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Sample records for cefoxitin

  1. [Appendiceal peritonitis in childhood, antibiotic treatment with cefoxitin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristegui, J; de la Fuente, E; Pérez Legorburu, A; de Gárate, J

    1982-11-01

    Twenty one cases of appendiceal peritonitis in children are reviewed. An antibiotic (sodium cefoxitine) has been used during the post-operative course to decrease the risk of suppurative complications. Cultures obtained from peritoneal exudate yielded "E. coli" and "Bacteroides" sp. as the most commonly isolated bacteria. External drainage was placed as a rutine and the percentage of suppurative complications was 14%. No patient showed evidence of adverse reactions to the antibiotic and the mortality of the serie was zero. Obtained results allow to state that cefoxitine is effective in the management of appendiceal peritonitis in children.

  2. Observation on the compatible stability of injected cefoxitin sodium and dexamethasone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Qing Xie

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the compatible stability of cefoxitin sodium in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and dexamethasone sodium phosphate. Methods:The cefoxitin sodium was compatible with dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection at 25℃. HPLC was used to determine the change of cefoxitin sodium content in the compatible liquids within 0-6 h. The appearance of pharmaceutical liquids was observed, and the change of PH value was detected.Results:No obvious change of cefoxitin sodium content in the compatible liquids within 0-6 h, and no change of PH value, appearance, and characteristics were observed. The insoluble particles conformed to the specifications.Conclusions:Cefoxitin sodium can be compatible with dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection within 6 h.

  3. Evaluation of oxacillin and cefoxitin disks for detection of resistance in coagulase negative staphylococci

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    Ana Lúcia Souza Antunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. was considered nonpathogenic until the emergence of multiresistance and the demonstration of their participation as infectious agents. In Brazil, oxacillin resistance may be present in over 80% of isolates, and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standardized a disk-diffusion method to predict this resistance in Staphylococcus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability among commercial disks of oxacillin (1 µg and cefoxitin (30 µg widely used in clinical laboratories of microbiology, compared with mecA gene and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of oxacillin. The use of oxacillin and cefoxitin disks simultaneously allowed the detection of important differences, particularly, in less frequent species such as S. cohnii, S. haemolyticus, S. saprophyticus, and S. sciuri. Disks of cefoxitin of the brand 2 displayed good correlation with the mecA gene (98.7% and oxacillin MIC (97.8%, while major discrepancies were observed using disks of brand 1. One of the critical points in the diffusion disk test is the quality of the disks: the use of better quality disks associated with molecular methods lead to better results to define the best antibiotic therapy.

  4. Ceftriaxone (single dose) versus cefoxitin (multiple doses): success and failure of antibiotic prophylaxis in 1052 cesarean sections.

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    von Mandach, U; Huch, R; Malinverni, R; Huch, A

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in cesarean section with a single dose of ceftriaxone, a long-acting cephalosporin not widely used for prophylaxis, was tested. Ceftriaxone as a single dose of 1 g i.v. versus three doses of cefoxitin 1 g i.v. respectively were used in a prospective, randomized, controlled study consisting of 1052 patients undergoing cesarean section. Postoperative infection rate as measured by fever, endometritis and wound infection was 6.5% with ceftriaxone and 6.4% with cefoxitin. Urinary tract infections were significantly more frequent in the cefoxitin than in the ceftriaxone group (17.8% vs. 9.7%, p < 0.001). Enterococci and Escherichia coli accounted for urinary tract infections 1.86-, respectively, 4.3-fold more frequently with cefoxitin than with ceftriaxone. The time of hospitalization in patients with urinary tract infections was significantly lower with ceftriaxone than with cefoxitin (11 vs. 12 days, p < 0.05). The tolerance in both groups was equally satisfactory. A single dose of ceftriaxone, which is simple, reliable (compliance), well tolerated, inexpensive (fewer urinary tract infections and therefore fewer treatment costs than with cefoxitin) and safe (no overgrowth of pathogens) in our opinion is the antibiotic regimen of choice for prophylaxis in cesarean section in the described circumstances.

  5. Evaluation of cefoxitin disk diffusion breakpoint for detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs.

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    Bemis, David A; Jones, Rebekah D; Videla, Ricardo; Kania, Stephen A

    2012-09-01

    Cefoxitin disk diffusion susceptibility testing is a recommended screening method for the detection of methicillin resistance in human isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. A retrospective analysis of 1,146 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from dogs was conducted to determine if screening by the cefoxitin disk method can be similarly useful with S. pseudintermedius. The distribution of cefoxitin growth inhibition zone diameters within this collection was bimodal and correlated well with the results of methicillin resistance gene (mecA) detection by polymerase chain reaction. Of the isolates, 5% had discordant results and, when retested, 84% of these were in agreement. While a greater diversity of isolates and interlaboratory comparisons must be tested, the current study suggests that an epidemiological breakpoint (of approximately ≤ 30 mm = resistant; ≥ 31 = susceptible) can be established to predict methicillin resistance in S. pseudintermedius.

  6. Pharmacological study of cefoxitin as an alternative antibiotic therapy to carbapenems in treatment of urinary tract infections due to extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

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    Guet-Revillet, H; Emirian, A; Groh, M; Nebbad-Lechani, B; Weiss, E; Join-Lambert, O; Bille, E; Jullien, V; Zahar, J R

    2014-08-01

    Cefoxitin could be an alternative to carbapenems in extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) infections. However, pharmacological and clinical data regarding cefoxitin are limited. Using a recent pharmacological model and the MICs of ESBL-EC collected from pyelonephritis, we determined the probabilities to reach four pharmacological targets: free cefoxitin concentrations above the MIC during 50% and 100% of the administration interval (T>MIC = 50% and T>MIC = 100%, respectively) and free cefoxitin concentrations above 4× MIC during 50% and 100% of the administration interval (T>4MIC = 50% and T>4MIC = 100%, respectively). Cefoxitin could be used to treat ESBL-EC pyelonephritis, but administration modalities should be optimized according to MICs in order to reach pharmacological targets.

  7. Evaluation of a cefoxitin disk diffusion test for the detection of mecA-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

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    Higashide, Masato; Kuroda, Makoto; Ohkawa, Saburo; Ohta, Toshiko

    2006-06-01

    In order to validate the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria for the detection of mecA-mediated resistance in Staphylococcus saprophyticus, 101 clinical isolates, including 8 mecA-positive isolates, were investigated. All the isolates were in the range of the resistant category for coagulase-negative staphylococci with the 1 microg oxacillin disk diffusion method and agar dilution method, despite 93 isolates (92%) being mecA-negative. On the other hand, the 30 microg cefoxitin disk diffusion method showed clearly distinguishable zone diameters between the mecA-positive and -negative isolates. However, four of the mecA-negative isolates that would be considered resistant were false positive, and the current interpretive criteria of the CLSI may thus require reconsideration. This study suggests that the cefoxitin disk diffusion method could be more suitable than the oxacillin disk diffusion method for detecting mecA-mediated resistance in S. saprophyticus.

  8. BD Phoenix and Vitek 2 detection of mecA-mediated resistance in Staphylococcus aureus with cefoxitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkins, Alan D; Lockhart, Shawn R; Heilmann, Kristopher P; Dohrn, Cassie L; Von Stein, Diana L; Winokur, Patricia L; Doern, Gary V; Richter, Sandra S

    2009-09-01

    The BD Phoenix (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD) and Vitek 2 (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) automated susceptibility testing systems have implemented the use of cefoxitin to enhance the detection of methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). To assess the impact of this change, 620 clinically significant S. aureus isolates were tested in parallel on Phoenix PMIC/ID-102 panels and Vitek 2 AST-GP66 cards. The results for oxacillin and cefoxitin generated by the automated systems were compared to those generated by two reference methods: mecA gene detection and MICs of oxacillin previously determined by broth microdilution according to CLSI guidelines. Testing of isolates with discordant results was repeated to attain a majority or consensus final result. There was 100% final agreement between the results of the two reference methods. For the 448 MRSA and 172 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates tested, the rates of categorical agreement of the results obtained with the automated systems with those obtained by the reference methods were 99.8% for the Phoenix panels and 99.7% for the Vitek 2 cards. A single very major error occurred on each instrument (0.2%) with different MRSA isolates. The only major error was attributed to the Vitek 2 system overcalling oxacillin resistance. In 16 instances (9 on the Phoenix system, 7 on the Vitek 2 system), an oxacillin MIC in the susceptible range was correctly changed to resistant by the expert system on the basis of the cefoxitin result. The inclusion of cefoxitin in the Phoenix and Vitek 2 panels has optimized the detection of MRSA by both systems.

  9. Development and Characterization of Cefoxitin Loaded D,L-PLA Nanoparticles

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    Sílvia Regina Pengo Machado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles containing cefoxitin (CEF made of D,L-PLA (PLA were designed by a multiple emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The particles were extensively evaluated in relation to morphology, encapsulation efficiency, drug-polymer interactions as well as in vitro drug release kinetics. Nanoparticles were spherical in shape and isolated, with a mean diameter of about 600 nm. The thermal behaviour (DSC of CEF-containing nanoparticles suggested that the drug was dispersed at a molecular level within the system. The drug encapsulation efficiency in the system for a CEF concentration of 30 mg/mL was 5.5%, as assessed after the drug extraction, by a validated HPLC method. This low encapsulation efficiency is understandable, since CEF is highly hydrophilic. The in vitro assays showed a strong sustained drug release profile from the nanoparticles with kinetics following pure Fickian diffusion. Keywords: Nanoparticles. Controlled release. D,L-PLA. Cefoxitin. In vitro release. RESUMO Desenvolvimento e Caracterização de Nanopartículas de D,L-PLA contendo Cefoxitina As nanopartículas de D, L-PLA (PLA contendo cefoxitina (CEF foram preparadas pelo método de emulsão múltipla / evaporação do solvente. As partículas foram avaliadas em relação à morfologia, à eficiência de encapsulação, às interações polímero-fármaco, bem como à cinética de liberação do fármaco in vitro . As nanopartículas são esféricas e isoladas, com um diâmetro médio de cerca de 600 nm. O comportamento térmico (DSC das nanopartículas contendo CEF sugeriu que o fármaco está disperso em um nível molecular dentro do sistema. A eficiência de encapsulação do fármaco no sistema quando a concentração de CEF é 30 mg / mL foi de 5,5%, determinada após a extração de fármaco, através de um método de HPLC validado. Esta baixa eficiência de encapsulação é compreensível, uma vez que a CEF é altamente hidrofílica. Os ensaios in vitro mostraram um

  10. Stability of Ranitidine Hydrochloride with Cefazolin Sodium, Cefbuperazone Sodium, Cefoxitin Sodium and Cephalothin Sodium during Simulated Y-Site Administration.

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    Inagaki, K; Miyamoto, Y; Kurata, N; Nakane, S; Gill, M A; Nishida, M

    2000-01-01

    The compatibility and stability of ranitidine hydrochloride when comixed with four cephalosporins (cefazolin sodium, cefoxitin sodium, cephalothin sodium and cefbuperazone sodium) during simulated Y-site injection were studied. The mixtures were prepared by mixing equal volumes (2 mL) of ranitidine hydrochloride (1mg/mL) and each tested cephalosporin (20 mg/mL) in a 10 mL glass test tube. All study mixtures were prepared in triplicate and stored at room temperature under normal fluorescent room lighting. The physical appearaance and pH of each mixture were recorded; the chemical stability of each drug was immediatedly determined by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography from samples stored for up to four hours after mixing. Stability was defined as the retention of more than 90% of the initial concentration of each drug. Visual inspection revealed no color or clarity change and the pH changes were less than 0.2 pH units in the tested mixtures for cefazolin and cefoxitin: however, there were significant pH changes for cefbuperazone and cephalothin after four hours of storage. Ranitidine retained greater than 90% of its original concentration within the tested period in the mixture with 20 mg/mL of each tested cephalosporin, except for cephalothin (86.6% of control). In the presence of 10 mg/mL cephalothin, however, ranitidine retained greater than 90% for four hours. Meanwhile, all four cephalosporins retained greater than 90% of their original concentrations for up to four hours in the mixture with ranitidine. From the results obtained, it is clear that ranitidine solution may be coadministered with a solution of either cefazolin, cefoxitin or cefbuperazone during Y-site administration for up to four hours after mxining. On the other hand, since ranitidine with cephalothin (20 mg/mL) fell below 90%, the amount of cephalothin should not exceed 10 mg/mL when coadminstered with ranitidine solution.

  11. 头孢西丁钠稳定性改进%Improvement on Stability of Cefoxitin sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏青杰

    2011-01-01

    头孢西丁钠是一种具有长效、广谱抗菌特点的第二代头孢类抗生素。通过对头孢西丁钠原料药结晶工艺进行筛选,调节头孢西丁钠的pH值、加稳定剂、改变残氧量及不同的结晶状态,使其稳定性得到改善,收率为95%左右。%Cefoxitin sodium,the second-generation cephalosporins,is permanence and has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity.To study the stability of the product.Through choosing of crystallization technology of the API cefoxitin sodium,adjusting pH value,adding stabilizer,changing remind oxygen and crystallization condition,the drug stability has been improved,the yield reached about 95%.

  12. Cefoxitin resistance mediated by loss of a porin in clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli

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    Ananthan S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Porins are outer membrane protein (OMP that form water filled channels that permit the diffusion of small hydrophilic solutes like -lactam antibiotics across the outer membrane. Two major porins that facilitate diffusion of antimicrobials have been described in Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli. The present study was carried out to examine the role of porins among Extended Spectrum -Lactamase (ESBL and AmpC -Lactamase positive strains of Klebsiella spp. and E.coli. METHODS: Preparation of OMP from phenotypically characterized clinical isolates K.pneumoniae and E.coli and the separation of the proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were performed as per a previously described procedure. RESULTS: OMP analysis revealed that cefoxitin and ceftazidime resistance was mediated by loss of a porin Omp K35 in the isolates of K.pneumoniae and E.coli. CONCLUSIONS: Loss of porin mediated resistance mechanism against cefoxitin was observed among the multidrug resistant K.pneumoniae and E.coli.

  13. Comparison of cefoxitin disk diffusion test and mecA gene PCR results for methicillin resistance detection in Staphylococcus intermedius group isolates from canine origin in Brazil.

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    Penna, Bruno; Rabello, Renata F; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated cefoxitin disk diffusion tests breakpoints and their correlation to mecA gene PCR results for detecting Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius Group (MRSP) isolates from dogs in Brazil. Agreement using proposed breakpoint (resistant ≤ 30 mm) was encouraging. The current study reinforces that an epidemiological breakpoint can be established to predict presence of MRSP.

  14. Evaluation of Oxacillin and Cefoxitin Disk and MIC Breakpoints for Prediction of Methicillin Resistance in Human and Veterinary Isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius Group

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    Wu, M. T.; Westblade, L. F.; Dien Bard, J.; Wallace, M. A.; Stanley, T.; Burd, E.; Hindler, J.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a coagulase-positive species that colonizes the nares and anal mucosa of healthy dogs and cats. Human infections with S. pseudintermedius range in severity from bite wounds and rhinosinusitis to endocarditis; historically, these infections were thought to be uncommon, but new laboratory methods suggest that their true incidence is underreported. Oxacillin and cefoxitin disk and MIC tests were evaluated for the detection of mecA- or mecC-mediated methicillin resistance in 115 human and animal isolates of the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG), including 111 Staphylococcus pseudintermediusand 4 Staphylococcus delphini isolates, 37 of which were mecA positive. The disk and MIC breakpoints evaluated included the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M100-S25 Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus lugdunensis oxacillin MIC breakpoints and cefoxitin disk and MIC breakpoints, the CLSI M100-S25 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) oxacillin MIC breakpoint and cefoxitin disk breakpoint, the CLSI VET01-S2 S. pseudintermedius oxacillin MIC and disk breakpoints, and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) S. pseudintermedius cefoxitin disk breakpoint. The oxacillin results interpreted by the VET01-S2 (disk and MIC) and M100-S25 CoNS (MIC) breakpoints agreed with the results of mecA/mecC PCR for all isolates, with the exception of one false-resistant result (1.3% of mecA/mecC PCR-negative isolates). In contrast, cefoxitin tests performed poorly, ranging from 3 to 89% false susceptibility (very major errors) and 0 to 48% false resistance (major errors). BD Phoenix, bioMérieux Vitek 2, and Beckman Coulter MicroScan commercial automated susceptibility test panel oxacillin MIC results were also evaluated and demonstrated >95% categorical agreement with mecA/mecC PCR results if interpreted by using the M100-S25 CoNS breakpoint. The Alere penicillin-binding protein 2a test accurately detected all

  15. Evaluation of Oxacillin and Cefoxitin Disk and MIC Breakpoints for Prediction of Methicillin Resistance in Human and Veterinary Isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M T; Burnham, C-A D; Westblade, L F; Dien Bard, J; Lawhon, S D; Wallace, M A; Stanley, T; Burd, E; Hindler, J; Humphries, R M

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a coagulase-positive species that colonizes the nares and anal mucosa of healthy dogs and cats. Human infections with S. pseudintermedius range in severity from bite wounds and rhinosinusitis to endocarditis; historically, these infections were thought to be uncommon, but new laboratory methods suggest that their true incidence is underreported. Oxacillin and cefoxitin disk and MIC tests were evaluated for the detection of mecA- or mecC-mediated methicillin resistance in 115 human and animal isolates of the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG), including 111 Staphylococcus pseudintermediusand 4 Staphylococcus delphini isolates, 37 of which were mecA positive. The disk and MIC breakpoints evaluated included the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M100-S25 Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus lugdunensis oxacillin MIC breakpoints and cefoxitin disk and MIC breakpoints, the CLSI M100-S25 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) oxacillin MIC breakpoint and cefoxitin disk breakpoint, the CLSI VET01-S2 S. pseudintermedius oxacillin MIC and disk breakpoints, and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) S. pseudintermedius cefoxitin disk breakpoint. The oxacillin results interpreted by the VET01-S2 (disk and MIC) and M100-S25 CoNS (MIC) breakpoints agreed with the results of mecA/mecC PCR for all isolates, with the exception of one false-resistant result (1.3% of mecA/mecC PCR-negative isolates). In contrast, cefoxitin tests performed poorly, ranging from 3 to 89% false susceptibility (very major errors) and 0 to 48% false resistance (major errors). BD Phoenix, bioMérieux Vitek 2, and Beckman Coulter MicroScan commercial automated susceptibility test panel oxacillin MIC results were also evaluated and demonstrated >95% categorical agreement with mecA/mecC PCR results if interpreted by using the M100-S25 CoNS breakpoint. The Alere penicillin-binding protein 2a test accurately detected all

  16. Efficacy of amoxycillin-clavulanate in an experimental model of murine pneumonia caused by AmpC-non-hyperproducing clinical isolates of Escherichia coli resistant to cefoxitin.

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    Docobo-Pérez, F; Fernández-Cuenca, F; Pachón-Ibáñez, M E; Pascual, A; Pichardo, C; Martínez-Martínez, L; Pachón, J

    2008-06-01

    The algorithms included in most automated systems used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (e.g., Vitek 2) consider that Escherichia coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin are AmpC-hyperproducers and, consequently, resistant also to amoxycillin-clavulanate. However, a recent study revealed that 30% of E. coli clinical isolates resistant to cefoxitin remained susceptible in vitro to amoxycillin-clavulanate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in-vivo efficacy of amoxycillin-clavulanate in the treatment of an experimental model of pneumonia, using two clonally related isolates (with identical repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence (REP)-PCR patterns) of AmpC-non-hyperproducing and OmpF-lacking E. coli (Ec985 and Ec571) that were resistant to cefoxitin and susceptible to cefotaxime and amoxycillin-clavulanate. MICs were determined using a microdilution technique, and in-vitro bactericidal activity was tested using time-kill assays. The in-vivo efficacy of amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime against both isolates was tested in a murine pneumonia model using immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. Ec571 (a TEM-1/2 producer) was resistant to amoxycillin, whereas Ec985 (a TEM-1/2 non-producer) was susceptible. Amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime were bactericidal for Ec985, and amoxycillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime were bactericidal for Ec571 at different concentrations and time-points, as determined using time-kill assays. Treatment with amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime reduced the bacterial lung concentration of Ec985 compared with non-treated controls (p AmpC-non-hyperproducing strains of E. coli resistant to cefoxitin.

  17. Correlation between the VITEK2 system and cefoxitin disk diffusion for the daily detection of oxacillin resistance in a large number of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

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    Bemer, P; Juvin, M E; Le Gargasson, G; Drugeon, H; Reynaud, A; Corvec, S

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of the new VITEK2 AST-P551 card with the cefoxitin disk diffusion method for the daily detection of methicillin resistance with a high number of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates. Detection of the PBP2a protein or mecA gene was performed for each discordant case. Seventy (3.3%) isolates out of 2,107 clinical strains showed discordant results, two very major errors, four major errors and 64 minor errors. Fifty-nine (84%) discordant results were resolved, with a final overall agreement of 99.5%. Eleven (0.5%) strains remained discordant (minor error [mE]). Four of 370 MRSA strains were misclassified as susceptible in daily practice by the cefoxitin disk diffusion method. All of these strains were resistant to aminoglycosides and/or fluoroquinolones. The VITEK2 system is highly reliable for methicillin resistance detection at the routine level. Oxacillin-susceptible classified clinical strains with associated resistance patterns required attention.

  18. Emergence of co-production of plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase and ESBL in cefoxitin-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

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    Ghosh, B; Mukherjee, M

    2016-09-01

    Plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC) and ESBL co-production was detected in Escherichia coli a major etiologic agent of urinary tract infection. Isolates resistant to cefoxitin by CLSI methodology were tested for pAmpC beta-lactamase using phenylboronic acid and ESBLs by combined disk diffusion method. pAmpC/ESBL genes were characterized by PCR and sequencing. Transconjugation experiments were done to study the transfer of pAmpC and ESBL production from clinical isolates as donor to E. coli J53 AziR as recipient. Incompatibility groups of transmissible plasmids were classified by PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT). Among 148 urine culture positive isolates, E. coli was reported in 39.86 % (59/148), with 93.22 % (55/59) of cefoxitin resistance. pAmpC production was detected in 25, with varied distribution of blaCMY-2 and blaDHA-1type genes alone (n = 13 and 7 respectively) or in combination (n = 5). ESBL co-production was observed in 88 % (22/25) of pAmpC producing isolates with predominance of blaTEM (n = 20). Twenty-three transconjugants showed transmission of pAmpC-and ESBL-resistant genes with co-carriage of blaCMY-2 and blaTEM (n = 15) in plasmids of IncF type (n = 9) being predominant, followed by IncI1 (n = 4) and IncH1 (n = 2) in combination. All clinical isolates were clonally diverse. Resistance against different beta-lactams in uropathogenic E. coli has been an emerging concern in resource- poor countries such as India. Knowledge on the occurrence of AmpC beta-lactamases and ESBL amongst this pathogen and its transmission dynamics may aid in hospital infection control.

  19. Carbapenem and cefoxitin resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains associated with porin OmpK36 loss and DHA-1 β-lactamase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weifeng; Li, Kun; Ji, Yun; Jiang, Qinbo; Wang, Yuyue; Shi, Mei; Mi, Zuhuang

    2013-01-01

    Clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) strains are being increased worldwide. Five pan-resistant K. pneumoniae strains have been isolated from respiratory and ICU wards in a Chinese hospital, and reveal strong resistance to all β-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Totally 27 β-lactamase genes and 2 membrane pore protein (porin) genes in 5 K. pneumoniae strains were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results indicated that all of 5 K. pneumoniae strains carried blaTEM-1 and blaDHA-1 genes, as well as base deletion and mutation of OmpK35 or OmpK36 genes. Compared with carbapenem-sensitive isolates by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the resistant isolates markedly lacked the protein band of 34-40 kDa, which might be the outer membrane proteins of OmpK36 according to the electrophoresis mobility. In addition, the conjugation test was confirmed that blaDHA-1 mediated by plasmids could be transferred between resistant and sensitive strains. When reserpine (30 μg/mL) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) (50 μg/mL) were added in imipenem and meropenem, the MICs had no change against K. pneumoniae strains. These results suggest that both DHA-1 β-lactamase and loss or deficiency of porin OmpK36 may be the main reason for the cefoxitin and carbapenem resistance in K. pneumoniae strains in our hospital.

  20. Identification of the related substances in cefoxitin sodium for injection by LC- MS/MS%LC - MS/MS法分析注射用头孢西丁钠中的有关物质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋秋玲; 石金芳; 狄斌; 刘竟飞; 杨鹏博

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish an LC - MS/MS method for the identification of the related substances in cefoxitin sodium for injection. Methods; The HPLC separation was carried out on a Thermo Syncronis Cl8 column(4. 6 mm ×250 mm, 5μm) by gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of 1% formic acid aqueous solution ( A) and acetonitrile ( B) at a flow rate of 1. 0 mL · min-1. The results were obtained by ESI - MS and tandem mass spectrometry. The PDA, parent ions and the corresponding product spectra of all the related substances in cefoxitin sodium for injection were determined and elucidated. Results; Good resolution of cefoxitin sodium and the main related substances were achieved. Fifteen related substances in cefoxitin sodium for injection were separated and detected by the LC — MS/MS method, and the structures were elucidated. Conclusions:The established method is effective for the separation and identification of the related substances in cefoxitin sodium for injection and the results are useful for its quality control and process optimization.%目的:建立LC - MS/MS法分析注射用头孢西丁钠中的有关物质.方法:采用Thermo Syncronis C18 (4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm)色谱柱,以1%甲酸水溶液(A)-乙腈(B)为流动相,1.0 mL·min-1线性梯度洗脱分离;柱后分流,电喷雾离子化MS测定.采集有关物质的PDA谱、质谱母离子及子离子谱,并进行解析,推测有关物质的结构.结果:在所建立的条件下,头孢西丁钠及其有关物质分离良好,检测出15个有关物质,并对其进行结构解析.结论:建立的LC - MS/MS法能有效地分离分析头孢西丁钠及其有关物质,为注射用头孢西丁钠的质量控制和工艺优化提供了参考.

  1. Carbapenem and cefoxitin resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains associated with porin OmpK36 loss and DHA-1 β-lactamase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifeng Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae strains are being increased worldwide. Five pan-resistant K. pneumoniae strains have been isolated from respiratory and ICU wards in a Chinese hospital, and reveal strong resistance to all β-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Totally 27 β-lactamase genes and 2 membrane pore protein (porin genes in 5 K. pneumoniae strains were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The results indicated that all of 5 K. pneumoniae strains carried blaTEM-1 and blaDHA-1 genes, as well as base deletion and mutation of OmpK35 or OmpK36 genes. Compared with carbapenem-sensitive isolates by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, the resistant isolates markedly lacked the protein band of 34-40 kDa, which might be the outer membrane proteins of OmpK36 according to the electrophoresis mobility. In addition, the conjugation test was confirmed that blaDHA-1 mediated by plasmids could be transferred between resistant and sensitive strains. When reserpine (30 µg/mL and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP (50 µg/mL were added in imipenem and meropenem, the MICs had no change against K. pneumoniae strains. These results suggest that both DHA-1 β-lactamase and loss or deficiency of porin OmpK36 may be the main reason for the cefoxitin and carbapenem resistance in K. pneumoniae strains in our hospital.

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates with SCCmec type V and spa types t437 or t1081 associated to discordant susceptibility results between oxacillin and cefoxitin, Central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Mao; Lin, Chien-Yu; Ho, Mao-Wang; Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Chen, Chao-Jung; Lin, Lee-Chung; Lu, Jang-Jih

    2016-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus isolates with discordant susceptibility results between oxacillin and cefoxitin obtained using automated microbiology systems are infrequently observed. From April 2013 to December 2014, 1956 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 1761 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates were obtained from different patients. Forty isolates (1.1% and 2% in case of S. aureus and MRSA, respectively) with discordant susceptibility results (oxacillin susceptible and cefoxitin resistant) and carrying mecA gene were obtained. Except 2 SCCmec type IV isolates, 38 MRSA isolates were all SCCmec type V (VT or non-VT), which were further divided into VT (n=22) and non-VT (n=16). The most common spa type in VT and non-VT isolates were t437 (n=19) and t1081 (n=13), respectively. Only 55% of patients received effective antimicrobial agents; 2 mortalities were not attributable to MRSA infection. Using standard agar dilution, 17 MRSA isolates (0.46% and 0.87% in case of S. aureus and MRSA, respectively) had oxacillin MIC in the susceptible ranges (oxacillin-susceptible MRSA [OS-MRSA]); all carried SCCmec type V (VT, n=8; non-VT, n=9). The most common spa-MLST types of OS-MRSA in VT and non-VT were t437-ST59 (n=4) and t1081-ST45 (n=7), respectively. Concomitant testing by both cefoxitin- and oxacillin-based methods is a practical strategy for OS-MRSA detection in the clinical laboratories. Continuous monitoring of OS-MRSA isolates is necessary to elucidate their impact in clinical infectious diseases.

  3. Laboratory tests in the detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase production: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS screening test, the E-test, the double disk confirmatory test, and cefoxitin susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. d'Azevedo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL production by Klebsiella sp. and E. coli is an emerging problem. In this study, 107 clinical isolates (53 E. coli, 47 K. pneumoniae and 7 K. oxytoca screened as ESBL producers by the NCCLS disk diffusion procedure were submitted to a double disk confirmatory test (DDT and to the E-test double strip for confirmation of ESBL production by demonstration of clavulanic acid inhibition effect (CAIE. Only 72/107 (67% of the isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers by DDT, with diverse results among species. By the E-test, 58/107 (54% isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers, and 18/107 (17% were not determinable. Susceptibility to cefoxitin was found in 57/68 (83% of strains that did not show CAIE. ESBL detection remains a controversial issue and clinical laboratories are in need of a simple and effective way to recognize strains with this kind of resistance.

  4. Cefoxitin as an alternative to carbapenems in a murine model of urinary tract infection due to Escherichia coli harboring CTX-M-15-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepeule, Raphaël; Ruppé, Etienne; Le, Patrick; Massias, Laurent; Chau, Françoise; Nucci, Amandine; Lefort, Agnès; Fantin, Bruno

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the efficiency of the cephamycin cefoxitin as an alternative to carbapenems for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases. The susceptible, UTI-inducing E. coli CFT073-RR strain and its transconjugant CFT073-RR Tc (pbla(CTX-M-15)), harboring a bla(CTX-M-15) carrying-plasmid, were used for all experiments. MICs of cefoxitin (FOX), ceftriaxone (CRO), imipenem (IMP), and ertapenem (ETP) for CFT073-RR and CFT073-RR Tc (pbla(CTX-M-15)) were 4 and 4, 0.125 and 512, 0.5 and 0.5, and 0.016 and 0.032 μg/ml, respectively. Bactericidal activity was similarly achieved in vitro against the two strains after 3 h of exposure to concentrations of FOX, IMI, and ETP that were 2 times the MIC, whereas CRO was not bactericidal against CFT073-RR Tc (pbla(CTX-M-15)). The frequencies of spontaneous mutants of the 2 strains were not higher for FOX than for IMP or ETP. In the murine model of UTIs, mice infected for 5 days were treated over 24 h. Therapeutic regimens in mice (200 mg/kg of body weight every 3 h or 4 h for FOX, 70 mg/kg every 6 h for CRO, 100 mg/kg every 2 h for IMP, and 100 mg/kg every 4 h for ETP) were chosen in order to reproduce the percentage of time that free-drug concentrations above the MIC are obtained in humans with standard regimens. All antibiotic regimens produced a significant reduction in bacterial counts (greater than 2 log(10) CFU) in kidneys and bladders for both strains (P carbapenems for the treatment of UTIs due to CTX-M-producing E. coli.

  5. Study on the molecular biology of cefoxitin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains%头孢西丁耐药的肺炎克雷伯菌分子生物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾英; 贺飞; 李桂玲; 何昕; 多丽波

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular biology of one cefoxitin-resistant Klebsiela pneumoniae strain. Methods AmpC and AmpR genes of one cefoxitin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were analyzed by PCR, and then the pET22b( + )-AmpR expression plasmid and expression strain were constructed. Results A 1 140 bp segment of AmpC and a 876 bp segment of AmpR were cloned. These sequences showed that recombinant AmpC and AmpR genes were highly identical to those of Morganella morganii. Fusion protein about 34 kD was expressed by E. coli BI21 ( DE3 ) transfected with recombinant plasmid pET22b ( + )-AmpR.Conclusion There are regulator AmpR genes in plasmid of cefoxitin-resistant Klebsiella pneunoniae isolates. AmpR genes express AmpR fusion protein. Induced resistance mechanism is also found in plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase.%目的 检测本院分离的对头孢西丁耐药的肺炎克雷伯菌分子生物学特点.方法 以本院临床分离的一株对头孢西丁耐药的肺炎克雷伯菌为研究对象,采用聚合酶链反应(PCR),分别用特异性引物进行AmpC酶全编码基因及AmpR 调节基因的扩增,并且构建pET-22b(+)-AmpR的表达质粒和表达菌株.结果 PCR分别扩增出约1 140 bp和876 bpDNA片段,经测序证实,1 140 bp的序列与摩根摩根菌染色体上AmpC酶全长编码基因同源性达99.1%,876 bp的序列与摩根摩根菌染色体上AmpR 基因同源性达98%.重组质粒pET-22b(+)-AmpR转化E.coli BL21(DE3)后表达融合蛋白的相对分子量为34 kD,与预期分子量相符.结论 对头孢西丁耐药的肺炎克雷伯菌质粒上存在调控因子AmpR,能够表达AmpR蛋白,诱导性耐药机制同样存在于质粒介导的AmpCβ-内酰胺酶中.

  6. Evaluation and analysis of rationality of cefoxitin sodium for injection in 208 patients in our hospital%我院208例患者使用注射用头孢西丁钠的合理性评价与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建翁

    2015-01-01

    目的了解惠州市第六人民医院住院患者使用注射用头孢西丁钠的情况, 为头孢西丁钠的临床合理使用与管理提供参考.方法采用回顾性调查方法, 调取普外科、妇科、产科、呼吸科、骨科、五官科、手外科7个科室使用头孢西丁钠的出院患者有效病历208例, 并参考相关标准评价注射用头孢西丁钠临床应用的合理性.结果有效病历中内科治疗用药38例, 外科围手术期预防用药26例, 外科治疗用药144例, 不符合给药剂量的有20例, 不符合时间标准者22例, 不符合适应证标准者15例.注射用头孢西丁钠临床使用合理性的综合判断结果为用药合理者168例, 不合理40例.结论本院注射用头孢西丁钠的临床使用情况基本合理, 但还需加强管理.%ObjectiveTo understand application of cefoxitin sodium for injection in patients of Huizhou city the sixth people's hospital, in order to provide reference for clinical rational use and management of cefoxitin sodium.MethodsA retrospective analysis was made on 208 effective cases receiving cefoxitin sodium in departments of general surgery, gynecology, obstetrics, respiration, orthopaedics, and hand surgery. Rationality of cefoxitin sodium for injection in clinical application was evaluated by relevant standard.ResultsThere were 38 cases of drug therapy in internal medicine, 26 cases of perioperative drug prevention in surgery, 144 cases of drug therapy in surgery, 20 cases of unqualified drug dose, 22 cases of unqualified drug time, and 15 cases of unqualified indication standard. The comprehensive judgment result of clinical rationality of cefoxitin sodium for injection included 168 rational administration cases and 40 irrational cases.ConclusionApplication of cefoxitin sodium for injection is basically rational in our hospital, which it is necessary for strengthened management.

  7. Detection of ESBLs and AmpC enzyme in Cefoxitin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and analysis of drug-resistant genotype%耐头孢西丁肺炎克雷伯菌ESBLs和AmpC酶的检测及耐药基因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金保富; 林平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the producing of ESBLs and AmpC β-1actamase of Klebsiella pneumoniae and the drug-resistant phenotype characteristics of AmpC enzyme in Taizhou. Methods Bacteria were identified with VITEK-AMS60. ESBLs were detected with the confirmatory test recommended by CLSI. Positive strains harboring AmpC enzyme were screened with cefoxitin disk diffusion. Methods AmpC enzyme was confirmed by a threedimensional test and genotype was differentiated by PCR-sequencing. Results In the 86 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae insensitive to cefoxitin, the detection rates of ESBLs and AmpC enzyme were 88.37% and 77.91%respectively. Among them, 47.67% produced both ESBLs and AmpC enzyme, 40. 70% produced only ESBLs and 30. 23% produced only AmpC enzyme. The drug-resistant genotypes for AmpC-positive strains were DHA -1 (62 isolates) and ACT - 1 (5 isolates). Conclusion The detection rate for Klebsiella pneumnoniae haboring ESBLs and AmpC enzyme was high in Taizhou and AmpC enzyme mainly belonged to DHA - 1 genotype.%目的 了解浙江省台州地区肺炎克雷伯菌ESBLs和AmpC β-内酰胺酶产生情况及AmpC酶的耐药基因型别特征.方法 采用VITEK-AMS60全自动细菌鉴定仪鉴定细菌,按CLSI推荐的确证试验检测ESBLs,采用头孢西丁纸片扩散法筛选疑产AmpC酶阳性菌株,通过酶粗提物三维试验确证产AmpC酶,并经PCR测序等实验分析该菌株的基因型.结果 在对头孢西丁不敏感的86株肺炎克雷伯菌中,ESBLs和AmpC酶检出率分别为88.37%和77.91%;以同产ESBLs和AmpC酶为主要形式,占47.67%,单产ESBLs和单产AmpC酶分别占40.70%和30.23%;AmpC酶阳性菌株的耐药基因型:62株为DHA-1型、5株为ACT-l型.结论 台州地区肺炎克雷伯菌产ESBLs和AmpC酶检出率较高,AmpC酶以DHA-1型为主.

  8. 头孢西丁纸片法筛选产AmpC酶的不动杆菌%Screening of AmpC β-lactamases-producing Acinetobacter by cefoxitin disk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛荣跃

    2008-01-01

    目的 评价头孢西丁(FOX)纸片筛选法检测不动杆菌产头孢菌素β-内酰胺酶(AmpC酶)的可靠性.方法 FOX纸片抑菌圈卣径<18 mm为可疑产AmpC酶菌株,聚合酶链反应(PCR)扩增ampC基因阳性者为确证产AmpC酶.结果 130株不动杆菌中,7株菌FOX筛选阴性,经PCR扩增ampC基因为阴性,证实其不产AmpC酶.123株不动杆菌FOX筛选阳性,其中ampC基因阳性者38株.FOX纸片筛选不动杆菌产AmpC酶的假阳性率为92.4%,不存在假阴性.结论 FOX纸片筛选法检测产AmpC酶不动杆菌的特异性较差.

  9. Screenning AmpC enzyme-producing Gram-negative bacilli by cefoxitin disk%头孢西丁纸片筛选产AmpC酶革兰阴性杆菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾坤如; 余方友; 胡龙华; 谭立明; 傅颖媛

    2003-01-01

    目的评价头孢西丁纸片筛选产AmpC酶革兰阴性杆菌的可靠性.方法头孢西丁纸片抑菌圈直径<18mm为可疑产AmpC酶株,采用头孢西丁三维试验作为确证实验.结果头孢西丁纸片检测的57株产AmpC酶株中,有27株为非产酶株假阳性率为49.1%(27/57).阴沟肠杆菌、大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌的假阳性分别为60%(15/25)、33.3%(6/18)和50%(7/14).有1株产AmpC酶肺炎克雷伯菌漏检.结论头孢西丁纸片筛选产AmpC酶阴沟肠杆菌和肺炎克雷伯菌特异性差,检测大肠埃希菌产AmpC酶株尚可.

  10. Molecular characterization and epidemiology of cefoxitin resistance among Enterobacteriaceae lacking inducible chromosomal ampC genes from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in Algeria: description of new sequence type in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharout-Sait, Alima; Touati, Abdelaziz; Guillard, Thomas; Brasme, Lucien; de Champs, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 922 consecutive non-duplicate clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae obtained from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients at Bejaia, Algeria were analyzed for AmpC-type β-lactamases production. The ampC genes and their genetic environment were characterized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Plasmid incompatibility groups were determined by using PCR-based replicon typing. Phylogenetic grouping and multilocus sequence typing were determined for molecular typing of the plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC) isolates. Of the isolates, 15 (1.6%) were identified as AmpC producers including 14 CMY-4-producing isolates and one DHA-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. All AmpC-producing isolates co-expressed the broad-spectrum TEM-1 β-lactamase and three of them co-produced CTX-M and/or SHV-12 ESBL. Phylogenetic grouping and virulence genotyping of the E. coli isolates revealed that most of them belonged to groups D and B1. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of K. pneumoniae isolates identified four different sequence types (STs) with two new sequences: ST1617 and ST1618. Plasmid replicon typing indicates that blaCMY-4 gene was located on broad host range A/C plasmid, while LVPK replicon was associated with blaDHA-1. All isolates carrying blaCMY-4 displayed the transposon-like structures ISEcp1/ΔISEcp1-blaCMY-blc-sugE. Our study showed that CMY-4 was the main pAmpC in the Enterobacteriaceae isolates in Algeria.

  11. Phenotypic methods of greater accuracy to detect the mecA gene product for the recognition of MRSA in resource constraint settings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rasheed MU; Ahmed Z

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) and analyze the performance of Mastalex MRSA(Mast,UK).Methods:Two hundred and ten Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)strains were isolated from different clinical samples and were tested for methicillin resistance by Oxacillin (1μg) and Cefoxitin (30 μg) disc diffusion, oxacillin agar screen, and minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin and cefoxitin.S. aureus isolates were grown on the blood agar and mannitol salt agar with (2mg/L) and without oxacillin for the analysis of MastalexMRSA.Results: Out of210S. aureus strains tested,103 strains were detected as methicillin resistant by Cefoxitin disk diffusion, Cefoxitin minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) and MastalexMRSA test. Whereas oxacillin disc diffusion and oxacillin agar screen detected91 and97 MRSA respectively. The Cefoxitin MIC test performance was equivalent to Cefoxitin disc diffusion.103 (100%)strains grown on blood agar without and with oxacillin, and76 (74%) and93 (91%) strains grown on mannitol salt agar without and with oxacillin shown positive agglutination with MastalexMRSA test respectively.Conclusions: The cefoxitin disk diffusion/ MastalexMRSA is very suitable for detection ofMRSA and the tests can be an alternative toPCR for detection ofMRSA in resource constraint settings. Mastalex test would be particularly useful when confirmation of resistance is urgently required.

  12. Development of EUCAST disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing of the Bacteroides fragilis group isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagy, Elisabeth; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Eitel, Zsuzsa

    2015-01-01

    -clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, tigecycline by agar dilution method previously. The inhibition zones of the same antibiotics including meropenem disc were determined by the disc diffusion on Brucella blood agar supplemented with haemin...

  13. The β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam (NXL104) does not induce ampC β-lactamase in Enterobacter cloacae

    OpenAIRE

    Miossec, Christine; Claudon, Monique; Levasseur, Premavathy; Black, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Induction of ampC β-lactamase expression can often compromise antibiotic treatment and is triggered by several β-lactams (such as cefoxitin and imipenem) and by the β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. The novel β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam (NXL104) is a potent inhibitor of both class A and class C enzymes. The potential of avibactam for induction of ampC expression in Enterobacter cloacae was investigated by ampC messenger ribonucleic acid quantitation. Cefoxitin and clavulanic acid wer...

  14. Study of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Danish pigs at slaughter and in imported retail meat reveals a novel MRSA type in slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Hasman, Henrik; Cavaco, Lina M.

    2012-01-01

    soya broth with 4mg/L cefoxitine and 75mg/L aztreonam) and selective plating on Brilliance Chromogenic MRSA agar. The presence of mecA was confirmed by PCR and the MRSA isolates were spa typed. Novel MRSA spa types were characterized by MLST, PFGE and SCCmec typing. Thirteen percent (101...

  15. Clostridium difficile from healthy food animals: Optimized isolation and prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two isolation methods were compared for isolation of Clostridium difficile from food animal feces. The single alcohol shock method (SS) used selective enrichment in cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose broth supplemented with 0.1% sodium taurocholate (TCCFB) followed by alcohol shock and isolation on tryp...

  16. Comparison of Chromogenic Media to BD GeneOhm Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PCR for Detection of MRSA in Nasal Swabs▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, Larry J.; Lapsley, Linda; Fontecchio, Karen; Jacosalem, Dollie; Young, Carol; Hankerd, Rosemary; Newton, Duane W.

    2009-01-01

    To select a method for detecting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nasal swabs, we compared BD GeneOhm MRSA PCR and various culture media (mannitol salt agar with cefoxitin, MRSASelect, CHROMagar MRSA, and Spectra MRSA). While PCR detection of MRSA was more rapid, MRSASelect and Spectra MRSA demonstrated performance equivalent to that of PCR with maximal detection at 24 h.

  17. Evaluation of the chromogenic agar chromID C. difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Catherine; Burghoffer, Béatrice; Lalande, Valérie; Barbut, Frederic

    2013-03-01

    Three selective media (chromID C. difficile agar, taurocholate cycloserine cefoxitin agar [TCCA; homemade], and CLO medium) were compared from 406 stool samples of patients suspected of having Clostridium difficile infection. The sensitivities of chromID C. difficile agar at 24 h and 48 h, CLO medium, and TCCA were 74.1%, 87%, 85.2%, and 70.4%, respectively.

  18. Evaluation of the Chromogenic Agar chromID C. difficile

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Three selective media (chromID C. difficile agar, taurocholate cycloserine cefoxitin agar [TCCA; homemade], and CLO medium) were compared from 406 stool samples of patients suspected of having Clostridium difficile infection. The sensitivities of chromID C. difficile agar at 24 h and 48 h, CLO medium, and TCCA were 74.1%, 87%, 85.2%, and 70.4%, respectively.

  19. Disease: H01050 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available la spp. are resistant to cefoxitin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. PMID:18810513 (description, env_factor) Bouza E, Per...ez-Parra A, Rosal M, Martin-Rabadan P, Rodriguez-Creixems M, Marin M Tsukamurella:

  20. Diverse modulation of spa transcription by cell wall active antibiotics in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Roggenbuck, Michael; Haaber, Jakob Krause

    2012-01-01

    , expression of all three genes were repressed by aminoglycosides and induced by fluoroquinolones and penicillins. In contrast, the beta-lactam sub-group cephalosporins enhanced expression of RNAIII and hla but diversely affected expression of spa. The compounds cefalotin, cefamandole, cefoxitin, ceftazidime...

  1. Increased expression levels of chromosomal AmpC β-lactamase in clinical Escherichia coli isolates and their effect on susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paltansing, Sunita; Kraakman, Margriet; van Boxtel, H.A.M.; Kors, Ivo; Wessels, Els; Goessens, Wil; Tommassen, J.P.M.; Bernards, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Forty-nine clinical Escherichia coli isolates, both extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) negative and ESBL positive, were studied to investigate whether increased AmpC expression is a mechanism involved in cefoxitin resistance and if this influences the third-generation cephalosporin activity. Nine

  2. Effect of ceftobiprole treatment on growth of and toxin production by Clostridium difficile in cecal contents of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerandzic, Michelle M; Donskey, Curtis J

    2011-05-01

    Ceftobiprole and ceftobiprole medocaril did not promote growth of or toxin production by Clostridium difficile in mouse cecal contents, whereas ceftazidime, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and ertapenem did. The relatively low propensity of ceftobiprole to promote C. difficile was attributable to inhibitory activity against C. difficile and sparing of anaerobic microflora.

  3. Effect of Ceftobiprole Treatment on Growth of and Toxin Production by Clostridium difficile in Cecal Contents of Mice▿

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Ceftobiprole and ceftobiprole medocaril did not promote growth of or toxin production by Clostridium difficile in mouse cecal contents, whereas ceftazidime, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and ertapenem did. The relatively low propensity of ceftobiprole to promote C. difficile was attributable to inhibitory activity against C. difficile and sparing of anaerobic microflora.

  4. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteroides fragilis Bacteremia in a US Resident: An Emerging Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Merchan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of Bacteroides fragilis bacteremia associated with paraspinal and psoas abscesses in the United States. Resistance to b-lactam/b-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, and metronidazole was encountered despite having a recent travel history to India as the only possible risk factor for multidrug resistance. Microbiological cure was achieved with linezolid, moxifloxacin, and cefoxitin.

  5. Survey of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian G Loo

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone and spectinomycin were determined for 300 consecutive strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae collected from physicians’ offices in Ontario. Only four isolates were found to produce beta-lactamase. Of the remaining 296 isolates, five (1.7% had penicillin MICs greater than or equal to 1 mg/L, 78 (26.3% had tetracycline MICs greater than or equal to 1 mg/L, 13 (4.4% had cefoxitin MICs greater than or equal to 1 mg/L and 43 (14.5% had erythromycin MICs greater than or equal to 1 mg/L. Two isolates (0.7% had high level tetracycline resistance with MICs greater than or equal to 16 mg/L. All N gonorrhoeae isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and to spectinomycin.

  6. [Antibiotic prophylaxis with cephalosporins in heart surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, B; Klinner, W; Adam, D

    1981-08-13

    60 minutes after i.v. injection tissue levels of 7 different cephalosporins were obtained using biological assay. The following concentrations were measured: cephalothn 1.4 micrograms/g; cepharin 4.7 micrograms/g; cephacetrile 11.2 micrograms/g; cephradine 15.4 micrograms/g; cefazedone 26.9 micrograms/g; cefamandole 40.3 micrograms/g, and finally cefoxitin 43 micrograms/g. The high tissue levels of cefamandole and cefoxitin are especially remarkable as i.v. doses of both antibiotics had been 50 mg/kg body weight ( doses of all other cephalosporins 100 mg/kg body weight). Except cephalothin, all cephalosporins tested were suitable for antibiotic prophylaxis in cardiac surgery.

  7. Detection of Amp C genes encoding for beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shanthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Amp C beta-lactamase are Ambler class C enzymes that confer resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and are not inhibited by beta-lactamase inhibitors. Their detection is crucial, since the phenotypic tests are not standardised leading to ambiguity in interpretation of results. This study was done to detect the types of Amp C prevalent in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods : Seventy-seven consecutive cefoxitin resistant clinical isolates of E. coli (n = 25 and K. pneumoniae (n = 52 were included in the study. Antibiotic susceptibility testing to various classes of antibiotics was performed by disc diffusion using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to cefoxitin, imipenem and meropenem were determined by broth microdilution method. Isolates were screened for production of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL. Multiplex PCR was performed for the detection of Amp C genes after phenotypic testing (Hodge test and inhibitor based test. Results : Cefoxitin Hodge test was positive in 40 isolates which included 20 E. coli and 20 K. pneumoniae. There was zone enhancement with boronic acid in 55 isolates, of which 36 were K. pneumoniae and 19 were E. coli. Multiplex PCR detected Amp C in 11/25 E. coli and 12/52 K. pneumoniae isolates. The Amp C genes detected were CIT (Amp C origin - Citrobacter freundii, DHA (Dhahran Hospital, Saudi Arabia, ACC (Ambler class C, EBC (Amp C origin - Enterobacter cloacae groups. ESBL was co-produced in 54 isolates. Conclusions : Amp C was detected in 29.87% of the study isolates. Majority of them co-produced ESBL. The most common Amp C was the CIT family. Screen tests for cefoxitin resistance may be falsely positive due to production of carbapenamases.

  8. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections in the Department of Defense (DOD): Annual Summary 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-06

    populations. Health Level 7 (HL7) formatted microbiology data identified S. aureus cases resistant to oxacillin, cefoxitin, or methicillin, classifying...January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2013. The EDC at the NMCPHC receives daily microbiology data in the HL7 format that originates from the Composite...Health Care System (CHCS) at fixed military treatment facilities (MTFs), hereafter referred to as HL7 microbiology data. These data do not include

  9. Effect of clavulanic acid on the activities of ten beta-lactam agents against members of the Bacteroides fragilis group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, F; Auger, F; Lacroix, J M

    1984-01-01

    Clavulanic acid reduced the MICs of amoxicillin, carbencillin , cefamandole, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, cephalothin, and penicillin G, but not of cefoxitin or moxalactam, against 77 isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group, all rapidly beta-lactamase positive by the nitrocefin slide test. It had no effect on the susceptibilities of eight Bacteroides distasonis strains that were slowly beta-lactamase positive (18 h of incubation). PMID:6732233

  10. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility. PMID:3619428

  11. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility.

  12. The β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam (NXL104) does not induce ampC β -lactamase in Enterobacter cloacae

    OpenAIRE

    Miossec C; Claudon M; Levasseur P; Black MT

    2013-01-01

    Christine Miossec, Monique Claudon, Premavathy Levasseur, Michael T Black Novexel, Romainville, France Abstract: Induction of ampC β-lactamase expression can often compromise antibiotic treatment and is triggered by several β-lactams (such as cefoxitin and imipenem) and by the β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. The novel β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam (NXL104) is a potent inhibitor of both class A and class C enzymes. The potential of avibactam for in...

  13. Detection of AmpC Beta-lactamases among Escherichia coli isolates at a tertiary care hospital in Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Smitha O. Bagali; Peerapur, B V

    2013-01-01

    Background & objective: AmpC β-lactamases are clinically significant because they may confer resistance to a wide variety of β-lactam drugs, including α-methoxy-β-lactams, such as cefoxitin, narrow-, expanded- and broad-spectrum cephalosporins, β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations and aztreonam. Although reported with increasing frequency the true occurrence in different organisms remains unknown. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence of AmpC β-lactamases among th...

  14. Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using phage amplification combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Jon C; Barr, John R

    2017-02-01

    Antibiotic resistance continues to contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality across the world. Developing new tests for antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a core action to combat resistant infections. We describe a method that uses phage amplification detection (PAD) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) to rapidly identify Staphylococcus aureus and determine phenotypic susceptibility to cefoxitin. Samples tested for S. aureus are incubated together with bacteriophage in the presence and absence of cefoxitin and subjected to rapid trypsin digestion followed by MALDI-MS analysis. Tryptic peptides derived from amplified phage proteins can be detected by MALDI-MS, as validated by time-of-flight (TOF)/TOF analysis of each peptide combined with database searching. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus show significant phage amplification in the presence of cefoxitin, while methicillin-sensitive S. aureus show no phage amplification relative to a no-antibiotic control. We also show that PAD methodology can be implemented on an FDA-approved commercial MALDI-MS bacterial identification system to identify S. aureus and determine antibiotic susceptibility. The novelty of this assay includes the use of phage-derived tryptic peptides as detected by MALDI-MS to monitor the results of PAD on an instrument common to many modern microbiology laboratories.

