose a carefully designed machine learning technique composed of four modules: A dissimilarity matrix, dimensionality reduction, feature selection and a support vector machine classifier to separate the five ovarian carcinoma subtypes using the extracted features. Results: This paper presents the details of our implementation and its validation on a clinically derived dataset of eighty high-resolution histopathology images. The proposed system achieved a multiclass classification accuracy of 95.0% when classifying unseen tissues. Assessment of the classifier′s confusion (confusion matrix between the five different ovarian carcinoma subtypes agrees with clinician′s confusion and reflects the difficulty in diagnosing endometrioid and serous carcinomas. Conclusions: Our results from this first study highlight the difficulty of ovarian carcinoma diagnosis which originate from the intrinsic class-imbalance observed among subtypes and suggest that the automatic analysis of ovarian carcinoma subtypes could be valuable to clinician′s diagnostic procedure by providing a second opinion.

  16. Qualitative and Quantitative Imaging Evaluation of Renal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes with Grating-based X-ray Phase-contrast CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunagel, Margarita; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Willner, Marian; Marschner, Mathias; De Marco, Fabio; Viermetz, Manuel; Notohamiprodjo, Susan; Hellbach, Katharina; Auweter, Sigrid; Link, Vera; Woischke, Christine; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Herzen, Julia

    2017-03-01

    Current clinical imaging methods face limitations in the detection and correct characterization of different subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), while these are important for therapy and prognosis. The present study evaluates the potential of grating-based X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (gbPC-CT) for visualization and characterization of human RCC subtypes. The imaging results for 23 ex vivo formalin-fixed human kidney specimens obtained with phase-contrast CT were compared to the results of the absorption-based CT (gbCT), clinical CT and a 3T MRI and validated using histology. Regions of interest were placed on each specimen for quantitative evaluation. Qualitative and quantitative gbPC-CT imaging could significantly discriminate between normal kidney cortex (54 ± 4 HUp) and clear cell (42 ± 10), papillary (43 ± 6) and chromophobe RCCs (39 ± 7), p < 0.05 respectively. The sensitivity for detection of tumor areas was 100%, 50% and 40% for gbPC-CT, gbCT and clinical CT, respectively. RCC architecture like fibrous strands, pseudocapsules, necrosis or hyalinization was depicted clearly in gbPC-CT and was not equally well visualized in gbCT, clinical CT and MRI. The results show that gbPC-CT enables improved discrimination of normal kidney parenchyma and tumorous tissues as well as different soft-tissue components of RCCs without the use of contrast media.

  17. Discovery of a Good Responder Subtype of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Signatures Activated by Chemoradiotherapy.

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    Yosuke Tanaka

    Full Text Available Definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT is a less invasive therapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Five-year survival rate of locally advanced ESCC patients by definitive CRT were 37%. We previously reported that tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL activation signatures were preferentially found in long-term survivors. However, it is unknown whether the CTL activation is actually driven by CRT. We compared gene expression profiles among pre- and post-treatment biopsy specimens of 30 ESCC patients and 121 pre-treatment ESCC biopsy specimens. In the complete response (CR cases, 999 overexpressed genes including at least 234 tumor-specific CTL-activation associated genes such as IFNG, PRF1, and GZMB, were found in post-treatment biopsy specimens. Clustering analysis using expression profiles of these 234 genes allowed us to distinguish the immune-activated cases, designating them as I-type, from other cases. However, despite the better CR rate in the I-type, overall survival was not significantly better in both these 30 cases and another 121 cases. Further comparative study identified a series of epithelial to mesenchymal transition-related genes overexpressed in the early relapse cases. Importantly, the clinical outcome of CDH2-negative cases in the I-type was significantly better than that of the CDH2-positive cases in the I-type. Furthermore, NK cells, which were activated by neutrophils-producing S100A8/S100A9, and CTLs were suggested to cooperatively enhance the effect of CRT in the CDH2-negative I-type. These results suggested that CTL gene activation may provide a prognostic advantage in ESCCs with epithelial characteristics.

  18. Clinical and pathological features of papillary renal cell carcinoma and prognostic value of its type-1 and type-2 subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Gargouri

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: PRCC represents the second most common histological type of renal cancer. It has no clinical or radiological predicting signs, although CT enhancement is usually <40 HU. Distinguishing between the two subtypes is essential because of their prognostic value.

  19. [Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux, V; Lechevallier, E; Pamela, A; Long, J-A; Rambeaud, J-J

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to perform a systematic review of literature concerning epidemiology, clinical and biological data, prognosis and therapy of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas. Data on sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas have been sought by querying the server Medline with MeSH terms following or combination of them: "renal carcinoma", "renal cell carcinoma," "renal cancer", "sarcomatoid" "sarcomatoid transformation" and "sarcomatoid differentiation." The articles obtained were selected according to their methodology, the language in English or French, the relevance and the date of publication. Twenty papers were selected. According to the literature, a sarcomatoid contingent can be observed in all subtypes of renal cell carcinomas, with a frequency of 1 to 15% of cases. The median age at diagnosis was 60 years with a majority of symptomatic patients (90%), mainly with abdominal pain and hematuria. These tumors were often found in patients with locally advanced or metastatic (45-77%). The imaging was not specific for the diagnosis and biopsy had a low sensitivity for identifying a sarcomatoid contingent. The treatment was based on a combination of maximal surgical resection whenever possible and systemic therapy for metastastic disease. Pathological data often showed large tumors, Furhman 4 grades, combined biphasic carcinomatous contingent (clear cell carcinoma in most cases) and sarcomatoid. Genetically, there was no specific abnormality but a complex association of chromosomal additions and deletions. The prognosis was pejorative with a specific median survival of 5 to 19 months without any impact of the sarcomatoid contingent rate. Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma is a form not to ignore despite its rarity. Mainly symptomatic and discovered at an advanced stage, it has a poor prognosis, requiring multidisciplinary management quickly and correctly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxidatively Modified Proteins in the Serous Subtype of Ovarian Carcinoma

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    Sharifeh Mehrabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Serous subtype of ovarian cancer is considered to originate from fallopian epithelium mucosa that has been exposed to physiological changes resulting from ovulation. Ovulation influences an increased in inflammation of epithelial ovarian cells as results of constant exposure of cells to ROS. The imbalance between ROS and antioxidant capacities, as well as a disruption of redox signaling, causes a wide range of damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids. This study applied spectrophotometric, dinitrophenylhydrazone (DNPH assay, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and Western blot analyses to assess the levels of oxidatively modified proteins in 100 primary serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma and normal/surrounding tissues. These samples were obtained from 56 Caucasian and 44 African-American patients within the age range of 61±10 years. Analyses showed that the levels of reactive protein carbonyl groups increased as stages progressed to malignancy. Additionally, the levels of protein carbonyls in serous ovarian carcinoma among African Americans are 40% (P<0.05 higher relative to Caucasian at similar advanced stages. Results suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the modification of carbonyl protein groups, leading to increased aggressiveness of epithelial ovarian tumors and may contribute to the disease's invasiveness among African Americans.

  1. Evaluation of renal cell carcinoma histological subtype and fuhrman grade using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Reiko; Nozaki, Sayumi; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kondo, Tsunenori [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Urology, Tokyo (Japan); Nagashima, Yoji [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Surgical Pathology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-11-15

    We evaluated {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake by renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) to determine whether different histological subtypes and Fuhrman grades can be distinguished. We retrospectively reviewed the records and maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) of 147 patients with 154 RCCs who underwent FDG-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) prior to tumour resection. The SUVmax was significantly lower in chromophobe RCC (chRCC) tumours than in clear cell RCC (ccRCC; p = 0.003) and papillary RCC (pRCC; p = 0.034) tumours. The mean tumour SUVmax was 4.58 ± 4.1 (range, 1.29-30.4) for ccRCC, 3.98 ± 1.9 (range, 0.49-6.72) for pRCC, and 1.93 ± 0.9 (range, 0.89-3.41) for chRCC. The SUVmax was not significantly different between the ccRCC and pRCC groups. In ccRCC and pRCC tumours, high-grade tumours had a significantly greater SUVmax (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05) than low-grade tumours by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Mann-Whitney U test. In ccRCC, multivariate regression analysis indicated that the SUVmax was a significant indicator of Fuhrman grade. No significant differences in uptake were observed between high- and low-grade chRCC tumours. The SUVmax obtained using FDG-PET/CT may be an important indicator for predicting tumour grade in ccRCC and pRCC. (orig.)

  2. Clinicopathological analysis of basal cell carcinoma of the anal region and its distinction from basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Deepa T; Goldblum, John R; Billings, Steven D

    2013-10-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the anal region is rare and morphologically difficult to distinguish from basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, particularly on biopsies. This distinction has therapeutic and prognostic implications. We reviewed morphological features of 9 basal cell carcinomas and 15 basaloid squamous cell carcinomas from the anal region diagnosed during 1993-2011 and determined the utility of Ber-EP4, BCL2, TP63, CK5/6, CDKN2A, and SOX2 as diagnostic tools. Immunostains were scored in a semi-quantitative manner (1+-1-10%, 2+-11-50%, 3+->50%). All basal cell carcinomas were located in the perianal region, while all basaloid squamous cell carcinomas originated in the anal canal/anorectum. Nodular subtype of basal cell carcinoma was the most common subtype. Retraction artifact was the only significant distinguishing histological feature of basal cell carcinoma compared with basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (88% vs 26%; P=0.04). Atypical mitoses were more common in basaloid squamous cell carcinomas (71% vs 11%; P=0.05). An in situ component was only present in basaloid squamous cell carcinomas, and was noted in 6/15 cases. Basal cell carcinomas had 2-3+ Ber-EP4 (basal cell carcinoma 100% vs basaloid squamous cell carcinoma 40%; Pbasal cell carcinomas 100% vs basaloid squamous cell carcinoma 33%; Pcarcinomas (basal cell carcinoma 0% vs basaloid squamous cell carcinoma 93%; Pbasal cell carcinoma from basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. An in situ component, when present, supports the diagnosis of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Immunostains are extremely helpful as diffuse Ber-EP4 and BCL2 expression is a feature of basal cell carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is typified by diffuse CDKN2A and SOX2 expression.

  3. Expression of mitochondrial regulators PGC1α and TFAM as putative markers of subtype and chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marike Gabrielson

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC, the major cause of gynaecological cancer death, is a heterogeneous disease classified into five subtypes. Each subtype has distinct clinical characteristics and is associated with different genetic risk factors and molecular events, but all are treated with surgery and platinum/taxane regimes. Tumour progression and chemoresistance is generally associated with major metabolic alterations, notably altered mitochondrial function(s. Here, we report for the first time that the expression of the mitochondrial regulators PGC1α and TFAM varies between EOC subtypes; furthermore, we have identified a profile in clear-cell carcinoma consisting of undetectability of PGC1α/TFAM, and low ERα/Ki-67. By contrast, high-grade serous carcinomas were characterised by a converse state of PGC1α/TFAM, ERα positivity and a high Ki-67 index. Interestingly, loss of PGC1α/TFAM and ERα was found also in a non-clear cell EOC cell line made highly resistant to platinum in vitro. Similar to clear-cell carcinomas, these resistant cells also showed accumulation of glycogen. Altogether, our data provide mechanistic insights into the chemoresistant nature of ovarian clear-cell carcinomas. Furthermore, these findings corroborate the need to take into account the diversity of EOC and to develop subtype specific treatment strategies.

  4. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... think Sebaceous carcinoma Skin cancer in people of color Skin reactions from targeted cancer therapy Squamous cell carcinoma What is Mohs surgery? Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Other conditions Diseases: A-Z index Skin, hair, and nail ...

  5. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... think Sebaceous carcinoma Skin cancer in people of color Skin reactions from targeted cancer therapy Squamous cell carcinoma What is Mohs surgery? Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Other conditions Diseases: A-Z index Skin, hair, and nail ...

  6. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    de Faria, J

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  7. Integrated Multiple "-omics" Data Reveal Subtypes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most heterogeneous cancers, as reflected by its multiple grades and difficulty to subtype. In this study, we integrated copy number variation, DNA methylation, mRNA, and miRNA data with the developed "cluster of cluster" method and classified 256 HCC samples from TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas into five major subgroups (S1-S5. We observed that this classification was associated with specific mutations and protein expression, and we detected that each subgroup had distinct molecular signatures. The subclasses were associated not only with survival but also with clinical observations. S1 was characterized by bulk amplification on 8q24, TP53 mutation, low lipid metabolism, highly expressed onco-proteins, attenuated tumor suppressor proteins and a worse survival rate. S2 and S3 were characterized by telomere hypomethylation and a low expression of TERT and DNMT1/3B. Compared to S2, S3 was associated with less copy number variation and some good prognosis biomarkers, including CRP and CYP2E1. In contrast, the mutation rate of CTNNB1 was higher in S3. S4 was associated with bulk amplification and various molecular characteristics at different biological levels. In summary, we classified the HCC samples into five subgroups using multiple "-omics" data. Each subgroup had a distinct survival rate and molecular signature, which may provide information about the pathogenesis of subtypes in HCC.

  8. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor Subtype 3: A Novel Therapeutic Target of K-Ras Mutant Driven Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0346 TITLE: Sphingosine-1- Phosphate Receptor Subtype 3: A Novel Therapeutic Target of K-Ras Mutant Driven Non-Small...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2014 - 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sphingosine-1- Phosphate Receptor Subtype 3: A Novel Therapeutic Target of K-Ras...14. ABSTRACT: This award aims to characterize the functional role of sphingosine-1- phosphate receptor subtype 3 (S1PR3) in oncogenic K-Ras mutant

  9. Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Subclassification into Basal, Ductal, and Mixed Subtypes Based on Comparison of Clinico-pathologic Features and Expression of p53, Cyclin D1, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, p16, and Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Ja Cho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma with distinct pathologic characteristics. The histogenesis of BSCC is not fully understood, and the cancer has been suggested to originate from a totipotent primitive cell in the basal cell layer of the surface epithelium or in the proximal duct of secretory glands. Methods Twenty-six cases of head and neck BSCC from Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, reported during a 14-year-period were subclassified into basal, ductal, and mixed subtypes according to the expression of basal (cytokeratin [CK] 5/6, p63 or ductal markers (CK7, CK8/18. The cases were also subject to immunohistochemical study for CK19, p53, cyclin D1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and p16 and to in situ hybridization for human papillomavirus (HPV, and the results were clinico-pathologically compared. Results Mixed subtype (12 cases was the most common, and these cases showed hypopharyngeal predilection, older age, and higher expression of CK19, p53, and EGFR than other subtypes. The basal subtype (nine cases showed frequent comedo-necrosis and high expression of cyclin D1. The ductal subtype (five cases showed the lowest expression of p53, cyclin D1, and EGFR. A small number of p16- and/or HPV-positive cases were not restricted to one subtype. BSCC was the cause of death in 19 patients, and the average follow-up period for all patients was 79.5 months. Overall survival among the three subtypes was not significantly different. Conclusions The results of this study suggest a heterogeneous pathogenesis of head and neck BSCC. Each subtype showed variable histology and immunoprofiles, although the clinical implication of heterogeneity was not determined in this study.

  10. Multiphasic enhancement patterns of small renal masses (≤4 cm) on preoperative computed tomography: utility for distinguishing subtypes of renal cell carcinoma, angiomyolipoma, and oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierorazio, Phillip M; Hyams, Elias S; Tsai, Salina; Feng, Zhaoyong; Trock, Bruce J; Mullins, Jeffrey K; Johnson, Pamela T; Fishman, Elliot K; Allaf, Mohamad E

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the enhancement patterns of small renal masses (SRMs) during 4-phase computed tomography (CT) imaging to predict histology. One-hundred consecutive patients with SRMs and 4-phase preoperative CT imaging, who underwent extirpative surgery with a pathologic diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), angiomyolipoma (AML), or oncocytoma, were identified from a single institution. An expert radiologist, blinded to histologic results, retrospectively recorded tumor size, RENAL (radius, exophytic/endophytic properties of the tumor, nearness of tumor deepest portion to the collecting system or sinus, anterior/posterior descriptor, and the location relative to polar lines) nephrometry score, tumor attenuation, and the renal cortex on all 4 acquisitions (precontrast, corticomedullary, nephrogenic, and delayed density). Pathologic diagnoses included 48 clear-cell RCCs (ccRCCs), 22 papillary RCCs, 10 chromophobe RCCs, 13 oncocytomas, and 7 AMLs. There was no significant difference in median tumor size (P = .8), nephrometry score (P = .98), or anatomic location (P >.2) among histologies. Significant differences were noted in peak enhancement (P oncocytoma (125 HU); ccRCC more often peaked in the corticomedullary phase, whereas oncocytoma peaked in the nephrogenic phase. In a series of patients with SRMs undergoing 4-phase CT, tumor histologies demonstrated distinct enhancement patterns. Thus, preoperative 4-phase CT imaging may provide useful information regarding pathologic diagnosis in patients undergoing extirpative surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The florid subtype of lobular carcinoma in situ: marker or precursor for invasive lobular carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaria, Sanjay P; Shamonki, Jaime; Kinnaird, Michelle; Ray, Partha S; Giuliano, Armando E

    2011-07-01

    Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is considered a risk factor-not a precursor-for both invasive lobular and ductal carcinoma. Florid LCIS (F-LCIS) is an architectural subtype of LCIS that does not express E-cadherin, yet has the histologic and often radiographic appearance of solid-type ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Since DCIS is considered a precursor to invasive ductal carcinoma, should F-LCIS be considered a precursor to invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC)? Review of an institutional database identified cases of LCIS and solid-type DCIS diagnosed by excisional biopsy, segmentectomy, or mastectomy between 1991 and 2000 to determine the prevalence of associated invasive breast cancer. Archival specimens were evaluated for florid and nonflorid LCIS, nuclear grade of LCIS, and the presence and subtype of invasive breast cancer. Solid-type DCIS that lacked E-cadherin expression was classified as F-LCIS. Of 210 consecutive specimens of LCIS examined, 171 had nonflorid LCIS (81%) and 39 had F-LCIS (19%). Nonflorid LCIS had a diffuse pattern, whereas F-LCIS appeared as discrete foci adjacent to ILC. An invasive component was identified with 87% of F-LCIS lesions versus 73% of nonflorid LCIS lesions (P = 0.064); this component was lobular in 100% of F-LCIS lesions versus 82% of nonflorid LCIS lesions, a significant difference (P = 0.0044) that persisted when the analysis was adjusted for nuclear grade (P = 0.0082). Its close spatial relationship to an invasive component and increased association with ILC suggest that F-LCIS may be a precursor for ILC.

  12. Clinical and pathological features of papillary renal cell carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction and objectives: Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) accounts for 10–15% of renal tumors in adults. This type of tumor contains more than 75% of tubulo-papillary structures and is divided histologically into two subtypes. The distinction between these two subtypes is essential because of their prognostic value.

  13. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic ... syndrome is known as PTCH ("patched"). The gene is passed down ...

  14. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

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    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  15. Sub-typing of renal cell tumours; contribution of ancillary techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Shrawan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult renal epithelial neoplasms are a heterogeneous group with varying prognosis and outcome requiring sub-classification. Methods Cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC in a 10 years period were analyzed with regard to the clinical features and histology. Sections were reviewed by four pathologists and the discordant cases were resolved with the help of Hale's colloidal iron stain, vimentin, CK 7, and vinculin immunostains and electron microscopy. Results Amongst the total of 278 cases, clear cell renal cell carcinoma was the commonest tumor with 74.8% cases, followed by papillary RCC 12.2%, chromophobe RCC 7.9%, oncocytoma 1.8%, and one case of collecting duct RCC. Eight cases were of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. In 28/278 cases, diagnoses varied amongst the four pathologists and the discordance was resolved by Hale's colloidal iron stain, CK7 immunostain and electron microscopy. Vimentin and vinculin did not contribute much in differentiating subtypes of renal cell carcinomas. Relative incidence of sub-types of RCCs was compared with other series Conclusion To accurately subclassify renal cell carcinomas, simple ancillary techniques would possibly resolve all difficult cases. The relative incidence of sub-types of renal cell carcinoma is relatively consistent the world over. However, in India, RCCs afflict the patients two decades earlier.

  16. Mixed papillary-sarcomatoid carcinoma of the penis: report of an aggressive subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovolim, Graziele; da Costa, Walter Henriques; Guimaraes, Gustavo Cardoso; Soares, Fernando Augusto; da Cunha, Isabela Werneck

    2017-07-08

    Several different histological subtypes of penile carcinoma had been described in the last decades, many with different biological behavior and prognosis. The association of two histological subtypes (mixed tumors) can be observed in one third of the cases. The most common association is of warty and basaloid tumors, two HPV-related carcinomas. Here, we described a mixed papillary-sarcomatoid carcinoma, never reported before. Although it is a clinical aspect of a low-grade verruciform tumor, its prognosis showed it to be very aggressive due to the sarcomatoid component hidden above the papillary component. The two components showed opposite cadherin/vimentin expression pointed to epithelial-mesenchymal transition between them.

  17. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbún Acuña, Paula; Cullen Aravena, Roberto; Maturana Donaire, César; Ares Mora, Raúl; Porras Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-20

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer, especially in elderly people. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and has been described in the literature as a nodular and hyperpigmented lesion; rarely, it can appear as an extensive pigmented plate, which may be clinically indistinguishable from superficial spreading melanoma and Bowen disease. Dermatoscopy has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. When Menzies criteria are used; however, the final diagnosis is made by histopathology. The objective of the present report is to analyze the case of a patient with pigmented basal cell carcinoma simulating a superficial spreading melanoma.

  18. Identifying three different architectural subtypes of mammary ductal carcinoma in situ using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Fu, Fangmeng; Lian, Yuane; Nie, Yuting; Zhuo, shuangmu; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-10-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is often considered as the precursor of invasive breast cancer, and the risk of DCIS progression to IBC has been estimated based on the evaluation of pathological features, among which the architectural subtype is the most common one. In this study, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is applied to identify three different architectural subtypes of DCIS (solid, cribriform and comedo). It is found that MPM has the capability to visualize the proliferating pattern of tumor cells, the presence of intraluminal necrosis and the morphology of basement membrane, which are all taken into account in subtyping DCIS. In addition, MPM also can be used to quantify the cellular metabolism, for quantitatively identifying tumor staging during tumor progression. This result highlights the potential of MPM as an advanced technique to assess the pathological characters of the breast tumor in real-time and reflect the degree of tumor progression in vivo, by integrating into the intra-fiberoptic ductoscopy or transdermal biopsy needle.

  19. Multilevel Genomics-Based Taxonomy of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengju Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of multidimensional and comprehensive molecular characterization (including DNA methalylation and copy number, RNA, and protein expression, we classified 894 renal cell carcinomas (RCCs of various histologic types into nine major genomic subtypes. Site of origin within the nephron was one major determinant in the classification, reflecting differences among clear cell, chromophobe, and papillary RCC. Widespread molecular changes associated with TFE3 gene fusion or chromatin modifier genes were present within a specific subtype and spanned multiple subtypes. Differences in patient survival and in alteration of specific pathways (including hypoxia, metabolism, MAP kinase, NRF2-ARE, Hippo, immune checkpoint, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR could further distinguish the subtypes. Immune checkpoint markers and molecular signatures of T cell infiltrates were both highest in the subtype associated with aggressive clear cell RCC. Differences between the genomic subtypes suggest that therapeutic strategies could be tailored to each RCC disease subset.

  20. Regulation of the O-glycan-type Sialyl-Lewis X (sLex) Bio-synthesis Pathway during Cell Transformation Programs: Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and Molecular Subtypes in Breast Carcinoma and Human T Cell Activation

    KAUST Repository

    AbuElela, Ayman

    2017-12-01

    During tumor progression and development of distant metastases, a subset of cancer cells undergoes transformation programs, such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), to acquire enhanced migratory attributes to commence the metastatic cascade with the intension of achieving an active cell adhesion molecule-mediated organ-specific homing. Similarly, naive T cells reform the assemblage of their surface adhesion molecules during differentiation to activated T cells in order to successfully home to sites of inflammation and other extra-lymphoid organs for surveillance purposes. Sialyl-Lewis X (sLex) is well-known for mediating the homing of epithelial circulating tumor cellss (CTCs) and activated T cells to target sites through the interaction with endothelial selectins. Since glycan structures are not directly encoded by the genome, their expression is dependent on the glycosyltransferase (GT) expression and activity. Yet, the modulation of GTs during breast cancer transformation and in different molecular subtypes is still unknown. In addition, although the regulation of GTs during T cell activation is well-understood, the regulation at the epigenetic level is lacking. O-glycan-type sLex expression and E-selectin binding under static and flow conditions varies among molecular subtypes of breast cancer and upon the induction of EMT which is linked to the expression patterns of GTs. GTs displayed a significant prognostic value of in the association with the patients\\' survival profiles and in the ability to predict the breast cancer molecular subtypes from the expression data of a random patient sample. Also, GTs were able to differentiate between tumor and their normal counterparts as well as cancer types and glioblastoma subtypes. On the other hand, we studied the regulation of GTs in human CD4+ memory T cells compared to the naive cells at the epigenetic level. Memory T cell subsets demonstrated differential chromatin accessibility and histone marks within

  1. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Walvekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the most common epithelial malignancy affecting the oral cavity. The most common sites for the development are lateral surface of tongue and floor of mouth; the least common sites are soft palate, gingiva, and buccal mucosa. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma can mimic a multitude of oral lesions and enlargements, especially those of inflammatory origin. In addition, predisposing and presenting factors are different from those of other OSCCs. Careful examination as well as routine biopsy are crucial for accurate diagnosis.

  2. Intraosseous acinic cell carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-17

    Dec 17, 2011 ... provisional diagnosis of benign odontogenic tumor was given. Intraosseous acinic cell carcinoma. V Hiremath, N Mishra1, SG Patil2. Departments of Oral Pathology and 1Oral Medicine and Radiology, Mansarovar Dental College, Bhopal, 2 Department Of. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, H.K.E' S.N. Dental ...

  3. Oncologic Efficacy of Radio Frequency Ablation for Small Renal Masses: Clear Cell vs Papillary Subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Aaron H; Faddegon, Stephen; Olweny, Ephrem O; Morgan, Monica; Lorber, Gideon; Trimmer, Clayton; Leveillee, Raymond; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Gahan, Jeffrey C

    2015-09-01

    Current radio frequency ablation series do not distinguish renal cell carcinoma subtypes when reporting oncologic efficacy. Papillary neoplasms may be more amenable to radio frequency ablation than clear cell carcinoma because they are less vascular, which may limit heat energy loss. We report the long-term outcomes of patients treated with radio frequency ablation for small renal masses by renal cell carcinoma subtype. The records of patients undergoing radio frequency ablation for small renal masses (cT1a) at 2 institutions from March 2007 to July 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were included in analysis if they had biopsy confirmed clear cell or papillary renal cell carcinoma histology. Patients had at least 1 contrast enhanced cross-sectional image following radio frequency ablation. Demographic data between tumor subtypes were compared using the paired t-test. Oncologic outcomes were determined by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and survivor curves were compared with the log rank test. A total of 229 patients met study inclusion criteria. There were 181 clear cell tumors and 48 papillary tumors. Median followup was 33.2 months. There was no difference between tumor groups based on patient age, tumor size or grade, or months of followup. Five-year disease-free survival was 89.7% for clear cell tumors and 100% for papillary tumors (p = 0.041). There was no significant difference in overall survival (88.4% vs 89.6%, p = 0.764). Radio frequency ablation outcomes seem to be determined in part by renal cell carcinoma subtype with clear cell renal tumors having less favorable outcomes. We hypothesize that this is due to differences in tumor vascularity. Our experience suggests that future tumor ablation studies should consider reporting outcomes based on tumor cell types. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ovarian Carcinoma Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    b- myb , is also highly expressed in both FNAR cells (3.33-fold) and human 1 ovarian carcinoma [37]. 2 High levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a...AW916991 3.56 Thioredoxin AW140607 3.07 Stathmin BF281472 3.23 b- myb RGIAC37 3.33 Gene Expression Profiling of FNAR Cells 8 9 10 25 1 2 3 4

  5. Centrally necrotizing breast carcinoma: a rare histological subtype, which was cause of misdiagnosis in an evident clinical local recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernanz Fernando

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Centrally necrotizing carcinoma is a rare subtype of breast carcinoma, which is characterized by an extensive central necrotic zone accounting for at least 70% of the cross-sectional area of the neoplasm. This central necrotic zone, in turn, is surrounded by a narrow rim of proliferative viable tumor cells. We report an unusual clinical situation in which a patient whose evident breast mass suggested an ipsilateral local recurrence and for which numerous attempts to confirm the histological diagnosis had failed. The patient was treated with a radical mastectomy based on clinical suspicion of breast cancer recurrence after an undesirable delay. In this case, the narrow rim of viable malignant tissue had a thickness of 0.5 to 8 mm, and the centrally necrotizing carcinoma had a central zone with a predominance of fibrosis. The special features of this case led to a misdiagnosis and to an evident clinical local recurrence.

  6. Clinicopathologic characteristics and molecular subtypes of invasive papillary carcinoma of the breast: a large case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi Yu; Liu, Ning; Wang, Ya Hong; Yang, Cui Cui; Zhang, Jing; Lv, Shu Hua; Niu, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Although patients with invasive papillary carcinoma (IPC) often have favorable prognoses, it remains unclear whether this special type of breast cancer represents a distinct morphological entity with its own biological features and clinical behavior distinct from those of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and whether its four molecular subtypes are associated with different prognoses. The study is a retrospective analysis of a large patient cohort from a single institution. 284 IPC samples were collected from January 2000 to May 2011. 300 IDC cases were selected randomly from 13,428 cases of IDC during the same periods. We assessed the clinicopathologic characteristics, molecular features, and prognostic value of IPC (n = 284) and compared them to those of IDC (n = 300). Clinicopathologic features and survival status of the four subtypes of IPC were also evaluated. IPC differed from IDC with respect to age upon diagnosis, tumor grade, lymph node status, and menopausal status (P IPC was associated with a better 5-year overall survival rate (OS) (92.77 vs. 87.95 %) and disease-free survival rate (DFS) (87.95 vs. 80.72 %) than IDC. Tumors of the luminal A subtype had a better 5-year OS (97.78 %) and DFS (95.56 %) than other subtypes. The biologic behavior of IPC is more favorable to patient outcome than that of IDC. The chance of pure IPC causing death without an intervening event of a different histologic type is exceptionally low. Luminal A subtypes have better outcomes when compared to the other subtypes.

  7. Surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi, G; Monari, P; Apalla, Z; Lallas, A

    2015-08-01

    Non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common human neoplasms, encompassing basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), but also cutaneous lymphomas, adnexal tumors, merckel cell carcinoma and other rare tumors. The incidence of BCC and SCC varies significantly among different populations, and the overall incidence of both tumors has increased over the last decades. Although generally associated with a favorable prognosis, recent evidence suggests that the mortality rates of SCC might have been underestimated up-to-date.1 According to Medicare data, NMSC is the fifth most expensive cancer for health care systems. This increased economic burden is not associated with the cost of treating an individual patient, but with the large number of affected patients and the recurrence rates.2 Therefore, the adequate management of the primary tumor with a complete excision becomes a priority not only for the patient but also for the public health systems. Multiple treatment modalities are currently usedin clinicalpractice for the treatment of NMSC. While surgical excision (SE) remains the gold standard of care, non-surgical techniques have gained appreciation due to lower morbidity and better cosmetic results. The optimal management of treatment includes a complete tumor clearance, preservation of the normal tissue function, and the best possible cosmetic outcome.3 Surgery with a predefined excision margin is the treatment of choice for most NMSCs, with Mohs micrographic surgery being recommended for tumors considered to be at a higher recurrence risk or those developing on cosmetically sensitive areas.4, 5 Therefore, the surgical approach of a NMSC consists with three different and equally important steps. First the preoperative clinical assessment of the tumor margins, which can be facilitated by the use of dermoscopy. Second, the definition of the surgical margins depending on the tumor subtype and its biological behavior. Finally, the surgical

  8. Xp11 Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma: Unusual Variant Masquerading as Upper Tract Urothelial Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Akhavein

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (TRCC is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the TFE3 gene located at the Xp11.2 locus. Initial cases were more common in children, but cases in older adults have begun to accrue and suggest a relatively more aggressive course. We report a case of Xp11 TRCC in a 63-year-old female patient with initial presentation mimicking upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma, with biopsy proving TRCC. She underwent a radical nephrectomy and paracaval lymph node dissection and is followed up with the intent to initiate vascular endothelial growth factor–targeted therapy in case of recurrence.

  9. Characteristic miRNA expression signature and random forest survival analysis identify potential cancer-driving miRNAs in a broad range of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez Lopez, Yury O; Victoria, Berta; Golusinski, Pawel; Golusinski, Wojciech; Masternak, Michal M

    2018-01-01

    To characterize the miRNA expression profile in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSSC) accounting for a broad range of cancer subtypes and consequently identify an optimal miRNA signature with prognostic value. HNSCC is consistently among the most common cancers worldwide. Its mortality rate is about 50% because of the characteristic aggressive behavior of these cancers and the prevalent late diagnosis. The heterogeneity of the disease has hampered the development of robust prognostic tools with broad clinical utility. The Cancer Genome Atlas HNSC dataset was used to analyze level 3 miRNA-Seq data from 497 HNSCC patients. Differential expression (DE) analysis was implemented using the limma package and multivariate linear model that adjusted for the confounding effects of age at diagnosis, gender, race, alcohol history, anatomic neoplasm subdivision, pathologic stage, T and N stages, and vital status. Random forest (RF) for survival analysis was implemented using the randomForestSRC package. A characteristic DE miRNA signature of HNSCC, comprised of 11 upregulated (i.e., miR-196b-5p, miR-1269a, miR-196a-5p, miR-4652-3p, miR-210-3p, miR-1293, miR-615-3p, miR-503-5p, miR-455-3p, miR-205-5p, and miR-21-5p) and 9 downregulated (miR-376c-3p, miR-378c, miR-29c-3p, miR-101-3p, miR-195-5p, miR-299-5p, miR-139-5p, miR-6510-3p, miR-375) miRNAs was identified. An optimal RF survival model was built from seven variables including age at diagnosis, miR-378c, miR-6510-3p, stage N, pathologic stage, gender, and race (listed in order of variable importance). The joint differential miRNA expression and survival analysis controlling for multiple confounding covariates implemented in this study allowed for the identification of a previously undetected prognostic miRNA signature characteristic of a broad range of HNSCC.

  10. GATA3 expression in morphologic subtypes of breast carcinoma: a comparison with gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 and mammaglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendroth, Scott M; Mentrikoski, Mark J; Wick, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    GATA3 is a transcription factor, which is involved in the growth and differentiation of several human tissues. Immunohistochemical staining for this marker has proven to be useful in recognizing a number of tumors, most notably those in the urinary tract and breasts. To date, no study has specifically assessed the distribution of GATA3 among different histomorphologic subtypes of breast carcinoma. The surgical pathology archive at our institution was searched, to retrieve cases of breast carcinomas of the following microscopic types-ductal, lobular, mucinous, metaplastic, medullary, apocrine, signet-ring cell, and micropapillary. Tissue microarrays were created, with four 0.6-mm punch specimens from each case. The tissue microarrays were cut at a 5-μm thickness and stained with monoclonal antibodies to GATA3 (Biocare Medical Inc, Concord, CA), mammaglobin (Dako, Carpinteria, CA), and gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (Dako). Tumors were considered to be positive for those markers if more than 5% of the cells were labeled. Of 55 ductal adenocarcinomas, 51 (92.7%) expressed GATA3. All 4 GATA3-negative tumors were Nottingham grade III lesions that were also nonreactive for estrogen receptor protein. GATA3 was present in 28 (96.6%) of 29 lobular adenocarcinomas, 10 (90.9%) of 11 apocrine adenocarcinomas, 10 (83.3%) of 12 medullary carcinomas, 5 (55.5%) of 9 metaplastic carcinomas, and 1 of 2 signet-ring cell carcinomas. Mucinous carcinomas (23 cases) and micropapillary carcinomas (12 cases) uniformly and strongly labeled for GATA3. GATA3 equaled or surpassed the sensitivity of mammaglobin and gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 in all histologic subgroups of breast cancer in the study. Although most ductal adenocarcinomas were labeled for GATA3, it was absent in high-grade tumors that also lacked estrogen receptor protein. Favorable prognosis types of breast carcinoma (eg, mucinous carcinoma) and aggressive variants such as micropapillary carcinoma were equally

  11. Merkel cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koljonen Virve

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is an unusual primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. MCC is a fatal disease, and patients have a poor chance of survival. Moreover, MCC lacks distinguishing clinical features, and thus by the time the diagnosis is made, the tumour usually have metastasized. MCC mainly affects sun-exposed areas of elderly persons. Half of the tumours are located in the head and neck region. Methods MCC was first described in 1972. Since then, most of the cases reported, have been in small series of patients. Most of the reports concern single cases or epidemiological studies. The present study reviews the world literature on MCC. The purpose of this article is to shed light on this unknown neuroendocrine carcinoma and provide the latest information on prognostic markers and treatment options. Results The epidemiological studies have revealed that large tumour size, male sex, truncal site, nodal/distant disease at presentation, and duration of disease before presentation, are poor prognostic factors. The recommended initial treatment is extensive local excision. Adjuvant radiation therapy has recently been shown to improve survival. Thus far, no chemotherapy protocol have achieved the same objective. Conclusion Although rare, the fatality of this malignancy makes is important to understand the etiology and pathophysiology. During the last few years, the research on MCC has produced prognostic markers, which can be translated into clinical patient care.

  12. Characterization of ovarian clear cell carcinoma using target drug-based molecular biomarkers: implications for personalized cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mengjiao; Li, Haoran; Liu, Fei; Bi, Rui; Tu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Lihua; Ye, Shuang; Cheng, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Background It has long been appreciated that different subtypes (serous, clear cell, endometrioid and mucinous) of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) have distinct pathogenetic pathways. However, clinical management, especially chemotherapeutic regimens, for EOC patients is not subtype specific. Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare histological subtype of EOC, which exhibits high rates of recurrence and low chemosensitivity. We assessed potential therapeutic targets for ovarian CCC pa...

  13. Penis squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Hernández Piñero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become a first order health problem worldwide, despite the great diagnostic and therapeutic programs achieved during the last years. This is a clinical case of an 81- year-old patient with personal and social history of promiscuous and unprotected sexual behavior that shows a vegetative lesion in his gland and numerous inguinal adenopathies. Biopsy confirms the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the penis, which is a relatively rare pathology which is generally diagnosed belatedly. Partial amputation of the penis was considered to be performed, but there was no consent on behalf of his family. The patient’s general condition was getting worse until he died.

  14. Perianal Basal Cell Carcinoma

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    Isil Bulur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet light is an important risk factor for BCC development and the disorder therefore develops commonly on body areas that are more exposed to sunlight, such as the face and neck. It is uncommon in the closed area of the body and quite rare in the perianal and genital regions. Herein, we report a 34-year-old patient with perianal BCC who had no additional risk factors.

  15. Perianal Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulur, Isil; Boyuk, Emine; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan; Arik, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet light is an important risk factor for BCC development and the disorder therefore develops commonly on body areas that are more exposed to sunlight, such as the face and neck. It is uncommon in the closed area of the body and quite rare in the perianal and genital regions. Herein, we report a 34-year-old patient with perianal BCC who had no additional risk factors. PMID:25848349

  16. Lobomycosis and squamous cell carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lisiane; Rodrigues, Luciana; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Chirano; Santos, Mônica; Talhari, Sinésio; Talhari, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    The occurence of squamous cell carcinoma on long-lasting ulcers is classic. Malignant transformation may occur on burn scars and chronic ulcers of varying etiology, including infectious agents. Transformation of old lobomycosis lesion scars into squamous cell carcinoma has been rarely reported. Careful and long-term follow-up of such patients is important to avoid carcinomatous transformation. PMID:23739701

  17. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma, a distinctive morphologic variant of basal cell carcinoma that presents as a small red macule (dot) or papule, is described on a woman’s thigh. A high index of suspicion is necessary to consider the diagnosis since the tumor mimics a telangiectasia or an angioma. PMID:28670359

  18. Renal cell carcinoma with melanin pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Jayaprakash; Chandrika; Laxman, Prabhu

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma has been steadily increasing. There are several morphological types of renal cell carcinoma. Recognizing histologic patterns of renal cell carcinoma is important for correct diagnosis and subsequent medical care for the patient. Melanotic tumors in the kidney are very rare. Here, we present an unusual case of renal cell carcinoma with melanin pigment. PMID:20877613

  19. MAL2 and tumor protein D52 (TPD52 are frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, but differentially associated with histological subtype and patient outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanayan Susan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The four-transmembrane MAL2 protein is frequently overexpressed in breast carcinoma, and MAL2 overexpression is associated with gain of the corresponding locus at chromosome 8q24.12. Independent expression microarray studies predict MAL2 overexpression in ovarian carcinoma, but these had remained unconfirmed. MAL2 binds tumor protein D52 (TPD52, which is frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, but the clinical significance of MAL2 and TPD52 overexpression was unknown. Methods Immunohistochemical analyses of MAL2 and TPD52 expression were performed using tissue microarray sections including benign, borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumours. Inmmunohistochemical staining intensity and distribution was assessed both visually and digitally. Results MAL2 and TPD52 were significantly overexpressed in high-grade serous carcinomas compared with serous borderline tumours. MAL2 expression was highest in serous carcinomas relative to other histological subtypes, whereas TPD52 expression was highest in clear cell carcinomas. MAL2 expression was not related to patient survival, however high-level TPD52 staining was significantly associated with improved overall survival in patients with stage III serous ovarian carcinoma (log-rank test, p Conclusions MAL2 is frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, and TPD52 overexpression is a favourable independent prognostic marker of potential value in the management of ovarian carcinoma patients.

  20. A comparison of the clinical outcomes of patients with invasive lobular carcinoma and invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast according to molecular subtype in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung Taek; Yu, Jong Han; Park, Heung Kyu; Moon, Byung In; Ko, Byung Kyun; Suh, Young Jin

    2014-03-13

    To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and the survival outcomes of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) patients compared to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) patients according to their molecular subtype. We compared the clinicopathological characteristics, breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) between patients with IDC (n = 14,547) and ILC (n = 528). The ILC presented with a larger tumor size, more advanced cancer stage, increased rate of hormonal receptor positivity, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) negativity and mastectomy than the IDC. The ILC patients more frequently presented with the luminal A subtype, whereas the IDC patients more frequently presented with the luminal B, HER2-overexpression, or triple negative subtype. The BCSS and OS were not significantly different between the IDC and ILC for each molecular subtype. Similar to IDC patients, molecular subtype should be considered when determining the prognosis and treatment regimen for ILC patients.

  1. [Breast carcinoma metastasis into a renal cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Christophe; Talarmin, Marie; Fontaine, Aurélie; Kerbrat, Pierre; Audrain, Odile; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Chiforeanu, Dan Cristian

    2011-10-01

    We report the case of a patient carrying a right breast carcinoma whose imaging exams showed lung and bone metastasic release, and incidentally synchronous right renal tumor. Histologic examination of the renal tumor found a mammary carcinoma metastasis into a clear renal cell carcinoma. This is the second case report of breast cancer with metastasis in a resected renal clear cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Synchronous thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Seo [Chonnam National Univ. School of Dentistry, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    Thyroid carcinoma occurring as a second primary associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unusual. This report presents a synchronous thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the anterior palate region of a 41-year-old man. The clinical, radiologic, and histologic features are described. At 10-month follow-up after operation, no evidence of recurrence ana metastasis was present.

  3. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of Cases and Review of This Unique Presentation of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-03-22

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma is a unique variant of basal cell carcinoma. Including the three patients described in this report, red dot basal cell carcinoma has only been described in seven individuals. This paper describes the features of two males and one female with red dot basal cell carcinoma and reviews the characteristics of other patients with this clinical subtype of basal cell carcinoma. A 70-year-old male developed a pearly-colored papule with a red dot in the center on his nasal tip. A 71-year-old male developed a red dot surrounded by a flesh-colored papule on his left nostril. Lastly, a 74-year-old female developed a red dot within an area of erythema on her left mid back. Biopsy of the lesions all showed nodular and/or superficial basal cell carcinoma. Correlation of the clinical presentation and pathology established the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma. The tumors were treated by excision using the Mohs surgical technique. Pubmed was searched with the keyword: basal, cell, cancer, carcinoma, dot, red, and skin. The papers generated by the search and their references were reviewed. Red dot basal cell carcinoma has been described in three females and two males; the gender was not reported in two patients. The tumor was located on the nose (five patients), back (one patient) and thigh (one patient). Cancer presented as a solitary small red macule or papule; often, the carcinoma was surrounded by erythema or a flesh-colored papule. Although basal cell carcinomas usually do not blanch after a glass microscope slide is pressed against them, the red dot basal cell carcinoma blanched after diascopy in two of the patients, resulting in a delay of diagnosis in one of these individuals. Dermoscopy may be a useful non-invasive modality for evaluating skin lesions when the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma is considered. Mohs surgery is the treatment of choice; in some of the patients, the ratio of the area of the postoperative wound to that

  4. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of Cases and Review of This Unique Presentation of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma is a unique variant of basal cell carcinoma. Including the three patients described in this report, red dot basal cell carcinoma has only been described in seven individuals. This paper describes the features of two males and one female with red dot basal cell carcinoma and reviews the characteristics of other patients with this clinical subtype of basal cell carcinoma. A 70-year-old male developed a pearly-colored papule with a red dot in the center on his nasal tip. A 71-year-old male developed a red dot surrounded by a flesh-colored papule on his left nostril. Lastly, a 74-year-old female developed a red dot within an area of erythema on her left mid back. Biopsy of the lesions all showed nodular and/or superficial basal cell carcinoma. Correlation of the clinical presentation and pathology established the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma. The tumors were treated by excision using the Mohs surgical technique. Pubmed was searched with the keyword: basal, cell, cancer, carcinoma, dot, red, and skin. The papers generated by the search and their references were reviewed. Red dot basal cell carcinoma has been described in three females and two males; the gender was not reported in two patients. The tumor was located on the nose (five patients), back (one patient) and thigh (one patient). Cancer presented as a solitary small red macule or papule; often, the carcinoma was surrounded by erythema or a flesh-colored papule. Although basal cell carcinomas usually do not blanch after a glass microscope slide is pressed against them, the red dot basal cell carcinoma blanched after diascopy in two of the patients, resulting in a delay of diagnosis in one of these individuals. Dermoscopy may be a useful non-invasive modality for evaluating skin lesions when the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma is considered. Mohs surgery is the treatment of choice; in some of the patients, the ratio of the area of the postoperative wound to that

  5. 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression alone or in combination with ACSM1 defines a subgroup of the apocrine molecular subtype of breast carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J.E.; Gromov, P.; Cabezon, T.

    2008-01-01

    Established histopathological criteria divide invasive breast carcinomas into defined groups. Ductal of no specific type and lobular are the two major subtypes accounting for around 75 and 15% of all cases, respectively. The remaining 10% include rarer types such as tubular, cribriform, mucinous......, papillary, medullary, metaplastic, and apocrine breast carcinomas. Molecular profiling technologies, on the other hand, subdivide breast tumors into five subtypes, basal-like, luminal A, luminal B, normal breast tissue-like, and ERBB2-positive, that have different prognostic characteristics. An additional...... proteins that are specifically expressed by benign apocrine lesions as well as by the few IACs that were available to us at the time. Here we reiterate our strategy to reveal apocrine cell markers and present novel data, based on the analysis of a considerably larger number of samples, establishing...

  6. Simultaneous Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bighan Khademi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The association of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx with thyroid papillary carcinoma is an unusual finding. From 2004 to 2011, approximately 250 patients underwent laryngectomies due to squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx at the Otolaryngology Department of Khalili Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. In three patients, synchronous occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma and thyroid papillary carcinoma was found. Histopathologic study of the lymph nodes revealed metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in one case. We report three cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma incidentally found on histological examinations of resected thyroid lobes, as a procedure required for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In comparison, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma needs more aggressive treatment than well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The prevalence of thyroid papillary carcinoma, as an incidental finding in our study was 0.01%. Therefore, preoperative evaluation of the thyroid gland by ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspicious lesions is recommended in patients who are candidates for open laryngectomy.

  7. A Case Report of Lipid-Rich Carcinoma of the Breast Including Histological Characteristics and Intrinsic Subtype Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Kimura

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old Japanese woman with schizophrenia, who had received long-term treatment with neuroleptics, noticed a painless, pea-sized lump in her right breast. She was admitted to our hospital and a malignant tumor was diagnosed. The patient underwent a conservative radical mastectomy (Patey’s operation. The excised tumor measured 2.0 × 1.2 × 1.1 cm in diameter, and its cut surface was grayish-white. Histologically, tumor cells with clear to foamy cytoplasm were invariably Oil Red O-positive and periodic acid Schiff-negative with or without diastase digestion. The tumor was diagnosed as a lipid-rich carcinoma accompanied by an in situ component. Neuroleptics increase serum prolactin levels by interfering with dopaminergic inhibition of prolactin secretion. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that, although prolactin was not detected, the tumor cells expressed prolactin receptor, indicating prolactin as the genesis of this neoplasm. In immunohistochemical intrinsic subtype analysis, the tumor was negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 1 and 2, and basal cytokeratins (CK5, CK6, and CK14, indicating an unclassified (all-marker negative subtype. Axillary lymph nodes were free of metastasis (stage I, and the patient has been well for 20 years without any evidence of recurrence.