  15. Detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Vancomycin for Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Pus/Wound Swab Samples of the Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghabendra Adhikari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of cefoxitin disc diffusion method and oxacillin broth microdilution method for detection of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA, taking presence of mecA gene as reference. In addition, inducible clindamycin resistance and beta-lactamase production were studied and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of vancomycin for S. aureus isolates was determined. A total of 711 nonrepeated pus/wound swab samples from different anatomic locations were included in the study. The Staphylococcus aureus was identified on the basis of colony morphology, Gram’s stain, and biochemical tests. A total of 110 (15.47% S. aureus isolates were recovered, of which 39 (35.50% isolates were identified as MRSA by cefoxitin disc diffusion method. By oxacillin broth microdilution method, 31.82% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found to be MRSA. However, mecA gene was present in only 29.1% of the isolates. Further, beta-lactamase production was observed in 71.82% of the isolates, while inducible clindamycin resistance was found in 10% of S. aureus isolates. The MIC value of vancomycin for S. aureus ranged from 0.016 μg/mL to 1 μg/mL. On the basis of the absolute sensitivity (100%, both phenotypic methods could be employed for routine diagnosis of MRSA in clinical microbiology laboratory; however cefoxitin disc diffusion could be preferred over MIC method considering time and labour factor.

  16. Simultaneous Identification and Susceptibility Determination to Multiple Antibiotics of Staphylococcus aureus by Bacteriophage Amplification Detection Combined with Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Jon C; Pierce, Carrie L; Schieltz, David M; Barr, John R

    2015-07-01

    The continued advance of antibiotic resistance in clinically relevant bacterial strains necessitates the development and refinement of assays that can rapidly and cost-effectively identify bacteria and determine their susceptibility to a panel of antibiotics. A methodology is described herein that exploits the specificity and physiology of the Staphylococci bacteriophage K to identify Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and determine its susceptibility to clindamycin and cefoxitin. The method uses liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to monitor the replication of bacteriophage after it is used to infect samples thought to contain S. aureus. Amplification of bacteriophage K indicates the sample contains S. aureus, for it is only in the presence of a suitable host that bacteriophage K can amplify. If bacteriophage amplification is detected in samples containing the antibiotics clindamycin or cefoxitin, the sample is deemed to be resistant to these antibiotics, respectively, for bacteriophage can only amplify in a viable host. Thus, with a single work flow, S. aureus can be detected in an unknown sample and susceptibility to clindamycin and cefoxitin can be ascertained. This Article discusses implications for the use of bacteriophage amplification in the clinical laboratory.

  17. Detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Vancomycin for Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Pus/Wound Swab Samples of the Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Raghabendra; Neupane, Sanjeev; Neupane, Mukesh; Bhattarai, Roshan; Bhatta, Sabita; Chaudhary, Raina; Lekhak, Binod

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of cefoxitin disc diffusion method and oxacillin broth microdilution method for detection of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), taking presence of mecA gene as reference. In addition, inducible clindamycin resistance and beta-lactamase production were studied and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin for S. aureus isolates was determined. A total of 711 nonrepeated pus/wound swab samples from different anatomic locations were included in the study. The Staphylococcus aureus was identified on the basis of colony morphology, Gram's stain, and biochemical tests. A total of 110 (15.47%) S. aureus isolates were recovered, of which 39 (35.50%) isolates were identified as MRSA by cefoxitin disc diffusion method. By oxacillin broth microdilution method, 31.82% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found to be MRSA. However, mecA gene was present in only 29.1% of the isolates. Further, beta-lactamase production was observed in 71.82% of the isolates, while inducible clindamycin resistance was found in 10% of S. aureus isolates. The MIC value of vancomycin for S. aureus ranged from 0.016 μg/mL to 1 μg/mL. On the basis of the absolute sensitivity (100%), both phenotypic methods could be employed for routine diagnosis of MRSA in clinical microbiology laboratory; however cefoxitin disc diffusion could be preferred over MIC method considering time and labour factor.

  18. Single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis during cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugino; Cimino; Wactawski-Wende

    1998-07-01

    Objective: To compare single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis (cefotetan 1 g vs cefoxitin 2 g) in various subpopulations based upon risk factors for postsurgical infection following cesarean section.Methods: Patients undergoing cesarean section from April 1993 through March 1994 were included in a retrospective analysis if either of the above antibiotics were administered, surgery was non-emergent, gestational age was less than 32 weeks, absence of fever or prior antibiotics therapy within 72 hours, and no history of organ transplantation or HIV. Cases classified as high risk for infection: IDDM, obesity, autoimmune disease, sickle cell disease, or corticosteroid use. Cases classified as high risk for endometritis (any 2 factors): labor >12 hours, >4 vaginal examinations, ruptured membranes >9 hours, and internal fetal monitor. Cases were separated into 4 groups: elective vs non-elective, low vs high surgical risk. A chi(2) analysis was used to test for differences in infection rates between groups (P cesarean sections, 385 met criteria for inclusion. Non-elective cases accounted for 77% of cases. Postsurgical infection rate was greater in non-elective cases, 7.4%, vs elective cases, 3.0% (P =.056) as was the rate of endometritis (3.2% vs 1.2%, P =.185). No differences were noted based on antibiotic regimen. Postsurgical infection rate was greater for 28 cases at high risk for both surgical infection and endometritis (17.9%) when compared to all 357 other cases (4.5%), P =.003. No difference was noted for endometritis. Of the 28 cases 28.6% of patients treated with cefoxitin and 7.1% of cases treated with cefotetan developed postsurgical infection (P =.13).Conclusion: Overall cefoxitin and cefotetan provided equivalent clinical outcome. A small subset of patients with multiple risk factors for infection may benefit from cefotetan.

  19. Crystal Structures of Covalent Complexes of [beta]-Lactam Antibiotics with Escherichia coli Penicillin-Binding Protein 5: Toward an Understanding of Antibiotic Specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicola, George; Tomberg, Joshua; Pratt, R.F.; Nicholas, Robert A.; Davies, Christopher (SC); (UNC); (Wesleyan)

    2010-12-07

    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are the molecular targets for the widely used {beta}-lactam class of antibiotics, but how these compounds act at the molecular level is not fully understood. We have determined crystal structures of Escherichia coli PBP 5 as covalent complexes with imipenem, cloxacillin, and cefoxitin. These antibiotics exhibit very different second-order rates of acylation for the enzyme. In all three structures, there is excellent electron density for the central portion of the {beta}-lactam, but weak or absent density for the R1 or R2 side chains. Areas of contact between the antibiotics and PBP 5 do not correlate with the rates of acylation. The same is true for conformational changes, because although a shift of a loop leading to an electrostatic interaction between Arg248 and the {beta}-lactam carboxylate, which occurs completely with cefoxitin and partially with imipenem and is absent with cloxacillin, is consistent with the different rates of acylation, mutagenesis of Arg248 decreased the level of cefoxitin acylation only 2-fold. Together, these data suggest that structures of postcovalent complexes of PBP 5 are unlikely to be useful vehicles for the design of new covalent inhibitors of PBPs. Finally, superimposition of the imipenem-acylated complex with PBP 5 in complex with a boronic acid peptidomimetic shows that the position corresponding to the hydrolytic water molecule is occluded by the ring nitrogen of the {beta}-lactam. Because the ring nitrogen occupies a similar position in all three complexes, this supports the hypothesis that deacylation is blocked by the continued presence of the leaving group after opening of the {beta}-lactam ring.

  20. Novel Plasmid-Encoded Class C β-Lactamase (MOX-2) in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Raskine, Laurent; Borrel, Isabelle; Barnaud, Guilène; Boyer, Sophie; Hanau-Berçot, Béatrice; Gravisse, Jérome; Labia, Roger; Arlet, Guillaume; Sanson-Le-Pors, Marie-José

    2002-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae KOL, a clinical strain resistant to various β-lactams, was isolated from the stools of a patient from Greece. This strain harbored a new pI 9.1 plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase with unusually high levels of hydrolytic activity for cefoxitin and cefotetan that we named MOX-2. Sequencing of blaMOX-2 revealed 93.2, 92.9, 92.7, and 73.1% identities with the deduced amino acid sequences of CMY-8, MOX-1, CMY-1, and the AmpC β-lactamase of Aeromonas sobria, respectively.

  1. A comparative study of capillary zone electrophoresis and pH-potentiometry for determination of dissociation constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasi, Melinda; Buglyo, Peter; Zekany, Laszlo; Gaspar, Attila

    2007-09-03

    Acidity constants of six cephalosporin antibiotics, cefalexin, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefotaxim, cefoperazon and cefoxitin are determined using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and pH-potentiometric titrations. Since CZE is a separation method, it is not necessary for the samples to be of high purity and known concentration because only mobilities are measured. The effect on determination of dissociation constants of different matrices (serum, 0.9% NaCl, fermentation matrix) was examined. The advantages of CZE can be utilized in those fields where potentiometry has limitations (sample quantity, solubility, purity, simultaneous determinations), although pK(a) values that are close to each other can be determined by potentiometry with more accuracy.

  2. The soil microbiota harbors a diversity of carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamases of potential clinical relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Bortolaia, Valeria; Amos, Greg

    2016-01-01

    to identification of seven new MBLs in presumptive Pedobacter roseus (PEDO-1), Pedobacter borealis (PEDO-2), Pedobacter kyungheensis (PEDO-3), Chryseobacterium piscium (CPS-1), Epilithonimonas tenax (ESP-1), Massilia oculi (MSI-1), and Sphingomonas sp. (SPG-1). Carbapenemase production was likely an intrinsic...... (PEDO-1), an unusual amino acid residue at a key position for MBL structure and catalysis (CPS-1), and overlap with a putative OXA β-lactamase (MSI-1). Heterologous expression of PEDO-1, CPS-1, and ESP-1in E. coli significantly increased the MICs of ampicillin, ceftazidime, cefpodoxime, cefoxitin...

  3. Pseudomonas spp. ISOLATED FROM THE ORAL CAVITY OF HEALTHCARE WORKERS FROM AN ONCOLOGY HOSPITAL IN MIDWESTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Mori LIMA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study, performed in an oncology hospital in Goiania, aimed to characterize the prevalence of oral colonization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from the saliva of healthcare workers. Microorganisms were subjected to biochemical tests, susceptibility profile, and phenotypic detection. Of 76 participants colonized with Gram negative bacilli, 12 (15.8% harbored Pseudomonas spp. Of all isolates, P. aeruginosa (75.0%, P. stutzeri (16.7%, and P. fluorescens (8.3%, were resistant to cefoxitin, and therefore likely to be AmpC producers. The results are clinically relevant and emphasize the importance of surveillance to minimize bacterial dissemination and multiresistance.

  4. The first report of infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying the bla kpc gene in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Rodrigues Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased frequency and dissemination of enterobacteria resistant to various antimicrobials is currently worldwide concern. In January 2010, a 94-year-old patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia was admitted to the University Hospital. This patient died 21 days after hospitalization due to the clinical worsening. Klebsiella pneumoniae producing of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs was isolated of urine culture. This bacterium demonstrated resistance to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ertapenem and imipenem. Susceptibility to cefoxitin, cefepime, meropenem, colistin and tigecycline. This study reports the first case of infection by Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying the bla kpc gene in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

  5. In vitro evaluation of a new drug combination against clinical isolates belonging to the Mycobacterium abscessus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Bouzinbi, N; Chaturvedi, V; Godreuil, S; Kremer, L

    2014-12-01

    The in vitro susceptibility profile to amikacin, linezolid, clarithromycin, imipenem, cefoxitin, clofazimine and tigecycline was established for 67 strains belonging to the Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Clofazimine and tigecycline were among the most effective drugs, prompting us to assess the effect of a clofazimine and tigecycline combination. Synergistic activity was found in 42% of the 19 isolates tested. The clinical impact of this new drug combination against the M. abscessus complex, as an alternative or sequential medication for the treatment of drug-resistant strains, remains to be addressed.

  6. Enterobacter Asburiae Pneumonia with Cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Enterobacter species have increasingly been identified as pathogens over the past several decades. These bacterial species have become more important because most are resistant to cephalothin and cefoxitin, and can produce extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase. Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a gram-negative rod of the family Enterobacteriaceae, named in 1986. Since then, there has been only one clinical report of E. asburiae pneumonia. We report a case of E. asburiae pneumonia with cavitation and compare it with the previous case.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility and phylotyping profile of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolates from calves and pigs in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Monalisa S M; Coura, Fernanda M; Dorneles, Elaine M S; Stynen, Ana Paula R; Alves, Telma M; Santana, Jordana Almeida; Pauletti, Rebeca B; Guedes, Roberto M C; Viott, Aline M; Heinemann, Marcos B; Lage, Andrey P

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine (i) the profiles of phylogroup and (ii) the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from calves, and of Salmonella spp. strains isolated from calves and pigs in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Sixty-one pathogenic E. coli strains and Salmonella spp. (n = 24) strains isolated from fecal samples of calves and Salmonella spp. (n = 39) strains previously isolated from fecal samples of growing/finishing pigs were tested. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the agar dilution method was determined for nalidixic acid, amikacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefoxitin, norfloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. All E. coli isolates were susceptible to amikacin. Tetracycline was the antimicrobial that presented the higher frequency of resistance among E. coli strains, followed by ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, gentamicin, and cefoxitin. E. coli (n = 61) strains isolated from calves belonged to different phylogroup namely, phylogroup A (n = 26), phylogroup B1 (n = 31), phylogroup E (n = 3), and phylogroup F (n = 1). Phylogroups B2, C, and D were not identified among the E. coli in the present study. All Salmonella spp. (n = 24) strains isolated from fecal samples of calves were susceptible to amikacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, norfloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to nalidixic acid and cefoxitin was detected in 16.66 and 8.33 % of the Salmonella spp. strains, respectively. Among the Salmonella spp. (n = 39) strains isolated from fecal samples of pigs, the higher frequency of resistance was observed to tetracycline, followed by amoxicillin, gentamicin, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid, cefoxitin, and norfloxacin. All strains were susceptible to amikacin. Forty-eight (78.68 %) of the E. coli strains

  8. Novel plasmid-encoded class C beta-lactamase (MOX-2) in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskine, Laurent; Borrel, Isabelle; Barnaud, Guilène; Boyer, Sophie; Hanau-Berçot, Béatrice; Gravisse, Jérome; Labia, Roger; Arlet, Guillaume; Sanson-Le-Pors, Marie-José

    2002-07-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae KOL, a clinical strain resistant to various beta-lactams, was isolated from the stools of a patient from Greece. This strain harbored a new pI 9.1 plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase with unusually high levels of hydrolytic activity for cefoxitin and cefotetan that we named MOX-2. Sequencing of bla(MOX-2) revealed 93.2, 92.9, 92.7, and 73.1% identities with the deduced amino acid sequences of CMY-8, MOX-1, CMY-1, and the AmpC beta-lactamase of Aeromonas sobria, respectively.

  9. [In vitro sensitivity of Mycobacterium chelonae strains to various antimicrobial agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández García, A M; Arias, A; Felipe, A; Alvarez, R; Sierra, A

    1995-12-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of 32 Mycobacterium chelonae strains to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined. The sources of the different strains were: clinical samples from patients treated at the Hospital Universitario de Canarias and Hospital del Tórax (General and Chest facilities) and from environmental sources (water supply, sewage, swimming pools and the sea). The susceptibility tests were performed by a broth microdilution method (Mueller-Hinton Broth). The results showed amikacin as the most effective antimicrobial agent against M. chelonae isolates, then ofloxacin and cefoxitin. However no statistical difference was detected among them. The least effective was imipenem, followed by ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin.

  10. Detection of Oxacillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from the Neonatal and Pediatric Units of a Brazilian Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cataneli Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine, by phenotypic and genotypic methods, oxacillin susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit patients seen at the University Hospital of the Botucatu School of Medicine.Methods: A total of 100 S. aureus strains isolated from the following materials were studied: 25 blood cultures, 21 secretions, 12 catheters, 3 cannulae and one chest drain from 62 patients in the neonatal unit, and 36 blood cultures, one pleural fluid sample and one peritoneal fluid sample from 38 patients in the pediatric unit. Resistance of the S. aureus isolates to oxacillin was evaluated by the disk diffusion method with oxacillin (1 μg and cefoxitin (30 μg, agar screening test using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 6 μg/ml oxacillin and 4% NaCl, and detection of the mecA gene by PCR. In addition, the isolates were tested for β-lactamase production using disks impregnated with Nitrocefin and hyperproduction of β-lactamase using amoxicillin (20 μg and clavulanic acid (10 μg disks.Results: Among the 100 S. aureus strains included in the study, 18.0% were resistant to oxacillin, with 16.1% MRSA being detected in the neonatal unit and 21.0% in the pediatric unit. The oxacillin (1 μg and cefoxitin (30 μg disk diffusion methods presented 94.4% and 100% sensitivity, respectively, and 98.8% specificity. The screening test showed 100% sensitivity and 98.8% specificity. All isolates produced β-lactamase and one of these strains was considered to be a hyperproducer.Conclusions: The 30 μg cefoxitin disk diffusion method presented the best result when compared to the 1 μg oxacillin disk. The sensitivity of the agar screening test was similar to that of the cefoxitin disk diffusion method and higher than that of the oxacillin disk diffusion method. We observed variations in the percentage of oxacillin-resistant isolates during the study period, with a decline over the last years which

  11. Detection of AmpC Beta-Lactamase in Escherichia coli: Comparison of Three Phenotypic Confirmation Assays and Genetic Analysis▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Peter-Getzlaff, S; Polsfuss, S; Poledica, M.; Hombach, M.; Giger, J.; Böttger, E C; Zbinden, R.; Bloemberg, G. V.

    2011-01-01

    Two mechanisms account for AmpC activity in Escherichia coli, namely, mutations in the ampC promoter and attenuator regions resulting in ampC overexpression and acquisition of plasmid-carried ampC genes. In this study, we analyzed 51 clinical E. coli isolates with reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, or extended-spectrum cephalosporins for the presence of AmpC production. Three phenotypic AmpC confirmation assays (cefoxitin-cloxacillin disk diffusion...

  12. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Rodrigues Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased frequency and dissemination of enterobacteria resistant to various antimicrobials is currently worldwide concern. In January 2010, a 94-year-old patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia was admitted to the University Hospital. This patient died 21 days after hospitalization due to the clinical worsening. Klebsiella pneumoniae producing of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs was isolated of urine culture. This bacterium demonstrated resistance to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ertapenem and imipenem. Susceptibility to cefoxitin, cefepime, meropenem, colistin and tigecycline. This study reports the first case of infection by Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying the blakpc gene in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and pond environment in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Regine H S Dos F; Carvalho, Edirsana M R; Carvalho, Fatima C T; Silva, Camila M; Sousa, Oscarina V; Rodrigues, Dalia P

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to test the susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains isolated from the water, bottom sediments and individuals cultivated in shrimp farm ponds, to antibiotics belonging to different families, namely B-Lactams: Imipenem (IPM; 10 micro g), Ampicillin (AMP; 10 micro g), Cephalothin (CEP; 30 micro g), Cefoxitin (FOX; 30 micro g), Ceftriaxone (CRO; 30 micro g); Tetracycline: Tetracycline (TCY; 30 micro g); Aminoglycosides: Gentamicin (GEN; 10 micro g), Amikacin (AMK; 30 micro g); Chloramphenicol: Chloramphenicol (CHO; 30 micro g); Fluoroquinolones: Ciprofloxacin (CIP; 5 micro g); Nitrofurans: Nitrofurantoin (NIT; 300 micro g); Sulfonamides: Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (SXT; 30 micro g); Quilononas: Nalidixic Acid (NAL; 30 micro g). In the laboratory, the method of dissemination (Test Kirby-Bauer) was performed in order to fulfill the antibiogram tests. The results showed high indices of resistance to Imipenem, Cephalothin and Ampicillin. Chloramphenicol, Nitrofurantoin, Cefoxitin, Ceftiaxone and Ciprofloxacin have displayed the highest index of sensitive strains. The antibiotic resistance index (ARI) and the multiple resistance index (MAR) varied within the ranges of 0.068-0.077 and 0.15-0.39, respectively. More than 90.5% of strains of Escherichia coli showed a variety of resistance profiles to the tested antibiotics. The high indices of resistance may be a consequence of indiscriminate use of antibiotics, but also the transfer of resistance through mobile genetic elements found in shrimp farms.

  14. Evaluation of cephamycins as supplements to selective agar for detecting Campylobacter spp. in chicken carcass rinses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Ji; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyunsook; Song, Kwang-Young; Sung, Kidon; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-04-16

    Although cefoperazone is the most commonly used antibiotic in Campylobacter-selective media, the distribution of cefoperazone-resistant bacteria such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is increasing. Here we evaluated the potential of cephamycins for use as supplements to improve modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) by replacing cefoperazone with the same concentrations (32 mg/L) of cefotetan (modified charcoal-cefotetan-deoxycholate agar, mCCtDA) and cefoxitin (modified charcoal-cefoxitin-deoxycholate agar, mCCxDA). In chicken carcass rinse samples, the number of mCCDA plates detecting for Campylobacter (18/70, 26%) was significantly lower than that of mCCtDA (42/70, 60%) or mCCxDA plates (40/70, 57%). The number of mCCDA plates (70/70, 100%) that were contaminated with non-Campylobacter species was significantly higher than that of mCCtDA (20/70, 29%) or mCCxDA plates (21/70, 30%). The most common competing species identified using mCCDA was ESBL-producing E. coli, while Pseudomonas species frequently appeared on mCCtDA and mCCxDA.

  15. [Practical problems raised by antibiotic minimal inhibitory concentration determination in Legionella species (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, N; Roudier, C; Fleurette, J

    1982-06-01

    Because of culture medium constitution and growth conditions of Legionella species, antibiotic Minimal inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determination is difficult and does not fit with the accepted standards. The following strains have been tested : references strains : Staphylococcus aureus Oxford CNCM 53154, S. aureus 209P CNCM 53156, E. coli CNCM A224, E. coli CNCM 7324. L. pneumophila, 9 strains representative of the 6 serogroups. L. micdadei, L. dumoffii. 5 clinical isolates of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 (3 isolated in our Laboratory and 2 in Belgium). MIC of 17 antibiotics have been determined, among them macrolids not tested before. The method used was the Agar Dilution Method, with several media compared. MIC values are different in function of the various media tested Charcoal yeast extract medium, which is recommended for Legionella growth, does not inhibit activity of penicillin G, cefalotin, cefoxitin, amikacin, erythromycin and lincosamins, in contrast of tetracyclin, gentamicin, dibekacin, chloramphenicol, oleandomycin, pristinamycin, spiramycin and rifampicin. Charcoal, ferric pyrophosphate and L-cystein present in the culture medium are inactivating factors. However our results confirm good activity of rifampicin, erythromycin, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and amikacin. Among the others macrolids tested, pristinamycin is the most active.

  16. Clinically significant anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients in a South African academic hospital: antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, S; Perovic, O; Richards, G A; Duse, A G

    2011-09-27

    BACKGROUND. Increasing resistance to some antimicrobial agents among anaerobic bacteria has made susceptibility patterns less predictable. METHOD. This was a prospective study of the susceptibility data of anaerobic organisms isolated from clinical specimens from patients with suspected anaerobic infections from June 2005 until February 2007. Specimens were submitted to the microbiology laboratory at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, where microscopy, culture and susceptibility testing were performed the using E test® strip minimum inhibitory concentration method. Results were interpreted with reference to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines for amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, metronidazole, penicillin, ertapenem, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol and piperacillin-tazobactam. RESULTS. One hundred and eighty anaerobic isolates were submitted from 165 patients. The most active antimicrobial agents were chloramphenicol (100% susceptible), ertapenem (97.2%), piperacillin-tazobactam (99.4%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (96.7%). Less active were metronidazole (89.4%), cefoxitin (85%), clindamycin (81.7%), ceftriaxone (68.3%) and penicillin (33.3%). CONCLUSION. Susceptibility testing should be performed periodically to identify emerging trends in resistance and to modify empirical treatment of anaerobic infections.

  17. Evaluation of susceptibility test breakpoints used to predict mecA-mediated resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, David A; Jones, Rebekah D; Frank, Linda A; Kania, Stephen A

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute interpretive breakpoints for in vitro susceptibility tests that predict mecA-mediated oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from animals have been changed twice in the past decade. Moreover, there are no counterpart recommendations for human isolates of S. pseudintermedius. Individual medical and veterinary laboratories variably use interpretive breakpoints identical to those recommended for use with Staphylococcus aureus or identical to those recommended for use with coagulase-negative staphylococci. The purpose of the current study was to examine correlations between oxacillin disk diffusion, oxacillin gradient diffusion, oxacillin microbroth dilution, and cefoxitin disk diffusion tests used to predict mecA-mediated resistance in S. pseudintermedius and to retrospectively estimate, from disk diffusion zone diameter measurements, the prevalence and rate of increase of oxacillin resistance among canine S. pseudintermedius isolates submitted to a veterinary teaching hospital laboratory. Oxacillin disk diffusion zone diameters of or=0.5 microg/ml were highly correlated with detection of mecA in canine S. pseudintermedius isolates by polymerase chain reaction. MecA-mediated resistance among S. pseudintermedius isolates from dogs increased from less than 5% in 2001 to near 30% in 2007. More than 90% of the methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius isolates in 2006 and 2007 were also resistant to representatives of >or=4 additional antimicrobial drug classes. Cefoxitin disk diffusion with the resistance breakpoint set at pseudintermedius.

  18. Evaluation of phenotypic tests for the detection of AmpC beta-lactamase in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Handa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: AmpC beta lactamases are cephalosporinases that confer resistance to a wide range of beta lactam drugs thereby causing serious therapeautic problem. As there are no CLSI guidelines for detection of AmpC mediated resistance in Gram negative clinical isolates and it may pose a problem due to misleading results, especially so in phenotypic tests. Although cefoxitin resistance is used as a screening test, it does not reliably indicate AmpC production. Materials and Methods: We planned a study to determine the occurrence of AmpC beta lactamase in hospital and community, clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and simultaneously evaluate different phenotypic methods for detection of AmpC beta lactamases. Results: It was observed that 82.76% isolates were ESBL positive and 59% were cefoxitin screen positive. Using phenotypic confirmatory tests the occurrence of Amp C beta lactamases was found to be 40% and 39% by inhibitor based method using boronic acid (IBM and modified three dimensional test (M3D respectively. Conclusion: Both the test showed concordant result. Co-production was observed in 84.62% isolates Screening of ESBL and Amp C can be done in routine clinical microbiology laboratory using aztreonam and IBM respectively as it is a simple, rapid and technically less demanding procedure which can be used in all clinical laboratories.

  19. The determination of resistance to ertapenem and other antibiotics with ESBL product of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytekin Çıkman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Enterobacteriaceae is the most frequently isolated bacteria in urinary system infections. This study investigated the antibiotic susceptibility including ertapenem and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production of bacteria belons to Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the urinary culture. Methods: Enterobacteriaceae strains, identified by using conventional methods in our laboratory between January 2012 and March 2012, were included the study. The antibiotic susceptibilities were investigated with the KirbyBauer disc diffusion method and the ESBL productions were examined with the double-disc synergy method in accordance with the suggestions of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results:In the study, a total of 148 strains were isolated (117 E.coli, 23 Klebsiella spp. and 4 Proteus spp. and 4 Enterobacter spp.. While 26 of E.coli strains (22%, and 8 of Klebsiella spp. strains (35% were considered ESBL positive, no ESBL roduction was determined for Proteus spp. and Enterobacter spp. strains. All the isolated strains were found to be susceptible to ertapenem and meropenem. Amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoxitin were determined to be other antibiotics with the greatest effect on Enterobacteriaceae species. Conclusion: Ertapenem was observed to be alternative in the treatment of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the urinary culture. Carbapenems in particular, amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoxitin were found to be the most effective antibiotics in the treatment of this infection.

  20. Laboratory evaluation of phenotypic detection methods of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

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    Arunava Kali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although conventional antibiotic susceptibility tests are most commonly performed for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, the results of these phenotypic tests are dependent on the standardization of the culture conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the conventional phenotypic screening tests in comparison to the mecA gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR. One hundred and two clinical isolates of MRSA identified by the oxacillin disk diffusion were subjected to PCR for the mecA gene and by the cefoxitin disk diffusion test and culture on oxacillin screen agar, mannitol salt agar, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Agar (MeReSA selective medium, for MRSA. Although all 102 isolates were resistant in oxacillin and cefoxitin disk diffusion, 92 (90.1% isolates were positive for the mecA gene. The sensitivities of the mannitol salt agar, MeReSA agar, and oxacillin screen agar were 89.13, 97.82, and 98.91%, respectively. The oxacillin screen agar may be recommended for confirming methicillin resistance in the disk diffusion test in resource-poor settings, where molecular methods are not available.

  1. [Antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus saprophyticus strains isolated from urine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernohorská, L; Votava, M

    2010-04-01

    Eighty-seven Staphylococcus saprophyticus strains isolated from urine of 87 patients with cystitis were examined in 2005-2009. All strains were tested for resistance to vancomycin, nitrofurantoin, doxycycline, oxacillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefoxitin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and for biofilm formation by a modified Christensen method. None of the tested strains of S. saprophyticus showed resistance to vancomycin, while 2 strains (2.3 %) were resistant to nitrofurantoin, 9 (10.3%) to doxycycline, 20 (23.0 %) to oxacillin, 6 (6.9%) to amoxicillin/clavulanate, 6 (6.9%) to cefoxitin and 1 (1.1%) to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. S. saprophyticus was detected as the causative agent of cystitis in 0.4 % of 20,375 culture positive urine samples analyzed in our laboratory between 2005 and 2009. Most 67 (77.0%) S. saprophyticus strains were recovered from women, particularly from young women. Biofilm formation was detected in 16 (18.4 %) out of 87 S. saprophyticus strains.

  2. MecA基因在耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌对β-内酰胺类抗生素耐药中的作用%Analysis of the relationship between the MecA gene and resistance of β-Iactam antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄辉; 周建党; 聂新民; 易琦峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanisms by which MecA gene expression leads to β-lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and to study the resistance mechanism of MRSA at the molecular level.Methods: A variety of molecular biological techniques were employed, including screening MRSA using cefoxitin paper disk method, extraction of MRSA mRNA, reverse transcription into cDNA, real-time fluorescence PCR for quantitation of MecA gene expression, and agar dilution method for assessment of minimum inhibitory concentrations in MRSA treated with cefoxitin, oxacillin, vancomycin, or linezolid.Results: According to the level of resistance of MRSA to cefoxitin, 40 MRSA strains were divided into a low resistance group (n=12), a middle resistance group (n=15), and a high resistance group (n=13). The expression level of the MecA gene in the low resistance group, the middle resistance group, and the high resistance group was 58.87±30.30, 363.37±200.05, and 1257.72±446.63,respectively. MRSA resistance to cefoxitin and oxacillin was 100%; MRSA resistance to vancomycin or linezolid could not be detected. For all 40 MRSA strains the MIC90 for vancomycin was 2.0 μg/mL. Conclusion: MecA gene expression levels may correlate with the MRSA level of resistance to cefoxitin within a certain range of concentration.%目的:探讨耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)中MecA基因表达水平对β-内酰胺类抗生素耐药的机制与作用.方法:利用头孢两丁纸片法筛选MRSA,提取MRSA细菌RNA,反转录成cDNA,实时荧光PCR检测MecA基因的表达水平;琼脂稀释法检测MRSA对头孢西丁、苯唑西林、万古霉素、利奈唑胺的最低抑菌浓度.结果:40株MRSA分为低水平耐药组(12株)、中水平耐药组(15株)、高水平耐药组(13株).MecA基因的表达水平在MRSA低水平耐药组、中水平耐药组、高水平耐药组分别为58.87±30.30,363.37±200.05,1257.72±446.63,MRSA对头孢西丁、

  3. Prevalence and genotypic relatedness of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary care hospital

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    B A Fomda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is the most common multidrug-resistant pathogen causing nosocomial infections across the world. MRSA is not only associated with significant mortality and morbidity but also places a large economic strain on our health care system. MRSA isolates are also typically resistant to multiple, non-β-lactam antibiotics. We conducted a prospective study in a tertiary care hospital, to determine the prevalence of MRSA and to establish the clonal distribution of MRSA isolates recovered from various clinical specimens. Materials and Methods: Clinical samples were cultured and S. aureus was identified as per standard microbiological procedures. Susceptibility testing was done by agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC method as recommended by CLSI. Methicillin resistance was detected by phenotypic methods namely, oxacillin disc diffusion (ODD, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of oxacillin, cefoxitin disk diffusion (CDD, and MIC of cefoxitin. Amplification of mecA gene by PCR was used as gold standard for detection of methicillin resistance. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE typing was performed for MRSA isolates. Results: Out of 390 S. aureus isolates, 154 (39.48% isolates were MRSA and 236 (60.51% isolates were MSSA. Penicillin was the least effective antibacterial drug against the hospital associated S. aureus isolates with 85.64% resistance rate. All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. The MRSA showed a high level of resistance to all antimicrobials in general in comparison to the MSSA and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Multiplex PCR performed for all strains showed amplification of both the mecA and nucA genes in MRSA strains whereas MSSA strains showed amplification of only nucA gene. PFGE of these isolates showed 10 different patterns. Conclusion: Prevalence of MRSA in our hospital was 39.48%. Most of these isolates were

  4. Prevalence of the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Gene in Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated From Hospitals the Ilam Province of Iran

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    Rostamzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Panton-Valentine leukocidin (luk-pv is a cytotoxin that causes leukocyte destruction and tissue necrosis. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the pv1, femA, and mecA genes in staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical specimens in hospitals in Ilam, Iran. Materials and Methods One hundred and sixty Staphylococcus aureus isolates were collected from hospitals in Ilam, Iran, and phenotypic and genotypic examinations for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA isolates were carried out. The antibiotic profiles of these isolates, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of MRSA isolates was determined using the agar dilution method with vancomycin, cefoxitin, and oxacillin. All isolates were examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers for the femA, mecA, and Panton Valentine leukocidin (luk-pv genes. Results The results showed 91 isolates (56.88% were coagulase-positive, and 69 isolates (43.12% were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus (CNSA. Out of 91 (56.88% coagulase-positive staphylococci, 32 isolates (35.16% were resistant to cefoxitin, and 30 isolates (32.96% were resistant to oxacillin, using disc diffusion method. PCR revealed the presence of the femA gene (510 bp band in all coagulase-positive isolates (100%, and the mecA gene (513 bp band was detected in 32 isolates (35.16%; out of 32 MRSA isolates, 13 isolates (40.62% were positive for presence of the luk-pv gene (433 bp band. Conclusions The cefoxitin disk diffusion method showed the best results when compared to oxacillin disk, similar to results from detecting the mecA gene in PCR as a golden test. Studies on MRSA that carry the luk-pv gene should continue to provide significant insight into the prevalence and epidemiology of these important resistant pathogens. Also, the rate of pvl gene-producing isolates showed to be relatively high, and it should be detected in all staphylococcal infections.

  5. Susceptibility of Bacteroides nodosus to various antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradin, J L; Schmitz, J A

    1983-08-15

    The susceptibility of 18 strains of Bacteroides nodosus to 21 antimicrobial agents was tested in vitro. Penicillin was the most effective antibiotic tested. Other antibiotics tested, in order of relative efficacy, were cefamandole, clindamycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, sodium cefoxitin, tylosin tartrate, nitrofurazone, tinidazole, and dihydrostreptomycin sulfate. Tests of solutions of 4 antibiotics in 70% ethanol indicated that ethanol served primarily as a diluent and did not contribute substantially to the curative effect of such topical medications on foot rot lesions in sheep. Of the chemicals commonly used in foot baths for treatment of ovine foot rot, copper sulfate was most effective, followed by zinc sulfate, then formalin. Several commercial disinfectants and iodine were quite effective against B nodosus, whereas 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 70% ethanol alone were relatively ineffective.

  6. Enumeration and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in effluent from municipal, hospital, and secondary treatment facility sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Sandra; Boyle, Fiona; Hickey, Paul; Vellinga, Akke; Morris, Dearbháile; Cormican, Martin

    2010-07-01

    We describe a modification of the most probable number (MPN) method for rapid enumeration of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in aqueous environmental samples. E. coli (total and antimicrobial-resistant) bacteria were enumerated in effluent samples from a hospital (n = 17) and municipal sewers upstream (n = 5) and downstream (n = 5) from the hospital, effluent samples from throughout the treatment process (n = 4), and treated effluent samples (n = 13). Effluent downstream from the hospital contained a higher proportion of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli than that upstream from the hospital. Wastewater treatment reduced the numbers of E. coli bacteria (total and antimicrobial resistant); however, antimicrobial-resistant E. coli was not eliminated, and E. coli resistant to cefotaxime (including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL] producers), ciprofloxacin, and cefoxitin was present in treated effluent samples.

  7. Role of ser-237 in the substrate specificity of the carbapenem-hydrolyzing class A beta-lactamase Sme-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sougakoff, W; Naas, T; Nordmann, P; Collatz, E; Jarlier, V

    1999-08-17

    The role of the serine residue found at position 237 in the carbapenemase Sme-1 has been investigated by constructing a mutant in which Ser-237 was replaced by an alanine. The S237A mutant showed a catalytic behavior against penicillins and aztreonam very similar to that of Sme-1. By contrast, S237A was characterized by a reduced catalytic efficiency against cephems, such as cephalothin and cephaloridine. In addition, the weak activity of Sme-1 against the cephamycin cefoxitin was hardly detectable with the mutant enzyme. Finally, the Ser-237-->Ala mutation resulted in a marked decrease in catalytic activity against imipenem, showing that Ser-237 contributes to the carbapenemase activity of the class A beta-lactamase Sme-1.

  8. Laboratory identification of anaerobic bacteria isolated on Clostridium difficile selective medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Cristina; Warszawski, Nathalie; Korsak, Nicolas; Taminiau, Bernard; Van Broeck, Johan; Delmée, Michel; Daube, Georges

    2016-06-01

    Despite increasing interest in the bacterium, the methodology for Clostridium difficile recovery has not yet been standardized. Cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose taurocholate (CCFT) has historically been the most used medium for C. difficile isolation from human, animal, environmental, and food samples, and presumptive identification is usually based on colony morphologies. However, CCFT is not totally selective. This study describes the recovery of 24 bacteria species belonging to 10 different genera other than C. difficile, present in the environment and foods of a retirement establishment that were not inhibited in the C. difficile selective medium. These findings provide insight for further environmental and food studies as well as for the isolation of C. difficile on supplemented CCFT.

  9. [Evaluation of an automated procedure determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabaut, A; Durosoir, J L; Meyran, M

    1982-06-01

    The ABAC system allows to distribute simultaneously and automatically a standardized inoculum into microtube-cuvettes containing in lyophilized broth medium twofold serial dilutions of the antibiotics. After an 18 hours incubation time, The system prints automatically the MIC. We have compared the MIC of beta-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefamandole, cefuroxime and cefotaxime) and 6 aminoglycoside (gentamicin, tobramycin, netilmycin, amikacin, kanamycin, lividomycin) obtained by the ABAC system and by the Agar dilution method for 302 gram negative bacilli. We also made a comparison of the MIC of 8 antibiotics (oxacillin, oleandomycin, spiramycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, doxycycline, vancomycin) obtained by the 2 methods for 117 Staphylococcus aureus strains. The evaluation shows that the reproducibility of the results obtained by the ABAC system is good. The statistical analysis shows that the correlation between the MIC obtained with the 2 methods is excellent and that there is no significant discrepancy.

  10. [Comparative susceptibility of Ochrobactrum anthropi, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosidans and Bordetella bronchiseptica against 35 antibiotics including 17 beta-lactams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizet, C; Bizet, J

    1995-04-01

    Ochrobactrum anthropi, formerly known as "Achromobacter sp." or CDC group Vd has been isolated from water, hospital environment (antiseptic solutions, dialysis fluids ... ). O. anthropi is a Gram negative, motile, strictly aerobic, oxydase positive and non-fermentative bacteria with a strong urease activity. The susceptibility of 13 strains of O. anthropi was determined by agar diffusion method and compared to those of type strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The MICs of 20 antimicrobial agents confirmed the distinct phenotype susceptibility of O. anthropi. All the strains of O. anthropi are sensitive to imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin, netilmicin, nalidixic acid, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracyclin, colistin, sulphonamides and rifampicin and resistant to ampicillin, amoxycillin + clavulanic acid, ticarcillin, mezlocillin, cefuroxime, cefamandol, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefoperazon, ceftazidime, cefsulodin, aztreonam, streptomycin, kanamycin, pipemidic acid, chloramphenicol, erythromicin, pristinamycin, trimethoprim and fosfomycin. O. anthropi is implicated in nosocomial infections. O. anthropi was the species with the greatest resistance to beta-lactamins.

  11. BEL-1, a Novel Clavulanic Acid-Inhibited Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase, and the Class 1 Integron In120 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirel, Laurent; Brinas, Laura; Verlinde, Annemie; Ide, Louis; Nordmann, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    Screening by a double-disk synergy test identified a Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate that produced a clavulanic acid-inhibited expanded-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). Cloning and sequencing identified a novel ESBL, BEL-1, weakly related to other Ambler class A ESBLs. β-Lactamase BEL-1 hydrolyzed significantly most expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam, and its activity was inhibited by clavulanic acid, tazobactam, cefoxitin, moxalactam, and imipenem. This chromosome-encoded ESBL gene was embedded in a class 1 integron containing three other gene cassettes. In addition, this integron was bracketed by Tn1404 transposon sequences at its right end and by P. aeruginosa-specific sequences at its left end. PMID:16127048

  12. Prevalence and molecular characterization of clinical isolates of Escherichia coli expressing an AmpC phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rikke Lind; Nielsen, Jesper Boye; Friis-Møller, Alice

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence of the AmpC beta-lactamase phenotype in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and characterize the genetic resistance mechanisms causing the observed phenotype. METHODS: Clinical E. coli (n = 74) with reduced susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins...... and resistance to cefoxitin were collected from the Department of Clinical Microbiology at Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, in 2006. The AmpC disc test was used to confirm expression of AmpC, and test-positive strains were selected for further antimicrobial susceptibility testing and molecular characterization....... Hyperproduction of AmpC beta-lactamase was confirmed by isoelectric focusing (IEF). The presence of a plasmid-mediated ampC gene (pAmpC) was detected by multiplex PCR. The promoter and the entire reading frame of the chromosomal ampC gene were sequenced to identify promoter mutations associated...

  13. The prevalence of ESBL-producing E-coli and Klebsiella strains in the Copenhagen area of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjerulf, A.; Hansen, D.S.; Sandvang, D.

    2008-01-01

    confirmatory test for ESBL production and all screening test-positive strains were examined with PCR and nucleotide sequencing in order to detect the following ESBL genes: ctx-m, shv, tem and oxa. Strains resistant to cefoxitin were further examined with cefotetan +/- boronic acid in order to detect AmpC....... An ESBL gene was detected in 3/3 confirmatory test-positive isolates from collection A, in 14/17 from collection B, and in 41/48 from collection D. The distribution of isolates with the ESBL and/or AmpC enzymes was as follows: CTX-M (n=41), SHV (n=14), AmpC (n=9), CTX-M and AmpC (n=2), SHV and AmpC (n=1...

  14. Fabrication, characterization and in vitro profile based interaction with eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells of alginate-chitosan-silica biocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaure, Paul Catalin; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Ficai, Anton; Huang, Keng-Shiang; Yang, Chih-Hui; Chifiriuc, Carmen Mariana; Lin, Yung-Sheng

    2013-01-30

    This work is focused on the fabrication of a new drug delivery system based on polyanionic matrix (e.g. sodium alginate), polycationic matrix (e.g. chitosan) and silica network. The FT-IR, SEM, DTA-TG, eukaryotic cell cycle and viability, and in vitro assay of the influence of the biocomposite on the efficacy of antibiotic drugs were investigated. The obtained results demonstrated the biocompatibility and the ability of the fabricated biocomposite to maintain or improve the efficacy of the following antibiotics: piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, piperacillin, imipenem, gentamicin, ceftazidime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and cefazolin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefoxitin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 reference strains.

  15. Antibiotic susceptibility of different lactic acid bacteria strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetkov, N; Georgieva, R; Rumyan, N; Karaivanova, E

    2011-12-01

    Five lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains belonging to species Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus were tested for their susceptibility to 27 antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of each antimicrobial were determined using a microdilution test. Among the strains a high susceptibility was detected for most of the cell-wall synthesis inhibitors (penicillins, cefoxitin and vancomycin) and resistance toward inhibitors of DNA synthesis (trimethoprim/sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones). Generally, the Lactobacillus strains were inhibited by antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, erythromycin and tetracycline at breakpoint levels lower or equal to the levels defined by the European Food Safety Authority. Despite the very similar profile of S. thermophilus LC201 to lactobacilli, the detection of resistance toward erythromycin necessitates the performance of additional tests in order to prove the absence of transferable resistance genes.

  16. Determination of in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to cephalosporins by radiometric and conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heifets, L.B.; Iseman, M.D.; Cook, J.L.; Lindholm-Levy, P.J.; Drupa, I.

    1985-01-01

    Among eight cephalosporins and cephamycins tested in preliminary in vitro screening against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most promising for further study was found to be ceforanide, followed by ceftizoxime, cephapirin, and cefotaxime. Moxalactam, cefoxitin, cefamandole, and cephalothin were found to be not active enough against M. tuberculosis to be considered for further in vitro studies. The antibacterial activity of various ceforanide concentrations was investigated by three methods: (i) the dynamics of radiometric readings (growth index) in 7H12 broth; (ii) the number of CFU in the same medium; and (iii) the proportion method on 7H11 agar plates. There was a good correlation among the results obtained with these methods. The MIC for most strains ranged from 6.0 to 25.0 micrograms/ml. The BACTEC radiometric method is a reliable, rapid, and convenient method for preliminary screening and determination of the level of antibacterial activity of drugs not commonly used against M. tuberculosis.

  17. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Mycobacterium massiliense Recovered from Wound Samples of Patients Submitted to Arthroscopic and Laparoscopic Surgeries

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    Alessandra Marques Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing of rapidly growing species of mycobacteria (RGM against antibacterial agents has been shown to have some clinical utility. This work establishes the MICs of seven antimicrobial agents following the guidelines set forth by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI against eighteen isolates of Mycobacterium massiliense recovered from wound samples of patients submitted to minimally invasive surgery such as arthroscopy and laparoscopy. The isolates showed susceptibility to amikacin (MIC90=4 μg/mL and clarithromycin (MIC9016 μg/mL, doxycycline (MIC90>32 μg/mL, sulfamethoxazole (MIC90>128 μg/mL, and tobramycin (MIC90=32 μg/mL, and intermediate profile to cefoxitin (MIC90=64 μg/mL. Therefore, we suggest that the antimicrobial susceptibilities of any clinically significant RGM isolate should be performed.

  18. METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAINS IN FOOD AND ANIMAL

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    A. Traversa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Some authors reported the possibility of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA human infections from meat and dairy products and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius isolation in animals. The aim of this study is to investigate the methicillin-resistance in S. aureus strains and in S. intermedius strains (food and wild animals. 236 S.aureus strains from food, 36 S.aureus strains and 1 S. intermedius strain from wild animals were analyzed. 2 (0.74% MRSA strains from bovine milk were phenotipically resistant to cefoxitin, grew on chromogenic medium (MRSA Brilliance Oxoid and were mecA positive. All MRSA strains had the spa-type t899. All mecA positive strains showed at least resistance to eight of the antibiotics tested but none to glicopeptides. Both MRSA strains were enterotoxigenic.

  19. PERFIL DE SENSIBILIDADE MICROBIANA IN VITRO DE LINHAGENS PATOGÊNICAS DE Escherichia coli ISOLADAS DE CARNE BOVINA

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    Samira Pirola Santos Mantilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli strains (EPEC A, EPEC B, EPEC C, EIEC A e EIEC B isolated from bovine meat. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was evaluated using the technique described by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The strains were resistant to most antibiotics tested, and gentamicin showed the best efficiency, with 84.9% of the strains showing sensitivity. In addition, cefoxitin was the least effective antimicrobial agent, have a higher percentage of resistant strains. The multidrug resistance to antimicrobials is a finding of great importance to public health, as resistant pathogens may be conveyed to consumers by the ingestion of animal products, making difficult the treatment of bacterial infections and increasing the occurrence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics.

  20. Profils de virulence et de résistance aux B-lactamines de souches cliniques de Klebsiellapneumoniae isolées de sondes endotrachéales

    OpenAIRE

    BELAID, KHADIDJA

    2015-01-01

    La présence étude visait à détecter les facteurs de virulence et de résistance aux B-lactamines des souches cliniques de Kiebsiella pneumoniae isolées des prélèvements à partir des sondes d'aspiration trachéale. Au totale, 10 souches de K. pneumoniae ont été isolées, identifiées, et - testés leurs résistances vis-à-vis de 7 antibiotiques (B-Iactamine). Les antibiotiques qui présentent le plus d'efficacité sont: Imipenème et Cefoxitine. La résistance a l'Ampiciline et Ticarcilli...

  1. Beta-lactams interfering with PBP1 induce Panton-Valentine leukocidin expression by triggering sarA and rot global regulators of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Oana; Choudhury, Priya; Boisset, Sandrine; Badiou, Cédric; Bes, Michele; Benito, Yvonne; Wolz, Christiane; Vandenesch, François; Etienne, Jerome; Cheung, Ambrose L; Bowden, Maria Gabriela; Lina, Gerard

    2011-07-01

    Previous articles reported that beta-lactam antibiotics increase the expression of Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) by activating its transcription. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the inductor effect of beta-lactams on PVL expression by determining targets and regulatory pathways possibly implicated in this process. We measured PVL production in the presence of oxacillin (nonselective), imipenem (penicillin-binding protein 1 [PBP1] selective), cefotaxime (PBP2 selective), cefaclore (PBP3 selective), and cefoxitin (PBP4 selective). In vitro, we observed increased PVL production consistent with luk-PV mRNA levels that were 20 to 25 times higher for community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) cultures treated with PBP1-binding oxacillin and imipenem than for cultures treated with other beta-lactams or no antibiotic at all. This effect was also observed in vivo, with increased PVL mRNA levels in lung tissues from CA-MRSA-infected mice treated with imipenem but not cefoxitin. To confirm the involvement of PBP1 inhibition in this pathway, PBP1 depletion by use of an inducible pbp1 antisense RNA showed a dose-dependent relationship between the level of pbp1 antisense RNA and the luk-PV mRNA level. Upon imipenem treatment of exponential-phase cultures, we observed an increased sarA mRNA level after 30 min of incubation followed by a decreased rot mRNA level after 1 to 4 h of incubation. Unlike the agr and saeRS positive regulators, which were nonessential for PVL induction by beta-lactams, the sarA (positive) and rot (negative) PVL regulators were necessary for PVL induction by imipenem. Our results suggest that antibiotics binding to PBP1 increase PVL expression by modulating sarA and rot, which are essential mediators of the inductor effect of beta-lactams on PVL expression.

  2. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from ready-to-eat food of animal origin--phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Łaniewska-Trokenheim, Łucja

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from 146 ready-to-eat food of animal origin (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes). 58 strains were isolated, they were classified as Staphylococcus xylosus (n = 29), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 16); Staphylococcus lentus (n = 7); Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n = 4); Staphylococcus hyicus (n = 1) and Staphylococcus simulans (n = 1) by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Isolates were tested for resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, linezolid, trimetoprim, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin by the disk diffusion method. PCR was used for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes encoding: methicillin resistance--mecA; macrolide resistance--erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mrs(A/B); efflux proteins tet(K) and tet(L) and ribosomal protection proteins tet(M). For all the tet(M)-positive isolates the presence of conjugative transposons of the Tn916-Tn1545 family was determined. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (41.3%) followed by clindamycin (36.2%), tigecycline (24.1%), rifampicin (17.2%) and erythromycin (13.8%). 32.2% staphylococcal isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). All methicillin resistant staphylococci harboured mecA gene. Isolates, phenotypic resistant to tetracycline, harboured at least one tetracycline resistance determinant on which tet(M) was most frequent. All of the isolates positive for tet(M) genes were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545 -like integrase family gene. In the erythromycin-resistant isolates, the macrolide resistance genes erm(C) or msr(A/B) were present. Although coagulase-negative staphylococci are not classical food poisoning bacteria, its presence in food could be of public health significance due to the possible spread of

  3. Occurrence of extended-spectrum and AmpC β-lactamases in multiple drug resistant Salmonella isolates from clinical samples in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, KO; Iwalokun, Bamidele Abiodun; Oyefolu, Akeeb O Bola; Fakorede, CO

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Salmonella spp. are important foodborne pathogens exhibiting increasing resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Resistance to broad-spectrum β-lactams, mediated by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase enzymes is fast spreading and has had negative impacts on the clinical outcomes, particularly on third-generation cephalosporins. This study investigated the carriage of AmpC gene among multidrug-resistant Salmonella spp. from Lagos, Nigeria. Methods Forty Salmonella spp. from clinical samples (S. typhi = 13; S. typhimurium = 10; S. enteritidis = 8; S. choleraesuis = 5; S. paratyphi = 4) were subjected to in vitro susceptibility test by disk diffusion methods. Isolates that were resistant to cefoxitin and third-generation cephalosporins were screened for ESBL (Double Disk Synergy Test Method) and AmpC enzyme (AmpC disk test) production. Detection of AmpC fox gene was carried out by polymerase chain reaction. Results Thirty-two (80%) of the Salmonella isolates were cefoxitin resistant. Plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase and ESBL enzymes were recorded in 10/40 (25%) and 16/40 (40%) of the Salmonella isolates, respectively. Specifically, 16/40 (40%) of the Salmonella isolates possessed 380 bp AmpC fox gene, with the highest occurrence found in S. typhi strains (43.8%) followed by S. typhimurium (25%). There was no AmpC fox gene detected in S. paratyphi strains. Interestingly, coproduction of enzymes occurred in some of the isolates, raising fears of resistance to a multitude of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections. Conclusion Emergence of AmpC β-lactamase–producing Salmonella isolates in our environment was recorded for the first time, raising concern on increased antibiotic resistance among strains of Salmonella serovars in Lagos. Further genotypic study of the isolates could answer the questions on strain sources, clonal relatedness, and mechanism of spread. PMID:28144154

  4. Isolation and characterization of Enterobacteriaceae species infesting post-harvest strawberries and their biological control using bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtböke, D Ipek; Palk, A; Marker, A; Neuman, C; Moss, L; Streeter, K; Katouli, M

    2016-10-01

    Strawberry is a significantly consumed fruit worldwide, mostly without being subjected to disinfection processes. During the harvest and transfer from farm to consumers as well as where organic farming practises have been employed, the surface of the fruit may become contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. Post-harvest strawberry fruits in punnets available for public consumption were thus screened for the presence of enteric bacteria in the Sunshine Coast region of Queensland, Australia. Some of the tested samples (13 %) were found to carry such bacteria and even in greater numbers if organic amendments were used (69 %). The bacteria were found to belong in the genera of Escherichia, Enterobacter, Raoultella, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Shigella, Citrobacter and Cronobacter within the family Enterobacteriaceae. Some of the isolates were found to adhere to Caco-2 cells representing human gut epithelium as well as carrying virulence and toxin genes. Resistance mostly against sulphafurazole, cefoxitin, ampicillin and nitrofurantoin was found among 14 different antimicrobial agents tested including 100 % resistance to cefoxitin and ampicillin in the genus Pantoea. In the second phase of the study, bacteriophages were isolated against the isolates and were subsequently applied to post-harvest fruits. A significant (P ≤ 0.001) reduction in the number of enteric bacteria was observed when a high-titre polyvalent bacteriophage suspension (×10(12) PFU/mL) was applied to the fruit surface. Bacteriophages also decreased the adhesion of the Escherichia coli isolates to Caco-2 cells. Findings might indicate that biological control using bacteriophages might be of significant value for the industry targeting to reduce pathogenic loads of bacteria on the fruit.