  8. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Handa

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65 years old male developed nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, manifesting as multiple basal cell epitheliomas, marked mutilation of the face and characteristic pitting on the palms and soles. Calcification of the falx cerebri and scoliosis of the lumbar spine were also seen.

  9. HER-2÷neu expression in different histological subtypes of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu Apostol, Delia; Căruntu, Irina Draga; Lozneanu, Ludmila; Andriescu, Elena Corina; Giuşcă, Simona Eliza

    2017-01-01

    The identification and validation of new, complementary prognostic factors represents a challenging issue in thyroid pathology, opening the perspective of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) stratification based on differences of aggressiveness at molecular level. Our study aims to analyze the HER-2÷neu expression in different subtypes of PTC and its relationship with the classical clinicopathological factors. We investigated 120 cases of sporadic PTC. The cases were selected based on the histological criteria reported to clinical course and prognosis and distributed in two different subgroups, namely low- and high-risk. HER-2÷neu expression was assessed using an adapted semiquantitative score proposed for thyroid carcinomas. The correlations between HER-2÷neu expression and clinicopathological prognostic factors were statistically analyzed. HER-2÷neu positivity was found in 25 (20.8%) cases, from which 20 cases were classified as subtypes with low-risk and five with high-risk; 95 (79.2%) cases were HER-2÷neu negative, 53 cases being included in low- and 42 cases, respectively, in high-risk group. HER-2÷neu expression was significantly associated with histological subtypes, extrathyroidal extension, and tumor focality. Our results highlight the potential of HER-2÷neu as supplementary marker useful for the stratification of PTC in low-risk and high-risk histological groups, along with the well-known clinicopathological prognostic factors. Our data could be considered as new evidences that indicate different involvement of HER-2÷neu in tumor development and behavior, possible due to its connection with other factors present in the molecular environment.

  10. Comparison of lung cancer cell lines representing four histopathological subtypes with gene expression profiling using quantitative real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawaguchi Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancers are the most common type of human malignancy and are intractable. Lung cancers are generally classified into four histopathological subtypes: adenocarcinoma (AD, squamous cell carcinoma (SQ, large cell carcinoma (LC, and small cell carcinoma (SC. Molecular biological characterization of these subtypes has been performed mainly using DNA microarrays. In this study, we compared the gene expression profiles of these four subtypes using twelve human lung cancer cell lines and the more reliable quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. Results We selected 100 genes from public DNA microarray data and examined them by DNA microarray analysis in eight test cell lines (A549, ABC-1, EBC-1, LK-2, LU65, LU99, STC 1, RERF-LC-MA and a normal control lung cell line (MRC-9. From this, we extracted 19 candidate genes. We quantified the expression of the 19 genes and a housekeeping gene, GAPDH, with qPCR, using the same eight cell lines plus four additional validation lung cancer cell lines (RERF-LC-MS, LC-1/sq, 86-2, and MS-1-L. Finally, we characterized the four subtypes of lung cancer cell lines using principal component analysis (PCA of gene expression profiling for 12 of the 19 genes (AMY2A, CDH1, FOXG1, IGSF3, ISL1, MALL, PLAU, RAB25, S100P, SLCO4A1, STMN1, and TGM2. The combined PCA and gene pathway analyses suggested that these genes were related to cell adhesion, growth, and invasion. S100P in AD cells and CDH1 in AD and SQ cells were identified as candidate markers of these lung cancer subtypes based on their upregulation and the results of PCA analysis. Immunohistochemistry for S100P and RAB25 was closely correlated to gene expression. Conclusions These results show that the four subtypes, represented by 12 lung cancer cell lines, were well characterized using qPCR and PCA for the 12 genes examined. Certain genes, in particular S100P and CDH1, may be especially important for distinguishing the different subtypes. Our results

  11. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

  12. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  13. Cardiac Metastasis in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... following: pleural mesothelioma (48.4%), melanoma (27.8%), lung adenocarcinoma (21%), undifferentiated carcinomas (19.5%), lung squamous cell carcinoma (18.2%) and breast carcinoma (15.5%). High rates of heart metastatisation have also been observed in patients affected by ovarian carcinoma ...

  14. Two different scenarios of squamous cell carcinoma within advanced Basal cell carcinomas: cases illustrating the importance of serial biopsy during vismodegib usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Gefei A; Sundram, Uma; Chang, Anne Lynn S

    2014-09-01

    Vismodegib is a Hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitor recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for advanced basal cell carcinoma. We present 2 cases of clinically significant squamous cell carcinoma within the tumor bed of locally advanced basal cell carcinoma found during vismodegib treatment. The first case is that of a patient with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma responsive to vismodegib but with an enlarging papule within the tumor bed. On biopsy, this papule was an invasive acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma. The second case is that of a patient with Gorlin syndrome with a locally advanced basal cell carcinoma that was stable while the patient was receiving therapy with vismodegib for 2.5 years but subsequently increased in size. Biopsy specimens from this tumor showed invasive squamous cell carcinoma, spindle cell subtype. In both cases, the squamous cell carcinomas were surgically resected. These cases highlight the importance of repeated biopsy in locally advanced basal cell carcinomas in 2 clinical situations: (1) when an area within the tumor responds differentially to vismodegib, and (2) when a tumor stops being suppressed by vismodegib. Timely diagnosis of non-basal cell histologic characteristics is critical to institution of effective therapy.

  15. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda Plovmand

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.......Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis....

  16. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  17. Differences in regulation of tight junctions and cell morphology between VHL mutations from disease subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isanova Bella

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease, germline mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene cause clear cell renal carcinomas, hemangioblastomas, and pheochromocytomas. The VHL gene product is part of an ubiquitin E3 ligase complex and hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-α is a key substrate, although additional VHL functions have been described. A genotype-phenotype relationship exists in VHL disease such that specific VHL mutations elicit certain subsets of these tumors. Here, we examine VHL genotype-phenotype correlations at the cellular level, focusing on the regulation of tight junctions and cell morphology. Methods Wild-type and various mutant VHL proteins representing VHL disease subtypes were stably expressed in 3 VHL-negative renal carcinoma cell lines. Using these cell lines, the roles of various VHL-associated cellular functions in regulation of cell morphology were investigated. Results As a whole, type 1 mutants varied greatly from type 2 mutants, demonstrating high levels of HIF-2α, cyclin D1 and α5 integrin, lower p27 levels, and a spindly, fibroblastic cellular appearance. Type 2 mutations demonstrated an epithelial morphology similar to wild-type VHL in the majority of the renal cell lines used. Knockdown of p27 in cells with wild-type VHL led to perturbations of both epithelial morphology and ZO-1 localization to tight junctions. ZO-1 localization correlated well with VHL disease subtypes, with greater mislocalization observed for genotypes associated with a higher risk of renal carcinoma. HIF-2α knockdown in 786-O partially restored ZO-1 localization, but did not restore an epithelial morphology. Conclusion VHL has both HIF-α dependent and HIF-α independent functions in regulating tight junctions and cell morphology that likely impact the clinical phenotypes seen in VHL disease.

  18. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  19. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio L. Heldwein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the current treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, focusing on medical treatment options. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The most important recent publications have been selected after a literature search employing PubMed using the search terms: advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma, anti-angiogenesis drugs and systemic therapy; also significant meeting abstracts were consulted. RESULTS: Progress in understanding the molecular basis of renal cell carcinoma, especially related to genetics and angiogenesis, has been achieved mainly through of the study of von Hippel-Lindau disease. A great variety of active agents have been developed and tested in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC patients. New specific molecular therapies in metastatic disease are discussed. Sunitinib, Sorafenib and Bevacizumab increase the progression-free survival when compared to therapy with cytokines. Temsirolimus increases overall survival in high-risk patients. Growth factors and regulatory enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase IX may be targets for future therapies. CONCLUSIONS: A broader knowledge of clear cell carcinoma molecular biology has permitted the beginning of a new era in mRCC therapy. Benefits of these novel agents in terms of progression-free and overall survival have been observed in patients with mRCC, and, in many cases, have become the standard of care. Sunitinib is now considered the new reference first-line treatment for mRCC. Despite all the progress in recent years, complete responses are still very rare. Currently, many important issues regarding the use of these agents in the management of metastatic renal cancer still need to be properly addressed.

  20. Evaluation of surgical margins according to the histological type of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Charles Antonio Pires de; Neta, Alice Lima de Oliveira; Leão, Sofia Silveira de Souza; Dantas, Raul Lima; Carvalho, Valeska Oliveira Fonseca; Silva, Samuel Freire da

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical margin of basal cell carcinoma and correlate this with its histologic subtype. A retrospective analysis of pathology laboratory records from 1990 to 2000 was performed and the following data was collected: age, sex, race, anatomical location, histological type, and state of the excision margins in 1,428 histopathological reports of basal cell carcinoma. Ages ranged from 6 to 99 years, with an average of 57. There was a slight predominance of lesions in white women patients, and the most common histological subtype was the nodular, followed by the superficial. The most common locations were in the head and neck, with highest prevalence appeared in the nose. Surgical margins revealed a lateral involvement of 20.14% and a deep involvement of 12.47%. The fibrosing basal cell carcinoma is the histological type that most often presented positive surgical margins.

  1. Involvement of Chromatin Remodeling Genes and the Rho GTPases RhoB and CDC42 in Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arildsen, Nicolai Skovbjerg; Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Bartuma, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ovarian clear cell carcinomas (OCCCs) constitute a rare ovarian cancer subtype with distinct clinical features, but may nonetheless be difficult to distinguish morphologically from other subtypes. There is limited knowledge of genetic events driving OCCC tumorigenesis beyond ARID1A, wh...

  2. Effect of Blood Cell Subtypes Lysis on Routine Biochemical Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünlü Burcu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to establish the contribution of blood cells subtypes on hemolysis. Methods: Separated blood cell subtype suspensions prepared with blood from 10 volunteers were serially diluted to obtain different concentrations of cell suspensions. The cells were fully lysed and cell hemolysates were added (1:20 to aliquots of serum pool. Thus, seven serum pools with different concentrations of interferent were obtained for each blood cell subtype. Biochemical parameters and serum indices were measured by an autoanalyzer. As cell lysis markers, free hemoglobin was measured by spectrophotometry while myeloperoxidase and b-thromboglobulin were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The percent changes in analyte levels of the serum pools were evaulated by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and compared with clinical thresholds defined for each test. Results: The clinical thresholds were exceeded in lactate dehydrogenase, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, magnesium, total protein, total cholesterol, inorganic phosphate, glucose for red blood cells (RBC; lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, total protein, inorganic phosphate and glucose for platelets (PLT. Free hemoglobin was significantly correlated with RBC (r=0.999; p=0.001, while myeloperoxidase and b thromboglobulin showed no significant correlation to white blood cells (WBC and PLT, respectively. Conclusion: The effect of RBC hemolysis in serum on the routine biochemical tests are clearly established, yet, additional studies are required in order to verify this kind of effects of PLT and WBC hemolysis.

  3. Retroperitoneal Cystic Metastases from Renal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi Rajul

    2008-01-01

    Many malignant tumors produce retroperitoneal nodal metastases. However, cystic nodal retroperitoneal metastases are uncommon. Renal cell carcinoma is one of the very few carcinomas that can infrequently produce cystic nodal retroperitoneal metastases. Hence, This is a case of retroperitoneal cystic nodal metastases secondary to renal cell carcinoma, which has been rarely reported in the medical literature

  4. Prognostic impact of human papilloma virus (HPV) genotyping and HPV-16 subtyping in vaginal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Gabriella Lillsunde; Helenius, Gisela; Andersson, Sören; Sorbe, Bengt; Karlsson, Mats G

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the human papilloma virus (HPV) distribution in vaginal cancer and to evaluate HPV-genotype as well as HPV16-variant impact on prognosis. Sixty-nine patients diagnosed with primary vaginal carcinoma (1975-2002) were included in the study. Detection of twelve high-risk HPV (hr HPV) and two low-risk HPV (lr HPV) was performed with realtime-PCR. Samples positive for HPV-16 were analyzed for variants in the E6-gene with PCR and pyrosequencing. 53.6% (37/69) of the tumors were found to be HPV-positive, mostly for HPV-16 (N=26). Other HPV-types were HPV-18 (N=2), HPV-31 (N=2), HPV-33 (N=2), HPV-45 (N=1), HPV-52 (N=2), HPV-56 (N=1) and HPV-58 (N=1). Only European subtypes of HPV-16 were represented and the two most common HPV-16-variants were E-p (N=13) and E-G350 (N=11). Patients with HPV-positive tumors (N=37) had a significantly (log-rank test=3.341; p=0.0008) superior 5-year overall survival rate as well as cancer-specific survival rate and progression-free survival rate (p=0.0002; p=0.0004), compared with patients with HPV-negative tumors (N=32). Interestingly, patients with HPV-16-positive tumors had a superior overall survival compared with patients with tumors containing other HPV-genotypes. In a Cox proportional multivariate analysis age, tumor size, and HPV-status were independent and significant prognostic factors with regard to overall survival rate. HPV-status is of prognostic importance in vaginal carcinoma and varies with viral genotype. In this era of HPV-vaccination, genotypes other than those included in the vaccination program could still lead to vaginal carcinoma with unfavorable prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors predicting lapatinib efficacy in HER-2+ metastatic breast carcinoma: Does it work better in different histologic subtypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göksu, S S; Bozcuk, H; Koral, L; Çakar, B; Gündüz, S; Tatlı, A M; Arslan, D; Uysal, M; Koçer, M; Artaç, M; Karabulut, B; Coşkun, H S; Özdoğan, M; Savaş, B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of trastuzumab, a recombinant monoclonal antibody against the extracellular domain of HER-2, is a cornerstone in the treatment of HER-2+ breast carcinoma. However, many cancers that have an initial response to trastuzumab will progress some time later. After progression on trastuzumab-based first-line treatment, there are several options. Although TDM-1 (Trastuzumab emtansine) has prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival in patients previously treated with trastuzumab and taxane, it is still not available in Turkey. Patients may be switched to lapatinib (an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting both HER-1 and HER-2), or they may re-challenge with trastuzumab. There is no clear definition of the patients who should be switched to lapatinib. In this study, we investigated the factors predicting the efficacy of lapatinib. Totally, 94 patients treated with lapatinib for metastatic breast carcinoma was included in our study. Retrospective data including pathology, treatments and treatment results, metastatic sites, and laboratory tests were collected. Progression-free survival was 9.1 months. Histologic subtypes other than invasive ductal carcinoma and liver metastasis were inversely related with PFS. Overall survival was 22.1 months, and patients with histologic subtypes other than invasive ductal carcinoma and who progress with brain metastasis had a worse prognosis. Clinicians should give attention to histologic subtype and metastatic sites when choosing patients for lapatinib treatment.

  6. [Metatypical basal-cell carcinoma (MTC) or basosquamos carcinoma (BSC): surgical therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarallo, Mauro; Cigna, Emanuele; Fino, Pasquale; Sorvillo, Valentina; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2011-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer in the world with an incidence 18-20 times greater than that of malignant melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma, which probably arises from immature pluripotential cells, is the most common malignant tumor of the skin in Caucasian. It occurs mostly on sun-exposed areas such as neck and face. MATERIAL OR STUDY: We performed a retrospective study of 327 consecutive patients, diagnosed for metatypical basal cell carcinoma. Tumors were analyzed and measured from the surgeon, excision margins were marked on the basis of palpable or visual alteration of the burden. The minimum surgical margin was equal to the short axis of the ellipse. Therapy was made according to guidelines. A relevant difference came out between two genders. 213 Males (65%) were affected in comparison with only 114 females (35%). Concerning areas affected, first is cervico-facial area with a prevalence of 220 cases (67.3%), second trunk 33 cases (10.1%), third other areas 29 cases (8.86%), fourth limbs 32 cases (9.80%), fifth scalp with 13 cases (4%). Diagnosis is based on histological analysis. Histologically MTC is divided into two subtypes: intermediated and mixed. In the intermediate form transitional zones and tumor islets are found together, thus combining features of BCC and SCC In mixed subtype typical basal cells coexist with areas of conglomerated squamous cells, squamous pearls could be present.

  7. Identification of an atypical etiological head and neck squamous carcinoma subtype featuring the CpG island methylator phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Brennan

    2017-03-01

    Further distinguishing features of this ‘CIMP-Atypical’ subtype include an antiviral gene expression profile associated with pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and CD8+ T cell infiltration, CASP8 mutations, and a well-differentiated state corresponding to normal SOX2 copy number and SOX2OT hypermethylation. We developed a gene expression classifier for the CIMP-Atypical subtype that could classify atypical disease features in two independent patient cohorts, demonstrating the reproducibility of this subtype. Taken together, these findings provide unprecedented evidence that atypical HNSCC is molecularly distinct, and postulates the CIMP-Atypical subtype as a distinct clinical entity that may be caused by chronic inflammation.

  8. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  9. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Karthiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS. NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  10. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  11. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF THE HEAD AND NECK: NEW AVENUES OF TREATMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Braunschweig

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck counts for 3 % of all cancers in men and half of this number less in women with a 5-year survival of 61 %. While the number of laryngeal carcinoma is decreasing, carcinoma of the oral cavity related to an infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV, high-risk subtypes is increasing, especially in younger patients. HPV related squamous cell carcinomas show better survival data, especially in regard to recurrence free rates or secondary carcinoma of adjacent locations. Squamous cell carcinomas related to the presence of HPV DNA material is almost exclusively found in carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharyngeal mucosa. Much less frequently HPV is present in hypopharyngeal carcinomas and even less number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma with proof for HPV in the nasopharynx and larynx. In case of evidence for HPV DNA; most cases are positively tested for subtype 16, followed by subtype 18. As a surrogate immunhistochemical marker, p16 INK4A is stained positive, cytoplasmic and nuclear. In a small study by ourselves, we found a positive correlation in 100 % of p16 INK4A positivity and positive HPV testing. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is more frequently related to HPV in patients below 50 years of age with a prevalence of ca. 20 %. Whilst HPV high-risk positive carcinomas show very few mutations in single signalling molecules of the downstream receptor tyrosin kinase pathways, HPV negative carcinomas show in many cases a chaotic DNA mutation type with typical mutations in tumor suppressor genes, as p53 and CDKN2A. This pattern is often seen in carcinoma types develop from a summation of accidental mutations often caused by toxins (e.g. inhaled cigarette smoke. However, it is discussed and under investigation whether a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomasdevelop from so called driver mutations, as are called mutations in critical members of signalling pathways and receptor tyrosin kinases

  12. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms...

  13. Carcinoma de pequenas células na síndrome de Pancoast Small cell carcinoma in Pancoast syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Fontinele e Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Pancoast consiste de sinais e sintomas decorrentes do acometimento do ápice pulmonar e estruturas adjacentes por um tumor. Na maioria das vezes, o processo causal é uma neoplasia. O carcinoma broncogênico é a principal neoplasia causadora da síndrome. Os subtipos histológicos mais encontrados são o adenocarcinoma e o carcinoma epidermoide. A ocorrência de carcinoma de pequenas células de pulmão como gênese da síndrome de Pancoast é rara, com poucos relatos na literatura. Descrevemos o caso de um doente com síndrome de Pancoast causado por um carcinoma de pequenas células de pulmão, discutindo aspectos referentes ao diagnóstico e à terapêutica.Pancoast syndrome consists of signs and symptoms resulting from a tumor affecting the pulmonary apex and adjacent structures. The process is typically caused by a neoplasm. The majority of cases of Pancoast syndrome are caused by bronchogenic carcinoma. The most commonly found histologic subtypes are adenocarcinoma and epidermoid carcinoma. There have been very few reports of small cell lung carcinoma in the genesis of Pancoast syndrome. We describe the case of a patient with Pancoast syndrome caused by small cell lung carcinoma and discuss the aspects related to the diagnosis and treatment.

  14. An Unusual Case of Locally Advanced Glycogen-Rich Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martín-Martín

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycogen-rich clear cell (GRCC is a rare subtype of breast carcinoma characterized by carcinoma cells containing an optically clear cytoplasm and intracytoplasmic glycogen. We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with a palpable mass in the right breast and clinical signs of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC. The diagnosis of GRCC carcinoma was based on certain histopathological characteristics of the tumor and immunohistochemical analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of GRCC LABC with intratumoral calcifications. There is no evidence of recurrence or metastatic disease after 14 months’ follow-up.

  15. Orbitofacial Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of 10 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Sara V; McClintic, Elysa; Ozgur, Omar; Esmaeli, Bita; Yeatts, R Patrick

    To explore the clinical features, management, and prognosis of metastatic basal cell carcinoma originating in the orbitofacial region. Ten cases of orbitofacial metastatic basal cell carcinoma were identified by searching databases at 2 institutions from 1995 to 2015. A retrospective chart review was performed. Main outcome measures included patient demographics, lesion size, location of metastases, histologic subtype, recurrence rate, time between primary tumor diagnosis and metastasis, perineural invasion, treatment modalities, and survival from time of metastasis. The median tumor size at largest dimension was 3.3 cm (range, 1.9-11.5 cm), and 6 of 10 patients had at least 1 local recurrence before metastasis (range, 0-2 recurrences). The most common sites of metastasis included the ipsilateral parotid gland (n = 6) and cervical lymph nodes (n = 5). Histologic subtypes included infiltrative (n = 5), basosquamous (n = 2), nodular (n = 1), and mixed (n = 1). The median time from primary tumor diagnosis to metastasis was 7.5 years (range, 0-13). The median survival time from diagnosis of metastasis to last documented encounter or death was 5.3 years (range, 7 months-22.8 years). Treatment regimens included surgical excision, radiotherapy, and hedgehog inhibitors. Based on our findings, the following features may be markers of high risk orbitofacial basal cell carcinoma: 1) increasing tumor size, 2) local recurrence of the primary tumor, 3) aggressive histologic subtype, and 4) perineural invasion. Screening should include close observation of the primary site and tissues in the distribution of regional lymphatics, particularly the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes.

  16. Immunohistochemical distinction of ocular sebaceous carcinoma from basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinard, J H

    1999-06-01

    Diagnosis of sebaceous carcinoma of the periorbital region is often delayed. Clinically, this lesion can mimic several inflammatory disorders. Histopathologically, it can mimic either squamous cell or basal cell carcinoma. To identify an immunohistochemical approach to assist in the diagnosis of periorbital sebaceous carcinoma. The immunohistochemical profiles of several cases of periorbital sebaceous, basal cell, and squamous cell carcinoma were examined. Although at least focal epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) staining can effectively distinguish sebaceous carcinoma (10 of 11 were positive) from basal cell carcinoma (1 of 16 were positive), most squamous cell carcinomas examined were also focally EMA positive (11 of 14). However, Cam 5.2 reactivity was seen in most sebaceous carcinomas (8 of 11) but no squamous cell carcinomas (0 of 14). In addition, at least focal BRST-1 reactivity was also seen in most sebaceous carcinomas (7 of 11) but no basal cell carcinomas (0 of 16). Periorbital sebaceous, basal cell, and squamous cell carcinomas have different immunohistochemical staining profiles; a panel of commonly available antibodies, including anti-EMA, BRST-1, and Cam 5.2, may help distinguish these diseases from each other when that distinction cannot be clearly made by light microscopy alone.

  17. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment.

  18. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Mutational Profile in Taiwanese Population | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a major oral cancer subtype that is the fourth most common cancer affecting Taiwanese men. Despite known risk behaviors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel nut chewing often indulged by Taiwanese men, the genetic contribution to the incidence or progression of OSCC has yet been elucidated in the Taiwanese population.

  19. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in an 18-year-old female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in young adults is uncommon. Whether they have different clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes from those in older patients is still a conflicting matter. In this article we present an uncommon subtype of RCC which is chromophobe RCC (chRCC) in a female aged less than 20 years.

  20. MORPHOMETRIC SUBTYPING FOR A PANEL OF BREAST CANCER CELL LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Ju; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Wang, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joe W.; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-05-08

    A panel of cell lines of diverse molecular background offers an improved model system for high-content screening, comparative analysis, and cell systems biology. A computational pipeline has been developed to collect images from cell-based assays, segment individual cells and colonies, represent segmented objects in a multidimensional space, and cluster them for identifying distinct subpopulations. While each segmentation strategy can vary for different imaging assays, representation and subpopulation analysis share a common thread. Application of this pipeline to a library of 41 breast cancer cell lines is demonstrated. These cell lines are grown in 2D and imaged through immunofluorescence microscopy. Subpopulations in this panel are identified and shown to correlate with previous subtyping literature that was derived from transcript data.

  1. Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma: a new radiological entity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelis, F.; Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Helenon, O.; Correas, J.M. [Necker Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Lemaitre, L. [Claude Huriez Hospital, Department of Radiology, Lille (France); Andre, M. [La-Conception Hospital, Department of Radiology, Marseille (France); Meuwly, J.Y. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sengel, C. [Grenoble Hospital, Department of Radiology, Grenoble (France); Derchi, L. [Universita di Genova, Radiologia - DICMI, Genova (Italy); Yacoub, M. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Pathology, Bordeaux (France); Verkarre, V. [Necker Hospital, Department of Pathology, Paris (France)

    2016-04-15

    Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TC-RCC) is a recently identified renal malignancy. While approximately 100 cases of TC-RCC have been reported in the pathology literature, imaging features have not yet been clearly described. The purpose of this review is to describe the main radiologic features of this rare sub-type of RCC on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), based jointly on the literature and findings from a multi-institutional retrospective HIPAA-compliant review of pathology and imaging databases. Using a combination of sonographic and CT/MRI features, diagnosis of TC-RCC appeared to be strongly suggested in many cases. (orig.)

  2. Current MR imaging of renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sae Lin; Sung, Seuk Jae [Dept. of Radiology, Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) consists of approximately 85-90% of renal masses, and its incidence is increasing due to widespread use of modern imaging modalities such as ultrasonography or computed tomography. Computed tomography has served an important role in the diagnosis and staging of RCC; however, recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have considerably improved our ability to predict tumor biology beyond the morphologic assessment. Multiparametric MRI protocols include standard sequences tailored for the morphologic evaluation and acquisitions that provide information about the tumor microenvironment such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. The role of multiparametric MRI in the evaluation of RCC now extends to preoperative characterization of RCC subtypes, histologic grade, and quantitative assessment of tumor response to targeted therapies in patients with metastatic disease. Herein, the clinical applications and recent advances in MRI applied to RCC are reviewed along with its merits and demerits. We aimed to review MRI techniques and image analysis that can improve the management of patients with RCC. Familiarity with the advanced MRI techniques and various imaging findings of RCC would also facilitate optimal clinical recommendations for patients.

  3. Multiple endocrine neoplasia similar to human subtype 2A in a dog: Medullary thyroid carcinoma, bilateral pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Soler Arias

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human multiple endocrine neoplasia subtype 2A (MEN 2A is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma and parathyroid hyperplasia or adenoma in the same individual. In this report, a case of a female Rottweiler with medullary thyroid carcinoma, bilateral pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma was described. Clinical manifestations of muscle weakness, polydipsia, polyuria, diarrhea and weight loss were observed. Two adrenal neoplasms were identified incidentally by ultrasonography, and tumor in the left thyroid lobe was identified by palpation. Primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed by biochemical testing. Histopathology report was consistent with diagnosis of bilateral pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for calcitonin and synaptophysin, and negative for thyroglobulin, which confirmed medullary thyroid carcinoma. This case in a dog is presenting neoplastic characteristics similar to human MEN 2A and emphasizing the importance of using immunohistochemistry for confirmation.

  4. Hybrid clear cell odontogenic carcinoma and ameloblastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) which was previously designated clear cell odontogenic tumor also exhibits an aggressive biologic behavior and a tendency to metastasize to distant locations. Both lesions are rare. We report an odontogenic carcinoma with a dual histomorphologic feature of CCOC and AC ...

  5. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers

  6. Hybrid clear cell odontogenic carcinoma and ameloblastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameloblastic carcinoma (AC) produces extensive local destruction, perforation of the cortical plate, extension into surrounding soft tissues, numerous recurrent lesions, and metastasis, usually to cervical lymph nodes. Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) which was previously designated clear cell odontogenic tumor ...

  7. Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Markopoulos, Anastasios K

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis.

  8. Focus on Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venura Samarasinghe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs, which include basal and squamous cell cancers are the most common human cancers. BCCs have a relatively low metastatic rate and slow growth and are frequently underreported. Whilst there is a definite role of sunexposure in the pathogenesis of BCC, several additional complex genotypic, phenotypic and environmental factors are contributory. The high prevalence and the frequent occurrence of multiple primary BCC in affected individuals make them an important public health problem. This has led to a substantial increase in search for newer noninvasive treatments for BCC. Surgical excision with predetermined margins remains the mainstay treatment for most BCC. Of the newer non-invasive treatments only photodynamic therapy and topical imiquimod have become established in the treatment of certain BCC subtypes, while the search for other more effective and tissue salvaging therapies continues. This paper focuses on the pathogenesis and management of BCC.

  9. Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzinikolaou ML

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycogen-rich carcinoma of the breast is a rare histological subtype of breast cancer, usually reported to have poor prognosis. Case presentation We present the case of a 59-year-old woman who underwent a mastectomy for a 3.5 cm clinically palpable left breast carcinoma, originally diagnosed as fibroadenoma on a screening mammogram four years before presentation. Diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma was based on certain histological characteristics of the tumour and immunohistochemical analysis (PAS staining, keratins AE1/AE3, EMA, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 20, melanosomes, vimentin, Chromogranin, Synaptophysin, S-100, SMA. No lymph node metastasis was found and as the tumour was ER positive and PgR negative, patient was treated only with an aromatase inhibitor upfront and remains free of disease 48 months now since operation. Conclusion Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor, its clinical behavior reported to be rather aggressive so far, might varies depending on special characteristics such as low grade and strongly positive ER expression

  10. Lobomycosis and squamous cell carcinoma Lobomicose e carcinoma espinocelular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Nogueira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurence of squamous cell carcinoma on long-lasting ulcers is classic. Malignant transformation may occur on burn scars and chronic ulcers of varying etiology, including infectious agents. Transformation of old lobomycosis lesion scars into squamous cell carcinoma has been rarely reported. Careful and long-term follow-up of such patients is important to avoid carcinomatous transformation.A ocorrência de carcinoma espinocelular sobre lesões cutâneas de longa evolução é clássica em cicatrizes de queimadura e úlceras crônicas de etiologia variada, inclusive infecciosa. Na literatura, são raros os casos de pacientes com lobomicose de longa evolução que desenvolveram CEC. O seguimento cuidadoso desses pacientes é importante, pois, nas áreas de traumas, ulcerações e cicatrizes crônicas pode ocorrer degeneração carcinomatosa.

  11. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  12. Overexpression of squamous cell carcinoma antigen variants in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontisso, P; Calabrese, F; Benvegnù, L; Lise, M; Belluco, C; Ruvoletto, M G; Marino, M; Valente, M; Nitti, D; Gatta, A; Fassina, G

    2004-02-23

    Pathogenetic mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still unclear and new tools for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes are ongoing. We have assessed whether squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA), a serpin overexpressed in neoplastic cells of epithelial origin, is also expressed in liver cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma antigen was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 65 HCCs of different aetiology and in 20 normal livers. Proliferative activity was assessed using MIB-1 antibody. In 18 surgical samples, tumour and nontumour liver tissue was available for SCCA cDNA amplification and sequencing. Squamous cell carcinoma antigen was detected in 55 out of 65 (85%) tumour specimens, but in none of the 20 controls. In the majority of the cases, the positive signal was found in the cytoplasm of more than 50% of the hepatocytes. Low or undetectable SCCA (scoreSCCA score >or=2 (mean+/-s.d.: 2%+/-2.4 vs 7.5%+/-10.3, PSCCA1 variant (G(351) to A) was identified in five cases, while SCCA1 was revealed in six cases and SCCA2 in three cases. In conclusion, SCCA variants are overexpressed in HCC, independently of tumour aetiology. A novel SCCA1 variant has been identified in one third of liver tumours.

  13. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  14. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  15. Renal cell carcinoma: histological classification and correlation with imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdair F. Muglia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and has shown a sustained increase in its prevalence. The histological classification of RCCs is of utmost importance, considering the significant prognostic and therapeutic implications of its histological subtypes. Imaging methods play an outstanding role in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of RCC. Clear cell, papillary and chromophobe are the most common histological subtypes of RCC, and their preoperative radiological characterization, either followed or not by confirmatory percutaneous biopsy, may be particularly useful in cases of poor surgical condition, metastatic disease, central mass in a solitary kidney, and in patients eligible for molecular targeted therapy. New strategies recently developed for treating renal cancer, such as cryo and radiofrequency ablation, molecularly targeted therapy and active surveillance also require appropriate preoperative characterization of renal masses. Less common histological types, although sharing nonspecific imaging features, may be suspected on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data. The present study is aimed at reviewing the main clinical and imaging findings of histological RCC subtypes.

  16. Renal cell carcinoma: histological classification and correlation with imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muglia, Valdair F., E-mail: fmuglia@fmrp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CCIFM/FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica. Faculdade de Medicina; Prando, Adilson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Hospital Vera Cruz, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imaginologia

    2015-05-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and has shown a sustained increase in its prevalence. The histological classification of RCCs is of utmost importance, considering the significant prognostic and therapeutic implications of its histological subtypes. Imaging methods play an outstanding role in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of RCC. Clear cell, papillary and chromophobe are the most common histological subtypes of RCC, and their preoperative radiological characterization, either followed or not by confirmatory percutaneous biopsy, may be particularly useful in cases of poor surgical condition, metastatic disease, central mass in a solitary kidney, and in patients eligible for molecular targeted therapy. New strategies recently developed for treating renal cancer, such as cryo and radiofrequency ablation, molecularly targeted therapy and active surveillance also require appropriate preoperative characterization of renal masses. Less common histological types, although sharing nonspecific imaging features, may be suspected on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data. The present study is aimed at reviewing the main clinical and imaging findings of histological RCC subtypes. (author)

  17. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-02-05

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events.

  18. Osseous Metaplasia in Mucinous Tubular and Spindle Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney: A Case of Massive, Bilateral Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeen M. Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common kidney malignancy, with many histologic subtypes. One of the rare forms of RCC is mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC, which is newly described with limited information on clinical picture and outcome. Heterotopic bone formation (osseous metaplasia is a rare finding within any renal mass. Here we report a case of a massive, bilateral MTSCC with histologic findings of heterotopic bone formation, which has not been described before.

  19. Is gastric lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma a special subtype of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma? New insight based on clinicopathological features and EBV genome polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Na; Hui, Da-yang; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Na-na; Jiang, Ye; Han, Jing; Li, Hai-Gang; Ding, Yun-Gang; Du, Hong; Chen, Jian-Ning; Shao, Chun-Kui

    2015-04-01

    Gastric lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare entity that is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). However, the EBV latency pattern and genome polymorphisms in gastric LELC have not been systematically explored. The clinicopathological features, EBV latency pattern and genome polymorphisms of EBV-positive gastric LELC in Guangzhou, southern China were investigated and compared with those of ordinary EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) in the same area. Ten (1.42%) of 702 gastric carcinoma cases were identified as gastric LELC, in which eight (80%) cases were EBV-positive. The clinicopathological characteristics and EBV latency pattern of EBV-positive gastric LELC were similar to those of ordinary EBVaGC. In EBV genotype analysis, type A strain, type F, I, mut-W1/I, XhoI- and del-LMP1 variants were predominant among EBV-positive gastric LELCs, accounting for eight (100%), six (75%), eight (100%), seven (87.5%), five (62.5%) and six (75%) cases, respectively, which are similar to those in ordinary EBVaGC. For EBNA1 polymorphisms, the V-leu and P-ala subtypes were predominant in EBV-positive gastric LELC, which is different from the predominant V-val subtype in ordinary EBVaGC. EBV-positive gastric LELC has a favorable prognosis when compared to ordinary EBVaGC (median survival time 43.0 vs. 18.0 months). Gastric LELC is strongly associated with EBV and EBV-positive gastric LELC should be regarded as a special subtype of EBVaGC. This, to our best knowledge, is the first time in the world that the EBV latency pattern and genome polymorphisms of EBV-positive gastric LELC are systematically revealed.

  20. Which features of advanced head and neck basal cell carcinoma are associated with perineural invasion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, André Bandiera de Oliveira; Andrade, Natália Martins Magacho de; Brandão, Lenine Garcia; Cernea, Claudio Roberto

    Perineural invasion is a unique route for tumor dissemination. In basal cell carcinomas, the incidence is low, but increases in advanced cases. Its importance is recognized but not fully understood. To compare head and neck basal cell carcinomas with and without perineural invasion. A retrospective medical chart review of multidisciplinary surgeries for basal cell carcinomas that required a head and neck surgery specialist in a tertiary referral center was performed. Clinical-demographics and histopathological features were analyzed. Of 354 cases, perineural invasion was present in 23.1%. Larger tumors and morpheaform subtype were statistically related to perineural invasion. Nodular and superficial subtypes were less frequent in positive cases. No significant difference was found in gender, age, ulceration, location, and mixed histology. In this series of selected patients with basal cell carcinomas submitted to major resections, perineural invasion was clearly related to morpheaform subtype and to larger tumors. Other classically associated features, such as location in high-risk mask zone of the face, male gender and mixed histology, were not so strongly linked to perineural invasion. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Specification of Transplantable Astroglial Subtypes from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krencik, Robert; Weick, Jason P.; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zhijian; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Functionally diversified neuronal populations have now been efficiently generated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). However, directed differentiation of hPSCs to functional astroglial subtypes remains elusive. In this study, hPSCs were successfully directed to nearly uniform populations of immature astrocytes in large quantities (>90% S100β+ and GFAP+). The immature human astrocytes exhibit similar gene expression patterns as primary astrocytes, display functional properties such as glutamate uptake and promotion of synaptogenesis, and become mature astrocytes by forming connections with blood vessels following transplantation into the mouse brain. Furthermore, hPSC-derived neuroepithelia, patterned to rostral-caudal and dorsal-ventral identities with the same morphogens used for neuronal subtype specification, generate immature astrocytes that carry distinct homeodomain transcription factors and display phenotypic differences. These human astroglial progenitors and immature astrocytes will be instrumental for studying astrocytes in brain development and function, for revealing their roles in disease processes, and for developing novel treatments for neurological disorders. PMID:21602806

  2. Topical photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma in Singaporean Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Hui-Yi; Koh, Shui-Lyn Claire; Theng, Thiam-Seng Colin; Chong, Wei-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy has been used for the treatment of superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas, with varying cure rates. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of topical photodynamic therapy in the treatment of superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas in Asian patients treated at the National Skin Centre, Singapore. A retrospective analysis of Asian patients with histologically confirmed basal cell carcinomas and treated with photodynamic therapy was performed. Eight Chinese patients, with an equal gender distribution and mean age of 83.4 years were included. Five of eight basal cell carcinomas were superficial while the remaining three were nodular. The basal cell carcinomas were located in the head and neck in seven patients. The overall clearance rate at 3 months was 87.5% while the clearance rate for superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas was 100% and 66.6% respectively at 3 months. At 12 months, the overall clearance rate was 85. 7%. This is a retrospective analysis with small patient numbers. In this small series of eight Asian patients, topical photodynamic therapy has been shown to be effective and generally well-tolerated in the treatment of basal cell carcinomas, particularly of the superficial subtype. However, larger studies are needed to evaluate its overall efficacy in Asian patients.

  3. The genetic landscape of endometrial clear cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLair, Deborah F; Burke, Kathleen A; Selenica, Pier; Lim, Raymond S; Scott, Sasinya N; Middha, Sumit; Mohanty, Abhinita S; Cheng, Donavan T; Berger, Michael F; Soslow, Robert A; Weigelt, Britta

    2017-10-01

    Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium is a rare type of endometrial cancer that is generally associated with an aggressive clinical behaviour. Here, we sought to define the repertoire of somatic genetic alterations in endometrial clear cell carcinomas (ECCs), and whether ECCs could be classified into the molecular subtypes described for endometrial endometrioid and serous carcinomas. We performed a rigorous histopathological review, immunohistochemical analysis and massively parallel sequencing targeting 300 cancer-related genes of 32 pure ECCs. Eleven (34%), seven (22%) and six (19%) ECCs showed abnormal expression patterns for p53, ARID1A, and at least one DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein, respectively. Targeted sequencing data were obtained from 30 of the 32 ECCs included in this study, and these revealed that two ECCs (7%) were ultramutated and harboured mutations affecting the exonuclease domain of POLE. In POLE wild-type ECCs, TP53 (46%), PIK3CA (36%), PPP2R1A (36%), FBXW7 (25%), ARID1A (21%), PIK3R1 (18%) and SPOP (18%) were the genes most commonly affected by mutations; 18% and 11% harboured CCNE1 and ERBB2 amplifications, respectively, and 11% showed DAXX homozygous deletions. ECCs less frequently harboured mutations affecting CTNNB1 and PTEN but more frequently harboured PPP2R1A and TP53 mutations than non-POLE endometrioid carcinomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Compared to endometrial serous carcinomas (TCGA), ECCs less frequently harboured TP53 mutations. When a surrogate model for the molecular-based TCGA classification was used, all molecular subtypes previously identified in endometrial endometrioid and serous carcinomas were present in the ECCs studied, including POLE, MMR-deficient, copy-number high (serous-like)/p53 abnormal, and copy-number low (endometrioid)/p53 wild-type, which were significantly associated with disease-free survival in univariate analysis. These findings demonstrate that ECCs constitute a histologically and

  4. Molecular basis of basal cell carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Erik; Lopes, Otávio Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer, presenting low mortality but high morbidity, and it has as risk factor exposure to sunlight, especially UVB spectrum. The most important constitutional risk factors for basal cell carcinoma development are clear phototypes (I and II, Fitzpatrick classification), family history of basal cell carcinoma (30-60%), freckles in childhood, eyes and light hair. The environmental risk factor better established is exposure to ultraviolet radiation. However, different solar exposure scenarios probably are independent risk factors for certain clinical and histological types, topographies and prognosis of this tumor, and focus of controversy among researchers. Studies confirm that changes in cellular genes Hedgehog signaling pathway are associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma. The cellular Hedgehog signaling pathway is activated in organogenesis, but is altered in various types of tumors. PMID:28954101

  5. Molecular basis of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Erik; Lopes, Otávio Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer, presenting low mortality but high morbidity, and it has as risk factor exposure to sunlight, especially UVB spectrum. The most important constitutional risk factors for basal cell carcinoma development are clear phototypes (I and II, Fitzpatrick classification), family history of basal cell carcinoma (30-60%), freckles in childhood, eyes and light hair. The environmental risk factor better established is exposure to ultraviolet radiation. However, different solar exposure scenarios probably are independent risk factors for certain clinical and histological types, topographies and prognosis of this tumor, and focus of controversy among researchers. Studies confirm that changes in cellular genes Hedgehog signaling pathway are associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma. The cellular Hedgehog signaling pathway is activated in organogenesis, but is altered in various types of tumors.

  6. Sunitinib benefits patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have accelerated tumor growth after treatment with sunitinib, in contrast to some study results in animals.

  7. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Bilir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  8. The epigenetic landscape of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kluzek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC is the most common subtype of all kidney tumors. During the last few years, epigenetics has emerged as an important mechanism in ccRCC pathogenesis. Recent reports, involving large-scale methylation and sequencing analyses, have identified genes frequently inactivated by promoter methylation and recurrent mutations in genes encoding chromatin regulatory proteins. Interestingly, three of detected genes (PBRM1, SETD2 and BAP1 are located on chromosome 3p, near the VHL gene, inactivated in over 80% ccRCC cases. This suggests that 3p alterations are an essential part of ccRCC pathogenesis. Moreover, most of the proteins encoded by these genes cooperate in histone H3 modifications. The aim of this review is to summarize the latest discoveries shedding light on deregulation of chromatin machinery in ccRCC. Newly described ccRCC-specific epigenetic alterations could potentially serve as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and become an object of novel therapeutic strategies.

  9. Orbital invasion by periocular basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovitch, Igal; McNab, Alan; Sullivan, Timothy; Davis, Garry; Selva, Dinesh

    2005-04-01

    To present a large series of patients with orbital invasion by periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. All cases diagnosed with orbital invasion by periocular BCC between January 1985 and July 2004 in 3 Orbital Units in Australia. The clinical records of all patients were reviewed. Patients' demographics, clinical presentation, histologic subtypes, treatment modalities, recurrence rate, and tumor-related death. There were 64 patients (49 males) with a mean age of 70+/-13 years. Most tumors (84.4%) were recurrent or previously incompletely excised, and the medial canthus was most frequently involved (56.2%). Signs suggestive of orbital involvement included a mass with bone fixation (35.7%), limitation of ocular motility (30.4%), and globe displacement (17.6%). There were no signs suggestive of orbital invasion in 35.7%. Most patients (51.6%) had infiltrative histologic findings, and perineural invasion was present in 19.3%. Treatment modalities were mainly exenteration alone or combined with radiotherapy. During a mean follow-up period of 3.6 years, 3 cases of recurrence (4.7%) were diagnosed. Only 1 patient (1.6%) died from tumor-related causes. Orbital invasion by periocular BCC is an uncommon event that may be associated with significant ocular morbidity and, rarely, death. Because orbital invasion may often be clinically silent, clinicians need to be alert to the possibility in high-risk tumors and consider appropriate imaging. Surgical treatment with exenteration or excision, with or without radiotherapy, results in a low recurrence and mortality rate.

  10. Cardiac metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Tam, James

    2006-01-01

    A 59-year-old man developed an episode of syncope while he was driving. This resulted in a motor vehicle accident, and the patient sustained an open fracture of the left femur. Biopsy of the left femur fracture showed a metastastic renal cell carcinoma, and echocardiography revealed a right ventricular mass without contiguous vena caval or right atrial involvement. This is one of the few reported cases of renal cell carcinoma associated with syncope as an initial symptom. PMID:17151773

  11. T Cell Transcriptomes Describe Patient Subtypes in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean J Bradley

    Full Text Available T cells regulate the adaptive immune response and have altered function in autoimmunity. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE has great diversity of presentation and treatment response. Peripheral blood component gene expression affords an efficient platform to investigate SLE immune dysfunction and help guide diagnostic biomarker development for patient stratification.Gene expression in peripheral blood T cell samples for 14 SLE patients and 4 controls was analyzed by high depth sequencing. Unbiased clustering of genes and samples revealed novel patterns related to disease etiology. Functional annotation of these genes highlights pathways and protein domains involved in SLE manifestation.We found transcripts for hundreds of genes consistently altered in SLE T cell samples, for which DAVID analysis highlights induction of pathways related to mitochondria, nucleotide metabolism and DNA replication. Fewer genes had reduced mRNA expression, and these were linked to signaling, splicing and transcriptional activity. Gene signatures associated with the presence of dsDNA antibodies, low complement levels and nephritis were detected. T cell gene expression also indicates the presence of several patient subtypes, such as having only a minimal expression phenotype, male type, or severe with or without induction of genes related to membrane protein production.Unbiased transcriptome analysis of a peripheral blood component provides insight on autoimmune pathophysiology and patient variability. We present an open source workflow and richly annotated dataset to support investigation of T cell biology, develop biomarkers for patient stratification and perhaps help indicate a source of SLE immune dysfunction.

  12. Cell-Type-Specific Gene Programs of the Normal Human Nephron Define Kidney Cancer Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, David; Eriksson, Pontus; Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Nilsson, Helén; Hansson, Jennifer; Veerla, Srinivas; Sjölund, Jonas; Höglund, Mattias; Johansson, Martin E; Axelson, Håkan

    2017-08-08

    Comprehensive transcriptome studies of cancers often rely on corresponding normal tissue samples to serve as a transcriptional reference. In this study, we performed in-depth analyses of normal kidney tissue transcriptomes from the TCGA and demonstrate that the histological variability in cellularity, inherent in the kidney architecture, lead to considerable transcriptional differences between samples. This should be considered when comparing expression profiles of normal and cancerous kidney tissues. We exploited these differences to define renal-cell-specific gene signatures and used these as a framework to analyze renal cell carcinoma (RCC) ontogeny. Chromophobe RCCs express FOXI1-driven genes that define collecting duct intercalated cells, whereas HNF-regulated genes, specific for proximal tubule cells, are an integral part of clear cell and papillary RCC transcriptomes. These networks may be used as a framework for understanding the interplay between genomic changes in RCC subtypes and the lineage-defining regulatory machinery of their non-neoplastic counterparts. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Small (Renal Mass: Differentiation of Oncocytoma From Renal Cell Carcinoma on Biphasic Contrast-Enhanced CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaguri, Kohei; Takahashi, Naoki; Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Leng, Shuai; Schmit, Grant D; Carter, Rickey E; Leibovich, Bradley C; Kawashima, Akira

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether small (oncocytomas can be differentiated from renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) on biphasic contrast-enhanced CT. Forty-three patients with 53 oncocytomas and 123 patients with 128 RCCs (24 papillary subtype and 104 clear cell and other subtypes) who underwent biphasic contrast-enhanced CT were included in the study. Patient demographics and CT tumor characteristics were evaluated in each case. A multinomial logistic regression model was then constructed for differentiating oncocytoma from clear cell and other subtype RCCs, oncocytoma from papillary RCCs, and clear cell and other subtype RCCs from papillary RCCs. The probability of each group was calculated from the model. Diagnostic performance among three pairwise diagnoses and between oncocytoma and any RCC (clear cell and other subtypes and papillary) were assessed by AUC values. Patient age, tumor CT attenuation values and skewness (i.e., histogram analysis of CT values) in both the corticomedullary and nephrographic phases, and subjective tumor heterogeneity were statistically significant variables in the multinomial logistic regression analysis. The logistic regression model using the variables yielded AUCs of 0.82, 0.95, 0.91, and 0.84 for differentiating oncocytomas from clear cell and other subtype RCCs, oncocytomas from papillary RCCs, clear cell and other subtype RCCs from papillary RCCs, and oncocytomas from any RCC (clear cell and other subtypes and papillary), respectively. A combination of imaging features on biphasic CT, including tumor CT attenuation values and tumor texture (heterogeneity and skewness), can help differentiate oncocytoma from RCC.

  14. Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma and the Synchronous Presence of Primary Colon Malignancies. Is There a Relation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Sahsamanis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While the presence of multiple primary malignancies in the same patient is a well described phenomenon, there is no clear association between various histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC and the synchronous presence of colon malignancies. We present the rare case of an 81-year-old female patient suffering from chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC and an angiomyolipoma of her left kidney, synchronous with an adenocarcinoma of the caecum. While there is an established connection between RCC and colon cancer, a literature review is performed to specify this association in regard to chRCC and the synchronous presence of colon malignancies.

  15. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity: Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heera, R; Ayswarya, T; Padmakumar, S K; Ismayil, P

    2016-01-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is an aggressive, high-grade, variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is uncommon in the oral cavity but slightly more common in the oropharynx. We present two cases of BSCC, one arising in the floor of the mouth and the other arising on the lateral border of the tongue. The diagnosis of this subtype of SCC is important owing to its particular behavior, with an aggressive course, a high incidence of local recurrence, regional lymph node metastases and mortality rate.

  16. Monoclonal antibody Ber-EP4 reliably discriminates between microcystic adnexal carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahl, Dieter; Sellheyer, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    Sclerosing cutaneous neoplasms often represent a diagnostic challenge. The monoclonal antibody Ber-EP4 recognizes two glycopolypeptides found in most human epithelial cells. It is diagnostically highly reliable in the differentiation between basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we report its application in the differential diagnosis of microcystic adnexal carcinoma, desmoplastic trichoepithelioma and basal cell carcinoma. Biopsy samples from 28 sclerosing and infiltrating basal cell carcinomas, 13 microcystic adnexal carcinomas and 16 desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas were examined after immunohistochemical staining with Ber-EP4. Ber-EP4 did not label any of the microcystic adnexal carcinomas, whereas all 28 basal cell carcinomas were Ber-EP4 positive. Twenty-seven of the 28 showed moderate or strong staining intensity, with the majority being strong. Only one basal cell carcinoma was weakly positive. Twelve of the 16 desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas were immunoreactive with Ber-EP4 and the staining was more variable than those of basal cell carcinomas. Ber-EP4 reliably differentiates microcystic adnexal carcinoma from basal cell carcinoma to the same extent as it distinguishes the latter tumor from squamous cell carcinoma. While it stains the majority of desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas, these tumors still have to be considered in the differential diagnosis with microcystic adnexal carcinoma, when Ber-EP4 is applied.

  17. Staging of renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich G.; Meindl, Thomas; Coppenrath, Eva; Degenhart, Christoph; Graser, Anno; Scherr, Michael; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany). Department of Clinical Radiology; Mueller-Lisse, Ulrike L. [University of Munich (Germany). Department of Urology

    2007-09-15

    As in other malignant tumors, prognosis in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) depends on tumor extent and metastasis at the time of primary diagnosis. Staging systems formalize the way in which the extent of RCC is being described and classified. Primary staging of RCC aims at evaluating surgical options. Since surgical excision, which is the mainstay of therapy in non-metastatic RCC, and, recently, minimally invasive ablation methods have evolved significantly over the last decades, staging systems continue to evolve along the way. The 40-year-old Robson classification has been replaced with the TNM classification of RCC, because the latter adapts more easily to changing patterns of diagnosis and therapy. Modern cross-sectional imaging methods, such as multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), perform highly in T-staging of local tumor extent and M-staging of distant metastasis. However, both MDCT and MRI perform poorly in N-staging of lymphadenopathy. At present, 18-F-desoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) appears to be unreliable in the detection of RCC and its metastasis. This overview of current radiological and surgical literature attempts to describe how modern staging systems for RCC are organized, and which radiological and surgical developments currently influence the way in which primary staging and prognosis of RCC depend on one another. (orig.)

  18. Immunosuppressive Environment in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Nielsen, Patricia S; Gjerdrum, Lise M R

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tumour survival tactics and anti-tumour immune response is a major determinant for cancer growth. Regulatory T cells (T-regs) contribute to tumour immune escape, but their role in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not understood. The fraction of T-regs among T cells was analysed...

  19. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy.

  20. Ethnic variation of the histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E.V. Ezenwa

    rates include Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Iceland, while the incidence is lowest in Romania, Cyprus, and Portugal [3]. The age- standardised rates for Singaporean males and females are 5.4 and. 2.9 per 100,000/year [4], respectively. RCC typically occurs in the fifth to seventh decade of life and is more common in the ...

  1. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Umbilicus: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) typically occurs in sun-exposed sites. Only 16 individuals with umbilical BCC have been described in the literature, and the characteristics of patients with umbilical BCC are summarized. PubMed was used to search the following terms: abdomen, basal cell carcinoma, basal cell nevus syndrome, and umbilicus. Papers with these terms and references cited within these papers were reviewed. BCC of the umbilicus has been reported in five men and 11 women; one man had two tumors. Two patients had basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS). Other risk factors for BCC were absent. The tumor most commonly demonstrated nodular histology (64%, 9/14); superficial and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus variants were noted in three and two patients, respectively. The tumor was pigmented in eight individuals. Treatment was conventional surgical excision (87%, 13/15) or Mohs micrographic surgery (13%, 2/15); either adjuvant laser ablation or radiotherapy was performed in two patients. The prognosis after treatment was excellent with no recurrence or metastasis (100%, 16/16). In conclusion, BCC of the umbilicus is rare. It usually presents as a tumor with a non-aggressive histologic subtype in an individual with no risk factors for this malignancy. There has been no recurrence or metastasis following excision of the cancer. PMID:27738570

  2. Relationship between molecular subtype of invasive breast carcinoma and expression of gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 and mammaglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gloria H; Subhawong, Andrea Proctor; Nassar, Hind; Vang, Russell; Illei, Peter B; Park, Ben Ho; Argani, Pedram

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the expression of gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP) and mammaglobin (MGB) by immunohistochemical analysis in 71 invasive breast carcinomas (IBCs) subtyped into luminal (A and B), HER2, basal-like carcinoma (BLC), and unclassified triple-negative carcinoma (UTNC) by established surrogate immunohistochemical profiles. GCDFP and MGB were less likely to be expressed in BLC than in HER2 cancers (P = .000021 and P = .013, respectively) or luminal cancers (P = .00002 and P = .00008, respectively). However, the difference in GCDFP or MGB expression between HER2 and luminal cancers was not significant (P = 1.0 and P = .671, respectively). Our results suggest that luminal cancers demonstrate similar degrees of apocrine differentiation as HER2 cancers. Most BLCs and UTNCs are negative for MGB and GCDFP. Correlation with clinical findings may be needed to exclude the possibility of a metastasis to the breast when BLCs or UTNCs are encountered in a limited sample such as a core biopsy sample.

  3. Gene Methylation Profiling in Sinonasal Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costales, Maria; López-Hernández, Alejandro; García-Inclán, Cristina; Vivanco, Blanca; López, Fernando; Llorente, José Luis; Hermsen, Mario A

    2016-11-01

    To identify epigenetic events in intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma (ITAC) and sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) and to evaluate their relation to clinicopathologic features and follow-up data. Retrospective study. Academic research hospital. The methylation status of 23 genes in 50 ITACs and 32 SNSCCs was analyzed by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and its relation to clinicopathologic features and follow-up data. Gene methylation was observed in 50% of all tumors. Recurrent methylated genes in SNSCC were RASSF1 and CDH13 (for both, 6 of 32 cases), CHFR (4 of 32 cases), and TIMP3 (2 of 32 cases). None of these genes showed significant correlation to clinicopathologic features or overall survival. In ITAC, recurrent methylated genes were CDH13 (18 of 50 cases), ESR1 (13 of 50 cases), APC (7 of 50 cases), TIMP3 (5 of 50 cases), CASP8 (3 of 50 cases), and HIC1 and RASSF1 (for both, 2 of 50 cases). Papillary and colonic ITAC subtypes carried a mean of 1.26 gene methylations per tumor versus 0.63 in solid and mucinous subtypes. Methylation of TIMP3 was associated with a significantly worse survival in ITAC patients. ITAC carries a higher number and a different profile of gene methylations as compared with SNSCC. Gene methylation plays a greater role in papillary and colonic ITAC subtypes, which may indicate a different tumorigenic pathway for these ITAC subtypes. These findings could be used as prognosticators and may have implications for future individualized therapies based on epigenetic changes. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  4. Prognosis of stage III colorectal carcinomas with FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy can be predicted by molecular subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yujin; Park, Minhee; Jang, Mi; Yun, Seongju; Kim, Won Kyu; Kim, Sora; Paik, Soonmyung; Lee, Hyun Jung; Hong, Sungpil; Kim, Tae Il; Min, Byungsoh; Kim, Hoguen

    2017-06-13

    Individualizing adjuvant chemotherapy is important in patients with advanced colorectal cancers (CRCs), and the ability to identify molecular subtypes predictive of good prognosis for stage III CRCs after adjuvant chemotherapy could be highly beneficial. We performed microarray-based gene expression analysis on 101 fresh-frozen primary samples from patients with stage III CRCs treated with FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy and 35 matched non-neoplastic mucosal tissues. CRC samples were classified into four molecular subtypes using nonnegative matrix factorization, and for comparison, we also grouped CRC samples using the proposed consensus molecular subtypes (CMSs). Of the 101 cases, 80 were classified into a CMS group, which shows a 79% correlation between the CMS classification and our four molecular subtypes. We found that two of our subtypes showed significantly higher disease-free survival and overall survival than the others. Group 2, in particular, which showed no disease recurrence or death, was characterized by high microsatellite instability (MSI-H, 6/21), abundant mucin production (12/21), and right-sided location (12/21); this group strongly correlated with CMS1 (microsatellite instability immune type). We further identified the molecular characteristics of each group and selected 10 potential biomarker genes from each. When these were compared to the previously reported molecular classifier genes, we found that 31 out of 40 selected genes were matched with those previously reported. Our findings indicate that molecular classification can reveal specific molecular subtypes correlating with clinicopathologic features of CRCs and can have predictive value for the prognosis for stage III CRCs with FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy.

  5. Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma is the Most Common Nonclear Renal Cell Carcinoma in Young Women: Results from the SEER Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael; Blakely, Stephen; Shapiro, Oleg; Vourganti, Srinivas; Mollapour, Mehdi; Bratslavsky, Gennady

    2016-04-01

    The renal cell cancer incidence is relatively low in younger patients, encompassing 3% to 7% of all renal cell cancers. While young patients may have renal tumors due to hereditary syndromes, in some of them sporadic renal cancers develop without any family history or known genetic mutations. Our recent observations from clinical practice have led us to hypothesize that there is a difference in histological distribution in younger patients compared to the older cohort. We queried the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) 18-registry database for all patients 20 years old or older who were surgically treated for renal cell carcinoma between 2001 and 2008. Patients with unknown race, grade, stage or histology and those with multiple tumors were excluded from study. Four cohorts were created by dividing patients by gender, including 1,202 females and 1,715 males younger than 40 years old, and 18,353 females and 30,891 males 40 years old or older. Chi-square analysis was used to compare histological distributions between the cohorts. While clear cell carcinoma was still the most common renal cell cancer subtype across all genders and ages, chromophobe renal cell cancer was the most predominant type of nonclear renal cell cancer histology in young females, representing 62.3% of all nonclear cell renal cell cancers (p renal cell cancer remained the most common type of nonclear renal cell cancer. It is possible that hormonal factors or specific pathway dysregulations predispose chromophobe renal cell cancer to develop in younger women. We hope that this work provides some new observations that could lead to further studies of gender and histology specific renal tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  7. Epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular Epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquiria Pessoa Chinem

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma basocelular é a neoplasia maligna mais comum em humanos e sua incidência vem aumentando nas últimas décadas. Sua grande frequência gera significativo ônus ao sistema de saúde, configurando problema de saúde pública. Apesar das baixas taxas de mortalidade e de rara ocorrência de metástases, o tumor pode apresentar comportamento invasivo local e recidivas após o tratamento, provocando importante morbidade. Exposição à radiação ultravioleta representa o principal fator de risco ambiental associado a sua gênese. Entretanto, descrevem-se outros elementos de risco: fotótipos claros, idade avançada, história familiar de carcinomas de pele, olhos e cabelos claros, sardas na infância e imunossupressão, além de aspectos comportamentais, como exercício profissional exposto ao sol, atividade rural e queimaduras solares na juventude. Entre 30% e 75% dos casos esporádicos estão associados à mutação do gene patched hedgehog, mas outras alterações genéticas são ainda descritas. A neoplasia é comumente encontrada concomitantemente com lesões cutâneas relacionadas à exposição solar crônica, tais como: queratoses actínicas, lentigos solares e telangiectasias faciais. A prevenção do carcinoma basocelular se baseia no conhecimento de fatores de risco, no diagnóstico e tratamento precoces e na adoção de medidas específicas, principalmente, nas populações susceptíveis. Os autores apresentam uma revisão da epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular.Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm in humans and its incidence has increased over the last decades. Its high frequency significantly burdens the health system, making the disease a public health issue. Despite the low mortality rates and the rare occurrence of metastases, the tumor may be locally invasive and relapse after treatment, causing significant morbidity. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the main environmental risk factor

  8. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  9. Spindle proteins are differentially expressed in the various histological subtypes of testicular germ cell tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Rolf I.; Schjølberg, Aasa R.; Røislien, Jo; Lothe, Ragnhild A.; Clausen, Ole Petter F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are characterized by an aneuploid DNA content. Aberrant expression of spindle proteins such as the Aurora kinases and the spindle checkpoint proteins MAD2 and BUB1B, are thought to contribute to the development of chromosomal instability and DNA aneuploidy in cancer. The importance of these spindle proteins remains unknown in the development of TGCTs, thus we have explored the expression levels of these proteins in normal and malignant testicular tissues. Materials and Methods: Using tissue microarrays the expression levels of Aurora kinase A (AURKA), Aurora kinase B (AURKB), BUB1B and MAD2 were measured in normal, preneoplastic and malignant testicular tissues of different histological subtypes from 279 orchidectomy specimens by means of immunohistochemistry. Results: All the spindle proteins except for AURKB were expressed in normal testis. Sixty-eight and 36%, respectively, of the primary spermatocytes in the normal testis were positive for BUB1B and MAD2, while only 5% of the cells were positive for AURKA. There was a significantly lower expression of the spindle checkpoint proteins in carcinoma in situ compared to normal testis (P=0.008 and P=0.043 for BUB1B and MAD2, respectively), while the level of AURKA was increased, however, not significantly (P=0.18). The extent of spindle protein expression varied significantly within the different histological subtypes of TGCTs (P<0.001 for AURKB, BUB1B and MAD2, P=0.003 for AURKA). The expression of AURKA was significantly elevated in both non-seminomas (P=0.003) and seminomas (P=0.015). The level of BUB1B was significantly decreased in non-seminomas (P<0.001). A similar tendency was observed for MAD2 (P=0.11). Conclusions: In carcinoma in situ of TGCTs the spindle checkpoint proteins MAD2 and BUB1B are significantly less expressed compared to normal testis, while the expression of AURKA is increased. We suggest that these changes may be of importance in the transition

  10. Spindle proteins are differentially expressed in the various histological subtypes of testicular germ cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burum-Auensen Espen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs are characterized by an aneuploid DNA content. Aberrant expression of spindle proteins such as the Aurora kinases and the spindle checkpoint proteins MAD2 and BUB1B, are thought to contribute to the development of chromosomal instability and DNA aneuploidy in cancer. The importance of these spindle proteins remains unknown in the development of TGCTs, thus we have explored the expression levels of these proteins in normal and malignant testicular tissues. Materials and Methods: Using tissue microarrays the expression levels of Aurora kinase A (AURKA, Aurora kinase B (AURKB, BUB1B and MAD2 were measured in normal, preneoplastic and malignant testicular tissues of different histological subtypes from 279 orchidectomy specimens by means of immunohistochemistry. Results: All the spindle proteins except for AURKB were expressed in normal testis. Sixty-eight and 36%, respectively, of the primary spermatocytes in the normal testis were positive for BUB1B and MAD2, while only 5% of the cells were positive for AURKA. There was a significantly lower expression of the spindle checkpoint proteins in carcinoma in situ compared to normal testis (P=0.008 and P=0.043 for BUB1B and MAD2, respectively, while the level of AURKA was increased, however, not significantly (P=0.18. The extent of spindle protein expression varied significantly within the different histological subtypes of TGCTs (P< 0.001 for AURKB, BUB1B and MAD2, P=0.003 for AURKA. The expression of AURKA was significantly elevated in both non-seminomas (P=0.003 and seminomas (P=0.015. The level of BUB1B was significantly decreased in non-seminomas (P< 0.001. A similar tendency was observed for MAD2 (P=0.11. Conclusions: In carcinoma in situ of TGCTs the spindle checkpoint proteins MAD2 and BUB1B are significantly less expressed compared to normal testis, while the expression of AURKA is increased. We suggest that these changes may be of importance in the

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma in the submandibular space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Byung Mo; Lee, Sam Sun; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Hyun Bae; Choi, Soon Chul [Seoul National Univ. College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-15

    A 66-year-old man visited author's institute complaining of the swelling on the submandibular gland area. Clinically, the exophytic mass penetrated the skin of the submandibular area. On MRI, the lesion occupied the left submandibular space and extended downward, protruding exterior to the subcutaneous fat layer, but the center of the lesion was located on the side of the skin and the growth exterior to the skin was prominent. Demarcation of the lesion and the submandibular gland was unclear. Histopathologically the epithelial nests and keratin production were seen, then the biopsy result was squamous cell carcinoma. The stroma of lesion showed a myxoid characteristic and some ducts showed metaplasia of the ductal cells, which suggested the gland-origin carcinoma. However, lots of keratin production and carcinomatous change of cells continuous to the normal epithelium of the skin, the skin-origin carcinoma invading into the submandibular gland area could not be excluded.

  12. Management of periorbital basal cell carcinoma with orbital invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Michelle T; Wu, Albert; Figueira, Edwin; Huilgol, Shyamala; Selva, Dinesh

    2015-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common eyelid malignancy; however, orbital invasion by periocular BCC is rare, and management remains challenging. Established risk factors for orbital invasion by BCC include male gender, advanced age, medial canthal location, previous recurrences, large tumor size, aggressive histologic subtype and perineural invasion. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach with orbital exenteration remaining the treatment of choice. Globe-sparing treatment may be appropriate in selected patients and radiotherapy and chemotherapy are often used as adjuvant therapies for advanced or inoperable cases, although the evidence remains limited. We aim to summarize the presentation and treatment of BCC with orbital invasion to better guide the management of this complex condition.

  13. [Current diagnostics and therapy recommendations for ocular basal cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkassery, V; Loeffler, K U; Sand, M; Koch, K R; Lentzsch, A M; Nick, A C; Adamietz, I A; Heindl, L M

    2017-03-01

    The treatment options for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have recently been augmented with the introduction of novel chemotherapeutic drugs. New S2 guidelines on the disease have also been published. The aim of this article is to present a comprehensive state of the art description of the features of ocular BCC and an overview of the various therapeutic options. Particular emphasis is placed on the clinical signs, the diagnostic tools to identify periocular BCC and interpretation of the different histopathological subtypes. Tumor staging, TNM classification, interdisciplinary tumor conference reviews as well as psycho-oncological services play an important role in patients with pronounced periocular BCC. Surgical removal with a histological R0 resection is an important component of therapy options in this disease and includes the microsurgical excision into healthy tissue and the subsequent covering of the defect. A special focus of this article is the treatment of locally extensive and metastasized BCC.

  14. Nucleophosmin expression in renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Aysegul; Calli, Aylin; Altinboga, Aysegul Aksoy; Pehlivan, Fatma Seher; Gorgel, Sacit Nuri; Balci, Ugur; Ermete, Murat; Dincel, Cetin; Cakalagaoglu, Fulya

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate nucleophosmin/B23 (NPM) expression in renal cell carcinomas (RCC) and renal oncocytomas. The expression of NPM was studied by immunohistochemical methods on 59 RCCs, 9 oncocytomas, and 19 tumour-negative renal tissues. The expression was assessed relative to various clinicopathological variables and histological subtypes, to determine its potential role as a prognostic and diagnostic marker. All tumours showed nuclear staining, and a minority also exhibited cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. Two patterns of nuclear staining were observed: nuclear staining with a prominent nucleolus (nucleolar staining) and nuclear staining without a prominent nucleolus. There were significant differences, in both nuclear staining and cytoplasmic NPM expression, between oncocytomas and chromophobe RCCs (p oncocytomas. A statistically significant correlation was discovered between nucleolar staining and nuclear grade (p oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC. In addition, increased nucleolar NPM expression in RCCs appears to be associated with tumour progression. © 2011 The Authors. APMIS © 2011 APMIS.

  15. Evaluation of neuroendocrine markers in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauppila Saila

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to examine serotonin, CD56, neurone-specific enolase (NSE, chromogranin A and synaptophysin by immunohistochemistry in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs with special emphasis on patient outcome. Methods We studied 152 patients with primary RCCs who underwent surgery for the removal of kidney tumours between 1990 and 1999. The mean follow-up was 90 months. The expression of neuroendocrine (NE markers was determined by immunohistochemical staining using commercially available monoclonal antibodies. Results were correlated with patient age, clinical stage, Fuhrman grade and patient outcome. Results Eight percent of tumours were positive for serotonin, 18% for CD56 and 48% for NSE. Chromogranin A immunostaining was negative and only 1% of the tumours were synaptophysin immunopositive. The NSE immunopositivity was more common in clear cell RCCs than in other subtypes (p = 0.01. The other NE markers did not show any association with the histological subtype. Tumours with an immunopositivity for serotonin had a longer RCC-specific survival and tumours with an immunopositivity for CD56 and NSE had a shorter RCC-specific survival but the difference was not significant. There was no relationship between stage or Fuhrman grade and immunoreactivity for serotonin, CD56 and NSE. Conclusions Serotonin, CD56 and NSE but not synaptophysin and chromogranin A are expressed in RCCs. However, the prognostic potential of these markers remains obscure.

  16. CD117 expression in fibroblasts-like stromal cells indicates unfavorable clinical outcomes in ovarian carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruixia; Wu, Dan; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xiaoran; Holm, Ruth; Trope, Claes G; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2014-01-01

    The stem cell factor (SCF) receptor CD117 (c-kit), is widely used for identification of hematopoietic stem cells and cancer stem cells. Moreover, CD117 expression in carcinoma cells indicates a poor prognosis in a variety of cancers. However the potential expression in tumor microenvironment and the biological and clinical impact are currently not reported. The expression of CD117 was immunohistochemically evaluated in a serial of 242 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cases. Thirty-eight out of 242 cases were CD117 positive in fibroblast-like stromal cells and 22 cases were positive in EOC cells. Four cases were both positive in fibroblast-like stromal cells and EOC cells for CD117. CD117 expression in fibroblast-like stromal cells in ovarian carcinoma was closely linked to advanced FIGO stage, poor differentiation grade and histological subtype (povarian carcinoma cells was not associated with these clinicopathological variables. The CD117 positive fibroblast-like stromal cells were all positive for mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) marker CD73 but negative for fibroblast markers fibroblast activation protein (FAP) and α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), indicating that the CD117+/CD73+ fibroblast-like stromal cells are a subtype of mesenchymal stem cells in tumor stroma, although further characterization of these cells are needed. It is concluded herewith that the presence of CD117+/CD73+ fibroblast-like stromal cells in ovarian carcinoma is an unfavorable clinical outcome indication.

  17. Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma, Ileal Crohn Disease or Both - A Case of Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana R. Carvalho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Signet ring cell carcinoma is a rare form of adenocarcinoma that predominantly affects the stomach. Signet ring cell carcinoma originated from the ileum is extremely rare and the prognosis is poor. We present a case of small bowel obstruction with features suggesting Crohn disease of the ileum. The symptoms were chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain with a family history of inflammatory bowel disease. The patient underwent surgery and histopathology revealed both aspects of signet ring cell carcinoma and Crohn disease of the ileum. An association between long-standing inflammation and the development of this subtype of tumor has been proposed but there are no established surveillance guidelines for small bowel neoplasm in inflammatory bowel disease.

  18. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report | Khadija | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it ... develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma,resulting ofpatient's negligence. ... cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurringin a 79 years old male patient, with a ...

  19. Differential mTOR pathway profiles in bladder cancer cell line subtypes to predict sensitivity to mTOR inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Andrew M; Nakasaki, Manando; Nakashima, Kazufumi; Krish, Goutam; Hansel, Donna E

    2017-10-01

    Molecular classification of bladder cancer has been increasingly proposed as a potential tool to predict clinical outcomes and responses to chemotherapy. Here we focused on mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition as a chemotherapeutic strategy and characterized the expression profile of mTOR signaling targets in representative bladder cancer cell lines from basal, luminal, and either basal/luminal ("non-type") molecular subtypes. Protein and mRNA expression of mTOR signaling components from representative luminal (RT4 and RT112), basal (SCaBER and 5637), and nontype (T24 and J82) bladder cancer cell line subtypes were determined by Western blot and database mining analysis of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia. Cell viability following treatment with either, Torin-2 or KU-0063794, 2 dual mTOR complex 1/2 inhibitors, was determined by MTT assay. Immunoblot analysis of cells treated with Torin-2 or KU-0063794 was performed to determine the effects of mTOR inhibition on expression and phosphorylation status of mTOR signaling components, Akt, 4E-BP1, and ribosomal protein S6. Molecular subtypes of bladder cancer cell lines each exhibited a distinct pattern of expression of mTOR-associated genes and baseline phosphorylation level of Akt and 4E-BP1. Cells with low levels of Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation were more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of mTOR inhibition with Torin-2, but not KU-0063794. Exposure to Torin-2 and KU-0063794 both potently and rapidly inhibited phosphorylation of Akt Ser-473 and Thr-308, and 4E-BP1 T37/46 in cell lines that included basal and nontype subtypes. Differential gene expression and protein activity associated with mTOR signaling is observed among bladder cancer cell lines stratified into basal, luminal, and nontype subtypes. Urothelial carcinomas characterized by high baseline Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation may be best suited for targeted mTOR therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Infiltration of CD3⁺ and CD68⁺ cells in bladder cancer is subtype specific and affects the outcome of patients with muscle-invasive tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödahl, Gottfrid; Lövgren, Kristina; Lauss, Martin; Chebil, Gunilla; Patschan, Oliver; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Månsson, Wiking; Fernö, Mårten; Leandersson, Karin; Lindgren, David; Liedberg, Fredrik; Höglund, Mattias

    2014-08-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) aggressiveness is determined by tumor inherent molecular characteristics, such as molecular subtypes, as well as by host reactions directed toward the tumor. Cell types responsible for the host's response include tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). The aim of the present investigation was to explore the immunological response in relation to UC molecular subtypes and to evaluate the prognostic effect of TIL and TAM counts in tissue sections from muscle-invasive (MI) tumors. Tissue microarrays with 296 tumors spanning all pathological stages and grades were analyzed with antibodies for CD3, CD8, FOXP3, CD68, and CD163. Cases were classified into the following molecular subtypes: urobasal, genomically unstable, and squamous cell carcinoma-like using a combination of immunohistochemistry and histology. The Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed with progression-free survival and disease-specific survival as end points. UC molecular subtypes demonstrate different degrees of immunological responses; the urobasal subtype induces a weak response, the genomically unstable subtype induces an intermediate response, and the squamous cell carcinoma-like subtype induces a strong response. These subtype specific responses are independent of tumor stage and include both TILs and TAMs. The presence of infiltrating CD3(+) TILs was significantly associated with good prognosis in the MI cases (PCD3 (P = 7×10(-5)). UC molecular subtypes induce immunological responses at different levels. A high CD68/CD3 ratio identifies a bad prognosis group among MI UC cases. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark, and to investi......Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark...

  2. Treatment and cosmetic outcome of superpulsed CO2 laser for basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoussi, Hossein; Ebrahimi, Ali

    2013-09-01

    There are many different treatments for basal cell carcinoma, but the most common is surgical excision. CO2 laser could be an alternative treatment for many situations in which other treatments are not possible or available. This follow-up study was performed on 74 (40 female and 34 male) patients with a total of 113 basal cell carcinoma lesions that were pathologically documented. First, the tumor mass was debulked by curettage and later 2 to 5 mm of marginal skin and the debulked area were subjected to 2 to 4 passes of pulsed CO2 laser. Out of 113 lesions, the nodular type accounted for 67 (59.3%) lesions, and 40 (35.4%) lesions were seen in the nasal area as the most common clinical subtype and site of involvement. One hundred six lesions (93.7%) of basal cell carcinoma showed a cure after one session. Good to excellent cosmetic outcomes were seen in 97 (85.8%) cases. This method appears to be an appropriate alternative treatment for basal cell carcinoma lesions that are smaller than 2 cm, superficial, and pigmented, and have a nodular clinical subtype without an aggressive pathologic pattern. This method should be used with caution in the nasal area with lesions larger than 2 cm.

  3. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Distal Common Bile Duct

    OpenAIRE

    Jain A; Juneja M; Naik S; Sharma S; Kapoor S; Sewkani A; Varshney S

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: Squamous cell carcinoma of the biliary tree is rare. Although few cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the intrahepatic bile-duct and gallbladder have been reported, until today, only four cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct have been reported in the literature. CASE REPORT: We present a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the distal common bile duct presenting with obstructive jaundice in a 60-year-old male which was successfully managed by a Whipple's pancr...

  4. Hybrid verrucous-squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary with synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancher, Tiffany T; Hamzi, Munir H; Macaron, Shady H; Magno, Winston B; Dudrick, Stanley J; Palesty, J Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma, a variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, is usually described in the literature as arising in the oral cavity, skin, and larynx. The reports on verrucous carcinoma arising in the genital tract, usually originating in the vagina, vulva, or uterine cervix, are few. Verrucous carcinoma arising in the ovary has not been previously reported. In this article, a unique hybrid carcinoma, a large aggressive verrucous carcinoma in combination with squamous carcinoma of the left ovary and synchronously occurring with a squamous cell carcinoma in the endometrium, is presented. This unique case of a hybrid carcinoma includes the first-known case of this type of carcinoma involving the ovary. The negative cervical evaluation findings, together with the histologic patterns of the tumors in the uterus and the ovary, support the conclusion that these 2 carcinomas are synchronous, one arising in the left ovary and the other arising in the uterus.

  5. Histologic Mimics of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanoszek, Lauren M; Wang, Grace Y; Harms, Paul W

    2017-11-01

    - Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignant neoplasm and is a frequently encountered diagnosis in dermatopathology. Although BCC may be locally destructive, it rarely metastasizes. Many diagnostic entities display morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with BCC, including nonneoplastic processes, such as follicular induction over dermatofibroma; benign follicular tumors, such as trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, or basaloid follicular hamartoma; and malignant tumors, such as sebaceous carcinoma or Merkel cell carcinoma. Thus, misdiagnosis has significant potential to result in overtreatment or undertreatment. - To review key features distinguishing BCC from histologic mimics, including current evidence regarding immunohistochemical markers useful for that distinction. - Review of pertinent literature on BCC immunohistochemistry and differential diagnosis. - In most cases, BCC can be reliably diagnosed by histopathologic features. Immunohistochemistry may provide useful ancillary data in certain cases. Awareness of potential mimics is critical to avoid misdiagnosis and resulting inappropriate management.

  6. Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Cornea in a Child with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tumors such as squamous cell carcinomas, (SCCs) basal cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, fibrosarcoma, etc.,. The pathogenesis in a majority of these cases involve. Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of. Cornea in a Child with Xeroderma Pigmentosa. Misra Somen, Bhandari Akshay Jawahirlal, Neeta Misra, Dipti ...

  7. Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yücel, D.; Themstrup, L.; Manfredi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent malignancy in Caucasians. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology using the principle of interferometry. OCT has shown a great potential in diagnosing, monitoring, and follow-up of BCC. So far most...

  8. The epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ljungberg, B.; Campbell, S.C.; Cho, H.Y.; Jacqmin, D.; Lee, J.E.; Weikert, S.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Kidney cancer is among the 10 most frequently occurring cancers in Western communities. Globally, about 270 000 cases of kidney cancer are diagnosed yearly and 116 000 people die from the disease. Approximately 90% of all kidney cancers are renal cell carcinomas (RCC). OBJECTIVE: The causes

  9. Pathological Fracture Complicating Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Josephine Nakato

    Burrows and Lyall2 reported malignant transformation of a venous ulcer. Kubler5 gives a rare report of malignant transformation of chronic changes in the skin that lead to squamous cell carcinoma. The cause of this ulcer was not known in this case due to the fact that the patient presented late by which time the ulcer had ...

  10. Merkel cell carcinoma masquerading as a chalazion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Nigel G; Brownstein, Seymour; Jordan, David R

    2007-06-01

    A 62-year-old woman presented with a large rapidly growing violaceous mass initially diagnosed as a chalazion. Histopathologic examination disclosed Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Radiotherapy was not tolerated. Despite chemotherapy, she succumbed to widespread metastases 13 months later. MCC must be included in the differential diagnosis of solitary eyelid nodules, requiring early and aggressive treatment.

  11. Cell death induction by the BH3 mimetic GX15-070 in thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broecker-Preuss, Martina; Viehof, Jan; Jastrow, Holger; Becher-Boveleth, Nina; Fuhrer, Dagmar; Mann, Klaus

    2015-07-22

    origins by the induction of cell death. GX15-070-treated cells underwent non-classical cell death with signs of apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis in parallel. GX15-07 and related compounds thus may be a new therapeutic option for dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma of various histological subtypes.

  12. Sorafenib inhibits intracellular signaling pathways and induces cell cycle arrest and cell death in thyroid carcinoma cells irrespective of histological origin or BRAF mutational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broecker-Preuss, Martina; Müller, Stefan; Britten, Martin; Worm, Karl; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Mann, Klaus; Fuhrer, Dagmar

    2015-03-26

    signaling pathways in thyroid carcinoma cells, which resulted in cell cycle arrest and the initiation of apoptosis. Sorafenib was effective against all thyroid carcinoma cell lines regardless of their tumor subtype origin or BRAF status, confirming that sorafenib is therapeutically beneficial for patients with any subtype of dedifferentiated thyroid cancer. Inhibition of single intracellular targets of sorafenib in thyroid carcinoma cells may allow the development of more specific therapeutic intervention with less side effects.

  13. Spindle cell metaplastic carcinoma of breast: A clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Li, Ke; Dong, Dan-Dan; Fu, Jing; Liu, Dan-Dan; Wang, Lei; Xu, Gang; Song, Lin-Hong

    2017-04-01

    To better characterize spindle cell metaplastic carcinoma (SpCMC) of breast, a rare variant of breast cancer that has been classified under the broad rubric of metaplastic carcinoma. We presented herein 19 cases of metaplastic breast carcinoma with dominant spindle cell component. All cases were clinically of breast origin, showed more than 80% spindle morphology, 10 cases exhibited pure spindled morphology, 8 contained invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and 1 presented with ductal carcinoma in situ elements. Immunohistochemical studies showed evidence suggesting myoepithelial and epithelial differentiation as exhibited by immunoreactivity for at least one myoepithelial and epithelial markers in all pure spindle cell components. IDC group showed 21.7% of axillary lymph nodes metastasis rate, whereas the axillary lymph node metastasis rate of the SpCMC group was 1.3%, significantly lower than that of the IDC group (P carcinoma with the distinct histopathological and immunohistochemical features. The biological behaviors of SpCMC, like axillary lymph node status, were quite different from that of IDC, suggesting that it may act as an independent pathologic subtype. Immunohistochemical analysis of a panel of epithelial and myoepithelial markers could contribute to the pathologic diagnosis of SpCMC. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Role of Histamine and Its Receptor Subtypes in Stimulation of Conjunctival Goblet Cell Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Densen; Li, Dayu; Hayashi, Chisato; Shatos, Marie; Hodges, Robin R.; Dartt, Darlene A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of histamine and its receptors on goblet cell secretion. Methods. Cultured rat and human goblet cells were grown in RPMI 1640. Goblet cell secretion of high molecular weight glycoconjugate was measured by an enzyme-linked lectin assay. Cultured rat goblet cells were homogenized and either RNA was isolated for RT-PCR or proteins were isolated for Western blot analysis for presence of histamine receptors subtypes H1 through H4. The localization of these receptors was determined in rat and human goblet cells by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results. Histamine stimulated goblet cell secretion in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. All four histamine receptors were present in cultured rat and human goblet cells. Use of agonists specific to individual histamine receptor subtypes indicated that the rank order of agonist stimulation was H1 = H3 > H4 > H2. Using antagonists specific to individual histamine receptor subtypes determined that H2 and H3, but not the H1 and H4, antagonists, inhibited histamine-stimulated conjunctival goblet cell secretion. Conclusions. Rat and human conjunctival goblet cells are a direct target of histamine, which induces secretion. All four histamine receptors are present in rat and human conjunctiva and are active in rat conjunctival goblet cells. These findings suggest that all four histamine receptor subtypes are important for conjunctival goblet cell secretion. Blockage of histamine receptor subtypes could prevent the excess mucus production associated with ocular allergy. PMID:22467574

  15. Granulosa Cell Tumor-like Variant of Endometrioid Carcinoma of the Ovary with Osseous Metaplasia: Report of a Rare Case

    OpenAIRE

    Kavita Mardi; Neelam Gupta; Shivani Sood; Manju Rao

    2015-01-01

    The sex cord-like variant of endometrioid carcinoma is a rare subtype with a close histological resemblance to the sex cord-stromal tumor of the ovaries, in particular the Sertoli cell tumor. However, very few cases of the granulosa cell tumor-like variant have been reported since it is commonly misdiagnosed as a granulose cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry is useful in the diagnosis of these tumors as they are typically negative for inhibin alpha. We herein describe the histolog...

  16. Roles of ON Cone Bipolar Cell Subtypes in Temporal Coding in the Mouse Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyk-Kolodziej, Bozena; Cohn, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    In the visual system, diverse image processing starts with bipolar cells, which are the second-order neurons of the retina. Thirteen subtypes of bipolar cells have been identified, which are thought to encode different features of image signaling and to initiate distinct signal-processing streams. Although morphologically identified, the functional roles of each bipolar cell subtype in visual signal encoding are not fully understood. Here, we investigated how ON cone bipolar cells of the mouse retina encode diverse temporal image signaling. We recorded bipolar cell voltage changes in response to two different input functions: sinusoidal light and step light stimuli. Temporal tuning in ON cone bipolar cells was diverse and occurred in a subtype-dependent manner. Subtypes 5s and 8 exhibited low-pass filtering property in response to a sinusoidal light stimulus, and responded with sustained fashion to step-light stimulation. Conversely, subtypes 5f, 6, 7, and XBC exhibited bandpass filtering property in response to sinusoidal light stimuli, and responded transiently to step-light stimuli. In particular, subtypes 7 and XBC were high-temporal tuning cells. We recorded responses in different ways to further examine the underlying mechanisms of temporal tuning. Current injection evoked low-pass filtering, whereas light responses in voltage-clamp mode produced bandpass filtering in all ON bipolar cells. These findings suggest that cone photoreceptor inputs shape bandpass filtering in bipolar cells, whereas intrinsic properties of bipolar cells shape low-pass filtering. Together, our results demonstrate that ON bipolar cells encode diverse temporal image signaling in a subtype-dependent manner to initiate temporal visual information-processing pathways. PMID:24966376

  17. Ovarian clear cell carcinoma with plasma cell-rich inflammatory stroma: Cytological Findings of a Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintaku, Masayuki; Dohi, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Nagai, Aya; Higuchi, Toshihiro

    2017-02-01

    We report a case of clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary with plasma cell-rich inflammatory stroma, a recently proposed subtype of CCC, and present the cytological findings. The patient was a 48-year-old woman, who was incidentally found to have a right ovarian tumor during the preoperative work-up for an early-stage adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Cytological examination of an imprint smear of the ovarian tumor and peritoneal washing revealed solid cell clusters of irregular, often dendritic shapes, which were intermingled with many inflammatory cells. "Raspberry bodies" were not found. Histopathological examination of the extirpated ovarian tumor showed the features of CCC with plasma cell-rich inflammatory stroma. This subtype of ovarian CCC poses cytological and histological diagnostic problems, and its differentiation from dysgerminoma is often difficult, because it mostly lacks the hyaline or mucoid stroma. Irregularly shaped clusters of large polyhedral cells, coarsely clumped nuclear chromatin, and plasma cell-rich inflammatory infiltrates suggest CCC, but the cytological differences between dysgerminoma and CCC are often subtle, and immunohistochemical examinations for cytokeratin 7 or epithelial membrane antigen may be necessary. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:128-132. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gichuhi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva is the end-stage of a spectrum of disease referred to as ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN. OSSN is a malignant disease of the eyes that can lead to loss of vision and, in severe cases, death. The main risk factors for both are exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation outdoors, HIV/AIDS, human papilloma virus and allergic conjunctivitis. The limbal epithelial cells appear to be the progenitors of this disease.

  19. Intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws: A clinicopathologic review. Part III: Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woolgar, J.A.; Triantafyllou, A.; Ferlito, A.; Devaney, K.O.; Lewis Jr., J.S.; Rinaldo, A.; Slootweg, P.J.; Barnes, L.

    2013-01-01

    This is the third part of a review of the clinicopathologic features of intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws (IOCJ). In parts 1 and 2, we discussed metastatic and salivary-type and odontogenic carcinomas, respectively. This part deals with primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma. Again, based on

  20. HER2-Positive Metaplastic Spindle Cell Carcinoma Associated with Synchronous Bilateral Apocrine Carcinoma of the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Kito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Apocrine carcinoma, which is strictly defined as over 90% of tumor cells showing apocrine differentiation, is a rare variant of breast cancer. Here we report an uncommon case in which apocrine carcinomas developed concurrently in both breasts; in addition, a sarcomatoid spindle cell lesion was coincident in the right breast. Both apocrine carcinomas were immunohistochemically negative for estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PgR, but diffusely positive for androgen receptor (AR, GCDFP-15, and HER2. The presence of intraductal components in bilateral carcinomas and the absence of lymph node metastasis suggested that they were more likely to be individual primary lesions rather than metastatic disease. The spindle cell lesion showed a relatively well-circumscribed nodule contiguous with the apocrine carcinoma. HER2 oncoprotein overexpression was observed not only in the apocrine carcinoma, but also in the spindle cell lesion. Since the spindle cell component was intimately admixed with apocrine carcinoma and had focal cytokeratin expression, we diagnosed it as metaplastic spindle cell carcinoma, which was originated from the apocrine carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient with synchronous bilateral apocrine carcinomas coinciding with metaplastic carcinoma.

  1. FDG-PET in the initial staging of squamous cell oesophageal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmann, I.; Schreckenberger, M.; Bartenstein, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Mainz (Germany); Hansen, T. [Inst. of Pathology, Univ. Hospital, Jena (Germany); Inst. of Pathology, Univ. Hospital, Mainz (Germany); Brochhausen, C. [Inst. of Pathology, Univ. Hospital, Mainz (Germany); Kneist, W.; Junginger, T. [Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital Mainz (Germany); Oberholzer, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital Mainz (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Squamous cell oesophageal carcinoma is the most common carcinoma of the oesophagus worldwide. The tumour stage as most important prognostic factor determines the clinical management. Aim of this study was to evaluate the value of FDG-PET 1. in imaging the primary tumour and 2. in N- and M-staging of squamous cell oesophogeal carcinoma. Patients, methods: in 20 patients with histological proven squamous cell carcinoma of the upper and middle oesophagus, FDG-PET was performed in standard technique prior to therapy. FDG uptake in the primary was determined by calculation of the SUVmax. NM-staging due to PET findings was performed as designated by the AJCC/UICC group classification and was compared with pathological and clinically based staging. Sensitivities, specificities and accuracies were calculated. Results: in 19 of 20 patients, primary squamous cell oesopohageal carcinoma was detected by FDG-PET findings with a maximum SUV of 12.5 (mean) {+-} 5.1 (median 11.5; range 4.8-23.8). One carcinoma in situ was missed. The sensitivity of FDG-PET in imaging the primary tumour was 96%. The sensitivities, specificities and accuracies were 20%, 100%, 58% for N-staging, and 60%, 86% and 93% for M-staging. PET findings caused changes of therapy in 5% (1 patient). Conclusions: FDG-PET was excellent in imaging the primary of squamous cell oesophageal carcinoma in stage T1-T4 and was efficient in M-staging. The low sensitivity in N-staging is of inferior clinical importance. The efficacy of FDG-PET seems to be not significantly be influenced by the histological subtype of oesophageal carcinoma. (orig.)

  2. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma: An Unusual Variant of a Common Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tiffany Y; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-05-01

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma is a distinct but rare subtype of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). It presents as a red macule or papule; therefore, in most cases, it may easily be mistaken for a benign vascular lesion, such as a telangiectasia or angioma. A red dot BCC in an older woman is described. Clinical and histological differences between red dot BCCs and telangiectasias are described. A 72-year-old woman initially presented with a painless red macule on her nose. Biopsy of the lesion established the diagnosis of a red dot BCC. Pubmed was searched for the following terms: angioma, basal cell carcinoma, dermoscope, diascopy, red dot, non-melanoma skin cancer, telangiectasia, and vascular. The papers were reviewed for cases of red dot basal cell carcinoma. Clinical and histological characteristics of red dot basal cell carcinoma and telangiectasias were compared. Red dot BCC is an extremely rare variant of BCC that may be confused with benign vascular lesions. Although BCCs rarely metastasize and are associated with low mortality, they have the potential to become locally invasive and destructive if left untreated. Thus, a high index of suspicion for red dot BCC is necessary. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(5):645-647.

  3. Cancer of the esophagus; histopathological sub-types in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cause of cancer death worldwide with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma carcinoma as the main histopathological subtypes. Esophageal cancer is known for its marked variation by geographic region, ethnicity, and gender. The histopathological ...

  4. Stem cell-like gene expression in ovarian cancer predicts type II subtype and prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Schwede

    Full Text Available Although ovarian cancer is often initially chemotherapy-sensitive, the vast majority of tumors eventually relapse and patients die of increasingly aggressive disease. Cancer stem cells are believed to have properties that allow them to survive therapy and may drive recurrent tumor growth. Cancer stem cells or cancer-initiating cells are a rare cell population and difficult to isolate experimentally. Genes that are expressed by stem cells may characterize a subset of less differentiated tumors and aid in prognostic classification of ovarian cancer. The purpose of this study was the genomic identification and characterization of a subtype of ovarian cancer that has stem cell-like gene expression. Using human and mouse gene signatures of embryonic, adult, or cancer stem cells, we performed an unsupervised bipartition class discovery on expression profiles from 145 serous ovarian tumors to identify a stem-like and more differentiated subgroup. Subtypes were reproducible and were further characterized in four independent, heterogeneous ovarian cancer datasets. We identified a stem-like subtype characterized by a 51-gene signature, which is significantly enriched in tumors with properties of Type II ovarian cancer; high grade, serous tumors, and poor survival. Conversely, the differentiated tumors share properties with Type I, including lower grade and mixed histological subtypes. The stem cell-like signature was prognostic within high-stage serous ovarian cancer, classifying a small subset of high-stage tumors with better prognosis, in the differentiated subtype. In multivariate models that adjusted for common clinical factors (including grade, stage, age, the subtype classification was still a significant predictor of relapse. The prognostic stem-like gene signature yields new insights into prognostic differences in ovarian cancer, provides a genomic context for defining Type I/II subtypes, and potential gene targets which following further

  5. Functional significance of CD105-positive cells in papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matak, Damian; Brodaczewska, Klaudia K; Szczylik, Cezary; Koch, Irena; Myszczyszyn, Adam; Lipiec, Monika; Lewicki, Slawomir; Szymanski, Lukasz; Zdanowski, Robert; Czarnecka, Anna M

    2017-01-05

    CD105 was postulated as a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) stem cell marker, and CD133 as a putative RCC progenitor. Hypoxia, a natural microenvironment that prevails in tumors, was also incorporated into the study, especially in terms of the promotion of hypothetical stem-like cell properties. Within this study, we verify the existence of CD105+ and CD133+ populations in selected papillary subtype RCC (pRCC) cell lines. Both populations were analyzed for correlation with stem-like cell properties, such as stemness gene expression, and sphere and colony formation. For the preliminary analysis, several RCC cell lines were chosen (786-O, SMKT-R2, Caki-2, 796-P, ACHN, RCC6) and the control was human kidney cancer stem cells (HKCSC) and renal cells of embryonic origin (ASE-5063). Four cell lines were chosen for further investigation: Caki-2 (one of the highest numbers of CD105+ cells; primary origin), ACHN (a low number of CD105+ cells; metastatic origin), HKCSC (putative positive control), and ASE-5063 (additional control). In 769-P and RCC6, we could not detect a CD105+ population. Hypoxia variously affects pRCC cell growth, and mainly diminishes the stem-like properties of cells. Furthermore, we could not observe the correlation of CD105 and/or CD133 expression with the enhancement of stem-like properties. Based on this analysis, CD105/CD133 cannot be validated as cancer stem cell markers of pRCC cell lines.