  5. Profiling of β-lactam selectivity for penicillin-binding proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae D39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Ozden; Tsui, Ho-Ching T; Winkler, Malcolm E; Carlson, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    Selective fluorescent β-lactam chemical probes enable the visualization of the transpeptidase activity of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) at different stages of bacterial cell division. To facilitate the development of new fluorescent probes for PBP imaging, we evaluated 20 commercially available β-lactams for selective PBP inhibition in an unencapsulated derivative of the D39 strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Live cells were treated with β-lactam antibiotics at different concentrations and subsequently incubated with Bocillin FL (Boc-FL; fluorescent penicillin) to saturate uninhibited PBPs. Fluorophore-labeled PBPs were visualized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorescence scanning. Among 20 compounds tested, carbapenems (doripenem and meropenem) were coselective for PBP1a, PBP2x, and PBP3, while six of the nine penicillin compounds were coselective for PBP2x and PBP3. In contrast, the seven cephalosporin compounds tested display variability in their PBP-binding profiles. Three cephalosporin compounds (cefoxitin, cephalexin, and cefsulodin) and the monobactam aztreonam exhibited selectivity for PBP3, while only cefuroxime (a cephalosporin) was selective for PBP2x. Treatment of S. pneumoniae cultures with a sublethal concentration of cefuroxime that inhibited 60% of PBP2x activity and less than 20% of the activity of other PBPs resulted in formation of elongated cells. In contrast, treatment of S. pneumoniae cultures with concentrations of aztreonam and cefoxitin that inhibited up to 70% of PBP3 activity and less than 30% of other PBPs resulted in no discernible morphological changes. Additionally, correlation of the MIC and IC50s for each PBP, with the exception of faropenem, amdinocillin (mecillinam), and 6-APA, suggests that pneumococcal growth inhibition is primarily due to the inhibition of PBP2x.

  6. Antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria, antibiotics, and mercury in surface waters of Oakland County, Michigan, 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Crowley, Suzanne L.; Hardigan, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Water samples collected from 20 stream sites in Oakland and Macomb Counties, Mich., were analyzed to learn more about the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the co-occurrence of antibiotics and mercury in area streams. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded the Michigan recreational water-quality standard of 300 E. coli colony forming units (CFU) per 100 milliliters of water in 19 of 35 stream-water samples collected in Oakland County. A gene commonly associated with enterococci from humans was detected in samples from Paint Creek at Rochester and Evans Ditch at Southfield, indicating that human fecal waste is a possible source of fecal contamination at these sites. E. coli resistant to the cephalosporin antibiotics (cefoxitin and/ or ceftriaxone) were found at all sites on at least one occasion. The highest percentages of E. coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone were 71 percent (Clinton River at Auburn Hills) and 19 percent (Sashabaw Creek near Drayton Plains), respectively. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected more frequently in samples from intensively urbanized or industrialized areas than in samples from less urbanized areas. VRE were not detected in any sample collected in this study. Multiple antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) were detected in water samples from the Clinton River at Auburn Hills, and tylosin (an antibiotic used in veterinary medicine and livestock production that belongs to the macrolide group, along with erythromycin) was detected in one water sample from Paint Creek at Rochester. Concentrations of total mercury were as high as 19.8 nanograms per liter (Evans Ditch at Southfield). There was no relation among percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and measured concentrations of antibiotics or mercury in the water. Genetic elements capable of exchanging multiple antibiotic

  7. First report of mecC MRSA in human samples from Austria: molecular characteristics and clinical data

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    H. Kerschner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports of mecC methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains have been published from several European countries. We describe the first six mecC MRSA isolates of human origin from Austria and report the application of a rapid PCR test. Candidate isolates (n = 295 received between 2009 and 2013 were investigated phenotypically by cefoxitin screening and streaking on ChromID MRSA plates. The presence of mecC was confirmed in six isolates from blood cultures, wound swabs and screening samples of four female and two male patients (age range 7–89 years by an in-house PCR method and the new Genspeed MRSA test (Greiner Bio-One, Kremsmünster, Austria. The mecC MRSA were further characterized by whole genome sequencing, multilocus sequence and spa typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Eucast disk-diffusion method and Vitek 2. The six mecC MRSA isolates were from two clonal lineages (CC130, including a new single-locus variant, and CC599 and four different spa types (t843, t1535, t3256, t5930. Analysis for virulence factor genes yielded lukED, eta, etd2 and edin-B (CC130 isolates and tst, lukED, eta and sel (ST599 isolates. The Genspeed MRSA test identified mecC in all isolates whereas Vitek 2 failed to detect methicillin resistance in one isolate. The strains were susceptible to a wide range of non-β-lactam antibiotics. All patients were successfully treated or decolonized. mecC MRSA are present in Austria as colonizers but may also cause infections. Thus, laboratories must choose appropriate test methods such as cefoxitin screening and confirmation using molecular assays specifically targeting mecC.

  8. 凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌菌种鉴定与苯唑西林耐药凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌检测准确性%Correlation between species-level identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci and accuracy of methicillin resistance coagulase-negative staphylococci detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辜依海; 郭秀荣; 张军; 武建; 李小波; 柴阳; 王克

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate accuracy of cefoxitin disk testing for detecting oxacillin resistance coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS). Methods 139 clinical coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were detected with ID32 STAPH. Cefoxitin disk and oxacillin disk testing were used to detect MRCNS. PBP2a was tested by latex agglutination us a reference method. Results 139 CNS isolates were identified to 8 species: Staphylococcus haemolyticus , S. epidermidis , S. hominis , S. xylosus , S. saprophyticus , S. auricularis , S. simulans and S. warneri. The sensitivity and specificity for cefoxtin disk and oxacillin disk testing were 99.0% vs. 86.0% and 91.7% vs. 74.4%, respectively. One S. epidermidis strain was identified to affect the sensitivity of cefoxitin disk testing. S. xylosus, S. warned, and S. saprophyticus were major species related to the decrease of specificity of cefoxitin disk testing. S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. simulans and S. auricularis were major species related to the decrease of sensitivity of oxacillin disk testing. And the decrease of specificity of oxacillin disk testing were mainly related to S. hominis , S. simulans , S. xylosus , S. auricularis , S. saprophyticus and S. warneri. Conclusions The accuracy of MRCNS detection by cefoxitin disk testing is varied due to different CNS species. So it is necessary to test PBP2a or mecA gene according to CNS species, especially for S. xylosus, S. warned and S. saprophyticus.%目的 评价凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌(CNS)菌种鉴定与苯唑西林耐药凝固酶阴件葡萄球菌(MRCNS)检测的准确性.方法 139株临床分离CNS,经ID 32 STAPH鉴定到种,用头孢西丁(FOX)、苯唑西林(OXA)纸片扩散法检测MRCNS,以Slidex MRSA detection乳胶凝集法检测青霉素结合蛋白2a(PBP2a)作为参考方法.结果 139株CNS鉴定为8个种,依次为溶血葡萄球菌、表皮葡萄球菌、人葡萄球菌、木糖葡萄球菌、腐生葡萄球菌、耳葡萄球菌、模仿葡萄球菌、沃

  9. Antibioticoterapia profilática em obstetrícia: comparação entre esquemas Prophylactic antibiotic treatment in obstetrics: comparison of regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo Francisco Costa

    1998-10-01

    group where all patients received three doses of 1 g EV cefalotin at six-hour intervals. In the medium risk group, the incidence of puerperal infection was 5.3% for the patients who used three doses of 1 g EV cefoxitin; 5.1% for those who used three doses of 1 g EV cefalotin; 4.0% when a single cefoxitin dose was used and 3.4% when a single cefalotin dose was used. Conclusions: it is not necessary to use prophylactic antibiotic therapy in low risk patients and the first generation cephalosporins (cefalotin are as efficacious as the second generation cephalosporins (cefoxitin to prevent puerperal infection, independent of the applied dosage. Cefalotin seems to be effective in preventing puerperal infection in patients at high risk.

  10. Genotypic and Phenotypic Detection of AmpC β-lactamases in Enterobacter spp. Isolated from a Teaching Hospital in Malaysia.

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    Fatin Izzati Mohd Khari

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of chromosomal and plasmid-mediated β-lactamases (AmpC genes in a collection of Malaysian isolates of Enterobacter species. Several phenotypic tests for detection of AmpC production of Enterobacter spp. were evaluated and the agreements between tests were determined.Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for 117 Enterobacter clinical isolates obtained from the Medical Microbiology Diagnostic Laboratory, University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, from November 2012-February 2014 were determined in accordance to CLSI guidelines. AmpC genes were detected using a multiplex PCR assay targeting the MIR/ACT gene (closely related to chromosomal EBC family gene and other plasmid-mediated genes, including DHA, MOX, CMY, ACC, and FOX. The AmpC β-lactamase production of the isolates was assessed using cefoxitin disk screening test, D69C AmpC detection set, cefoxitin-cloxacillin double disk synergy test (CC-DDS and AmpC induction test.Among the Enterobacter isolates in this study, 39.3% were resistant to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone and 23.9% were resistant to ceftazidime. Ten (8.5% of the isolates were resistant to cefepime, and one isolate was resistant to meropenem. Chromosomal EBC family gene was amplified from 36 (47.4% E. cloacae and three (25% E. asburiae. A novel blaDHA type plasmid-mediated AmpC gene was identified for the first time from an E. cloacae isolate. AmpC β-lactamase production was detected in 99 (89.2% of 111 potential AmpC β-lactamase producers (positive in cefoxitin disk screening using D69C AmpC detection set. The detection rates were lower with CC-DDS (80.2% and AmpC induction tests (50.5%. There was low agreement between the D69C AmpC detection set and the other two phenotypic tests. Of the 40 isolates with AmpC genes detected in this study, 87.5%, 77.5% and 50.0% of these isolates were positive by the D69C AmpC detection set, CC-DDS and AmpC induction tests, respectively

  11. Bacterial Diversity in Buffalo Meat and Bowel from Traditional Market and the Sensitivity of Some Bacteria to Irradiation and Antibiotics

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    Harsojo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The population of buffaloes in Indonesia was 1.37 million in 2012, representing an increase of 5.5 % over its population the previous year. Buffaloes have been in Indonesia for such a long time, they have become a part of the lives of the majority of the Indonesian society. Research has been conducted to know the bacteria diversity in domestic buffalo meat and bowels from traditional markets in Pandeglang, Banten, in order to ascertain their safety based on their initial contamination and also to study the sensitivity of several of the bacteria to irradiation and antibiotics. The total bacterial was assessed by total plate count method as index of quality. The buffalo meat and bowel samples were taken from livers, intestines, lymph, lungs and tripe. Results showed that the contaminating bacteria were aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria including Escherichia coli (E. coli, and Staphylococcus spp. in buffalo meat and bowel. The numbers of aerobic bacteria were in the 1.7×105- 2.3×106 CFU/g range, while the total coliform bacteria were in the 2.0×103- 6.8×104 CFU/g range. The total number of E. coli was in the 2.0×103- 6.0×104 CFU/g range, and Staphylococcus spp. was in the 2.0×104- 2.7×105 CFU/g range. No Salmonella was detected in any of the samples observed. The total coliform bacteria, E. coli, and Staphylococcus spp. in all buffalo meat and bowel samples exceeded the maximum numbers of microbes permitted by the Indonesian National Standard (SNI. The maximum of total coliform, E. coli, and Staphylococcus spp. permitted by SNI are 1.0×102, 1.0×10 and 1.0×102 CFU/g, respectively. The D10 values of S. aureus were in the 0.13 - 0.23 kGy range, while for E. coli they were in the 0.07 - 0.13 kGy range. The isolate of S. aureus from the lungs was the most resistant to cefoxitin, tetracycline, and amoxicillin antibiotics. The isolate of E. coli from buffalo bowels were almost sensitive to cefoxitin, tetracycline, and amoxicillin antibiotics.

  12. Comparative antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative bacteria from community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Chang-Phone

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ertapenem is a once-a-day carbapenem and has excellent activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria. The susceptibility of isolates of community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem has not been reported yet. The present study assesses the in vitro activity of ertapenem against aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired bacteremia by determining and comparing the MICs of cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin. The prevalence of extended broad spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL producing strains of community-acquired bacteremia and their susceptibility to these antibiotics are investigated. Methods Aerobic and facultative bacteria isolated from blood obtained from hospitalized patients with community-acquired bacteremia within 48 hours of admission between August 1, 2004 and September 30, 2004 in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan, were identified using standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by Etest according to the standard guidelines provided by the manufacturer and document M100-S16 Performance Standards of the Clinical Laboratory of Standard Institute. Antimicrobial agents including cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin were used against the bacterial isolates to test their MICs as determined by Etest. For Staphylococcus aureus isolates, MICs of oxacillin were also tested by Etest to differentiate oxacillin-sensitive and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus. Results Ertapenem was highly active in vitro against many aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens commonly recovered from patients with community-acquired bacteremia (128/159, 80.5 %. Ertapenem had more potent activity than ceftriaxone, piperacillin

  13. Population distribution of Beta-lactamase conferring resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in human clinical Enterobacteriaceae in the Netherlands.

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    Guido M Voets

    Full Text Available There is a global increase in infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae with plasmid-borne β-lactamases that confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. The epidemiology of these bacteria is not well understood, and was, therefore, investigated in a selection of 636 clinical Enterobacteriaceae with a minimal inhibitory concentration >1 mg/L for ceftazidime/ceftriaxone from a national survey (75% E. coli, 11% E. cloacae, 11% K. pneumoniae, 2% K. oxytoca, 2% P. mirabilis. Isolates were investigated for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs and ampC genes using microarray, PCR, gene sequencing and molecular straintyping (Diversilab and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. ESBL genes were demonstrated in 512 isolates (81%; of which 446 (87% belonged to the CTX-M family. Among 314 randomly selected and sequenced isolates, bla(CTX-M-15 was most prevalent (n = 124, 39%, followed by bla(CTX-M-1 (n = 47, 15%, bla(CTX-M-14 (n = 15, 5%, bla(SHV-12 (n = 24, 8% and bla(TEM-52 (n = 13, 4%. Among 181 isolates with MIC ≥16 mg/L for cefoxitin plasmid encoded AmpCs were detected in 32 and 27 were of the CMY-2 group. Among 102 E. coli isolates with MIC ≥16 mg/L for cefoxitin ampC promoter mutations were identified in 29 (28%. Based on Diversilab genotyping of 608 isolates (similarity cut-off >98% discriminatory indices of bacteria with ESBL and/or ampC genes were 0.994, 0.985 and 0.994 for E. coli, K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae, respectively. Based on similarity cut-off >95% two large clusters of E. coli were apparent (of 43 and 30 isolates and 21 of 21 that were typed by belonged to ST131 of which 13 contained bla(CTX-M-15. Our findings demonstrate that bla(CTX-M-15 is the most prevalent ESBL and we report a larger than previously reported prevalence of ampC genes among Enterobacteriaceae responsible for resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.

  14. Evaluation of the in vitro activity of six antimicrobial agents against Neisseria gonorrhoeae Avaliação in vitro da atividade de seis drogas antimicrobianas contra Neisseria gonorrhoeae

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    Walter Belda Junior

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Use of antimicrobials for the treatment of gonorrhea started in 1930 with the utilization of sulfonamides. With the years other drugs were used for its treatment such as penicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, and others. Although highly specific in the beginning, these drugs, with time did not show anymore the expected therapeutic results because of aspects of chromosomal and plasmid-mediated resistance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains to six drugs used for its treatment (penicillin, tetracycline, cefoxitin, thiamphenicol, spectinomycin and ofloxacin by the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations of these drugs. We concluded that drugs, such as cefoxitin, thiamphenicol and spectinomycin still are excellent pharmacological agents for the treatment of gonorrhea. Penicillin, although still efficient, needs more attention regarding its use, as well as ofloxacin, because of the emergence of resistant strains. Tetracycline and its derivatives should be strongly contraindicated for the treatment of gonorrhea.A utilização de antimicrobianos no tratamento da gonorréia iniciou-se em 1930 com a utilização das sulfonamidas. No decorrer dos anos outras drogas passaram a ser utilizadas em seu tratamento como a penicilina, tetraciclina, espectinomicina e outras. Embora altamente eficazes no início, essas drogas, ao longo do tempo, passaram a não mais apresentar o resultado terapêutico esperado em virtude do aparecimento de quadros de resistência cromossômica e plasmidial. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a sensibilidade de cepas de Neisseria gonorrhoeae a seis drogas utilizadas no seu tratamento (penicilina, tetraciclina, cefoxitina, tianfenicol, espectinomicina e ofloxacina através da concentração inibitória mínima. Concluimos que drogas como a cefoxitina, o tianfenicol e a espectinomicina ainda constituem excelentes fármacos para o tratamento da gonorréia. A

  15. Evaluación de cuatro métodos para la detección de Staphylococcus aureus meticilino-resistente de muestras clínicas en un hospital regional Evaluation of four methods for detecting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical specimens at a regional hospital in Mexico

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    Gabriel Acosta-Pérez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar la prevalencia de Staphylococcus aureus meticilino-resistente (MRSA en aislados clínicos y determinar la concordancia entre los métodos de detección de MRSA en un laboratorio con recursos y personal limitado. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron 140 cepas de Staphylococcus aureus aisladas de muestras clínicas de diferentes departamentos mediante pruebas convencionales: producción de β-lactamasa, sensibilidad a oxacilina con MIC-Vitek 2-XL, ChromID MRSA, difusión en agar para discos de 30 μg de cefoxitina, detección de PBP2a y PCR para el gen mecA. Se determinó el índice kappa de Cohen, para evaluar la concordancia entre los diferentes métodos utilizados. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia encontrada fue de 90.7%. La sensibilidad y especificidad para los diferentes métodos de detección fue: difusión en disco para cefoxitina 97 y 92% respectivamente, MIC Vitek 2-XL 97 y 69%, ChromoID MRSA 97 y 85% y detección de PBP2a 98 y 100%. CONCLUSIONES: Todos los métodos son muy buenos para la detección de MRSA; la elección en el uso de cada método dependerá de la infraestructura de cada laboratorio.OBJETIVE: To estimate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in clinical isolates and to compare different methods for detection of MRSA in a lab with limited available personnel and resources. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 140 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from patients in several departments were assayed for β-lactamase production, MIC-Vitek 2 oxacillin, ChromID MRSA, disk diffusion in agar for cefoxitin 30 μg and PBP2a detection. The results of conventional tests were compared with the "gold standard" PCR test for mecA gene. Cohen´s kappa index was also calculated in order to evaluate the intra assay agreement between the used methods. RESULTS: The found prevalence was 90.7%. Sensitivity and specificity were: disk diffusion for cefoxitin 97 and 92% respectively, MIC Vitek 2-XL 97 and 69%, Chromo

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM Β-LACTAMASE-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS ISOLATED FROM DAIRY PRODUCTS

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    Rahem Khoshbakht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs are enzymes that hydrolyze the β-lactam ring, and ESBL-producing E. coli has rapidly spread worldwide with pose a serious hazard for humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli and molecular evaluation of four ESBL-associated genes among E. coli strains isolated from milk and cheese in southern Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out for a total of 150 isolates of E. coli, previously collected from dairy products. ESBL production was screened using a double-disc synergy test (DDST and presence of four ESBL genes (PER, VEB, TEM and CTX-M was tested using PCR. Among 150 E. coli strains 57 (38% isolates were identified as ESBL-producing strains. All ESBL positive isolates could be typed for one or more genes and the most prevalent ESBL-associated gene was CTX-M (80.7%. The PER gene was not present among isolates. Isolates showed high susceptibility to imipe¬nem and cefoxitin. The results showed the high prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli strains among dairy products and high occurrence of CTX-M-associated ESBL activity among isolates indicating the hazards of increasing the strains with antibiotic resistance which can transfer to human trough the dairy food products.

  17. FEATURES OF THE LARGE INTESTINE MICROFLORA OF CHILDREN – DONOR LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

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    N. I. Gabrielyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study microecology of the large intestine of children with cirrhosis before transplantation of the share liver. Materials and methods. Studied the flora of the colon 157 children of 1 to 17 years admitted to hospital for liver transplantation fragment from a related donor. Identification was carried out using microbial panels BD Crystal and databases BBL Crystal MIND. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci were determined by their sensiti- vity to oxacillin and cefoxitin. Beta-lactamase activity was tested using discs with ceftazidime and ceftazidime/ clavulanic acid. Results. Microecological revealed deep irregularities in the large intestine transplantation in children up lobe of the liver on a spectrum and composition of the microflora. Among the resident microflora decreased levels of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and coliform bacteria, especially in children under one year. A sig- nificant portion of the children surveyed (over 60–70% had an increase of frequency of finding stateally bacteria, especially Klebsiella and enterobacteria in third children – non-fermenting bacteria – Pseudomonas and Acine- tobacter spp. Revealed the spread of strains of gram-negative bacteria with extended-spectrum betalaktamaz.Conclusion. Expressed microecological violations in the large intestine in children with higher levels of bac- teria are conditionally risk factor reeks of infectious complications in the postoperative period and require are complex tools to assist in eliminatsii.s given antibiotic resistance of bacteria. 

  18. Isolation and characterization of Aeromonas schubertii from diseased snakehead, Channa maculata (Lacepède).

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    Chen, Y F; Liang, R S; Zhuo, X L; Wu, X T; Zou, J X

    2012-06-01

    Pure bacterial cultures were isolated from diseased snakeheads, Channa maculata (Lacepède), suffering high mortality in a farm in Zhongshan, southern China. Three isolates, namely ZS20100725, ZS20100725-1 and ZS20100725-2, were identified as Aeromonas schubertii. All the isolates showed high 16S rRNA sequence similarities with A. schubertii. The isolates exhibited strong virulence to snakeheads in experimental challenges with LD(50) ranging between 1.4 × 10(4) and 6.4 × 10(6) CFU g(-1). Two of the isolates were positive for haemolysin, elastase, lipase and lecithinase by phenotypic determination, which was further confirmed by PCR amplification of the haemolysin and elastase genes. In sterile liquid medium, the best growth conditions of strain ZS20100725 were 30 °C, pH 7 and 0.5% salinity (w/v). Antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that strain ZS20100725 was susceptible to cefoxitin, cefoperazone and chloramphenicol. Furthermore, histopathology of diseased snakeheads infected with A. schubertii showed necrosis and congestion in liver, kidney and spleen and also damage to the cardiac muscle, intestine and gills.

  19. Berberine Enhances the Antibacterial Activity of Selected Antibiotics against Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus Strains in Vitro

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    Robert D. Wojtyczka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic interactions between commonly used antibiotics and natural bioactive compounds may exhibit therapeutic benefits in a clinical setting. Berberine, an isoquinoline-type alkaloid isolated from many kinds of medicinal plants, has proven efficacy against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. The aim of the presented work was to assess the antibacterial activity of berberine chloride in light of the effect exerted by common antibiotics on fourteen reference strains of Staphylococccus spp., and to evaluate the magnitude of interactions of berberine with these antistaphylococcal antibiotics. In our study minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of berberine chloride against CoNS ranged from 16 to 512 µg/mL. The most noticeable effects were observed for S. haemolyticus ATCC 29970, S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, S. capitis subsp. capitis ATCC 35661, S. galinarium ATCC 700401, S. hominis subsp. hominis ATCC 27844, S. intermedius ATCC 29663 and S. lugdunensis ATCC 49576. The most significant synergistic effect was noticed for berberine in combination with linezolid, cefoxitin and erythromycin. The synergy between berberine and antibiotics demonstrates the potential application of compound combinations as an efficient, novel therapeutic tool for antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.

  20. Prevalence and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from companion animals and environment in the veterinary teaching hospital in Zambia, Africa.

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    Youn, Jung-Ho; Park, Yong Ho; Hang'ombe, Bernard; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2014-03-01

    The Republic of Zambia consists of only one veterinary teaching school at the University of Zambia (UNZA) where students and veterinarians are exposed to many bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP). The aim of this study was the characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of eleven SA and 48 SP isolates from the veterinary hospitals' in- and outpatients and the environment. No isolate was resistant to cefoxitin by disk diffusion test and the corresponding resistance gene mecA was not found. In contrast, the resistance rates of SA to penicillin (63.6%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (36.4%) and SP to penicillin (52.1%) and tetracycline (25.0%) were the highest. A variety of sequence types (STs) without a predominant type including numerous novel types were determined, especially for SP (39.6%). The spa typing provided a clonal assignment for all SAs (100%) and 24 SPs (50%) with three and two novel types, respectively. This study has provided an overview of SA and SP in the veterinary teaching hospital at UNZA. However, for a better understanding of these species regarding pathogenesis and transmission, further studies on the prevalence and characterization of SA and SP from veterinary staff, pet owners, and farm animals in Zambia is needed.

  1. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Emerging Cause of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

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    Catherine L. Haggerty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted pathogen that is increasingly identified among women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID. Although Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae frequently cause PID, up to 70% of cases have an unidentified etiology. This paper summarizes evidence linking M. genitalium to PID and its long-term reproductive sequelae. Several PCR studies have demonstrated that M. genitalium is associated with PID, independent of gonococcal and chlamydial infection. Most have been cross-sectional, although one prospective investigation suggested that M. genitalium was associated with over a thirteenfold risk of endometritis. Further, a nested case-control posttermination study demonstrated a sixfold increased risk of PID among M. genitalium positive patients. Whether or not M. genitalium upper genital tract infection results in long-term reproductive morbidity is unclear, although tubal factor infertility patients have been found to have elevated M. genitalium antibodies. Several lines of evidence suggest that M. genitalium is likely resistant to many frequently used PID treatment regimens. Correspondingly, M. genitalium has been associated with treatment failure following cefoxitin and doxycycline treatment for clinically suspected PID. Collectively, strong evidence suggests that M. genitalium is associated with PID. Further study of M. genitalium upper genital tract infection diagnosis, treatment and long-term sequelae is warranted.

  2. Yersinia enterocolitica strains associated with human infections in Switzerland 2001-2010.

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    Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M; Cernela, N; Hächler, H; Stephan, R

    2012-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica infections are common in humans. However, very scarce data are available on the different biotypes and virulence factors of human strains, which has proved to be problematic to assess the clinical significance of the isolated strains. In this study, the presence of the ail gene and distribution of different bio- and serotypes among human Y. enterocolitica strains and their possible relation to the genotype and antimicrobial resistance were studied. In total, 128 Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from human clinical samples in Switzerland during 2001-2010 were characterised. Most (75 out of 128) of the Y. enterocolitica strains belonged to biotypes 2, 3 or 4 and carried the ail gene. One of the 51 strains that belonged to biotype 1A was also ail positive. Most of the ail-positive strains belonged to bioserotype 4/O:3 (47 out of 76) followed by 2/O:9 (22 out of 76). Strains of bioserotype 4/O:3 were dominant among patients between 20 and 40 years old and strains of biotype 1A dominate in patients over 40 years. Strains belonging to biotypes 2, 3 and 4, which all carried the ail gene, exhibited a high homogeneity with PFGE typing. Y. enterocolitica 2/O:5,27 and 2/O:9 strains showed resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefoxitin, but Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains did not.

  3. Laboratory aspects of clinically significant rapidly growing mycobacteria

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    R Set

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenic potential of the rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM has started being recognized. This is due to more sensitive and specific techniques in the laboratory. The RGM are generally defined as nontuberculous species of mycobacteria that show visible growth on agar media within 7 days. RGM are widely distributed in nature and have been isolated from natural water, tap water, and soil. Several biochemical tests, high performance liquid chromatography, and molecular techniques have been developed for rapid identification of these species. The American Thoracic Society and the Infectious Disease Society of America recommend that RGM should be identified to the species level using a recognized acceptable methodology such as polymerase chain reaction restriction enzyme analysis or biochemical testing and routine susceptibility testing of RGM should include amikacin, imipenem, doxycycline, the fluorinated quinolones, a sulphonamide or trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, cefoxitin, clarithromycin, linezolid, and tobramycin. The diseases caused by these organisms have varied manifestations. They have been responsible for a number of healthcare-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks. For recognition of outbreaks, it is important to be familiar with the causative organisms like RGM which are most frequently involved in healthcare-associated outbreaks and pseudo outbreaks. It is essential to intervene as soon as possible to interrupt this transmission. Large gaps still exist in our knowledge of RGM. Unquestionably more studies are required. Through this review, we wish to emphasize that reporting of RGM from clinical settings along with their sensitivity patterns is an absolute need of the hour.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance and presence of the SXT mobile element in Vibrio spp. isolated from aquaculture facilities.

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    García-Aljaro, Cristina; Riera-Heredia, Jordi; Blanch, Anicet R

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the susceptibility of Vibrio spp. strains isolated from fish cultures against some usually applied antibiotics and the occurrence of the SXT mobile genetic element among them. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed by the standard disk diffusion technique while the presence of the SXT mobile genetic element was determined by conventional PCR. High levels of resistance to ampicillin (70%), cefoxitin (44%), streptomycin (31%), aztreonam (25%) and sulfamethoxazole (21%) were detected, and a high inter-and-intraspecies diversity in the resistance profile was observed for the majority of the analysed isolates. The SXT mobile genetic element was detected in only 4 isolates belonging to the species V. diazotrophicus (1), V. mediterranei (2) and V. vulnificus (1), which showed a variable antibiotic resistance profile. Horizontal antibiotic resistance gene transfer from the V. diazotrophicus SXT-positive strain to a laboratory E. coli strain was demonstrated under laboratory conditions. Our results suggest that the Vibrio spp. isolated from aquaculture facilities analysed in this study, although not being pathogenic, they constitute a source of antimicrobial resistance genes that could be mobilized to other bacterial populations through mobile genetic elements. However, the low occurrence of the SXT element in these isolates supports the hypothesis that this element is not involved in the development of resistance in the majority of Vibrio spp. in the examined aquaculture facilities.

  5. Study of Nosocomial Clostridium Difficile Diarrhea by Culture and Tissue Culture Methods

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    MH Salari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clostridium difficult is an identified cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, antibiotic-associated colitis, pseudomembranous colitis and nosocomial diarrhea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of nosocomial C. difficile-associated diarrhea in Tehran University of Medical Science Hospitals. Methods: In this study a total of 942 stool samples from patients with nosocomial diarrhea that were hospitalized in Imam Khomeini hospital, Shariati hospital and Children clinical center were collected. The samples were cultured on a selective cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA and incubated in anaerobic conditions, at 37 °C for 5 days. Isolated C. difficile by conventional biochemical tests, bacterial cytotoxicity by Vero tissue culture and antimicrobial sensitivity to antibiotics by Kirby Bauer method (disk diffusion were investigated. Results: Of the total patients, 57 Toxigenic C. difficile (6.1% were isolated. Results of statistical analysis show significant differences between the rate of isolated Toxigenic C. difficile and age group of patients (P< 0.05. Among the units of selected hospitals, Toxigenic C. difficile was isolated most frequently in gastroenterology of Children clinical center. Meanwhile, the isolated Toxigenic C. difficile were sensitive to vancomycin, Chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone. Conclusion: Our findings show that, Toxigenic C. difficile was found in 6.1% hospitalized patients. Therefore, further studies to evaluate the role of Toxigenic C. difficile in nosocomial diarrhea processes, ecological and pathogenic terms by culture, Tissue culture and molecular methodes are suggested.

  6. The use of molecular typing to evaluate the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative rods in Brazilian hospitals

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    Iraci Tosin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance has increased rapidly in Brazil and worldwide during the past few years, giving rise to a growing necessity for antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs. These programs have been instituted in order to monitor bacterial resistance in various regions, and to guide empirical antimicrobial therapy. We evaluated the use of molecular typing in multicenter surveillance programs. We also studied the dissemination modes of selected resistance profiles. Antimicrobial susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents was evaluated by the reference broth microdilution method. Bacterial isolates with selected susceptibility patterns were characterized by pulsed field-gel electrophoresis (PFGE. A total of 119 Gram-negative bacteria were molecularly typed, including 22 imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 26 ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, 27 cefoxitin-resistant-ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, 33 Enterobacter spp., 8 Citrobacter spp., and 3 S. marcescens isolates resistant to ceftazidime. The isolates were from clinically apparent bacteremia of patients hospitalized in medical centers located in 13 cities of 11 Brazilian states. Our molecular typing results revealed a great genetic diversity among isolates of the same species. However, some major PFGE patterns were found in more than one isolate. All repeated PFGE patterns were detected in only 2 isolates, which were isolated within the same institutions or in different medical centers. We conclude that the ability to characterize organisms phenotypically and genotypically is a powerful epidemiologic tool and it provides unique information that is very important for multicenter surveillance programs.

  7. Agar dilution method for susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

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    Marta C de Castillo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Tucumán, Argentina, were determined by the agar dilution method (MIC. 3.5% of the isolates produced ²-lactamase. A total of 96.5% of ²-lactamase negative isolates tested were susceptible to penicillin (MIC < 2 µgml-1; 14.03% of the tested isolates were resistant to tetracycline (MIC < 2 µgml-1, and 98% of the tested isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin (MIC < 64 µgml-1. The MICs for 95% of the isolates, tested for other drugs were: < 2 µgml-1 for cefoxitin, < 0.06 µgml-1 for cefotaxime, < 0.25 µgml-1 for norfloxacin, < 10 µgml-1 for cephaloridine, < 10 µgml-1 for cephalexin, and < 50 µgml-1 for kanamycin. Antibiotic resistance among N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Tucumán, Argentina, appeared to be primarily limited to penicillin and tetracycline, which has been a general use against gonorrhoeae in Tucumán since 1960. Periodic monitoring of the underlying susceptibility profiles of the N. gonorrhoeae strains prevalent in areas of frequent transmission may provide clues regarding treatment options and emerging of drug resistance.

  8. Assessment of antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolates and screening of Salmonella spp. in wild ungulates from Portugal.

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    Dias, Diana; Torres, Rita T; Kronvall, Göran; Fonseca, Carlos; Mendo, Sónia; Caetano, Tânia

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an emerging global problem. Wild animals are rarely exposed to antibiotics and therefore low levels of antibiotic resistance are expected. However, the growing interactions of these animals with humans and livestock may have a huge impact on their bacterial flora. This study aimed to assess the levels of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from widespread wild ungulates in Portugal. The interpretation of inhibition zone diameters was performed according to clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cut-offs, determined with the normalized resistance interpretation (NRI) method. For clinical breakpoints, 16% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, including ampicillin (10%), tetracycline (9%), streptomycin (5%) co-trimoxazole (4%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1%) and cefoxitin (1%). The levels of resistance detected in E. coli strains isolated from wild boar were statistically different for ampicillin and co-trimoxasol. According to NRI cut-offs, 10% of the population showed a non-wild-type phenotype against at least one antibiotic, also including tetracycline (9%), co-trimoxazole (6%), streptomycin (4%), ampicillin (2%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1%). Considering this parameter of comparison, no statistically different levels of resistance were identified between E. coli recovered from the three wild ungulates. Screening of Salmonella spp., which can be potentially pathogenic, was also performed, revealing that its prevalence was very low (1.5%). The study demonstrated that wild ungulates from Portugal are also reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  9. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERN OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES FROM DAKSHINA KANNADA

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    Rao Venkatakrishna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important cause of infections in hospitals and pose a great challenge to the treating clinicians; even emergence of vancomycin resistance has been reported. Therefore the knowledge of prevalence of MRSA and their antimicrobial profile becomes necessary. This study is aimed to determine prevalence of MRSA and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in Dakshina Kannada.Clinical specimens and carrier samples were cultured as per standard methods. The isolates were identified by using catalase test, coagulase tube test, mannitol fermentation and DNAase test. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done for the isolates as per Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method; the isolates were also tested for methicillin resistance using oxacillin and cefoxitin discs.A total of 250 isolates were tested (200 clinical isolates and 50 from carriers and 67 MRSA isolates were obtained (52 clinical samples and 15 from carriers. The degree of resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin and erythromycin were 100%, 100%, 53-56%, 14-16 % and 45-48% respectively. Resistance to vancomycin was not found. As the degree of resistance of MRSA towards antibiotics varies from region to region, in vitro susceptibility testing of every isolate of MRSA in clinical laboratories is inevitable.

  10. Angina monocitica con sovrainfezione da Prevotella denticola: caso clinico

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    Maria Teresa Allù

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Monocytic angina with superinfection of Prevotella denticola: clinical case Monocytic angina is a clinical sindrome caused by Epstein-Barr virus characterized by fever, pharyngitis, exudative tonsillitis, swollen lymphoglands, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly.The inflamed pharynx and necrotic tonsils of infectious mononucleosis are subject to bacterial superinfection initially or during the course of the illness; the reduced PO2 tension and low oxidation-reduction potential that prevail in a vascular and necrotic tissues favour the growth of anaerobes. In this article we reported the clinical case of a ten years old children, who presented fever and tonsillopharyngitis; he was treated with cefotaxime and piperacillin, he did not improve in health. He was admitted to hospital (Department of Otorhinolaryngology. The patient was treated with aminoglycoside (tobramycin, piperacillin and cortisone; the clinical situation deteriorated. Pus sample was collected from the tonsils and cultured. Isolated strain from culture anaerobic was identified biochemically (Rapid-ID32ANA.The microorganism isolated was: Prevotella denticola (oral anaerobic gram-negative rods; β-lactamase production was tested by using the chromogenic cephalosporin disk test.The susceptibility to antibiotics was performed according to NCCLS recommendations. Prevotella denticola (β-lactamase production was resistant to penicillin, cefoxitin, cefotetan, piperacillin, clindamycin and metronidazole it was susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ticarcillin-clavulanate, imipenem and chloramphenicol. Children was treated with piperacillin-tazobactam, with rapid symptomatic relief.

  11. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Detection from the Hands of Jatinangor Community Health Center’s Health Care Providers

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    Jeevanisha Patmanathan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that is resistance towards β-lactam antibiotics, and it seems to be one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Hands of the health care workers are said to be the main source for the nosocomial transmission. Thus, the study aims to determine methicillin-resistant S. aureus from the hands of Jatinangor Community Health Center’s health care workers. Methods: Samples were taken from the hands of 30 Jatinangor Community Health Center’s staffs, including medical and paramedical; from October 2012 to November 2012. Then, these samples underwent further laboratory examinations, starting from culture, identification and susceptibility test towards cefoxitin, in identifying methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Results: Out of the 30 samples taken, 6 samples (20% were positive for S. aureus isolates. In which, 4 (13.33% of the samples were positive for methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Conclusions: Since, health care workers are the main people in contact with patients and maintaining proper hand hygiene makes a huge difference; hand hygiene should be given adequate attention for the benefit of all.

  12. Occurrence and characterisation of MRSA and extended-spectrum ß-lactamases producing Escherichia coli isolated from mastitic cows’ milk

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    Weiner Marcin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was the preliminary evaluation of the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and extended spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL - producing Escherichia coli in 650 milk and inflammatory secretions from cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis. One millilitre of the sample was added to Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented with 6.5% NaCl, Tryptone Soya Broth with cefoxitin and aztreonam, and then to MRSA ID agar. Presumptive MRSA colonies were analysed for the presence of mecA gene. Parallel to MRSA identification, the samples were incubated in buffered peptone water, lauryl tryptose broth and McConkey agar supplemented with cefotaxim for ESBL-producing E. coli isolation. These bacteria were identified using API Rapid 32 E and the ability of ESBL production was initially established using disc test D68C and confirmed by MIC technique using Sensititre ESBL plates. The primers (blaCTX, blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCMY-2-group for the detection of some of the genes encoding ESBL production were used. The 45 strains of S. aureus with mecA gene and 41 strains of E. coli with blaTEM gene were detected.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance trends among Salmonella isolates obtained from horses in the northeastern United States (2001-2013).

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    Cummings, Kevin J; Perkins, Gillian A; Khatibzadeh, Sarah M; Warnick, Lorin D; Aprea, Victor A; Altier, Craig

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates obtained from horses in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to select antimicrobials over time. SAMPLE 462 Salmonella isolates from horses. PROCEDURES Retrospective data were collected for all Salmonella isolates obtained from equine specimens that were submitted to the Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2013. Temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant Salmonella isolates were investigated for each of 13 antimicrobials by use of the Cochran-Armitage trend test. RESULTS The prevalence of resistant isolates varied among antimicrobials and ranged from 0% (imipenem) to 51.5% (chloramphenicol). During the observation period, the prevalence of resistant isolates decreased significantly for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline and remained negligible for amikacin and enrofloxacin. Of the 337 isolates for which the susceptibility to all 13 antimicrobials was determined, 138 (40.9%) were pansusceptible and 192 (57.0%) were multidrug resistant (resistant to ≥ 3 antimicrobial classes). The most common serovar isolated was Salmonella Newport, and although the annual prevalence of that serovar decreased significantly over time, that decrease had only a minimal effect on the observed antimicrobial resistance trends. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that current antimicrobial use in horses is not promoting the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella strains in the region served by the laboratory.

  14. Analysis of the drug-resistant characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the respiratory tract and CTX-M ESBL genes.

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    Huang, S Y; Pan, K Y; Liu, X Q; Xie, X Y; Dai, X L; Chen, B J; Wu, X Q; Li, H Y

    2015-10-05

    The main aim of this study was to understand the relationship between the drug-resistant characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae and CTX-M-type extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), and to detect the distributions of CTX-M-type ESBLs in clinically isolated strains. CTX-M ESBL genes isolated from the clinical samples were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and identified by sequence analysis; the antibiotic susceptibility of the samples was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method. One hundred and five strains among the 246 isolated strains of K. pneumoniae tested positive for ESBL production (42.68%); 92 of these produced CTX-M ESBLs. Of the 92 CTX-M ESBL strains, 81 produced CTX-M-1 ESBLs and 11 produced CTX-M-25 ESBLs. Fifty-seven of the CTX-M-1 ESBL- and six of the CTX-M-25 ESBL-producing bacteria had CTX-M ESBL genes that coexisted in the plasmid and chromosome. The Kirby-Bauer antibiotic susceptibility method revealed that CTX-M ESBL-positive strains showed a higher rate of resistance to cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, aztreonam, levofloxacin, and cotrimoxazole, compared to the CTX-M ESBL-negative strains (P ESBL genes were commonly observed in the K. pneumoniae isolated from respiratory tract samples; these were significantly associated with the drug-resistant characteristics of K. pneumoniae to β-lactam antibiotics.

  15. Hospital clonal dissemination of Enterobacter aerogenes producing carbapenemase KPC-2 in a Chinese teaching hospital.

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    Qin, Xiaohua; Yang, Yang; Hu, Fupin; Zhu, Demei

    2014-02-01

    Carbapenems are first-line agents for the treatment of serious nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. However, resistance to carbapenems has increased dramatically among Enterobacteriaceae in our hospital. In this study, we report clonal dissemination caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes (CREA). In 2011, CREA was identified from 12 patients admitted to the neurosurgical ward. All 12 clinical isolates were non-susceptible to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, ertapenem, imipenem or meropenem. All isolates carried the gene encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2), except for the isolate E4. However, a remarkably lower expression level of the porin OmpF was detected in the non-KPC-2-producing isolate E4 on SDS-PAGE compared with the carbapenem-susceptible isolate. Epidemiological and molecular investigations showed that a single E. aerogenes strain (PFGE type A), including seven KPC-2-producing clinical isolates, was primarily responsible for the first isolation and subsequent dissemination. In a case-control study, we identified risk factors for infection/colonization with CREA. Mechanical ventilation, the changing of sickbeds and previous use of broad-spectrum antibiotics were identified as potential risk factors. Our findings suggest that further studies should focus on judicious use of available antibiotics, implementation of active antibiotic resistance surveillance and strict implementation of infection-control measures to avoid the rapid spread or clonal dissemination caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in healthcare facilities.

  16. Methicillin resistant coagulase negative staphylococcus: From colonizer to a pathogen.

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    Gilani, Mehreen; Usman, Javaid; Latif, Mahwish; Munir, Tehmina; Gill, Maria Mushtaq; Anjum, Rabia; Babar, Nazish

    2016-07-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the frequency of methicillin resistance in coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) and to determine its in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility to various other routinely used antibiotics. It was a cross sectional study conducted at the department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from June 2011 to May 2012. The organisms were identified on the basis of colony morphology, Gram staining, catalase, DNAase and slide/tube coagulase tests. The organisms were considered to be methicillin resistant when the diameter of zone of inhibition was less than 25mm around 30μg cefoxitin disc. Antibiotic sensitivity was determined using the Modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. From a total of 337 CoNS, 201 were methicillin resistant and were included in the study. All were resistant to Penicillin, followed by Erythromycin (93•1%), Ciprofloxacin (77%), Co-trimoxazole (74•8%), Gentamicin (68•3%), Clindamycin (51•06%), Tetracycline (44•6%), Fusidic acid (40%), Rifampicin (39•5%), Chloramphenicol (19•3%), Linezolid (2%), Minocycline (1•1%), and Vancomycin (0%). More than half of CoNS were methicillin resistant. Vancomycin is the only drug to which all of the MRCoNS were sensitive, with more than 98% of the isolates being sensitive to Linezolid and Minocycline.

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Protocatechuic Acid Ethyl Ester on Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Strains Alone and in Combination with Antistaphylococcal Drugs

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    Maria Miklasińska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented study was to examine in vitro the antibacterial activity of protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, EDHB against Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates alone and in the combination with four selected antibiotics. The EDHB antimicrobial activity was tested against twenty S. aureus strains isolated from the clinical samples, and three reference strains. The phenotypes and genotypes of resistance to methicillin for the tested strains were defined as well as the phenotypic resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B (MLSB. EDHB displayed diverse activity against examined S. aureus strains with the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC within the range from 64 to 1024 µg/mL. Addition of ¼ MIC of EDHB into the Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA resulted in augmented antibacterial effect in the presence of clindamycin. In the case of cefoxitin no synergistic effect with EDHB was noted. For erythromycin and vancomycin the decrease of mean MICs in the presence of EDHB was observed but did not reach statistical significance. The results of the present study showed that in vitro EDHB possesses antibacterial activity against S. aureus clinical strains and triggers a synergistic antimicrobial effect with clindamycin and to the lesser extent with erythromycin and vancomycin.

  18. Clonal diversity of Staphylococcus aureus originating from the small ruminants goats and sheep.

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    Porrero, M Concepción; Hasman, Henrik; Vela, Ana I; Fernández-Garayzábal, Jose F; Domínguez, Lucas; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2012-04-23

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in humans and many animal species. The prevalence of different clonal types in animal species remains largely unknown. We analyzed 267 S. aureus from intramammary infections in goats (47) and sheep (220) by spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial susceptibility. The most frequent spa types in goats were t337 (N=9), t759 (N=6) and t1534 (N=5). Sheep isolates mainly belonged to spa types t1534 (N=72), t2678 (N=29) and t3576 (N=20). Eighteen novel spa-types were observed; two from goat strains, 13 from sheep and three in both species. The majority of the goat strains grouped in MLST CC133 (N=10) and ST522 (N=10), followed by CC9 (N=9), while the majority of the sheep strains were of ST522 (N=108) followed by CC133 (N=86) and CC130 (N=11). Nine new MLST types were detected; three in goat and sheep isolates (ST1739, ST1758 and ST1780), two identified in goats only (ST1740 and ST2061) and four in sheep only (ST1742, ST1743, ST1781 and ST2011). Strains showed resistance below 20% against penicillin and tetracycline; a strong association between CC-types and penicillin resistance was observed. No resistance was detected to cefoxitin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, rifampicin and vancomycin. This study suggests that ST522 is the most common S. aureus clone associated with small ruminants followed by CC133.

  19. Profiling of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid replicon types in β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle.

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    Shin, Seung Won; Jung, Myunghwan; Shin, Min-Kyung; Yoo, Han Sang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 78 isolates of Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle farms were investigated for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC β-lactamase. In the disc diffusion test with ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefoxitin, 38.5% of the isolates showed resistance to all of ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin. The double disc synergy method revealed that none of the isolates produced ESBL or AmpC β-lactamases. DNA sequencing showed that all isolates encoded genes for TEM-1-type β-lactamase. Moreover, 78.2% of the isolates transferred the TEM-1-type β-lactamase gene via conjugation. In plasmid replicon typing of all donors, IncFIB and IncFIA were identified in 71.4% and 41.0% of plasmids, respectively. In transconjugants, IncFIB and IncFIA were the most frequent types detected (61.5% and 41.0%, respectively). Overall, the present study indicates that selection pressures of antimicrobials on β-lactamases in beef cattle may be low relative to other livestock animals in Korea. Moreover, to reduce selection pressure and dissemination of β-lactamase, the long-term surveillance of antimicrobial use in domestic beef cattle should be established.

  20. Epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of B. fragilis group organisms isolated from clinical specimen and human intestinal microbiota Epidemiologia e resistência a antimicrobianos de microorganismos do grupo B. fragilis isolados de espécime clínico e microbiota intestinal humana

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    Cibele Barreto Mano de Carvalho

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological aspects and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the Bacteroides fragilis group isolated from clinical and human intestinal specimens were examined in this study. B. fragilis group strains were isolated from 46 (37% of 124 clinical specimens and the source of the samples was: Blood culture (3, intraabdominal infection (27, brain abscess (2, soft tissue infection (17, respiratory sinus (3, pleural aspirate (9, breast abscess (3, surgical infected wound (22, pelvic inflammatory disease (22, chronic otitis media (9 and miscellaneous (7. Intraabdominal and soft tissue infections were responsible for more than half of the clinical isolates. Susceptibility to penicillin, cefoxitin, tetracycline, metronidazole, chloramphenicol and clindamycin was examined. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole and chloramphenicol. For clindamycin and cefoxitin the resistance rates observed were 21.7% and 10.9% respectively. Susceptibility profiles varied among the different species tested. A total of 37 species of B. fragilis group isolated from intestinal microbiota of individuals who had no antimicrobial therapy for at least 1 month before the sampling was also examined. All strains were also susceptible to chloramphenicol and motronidazole and the resistance rates to clindamycin and cefoxitin were 19.4% and 5.4% respectively. A few institutions, in Brazil, have monitored the antimicrobial susceptibility of B. fragilis group strains isolated from anaerobic infections. The resistance rates to cefoxitin and clindamycin and the variation in susceptibility patterns among the species isolated in this study emphasize the need for monitoring of susceptibility patterns of B. fragilis group organisms isolated, especially at our University Hospitals.Alguns aspectos epidemiológicos e o perfil de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de amostras do grupo B. fragilis isoladas de espécime clínico e microbiota intestinal humana foram delineados neste

  1. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Staphylococcus schleiferi Subspecies coagulans from Canine Pyoderma Cases in Grenada, West Indies, and Their Susceptibility to Beta-Lactam Drugs

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    Harry Hariharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a 2-year period 66 cases of canine pyoderma in Grenada, West Indies, were examined by aerobic culture in order to ascertain the bacteria involved and their antimicrobial resistance patterns. Of the 116 total bacterial isolates obtained, the majority belonged to Gram-positive species, and the most common organism identified through biochemical and molecular methods was Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Additionally, identification of a Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans isolate was confirmed by molecular methods. All isolates of staphylococci were susceptible to beta-lactam drugs: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefovecin, cefoxitin, cefpodoxime, and cephalothin. They were also susceptible to chloramphenicol and enrofloxacin. Resistance was highest to tetracycline. Methicillin resistance was not detected in any isolate of S. pseudintermedius or in S. schleiferi. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, the most common species was Klebsiella pneumoniae, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii/calcoaceticus. The only drug to which all Gram-negative isolates were susceptible was enrofloxacin. This report is the first to confirm the presence of S. pseudintermedius and S. schleiferi subspecies coagulans, in dogs with pyoderma in Grenada, and the susceptibility of staphylococcal isolates to the majority of beta-lactam drugs used in veterinary practice.

  2. Incidence of gonorrhoea due to penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Japan 1981-3 and treatment using a new antibiotic combination, BRL25000 (amoxycillin and clavulanic acid).

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    Osato, K; Tsugami, H; Harada, K; Maruyama, J

    1986-01-01

    During the three years 1981-3, 134 (9.1%) of 1473 patients presenting at our clinics were found to be infected with penicillinase producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of benzylpenicillin and ampicillin against these PPNG strains were 8 mg/l or more, whereas against non-PPNG strains they were consistently 4 mg/l or less. In contrast, the MIC of BRL25000 (two parts amoxycillin and one part clavulanic acid, the beta lactamase inhibitor) was 4 mg/l or less even against PPNG strains. MICs of a number of other drugs commonly used to treat gonorrhoea, such as cephaloridine, cefoxitin, tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, kanamycin, and spectinomycin, showed no appreciable differences between non-PPNG and PPNG strains and the MIC of cephaloridine in particular was relatively high. BRL25000 proved to be very effective in the treatment of PPNG infection and cured all of 121 patients treated. A daily dose of 2.25g, cured 105 patients in two days, 11 patients in three days, four patients in four days, and one patient in five days. A new rapid diagnostic method for detecting PPNG strains, capable of application at an outpatient clinic and providing a result on the following day, is described. Images PMID:3089905

  3. BACTERIAL SPECTRUM AND PATTERN OF ANTIMICROBIAL SENSITIVITY AMONG OUTPATIENTS WITH PNEUMONIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Sushma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To outline the spectrum of bacteria causing pneumonia and the pattern of antimicrobial sensitivity in outpatients with pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital in Himachal Pradesh. METHODS: Sputum of 108 immuno competent pneumonia patients attending outpatient departments of Medicine and Pulmonary medicine of Dr. R. P. Government Medical College , Kangra at Tanda was sent for Gram staining and culture and sensitivity testing. RESULTS: Commensals were detected in most of the cases (32 , 29.6% followed by Staphylococcus aureus in 17(15.7% and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 16(14.8%. This was followed by three Gram negative organisms namely E Coli (11 , 10.2% , Pseudomonas (10 , 9.2% and Klebsiella (8 , 7.2%. No growth was obtained in 7(6.5% and other organisms were isolated in 7(6.5% specimens. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to vancomycin , clindamycin , cefoxitin , azithromycin and cotrimoxazole. Streptococcus pneumoniae was found to be sensitive to vancomycin , clindamycin , gentamicin , azithromycin , penicillin , cotrimoxazole , amoxicillin +clavulanic acid. Klebsiella was found to be sensitive to imipenem , azithromycin , ciprofloxacin , gentamicin and amoxicillin +clavulanic acid. E coli was sensitive to imipenem , gentamicin and amoxicillin +clavulanic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be sensitive to gentamicin , cefta zidime , imipenem , ticarcillin and piperacillin. CONCLUSION: Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the commonest organism causing pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumoniae is resistant to many antibiotics. Azithromycin can be the first line therapy for pneumonia.