  6. Cytologic and histopathologic diagnosis in bronchopulmonary squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drăgan, Ana Maria; Roşca, Elena; Muţiu, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The classification of squamous cell carcinomas, based on cellular differentiation features, includes the poorly differentiated epidermoid carcinomas and well-differentiated epidermoid carcinomas. The histogenetic cytologic data clarify conventional cytodiagnosis of poorly differentiated epidermoid carcinomas and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, and also eliminate other categories such as large cell carcinoma and small cell anaplastic carcinoma. We conducted a study for evaluating the degree of differentiation of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma in 620 patients - 551 men (88.8%) and 69 women (11.1%) who had lung cancer confirmed by cytologic, histologic and bronchoscopic examination. The cytologic examination was performed on slides with samples obtained by bronchial brushing and prints of bronchial biopsy stained with the Giemsa method. Histopathologic examination was performed on samples obtained by bronchial biopsy and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. At cytologic examination we found: poorly differentiated epidermiod carcinomas in 66 cases (33.8%), moderately differentiated epidermoid carcinomas in 22 cases (11.2%) and well differentiated epidermoid carcinomas in 107 cases (54.8%). Histological examination revealed: poorly differentiated epidermoid carcinomas in 133 cases (45.7%), moderately differentiated epidermoid carcinomas in 32 cases (10.9%), and well differentiated epidermoid carcinomas in 126 cases (43.2%). Our results suggested the importance of the association between cytologic and histopatologic examinations in the diagnosis of lung cancer.

  7. Whole-lesion histogram analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient: Evaluation of the correlation with subtypes of mucinous breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuan; Kong, Qing-Cong; Zhu, Ye-Qing; Liu, Zhen-Zhen; Peng, Ling-Rong; Tang, Wen-Jie; Yang, Rui-Meng; Xie, Jia-Jun; Liu, Chun-Ling

    2017-06-22

    To evaluate the utility of the whole-lesion histogram apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for characterizing the heterogeneity of mucinous breast carcinoma (MBC) and to determine which ADC metrics may help to best differentiate subtypes of MBC. This retrospective study involved 52 MBC patients, including 37 pure MBC (PMBC) and 15 mixed MBC (MMBC). The PMBC patients were subtyped into PMBC-A (20 cases) and PMBC-B (17 cases) groups. All patients underwent preoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 1.5T and the whole-lesion ADC assessments were generated. Histogram-derived ADC parameters were compared between PMBC vs. MMBC and PMBC-A vs. PMBC-B, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine optimal histogram parameters for differentiating these groups. The PMBC group exhibited significantly higher ADC values for the mean (P = 0.004), 25(th) (P = 0.004), 50(th) (P = 0.004), 75(th) (P = 0.006), and 90(th) percentiles (P = 0.013) and skewness (P = 0.021) than did the MMBC group. The 25(th) percentile of ADC values achieved the highest area under the curve (AUC) (0.792), with a cutoff value of 1.345 × 10(-3) mm(2) /s, in distinguishing PMBC and MMBC. The PMBC-A group showed significantly higher ADC values for the mean (P = 0.049), 25(th) (P = 0.015), and 50(th) (P = 0.026) percentiles and skewness (P = 0.004) than did the PMBC-B group. The 25(th) percentile of the ADC cutoff value (1.476 × 10(-3) mm(2) /s) demonstrated the best AUC (0.837) among the ADC values for distinguishing PMBC-A and PMBC-B. Whole-lesion ADC histogram analysis enables comprehensive evaluation of an MBC in its entirety and differentiating subtypes of MBC. Thus, it may be a helpful and supportive tool for conventional MRI. 4 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. New agents in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Raetasha; Devine, Ryan; Sein, Nancy; George, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Prior to 2005, the treatment options for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) were limited. There has been a proliferation of agents since the introduction of sorafenib, sunitinib, and becavicumab for clinical use in advanced renal cell carcinoma. Recently, four new agents have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in mRCC. These agents come from two unique targeted pathways for RCC, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. This review examines the investigational evolution, phases of development, adverse event profiles, and future directions of pazopanib, axitinib, everolimus, and temsirolimus as well as new novel agents being explored in clinical trials for these targeted pathways.

  9. Radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Zargari, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of tinea capitis using radiotherapy was introduced at the beginning of the twentieth century. A variety of cancers including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are seen years after this treatment. Objective: We sought to determine the clinical characteristics of BCCs among irradiated patients. Methods: The clinical records of all patients with BCC in a clinic in north of Iran were reviewed. Results: Of the 58 cases of BCC, 29 had positive history for radiotherapy in their ch...

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambara, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Takafumi; Yamada, Rie; Nagatani, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Hiroshi [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Sugiyama, Asami

    1997-12-31

    We report two cases with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in situ caused by irradiation to hand eczemas, resistant to any topical therapies. Both of our cases clinically show palmer sclerosis and flexor restriction of the fingers, compatible to chronic radiation dermatitis. Although SCC arising in chronic radiation dermatitis is usually developed ten to twenty years after irradiation, in our cases SCC were found more than forty years after irradiation. (author)

  11. Basal cell carcinoma of the perineum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Adriane Ann; Dabade, Tushar; Dandekar, Monisha; Rogers, Gary; Rosmarin, David

    2014-08-17

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. Most BCCs are found on areas of UV-damaged skin, The study of BCCs of sun-protected regions, however, suggests a more complex pathogenesis. We present a case of BCC of the perineum in a man with no previous history of skin cancer. This is the first report of BCC in this region and one of a small body of cases arising on or near the genital and perianal regions.

  12. Papillocystic Variant of Acinar Cell Pancreatic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Radhi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acinar cell pancreatic carcinoma is a rare solid malignant neoplasm. Recent review of the literature showed occasional cases with papillary or papillocystic growth patterns, ranging from 2 to 5 cm in diameter. We report a large 10 cm pancreatic tumor with papillocystic pathology features involving the pancreatic head. The growth pattern of these tumors could be mistaken for intraductal papillary mucinous tumors or other pancreatic cystic neoplasms.

  13. CT features of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eelkema, E.A.; Stephens, D.H.; Ward, E.M.; Sheedy, P.F. II

    1984-11-01

    To determine the computed tomographic (CT) characteristics of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas, the CT scans of 27 patients with that disease were reviewed. The pancreatic tumor was identified as a mass in 26 patients (96%) Of the 25 tumors evaluated with contrast enhancement, 20 became partially diffusely hyperdense relative to nearby normal pancreatic tissue. Hepatic metastases were identified in 15 patients (56%), regional lymphadenopathy in 10 (37%), atrophy of the gland proximal to the tumor in six (22%), dilatation of the biliary ducts in five (19%), and dilatation of the pancreatic duct in four (15%). The CT appearances of the nonfunctioning islet cell tumors were compared with those of 100 ordinary (ductal) pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Although the two types of tumors were sometimes indistinguishable, features found to be more characteristic of islet cell carcinoma included a pancreatic mass of unusually large size, calcification within the tumor, and contrast enhancement of either the primary tumor or hepatic metastases. Involvement of the celiac axis or proximal superior mesenteric artery was limited to ductal carcinoma.

  14. Intradural squamous cell carcinoma in the sacrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujisawa Kozo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurs in patients with cancer at the rate of approximately 5%; it develops particularly in patients with breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, leukemia, or malignant lymphoma. We describe a rare case of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in which spinal intradural squamous cell carcinoma with no lesions in the cerebral meninges and leptomeninx, was the primary lesion. Methods A 64-year-old man complained of sacral pain. Although the patient was treated with analgesics, epidural block and nerve root block, sacral pain persisted. Since acute urinary retention occurred, he was operated on. The patient was diagnosed as having an intradural squamous cell carcinoma of unknown origin. Results Since the patient presented with a slightly decreased level of consciousness 2 months after surgery, he was subjected to MRI scanning of the brain and spinal cord, which revealed disseminated lesions in the medulla oblongata. The patient died of pneumonia and sepsis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 5 months after surgery. Conclusion We report the first case of a patient with intradural squamous cell carcinoma with unknown origin that developed independently in the sacrum.

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of Basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firnhaber, Jonathon M

    2012-07-15

    Family physicians are regularly faced with identifying, treating, and counseling patients with skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer, which encompasses basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma, is the most common cancer in the United States. Ultraviolet B exposure is a significant factor in the development of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. The use of tanning beds is associated with a 1.5-fold increase in the risk of basal cell carcinoma and a 2.5-fold increase in the risk of squamous cell carcinoma. Routine screening for skin cancer is controversial. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force cites insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine whole-body skin examination to screen for skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma most commonly appears as a pearly white, dome-shaped papule with prominent telangiectatic surface vessels. Squamous cell carcinoma most commonly appears as a firm, smooth, or hyperkeratotic papule or plaque, often with central ulceration. Initial tissue sampling for diagnosis involves a shave technique if the lesion is raised, or a 2- to 4-mm punch biopsy of the most abnormal-appearing area of skin. Mohs micrographic surgery has the lowest recurrence rate among treatments, but is best considered for large, high-risk tumors. Smaller, lower-risk tumors may be treated with surgical excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, or cryotherapy. Topical imiquimod and fluorouracil are also potential, but less supported, treatments. Although there are no clear guidelines for follow-up after an index nonmelanoma skin cancer, monitoring for recurrence is prudent because the risk of subsequent skin cancer is 35 percent at three years and 50 percent at five years.

  16. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare disease in which cancer cells form in Merkel cells in the skin and starts most often in areas of skin exposed to the sun. Find out about risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, staging, and treatment for Merkel cell carcinoma.

  17. Melanopsin expressing human retinal ganglion cells: Subtypes, distribution, and intraretinal connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Jens; Christiansen, Anders Tolstrup; Heegaard, Steffen; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2017-06-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin belong to a heterogenic population of RGCs which regulate the circadian clock, masking behavior, melatonin suppression, the pupillary light reflex, and sleep/wake cycles. The different functions seem to be associated to different subtypes of melanopsin cells. In rodents, subtype classification has associated subtypes to function. In primate and human retina such classification has so far, not been applied. In the present study using antibodies against N- and C-terminal parts of human melanopsin, confocal microscopy and 3D reconstruction of melanopsin immunoreactive (-ir) RGCs, we applied the criteria used in mouse on human melanopsin-ir RGCs. We identified M1, displaced M1, M2, and M4 cells. We found two other subtypes of melanopsin-ir RGCs, which were named "gigantic M1 (GM1)" and "gigantic displaced M1 (GDM1)." Few M3 cells and no M5 subtypes were labeled. Total cell counts from one male and one female retina revealed that the human retina contains 7283 ± 237 melanopsin-ir (0.63-0.75% of the total number of RGCs). The melanopsin subtypes were unevenly distributed. Most significant was the highest density of M4 cells in the nasal retina. We identified input to the melanopsin-ir RGCs from AII amacrine cells and directly from rod bipolar cells via ribbon synapses in the innermost ON layer of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and from dopaminergic amacrine cells and GABAergic processes in the outermost OFF layer of the IPL. The study characterizes a heterogenic population of human melanopsin-ir RGCs, which most likely are involved in different functions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Human Papillomavirus in Oral Leukoplakia, Verrucous Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Normal Mucous Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Ghazi, Narges; Meshkat, Zahra; Mohtasham, Nooshin

    2015-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common oral malignancy, and verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a less invasive type of SCC. Leukoplakia (LP) is the most frequent premalignant lesion in the oral cavity. The human papillomavirus (HPV) has been recognized as one of the etiologic factors of these conditions. The association of anogenital and cervical cancers with HPV particularly its high-risk subtypes (HPV HR) has been demonstrated. The purpose of our study was to investigate the hypothetical association between HPV and the mentioned oral cavity lesions. One hundred and seventy-three samples (114 SCCs, 21 VCs, 20 LPs) and 18 normal mucosa samples (as a control group) were retrieved from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology of Mashhad Dental School, Iran. The association of HPV genotypes in LP, VC, and SCC was compared to normal oral mucosa using the polymerase chain reaction. The results showed the absence of HPV in normal mucosa and LP lesions. In three samples of VC (14.3%), we observed the presence of HPV HR (types 16 and 18). All VCs were present in the mandibular ridge of females aged over 65 years old. No statistically significant correlation between HPV and VC was observed (p=0.230). Additionally, 15 (13.1%) SCCs showed HPV positivity, but this was not significant (p=0.830). The prevalence of SCC was higher on the tongue with the dominant presence of less carcinogenic species of HPV (types 6 and 11). A statistically significant association was not observed between HPV and SCC or VC in the oral cavity. More studies are necessary to better understand the relationship between HPV and malignant/premalignant oral cavity lesions.

  19. Human Papillomavirus in Oral Leukoplakia, Verrucous Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Normal Mucous Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Saghravanian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the most common oral malignancy, and verrucous carcinoma (VC is a less invasive type of SCC. Leukoplakia (LP is the most frequent premalignant lesion in the oral cavity. The human papillomavirus (HPV has been recognized as one of the etiologic factors of these conditions. The association of anogenital and cervical cancers with HPV particularly its high-risk subtypes (HPV HR has been demonstrated. The purpose of our study was to investigate the hypothetical association between HPV and the mentioned oral cavity lesions.  Methods: One hundred and seventy-three samples (114 SCCs, 21 VCs, 20 LPs and 18 normal mucosa samples (as a control group were retrieved from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology of Mashhad Dental School, Iran. The association of HPV genotypes in LP, VC, and SCC was compared to normal oral mucosa using the polymerase chain reaction.  Results: The results showed the absence of HPV in normal mucosa and LP lesions. In three samples of VC (14.3%, we observed the presence of HPV HR (types 16 and 18. All VCs were present in the mandibular ridge of females aged over 65 years old. No statistically significant correlation between HPV and VC was observed (p=0.230. Additionally, 15 (13.1% SCCs showed HPV positivity, but this was not significant (p=0.830. The prevalence of SCC was higher on the tongue with the dominant presence of less carcinogenic species of HPV (types 6 and 11. A statistically significant association was not observed between HPV and SCC or VC in the oral cavity.  Conclusions: More studies are necessary to better understand the relationship between HPV and malignant/premalignant oral cavity lesions.

  20. The role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Gudiseva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The mast cells are initial effective lineage in both humoral and adaptive immunity. They are ubiquitous in skin, mucosa, and in function. They contain biologically essential and dynamic mediators in healthy and harmful conditions of tissue. Mast cell malfunctioning could be attributed to various chronic allergic diseases. Considerately, emerging evidence of mast cell involvement in various cancers shows them to have both positive and negative roles in tumour growth. It mostly indulges in tumour progression and metastasis via angiogenesis, extracellular matrix degradation, and mitogenic activity in the tumour microenvironment. The current paper reviewed research papers on mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma through the PubMed database from 1980 to the present date. The present paper is an attempt to summarise the research reports on the role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further to this note, this paper also outlines the role of mast cells in normal physiological processes and tumour biology.

  1. Expression of β-Adrenoceptor Subtypes in Urothelium, Interstitial Cells and Detrusor of the Human Urinary Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Hideya; Matsumoto, Rikiya; Shinbo, Hitoshi; Kurita, Yutaka; Iwashita, Toshihide; Ozono, Seiichiro

    2013-09-01

    We examined whether interstitial cells (ICs) of the human urinary bladder expressed β-adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes, and semiquantitatively compared the staining intensity among urothelium, ICs and detrusor muscles. Paraffin sections of the human urinary bladder were obtained from histologically normal areas of formalin-fixed specimens removed for bladder carcinoma. Double-labeling immunohistochemical methods using antibodies against each β-AR subtype and vimentin were performed to identify ICs of the human urinary bladder. The staining intensity of β-ARs was semiquantitatively compared among urothelium, ICs and detrusor muscles. Further, gender-related difference or age-related correlation in the staining intensity of β-ARs was compared in the same cell types. The expression of β1 -, β2 -, and β3 -AR was observed in vimentin-positive ICs localized in suburothelium, between detrusor muscle bundles, and within these bundles of the human urinary bladder. The rank order of the staining intensity was urothelium > ICs = detrusor muscles in β1 -AR, urothelium > ICs > detrusor muscles in β2 -AR, whereas its order was ICs = detrusor muscles > urothelium in β3 -AR. Except for urothelial β1 -AR, there was no gender-related difference in the signal intensity of β-ARs in the urothelium, ICs or detrusor muscles. Age negatively correlated with the signal intensity of all β-AR subtypes. β-ARs were expressed in vimentin-positive ICs of the human urinary bladder. As for β2 - and β3 -AR, there was no gender-related difference or age-related correlation in urothelium, ICs and detrusor muscles. In the human urinary bladder, β-ARs expressed in ICs may play a role in bladder physiology. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Glycogen-Rich Clear Cell Squamous Cell Carcinoma Originating in the Oral Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Zaid H; Bugshan, Amr; Lubek, Joshua E; Papadimitriou, John C; Basile, John R; Younis, Rania H

    2017-12-01

    Clear cell squamous cell carcinoma (CCSCC) is a rare histological subtype of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that was originally described in the skin. Here, we report a case of a 66-year-old female patient who presented with a fungating ulcerative mass of the left lateral tongue extending anteriorly to the floor of the mouth, and posteriorly to the left retromolar fossa and the oropharynx. The patient had a history of SCC of the left posterior tongue that was treated with partial glossectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. Representative biopsies were obtained from the floor of the mouth, tongue and retromolar fossa. The examined biopsies showed various degrees of dysplastic surface epithelium with transition into infiltrating epithelial tumor nests and cords with clear cytoplasm and malignant cellular features. Pancytokeratin, CK5/6, and p63 were all diffusely positive. S-100, Calponin, and smooth muscle actin (SMA) were negative. PAS stain was diffusely positive and diastase labile in the tumor clear cells. Sparse areas of mucicarmine positivity were noted. Based on these findings a final diagnosis of a glycogen-rich CCSCC was given. This case represents a very rare histological variant of oral SCC, which is significant for the histological differential diagnosis of clear cell tumors of the oral cavity.

  3. Nivolumab, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-20

    Name Human Papillomavirus Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  4. The Human Glioblastoma Cell Culture Resource: Validated Cell Models Representing All Molecular Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most frequent and malignant form of primary brain tumor. GBM is essentially incurable and its resistance to therapy is attributed to a subpopulation of cells called glioma stem cells (GSCs. To meet the present shortage of relevant GBM cell (GC lines we developed a library of annotated and validated cell lines derived from surgical samples of GBM patients, maintained under conditions to preserve GSC characteristics. This collection, which we call the Human Glioblastoma Cell Culture (HGCC resource, consists of a biobank of 48 GC lines and an associated database containing high-resolution molecular data. We demonstrate that the HGCC lines are tumorigenic, harbor genomic lesions characteristic of GBMs, and represent all four transcriptional subtypes. The HGCC panel provides an open resource for in vitro and in vivo modeling of a large part of GBM diversity useful to both basic and translational GBM research.

  5. Feasibility of sentinel node detection in renal cell carcinoma: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bex, Axel [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Cancer Institute, Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vermeeren, Lenka; Olmos, Renato A.V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Windt, Geraldine de; Horenblas, Simon [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Prevoo, Warner [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-06-15

    Lymphatic drainage from renal cell carcinoma is unpredictable and the therapeutic benefit and extent of lymph node dissection are controversial. We evaluated the feasibility of intratumoural injection of a radiolabelled tracer to image and sample draining lymph nodes in clinically non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Eight patients with cT1-2 cN0 cM0 (<6 cm) renal cell carcinoma prospectively received percutaneous intratumoural injections of {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid under ultrasound guidance (0.4 ml, 225 MBq at one to four intratumoural locations depending on tumour size). Lymphoscintigraphy was performed 20 min, 2 h and 4 h after injection. After the delayed images a hybrid SPECT/CT was performed. SPECT was fused with CT to determine the anatomical localization of the sentinel node. Surgery with sampling was performed the following day using a gamma probe and a portable mini gamma camera. Eight patients, seven with right-sided renal cell carcinoma, were included with a mean age of 55 years (range: 45-77). The mean tumour size was 4 cm (range: 3.5-6 cm). Six patients had sentinel nodes on scintigraphy (two retrocaval, four interaortocaval, including one hilar) with one extraretroperitoneal location along the internal mammary chain. All nodes could be mapped and sampled. In two patients no drainage was visualized. Renal cell carcinomas were of clear cell subtype with no lymph node metastases. Sentinel node identification using preoperative and intraoperative imaging to locate and sample the sentinel node at surgery in renal cell carcinoma is feasible. Sentinel node biopsy may clarify the pattern of lymphatic drainage and extent of lymphatic spread which may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications. (orig.)

  6. FAP Associated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Peculiar Subtype of Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cetta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Carcinoma (FNMTC makes up to 5–10% of all thyroid cancers, also including those FNMTC occurring as a minor component of familial cancer syndromes, such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP. We give evidence that this extracolonic manifestation of FAP is determined by the same germline mutation of the APC gene responsible for colonic polyps and cancer but also shows some unusual features (F : M ratio = 80 : 1, absence of LOH for APC in the thyroid tumoral tissue, and indolent biological behaviour, despite frequent multicentricity and lymph nodal involvement, suggesting that the APC gene confers only a generic susceptibility to thyroid cancer, but perhaps other factors, namely, modifier genes, sex-related factors, or environmental factors, are also required for its phenotypic expression. This great variability is against the possibility of classifying all FNMTC as a single entity, not only with a unique or prevalent causative genetic factor, but also with a unique or common biological behavior and a commonly dismal prognosis. A new paradigm is also suggested that could be useful (1 for a proper classification of FAP associated PTC within the larger group of FNMTC and (2 for making inferences to sporadic carcinogenesis, based on the lesson from FAP.

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  8. Keratinising Squamous cell carcinoma- A rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akheel Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT is still a dilemma in the field of medical science because of its biological behavior and transformation of this benign odontogenic tumor to a carcinomatous type, which is called as odontogenic carcinoma. We are presenting here a case of squamous cell carcinoma occurring in recurrent KCOT of temporal region. The rarity of this article is the location of the lesion which is rarest at temporal region. Malignant transformation of these KCOT′s has been reported only in 15 cases in literature, the majority occurring in jaws but no case reported for lesion of temporal region. The pathogenesis of the tumor, the biologic progression, overall clinical, and histopathological features of this rare malignancy, and its management is reported and discussed.

  9. Transitional cell carcinoma express vitamin D receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Andersen, C B

    1997-01-01

    Recently, vitamin D analogues have shown antineoplastic effect in several diseases. Vitamin D analogues exert its effect by interacting with the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Studies of VDR in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) have not been reported. The purpose of the present study was therefore...... to examine whether human bladder tumor cells express VDR. Tumor biopsies were obtained from 26 patients with TCC. Expression of VDR was examined by immunohistochemical experiments. All tumors expressed VDR. Biopsies from advanced disease contained more VDR positive cells than low stage disease (p ....05). Similarly, also tumor grade appeared to be related to the number of cells expressing the receptor. Normal urothlium also expressed VDR but only with low intensity. Our study shows that TCC cells possess the VDR receptor which may make them capable to respond to stimulation with vitamin D, but functional...

  10. Targeted Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, R; Rawal, S

    2015-01-01

    Our study aims to evaluate the use of targeted therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma Methods: This is a prospective study done over three years from December 2010 to December, 2013.Out of Forty seven patients of metastatic renal cell carcinoma 8(neo-adjuvant cases) were excluded and 39 were included in this study. All patients received Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib therapy (50 mg OD, 4/2 scheme). All 39 patients underwent radical nephrectomy prior to sunitinib therapy. Patients were followed up every cycle for their clinical symptoms following sunitinib therapy and every 3 months with chest X-ray, ultra-sonography and bone scan. CT scan was done if needed. A RECIST criterion was used to evaluate the complete, partial and no tumor response. The median survival was 28.5 months (CI 9.253-47.7) and progression free survival (PFS) was 9.16 months(CI 6.08-12.23).According to RECIST, stable disease was found in 6 patients till date and a complete response in two patients. Clear cell histology was found in 30(76.9%) patients, papillary variety in 6(15.39%) patients, chromophobe type was seen in one patient and rest had mixed sarcomatoid papillary and rhabdoid clear cell variety. Twenty four patients (61.5%) had multiple metastases. Most frequent metastasis was seen in lungs in 14 patients (36%) and bone in 12 patients (31%).Metastases were also seen in draining lymph nodes, adrenals, omentum,skin, liver, and brain. In our cohort, use of sunitinib showed similar outcome to previously published articles. Our study supports the use of sunitinib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

  11. Multi-Phenotypic subtyping of circulating tumor cells using sequential fluorescent quenching and restaining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Daniel L.; Alpaugh, R. Katherine; Tsai, Susan; Tang, Cha-Mei; Stefansson, Steingrimur

    2016-09-01

    In tissue biopsies formalin fixed paraffin embedded cancer blocks are micro-sectioned producing multiple semi-identical specimens which are analyzed and subtyped proteomically, and genomically, with numerous biomarkers. In blood based biopsies (BBBs), blood is purified for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and clinical utility is typically limited to cell enumeration, as only 2-3 positive fluorescent markers and 1 negative marker can be used. As such, increasing the number of subtyping biomarkers on each individual CTC could dramatically enhance the clinical utility of BBBs, allowing in depth interrogation of clinically relevant CTCs. We describe a simple and inexpensive method for quenching the specific fluors of fluorescently stained CTCs followed by sequential restaining with additional biomarkers. As proof of principle a CTC panel, immunosuppression panel and stem cell panel were used to sequentially subtype individual fluorescently stained patient CTCs, suggesting a simple and universal technique to analyze multiple clinically applicable immunomarkers from BBBs.

  12. Spindle cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D DeLacure

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC is a unique variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. SpCC confined to the nasal cavity is extremely rare, with only one case having been previously reported. We present a case report of nasal cavity SpCC and review the literature on this rare entity. A 29-year-old male presented with intermittent epistaxis from the left nasal cavity. On physical examination, the patient had an ulcerated mass in the left nasal vestibule and a biopsy showed a proliferation of spindle and epitheliod cells. The patient underwent wide local excision of the mass via a lateral alotomy approach and reconstruction with a composite conchal bowl skin and cartilage graft. Histologically, the mass had dyplastic squamous epithelium and spindle-shaped cells admixed with epitheliod cells. Immunohistochemistry was only positive for pancytokeratin AE1/AE3 and vimentin. Six months after surgery, the patient continues to have no evidence of disease. On literature review, only one previous case of SpCC confined to the nasal cavity was identified. We present a rare case of nasal cavity SpCC. No definite treatment protocol exists for this unique entity, but we believe that this tumor should primarily be treated with aggressive, wide local excision. Adjuvant radiation and/or chemotherapy have also been used anecdotally.

  13. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [A Case Report of Splenic Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shunsuke; Haba, Tomomi; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Koike, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    A 64-year-old female patient underwent radical left nephrectomy in 2005 after being diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma. The pathological diagnosis was pT2b pN0 M0 clear cell carcinoma. Three years postoperatively, metastatic recurrence in the para-aortic lymph node was noted, and the patient underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in 2008. The pathological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma (a combination of clear cell carcinoma and type 2 papillary cell carcinoma). Five years later, she exhibited splenic metastasis on computed tomography, but no other distant metastases were observed. She underwent splenectomy in 2013, and the pathological diagnosis was splenic metastasis of renal cell carcinoma (type 2 papillary cell carcinoma). Three months after the splenectomy, she developed multiple bone metastases but refused to undergo treatment with molecularly targeted drugs ; hence, she was transferred to palliative care services. Fourteen months after the splenectomy, she died of cancer. Most metastatic splenic tumors occur as part of multiple organ metastases in the terminal stage of renal cell carcinoma. If splenic metastasis of renal cell carcinoma is observed, further imaging studies should be performed, and splenectomy should only be considered if a definitive diagnosis of sporadic splenic metastasis is made.

  15. Role of surgery in advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Bhat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC is a malignant disease without curative treatment. These patients are usually symptomatic and desperate for effective palliative treatment. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy are not effective in these patients. A multimodal approach consisting of cytoreductive nephrectomy, systemic therapy (which includes cytokines or targeted molecules, and metastasectomy have been shown to be useful in prolonging the survival and improving the quality of life in a select group of patients with metastatic renal cancer. Patients with oligometastatic disease, good performance status, and delayed presentation of the secondaries have better results following this integrated approach. Although there is some controversy regarding the order in which nephrectomy and systemic therapy are to be instituted, well-controlled studies like the South West Oncology Group and European organization research and treatment of cancer have shown that upfront nephrectomy gives better survival compared to neoadjuvant systemic therapy followed by nephrectomy. This order is the standard presently. Of late, with better understanding of the genetic basis and the biology of the various subtypes of renal cell carcinoma, targeted molecular therapies have emerged as an equally effective alternative therapy to cytokines. Recent reports have proven that targeted therapy is more effective with comparable side effects. Metastasectomy in a subgroup of patients improves survival and quality of life specifically in those with lung secondaries and painful bone metastases.

  16. Coffee consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Samuel O; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Diehl, Nancy D; Serie, Daniel J; Custer, Kaitlynn M; Arnold, Michelle L; Wu, Kevin J; Cheville, John C; Thiel, David D; Leibovich, Bradley C; Parker, Alexander S

    2017-08-01

    Studies have suggested an inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, data regarding decaffeinated coffee are limited. We conducted a case-control study of 669 incident RCC cases and 1,001 frequency-matched controls. Participants completed identical risk factor questionnaires that solicited information about usual coffee consumption habits. The study participants were categorized as non-coffee, caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee drinkers. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression, adjusting for multiple risk factors for RCC. Compared with no coffee consumption, we found an inverse association between caffeinated coffee consumption and RCC risk (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.99), whereas we observed a trend toward increased risk of RCC for consumption of decaffeinated coffee (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.98-2.19). Decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated also with increased risk of the clear cell RCC (ccRCC) subtype, particularly the aggressive form of ccRCC (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.01-3.22). Consumption of caffeinated coffee is associated with reduced risk of RCC, while decaffeinated coffee consumption is associated with an increase in risk of aggressive ccRCC. Further inquiry is warranted in large prospective studies and should include assessment of dose-response associations.

  17. Identification and Characterization of Renal Cell Carcinoma Gene Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis S. Liou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Microarray gene expression profiling has been used to distinguish histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, and consequently to identify specific tumor markers. The analytical procedures currently in use find sets of genes whose average differential expression across the two categories differ significantly. In general each of the markers thus identifi ed does not distinguish tumor from normal with 100% accuracy, although the group as a whole might be able to do so. For the purpose of developing a widely used economically viable diagnostic signature, however, large groups of genes are not likely to be useful. Here we use two different methods, one a support vector machine variant, and the other an exhaustive search, to reanalyze data previously generated in our Lab (Lenburg et al. 2003. We identify 158 genes, each having an expression level that is higher (lower in every tumor sample than in any normal sample, and each having a minimum differential expression across the two categorie at a signifi cance of 0.01. The set is highly enriched in cancer related genes (p = 1.6 × 10 – 12, containing 43 genes previously associated with either RCC or other types of cancer. Many of the biomarkers appear to be associated with the central alterations known to be required for cancer transformation. These include the oncogenes JAZF1, AXL, ABL2; tumor suppressors RASD1, PTPRO, TFAP2A, CDKN1C; and genes involved in proteolysis or cell-adhesion such as WASF2, and PAPPA.

  18. Carcinoma basocelular em localizações incomuns Basal cell carcinoma in unusual locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Beatriz Mautari Niwa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam cinco pacientes que desenvolveram carcinomas basocelulares em locais incomuns de ocorrência desse tumor. O objetivo é relatar a raridade topográfica da neoplasia cutânea e discutir o conceito de localização incomum para o carcinoma basocelular.The authors present five patients who develop basal cell carcinomas in sites this tumor rarely occurs. The aim is to report the rare location of this frequent cutaneous malignancy and to briefly discuss the concept of unusual location of basal cell carcinoma.

  19. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  20. Surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma: an algorithm based on the literature*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Flávio Barbosa; Ferron, Camila; Cardoso, Gilberto Perez

    2015-01-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma can be effectively managed through surgical excision, the most suitable surgical margins have not yet been fully determined. Furthermore, micrographic surgery is not readily available in many places around the world. A review of the literature regarding the surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma was conducted in order to develop an algorithm for the surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma that could help the choice of surgical technique and safety margins, considering the major factors that affect cure rates. Through this review, it was found that surgical margins of 4mm seem to be suitable for small, primary, well-defined basal cell carcinomas, although some good results can be achieved with smaller margins and the use of margin control surgical techniques. For treatment of high-risk and recurrent tumors, margins of 5-6 mm or margin control of the surgical excision is required. Previous treatment, histological subtype, site and size of the lesion should be considered in surgical planning because these factors have been proven to affect cure rates. Thus, considering these factors, the algorithm can be a useful tool, especially for places where micrographic surgery is not widely available. PMID:26131869

  1. Surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma: an algorithm based on the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Flávio Barbosa; Ferron, Camila; Cardoso, Gilberto Perez

    2015-01-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma can be effectively managed through surgical excision, the most suitable surgical margins have not yet been fully determined. Furthermore, micrographic surgery is not readily available in many places around the world. A review of the literature regarding the surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma was conducted in order to develop an algorithm for the surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma that could help the choice of surgical technique and safety margins, considering the major factors that affect cure rates. Through this review, it was found that surgical margins of 4mm seem to be suitable for small, primary, well-defined basal cell carcinomas, although some good results can be achieved with smaller margins and the use of margin control surgical techniques. For treatment of high-risk and recurrent tumors, margins of 5-6 mm or margin control of the surgical excision is required. Previous treatment, histological subtype, site and size of the lesion should be considered in surgical planning because these factors have been proven to affect cure rates. Thus, considering these factors, the algorithm can be a useful tool, especially for places where micrographic surgery is not widely available.

  2. Chemotherapy for pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas : Does the regimen matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Jules L.; van Suylen, Robert Jan; Thunnissen, Erik; den Bakker, Michael A.; Groen, Harry J.; Smit, Egbert F.; Damhuis, Ronald A.; van den Broek, Esther C.; Speel, Ernst-Jan M.; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.

    Pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is rare. Chemotherapy for metastatic LCNEC ranges from small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) regimens to nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) chemotherapy regimens. We analysed outcomes of chemotherapy treatments for LCNEC. The Netherlands Cancer

  3. Integrative bioinformatics links HNF1B with clear cell carcinoma and tumor-associated thrombosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Cuff

    Full Text Available Clear cell carcinoma (CCC is a histologically distinct carcinoma subtype that arises in several organ systems and is marked by cytoplasmic clearing, attributed to abundant intracellular glycogen. Previously, transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta (HNF1B was identified as a biomarker of ovarian CCC. Here, we set out to explore more broadly the relation between HNF1B and carcinomas with clear cell histology. HNF1B expression, evaluated by immunohistochemistry, was significantly associated with clear cell histology across diverse gynecologic and renal carcinomas (P<0.001, as was hypomethylation of the HNF1B promoter (P<0.001. From microarray analysis, an empirically-derived HNF1B signature was significantly enriched for computationally-predicted targets (with HNF1 binding sites (P<0.03, as well as genes associated with glycogen metabolism, including glucose-6-phophatase, and strikingly the blood clotting cascade, including fibrinogen, prothrombin and factor XIII. Enrichment of the clotting cascade was also evident in microarray data from ovarian CCC versus other histotypes (P<0.01, and HNF1B-associated prothrombin expression was verified by immunohistochemistry (P = 0.015. Finally, among gynecologic carcinomas with cytoplasmic clearing, HNF1B immunostaining was linked to a 3.0-fold increased risk of clinically-significant venous thrombosis (P = 0.043, and with a 2.3-fold increased risk (P = 0.011 in a combined gynecologic and renal carcinoma cohort. Our results define HNF1B as a broad marker of clear cell phenotype, and support a mechanistic link to glycogen accumulation and thrombosis, possibly reflecting (for gynecologic CCC derivation from secretory endometrium. Our findings also implicate a novel mechanism of tumor-associated thrombosis (a major cause of cancer mortality, based on the direct production of clotting factors by cancer cells.

  4. Risk and outcome analysis of 1832 consecutively excised basal cell carcinomas in a tertiary referral plastic surgery unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malik, Vinod

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinomas are the most prevalent of all skin cancers worldwide and form the majority of the surgical workload for most modern cutaneous malignancy centres. Primary surgical removal of basal cell carcinomas remains the gold standard of treatment but, despite almost two centuries of surgical experience, rates of incomplete surgical excision of up to 50% are still reported. The aim of this study was to assess, quantify and perform comparative analysis of the outcomes and predictive factors of consecutive primarily-excised basal cell carcinomas in a tertiary centre over a six-year period. METHODS: Retrospective audit was conducted on all patients who underwent surgical excision of basal cell carcinomas from January 2000 to December 2005. Assessment parameters included patient biographics, tumour management differences and detailed histopathological analysis of tumour margins and subtypes. RESULTS: One thousand eight hundred and thirty two basal cell carcinomas were excised from 1329 patients over the designated time period. Two hundred and fifty one (14%) lesions were incompletely excised with 135 (7.4%) involving the peripheral margin only, 48 (2.6%) the deep margin only and 41 (2.2%) involving both. Nasal location was the most common predictor of incomplete excision. CONCLUSIONS: Overall basal cell carcinomas excision rates compared favourably with international reported standards but attention to a variety of surgical and histological risk factors may improve this further.

  5. Carcinoma espinocelular de reto: relato de caso Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Magalhães Lopes; Juliana Barreto Salem; Flávia Balsamo; Hernán Augusto Centurión Sobral; Letícia Sarmanho; Galdino José Sitonio Formiga

    2010-01-01

    O Carcinoma Espinocelular de Reto é entidade extremamente rara e seu comportamento biológico permanece desconhecido. O tratamento pode variar entre radio e quimioterapia isoladamente ou complementar ao tratamento cirúrgico. Relatamos caso de carcinoma espinocelular de reto superior, tratado com radio e quimioterapia, com regressão total da lesão.Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is a extremely rare neoplasm and its biological behavior remains unknown. Treatment varies from surgery with an...

  6. [Descriptive study on basal cell eyelid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, M J; Pfeiffer, N; Valor, C

    2015-09-01

    To describe a series of cases of basal cell carcinomas of the eyelid. A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted by reviewing the medical outcome, histopathological history, and photographic images of 200 patients with basal cell eyelid carcinomas. All were treated in the Herzog Carl Theodor Eye Hospital in Munich, Germany, between 2000 and 2013. In the present study, it was found that females are more affected than males. The mean age of presentation of the tumor occurred at the age of 70 years. In 50% of the cases the tumor was found on the lower lid, especially medially from the center of the lid. The lid margin was involved in 47% of all tumors. The mean diameter was 9.2mm. The recurrence rate after surgery with histologically clear resection margins was 5%. There was a significant relationship between tumor diameter and age. As tumors where located farther away from medial and closer to the lid margin, they became larger. There is a predominance of women affected by this tumor. This may be related to the fact that the sample was taken from those attending an oculoplastic surgery clinic, where there are generally more women than men attending. The formation of basal cell carcinomas increases with age. The infrequent involvement of the upper lid could be explained by the protection of the the eyebrow. The frequent involvement of the lower lid may be due to the light reflection (total reflection) by the cornea on the lower lid margin. Also chemical and physical effects of the tears may be more harmful on the lower lid. Patients tend to ask for medical help when they are females, younger, when the tumor is closer to the medial canthus or when the tumor is away from the lid margin. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. A Newly Identified T Cell Subtype: Th22 and Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Pelin Cengiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Th22 cells are recently identified subtype of CD4 T lymphocytes. Naive CD4 T lymphocytes convert to Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17 and Th22 cells according to the cytokines they product. IL-22, a member of IL-10 family, is produced by natural killer (NK, Th17 and Th22 cells. IL-22 receptor complex is composed of IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1 and IL-10 receptor 2 (IL-10R2 units and IL-22 receptor complex is usually expressed on the surfaces of nonhematopoietic cells. IL-22 induces keratinocyte proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia in the skin. IL-22 promotes the production of antimicrobial peptides and chemokines essential for tissue remodeling. IL-22 was initially thought to be released from Th17 cells however it was recently understood that the major part of IL-22 is released from newly identified subtype of T cell as Th22 cells. Th22 cells don’t secrete IL-17 and interferon-γ (İFN-γ, unlike Th17. Th22 cells are located to the skin by chemokine receptors CCR4 and CCR10 and their amount is increased in many skin diseases. In this review, we aim to discuss the role of newly identified subtype of T cells, Th22 cells in skin diseases.

  8. Non-small-cell lung cancer pathological subtype-related gene selection and bioinformatics analysis based on gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangpeng; Dong, Xiaoqi; Lei, Xun; Xia, Yinyin; Zeng, Qing; Que, Ping; Wen, Xiaoyan; Hu, Shan; Peng, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases and a major threat to public health on a global scale. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has a higher degree of malignancy and a lower 5-year survival rate compared with that of small-cell lung cancer. NSCLC may be mainly divided into two pathological subtypes, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of the present study was to identify disease genes based on the gene expression profile and the shortest path analysis of weighted functional protein association networks with the existing protein-protein interaction data from the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes. The gene expression profile (GSE10245) was downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 40 lung adenocarcinoma and 18 lung squamous cell carcinoma tissues. A total of 8 disease genes were identified using Naïve Bayesian Classifier based on the Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy feature selection method following preprocessing. An additional 21 candidate genes were selected using the shortest path analysis with Dijkstra's algorithm. The AURKA and SLC7A2 genes were selected three and two times in the shortest path analysis, respectively. All those genes participate in a number of important pathways, such as oocyte meiosis, cell cycle and cancer pathways with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis. The present findings may provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of NSCLC and enable the development of novel therapeutic strategies. However, further investigation is required to confirm these findings.

  9. Respiratory squamous cell carcinomas in vibroacoustic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Ferreira, José; Mendes, Carla P; Alves-Pereira, Mariana; Castelo Branco, Nuno A A

    2006-01-01

    In 1987, the autopsy of a vibroacoustic disease (VAD) patient disclosed two tumours: a renal cell carcinoma and a malignant glioma in the brain. Since 1987, malignancy in VAD patients has been under close surveillance. To date, in a universe of 945 individuals, there are 46 cases of malignancies, of which 11 are multiple. Of the 11 cases of respiratory tract tumours, all were squamous cell carcinomas (SqCC). This report focuses on the morphological features of these tumours. Tumour fragments were collected (endoscopic biopsy or surgery) from 11 male VAD patients (ave. age: 58+/-9 years, 3 non-smokers): 2 in glottis and 9 in the lung. In the 3 non-smokers, 2 had lung tumours and 1 had a glottis tumour. All were employed as or retired aircraft technicians, military or commercial pilots. Fragments were fixed either for light and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry studies used chromagranine and synaptophysine staining. All lung tumours were located in the upper right lobe bronchi and were histologically poorly differentiated SqCC (Figs. 1, 2). The search with neuroendocrine markers was negative. The average age of tumour onset in helicopter pilots was below 50 years old while for the other professional groups it was above 50. Nine patients are deceased. The 2 surviving patients are heavy smokers (> 2 packs/day). Smoking habits had no influence on tumour outcome and progression. Epidemiological studies indicate that squamous cell carcinomas account for approximately 40% of all lung tumours in men. It seems to be highly relevant that all VAD patient respiratory tract tumours are squamous cell carcinomas. It is not surprising that helicopter pilots are the ones who are affected the earliest because previous studies have shown that helicopter pilots exhibited the highest values for the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges. Generally, epidemiological tumor studies do not take histological tumor type into account, but given the results herein, it would seem of the

  10. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  11. Epidemiology and staging of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Carole A; Pua, Bradley B; Madoff, David C

    2014-03-01

    Incidence and mortality trends attributed to kidney cancer exhibit marked regional variability, likely related to demographic, environmental, and genetic factors. Efforts to identify reversible factors, which lead to the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), have led not only to a greater understanding of the etiology of RCC but also the genetic and histologic characteristics of renal tumors. This article describes this evolution by discussing contemporary RCC incidence and mortality data, the risk factors for development of RCC, the histologic features, and anatomic and integrated staging systems that guide treatment.

  12. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio González-Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the stomach is a rare entity. There are several theories regarding the development of this tumor, but its pathogenesis remains obscure. Fewer than 100 cases of primary SCC of the stomach have been published in the literature. Due to advanced stage at the time of diagnosis in most of these cases, the prognosis is generally poor. In the case presented here, endoscopy revealed a vegetative tumor in the stomach described as SCC by biopsy. Following curative surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy was administered; however, the patient died 3 years and 4 months after surgery after recurrence was diagnosed.

  13. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Vitón, Rebeca; Collantes, Elena; Rodríguez-Montes, José Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the stomach is a rare entity. There are several theories regarding the development of this tumor, but its pathogenesis remains obscure. Fewer than 100 cases of primary SCC of the stomach have been published in the literature. Due to advanced stage at the time of diagnosis in most of these cases, the prognosis is generally poor. In the case presented here, endoscopy revealed a vegetative tumor in the stomach described as SCC by biopsy. Following curative surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy was administered; however, the patient died 3 years and 4 months after surgery after recurrence was diagnosed.

  14. Fanconi anemia and vaginal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Paula Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi Anemia (FA is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by chromosome instability, cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents, and increased predisposition to malignancies. We describe here a 28 year-old female with FA and vaginal squamous cell carcinoma treated by radiation therapy alone. The patient developed arm phlebitis, pulmonary fungal infection, and severe rectal bleeding, followed by hypocalcaemia, hypokalemia, vaginal bacterial and fungal infection, with subsequent leg and arm phlebitis, perineal abscess, and sepsis. The patient died 12 weeks later.

  15. Unilateral Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Chung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old, neutered male, American Cocker Spaniel weighing 8.3 kg was presented with a 1-month history of weight-loss, anorexia, intermittent vomiting and bloody-diarrhea. Abnormal blood tests results, a large mass on the kidney field in radiographic views and ultrasonography were presented. Nephroureterectomy was tried, but a large mass in the kidney and metastasis to the spleen caused to decline the surgery and treatment. The dog was euthanized, and necropsy and histological review revealed the renal cell carcinoma.

  16. Overview of Hurthle cell carcinoma of thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A Korzeniowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical behaviour of Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC of the thyroid is variable and there are many controversies in the literature. Here, we summarize an up-to-date review of the literature on genetics, diagnosis (ultrasound scan, fine needle aspiration, frozen section, etc., and management. At presentation, treatment decision should be made by a multidisciplinary board. Recurrent HCCs are seldom curable despite salvage treatments, which include radioactive iodine ablation, radiofrequency ablation, ethanol ablation, external radiotherapy, and systemic therapy. Further research is needed to develop more efficacious systemic treatments. Currently, lenvatinib, sunitinib, and sorafenib are available. The completed and ongoing clinical trials for HCC are summarized

  17. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Mammary Gland in Domestic Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Filgueira,Kilder Dantas; Reche Junior,Archivaldo

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the feline species, 80% to 93% of neoplasias in the mammary gland are malignant, being the majority carcinomas. Among them, there is the mammary squamous cell carcinoma, which amounts to a very rare neoplasm in the domestic cat, with considerable potential for malignancy. This study aimed to report a case of squamous cell mammary carcinoma in the feline species. Case: A female cat, mixed breed, ten years old, presented history of skin lesion. The cat had been spayed two years b...

  18. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beggs, Rachel E

    2012-09-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater are rare and confer a very poor prognosis despite aggressive therapy. There are few case reports of large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater in the literature and to date no studies have been done to establish optimal management. We describe a pooled case series from published reports of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater including a case which presented to our institution.

  19. Hürthle cell carcinoma: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sara Ahmadi,1 Michael Stang,2 Xiaoyin “Sara” Jiang,3 Julie Ann Sosa2,4,5 1Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, 2Section of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, 3Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, 4Duke Cancer Institute, 5Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC can present either as a minimally invasive or as a widely invasive tumor. HCC generally has a more aggressive clinical behavior compared with the other differentiated thyroid cancers, and it is associated with a higher rate of distant metastases. Minimally invasive HCC demonstrates much less aggressive behavior; lesions <4 cm can be treated with thyroid lobectomy alone, and without radioactive iodine (RAI. HCC has been observed to be less iodine-avid compared with other differentiated thyroid cancers; however, recent data have demonstrated improved survival with RAI use in patients with HCC >2 cm and those with nodal and distant metastases. Patients with localized iodine-resistant disease who are not candidates for a wait-and-watch approach can be treated with localized therapies. Systemic therapy is reserved for patients with progressive, widely metastatic HCC. Keywords: thyroid cancer, thyroid nodule, follicular cell carcinoma, Hurthle cell lesion, minimally invasive HCC

  20. Percutaneous Cryoablation for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsitskari Maria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. Nephron sparing resection (partial nephrectomy has been the “gold standard” for the treatment of resectable disease. With the widespread use of cross sectional imaging techniques, more cases of renal cell cancers are detected at an early stage, i.e. stage 1A or 1B.  This has provided an impetus for expanding the nephron sparing options and especially, percutaneous ablative techniques.  Percutaneous ablation for RCC is now performed as a standard therapeutic nephron-sparing option in patients who are poor candidates for resection or when there is a need to preserve renal function due to comorbid conditions, multiple renal cell carcinomas, and/or heritable renal cancer syndromes. During the last few years, percutaneous cryoablation has been gaining acceptance as a curative treatment option for small renal cancers. Clinical studies to date indicate that cryoablation is a safe and effective therapeutic method with acceptable short and long term outcomes and with a low risk, in the appropriate setting.  In addition it seems to offer some advantages over radio frequency ablation (RFA and other thermal ablation techniques for renal masses.

  1. Fluorescent Polymer-Based Post-Translational Differentiation and Subtyping of Breast Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Michael D.; Dutta, Rinku; Haldar, Manas K.; Wagh, Anil; Gustad, Thomas R.; Law, Benedict; Friesner, Daniel L.; Mallik, Sanku

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we report the application of synthesized fluorescent, water soluble polymers for post-translational subtyping and differentiation of breast cancer cells in vitro. The fluorescence emission spectra from these polymers were differently modulated in the presence of conditioned cell culture media from various breast cancer cells. These polymers differentiate at a post-translation level possibly due to their ability to interact with extracellular enzymes that are over-expressed in cancerou...

  2. Fluorescent polymer-based post-translational differentiation and subtyping of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael D; Dutta, Rinku; Haldar, Manas K; Wagh, Anil; Gustad, Thomas R; Law, Benedict; Friesner, Daniel L; Mallik, Sanku

    2012-12-07

    Herein, we report the application of synthesized fluorescent, water soluble polymers for post-translational subtyping and differentiation of breast cancer cells in vitro. The fluorescence emission spectra from these polymers were modulated differently in the presence of conditioned cell culture media from various breast cancer cells. These polymers differentiate at a post-translation level possibly due to their ability to interact with extracellular enzymes that are over-expressed in cancerous conditions.

  3. Interferon-alpha Subtype 11 Activates NK Cells and Enables Control of Retroviral Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Gibbert; Jara J Joedicke; Andreas Meryk; Mirko Trilling; Sandra Francois; Janine Duppach; Anke Kraft; Lang, Karl S.; Ulf Dittmer

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune response mediated by cells such as natural killer (NK) cells is critical for the rapid containment of virus replication and spread during acute infection. Here, we show that subtype 11 of the type I interferon (IFN) family greatly potentiates the antiviral activity of NK cells during retroviral infection. Treatment of mice with IFN-α11 during Friend retrovirus infection (FV) significantly reduced viral loads and resulted in long-term protection from virus-induced leukemia. T...

  4. Frequent gene dosage alterations in stromal cells of epithelial ovarian carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhkanen, Hanna; Anttila, Maarit; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Heinonen, Seppo; Juhola, Matti; Helisalmi, Seppo; Kataja, Vesa; Mannermaa, Arto

    2006-09-15

    Stromal cells are an active and integral part of epithelial neoplasms. We have previously observed allelic imbalance on chromosome 3p21 in both stromal and epithelial cells of ovarian tumors. This study was designed to explore gene dosage alterations throughout human chromosomes from stromal and epithelial cells of epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Thirteen stromal and 24 epithelial samples, microdissected from epithelial ovarian carcinomas, were analyzed using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification technique. Analysis covered 110 cancer related genes. Frequent genetic alterations were detected both in the stroma and epithelium of ovarian carcinomas. The mean number of altered genes per tumor was 10.8 in stroma and 23.6 in epithelium. In the stroma, the mean number of gains was 6.6 and of losses 4.2 and in the epithelium 13.7 and 9.9. The high number of changes associated with advanced tumor stage (p = 0.035) and death due to ovarian cancer (p = 0.032). The most frequent alteration was the deletion of the deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC) on chromosome 18q21.3 in 62% of samples. Loss of DCC was related to endometrioid subtype (p = 0.033). Large chromosomal aberrations were detected on the basis of alterations in adjacent genes. Most importantly, 38 genes showed similar genetic alterations (gain-gain or loss-loss) in stromal and epithelial compartments of 11 tumor pairs. Thus, frequent genetic alterations in stromal cells of epithelial ovarian carcinomas resembled those of malignant epithelial cells and may indicate a common precursor cell type. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition may generate transformed cancer cells and modify the tumor microenvironment with distinct properties.

  5. [Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient renal cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaimy, A

    2016-03-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) represents a type II mitochondrial complex related to the respiratory chain and Krebs cycle. The complex is composed of four major subunits, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. The oncogenic role of this enzyme complex has only recently been recognized and the complex is currently considered an important oncogenic signaling pathway with tumor suppressor properties. In addition to the familial paraganglioma syndromes (types 1-5) as prototypical SDH-related diseases, many other tumors have been defined as SDH-deficient, in particular a subset of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), rare hypophyseal adenomas, a subset of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (recently added) and a variety of other tumor entities, the latter mainly described as rare case reports. As a central core subunit responsible for the integrity of the SDH complex, the expression of SDHB is lost in all SDH-deficient neoplasms irrespective of the specific SDH subunit affected by a genetic mutation in addition to concurrent loss of the subunit specifically affected by genetic alteration. Accordingly, all SDH-deficient neoplasms are by definition SDHB-deficient. The SDH-deficient renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has only recently been well-characterized and it is included as a specific subtype of RCC in the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification published in 2016. In this review, the major clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and genetic features of this rare disease entity are presented and discussed in the context of the broad differential diagnosis.

  6. CD117 expression in fibroblasts-like stromal cells indicates unfavorable clinical outcomes in ovarian carcinoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixia Huang

    Full Text Available The stem cell factor (SCF receptor CD117 (c-kit, is widely used for identification of hematopoietic stem cells and cancer stem cells. Moreover, CD117 expression in carcinoma cells indicates a poor prognosis in a variety of cancers. However the potential expression in tumor microenvironment and the biological and clinical impact are currently not reported. The expression of CD117 was immunohistochemically evaluated in a serial of 242 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC cases. Thirty-eight out of 242 cases were CD117 positive in fibroblast-like stromal cells and 22 cases were positive in EOC cells. Four cases were both positive in fibroblast-like stromal cells and EOC cells for CD117. CD117 expression in fibroblast-like stromal cells in ovarian carcinoma was closely linked to advanced FIGO stage, poor differentiation grade and histological subtype (p<0.05, and it was significantly associated with poor overall survival (OS and progression free survival (PFS (Kaplan-Meier analysis; p<0.05, log-rank test. CD117 expression in ovarian carcinoma cells was not associated with these clinicopathological variables. The CD117 positive fibroblast-like stromal cells were all positive for mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC marker CD73 but negative for fibroblast markers fibroblast activation protein (FAP and α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, indicating that the CD117+/CD73+ fibroblast-like stromal cells are a subtype of mesenchymal stem cells in tumor stroma, although further characterization of these cells are needed. It is concluded herewith that the presence of CD117+/CD73+ fibroblast-like stromal cells in ovarian carcinoma is an unfavorable clinical outcome indication.

  7. Rb Loss is Characteristic of Prostatic Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hsueh-Li; Sood, Akshay; Rahimi, Hameed A.; Wang, Wenle; Gupta, Nilesh; Hicks, Jessica; Mosier, Stacy; Gocke, Christopher D.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Netto, George J.; Liu, Wennuan; Isaacs, William B.; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Lotan, Tamara L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate is likely to become increasingly common with recent advances in pharmacologic androgen suppression. Thus, developing molecular markers of small cell differentiation in prostate cancer will be important to guide diagnosis and therapy of this aggressive tumor. Experimental Design We examined the status of RB1, TP53 and PTEN in prostatic small cell and acinar carcinomas via immunohistochemistry (IHC), copy number alteration analysis and sequencing of formalin fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. Results We found Rb protein loss in 90% (26/29) of small cell carcinoma cases with RB1 allelic loss in 85% (11/13) of cases. Of acinar tumors occurring concurrently with prostatic small cell carcinoma, 43% (3/7) showed Rb protein loss. In contrast, only 7% (10/150) of primary high grade acinar carcinomas, 11% (4/35) of primary acinar carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation, and 15% (2/13) of metastatic castrate resistant acinar carcinomas showed Rb protein loss. Loss of PTEN protein was seen in 63% (17/27) of small cell carcinomas, with 38% (5/13) showing allelic loss. By IHC, accumulation of p53 was observed in 56% (14/25) of small cell carcinomas, with 60% (6/10) of cases showing TP53 mutation. Conclusions Loss of RB1 by deletion is a common event in prostatic small cell carcinoma and can be detected by validated IHC assay. As Rb protein loss rarely occurs in high grade acinar tumors, these data suggest that Rb loss is a critical event in the development of small cell carcinomas and may be a useful diagnostic and potential therapeutic target. PMID:24323898

  8. Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Paulsen, S M

    1987-01-01

    The light microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of a clear cell carcinoma of the breast have been studied. Both intraductal and invasive components were found. Histochemistry showed large amounts of intracytoplasmic glycogen and sparse neutral mucin in the tumour. The tumour...... was classified as a mucin-containing variant of glycogen-rich, clear cell carcinoma of the breast....

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in Ilorin, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim was to determine the incidence of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma at UITH over an 11 – year period. Nineteen patients (11males and 8 females) had histological confirmation of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma out of 21 conjunctival specimens, representing 22.9% of all orbito-ocular tumours reviewed ...

  10. Characterizing the outcomes of metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connor Wells, John; Donskov, Frede; Fraccon, Anna P

    2017-01-01

    Outcomes of metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) patients are poorly characterized in the era of targeted therapy. A total of 5474 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in the International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) were retrospectively analyzed. Outcomes were com...

  11. Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Paulsen, S M

    1987-01-01

    The light microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of a clear cell carcinoma of the breast have been studied. Both intraductal and invasive components were found. Histochemistry showed large amounts of intracytoplasmic glycogen and sparse neutral mucin in the tumour. The tumo...... was classified as a mucin-containing variant of glycogen-rich, clear cell carcinoma of the breast....

  12. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shing Leu

    2009-03-01

    Conclusion: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity did not have a significantly different outcome for elderly patients when compared with younger patients. Elderly patients with stage IVA squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity had poorer survival rates. When properly evaluated and monitored, conservative and conventional therapies seemed efficacious in the elderly.

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal bone: results and management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, H.P.M.; Lavieille, J.P.; Marres, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the management and survival of patients treated for temporal bone squamous cell carcinoma. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis. SETTING: Tertiary care, academic referral center. PATIENTS: Twenty-eight patients underwent primary treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the

  14. Intraventricular metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sava, I; Sava, Anca; Şapte, Elena; Mihailov, Claudia; Dumitrescu, Gabriela; Poeată, I; Sava, Florina; Haba, Danisia

    2013-01-01

    Intraventricular tumors represent a diagnostic problem, due to a wide range of differential diagnosis, with an important variability of tumoral histological types in adult and pediatric population. Patient, Our case is represented by a patient, aged 48 years, without any history of significant personal pathology, accusing nausea, vomiting, and intensive headache. In the morning, he became confused, having hallucinations for a short period of time, and has accused drowsiness for several weeks. Imaging (CT and MRI) shows a neoformation in the third ventricle, accompanied by bilateral lateral ventricles dilatation, with predominantly annular enhancement. During surgery, through the middle third transcallosal interhemispheric approach, it was revealed a reddish, well-demarcated intraventricular mass, well vascularized and with a firm consistency. Final pathologic diagnosis was metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma. Initial postoperative evolution was good, and then neurological and respiratory condition worsened as a bronchopneumonia lead to patient's death in 12 days after surgery. Clear cell carcinoma metastasis located in the third ventricle should be taken into consideration for patients presenting a single intraventricular lesion even they have no documented primary malignancy.

  15. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Cécile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. CAFET algorithm reveals Wnt/PCP signature in lung squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hu

    Full Text Available We analyzed the gene expression patterns of 138 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC samples and developed a new algorithm called Coverage Analysis with Fisher's Exact Test (CAFET to identify molecular pathways that are differentially activated in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and adenocarcinoma (AC subtypes. Analysis of the lung cancer samples demonstrated hierarchical clustering according to the histological subtype and revealed a strong enrichment for the Wnt signaling pathway components in the cluster consisting predominantly of SCC samples. The specific gene expression pattern observed correlated with enhanced activation of the Wnt Planar Cell Polarity (PCP pathway and inhibition of the canonical Wnt signaling branch. Further real time RT-PCR follow-up with additional primary tumor samples and lung cancer cell lines confirmed enrichment of Wnt/PCP pathway associated genes in the SCC subtype. Dysregulation of the canonical Wnt pathway, characterized by increased levels of β-catenin and epigenetic silencing of negative regulators, has been reported in adenocarcinoma of the lung. Our results suggest that SCC and AC utilize different branches of the Wnt pathway during oncogenesis.

  17. Ovarian clear cell carcinoma with plasma cell-rich inflammatory stroma: a clear cell carcinoma subgroup with distinct clinicopathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Noriko; Kurotaki, Hidekachi; Uchigasaki, Shinya; Fukase, Masayuki; Kurose, Akira

    2016-03-01

    Ovarian clear cell carcinoma has a unique stroma. Although a hyalinized or mucoid stroma is more common, the stroma sometimes shows a dense inflammatory infiltrate, simulating a dysgerminoma. The aim of this study was to analyse the character and significance of the inflammatory stroma. Twelve of 60 (20%) clear cell carcinomas showed an inflammatory stroma. The inflammatory stroma and hyalinized/mucoid stroma were mutually exclusive. Inflammatory cells were predominantly composed of CD138-positive plasma cells. As compared with the non-inflammatory cases, the epithelial component frequently showed a solid growth pattern and immunoreactivity for cyclooxygenase-2, one of the critical proinflammatory enzymes (P cell carcinoma cell lines into athymic nude mice. In particular, xenografts of one cell line (JHOC-5) were infiltrated by mature plasma cells, indicating that plasma cell differentiation was stimulated by JHOC-5 cells, independently of T lymphocytes. Clinicopathologically, the frequency of International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics stage III was higher in the cases with an inflammatory stroma than in those without it (P cell carcinomas with an inflammatory stroma constitute a distinct clinicopathological subgroup. It is strongly suggested that tumour cells themselves are responsible for inducing inflammation and stimulating plasma cell differentiation in a paracrine manner. © 2015 The Authors. Histopathology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Interferon-alpha subtype 11 activates NK cells and enables control of retroviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Gibbert

    Full Text Available The innate immune response mediated by cells such as natural killer (NK cells is critical for the rapid containment of virus replication and spread during acute infection. Here, we show that subtype 11 of the type I interferon (IFN family greatly potentiates the antiviral activity of NK cells during retroviral infection. Treatment of mice with IFN-α11 during Friend retrovirus infection (FV significantly reduced viral loads and resulted in long-term protection from virus-induced leukemia. The effect of IFN-α11 on NK cells was direct and signaled through the type I IFN receptor. Furthermore, IFN-α11-mediated activation of NK cells enabled cytolytic killing of FV-infected target cells via the exocytosis pathway. Depletion and adoptive transfer experiments illustrated that NK cells played a major role in successful IFN-α11 therapy. Additional experiments with Mouse Cytomegalovirus infections demonstrated that the therapeutic effect of IFN-α11 is not restricted to retroviruses. The type I IFN subtypes 2 and 5, which bind the same receptor as IFN-α11, did not elicit similar antiviral effects. These results demonstrate a unique and subtype-specific activation of NK cells by IFN-α11.

  19. Merkel cell carcinoma: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosanta Kumar Bhattacharjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 33-year-old man presented with a lump at the right side of chest wall of 4 months duration which started bleeding suddenly from an ulcer at its center. Examination revealed a globular ulcerated mass 2 cm in diameter, on the anterior axillary fold, with adherent clot at its center. No regional lymphadenopathy was noted. Wide local excision with 2 cm margin was done. Biopsy report revealed malignant small round-cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed it to be cytokeratin-20-positive and S100-negative, suggesting the diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma. The patient did not receive any other adjuvant therapy. He is being followed-up for the last 4 years and has shown no features of recurrence so far.

  20. Bilateral hybrid oncocytoma and renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piplani, S; Kapur, B N; Sandhu, A S; Dhagat, P K; Kakkar, S; Singh, Samarjeet; Bhatoe, H S

    2012-06-01

    A 26-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and distension in 2003. Clinical evaluation and imaging were suggestive of bilateral benign renal solid masses. Fine needle aspiration showed tubular cells only. Patient was kept under periodic follow up. She reported 4 years later with increase in pain and size of masses, and underwent bilateral staged nephron sparing surgery. The histopathology was reported as bilateral oncocytoma. Two years after surgery, she developed epidural spinal cord compression and liver metastasis. A decompression laminectomy and biopsy revealed conventional renal cell carcinoma (RCC). To our knowledge this is the first case report of sporadic bilateral synchronous hybrid RCC and oncocytoma in a young woman, with spinal epidural metastasis.

  1. Primary Small Cell Carcinoma of the Upper Urinary Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ka-Siong Kho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of primary extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma of the distal ureter, with a synchronous small cell carcinoma of the ipsilateral renal pelvis. These tumors, rarely reported in the urinary tract, are locally aggressive and have a poor prognosis. A 77-year-old male bedridden patient presented with fever and chills with left side-flank pain for 3 days. Following a diagnosis of ureteral urothelial carcinoma, hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision was carried out. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given after pathologic report of primary small cell carcinoma of the distal ureter and a synchronous small cell carcinoma of the ipsilateral renal pelvis. After 3 cycles of combination chemotherapy, the patient died 4 months postoperatively due to sepsis.

  2. Association of esophageal candidiasis and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsing, C E; Bleeker-Rovers, C P; van de Veerdonk, F L; Tol, J; van der Meer, J W M; Kullberg, B J; Netea, M G

    2012-01-01

    Chronic esophageal candidiasis is an infection that is mostly seen in immunocompromised conditions, among which is chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Recently an association between CMC and esophageal carcinoma has been reported. Here we present two patients with chronic esophageal candidiasis who developed esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and we discuss the etiologic role of Candida-induced nitrosamine production, the loss of STAT1 function and impaired tumor surveillance and T-lymphocyte function in the development of esophageal carcinoma.

  3. Prognostic significance of extensive necrosis in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jennifer; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2017-08-01

    Few studies using the current classification of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have looked at a large number of cases with near total necrosis. We identified 21 cases of resections of RCC with >90% necrosis from the archives of Johns Hopkins Hospital between 2000 and 2015. Patients' mean age was 59 years (43-77) with 16 men (76%); 12 cases (57%) were papillary RCC, 4 clear cell papillary RCC (19%), 4 clear cell RCC (19%), and 1 unclassified with sarcomatoid differentiation (5%). International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) nucleolar grade was grade 1 (9 cases) or grade 2 (9 cases). Two cases were ISUP nucleolar grade 3, and 1 case was grade 4. Pathological stage was low (pT1-2) in 20 (95%) with the unclassified RCC with sarcomatoid differentiation RCC stage pT3a. Mean tumor size was 6.3 cm (1.2-17). In 52% (11) of cases, it was difficult to identify viable tumor, requiring multiple sections; 4 cases of papillary RCC were diagnosed in part due to necrotic tumor "ghost" architecture. Follow-up was available in 17 cases (81%) with a mean follow-up of 59 months. Thirteen patients (62%) are alive without disease. The patient with unclassified carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation died of cancer, and 2 died due to causes unrelated to cancer. One patient (5%) with low-grade clear cell RCC developed metastases but had a contralateral RCC. In the setting of a low-grade RCC, extensive necrosis does not have an adverse prognosis. In summary, our data, together with a prior study from our institution, comprise one of the largest cohorts of extensively (>90%) necrotic RCCs and suggests that in the setting of a low-grade RCC, it portends a good prognosis (only 2/36 cases showing progression (6%) on follow-up). However, we did identify a single case of high-grade RCC with an adverse prognosis and therefore, careful attention to tumor grade and classification is critical. The presence of tumor necrosis as a prognosticator in RCCs is complex, and despite its well

  4. Papillary-cystic pattern is characteristic in mammary analogue secretory carcinomas but is rarely observed in acinic cell carcinomas of the salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Chou, Yueh-Hung; Yeh, Shin-Joe; Chang, Yih-Leong

    2015-08-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) has a specific ETV6-NTRK3 translocation and morphologically overlaps with acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC). Before the recognition of MASC, in AciCC, four histologic patterns were identified including microcystic, solid, papillary-cystic, and follicular. The aim of this study was to evaluate histologic patterns in these two neoplasms through comprehensive histologic subtyping. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we identified 14 cases of MASC and 21 cases of AciCC. We used comprehensive histologic subtyping to provide a semiquantitive assessment of histologic patterns in each tumor and performed immunohistochemical analyses including S100/vimentin/mammaglobin/DOG1. MASC often presented papillary-cystic patterns without a solid component, previously considered to be one of the four major patterns associated with AciCC. However, in our study, this histologic feature was rarely seen in AciCC and more characteristic of MASC. In aspiration cytology samples, MASC was associated with more cellular atypia. An immunohistochemical panel of S100/mammaglobin/DOG1 was found useful for differential diagnosis. Comprehensive subtyping of histologic patterns is a useful screening method prior to initiation of molecular testing.

  5. Predisposing factors and histopathological variants of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: Experience from a North Indian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeti Khullar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Squamous and basal cell carcinomas together constitute the majority of non-melanoma skin cancers. These malignancies are infrequent in Indians as compared to the white skinned population. Literature on squamous cell carcinoma in dark skin is limited. Aim: To analyze the risk factors and to characterize the histopathological subtypes of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Indian patients in an area, non-endemic for arsenicosis. Methods: A retrospective analysis of data from January 2003 to August 2013 was performed to evaluate the predisposing factors and histopathological types of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER, Chandigarh. Demographic and disease characteristics such as age, gender and predisposing factors, particularly premalignant dermatoses were recorded and histopathology slides were reviewed. Results: Of the 13,426 skin biopsy specimens received during the 10-year period, there were 82 (0.6% cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 170 (1.7% of basal cell carcinoma. The mean age at diagnosis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma was 53.7 years and the male to female ratio was 2:1. The most common site of involvement was the lower limbs in 34 (41.5% patients. Marjolin's ulcer was present in 36 (43.9% cases. No predisposing factor was identified in 35 (42.7% patients. Histopathologically, the tumors were classified most commonly as squamous cell carcinoma not otherwise specified in 33 (40.2% cases. Limitations: This was a retrospective study and details of occupation and interval between the precursor lesions and development of tumor were not recorded. Immunohistochemistry for human papilloma virus and p53 tumor suppressor protein were not performed as these tests were not available. Conclusion: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is uncommon in Indian patients and a high index of suspicion is necessary when a rapidly enlarging nodule, verrucous fungating plaque

  6. GREM1 is expressed in the cancer-associated myofibroblasts of basal cell carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sung Kim

    Full Text Available Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs play important roles in cancer progression through their complex interactions with cancer cells. The secreted bone morphogenetic protein antagonist, gremlin1 (GREM1 is expressed by the CAFs of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, and promotes the growth of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the expression of GREM1 mRNAs in various benign and malignant skin tumors, including various BCC subtypes. Analysis by RNA in situ hybridization (ISH revealed that fibroblasts in the scar tissue expressed GREM1 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, whereas resident fibroblasts in the dermis of the normal skin did not express GREM1. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed significantly higher GREM1 expression in skin cancers and pilomatricomas (PMCs than in other benign skin tumors. Tissue microarrays analyzed by RNA ISH for GREM1 expression also demonstrated that 23% of BCCs, 42% of squamous cell carcinomas, 20% of melanomas, and 90% of PMCs were positive for GREM1 expression, whereas trichoepitheliomas, eccrine poromas, hidradenomas, and spiradenomas were negative for GREM1 expression. Most BCCs that were GREM1 expression positive were of desmoplastic or mixed subtypes, and GREM1 expression was localized to activated myofibroblasts at the tumoral-stromal interface. Interestingly, most PMCs harbored GREM1-expressing fibroblasts, probably because of the inflammatory responses caused by foreign body reactions to keratin. Additionally, in BCCs, stromal GREM1 expression had a strong correlation with CD10 expression. In conclusion, GREM1 is frequently expressed by myofibroblasts in scars or in the stroma of basal cell carcinomas, suggesting that GREM1 expression can be a marker for activated myofibroblasts in the cancer stroma or in scar tissue.

  7. Metastatic papillary carcinoma thyroid co-existing with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: A case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Roshan K. Verma; Nishikanta Tripathi; Pallavi Aggarwal; Naresh K. Panda

    2014-01-01

    The incidental discovery of metastatic papillary carcinoma thyroid in lymph node while the patient is being investigated for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity is an unusual clinical situation and the appropriate management in such clinical situation is controversial and confusing. We report a case of a 65 year old male with primary squamous cell carcinoma of alveolus with bilateral neck nodes. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in lymph ...

  8. Three-Dimensional Gene Map of Cancer Cell Types: Structural Entropy Minimisation Principle for Defining Tumour Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angsheng; Yin, Xianchen; Pan, Yicheng

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we propose a method for constructing cell sample networks from gene expression profiles, and a structural entropy minimisation principle for detecting natural structure of networks and for identifying cancer cell subtypes. Our method establishes a three-dimensional gene map of cancer cell types and subtypes. The identified subtypes are defined by a unique gene expression pattern, and a three-dimensional gene map is established by defining the unique gene expression pattern for each identified subtype for cancers, including acute leukaemia, lymphoma, multi-tissue, lung cancer and healthy tissue. Our three-dimensional gene map demonstrates that a true tumour type may be divided into subtypes, each defined by a unique gene expression pattern. Clinical data analyses demonstrate that most cell samples of an identified subtype share similar survival times, survival indicators and International Prognostic Index (IPI) scores and indicate that distinct subtypes identified by our algorithms exhibit different overall survival times, survival ratios and IPI scores. Our three-dimensional gene map establishes a high-definition, one-to-one map between the biologically and medically meaningful tumour subtypes and the gene expression patterns, and identifies remarkable cells that form singleton submodules.

  9. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Neal Murari; Horattas, Mark C

    2008-11-01

    To examine the presentation, diagnosis, and appropriate management of renal clear cell carcinoma metastasis to the thyroid gland. We describe a clinical case of solitary thyroid metastasis from renal clear cell carcinoma and present a comprehensive review of the related English-language literature. Common patterns of presentation and generalized overall management recommendations are evaluated and summarized. Eight years after nephrectomy for renal carcinoma at age 61 years, a man presented with a thyroid mass. Cytology and histopathologic surgical findings were consistent with a solitary metastasis most compatible with metastatic clear cell carcinoma from his previous renal carcinoma. After left thyroid lobectomy and isthmusectomy, the patient remains disease-free 5 years later. Although uncommon, nearly 150 cases of clinically recognized metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid have been reported in the English-language literature. Metastatic disease from the kidney to the thyroid gland can occur more than 20 years after nephrectomy with the average time interval being 7.5 years. Obtaining a full clinical history in any patient who presents with a thyroid nodule is essential to allow consideration of possible metastatic disease from previous primary tumor. Metastatic disease to the thyroid gland can be correctly diagnosed preoperatively. If metastatic renal cancer is limited to the thyroid gland only, prompt, appropriate surgical intervention can be curative. Metastatic renal carcinoma to the thyroid should be considered in any patient presenting with a thyroid mass and a medical history of renal cell carcinoma.

  10. Inflammatory Cell Distribution in Primary Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheat, Rachel [School of Cancer Sciences and CR UK Centre for Cancer Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Roberts, Claudia [School of Cancer Sciences and CR UK Centre for Cancer Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, New Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Waterboer, Tim [Infection and Cancer Program, DKFZ (German Cancer Research Centre), 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Steele, Jane [Human Biomaterials Resource Centre, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Marsden, Jerry [University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, New Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Steven, Neil M., E-mail: n.m.steven@bham.ac.uk [School of Cancer Sciences and CR UK Centre for Cancer Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, New Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Blackbourn, David J., E-mail: n.m.steven@bham.ac.uk [Department of Microbial and Cellular Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-06

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cutaneous carcinoma associated with older age, immunodeficiency and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) integrated within malignant cells. The presence of intra-tumoural CD8+ lymphocytes reportedly predicts better MCC-specific survival. In this study, the distribution of inflammatory cells and properties of CD8+ T lymphocytes within 20 primary MCC specimens were characterised using immunohistochemistry and multicolour immunofluorescent staining coupled to confocal microscopy. CD8+ cells and CD68+ macrophages were identified in 19/20 primary MCC. CD20+ B cells were present in 5/10, CD4+ cells in 10/10 and FoxP3+ cells in 7/10 specimens. Only two specimens had almost no inflammatory cells. Within specimens, inflammatory cells followed the same patchy distribution, focused at the edge of sheets and nodules and, in some cases, more intense in trabecular areas. CD8+ cells were outside vessels on the edge of tumour. Those few within malignant sheets typically lined up in fine septa not contacting MCC cells expressing MCPyV large T antigen. The homeostatic chemokine CXCL12 was expressed outside malignant nodules whereas its receptor CXCR4 was identified within tumour but not on CD8+ cells. CD8+ cells lacked CXCR3 and granzyme B expression irrespective of location within stroma versus malignant nodules or of the intensity of the intra-tumoural infiltrate. In summary, diverse inflammatory cells were organised around the margin of malignant deposits suggesting response to aberrant signaling, but were unable to penetrate the tumour microenvironment itself to enable an immune response against malignant cells or their polyomavirus.

  11. Genetic variation in cell cycle regulatory gene AURKA and association with intrinsic breast cancer subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicholas J; Bensen, Jeannette T; Poole, Charles; Troester, Melissa A; Gammon, Marilie D; Luo, Jingchun; Millikan, Robert C; Olshan, Andrew F

    2015-12-01

    AURKA is a putative low-penetrance tumor susceptibility gene due to its prominent role in cell cycle regulation and centrosomal function. Germline variation in AURKA was evaluated for association with breast cancer and intrinsic breast cancer subtypes in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS), a population-based case-control study of African Americans (AA) and Caucasians (Cau). Tag and candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on AURKA were genotyped in 1946 cases and 1747 controls. In race-stratified analyses adjusted for age and African ancestry, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate SNP associations with breast cancer. In a race-combined analysis with similar adjustment, these associations were also examined by intrinsic breast cancer subtype. Using dominant models, most AURKA SNPs demonstrated no association with breast cancer in the race-stratified analyses. Among AA, rs6092309 showed an inverse association with breast cancer (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.53-0.90). In the race-combined analyses, rs6099128 had reduced ORs for luminal A (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.60-0.95) and basal-like breast cancer (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.37-0.80). Rs6092309 showed a similar pattern of association with each subtype. Three SNPs (rs6014711, rs911162, rs1047972) had positive associations with basal-like breast cancer, and ORs reduced or close to 1.00 for other subtypes. Our results suggest inverse associations between some AURKA SNPs and overall breast cancer in AA. We found differential associations by specific subtypes and by race. Replication of these findings in larger AA populations would allow more powerful race-stratified subtype analyses. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevens, J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2011-01-01

    Prospective epidemiologic data on vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer are sparse. We studied the association between vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), gastric

  13. Oncolytic vaccinia therapy of squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yong A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel therapies are necessary to improve outcomes for patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC of the head and neck. Historically, vaccinia virus was administered widely to humans as a vaccine and led to the eradication of smallpox. We examined the therapeutic effects of an attenuated, replication-competent vaccinia virus (GLV-1h68 as an oncolytic agent against a panel of six human head and neck SCC cell lines. Results All six cell lines supported viral transgene expression (β-galactosidase, green fluorescent protein, and luciferase as early as 6 hours after viral exposure. Efficient transgene expression and viral replication (>150-fold titer increase over 72 hrs were observed in four of the cell lines. At a multiplicity of infection (MOI of 1, GLV-1h68 was highly cytotoxic to the four cell lines, resulting in ≥ 90% cytotoxicity over 6 days, and the remaining two cell lines exhibited >45% cytotoxicity. Even at a very low MOI of 0.01, three cell lines still demonstrated >60% cell death over 6 days. A single injection of GLV-1h68 (5 × 106 pfu intratumorally into MSKQLL2 xenografts in mice exhibited localized intratumoral luciferase activity peaking at days 2–4, with gradual resolution over 10 days and no evidence of spread to normal organs. Treated animals exhibited near-complete tumor regression over a 24-day period without any observed toxicity, while control animals demonstrated rapid tumor progression. Conclusion These results demonstrate significant oncolytic efficacy by an attenuated vaccinia virus for infecting and lysing head and neck SCC both in vitro and in vivo, and support its continued investigation in future clinical trials.

  14. Perineural Infiltration of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma Without Clinical Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Charles, E-mail: Charles_Lin@health.qld.gov.au [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Poulsen, Michael [Mater Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Martin, Jarad [St. Andrews Hospital, Toowoomba, Queensland (Australia); Jackson, James; Dickie, Graeme [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To review the factors that influence outcome and patterns of relapse in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with perineural infiltration (PNI) without clinical or radiologic features, treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 222 patients with SCC or BCC with PNI on pathologic examination but without clinical or radiologic PNI features were identified. Charts were reviewed retrospectively and relevant data collected. All patients were treated with curative intent; all had radiotherapy, and most had surgery. The primary endpoint was 5-year relapse-free survival from the time of diagnosis. Results: Patients with SCC did significantly worse than those with BCC (5-year relapse-free survival, 78% vs. 91%; p < 0.01). Squamous cell carcinoma with PNI at recurrence did significantly worse than de novo in terms of 5-year local failure (40% vs. 19%; p < 0.01) and regional relapse (29% vs. 5%; p < 0.01). Depth of invasion was also a significant factor. Of the PNI-specific factors for SCC, focal PNI did significantly better than more-extensive PNI, but involved nerve diameter or presence of PNI at the periphery of the tumor were not significant factors. Conclusions: Radiotherapy in conjunction with surgery offers an acceptable outcome for cutaneous SCC and BCC with PNI. This study suggests that focal PNI is not an adverse feature.

  15. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Biological Continuum of Basal Cell Carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaninder S. Mehta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC accounts for 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Its metastasis is extremely rare, ranging between 0.0028 and 0.55 of all BCC cases. The usual metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or skin is from the primary tumor situated in the head and neck region in nearly 85% cases. A 69-year-old male developed progressively increasing multiple, fleshy, indurated, and at places pigmented noduloulcerative plaques over back, chest, and left axillary area 4 years after wide surgical excision of a pathologically diagnosed basal cell carcinoma. The recurrence was diagnosed as infiltrative BCC and found metastasizing to skin, soft tissue and muscles, and pretracheal and axillary lymph nodes. Three cycles of chemotherapy comprising intravenous cisplatin (50 mg and 5-florouracil (5-FU, 750 mg on 2 consecutive days and repeated at every 21 days were effective. As it remains unclear whether metastatic BCC is itself a separate subset of basal cell carcinoma, we feel that early BCC localized at any site perhaps constitutes a biological continuum that may ultimately manifest with metastasis in some individuals and should be evaluated as such. Long-standing BCC is itself potentially at risk of recurrence/dissemination; it is imperative to diagnose and appropriately treat all BCC lesions at the earliest.

  16. Basal cell carcinomas of the eyelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allali, J; D'Hermies, F; Renard, G

    2005-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) are the more frequent malignant tumors seen in France as in other western countries. They represent 20% of eyelid tumors and 90% of eyelid malignancies. Due to their local growth, problems may arise when treating BCC, and curative exeresis must be the preferred choice each time it is possible. BCC of the eyelids have a high risk of recurrence. Recurrences are more aggressive, infiltrative and destructive and have a considerably poorer rate of cure than primary tumors. Eyelid reconstructions can entail use of complex methods which should only be carried out by a trained ophthalmologist who is also able to treat any associated age-related ocular pathologies. BCC is the most common cause leading to eyelid reconstructive surgery; a surgery which has a triple objective: tumor removal, functionality and an esthetic outcome. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Duodenal Bleeding from Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Rustagi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to malignancy is relatively uncommon and the duodenum is the least frequently involved site. Duodenal metastasis is rare in renal cell carcinoma (RCC and early detection, especially in case of a solitary mass, helps in planning further therapy. We report a case of intractable upper gastrointestinal bleeding from metastatic RCC to the duodenum. The patient presented with melena and anemia, 13 years after nephrectomy for RCC. On esophagogastroduodenoscopy, a submucosal mass was noted in the duodenum, biopsies of which revealed metastatic RCC. In conclusion, metastasis from RCC should be considered in nephrectomized patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms and a complete evaluation, especially endoscopic examination followed by biopsy, is suggested.

  18. Subungual squamous cell carcinoma: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Cory J

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to describe a dosimetric delivery of radiation to a superficial disease process involving the skin and bone of the distal finger. A 76-year-old male patient presented with a subungual squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the left distal index finger with bony involvement. The patient refused conventional surgical treatment but agreed to external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). There is a gap in the current literature describing how to successfully immobilize fingers and which EBRT modality is dosimetrically advantageous in treating them. The construction of a simple immobilization method with the patient in a reproducible position is described. The use of photons and electrons were compared ultimately showing photons to be dosimetrically advantageous. Long-term efficacy of the treatment was not evaluated because of patient noncompliance. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Oral squamous cell carcinoma around dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerninski, Rakefet; Kaplan, Ilana; Almoznino, Galit; Maly, Alexander; Regev, Eran

    2006-10-01

    It is well documented that oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is related to risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption as well as premalignant lesions and conditions such as leukoplakia, oral lichen planus (OLP), and previous malignancy of the upper respiratory system and gastrointestinal tract. Osseointegrated dental implants are rarely reported in association with OSCC. This article presents 2 cases of OSCC adjacent to dental implants in patients at risk for oral cancer--1 was a heavy smoker with OLP; the other had a history of previous oral and colon cancer. Six additional cases of malignancy adjacent to dental implants were retrieved from the literature; the majority of cases had at least 1 recognized risk factor for oral cancer. Although such cases are rarely reported, patients at risk for oral cancer, especially those with multiple existing risk factors, that present with failing dental implants should be thoroughly evaluated to rule out the presence of malignancy disguised as peri-implant disease.

  20. Unilateral Blepharoptosis From Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Greco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Blepharoptosis is the drooping or inferior displacement of the upper eyelid. Blepharoptosis can be either congenital or acquired. Tumour metastasis is one of the acquired causes of blepharoptosis. The lungs, locoregional lymph nodes, bone and liver are the usual sites of metastases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC; however, unusual locations of RCC have also been reported. Herein, we describe a case of a 47-year-old man with unilateral ptosis and blurred vision due to metastatic RCC. We describe the different causes of blepharopstosis, the path that led to the diagnosis, and how RCC can metastasize to unusual anatomical regions such as the orbit. Symptoms such as exophthalmos, lid edema, diplopia, ptosis, cranial nerve paralysis or blurred vision may mime a benign disease; however, they could also be the symptoms of a systemic malignancy.

  1. Lupus vulgaris with squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motswaledi, Mojakgomo Hendrick; Doman, Chantal

    2007-12-01

    Tuberculosis is still a significant problem in developing countries. Cutaneous forms of tuberculosis account for approximately 10% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of true infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or because of tuberculids. Tuberculids are immunological reactions to haematogenously spread antigenic components of M. tuberculosis. True cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of inoculation or haematogenous spread of M. tuberculosis to the skin. Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of true cutaneous tuberculosis. Other forms of true cutaneous tuberculosis are tuberculous chancre, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, scrofuloderma, periorificial tuberculosis and miliary tuberculosis of the skin. Lupus vulgaris is usually chronic and progressive. It occurs in patients with moderate to high immunity against M. tuberculosis as evidenced by strongly positive tuberculin test. Long-standing cases of lupus vulgaris may be complicated by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We describe a patient who had undiagnosed lupus vulgaris for 35 years until she developed SCC on the lesion of lupus vulgaris.

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from neglected meningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Abrar A; Raswan, Uday K; Malik, Nayil K; Ramzan, Altaf U; Lone, Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    A neural tube defect (NTD) is a common congenital anomaly with an incidence of 6.57-8.21 per 1000 live births. Patients usually present early because of obvious swelling or due to neurological deficit. However, neglecting the obvious cystic swelling on the back till its transformation into malignant tumor is rare. We describe a case of malignant transformation of meningocele in a 60-year-old man. Magnetic resonance imaging showed sacral meningocele. Neurological examination revealed intact motor and sensory examination with normal bladder and bowel function. There were no signs of meningitis and hydrocephalus. Excision was done and biopsy revealed it as squamous cell carcinoma. Meningocele should be treated early and possibility of malignant change should be kept in mind in neglected cases presenting in adulthood.

  3. Metabolic alterations in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Brunelli, Matteo; Piva, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Bimbatti, Davide; Fantinel, Emanuela; Santini, Daniele; Cheng, Liang; Cascinu, Stefano; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). We analyzed the key metabolic abnormalities underlying RCC carcinogenesis, highlighting those altered pathways that may represent potential targets for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interval Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Ramai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the rectum is a rare clinical entity with an incidence rate of 0.1–0.25% per 1,000 cases. Though its etiology and pathogenesis remains unclear, it has been associated with chronic inflammation and infections. Herein, we report a case of an 82-year-old female who presented with a 2-month history of worsening abdominal pain, hematochezia, and bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy with right-sided purulent discharge. Two years prior, she had had an unremarkable screening colonoscopy which met all quality indicators. Abdominal CT scan showed an irregular rectal mass with bulky pelvic and retroperitoneal adenopathy. Colonoscopy revealed one large circumferential nonobstructing lesion in the rectum. Endoscopic ultrasound confirmed its origin from the rectal wall with an enlarged perirectal lymph node. Cold biopsy followed by histopathology revealed SCC of the rectum.

  5. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    , and to investigate the incidence. We suggest guidelines for treatment. First we reviewed the medical records of 51 patients diagnosed with MCC from 1995 until 2006 in eastern Denmark. The nation-wide incidence of MCC was extracted from the Danish Cancer Registry for the calculations for the period 1986-2003. We......Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark...... reviwed published papers about MCC based on a MEDLINE search. Fourteen of the 51 patients developed recurrence, and 37 (73%) died during the study period. Mean follow-up was 13 months (range 1-122). A total of 153 patients were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry, and showed that incidence rates had...

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast tissue: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens José Pereira; Wilson Garcia Pereira; Luiz Fernando Jubé Ribeiro; Rita de Cássia Alencar; Vera Saddi; Geraldo Silva Queiroz; Ruffo Freitas Júnior

    1999-01-01

    O carcinoma espinocelular do parênquima mamário é um tipo raro de neoplasia, representando menos de 1% de todos os carcinomas mamários. Esse trabalho relata a condução de um caso diagnosticado e tratado no Serviço de Ginecologia e Mama do Hospital Araújo Jorge/ACCG. São discutidos a apresentação clínica, o diagnóstico e o prognóstico destes tumores.Squamous cell carcinoma of the mammary tissue is a very rare neoplasm, representing less than 1% of all breast carcinomas. The present study repor...

  7. Tumor cell budding from focally disrupted tumor capsules: a common pathway for all breast cancer subtype derived invasion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-gao Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically and immnohistochemically distinct subtypes with substantially different prognoses. Our recent studies have suggested that all breast cancer subtypes, however, may share a common pathway, tumor cell budding from focally disrupted tumor capsules, for their invasion. The potential mechanisms and clinical implications of our observations are discussed.

  8. Transitional Bladder Cell Carcinoma Spreading to the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kerkeni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastases from bladder malignancies are rare. We report the case of a 74 year old man who underwent cysto-prostatectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy for a pT3b N+ bladder transitional cell carcinoma. Four months later, he presented with skin disseminated pigmented lesions. Skin biopsy confirmed cutaneous metastasis from urothelial carcinoma.

  9. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of stomach: A rare entity - case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very few case reports of pure squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of stomach are available in the world literature. The exact pathology of this uncommon carcinoma in stomach remains unknown. This is an additional case report of SCC in an elderly female arising in the gastric antrum. She underwent distal gastrectomy, ...

  10. squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in benin city, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the last 1 was a student. The farmers were from the rural areas while the student and engineer were from Benin City (urban). Table I: Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of The Conjunctiva. Sex Age Visual Duration of Tvpe of. Acuity Svmptoms Carcinoma l M 65years NLP 5 years Invasive. 2 M SOyears NLP 5 months Invasive.

  11. Targeting cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He AR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiwu Ruth He,1 Daniel C Smith,1 Lopa Mishra2 1Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: The poor outcome of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is attributed to recurrence of the disease after curative treatment and the resistance of HCC cells to conventional chemotherapy, which may be explained partly by the function of liver cancer stem cells (CSCs. Liver CSCs have emerged as an important therapeutic target against HCC. Numerous surface markers for liver CSCs have been identified, and include CD133, CD90, CD44, CD13, and epithelial cell adhesion molecules. These surface markers serve not only as tools for identifying and isolating liver CSCs but also as therapeutic targets for eradicating these cells. In studies of animal models and large-scale genomic analyses of human HCC samples, many signaling pathways observed in normal stem cells have been found to be altered in liver CSCs, which accounts for the stemness and aggressive behavior of these cells. Antibodies and small molecule inhibitors targeting the signaling pathways have been evaluated at different levels of preclinical and clinical development. Another strategy is to promote the differentiation of liver CSCs to less aggressive HCC that is sensitive to conventional chemotherapy. Disruption of the tumor niche essential for liver CSC homeostasis has become a novel strategy in cancer treatment. To overcome the challenges in developing treatment for liver CSCs, more research into the genetic makeup of patient tumors that respond to treatment may lead to more effective therapy. Standardization of HCC CSC tumor markers would be helpful for measuring the CSC response to these agents. Herein, we review the current strategies for developing treatment to eradicate liver CSCs and to improve the outcome for patients with

  12. Cancer Stem Cells in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Ranui; Tan, Swee T; Itinteang, Tinte

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). CSCs possess the ability for perpetual self-renewal and proliferation, producing downstream progenitor cells and cancer cells that drive tumor growth. Studies of many cancer types including OCSCC have identified CSCs using specific markers, but it is still unclear as to where in the stem cell hierarchy these markers fall. This is compounded further by the presence of multiple CSC subtypes within OCSCC, making investigation reliant on the use of multiple markers. This review examines the current knowledge in CSC markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, ALDH1, phosphorylated STAT3, CD44, CD24, CD133, and Musashi-1, specifically focusing on their use and validity in OCSCC CSC research and how they may be organized into the CSC hierarchy. OCSCC CSCs also express components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which suggests CSCs may be novel therapeutic targets by modulation of the RAS using existing medications.

  13. Differential expression of microRNA501-5p affects the aggressiveness of clear cell renal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangolini, Alessandra; Bonon, Anna; Volinia, Stefano; Lanza, Giovanni; Gambari, Roberto; Pinton, Paolo; Russo, Gian Rosario; del Senno, Laura; Dell’Atti, Lucio; Aguiari, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is a common neoplasia of the adult kidney that accounts for about 3% of adult malignancies. Clear cell renal carcinoma is the most frequent subtype of kidney cancer and 20–40% of patients develop metastases. The absence of appropriate biomarkers complicates diagnosis and prognosis of this disease. In this regard, small noncoding RNAs (microRNAs), which are mutated in several neoplastic diseases including kidney carcinoma, may be optimal candidates as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of this kind of cancer. Here we show that patients with clear cell kidney carcinoma that express low levels of miR501-5p exhibited a good prognosis compared with patients with unchanged or high levels of this microRNA. Consistently, in kidney carcinoma cells the downregulation of miR501-5p induced an increased caspase-3 activity, p53 expression as well as decreased mTOR activation, leading to stimulation of the apoptotic pathway. Conversely, miR501-5p upregulation enhanced the activity of mTOR and promoted both cell proliferation and survival. These biological processes occurred through p53 inactivation by proteasome degradation in a mechanism involving MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination. Our results support a role for miR501-5p in balancing apoptosis and cell survival in clear cell renal carcinoma. In particular, the downregulation of microRNA501-5p promotes a good prognosis, while its upregulation contributes to a poor prognosis, in particular, if associated with p53 and MDM2 overexpression and mTOR activation. Thus, the expression of miR501-5p is a possible biomarker for the prognosis of clear cell renal carcinoma. PMID:25426415

  14. Keap1/Nrf2 pathway in kidney cancer: frequent methylation of KEAP1 gene promoter in clear renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Federico Pio; Costantini, Manuela; Copetti, Massimiliano; la Torre, Annamaria; Sparaneo, Angelo; Fontana, Andrea; Poeta, Luana; Gallucci, Michele; Sentinelli, Steno; Graziano, Paolo; Parente, Paola; Pompeo, Vincenzo; De Salvo, Laura; Simone, Giuseppe; Papalia, Rocco; Picardo, Francesco; Balsamo, Teresa; Flammia, Gerardo Paolo; Trombetta, Domenico; Pantalone, Angela; Kok, Klaas; Paranita, Ferronika; Muscarella, Lucia Anna; Fazio, Vito Michele

    2017-02-14

    The Keap1/Nrf2 pathway is a master regulator of the cellular redox state through the induction of several antioxidant defence genes implicated in chemotherapeutic drugs resistance of tumor cells. An increasing body of evidence supports a key role for Keap1/Nrf2 pathway in kidney diseases and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but data concerning the molecular basis and the clinical effect of its deregulation remain incomplete.Here we present a molecular profiling of the KEAP1 and NFE2L2 genes in five different Renal Cell Carcinoma histotypes by analysing 89 tumor/normal paired tissues (clear cell Renal Carcinoma, ccRCCs; Oncocytomas; Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Type 1, PRCC1; Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Type 2, PRCC2; and Chromophobe Cell Carcinoma).A tumor-specific DNA methylation of the KEAP1 gene promoter region was found as a specific feature of the ccRCC subtype (18/37, 48.6%) and a direct correlation with mRNA levels was confirmed by in vitro 5-azacytidine treatment. Analysis of an independent data set of 481 ccRCC and 265 PRCC tumors corroborates our results and multivariate analysis reveals a significant correlation among ccRCCs epigenetic KEAP1 silencing and staging, grading and overall survival.Our molecular results show for the the first time the epigenetic silencing of KEAP1 promoter as the leading mechanism for modulation of KEAP1 expression in ccRCCs and corroborate the driver role of Keap1/Nrf2 axis deregulation with potential new function as independent epigenetic prognostic marker in renal cell carcinoma.