  4. Detection of AmpC β lactamases in gram-negative bacteria

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    Gunjan Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amp C β-lactamases are clinically important cephalosporinases encoded on the chromosomes of many Enterobacteriaceae and a few other organisms, where they mediate resistance to cephalothin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, most penicillins, and β-lactamase inhibitor/β-lactam combinations. The increase in antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is a notable example of how bacteria can procure, maintain and express new genetic information that can confer resistance to one or several antibiotics. Detection of organisms producing these enzymes can be difficult, because their presence does not always produce a resistant phenotype on conventional disc diffusion or automated susceptibility testing methods. These enzymes are often associated with potentially fatal laboratory reports of false susceptibility to β-lactams phenotypically. With the world-wide increase in the occurrence, types and rate of dissemination of these enzymes, their early detection is critical. AmpC β-lactamases show tremendous variation in geographic distribution. Thus, their accurate detection and characterization are important from epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and infection control point of view. This document describes the methods for detection for AmpC β-lactamases, which can be adopted by routine diagnostic laboratories.

  5. In vitro activities of ceftobiprole, tigecycline, daptomycin, and 19 other antimicrobials against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from a national survey of Belgian hospitals.

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    Denis, Olivier; Deplano, Ariane; Nonhoff, Claire; Hallin, Marie; De Ryck, Raf; Vanhoof, Raymond; De Mendonça, Ricardo; Struelens, Marc J

    2006-08-01

    The in vitro activities of 22 antimicrobial agents, including ceftobiprole, daptomycin, and tigecycline, against 511 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from 112 Belgian hospitals were studied by using the CLSI agar dilution method. Isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis and by PCR detection of determinants of resistance to aminoglycosides, macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramins, and tetracyclines. A representative set of isolates with different PFGE genotypes was further characterized by multilocus sequence typing, determination of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type, and multiplex PCR for toxic shock syndrome type 1 (TSST-1) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. MRSA isolates belonged to nine epidemic MRSA clones, of which sequence type 45 (ST45)-SCCmec IV and ST8-SCCmec IV were predominant, accounting for 49 and 20% of isolates, respectively. The distribution of antimicrobial resistance and TSST-1 genes was strongly linked to clonal types. Ceftobiprole, daptomycin, and tigecycline showed high activity against all isolates of these sporadic and epidemic MRSA clones, as indicated by MIC(90)s of 2 mg/liter, 0.5 mg/liter, and 0.25 mg/liter, respectively. The MIC distribution of daptomycin and tigecycline was not different in isolates with decreased susceptibility to glycopeptides or tetracyclines, respectively. Ceftobiprole MICs were not correlated with oxacillin and cefoxitin MICs. These data indicate excellent activity of the newly developed agents ceftobiprole, daptomycin, and tigecycline against MRSA isolates recently recovered from hospitalized patients in Belgium, supporting their therapeutic potential for nosocomial MRSA infections.

  6. Phenotypic and genotypic detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hunting dogs in Maiduguri metropolitan, Borno State, Nigeria

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    Muhammad Mustapha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the presence of MRSA in hunting dogs in Maiduguri metropolitan. Materials and Methods: Phenotypic methods used includes microscopic technique, colony morphology study, catalase-coagulase tests, and the use of mannitol salt agar test, oxacillin resistance screening agar base, and antibiotic susceptibility testing methods. Genotypic approach was used for deoxyribonucleic acid extraction, and the presence of nuc and mecA gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Results: Examination of 416 swab samples from nasal and perineal region of dogs revealed a total of 79.5% of S. aureus, where 62.5% of the isolates were MRSA. Molecular analysis revealed that 7nuc genes specific for S. aureus from 20 presumptive MRSA assay were all mecA PCR negative. The isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin but proved resistant to cefoxitin and oxacillin. Conclusion: High isolation rate of MRSA was found in hunting dogs. Significant level (p<0.05 of MRSA was isolated in the nasal cavity of hunting dogs than its perineum. Only nuc genes were detected from the MRSA isolates.

  7. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated at the military hospital of Constantine/Algeria.

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    Ouchenane, Z; Agabou, A; Smati, F; Rolain, J-M; Raoult, D

    2013-12-01

    Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec is a genetic mobile element that carries the gene mecA mediating the methicillin resistance in staphylococci. The aim of this study is to type the Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) in 64 non-redundant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains recovered at the military hospital of Constantine (Algeria) between 2005 and 2007. Methicillin resistance was detected by oxacillin and cefoxitin discs and PBP2a test, and then confirmed by mecA PCR. The SCCmec complex types were determined by real time PCR. The analysis showed that 50 isolates were hospital acquired (HA-MRSA) and 14 were community-acquired (CA-MRSA). SCCmec type IV and V (traditionally attributed to CA-MRSA) were harbored by both HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA, while SCCmec type I, II and III were not recorded. These findings motivate more investigations to be carried on HA-MRSA in our hospital and other national health care centers.

  8. Nasal carriage of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among healthy population of Kashmir, India

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    B A Fomda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nasal colonisation with community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA is being increasingly reported, especially in places where people are in close contact and where hygiene is compromised. The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA colonising anterior nares of healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Nasal swabs of healthy subjects were collected aseptically and cultured using standard microbiological protocols. Antibiotic susceptibility was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Methicillin resistance was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion method and confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and amplification of mecA gene by PCR. Strain typing of MRSA strains was done by PFGE. Results: Out of 820 samples, S.aureus was isolated from 229 (27.92% subjects. Of the 229 isolates, 15 were methicillin resistant. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Nasal carriage of MRSA was found to be 1.83% among healthy population. The isolates were found to be polyclonal by PFGE analysis. Conclusion: High prevalence of MRSA is a cause of concern and strategies to interrupt transmission should be implemented.

  9. Detection of AmpC β-lactamase and drug resistance of Enterobacter cloacae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong WANG; Shangwei WU; Xue LI; Ping HE; Yunde LIU

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide useful information for effective control and clinical therapy of infection, the resistance status and the rate of carrying AmpC β-1actamase of Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacae) were investigated. By VITEK (Bacterial automatic biochemical analyzer), the isolates of E. cloacae were identified and the drag resistance was measured. The AmpC enzyme was detected by the five-disk diffusion test. Antibiotic sensitivity test showed that the resistance effects of E. cloacae to cefazolin, cefoxitin and ampicillin were more serious, with resistant rates of 80.5%, 75.3% and 70.1%, respectively. However, it was more sensitive to Sulperazone (cefoperazone/sulbactam, 13.0%), amikacin (16.9%) and ciprofloxacin (19.5%). Meanwhile, the phenotype detection showed that 35.06% (27/77) isolates of E. cloacae produced AmpC β-1actamase. Most of E. cloacae are multi-drug resistant strains. Sulperazone (cefoperazone/sulbactam), a kind of component β-1actamase, is a more effective antibiotic for treating infection caused by E. cloacae. Unreasonable application of the third generation cephalosporins plays an important role in leading to emergence of high-yield AmpC β-1actamase strains, so antibiotics should be used wisely.

  10. Molecular characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and its correlation with clinical laboratory standards institute interpretive criteria for disk diffusion susceptibility testing in enterobacteriaceae isolates in Thaialnd.

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    Tangkoskul, Teerawit; Tiengrim, Surapee; Onsomang, Supiluck; Pati, Naratchaphan; Aswapokee, Nalinee; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2012-11-01

    We performed extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypic testing and molecular characterization of three ESBL genes (TEM, SHV and CTX-M) and susceptibility testing by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) disk diffusion method against three cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime) and a cephamycin (cefoxitin) among 128 Thai Escherichia coli and 84 Thai Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates. ESBL production was discovered in 62% of E. coli and 43% of K. pneumoniae isolates. All isolates susceptible to ceftriaxone were ESBL-negative. Nearly all isolates non-susceptible to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and cefepime produced ESBL; the presence of CTX-M genes in the isolates correlated with a ceftriaxone non-susceptible phenotype. Thirty-nine of 83 isolates (47%) of ceftazidime-susceptible E. coli and 50 of 99 isolates (50.5%) of cefepime-susceptible E. coli were ESBL-producing. SHV-type beta-lactamase genes were more prevalent among K. pneumoniae than E. coli isolates. CTX-M was the major ESBL gene harbored by ESBL-producers in both E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. Non-CTX-M ESBL-producers were found only among K. pneumoniae isolates. This study reveals an increase in ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among Thai isolates and demonstrates gaps in the current CLSI disk diffusion susceptibility guidelines; it indicates the results of ceftazidime and cefepime disk diffusion susceptibility testing using CLSI criteria should be interpreted with caution.

  11. Infection Dynamics and Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Salmonella Paratyphi B d-tartrate Positive (Java) in a Persistently Infected Broiler Barn

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    Kloska, Franziska; Beyerbach, Martin; Klein, Günter

    2017-01-01

    The infection dynamics of S. Java were examined in three consecutive rearing periods on a broiler farm in Northwestern Germany which had been persistently infected with S. Java for more than five years. The barn was investigated for Salmonella occurrence after cleaning and disinfection to verify the persistent contamination of the broiler house with S. Java before the start of the first rearing cycle. Confirmation of Salmonella absence in day-old chicks (time-point 1) as well as early establishment of infection between days 5–7 (time-point 2) were confirmed by caecal swabs prepared for qPCR and classical microbiological methods. At three time-periods (between days 11–15 (time-point 3), days 25–28 (time-point 4), and days 38–40 (time-point 5)) caecal content was examined for colony forming units (CFU) Salmonella/g. In general, there was an increase in Salmonella Java load at time-point 4 compared to time-points 3 and 5. Therefore, we observed a bell-shaped course of infection resulting in higher rates of Salmonella CFU/g prior to prethinning than at final slaughter. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed resistance to tetracycline, fluorquinolones, trimethoprim, and cefoxitin. PMID:28117713

  12. Integron presence in a multiresistant Morganella morganii isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Laura; Vinuesa, Teresa; Tubau, Fe; Truchero, Consol; Benz, Roland; Viñas, Miguel

    2006-06-01

    A multiresistant strain of Morganella morganii was isolated from a patient affected by several severe pathologies. The isolate was found to be resistant to the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, nalidixic acid, cefalothin, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, novobiocin, penicillin, rifampicin, tetracycline and violet crystal. Mechanisms leading to this multiresistance were studied. Porins of M. morganii multiresistant and wild-type strains were analysed by sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and were characterised by their ability to form channels in planar black lipid bilayers. The channels formed by porins from multiresistant and susceptible strains suggested that the porins of the multiresistant strain were not responsible for resistance. A 6.6 kb plasmid (pML2003) was detected, isolated and studied. pML2003 included two integrons. Direct sequencing revealed that one of the integrons contained two cassettes, aminoglycoside adenyltransferase (aadB) and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (catB3) conferring resistance to aminoglycosides and chloramphenicol, respectively. The second integron contained carbenicillinase (blaP1b) and adenyltransferase (aadA2), which confer resistance to beta-lactamases and streptomycin, respectively.

  13. Mutant Prevention Concentrations of Imipenem and Meropenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii

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    E. Dahdouh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of the MPC of carbapenems against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. and to assess its possible relationship with mechanisms of resistance. Detection of the mechanisms of resistance was performed using Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing, Double Disk Synergy, disk antagonism, addition of NaCl to the medium, addition of PBA or EDTA to Carbapenem disks, addition of PBA to Cefoxitin disks, and CCCP test for 10 Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter baumannii strains. The MIC and MPC were determined using the broth macrodilution and plate dilution methods, respectively. Four Acinetobacter baumannii strains produced MBL. Two of them produced Oxacillinase and one produced ESBL. Two Pseudomonas spp. isolates produced both KPC and MBL. The resistant Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. strains had higher MPC values than susceptible ones. However, the Mutant Selection Window was found to be dependent on the degree of resistance but not on a particular mechanism of resistance. The usefulness of the MPC was found to be dependent on its value. Based on our data, we recommend determining the MPC for each isolate before using it during treatment. Furthermore, the use of T>MSW instead of T>MIC is suggested.

  14. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of ESKAPE pathogens from urinary tract infections in a referral laboratory, Northeast Iran

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    Mohammad Salehi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of ESKAPE pathogens from Neyshabur, Iran during 2013–2015. Methods: A total of 345 isolates including 62 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, 38 Enterobacter spp. (including 14 Enterobacter agglomerans, 6 Enterobacter aerogenes and other 18 Enterobacter spp., 123 Enterococcus faecium, 78 Klebsiella pneumonia, 10 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 34 Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolates was conducted with Kirby Bauer method. Data were analyzed with SPSS 20.0 software using F- and t-tests. Results: Among S. aureus isolates, the highest resistance was observed against nalidixic acid (81.35% and cefixime (74.50%. Thirty-three (53.22% S. aureus isolates were cefoxitin resistant (methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The majority of Enterobacter species was resistant to amikacin (100.00% and cephalotin (66.60%. Most Enterococcus faecium isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (89.43% and amikacin (83.33%, but vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolates were not detected. Moreover, among Klebsiella pneumonia, the highest resistance was observed to nalidixic acid (20.98% and cotrimoxazole (28.39%. Furthermore, all Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistant to cefotaxime (100.00% and majority to nitroforantoin (88.80%. Acinetobacter baumannii isolates showed the highest and the lowest resistance to cefotaxime (100.00% and cefixime (88.71%, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of ESKAPE pathogens from northeast region was low, but majority of them exhibited high rate of antibiotic resistance to common used antimicrobial agents.

  15. [Enterobacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in northern Lebanon (1998-2001)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamze, Monzer; Dabboussi, Fouad; Izard, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology of local enterobacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Between 1 January, 1998, and 31 December, 2001, we studied the sensitivity of 2,238 Enterobacteria to 26 different antibiotic agents in northern Lebanon, in the Microbiology department and Laboratory of the Islami Hospital, Tripoli, Lebanon. We used the diffusion disk method and complied with the guidelines of the French Microbiology Society antibiogram committee. Urinary samples were the most frequent source (67.5%), followed by blood cultures (12.7%). The dominant species in blood cultures was S. typhi (44.7%). We found 194 strains that produced extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL), with the highest prevalence in Serratia spp. (44.3%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (23.7%), Escherichia coli (20.7%) and Klebsiella oxytoca (11.3%). The global susceptibility of these strains to aminopenicillin was 15%; it reached 30% when combined with clavulanic acid. Susceptibility of the ESBL strains to these agents was 0%. The global susceptibility (and that of the ESBL strains, when greater than 0%) to other antibiotics was as follows: ticarcillin 38.5%, piperacillin 38.5%, piperacillin-tazobactam 88% (64%), imipenem 99.4%, (100%), cefalexin 41%, cefoxitin 65% (40.3%), cefuroxime 75%, amikacin 89%, chloramphenicol 30%, gentamicin 78% (42%), tetracycline 28% (16%), minocycline 30% (18.4%), colistin 67% (75%), nitrofuran 40% (45%), cotrimoxazol 40% (13%), nalidixic acid 53% (5.6%), pefloxacin 63% (23%), ciprofloxacin 71% (39%), and levofloxacin 72% (47%).

  16. Investigation of Various Tissue Culture Monolayers Sensitivity in Detection of Clostridium difficile Toxin

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    MH Salari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Backround: Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. It is usually a consequence of antibi­otic treatment, but sporadic cases can occur. The purpose of this study was to investigate five tissue culture monolayers sen­sitivity in detection of C. difficile-toxin. Methods: A total of 402 stool samples from patients with nosocomial diarrhea hospitalized in three hospitals of Tehran Uni­versity of Medical Sciences (TUMS were collected. The samples were cultured on a selective cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA and incubated in anaerobic conditions, at 37 °C for 4 days. Isolates were characterized to species level by con­ventional biochemical tests. Bacterial cytotoxicity was assayed on five tissue culture monolayers. Results: Our findings show that of the total patients, 24 toxigenic C. difficile (6% were isolated. All 24 C. difficile toxins showed cytotoxic effect at ³ 1:10 dilution on Hela, Hep2, Vero, McCoy and Mdck cells after 16, 20, 24, 24 and 30 hours, re­spectively. C. difficile toxin showed cytotoxic effect at ³ 1:100 dilutions only on Hela cell monolayer after 48 hours. Conclusion: Hela cell monolayer may be a satisfactory substitute for the detection of C. difficile toxin in clinical specimens.   

  17. Antimicrobial resistance and co-selection phenomenon in Listeria spp. recovered from food and food production environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Jovana; Sagert, Jason; Wozniak, Anna; Gilmour, Matthew W; Allen, Kevin J

    2013-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), co-selection phenomenon, and the relationship between reduced susceptibility (RSC) to ciprofloxacin (CIP) and resistance to other antimicrobials in Listeria spp. (n = 103) recovered from food processing environments (FPE) and food were investigated. Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes and other listeriae, respectively, to cefoxitin (FOX; 98% vs. 88%), CIP (7% vs. 4%), clindamycin (CLI; 33% vs. 59%) and tetracycline (6% vs. 8%) was observed, as was RSC to CIP (67% vs. 57%) and CLI (65% vs. 41%). L. monocytogenes also possessed RSC to linezolid (LZD; 6%), rifampicin (2%) and streptomycin (6%), with other listeriae displaying RSC to chloramphenicol (4%). L. monocytogenes serotype 1/2a (90%) isolates were more frequently resistant or possessed RSC to CIP compared to serotype 4b (55%) (p = 0.015). When eight strains were experimentally adapted to high concentrations of CIP, co-selection occurred as MICs to benzalkonium chloride (BAC) increased (n = 5), gentamicin MICs remained the same (n = 6) or increased 2-fold (n = 2), and led to RSC to LZD (n = 1) and resistance to CLI (n = 8). Overall, levels of resistance/RSC to CIP in food chain isolates, particularly 1/2a, are concerning. Further, reduced sensitivity to disparate antimicrobials following CIP exposure highlights the need for increased knowledge of co-selection phenomenon linked with antimicrobial agents.

  18. Occurrence and characterization of Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat retail foods from Vancouver, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Jovana; Mesak, Lili R; Allen, Kevin J

    2012-06-01

    The occurrence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in retail RTE meat and fish products in Vancouver, British Columbia (B.C.) was investigated. To assess potential consumer health risk, recovered L. monocytogenes isolates were subjected to genotypic and phenotypic characterization. Conventional methods were used to recover Listeria spp. from deli meat (n = 40) and fish (n = 40) samples collected from 17 stores. Listeria spp. were recovered only from fish samples (20%); 5% harboured Listeria innocua, 5% had L. monocytogenes and 10% contained Listeria welshimeri. L. monocytogenes isolates serotyped as 1/2a and 1/2b, possessed dissimilar PFGE patterns, and had full-length InlA. Three 1/2a clonal isolates encoded the 50 kb genomic island, LGI1. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiling showed all Listeria spp. possessed resistance to cefoxitin and nalidixic acid. L. monocytogenes were resistant to clindamycin, two were resistant to streptomycin, and one to amikacin. Reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was seen in all L. monocytogenes, L. innocua and three L. welshimeri isolates. Reduced susceptibility to amikacin and chloramphenicol was also observed in one L. monocytogenes and three L. welshimeri isolates, respectively. Recovery of L. monocytogenes in fish samples possessing AMR, full-length InlA, LGI1, and serotypes frequently associated with listeriosis suggest B.C. consumers are exposed to high-risk strains.

  19. The Incidence of Nosocomial Toxigenic Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea in Tehran Tertiary Medical Centers

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    Norakhoda Sadeghifard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. It is usually a consequence of antibiotic treatment, But sporadic cases can occur. This study was aimed to determine the frequency of the nosocomial Clostridium difficile (C. difficile associated diarrhea in Tehran University of Medical Sciences hospitals and study of antibacterial susceptibility of isolates. In this study a total of 942 stool samples from patients with nosocomial diarrhea that were hospitalized in Imam Khomeini hospital, Shariati hospital and Children clinical center were collected. The samples were cultured on a selective cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA and incubated in anaerobic conditions, at 37°C for 5 days. Isolates were characterized to species level by conventional biochemical tests. Bacterial cytotoxicity was assayed on tissue culture (vero. Antimicrobial sensitivity of isolated toxigenic C. difficile were investigated by kirby Beuer method (disk diffusion. Our findings show that, of the total patients, 57 toxigenic C. difficile (6.1% were isolated. Results of statistical analysis show significant differences between the rate of isolated toxigenic C. difficile and age group of patients (P

  20. 药师参与支气管哮喘患者治疗的案例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆肖枫

    2014-01-01

    1 case of acute onset of severe bronchial asthma patients with fever (38.5℃), the symptom such as cough, cough a lot of yellow phlegm. After admission, to fight infection, cefoxitin sodium methyl prednisolone anti-inflammatory, static drops of doxofylline joint isopropyl Joe bromine amine suction liquid atomization inhalation and asthma improved after treatment, clinical pharmacists participate in the whole process such as selection, evaluate the efficacy of the drug therapy for treating patients and the case analysis of monitoring the adverse drug reactions occurred.%1例重症支气管哮喘患者急性发作,伴有发热(38.5℃)、咳嗽、咳大量黄脓痰等症状,入院后,予以头孢西丁钠抗感染,甲基强的松龙抗炎,多索茶碱静滴联合异丙托溴胺吸入液雾化吸入平喘治疗后好转,临床药师全过程参与患者用药选择、评价药物治疗效果以及监测其不良反应发生的病例分析。

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter species in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Nazar M; Osman, Amani A; Haimour, Waleed O; Sarhan, Mohammed A A; Mohammed, Mohammed N; Zyad, Eyhab M; Al-Ghtani, Abdalla M

    2013-03-15

    This study aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of antibiotics towards nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter species. The study took place during the period Dec. 2011- Dec. 2012 at Assir Central Hospital in collaboration with the department of microbiology, college of medicine, King Khalid University, Abha. A prospective study involving 150 patients presented with nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter species detected by bacteriological tests; direct microscopy, culture in blood agar media, fermentation test in MacConkey media and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) for antibiotics sensitivity using Muller Hinton media and Chemical test using API 20. A 150 nosocomial infections in this study showed gram-negative coccobacilli, non motile, glucose-negative fermentor and oxidase negative. All isolates showed 100% sensitivity to: Imipramine, Meropenem, Colistin. From the rest of tested antibiotics the higher resistant ones were; Nitrofurantoin 87% and Cefoxitin 85%. The least resistant antibiotics; Imipenem 3% and Ticarcillin 7%. While variable resistance in the rest of tested antimicrobials. A 47 patients (31.3%) have used antibiotics prior to this study. The high rate of usage occurred in elder patients. The frequency of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus baumannii complex multi-drugs resistance ABCMDR is rising including almost all commonly used antibiotics. Only few antibiotics exert 100% sensitivity towards these bacteria.

  2. Increasing Trend of Resistance to Penicillin, Tetracycline, and Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae from Pakistan (1992–2009

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    Kauser Jabeen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergence and spread of drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is global concern. We evaluated trends of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae over years 1992–2009 in Pakistan. Resistance rates were compared between years (2007–2009 and (1992–2006. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI criteria using the disk diffusion methodology against penicillin, ceftriaxone, tetracycline and ofloxacin. Additional antibiotics tested in 100 strains isolated during 2007–2009, included cefotaxime, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefipime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, cefixime, cefpodoxime, spectinomycin and azithromycin. Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226 was used as control. Chi-square for trend analysis was conducted to assess resistance trend over the study period. During study period significant increase in combined resistance to penicillin, tetracycline and ofloxacin was observed (P value <0.01. Resistance rates during the two study period also increased significantly (P value <0.01. Ceftriaxone resistance was not observed. None of the isolates were found to be resistant or with intermediate sensitivity to additional antibiotics. Our findings suggest that penicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline should not be used in the empirical treatment of gonorrhea in Pakistan. Ceftriaxone and cefixime should be the first line therapy; however periodic MICs should be determined to identify emergence of strains with reduced susceptibility.

  3. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Plasmid Mediated AmpC β-Lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Proteus mirabilis Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Egyptian Hospitals

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    Mai M. Helmy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of resistance by Enterobacteriaceae to β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors combination is increasing in Egypt. Three phenotypic techniques, comprising AmpC disk diffusion and inhibition dependent methods using phenylboronic acid (PBA and cloxacillin, were compared to PCR based method for detection of plasmid mediated AmpC β-lactamase in common urinary tract isolates. A total of 143 isolates, including E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus mirabilis, were collected from urinary tract infections cases in Egyptian hospitals. Plasmid encoded AmpC genes were detected by PCR in 88.46% of cefoxitin resistant isolates. The most prevalent AmpC gene family was CIT including CMY-2, CMY-4, and two CMY-2 variants. The second prevalent gene was DHA-1 which was detected in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. The genes EBC, FOX, and MOX were also detected but in small percentage. Some isolates were identified as having more than one pAmpC gene. The overall sensitivity and specificity of phenotypic tests for detection of AmpC β-lactamase showed that AmpC disk diffusion and inhibition dependent method by cloxacillin were the most sensitive and the most specific disk tests. PCR remains the gold standard for detection of AmpC β-lactamases. This study represents the first report of CMY-2 variants of CMY-42 and CMY-102 β-lactamase-producing E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Proteus mirabilis isolates in Egypt.

  4. Effects of Menthol Supplementation in Feedlot Cattle Diets on the Fecal Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aperce, C. C.; Amachawadi, R.; Van Bibber-Krueger, C. L.; Nagaraja, T. G.; Scott, H. M.; Vinasco-Torre, J.; Drouillard, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The pool of antimicrobial resistance determinants in the environment and in the gut flora of cattle is a serious public health concern. In addition to being a source of human exposure, these bacteria can transfer antibiotic resistance determinants to pathogenic bacteria and endanger the future of antimicrobial therapy. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance genes on mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, facilitates spread of resistance. Recent work has shown in vitro anti-plasmid activity of menthol, a plant-based compound with the potential to be used as a feed additive to beneficially alter ruminal fermentation. The present study aimed to determine if menthol supplementation in diets of feedlot cattle decreases the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in feces. Menthol was included in diets of steers at 0.3% of diet dry matter. Fecal samples were collected weekly for 4 weeks and analyzed for total coliforms counts, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and the prevalence of tet genes in E. coli isolates. Results revealed no effect of menthol supplementation on total coliforms counts or prevalence of E. coli resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and sulfamethoxazole; however, 30 days of menthol addition to steer diets increased the prevalence of tetracycline-resistant E. coli (P menthol exerts its effects remains unclear, results of our study suggest that menthol may have an impact on antimicrobial resistance in gut bacteria. PMID:28030622

  5. Prevalence of enterotoxin genes and antimicrobial resistance of coagulase-positive staphylococci recovered from raw cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rola, J G; Korpysa-Dzirba, W; Czubkowska, A; Osek, J

    2015-07-01

    Raw milk may be contaminated by enterotoxigenic coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS). Several of these microorganisms show antimicrobial resistance, which poses a potential risk for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of enterotoxin genes and antimicrobial resistance of CPS isolated from cow milk. A total of 115 samples were analyzed for the presence of CPS according to the International Organization for Standardization standard (ISO 6888-2). The genes were identified using 2multiplex PCR assays. Resistance of the isolates to 10 antimicrobials was determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Overall, 71 samples (62%) were contaminated with CPS and 69 isolates were further analyzed. Among them, 20 (29%) strains harbored the enterotoxin genes. The most commonly detected staphylococcal enterotoxin markers were sed, sej, and ser, whereas none of the analyzed isolates possessed the seb and see genes. Almost one-half of the tested strains (43%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to penicillin was the most common, followed by sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. On the other hand, all strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, and streptomycin. None of the strains was positive for the mecA and mecC (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) genes. These results indicate that enterotoxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant CPS strains are present in raw milk, which may be a potential risk for public health.

  6. 苦参碱葡萄糖注射液致水样腹泻%Watery diarrhea induced by matrine and glucose injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾生旺; 蒋兆荣

    2012-01-01

    1例55岁女性患者因肝癌、肝硬化静脉滴注苦参碱葡萄糖注射液250 ml,1次/d.次日出现水样腹泻,立即停药.第3天腹泻消失.间隔2 d后,患者再次静脉滴注苦参碱葡萄糖注射液250 ml,1次/d.第3天发生严重无痛性水样腹泻.给予大蒜素、诺氟沙星、复方地芬诺酯、头孢西丁,但腹泻无缓解.第4天停用苦参碱葡萄糖注射液.次日,腹泻停止.%55-year-old female received an IV infusion of matrine and glucose injection 250 ml once daily for liver cancer and cirrhosis. The next day, she developed watery diarrhea, and matrine and glucose injection was stopped immediately. On day 3, diarrhea disappeared. Two days later, the patient was readministered an IV infusion of matrine and glucose injection 250 ml once daily. On day 3 , she presented with severe painless watery diarrhea. Despite receiving garlicin, norfloxacin, compound diphenoxylate, and cefoxitin, her diarrhea did not improve. On day 4, matrine and glucose injection was discontinued. The following day, the patient's diarrhea resolved.

  7. Analysis of drug resistance in 1,861 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Science.gov (United States)

    JIN, HAO; QIU, FAN; JI, HONG JIAN; LU, QIANG

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging human pathogen that causes hospital-acquired infections. The trend in increased antimicrobial resistance limits the choice of effective antimicrobial agents. The present study reports the resistance to Acinetobacter baumannii and analyzes the associations between antibiotic use and resistance rates at a general hospital between 2010 and 2014. A total of 1,861 isolates were obtained from clinical cultures, accounting for 10.33% of all detected bacteria (1,861/18,016). The strains were mainly from respiratory samples (1,628 isolates, 87.5%) and the intensive care unit (696 isolates, 37.4%). The resistance rates of Acinetobacter baumannii to the majority of antibiotics were >50%, particularly the resistance rate to cefoperazone/sulbactam increased from 47.37 in 2011 to 89.25% in 2014. However, the rates of imipenem and cilastatin sodium decreased from 81.03 to 69.44% due to the antibiotic policy. There were Pearson significant associations between the use of three antibiotics and resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii to this drug, piperacillin/tazobactam (r=0.976, P<0.01), gentamicin (r=0.870, P<0.01) and cefoxitin (r=0.741, P<0.05). Therefore, a combination of drugs should be adopted to treat Acinetobacter baumannii infections. Microbiology laboratory support and surveillance policies are essential to control the emergence of multidrug-resistance Acinetobacter baumannii. PMID:27073633

  8. Listeria monocytogenes in renal transplant recipients Listeria monocytogenes em pacientes pós-transplante renal

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    Cristina Barroso HOFER

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Five cases of Listeria monocytogenes bacteriemia were observed from April to December 1985, among renal transplant recipients from the same hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. The patients were adults (mean age: 40.6 years, and the basic complain was fever, with no report of meningeal syndrome. Laboratory tests revealed the presence of two serovars, 1/2a and 4b, which were classified into three lysotypes. The four strains of serovar 4b showed the same antibiotype, with resistance to cefoxitin, clindamycin, oxacillin and penicillin.No período de abril a dezembro de 1985, foram observados cinco casos de listeriose em transplantados renais num mesmo hospital de São Paulo, SP. Os pacientes eram adultos (média de 40,6 anos tendo como queixa básica a febre. Laboratorialmente, em todos foram reconhecidos Listeria monocytogenes, caracterizada por dois sorovares 1/2a e 4b e três lisotipos distintos. As amostras do sorovar 4b apresentaram o mesmo antibiotipo: resistentes à cefoxitina, clindamicina, oxacilina e penicilina.

  9. Long-Term Evolution Studies of E. Coli under Combined Effects of Simulated Microgravity and Antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Tirumalai, Madhan R.; Ott, Mark C.; Pierson, Duane L.; Fox, George E.; Tran, Quyen

    2016-07-01

    , Cefoxitin and Tetracycline), even after 11 cycles of 'erasure' of the 'adaptation memory' - this 'erasure' was accomplished by re-growing the evolved cells under shaker flask conditions and 1 cycle equals 10 generations. In the case of the cells evolved using heat sterilized HARVs, no resistance was observed to any of the an-tibiotics used (Ampicillin, Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid, Piperacillin/Tazobactam, Cefalotin, Cefazolin, Cefuroxime, Cefuroxime Axetil, Cefoxitin, Cefpodox-ime, Ceftazidime, Ceftriaxone, Cefepime, Gentamicin, Tobramycin, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Tetracycline, Nitrofurantoin, and Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole), even after 1000 generations of growth under LSMMG. Competition experiments using an isogenic pair revealed that the adaptive advantage of the 1000G strain (in both cases) over an unexposed strain was rapidly eliminated. While this obviously implies that the adaptation was primarily environmental rather than genomic, the levels of antibiotic resistance observed to be consistently maintained, raises the concern of persistent resistance conferred to bacterial communities through exposure to antibiotics on space missions. Supported by grants from the Center for Bionanotechnology and Environmental Research at Texas Southern University (NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX08B4A47A).

  10. Clinical distribution and drug resistance of 94 strains of Enterobacter aerogenes%94株产气肠杆菌的临床分布与耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林奇龙; 陈琼娜; 方国安; 范淑欢

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解产气肠杆菌的临床分布及耐药性.方法 用常规方法检出可疑菌落,用法国生物梅里埃公司ID 32E条和ATB G-5条做菌种鉴定与药敏试验;分别用复合纸片表型确认试验和FOX琼脂平板试验检测ESBLs和AmpC酶.结果 临床标本主要来自痰液,占52.1%,其次为中段尿,占16.0%;临床科室中呼吸内科和肝胆外科检出最多,分别占43.6%和17.0%;亚胺培南、美罗培南对所有菌株均敏感;头孢吡肟和哌拉西林/他唑巴坦的耐药率<16.0%;产气肠杆菌对阿莫西林、头孢噻吩、头孢西丁的耐药率均>95.0%,对其余β-内酰胺类抗菌药物均有一定程度的耐药,对氨基糖苷类、喹诺酮类、磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶耐药率较低;ESBLs和AmpC酶的检出率分别为16.0%和11.7%.结论 产气肠杆菌临床主要来自痰液标本及呼吸内科;所有菌株均对亚胺培南、美罗培南敏感,对阿莫西林、头孢噻吩、头孢西丁的耐药率最高;产ESBLs和AmpC酶菌株已占一定比例.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical distribution and antibiotic resistance of Enterobacter aerogens. METHODS Suspicious colonies were detected by conventional method, Meria ID 32E and ATBG-5 were used for bacterial identification and the drug susceptibility testing; complex phenotypic confirmatory test paper and FOX agar plate assay were respectively adopted to detect ESBLs and ArnpC enzymes. RESULTS Of the clinical specimens, the highest detection rate (52. l%)was sputum, followed by the midstream urine (16. 0%); of the clinical departments, the detection rates of respiratory medicine and hepatobiliary surgery were 43. 6% and 17.0%; imipenem and meropenem were susceptible to all the isolates; the drug resistance rates to cefepirne and piperacilhn/tazobactam were lower than 16. 0%; the drug resistance rates to amoxicillin, cefalotin and cefoxitin were all higher than 95. 0%, a certain degree of resistance to other

  11. 产ESBL大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌的临床分布及耐药性特点%Clinical distribution of ESBL-producing E.coli and K.pneumoniae and analysis of drug resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永恩; 陈茜; 牛肖梅; 彭丽娥

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the drag resistance of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli (ESBL-EC) and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) in hospital. Methods The data of the resistance of ESBL-EC and ESBL-KP to commonly used antibiotics from clinical microbiology laboratory in the hospital from 2010 to 2011were analyzed. Results ESBL-EC and ESBL-KP were all totally sensitive to imipenem and cilastatin sodium, and highly sensitive to cefoxitin and amikacin (>80%). ESBL-EC and ESBL-KP showed descending drug resistance to ceftazidime and cefepime, but they were totally resistant to most/Mactam antibiotics (ampicillin, piperacil-lin, ticarcillin, cefazolin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefoperazone). ESBL-EC were highly sensitive to β-lactamase inhibitors (>92%), but ESBL-KP were less sensitive to /J-lactamase inhibitors (50%~89% to cefoperazone/sulbactam and 67%~92% to piperacillin/tazobactam). The drug resistance rates of ESBL-EC to levofloxacin were 57%~81% and that of ESBL-KP to levofloxacin were 16%~41%. Conclusion Choosing antibiotics according to the susceptibility test is one of the principles to increase the success rate of anti-infection treatment and reduce drug resistance. Carbapenems are the premium choice for ESBL-EC and ESBL-KP. β-lactamase inhibitors, cefoxitin and amikacin are also good choices.%目的 了解某综合医院产ESBL大肠埃希菌(ESBL-EC)和肺炎克雷伯菌(ESBL-KP)耐药性的变迁.方法 分析该医院2010-2011年临床微生物室上报医院感染控制科ESBL-EC及ESBL-KP对常用抗菌药物的耐药性变迁数据.结果 碳青霉烯类亚胺培南-西司他丁对ESBL-EC及ESBL-KP保持完全敏感,头孢西丁及阿米卡星对ESBL-EC及ESBL-KP均有良好的敏感性(>80%),头孢他啶及头孢吡肟耐药率逐年下降,但ESBL-EC及ESBL-KP对大多数β-内酰胺类药(氨苄西林,哌拉西林,替卡西林,头孢唑林,头孢曲松,头孢噻肟,头孢哌酮)完全耐药.含酶抑制剂对ESBL-EC

  12. Drug resistance of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and factors for enzyme production%产超广谱β-内酰胺酶大肠埃希菌的耐药性及产酶因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆海霞; 陈俊清; 吴容

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the factors associated with production of extended spectrum fl- lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and the measures to prevent its sprgad and treatment. METHODS A total of 2Q5 E. Coli strains isolated from various specimens of in patients admitted from Jan 2008 to Jan 2010 were analysed. The drug resistance of these strains were analysed using KB method recommended by CLSI. RESULTS A total of 89 ESBLs-producing E. Coli were isolated from the 205 E. Coli strains during the 3 years. The isolation rate was 43. 5%. All ESBLs producing" strains were sensitive to imipenium and amikacin and the resistancerate to njtrofurantion piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoxitin was less than 10. 0%. The resistance rate remained almost the same in the 3 years. Prolon ged continuous use of antibiotics, high freguency of antibiotics usage, the use of the third generation cephalosporins, combination of antibiotics and frequent changes of antibiotics could induce the emergence of ESBLs producing strains. CONCLUSIONS The sensitivity rates of ESBLs producing strains to impenium amikacin, nitrofurantion, piperacillin/tagobactam and cefoxitin are higher than 90. 0% but the strains themselves are cross-resistant and multidrug-resistant to other antibiotics. Continuous use of antibiotics for a long time, the use of third generation cephalosporin, combination of antibiotics and frequent dressing can easily lead to ESBLs-producing.%目的 分析医院2008年1月-2010年1月产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)大肠埃希菌的耐药性及其产酶因素.方法收集2008年1月-2010年1月住院患者不同标本分离的大肠埃希菌205株,按照CLSI推荐的纸片扩散法(K-B法),进行耐药性检测和产ESBLs菌株的确认;产ESBLs组与非产ESBLs组之间比较计数资料采用t检验、卡方检验及多因素logistic回归进行分析.结果 205株大肠埃希菌中,检出产ESBLs大肠埃希菌89株,检出率43.4%;所有产ESBLs大肠埃希菌对亚胺培南

  13. Molecular characterization of encoding plasmid-mediated ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamases genes in Citrobacter freundii%质粒介导产ESBLs与AmpCβ-内酰胺酶基因弗氏柠檬酸杆菌的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坚; 余方友

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the resistant mechanism of Citrobacter freundii which coexisted with ESBLs and AmpC genes. METHODS A multi-resistant Citrobacter freundii was isolated from hospital by VITEK-60 system. The detection of ESBLs was performed by the CLSI-recommended confirmatory test, Cefoxitin three-dimentional test was presented to identify AmpC β-lactamases, the mimimal inhibitative concentration (MIC) was determined by E-test. Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and sequencing were carried out for analyzing the encoding genes of β-lactamases. Conjugation study was performed to determine whether resistant genes were likely transferred by plasmid. RESULTS The isolate was highly resistant to ceftazidime (MICs,96 jug/ml), cefotaxime (MlCs,96 μg/ml), cefoxitin(MICs.256 μg/ml) , aztreonam(MICs, 192 fig/ml) , ampicillin(MICs,>256 μg/ml) and sinomin compositea(MICs,>32 fig/ml). The clinical isolate produced AmpCs and ESBLs. The presence of blacrx-M-3 and blaCMY-2 of clinical isolate were identified by PCR and sequenced. Those genes of clinical isolate could be transferred to Escherichia coli J53 through conjugation. CONCLUSION Citrobacter freundii carries ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamases genes synchronously, which were mediated by plasmid.%目的 研究一株同时产ESBLs和AmpC β-内酰胺酶弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(CFR)的耐药机制.方法 2008年1月从临床尿液标本中分离出多药耐药弗氏柠檬酸杆菌1株,采用双纸片扩散法检测产ESBLs,头孢西丁三维试验检测AmpC酶,E-test法测定抗菌药物最低抑菌浓度(MIC),聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测产ESBss和AmpC酶基因,DNA测序决定基因型;接合试验测定耐药基因的转移性.结果 临床分离出一株同时产ESBLs和AmpCβ-内酰胺酶的多药耐药弗氏柠檬酸杆菌,对头孢他啶、头孢噻肟、头孢西丁、氨曲南、氨苄西林、磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶的MIC分别为96、96、256、192、>256、>32 μg/ml,PCR扩增及测序

  14. 黏质沙雷菌中AmpC酶的检测及药敏率分析%Antimicrobial resistance of AmpC-producing serratia marcescens in Anhui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海飞; 程君; 胡立芬; 刘艳艳; 潘亚超; 朱玉林; 李家斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the resistance of AmpC - producing Serratia marcescens for providing the scientific evidence in clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods Potential AmpC - producing strains were detected by the cefoxitin disk diffusion method as described by CLSI 2010. Three - dimensional test was adopted for confirming AmpC - producing strains. The MICs of Serratia marcescens were determined by broth microdilution method. The results were judged according to the criteria recommended by CLSI 2010. Results The majority of Serratia marcescens were isolated from the specimen of sputum, accounting for 59. 6% . The bacteria were mostly detected in Respiratory department, followed by Intensive Care Unit, Gerontology Department. 41 of 104 isolates were identified as resistant to cefoxitin, accounting for 39. 4%. 8 strains ( 7. 7% ) produced AmpC β - lactamases. The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that all strains were sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. The rates of resistance to cefepime, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin remained relatively unchanged between AmpC - producing strains and non - AmpC - producing strains. The resistant rates to other antimicrobial agents were significantly statistical difference ( P <0. 05 ) between the AmpC - producers and the non - AmpC - producers. Conclusion It showed that the production of AmpC β -lactamases in Serratia marcescens confers a high level of resistance to most kinds of antimicrobial agents. Carbapenems, fluoro-quinolones, and fourth generation cephalosporins should be selected in empirical therapy of serious infections caused by AmpC - producing Serratia marcescens.%目的 了解安徽省临床分离的104株黏质沙雷菌中AmpC酶的产生情况及其对常用抗菌药物的耐药特征,以指导临床合理用药.方法 采用头孢西丁纸片扩散法筛选疑产AmpC酶阳性菌株,并用酶粗提物进行三维试验确证产AmpC酶菌株.药敏试验采用琼脂稀释法,依据CLSI 2010年推荐的

  15. ADC-57型头孢菌素酶分子进化及与底物结合自由能分析%Molecular evolution and binding free energy analysis of substrates of cephalosporinase ADC-57

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周军; 王玉月; 张秋娣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze molecular evolution and binding free energies of cephalosporinase ADC-57.Methods Minimum Evolution method in MEGA 5.0 was used to analyze molecular evolution of cephalosporinase ADC-57 and other 19 kinds of beta-lactamases.Tertiary structure of ADC-57 was predicted by homology modeling referring to tertiary structure of CMY-2.The molecular docking of ADC-57 to 11kinds of beta-lactams substrates was performed using DOCK module in ArgusLab 4.1and the binding free energies (△G) was calculated.Results ADC-57,CMY-2,DHA-1,ADC-7,ADC-56 were all belong to class C beta-lactamase,and molecular evolution between ADC-57 and ADC-56 was closest.The top three antibiotics with declining binding free energy of beta-lactams were ertapenem,cefoxitin and ceftazidine,while the last two were clavulanic acid and aztreonam.Conclusions Catalytic activities of cephalosporinase ADC-57 to ertapenem,cefoxitin and ceftazidine are high,while to clavulanic acid and aztreonam are low. Hydrolytic activities of enzyme to beta-lactams (substrates) can be analyzed by molecular docking.%目的 分析ADC-57型头孢菌素酶分子进化及其对各种底物的结合自由能.方法 用MEGA 5.0软件中的最小进化法分析ADC-57和其他19种β-内酰胺酶的分子进化,参照同类酶CMY-2型酶作同源建模获得ADC67型头孢菌素酶分子的3D结构,并用ArgusLab 4.1软件中的DOCK模块作ADC-57型头孢菌素酶与11种β-内酰胺类药物底物的分子对接,最后计算酶与底物的结合自由能值(△G).结果 ADC-57与CMY-2、DHA-1、ADC-7、ADC-56归属为C类β-内酰胺酶,均为头孢菌素酶,且与ADC-56关系最为密切.ADC-57与β-内酰胺类药物结合自由能下降居前3位的为厄他培南、头孢西丁和头孢他啶,结合自由能下降排在后2位的为克拉维酸和氨曲南.结论 ADC-57型头孢菌素酶对厄他培南、头孢西丁和头孢他啶的催化能力高,而对克拉维酸和氨曲南的催化能力低.分子对接

  16. Identification of plasmid-mediated AmpC gene, blaDHA-1 from clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae%从大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌中检出质粒介导的AmpC DHA-1型β内酰胺酶基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王煜; 李振华

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解产质粒介导AmpC酶大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌的耐药性和基因型.方法 收集2002年1月-2004年5月间我院呼吸科临床标本中分离的大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌共110株,用酶提取物三维试验检测AmpC酶;用等电聚焦电泳、耐药质粒电转化试验、聚合酶链反应(PCR)及测序确定AmpC酶基因型.结果 大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌中AmpC酶检出率分剐为9.30%和4.48%.药敏试验显示产酶株对头孢西丁全部耐药,对第三代头孢菌素、酶抑制剂、氨曲南、阿米卡星及环丙沙星均有不同程度耐药,对头孢吡肟及亚胺培南较敏感.7株产AmpC酶菌株中有5株通过电转化试验可将头孢西丁耐药性传递给受体菌,经PCR扩增和测序证实为质粒介导DHA-1型AmpC酶.结论 我院临床分离的大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌中已经出现产质粒介导AmpC酶菌株,其耐药性能够水平传播,给临床抗感染治疗带来重大威胁.%[Objective]To investigate the susceptibility and genotype characteristics of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae producing plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase. [Methods]A total of 110 strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were collected from the patients hospitalized in our respiratory ward from January 2002 to May 2004. The isohtes harboring AmpC β-lactamase were detected by three-dimensional test, isoelectric focusing analysis, electroporation and PCR, the PCR products were sequenced subsequently. [Results]AmpC enzyme was detected in 9.30% of Escherichia coli and 4.48 % of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The susceptibility test showed 7 isolates producing plnsmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase were all resistant to cefoxitin, part of these strains were resistant to the third-generation Cephalosparins, β-lactamase combined with the β-lactamase inhibitors, Aztreonam,Amikacin and Cipmfloxacin, most of them were susceptible to cefeime and imipenem. 3 strains of Klebsiella

  17. Detecting AmpC β-lactamases from nosocomial Klebsiella pneumoniae infection and their resistance in ICU patients%重症监护病房患者医院感染肺炎克雷伯菌产头孢菌素酶检测及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽君; 林平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore cephalosporinase from nosocomial Klebsiella pneumoniae infection and their drug-resistant characteristics among the ICU patients so as to provide an instruction for rational clinical medication.Methods 67 samples were identified with VITEK-60 automated system.The strains producing AmpC β-lactamases were screened with cefoxitin disk diffusion method recommended by the CLSI,and confirmed by cefoxitin three-dimensional test.AmpC β-lactamase genotype was differentiated by PCR-sequencing and susceptibility tests which were done with the Kirby-Bauer method recommended by the CLSI.Results In the 67 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae,11 strains(16.4%) were found to produce AmpC β-lactamases.The drug-resistant genotype for all the 11 AmpC-positive strains was DHA-1.AmpC-producing strains developed multi-drug resistance,especially for broadspectrum β-lactam antibiotics and enzyme inhibitors.β-lactamases-producing strains were more resistant than non-producing ones.Conclusion Klebsiella pneumoniae in ICU patients has a higher proportion of producing AmpC β-lactamase strains,which are all of DHA-1 genotype and have multi-drug resistance.%目的 了解重症监护病房(ICU)患者医院感染肺炎克雷伯菌产头孢菌素(AmpC)酶及其耐药特性,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法 对67份标本的细菌鉴定采用VITEK-60型全自动细菌鉴定仪鉴定;产AmpC酶菌株筛选按CLSI推荐的头孢西丁纸片扩散法;产AmpC酶菌株确证通过酶粗提物头孢西丁三维试验;AmpC酶基因型检测通过PCR测序;药敏试验按CLSI推荐的K-B纸片法.结果 67株肺炎克雷伯菌中检出产AmpC酶菌株11株,检出率为16.4%,11株产AmpC酶阳性菌株的耐药基因型均为DHA-1型;产AmpC酶菌株呈多重耐药状态,尤其对广谱β-内酰胺类抗生素及含酶抑制剂复合物呈高度耐药状态,产酶株的耐药性显著高于非产酶株.结论 ICU患者肺炎克雷伯菌检出产AmpC酶菌株较

  18. Atividade in vitro de cinco drogas antimicrobianas contra Neisseria gonorrhoeae Activity of five antimicrobial agents in vitro against Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Belda Júnior

    2002-12-01

    morbidity, it was necessary to carry out a program of epidemiologic surveillance evaluating the sensitivity behavior of the etiologic agents against the various therapeutic agents. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: The objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to the five drugs which are mostly used for the treatment of gonorrhea in Brazil (pencillin; cefoxitine; tetracycline; thiamphenicol and spectinomycine, by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We concluded that drugs such as cefoxitine, thiamphenicol and spectinomycine are still excellent drugs for the treatment of gonorrhea. Although penicillin continues to be effective, its use requires greater care, due to the emergence of resistant strains, and tetracycline must be absolutely avoided for the treatment of gonorrhea.

  19. Application evaluation of the real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR in the rapid identification of MRSA%实时荧光定量PCR在快速检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭; 肖淑珍; 董丹凤; 杨海慧; 李生香; 倪语星; 韩立中

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application significance; of the real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) in the rapid identification of met hi cill in -resist ant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA ). Methods A total of 85 Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from clinical samples, and MRSA and met hi cill in-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus ( MSSA) were detected and differentiated by cefoxitin disk diffusion method and conventional PCR amplification of mecA gene. These strains were also detected by the real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. The accordance of the real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR with conventional methods was evaluated. Results According to the results of the cefoxitin disk diffusion method and conventional PCR amplification of mecA gene, 45 out of 85 strains were MRSA, and 40 out of 85 strains were MSSA. The real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR had an excellent accordance ( 100% ) with those methods. Conclusions The real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR has an excellent accordance with conventional methods for detecting MRSA, and it has the advantages of ease of performance and costing short turn-around time. As a rapid identification method, the real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR can identify MRSA accurately, which is helpful for the clinical therapy of MRSA infections and for the control of MRSA transmission in hospitals.%目的 评价实时荧光定量聚合酶链反应(PCR)在快速检测耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)中的应用.方法 采用头孢西丁纸片扩散法和mecA基因PCR检测法,将85株临床分离的金黄色葡萄球菌区分为MRSA和甲氧西林敏感金黄色葡萄球菌(MSSA),并采用实时荧光定量PCR对这些菌株进行检测,评价MRSA检测中实时荧光定量PCR与目前常规检测方法的一致性.结果 根据头孢西丁纸片扩散法和mecA基因扩增结果进行分组,85株金黄色葡萄球菌中MRSA组菌株45株,MSSA组菌株40株;实时荧光

  20. 我院2006-2010年抗菌药物用量与大肠埃希菌耐药的相关性分析%Correlation of Antibacterials Consumption and Drug Resistance of Escherichia coli in Our Hospital from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建平; 周红辉; 肖建宁

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the change of drug resistance of Escherichia coli and explore the relation between its development and antibacterials consumption to provide reference for antibacterials management. METHODS: Retrospective review was used to calculate the DDDs of 13 kinds of antibacterialsper 100 persons per day and resistant rate of Escherichia coli. The correlation of antibacterials consumption and drug resistance was analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software. RESULTS: Consumption of expensive antibacterials increased year by year, contrary to ordinary ones. Drug resistance of Escherichia coli to various antibacterials also increased year by year. The consumptions of gentamycin, ampicillin, piperacillin/sulbactam, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, ceftri-axome, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and imipenem/cilastin were related to the drug resistance of Escherichia coli to amikacin, gentamycin, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefotaxime and ceftazidime in varying degree. CONCLUSION: High resistance rate has been found in Escherichia coli to various antibacterials. Antibacterials consumption is related to drug resistance of Escherichia coli.%目的:了解我院大肠埃希菌耐药性的现状和变迁,探讨其发展与抗菌药物用量之间的关系,为抗菌药物管理提供依据.方法:采用回顾性调查方法,计算13种抗菌药物平均每日每百张床位所消耗的用药频度(DDDs)及同期大肠埃希菌的耐药率,用SPSS 17.0统计软件对抗菌药物用量与耐药率进行相关性分析.结果:高档次的抗菌药物用量逐年增长,低档次的抗菌药物用量逐年缩减.大肠埃希菌对多种抗菌药物呈广泛耐药,且逐年增长.庆大霉素、氨苄西林、哌拉西林/舒巴坦、头孢唑林、头孢呋辛、头孢西丁、头孢曲松、头孢他啶、环丙沙星、左氧氟沙星、亚胺培南/西司他丁的用量与大肠埃希菌对阿米卡星、庆大霉素、氨苄西林、头孢唑林、头

  1. Drug Resistance Analysis of Genitourinary Tract Secretion Neisseria Gonorrheae%泌尿生殖道分泌物淋病奈瑟菌耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常改凤; 赖玉华; 刘志伟; 周小合; 余高冰; 陈灿锋; 罗俊生

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the gender differences of patients with genitourinary tract secretion neisseria gonorrheae and the drug resistance of neisseria gonorrheae, to analyze the epidemic characteristics of drug-resistant strains, and provide evidence for rational drug use in clinic. [ Methods] TM selective medium was adopted for neisseria gonorrheae separation of identification, Drug susceptibility adopted K-B method. [Results] Of 219 cases of gonorrhea infection, male and female infection rate was 22.80%,5.40%, respectively. Its resistance to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline was above 80%, 72.60% for Penicillin, 10.05% for ceftriaxone, 13.47% for cefotaxime and 2.74% for spectinomycin. While drug-resistant strains to cefoxitin were not found. [ Conclusion ] Neisseria gonorrheae is highly sensitive to spectinomycin and cefoxitin which can be taken as first choice for clinical use by doctors'experiences. It is highly resistant to penicillin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. Therefore, these antibiotics should be used as little as possible to reduce the generation of drug-resistant strains.%目的 了解深圳市宝安区部分地区患者泌尿生殖道分泌物淋病奈瑟菌感染性别差异及耐药谱,分析耐药菌株的流行特点,为临床制定合理用药方案提供依据.方法 淋病奈瑟菌采用TM选择性培养基进行分离鉴定,药敏结果采用K-B法.结果 219例淋病患者中男性女性感染率分别为22.80%、5.40%,其对氟喹诺酮类和四环素耐药率均达80%以上,对青霉素耐药率为72.60%,对头孢曲松、头孢噻肟和大观霉素的耐药率分别为10.05%、13.47%和2.74%,未发现对头孢西丁耐药菌株.结论 淋病奈瑟菌对大观霉素和头孢西丁的敏感性较高,可作为医生凭经验治疗的首选药物,对青霉素、四环素和环丙沙星高水平耐药,尽量少用以提高疗效和减少耐药菌株的产生.