  15. Radiomic signature as a diagnostic factor for histologic subtype classification of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinzhong; Dong, Di; Chen, Zhendong; Fang, Mengjie; Zhang, Liwen; Song, Jiangdian; Yu, Dongdong; Zang, Yali; Liu, Zhenyu; Shi, Jingyun; Tian, Jie

    2018-02-15

    To distinguish squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) based on a radiomic signature METHODS: This study involved 129 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (81 in the training cohort and 48 in the independent validation cohort). Approximately 485 features were extracted from a manually outlined tumor region. The LASSO logistic regression model selected the key features of a radiomic signature. Receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the performance of the radiomic signature in the training and validation cohorts. Five features were selected to construct the radiomic signature for histologic subtype classification. The performance of the radiomic signature to distinguish between lung ADC and SCC in both training and validation cohorts was good, with an AUC of 0.905 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.838 to 0.971), sensitivity of 0.830, and specificity of 0.929. In the validation cohort, the radiomic signature showed an AUC of 0.893 (95% CI: 0.789 to 0.996), sensitivity of 0.828, and specificity of 0.900. A unique radiomic signature was constructed for use as a diagnostic factor for discriminating lung ADC from SCC. Patients with NSCLC will benefit from the proposed radiomic signature. • Machine learning can be used for auxiliary distinguish in lung cancer. • Radiomic signature can discriminate lung ADC from SCC. • Radiomics can help to achieve precision medical treatment.

  16. Amyloid in basal cell carcinoma and seborrheic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Westermark, Per

    1994-01-01

    The frequency of amyloid substance was studied in two different types of skin tumours: basal cell carcinoma and seborrheic keratosis. In 9 out of 49 cases of seborrheic keratosis amyloid substance was found. In the basal cell carcinomas, 194 out of 260 cases showed amyloid deposits, a rate...... that is higher than that previously reported. The basal cell carcinoma material was further studied regarding the amount of amyloid, mitotic rate, degree of apoptosis and the age of the patients. There was no correlation between the amount of amyloid and the mitotic rate, or the degree of apoptosis...

  17. MANDIBULAR SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladakovic, Izidora; Burnum, Anne; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Kelly, Lisa S; Garner, Bridget C; Holmes, Shannon P; Divers, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    A 23-yr-old female spayed bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with a 1-wk history of hypersalivation. On examination, the right mandible was markedly thickened, the right mandibular dental arcade was missing, and the oral mucosa over the right mandible was ulcerated and thickened. Skull radiographs and fine needle aspirate cytology were supportive of squamous cell carcinoma. The bobcat was euthanized as a result of its poor prognosis. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a bobcat.

  18. Chromosome abnormalities in squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadl-Elmula, I; Gorunova, L; Mandahl, N; Elfving, P; Heim, S

    1998-09-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of short-term cultured cells from a urethral squamous cell carcinoma showed the tumor to have an abnormal, karyotypically complex near-diploid clone as well as its near-tetraploid duplicate. This is the first urethral carcinoma with chromosomal abnormalities to be reported. Chromosomes Y, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, and 20 were all involved in numerical and/or structural rearrangements. Of particular interest was the fact that no rearrangements of chromosomes 9 and 17, both almost ubiquitously involved in transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract, were seen.

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma of temporal bone: four case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Ha; Sung, Ki Joon; Sim, Young; Shim, Sue Yoen; Yoon, Byoung Moon [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    We report the CT findings of four cases of squamous cell carcinoma, paying special attention to the epicenter of the lesion and the pattern of bony destruction. All four patients had a past history of chronic otitis media. Squamous cell carcinoma affected mainly the hypotympanum and inferior wall of the external auditory canal. and in all cases revealed an irregular pattern of bony destruction. Irregular destruction of the tegmen tympani occurred in two cases. In cases of squamous cell carcinoma, CT findings suggesting involvement of the promontory are usually noted. (author)

  20. Is cutaneous leishmaniasis a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, M; Almasri, R; Hamadah, I

    2016-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common epithelial neoplasm of skin. Risk factors for the development of BCC include intermittent intense sun exposure, radiation therapy, family history of BCC, immune suppression and fair complexion, especially red hair. It can originate in scars like small pox, vaccination, chicken pox or surgical scars. We present a case of basal cell carcinoma arising in a leishmania scar on the nose, sixty years after the primary lesion. Although rare, BCC's have arisen in leishmania scars. Thus the possibility of basal cell carcinoma should be considered while dealing with such patients. Even though a causal relationship, if any, cannot be ascertained at present.

  1. Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting with Cutaneous Metastasis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer Onak Kandemir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma is the most common kidney tumor in adults. Cutaneous metastasis is a rare first symptom of the disease. This paper describes the diagnosis of a renal cell carcinoma that was indicated by cutaneous metastasis in the head and neck region, and considers the etiopathogenesis of such cases. A careful skin examination is important to detect cutaneous metastasis associated with renal cell carcinomas. Metastatic skin lesions in the head and neck region must be taken into consideration during a differential diagnosis.

  2. Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting with Cutaneous Metastasis: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onak Kandemir, Nilufer; Barut, Figen; Yılmaz, Kıvanç; Tokgoz, Husnu; Hosnuter, Mubin; Ozdamar, Sukru Oguz

    2010-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common kidney tumor in adults. Cutaneous metastasis is a rare first symptom of the disease. This paper describes the diagnosis of a renal cell carcinoma that was indicated by cutaneous metastasis in the head and neck region, and considers the etiopathogenesis of such cases. A careful skin examination is important to detect cutaneous metastasis associated with renal cell carcinomas. Metastatic skin lesions in the head and neck region must be taken into consideration during a differential diagnosis. PMID:20811607

  3. Investigating the link between molecular subtypes of glioblastoma, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and CD133 cell surface protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Zarkoob

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we use genetic data to provide a three-faceted analysis on the links between molecular subclasses of glioblastoma, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT and CD133 cell surface protein. The contribution of this paper is three-fold: First, we use a newly identified signature for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human mammary epithelial cells, and demonstrate that genes in this signature have significant overlap with genes differentially expressed in all known GBM subtypes. However, the overlap between genes up regulated in the mesenchymal subtype of GBM and in the EMT signature was more significant than other GBM subtypes. Second, we provide evidence that there is a negative correlation between the genetic signature of EMT and that of CD133 cell surface protein, a putative marker for neural stem cells. Third, we study the correlation between GBM molecular subtypes and the genetic signature of CD133 cell surface protein. We demonstrate that the mesenchymal and neural subtypes of GBM have the strongest correlations with the CD133 genetic signature. While the mesenchymal subtype of GBM displays similarity with the signatures of both EMT and CD133, it also exhibits some differences with each of these signatures that are partly due to the fact that the signatures of EMT and CD133 are inversely related to each other. Taken together these data shed light on the role of the mesenchymal transition and neural stem cells, and their mutual interaction, in molecular subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme.

  4. Histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient at 3.0t: Correlation with prognostic factors and subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jeong; Kim, Sung Hun; Park, Ga Eun; Kang, Bong Joo; Song, Byung Joo; Kim, Yun Ju; Lee, Dongeon; Ahn, Hyunsoo; Kim, Inah; Son, Yo Han; Grimm, Robert

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram parameters that show correlations with prognostic factors and subtypes of breast cancer. At 3.0T, various ADC histogram parameters were calculated including the entire tumor volume in 173 invasive ductal carcinomas: the minimum, 10th percentile, mean, median, 90th percentile, and maximum. ADC parameters were correlated with prognostic factors and subtype. The mean ADCmedian value was significantly higher in the group with lymph node metastasis, HER2 positivity, and a Ki-67 value correlation between ADCmedian and tumor size, histologic grade, estrogen receptor expression, and progesterone receptor expression (P = 0.272, 0.113, 0.261, and 0.181, respectively). For most ADC parameters except for ADCmin , the mean of variable ADC parameters of HER2-positive, luminal A, luminal B-HER2(+), triple-negative, and luminal B-HER2(-) diseases were arranged in descending order (1.175, 0.936, 0.863, 0.811, and 0.665 × 10(-3) mm(2) /s in ADCmedian , respectively) with statistical significant difference (P coefficient = -0.317). Various ADC parameters were correlated with prognostic factors and subtype, except for ADCmin . HER2 positivity showed high ADC values and high Ki-67 index revealed low ADC values. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Detection of squamous carcinoma cells using gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei-Yun; Lee, Sze-tsen; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study is to use gold nanoparticle as a diagnostic agent to detect human squamous carcinoma cells. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized and the gold nanoparticle size was 34.3 ± 6.2 nm. Based on the over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) biomarkers in squamous carcinoma cells, we hypothesized that EGFR could be a feasible biomarker with a target moiety for detection. We further modified polyclonal antibodies of EGFR on the surface of gold nanoparticles. We found selected squamous carcinoma cells can be selectively detected using EGFR antibody-modified gold nanoparticles via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Cell death was also examined to determine the survival status of squamous carcinoma cells with respect to gold nanoparticle treatment and EGFR polyclonal antibody modification.

  6. Giant cells glioblastoma: case report and pathological analysis from this uncommon subtype of glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsuzarri, Telmo A B; Araujo, João F M; Catanoce, Aguinaldo P; Neves, Maick W F; Sola, Rodrigo A S; Navarro, Juliano N; Brito, Leandro G; Silva, Nilton R; Pontelli, Luis Otavio C; Mattos, Luiz Gustavo A; Gonçales, Tiago F; Zeviani, Wolnei M; Marques, Renata M B

    2015-02-11

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common glial tumor of the brain system; nevertheless, the giant cell (GC) subtype is uncommon. Recent reviews report for an incidence of 1% in adults and 3% in children. The GCs usually have a better prognosis than GBM and also an increasing long-term survival rate. It is known that the diagnosis of this tumor is due to its histological findings and patterns, such as the unusual increased number of giant cells. Unfortunately, due to its rarity, the immunohistochemical and cytogenetical analysis of this tumor is not well known. Some authors also suggest that there are few subtypes of GCs and their patterns of aggressiveness could be due to cytogenetical markers. It is recognized that maximum safe resection treatment and adjuvant radiotherapy can improve survival rate (5-13 months) similar to GBM patients.

  7. Giant cells glioblastoma: case report and pathological analysis from this uncommon subtype of glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo A.B. Belsuzarri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common glial tumor of the brain system; nevertheless, the giant cell (GC subtype is uncommon. Recent reviews report for an incidence of 1% in adults and 3% in children. The GCs usually have a better prognosis than GBM and also an increasing long-term survival rate. It is known that the diagnosis of this tumor is due to its histological findings and patterns, such as the unusual increased number of giant cells. Unfortunately, due to its rarity, the immunohistochemical and cytogenetical analysis of this tumor is not well known. Some authors also suggest that there are few subtypes of GCs and their patterns of aggressiveness could be due to cytogenetical markers. It is recognized that maximum safe resection treatment and adjuvant radiotherapy can improve survival rate (5-13 months similar to GBM patients.

  8. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: micro-RNA expression profiling and comparison with clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Enrico; Marchionni, Luigi; Chitre, Apurva; Hayashi, Masamichi; Martignoni, Guido; Brunelli, Matteo; Gobbo, Stefano; Argani, Pedram; Allaf, Mohamad; Hoque, Mohammad O; Netto, George J

    2014-06-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a low-grade renal neoplasm with morphological characteristics mimicking both clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). However, despite some overlapping features, their morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular profiles are distinct. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression and are involved in various biological processes, including cancer development. To better understand the biology of this tumor, we aimed to analyze the miRNA expression profile of a set of CCPRCC using microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A total of 15 cases diagnosed as CCPRCC were used in this study. Among the most differentially expressed miRNA in CCPRCC, we found miR-210, miR-122, miR-34a, miR-21, miR-34b*, and miR-489 to be up-regulated, whereas miR-4284, miR-1202, miR-135a, miR-1973, and miR-204 were down-regulated compared with normal renal parenchyma. To identify consensus of differentially regulated miRNA between CCPRCC, CCRCC, and PRCC, we additionally determined differential miRNA expression using 2 publically available microarray data sets from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE41282 and GSE3798). This comparison revealed that the miRNA expression profile of CCPRCC shows some overlapping characteristics between CCRCC and PRCC. Moreover, CCPRCC lacks dysregulation of important miRNAs typically associated with aggressive behavior. In summary, we describe the miRNA expression profile of a relatively infrequent type of renal cancer. Our results may help in understanding the molecular underpinning of this newly recognized entity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinicopathological evaluation of radiation induced basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meibodi Naser

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of skin neoplasms is one of the most important chronic complications of radiation therapy. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent carcinoma occurring at the region of the body to which radiotherapy was delivered. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and histological aspects of basal cell carcinoma in patients with a history of radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Medical records and microscopic slides of 80 patients with basal cell carcinoma who had received radiotherapy (1996-2006 were reviewed in pathology department of Imam Reza hospital of Mashhad, Iran. Collected data were analyzed statistically using descriptive test. Results: 60 men and 20 women were included, majority of them in their sixties. Plaque was the most common clinical pattern of basal cell carcinoma. Fifty one percent of the patients had pigmented and 42.5% had multiple lesions. Scalp was the most common site of involvement. Histologically, macronodular and pigmented carcinoma were the most predominant forms of basal cell carcinoma. Discussion: Majority of patients had scalp involvement and multiple lesions. Nodular and pigmented forms were the most common histological findings. We suggest the need for close supervision in patients with a history of radio therapy in the past.

  10. Primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jima; Liang, Jun; Wang, Jinwan; Wang, Luhua; He, Jie; Xiao, Zefen; Yin, Weibo

    2008-12-01

    Primary small cell esophageal carcinoma (SCEC) is a rare and aggressive disease for which there is no recommended standard treatment at this time. A total of 126 patients with SCEC, diagnosed histologically between May 1985 and June 2005 at our institution, were analyzed retrospectively. All were staged according to the Veterans' Administration Lung Study Group staging system. The TNM system for esophageal carcinoma (6th edition, American Joint Committee on Cancer) was also used for those who underwent esophagectomies. SPSS (10.0) software was used for statistical analysis. Cox's hazard regression model was performed to identify prognostic factors. The Kaplan-Meier and log-rank methods were used to estimate and compare survival rates. The chi2 test was performed to examine frequencies between different groups. Through a median follow-up of 13 months, 108 patients died, 10 were alive, and 8 were lost to follow-up. Of the entire study population, the overall median survival time (MST) and 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 12.5 months and 52.2%, 15.9%, and 12.2%, respectively. For limited disease, the MST and 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates were 14.0 months and 62.1%, 30.8%, and 22.4%, respectively; for extensive disease, the respective values were 7.0 months and 29.3%, 13.6%, and 2.7% (p = 0.0001). The MST of 14.5 months for cases who received chemotherapy was superior to that of 5.2 months for cases who did not (p = 0.0001). Tumor stage, length of the primary lesion, and chemotherapy, but not surgery were independent prognostic factors in a multivariate analysis. SCEC is systemic disease. Tumor stage and chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors. Systemic therapy, based on chemotherapy with radiotherapy, is recommended.

  11. Renal cell carcinoma: evolving approaches to advanced non-clear cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Y.C. Heng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC has changed dramatically with the introduction of targeted therapies including sunitinib, sorafenib, and temsirolimus. Because patients with conventional clear cell histology account for 75- 80% of all patients with RCC, there has been little accumulated evidence on the treatment of patients with non-clear cell histologies. Most clinical trials have excluded them from enrolment, except for randomized studies investigating temsirolimus. Many retrospective studies on the use of all three of these targeted therapies in patients with non-clear cell histology have demonstrated response rates ranging from 3.7%–16%. Although response rates may not be as high compared to patients with clear cell histologies, targeted therapy does provide a clinically meaningful response.

  12. Unclassified Renal Cell Carcinoma With Medullary Phenotype Versus Renal Medullary Carcinoma: Lessons From Diagnosis in an Italian Man Found to Harbor Sickle Cell Trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Smith, Steven C; Massa, Simona; Renne, Salvatore L; Brambilla, Simona; Peschechera, Roberto; Graziotti, Pierpaolo; Roncalli, Massimo; Amin, Mahul B

    2015-11-01

    Medullary carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor of the kidney. It affects individuals of African descent and all cases reported show evidence of sickle cell trait. We reviewed an unusual carcinoma arising in a white man, the ninth in the literature. The tumor demonstrated features associated with renal medullary carcinoma, or unclassified renal cell carcinoma, medullary phenotype as recently described; the presence of sickle cell trait confirmed the diagnosis of medullary carcinoma. This case is helpful in the differential diagnosis with non-sickle cell associated "renal cell carcinoma, unclassified with medullary phenotype," and study of this spectrum of tumors is ongoing.

  13. Extensive Presentation of Penile Carcinoma Cuniculatum a Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Low Malignant Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohabe A. Vinson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma cuniculatum is an uncommon variation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC has been documented in a few cases at various locations of the body such as penis, foot, jaw, oropharynx and esophagus. In this case, a 79-year-old male presents with a penile mass, which he underwent a total penectomy. Histology of the mass was defined as carcinoma cuniculatum with negative margins and no lymphovascular invasion. This variant of SCC rarely metastasizes. A joint decision was made to observe lymph nodes. It is important to differentiate the different SCC because patient care can be guided based on the pathology.

  14. Sorafenib Tosylate, Cisplatin, and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  15. Carcinoma espinocelular de reto: relato de caso Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Magalhães Lopes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O Carcinoma Espinocelular de Reto é entidade extremamente rara e seu comportamento biológico permanece desconhecido. O tratamento pode variar entre radio e quimioterapia isoladamente ou complementar ao tratamento cirúrgico. Relatamos caso de carcinoma espinocelular de reto superior, tratado com radio e quimioterapia, com regressão total da lesão.Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is a extremely rare neoplasm and its biological behavior remains unknown. Treatment varies from surgery with and without adjuvant therapy to chemotherapy and radiotherapy alone. We present a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the superior rectum who underwent chemo and radiotherapy exclusively, with total regression of the tumor.

  16. An infrequent histopathological subtype of ameloblastoma: Adenoid granular cell ameloblastoma with dentinoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanshah Salehinejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid ameloblastoma with dentinoid is a rare odontogenic tumor. Granular cell ameloblastoma also is a less common histological subtype of ameloblastoma. In this report, the patient was a 31-year-old male. The lesion was located in the right mandible and was unicystic with well-defined borders. The tumor tissue was showing a combination of follicular, plexiform, and desmoplastic patterns of ameloblastoma with wide areas of granular cells, fibrous stroma, glandular pattern, and dentinoid calcified. Very few cases of distinct forms of ameloblastoma that show the formation of dentinoid has been reported. However, there are no cases of adenoid granular cell ameloblastoma with dentinoid reported.

  17. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2008-11-25

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies). Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm) are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull) are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5-10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling). Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome). Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser ablation, photodynamic

  18. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  19. Granulosa Cell Tumor-like Variant of Endometrioid Carcinoma of the Ovary with Osseous Metaplasia: Report of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Mardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The sex cord-like variant of endometrioid carcinoma is a rare subtype with a close histological resemblance to the sex cord-stromal tumor of the ovaries, in particular the Sertoli cell tumor. However, very few cases of the granulosa cell tumor-like variant have been reported since it is commonly misdiagnosed as a granulose cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry is useful in the diagnosis of these tumors as they are typically negative for inhibin alpha. We herein describe the histological and immunohistochemical features of a rare case of granulosa cell tumor-like variant of endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary with extensive areas of hyalinization, calcification and osseous metaplasia in a 45-year-old female patient.

  20. Subtypes of type I IFN differentially enhance cytokine expression by suboptimally stimulated CD4(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Philippa; Raviv, Nataly; Gold, Doria M; Dougherty, Danielle; Liu, Jie; Johnson, Teresa R; Graham, Barney S; Rabin, Ronald L

    2013-12-01

    Human type I interferons (IFNs) include IFN-β and 12 subtypes of IFN-α. During viral infection, infiltrating memory CD4(+) T cells are exposed to IFNs, but their impact on memory T-cell function is poorly understood. To address this, we pretreated PBMCs with different IFNs for 16 h before stimulation with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B and measured cytokine expression by flow cytometry. IFN-α8 and -α10 most potently enhanced expression of IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-4. Potency among the subtypes differed most at doses between 10 and 100 U/mL. While enhancement of IL-2 and IL-4 correlated with the time of preincubation with type I IFN, IFN-γ production was enhanced best when IFN-α was added immediately preceding or simultaneously with T-cell stimulation. Comparison of T-cell responses to multiple doses of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B and to peptide libraries from RSV or CMV demonstrated that IFN-α best enhanced cytokine expression when CD4(+) T cells were suboptimally stimulated. We conclude that type I IFNs enhance Th1 and Th2 function with dose dependency and subtype specificity, and best when T-cell stimulation is suboptimal. While type I IFNs may beneficially enhance CD4(+) T-cell memory responses to vaccines or viral pathogens, they may also enhance the function of resident Th2 cells and exacerbate allergic inflammation. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Response of subtype specific human breast cancer-derived cells to PARP and Chk1 inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hidetaka; Miuma, Satoshi; Saldivar, Joshua C.; Huebner, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Summary When DNA damage is detected, checkpoint signal networks are activated to stop the cell cycle, and DNA repair processes begin. Inhibitory compounds targeting components of DNA damage response pathways have been identified and are being used in clinical trials, in combination with chemotherapeutic agents, to enhance cancer therapy. Inhibitors of checkpoint kinases, Chk1 and Chk2, have been shown to sensitize tumor cells to DNA damaging agents, and treatment of BRCA1/2-deficient tumor cells, as well as triple negative breast cancers, with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors has shown promise. But systematic studies to determine which tumor subtypes are likely to respond to these specific inhibitors have not been reported. The current study was designed to test sensitivity of specific breast cancer subtype-derived cells to two classes of these new inhibitory drugs, PARP and Chk1 inhibitors. Luminal, HER2 over-expressing and triple negative breast cancer-derived cells were tested for sensitivity to killing by PARP inhibitors, ABT-888 and BSI-201, and Chk1 inhibitor, PF-00477736, alone or in combination with gemcitabine or carboplatin. Each of the triple negative breast cancer cell lines showed strong sensitivity to the Chk1 inhibitor, but only the BRCA1-deficient breast cancer cell lines showed sensitivity to the PARP inhibitors, suggesting that in vitro testing of cancer cell lines of specific subtypes, with panels of the different PARP and Chk1 inhibitors, will contribute to stratification of patients for clinical trials using these classes of inhibitors. PMID:21707865

  2. Contribution of constitutively proliferating precursor cell subtypes to dentate neurogenesis after cortical infarcts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberland Julia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that focal ischemia increases neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation but the cellular mechanisms underlying this proliferative response are only poorly understood. We here investigated whether precursor cells which constitutively proliferate before the ischemic infarct contribute to post-ischemic neurogenesis. To this purpose, transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the nestin promoter received repetitive injections of the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU prior to induction of cortical infarcts. We then immunocytochemically analyzed the fate of these BrdU-positive precursor cell subtypes from day 4 to day 28 after the lesion. Results Quantification of BrdU-expressing precursor cell populations revealed no alteration in number of radial glia-like type 1 cells but a sequential increase of later precursor cell subtypes in lesioned animals (type 2a cells at day 7, type 3 cells/immature neurons at day 14. These alterations result in an enhanced survival of mature neurons 4 weeks postinfarct. Conclusions Focal cortical infarcts recruit dentate precursor cells generated already before the infarct and significantly contribute to an enhanced neurogenesis. Our findings thereby increase our understanding of the complex cellular mechanisms of postlesional neurogenesis.

  3. Ovarian Small Cell Carcinoma Hypercalcemic Type: A Case Report

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rahma, M B.

    2016-09-01

    A 31-year-old female was diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the ovary hypercalcaemic type (OSCCHT) post left oophorectomy. This is a rare aggressive ovarian tumour of which less than 300 cases were reported.

  4. Lactic acidosis and small cell carcinoma of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriff, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    Two patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung who presented with lactic acidosis are described. Hepatocellular failure due to extensive metastases may be the cause of acute lactic acidosis. PMID:3012499

  5. [Paraneoplastic syndromes in three patients with renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffens, M.G.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Mulders, P.F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed in three male patients, 45, 53 and 52 years of age. In addition, they had paraneoplastic symptoms: hypercalcaemia, hyperglycaemia and elevated hepatic enzyme levels, respectively. All three patients underwent tumour nephrectomy, after which the paraneoplastic

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranu Patni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare condition and usually arises in mature cystic teratoma (MCT or dermoid cyst of the ovary. The reported incidence of malignant transformation in MCT is approximately 2%. A case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a dermoid cyst of the ovary presenting at an early stage is presented here. A 53-year-old postmenopausal lady, presented with the complaint of pain in right lower abdomen since one month and a large complex abdomino-pelvic mass on examination and investigations. Final histopathology was reported as squamous cell carcinoma of left ovary arising from dermoid cyst and a benign dermoid cyst in the right ovary. The patient was assigned to squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary arising in a mature cystic teratoma, surgical stage Ic2. In view of the poor prognosis, adjuvant chemotherapy was started.

  7. Renal cell carcinoma in pregnancy: Still a management challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akpayak, I.C; Shuiabu, S.I; Ofoha, C.G; Dakum, N.K; Ramyil, V.M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Renal cell carcinoma during pregnancy is uncommon. We present a rare case, highlighting the dilemma faced by the patient and the challenge of deciding the appropriate management option. Patient...

  8. A case of renal cell carcinoma and angiomyolipoma in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. We describe a case of renal cell carcinoma in the right kidney together with an angiomyolipoma in the left kidney, encountered in an adolescent girl at Potchefstroom Provincial Hospital, North West Province, South Africa.

  9. Understanding Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common form of kidney cancer in adults, is not a single disease but rather a collection of different tumor types driven by distinct genetic changes that arise within the same tissue.

  10. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a unique disease on the rise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Monsjou, Hester S.; Balm, Alfons J. M.; van den Brekel, Michiel M.; Wreesmann, Volkert B.

    2010-01-01

    Despite successful efforts to control tobacco and alcohol consumption in the western world, several developed countries report rising oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) incidence figures, specifically in young individuals. Similar to anogenital cancers, a significant proportion of OPSCC

  11. Genetics Home Reference: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Squamous cell carcinoma is a cancer that arises ... that infection with certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) is linked to the development of HNSCC. HPV ...

  12. New agents in treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jakub Zolnierek; Pawel Nurzynski; Piotr Rzepecki

    2007-01-01

      As renal cell carcinoma appears to be resistant to conventional treatment modalities and results of cytokine-based immunotherapy are far from satisfactory, there is desperate need for new active agents to be discovered...

  13. Wnt Signaling in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC accounts for 90% of all kidney cancers. Due to poor diagnosis, high resistance to the systemic therapies and the fact that most RCC cases occur sporadically, current research switched its focus on studying the molecular mechanisms underlying RCC. The aim is the discovery of new effective and less toxic anti-cancer drugs and novel diagnostic markers. Besides the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, HGF/Met and VHL/hypoxia cellular signaling pathways, the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in RCC is commonly studied. Wnt signaling and its targeted genes are known to actively participate in different biological processes during embryonic development and renal cancer. Recently, studies have shown that targeting this pathway by alternating/inhibiting its intracellular signal transduction can reduce cancer cells viability and inhibit their growth. The targets and drugs identified show promising potential to serve as novel RCC therapeutics and prognostic markers. This review aims to summarize the current status quo regarding recent research on RCC focusing on the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and how its understanding could facilitate the identification of potential therapeutic targets, new drugs and diagnostic biomarkers.

  14. Mutational Analysis of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erstad, Derek J. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Cusack, James C. Jr., E-mail: jcusack@mgh.harvard.edu [Division of Surgical Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2014-10-17

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine malignancy that is associated with a poor prognosis. The pathogenesis of MCC is not well understood, and despite a recent plethora of mutational analyses, we have yet to find a set of signature mutations implicated in the majority of cases. Mutations, including TP53, Retinoblastoma and PIK3CA, have been documented in subsets of patients. Other mechanisms are also likely at play, including infection with the Merkel cell polyomavirus in a subset of patients, dysregulated immune surveillance, epigenetic alterations, aberrant protein expression, posttranslational modifications and microRNAs. In this review, we summarize what is known about MCC genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities, and their clinical significance. We also examine aberrant protein function and microRNA expression, and discuss the therapeutic and prognostic implications of these findings. Multiple clinical trials designed to selectively target overexpressed oncogenes in MCC are currently underway, though most are still in early phases. As we accumulate more molecular data on MCC, we will be better able to understand its pathogenic mechanisms, develop libraries of targeted therapies, and define molecular prognostic signatures to enhance our clinicopathologic knowledge.

  15. Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Immunosuppressed Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Janice E. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Brewer, Jerry D., E-mail: brewer.jerry@mayo.edu [Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2014-06-27

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous malignancy. The infectivity of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), an apparent agent in MCC development, may be exacerbated with impaired immune responses. This paper reviews relevant data regarding the role of immunosuppression in the development of MCC and describes modes of immunodeficient states. Because of the inherently low incidence rate of MCC, several case studies and series are also briefly mentioned to provide a more comprehensive summary of MCC in the setting of immunosuppression. We describe immunosuppressed patients who have experienced excessive UV radiation, organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus infection/AIDS, autoimmune diseases, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Iatrogenic forms of immunosuppression are also highlighted. Studies that quantify risks consistently report that individuals with a history of solid organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases, AIDS, and/or lymphoproliferative diseases have a significantly elevated risk of developing MCC. Overall, immunocompromised patients also appear to have an early onset and more aggressive course of MCC, with poorer outcomes. Recommendations for multidisciplinary approaches are proposed to effectively prevent and manage MCC in these patients.

  16. Breast carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum, L M; Lauridsen, M C; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2001-01-01

    Primary carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells is a very rare tumour of the female breast. The clinical course, histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of 61 cases of invasive duct carcinoma with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells (OMGCs) are reviewed and a new...... in the literature have shown that 86% of patients with these tumours are still alive after 5 years. Histologically, these tumours are invasive ductal carcinomas with OMGCs next to the neoplastic glands and within their lumen. Signs of recent and past haemorrhage are ubiquitously present in the highly vascularized...

  17. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang

    2017-03-01

    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1‑ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (Pepithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry detection showed that 67.03% of cells in recombinant plasmid group was blocked in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05), compared with empty plasmid group (37.17%) and blank control group (38.24%). Apoptotic rate of recombinant plasmid group was significantly lower (31.4±1.9%; P<0.05), compared with that of empty plasmid group (9.1±2.2%) and blank control group (8.7±1.5%), and the differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, ELF5 interfered with cell cycle of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma.

  18. Targeting Strategies for Renal Cell Carcinoma: From Renal Cancer Cells to Renal Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zhi-xiang; Mo, Jingxin; Zhao, Guixian; Shu, Gang; Fu, Hua-Lin; Wei ZHAO

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common form of urologic tumor that originates from the highly heterogeneous epithelium of renal tubules. Over the last decade, targeting therapies to renal cancer cells have transformed clinical care for RCC. Recently, it was proposed that renal cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from renal carcinomas were responsible for driving tumor growth and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, according to the theory of CSCs; this has provided the rati...

  19. Autopsy case of squamous cell carcinoma arising from pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saijo, Noboru; Maeda, Ken (Rumoi City General Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)); Kita, Shinichiro; Ishigaki, Seishi; Sone, Hisao

    1983-02-01

    An 80-year-old male patient was admitted complaining of abdominal mass. The mass showed a large doughnut shape in scintigraphy with /sup 67/Ga and a honeycomb appearance in abdominal echography. Continuous fever, ascitis and anuria caused the patient to be inoperable and death occurred. Postmortem examination revealed a rare case of squamous cell carcinoma arising from pancreas. Diagnosis for the squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas was discussed in this paper.

  20. Acinic Cell Carcinoma in Minor Salivary Glands of Retromolar

    OpenAIRE

    KOYUNCU, Mehmet; Atmaca, Sinan; Bedri KANDEMİR; ÇAKIL, Bünyamin

    2009-01-01

    Acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumor of the salivary glands. ACC of the minor salivary glands is very rare. In the oral cavity, minor salivary gland tumors are rarely seen in the inferior anatomic regions like the retromolar trigone and the floor of mouth compared to the superior regions like the palate. We present a retromolar trigone ACC, a rare location in the oral cavity and discuss the relevant reports in the literature. Key words: Acinic cell carcinoma, minor salivar...

  1. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome and Hairy Skin Patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notay, Manisha; Kamangar, Faranak; Awasthi, Smita; Fazel, Nasim

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of an increasing number of discrete patches of darkly pigmented terminal hair in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This case adds to a small case series of three patients which have previously reported this observation. We report this case to highlight hairy patches as an important clinical feature associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome; Naevoid Basalzellkarzinom-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grgic, A.; Heinrich, M.; Heckmann, M.; Kramann, B. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Aliani, S. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin; Dill-Mueller, D. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Hautklinik und Poliklinik; Uder, M. [Erlange-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2005-07-01

    Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar/plantar pits, calcification of the falx cerebri, and spine and rib anomalies. The combination of clinical, imaging, and histological findings is helpful in identifying NBCCS patients. Imaging plays a crucial role in evaluation of these patients. We present a wide variety of clinical and radiological findings characteristic of this disease. (orig.)

  3. Targeted therapy for orbital and periocular basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Vivian T; Pfeiffer, Margaret L; Esmaeli, Bita

    2013-01-01

    To review the literature on targeted therapy for orbital and periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and provide examples of patients recently treated with such therapy. The authors reviewed the literature on clinical results of targeted therapy and the molecular basis for targeted therapy in orbital and periocular BCC and cutaneous SCC. The authors also present representative cases from their practice. Mutation in the patched 1 gene (PTCH1) has been implicated in BCC, and overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown in SCC. Vismodegib, an inhibitor of smoothened, which is activated upon binding of hedgehog to Ptc, has been shown to significantly decrease BCC tumor size or even produce complete resolution, especially in cases of basal cell nevus syndrome. Similarly, EGFR inhibitors have been shown to significantly decrease SCC tumor size in cases of locally advanced and metastatic disease. The authors describe successful outcomes after vismodegib treatment in a patient with basal cell nevus syndrome with numerous bulky lesions of the eyelid and periocular region and erlotinib (EGFR inhibitor) treatment in a patient with SCC who was deemed not to be a good surgical candidate because of advanced SCC of the orbit with metastasis to the regional lymph nodes, advanced age, and multiple medical comorbidities. Targeted therapy using hedgehog pathway and EGFR inhibitors shows significant promise in treatment of orbital and periocular BCC and cutaneous SCC, respectively. Such targeted therapy may be appropriate for patients who are not good candidates for surgery.

  4. Expression analysis of Wnt-5a in renal epithelial neoplasms: distinguishing renal oncocytoma from a wide spectrum of renal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qiu; Liu, Xiao-hong; Zhou, Hang-bo; Ma, Heng-hui; Lu, Zhen-feng; Zhou, Xiao-jun

    2010-01-01

    To study the expression of a novel marker, Wnt-5a, in renal epithelial neoplasms and determine its clinicopathological significance. Immunohistochemical analysis of Wnt-5a was carried out in normal human kidney samples as well as in 123 primary renal epithelial neoplasms including 37 clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), 24 papillary RCCs (15 type 1 and 9 type 2), 25 chromophobe RCCs, 11 Xp11 translocation carcinomas, 6 mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinomas, and 20 oncocytomas. Wnt-5a was expressed in 18.9% (7/37) of clear cell RCCs, 12.5% (3/24) of papillary RCCs, 16% (4/25) of chromophobe RCCs, 18.2% (2/11) of Xp11 translocation carcinomas, 0% (0/6) of mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinomas, and 100% (20/20) of oncocytomas. There was a significant difference in Wnt-5a immunohistochemistry between renal oncocytoma and the other subtypes of RCC (P oncocytoma and other subtypes of RCC and also suggest that Wnt-5a may be a tumor suppressor gene in RCC.

  5. An integrated inspection of the somatic mutations in a lung squamous cell carcinoma using next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy F Stead

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the lung kills over 350,000 people annually worldwide, and is the main lung cancer histotype with no targeted treatments. High-coverage whole-genome sequencing of the other main subtypes, small-cell and adenocarcinoma, gave insights into carcinogenic mechanisms and disease etiology. The genomic complexity within the lung SCC subtype, as revealed by The Cancer Genome Atlas, means this subtype is likely to benefit from a more integrated approach in which the transcriptional consequences of somatic mutations are simultaneously inspected. Here we present such an approach: the integrated analysis of deep sequencing data from both the whole genome and whole transcriptome (coding and non-coding of LUDLU-1, a SCC lung cell line. Our results show that LUDLU-1 lacks the mutational signature that has been previously associated with tobacco exposure in other lung cancer subtypes, and suggests that DNA-repair efficiency is adversely affected; LUDLU-1 contains somatic mutations in TP53 and BRCA2, allelic imbalance in the expression of two cancer-associated BRCA1 germline polymorphisms and reduced transcription of a potentially endogenous PARP2 inhibitor. Functional assays were performed and compared with a control lung cancer cell line. LUDLU-1 did not exhibit radiosensitisation or an increase in sensitivity to PARP inhibitors. However, LUDLU-1 did exhibit small but significant differences with respect to cisplatin sensitivity. Our research shows how integrated analyses of high-throughput data can generate hypotheses to be tested in the lab.

  6. Histological, Immunohistological, and Clinical Features of Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Correlation to Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jaeger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, but highly malignant tumor of the skin with high rates of metastasis and poor survival. Its incidence rate rises and is currently about 0.6/100000/year. Clinical differential diagnoses include basal cell carcinoma, cyst, amelanotic melanoma, lymphoma and atypical fibroxanthoma. In this review article clinical, histopathological and immunhistochemical features of Merkel cell carcinoma are reported. In addition, the role of Merkel cell polyomavirus is discussed.

  7. Cutaneous squamous and neuroendocrine carcinoma: genetically and immunohistochemically different from Merkel cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulitzer, Melissa P; Brannon, A Rose; Berger, Michael F; Louis, Peter; Scott, Sasinya N; Jungbluth, Achim A; Coit, Daniel G; Brownell, Isaac; Busam, Klaus J

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma most often arises de novo in the background of a clonally integrated virus, the Merkel cell polyomavirus, and is notable for positive expression of retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) protein and low expression of p53 compared with the rare Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinomas. Combined squamous and Merkel cell tumors are consistently negative for Merkel cell polyomavirus. Little is known about their immunophenotypic or molecular profile. Herein, we studied 10 combined cutaneous squamous cell and neuroendocrine carcinomas for immunohistochemical expression of p53, retinoblastoma 1 protein, neurofilament, p63, and cytokeratin 20 (CK20). We compared mutation profiles of five combined Merkel cell carcinomas and seven ‘pure’ Merkel cell carcinomas using targeted next-generation sequencing. Combined tumors were from the head, trunk, and leg of Caucasian males and one female aged 52–89. All cases were highly p53- and p63-positive and neurofilament-negative in the squamous component, whereas RB1-negative in both components. Eight out of 10 were p53-positive, 3/10 p63-positive, and 3/10 focally neurofilament-positive in the neuroendocrine component. Six out of 10 were CK20-positive in any part. By next-generation sequencing, combined tumors were highly mutated, with an average of 48 mutations per megabase compared with pure tumors, which showed 1.25 mutations per megabase. RB1 and p53 mutations were identified in all five combined tumors. Combined tumors represent an immunophenotypically and genetically distinct variant of primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinomas, notable for a highly mutated genetic profile, significant p53 expression and/or mutation, absent RB1 expression in the context of increased RB1 mutation, and minimal neurofilament expression. PMID:26022453

  8. Gramicidin A induces metabolic dysfunction and energy depletion leading to cell death in renal cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Justin M; Owens, Tori A; Barwe, Sonali P; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K

    2013-11-01

    Ionophores are lipid-soluble organic molecules that disrupt cellular transmembrane potential by rendering biologic membranes permeable to specific ions. They include mobile-carriers that complex with metal cations and channel-formers that insert into the membrane to form hydrophilic pores. Although mobile-carriers possess anticancer properties, investigations on channel-formers are limited. Here, we used the channel-forming ionophore gramicidin A to study its effects on the growth and survival of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells. RCC is a histologically heterogeneous malignancy that is highly resistant to conventional treatments. We found that gramicidin A reduced the in vitro viability of several RCC cell lines at submicromolar concentrations (all IC50 cells regardless of histologic subtype or the expression of either the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene or its downstream target, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Gramicidin A decreased cell viability equal to or greater than the mobile-carrier monensin depending on the cell line. Mechanistic examination revealed that gramicidin A blocks ATP generation by inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, leading to cellular energy depletion and nonapoptotic cell death. Finally, gramicidin A effectively reduced the growth of RCC tumor xenografts in vivo. These results show a novel application of gramicidin A as a potential therapeutic agent for RCC therapy. ©2013 AACR.

  9. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  10. Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma With Borderline Features of Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma: Combined Morphologic, Immunohistochemical, and Cytogenetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean R; Gupta, Nilesh S; Eble, John N; Rogers, Craig G; Michalowski, Susan; Zhang, Shaobo; Wang, Mingsheng; Grignon, David J; Cheng, Liang

    2015-11-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma is increasingly recognized as a distinct tumor with unique morphology, immunohistochemistry, and cytogenetics. Histopathology often mimics clear cell renal cell carcinoma; however, metastasis has not been reported, emphasizing the clinical value of recognizing these likely nonaggressive tumors. We studied tumors with borderline morphology of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, utilizing immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization or karyotyping. Tumors from 22 patients (ages 33 to 82 y) were analyzed. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma-like morphology varied from 10% to 90% of the tumor (median 25%). Sources of resemblance included: branched glands (95%), nuclear alignment (68%), small papillary tufts (32%), focal branching papillae (27%), and prominent papillary structures (9%). Carbonic anhydrase IX uniformly revealed diffuse positivity. Staining for cytokeratin 7 (CK7) was focal (64%) or negative (18%) in most tumors (82%); however, >50% labeling was present in 4 (18%). Reactivity for both CD10 and α-methyl-acyl-CoA-racemase (AMACR) was usually present (median 80% and 60% of cells). Seven tumors showed reactivity for high-molecular weight keratin (32%). Chromosome 3p loss was confirmed in 15 tumors (68%), including 4/7 with labeling for high-molecular weight keratin or >50% reactivity for CK7. A discordant immunohistochemical pattern typically correlates with loss of material from chromosome 3p in tumors with incomplete morphology of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, supporting classification as clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Diffuse labeling for CK7 can uncommonly be observed in clear cell renal cell carcinomas confirmed to have chromosome 3p loss, although these do not exhibit the expected staining pattern of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, including positivity for CD10 and AMACR.

  11. A Grading System Combining Tumor Budding and Nuclear Diameter Predicts Prognosis in Resected Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Miyai, Yumi; Katsuki, Naomi; Kushida, Yoshio; Matsunaga, Toru; Okuda, Masaya; Yokomise, Hiroyasu; Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Bandoh, Shuji; Haba, Reiji

    2017-06-01

    For lung squamous cell carcinomas, there are no histologic findings that have been universally accepted as prognostic factors. Tumor budding and nuclear grade have been recognized as prognostic factors in other carcinomas. In this study, we investigated whether pathologic findings could determine clinical outcome in Japanese patients with lung squamous cell carcinomas. Tumor slides from surgically resected lung squamous cell carcinomas (1999 to 2012) were reviewed (n=216). Tumors were evaluated for histologic subtypes, differentiation, tumor budding, nuclear diameter, and mitosis. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using the log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazards model. Tumor budding and large nuclei were independent prognostic factors of a worse RFS (P<0.001 and P=0.002, respectively) and a worse OS (P<0.001 and P=0.038, respectively) on multivariate analysis after adjustment for pathologic stage and lymphatic invasion. However, histologic subtypes, differentiation, and mitotic count did not correlate with prognosis. A grading system combining tumor budding and nuclear diameter was an independent prognostic factors of a worse RFS (grade 2 vs. 1, hazard ratio [HR]=2.91; P<0.001, and grade 3 vs. 1, HR=7.60, P<0.001) and a worse OS (grade 2 vs. 1, HR=2.15; P=0.014, and grade 3 vs. 1, HR=4.54, P<0.001). We found that a grading system combining tumor budding and nuclear diameter was a significant prognostic factor among Japanese patients with resected lung squamous cell carcinoma.

  12. Mast cells dysregulate apoptotic and cell cycle genes in mucosal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Paul

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucosal squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is a disease of high mortality and morbidity. Interactions between the squamous cell carcinoma and the host's local immunity, and how the latter contributes to the biological behavior of the tumor are unclear. In vivo studies have demonstrated sequential mast cell infiltration and degranulation during squamous cell carcinogenesis. The degree of mast cell activation correlates closely with distinct phases of hyperkeratosis, dysplasia, carcinoma in-situ and invasive carcinoma. However, the role of mast cells in carcinogenesis is unclear. Aim This study explores the effects of mast cells on the proliferation and gene expression profile of mucosal squamous cell carcinoma using human mast cell line (HMC-1 and human glossal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (SCC25. Methods HMC-1 and SCC25 were co-cultured in a two-compartment chamber, separated by a polycarbonate membrane. HMC-1 was stimulated to degranulate with calcium ionophore A23187. The experiments were done in quadruplicate. Negative controls were established where SCC25 were cultured alone without HMC-1. At 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours, proliferation and viability of SCC25 were assessed with MTT colorimetric assay. cDNA microarray was employed to study differential gene expression between co-cultured and control SCC25. Results HMC-1/SCC25 co-culture resulted in suppression of growth rate for SCC-25 (34% compared with 110% for the control by 72 hours, p Conclusion We show that mast cells have a direct inhibitory effect on the proliferation of mucosal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro by dysregulating key genes in apoptosis and cell cycle control.

  13. Development of squamous cell carcinoma into basal cell carcinoma under treatment with Vismodegib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintes, C; Saint-Jean, M; Brocard, A; Peuvrel, L; Renaut, J J; Khammari, A; Quéreux, G; Dréno, B

    2015-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in humans. Vismodegib, a Hedgehog pathway inhibitor, has proved its effectiveness in treating non-resectable advanced BCC. However, its action on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unknown. We present three SCC cases developed into BCC in vismodegib-treated patients. We have described three cases of patients developing SCC during treatment by vismodegib for BCC. Patient 1 was treated with vismodegib for five facial BCC. Due to the progression of one of the lesions at month 3 (M3), a biopsy was performed and showed SCC. Patient 2 was treated with vismodegib for a large facial BCC. A biopsy was performed at M2 on a BCC area not responding to treatment and showed SCC. Patient 3 was treated with vismodegib for a BCC on the nose. Due to vismodegib ineffectiveness, a biopsy was performed and showed SCC. Two similar cases have been described in the literature. This could be due to the appearance of the squamous contingent of a metatypical BCC or to the squamous differentiation of stem cells through inhibition of the hedgehog pathway. In practice, any dissociated response of a BCC to vismodegib should be biopsied. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. Collecting Duct Carcinoma of the Kidney Mimicking Invasive Transitional Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Joo Nam; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Lim, Sung Chul [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Approximately 100 cases of collecting duct carcinoma have been reported in the medical literature. We herein report on a case of collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney in a 75-year-old patient. The abdominal sonography depicted a relatively poorly defined 7x6 cm sized, isoechoic mass lesion, as compared to the normal parenchyma, at the left kidney lower pole and the affected kidney showed preservation of the reniform shape. CT revealed a heterogeneous poorly defined low-attenuation mass that was mainly located in the medulla with involvement of the cortex and the lower half of the renal pelvis. Retrograde ureter opyelography showed a filling defect at the lower renal pelvis and severe narrowing of the left proximal ureter. We initially thought this lesion was invasive transitional cell carcinoma. Subsequent surgery confirmed a collecting duct carcinoma

  15. Renal Preservation Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichun Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal preservation therapy has been a promising concept for the treatment of localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC for 20 years. Nowadays partial nephrectomy (PN is well accepted to treat the localized RCC and the oncological control is proved to be the same as the radical nephrectomy (RN. Under the result of well oncological control, minimal invasive method gains more popularity than the open PN, like laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN and robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN. On the other hand, thermoablative therapy and cryoablation also play an important role in the renal preservation therapy to improve the patient procedural tolerance. Novel modalities, but limited to small number of patients, include high-intensity ultrasound (HIFU, radiosurgery, microwave therapy (MWT, laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT, and pulsed cavitational ultrasound (PCU. Although initial results are encouraging, their real clinical roles are still under evaluation. On the other hand, active surveillance (AS has also been advocated by some for patients who are unfit for surgery. It is reasonable to choose the best therapeutic method among varieties of treatment modalities according to patients' age, physical status, and financial aid to maximize the treatment effect among cancer control, patient morbidity, and preservation of renal function.

  16. Emerging therapeutics in refractory renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshkin, Vadim S; Rini, Brian I

    2016-06-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has seen the introduction of numerous new treatments over the past decade. However, the efficacy of these therapies has plateaued, and new treatment options are needed for the majority of patients with mRCC whose disease inevitably progresses through one or more standard therapies ('refractory' mRCC). Recently approved agents in this space have shown great promise. This article reviews the evidence behind current management strategies for mRCC. After reviewing clinical trials that established current first-line therapies and agents used in the refractory setting, we address new ideas for the treatment of refractory disease including combination therapies and novel targeted agents. In particular, we focus on targeted immunotherapy in refractory mRCC. We conclude by considering future directions in combination treatments utilizing these novel agents. Numerous approaches have produced tangible benefits for the treatment of patients with mRCC. These include development of next generation VEGFR/TKIs, targeted immunotherapy agents, and the development of combined regimens. In particular, immunotherapy agents targeting the PD1/PD-L1 pathway have shown great promise with a robust survival advantage seen in patients treated with nivolumab. A tolerable side effect profile of immunotherapy agents makes them amenable for use in combination therapies and ongoing trials are addressing this question.

  17. [Vismodegib Therapy for Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keserü, M; Green, S; Dulz, S

    2017-01-01

    Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest periorbital tumour. Mohs' micrographic surgery and secondary reconstruction is the therapeutic gold standard for periorbital BCC. In cases of inoperability for any reason, therapeutic alternatives are needed. Since the approval of vismodegib, an orally administered, targeted BCC therapy is available. Nevertheless there is little information on the use of vismodegib for periorbital BCC. Patients and Methods In a retrospective study, we analysed the data of 4 patients treated with vismodegib since 2014. The patients' mean age before starting therapy was 87 years. The mean maximum tumour diameter was 22.0 mm. Results The median follow-up was 17 months. The median treatment duration was 7.5 months. In 75 % of patients, complete clinical remission of BCC was achieved. In 25 % of patients, interim stabilisation of tumour growth was possible. The most common side effect of therapy was muscle spasm. Conclusion Vismodegib is an effective treatment option for patients with periorbital BCC, in whom surgical treatment is not possible for any reason. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. RASSF1A protein expression and correlation with clinicopathological parameters in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machtens Stefan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic silencing of RAS association family 1A (RASSF1A tumor suppressor gene occurs in various histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC but RASSF1A protein expression in clear cell RCC as well as a possible correlation with clinicopathological parameters of patients has not been analyzed at yet. Methods 318 primary clear cell carcinomas were analyzed using tissue microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry. Survival analysis was carried out for 187 patients considering a follow-up period of 2–240 month. Results Expression of RASSF1A was found to be significantly decreased in tumoral cells when compared to normal tubular epithelial cells. RASSF1A immunopositivity was significantly associated with pT stage, group stage and histological grade of tumors and showed a tendency for impaired survival in Kaplan-Meier analysis. Conclusion While most tumors demonstrate a loss of RASSF1A protein, a subset of tumors was identified to exhibit substantial RASSF1A protein expression and show increased tumor progression. Thus RCC tumorigenesis without depletion of RASSF1A may be associated with an adverse clinical outcome.

  19. An FNA pitfall: Mammary analog secretory carcinoma mistaken for acinic cell carcinoma due to cytoplasmic granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouf Hijazi, MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the salivary gland, a key differential feature of Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC from acinic cell carcinoma (ACC is the lack of cytoplasmic granules. We report a case of a parotid mass incorrectly diagnosed on fine needle aspirate as acinic cell carcinoma due to many cells with basophilic granules suggesting serous acinar differention. Tumor resection revealed a tumor consistent with low grade adenocarcinoma that had eosinophilic, microvacuolar cytoplasm with distinct basophilic granules staining with PASD and mucicarmine. The diagnosis of MASC was confirmed with stains for GCDF-15, mammoglobin, and S100 and FISH consistent with a t(12;15 translocation. Relying on the absence of cytoplasmic granules as a feature to distinguish ACC from MASC is a diagnostic pitfall.

  20. studies on ocular squamous cell carcinoma among horses in borno ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    medial canthus of the left eye, and at it was discoid in shape with an area of alopecia surrounding it. Microscopic examination of the masses revealed squamous cell carcinoma characterized by large numbers of squamous epithelial cells arranged in whorls with scanty keratin at the centre. Come of the cells appeared in ...

  1. Vismodegib (ERIVEDGE°) In basal cell carcinoma: too many unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas are the most common skin cancers. They are usually localised and carry a good prognosis. There is no standard treatment for the rare patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma or very extensive basal cell carcinoma for whom surgery or radiotherapy is inappropriate. Vismodegib, a cytotoxic drug, is claimed to prevent tumour growth by inhibiting a pathway involved in tissue repair and embryogenesis. It has been authorised in the European Union for patients with metastatic or locally advanced and extensive basal cell carcinoma. Clinical evaluation of vismodegib is based on a non-comparative clinical trial involving 104 patients, providing only weak evidence. Twenty-one months after the start of the trial, 7 patients with metastases (21%) and 6 patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (10%) had died. Given the lack of a placebo group, there is no way of knowing whether vismodegib had any effect, positive or negative, on survival. There were no complete responses among patients with metastases, but about one-third of them had partial responses. Among the 63 patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, there were 14 complete responses and 16 partial responses. The recurrence rate in patients with complete responses was not reported. Similar results were reported in two other uncontrolled trials available in mid-2014. Vismodegib has frequent and sometimes serious adverse effects, including muscle spasms, fatigue and severe hyponatraemia. Cases of severe weight loss, alopecia, ocular disorders, other cancers (including squamous cell carcinoma) and anaemia have also been reported. More data are needed on possible hepatic and cardiovascular adverse effects. A potent teratogenic effect was seen in experimental animals. As vismodegib enters semen, contraception is mandatory for both men (condoms) and women. In practice, vismodegib has frequent and varied adverse effects, some of which are serious, while its benefits are poorly documented

  2. Assessing the genetic architecture of epithelial ovarian cancer histological subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Lu, Yi; Dixon, Suzanne C

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the deadliest common cancers. The five most common types of disease are high-grade and low-grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell carcinoma. Each of these subtypes present distinct molecular pathogeneses and sensitivities to treatments. Recen...

  3. Basal cell carcinoma vs basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: an immunohistochemical reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, David V; Mentrikoski, Mark J; Verduin, Lindsey; Brill, Louis B; Wick, Mark R

    2015-04-01

    Typical cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are morphologically dissimilar. It is well known, however, that poorly differentiated SCC may assume a basaloid phenotype, complicating the histologic distinction between these 2 neoplasms. Selected immunohistochemical stains have been used in the past to aid in that differential diagnosis. In the current study, additional markers were evaluated to determine whether they would be helpful in that regard. Twenty-nine cases of metatypical (squamoid) BCC (MBCC) and 25 examples of basaloid SCC (BSCC) were studied using the antibodies Ber-EP4 and MOC-31 as well as a plant lectin preparation from Ulex europaeus I (UEA-1). The resulting immunostains were interpreted independently by 3 pathologists, and the results showed that MBCCs demonstrated strong and diffuse staining for Ber-EP4 (25/29) and MOC-31 (29/29). In contrast, BSCCs tended to be only sporadically reactive for both markers (4/25 and 1/25 cases, respectively). Labeling for UEA-1 was observed in almost all BSCCs (24/25), but only 6 of 29 cases of MBCC showed limited, focal staining with that lectin. These data suggest that MOC-31 is a useful marker in the specified differential diagnosis, especially when used together with UEA-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma after treatment of basal cell carcinoma with vismodegib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutani, Tina; Abrouk, Michael; Sima, Camelia S; Sadetsky, Natalia; Hou, Jeannie; Caro, Ivor; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Arron, Sarah T

    2017-10-01

    Vismodegib is a first-in-class agent targeting the hedgehog signaling pathway for treatment of patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and metastatic BCC. There have been concerns about the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients treated with this drug. We sought to determine whether treatment with vismodegib is associated with an increase in the risk of cutaneous SCC. In this retrospective cohort study, patients treated with vismodegib as part of phase I and II clinical studies were compared with participants from the University of California, San Francisco, Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Cohort who received standard therapy for primary BCC. In total, 1675 patients were included in the analysis, and the development of SCC after vismodegib exposure was assessed. The use of vismodegib was not associated with an increased risk of subsequent development of SCC (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-1.16). Covariates including age, sex, history of previous nonmelanoma skin cancer, and number of visits per year were significantly associated with the development of SCC. A limitation of the study was that a historic control cohort was used as a comparator. Vismodegib was not associated with an increased risk of subsequent SCC when compared with standard surgical treatment of BCC. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Report of a Rare Case of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Associated with Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Borzouei

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC is the most common well-differentiated cancer of the thyroid. Only in few cases of PTC entity of renal cell carcinoma has been observed in patients affected with PTC. Case Report: In this study we report a case of sporadic PTC and renal cell carcinoma in a 63 year-old woman. Conclusion: After surgery the patient was hospitalized for 1 month in ICU section. 3 months after being discharged from the hospital, she was still in a good condition and is under the follow-up treatment.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012; 19 (3:75-77

  6. [Exenteration of the Orbit for Basal Cell Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdová, A; Horkovičová, K; Krčová, I; Krásnik, V

    2015-08-01

    Primary treatment of basal cell carcinoma of the lower eyelid and the inner corner is essentially surgical, but advanced lesions require extensive surgical interventions. In some cases it is necessary to continue with the mutilating surgery--exenteration of the orbit. In this work we evaluate the indications of radical solutions in patients with basal cell carcinoma invading the orbit and the subsequent possibility for individually made prosthesis to cover the defect of the cavity. Indications to exenteration of the orbit in patients with basal cell carcinoma findings in 2008-2013. Case report of 2 patients. In period 2008-20013 at the Dept. of Ophthalmology, Comenius University in Bratislava totally 221 patients with histologically confirmed basal cell carcinoma of the eyelids and the inner corner were treated. In 5 cases (2.7 %) with infiltration of the orbit the radical surgical procedure, exenteration was necessary. In 3 patients exenteration was indicated as the first surgical procedure in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma, since they had never visited ophthalmologist before only at in the stage of infiltration of the orbit (stage T4). In one case was indicated exenteration after previous surgical interventions and relapses. After healing the cavity patients got individually prepared epithesis. Surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma involves the radical removal of the neoplasm entire eyelid and stage T1 or T2 can effectively cure virtually all tumors with satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. In advanced stages (T4 stage) by infiltrating the orbit by basal cell carcinoma exenteration of the orbit is necessary. This surgery is a serious situation for the patient and also for his relatives. Individually made prosthesis helps the patient to be enrolled to the social environment.

  7. NMR metabolomics of human lung tumours reveals distinct metabolic signatures for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Cláudia M; Barros, António S; Goodfellow, Brian J; Carreira, Isabel M; Gomes, Ana; Sousa, Vitor; Bernardo, João; Carvalho, Lina; Gil, Ana M; Duarte, Iola F

    2015-01-01

    Lung tumour subtyping, particularly the distinction between adenocarcinoma (AdC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC), is a critical diagnostic requirement. In this work, the metabolic signatures of lung carcinomas were investigated through (1)H NMR metabolomics, with a view to provide additional criteria for improved diagnosis and treatment planning. High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to analyse matched tumour and adjacent control tissues from 56 patients undergoing surgical excision of primary lung carcinomas. Multivariate modeling allowed tumour and control tissues to be discriminated with high accuracy (97% classification rate), mainly due to significant differences in the levels of 13 metabolites. Notably, the magnitude of those differences were clearly distinct for AdC and SqCC: major alterations in AdC were related to phospholipid metabolism (increased phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine, together with decreased acetate) and protein catabolism (increased peptide moieties), whereas SqCC had stronger glycolytic and glutaminolytic profiles (negatively correlated variations in glucose and lactate and positively correlated increases in glutamate and alanine). Other tumour metabolic features were increased creatine, glutathione, taurine and uridine nucleotides, the first two being especially prominent in SqCC and the latter in AdC. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of AdC and SqCC profiles allowed their discrimination with a 94% classification rate, thus showing great potential for aiding lung tumours subtyping. Overall, this study has provided new, clear evidence of distinct metabolic signatures for lung AdC and SqCC, which can potentially impact on diagnosis and provide important leads for future research on novel therapeutic targets or imaging tracers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Association of esophageal candidiasis and squamous cell carcinoma

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    Delsing, C.E.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Tol, J.; van der Meer, J.W.M.; Kullberg, B. J.; Netea, M. G.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic esophageal candidiasis is an infection that is mostly seen in immunocompromised conditions, among which is chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Recently an association between CMC and esophageal carcinoma has been reported. Here we present two patients with chronic esophageal candidiasis who developed esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and we discuss the etiologic role of Candida-induced nitrosamine production, the loss of STAT1 function and impaired tumor surveillance and T-lymph...

  9. Carcinoma verrucoso: uma variante clínico-histopatológica do carcinoma espinocelular Verrucous carcinoma: a clinical-histopathologic variant of squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Zanini

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma verrucoso é uma rara e indolente forma do carcinoma espinocelular descrita por Ackerman em 1948. Sua localização preferencial é a cavidade oral. Clinicamente manifesta-se como lesão verrucosa, de progressivo e lento crescimento e bom prognóstico. O tratamento de escolha é a exérese cirúrgica, devendo o paciente ser regularmente acompanhado devido ao risco de recorrências.Verrucous carcinoma is a rare and indolent variant of the squamous cell carcinoma described by Ackerman in 1948. The oral cavity is a most common site. Clinically, it presents most often as a slow-growing verrucous lesion. The prognosis is good. Treatment of choice is surgery. Patients require frequent reevaluation because recurrences may occur.

  10. Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary

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    Chia-Hui Lin

    2006-09-01

    Conclusion: TCC of the ovary is a rare subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer. It differs from malignant Brenner tumor by the absence of a benign or borderline Brenner component. Surgical resection is the primary therapeutic approach, and patient outcomes after chemotherapy are better than for other types of common epithelial ovarian cancers.

  11. Talin-1 correlates with reduced invasion and migration in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kun-Peng; Zhang, Jian-Lin; Ren, Yan-Hong; Qian, Ye-Ben

    2014-01-01

    Talin-1 is a cytoskeleton protein that participates in cell migration and plays a role in tumor formation, migration, and metastasis in different types of cancer. Chinese investigators have observed that the levels of Talin-1 protein and mRNA expression in HCC tissues are significantly lower than in the adjacent non-cancerous tissue. However, Japanese investigators have reported that Talin-1 is upregulated in HCC. Tln2 as homologous gene of Tln-1, which encodes a very similar protein, but the role of Talin-2 is very little known in primary liver cancer (PLC). We investigated whether the expression of Talin-1 in PLC may be associated with the histological subtype as well as the role of Talin-1 in tumor cell invasion and migration using human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. We measured the mRNA expression levels of Talin-1 and Talin-2 in five human liver cancer cell lines and normal human liver cell (LO2 cell line) by real-time PCR and the protein expression levels of Talin-1 by Western blot. Migration and invasion of the cells were assessed using transwell assays and cell scratch experiments, respectively, and proliferation was assessed by soft AGAR colony formation. Talin-1 and Talin-2 expression differed significantly between the five human liver cancer cell lines and LO2 cell line (pmigration capabilities of the five cancer cell lines differed significantly (pmigration as well as decreased malignancy in human liver cancer cell lines; the suppression of Talin-1 promotes invasion and migration. In addition, Talin-2 may be correlated with invasion and migration in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

  12. Age and the means of bypassing stasis are determinants of the intrinsic subtypes of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells

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    Jonathan K Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on molecular features, breast cancers are grouped into intrinsic subtypes that have different prognoses and therapeutic response profiles. With increasing age, breast cancer incidence increases, with hormone receptor-positive and other luminal-like subtype tumors comprising a majority of cases. It is not known at what stage of tumor progression subtype specification occurs, nor how the process of aging affects the intrinsic subtype. We examined subtype markers in immortalized human mammary epithelial cell lines established following exposure of primary cultured cell strains to a two-step immortalization protocol that targets the two main barriers to immortality: stasis (stress-associated senescence and replicative senescence. Cell lines derived from epithelial cells obtained from non-tumorous pre- and post-menopausal breast surgery tissues were compared. Additionally, comparisons were made between lines generated using two different genetic interventions to bypass stasis: transduction of either an shRNA that down-regulated p16INK4A, or overexpressed constitutive active cyclin D1/CDK2. In all cases, the replicative senescence barrier was bypassed by transduction of c-Myc. Cells from all resulting immortal lines exhibited normal karyotypes. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and gene expression analyses of lineage-specific markers were used to categorize the intrinsic subtypes of the immortalized lines. Bypassing stasis with p16 shRNA in young strains generated cell lines that were invariably basal-like, but the lines examined from older strains exhibited some luminal features such as keratin 19 and estrogen receptor expression. Overexpression of cyclin D1/CDK2 resulted in keratin 19 positive, luminal-like cell lines from both young and old strains, and the lines examined from older strains exhibited estrogen receptor expression. Thus age and the method of bypassing stasis are independent determinants of subtype in immortalized human

  13. Immunohistochemical evaluation of E-cadherin expression in basal cell carcinoma of the skin

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    Vladimír Bartoš

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: E-cadherin is important cell-cell adhesion molecule, that plays a crucial role in the maintenance of tissue microarchitecture. In many human malignancies, reduced or loss of E-cadherin production in neoplastic cells correlates with tumor dedifferentiation and acquisition of the invasive and metastatic potential. In contrast to most other cancers, basal cell carcinoma (BCC of the skin possess some unique features, such as slow local growth, strong stroma-dependency, and virtual absence of metastases. Aim: In the present study, we immunohistochemically evaluated expression of E-cadherin in a set of cutaneous BCCs. Material and methods: Study group consisted of 41 primary BCCs cathegorized into non-infiltrative subroup (superfical and nodular subtypes and infiltrative subroup (nodular-infiltrative and infiltrative subtypes. Results: E-cadherin was expressed in all tumor specimens with variable quantitative range and intensity. There were 19 cases (46.3 % with preserved and 22 cases (53.7 % with reduced E-cadherin expression. In superficial, nodular, nodular-infiltrative and infiltrative BCC subtypes, reduced E-cadherin immunoreactivity was found in 40 % (2/5, 56.2 % (9/16, 54.5 % (6/11 and 55.5 % (5/9, respectively. We did not confirm a significant correlation between expression of E-cadherin and both given, non-infiltrative and infiltrative BCC subgroup. None of the tumors examined showed apparent decreasing immunostaining intensity in tumor tissue with increasing depth of invasion. There were not convincing differences either between the central and peripheral parts of tumor mass, or in the vertical dimension. Conclusions: Reduction of E-cadherin expression per se does not seem to directly contribute to the acqusition of more aggressive phenotype in cutaneous BCC. This may represent another peculiarity, by which BCC differs from the most other epithelial malignancies and reflect a distinct tumor biology.

  14. Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stromal cells have contrasting effects on proliferation and phenotype of cancer stem cells from different subtypes of lung cancer

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    Vulcano, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.vulcano@iss.it [Department of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Milazzo, Luisa, E-mail: luisa.milazzo@iss.it [Department of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Ciccarelli, Carmela, E-mail: carmela.ciccarelli@univaq.it [Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L' Aquila (Italy); Eramo, Adriana, E-mail: adriana.eramo@iss.it [Department of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Sette, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.sette@gmail.com [Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Mauro, Annunziata, E-mail: amauro@unite.it [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo (Italy); Macioce, Giampiero, E-mail: giampiero.macioce@iss.it [Department of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Martinelli, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.martinelli@iss.it [Experimental Animal Welfare Sector of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome (Italy); La Torre, Renato, E-mail: renato.latorre@uniroma1.it [Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Urological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Casalbore, Patrizia, E-mail: patrizia.casalbore@cnr.it [Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, National Research Council, Rome (Italy); Hassan, Hamisa Jane, E-mail: jane.hassan@iss.it [Department of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); and others

    2016-07-15

    Studies on the role of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) on tumor growth have reported both a tumor promoting and a suppressive effect. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of MSC isolated from Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord (WJMSC) on lung cancer stem cells (LCSC) derived from human lung tumors: two adenocarcinomas (AC) and two squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). LCSC derived from SCC and AC expressed, to varying extents, the more relevant stem cell markers. The effect of WJMSC on LCSC was investigated in vitro using conditioned medium (WJ-CM): a proliferation increase in AC-LCSC was observed, with an increase in the ALDH+ and in the CD133+ cell population. By contrast, WJ-CM hampered the growth of SCC-LCSC, with an increase in the pre-G1 phase indicating the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, the ALDH+ and CD133+ population was also reduced. In vivo, subcutaneous co-transplantation of AC-LCSC/WJMSC generated larger tumors than AC-LCSC alone, characterized by an increased percentage of CD133+ and CD166+ cells. By contrast, co-transplantation of WJMSC and SCC-LCSC did not affect the tumor size. Our results strongly suggest that WJMSC exert, both in vitro and in vivo, contrasting effects on LCSC derived from different lung tumor subtypes. - Highlights: • CM from WJMSC induces apoptosis of SCC-LCSC and reduction of ALDH+ and CD133+ cells. • Specificity of SCC-LCSC inhibition by WJ-CM is proved by the use of a CM from NHDF. • WJ-CM enhance AC-LCSC proliferation and increase CD133+ and ALDH+ cell fractions. • Coinjection of WJMSC with AC-LCSC increase tumor growth with SCC-LCSC has no effect.

  15. Adenoid squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Because immunohistochemical features of adenoid squamous cell carcinoma (AdSCC) of the oral cavity is unclear, the author reports herein AdSCC in the gingival with an emphasis on immunohistochemical features. A 73-year-old woman presented with a left lower gingival tumor. The tumor was mildly elevated tumor measuring 1.5 x 1.5 x 0.5 cm. Dentist's diagnosis was granulation tissue, and a biopsy was taken. The biopsy showed proliferation of carcinoma cells arranged in cords, and squamous and tubular differentiations were noted in places. The biopsy diagnosis was adenosquamous carcinoma. Tumor excision with resection of mandibular bone was performed. The resected tissue showed a mixture and squamous cell carcinoma and tubular formation. Gradual merges between the two and acantholytic features of the squamous cell carcinoma element were seen. Both components were free from mucins. Both components were positive for pancytokeratins (AE1/3, CAM5.2) +++, cytokeratin (CK) 5/6 +, CK34βE12 ++, CK7 +, CK14 +++, CEA +, CA19-9 +, CA125 +, p53 +++, p63 +++, KIT + and MUC1 ++. Both components were negative for CK8, CK18, CK19, CK20, EMA, vimentin, TTF-1, desmin, myoglobin, S100 protein, melanosome, smooth muscle actin, CD34, CDX2, CD10, chromogranin, synaptophysin, NSE, CD56, lysozyme, CD68, MDM2, PDGFRA, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6. Since both components were positive for squmaous cell carcinoma markers (CD5/6, CK34βE12, and p63) and adenocarcinoma markers (CEA, CA19-9, CA125, MUC1), this case of AdSCC appears an intermediate form between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The margins were negative. No metastasis was found by imaging techniques. The patient is now free from tumor and is followed up carefully.

  16. Lobaplatin arrests cell cycle progression in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

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    Chen Chang-Jie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC still is a big burden for China. In recent years, the third-generation platinum compounds have been proposed as potential active agents for HCC. However, more experimental and clinical data are warranted to support the proposal. In the present study, the effect of lobaplatin was assessed in five HCC cell lines and the underlying molecular mechanisms in terms of cell cycle kinetics were explored. Methods Cytotoxicity of lobaplatin to human HCC cell lines was examined using MTT cell proliferation assay. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry. Expression of cell cycle-regulated genes was examined at both the mRNA (RT-PCR and protein (Western blot levels. The phosphorylation status of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs and retinoblastoma (Rb protein was also examined using Western blot analysis. Results Lobaplatin inhibited proliferation of human HCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. For the most sensitive SMMC-7721 cells, lobaplatin arrested cell cycle progression in G1 and G2/M phases time-dependently which might be associated with the down-regulation of cyclin B, CDK1, CDC25C, phosphorylated CDK1 (pCDK1, pCDK4, Rb, E2F, and pRb, and the up-regulation of p53, p21, and p27. Conclusion Cytotoxicity of lobaplatin in human HCC cells might be due to its ability to arrest cell cycle progression which would contribute to the potential use of lobaplatin for the management of HCC.

  17. A subset of prostatic basal cell carcinomas harbor the MYB rearrangement of adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Justin A; Yonescu, Raluca; Epstein, Jonathan I; Westra, William H

    2015-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a basaloid tumor consisting of myoepithelial and ductal cells typically arranged in a cribriform pattern. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is generally regarded as a form of salivary gland carcinoma, but it can arise from sites unassociated with salivary tissue. A rare form of prostate carcinoma exhibits ACC-like features; it is no longer regarded as a true ACC but rather as prostatic basal cell carcinoma (PBCC) and within the spectrum of basaloid prostatic proliferations. True ACCs often harbor MYB translocations resulting in the MYB-NFIB fusion protein. MYB analysis could clarify the true nature of prostatic carcinomas that exhibit ACC features and thus help refine the classification of prostatic basaloid proliferations. Twelve PBCCs were identified from the pathology consultation files of Johns Hopkins Hospital. The histopathologic features were reviewed, and break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYB was performed. All 12 cases exhibited prominent basaloid histology. Four were purely solid, 7 exhibited a cribriform pattern reminiscent of salivary ACC, and 1 had a mixed pattern. The MYB rearrangement was detected in 2 (29%) of 7 ACC-like carcinomas but in none (0%) of the 5 PBCCs with a prominent solid pattern. True ACCs can arise in the prostate as is evidenced by the presence of the characteristic MYB rearrangement. When dealing with malignant basaloid proliferations in the prostate, recommendations to consolidate ACCs with other tumor types may need to be reassessed, particularly in light of the rapidly advancing field of biologic therapy where the identification of tumor-specific genetic alterations presents novel therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A case of small cell carcinoma of the vagina

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    Ryosuke Tamura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary small cell carcinoma of the vagina is quite rare, and a standard treatment has not been established yet. Herein, we report a case of an 81-year-old woman who was diagnosed with a vaginal tumor without continuity with the uterine cervix. Histopathological diagnosis indicated alveolar solid growth of nuclear chromatin-rich atypical cells with a high N/C ratio and a partially recognized rosette-like structure, suggesting a differentiated neuroendocrine system. Chromogranin A and synapto- physin were positive. Stage I vaginal small cell carcinoma localized to the vagina was diagnosed. The tumor disappeared by radiation monotherapy with external beam irradiation and endocavitary irradiation. The patient remains alive without any disease 1 year and 8 months after the treatment, suggesting the efficacy of radiotherapy in small cell carcinoma of the vagina.

  19. Proteomic Studies of Cholangiocarcinoma and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Secretomes

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    Srisomsap, Chantragan; Sawangareetrakul, Phannee; Subhasitanont, Pantipa; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Chiablaem, Khajeelak; Bhudhisawasdi, Vaharabhongsa; Wongkham, Sopit; Svasti, Jisnuson

    2009-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occur with relatively high incidence in Thailand. The secretome, proteins secreted from cancer cells, are potentially useful as biomarkers of the diseases. Proteomic analysis was performed on the secreted proteins of cholangiocarcinoma (HuCCA-1) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC-S102, HepG2, SK-Hep-1, and Alexander) cell lines. The secretomes of the five cancer cell lines were analyzed by SDS-PAGE combined with LC/MS/MS. Sixty-eight...

  20. Current diagnosis and treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Mareike; Hillen, Uwe; Leiter, Ulrike; Sachse, Michael; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2015-09-01

    Basal cell carcinoma represents is most common tumor in fair-skinned individuals. In Germany, age-standardized incidence rates are 63 (women) and 80 (men) per 100,000 population per year. Early lesions may be difficult to diagnose merely on clinical grounds. Here, noninvasive diagnostic tools such as optical coherence tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy may be helpful. The clinical diagnosis is usually confirmed by histology. Standard therapy consists of complete excision with thorough histological examination, either by means of micrographic surgery or, depending on tumor size and location as well as infiltration, using surgical margins of 3-5 mm or more. In particular, multiple basal cell carcinomas (such as in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome) and locally advanced as well as rarely also metastatic basal cell carcinoma may pose a therapeutic challenge. In superficial basal cell carcinoma, nonsurgical therapies such as photodynamic therapy or topical agents may be considered. In case of locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma, an interdisciplinary tumor board should issue therapeutic recommendations. These include radiation therapy as well as systemic therapy with a hedgehog inhibitor. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid treated with photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R; Puccioni, M; Mavilia, L; Campolmi, P; Mori, M; Cappuccini, A; Reali, E F; Cappugi, P

    2004-06-01

    The ocular tissues can be the site of a number of malignant tumors in adults. Approximately 5% to 10% of all skin tumors occur in the eyelid. Incidence studies indicate that basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent malignant eyelid tumor (90%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (9%). A 55-year-old man presented a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of 8 mm diameter, localized in the middle third of the lower eyelid, 3 mm under the eyelid margin on the eyelids. The histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen showed the typical features of squamous cell carcinoma. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulic acid (ALA) after Frost suture was employed. Very good results were obtained with rapid healing, without invasiveness, and without anesthesia. There was no evidence of scar formation and no signs of recurrence at 6 months follow-up. Many therapeutic methods have been suggested for squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid. We consider photodynamic treatment of eyelid skin malignancies to be of great interest and it may represent an interesting future perspective for their management especially when surgical intervention cannot be tolerated by the patient.

  2. A rare bladder cancer - small cell carcinoma: review and update

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    Ismaili Nabil

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB is rare, highly aggressive and diagnosed mainly at advanced stages. Hematuria is the main symptom of this malignancy. The origin of the disease is unknown; however the multipotent stem cell theory applies best to this case. Histology and immunohistochemistry shows a tumour which is indistinguishable from small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC. Coexistence of SCCB with other types of carcinoma is common. The staging system used is the TNM-staging of bladder transitional cell carcinoma. The treatment is extrapolated from that of SCLC. However, many patients with SCCB undergo radical resection which is rarely performed in SCLC. Patients with surgically resectable disease ( or = cT4bN+M+ should be managed with palliative chemotherapy based on neuroendocrine type regimens comprising a platinum drug (cisplatin in fit patients. The prognosis of the disease is poor mainly in the case of pure small cell carcinoma. Other research programs are needed to improve the outcome of SCCB.

  3. Human papilloma virus prevalence in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, A; Cincik, H; Baloglu, H; Cekin, E; Dogru, S; Dursun, E

    2007-08-01

    To determine the prevalence and type of human papilloma virus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We analysed the prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in archived paraffin block specimens taken from 99 cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 1990 and 2005, using polymerase chain reaction techniques. Biopsy specimens from five proven verrucous skin lesions were used as positive controls, and peripheral blood samples from five healthy volunteers were used as negative controls. Four test samples were found to have inadequate deoxyribonucleic acid purity and were therefore excluded from the study. Human papilloma virus deoxyribonucleic acid was detected in seven of 95 cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (7.36 per cent). Human papilloma virus genotyping revealed double human papilloma virus infection in three cases and single human papilloma virus infection in the remaining four cases. The human papilloma virus genotypes detected were 6, 11 and 16 (the latter detected in only one case). In our series, a very low human papilloma virus prevalence was found among laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cases. The human papilloma virus genotypes detected were mostly 6 and/or 11, and 16 in only one case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of human papilloma virus prevalence in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, based on polymerase chain reaction genotyping in a Turkish population.

  4. Molecular analysis of new subtypes of ELE/RET rearrangements, their reciprocal transcripts and breakpoints in papillary thyroid carcinomas of children after Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugbauer, S; Demidchik, E P; Lengfelder, E; Rabes, H M

    1998-02-05

    A high prevalence of RET rearrangements is found in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) of children from Belarus after the Chernobyl reactor accident. The ELE/RET rearrangement (PTC3) is prevailing. Aberrant types of ELE/RET rearrangement have been found with a truncated ELE1 gene: As compared with the common form (PTC3r1) one aberrant type is shorter by one 144 bp exon (PTC3r2) (three cases); in the second atypic form (PTC3r3) the ELE1 part is 18 bp shorter than in PTC3r1. In agreement with the observation that the oncogenic RET is generated by a paracentric inversion at chromosome 10, we found not only ELE/RET, but also RET/ELE transcripts in these tumors. Sequencing of the breakpoint regions at the genomic DNA level revealed DNA modifications that might be relevant for illegitimate recombination after DNA doublestrand breaks. The high prevalence of ELE/RET rearrangements and various subtypes appears to be typical for radiation-induced thyroid carcinomas of children after the Chernobyl reactor accident.

  5. Culture and Characterization of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenyu; Sun, Wei; Guo, Changcheng; Yan, Yang; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Yang, Bin; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-07-01

    Although emerging evidence demonstrates increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with solid tumors, to our knowledge it is still unknown whether such cells can be cultured from patients with highly angiogenic renal cell carcinoma. We cultured and characterized circulating endothelial progenitor cells from patients with renal cell carcinoma. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level (percent of CD45(-)CD34(+) VEGF-R2(+) cells in total peripheral blood mononuclear cells) was quantified in 47 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 40 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were then isolated from 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 30 healthy controls to culture and characterize circulating endothelial progenitor cells. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level was significantly higher in patients with renal cell carcinoma than in healthy controls (0.276% vs 0.086%, p cells first emerged significantly earlier in patient than in control preparations (6.72 vs 14.67 days, p culture success rate (87.8% vs 40.0% of participants) and the number of colonies (10.06 vs 1.83) were significantly greater for patients than for controls (each p cell level correlated positively with the number of patient colonies (r = 0.762, p Cells cultured from patients and controls showed a similar growth pattern, immunophenotype, ability to uptake Ac-LDL and bind lectin, and form capillary tubes in vitro. However, significantly more VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitor cells were found in preparations from patients with renal cell carcinoma than from healthy controls (21.1% vs 13.4%, p cell colonies, a higher cell culture success rate and more colonies were found for patients with renal cell carcinoma than for healthy controls. Results indicate the important significance of VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitors in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research

  6. Fractal analysis of internal and peripheral textures of small peripheral bronchogenic carcinomas in thin-section computed tomography: comparison of bronchioloalveolar cell carcinomas with nonbronchioloalveolar cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Shoji; Kuriyama, Keiko; Higashiyama, Masahiko; Kasugai, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Chikazumi

    2003-01-01

    To analyze the internal and peripheral textures of small peripheral bronchogenic carcinomas (analysis. Thin-section computed tomography images from 70 patients with bronchogenic carcinomas (61 adenocarcinomas and 9 squamous cell carcinomas) were used. Regions of interest (ROIs) with a matrix size of 32 x 32 (0.326 mm per pixel) were selected manually on the lung-nodule interfaces and within the nodules on HRCT images. Three-dimensional density surfaces based on CT values of ROIs were characterized by fractal dimensions (FDs). When all the bronchogenic carcinomas were divided into bronchioloalveolar cell carcinomas (BACs) and other bronchogenic carcinomas (nonBACs), there were significant differences between BACs and nonBACs in the FDs obtained from the internal textures (mean: 2.38 +/- 0.05 versus 2.19 +/- 0.05; Ptextures (mean: 2.16 +/- 0.01 versus 2.06 +/- 0.01; Ptextures of BACs that reveal ground-glass opacities are more complicated than those of nonBACs. The FDs can differentiate between small localized BACs, which have a good prognosis, and nonBACs, which have a poor prognosis. Fractal analysis is promising for characterization of small peripheral pulmonary bronchogenic carcinomas based on radiographic features of HRCT images.

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flikweert, Elvira R.; Hofstee, Mans; Liem, Mike S. L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Squamous cells are normally not found inside the breast, so a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast is an exceptional phenomenon. There is a possible explanation for these findings. Case presentation: A 72-year-old woman presented with a breast abnormality suspected for breast

  8. Clinical and therapeutic aspects of extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walenkamp, Annemiek M. E.; Sonke, Gabe S.; Sleijfer, Dirk T.

    Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is usually treated similarly to small cell lung cancer. Differences in aetiology, clinical course, frequency of brain metastases, and survival, however, warrant a differential therapeutic approach. In this review, we focus on the treatment of the most

  9. Head/Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: - Prevention Strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... northern Nigeria from 2000 to 2010. The authors also reviewed strategy for cancer prevention with special emphasis to tobacco cigarette as the major risk factors. Search; head and neck tomours, squamous cell tomours, strategies for prevention. Key Words:-Squamous cell carcinoma, Tobacco cigarette, Northern Nigeria ...

  10. Quantitative multiphoton imaging for guiding basal-cell carcinoma removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sung-Jan; Hsu, Chih-Jung; Wu, Ruei-Jr; Kuo, Chien-Jui; Chen, Jau-Shiuh; Chan, Jung-Yi; Lin, Wei-Chou; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2007-02-01

    For secure removal of the basal cell carcinoma tissue, the technique of Mohs' micrographic surgery is often used. However, Mohs' micrographic surgery is time-consuming. In this work, we evaluate the ability of multiphoton fluorescence (MF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging to discriminate the borders of human basal cell carcinoma. Morphologically, basal cell carcinomas are featured by clumps of autofluorecent cells with relatively large nuclei and marked peripheral palisading in the dermis. In contrast, SHG from collagen contributes largely to the multiphoton signal in normal dermis. Within the cancer stroma, SHG signals diminish and are replaced by autofluorescent signals. The results suggest that normal collagen structures responsible for SHG have been altered in the cancer stroma and may reflect an up-regulated collagenolytic activity of cancer cells. To better delineate the cancer cells and cancer stroma from normal dermis, a quantitative MF to SHG index (MFSI) is developed. We demonstrate that this index can be used to differentiate cancer cells and adjacent cancer stroma from normal dermis. Our work shows that MF and SHG imaging can be an alternative for the real-time guidance of the secure removal of basal cell carcinoma.

  11. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Testicular Teratoma and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khan and Bagchi: Testicular squamous cell carcinoma with umbilical nodule tumors is usually localized in retroperitoneal lymph nodes including aortic, common iliac and caval nodes.[8]. In metastatic sites, the somatic-type malignancies have a poor prognosis. They do not respond to germ cell tumor chemotherapy; surgical ...

  12. Targeted Differentiation of Regional Ventral Neuroprogenitors and Related Neuronal Subtypes from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liankai Chi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Embryoid body (EB formation and adherent culture (AD paradigms are equivalently thought to be applicable for neural specification of human pluripotent stem cells. Here, we report that sonic hedgehog-induced ventral neuroprogenitors under EB conditions are fated to medial ganglionic eminence (MGE, while the AD cells mostly adopt a floor-plate (FP fate. The EB-MGE later on differentiates into GABA and cholinergic neurons, while the AD-FP favors dopaminergic neuron specification. Distinct developmental, metabolic, and adhesion traits in AD and EB cells may potentially account for their differential patterning potency. Gene targeting combined with small-molecule screening experiments identified that concomitant inhibition of Wnts, STAT3, and p38 pathways (3i could largely convert FP to MGE under AD conditions. Thus, differentiation paradigms and signaling regulators can be integrated together to specify distinct neuronal subtypes for studying and treating related neurological diseases, such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease.

  13. Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary: Is there a role of histology-specific treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takano Masashi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several clinical trials to establish standard treatment modality for ovarian cancers included a high abundance of patients with serous histologic tumors, which were quite sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy. On the other hand, ovarian tumor with rare histologic subtypes such as clear cell or mucinous tumors have been recognized to show chemo-resistant phenotype, leading to poorer prognosis. Especially, clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC is a distinctive tumor, deriving from endometriosis or clear cell adenofibroma, and response rate to platinum-based therapy is extremely low. It was implied that complete surgical staging enabled us to distinguish a high risk group of recurrence in CCC patients whose disease was confined to the ovary (pT1M0; however, complete surgical staging procedures could not lead to improved survival. Moreover, the status of peritoneal cytology was recognized as an independent prognostic factor in early-staged CCC patients, even after complete surgical staging. In advanced cases with CCC, the patients with no residual tumor had significantly better survival than those with the tumor less than 1 cm or those with tumor diameter more than 1 cm. Therefore, the importance of achieving no macroscopic residual disease at primary surgery is so important compared with other histologic subtypes. On the other hand, many studies have shown that conventional platinum-based chemotherapy regimens yielded a poorer prognosis in patients with CCC than in patients with serous subtypes. The response rate by paclitaxel plus carboplatin (TC was slightly higher, ranging from 22% to 56%, which was not satisfactory enough. Another regimen for CCC tumors is now being explored: irinotecan plus cisplatin, and molecular targeting agents. In this review article, we discuss the surgical issues for early-staged and advanced CCC including possibility of fertility-sparing surgery, and the chemotherapy for CCC disease.

  14. Atypical carcinoid and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a proteomic dataset from formalin-fixed archival samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Tanca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a dataset generated using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival samples from two rare lung neuroendocrine tumor subtypes (namely, two atypical carcinoids, ACs, and two large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, LCNECs. Samples were subjected to a shotgun proteomics pipeline, comprising full-length protein extraction, SDS removal through spin columns, in solution trypsin digestion, long gradient liquid chromatography peptide separation and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 1260 and 2436 proteins were identified in the AC and LCNEC samples, respectively, with FDR <1%. MS data are available in the PeptideAtlas repository at http://www.peptideatlas.org/PASS/PASS00375.

  15. Synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma and tubulocystic carcinoma: genetic evidence of independent ontogenesis and implications of chromosomal imbalances in tumor progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroga-Garza Gabriela

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Seven percent of renal cell carcinoma (RCC cases are diagnosed as "unclassified" RCC by morphology. Genetic profiling of RCCs helps define renal tumor subtypes, especially in cases where morphologic diagnosis is inconclusive. This report describes a patient with synchronous clear cell RCC (ccRCC and a tubulocystic renal carcinoma (TCRC in the same kidney, and discusses the pathologic features and genetic profile of both tumors. A 67 year-old male underwent CT scans for an unrelated medical event. Two incidental renal lesions were found and ultimately removed by radical nephrectomy. The smaller lesion had multiple small cystic spaces lined by hobnail cells with high nuclear grade separated by fibrous stroma. This morphology and the expression of proximal (CD10, AMACR and distal tubule cell (CK19 markers by immunohistochemistry supported the diagnosis of TCRC. The larger lesion was a typical ccRCC, with Fuhrman's nuclear grade 3 and confined to the kidney. Molecular characterization of both neoplasms using virtual karyotyping was performed to assess relatedness of these tumors. Low grade areas (Fuhrman grade 2 of the ccRCC showed loss of 3p and gains in chromosomes 5 and 7, whereas oncocytic areas displayed additional gain of 2p and loss of 10q; the high grade areas (Fuhrman grade 3 showed several additional imbalances. In contrast, the TCRC demonstrated a distinct profile with gains of chromosomes 8 and 17 and loss of 9. In conclusion, ccRCC and TCRC show distinct genomic copy number profiles and chromosomal imbalances in TCRC might be implicated in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Second, the presence of a ccRCC with varying degrees of differentiation exemplifies the sequence of chromosomal imbalances acquired during tumor progression. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1790525735655283

  16. Synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma and tubulocystic carcinoma: genetic evidence of independent ontogenesis and implications of chromosomal imbalances in tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Garza, Gabriela; Piña-Oviedo, Sergio; Cuevas-Ocampo, Karime; Goldfarb, Richard; Schwartz, Mary R; Ayala, Alberto G; Monzon, Federico A

    2012-02-27

    Seven percent of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cases are diagnosed as "unclassified" RCC by morphology. Genetic profiling of RCCs helps define renal tumor subtypes, especially in cases where morphologic diagnosis is inconclusive. This report describes a patient with synchronous clear cell RCC (ccRCC) and a tubulocystic renal carcinoma (TCRC) in the same kidney, and discusses the pathologic features and genetic profile of both tumors. A 67 year-old male underwent CT scans for an unrelated medical event. Two incidental renal lesions were found and ultimately removed by radical nephrectomy. The smaller lesion had multiple small cystic spaces lined by hobnail cells with high nuclear grade separated by fibrous stroma. This morphology and the expression of proximal (CD10, AMACR) and distal tubule cell (CK19) markers by immunohistochemistry supported the diagnosis of TCRC. The larger lesion was a typical ccRCC, with Fuhrman's nuclear grade 3 and confined to the kidney. Molecular characterization of both neoplasms using virtual karyotyping was performed to assess relatedness of these tumors. Low grade areas (Fuhrman grade 2) of the ccRCC showed loss of 3p and gains in chromosomes 5 and 7, whereas oncocytic areas displayed additional gain of 2p and loss of 10q; the high grade areas (Fuhrman grade 3) showed several additional imbalances. In contrast, the TCRC demonstrated a distinct profile with gains of chromosomes 8 and 17 and loss of 9. In conclusion, ccRCC and TCRC show distinct genomic copy number profiles and chromosomal imbalances in TCRC might be implicated in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Second, the presence of a ccRCC with varying degrees of differentiation exemplifies the sequence of chromosomal imbalances acquired during tumor progression. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1790525735655283.

  17. Axitinib controlled metastatic renal cell carcinoma for 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Tatsuya; Nagata, Masao; Kai, Fumitake; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Ozono, Seiichiro

    2013-07-01

    We present two patients with a long-term response to axitinib for cytokine-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma. One patient has had a continuing partial response for 58 months with cytokine-intolerant metastatic renal cell carcinoma and the other patient has had continuing stable disease accompanied by a mixed response for 57 months with cytokine-refractory and intolerant metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The condition of hypertension as an adverse event markedly depended on whether or not axitinib was administered. The patients responded to axitinib with an elevation of diastolic blood pressure to 90 mmHg or higher until 2 weeks after starting axitinib. To get a long-term response to axitinib, it may be important to control well the balance between treatment effect and adverse events while using drug withdrawal.

  18. An Unusual Location of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgül Tepe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant skin tumour. Chronic sun exposure is considered as the main etiologic factor in its development. Although it mainly occurs on sun-exposed areas as the face and neck, it rarely develops on the forearms and/or arms. The etiologic factors which affect the anatomic distribution of basal cell carcinoma are not well-known. Here we report two patients who developed basal cell carcinoma on the forearm. None of the patients had a specific etiologic factor except for chronic sunlight exposure. The aim of our report is to show that this prevalant cutaneous malignancy can be encountered in rare/unusual areas. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 51-4

  19. Focus on Merkel cell carcinoma: diagnosis and staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandhaye, Marion; Teixeira, Pedro Gondim; Blum, Alain [Imagerie Guilloz CHU de Nancy Hopital Central, Nancy (France); Henrot, Philippe [Service de Radiologie Institut de Cancerologie de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Morel, Olivier [Medecine Nucleaire CHU Nancy Hopital Brabois, Vancoeuvre les Nancy (France); Sirveaux, Francois [Service de Chirurgie Centre chirurgical Emile Galle, Nancy (France); Verhaeghe, Jean-Luc [Service de Chirurgie Institut de Cancerologie de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2015-06-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare lymphophilic skin tumor of neuroendocrine origin with the potential for rapid progression. Small, localized lesions are diagnosed and treated clinically, but advanced tumors often undergo imaging evaluation. Due to its rarity, radiologists are unaware of evocative imaging features and usually do not consider Merkel cell carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors. Appropriate staging is important to determine appropriate treatment and has an impact on patient prognosis. Multimodality imaging is usually needed, and there is no consensus on the optimal imaging strategy. The purpose of this article is to review various aspects of Merkel cell carcinoma imaging and look in detail at how optimal multimodality staging should be carried out. (orig.)

  20. Oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cytometric parameters of prognostic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Bustillo, Ramón; Corchero-Martín, Guadalupe; García-Montesinos-Perea, Belén; Gonzalez-Terán, Tomás; Sánchez-Santolino, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    The present study was made in order to find possible prognostic factors in oral squamous cell carcinoma, given that it is a frequent disease (3-4% of all malignant tumors) and is the cause of a high morbidity and mortality which justifies any attempt to contribute something towards the understanding of this pathology. 81 oral squamous cell carcinomas, treated with the same procedure, and retrieved from the archive of the Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla (Santander) were studied. Flow cytometry was carried out on 67 of the samples. No statistically significant differences were found between the cellular proliferative index and the mitotic index, ploidy and the S-phase factor. Likewise, none of the cytometric variables studied presented any association with the appearance of local relapse, distant metastases or survival. These variables cannot be used as a prognostic factors in squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity.

  1. A Case Report of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dehghan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Epithelial cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm of gallbladder , but squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is rare.Case Report: Following the diagnosis of hydropsy of gallbladder in a sonography of a 60 years-old woman, cholesistectomy was performed. On macroscopic pathological examination, brownish deformed gallbladder was seen. After opening, on mucosal surface there was a cream, elastic polypoid tumoral lesion (2×1×0.5 cm. On microscopic evaluation, a pattern of pure and differentiated invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma was diagnosed. Conclusion: During the last twenty-two years, this has been the first report of SCC of gallbladder from province of Hamadan with incidence of 2.8% in Iran. This case can be used in hystogenesis of SCC of gallbladder.

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma of the lateral nail fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figus, A; Kanitkar, S; Elliot, D

    2006-04-01

    The digital nail complex is occasionally involved by squamous cell carcinoma. The published literature has either been indiscriminating of the site of origin of this tumour within the nail complex or has concentrated attention on the nail bed as the site of pathology. Tumours originating in the lateral nail fold can be clearly differentiated from those of the nail bed itself. This study identifies six cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising in the lateral nail fold. While surgical convention remains to amputate the digital tip for squamous cell carcinoma of any part of the nail complex, the dermatological literature identifies that local surgery can be curative for these tumours, when presenting early and without bone involvement, although offering no discussion of reconstruction. Reconstruction is desirable and methods of achieving this following local excision of lateral nail fold tumours are illustrated in this series.