  2. Perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em amostras de cocos Gram-positivos, catalase negativos, isoladas de mastite subclínica bubalina Profile of antimicrobial susceptibility in strains of Gram positive cocos, negative catalase, isolated from buffalo subclinical mastitis

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    Maria C.E. Vianni

    2003-06-01

    the State of Rio de Janeiro. The test used was diffusion of disks in agar Müller Hinton, according to recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards - NCCLS. There were tested disks with ampicillin (10mg, cefalotin (30mg, cefotaxime (30mg, cefoxitin (30mg, cloranfenicol (30mg, eritromycin (15mg, gentamycin (10mg, nitrofurantoin (300mg, norfloxacin (10mg, penicillin (10 IU, tetracyclin (30mg and vancomycin (30mg. The results showed that with Lactococcus garvieae, the most efficient antimicrobial was nitrofurantoin, revealing 85.71% sensibility, followed by cefotaxime (61.90%, vancomycin (52.38%, norfloxacin (47.62& and cefalotin (47.62%. The highest resistance was developed against penicillin and ampicillin, with 95.24% resistance for the two antimicrobials. The susceptibility profile developed by the strains of Enterococcus gallinarum showed low sensibility against the tested antimicrobials; the highest resistance observed was against eritromycin and gentamycin, with 33.34% sensibility for both. The antimicrobial evaluation showed 100% resistance against vancomycin and tetracyclin, followed by cloranfenicol, penicillin, ampicillin, cefoxitin, cefotaxim, norfloxacin and nitrofurantoin; all of them showed a resistance of 83.33% with the samples tested.

  3. Assessment of accuracy of Cockcroft-Gault and MDRD formulae in critically ill Indian patients

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    Mohit Kharbanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cockroft-Gault (CG and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD formulae have not been validated in critically ill Indian patients. We sought to quantify the discrepancy, if any, in Glomerular Filteration Rate (GFR estimated by CG and MDRD formulae with 24 hrs urine Creatinine Clearance (Cr Cl. Materials and Methods: Prospective cohort study in 50 adult patients in a mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit. Inclusion criteria: Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU stay >48 hrs and indwelling urinary catheter. Exclusion criteria: Age <18 years, pregnancy, dialysis, urine output <400 ml/day and patients receiving ranitidine, cefoxitin, trimethoprim or diuretics. We estimated Creatinine Clearance by CG and MDRD formula and measured GFR by 24 hrs urine creatinine clearance. Bland Altman plot was used to find the difference between the paired observations. The association between the methods was measured by the product moment correlation coefficient. Result: The mean GFR as calculated by Creatinine Clearance was 79.76 ml/min/1.73 m 2 [95% Confidence Interval (CI 65.79 to 93.72], that by CG formula was 90.05 ml/min/1.73 m 2 [95% CI: 74.50 to 105.60], by MDRD was 85.92 ml/min/1.73 m 2 [95% CI: 71.25 to 100.59]. The Bias and Precision between CG and Cr Cl were -4.5 and 140.24 respectively, between MDRD and Cr Cl was -6.1 and 122.52. The Correlation coefficient of CG formula as a measure of GFR was 0.65 ( P < 0.0001, that of MDRD was 0.70 ( P < 0.0001. Conclusion: We conclude that CG and MDRD formulae have a strong correlation with measured GFR but are not a reliable measure and overestimate GFR in critically ill Indian patients.

  4. Development of a Novel Chromogenic Medium for Improved Campylobacter Detection from Poultry Samples.

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    Teramura, Hajime; Iwasaki, Mihoko; Ogihara, Hirokazu

    2015-09-01

    The presence of expanded-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is a common problem in the isolation of Campylobacter from poultry samples using conventional cefoperazone-based selective media. A novel chromogenic medium (CM-HT), based on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA), has been developed as a solution for improved Campylobacter detection from poultry samples. Although the basic components of CM-HT are the same as mCCDA, CM-HT uses both granular charcoal and sodium cefoxitin to enhance viewability and inhibit ESBL-producing bacteria. All tested Campylobacter jejuni (n = 31) and Campylobacter coli (n = 6) strains grew and formed purple-colored colonies on CM-HT. In contrast, the growth of all other tested microorganisms, including ESBL-producing E. coli strains, was suppressed by this medium. Additionally, 84 poultry samples were examined for the presence of Campylobacter using the ISO 10272-1 method (enrichment with Bolton broth) and the NIHSJ-02 method (enrichment with Preston broth) with mCCDA and CM-HT media for the isolation. The numbers of samples from which Camplylobacter was detected on CM-HT using Preston and Bolton broth were 22 and 18, whereas the numbers on mCCDA were 22 and 13, respectively. Only Campylobacter was detected on CM-HT using both enrichment broths; however, there were 5 and 19 samples from which ESBL-producing E. coli was detected on mCCDA using Preston and Bolton broth, respectively. Thus, there was a significant difference between CM-HT and mCCDA in selectivity for ESBL-producing E. coli regardless of which enrichment broth was used. The results obtained demonstrated that CM-HT is a possible solution for the improved isolation of Campylobacter from poultry samples.

  5. Prevalence and Antibiogram Pattern of Some Nosocomial Pathogens Isolated from Hospital Environment in Zaria, Nigeria

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    Chrinius Hammuel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many ordinary surfaces and hands of healthcare givers in hospitals are sometimes inadequately decontaminated with routine disinfection techniques. It is necessary to determine the distribution of these pathogens in the hospitals. In this study 160 swab samples were collected from ten different surfaces including nurses’ hand swab, Nurses’ table top, door knob/handle, toilet seat, operation table, sink, stretcher, floor, bedrail, and cupboard. Biochemical tests were used to identify the bacteria. Kirby-Bauer-Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI modified single disc diffusion technique was used to determine the antibiogram profile of the pathogens at 0.5 scale McFarland’s standard (1.5 × 108 cells/ml. The total percentage prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 50.80%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28.60% and Escherichia coli 20.60%. Out of 20.60% of E. coli isolates7.7% were found to be E. coli O157:H7. S. aureus isolates were highly resistant to ampcillin and cefoxitin P. aeruginosa and E. coli were resistant to tetracycline. The multiple antibiotic resistance indexes of the pathogens were more than 0.2. Among the isolates, S. aureus showed more multidrug resistance (31.30% and E. coli had the least multidrug. Frequently touched surfaces within the hospital environment are contaminated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. These pathogens can be transfer from surfaces to patients and to surfaces again through healthcare workers. The widespread use of antimicrobials, especially over- or inappropriate use of antibiotics, has contributed to an increased incidence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms.

  6. Emergence of blaCTX-M-15 Gene and Its Transferability in Enterobacter spp. Isolated From the Hospitals of Tehran, Iran

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    Salimian Rizi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Enterobacter spp. is increasingly recognized as an important nosocomial pathogen and implicated in many episodes of hospital acquired infections. Objectives The current study aimed to describe distribution and transferability of blaCTX-M-15 gene, and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern in the clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. Materials and Methods A total of 110 Enterobacter isolates were collected from five hospitals in Tehran, Iran from May 2012 to April 2013. Enterobacter species were identified by API 20E system. Antibacterial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion method, and extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL production was confirmed by combined disk method. The blaCTX-M-15 gene was identified by PCR with specific primers. The transferability of the blaCTX-M-15was tested by conjugation with broth matting method. Results The prevalence of Enterobacter species was E. cloacae (78.2 %, E. aerogenes (6.13 % and E. sakazakii (8.2%. They were from different clinical sources. Maximal resistance in Enterobacter isolates was noticed against Augmentin®, trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole and cefoxitin 75.5%, 64.5%, and 59.1%, respectively. Fourteen isolates, showed ESBL phenotype. The blaCTX-M-15 gene frequency in Enterobacter isolates was 11.8%. Three conjugative plasmids containing blaCTX-M-15 were found in one Enterobacter isolate. Conclusions It was the first report on the blaCTX-M-15 gene emergence in clinical Enterobacter spp. in Iran. The current study demonstrated the predominant presence of the gene encoding CTX-M-15 among ESBL producing Enterobacter spp. commonly with a large plasmid, in the setting.

  7. Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility among Clostridium difficile isolated from an integrated human and swine population in Texas.

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    Norman, Keri N; Scott, Harvey M; Harvey, Roger B; Norby, Bo; Hume, Michael E

    2014-04-01

    Clostridium difficile can be a major problem in hospitals because the bacterium primarily affects individuals with an altered intestinal flora; this largely occurs through prolonged antibiotic use. Proposed sources of increased community-acquired infections are food animals and retail meats. The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial resistance patterns of C. difficile isolated from a closed, integrated population of humans and swine to increase understanding of the bacterium in these populations. Swine fecal samples were collected from a vertically flowing swine population consisting of farrowing, nursery, breeding, and grower/finisher production groups. Human wastewater samples were collected from swine worker and nonworker occupational group cohorts. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 523 C. difficile strains from the population using the commercially available agar diffusion Epsilometer test (Etest(®)) for 11 different antimicrobials. All of the swine and human strains were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, and vancomycin. In addition, all of the human strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol. The majority of the human and swine strains were resistant to cefoxitin and ciprofloxacin. Statistically significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibility were found among the swine production groups for ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and clindamycin. No significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibility were found across human occupational group cohorts. We found that 8.3% of the swine strains and 13.3% of the human strains exhibited resistance to metronidazole. The finding of differences in susceptibility patterns between human and swine strains of C. difficile provides evidence that transmission between host species in this integrated population is unlikely.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance trends among Salmonella isolates obtained from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Perkins, Gillian A; Khatibzadeh, Sarah M; Warnick, Lorin D; Altier, Craig

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends among bacteria isolated from food animals and people is necessary to inform public policy regarding appropriate antimicrobial use. Our objectives were to describe the antimicrobial resistance status of Salmonella isolates from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to various antimicrobial agents over time. Data were collected retrospectively for all bovine Salmonella isolates that were obtained from samples submitted to Cornell University's Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011. Temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant Salmonella were investigated for each antimicrobial agent using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 2745 bovine Salmonella isolates from clinical samples submitted during the study period. Overall resistance to each antimicrobial agent ranged from 0% (amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid) to 72.0% (sulfadimethoxine). There was evidence of a significantly decreasing trend in prevalence of resistance to most agents: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AUG), ampicillin (AMP), cefoxitin (FOX), ceftiofur (TIO), ceftriaxone (AXO), chloramphenicol (CHL), chlortetracycline (CTET), florfenicol (FFN), kanamycin (KAN), neomycin (NEO), oxytetracycline (OXY), spectinomycin (SPE), streptomycin (STR), sulfadimethoxine (SDM), sulfisoxazole (FIS), and tetracycline (TET). Among the 265 isolates that were tested using the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) panel, the most common resistance patterns were pansusceptible (54.0%), AUG-AMP-FOX-TIO-AXO-CHL-KAN-STR-FIS-TET (18.1%), and AUG-AMP-FOX-TIO-AXO-CHL-STR-FIS-TET (12.1%). Increasing prevalence of S. enterica serovar Cerro over the course of the study period presumably had an impact on the observed resistance trends. Nevertheless, these results do not support the notion that the current level of antimicrobial

  9. The Importance of Growth Kinetic Analysis in Determining Bacterial Susceptibility against Antibiotics and Silver Nanoparticles

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    Karsten eTheophel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Routine antibiotics susceptibility testing still relies on standardized cultivation-based analyses, including measurement of inhibition zones in conventional agar diffusion tests and endpoint turbidity-based measurements. Here, we demonstrate that common off-line monitoring and endpoint determination after 18–24 h could be insufficient for reliable growth-dependent evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility. Different minimal inhibitory concentrations were obtained in 20- and 48-h microdilution plate tests using an Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate (strain UKI-MB07 as a model organism. Hence, we used an on-line kinetic assay for simultaneous cultivation and time-resolved growth analysis in a 96-well format instead of off-line susceptibility testing. Growth of the Enterococcus test organism was delayed up to 30 h in the presence of 0.25 µg mL-1 of vancomycin and 8 µg mL-1 of fosfomycin, after which pronounced growth was observed. Despite the delayed onset of growth, treatment with fosfomycin, daptomycin, fusidic acid, cefoxitin, or gentamicin resulted in higher maximum growth rates and/or higher final optical density values compared with antibiotic-free controls, indicating that growth stimulation and hormetic effects may occur with extended exposure to sublethal antibiotic concentrations. Whereas neither maximum growth rate nor final cell density correlated with antibiotic concentration, the lag phase duration for some antibiotics was a more meaningful indicator of dose-dependent growth inhibition. Our results also reveal that non-temporal growth profiles are only of limited value for cultivation-based antimicrobial silver nanoparticle susceptibility testing. The exposure to Ag(0 nanoparticles led to plasma membrane damage in a concentration-dependent manner and induced oxidative stress in Enterococcus faecium UKI-MB07, as shown by intracellular ROS accumulation.

  10. The Soil Microbiota Harbors a Diversity of Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing β-Lactamases of Potential Clinical Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Bortolaia, Valeria; Amos, Greg; Wellington, Elizabeth M H; Brandt, Kristian K; Poirel, Laurent; Nielsen, Jesper Boye; Westh, Henrik; Guardabassi, Luca

    2015-10-19

    The origin of carbapenem-hydrolyzing metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) acquired by clinical bacteria is largely unknown. We investigated the frequency, host range, diversity, and functionality of MBLs in the soil microbiota. Twenty-five soil samples of different types and geographical origins were analyzed by antimicrobial selective culture, followed by phenotypic testing and expression of MBL-encoding genes in Escherichia coli, and whole-genome sequencing of MBL-producing strains was performed. Carbapenemase activity was detected in 29 bacterial isolates from 13 soil samples, leading to identification of seven new MBLs in presumptive Pedobacter roseus (PEDO-1), Pedobacter borealis (PEDO-2), Pedobacter kyungheensis (PEDO-3), Chryseobacterium piscium (CPS-1), Epilithonimonas tenax (ESP-1), Massilia oculi (MSI-1), and Sphingomonas sp. (SPG-1). Carbapenemase production was likely an intrinsic feature in Chryseobacterium and Epilithonimonas, as it occurred in reference strains of different species within these genera. The amino acid identity to MBLs described in clinical bacteria ranged between 40 and 69%. Remarkable features of the new MBLs included prophage integration of the encoding gene (PEDO-1), an unusual amino acid residue at a key position for MBL structure and catalysis (CPS-1), and overlap with a putative OXA β-lactamase (MSI-1). Heterologous expression of PEDO-1, CPS-1, and ESP-1in E. coli significantly increased the MICs of ampicillin, ceftazidime, cefpodoxime, cefoxitin, and meropenem. Our study shows that MBL producers are widespread in soil and include four genera that were previously not known to produce MBLs. The MBLs produced by these bacteria are distantly related to MBLs identified in clinical samples but constitute resistance determinants of clinical relevance if acquired by pathogenic bacteria.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus: resistance pattern and risk factors

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    Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.

  12. Antibiotics Resistance Profiling and In-Vitro Inhibition of Clinical Klebsiella Strains by Actinomycetes Isolated From Different Ecological Niches in Pakistan

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    Noureen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Multidrug resistance among different pathogens is increasing immensely day by day. To control these problems, we need new potent antimicrobial agents in repository of antibiotics. Objectives This study aimed at investigation of antibiotics resistance pattern of pathogenic Klebsiella strains isolated from clinical samples in Lahore region Pakistan and study inhibition of resistant strains by natural extracts obtained from actinomycetes isolated from different ecological niches in Pakistan. Materials and Methods The isolated Klebsiella strains were identified by morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization along with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Antibiotics susceptibility was determined by standard Kirby Bauer disc diffusion assay. The biological and chemical screening was performed for detection of active secondary metabolites produced by actinomycetes against resistant Klebsiella strains. Biological screenings include antimicrobial activity by agar diffusion assay and brine shrimp microwell cytotoxicity assay. In chemical screening, the crude extracts of actinomycetes strains were analysed by TLC and HPLC-UV techniques. Results The isolated Klebsiella strains showed resistance against most of the antibiotics as follows; ceftriaxone > cephalexin > cefpirome > cefoxitin = cefepime > levofloxacin > ciprofloxacin = ceftrazidime = fusidum > cefoperazone > ampicillin sulbactam. The actinomycetes strain A19, A20, A2, A10, A6 and A8 exhibited remarkable activity against resistant Klebsiella strains. The strains A19 and 20 showed excellent inhibitory effects on all isolated multidrug resistant Klebsiella strains. Conclusions The clinical Klebsiella strains isolated from Lahore region, Pakistan exhibited resistance to most commonly used antibiotics, which can be a serious threat to public health. The study reported some potential actinomycetes strains, which exhibit promising activity against multidrug resistant Klebsiella strains.

  13. Detecting bacteria and Determining Their Susceptibility to Antibiotics by Stochastic Confinement in Nanoliter Droplets using Plug-Based Microfluidics

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    Boedicker, J.; Li, L; Kline, T; Ismagilov, R

    2008-01-01

    This article describes plug-based microfluidic technology that enables rapid detection and drug susceptibility screening of bacteria in samples, including complex biological matrices, without pre-incubation. Unlike conventional bacterial culture and detection methods, which rely on incubation of a sample to increase the concentration of bacteria to detectable levels, this method confines individual bacteria into droplets nanoliters in volume. When single cells are confined into plugs of small volume such that the loading is less than one bacterium per plug, the detection time is proportional to plug volume. Confinement increases cell density and allows released molecules to accumulate around the cell, eliminating the pre-incubation step and reducing the time required to detect the bacteria. We refer to this approach as stochastic confinement. Using the microfluidic hybrid method, this technology was used to determine the antibiogram - or chart of antibiotic sensitivity - of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to many antibiotics in a single experiment and to measure the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug cefoxitin (CFX) against this strain. In addition, this technology was used to distinguish between sensitive and resistant strains of S. aureus in samples of human blood plasma. High-throughput microfluidic techniques combined with single-cell measurements also enable multiple tests to be performed simultaneously on a single sample containing bacteria. This technology may provide a method of rapid and effective patient-specific treatment of bacterial infections and could be extended to a variety of applications that require multiple functional tests of bacterial samples on reduced timescales.

  14. Biofilm production and beta-lactamic resistance in Brazilian Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis

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    Viviane Figueira Marques

    Full Text Available Abstract Staphylococcus spp. play an important role in the etiology of bovine mastitis. Staphylococcus aureus is considered the most relevant species due to the production of virulence factors such as slime, which is required for biofilm formation. This study aimed to evaluate biofilm production and its possible relation to beta-lactamic resistance in 20 S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitic milk. The isolates were characterized by pheno-genotypic and MALDI TOF-MS assays and tested for genes such as icaA, icaD, bap, agr RNAIII, agr I, agr II, agr III, and agr IV, which are related to slime production and its regulation. Biofilm production in microplates was evaluated considering the intervals determined along the bacterial growth curve. In addition, to determine the most suitable time interval for biofilm analysis, scanning electron microscopy was performed. Furthermore, genes such as mecA and blaZ that are related to beta-lactamic resistance and oxacillin susceptibility were tested. All the studied isolates were biofilm producers and mostly presented icaA and icaD. The Agr type II genes were significantly prevalent. According to the SEM, gradual changes in the bacterial arrangement were observed during biofilm formation along the growth curve phases, and the peak was reached at the stationary phase. In this study, the penicillin resistance was related to the production of beta-lactamase, and the high minimal bactericidal concentration for cefoxitin was possibly associated with biofilm protection. Therefore, further studies are warranted to better understand biofilm formation, possibly contributing to our knowledge about bacterial resistance in vivo.

  15. Isolation and characterization of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from calves and piglets.

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    Carla Foditsch

    Full Text Available The goal of our study was to isolate and characterize Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from fecal samples of healthy calves and piglets, in order to develop a novel probiotic for livestock animals. We identified 203 isolates of Faecalibacterium sp., which were clustered in 40 genetically distinct groups. One representative isolate from each cluster was selected for further characterization. The concentrations of the short chain fatty acids (SCFA acetate, butyrate, propionate and isobutyrate in the culture media were measured by gas chromatography. We observed reduction in the concentration of acetate followed by concomitant increase in the concentration of butyrate, suggesting that the isolates were consuming acetate present in the media and producing butyrate. Butyrate production correlated positively with bacterial growth. Since butyrate has many benefits to the colonic epithelial cells, the selection of strains that produce higher amounts of butyrate is extremely important for the development of this potential probiotic. The effect of pH and concentration of bile salts on bacterial growth was also evaluated in order to mimic the conditions encountered by F. prausnitzii in vivo. The optimal pH for growth ranged between 5.5 and 6.7, while most isolates were inhibited by of the lowest concentration of bile salts tested (0.1%. Antimicrobial resistance profile showed that most isolates of Faecalibacterium sp. were resistant against ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. More than 50% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, amikacin, cefepime and cefoxitin. A total of 19 different combinations of multidrug resistance were observed among the isolates. Our results provide new insights into the cultural and physiological characteristics of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii illustrating large variability in short chain fatty acid production, in vitro growth, sensitivity to bile salts, and antibiotic resistance and suggesting that future

  16. A CLINICO - MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF PYODERMA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MRSA

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    Animesh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pyoderma refers to pyogenic infection of the skin. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogen in pyoderma and due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics it has lead to development of resistant strains known to be sensitive before. AIMS: A clinico - microbiological study of pyoderma with special reference to MRSA. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: STUDY DESIGN: Cross - sectional study . STUDY SETTING: O.P.D of Dermatology Department. STUDY SUBJECTS : Patients of all age groups,both gender, attending De rmatology out patient department were incorporated. STUDY SAMPLE: 200 patients with Pyoderma attending the O.P.D in 1 year. STUDY PERIOD: 6 Months . METHODS: In this cross sectional study, 200 patients of either sex and all age groups diagnosed as pyoderma and having frank pustular lesion were included after detailed history and examination. A sample of pus was collected taking aseptic precautions with the help of sterile swabs and investigated for antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolated organism. RESULT S: Out of 200 patients of indoor and outpatient department Single isolates were yielded in 166 patients and multiple organisms were isolated in 7 patients and there was no growth in 27 patients. Coagulase positive Staphylococcus was the commonest isolate i .e. 142 organisms, among which MRSA was 41 (23%. Highest susceptibility was seen to Chloramphenicol 100%, Teicoplatin 100%, Vancomycin 99% Amikacin 90%, Linezolid 82%, Clindamycin 76%, Gentamicin 67% . Most Resistant drugs were Cefoperazone 100%, Cefotaxime 100% , Cephazolin 100%, Penicillin - G 100 %, Cefipime 90%,Cefipime 90%, erythromycin 77% ciprofloxacin 75%, Cotrimoxazole 63% & cefoxitin showed 52% resistance. CONCLUSION: Though Pyodermas are common skin problem often because of therapeutic failure and due to resistance of organism and emergence of MRSA stains to antibiotics it becomes difficult to treat. Hence, the study of culture and sensitivity can be highly

  17. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from skin and soft tissue infections of outpatients from a university hospital in Recife - PE, Brazil*

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    Caraciolo, Fabiana Beserra; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira; dos Santos, Josemir Belo; Rabelo, Marcelle Aquino; Magalhães, Vera

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus has a notable ability to acquire resistance to antibiotics, and methicillin resistance represents a growing public health problem. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has also become important outside the hospital environment, particularly in the United States. In Brazil, since 2005, cases of community skin infections caused by MRSA have been reported, but resistance studies involving outpatients are scarce. OBJECTIVE To know the resistance profile of S. aureus involved in skin and soft tissue infections of patients seen at the Dermatology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in Recife, Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. METHODS Prospective study involving 30 patients with skin and soft tissue infections, seen at the Dermatology outpatient clinic from May until November 2011. To evaluate the susceptibility of S. aureus to antibiotics, the disk diffusion method and oxacillin screening agar were used. RESULTS From a total of 30 samples of skin lesions, 19 (63%) had positive culture for S. aureus. The following resistance patterns of S. aureus were observed: penicillin, 95%; tetracycline, 32%; erythromycin, 21%; gentamicin, 16%; cefoxitin, 11%; oxacillin, 11%; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 11%; chloramphenicol, 11%; clindamycin, 5% ; and ciprofloxacin, 0%. One of the identified MRSA was obtained from a patient without risk factors for its acquisition, and was resistant, beyond to the beta-lactams, only to tetracycline. CONCLUSIONS With regard to the resistance patterns of S. aureus, resistances to tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin were the highest. It was documented, for the first time in Pernambuco, a case of skin infection caused by community-associated MRSA. PMID:23197204

  18. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Ready-to-Eat Foods in China.

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    Yang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jumei; Yu, Shubo; Wu, Qingping; Guo, Weipeng; Huang, Jiahui; Cai, Shuzhen

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA), is a life-threatening pathogen in humans, and its presence in food is a public health concern. MRSA has been identified in foods in China, but little information is available regarding MRSA in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in Chinese retail RTE foods. All isolated S. aureus were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and MRSA isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. Of the 550 RTE foods collected from 2011 to 2014, 69 (12.5%) were positive for S. aureus. Contamination levels were mostly in the range of 0.3-10 most probable number (MPN)/g, with five samples exceeding 10 MPN/g. Of the 69 S. aureus isolates, seven were identified as MRSA by cefoxitin disc diffusion test. Six isolates were mecA-positive, while no mecC-positive isolates were identified. In total, 75.8% (47/62) of the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates and all of the MRSA isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Amongst the MRSA isolates, four were identified as community-acquired strains (ST59-MRSA-IVa (n = 2), ST338-MRSA-V, ST1-MRSA-V), while one was a livestock-associated strain (ST9, harboring an unreported SCCmec type 2C2). One novel sequence type was identified (ST3239), the SCCmec gene of which could not be typed. Overall, our findings showed that Chinese retail RTE foods are likely vehicles for transmission of multidrug-resistant S. aureus and MRSA lineages. This is a serious public health risk and highlights the need to implement good hygiene practices.

  19. National surveillance study on carbapenem non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan: the emergence and rapid dissemination of KPC-2 carbapenemase.

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    Sheng-Kang Chiu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The global spread and increasing incidence of carbapenem non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (CnSKP has made its treatment difficult, increasing the mortality. To establish nationwide data on CnSKP spread and carbapenem-resistance mechanisms, we conducted a national surveillance study in Taiwanese hospitals. METHODS: We collected 100 and 247 CnSKP isolates in 2010 and 2012, respectively. The tests performed included antibiotic susceptibility tests; detection of carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL, and AmpC β-lactamases genes; outer membrane porin profiles; and genetic relationship with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence type. RESULTS: The resistance rate of CnSKP isolates to cefazolin, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, and ciprofloxacin was over 90%. Susceptibility rate to tigecycline and colistin in 2010 was 91.0% and 83.0%, respectively; in 2012, it was 91.9% and 87.9%, respectively. In 2010, carbapenemase genes were detected in only 6.0% of isolates (4 bla IMP-8 and 2 bla VIM-1. In 2012, carbapenemase genes were detected in 22.3% of isolates (41 bla KPC-2, 7 bla VIM-1, 6 bla IMP-8, and 1 bla NDM-1. More than 95% of isolates exhibited either OmpK35 or OmpK36 porin loss or both. Impermeability due to porin mutation coupled with AmpC β-lactamases or ESBLs were major carbapenem-resistance mechanisms. Among 41 KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, all were ST11 with 1 major pulsotype. CONCLUSIONS: In 2010 and 2012, the major mechanisms of CnSKP in Taiwan were the concomitance of AmpC with OmpK35/36 loss. KPC-2-KP dissemination with the same ST11 were observed in 2012. The emergence and rapid spread of KPC-2-KP is becoming an endemic problem in Taiwan. The identification of NDM-1 K. pneumoniae case is alarming.

  20. Evaluation of MicroScan ESBL confirmation panel for Enterobacteriaceae-producing, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases isolated in Japan.

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    Komatsu, Masaru; Aihara, Masanori; Shimakawa, Kouichi; Iwasaki, Mizuho; Nagasaka, Yoko; Fukuda, Saori; Matsuo, Shuji; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2003-06-01

    We assessed use of the MicroScan ESBL confirmation panel (Dade Behring, Tokyo, Japan) for the detection of eight Enterobacteriaceae-producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) species. Of 137 bacterial strains isolated from patients in 32 hospitals in the Kinki area of Japan, 91 produced ESBL and comprised 60 bacteria (of E. coli, K. oxytoca, and K. pneumoniae) targeted by the NCCLS ESBL test and 31 non-target bacteria such as chromosomal AmpC-producing bacteria (e.g., Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter spp.). Sensitivity and specificity of the MicroScan panel for the target bacteria were 92% and 93%, respectively; sensitivity and specificity for non-target bacteria were 52% and 100%, respectively. There were 20 ESBL-positive strains that were not inhibited by clavulanic acid in the MicroScan panel (3 of 32 ESBL-producing E. coli strains, 1 of 24 K. pneumoniae, 1 of 4 K. oxytoca, 8 of 13 E. cloacae, and 7 of 14 S. marcescens), and most of them were bacteria not targeted by the NCCLS test. In 19 of the 20 strains, the synergy effect of clavulanic acid was observed in the modified-double-disk synergy test using only the cefepime-disk. Because these strains had high MICs of > or = 16 microg/ml for cephamycins such as cefoxitin and cefmetazole, these strains might produce high levels of AmpC in addition to ESBL. The MicroScan ESBL confirmation panel showed excellent performance in detecting target, but not other bacteria. Addition of cefepime and clavulanic acid to the MicroScan panel may significantly improve detection of non-target bacteria.

  1. blaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV inEnterobacteriaceae from North-Indian tertiary hospital:high occurrence of combination genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Shahid; Anuradha Singh; Farrukh Sobia; Mohammad Rashid; Abida Malik; Indu Shukla; Haris Manzoor Khan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To delineate the frequency of occurrence ofblaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV in Enterobacteriaceae from North-Indian tertiary hospital.Methods: A random collection of a subset of45Escherichia coli (E. coli) and28Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) that was resistant to a third generation cephalosporin and obtained during2007-2008 was selected for detailed screening forblaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV by monoplexPCRs. The isolates demonstrating the presence of blaCTX-M alleles were characterized for the specificCTX-M-genogroup by using a multiplexPCR.Results:Resistance to cefoperazone, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefoxitin and piperacillin was 100% each inK. pneumoniae isolates, whereas these resistance-rates forE. coli isolates were93.1%, 83.8%, 91.9%, 93.6%, 97.3% and97.1%, respectively. Concomitant resistance to aminoglycosides, quinolones and aztreonam was also noticed. Presence of any of the bla genes (blaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV) was noticed in a total of28 (38.4%) isolates of the73isolates studied. Many isolates demonstrated occurrence of these genes in various combinations.blaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV were noticed in 28.8%,10.9% and13.7% isolates, respectively. MultiplexPCR inblaCTX-Mharboring isolates demonstrated the presence ofCTX-M-Genogroup-1 and sequencing for the specificCTX-M-type revealed presence ofCTX-M-15 type. RAPD typing showed wide diversity in isolates.Conclusions:This is amongst the premier report describing the simultaneous occurrence ofblaTEM,blaSHV, andblaampC in IndianEnterobacteriaceae and that wider dissemination of these genes, as demonstrated by diversity of isolates, raises concern and emphasizes a need for extensive search for the presence of these gene pools in Indian subcontinent.

  2. 芹菜素联合抗生素的抗耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌作用%Research on joint anti-MRSA activity of Apigenin in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新娟; 左国营; 张云玲; 王根春; 罗奇彪

    2012-01-01

    目的:进一步研究芹菜素的抗耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌( MRSA)菌株作用,并与抗生素进行联合抗菌试验观察是否存在协同作用.方法:利用琼脂扩散法,头孢西丁纸片法和微量棋盘稀释法等药敏试验方法测定芹菜素的抗菌效果.结果:芹菜素对多株MRSA均有抑制作用,最小抑菌浓度(MIC)值为64~256 μg·mL-1,与部分喹诺酮类、氨基糖苷类抗生素的联合抗菌指数(FICI值)为0.25~0.5.结论:芹菜素显示良好抗MRSA菌株活性,并与喹诺酮类和氨基糖苷类抗生素呈现明显协同作用.%OBJECTIVE To further study the anti-MRSA effect of apigenin combined with antibiotics by bacteriostatic tests for observing whether there was a synergistic effect METHODS The agar diffusion method, Cefoxitin disk diffusion method and chequerboard micro-dilution susceptibility test were used to determine the antibacterial effect of apigenin. RESULTS Apigenin could inhibit a variety of MRSA strains, with MIC ranged from 64 - 256 μg·mL-1. Fractional inhibitory concentration idex(FICI) of the combination of apigenin with some quinolones and aminoglycosides antibiotics were between 0.25 and 0. 5. CONCLUSION Apigenin showed good activity against MRSA strains, in addition, it suggested some synergestic effect with quinolones and aminoglycosides antibiotics.

  3. Antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates from cases of urinary tract infections among hospitalized and out-patients at a tertiary health facility in South Western Nigeria

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    Oyekale Oluwalana Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most common human infections with distribution of causative agents and their susceptibility pattern to antibiotics varying from region to region. This study aimed at determining the bacterial uropathogens and their antibiotic resistance profile among patients in a Nigerian tertiary health care facility. Materials and Methods: Appropriate urine specimens (midstream/catheter specimen urine of all suspected cases of UTI by clinicians were processed in the medical microbiology laboratory for detection of significant bacteriuria. Bacteria uropathogens isolated were identified by standard biochemical tests and antibiotic susceptibility test to eight antibiotics was carried out on them using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was identified by cefoxitin disc diffusion technique and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing enterobacteria were detected using double-disc synergy test. Results: Of the total 157 males and 189 females investigated, 35.7% and 66.1% respectively had significant bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated bacterial pathogen both among in- and out-patients (52.6% vs. 65.5%. Other isolated organisms were S. aureus (13.4% vs. 19.0%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.3% vs. 2.4%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.2% vs. 7.1% and K. aerogenes (7.2% vs. 1.2%. Resistance rate of uropathogens to antibiotics was higher among in-patients. Resistance rate to ofloxacin, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone was generally very low compared to other tested antibiotics. Multiple resistant bacteria: MRSA and ESBL-producing enterobacteria were detected among both in-and out-patient with no significant difference in isolation rate. Conclusion: There is a need for continuous monitoring of uropathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity profile for evidence-based empirical treatment of UTI. There is an urgent need for the establishment of antibiotic

  4. Screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers among individuals exposed and not exposed to the hospital environment and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern

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    Bhadravathi Virupaksha Renushri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluated the influence of exposure to the hospital environment on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA carriage. The antibiograms of the MRSA isolates were examined. Materials and Methods: Nasal, throat, and web-space swabs were collected from 119 nursing students of the age group 18-23 years (exposed group and 100 age-matched pharmacy students (nonexposed group. S. aureus was identified and antibiogram obtained as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. MRSA was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion test and by growth on oxacillin screen agar as per CLSI guidelines. The presence of the mecA gene was confirmed by conventional polymerase chain reaction. Results: The MRSA carrier rates were 11.8% and 4% in the exposed and nonexposed groups, respectively. Association of exposure to the hospital environment with MRSA colonization was statistically significant. All MRSA isolates showed sensitivity to netilmicin, linezolid, tetracycline, vancomycin and teicoplanin. Among the exposed group, 71.4% MRSA isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 64.3% to cotrimoxazole, 64.3% to erythromycin, 28.6% to gentamicin and 21.4% to clindamycin. Among the nonexposed group, 75% MRSA isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 25% to cotrimoxazole, 25% to erythromycin, 25% to gentamicin and 25% to clindamycin. Conclusion: Exposure to the hospital environment was found to be a significant risk factor for MRSA carriage. Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA isolates showed greater resistance toward antimicrobials compared with community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA isolates. This highlights the need for the appropriate institution of pharmacotherapy in cases of HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA infections and control of transmission by carriers.

  5. Prevalence of drug resistance and virulence features in Salmonella spp. isolated from foods associated or not with salmonellosis in Brazil.

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    Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Ikuno, Alice A; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Jakabi, Miyoko; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is the most common etiological agent of cases and outbreaks of foodborne diarrheal illnesses. The emergence and spread of Salmonella spp., which has become multi-drug resistant and potentially more pathogenic, have increased the concern with this pathogen. In this study, 237 Salmonella spp., associated or not with foodborne salmonellosis in Brazil, belonging mainly to serotype Enteritidis, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of the virulence genes spvC, invA, sefA and pefA. Of the isolates, 46.8% were sensitive to all antimicrobials and 51.9% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent was observed in 10.5% of the strains. The highest rates of resistance were observed for streptomycin (35.9%) and nalidixic acid (16.9%). No strain was resistant to cefoxitin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. The invA gene was detected in all strains. Genes spvC and pefA were found in 48.1% and 44.3% of strains, respectively. The gene sefA was detected in 31.6% of the strains and only among S. Enteritidis. Resistance and virulence determinants were detected in Salmonella strains belonging to several serotypes. The high rates of antibiotic-resistance in strains isolated from poultry products demonstrate the potential risk associated with the consumption of these products and the need to ensure good food hygiene practices from farm to table to reduce the spread of pathogens relevant to public health.

  6. Escherichia coli of poultry food origin as reservoir of sulphonamide resistance genes and integrons.

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    Soufi, Leila; Sáenz, Yolanda; Vinué, Laura; Abbassi, Mohamed Salah; Ruiz, Elena; Zarazaga, Myriam; Ben Hassen, Assia; Hammami, Salah; Torres, Carmen

    2011-01-05

    The antimicrobial resistance phenotype and genotype, the flanking regions of sulphonamide resistance genes and the integrons were analyzed in 166 Escherichia coli isolates recovered from poultry meat in Tunisia. High percentages of resistance were detected to ampicillin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, sulphonamide and tetracycline (66-95%), and lower percentages to gentamicin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefoxitin (1-4%). The bla(TEM), tet(A)/tet(B), aph(3')-Ia, aac(6')-Ib-cr, aac(3)-II and cmlA genes were identified in 92, 82, 29, 2, 2 and 7 isolates, respectively. Class 1 and/or class 2 integrons were detected in 52% of E. coli isolates and five different gene cassette arrangements were identified in the variable regions of class 1 integrons, which included antimicrobial resistance determinants. Sixty-eight isolates contained the sul1 gene and 37 of them presented this gene into a class 1 integron structure. The sul3 gene was detected associated with non-classic class 1 integrons in 4 out of 46 sul3-positive isolates. The sul2 gene was detected in 66 isolates, 51 of them were linked to strA/B genes in seven different genetic structures. Seventy-three-per-cent of integron-positive isolates presented resistance to at least five different antimicrobial families versus 38.7% of integron-negative isolates. Our study highlights the role of commensal E. coli isolates from poultry meat as an important reservoir for sulphonamide resistance genes and integrons carrying antimicrobial resistance genes.

  7. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria isolated from hematologic patients in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Cristina Motta Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic therapy in hematologic patients, often weak and susceptible to a wide range of infections, particularly nosocomial infections derived from long hospitalization periods, is a challenging issue. This paper presents ESBL-producing strains isolated from such hematologic patients treated at the Amazon Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation (HEMOAM in the Brazilian Amazon Region to identify the ESBL genes carried by them as well as the susceptibility to 11 antimicrobial agents using the E-test method. A total of 146 clinical samples were obtained from July 2007 to August 2008, when 17 gram-negative strains were isolated in our institution. The most frequent isolates confirmed by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing were E. coli (8/17, Serratia spp. (3/17 and B.cepacia (2/17. All gram-negative strains were tested for extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases (ESBLs, where: (12/17 strains carried ESBL; among these, (8/12 isolates carried blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaOXA, blaSHV genes, (1/12 blaTEM gene and (3/12 blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaOXA genes. Antibiotic resistance was found in (15/17 of the isolates for tetracycline, (12/17 for ciprofloxacin, (1/17 resistance for cefoxitin and chloramphenicol, (1/17 for amikacin and (3/17 cefepime. This research showed the presence of gram-negative ESBL-producing bacteria infecting hematologic patients in HEMOAM. These strains carried the blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M and blaOXA genes and were resistant to different antibiotics used in the treatment. This finding was based on a period of 13 months, during which clinical samples from specific populations were obtained. Therefore, caution is required when generalizing the results that must be based on posological orientations and new breakpoints for disk diffusion and microdilution published by CLSI 2010.

  8. PREDISPOSING FACTORS AND AETIOLOGY OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN

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    Prem Prakash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common infection in pregnant women. It is responsible for range of complications causing perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. AIM To assess the associated risk factors, aetiology and their antibiogram of UTI among pregnant women. METHODOLOGY This is a cross-sectional study carried out in Department of Microbiology & Department of Obstetrics from March 2015 to February 2016. The patient details and risk factors were recorded. Midstream & catheter urine specimens from pregnant women with symptoms of UTI were collected and sent for routine microscopy, culture and sensitivity. RESULTS In 550 pregnant women, 122(22.18% had significant bacteriuria and 72(17.72% had low colony count UTI. The most affected number age group was 25-35 years (58.85% followed by 15-25 years. Of the associated risk factors, multiparity 45.31%, low socioeconomic status 42.18%, anaemia 39.06% etc. were important. Escherichia coli was most frequently isolated with a percentage of 29.14%, followed by Klebsiella species (17.49%, S. aureus (14.34% etc. Other isolated micro-organisms included Enterococci, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter species. The antibiotics with more than 50% sensitivity against Gram-negative isolates were Imipenem (74.7%, Levofloxacin (73.17%, Ciprofloxacin (69.10%, Amikacin (57.72%, Amoxiclav (55.28%, and Cefoperazone/Sulbactam (50.40%. The antibiotics for Gram-positive isolates were Linezolid (88.46%, Cefoxitin (78.84%, Teicoplanin (69.23% and Vancomycin (65.22%. CONCLUSION We found associated risk factors such as multiparity, low socioeconomic status, etc. E. coli was the most common bacteria isolated in our setting. Therefore, pregnant women should be assessed for associated risk factors and evaluated for the pathogenic organism during their regular follow-up. The drug sensitivity should be taken into consideration with their side effects related to pregnancy.

  9. Beta-lactamase characterization in Escherichia coli isolates with diminished susceptibility or resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins recovered from sick animals in Spain.

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    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Teshager, Tirushet; Zarazaga, Myriam; Sáenz, Yolanda; Porrero, Concepción; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    A total of 1439 Escherichia coli isolates from sick animals were received from the Spanish Network of Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (VAV) from 1997 to 2001. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed and diminished susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftazidime was identified in 2.5% and 2.8% of the isolates, respectively. Beta-lactamase characterization was carried out in the group of 20 E. coli isolates with both characteristics. The MIC ranges of different beta-lactams showed by these 20 isolates were as follows (in microg/ml): ampicillin (64-->256), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (4-64), ticarcillin (8-->128), cefazolin (32-->256), cefoxitin (4-->128), cefotaxime (1-64), ceftazidime (2-->64), ceftriaxone (0.5-64), imipenem (32). TEM, SHV, CMY, and FOX beta-lactamase genes were analyzed by PCR and sequencing. The beta-lactamase genes detected were the following ones (number of isolates): bla(TEM-1b) (3), bla(TEM-1a) (1), bla(TEM-30f) (2), bla(TEM-1b) + bla(CMY-2) (2), and bla(SHV-12) (1). Sequences of the promoter and/or attenuator region of the chromosomal ampC gene were studied in all the 20 isolates. Mutations at position -42 or -32 were detected in 16 isolates and these mutations were associated with the presence of a TEM type beta-lactamase in 6 isolates. Besides, a high variety of plasmidic beta-lactamases was detected including TEM-30 and CMY-2. To our knowledge, this is the first time that TEM-30 beta-lactamase has been detected in E. coli isolates of animal origin.

  10. PREVALENCE OF DRUG RESISTANCE AND VIRULENCE FEATURES IN Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM FOODS ASSOCIATED OR NOT WITH SALMONELLOSIS IN BRAZIL

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    Ruth Estela Gravato Rowlands

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is the most common etiological agent of cases and outbreaks of foodborne diarrheal illnesses. The emergence and spread of Salmonella spp., which has become multi-drug resistant and potentially more pathogenic, have increased the concern with this pathogen. In this study, 237 Salmonella spp., associated or not with foodborne salmonellosis in Brazil, belonging mainly to serotype Enteritidis, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of the virulence genes spvC, invA, sefA and pefA. Of the isolates, 46.8% were sensitive to all antimicrobials and 51.9% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent was observed in 10.5% of the strains. The highest rates of resistance were observed for streptomycin (35.9% and nalidixic acid (16.9%. No strain was resistant to cefoxitin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. The invA gene was detected in all strains. Genes spvC and pefA were found in 48.1% and 44.3% of strains, respectively. The gene sefA was detected in 31.6% of the strains and only among S. Enteritidis. Resistance and virulence determinants were detected in Salmonella strains belonging to several serotypes. The high rates of antibiotic-resistance in strains isolated from poultry products demonstrate the potential risk associated with the consumption of these products and the need to ensure good food hygiene practices from farm to table to reduce the spread of pathogens relevant to public health.

  11. Detection of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

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    N O Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detecting plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC β-lactamase-producing organism is important for optimal infection control and providing accurate and effective treatment option for physicians. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pAmpC β-lactamase and compare the results of boronic acid (BA disk test with other phenotypic tests detecting AmpC positive isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 273 clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (n: 82 and Escherichia coli (n: 191 were analysed. The presence of pAmpC β-lactamase was determined by BA disk test, cefoxitin (FOX screening test, modified three dimensional test (M3DT, and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to evaluate the genetic similarities between isolates. To detect extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL in the presence of AmpC β-lactamase, ESBL confirmation test was carried out with and without BA solution. Results: Of the 273 strains tested, 127 strains were found FOX resistant, 114 were positive by M3DT, 108 were positive in BA disk test, and the multiplex PCR detected 24 pAmpC β-lactamase-positive isolate. The prevalence of AmpC-producing strains was 10.9% in E. coli and 3.6% in K. pneumoniae in the tested population by PCR. CIT and MOX group genes were predominant type in these strains. Conclusion: These results emphasize that clinical laboratories should consider testing the presence of pAmpC enzymes particularly in FOX-resistant isolates, and BA disk test will improve detection of this emerging resistance phenotype.

  12. Evaluation of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants.

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    Wojewoda, Christina M; Sercia, Linda; Navas, Maria; Tuohy, Marion; Wilson, Deborah; Hall, Geraldine S; Procop, Gary W; Richter, Sandra S

    2013-07-01

    Rapid identification of pathogens from blood cultures can decrease lengths of stay and improve patient outcomes. We evaluated the accuracy of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture (BC-GP) nucleic acid test for investigational use only (Nanosphere, Inc., Northbrook, IL) for the identification of Gram-positive bacteria from blood cultures. The detection of resistance genes (mecA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and vanA or vanB in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis) by the BC-GP assay also was assessed. A total of 186 positive blood cultures (in BacT/Alert FA bottles) with Gram-positive cocci observed with Gram staining were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. The BC-GP results were compared with the identification and susceptibility profiles obtained with routine methods in the clinical laboratory. Discordant results were arbitrated with additional biochemical, cefoxitin disk, and repeat BC-GP testing. The initial BC-GP organism identification was concordant with routine method results for 94.6% of the blood cultures. Only 40% of the Streptococcus pneumoniae identifications were correct. The detection of the mecA gene for 69 blood cultures with only S. aureus or S. epidermidis was concordant with susceptibility testing results. For 3 of 6 cultures with multiple Staphylococcus spp., mecA detection was reported but was correlated with oxacillin resistance in a species other than S. aureus or S. epidermidis. The detection of vanA agreed with susceptibility testing results for 45 of 46 cultures with E. faecalis or E. faecium. Comparison of the mean times to results for each organism group showed that BC-GP results were available 31 to 42 h earlier than phenotypic identifications and 41 to 50 h earlier than susceptibility results.

  13. Determination of antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance profiles of some bacteria isolated from aquatic amphibian and reptile species.

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    Hacioglu, Nurcihan; Tosunoglu, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the level of antibiotic resistance patterns and distribution of heavy metal resistance of bacterial isolates from aquatic animals (Lissotriton vulgaris, Pelophylax ridibundus, Emys orbicularis, Mauremys rivulata, and Natrix natrix) in Turkey (Kavak Delta). A total of 153 bacteria have been successfully isolated from cloaca and oral samples of the aquatic amphibians and reptilians which were found, namely, Aeromonas sp. (n = 29), Plesiomonas sp. (n = 7), Vibrio sp. (n = 12), Citrobacter sp. (n = 12), Enterobacter sp. (n = 11), Escherichia sp. (n = 22), Klebsiella sp. (n = 22), Edwardsiella sp. (n = 6), Hafnia sp. (n = 1), Proteus sp. (n = 19), Providencia sp. (n = 8), and Pseudomonas sp. (n = 4). In terms of antibiotic and heavy metal susceptibility testing, each isolate was tested against 12 antibiotics and 4 metals. There was a high incidence of resistance to cefoxitin (46.40 %), ampicillin (44.44 %), erythromycin (35.29 %), and a low incidence of resistance to gentamicin (6.53 %), kanamycin (8.49 %), chloramphenicol (9.15 %), and cefotaxime (10.45 %). The multiple antibiotic resistance index of each bacterial species indicated that bacteria from raised amphibians and reptiles have been exposed to tested antibiotics, with results ranging from 0 to 0.58. Most isolates showed tolerance to different concentrations of heavy metals, and minimal inhibition concentrations ranged from100 to >3,200 μg/mL. According to these results, a significant occurrence of bacteria in the internal organs of reptiles and amphibians, with a high incidence of resistance against antibiotics and heavy metals, may risk aquatic animals and the public health. These data appoint the importance of epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring and reinforce the need to implement environment protection programs for amphibian and reptile species.

  14. First detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ST68 from hospitalized equines in Spain.

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    Gómez-Sanz, E; Simón, C; Ortega, C; Gómez, P; Lozano, C; Zarazaga, M; Torres, C

    2014-05-01

    Eight coagulase-positive staphylococci from equines with different pathologies obtained between 2005 and 2011 were investigated. Isolates were characterized by different molecular techniques (spa-, agr-, MLST), and clonal relatedness of strains was investigated by ApaI and SmaI PFGE. Anti-microbial resistance and virulence profiles were determined. Six isolates were identified as Staphylococcus aureus, and two as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Of these, four isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ST398 and one S. pseudintermedius was mecA positive and typed as ST68. One MRSA ST398 strain was isolated in 2005 and might be one of the earliest MRSA ST398 descriptions in Spain. All 5 mecA-positive strains were multidrug resistant and were isolated from hospitalized equines. Three MRSA ST398 strains carried the recently described transposon Tn559 within the chromosomal radC gene. The mecA-positive S. pseudintermedius ST68 strain was also multidrug resistant and harboured the erm(B)-Tn5405-like element. This ST68 strain presented a clear susceptible phenotype to oxacillin and cefoxitin regardless of the presence of an integral and conserved mecA gene and mecA promoter, which enhances the need for testing the presence of this gene in routine analysis to avoid treatment failures. These data reflect the extended anti-microbial resistance gene acquisition capacities of both bacterial species and evidence their pathogenic properties. The first detection of MRSA ST398 and S. pseudintermedius ST68 in horses in Spain is reported.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in Dschang, Cameroon

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    Fusi-Ngwa Catherine Kesah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-care-associated and community infections remain problematic in most of Africa where the increasing incidences of diseases, wars, poverty, malnutrition, and general environmental deterioration have led to the gradual collapse of the health-care system. Detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR remains imperative for the surveillance purposes and optimal management of infectious diseases. This study reports the status of AMR in pathogens in Dschang. Materials and Methods: From May 2009 to March 2010, the clinical specimens collected at two hospitals were processed accorded to the standard procedures. Antibiotic testing was performed by E test, and antimycotics by disc-agar diffusion, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute on pathogens comprising Staphylococcus aureus (100 strains, Enterococcus faecalis (35, Klebsiella pneumoniae (75, Escherichia coli (50, Proteus mirabilis (30, Pseudomonas aruginosa (50, Acinetobacter species (20, and Candida albicans (150 against common antimicrobials. Results: There was no vancomycin resistance in the cocci, the minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of these strains MIC 90 was 3 μg/ml, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA was 43%, benzyl penicillin 89% resistance in S. aureus as opposed to 5.7% in E. faecalis. Low resistance (<10% was recorded to cefoxitin, cefotaxime, and nalidixic acid (MIC 90 3-8 μg/ml against the coliforms, and to ticarcillin, aztreonam, imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin among the non-enterobacteria; tetracycline, amoxicillin, piperacillin, and chloramphenicol were generally ineffective. Resistance rates to fluconazole, clotrimazole, econazole, and miconazole were <55% against C. albicans. The pathogens tested exhibited multidrug-resistance. Conclusion: The present findings were intended to support antimicrobial stewardship endeavors and empiric therapy. The past, present, and the future investigations in drug efficacy will continue

  16. A review of prophylactic antibiotics use in plastic surgery in China and a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ge-hong; Hou, Dian-ju; Fu, Hua-dong; Guo, Jing-ying; Guo, Xiao-bo; Gong, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of antibiotic prophylaxis for plastic surgical procedures at our hospital, and to perform a systematic literature review of randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of prophylactic antibiotics in plastic surgery. The records of patients who received plastic surgical procedures with Class I surgical incisions between 2009 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. A systematic literature review was conducted for studies examining the use of prophylactic antibiotics for Class I surgical wounds. A total of 13,997 cases with Class I surgical incisions were included. Prophylactic antibiotics were given in 13,865 cases (99.1%). The antibiotics used were primarily cefuroxime, clindamycin, metronidazole, cefoxitin sodium, and gentamicin. The average duration of administration was 4.84 ± 3.07 (range, 1-51) days. Antibiotics were administered postoperatively in >99% of cases while preoperative antibiotic administration was only given in 32 cases (0.23%). Wound infections occurred in 21 cases for an overall infection rate of 0.15%. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. There was marked variation in the timing of antibiotic administration with antibiotics given pre-, peri-, and postoperatively. Of studies that compared the use of prophylactic antibiotics with placebo, a reduction in wound infections was noted in 4 trials and no difference was noted in 6 trials. No significant difference in infection rates was shown between the prophylactic and postoperative arms. In conclusion, prophylactic antibiotics are overused in plastic surgical procedures. Evidence-based guidelines for the use of prophylactic antibiotics in plastic surgical procedures are needed.

  17. Molecular detection of AdeABC efflux pump genes in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and their contribution in imipenem resistance

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    Ali Reza JaponiNejad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Backgrand: Multi-drug resistance due to Acinetobacter baumannii strains has become a significant challenge. Efflux pump plays a vital role in the development of resistance in this bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of the AdeABC efflux pump genes and its role in resistance to imipenem in clinical isolates of A.baumannii. Materials and methods: A total of 56 isolates of A.baumannii were collected from different clinical specimens of Valiasr hospital in the Arak –Iran and all isolates were identified by standard biochemical tests. The Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined by disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations of imipenemin via E-test strips with and without CCCP efflux pump inhibitor were determined according to CLSI guidelines. The PCR test was used to detect the AdeABC efflux pump genes in isolates. Results: All A.bumannii isolates were resistant to cefotaxim, ceftazidim, cefepim, cefoxitin, azteronam, piperacillin-tazobactam and ciprofloxacin, as well as all isolates were resistant to imipenem according to the results of the E-test method. Imipenem MIC with efflux pump inhibitor not reduced in all isolates and showed no differences in imipenem activity. The adeA, adeB and adeC genes were found in 100%, 100% and 96.5% of isolates, respectively. Conclusion: AdeABC efflux system contributes to resistance to other antibiotics and resistance to imipenem has not been involved with this efflux system in A.baumanni isolates in current study and other mechanism such as carbapenemase enzymes play vital role to imipenem resistance in A.baumanni isolates.

  18. Efeito "in vitro" de antibióticos e rizobactérias no controle de bactérias fitopatogênicas ao Eucalyptus spp. "In vitro" effect of antibiotics and rhizobacteria on the control of phytopathogenic bacteria in Eucalyptus spp.

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    Jeane de Fátima Cunha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Doenças causadas por bactérias constituem um novo desafio à cultura do Eucalyptus spp., podendo, inclusive, limitar o uso de clones suscetíveis. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência de antibióticos e rizobactérias na inibição do crescimento "in vitro" de isolados de bactérias fitopatogênicas ao Eucalyptus spp. na fase de viveiro e de campo. O antibiótico sulfato de amicacina e a rizobactéria S1 (Bacillus subtillis destacaram-se quanto à inibição do crescimento do isolado fitopatogênico IP1-05 (Pseudomonas chichorii, enquanto a cefoxitina causou maior inibição dos isolados BSV16 e RVV11 (Rhizobium sp.. Os antibióticos de uso comercial na área agronômica, Mycoshield (oxitetraciclina e Agrimicina (estreptomicina e tetraciclina foram pouco efetivos. Este trabalho proporciona embasamento a alternativas para controle biológico de doenças bacterianas em mudas de Eucalyptus spp. na fase de viveiro.Diseases caused by bacteria represent a new challenge for Eucalyptus spp. and may also limit the use of susceptible clones. Our study aimed at an evaluation of the efficiency of antibiotics and rhizobacteria in inhibiting "in vitro" growth of phytopathogenic bacteria isolates in Eucalyptus spp. during the nursery stage and in the field. The antibiotic amicacine sulfate and rhizobacterium S1 (Bacillus subtilis stood out inhibiting the growth of the phytopathogenic isolate IP1-05 (Pseudomonas chichorii, whereas cefoxitin caused a greater inhibition of the isolates BSV16 and RVV11 (Rhizobium sp.. The commercial antibiotics for agricultural use Mycoshield (oxitetracycline and Agrimycin (estreptomycin and tetracycline were little effective. This study offers a base for alternatives of biological control of bacterial diseases in Eucalyptus spp. nursery seedlings.

  19. Modulation of Membrane Influx and Efflux in Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Has an Impact on Bacterial Motility, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model

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    Pantel, Alix; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Ngba Essebe, Christelle; Mesureur, Jennifer; Sotto, Albert; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Energy-dependent efflux overexpression and altered outer membrane permeability (influx) can promote multidrug resistance (MDR). The present study clarifies the regulatory pathways that control membrane permeability in the pandemic clone Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) and evaluates the impact of efflux and influx modulations on biofilm formation, motility, and virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans model. Mutants of two uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains, MECB5 (ST131; H30-Rx) and CFT073 (ST73), as well as a fecal strain, S250 (ST131; H22), were in vitro selected using continuous subculture in subinhibitory concentrations of ertapenem (ETP), chloramphenicol (CMP), and cefoxitin (FOX). Mutations in genes known to control permeability were shown for the two UPEC strains: MECB5-FOX (deletion of 127 bp in marR; deletion of 1 bp and insertion of an IS1 element in acrR) and CFT073-CMP (a 1-bp deletion causing a premature stop in marR). We also demonstrated that efflux phenotypes in the mutants selected with CMP and FOX were related to the AcrAB-TolC pump, but also to other efflux systems. Alteration of membrane permeability, caused by underexpression of the two major porins, OmpF and OmpC, was shown in MECB5-ETP and mutants selected with FOX. Lastly, our findings suggest that efflux pump-overproducing isolates (CMP mutants) pose a serious threat in terms of virulence (significant reduction in worm median survival) and host colonization. Lack of porins (ETP and FOX mutants) led to a high level of antibiotic resistance in an H30-Rx subclone. Nevertheless, this adaptation created a physiological disadvantage (decreased motility and ability to form biofilm) associated with a low potential for virulence. PMID:26926643

  20. Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from burned patients hospitalized in a major burn center in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Reza; Owlia, Parviz; Saderi, Horie; Mansouri, Sadegh; Jonaidi-Jafari, Nematollah; Izadi, Morteza; Farshad, Shohreh; Arjomandzadegan, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important life-threatening nosocomial pathogen and plays a prominent role in serious infections in burned patients. The current study was undertaken to characterize P. aeruginosa strains isolated from burned patients in Tehran, Iran. The study was conducted in a major burn center in Tehran, Iran in 2007. A total of seventy specimens obtained from different clinical origin with positive culture results for P. aeruginosa were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed according to the standard CLSI guideline. The relationship between the strains was also determined using antimicrobial drug resistance pattern analysis and plasmid profiling. All strains were multi drug resistant. The percentage of resistance to tested antibiotics was: imipenem 97.5%, amikacin 90%, piperacillin 87.5%, ceftizoxime 72.7%, gentamicin 67.5%, ciprofloxacin 65%, ceftriaxone 60%, and ceftazidime 57.5%. Thirteen resistant phenotypes were recognized, R3 (TET, IPM, AMK, CIP, PIP, GM, CAZ, CRO, CT) was the predominant resistance pattern seen in 27.5% of isolates. Results obtained from E-test showed that 100% of P. aeruginosa strains were resistant to cefoxitin, 97% to cefotetan, 93% to ticarcillin, 89% to ticarcillin/clav, 76% to gentamicin and imipenem, 63% to piperacillin, 49% to tetracycline, and 20% to meropenem. Nine different plasmid profiles were observed among the strains. The current study showed an increase rate of resistance for some antibiotics tested among P. aeruginosa strains isolated from burned patients in Tehran. A combination of antibiotic susceptibility testing and profile plasmid analysis, which are relatively cheap and available methods, showed to be useful to characterize the clinical strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from burned patients in Iran.

  1. Characterization of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Burned Patients Hospitalized in A Major Burn Center in Tehran, Iran

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    Mohammad Arjomandzadegan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important life-threatening nosocomial pathogen and plays a prominent role in serious infections in burned patients. The current study was undertaken to characterize P. aeruginosa strains isolated from burned patients in Tehran, Iran. The study was conducted in a major burn center in Tehran, Iran in 2007. A total of seventy specimens obtained from different clinical origin with positive culture results for P. aeruginosa were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed according to the standard CLSI guideline. The relationship between the strains was also determined using antimicrobial drug resistance pattern analysis and plasmid profiling. All strains were multi drug resistant. The percentage of resistance to tested antibiotics was: imipenem 97.5%, amikacin 90%, piperacillin 87.5%, ceftizoxime 72.7%, gentamicin 67.5%, ciprofloxacin 65%, ceftriaxone 60%, and ceftazidime 57.5%. Thirteen resistant phenotypes were recognized, R3 (TET, IPM, AMK, CIP, PIP, GM, CAZ, CRO, CT was the predominant resistance pattern seen in 27.5% of isolates. Results obtained from E-test showed that 100% of P. aeruginosa strains were resistant to cefoxitin, 97% to cefotetan, 93% to ticarcillin, 89% to ticarcillin/clav, 76% to gentamicin and imipenem, 63% to piperacillin, 49% to tetracycline, and 20% to meropenem. Nine different plasmid profiles were observed among the strains. The current study showed an increase rate of resistance for some antibiotics tested among P. aeruginosa strains isolated from burned patients in Tehran. A combination of antibiotic susceptibility testing and profile plasmid analysis, which are relatively cheap and available methods, showed to be useful to characterize the clinical strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from burned patients in Iran.

  2. Multiplex PCR Study of Plasmid-Mediated AmpC Beta-Lactamases Genes in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli

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    Maryam Dehghani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:   AmpC β-lactamases are important cephalosporinases chromosomally encoded in many of Enterobacteriaceae and a few other organisms where they mediate resistance to cephalothin, cefazolin, cefoxitin and penicillins. The six different families of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases have been described, but no phenotypic test can discriminate among them. AmpC multiplex PCR has been successfully used to discriminate plasmid-mediated ampC specific families in organisms such as Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to indicate the prevalence of AmpC β-lactamase genes by specifically designed primers through PCR test.Methods:   243 total clinical urine samples were collected, and 227 isolates were identified as Escherichia coli based on standard biochemical tests. Subsequently, the isolates were screened by disc diffusion and combined disc test for β-lactamase production. Resistant isolates were evaluated by PCR for ampC family determination. Results:  Antibiotic resistance pattern were observed as follows: cefepime (%25, ceftazidime (%31, ceftriaxone (%37, cefotaxime (%38. The ratio of isolates was detected as ESBLs and AmpC producers were 34% and 5.2%, respectively. PCR performed on 12 selected isolates via phenotypic tests and the results revealed that among 12 isolates, 11 contained blaCMY-42. Conclusion:  Unfortunately, antibiotic resistance has become an increasingly critical problem in many countries like Iran and occurrence of isolates co-expressing AmpC-β-lactamases and ESBLs can create serious problems in the future. As antibiotic options in the treatment of AmpC β-lactamases and ESBLs producing organisms are extremely limited, molecular screening by laboratories is suggested to reduce the risk of therapeutic defeat.

  3. Molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase, plasmid-mediated AmpC cephalosporinase and carbapenemase genes among Enterobacteriaceae isolates in five medical centres of East and West Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Ghotaslou, Reza; Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Hasani, Alka

    2016-11-01

    Very little is known about the occurrence and various types of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC and carbapenemase in Iran. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of ESBLs, AmpCs and carbapenemase genes among Enterobacteriaceae in Azerbaijan and to characterize the genetic composition of the detected genes. A total of 307 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, recovered from five medical centres, were screened for ESBL, AmpC and carbapenemase activities by the disc diffusion method and phenotypic confirmatory tests. The 162 selected strains (third-generation cephalosporins, cefoxitin- or carbapenem-resistant strains with positive or negative phenotypic confirmatory tests) were selected for multiplex PCR screening for β-lactamase genes, and detected genes were confirmed by sequencing. Of 162 isolates, 156 harboured 1 to 6 β-lactamase genes of 41 types. The most prevalent genes were blaTEM-1 (29.9 %), followed by blaCTX-M-15 (25.7 %). Plasmid-mediated AmpC was detected in 66 strains (21.5 %) alone or in combination with other genes. Carbapenemase-encoding genes were detected in 18 strains (5.8 %) of 27 carbapenem-non-susceptible isolates including 11, 7, 3 and 1 cases of blaOXA-48, blaNDM-1, blaKPC-2 and blaKPC-3 genes, respectively. Interestingly, 148 (94.8 %) of 156 strains with any β-lactamase gene were found to have a multidrug-resistant pattern. The rate of resistance to β-lactams and multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is high in Azerbaijan. All positive strains for carbapenemase genes were resistant to all β-lactams. The present study reveals the high occurrence of CTX-M-type ESBLs followed by TEM and SHV variants among Enterobacteriaceae isolates. East Azerbaijan seems to be an alarming focus for OXA-48, NDM-1 and KPC dissemination.

  4. The main clinical change detection and analysis of drug resistance of gram negative bacilli producing Ampc enzyme%临床主要革兰阴性杆菌产Ampc酶的检测与耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文宏宇

    2013-01-01

    Objective Research and analysis the Gram-negative bacilli produced AMPC enzyme and drug resistance, Method 1767 strains of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from clinical were identified and analyzed the sensitivity,using cefoxitin three dismensional test.Result 437 stains produced AMPC enzyme were detected from 1767 strains of Gram-negative bacilli,the highest detection rate of AMPC strains were Escherichia cloacae、Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusion The detection rate and resistance rate of the Gram-negative bacilli produced AMPC enzyme are rising,we should pay attention on the detection and monitoring drug resistance of the Gram-negative bacilli produced AMPC enzyme.%目的研究分析临床主要革兰阴性杆菌产Ampc酶情况及其耐药性。方法对临床分离的1767株主要革兰阴性杆菌进行鉴定及相关药敏分析,采用头孢西丁三维试验检测产Apmc酶菌株。结果1767株主要革兰阴性杆菌共检出产Ampc酶株437株,产Ampc酶菌株检出率较高的依次为大肠埃希菌、阴沟肠杆菌和肺炎克雷伯菌。结论产Ampc酶的革兰阴性杆菌的检出率和耐药率呈上升趋势,应重视对产Ampc酶菌株的检测及其耐药性监控。

  5. An international, prospective, multicenter evaluation of the combination of AdvanDx Staphylococcus QuickFISH BC with mecA XpressFISH for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from positive blood cultures.

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    Salimnia, H; Fairfax, M R; Lephart, P; Morgan, M; Gilbreath, J J; Butler-Wu, S M; Templeton, K E; Hamilton, F J; Wu, F; Buckner, R; Fuller, D; Davis, T E; Abdelhamed, A M; Jacobs, M R; Miller, A; Pfrommer, B; Carroll, K C

    2014-11-01

    Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is a major health problem worldwide. Better outcomes are achieved when rapid diagnosis and determination of methicillin susceptibility enable early optimization of antimicrobial therapy. Eight large clinical laboratories, seven from the United States and one from Scotland, evaluated the combination of the Staphylococcus QuickFISH BC and the new mecA XpressFISH assay (both AdvanDx, Woburn, MA, USA) for the detection of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in positive blood cultures. Blood cultures flagged as positive by automated blood culture instruments and demonstrating only Gram-positive cocci in clusters on Gram stain were tested by QuickFISH, a 20-min assay. If only S. aureus was detected, mecA XpressFISH testing followed. The recovered S. aureus isolates were tested by cefoxitin disk diffusion as the reference method. The QuickFISH assay results were concordant with the routine phenotypic testing methods of the testing laboratories in 1,211/1,221 (99.1%) samples and detected 488/491 S. aureus organisms (sensitivity, 99.4%; specificity, 99.6%). Approximately 60% of the samples (730) contained coagulase-negative staphylococci or nonstaphylococci as assessed by the QuickFISH assay and were not tested further. The 458 compliant samples positive exclusively for S. aureus by the QuickFISH assay were tested by the mecA XpressFISH assay, which detected 209 of 211 methicillin-resistant S. aureus organisms (sensitivity, 99.1%; specificity, 99.6%). The mecA XpressFISH assay also showed high reproducibility, with 534/540 tests performed by 6 operators over 5 days achieving reproducible results (98.9% agreement). The combination of the Staphylococcus QuickFISH BC and mecA XpressFISH assays is sensitive, specific, and reproducible for the detection of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and yields complete results in 2 h after the blood culture turns positive.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of Clostridium difficile - associated diarrhea in Iranian hospitalized patients

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    Shohreh Farshad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Clostridium difficile is a frequently identified cause of nosocomial gastrointestinal disease. It has been proved to be a causative agent in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Aims: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD in hospitalized patients with nosocomial diarrhea in Shiraz, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study from June to December 2012, a total of 122 stool samples of patients with nosocomial antibiotic associated diarrhea that were admitted in to the intensive care units (ICUs (41, surgery (16 and organ transplantation wards (65 in Namazi hospital, Shiraz, Iran were collected. All stool samples were cultured on a selective Cycloserine Cefoxitin Fructose Agar and grew isolates were analyzed by cytotoxicity assay and enzyme immune assay for detection and conformation of toxins. Results: The mean ± standard deviation of age was 49.4 ± 13.8 and 75 (61.5% of patients were male. Nine (7.4% cases of nosocomial diarrhea were diagnosed as CDAD that all isolates were toxigenic. Five of 65 organs receive transplant patients and 4/41 hospitalized patients in ICUs ward were developed CDAD. None of samples that obtained from surgery ward infected with C. difficile. Ceftazidime and Ampicilline-Sulbactam were the most common antimicrobial drugs used. Multivariate analysis showed that use of diapers, antibiotic and immunosuppressive therapies were significantly associated with CDAD (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Hospital transmission of C. difficile commonly occurred, supporting infection-appropriate measures directed toward the reduction of CDAD.

  7. Detecting bacteria and determining their susceptibility to antibiotics by stochastic confinement in nanoliter droplets using plug-based microfluidics.

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    Boedicker, James Q; Li, Liang; Kline, Timothy R; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2008-08-01

    This article describes plug-based microfluidic technology that enables rapid detection and drug susceptibility screening of bacteria in samples, including complex biological matrices, without pre-incubation. Unlike conventional bacterial culture and detection methods, which rely on incubation of a sample to increase the concentration of bacteria to detectable levels, this method confines individual bacteria into droplets nanoliters in volume. When single cells are confined into plugs of small volume such that the loading is less than one bacterium per plug, the detection time is proportional to plug volume. Confinement increases cell density and allows released molecules to accumulate around the cell, eliminating the pre-incubation step and reducing the time required to detect the bacteria. We refer to this approach as 'stochastic confinement'. Using the microfluidic hybrid method, this technology was used to determine the antibiogram - or chart of antibiotic sensitivity - of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to many antibiotics in a single experiment and to measure the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug cefoxitin (CFX) against this strain. In addition, this technology was used to distinguish between sensitive and resistant strains of S. aureus in samples of human blood plasma. High-throughput microfluidic techniques combined with single-cell measurements also enable multiple tests to be performed simultaneously on a single sample containing bacteria. This technology may provide a method of rapid and effective patient-specific treatment of bacterial infections and could be extended to a variety of applications that require multiple functional tests of bacterial samples on reduced timescales.

  8. Factors associated with the occurrence of MRSA CC398 in herds of fattening pigs in Germany

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    Alt Katja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MRSA in herds of fattening pigs in different regions of Germany, and to determine factors associated with the occurrence of this pathogen. For this purpose pooled dust samples were collected, and a questionnaire covered information regarding herd characteristics and management practices. Samples were pre-enriched in high-salt medium followed by selective enrichment containing cefoxitin/aztreonam, and culturing. Presumptive colonies were confirmed by multiplex-PCR targeting nuc-, mecA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Isolates were spa- and SCCmec-, and in selected cases, multilocus sequence-typed. Susceptibilities to 13 antimicrobials were determined by broth microdilution. Statistical analysis was carried out using backward stepwise logistic regression to calculate odds ratios with the MRSA test result as the outcome and herd characteristics as categorical covariates. Results Overall, 152 of 290 (52% fattening pig farms tested positive for MRSA. The prevalence in the east, north- and south-west of Germany ranged from 39 to 59%. t011 (66% and t034 (23% were the most commonly identified spa-types, and 85% of isolates carried SCCmec Type V. Identified spa-types were all associated with clonal complex CC398. Susceptibility testing revealed that all isolates were resistant to tetracycline. High resistance rates were also found for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (40%, and quinupristin/dalfopristin (32%. In addition, 83% of strains displayed multidrug resistant (> 3 substance classes phenotypes. Logistic regression revealed herd size (large farms OR: 5.4; CI: 2.7-11.2; p Conclusions MRSA CC398 is widely distributed among herds of fattening pigs in Germany. Farm management plays a crucial role in the dissemination of MRSA with herd size, and production type representing potential major indicators.

  9. Methods of detection and typing of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from animals

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    Radosavljević V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work there was evaluated the method of detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA by using two molecular and three phenotypic tests in investigation procedure of 70 strains of S.aureus isolated from animals. Recent findings of the new mecA homologue, mecALGA251, minimise the significance of mecA gene presence detection as a confirmation method of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus identification. For this reason, along with multiplex PCR set of primers(165rDNK, nuc, mecA for detection mecA gene, there was also used multiplex PCR set of primers (spa, mecA, pvl, mecALGA251 for differentiation mecALGA251 from mecA, with simultaneous detection of luk-PV and spa gene fragments. In all 70 investigated isolates there was detected the presence of specific 16 SrDNK fragment and nuc gene which encodes a thermostable S. aureus nuclease, while in 5 out of 70 S. aureus isolates, there was proven mecA gene presence using two multiplex PCR tests. In the investigated strains there was determined neither mecC (mecALGA251gene presence, nor Panton Valentine Leukocidin encoding gene. By application cefoxitin disk-diffusion, latex-agglutination and two multiplex PCR tests, the identical results in identification 5 methicillin resistant out of 70 investigated S. aureus strains were obtained. In our investigation there was determined a complete correlation between the results of phenotypic and genotypic identification of methicillin resistant S. aureus. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31079

  10. Countrywide dissemination of a DHA-1-type plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 international high-risk clone in Hungary, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Zoltán; Tóth, Ákos; Jánvári, Laura; Damjanova, Ivelina

    2016-09-01

    The first plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (pAmpC KP) isolate was detected in December 2009 in Hungary. Hungarian microbiological laboratories were asked to send all KP strains showing cefoxitin resistance and decreased susceptibility or resistance to any third-generation cephalosporins to the Reference Laboratories at the National Center for Epidemiology. Investigation was conducted in order to outline spatio-temporal distribution and genetic characterization of pAmpC-KP isolates in Hungary. Between December 2009 and December 2013, 312 consecutive KP clinical isolates were confirmed as producing pAmpCs. All isolates showed resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones, and 77 % were non-susceptible to at least one carbapenem. Analysis of β-lactamase genes showed blaDHA-1 in all and additionally blaCTX-M-15 in 90 % of isolates. PFGE typing revealed 12 pulsotypes; of these, KP053 (262/312) and KP070 (38/312) belonged to sequence type ST11 and comprised 96 % of the isolates. The blaDHA-1 and blaCTX-M-15 co-producing KP053/ST11 clone affected 234 patients and spread to 55 healthcare centres across Hungary during the study period. Three KP053 isolates were also resistant to colistin. In two of these, the mgrB gene was truncated by IS10R, while in the third isolate, insertional inactivation of mgrB by ISKPn14 was identified. Hungary is the first European country showing endemic spread of blaDHA-1 facilitated by the international high-risk clone ST11. The rapid countrywide spread of this multidrug-resistant clone seriously endangers Hungarian healthcare facilities and warrants strengthening of infection control practices and prudent use of carbapenems and colistin.

  11. Frequency of Aminoglycoside-Resistance Genes in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Isolates from Hospitalized Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdiyoun, Seyed Mohsen; Kazemian, Hossein; Ahanjan, Mohammad; Houri, Hamidreza; Goudarzi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important causative agents in community- and hospital-acquired infections. Aminoglycosides are powerful bactericidal drugs that are often used in combination with beta-lactams or glycopeptides to treat staphylococcal infections. Objectives The main objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of aminoglycoside resistance among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in hospitalized patients in Sari and Tehran, Iran. Methods In this study, 174 MRSA strains isolated from different clinical samples, such as blood, sputum, tracheal exudates, bronchus, pleura, urine, wounds, and catheters, were collected from hospitalized patients in Tehran and Sari during 2014. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed against nine antibiotics with the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. The MRSA strains were examined with oxacillin and cefoxitin disks. MRSA was then validated by detection of the mecA gene. PCR was used to evaluate the prevalence of the aminoglycoside-resistance genes aac (6’)-Ie/aph (2”), aph (3’)-IIIa, and ant (4’) among the MRSA isolates. Results The results of drug susceptibility testing showed that the highest rate of resistance was against erythromycin in Tehran (84.4%) and gentamicin (71.7%) in Sari. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, and all strains harbored the mecA gene. The aac (6’)-Ie/aph (2”), aph (3’)-IIIa, and ant (4’)-Ia genes were detected among 134 (77%), 119 (68.4%), and 122 (70.1%) of the isolates, respectively. Conclusions The present study showed a high prevalence of aminoglycoside-resistance genes among MRSA isolates in two cities in Iran.

  12. First national survey of antibiotic susceptibility of the Bacteroides fragilis group: emerging resistance to carbapenems in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Canigia, Liliana; Litterio, Mirta; Legaria, María C; Castello, Liliana; Predari, Silvia C; Di Martino, Ana; Rossetti, Adelaida; Rollet, Raquel; Carloni, Graciela; Bianchini, Hebe; Cejas, Daniela; Radice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2012-03-01

    The antibiotic susceptibility rates of 363 clinical Bacteroides fragilis group isolates collected from 17 centers in Argentina during the period from 2006 to 2009 were as follows: piperacillin-tazobactam, 99%; ampicillin-sulbactam, 92%; cefoxitin, 72%; tigecycline, 100%; moxifloxacin, 91%; and clindamycin, 52%. No metronidazole resistance was detected in these isolates during this time period. Resistance to imipenem, doripenem, and ertapenem was observed in 1.1%, 1.6%, and 2.3% of B. fragilis group strains, respectively. B. fragilis species showed a resistance profile of 1.5% to imipenem, 1.9% to doripenem, and 2.4% to ertapenem. This is the first report of carbapenem resistance in Argentina. The cfiA gene was present in 8 out of 23 isolates, all of them belonging to the B. fragilis species and displaying reduced susceptibility or resistance to carbapenems (MICs ≥ 4 μg/ml). Three out of eight cfiA-positive isolates were fully resistant to carbapenems, while 5 out of 8 isolates showed low-level resistance (MICs, 4 to 8 μg/ml). The inhibition by EDTA was a good predictor of the presence of metallo-β-lactamases in the fully resistant B. fragilis strains, but discrepant results were observed for low-level resistant isolates. B. fragilis was more susceptible to antimicrobial agents than other Bacteroides species. Bacteroides vulgatus species was the most resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam and piperacillin-tazobactam, and B. thetaiotaomicron/ovatus strains showed the highest level of resistance to carbapenems, with an unknown resistance mechanism. B. vulgatus and the uncommon non-Bacteroides fragilis species were the most resistant to moxifloxacin, showing an overall resistance rate of 15.1%.

  13. Update on resistance of Bacteroides fragilis group and related species with special attention to carbapenems 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snydman, D R; Jacobus, N V; McDermott, L A; Golan, Y; Goldstein, E J C; Harrell, L; Jenkins, S; Newton, D; Pierson, C; Rosenblatt, J; Venezia, R; Gorbach, S L; Queenan, A M; Hecht, D W

    2011-08-01

    The susceptibility trends for the species of the Bacteroides fragilis group against various antibiotics were determined using data from 4 years [2006-2009] on 1957 isolates referred by 8 medical centers participating in a National Survey for the Susceptibility of B. fragilis. The antibiotic test panel included doripenem, ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem, ampicillin:sulbactam, piperacillin:tazobactam, cefoxitin, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, tigecycline, chloramphenicol and metronidazole. MICs were determined using agar dilution methods following CLSI recommendations. Genetic analysis of isolates from 2008 with elevated MICs (>2 μg/mL) to one or more of the carbapenems to detect presence of the cfiA gene was performed using PCR methodology. The results showed an increase in the resistance rates to the β-lactam antibiotics. High resistance rates were seen for clindamycin and moxifloxacin (as high as 60% for clindamycin and >80% for moxifloxacin), with relatively stable low resistance (5.4%) for tigecycline. For carbapenems, resistance in B. fragilis was 1.1%-2.5% in 2008-9. One isolate resistant to metronidazole (MIC 32 μg/mL) was observed as well as isolates with elevated MICs to chloramphenicol (16 μg/mL). Genetic analysis indicated that the cfiA gene was present in some but not all of the isolates with high MICs to the carbapenems. These data indicate that there continue to be changes in susceptibility over time, and that resistance can be seen among the carbapenems. High antibiotic resistance rates tend to be associated with specific species.

  14. VEB-1 extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis sepsis outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit in India: clinical and diagnostic implications

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    Jain, Sarika; Kothari, Charu; Sehgal, Rachna; Shamweel, A.; Thukral, S. S.; Chellani, Harish K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, are increasingly implicated in nosocomial outbreaksworldwide, particularly in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Proteus mirabilis is an uncommon nosocomial pathogen causing sepsis in neonates. Case Presentation: We report an outbreak of ESBL-positive MDR P. mirabilis sepsis involving five babies within 10 days in a NICU, which was promptly detected and managed. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular mechanism of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) in the bacteria. Surveillance cultures were collected from health-care personnel (hand swabs, urine) and the surrounding patient-care environment. Ribotyping was performed to determine the clonality of the strain. Thirteen P. mirabilis were recovered from the blood cultures of the five babies and surveillance cultures. Twelve isolates were positive for the VEB-1 ESBL type, and were susceptible only to ciprofloxacin and carbapenems. There was an unusual phenotypic synergy observed between the 3GCs and imipenem/cefoxitin. The source of infection was traced to a contaminated multidose vial. The outbreak was associated with a high mortality (80 %). A change of empirical antibiotic policy to ciprofloxacin, with strict infection control measures, brought the outbreak to an abrupt end. Conclusion: This is believed to be the first report of a nosocomial outbreak of VEB-1 ESBL-producing P. mirabilis sepsis in neonates from India. The present report of infection due to VEB-1-producing P. mirabilis, an uncommon pathogen for an epidemic in a neonatal unit, highlights the growing significance of such Gram-negative bacteria as a cause of infections in newborns. Epidemic spread in a neonatal unit of an ESBL-producing Proteus species, which also had an intrinsically reduced susceptibility to imipenem, and resistance to colistin and tigecycline, can be a threatening situation and

  15. The antimicrobial susceptibility proifle of ESKAPE pathogens from urinary tract infections in a referral laboratory, Northeast Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Salehi; Abdolmajid Ghasemian; Farshad Nojoomi; Mohammad Karim Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To assess the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern ofESKAPE pathogens from Neyshabur, Iran during 2013–2015. Methods: A total of 345 isolates including 62Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus), 38 Enterobacterspp. (including 14Enterobacter agglomerans, 6Enterobacter aerogenes and other 18Enterobacterspp.), 123Enterococcus faecium, 78Klebsiella pneumonia, 10 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 34Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolates was conducted with Kirby Bauer method. Data were analyzed withSPSS 20.0 software usingF- andt-tests. Results:AmongS. aureus isolates, the highest resistance was observed against nalidixic acid (81.35%) and cefixime (74.50%). Thirty-three (53.22%)S. aureus isolates were cefoxitin resistant (methicillin-resistantS. aureus). The majority ofEnterobacter species was resistant to amikacin (100.00%) and cephalotin (66.60%). MostEnterococcus faecium isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (89.43%) and amikacin (83.33%), but vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolates were not detected. Moreover, amongKlebsiella pneumonia, the highest resistance was observed to nalidixic acid (20.98%) and cotrimoxazole (28.39%). Furthermore, allPseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistant to cefotaxime (100.00%) and majority to nitroforantoin (88.80%).Acinetobacter baumannii isolates showed the highest and the lowest resistance to cefotaxime (100.00%) and cefixime (88.71%), respectively. Conclusions:The prevalence ofESKAPE pathogens from northeast region was low, but majority of them exhibited high rate of antibiotic resistance to common used antimicrobial agents.

  16. Biochemical and molecular characterization of three new variants of AmpC beta-lactamases from Morganella morganii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Pablo; Galleni, Moreno; Ayala, Juan A; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2006-03-01

    Morganella morganii produces an inducible, chromosomally encoded AmpC beta-lactamase. We describe in this study three new variants of AmpC within this species with apparent pIs of 6.6 (M19 from M. morganii strain PP19), 7.4 (M29 from M. morganii strain PP29), and 7.8 (M37 from M. morganii strain PP37). After gene sequencing, deduced amino acid sequences displayed one to six substitutions when compared to the available Morganella AmpC sequences. An AmpR-encoding gene was also found upstream of ampC, including the LysR regulators' helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain and the putative T-N11-A-protected region in the ampR-ampC intercistronic sequence. All three AmpC variants were purified from in vitro-generated derepressed mutants and showed overall similar kinetic parameters. None of the observed amino acid changes, occurring at the surface of the protein, appear to have a major influence in their catalytic properties. Morganella AmpCs exhibit the highest catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) on classical penicillins, cefoxitin, narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, and cefotaxime. Cefotaxime was more effectively hydrolyzed than other oxyimino-cephalosporins, whereas cefepime was 3 log-fold less efficiently hydrolyzed than other cephalosporins such as cephalothin. Several differences with other AmpC beta-lactamases were found. Ampicillin was more efficiently hydrolyzed than benzylpenicillin. High k(cat)/K(m) values were observed for oxacillin and piperacillin, which are usually poor substrates for AmpC. A fairly efficient hydrolysis of imipenem was detected as well. Aztreonam, carbenicillin, and tazobactam were effective transient inactivators of these variants.

  17. Prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the district of Pomoravlje

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    Petrović-Jeremić Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA strains appear to have rapidly disseminated among population in the community without established risk factors for MRSA worldwide. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL is a cytolytic toxin, encoded by the lukF-PV and lukF-PV genes. PVL may be the key toxin responsible for enhanced virulence of CA-MRSA. The aim of this study was to detect the genes encoding PVL in CA-MRSA isolates from healthy people from the District of Pomoravlje. Methods. We took throat and nose swabs from healthy, employed persons with mandatory sanitary examinations and analyzed the presence of MRSA, between January 2011 and December 2012 in the District of Pomoravlje. Susceptibility of isolated strains to cefoxitin was investigated by using disc diffusion according to the recommendation of CLSI (Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute, and by E test. The presence of penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a in Staphylococci was detected using latex agglutination Slidex ®MRSA Detection test. The gold standard, polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay, was used for detection of mecA gene and PVL gene, and typing of SCCmec region. Results. Our investigation showed that staphylococcal carrier state was present in 2.58% of 52,910 throat and nasal swabs, and in 50 of them (3.67% MRSA was isolated. Among these MRSA, 2 (4% isolates were PVL-positive. Conclusion. The prevalence of CAMRSA and the presence of PVL gene among healthy, employed population in the District of Pomoravlje were low. The values obtained in this study show that, our region is not significantly different from the other parts of our country, nor from the other European countries.

  18. Extended spectrum β-lactamase and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli fecal isolates from healthy companion animals in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Massilia; Mairi, Assia; Touati, Abdelaziz; Hassissene, Lila; Brasme, Lucien; Guillard, Thomas; De Champs, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of fecal carriage of Escherichia coli strains producing Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) isolated from healthy pets (dogs and cats) in Algeria. Fecal samples from 171 healthy pets (102 dogs and 69 cats) in one veterinary practice and private owners were included. After isolates identification, antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion procedure. ESBL were detected by combination disk tests. PCR and sequencing were used to characterize genes encoding ESBLs and PMQR. Transfer of ESBL and PMQR genes was assessed by conjugation experiments. Phylogenetic groups of E. coli were determined by PCR. Of the 171 animals, 20 carried an ESBL producing E. coli giving a prevalence of ESBL fecal carriage of 11.7%. All isolates were susceptible to carbapenems, cefoxitin, piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin and fosfomycine. For the rest of the tested β-lactams, susceptibility rates ranged from 35% to 70% for cefepime and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid respectively. Concerning the non-beta-lactams antibiotics, the rates of susceptibility ranged between 5% to trimethoprim and 95% for chloramphenicol. The beta-lactamase genes identified in E. coli isolates were blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-1, blaSHV-12 and blaTEM-1. The PMQR determinants aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrS1 and qnrB5 genes were identified in 15 isolates. Transconjugants were obtained for two isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that E. coli isolates belong to commensal phylogroups of A and B1. We reported here for the first time in Algeria ESBL and PMQR-producing E. coli in healthy cats and dogs.

  19. Molecular characterisation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and plasmid AmpC-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from broilers in Béjaïa, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmahdi, Mohamed; Bakour, Sofiane; Al Bayssari, Charbel; Touati, Abdelaziz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to characterise the molecular support of antibiotic resistance in expanded-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates recovered from healthy broilers in Béjaïa, northeast Algeria. A total of 61 intestinal swabs from slaughtered broilers from four regions in Béjaïa locality, Algeria, were collected between February and April 2014, from which 20 ESC-resistant E. coli strains were isolated. Escherichia coli isolates were identified by classical biochemical and MALDI-TOF methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods. Screening for β-lactamases, aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME)-encoding genes and qnr determinants was performed by PCR and sequencing. Clonal relatedness was determined using molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that the isolates showed high rates of resistance (>90%) to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, aztreonam, ceftazidime, streptomycin, tobramycin, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Low rates of resistance were observed for kanamycin (35%), amikacin (30%), cefoxitin (20%) and cefotaxime (15%). Molecular characterisation revealed that all of the isolates expressed the blaTEM-1 gene. Fourteen of them harboured the blaSHV-12 gene, two harboured the blaCTX-M-1 gene and four isolates harboured blaCMY-2. Screening for AME-encoding genes demonstrated that all isolates contained the aadA gene. In addition, qnrA was detected as the quinolone resistance determinant in 13 isolates. MLST revealed four known sequence types (STs), including ST744, ST38, ST1011 and ST2179, as well as one new sequence type (ST5086). Here we report the first study describing the clonal diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid AmpC-producing E. coli isolated from healthy broilers in Algeria.

  20. Bacterial Species and Antibiotic Sensitivity in Korean Patients Diagnosed with Acute Otitis Media and Otitis Media with Effusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Changes over time in pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity resulting from the recent overuse and misuse of antibiotics in otitis media (OM) have complicated treatment. This study evaluated changes over 5 years in principal pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity in patients in Korea diagnosed with acute OM (AOM) and OM with effusion (OME). The study population consisted of 683 patients who visited the outpatient department of otorhinolaryngology in 7 tertiary hospitals in Korea between January 2010 and May 2015 and were diagnosed with acute AOM or OME. Aural discharge or middle ear fluid were collected from patients in the operating room or outpatient department and subjected to tests of bacterial identification and antibiotic sensitivity. The overall bacteria detection rate of AOM was 62.3% and OME was 40.9%. The most frequently isolated Gram-positive bacterial species was coagulase negative Staphylococcus aureus (CNS) followed by methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Streptococcus pneumonia (SP), whereas the most frequently isolated Gram-negative bacterium was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). Regardless of OM subtype, ≥ 80% of CNS and MRSA strains were resistant to penicillin (PC) and tetracycline (TC); isolated MRSA strains showed low sensitivity to other antibiotics, with 100% resistant to PC, TC, cefoxitin (CFT), and erythromycin (EM); and isolated PA showed low sensitivity to quinolone antibiotics, including ciprofloxacin (CIP) and levofloxacin (LFX), and to aminoglycosides. Bacterial species and antibiotic sensitivity did not change significantly over 5 years. The rate of detection of MRSA was higher in OME than in previous studies. As bacterial predominance and antibiotic sensitivity could change over time, continuous and periodic surveillance is necessary in guiding appropriate antibacterial therapy. PMID:28244296

  1. Inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from Mashhad, Iran

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    Najmeh seifi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Staphylococcus aureus is an important agent in hospital and community-associated infections, causing high morbidity and mortality. Introduction of the new antimicrobial classes for this pathogen is usually followed by the emergence of resistant strains through multiple mechanisms. For instance, resistance to clindamycin (CLI, can be constitutive or inducible. Inducible clindamycin resistance which may lead to treatment failure can simply be identified by performing D-test. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of inducible clindamycin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus isolates by D-test method.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 254 non-duplicated S. aureus isolates in Imam Reza hospital of Mashhad during 2010. Susceptibility to oxacillin, cefoxitin, erythromycin and clindamycin was performed by disk agar diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines and D-shaped clindamycin susceptibility patterns where considered as D-test positive (D+.Results: Of 211 S. aureus isolates 88 (37.82% were methicillin resistant. It was found that of 88 MRSA isolates, 78 (88.63% were erythromycin (ERY resistant and 46 (52.27% were CLI resistant. ERY and CLI resistance in MSSA strains was 21.95% and 11.96% respectively. Inducible clindamycin resistance was detected in 18 (20.45% MRSA isolates. 47(53.40% of MRSA isolates and 9 (7.32% of MSSA showed constitutive MLSB phenotype.Conclusion: In conclusion, we found a high prevalence of inducible clindamycin resistance phenotype in our region. We recommend that whenever clindamycin is intended for S. aureus infections, D-test should be performed to facilitate the optimal treatment of patients.Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, clindamycin, Inducible resistance

  2. [Alcaligenes xylosoxidans bacteremia in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Zeynep Alp; Ozdemir, Nihal; Celik, Nigar; Celkan, Tiraje

    2009-07-01

    Alcaligenes xylosoxidans which is an aerobic, non-fermentative gram-negative bacillus found in aqueous environments and human flora, can lead to opportunistic infections. It causes infections in elderly, immunocompromised patients, patients with chronic disorders or premature infants. In this report, a case of A. xylosoxidans bacteremia that developed in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was presented. Four-years-old male patient under ALL induction therapy was admitted with symptoms of lethargy, headache, somnolence, and fever (39 degrees C). Cerebrospinal fluid, blood, throat and urine cultures were taken from the patient and empirical treatment with sulbactam cefoperazon and amikacin was initiated. Blood cultures in BacT Alert 3D (Bio Merieux, France) revealed the growth of a gram-negative coccobacillus. The agent which was non-fermentative, indol and H2S negative, was identified as A. xylosoxidans by API 20 NE (Bio Merieux, France). Since fever continued under the current antibiotic treatment, the therapy was switched to imipenem (90 mg/kg 3x/day) and the patient's condition improved markedly after 24 hours. Disc diffusion susceptibility testing of the isolate revealed that it was resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, amikacin, netilmicin and gentamicin; susceptible to amoxicillin clavulanate, piperacillin tazobactam, seftazidime, cefepime, imipenem and ciprofloxacin. Following 14 days of imipenem therapy, the patient recovered and discharged from the hospital on routine follow-up. It is important to consider A. xylosoxidans as a possible causative agent particularly in the infections that develop in high risk patients at oncology, dialysis and neonatal intensive care units.

  3. STUDY OF BACTERIAL FLORA OF HANDS OF HEALTH CARE GIVERS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN EASTERN INDIA

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    Asim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial contamination of palm of hand of health care givers like doctors and nurses can be an important source of nosocomial infections. Proper hand hygiene is hence key to prevent spread of such cross - infection. We studied the bacterial flora of palm of hand of 101 clinical staff ( D octors of clinical specialties and nurses and compared it with bacterial flora of 99 non - clinical staff (Doctors of non - clinical specialties and lab technicians and attendants. Hand swab was collected by a sterile swab moistened with sterile normal saline. Out of 101 clinical staff , 63 (62. 37% showed hand swab positivity for bacteria. On the other hand , out of 99 non - clinical staff , 72 showed hand swab positivity for bacteria (72.72%. Among clinical staff , hands of 60. 3% doctors (38 out of 63 and 65. 7% nursing staff (25 out of 38 was contaminated with bacteria. The bacterium most commonly isolated from hands of clinical staff was Staphylococcus aureus , while the bacteria most frequently recovered from ha nds of non - clinical staff were Acinetobacter lwoffii . Only 1 isolate of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was recovered , from hand of a doctor in Pediatrics department. Antibiotic susceptibility test of the isolates was also performed agai nst 3 antibiotics: Cotrimoxazole , Amikacin and Levofloxacin; in addition , Cefoxitin (30 μg disk was used to check for MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus . Most of the strains were sensitive to all the 3 antibiotics. This study highlights th e importance of proper hand washing and awareness of its importance and monitoring among hospital staff.

  4. Incidence, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Toxin Genes Possession Screening of Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Chicken Livers and Gizzards

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    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Few recent outbreaks in Europe and the US involving Campylobacter and Salmonella were linked to the consumption of chicken livers. Studies investigating Staphylococcus aureus in chicken livers and gizzards are very limited. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence of S. aureus and MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in retail chicken livers and gizzards in Tulsa, Oklahoma. In this study, 156 chicken livers and 39 chicken gizzards samples of two brands were collected. While one of the brands showed very low prevalence of 1% (1/100 for S. aureus in chicken livers and gizzards, the second brand showed prevalence of 37% (31/95. No MRSA was detected since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. Eighty seven S. aureus isolates from livers and 28 from gizzards were screened for antimicrobial resistance to 16 antimicrobials and the possession of 18 toxin genes. Resistance to most of the antimicrobials screened including cefoxitin and oxacillin was higher in the chicken gizzards isolates. While the prevalence of enterotoxin genes seg and sei was higher in the gizzards isolates, the prevalence of hemolysin genes hla, hlb, and hld was higher in the livers ones. The lucocidin genes lukE-lukD was equally prevalent in chicken livers and gizzards isolates. Using spa typing, a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are not known to be livestock associated and, hence, may be of a human origin. In conclusion, this study stresses the importance of thorough cooking of chicken livers and gizzards since it might contain multidrug resistant enterotoxigenic S. aureus. To our knowledge this is the first study to specifically investigate the prevalence of S. aureus in chicken livers and gizzards in the US.

  5. In vivo selection of resistant E. coli after ingestion of milk with added drug residues.

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    Richard Van Vleck Pereira

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance represents a major global threat to modern medicine. In vitro studies have shown that very low concentrations of drugs, as frequently identified in the environment, and in foods and water for human and animal consumption, can select for resistant bacteria. However, limited information is currently available on the in vivo impact of ingested drug residues. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of feeding preweaned calves milk containing antimicrobial drug residues (below the minimum inhibitory concentration, similar to concentrations detected in milk commonly fed to dairy calves, on selection of resistant fecal E. coli in calves from birth to weaning. At birth, thirty calves were randomly assigned to a controlled feeding trial where: 15 calves were fed raw milk with no drug residues (NR, and 15 calves were fed raw milk with drug residues (DR by adding ceftiofur, penicillin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline at final concentrations in the milk of 0.1, 0.005, 0.01, and 0.3 µg/ml, respectively. Fecal samples were rectally collected from each calf once a week starting at birth prior to the first feeding in the trial (pre-treatment until 6 weeks of age. A significantly greater proportion of E. coli resistant to ampicillin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, streptomycin and tetracycline was observed in DR calves when compared to NR calves. Additionally, isolates from DR calves had a significant decrease in susceptibility to ceftriaxone and ceftiofur when compared to isolates from NR calves. A greater proportion of E. coli isolates from calves in the DR group were resistant to 3 or more antimicrobial drugs when compared to calves in the ND group. These findings highlight the role that low concentrations of antimicrobial drugs have on the evolution and selection of resistance to multiple antimicrobial drugs in vivo.

  6. Clostridium difficile infection diagnosis in a paediatric population: comparison of methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, J; Putsathit, P; Knight, D R; Sammels, L; Riley, T V; Keil, A

    2014-09-01

    The increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in paediatric hospitalised populations, combined with the emergence of hypervirulent strains, community-acquired CDI and the need for prompt treatment and infection control, makes the rapid, accurate diagnosis of CDI crucial. We validated commonly used C. difficile diagnostic tests in a paediatric hospital population. From October 2011 to January 2012, 150 consecutive stools were collected from 75 patients at a tertiary paediatric hospital in Perth, Western Australia. Stools were tested using: C. Diff Quik Chek Complete, Illumigene C. difficile, GeneOhm Cdiff, cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA) culture, and cell culture cytotoxin neutralisation assay (CCNA). The reference standard was growth on CCFA or Cdiff Chromagar and PCR on isolates to detect tcdA, tcdB, cdtA, and cdtB. Isolates were PCR ribotyped. The prevalence of CDI was high (43 % of patients). Quik Chek Complete glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) demonstrated a low negative predictive value (NPV) (93 %). Both CCNA and Quik Chek Complete toxin A/B had poor sensitivity (33 % and 29 % respectively). Molecular methods both had 89 % sensitivity. Algorithms using GDH + Illumigene or GeneOhm reduced the sensitivity to 85 % and 83 % respectively. Ribotype UK014/20 predominated. GDH NPV and GeneOhm and Illumigene sensitivities were reduced compared with adult studies. Quik Chek Complete and CCNA cannot reliably detect toxigenic CDI. A GDH first algorithm showed reduced sensitivity. In a high prevalence paediatric population, molecular methods alone are recommended over the use of GDH algorithm or culture and CCNA, as they demonstrate the best test performance characteristics.

  7. Staphylococcus species and their Methicillin-Resistance in 7424 Blood Cultures for Suspected Bloodstream Infections

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    Ariana ALMAŞ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of Staphylococcus species in bloodstream infections and to assess their susceptibility to methicillin. Material and Methods: Between January 1st 2008 - December 31st 2010, 7424 blood culture sets were submitted to the Laboratory Department of the Hospital for Clinical Infectious Diseases in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The blood cultures were performed using BacT/Alert until January 2010 and BacT/Alert 3D automated system (bioMérieux after that date. The blood culture bottles were incubated at 37°C in a continuously monitoring system for up to 7 days. The strain identifications were performed by conventional methods, ApiStaph galleries and Vitek 2 Compact system. Susceptibility to methicillin was determined by disk diffusion method with cefoxitin disk and by using Vitek 2 Compact system. Results: From the total number of performed blood cultures, 568 were positive with Staphylococcus species. From 168 bacteriemic episodes 103 were with Staphylococcus aureus. Among 65 coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequently isolated species (34, followed by Staphylococcus hominis (15, Staphylococcus haemolyticus (8, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (3, Staphylococcus cohnii (1, Staphylococcus auricularis (1, and 3 strains that were not identified at species level. Methicillin resistance was encountered in 53.40% of Staphylococcus aureus strains and in 80% of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Conclusions: An important percentage of blood cultures were contaminated with Staphylococcus species. The main species identified in true bacteriemia cases were Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The percentage of methicillin-resistance, proved to be high not only for coagulase-negative staphylococci but also for Staphylococcus aureus.

  8. Retail ready-to-eat food as a potential vehicle for Staphylococcus spp. harboring antibiotic resistance genes.

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    Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Laniewska-Trokenheim, Lucja

    2014-06-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) food, which does not need thermal processing before consumption, could be a vehicle for the spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. As part of general microbiological safety checks, staphylococci are routinely enumerated in these kinds of foods. However, the presence of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci in RTE food is not routinely investigated, and data are only available from a small number of studies. The present study evaluated the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from 858 RTE foods (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes, salads). Of 113 strains isolated, S. aureus was the most prevalent species, followed by S. xylosus, S. saprophyticus, and S. epidermidis. More than half (54.9%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one class of tested antibiotic; of these, 35.4% of the strains were classified as multidrug resistant. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (49.6%), followed by clindamycin (39.3%), tigecycline (27.4%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (22.2%), rifampin (20.5%), tetracycline (17.9%), and erythromycin (8.5%). All methicillin-resistant staphylococci harbored the mecA gene. Among the isolates resistant to at least one antibiotic, 38 harbored tetracycline resistance determinant tet (M), 24 harbored tet (L), and 9 harbored tet (K). Of the isolates positive for tet (M) genes, 34.2% were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545-like integrase family gene. Our results indicated that retail RTE food could be considered an important route for the transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harboring multiple antibiotic resistance genes.

  9. Survey of Staphylococcus isolates among hospital personnel, environment and their antibiogram with special emphasis on methicillin resistance

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    Shobha K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find the prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. carriage among hospital personnel and hospital environment and their antibiogram with special emphasis on methicillin resistance. A total of 205 samples from hospital personnel and environment were collected from casualty, oncology and multidisciplinary cardiac unit ward of Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Manipal. Samples were collected using sterile cotton wool swabs and inoculated into brain heart infusion broth. Subcultures were done onto blood agar and MacConkey′s agar. Isolates were identified by standard methods up to species level. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed according to standardized disc diffusion Kirby-Bauer method. Each of the isolates was screened for methicillin resistance using oxacillin disc on Mueller Hinton agar plate followed by MIC for methicillin and cefoxitin susceptibility test by disc diffusion method. Sixty five out of 205 strains (31.7% were Staphylococcus spp. and all of them were coagulase negative. Most of the strains belonged to S.epidermidis 49.23%(32/65 followed by S. saprophyticus 26.15%(17/65. Maximum isolates of S.epidermidis were from anterior nares 28.12%(9/32 strains of S.epidermidis . Highest number of methicillin resistant coagulase negative strains (3/9, 33.33% were isolated from stethoscope of multidisciplinary cardiac unit ward followed by carriers in the anterior nares (2/9, 22.22%. Methicillin resistant coagulase negative staphylococci are prevalent in anterior nares of hospital personnel and in the hospital environment thereby providing a definite source for hospital acquired infection. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and amikacin.