  3. CT and MR imaging features of mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma of the kidneys. A multi-institutional review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelis, F.; Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Ambrosetti, D. [Pasteur Hospital, Department of Pathology, Nice (France); Rocher, L. [Kremlin-Bicetre Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Derchi, L.E. [University of Genoa, IRCCS AOU Ospedale, San Martino IST, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), Genoa (Italy); Renard, B.; Puech, P. [Claude Huriez Hospital, Department of Radiology, Lille (France); Claudon, M. [Brabois Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Rouviere, O. [E. Herriot Hospital, Department of Radiology, Lyon (France); Ferlicot, S. [Kremlin-Bicetre Hospital, Department of Pathology, Paris (France); Roy, C. [Civil Hospital, Department of Radiology, Strasbourg (France); Yacoub, M. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Pathology, Bordeaux (France); Bernhard, J.C. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Urologic Surgery, Bordeaux (France)

    2017-03-15

    Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) of the kidney is a recently identified renal malignancy. Diagnosis of this rare subtype of renal tumour can be challenging for pathologists, and as such, any additional data would be helpful to improve diagnostic reliability. As imaging features of this new and rare sub-type have not yet been clearly described, the purpose of this study was to describe the main radiologic features on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), based jointly on the literature and findings from a multi-institutional retrospective review of pathology and imaging databases. Using a combination of CT/MRI features, diagnosis of MTSCC could be suggested in many cases. A combination of slow enhancement with plateau on dynamic contrast-enhanced CT/MRI, intermediate to high T2 signal intensity contrasting with low apparent diffusion coefficient values on MRI appeared evocative of this diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. Are primary renal cell carcinoma and metastases of renal cell carcinoma the same cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeniuk-Wojtaś, Aleksandra; Stec, Rafał; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-05-01

    Metastasis is a process consisting of cells spreading from the primary site of the cancer to distant parts of the body. Our understanding of this spread is limited and molecular mechanisms causing particular characteristics of metastasis are still unknown. There is some evidence that primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and metastases of RCC exhibit molecular differences that may effect on the biological characteristics of the tumor. Some authors have detected differences in clear cell and nonclear cell component between these 2 groups of tumors. Investigators have also determined that primary RCC and metastases of RCC diverge in their range of renal-specific markers and other protein expression, gene expression pattern, and microRNA expression. There are also certain proteins that are variously expressed in primary RCCs and their metastases and have effect on clinical outcome, e.g., endothelin receptor type B, phos-S6, and CD44. However, further studies are needed on large cohorts of patients to identify differences representing promising targets for prognostic purposes predicting disease-free survival and the metastatic burden of a patient as well as their suitability as potential therapeutic targets. To sum up, in this review we have attempted to summarize studies connected with differences between primary RCC and its metastases and their influence on the biological characteristics of renal cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Novel Protein Is Lower Expressed in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruili Guan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Engrailed-2 (EN2 has been identified as a candidate oncogene in breast cancer and prostate cancer. It is usually recognized as a mainly nuclear staining in the cells. However, recent studies showed a cytoplasmic staining occurred in prostate cancer, bladder cancer and clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The inconsistency makes us confused. To clarify the localization and expression of EN2 in renal cell carcinoma, anti-EN2 antibody (ab28731 and anti-EN2 antibody (MAB2600 were used for immunohistochemistry (IHC respectively. Interestingly, we found that EN2 detected by ab28731 was mainly presented in cytoplasm while EN2 detected by MAB2600 was mainly presented in nucleus. To further investigate the different patterns observed above, lysates from full-length EN2 over expression in HEK293T cells were used to identify which antibody the EN2 molecule bound by western blot. Results showed ab28731 did not react with the lysates. For this reason, the novel specific protein detected by ab28731 was not the EN2 molecule and was named nonEN2. Then using the renal carcinoma tissue microarray and renal tissues, we found that the protein expression levels of nonEN2 in kidney tumor tissues was significantly lower than that in kidney normal tissues (p < 0.05, so was in renal cell lines. Taken together, nonEN2 is lower expressed and may play an important role in renal cell carcinoma.

  6. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasal Vestibule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsmans, J D; Godballe, C; Jørgensen, K E

    1999-01-01

    From 1978 to 1992, 66 patients (32 women and 34 men) were treated for carcinoma of the nasal vestibule at Odense University Hospital. The treatment was radiotherapy (41 patients), surgery (13 patients) or a combination of the two modalities (12 patients). Twenty-one patients (32%) developed...

  7. Quantitative diffusion-weighted MRI parameters and human papillomavirus status in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, C.S.; Graaf, P. de; Bloemena, E.; Witte, B.I.; Braakhuis, B.J.; Brakenhoff, R.H.; Leemans, C.R.; Castelijns, J.A.; Bree, R. de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas have a better survival rate than those with human papillomavirus-negative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. DWI characterizes biologically relevant tumor features, and the generated ADC

  8. MCPIP1 contributes to clear cell renal cell carcinomas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligeza, Janusz; Marona, Paulina; Gach, Natalia; Lipert, Barbara; Miekus, Katarzyna; Wilk, Waclaw; Jaszczynski, Janusz; Stelmach, Andrzej; Loboda, Agnieszka; Dulak, Jozef; Branicki, Wojciech; Rys, Janusz; Jura, Jolanta

    2017-08-01

    Monocyte Chemoattractant protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1), also known as Regnase-1, is encoded by the ZC3H12a gene, and it mediates inflammatory processes by regulating the stability of transcripts coding for proinflammatory cytokines and controlling activity of transcription factors, such as NF-κB and AP1. We found that MCPIP1 transcript and protein levels are strongly downregulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) samples, which were derived from patients surgically treated for renal cancer compared to surrounded normal tissues. Using Caki-1 cells as a model, we analyzed the role of MCPIP1 in cancer development. We showed that MCPIP1 expression depends on the proteasome activity; however, hypoxia and hypoxia inducible factor 2 alfa (HIF2α) are key factors lowering MCPIP1 expression. Furthermore, we found that MCPIP1 negatively regulates HIF1α and HIF2α levels and in the case of the last one, the mechanism is based on the regulation of the half time of transcript coding for HIF2α. Enhanced expression of MCPIP1 in Caki-1 cells results in a downregulation of transcripts encoding VEGFA, GLUT1, and IL-6. Furthermore, MCPIP1 decreases the activity of mTOR and protein kinase B (Akt) in normoxic conditions. Taken together, MCPIP1 contributes to the ccRCC development.

  9. [A case of synchronous contralateral renal cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, Tetsuji; Nishimura, Kenji; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Kato, Taigo; Tokugawa, Shigeki; Kishikawa, Hidefumi; Ihara, Hideari; Ichikawa, Yasuji

    2009-08-01

    A 63-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with gross hematuria. Abdominal computed tomography showed an 80mm right renal tumor, 31mm left renal tumor, and 30 mm splenic tumor. Cystoscopy revealed a papillary tumor around the left orifice. Right radical nephrectomy and splenectomy were performed. Histological examination findings showed that the right renal tumor was a renal cell carcinoma, clear cell type, G1, INFalpha, pT2, ly0, v0, and that the splenic tumor was an arteriovenous fistula. Next, transurethral resection of the bladder tumor was performed and a histological examination showed urothelial carcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated that the left renal tumor was a renal pelvic cancer. Left total nephroureterectomy and cystectomy were performed, and the histological diagnosis was urothelial carcinoma, G3, pT3, ly1, v2. Following the operation, hemodialysis was introduced. It is rare for a renal cell carcinoma and contralateral renal pelvic cancer to occur simultaneously, as only 15 cases including the present have been reported in Japan.

  10. Basal cell carcinoma: an evidence-based treatment update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte M; Furniss, Megan; Mackay-Wiggan, Julian M

    2014-07-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer. Surgical excision remains the standard of treatment, but several alternative treatment modalities exist. This review aims to provide a current analysis of evidence for the treatment of BCC; specifically, which treatments have the lowest recurrence rates and the best cosmetic outcomes. We searched PubMed (January 1946 to August 2013), Ovid MEDLINE (2003-August 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (January 1993 to August 2013), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (The Cochrane Library Issue 9, 2013) databases for randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, or comparative studies for the treatment of BCC. We found 615 potential articles. Two independent reviewers selected 40 studies: 29 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), seven systematic reviews, and four nonrandomized prospective trials. Treatment modalities reviewed include surgical therapy, radiotherapy and cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy (PDT), topical imiquimod, topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), topical solasodine glycoalkaloids, topical ingenol mebutate, intralesional 5-FU, intralesional interferon (IFN), and oral hedgehog pathway inhibitors. The available data suggest that surgical methods remain the gold standard in BCC treatment, with Mohs micrographic surgery typically utilized for high-risk lesions. Suitable alternate treatment options for appropriately selected primary low-risk lesions may include PDT, cryotherapy, topical imiquimod, and 5-FU. Radiotherapy is a suitable alternate for surgical methods for treatment in older patient populations. Electrodesiccation and curettage (ED&C) is a commonly used primary treatment option for low-risk lesions; however, there were no RCTs examining ED&C that met our inclusion criteria. New hedgehog pathway inhibitors are promising for the management of advanced BCC; however, side effects are a concern for some patients, and much remains to be learned regarding optimal

  11. Pretreatment serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen : A newly identified prognostic factor in early-stage cervical carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duk, JM; Groenier, KH; deBruijn, HWA; Hollema, H; tenHoor, KA; vanderZee, AGJ; Aalders, JG

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of pretreatment serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-ag) levels in patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma in relation to well-established conventional risk factors. Patients and Methods: Sere from 653 women treated for squamous cervical

  12. Recurrent eyelid basal cell carcinoma with sclerochoroidal infiltration: echographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, E; Doro, D; Milizia, E; Steindler, P

    1998-01-01

    In an 82-year-old woman with a recurrent right lid basal cell carcinoma infiltrating the upper temporal orbit, a solid yellowish lesion was found ophthalmoscopically in the superotemporal periphery of the right eye. On standardized echography examination, the 2.5-mm elevated subretinal lesion was medium to high reflective with irregular structure, whereas the adjacent orbital mass was medium to low reflective and the sclera was thinned with at least one passage between the orbital and ocular lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first echographic report of sclerochoroidal infiltration from a lid basal cell carcinoma.

  13. Metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the tibia radiologically mimicking osteosarcoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cunningham, Laurence Patrick

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 73-year-old lady with transitional cell carcinoma and no evidence of metastatic disease presenting with gradual weight loss, pretibial swelling and painful weightbearing. Investigations revealed a lesion of the right tibial diaphysis. The radiological and clinical appearance was that of primary osteosarcoma. Biopsy results revealed metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the tibia. Intramedullary nailing was performed which relieved pain on weightbearing. The patient declined radiotherapy and was started on a palliative care regimen. This case illustrates the importance of histological diagnosis in the treatment of diaphyseal lesions.

  14. Isolated pancreatic metastases from a bronchogenic small cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walshe, T

    2012-01-31

    We describe the case of a 60 year old female smoker who presented with a three month history of weight loss (14 Kg), generalized abdominal discomfort and malaise. Chest radiography demonstrated a mass projected inferior to the hilum of the right lung. Computed Tomography of thorax confirmed a lobulated lesion in the right infrahilar region and subsequent staging abdominal CT demonstrated a low density lesion in the neck of the pancreas. Percutaneous Ultrasound guided pancreatic biopsy was performed, histology of which demonstrated pancreatic tissue containing a highly necrotic small cell undifferentiated carcinoma consistent with metastatic small cell carcinoma of the bronchus.

  15. Case Report: Scleral Metastasis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmodlou, Rahim; Asadi Amoli, Fahimeh; Abbasi, Ata; Seyed Mokhtari, Seyed Arman; Pourasghary, Sajjad

    2018-01-05

    In this report, a case of ocular scleral metastasis was reported in a patient with a past history of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was a 58-year-old male who was admitted to Urmia Imam Khomeini Hospital, Urmia, Iran, 8 years ago with progressive dysphasia. Seven years after initial diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cancer, the patient had no signs or symptoms of the disease. But 2 months ago, he was referred to the hospital due to ocular swelling, redness and watering. Pathologic examination of the excised lesion at Farabi Hospital reported metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma to the connective tissue of the sclera.

  16. Renal cell carcinoma in patient with crossed fused renal ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Cakmak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal cell carcinomas have rarely been reported in patients with crossed fused renal ectopia. We presented a patient with right to left crossed fused kidney harbouring renal tumor. The most frequent tumor encountered in crossed fused renal ectopia is renal cell carcinoma. In this case, partial nephrectomy was performed which pave way to preservation of the uninvolved both renal units. Due to unpredictable anatomy, careful preoperative planning and meticulous delineation of renal vasculature is essential for preservation of the uninvolved renal units.

  17. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a coyote (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, K S; Schelling, S H

    1999-06-01

    A 19-yr-old spayed female coyote (Canis latrans) was evaluated for an elliptical swelling of the skin beneath its right eye and an elevated mass that involved the soft and hard palate and gingivae around the upper right carnassial tooth and molars. Histopathologic analysis revealed a squamous cell carcinoma, and a postmortem examination revealed no evidence of vascular invasion or dissemination to the regional lymph nodes or viscera. This report describes the biology and progresion of an oral squamous cell carcinoma in an aged captive coyote.

  18. Percutaneous and laparoscopic assisted cryoablation of small renal cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tommy Kjærgaard; Østraat, Øyvind; Borre, Michael

    Aim: To evaluate the complication rate and short term oncological outcome of small renal cell carcinomas treated with cryoablation. Materials and methods: 91 biopsy verified renal cell carcinomas were cryoablated between 2006-11. Patients treated had primarily T1a tumors, but exceptions were made....... Of the 10 patients with residual tumor, 8 patients were reablated and 2 patients were referred to oncological treatment. Cancer specific survival was 100%. Overall survival was 91%. Complications: 8 pt. had minor bleeding in relation to cryoneedle removal, requiring Tachosil®. 1 pt. had subcutaneous...

  19. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rajanikanth

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS or Gorlin - Goltz syndrome is an autosomal disorder principally characterized by cutaneous basal cell carcinomas, multiple keratocysts, and skeletal anomalies. The major organ systems involved are skin, bones, central nervous system, eyes, gonads and endocrine. This particular syndrome is extensively described in the literature under different names. However, there are only few cases reported in the Indian literature. An unusual case of a 33-year old male with large odontogenic keratocyst involving impacted canine in the mandible, along with multiple cysts and impacted teeth in the maxilla; bifid rib and vertebral anomalies has been described.

  20. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to Jejunum: An Unusual Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Medic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The small intestine is a very uncommon and peculiar site for metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC. We present a clinical presentation of insidious and unusual development of a jejunal metastasis while having stable disease in a remainder of metastatic sites, in a patient undergoing immunotherapy with nivolumab. Due to the extreme rarity of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the lumen of the small bowel, it is easy to overlook and misdiagnose symptoms of this pathologic entity, particularly when the remainder of metastatic disease responds well to ongoing therapy.

  1. Basal cell carcinoma in two Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Ducatelle, Richard; Bosseler, Leslie; Van Caelenberg, Annemie; Versnaeyen, Han; Chiers, Koen; Martel, An

    2016-11-01

    Neoplastic disorders are frequently encountered in the practice of reptile medicine. Herein we report the clinical behavior, antemortem diagnosis, and histopathologic characteristics of a recurrent intraoral keratinizing basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and a metastatic BCC of the carapace in 2 Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni). Although squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in tortoises show similar predilection sites and gross pathologic features, the BCCs described in our report were characterized by a remarkably fast and highly infiltrative growth in comparison to SCCs. Accordingly, early diagnosis including reliable discrimination from SCC is essential toward the management of this neoplastic entity in tortoises. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Invasion through Ear Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Boisen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the ear represents a high-risk tumor location with an increased risk of metastasis and local tissue invasion. However, it is uncommon for these cancers to invade through nearby cartilage. Cartilage invasion is facilitated by matrix metalloproteases, specifically collagenase 3. We present the unusual case of a 76-year-old man with an auricular squamous cell carcinoma that exhibited full-thickness perforation of the scapha cartilage. Permanent sections through the eroded cartilage confirmed tumor invasion extending to the posterior ear skin.

  3. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang, E-mail: wenfang64@hotmail.com; Zhang, Yi, E-mail: syzi960@yahoo.com

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.

  4. A retrospective evaluation of non-small cell lung carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali İnal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Lung cancer is the most common amongcancer-related deaths in worldwide. Non-small cell lungcancer represents between 80% and 85% of all lung cancercases. Epidemiologic and demographic characteristicsof lung cancer may differ between the sexes in thesame community and between communities. This studypurposes to determine demographic, epidemiological andclinical characteristics of clinic follow-up study of lungcancer patients as retrospectively.Materials and methods: Total 741 patients with nonsmallcell lung cancer who histopathologically diagnosed,treated and followed-up in Dicle University Faculty ofMedicine, Department of Medical Oncology, between2000 and 2012, were retrospectively evaluatedResults: 662 of patients (89.3% were males and 79(10.7% females. Male/female ratio was 8.4. The medianpatient age was 60.0 (28-93 years. The histopathologicaltypes were as follows; 34.8% squamous cell carcinoma,29.1% adenocarcinoma, 2% large cell carcinomaand 34.1% unspecified non-small cell lung carcinoma.Smoking rate in men was found as %92.2, and 10.1%in female patients. Stage of patients was 11.4% in localstage, 35.6% was in locally advanced and 53% was inmetastatic stage.Conclusions: Ratio of squamous cell carcinoma and advancedstage in our study were higher than previous dataof studies from Turkey. However, the other clinical andpathological findings were compatible with our country’sand world data.Key words: Non-Small cell lung carcinoma, histologictype, epidemiology

  5. Multiple skin cancers in a single patient: Multiple pigmented Bowen′s disease, giant basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Saini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common type of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs. Bowen′s disease (BD, a premalignant condition, has a marginal potential (3-5% to progress to invasive carcinoma. We report here a rarest of a rare case of multiple pigmented BD with overlying squamous cell cancer along with a giant neglected BCC on the scalp of a 76-year-old man. The occurrence of multiple BD and NMSC in a single patient compelled us to explore the following hypothesis: (1 The multiple precancerous and cancerous lesions can be due to common etiopathogenesis. Chronic ultraviolet exposure, immunosupresssion, human papillomavirus infection, dietary factors, and environmental factors including arsenic exposure were probed in to. (2 There is evolution of precancerous lesions into a different type of cancers in different time frame. (3 The new cancerous lesions are subsequent cancers that developed after neglected untreated primary cancer.

  6. Urothelial Carcinoma Stem Cells: Current Concepts, Controversies, and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatina, Jiri; Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kripnerova, Michaela; Hepburn, Anastasia; Heer, Rakesh

    2018-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are defined as a self-renewing and self-protecting subpopulation of cancer cells able to differentiate into morphologically and functionally diverse cancer cells with a limited lifespan. To purify cancer stem cells, two basic approaches can be applied, the marker-based approach employing various more of less-specific cell surface marker molecules and a marker-free approach largely based on various self-protection mechanisms. Within the context of urothelial carcinoma, both methods could find use. The cell surface markers have been mainly derived from the urothelial basal cell, a probable cell of origin of muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma, with CD14, CD44, CD90, and 67LR representing successful examples of this strategy. The marker-free approaches involve side population sorting, for which a detailed protocol is provided, as well as the Aldefluor assay, which rely on a specific overexpression of efflux pumps or the detoxification enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase, respectively, in stem cells. These assays have been applied to both non-muscle-invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancer samples and cell lines. Urothelial carcinoma stem cells feature a pronounced heterogeneity as to their molecular stemness mechanisms. Several aspects of urothelial cancer stem cell biology could enter translational development rather soon, e.g., a specific CD44(+)-derived gene expression signature able to identify non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients with a high risk of progression, or deciphering a mechanism responsible for repopulating activity of urothelial carcinoma stem cells within the context of therapeutic resistance.

  7. Identifying molecular genetic features and oncogenic pathways of clear cell renal cell carcinoma through the anatomical (PADUA) scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Chen, Haoyan; Lin, Zhiqian; Shi, Guohai; Lin, Xiaozhu; Wu, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Xi

    2016-03-01

    Although the preoperative aspects and dimensions used for the PADUA scoring system were successfully applied in macroscopic clinical practice for renal tumor, the relevant molecular genetic basis remained unclear. To uncover meaningful correlations between the genetic aberrations and radiological features, we enrolled 112 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) whose clinicopathological data, genomics data and CT data were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA). Overall PADUA score and several radiological features included in the PADUA system were assigned for each ccRCC. Despite having observed no significant association between the gene mutation frequency and the overall PADUA score, correlations between gene mutations and a few radiological features (tumor rim location and tumor size) were identified. A significant association between rim location and miRNA molecular subtypes was also observed. Survival analysis revealed that tumor size > 7 cm was significantly associated with poor survival. In addition, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) on mRNA expression revealed that the high PADUA score was related to numerous cancer-related networks, especially epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) related pathways. This preliminary analysis of ccRCC revealed meaningful correlations between PADUA anatomical features and molecular basis including genomic aberrations and molecular subtypes.

  8. The role of microRNAs in human neural stem cells, neuronal differentiation and subtype specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappert, Laura; Roese-Koerner, Beate; Brüstle, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The impressive neuronal diversity found within the nervous system emerges from a limited pool of neural progenitor cells that proceed through different gene expression programs to acquire distinct cell fates. Here, we review recent evidence indicating that microRNAs (miRNAs) are critically involved in conferring neural cell identities during neural induction, neuronal differentiation and subtype specification. Several studies have shown that miRNAs act in concert with other gene regulatory factors and genetic switches to regulate the spatial and temporal expression profiles of important cell fate determinants. So far, most studies addressing the role of miRNAs during neurogenesis were conducted using animal models. With the advent of human pluripotent stem cells and the possibility to differentiate these into neural stem cells, we now have the opportunity to study miRNAs in a human context. More insight into the impact of miRNA-based regulation during neural fate choice could in the end be exploited to develop new strategies for the generation of distinct human neuronal cell types.

  9. Rapid induction of senescence in human cervical carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Edward C.; Yang, Eva; Lee, Chan-Jae; Lee, Han-Woong; Dimaio, Daniel; Hwang, Eun-Seong

    2000-09-01

    Expression of the bovine papillomavirus E2 regulatory protein in human cervical carcinoma cell lines repressed expression of the resident human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes and within a few days caused essentially all of the cells to synchronously display numerous phenotypic markers characteristic of cells undergoing replicative senescence. This process was accompanied by marked but in some cases transient alterations in the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and by decreased telomerase activity. We propose that the human papillomavirus E6 and E7 proteins actively prevent senescence from occurring in cervical carcinoma cells, and that once viral oncogene expression is extinguished, the senescence program is rapidly executed. Activation of endogenous senescence pathways in cancer cells may represent an alternative approach to treat human cancers.

  10. Expression of ZNF396 in basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Juncheng; Kito, Yusuke; Okubo, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Tamotsu

    2014-05-01

    Zfp191 represses differentiation and keeps various cells in the stem/progenitor stage. Here, we report that a Zfp191 homolog protein, ZNF396, is expressed in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and possibly represses the expression of a Notch system effector molecule, Hes1 (hairy and enhancer of split-1), and prevents BCC cells from undergoing Notch-mediated squamous cell differentiation. ZNF396 immunoreactivity was found in the nucleus of 35 of 38 cutaneous BCC and 4 of 74 squamous cell carcinoma tissue specimens. In non-tumorous epidermal tissues, ZNF396 immunoreactivity was restricted in basal cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of ZNF396 induced the expression of Notch2, Hes1, and involucrin in cultured BCC cells. Finally, we found that siRNA-mediated silencing of ZNF396 gene inhibited the proliferation of TE354.T basal cell carcinoma cells. ZNF396 might repress Notch-Hes1 signaling axis and prevent tumor cells from undergoing squamous differentiation in BCC.

  11. Hierarchical Bayesian mixture modelling for antigen-specific T-cell subtyping in combinatorially encoded flow cytometry studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Lin; Chan, Cliburn; Hadrup, Sine R

    2013-01-01

    Novel uses of automated flow cytometry technology for measuring levels of protein markers on thousands to millions of cells are promoting increasing need for relevant, customized Bayesian mixture modelling approaches in many areas of biomedical research and application. In studies of immune...... in the ability to characterize variation in immune responses involving larger numbers of functionally differentiated cell subtypes. We describe novel classes of Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for model fitting that exploit distributed GPU (graphics processing unit) implementation. We discuss issues of cellular...... subtype identification in this novel, general model framework, and provide a detailed example using simulated data. We then describe application to a data set from an experimental study of antigen-specific T-cell subtyping using combinatorially encoded assays in human blood samples. Summary comments...

  12. Immunohistochemical analysis of cytochrome C oxidase facilitates differentiation between oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Alexander C; Scriba, Alexander; Ortmann, Monika; Huss, Sebastian; Kahl, Philip; Steiner, Susanne; Störkel, Stephan; Büttner, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunohistochemical staining pattern of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CCO1) was investigated in the differentiation of renal oncocytoma (RO) from eosinophilic (EoC) and classic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC). A feature found in ChRCC/EoC but not in RO is the predominance of a perinuclear halo when stained for CCO1. In a cohort of 103 mixed cases including 44 RO, 37 classic ChRCC and 22 EoC, the diagnosis based on this immunohistochemical feature alone was consistent with the previous routine diagnosis in 95.7%. We reached 100% specificity and 81.4% sensitivity of this pattern in ChRCC. Specificity for RO was 93.2% and sensitivity correspondingly 95.5%. We propose a novel and easily interpretable immunohistochemical method for the discrimination of benign RO from certain subtypes of malignant ChRCC. Because of strong similarity in morphology of the 2 entities the diagnosis often cannot be made based on standard histopathology alone. The study describes for the first time the formation of a perinuclear halo in CCO1 immunohistochemistry as a highly specific marker for the diagnosis of ChRCC. We think this method can be a strong amendment for routine diagnostics in renal cell carcinoma.

  13. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: an analysis of 92 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Valerie A; Gerry, Daniel R; Lentsch, Eric J

    2014-07-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is considered a rare and possibly more aggressive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) variant. Until now, a series of exclusively oral cavity BSCC patients has not been previously reported. We endeavored to compare BSCC and SCC of the oral cavity, focusing on epidemiologic factors and survival outcomes. Retrospective analysis of population-based data. We compared epidemiologic factors, clinicopathologic data, and disease-specific survivals (DSS) between 92 patients with oral cavity BSCC and 15,181 patients with SCC. High-grade tumors and distant metastases were more common in the BSCC group (P≤0.001). On multivariable analysis controlling for disease stage, BSCC patients had similar DSS to those with typical SCC (P=0.231). Although there was a trend favoring definitive radiotherapy for BSCC, there were no significant differences in treatment approach between BSCC and SCC. The choice of treatment modality (radiation, surgery±radiation) did not reveal a difference in DSS between the two tumor subtypes. Analysis of the largest oral cavity BSCC series to date demonstrates that BSCC of the oral cavity carries a comparable prognosis to conventional-type oral SCC. 2b. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Canonical Wnt signaling is antagonized by noncanonical Wnt5a in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Mustafa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-catenin mutations that constitutively activate the canonical Wnt signaling have been observed in a subset of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs. These mutations are associated with chromosomal stability, low histological grade, low tumor invasion and better patient survival. We hypothesized that canonical Wnt signaling is selectively activated in well-differentiated, but repressed in poorly differentiated HCCs. To this aim, we characterized differentiation status of HCC cell lines and compared their expression status of Wnt pathway genes, and explored their activity of canonical Wnt signaling. Results We classified human HCC cell lines into "well-differentiated" and "poorly differentiated" subtypes, based on the expression of hepatocyte lineage, epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Poorly differentiated cell lines lost epithelial and hepatocyte lineage markers, and overexpressed mesenchymal markers. Also, they were highly motile and invasive. We compared the expression of 45 Wnt pathway genes between two subtypes. TCF1 and TCF4 factors, and LRP5 and LRP6 co-receptors were ubiquitously expressed. Likewise, six Frizzled receptors, and canonical Wnt3 ligand were expressed in both subtypes. In contrast, canonical ligand Wnt8b and noncanonical ligands Wnt4, Wnt5a, Wnt5b and Wnt7b were expressed selectively in well- and poorly differentiated cell lines, respectively. Canonical Wnt signaling activity, as tested by a TCF reporter assay was detected in 80% of well-differentiated, contrary to 14% of poorly differentiated cell lines. TCF activity generated by ectopic mutant β-catenin was weak in poorly differentiated SNU449 cell line, suggesting a repressive mechanism. We tested Wnt5a as a candidate antagonist. It strongly inhibited canonical Wnt signaling that is activated by mutant β-catenin in HCC cell lines. Conclusion Differential expression of Wnt ligands in HCC cells is associated with selective activation of canonical Wnt

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  18. File list: His.Bld.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Squamous_Cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Squamous_Cell mm9 Histone Blood Carcinoma, Squamous Cel...l SRX1426082,SRX1156554,SRX1156555 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Squamous_Cell.bed ...

  19. Cox-2 gene overexpression in ureteral stump urothelial carcinoma following nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Wei-Pin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A primary ureteral stump tumor after a nephrectomy is rare; urothelial carcinoma of the ureteral stump after a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma is even rarer. A thorough review of the literature indicated that only seven cases have previously been reported. In this study, we report the first Taiwanese case of urothelial carcinoma of the ureteral stump after a nephrectomy. It is also the first female case in the literature. The relationship between inflammatory genes, medication history and ureteral stump carcinoma after a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma has not been reported. Case presentation A 72-year-old Asian Taiwanese women with chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis and chronic kidney disease underwent a hand-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy in 2001 due to renal cell carcinoma. Nine years later, she was diagnosed with ureteral stump urothelial carcinoma. Genetic and medication surveys were performed. Importantly, our patient had taken Chinese herbal drugs for more than 10 years and the inflammatory gene, Cox-2, was highly expressed in this patient. This is the first report to study the relationship between the Cox-2 gene and ureteral stump carcinoma after a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. Conclusion Long-term multiple use of Chinese herbal drugs could be one of the important risk factors for developing urothelial cancer. Close functional coupling between Chinese herbal drugs, Cox-2 gene activation and urothelial cancer should be further investigated.

  20. FOXM1 predicts overall and disease specific survival in muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma and presents a differential expression between bladder cancer subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldetti, Sebastien; Wirtz, Ralph Markus; Worst, Thomas Stefan; Eckstein, Markus; Weiss, Cleo Aaron; Breyer, Johannes; Otto, Wolfgang; Bolenz, Christian; Hartmann, Arndt; Erben, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) is a late cell cycle gene that plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis and chemotherapeutic drug resistance. In this study, the impact of FOXM1 expression on patient outcome was investigated for the first time in formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples of chemotherapy naïve muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients. Expression analyses were performed on the Mannheim cohort (n=84) and validated on the independent Chungbuk cohort (n=61). In a Cox’ proportional hazards model, a distinct FOXM1 expression cut-off dividing both cohorts in a ‘high-risk’ and ‘low-risk’ group has been determined. Multivariate analyses showed that FOXM1 is an independent risk factor for outcome prediction superior to the TNM system. The FOXM1 ‘high-risk’ group had a 4- to 7-fold increased risk of death (p<0.03) and presented further an overexpression of MKI67. Recent studies showed that MIBCs can be subclassified in breast cancer-like subtypes: basal, luminal and p53-like. Here we demonstrated that FOXM1 was differentially expressed between MIBC subtypes concordant to its subtype specific expression in breast cancer. Since the proto-oncogene FOXM1 is known to play an important role in cisplatin resistance and to be a promising drug target, this study supports FOXM1 as a crucial biomarker in the personalization of MIBC therapy and urges prospective translational studies. PMID:28498805

  1. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Thyroid Gland, Presenting Like Anaplastic Carcinoma of Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Riaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC has unpredictable and diverse behavior. The classic triad of hematuria, loin pain, and abdominal mass is uncommon. At time of diagnosis, 25%–30% of patients are found to have metastases. Bones, lungs, liver, and brain are the frequent sites of metastases. RCC with metastasis to the head and neck region and thyroid gland is the rarest manifestation and anaplastic carcinoma behaving metastatic thyroid mass is an extremely rare presentation of RCC. Case Presentation. A 56-year-old Saudi man with past history of right radical nephrectomy 5 years back presented with 3 months history of rapid increasing neck mass with dysphagia, presenting like anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Tru-cut biopsy turned out to be metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Patient was treated with radiation therapy 30 Gy in 10 fractions to mass. Patient died 4 months after the discovery of anaplastic thyroid looking metastasis. Conclusion. Rapidly progressing thyroid metastases secondary to RCC are rare and found often unresectable which are not amenable to surgery. Palliative radiotherapy can be considered for such patients.

  2. Concomitant Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Gallbladder and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Aiello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrine carcinoma is defined as a high-grade malignant neuroendocrine neoplasm arising from enterochromaffin cells, usually disposed in the mucosa of gastric and respiratory tracts. The localization in the gallbladder is rare. Knowledge of these gallbladder tumors is limited and based on isolated case reports. We describe a case of an incidental finding of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder, observed after cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis, in a 55-year-old female, who already underwent quadrantectomy and sentinel lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer. The patient underwent radiotherapy for breast cancer and six cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide. Eighteen months after surgery, the patient was free from disease. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder has poor prognosis. Because of the rarity of the reported cases, specific prognostic factors have not been identified. The coexistence of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder with another malignancy has been reported only once. The contemporary presence of the two neoplasms could reflect that bioactive agents secreted by carcinoid can promote phenotypic changes in susceptible cells and induce neoplastic transformation.

  3. Nano-mechanical and biochemical characterization of different subtypes of breast cells using atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jinshu; Wang, Yuhua; Ruan, Qiuyong; Xu, Chaoxian; Jiang, Ningcheng; Xie, Shusen; Yang, Hongqin; Lin, Juqiang

    2016-11-01

    Combining atomic force microscopy (AFM) with Raman spectroscopy (RS), three different subtypes of breast cell lines, including metastatic cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), non-malignant cancer cells (MCF-7) and benign cells (MCF-10A), were studied to compare their differences in nano-mechanical and biochemical properties. Based on AFM measurements, two cancerous cells were found to have a close elasticity modulus, but were significantly softer than that of their benign counterparts. Raman spectral analysis revealed that the data points for two cancerous cells were distinct with completely separated clusters. The results demonstrate that combined AFM and RS techniques could obtain information about the biomechanical and biochemical properties necessary to distinguish different subtypes of breast cancer cells. This will hold great promise for cancer detection at the single cell level.

  4. Bladder chondrosarcoma plus urothelial carcinoma in recurred transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Hyun; Kim, Sung Han; Park, Weon Seo; Joung, Jae Young; Seo, Ho Kyung; Chung, Jinsoo; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-10-20

    Sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma (SUC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the urinary bladder comprising 0.2-0.6 % of all histological bladder tumor subtypes. It presents as a high-stage malignancy and exhibits aggressive biological behavior, regardless of the treatment employed. It is defined as histologically indistinguishable from sarcoma and as a high-grade biphasic neoplasm with malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components. The mean age of patients presenting with SUC is 66 years, and the male-to-female ratio is 3:1. In addition, gross hematuria is usually present. The prognosis of SUC is poorer than that of typical urothelial carcinoma because of uncertainty concerning the optimal treatment regimen. We report the case of a 77-year-old woman with SUC containing a chondrosarcoma component who, 12 years previously, had undergone a nephroureterectomy for pT3N0M0 ureter cancer of the contralateral upper urinary tract. From the 4th year of follow-up after nephroureterectomy, multiple recurrent bladder tumors staged as Ta transitional cell carcinoma developed, and six transurethral resections of the bladder (TURB) with multiple intravesical instillations were performed without any evidence of metastases and upper tract recurrences. In 2015, a right partial distal ureterectomy and an additional TURB were performed due to a papillary mass at the right contralateral ureterovesical junction of the bladder, which was confirmed as a high-grade pT1 transitional cell carcinoma. After a further 2 years of follow-up, total pelvic exenteration with an ileal conduit diversion was performed to remove the mass, which was a pT4N0M0 tumor composed of carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements compatible with a sarcomatoid carcinoma including grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma and chondrosarcoma. Immunohistochemical examination showed that tumor cells were positive for vimentin and p63 and negative for NSE and Cd56 markers. In the first postoperative month, a metastatic lung nodule

  5. Curcumin Inhibits Growth of Human NCI-H292 Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells by Increasing FOXA2 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Tang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC is a common histological lung cancer subtype, but unlike lung adenocarcinoma, limited therapeutic options are available for treatment. Curcumin, a natural compound, may have anticancer effects in various cancer cells, but how it may be used to treat LSCC has not been well studied. Here, we applied curcumin to a human NCI-H292 LSCC cell line to test anticancer effects and explored underlying potential mechanisms of action. Curcumin treatment inhibited NCI-H292 cell growth and increased FOXA2 expression in a time-dependent manner. FOXA2 expression was decreased in LSCC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues and knockdown of FOXA2 increased NCI-H292 cells proliferation. Inhibition of cell proliferation by curcumin was attenuated by FOXA2 knockdown. Moreover inhibition of STAT3 pathways by curcumin increased FOXA2 expression in NCI-H292 cells whereas a STAT3 activator (IL-6 significantly inhibited curcumin-induced FOXA2 expression. Also, SOCS1 and SOCS3, negative regulators of STAT3 activity, were upregulated by curcumin treatment. Thus, curcumin inhibited human NCI-H292 cells growth by increasing FOXA2 expression via regulation of STAT3 signaling pathways.

  6. Histological reclassification, histochemical characterization and c-kit immunoexpression in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P R Rekha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Renal cell carcinoma is the most lethal of all urologic malignancies. Several parameters such as histological subtype, nuclear grade and TNM staging help in determining the prognosis and treatment options. A newer therapeutic modality has been suggested based on expression of c-kit antigen by the tumor cells. This study was designed to evaluate various histological parameters and correlate them with c-kit expression. Materials and Methods: The study was done on 40 consecutive cases of renal epithelial tumors. Histological sections were reviewed and reclassified according to WHO (2004 classification and nuclear grade assessed. Hale′s colloidal iron stain was done to identify the chromophobe variant. Immunostaining with c-kit was done and its expression was studied. The results were correlated and statistical significance was assessed. Results: The age range was 31-81 years, with a male to female ratio of 2:1. Seventy per cent of the cases were clear cell RCC (ClRCC, 17.5% were chromophobe type, 7.5% were papillary RCCs and 5% cases were oncocytomas. Fuhrman nuclear grading revealed 60.5% cases to be of low grade and 39.5% high grade. Hale′s colloidal iron staining was positive in chromophobe RCC and oncocytomas, while it was negative in ClRCC. Immunostaining with c-kit was positive only in oncocytomas. Conclusions: Clear cell RCC was the most common histological subtype of RCC. Clear cell RCC known to have a poor prognosis, showed a statistically significant higher nuclear grade than chromophobe and papillary RCCs which have a better prognosis. Hale′s colloidal iron staining was extremely useful in distinguishing chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma from the granular cell variant of clear RCC. Our study revealed c-kit negativity in all RCC. As Imatinib could be ineffective in such tumors, its clinical activity has to be carefully assessed in such tumors through further studies.

  7. Clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas: are their differences attributable to distinct cells of origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Dawn R; Tessier-Cloutier, Basile; Lawrence, Katherine M; Nazeran, Tayyebeh; Karnezis, Anthony N; Salamanca, Clara; Cheng, Angela S; McAlpine, Jessica N; Hoang, Lien N; Gilks, C Blake; Huntsman, David G

    2017-09-01

    Endometrial epithelium is the presumed tissue of origin for both eutopic and endometriosis-derived clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas. We had previously hypothesized that the morphological, biological and clinical differences between these carcinomas are due to histotype-specific mutations. Although some mutations and genomic landscape features are more likely to be found in one of these histotypes, we were not able to identify a single class of mutations that was exclusively present in one histotype and not the other. This lack of genomic differences led us to an alternative hypothesis that these cancers could arise from distinct cells of origin within endometrial tissue, and that it is the cellular context that accounts for their differences. In a proteomic screen, we identified cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH) as a marker for clear cell carcinoma, as it is expressed at high levels in clear cell carcinomas of the ovary and endometrium. In the current study, we analysed normal Müllerian tissues, and found that CTH is expressed in ciliated cells of endometrium (both eutopic endometrium and endometriosis) and fallopian tubes. We then demonstrated that other ciliated cell markers are expressed in clear cell carcinomas, whereas endometrial secretory cell markers are expressed in endometrioid carcinomas. The same differential staining of secretory and ciliated cells was demonstrable in a three-dimensional organoid culture system, in which stem cells were stimulated to differentiate into an admixture of secretory and ciliated cells. These data suggest that endometrioid carcinomas are derived from cells of the secretory cell lineage, whereas clear cell carcinomas are derived from, or have similarities to, cells of the ciliated cell lineage. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Identification of three molecular and functional subtypes in canine hemangiosarcoma through gene expression profiling and progenitor cell characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorden, Brandi H; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Sarver, Aaron L; Frantz, Aric M; Breen, Matthew; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; O'Brien, Timothy D; Sharkey, Leslie C; Modiano, Jaime F; Dickerson, Erin B

    2014-04-01

    Canine hemangiosarcomas have been ascribed to an endothelial origin based on histologic appearance; however, recent findings suggest that these tumors may arise instead from hematopoietic progenitor cells. To clarify this ontogenetic dilemma, we used genome-wide expression profiling of primary hemangiosarcomas and identified three distinct tumor subtypes associated with angiogenesis (group 1), inflammation (group 2), and adipogenesis (group 3). Based on these findings, we hypothesized that a common progenitor may differentiate into the three tumor subtypes observed in our gene profiling experiment. To investigate this possibility, we cultured hemangiosarcoma cell lines under normal and sphere-forming culture conditions to enrich for tumor cell progenitors. Cells from sphere-forming cultures displayed a robust self-renewal capacity and exhibited genotypic, phenotypic, and functional properties consistent with each of the three molecular subtypes seen in primary tumors, including expression of endothelial progenitor cell (CD133 and CD34) and endothelial cell (CD105, CD146, and αvβ3 integrin) markers, expression of early hematopoietic (CD133, CD117, and CD34) and myeloid (CD115 and CD14) differentiation markers in parallel with increased phagocytic capacity, and acquisition of adipogenic potential. Collectively, these results suggest that canine hemangiosarcomas arise from multipotent progenitors that differentiate into distinct subtypes. Improved understanding of the mechanisms that determine the molecular and phenotypic differentiation of tumor cells in vivo could change paradigms regarding the origin and progression of endothelial sarcomas. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduced cilia frequencies in human renal cell carcinomas versus neighboring parenchymal tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basten Sander G

    2013-01-01

    . Cilia frequencies in a total of eighty-nine clear cell, eight papillary, five chromophobe renal cell carcinomas, two sarcomatoid renal tumors and six oncocytomas were determined. A marked decrease of primary cilia across renal cell carcinoma subtypes was observed compared to adjacent nontumorigenic tissue. Conclusions Our study shows that cilia are predominantly lost in renal cell carcinomas compared to tissue of the tumor parenchyma. These results suggest that ciliary loss is common in renal tumorigenesis, possibly participating in the sequence of cellular events leading to malignant tumor development. Future therapies aimed at restoring or circumventing cilia signaling might therefore aid in current treatment efficacy.

  10. Multiparameter Analysis of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Identifies Distinct Immunomodulatory and Differentiation-Competent Subtypes

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    Sally James

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also called bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells provide hematopoietic support and immunoregulation and contain a stem cell fraction capable of skeletogenic differentiation. We used immortalized human BMSC clonal lines for multi-level analysis of functional markers for BMSC subsets. All clones expressed typical BMSC cell-surface antigens; however, clones with trilineage differentiation capacity exhibited enhanced vascular interaction gene sets, whereas non-differentiating clones were uniquely CD317 positive with significantly enriched immunomodulatory transcriptional networks and high IL-7 production. IL-7 lineage tracing and CD317 immunolocalization confirmed the existence of a rare non-differentiating BMSC subtype, distinct from Cxcl12-DsRed+ perivascular stromal cells in vivo. Colony-forming CD317+ IL-7hi cells, identified at ∼1%–3% frequency in heterogeneous human BMSC fractions, were found to have the same biomolecular profile as non-differentiating BMSC clones using Raman spectroscopy. Distinct functional identities can be assigned to BMSC subpopulations, which are likely to have specific roles in immune control, lymphopoiesis, and bone homeostasis.

  11. Clinical Success With Imiquimod Alone and In Combination With Intralesional Interferon In Basal Cell Carcinoma

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    Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common type of skin cancer in humans. Surgery is still the gold standart for treatment of BCCs. However, there are also less-invasive, nonsurgical therapies such as imiquimod cream and intralesional interferon (IFN alpha-2b for the patients who are poor candidates for surgery and who care cosmetic outcomes. Objective: We report 11 BCC cases with various subtypes successfully treated with either imiquimod alone or in combination with interferon alfa-2b. Methods: Patients with various subtypes of histopathologically proven BCCs who were treated with imiquimod or combination of imiquimod and IFN alpha-2b between 2005-2010 years at our outpatient clinic are included in this report. Results: Of 11 patients we reported, only 4 patients (3 infiltrative, 1 solid types recieved intralesional interferon alpha-2b 3 million IU, 3 times a week combined with topical imiquimod. The rest 7 patients recieved only imiquimod 5% cream. All patients were cured with these regimens. Conclusion: Imiquimod is found to be effective not only in superficial, but also infiltrative, solid, and nodular types. Intralesional interferon alpha-2b is also known to be effective in BCCs and it has a synergistic effect when combined with imiquimod.

  12. Dermoscopic features in the diagnosis of different types of basal cell carcinoma: a prospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigoni, A; Lazaridou, E; Apalla, Z; Vakirlis, E; Chrysomallis, F; Varytimiadis, D; Ioannides, D

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is limited data on dermoscopic features of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). We evaluated the presence of dermoscopic features in superficial (sBCCs), nodular (nBCCs), pigmented and non-pigmented BCCs in order to evaluate the role of dermoscopy in the diagnosis of different subtypes of BCCs. Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the presence of dermoscopic features in superficial, nodular, pigmented and non – pigmented BCCs. One hundred thirty eight lesions (42 superficial, 96 nodular, 102 pigmented and 36 non-pigmented) were assessed by dermoscopy. Results: The most significant features in all categories, were a scattered vascular pattern, featureless areas, atypical red vessels, arborizing vessels, comma vessels, background of white-red structureless areas and telangiectasias. Haemorrhage-ulceration, hypopigmented areas and blue-grey ovoid nests were all more likely to be observed in sBCCs, than in nBCCs (p pigmented than in pigmented BCCs (p pigmented lesions in comparison to non-pigmented (ppigmented and non-pigmented BCCs in order to evaluate the role of dermoscopy in the diagnosis of different subtypes of BCCs. PMID:23930054

  13. Renal cell carcinoma in pregnancy: Still a management challenge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I.C. Akpayak

    www.ees.elsevier.com/afju · www.sciencedirect.com. Short Communication. Renal cell carcinoma in pregnancy: Still a management challenge. I.C. Akpayak. ∗. , S.I. Shuiabu, C.G. Ofoha, N.K. Dakum, V.M. Ramyil. Urology Division, Surgery Department, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. Received 14 June 2014 ...

  14. Transitional cell carcinoma developing in a bladder diverticulum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computed tomography confirmed a left-sided narrow neck urinary bladder diverticulum, with wall thickening, in a 56-year-old man. These findings were initially detected on ultrasonographic investigation. Transitional cell carcinoma was confirmed histologically. There is an increased incidence of neoplastic transformation in ...

  15. Leukemoid reaction associated with transitional cell carcinoma: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this article was to investigate the diagnosis, treatment and mechanisms of the leukemoid reaction (LKR) 14 15 associated with transitional cell carcinoma. A 64-year-old male patient presented with anuria. Color ultrasound imaging 15 16 revealed a large bladder tumor. Digital radiography and computerized ...

  16. EAU guidelines on renal cell carcinoma: the 2010 update.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ljungberg, B.; Cowan, N.C.; Hanbury, D.C.; Hora, M.; Kuczyk, M.A.; Merseburger, A.S.; Patard, J.J.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Sinescu, I.C.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: The European Association of Urology Guideline Group for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has prepared these guidelines to help clinicians assess the current evidence-based management of RCC and to incorporate the present recommendations into daily clinical practice. EVIDENCE

  17. Organotypic in vitro models of human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) comprises about 15% of all skin cancer diagnoses. Treatment associated with the high and rising prevalence of cutaneous SCC puts an increasingly high financial burden on society,

  18. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing...

  19. Filaggrin Gene Mutations and Risk of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jesper Rabølle; Thyssen, J P; Johansen, J D

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is prevalent in lightly-pigmented Europeans. While ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important risk factor, genetic predispositions to BCC have also been identified (1) . Atopic dermatitis (AD), a condition with a heritability that reaches 71-84%, might increase the risk...

  20. Severe paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia in metastatic renal cell carcinoma

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    Todenhöfer Tilman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma can cause various paraneoplastic syndromes including metabolic and hematologic disturbances. Paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia has been reported in a variety of hematologic and solid tumors. We present the first case in the literature of severe paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia in a patient with renal cell carcinoma. Case presentation A 46 year-old patient patient with a history of significant weight loss, reduced general state of health and coughing underwent radical nephrectomy for metastasized renal cell carcinoma. Three weeks after surgery, the patient presented with excessive peripheral hypereosinophilia leading to profound neurological symptoms due to cerebral microinfarction. Systemic treatment with prednisolone, hydroxyurea, vincristine, cytarabine, temsirolimus and sunitinib led to reduction of peripheral eosinophils but could not prevent rapid disease progression of the patient. At time of severe leukocytosis, a considerable increase of cytokines associated with hypereosinophilia was measurable. Conclusions Paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia in patients with renal cell carcinoma might indicate poor prognosis and rapid disease progression. Myelosuppressive therapy is required in symptomatic patients.