  10. Aerobic bacterial profile and antibiotic resistance in patients with diabetic foot infections

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    Michele Cezimbra Perim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the frequencies of bacterial isolates cultured from diabetic foot infections and assess their resistance and susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics.METHODS: This prospective study included 41 patients with diabetic foot lesions. Bacteria were isolated from foot lesions, and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and/or broth method [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC].RESULTS: The most common location of ulceration was the toe (54%, followed by the plantar surface (27% and dorsal portion (19%. A total of 89 bacterial isolates were obtained from 30 patients. The infections were predominantly due to Gram-positive bacteria and polymicrobial bacteremia. The most commonly isolated Gram-positive bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The most commonly isolated Gram-negative bacteria were Proteus spp. and Enterobacterspp., followed by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonasspp., and Citrobacterspp. Nine cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA had cefoxitin resistance, and among these MRSA isolates, 3 were resistant to vancomycin with the MIC technique. The antibiotic imipenem was the most effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and gentamicin was effective against Gram-negative bacteria.CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirmed the high prevalence of multidrug-resistant pathogens in diabetic foot ulcers. It is necessary to evaluate the different microorganisms infecting the wound and to know the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the isolates from the infected wound. This knowledge is crucial for planning treatment with the appropriate antibiotics, reducing resistance patterns, and minimizing healthcare costs.

  11. Clinical isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus in Guangzhou area most possibly from the environmental infection showed variable susceptibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO Feng-lin; SUN Zhao-gang; LI Chuan-you; LIU Zhi-hui; CAI Lin; ZHOU Cheng; ZHANG Jian-zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium abscessus (M.abscessus) can cause a variety of human infections,involving the lung,skin and soft tissues,and is generally believed to be acquired from environmental sources.The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of M.abscessus isolates as the basis for strategies to improve control and management of infection.Methods Seventy M.abscessus isolates from patients attending the Guangzhou Thoracic Hospital were identified from 2003 to 2005 by biochemical tests,gas chromatography,polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction analysis (PRA) of heat shock protein gene hsp65,and sequencing of the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA.Susceptibilities to six antibiotics were determined by micro-broth dilution.Isolates were genotyped using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis.Results Most isolates (63/70; 90%) were susceptible to amikacin but rates of susceptibility to other antibiotics varied from moderate,clarithromycin (60%) and imipenem (43%),to low for ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin (3%),and 87% of isolates had intermediate susceptibility to cefoxitin.RAPD analysis showed that the 70 clinical isolates displayed 69 unique RAPD patterns.Conclusions The high genetic diversity of isolates suggests that they are not transmitted from person to person but,presumably,are acquired independently from environmental sources.M.abscessus isolates displayed variable levels of susceptibility to all antibiotics tested,other than amikacin,indicating a need for routine susceptibility testing to guide treatment.

  12. 我国部分省区牛源金黄色葡萄球菌抗菌药物敏感性调查%The Investigation of the Drug Resistance of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王登峰; 李建军; 高攀; 吴建勇; 杨学云; 韩博; 王治才

    2013-01-01

    were investigated by disc diffusion method. The results showed that the strains were sensitive or intermediary to cefoxitin, doxycycline and tetracycline, resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, penicillin, sulfamethoxazole compound, and heterogeneous to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin according to area of origin. Analysis of the multi-drug resistance situation, 66%~100% strains resisted to at least 3 antibiotics, more than 70% Beijing strains resisted to almost 5 antibiotics. In addition, 86 Xinjiang and 20 Zhejiang strains isolated after 2009 all resisted to erythromycin, clindamycin, penicillin, sulfamethoxazole compound, doxycycline and tetracycline, and most strains resisted to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin, furthermore, cefoxitin-resistance strains has arisen. Regarding the situation of multi-drug resistance, more than 86% the strains resisted to more than 5 antibiotics, and the situation was more serious than the strains of Beijing, Shanxi province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The investigation of antimicrobial sensitive of bovine Staphylococcus aureus isolated from five areas of China suggested that all the strains resisted to some types antibiotics besides cephalosporins and almost all strains resisted to macrolide antibiotics(erythromycin), Lincosamides(clindamycin), Penicillin (penicillin) and sulfa antibiotics(sulfamethoxazole compound), and at the same time, most strains resisted to 3 to 5 types antibiotics. More important was that cefoxitin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus(Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA) had emerged in Xinjiang and Zhejiang. The investigation suggested that multi-drug resistance Staphylococcus aureus would be a trouble to veterinarian and cause serious loss in dairy farm, and the survey will improve rational use of antibiotics in cow mastitis treatment.

  13. Penicillin Binding Protein 1 Is Important in the Compensatory Response of Staphylococcus aureus to Daptomycin-Induced Membrane Damage and Is a Potential Target for β-Lactam–Daptomycin Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Andrew D.; Theisen, Erin; Sauer, John-Demian; Nonejuie, Poochit; Olson, Joshua; Pogliano, Joseph; Sakoulas, George; Nizet, Victor; Proctor, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    The activity of daptomycin (DAP) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is enhanced in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics. This effect is more pronounced with β-lactam antibiotics that exhibit avid binding to penicillin binding protein 1 (PBP1). Here, we present evidence that PBP1 has a significant role in responding to DAP-induced stress on the cell. Expression of the pbpA transcript, encoding PBP1, was specifically induced by DAP exposure whereas expression of pbpB, pbpC, and pbpD, encoding PBP2, PBP3, and PBP4, respectively, remained unchanged. Using a MRSA COL strain with pbpA under an inducible promoter, increased pbpA transcription was accompanied by reduced susceptibility to, and killing by, DAP in vitro. Exposure to β-lactams that preferentially inactivate PBP1 was not associated with increased DAP binding, suggesting that synergy in the setting of anti-PBP1 pharmacotherapy results from increased DAP potency on a per-molecule basis. Combination exposure in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model system with β-lactams that preferentially inactivate PBP1 (DAP-meropenem [MEM] or DAP-imipenem [IPM]) resulted in more-rapid killing than did combination exposure with DAP-nafcillin (NAF) (nonselective), DAP-ceftriaxone (CRO) or DAP-cefotaxime (CTX) (PBP2 selective), DAP-cefaclor (CEC) (PBP3 selective), or DAP-cefoxitin (FOX) (PBP4 selective). Compared to β-lactams with poor PBP1 binding specificity, exposure of S. aureus to DAP plus PBP1-selective β-lactams resulted in an increased frequency of septation and cell wall abnormalities. These data suggest that PBP1 activity may contribute to survival during DAP-induced metabolic stress. Therefore, targeted inactivation of PBP1 may enhance the antimicrobial efficiency of DAP, supporting the use of DAP–β-lactam combination therapy for serious MRSA infections, particularly when the β-lactam undermines the PBP1-mediated compensatory response. PMID:26525797

  14. 电针联合走罐治疗轻中度抑郁症临床观察%Clinical Observation of Electro Acupuncture Combined Moving Cupping Treatment of Mild or Moderate Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马娇

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察电针与走罐联合应用和单纯西药盐酸帕罗西汀片治疗轻中度抑郁症临床疗效差异。方法将94例门诊入组患者随机分成治疗组和对照组,治疗组46人,对照组48人。结果治疗8周后,治疗组痊愈10例,显效21例,进步7例,无效8例,有效率82.6%;对照组痊愈8例,显效20例,进步11例,无效9例,有效率80.4%;治疗8周后HAMD评分,治疗组(6.78±3.05),对照组(7.31±4.08)。结论2组治疗后各期评分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),治疗组不良反应发生率少,安全性高。%Objective To observe the curative and walking tank joint application and pure western medicine paro cefoxitin hydrochloride treatment mild-to-moderate depression clinical curative effects. Methods 94 cases of outpatient service into the group of patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, treatment group 46 people, control group 48 people. Results 8 weeks after treatment, the treatment group, 10 cases were cured, 21 cases were markedly effective, progress in 7 cases, 8 no effect, the effective rate was 82.6%, Control group 8 cases cured, 20 cases were markedly effective, progress in 11 cases, 9 no effect, the effective rate was 80.4%, HAMD scores after 8 weeks treatment, the treatment group (6.78±3.05), the control group (7.31±4.08). Conclusion The two groups after treatment there was no statistically significant difference from one period to the score (P>0.05), treatment group was less incidence of adverse reactions, high safety.

  15. Porin involvement in cephalosporin and carbapenem resistance of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

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    Anuwat Aunkham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bps is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes frequently lethal melioidosis, with a particularly high prevalence in the north and northeast of Thailand. Bps is highly resistant to many antimicrobial agents and this resistance may result from the low drug permeability of outer membrane proteins, known as porins. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Microbiological assays showed that the clinical Bps strain was resistant to most antimicrobial agents and sensitive only to ceftazidime and meropenem. An E. coli strain defective in most porins, but expressing BpsOmp38, exhibited considerably lower antimicrobial susceptibility than the control strain. In addition, mutation of Tyr119, the most prominent pore-lining residue in BpsOmp38, markedly altered membrane permeability, substitution with Ala (mutant BpsOmp38Y119A enhanced uptake of the antimicrobial agents, while substitution with Phe (mutant BpsOmp38Y119F inhibited uptake. Channel recordings of BpsOmp38 reconstituted in a planar black lipid membrane (BLM suggested that the higher permeability of BpsOmp38Y119A was caused by widening of the pore interior through removal of the bulky side chain. In contrast, the lower permeability of BpsOmp38Y119F was caused by introduction of the hydrophobic side chain (Phe, increasing the 'greasiness' of the pore lumen. Significantly, liposome swelling assays showed no permeation through the BpsOmp38 channel by antimicrobial agents to which Bps is resistant (cefoxitin, cefepime, and doripenem. In contrast, high permeability to ceftazidime and meropenem was observed, these being agents to which Bps is sensitive. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results, from both in vivo and in vitro studies, demonstrate that membrane permeability associated with BpsOmp38 expression correlates well with the antimicrobial susceptibility of the virulent bacterium B. pseudomallei, especially to carbapenems and cephalosporins. In addition, substitution of the residue

  16. Transconjugation and genotyping of the plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase and extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei-feng; ZHOU Jun; QIN Jian-ping

    2009-01-01

    Backgroud AmpC β-lactamases and extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are becoming predominant causes of resistance to third and forth-generation cephalosporins in Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. Pneumoniae). It is very difficult to treat infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant K. Pneumoniae. The purpose of the present study was to investigate transconjugation and characteristics of β-lactamase genes in K. Pneumoniae producing AmpC β-lactamases and ESBLs.Methods AmpC β-lactamases were detected by three-dimension test and ESBLs by disc confirmatory test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution. Transfer of resistance to EC600 (Rif') was attempted by conjugation in broth and screened on agar containing cefotaxime (2 μg/ml) plus rifampin (1024 μg/ml). The genes encoding AmpC or ESBLs and their transconjugants were detected by PCR and verified by DNA sequencing. Results The resistant rates to ampicillin and piperacillin were 100% in 18 isolates of K. Pneumoniae. However, imipenem was still of great bactericidal activity on K. Pneumoniae, and its MIC50 was 0.5 μg/mL. Eleven β-lactamase genes, including TEM-1, TEM-11, SHV-13, SHV-28, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-22, CTX-M-55, OXA-1, LEN, OKP-6 and DHA-1, were found from 18 isolates. And at least one β-lactamase gene occurred in each isolate. To our surprise, there were six β-lactamase genes in the CZ04 strain. Among 18 isolates of K. Pneumoniae, the partial resistant genes in 8 isolates were conjugated successfully, which had 100% homological sequence with donors by sequence analysis. Compared with donors, 8 transconjugants had attained resistance to most β-lactams, including ampicillin, piperacillin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime and aztreonam, or even amikacin and gentamicin.Conclusions R plasmids can be easily transferred between the resistant and sensitive negative bacilli. It is very difficult to block and prevent the spread of antimicrobial resistance. So more attention should be paid

  17. 上海地区119家医院2009-2011年头孢菌素类药利用分析%Analysis of the Utilization of Cephalosporin Antibacterial Drugs in 119 Hospitals from Shanghai Area during 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石卫峰; 归成; 李晓宇; 刘皋林

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utilization and tendency of cephalosporin antibacterial drugs in hospitals from Shanghai area. METHODS: The utilization of cephalosporins in 119 hospitals of Shanghai area during 2009 - 2011 was analyzed statistically in respect of main categories, consumption sum, DDDs and DDC, etc. RESULTS: The consumption sum of cephalosporins reached a peak in 2010 and decreased obviously in 2011. The consumption sum of oral cephalosporins showed a small increase and that of injections showed a downward trend. Over the 3 years, cefaclor, cefixime and cefdinir ranked the top 3 in the list of consumption sum; and cefuroxime axetil, cefaclor and cefixime ranked the top 3 in the list of DDDs; cefotiam, cefuroxime and cefoxi-tin occupied the top 3 in the list of consumption sum and DDDs of injections. CONCLUSIONS: The management of clinical application of cephalosporin antibacterial drugs should continue to be strengthened so as to ensure effective, safe and economical use of drugs in the clinic.%目的:评价上海地区医院头孢菌素类药的应用现状和趋势.方法:对2009-2011年上海地区119家医院头孢菌素类药的主要品种、销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)、日均费用(DDC)等进行统计、分析.结果:该地区医院头孢菌素类药的销售金额在2010年达到高峰,2011年出现明显下降;口服剂的销售金额呈现小幅增长,注射剂的销售金额有下降趋势;3年来,头孢克洛、头孢克肟和头孢地尼的销售金额在口服剂中排名前3位,头孢呋辛酯、头孢克洛和头孢克肟的DDDs排名前3位,头孢替安、头孢呋辛和头孢西丁在注射剂中占销售金额和DDDs排名的前3位.结论:应继续加强头孢菌素类的临床应用管理,以确保临床用药的有效、安全和经济.

  18. 2008-2010年产气肠杆菌分布特征与耐药性分析%Clinical distribution and drug resistance of Enterobacter aerogenes from 2008 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵进良; 冯乐; 吴良娟; 何梅; 王春新

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical distribution and drug resistance of Enterobacter aero genes from 2008 to 2010 to provide the scientific evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment. METHODS The distribution and drug resistance of E. Aerogenes isolated from 2008 to 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS Totally 570 strains of E. Aerogenes were mainly isolated from sputum (334 strains), urine (121 strains) and blood (-32 strains) .accounting for 58. 6% ,21. 2% and 5. 6% , respectively. The drug resistant rates to ampicillin.cefotaxim, cefoxitin, cefazolin, cefuroxime sodium, cefuroxime were more than 50. 0%. All isolates of E. Aerogenes distributed in many departments were more sensitive to carbapenem,amikacin and gentamicin. CONCLUSION E. Aerogenes clinical strains are mostly multidrug-resistant. Rational use of antibiotics is important for the containment of the resistance of E. Aerogenes.%目的 分析2008-2010年产气肠杆菌分离株的临床分布及耐药性特点,为临床医师诊断和治疗提供依据.方法 对2008-2010年住院患者各类标本分离到的产气肠杆菌,进行标本分布和耐药性回顾性统计分析.结果 3年内共分离出产气肠杆菌570株,主要来源于痰334株,占58.6%、尿液121株,占21.2%和血液32株,占5.6%,主要分布在呼吸内科220株,占38.6%、ICU174株,占30.5%和神经外科42株,占7.4%;药敏结果显示,对氨苄西林、头孢噻肟、头孢西丁、头孢唑林、头孢呋辛酯及头孢呋辛钠耐药率均>50.0%,对阿米卡星、庆大霉素、亚胺培南和美罗培南有较好的敏感性.结论 产气肠杆菌多为多药耐药,临床医师应根据药敏结果合理选择抗菌药物,以延缓产气肠杆菌耐药性的产生.

  19. Detection of Escherichia coli and Associated β-Lactamases Genes from Diabetic Foot Ulcers by Multiplex PCR and Molecular Modeling and Docking of SHV-1, TEM-1, and OXA-1 β-Lactamases with Clindamycin and Piperacillin-Tazobactam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Shailesh K.; Singh, Vinay K.; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a common and devastating complication in diabetes. Antimicrobial resistance mediated by extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) production by bacteria is considered to be a major threat for foot amputation. The present study deals with the detection of Escherichia coli and the prevalence of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaOXA genes directly from biopsy and swab of foot ulcers of diabetic patients. In total, 116 DFU patients were screened, of which 42 suffering with severe DFUs were selected for this study. Altogether 16 E. coli strains were successfully isolated from biopsy and/or swab samples of 15 (35.71%) patients. ESBL production was noted in 12 (75%) strains. Amplification of β-lactamase genes by multiplex PCR showed the presence of blaCTX-M like genes in 10 strains, blaTEM and blaOXA in 9 strains each, and blaSHV in 8 of the total 16 strains of E. coli. Out of the ten antibiotics tested, E. coli strains were found to be resistant to ampicillin (75%), cefoxitin (56.25%), cefazolin (50%), meropenem (37.5%), cefoperazone (25%), cefepime (31.25%), ceftazidime (56.25%), and cefotaxime (68.75%) but all showed sensitivity (100%) to clindamycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. 3D models of the most prevalent variants of β-lactamases namely TEM-1, SHV-1, OXA-1, and ESBL namely CTX-M-15 were predicted and docking was performed with clindamycin and piperacillin-tazobactam to reveal the molecular basis of drug sensitivity. Docking showed the best docking score with significant interactions, forming hydrogen bond, Van der Waals and polar level interaction with active site residues. Findings of the present study may provide useful insights for the development of new antibiotic drugs and may also prevent ESBLs-mediated resistance problem in DFU. The novel multiplex PCR assay designed in this study may be routinely used in clinical diagnostics of E. coli and associated blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaOXA like genes. PMID:23861873

  20. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus from raw milk samples collected from the local vendors in the region of Tirupathi, India

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    Sudhanthirakodi Sudhanthiramani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with the aim to identify the suitability of the milk for consumer use with special reference to Staphylococcus aureus from milk samples collected from various local vendors and determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of those positive isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 milk samples were collected from the local milk vendors in and around Tirupathi region of India. All the samples were enriched with buffered peptone water in 9:1 ratio and the then inoculated on baird parker agar medium with added 2% egg yolk tellurite emulsion as selective medium for S.aureus and confirmed with mannitol salt agar, Gram’s staining and biochemical tests. The typical cultural characters with coagulase-positive samples were taken as positive samples the positive samples were tested for antibiotic susceptibility with 10 different antibiotics by employing disc diffusion method. Results: Prevalence of coagulase-positive S. aureus was 39.09% (43/110 from the milk samples. The antibiotic susceptibility test of positive isolates showed high resistant toward penicillin G 37/43 (86.04% and ampicillin 32/43 (74.42%, and also showed resistant to methicillin 6/43 (13.95%, cephalothin 6/43 (13.95%, tetracycline 6/43 (13.95%, ciprofloxacin 4/43 (9.30%, enrofloxacin 3/43 (6.97%, cefoxitin 2/43 (4.65%, gentamicin 2/43 (4.65%, and co-trimoxazole 2/43 (4.65%. Many individual isolates showed resistant against two or more antibiotics in our study. Conclusion: The above study results show that the milk samples collected from local vendor having S. aureus, which can induce disease condition as well as antibiotic resistant to the humans particularly young children and old age peoples by means of consumption of raw milk and its products. This is the public health issue, which needs to be solved by educating the local vendors regarding health problems related to unhygienic milk supply and make the awareness among the consumers about this

  1. Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Healthy Turkeys and Broilers Using DNA Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, Hosny; Ahmed, Marwa; Hotzel, Helmut; Monecke, Stefan; Schulz, Jochen; Hartung, Joerg; Ehricht, Ralf; Neubauer, Heinrich; Hafez, Hafez M.

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major human health problem and recently, domestic animals are described as carriers and possible reservoirs. Twenty seven S. aureus isolates from five turkey farms (n = 18) and two broiler farms (n = 9) were obtained by culturing of choana and skin swabs from apparently healthy birds, identified by Taqman-based real-time duplex nuc-mecA-PCR and characterized by spa typing as well as by a DNA microarray based assay which covered, amongst others, a considerable number of antibiotic resistance genes, species controls, and virulence markers. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were tested by agar diffusion assays and genotypically confirmed by the microarray. Five different spa types (3 in turkeys and 2 in broilers) were detected. The majority of MRSA isolates (24/27) belonged to clonal complex 398-MRSA-V. The most frequently occurring spa types were accordingly t011, t034, and t899. A single CC5-MRSA-III isolated from turkey and CC398-MRSA with an unidentified/truncated SCCmec element in turkey and broiler were additionally detected. The phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles of S. aureus isolated from both turkeys and broilers against 14 different antimicrobials showed that all isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cefoxitin, oxacillin, doxycycline, and tetracycline. Moreover, all S. aureus isolated from broilers were resistant to erythromycin and azithromycin. All isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, chloramphenicol, sulphonamides, and fusidic acid. The resistance rate against ciprofloxacin was 55.6% in broiler isolates and 42.1% in turkey isolates. All tetracycline resistant isolates possessed genes tetK/M. All erythromycin-resistant broiler isolates carried ermA. Only one broiler isolate (11.1%) carried genes ermA, ermB, and ermC, while 55.6% of turkey isolates possessed ermA and ermB genes. Neither PVL genes (lukF/S-PV), animal-associated leukocidin (lukM and luk-P83) nor the gene encoding

  2. STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS NASAL CARRIAGE AMONG INJECTING AND NON-INJECTING DRUG USERS AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

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    Mojtaba Varshochi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus Aureus (SA is one of the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in human beings. Approximately 20% of healthy persons are persistent carriers and 60% are intermittent carriers of SA. Nasal cavity is one of the most important sites of its colonization. Intravenous (IV drug abuse has been proposed as a risk factor for colonization of SA in the nasal mucosa. The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of SA carriers in nasal cavity among IV and non-IV drug abusers (addicts, as well as to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the positive cases. In a cross-sectional analysis of 300 drug addicts (Group I: 100 non-injecting addicts, Group II: 100 IV injecting drug addicts in rehab, Group III: 100 IV injecting drug addicts not in rehab in the infectious diseases clinics of Tabriz’s Imam Reza and Sina teaching hospitals and the rehabilitation center of Razi hospital, were investigated. Hospitalized addicts, insulin-dependent diabetic cases, HIV positive patients and those on chronic hemodialysis were excluded. The nasal mucosal sample was prepared from each case for SA isolation and its antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated by antibiogram. Eighty-four cases (28% were culture positive for SA, including 26 cases in group one, 32 cases in group two and 26 cases in group three (p = 0.55. There was only one MRSA isolate present in all the cases studied (1.2%. No resistance to linozolid, rifampin and vancomycin was observed. The resistance to erythromycin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, co-trimoxazol and gentamicin were 3.6, 4.8, 2.4, 3.6, 1.2 and 2.4% respectively. No statistically significant differences existed between the three groups in antibacterial susceptibility pattern. Sensitivity to oxacillin using the E-test results and disc diffusion were completely consistent. The percentage of carries of SA in the anterior nasal mucosa among IV and non-IV drug addicts is not considerably higher than the

  3. 艰难梭菌核糖体分型及腹泻发病危险因素研究%PCR ribotype profiles of Clostridium difficile and risk factors of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨富英; 李萍; 李永强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate risk factors of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), to explore PCR ribotype profiles of Clostridium difficile, and to provide empirical evidence for prevention of CDAD. Methods Among 449 patients suffered from antibiotic-associated diarrhea, 92 of them were diagnosed with CDAD. Risk factors of CDAD were extracted by using Logistic regression analysis. Clostridium difficile grown on Cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar were molecularly typed with PCR ribotyping method. Results Nasogastric tube feeding, multiple chronic diseases, higher APACHE Ⅱ score, high level of serum C reaction protein, and use of third-generation cephalosporin, quinolone or combination of antibiotics increased the odds of CDAD, whereas use of glycopeptide or nitro-inidazole antibiotics decreased the odds of CDAD (P<0. 05,P<0. 01). Twenty strains of Clostridium difficile were classified into 5 ribotypes, and 8 of them were GZ Ⅲ. Conclusion Morbidity of CDAD is high in inpatients, measures which contribute to reducing risk factors should be taken to prevent CDAD.%目的 探讨艰难梭菌相关性腹泻(CDAD)发病危险因素及进行艰难梭菌核糖体分型,为针对性防护提供依据.方法 选取449例抗生素相关性腹泻患者,其中92例诊断为CDAD;采用Logistic回归分析筛选CDAD发病危险因素;厌氧菌培养艰难梭菌再行PCR核糖体分型.结果 CDAD发病的危险因素是鼻饲,多种慢性病,高APACHEⅡ评分,高超敏C反应蛋白,应用第三代头孢菌素、喹诺酮类抗生素及联用抗生素;使用糖肽类、硝基咪唑类抗生素降低CDAD发病(P<0.05,P<0.01).20株艰难梭菌分为5个亚型即GZⅠ~GZⅣ型,其中GZⅢ型8株.结论 住院患者CDAD发病率较高,需针对危险因素进行防护.

  4. The Antibiotic Resistance of Food-borne Escherichia coli%食源性大肠杆菌耐药性检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    只帅; 席美丽; 申进玲; 杨保伟; 孟江洪

    2009-01-01

    采用美国临床实验室标准化委员会(National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standard 简称NCCLS)推荐的琼脂稀释法,以大肠埃希氏菌ATCC25922、粪肠球菌ATCC29212和金黄色葡萄球菌ATCC29213为质控菌株,对411株分离自鸡肉和凉拌菜的大肠杆菌进行了6大类共12种抗生素的药敏性检测.结果表明受试菌株对四环素的耐药率(98.3%)最高,其次是链霉素(71.3%)、奈定酮酸(68.4%)、阿莫西林(67.6%)、氨苄青霉素(61.8%)、环丙沙星(50.6%)、氯霉素(48.4%)、卡那霉素(40.6%)、庆大霉素(36.7%),所有受试菌株对阿米卡星的敏感性最强,仅有11.9%(49)的耐药率,其次是头孢西丁(14.1%)和头孢哌酮(29.9%).247(60.1%)株分离菌表现5重以上耐药性,其中鸡肉分离株占236株.%411 Escherichia. coli (E. coli) isolates recovered from retail meats and Chinese salads that collected in supermarkets and free markets in Xi'an and Yangling areas of Shaanxi Province were studied to determine antibiotic susceptibility. Antimicrobial susceptibility to 12 antibiotics of 411 E. coli i-solates were determined by using agar dilution method, which was recommended by National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standard (NCCLS), and E. coli ATCC25922, E. faecalis ATCC29212 and S. aureus ATCC29213 as standard control strains. Results showed that 98. 3% of the E. coli isolates were resistant to tetracycline, followed by resistance to Streptomycin (71. 3%), Nalidixic acid (68. 4%),Amoxicillin(67. 6%), Ampicillin(61. 8%) , Ciprofloxacin(50. 6%), chloramphenicol (48. 4% ) , Kanamycin (40. 6%) ,gentamicin(36. 7%). The most sensitive antibiotical is Amikacin(88. 1%),followed by Cefoxitin(85. 9%) and Cefoperazone(70. 1%)respectively. 247 isolates (60. 1%) were mul-tidrug resistant (MDR) strains(more than 5), 236 isolated from chicken.

  5. Methicilin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage amongst Healthcare Workers of the Critical Care Units in a Nigerian Hospital

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    A. Fadeyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Methicilin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA Nosocomial Infection (NI outbreaks and prevalence among various populations are well reported in literature particularly for developed countries. NI due to MRSA is a known cause of increased hospital stay, cost, morbidity and mortality especially among the critically ill. There is paucity of information on MRSA in developing nations including the carriage by critical healthcare givers who are potential transmitters. In most hospital in developing countries like Nigeria, there is neither surveillance system or control policy for MRSA. Approach: We screened healthcare workers in the critical care units of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH, Ilorin, Nigeria for MRSA and determined vancomycin susceptibility of the isolates. Swabs of both anterior nares and web spaces of the hands were taken, transported and incubated in Tween 80 at 35°C overnight aerobically before inoculation onto Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA. Inoculated MSA were incubated aerobically at 35°C for 18-24 h. Staphylococcus aureus was identified as Gram positive cocci with positive catalase, coagulase and DNAse test. MRSA were identified by combined oxacillin and cefoxitin discs diffusion method. Sensitivity to vancomycin was by vancomycin discs diffusion and vancomycin agar screen plating. Results: Of the 198 healthcare workers screened, 104 had MRSA either in the nose, hand or both giving a carriage rate of 52.5%. Nasal carriage (38.9% was higher than hand (25.3%. Doctors (22.7% and Nurses (16.7% were the predominant carriers. MRSA isolates were resistant to commonly available antibiotics. Only 1 (1.3% of the nasal isolates was vancomycin resistant. Conclusion: MRSA carriage among healthcare workers in the critical care units of the Nigerian hospital is high with doctors and nurses being the major carriers. The MRSA isolates were multi-drug resistant which may lead to increased morbidity and mortality if

  6. Investigation of the prevalence of patients co-colonized or infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycinresistant enterococci in China: a hospital-based study

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    WANG Zhen; CAO Bin; LIU Ying-mei; GU Li; WANG Chen

    2009-01-01

    Background Nosocomial infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) could lead to increased morbidity and mortality. In 2006, VRE nosocomial spread became a reality in our hospital since the first VRE nosocomial infection in 2003. Little is known about the prevalence of coexistence with VRE and MRSA in the patients. The primary objective of the study was to identify the molecular characteristics of epidemic MRSA clones in our hospital and the prevalence of the coexistence with MRSA and VRE in same patients during the 2-year period, 2006-2007.Methods The clinical features, laboratory test results, and therapeutic outcomes of 129 cases who isolated MRSAcollected from January 2006 to December 2007 were retrospectively analyzed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine mecA-femB type and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type. All the participants were screened for clinical and microbiological data to identify the coexistence of VRE strains with MRSA.Results One hundred and twenty-nine MRSA isolates were included in the study: 71 (55%) from the intensive care unit,35 (27.2%) from the surgical wards and 23 (17.8%) from the medical wards. The most frequent source of isolation of MRSA was sputum (76.7%). From seven patients we isolated MRSA and VRE (E. faecium) simultaneously during their inpatient stay. One hundred and twenty-seven (127/129, 98.4%) MRSA isolates harboured SCCmec type Ⅲ, only 2 MRSA strains contained SCCmec type Ⅱ. All of the 129 MRSA isolates remained sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid. Higher sensitivity rates were noted for chloramphenicol 99.2% (128/129). Only 20.2% (26/129) of the MRSA isolates were sensitive to rifampin. All isolates presented resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents with high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), including: β-lactams (penicillin, oxacillin, cefoxitin, and cefazolin), tetracycline

  7. ISOLATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERN OF CITROBACTER SPECIES WITH ESBL AND AMPC DETECTION AT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, BANGALORE

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    Priyadarshini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Genus Citrobacter is one of the aerobic Gram negative non-sporing bacilli, from the Enterobacteriaceae family. Citrobacter koseri and Citrobacter freundii are the commonest species implicated in infections. It is emerging as an important nosocomial pathogen. It is associated with high mortality and morbidity rate. They are often resistant to routinely used antibiotics. Emerging drug resistance is a therapeutic concern for clinicians worldwide, thus isolation and antibiotic sensitivity of Citrobacter is critically needed. OBJECTIVES Identification of Citrobacter species and antibiotic sensitivity pattern with AmpC and ESBL Detection. METHODS Prospective study was done from June 2014 to March 2015. The samples were collected from patients attending VIMS and RC. The samples were processed and identified by standard protocol. Citrobacter isolates were tested for antibiotic sensitivity by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method as per clinical and standard institute guidelines. Detection of AmpC by Cephamycin Hodge test using Cefoxitin 30 μg with ATCC strains of Escherichia coli 25922 was done. ESBL detection was done by Ceftazidime (30 μg and Ceftazidime/clavulanic acid (30 μg/10 μg and Cefotaxime (30 ug Cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (30 ug/10 ug. RESULTS Out of 5695 Gram negative isolates identified, 690 were Citrobacter isolates. Citrobacter koseri 398 (62.5% and Citrobacter freundii 292 (37.5% were the commonest species isolated. The antibiogram as per CLSI Guidelines showed resistance to Fluoroquinolones, Cephalosporins and beta lactamase inhibitors. Carbapenems were found to be sensitive. The resistance to beta lactamase inhibitors increased with the presence of AmpC beta lactamase (76% and ESBL (50%. CONCLUSION Citrobacter species are emerging as an important nosocomial pathogen. Citrobacter koseri and Citrobacter freundii were the commonest species isolated. Antibiogram showing an increase in resistance among the beta lactamase

  8. Preliminary molecular epidemiology of the Staphylococcus aureus in lower respiratory tract infections: a multicenter study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-zhi; HU Ke; CAI Shao-xi; WAN Huan-ying; WANG Qiu-yue; WEI Li-ping; DU Juan; YU Qin; ZHONG Xiao-ning; WANG Rui-qin; MA Jian-jun; CHEN Yu-sheng; TIAN Gui-zhen; WANG Si-qin; GAO Zhan-cheng; YANG Jing-ping; ZHANG Wei; HU Cheng-ping; LI Jia-shu; MU Lan; HU Ying-hui; GENG Rong

    2011-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) remains as an important microbial pathogen resulting in community and nosocomial acquired infections with significant morbidity and mortality. Few reports for S. aureus in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) have been documented. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular epidemiology of S.aureus in LRTIs in China.Methods A multicenter study of the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in LRTIs was conducted in 21 hospitals in Beijing, Shanghai and twelve other provinces from November 2007 to February 2009. All the collected S. aureus strains were classified as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), mecA gene, virulence genes Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)and y-hemolysin (hlg), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type, agr type, and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST).Results Totally, nine methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 29 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were isolated after culture from a total of 2829 sputums or bronchoalveolar lavages. The majority of MRSA strains (22/29) had a MIC value of ≥512 μg/ml for cefoxitin. The mecA gene acting as the conservative gene was carried by all MRSA strains.PVL genes were detected in only one S. aureus strain (2.63%, 1/38). The hlg gene was detected in almost the all S.aureus (100% in MSSA and 96.56% in MRSA strains). About 75.86% of MRSA strains carried SCCmec Ⅲ. Agr type 1 was predominant (78.95%) among the identified three agr types (agr types 1,2, and 3). Totally, ten sequence type (ST) of S. aureus strains were detected. A new sequence type (ST1445) was found besides confirming ST239 as the major sequence type (60.53%). A dendrogram generated from our own MLST database showed all the bootstrap values≤50%.Conclusion Our preliminary epidemiology data show SCCmec Ⅲ, ST239 and agr type 1 of S. aureus as the predominant strains in LRTIs in Mainland of China.

  9. An update on the management of urinary tract infections in the era of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Mazen S; Loeb, Mark; Brooks, Annie A

    2017-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a growing concern due to limited therapeutic options. Gram-negative bacteria, specifically Enterobacteriaceae, are common causes of both community-acquired and hospital acquired UTIs. These organisms can acquire genes that encode for multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC- β -lactamase, and carbapenemases. The assessment of suspected UTI includes identification of characteristic symptoms or signs, urinalysis, dipstick or microscopic tests, and urine culture if indicated. UTIs are categorized according to location (upper versus lower urinary tract) and severity (uncomplicated versus complicated). Increasing rates of antibiotic resistance necessitate judicious use of antibiotics through the application of antimicrobial stewardship principles. Knowledge of the common causative pathogens of UTIs including local susceptibility patterns are essential in determining appropriate empiric therapy. The recommended first-line empiric therapies for acute uncomplicated bacterial cystitis in otherwise healthy adult nonpregnant females is a 5-day course of nitrofurantion or a 3-g single dose of fosfomycin tromethamine. Second-line options include fluoroquinolones and β-lactams, such as amoxicillin-clavulanate. Current treatment options for UTIs due to AmpC- β -lactamase-producing organisms include fosfomycin, nitrofurantion, fluoroquinolones, cefepime, piperacillin-tazobactam and carbapenems. In addition, treatment options for UTIs due to ESBLs-producing Enterobacteriaceae include nitrofurantion, fosfomycin, fluoroquinolones, cefoxitin, piperacillin-tazobactam, carbapenems, ceftazidime-avibactam, ceftolozane-tazobactam, and aminoglycosides. Based on identification and susceptibility results, alternatives to carbapenems may be used to treat mild-moderate UTIs caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Ceftazidime-avibactam, colistin

  10. 2011年夏季某院分离志贺菌特点及某地区志贺菌血清型流行趋势分析%Characters of shigella strains in certain hospital and epidemic tendency analysis of shigella serotypes in ceratin area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志远; 马玉芝; 潘健; 张婷菊; 康利新; 刘贵建

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological features of shigella strains separated in this Hospital in 2011 ,and to the explore variation trend of shigella serotypes in Beijing. Methods Shigella strains were identified with Vitek Ⅱ Compact. Serotype was detected with serological testing. Drug susceptibility was determined by K-B methods. Results 15 strains of shigella were isolated, including 14 of Shigella sonnei and 1 of Shigella flexneri. No strains were sensitive to Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, Pip-eracillin, Ampicillin. All Shigella sonnei strains were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Amikacin, Cefoxitin, Ceftazidime, Az-treonam,Cefepime,Imipenem,Piperacillin-tazobactam. Conclusion Shigella sonnei might be new prevalent serotype in Beijing. It might be improper to perform drug susceptibility only for ampicillin,a fluoroquinolone,and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as suggested by CLSI.%目的 了解该院2011年分离的志贺菌及相关病例特点,结合其他区县志贺菌分离情况,总结北京市志贺菌血清型转变特点.方法 Vitek Ⅱ Compact鉴定志贺菌,血清玻片凝集法鉴定血清型,药敏试验采用K-B法.结果 共分离获得志贺菌15株,其中宋内Ⅰ型14株,福氏F2a型1株;15株菌对复方新诺明、哌拉西林、氨苄西林均耐药,14株宋内Ⅰ型菌对环丙沙星、左氧氟沙星、阿米卡星、头孢他啶、头孢西丁、亚胺培南、头孢吡肟、氨曲南、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦均敏感.结论 宋内Ⅰ型志贺菌为主要分离菌,对环丙沙星、左氧氟沙星、阿米卡星、头孢他啶、头孢西丁、亚胺培南、头孢吡肟、氨曲南、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦保持高度敏感;宋内志贺菌已成为北京市流行志贺菌的主要血清型.

  11. Antibiotic resistance in wastewater: occurrence and fate of Enterobacteriaceae producers of class A and class C β-lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Paula P; Fernandes, Ruben M; Prudêncio, Maria C; Barreto, Mário P; Duarte, Isabel M

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics have been intensively used over the last decades in human and animal therapy and livestock, resulting in serious environmental and public health problems, namely due to the antibiotic residues concentration in wastewaters and to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This study aimed to access the contribution of some anthropological activities, namely urban household, hospital and a wastewater treatment plant, to the spread of antibiotic resistances in the treated wastewater released into the Mondego River, Coimbra, Portugal. Six sampling sites were selected in the wastewater network and in the river. The ampicillin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae of the water samples were enumerated, isolated and phenotypically characterized in relation to their resistance profile to 13 antibiotics. Some isolates were identified into species level and investigated for the presence of class A and class C -lactamases. Results revealed high frequency of resistance to the -lactam group, cefoxitin (53.5%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination (43.5%), cefotaxime (22.7%), aztreonam (21.3) cefpirome (19.2%), ceftazidime (16.2%) and to the non--lactam group, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazol (21.1%), tetracycline (18.2%), followed by ciprofloxacin (14.1%). The hospital effluent showed the higher rates of resistance to all antibiotic, except two (chloramphenicol and gentamicin). Similarly, higher resistance rates were detected in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent compared with the untreated affluent. Regarding the multidrug resistance, the highest incidence was recorded in the hospital sewage and the lowest in the urban waste. The majority of the isolates altogether are potentially extended-spectrum -lactamases positive (ESBL(+)) (51.9%), followed by AmpC(+) (44.4%) and ESBL(+)/AmpC(+) (35.2%). The most prevalent genes among the potential ESBL producers were blaOXA (33.3%), blaTEM (24.1%) and blaCTX-M (5.6%) and among the AmpC producers were blaEBC (38

  12. Role of Non-Active-Site Residue Trp-93 in the Function and Stability of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, M. Tabish

    2015-01-01

    New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) is expressed by various members of Enterobacteriaceae as a defense mechanism to hydrolyze β-lactam antibiotics. Despite various studies showing the significance of active-site residues in the catalytic mechanism, there is a paucity of reports addressing the role of non-active-site residues in the structure and function of NDM-1. In this study, we investigated the significance of non-active-site residue Trp-93 in the structure and function of NDM-1. We cloned blaNDM-1 from an Enterobacter cloacae clinical strain (EC-15) and introduced the mutation of Trp-93 to Ala (yielding the Trp93Ala mutant) by PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis. Proteins were expressed and purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. The MICs of the Trp93Ala mutant were reduced 4- to 8-fold for ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, imipenem, and meropenem. The poor hydrolytic activity of the Trp93Ala mutant was also reflected by its reduced catalytic efficiency. The overall catalytic efficiency of the Trp93Ala mutant was reduced by 40 to 55% (the Km was reduced, while the kcat was similar to that of wild-type NDM-1 [wtNDM-1]). Heat-induced denaturation showed that the ΔGDo and Tm of Trp93Ala mutant were reduced by 1.8 kcal/mol and 4.8°C, respectively. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) analysis showed that the α-helical content of the Trp93Ala mutant was reduced by 2.9%. The decrease in stability and catalytic efficiency of the Trp93Ala mutant was due to the loss of two hydrogen bonds with Ser-63 and Val-73 and hydrophobic interactions with Leu-65, Val-73, Gln-123, and Asp-124. The study provided insight into the role of non-active-site amino acid residues in the hydrolytic mechanism of NDM-1. PMID:26525789

  13. New dominant spa type t2741 in livestock-associated MRSA (CC398-MRSA-V in Finnish fattening pigs at slaughter

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    Annamari Heikinheimo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of livestock-associated MRSA has become a growing public health concern worldwide. Studies elucidating the population structure, as well as resistance phenotypes and virulence gene profiles of livestock-associated MRSA strains are needed to improve risk assessment and to develop effective control measures. The objective of this study therefore was to determine i clonal complexes and spa types, as well as ii resistance phenotypes and iii virulence and resistance gene profiles of livestock-associated MRSA isolated from Finnish fattening pigs at slaughter. Methods Fifty MRSA isolates collected from Finnish fattening pigs at slaughter were characterized by spa typing and DNA microarray profiling. In addition, antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. Results MRSA isolates were assigned to clonal complexes CC1 (n = 4 and CC398 (n = 46. One dominant spa type (t2741 was present in 33 out of 50 investigated isolates, originating from 15 out of 18 farms. The remaining isolates were assigned to spa types t034 (n = 7, t108 (n = 5, and t011 (n = 1. Although each herd exhibited isolates assigned to one clonal complex only, five herds harbored MRSA isolates of either two or three different spa types. All tested MRSA isolates were phenotypically resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, cefoxitin, and tetracycline. With the exception of the isolates assigned to t108, all isolates exhibited resistance to clindamycin. On the genomic level, all isolates exhibited mecA, blaZ/I/R, and tetK, and were assigned to SCCmec type V. Many isolates also harbored tetM (46/50 isolates, lnuB (41/50 isolates, ermB (26/50 isolates, and one isolate was positive for aadD. DNA microarray profiling showed that all isolates of the dominant CC398/t2741 MRSA-V type belonged to agr type I, capsule type 5, and were negative for fnbB. Interestingly, one isolate of CC398/t2741 MRSA-V was

  14. MARCADORES DE PATOGENICIDADE EM Yersinia enterocolitica O: 3 ISOLADAS DE SUÍNOS DO RIO DE JANEIRO Genetic markers of pathogenicity in Yersinia enterocolitica O: 3 isolated from healthy pigs from Rio de Janeiro

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    Tereza C. A. Leal

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada a caracterização genotípica e fenotípica de fatores de patogenicidade em 16 amostras de Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 isoladas de suínos sadios do Rio de Janeiro. Foi observado que apenas 6 cepas possuíam o plasmídio de virulência, pYV (+ 70 kb e apresentavam dependência ao cálcio no meio MOX a 37C. Um plasmídio críptico de cerca de 8,6 kb foi encontrado em uma cepa. Doze cepas revelaram sensibilidade à pesticina enquanto que apenas três se revelaram capazes de hidrolisar a esculina. Através de PCR com "primers" específicos, foi constatada a presença dos genes ail em 14 cepas, irp2, em 1 cepa e a ausência de psaA em todas as cepas analisadas. Quanto aos quimioterápicos, a quase totalidade das cepas mostrou-se ao mesmo tempo resistente à ampicilina e carbenicilina e sensível ao sulfazotrin e à cefoxitina. As respostas foram variadas frente ao cloranfenicol, tetraciclina, kanamicina, gentamicina e ácido nalidíxo.Sixteen Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3 strains, isolated from pigs from Rio de Janeiro, have been analyzed for genetic and phenotypic markers of pathogenicity. It was observed that only 6 strains harbored the pYV (+70 kb plasmid and one strain harbored a small cryptic plasmid of about 8.6 kb. Accordingly only strains harboring pYV were calcium dependent in the MOX medium at 370C. Twelve strains showed pesticin sensitivity and the esculin reaction was negative in 13 strains. PCR analysis of pathogenicity genes using specific primers showed the presence of the ail gene in 14 strains, the irp2 gene in one and the psaA in none. Most of the strains were resistant to ampicillin and carbenicillin, although they were susceptible to sulfazotrin and cefoxitin. For chloramphenicol, tetracycline, kanamycin, gentamicin and nalidixic acid the results varied among the strains.

  15. Microbiological and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus hominis isolates from blood.

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    Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS, Staphylococcus hominis represents the third most common organism recoverable from the blood of immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to characterize biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, define the SCCmec (Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec type, and genetic relatedness of clinical S. hominis isolates. METHODOLOGY: S. hominis blood isolates (n = 21 were screened for biofilm formation using crystal violet staining. Methicillin resistance was evaluated using the cefoxitin disk test and the mecA gene was detected by PCR. Antibiotic resistance was determined by the broth microdilution method. Genetic relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and SCCmec typed by multiplex PCR using two different methodologies described for Staphylococcus aureus. RESULTS: Of the S. hominis isolates screened, 47.6% (10/21 were categorized as strong biofilm producers and 23.8% (5/21 as weak producers. Furthermore, 81% (17/21 of the isolates were methicillin resistant and mecA gene carriers. Resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin, and trimethoprim was observed in >70% of isolates screened. Each isolate showed a different PFGE macrorestriction pattern with similarity ranging between 0-95%. Among mecA-positive isolates, 14 (82% harbored a non-typeable SCCmec type: eight isolates were not positive for any ccr complex; four contained the mec complex A ccrAB1 and ccrC, one isolate contained mec complex A, ccrAB4 and ccrC, and one isolate contained the mec complex A, ccrAB1, ccrAB4, and ccrC. Two isolates harbored the association: mec complex A and ccrAB1. Only one strain was typeable as SCCmec III. CONCLUSIONS: The S. hominis isolates analyzed were variable biofilm producers had a high prevalence of methicillin resistance and resistance to other antibiotics, and high genetic diversity. The results of this study strongly suggested that S. hominis isolates harbor

  16. The carriage of antibiotic resistance by enteric bacteria from imported tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) destined for the pet trade

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    Casey, Christine L. [Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Hernandez, Sonia M., E-mail: shernz@uga.edu [Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Yabsley, Michael J. [Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Smith, Katherine F. [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Sanchez, Susan [The Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); The Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a growing public health concern and has serious implications for both human and veterinary medicine. The nature of the global economy encourages the movement of humans, livestock, produce, and wildlife, as well as their potentially antibiotic-resistant bacteria, across international borders. Humans and livestock can be reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant bacteria; however, little is known about the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harbored by wildlife and, to our knowledge, limited data has been reported for wild-caught reptiles that were specifically collected for the pet trade. In the current study, we examined the antibiotic resistance of lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae isolates from wild-caught Tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) imported from Indonesia for use in the pet trade. In addition, we proposed that the conditions under which wild animals are captured, transported, and handled might affect the shedding or fecal prevalence of antibiotic resistance. In particular we were interested in the effects of density; to address this, we experimentally modified densities of geckos after import and documented changes in antibiotic resistance patterns. The commensal enteric bacteria from Tokay geckos (G. gecko) imported for the pet trade displayed resistance against some antibiotics including: ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin and tetracycline. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria after experimentally mimicking potentially stressful transportation conditions reptiles experience prior to purchase. There were, however, some interesting trends observed when comparing Tokay geckos housed individually and those housed in groups. Understanding the prevalence of antibiotic resistant commensal enteric flora from common pet reptiles is paramount because of the potential for humans exposed to these animals to acquire antibiotic

  17. Evaluación del potencial probiótico de bacterias ácido lácticas para reducir el colesterol in vitro

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    Clementina Cueto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El co nsumo diario de alimentos probióticos reduce los niveles de colesterol sérico en un 3%, valor significativo para la prevención de la hipercolesterolemia, factor de riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular y causal de mortalidad. Algunas especies del género Lact obacillus , utilizadas en la industria alimentaria como probiótico, reducen el colesterol sérico por dos mecanismos, la adsorción de colesterol y producción de la enzima hidrolasa de sales biliares. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el potencial probiótic o de un grupo de bacterias lácticas aisladas de suero costeño. Se aislaron 53 cepas a partir de nueve muestras de suero costeño; el potencial probiótico de las bacterias se evaluó por tolerancia a pH 2.0, 0.3% de sales biliares y sensibilidad a vancomicina y cefoxitin. Se seleccionaron cinco microorganismos y se identificaron molecularmente, como Lactobacillus fermentum . La capacidad de adsorber el colesterol medida por el método de Kimoto, presentó disminución de 53.06 ± 2.69 μg.mL - 1 para la cepa K73 y 7. 23 ± 2.69 μg.mL - 1 para la cepa K75. Esas mismas cepas mostraron la mayor actividad total y específica de la enzima. Los resultados evidenciaron que no existe relación entre la producción de la enzima y la adsorción del colesterol. La cepa con mayor potenci al probiótico fue K73. La propiedad hipocolesterolémica de Lactobacillus fermentum , podría ser el inicio de la búsqueda de matrices alimentarias que permitan disminuir los niveles del colesterol sérico y adicionen valor agregado al producto.

  18. PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOGRAM OF EXTENDED SPECTRUM BET A- LACTAMASE PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI

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    Mohd.

    2013-04-01

    .33%, followed by pus (62.62%, urine (61.80% a nd blood (60.61% samples. The antibiogram revealed no resistance to imipenem, whi le the highest resistance rate was detected against cefoperazone, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, a mpicillin, cefotaxime, aztreonam, cefoxitin, piperacillin, ceftazidime, and ceftriaxone. CONCLUSIONS: ESBL producing strains of Escherichia coli show extremely wide spectrum of antibiotic resi stance including resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones . This leads to significant implications in the management of patients. Advanced drug resistanc e surveillance and determination of molecular characteristics of ESBL isolates are nece ssary to formulate antibiotic prescription policies, so as to ensure appropriate and judicious use of the available antimicrobial drugs.

  19. The distribution and the vicissitudes of antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hospital from 2009 to 2012.%2009~2012医院内感染铜绿假单胞菌的临床分布及耐药性变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱义城; 卢玉贞; 汤凤珍; 欧阳英娥

    2012-01-01

      目的了解我院院内感染铜绿假单胞菌的临床分布和耐药情况,为临床预防和治疗铜绿假单胞菌院内感染提供依据.方法采用回顾性分析方法分析2009-2012年间院内住院患者分离铜绿假单胞菌病区分布、药敏结果、耐药性变化和耐药组合情况.结果4年间铜绿假单胞菌分离率较高的科室分别为神经外科、中心重症监护室和神经内科.痰标本检出铜绿假单胞菌最多,占74.4%.药敏结果显示哌拉西林,哌拉西林/他唑巴坦,庆大霉素,头孢吡肟(FEP)等20种抗菌药物耐药率呈下降的趋势.结论医院内获得铜绿假单胞菌感染以下呼吸道感染为主,且耐药性明显高于其他部位分离菌株.铜绿假单胞菌耐药机制复杂,临床应根据其分布特点和药敏结果合理用药.%  Objective To investigate antimicrobial resistance of clinical isolates of our hospital ,to offer information for preventing and curing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods the retrospective analytical method test was employed to study the antimicrobial resistance. Results the top three the division of isolating rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is neurosurgery,ICU and neurology department. The strains were separated from sputum accounted for 74.4% ,which is the most. There is an obvious descending tendency of antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for Amikacin, Aztreonam, Aztreonam, Piperacilin, Piperacilin/ Tazobactam, Gentamycin, Gentamycin/ Clavulanic Acid, Cefepime, Ceftazidime, Tobramycin, Imipenem, Levofloxacin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone. Oppositey, there is not for Cefotaxime/ Clavulanic Acid, Ampicilin, Ampicilin/ Ampicilin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, Cefoxitin, Cephazolin. Conclusion the primary infection in Hospitals is lower respiratory tract infection, which is supper than other position infection. The antimicrobial resistance mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is multiplicity. So, we should take the rational

  20. Tratamento não-cirúrgico de abscessos intra-cavitários pós-apendicectomia Non surgical management of post appendectomy intraperitoneal abscesses

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    Giliatt Hanois Falbo Neto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a eficácia do tratamento não cirúrgico em crianças que desenvolveram abscessos intra-cavitários pós-apendicectomia, no Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco, Recife, Brasil, e comparar os resultados obtidos com dois esquemas antimicrobianos (Cefoxitina versus Amicacina com Metronidazol utilizados. MÉTODOS: o estudo corresponde ao período de janeiro de 1997 a janeiro de 2000 no qual 427 crianças foram apendicectomizadas; 41 delas desenvolveram abscessos intra-cavitários sendo 39 incluídas no estudo. O diagnóstico dos abscessos intra-cavitários baseou-se em sinais clínicos e exames complementares. RESULTADOS: A incidência de abscessos intra-cavitários pós-apendicectomias foi de 9,6%. 89,7% dos pacientes obtiveram sucesso com o tratamento. Não houve diferença entre os percentuais de cura obtidos com os dois esquemas antimicrobianos. CONCLUSÕES: o tratamento não cirúrgico de abscessos intra-cavitários pós-apendicectomias, baseado na antibioticoterapia endovenosa é uma opção segura e eficaz. Os esquemas antimicrobianos com Cefo-xitina e associação de Amicacina com Metronidazol têm eficácia semelhantes. A associação Amicacina com Metronidazol é recomenda pelo seu menor custo.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the effectiveness of non-surgical treatment of post appendectomy, abdominal abscesses in children at the Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil and to compare the results of two anti-microbial schemes (Cefoxitin versus Amikacin plus Metronidazole. METHODS: the study corresponds to the period from January 1997 to January 2000. There were 427 appendectomies performed in children during this period and 41 of them developed intra-abdominal abscesses. Thirty-nine were studied. The diagnosis of the abscesses was based on clinical signs, laboratorial tests and ultrasound examination. RESULTS: abscesses developed in 9,6% of the cases. Healing of the abscess occurred in 89,7% of the patients

  1. Epidemiological Investigation of Swine Pathogenic E.coli in Guangxi Small and Medium-scale Farms%广西中小规模猪场大肠杆菌病流行情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤莲; 赵武; 黄红梅; 覃绍敏; 华俊; 马玲; 吴健敏; 杨威

    2011-01-01

    从广西23家中小规模猪场采集病料,分离、鉴定出致病性大肠杆菌56株,并对其进行血清型鉴定和耐药性检测,结果鉴定出43株致病性大肠杆菌,分属于16种血清型,其中以O138、O18、O85、O9和O21为优势血清型,占定型菌株的69.76%;用20种常用抗菌药进行药物敏感性试验,发现高敏的药物有头孢拉啶、头孢唑啉、头孢曲松、头孢西丁、多黏菌素B、新霉素、壮观霉素和阿米卡星;而不敏感的药物有青霉素、阿莫西林、强力霉素、卡那霉素、万古霉素、林可霉素.说明这些猪场大肠杆菌的耐药性十分严重,应加强生物安全措施等进行综合防控.%56 strains of swine pathogenic E.coli were isolated from 23 small and medium-scale pig farms in Guangxi, and its serotype identification and detection of drug resistance showed that the 56 strains belonged to 16 serotypes, out of which O serotype viz, O138 ,O18 ,O85 ,O9 ,O21 were predominant, occupying 69.76%.The detection of drug resistance of 20 frequently used antibiotics indicated that most E.coli trains were highly sensitive to Cephradine, Cefazolin, Ceftriaxone, Cefoxitin, Polymyxin B, Neomycin, Spectinomycin, and Amikacin, but insensitive to Penicillin, Amoxicillin, Doxycycline, Kanamycin, Vancomycin, Lincomycin, which points to the fact that drug resistance of E.coli in these pig farms has been very grave, and that measures such as biotic safety should be strengthened to undertake comprehensive prevention.

  2. Activities of ceftobiprole and other cephalosporins against extracellular and intracellular (THP-1 macrophages and keratinocytes) forms of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Sandrine; Glupczynski, Youri; Duval, Valérie; Joris, Bernard; Tulkens, Paul M; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2009-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic intracellular organism. Although they poorly accumulate in eukaryotic cells, beta-lactams show activity against intracellular methicillin (methicillin)-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) if the exposure times and the drug concentrations are sufficient. Intraphagocytic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains are susceptible to penicillins and carbapenems because the acidic pH favors the acylation of PBP 2a by these beta-lactams through pH-induced conformational changes. The intracellular activity (THP-1 macrophages and keratinocytes) of ceftobiprole, which shows almost similar in vitro activities against MRSA and MSSA in broth, was examined against a panel of hospital-acquired and community-acquired MRSA strains (MICs, 0.5 to 2.0 mg/liter at pH 7.4 and 0.25 to 1.0 mg/liter at pH 5.5) and was compared with its activity against MSSA isolates. The key pharmacological descriptors {relative maximal efficacy (E(max)), relative potency (the concentration causing a reduction of the inoculum halfway between E(0) and E(max) [EC(50)]), and static concentration (C(s))} were measured. All strains showed sigmoidal dose-responses, with E(max) being about a 1 log(10) CFU decrease from the postphagocytosis inoculum, and EC(50) and C(s) being 0.2 to 0.3x and 0.6 to 0.9x the MIC, respectively. Ceftobiprole effectively competed with Bocillin FL (a fluorescent derivative of penicillin V) for binding to PBP 2a at both pH 5.5 and pH 7.4. In contrast, cephalexin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, or ceftriaxone (i) were less potent in PBP 2a competitive binding assays, (ii) showed only partial restoration of the activity against MRSA in broth at acidic pH, and (iii) were collectively less effective against MRSA in THP-1 macrophages and were ineffective in keratinocytes. The improved activity of ceftobiprole toward intracellular MRSA compared with the activities of conventional cephalosporins can be explained, at least in part, by its greater ability to bind

  3. 药师参与1例重症肺炎患者的治疗实践%Participation of Clinical Pharmacists in Treatment of One Patient with Severe Pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 范璟蓉; 方忠宏

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To probe into the participation of clinical pharmacists in treatment of one patient with severe pneumonia .METHODS:The clinical pharmacists participated in the medication treatment process of one patient with severe pneumonia , analyzed the change of disease , summarized the program with different kinds of antibiotics and the efficacy , and provided pharmaceutical services for the patient .RESULTS:The efficacy of cefoxitin , as one of cephamycin , in primary treatment of respiratory tract infection was poorer than the basic drugs———high dose of penicillin.CONCLUSIONS:It is necessary to conduct the pharmacodynamics evaluation on the antibiotics of cephamycin , and take effective management measures and medication education , so as to improve the medical quality . The clinical pharmacists go into the clinic and provide pharmaceutical services can assist the clinicians to formulate the safe and effective medication treatment program and promote ration drug use .%目的:探讨药师参与重症肺炎患者的治疗实践。方法:药师参与1例重症肺炎患者的药物治疗过程,分析患者病情变化,总结不同抗菌药物治疗方案及其疗效,并提供药学服务。结果:首诊用头霉素类抗菌药物头孢西丁对呼吸道感染的疗效较差,而大剂量的青霉素等基本药物却发挥了很好的疗效。结论:有必要对头霉素类抗菌药物等进行药效学评价,并采取有效管理措施与用药教育,以提高医疗质量。临床药师深入临床,提供药学服务,可协助临床医师制订安全、有效的药物治疗方案,促进合理用药。

  4. Analysis of drug resistance and acinetobacter baumannii detection in our hospital from 2012 to 2014%2012-2014年我院鲍曼不动杆菌检出情况及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵立军; 孙倩倩; 吴玲玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze drug resistance and acinetobacter baumannii detection in our hospital from 2012 to 2014. Methods A total of 587 plants of acinetobacter baumannii were separated from sputum,urine,secretion in Health Clin-ics of Taian Military Sub - command hospitalization and outpatients from 2012 to 2014,drug susceptibility test was performed. Results Acinetobacter baumannii isolation rate showed no significant differences from 2012 to 2014(P > 0. 05);acinetobacter baumannii to ampicillin and cefazolin,cefuroxime,cefoxitin and amoxicillin/ rod acid resistance were higher,mainly from the sputum and secretion in checked out,detection rate was respectively 90. 6﹪ ,3. 6﹪ . Conclusion Acinetobacter baumannii can cause nosocomial infection,the hospital should pay attention to monitoring of acinetobacter baumannii,rationally use the an-timicrobial agents,reduce the resistance.%目的:分析2012—2014年我院鲍曼不动杆菌检出情况及耐药性。方法选取2012—2014年山东省泰安军分区卫生所住院和门诊患者送检的痰液、尿液、分泌物等分离出的鲍曼不动杆菌587株,均进行药敏试验。结果2012—2014年鲍曼不动杆菌分离率比较,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);鲍曼不动杆菌对氨苄青霉素、头孢唑啉、头孢呋辛、头孢西丁及阿莫西林/棒酸的耐药率均较高,主要从痰液和分泌物中检出,检出率分别为90.6﹪、3.6﹪。结论鲍曼不动杆菌易引发医院感染,医院应重视对鲍曼不动杆菌的监测,合理使用抗菌药物,降低其耐药性。

  5. Mycobacterium icosiumassiliensis sp. nov., a New Member in the Mycobacterium terrae Complex Isolated from Surface Water in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouadi, Lydia N; Levasseur, Anthony; Khalil, Jacques Bou; Blanc-Taileur, Caroline; Asmar, Shady; Ghiloubi, Wassila; Natèche, Farida; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-08-01

    An acid-fast, rapidly growing, rod-shaped microorganism designated 8WA6 was isolated from a lake in Algiers, Algeria. The lake water was characterized by a temperature of 18 °C, a pH of 7.82, a copper concentration of 8.6 µg/L, and a cadmium concentration of 0.6 µg/L. First-line molecular identification confirmed the 8WA6 isolate to be a member of the Mycobacterium terrae complex, sharing 99.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with M. arupense AR-30097, 98.2 % partial hsp65 gene sequence similarity with M. terrae 28K766, and 97.1 % partial rpoB gene sequence similarity with Mycobacterium sp. FI-05396. Its 4.89-Mb genome exhibits a 66.8 GC % and an average nucleotide identity of 64.5 % with M. tuberculosis, 70.5 % with M. arupense, and 75 % with M. asiaticum. In the M. terrae complex, Mycobacterium 8WA6 was unique in exhibiting growth at 42 °C, negative reaction for nitrate reduction, urease activity and Tween 80 hydrolysis, and a positive reaction for α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase. Its protein profile determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed a unique spectrum similar to M. arupense and M. terrae, exhibiting eleven specific peaks at 3787.791, 4578.019, 6349.630, 6855.638, 7202.310, 8149.608, 8775.257, 10,224.588, 10,484.116, 12,226.379, and 12,636.871 m/z. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for antibiotics, determined by microdilution, indicated a broad spectrum resistance, except for rifabutin (MIC, 0.5 g/L) and cefoxitin (MIC, 16 g/L). We concluded that the 8WA6 isolate is a representative isolate of a previously undescribed species in the M. terrae complex, which was named M. icosiumassiliensis sp. nov. with strain 8WA6 (Collection de Souches de l'Unité des Rickettsies, CSUR P1561, Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen, DSM 100711) as the type strain.

  6. Phenotype, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility of Swedish and Thai oral isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Susanne Blomqvist

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigated phenotypes, virulence genotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility of oral Staphylococcus aureus strains in order to get more information on whether oral infections with this bacterium are associated with certain subtypes or related to an over-growth of the S. aureus variants normally found in the oral cavity of healthy carriers. Materials and methods: A total number of 157 S. aureus strains were investigated. Sixty-two strains were isolated from Swedish adults with oral infections, 25 strains were from saliva of healthy Swedish dental students, and 45 strains were from tongue scrapings of HIV-positive subjects in Thailand, and 25 Thai strains from non-HIV controls. The isolates were tested for coagulase, nitrate, arginine, and hemolysin, and for the presence of the virulence genes: hlg, clfA, can, sdrC, sdrD, sdrE, map/eap (adhesins and sea, seb, sec, tst, eta, etb, pvl (toxins. MIC90 and MIC50 were determined by E-test against penicillin V, oxacillin, amoxicillin, clindamycin, vancomycin, fusidic acid, and cefoxitin. Results: While the hemolytic phenotype was significantly (p<0.001 more common among the Thai strains compared to Swedish strains, the virulence genes were found in a similar frequency in the S. aureus strains isolated from all four subject groups. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genotype was found in 73–100% of the strains. More than 10% of the strains from Swedish oral infections and from Thai HIV-positives showed low antibiotic susceptibility, most commonly for clindamycin. Only three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA strains were identified, two from oral infections and one from a Thai HIV patient. Conclusions: S. aureus is occasionally occurring in the oral cavity in both health and disease in Sweden and Thailand. It is therefore most likely that S. aureus in opportunistic oral infections originate from the oral microbiota. S. aureus should be considered in case of oral

  7. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Typing with Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis%耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌PFGE分型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 祁伟; 孔秀凤; 宋诗铎

    2011-01-01

    目的:检测不同医院耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)优势菌株是否相同.方法:用常规方法对从天津医科大学第二医院及武汉同济医院临床标本中分离的金黄色葡萄球菌进行鉴定,采用头孢西丁纸片扩散法及mecA基因检测筛选出MRSA.采用脉冲场凝胶电泳法(PFGE)进行分型,以了解不同地区两家医院的优势菌株是否相同.结果:共分离出金黄色葡萄球菌127株,MRSA 83株,其中天津56株,武汉27株.天津56株MRSA 临床株PFGE分型为15型27个亚型,以A1型为主;武汉27株MRSA临床株PFGE分型为6型12个亚型,以A2,A4型为主.结论:2家医院MRSA优势菌株并不相同,尚未发现MRSA流行菌株.%Objective: To study whether there was the same dominance strain of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) obtained from two hospitals. Methods: According to routine process, clinical strains were identified from Tongji Hospital in Wuhan and the Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University. MRSA was screened through cefoxitin disc diffusion test and the detection of mecA gene. The clinical strains were typed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and the prevalence strain was checked. Results: There were 127 staphylococcus aureus strains, 83 MRSA, in which 56 separated from Tianjin and 27 from Wuhan. Conclusion: There is no same type in the dominance strains from two regions. No epidemic strains of MRSA were found.

  8. Molecular epidemiologic study on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and outbreak of nosocomial infections%耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌PFGE分型与医院感染暴发的分子流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓枫; 耿先龙; 周丽珍

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the homology among different strains and epidemiologic characteristics of methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from our hospital ,so as to guide prevention and control of nosocomial infections of MRSA .METHODS A total of S . aureus strains were identified by using Biomerieux VITEK‐2 automatic microbial analysis system from various specimens collected from all patients in the hospital from Jun .to Jul .2011 ,then the MRSA strains were confirmed according to the CLSI standard of cefoxitin KB method .The clinical strains were typed with pulsed‐field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) ,and epidemiological analysis was conducted .RESULTS The 36 MRSA strains displayed 6 kinds of genotypes and 8 kinds of subtypes , which was dominated by A genotype .During this research ,outbreak of MRSA infection occurred for two times in NICU and ICU .CONCLUSIONS MRSA might have a high possibility of causing cross‐infection in ICU wards and NICU wards ,while PFGE is a good research method for the study of nosocomial infection outbreak and its epidemiology .%目的:了解医院感染耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(M RS A )的同源性及院内流行特征,为临床控制M RS A感染、制定合适的预防控制措施提供依据。方法收集2011年6-7月全院患者各类标本中分离出的M RS A 36株,金黄色葡萄球菌鉴定采用法国生物梅里埃公司的VIT EK‐2全自动微生物分析系统,根据美国CLSI标准用头孢西丁K‐B法确认M RSA ;运用脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE )对医院感染 M RSA进行基因分型,并进行流行病学分析。结果临床分离的36株 MRSA ,PFGE分型为6型8个亚型,其中以 A型为主;在研究期间,NICU 及ICU发生两次MRSA感染暴发。结论 MRSA在NICU及ICU易发生交叉感染;PFGE是医院感染暴发及流行病学的较好的研究手段。

  9. Identification and antibiotic sensitivity test of dairy cow recessive mammitis streptococcus%奶牛隐性乳房炎链球菌的分离鉴定及药敏试验

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    谢昆; 蒋成砚; 王会英; 周文树; 唐秀华; 汪镜

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenic bacteria separated from fresh milk in the Mengzi area of Yunnan Province were morphologically and biochemically identified via bacterial culture,and their susceptibilities to 7 common antibiot-ics were also tested.The results showed that the 7 separated streptococcus strains (MZ1—MZ7)were respectively 2 strains of Streptococcus agalactiae (MZ1 and MZ6),3 strains of S.uberis (MZ4,MZ5 and MZ7)and 2 strains of S.dysgalactive (MZ2 and MZ3)according to traditional morphology,physiology and biochemistry as well as The Common Manual ofDeterminative Bacteriology;All the above strains were susceptible to tetracycline,cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin and oxacillin,but low susceptible to gentamicin,vancomycin and penicillin.%从云南省蒙自地区奶牛乳样中采集病原菌,通过细菌培养,进行形态和生化试验鉴定及药敏试验。结果表明:从牛奶中分离得到的7株链球菌(编号为 MZ1—MZ7),按照传统的形态学和生理生化并参照《常见细菌系统鉴定手册》,2株是无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)(MZ1和 MZ6)、3株是乳房链球菌(S.uberis)(MZ4、MZ5和 MZ7)和2株停乳链球菌(S.dysgalactive)(MZ2和 MZ3);这些菌株对四环素、头孢噻吩、环丙沙星和苯唑西林4种药物敏感,对庆大霉素、万古霉素和青霉素3种药物敏感性较低。

  10. Detecção do gene mecA em estafilococos coagulase negativa resistentes à oxacilina isolados da saliva de profissionais da enfermagem Detection of mecA gene in oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from the saliva of nursing professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Oliveira Rosa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Estafilococos coagulase negativa estão frequentemente associados às infecções nosocomiais e os profissionais da saúde podem ser reservatório e dissemina-los no hospital e comunidade. O objetivo desse estudo foi identificar espécies de estafilococos coagulase negativa isolados da saliva de profissionais da enfermagem, determinar o perfil de resistência e detectar o gene mecA. Foram selecionados 100 estafilococos coagulase negativa, sendo 41 identificados como Staphylococcus epidermidis, 25 Staphylococcus saprophyticus, 18 Staphylococcus haemolyticus, 8 Staphylococcus cohnii, 4 Staphylococcus lugdunenses, 3 Staphylococcus capitis, e 1 Staphylococcus Simulans. Desses, 32% apresentaram resistência à oxacilina, 84,4% à mupirocina, 32% à cefoxitina, e todos sensíveis a vancomicina. Dos estafilococos coagulase negativa resistentes à oxacilina, 93,7% desenvolveram-se no agar oxacilina (6µg/ml e o gene mecA foi detectado em 75%. Os resultados sinalizam que maiores investimentos devem ser direcionados a identificação das espécies de estafilococos coagulase negativa nas instituições de saúde e na comunidade.Coagulase-negative staphylococci are frequently associated with nosocomial infections, and healthcare professionals can be reservoirs and spread them in hospitals and in the community. The aim of this study was to identify species of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from the saliva of nursing professionals, determine the resistance profile and detect the mecA gene. One hundred coagulase-negative staphylococci were selected: 41 were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis, 25 as Staphylococcus saprophyticus, 18 as Staphylococcus haemolyticus, eight as Staphylococcus cohnii, four as Staphylococcus lugdunenses, three as Staphylococcus capitis and one as Staphylococcus simulans. Of these, 32% presented oxacillin resistance, 84.4% mupirocin resistance and 32% cefoxitin resistance, and all were vancomycin sensitive. Among the

  11. Studies on the clinical characteristics of intestinal infection caused by Aeromonas and drug susceptibility of the strains%气单胞菌肠道感染的临床特点和耐药特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志远; 马玉芝; 潘健; 张婷菊; 齐杰; 刘贵建

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of intestinal infection caused by Aeromonas and their drug suscepti-bility .Methods The data of 52 patients infected with Aeromonas were analyzed retrospectively .Aeromonas strains were identified with Vitek Ⅱ Compact .Drug susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion methods .Cefoxitin combined with ceftazidime ,aztreo-nam ,cefotaxime and ceftriaxone were used to detect inducible expression of AmpC β-lactamase .Results Abdominal pain ,watery di-arrhea ,tenesmus occurred in 75 .0% ,48 .1% ,and 38 .0% of the patients ,respectively .White blood cell tests were positive in 50 .0%patients′stools .52 strains of Aeromonas were isolated ,including 38 strains of Aeromonas hydrophila ,13 strains of Aeromonas so-bria ,and 1 strain of Aeromonas veronii .All strains were sensitive to carbapenems ,the second ,third generation of cephalosporins , monobactam ,fluoroquinolone ,aminoglycosides .The susceptibility rates to chloramphenicol ,trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole ,cefox-itin ,cefazolin ,and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were 94 .2% ,92 .3% ,76 .9% ,51 .9% and 23 .1% ,respectively .75 .0% isolates exhibi-ted inducible expression of AmpC β-lactamas .Conclusion Diarrhea caused by A eromonas has different clinical manifestations .Ceph-alosporins ,monobactam ,fluoroquinolone ,aminoglycosides are available for empirical therapy of diarrhea caused by A eromonas .But the third generation of cephalosporins should be cautiously used because of high prevalence of inducible AmpC β-lactamase in A ero-monas .%目的:了解气单胞菌所致腹泻的临床特点及气单胞菌的耐药情况。方法回顾性分析52例气单胞菌感染性腹泻患者的临床特点,采用Vitek Ⅱ Compact微生物分析仪鉴定气单胞菌,药敏试验采用纸片琼脂扩散法,头孢西丁纸片联合头孢他啶、头孢噻肟、头孢曲松和氨曲南纸片检测诱导型AmpC酶。结果75.0%气单胞菌感

  12. Clinical evaluation of three methods in detection of Clost ridium difficile in stool%3 种检测艰难梭菌方法的临床应用评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章黎华; 李贞; 江岑; 万颖蕾; 彭奕冰

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the clinical performance of three methods in the detection of Clostridium difficile ( C . difficile) in stool samples . Clinical samples were subjected to enzyme-linked fluorescence assay for C . difficile toxins A and B (CDAB ) , conventional bacterial cultivation using cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar (CCFA ) and cultivation by chromogenic C . difficile identification medium (chromIDTM ) ,respectively .A combination of bacterial culture and amplification of the tcdB gene was selected as the standard reference method for the evaluation .A total of 164 clinical stool samples were collected ,of which 58 had positive results by the reference method whilst the rest 106 were negative .The CDAB method showed a sensitivity ,specificity ,positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 51 .7% ,95 .3% ,85 .7% and 78 .3% ,respectively ,while the corresponding values of the CCFA method turned out to be 72 .4% , 98 .1% , 95 .5% and 86 .7% , respectively . The chromIDTM method gave corresponding values of 94 .8% , 92 .5% , 87 .3% and 97 .0% , respectively . Among the three methods , chromIDTM method had the best consistency with the reference method (Kappa= 0 .856) .It is concluded that chromIDTM is a simple and cost-effective method for the detection of C . difficile in stool samples , which can present easy-to-judge results and has a preferable value in clinical application .%本研究旨在对3种检测粪便样本中艰难梭菌的方法进行临床应用评估 ,为艰难梭菌的实验室检测提供参考.采用艰难梭菌毒素A/B(Clostridium difficile toxins A and B ,CDAB)酶联免疫荧光检测法、环丝氨酸-头孢西丁-果糖琼脂(cycloserin-cefoxitin-fructose agar ,CCFA)常规培养法和显色培养法(chromIDTM )同步检测粪便样本中的艰难梭菌 ,并对培养所得菌株进行 tcdB基因扩增以验证其产毒性.以艰难梭菌培养联合 tcdB基因扩增为参考方法 ,分别计算上述3种方法的

  13. Detection and classification for extended-spectru m and Ⅰtype β-lactamases by varied antibiotics%联合应用抗生素测定并鉴别超广谱和Ⅰ型β-内酰胺酶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向阳; 杨锦红; 叶映月; 陈圣高

    2001-01-01

    Objective:Detection for extended-spectrum β-lactamases(ESBLs) and Ⅰtype β-lactam ase s from Eschrichia coli Klebsiella pneumoniae Enterobacter cloacae using varie d antibiotics.Methods:ESBLs and Ⅰtype β-lactamases from E.coli,K.pneumonia e and E.cloacae was detected by double-disk(DD) potentiation procedure and rule v itro-sensitive test.Cefotaxime(CTX), ceftazidime(CTD),aztreonam(ATN),augmentin( AOA),cefoxitin(CXT) and imipenem were used in this test.Results:Imipenem is sensitive for all strain at this test.23.4% Eschrichia coli 36.8% Klebsiella pneumoniae,and 58.2% Enterobacter cloacae res isted 3rd cephalosporins, the resistance for cefoxitin is different. The β -lac tamases of hydrolyses extended-spectrum β-lactams is divided into two types.Th e rate of detection was higher by using CTX and CTD and ATN than using CTD or CT X or ATN only(χ2=5.14,P0.05).Conclusion:The ESBLs and Ⅰtype β-lactamases could be differe nt by using varied antibiotics,they have different resistance to antibiotics . U sing more than two β-lactams antibiotis, the positive rate of ESBLs isolate i s r aised The double-disk(DD) method is practical for clinical detection of ESBLs- produ cing isolates of Enterobateriaceae. The detection of ESBLs and Ⅰtype β-lactam ases should be conducted for clinical isolate%目的:联合应用抗生素测定并鉴别大肠埃希菌 、肺炎克雷伯菌、阴沟肠杆菌产生的超广谱和Ⅰ型β-内酰胺酶。方法:用头孢噻肟(CTX)、头孢他定(CTD)、氨曲南(ATN)、奥格门丁( AOA)、头孢西丁(CXT)和亚胺培能在MH琼脂上进行双纸片搭桥法检测和鉴别大肠埃希菌、 肺炎克雷伯菌、阴沟肠杆菌的超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)及Ⅰ型β-内酰胺酶。结果:265株大肠埃希菌、95株肺炎克雷伯菌、67株阴沟肠杆菌均对亚胺培能 敏感;对三代头孢菌素的耐药率分别为23.4%、36.8%、58.2%,产生的能水解超广谱β-内酰

  14. 老年患者医院感染产超广谱β-内酰胺酶大肠埃希菌的检测与耐药性研究%The detection and antibiotic resistance of extend-spectrumβ-lactamases producing Escherichia coli in old patients with hospital infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛文娟; 荆菁华; 朱建奎

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To find out the detection and antibiotic resistance of extend‐spectrum β‐lactamases (ES‐BLs)‐producing Escherichia coli infected by old patients ,so as to provide basis for rational drug use .METHODS From Jul .2011 to Dec .2013 ,a total of 423 strains of E .coli were isolated and were detected by AST‐GN13 sus‐ceptibility cards .RESULTS The detection rate of ESBLs‐producing E .coli was 56 .3% .ESBLs‐producing E .coli were mainly isolated from urine ,accounting for 33 .2% ,followed by sputum ,accounting for 20 .6% ,blood ,ac‐counting for 13 .4% ,fluid drainage ,accounting for 8 .8% ,bile ,accounting for 7 .6% ,pleural effusion ,account‐ing for 6 .3% ,and secretions ,accounting for 4 .6% . E .coli were mainly isolated from ICU ,accounting for 25 .6% ,followed by emergency department ,accounting for 16 .4% ,oncology ,accounting for 13 .4% ,general surgery ,accounting for 11 .3% ,respiratory medicine ,accounting for 9 .2% ,neurosurgery ,accounting for 7 .6% , gastroenterology accounted for 3 .8% and neurology ,accounted for 2 .9% .The resistance rates of ESBLs‐produ‐cing E .coli to piperacillin ,cefazolin ,cefamandole ,cefoxitin ,ceftriaxone ,ceftazidime ,cefotaxime ,cefoperazone , aztreonam ,ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were significantly higher than those non‐ESBLs‐producing E .coli(P0 .05) .ESBLs‐produ‐cing E .coli showed high resistance to piperacillin ,cefazolin ,cefamandole ,ceftriaxone ,cefotaxime ,cefoperazone , and the resistance rates were all above 80 .0% ,while sensitive to cefoxitin ,ceftazidime ,amikacin and imipenem , and the resistance rates were below 20% .CONCLUSION ESBLs‐producing E .coli are mainly isolated from urine and ICU and have serious drug resistance to antibiotics .Hence clinics should take effective measures based on riskfactors to use drug rationally so as to control emergence and dissemination of resistant strains .%目的:了解老年患者医院感染产超广谱β‐内酰胺酶(ESBLs)

  15. 安徽省104株黏质沙雷菌的分布及耐药性监测%Distribution and resistance surveillance of 104 clinical strains of Serratia marcescens in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程君; 杨海飞; 朱玉林; 胡立芬; 潘亚超; 刘艳艳; 叶英; 李家斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical distribution and antimicrobial resistance profile of Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens), and to provide the scientific evidence supporting clinical diagnosis and treatment.Methods The antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed in 104 strains of S. marcescens by agar dilution method. The results were judged according to the criteria recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2010.The data were analyzed by chi square test. Results The majority of S. marcescens were isolated from sputum specimens,accounting for 59.6% (62/104). The bacteria were most frequently isolated from department of respiratory (33.7%,35/104),followed by intensive care unit (23.1%,24/104),department of gerontology (16.3%, 17/104). The results of antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that the resistance rates of S.marcescens against ampicillin,gentamicin and cephazolin were high,which were 90.4%,86.5% and 79.8%,respectively; those against the 3rd generation of cephalosporins were 24.0%-43.3%. No imipenem and meropenem resistant strains were identified. Compared with cefoxitin-resistant strains,the resistance rates of non-cefoxitin resistant strains against piperacillin (82.9% vs 28.6%),ceftazidime (63.4% vs 9.5%),aztreonam (68.3% vs 9.5%),amikacin (68.3% vs 20.6%),ciprofloxacin (48.8% vs 19.1%) and chloramphenicol (90.3% vs 58.7%) were all lower (all P < 0.05 ). Conclusions S. marcescens is one of the most common conditional pathogenic bacteria leading to nosocomial infections,which is resistant to many kinds of antimicrobial agents.The surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in S. marcescens should be strengthened for purpose of preventing the transmission of multidrug resistant strains.%目的 探讨黏质沙雷菌感染的临床分布及耐药特点,为临床诊断和治疗提供依据.方法 104株黏质沙雷菌药物敏感试验采用琼脂稀释法,结果依据临

  16. Drug resistance and resistant mechanisms of Pasteurella aerogenes from knee joint fluid%膝关节液中产气巴斯德菌的耐药性及耐药机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅海燕; 明德松; 朱焱; 谢尊金

    2012-01-01

    amocillin/clavulanate, cefoxitin, and cephalothin, cefotaxime, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, polymyxin, fluoroquinolon and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole;During the detection of the variety of BLs, 6mm for aztreonam was detected but was drug-resistant, while there were no synergy or antagonism between ceftazidime/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam. Meanwhile, 10 mm ceftazidime was detected as well as 14 mm ceftazidime/clavulanate,14mm cefotaxime, 16mm cefotaxime/clavulanate and 28mm cefoxitin were all susceptible. CONCLUSION The clinical isolate of P. Aerogenes from joint fluid of a patient with knee osteoarthritis is just resistant to some of β-lactams, thus the drug resistance is low, and the resistant mechanism of P. Aerogenes is the production of BLs,being speculated to produce ESBLs by phenotype of drug resistant and ceftazidime-clavulanate synergy test.

  17. 儿童呼吸道感染肺炎克雷伯菌质粒介导产AmpC酶的耐药性及基因型研究%Detection of drug resistance due to the plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase and genotype analysis in Klebsiella pneumoniae resulting in respiratory infectious in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林平

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨小儿呼吸道感染肺炎克雷伯菌AmpC酶的产生、AmpC酶的耐药基因型及对常用抗菌药物的耐药特征,为临床治疗提供选药参考.方法 采用VITEK-60型全自动细菌鉴定仪鉴定细菌,按CLSI推荐的确证试验检测ESBLs和K-B纸片法测定药敏结果;采用头孢西丁纸片扩散法筛选疑产AmpC酶阳性菌株,并通过酶粗提物头孢西丁三维试验、接合试验、PCR测序等实验分析该菌株的基因型.结果 135株肺炎克雷伯菌ESBLs和AmpC酶总检出率分别为30.37%和15.56%,其中,单产AmpC酶、同产AmpC酶+ESBLs、单产ESBLs检出率分别为8.15%、7.41%和22.96%;AmpC酶阳性菌株的耐药基因型:19株为DHA-1型,2株为ACT-1型.产酶株的耐药性明显高于非产酶株,耐药现象在同产AmpC酶和ESBLs菌株中更为严重,产与非产AmpC酶(和)ESBLs菌株对亚胺培南的敏感率几乎达100%.结论 台州地区小儿呼吸道感染肺炎克雷伯菌产AmpC酶和ESBLs菌株检出率较高,AmpC酶以DHA-1基因型为主.产AmpC酶和ESBLs的菌株呈高度耐药,限制β内酰胺类抗菌药物的应用是减少产酶株流行的重要措施.%Objective To investigate the production and AmpC β-lactamase in Klebsiella (K.)pneumoniae resulting in respiratory infections in children,AmpC β-Lactamase genotypic resistance and typical resistance to common antibiotics so as to provide some references for selecting drugs in clinical treatment.Method Microbiological identification was performed with the VITEK 60 System,extended spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs) were detected in accordance with the confirmatory test recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and drug sensitivity was determined with Kirby-Bauer method.Suspected positive strains of AmpC β-lactamase were screened with cefoxitin disk diffusion.The genotypes were analyzed by cefoxitin three-dimensional test,conjugation test and PCR sequencing.Result Of the 135 isolates,30

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance Analysis and Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Among Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis%牛源金黄色葡萄球菌的耐药性及耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏洋; 蒲万霞; 陈智华; 邓海平

    2012-01-01

    . Meanwhile, agar screen was performed to identify the minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin and vancomycin to all strains. Cefoxitin, oxacillin disk diffusion and oxacillin agar screen were used to detect the phenotype of MRSA, and PCR assay was generated the genotype of MRSA as well. [Result] The isolates had different degrees of antimicrobial resistance to each antibiotic, the frequency of resistance to ampicillin, cefradine, penicillin, cotrimoxazole, novobiocin and streptomycin was more than 45%, yet keeping sensitive to ofloxacin, vancomycin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and cefazolin was over 90%. Two of the strains with vancomycin MIC were 2≥ 16 μg-mL1. The MICs of oxacillin for eight of total strains were ≥ 8 μg-mL-1, others with oxacillin MICs were ≤2 μg-mL-1. The multidrug resistance was severe, 84.21% of the strains were resistant to at least 3 kinds of antimicrobial agent, four of the total strains can survive in the presence of night various antibiotics. 16(42.11%) S.aureus strains carried mecA gene detected by PCR assay. However, there were only seven of them have the minimum inhibitory concentration over 4 μg-mL-1. When cefoxitin, oxacillin disk diffusion and oxacillin agar screen methods were generated the phenotype of MRS A, only 7, 10 and 7 strains of each were identified. [Conclusion] The antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance of S aureus were serious. High incidence of MRSA and OS-MRSA has been associated with bovine mastitis in the surveyed region.

  19. Comparison Study of Mirtazapine and Paroxetine Treating Depression%米氮平与帕罗西汀治疗抑郁症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈四军

    2015-01-01

    Objective A comparative study efifcacy and adverse reactions of mirtazapine and paroxetine in the treatment of depression.Methods 70 patients with depression as the research object from March 2013 to February 2015, in our hospital outpatient department. They were randomly divided into a control group and the observation group, 35 patients in each group. Application of paroxetine treatment group, observation group mirtazapine treatment, the end of first week and the end of eighth week, compare two groups of clinical curative effect and adverse reaction of patients.Results According to HAMD scale and HAMA scale to assess the clinical therapeutic effect in both groups, the end of ifrst week, the treatment effect of observation group was obviously better than the control group, the adverse reaction is less than the control group (P0.05).ConclusionMirtazapine is equivalent to paro cefoxitin clinical efficacy for treatment of depression, but mirtazapine is faster than paroxetine effect, and less clinical adverse reaction.%目的:对照研究米氮平与帕罗西汀治疗抑郁症的临床治疗效果和不良反应。方法选择2013年3月~2015年2月在我院门诊治疗的70例抑郁症患者作为研究对象。随机把70例患者分成对照组与观察组,每组各35例患者。对照组应用帕罗西汀治疗,观察组应用米氮平治疗,比较第1周末、第8周末两组患者的临床治疗效果和不良反应。结果根据HAMD量表与HAMA量表评分及减分率对两组患者临床治疗效果进行评定,第1周末,观察组治疗效果优于对照组,不良反应少于对照组(P<0.05);第8周末,观察组总有效率与对照组相比无明显差异(P>0.05)。结论米氮平治疗抑郁症与帕罗西汀临床疗效相当,但米氮平比帕罗西汀起效快,而且临床不良反应较少。

  20. Isolation,Identification and Drug Sensitivity Tests of Main Pathogenic Bacteria Causing Cow Endometritis in Dairy Cow Farms of Ningxia%宁夏地区奶牛子宫内膜炎主要病原菌的分离鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵清梅; 余永涛; 任贤

    2015-01-01

    ,ampicillin,tetracycline, chemitrim,streptomycin and kanamycin.However,the E.coli and S.aureus were hypersensitive to van-comycin,cefoxitin and cefotaxime.E.coli and Staphylococcus aureus are main pathogenic bacteria causing endometritis of cows in six large-scale dairy farms located in Ningxia.The mixed infection of several spe-cies of bacteria was frequently determined in uteruses of affected cows.These pathogens were widely re-sistant to penicillins,tetracyclines,aminoglycosides and sulfamines.However,the pathogens were hyper-sensitive to vancomycin and cephalosporins.

  1. Distribution of transposon tnpU in multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacilli%转座子tnpU基因在多重耐药革兰阴性杆菌中的分布情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢慧敏; 余琳; 徐韫健; 李宁; 张丽梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of transposon tnpU and beta-lactamases in multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacilli. Methods Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) were tested by disc diffusion screen test, which were further ascertained by disc diffusion confirmatory test. AmpC beta-lactamases were tested by cefoxitin three-dimension test. Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) was tested by double-disc synergy test. Transposon tnpU was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and PCR products were sequenced subsequently. Antibiotics susceptibility of multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacilli was detected by MIC susceptibility method. Results The total positive rate of transposon tnpU was 25.5%. tnpU was found in 3 isolates of Escherichia coli(6.3%) , 1 isolate of Klebsiella pneumonias (8.3%), 20 isolates of Acinetobater baumannii (33.3%), and 16 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (43.2%). The positive rate of ESBLs in beta-lactamases phenotypical test was the highest, which the strains of carrying transposon tnpU were almost positive in beta-lactamases phenotypical test. The tnpU positive strains had higher level of resistance than negative one(P<0.05). Conclusion Transposon tnpU was widely occurred in non-fermentative bacteria and may play an important role in multiple drug resistance.%目的 研究转座子tnpU基因和β-内酰胺酶在多重耐药革兰阴性杆菌中的分布情况.方法 用纸片扩散初筛试验、扩散确证试验进行超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)表型检查,头孢西丁三维试验进行AmpC β-内酰胺酶的表型检查,纸片协同试验筛选产金属β-内酰胺酶(MBL)菌株;用多重聚合酶链反应(PCR)技术扩增转座子tnpU基因,并进行DNA测序;用MIC药敏法分析多重耐药革兰阴性杆菌的药物敏感性.结果 转座子tnpU的总检出率为25.5%,在各菌种的检出率分别为大肠埃希菌占6.3%(3株)、肺炎克雷伯菌占8.3%(1株)、鲍曼不动杆菌占33.3%(20

  2. Detection, seroprevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pig tonsils in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, S; Bruini, I; D'Incau, M; Van Damme, I; Carniel, E; Brémont, S; Cavallini, P; Tagliabue, S; Brindani, F

    2016-10-17

    Yersiniosis is the third most common reported zoonoses in Europe, with Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis responsible for 98.66% and 0.94% of the confirmed human cases in 2013. From June 2013 to October 2014, 201 pigs at slaughter belonging to 67 batches were tested for Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in tonsils. Diaphragm muscle samples were tested for antibodies against Yersinia by a commercially available ELISA test. Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 was detected in 55/201 pig tonsils (27.4%; 95% CI 23.1-37.1). The positive pigs came from 38/67 batches (56.7%) and were reared in 36/61 farms (59.0%). There was no statistical difference between farrow-to-finish and finishing farms. The mean count of Y. enterocolitica was 3.56±0.85log10CFU/g with a minimum of 2.0log10CFU/g and a maximum of 4.78log10CFU/g. Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 4/201 pig tonsils (2.0%; 95% CI 0.0-4.5). Three isolates belonged to serotype O:3 and one to serotype O:1. The positive pigs belonged to 4/67 batches (6.0%) and came from finishing farms only. Y. pseudotuberculosis could be enumerated in one sample only (4.27log10CFU/g). The ELISA test demonstrated that 56.1% of the meat juice samples were positive for Yersinia antibodies. Serological positivity was found in 67.9% (36/53) of the Y. enterocolitica- and 75.0% (3/4) of the Y. pseudotuberculosis positive pigs. A significant association was found between serological results and the presence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsils (OR=1.97, p=0.044). All the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, ceftazidime, ertapenem and meropenem, 94.5% to cefotaxime, 89.1% to kanamycin and 78.2% to tetracycline. The highest resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (100%), sulphonamides (98.2%) and streptomycin (78.2%). Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested, i.e. amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, azithromycin, cephalothin, cefoxitin

  3. Clinical distribution and antibiotic resistance analysis of Enterobacter spp%肠杆菌属细菌的临床分布及耐药特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗良; 赖春颜; 梁敏锋; 马均宝

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解肠杆菌属细菌的临床分布和耐药状况,为临床治疗提供依据。方法采用法国生物梅里埃公司VITEK-2型全自动细菌分析系统,配合GN鉴定卡和AST-GN13药敏检测卡对细菌进行鉴定和药敏试验,应用Whonet5.5软件进行统计分析。结果506株肠杆菌属细菌中阴沟肠杆菌占78.3%、产气肠杆菌占16.8%。标本主要来自痰267株(52.8%)、创面69株(13.6%)、尿液53株(10.5%)、血液47株(9.3%)。肠杆菌属细菌对头孢唑啉、头孢西丁、氨苄西林、头孢替坦、氨苄西林/舒巴坦耐药率最高,均高于95%,对头孢吡肟、厄他培南、左氧氟沙星、头孢哌酮/舒巴坦、美洛培南耐药率较低,均在5%~10%,对亚胺培南、阿米卡星耐药率最低,分别为0.8%和3.0%。结论肠杆菌属细菌对抗菌药物的耐药情况严重,临床应根据药敏结果合理使用抗菌药物。%Objective To explore the clinical distribution and antibiotic resistance of Enterobacter spp, to provide the evidence for clinical treatment. Methods The bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed by using the GN identification card and AST-GN13 susceptibility testing card of VITEK2-Compact automatic instrument from French Bio-Merieux. The statistical analysis was performed with Whonet 5.5 software. Results Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes accounted for 78.3%and 16.8%out of the 506 Enterobacter spp, respectively.The major source of specimens were from sputum 267(52.8%), wounds69(13.6%), urinary53(10.5%)and blood 47(9.3%). The Enterobacter spp showed the highest resistance rate to ampicillin, cefoxitin, cefozolin, cefotetan, ampicillin/sulbactam (>95%), and relatively lower resistance rate to meropenem, levofloxacin, cefepime, ertapenem, cefoperazone/sulbactam (generally between 5%and 10%), and the lowest resistance rate to imipenem and amikacin (0.8%and 3.0%, respectively). Conclusion Antibiotic

  4. In vitro drug sensitivity analysis of Legionella pneumophila isolated from cooling tower in Shijiazhuang%石家庄市冷却塔水中嗜肺军团菌体外药物敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉梅; 秦丽云; 张慧贤; 王苋; 周吉坤

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the drug sensitivity and resistance of Legionella pneumophila isolated from six hospital cooling towers of Shijizhuang. Methods Eight major categories and 26 kinds of antibiotics drug test on 30 strains of Legionella pneumophila isolated from hospital cooling tower by using K-B disk diffusion method. The drug susceptibility testing results were reported refer to the national Health Industry Standard Paper film method (antimicrobial WS/T125 -1999). Results The sensitivity of 30 strains of Legionella pneumophila to Cefuroxime, doxycycline, tetracycline, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, rifampicin and ofloxacin was 100%, and they presented different levels of resistance to cefazolin, aztreonam, ampicillin, cephalothin, ceftazidime, tobramycin and cefoxitin. Experimental strains produced eight kinds of resistance spectrum, they were multi-drug resistant strains. Conclusion Resistance is more common to penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides among 30 starins of Legionella pneumophila. Macrolides, quinolones, rifampicin is superior to the other kinds of antibiotics in vitro susceptibility test, respectively, and these antibiotics can be used as the first choice in clinical therapy of Legionella infections.%目的 了解分离自石家庄市6家医院冷却塔水的嗜肺军团菌的药物敏感性.方法 采用K-B纸片扩散法对30株分离自冷却塔水的嗜肺军团菌进行8大类26种抗生素的药敏实验,参照WS/T125-1999《中华人民共和国卫生行业标准纸片法抗菌药物敏感试验标准》读取结果.结果 30株嗜肺军团菌均对头孢呋辛、强力霉素、四环素、链霉素、环丙沙星、左旋氧氟沙星、莫西沙星、红霉素、阿奇霉素、克拉霉素、利福平、氧氟沙星共12种抗生素敏感,对头孢唑林、氨曲南、氨苄西林、头孢噻吩、头孢他啶、妥布霉素、头孢西丁共7种抗生素均产生

  5. Analysis of risk factors for nosocomial infections in lung cancer patients caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus%肺癌患者耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌医院感染危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国卿; 苏乘平; 程熙; 付亚斋

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析肺癌患者医院感染耐甲氧西林葡萄球菌(MRSA)的危险因素.方法 收集2004年1月-2010年10月台州市博爱医院肿瘤科90例肺癌患者资料,其中诊断为MRSA感染病例56例为感染组,对照组为同时期同病区未感染MRSA肺癌患者34例;采用纸片扩散(K-B)法进行药敏试验;MRSA的鉴定采用CLSI 2004年指定的头孢西丁法;感染组与对照组之间比较计数资料采用t检验、卡方检验及多因素logistic回归进行分析.结果 t检验、卡方检验结果提示,年龄、混合真菌感染、机械通气、使用糖皮质激素、抗菌药物联合使用为肺癌患者医院感染MRSA的相关因素;多因素logistic回归分析结果表明,混合真菌感染(OR=12.22)、机械通气(OR=8.13)、使用糖皮质激素(OR=6.98)、抗菌药物联合使用(OR=5.18)进入回归方程.结论 混合真菌感染、机械通气、使用糖皮质激素、抗菌药物联合使用为肺癌患者医院感染MRSA的独立危险因素.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the risk factors for nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aueus (MRSA) in lung cancer patients. METHODS A total of 90 lung cancer patients admitted in our hospital from Jan. 2004 to Oct. 2010 were analyzed, including 56 cases of MRSA infection (infection group) and 34 cases of non-MRSA infection (control group). Disk diffusion test was adopted for drug susceptibility test. Cefoxitin method recommend by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS, 2004) was used to identify MRSA. Chi-square test, student t-test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to compare enumeration data between infection group and control group. RESULTS The factors associated with the development of MRSA nosocomial infection were age, co-infection with fungi, mechanical ventilation, use of glucocorticoids and combination of antibiotics. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified four

  6. Randomized clinical trial comparing spinal anesthesia with local anesthesia with sedation for loop colostomy closure Ensaio clínico randomizado comparando raquianestesia com anestesia local, associadas à sedação para o fechamento de colostomia em alça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rone Antônio Alves de Abreu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Recent studies have shown that local anesthesia for loop colostomy closure is as safe as spinal anesthesia for this procedure. OBJECTIVES: Randomized clinical trial to compare the results from these two techniques. METHODS: Fifty patients were randomized for loop colostomy closure using spinal anesthesia (n = 25 and using local anesthesia (n = 25. Preoperatively, the bowel was evaluated by means of colonoscopy, and bowel preparation was performed with 10% oral mannitol solution and physiological saline solution for lavage through the distal colostomy orifice. All patients were given prophylactic antibiotics (cefoxitin. Pain, analgesia, reestablishment of peristaltism or peristalsis, diet reintroduction, length of hospitalization and rehospitalization were analyzed postoperatively. RESULTS: Surgery duration and local complications were greater in the spinal anesthesia group. Conversion to general anesthesia occurred only with spinal anesthesia. There was no difference in intraoperative pain between the groups, but postoperative pain, reestablishment of peristaltism or peristalsis, diet reintroduction and length of hospitalization were lower with local anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: Local anesthesia plus sedation offers a safer and more effective method than spinal anesthesia for loop colostomy closure.CONTEXTO: Estudos recentes têm demonstrado que a anestesia local para o fechamento de colostomia em alça é tão segura quanto a raquianestesia para estes procedimentos. OBJETIVOS: Comparar os resultados do fechamento de colostomia em alça usando essas duas técnicas. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta pacientes foram randomizados para o fechamento de colostomia em alça sob raquianestesia (n = 25 e anestesia local (n = 25. No pré-operatório, o cólon foi avaliado por colonoscopia e o preparo intestinal foi realizado com solução oral de manitol a 10% e limpeza com solução salina fisiológica através do orifício distal da colostomia. Todos os

  7. 髋关节置换术后患者感染早期诊断与病原学临床研究%Clinical study on early diagnosis and etiology of postoperative infections in patients after hip replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志; 周新社; 官建中; 肖玉周; 吴敏; 钟政荣

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the early diagnosis and clinical features of microbiology of infections after hip replacement ,so as to provide a scientific basis for drug selection .METHODS A retrospective analysis was conducted on clinical data of 30 hospitalized patients who had postoperative infections after hip replacement and underwentsecondary renovation from Jan .2006 to Dec .2014 .Joint fluid ,pus or pseudomembranous articular tissues were taken for microbiological culture .The patient's basic information ,epidemiological characteristics , types and distribution of bacteria , susceptibility results and other information were recorded and analyzed . RESULTS The average age of the 30 infected patients was (53 .28 ± 9 .97) years .Infection with complications occurred in a total of 13 cases (43 .33% ) . The causes of infections were mainly multiple fractures and osteonecrosis .There were 26 strains of pathogens cultured from the infected patients ,including 19 strains of gram-positive bacteria accounting for 73 .09% ,5 strains of gram-negative bacteria accounting for 19 .23% ,and 2 strains of fungi accounting for 7 .68% . Escherichia coli had a resistance of 100 .00% to ceftazidime and coagulase-negative Staphylococci had resistances of 77 .78% and 88 .89% to gentamicin and cefoxitin . CONCLUSION The rational diagnostic preoperatively before hip replacement ,selection of better antimicrobials such as vancomycin and linezolid for prophylactic in the course of treatment and strict implementation of aseptic techniques can effective prevent infections after hip replacement .%目的:探讨髋关节置换术后患者感染早期诊断与病原学临床特征,为临床抗菌药物选择提供科学依据。方法回顾性分析2006年1月-2014年12月住院治疗行髋关节置换术后发生感染而翻修的30例患者临床资料,取关节液、脓液、关节腔或者假膜组织进行病原学培养,记录、分析患者的基本信息,流行病学特征

  8. Epidemiological and antibiotic resistant study on extended-spectrum β-lacta mase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Zhejiang Province%浙江省产超广谱β-内酰胺酶大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌流行情况及耐药性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞云松; 周伟琳; 陈亚岗; 丁永祥; 马亦林

    2002-01-01

    目的 调查浙江省产超广谱β-内酰胺酶的大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌流行情况及其耐药性.方法 收集各地区临床分离的大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌共462株,经酶抑制剂增强的肉汤稀释法 筛选出产超广谱β-内酰胺酶细菌,并用浓度梯度法检测其对9种抗生素的耐药性.结果 浙江省大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌中超广谱β-内酰胺酶的检出率分别为34%和38.3%.产 超广谱β-内酰胺酶细菌对头孢他啶、头孢噻肟的耐药率分别为42%和38%,对头孢西丁、头 孢吡肟、头孢哌酮-舒巴坦、哌拉西林-他唑巴坦、阿米卡星、环丙沙星的耐药率均高于不 产酶菌株,所有菌株对亚胺培南都敏感.结论 目前产超广谱β-内酰胺酶细菌感染发生率较高,其对除亚胺培南外的多种抗菌药物有一定 的耐药率.%Objective To investigate the epidemiological status of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoni ae) and the drug resistance profiles of such organisms. Methods A total of 282 clinical isolates of E. coli and 180 of K. pneumoniae were coll ected from different districts of Zhejiang Province. Inhibitor potentiated brot h dilution tests were performed for detecting extended-spectrum β-lactamases . Etests were performed to detect the drug resistance of these strains against nine commonly used antibiotics.Results The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in E. coli and K. pneumoni ae was 34.0% and 38.3%, respectively. The average prevalence of extended-spe ctrum β-lactamases in E. coli and K. pneumoniae was 35.7%. The resistance prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing strains to ceftazidime and cefotaxime was 40% and 26% respectively, so were those to cefepime, cefoxitin , piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoperazone-sulbactam, amikacin and ciprofloxacin . All these strains were sensitive to imipenem. Conclusion The results

  9. 传染性单核细胞增多症患儿合并细菌感染的病原菌分布及耐药性分析%Analysis on Drug Resistance and Pathogenic Bacteria Distribution of the Patients of Infectious Mononucleosis Combined with Bacterial Infec-tion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡倚玲; 宋秀兰

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探讨传染性单核细胞增多症患儿合并细菌感染的病原菌分布及耐药性分析。[方法]选取2010年1月至2013年8月入住我院诊断为传染性单核细胞增多症且咽拭子培养阳性的38例患儿为研究对象,对其分离出的病原菌分布及耐药性进行调查研究。[结果]38例标本共检出44株病原菌(其中有6例标本各检出2种病原菌),前3名依次为金黄色葡萄球菌14株(31.8%)、鲍氏不动杆菌10株(22.7%)、肺炎克雷伯菌8株(18.2%)。金黄色葡萄球菌对青霉素G的耐药率最高,占85.7%,鲍氏不动杆菌对氨苄西林、头孢西丁、呋喃妥因耐药率为100%,肺炎克雷伯菌对氨苄西林的耐药率为100%。[结论]传染性单核细胞增多症患儿合并细菌感染的病原菌分布及耐药性有其一定的特点,在诊断和治疗过程中应予以重视。%[Objective] To discuss the pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance of patients of infectious mononucleosis combined with bacterial in-fection. [Method] Choose 38 children patients as research objects who were diagnosed as infectious mononucleosis with positive throat swab culture, and make investigation to the separated pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance.[Result] In the 38 cases of samples, there ’re 44 strains of pathogenic bacteria detected(2 kinds of pathogenic bacteria detected in 6 cases respectively), the front 3 were: 14 strains of staphylococcus aureus(31.8%), 10 acineto-bacter baumannii(22.7%) and 8 klebsiel a pneumaniae(18.2%); the staphylococcus aureus had highest drug resistance to Penicilin G, occupying 85.7%; to ampicil in, cefoxitin and macrodantin, the acinetobacter baumannii had drug resistance 100%; the klebsiel a pneumaniae had drug resistance of 100% to ampicil in.[Conclusion] The pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance of children patients with infectious mononucleosis combined with bacteria infection have

  10. 水貂出血性肺炎的诊断与防治%Diagnosis and Treatment of Hemorrhagic Pneumonia of Mink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵贤; 项方; 王殿永; 李国华

    2012-01-01

    【目的]对水貂出血性肺炎进行诊断和防治。[方法]以秦皇岛市昌黎县荒田庄某养殖户饲养的水貂中发病水貂为试验材料,对其进行剖检,无菌取肝、肾、脾、肺等组织分别接种于普通营养琼脂和血液琼脂,分离、纯化细菌,并对获得的菌株进行动物接种试验和药敏试验。最后,提出相关治疗和预防措施。[结果]分离得到的细菌经革兰染色镜检为阴性;在血液琼脂上形成溶血环;该菌能发酵葡萄糖和木糖;不发酵蔗糖、乳糖、麦芽糖和七叶苷;过氧化氧酶和氧化酶试验阳性;尿素酶试验和硫化氢试验阴性.故确定该菌株为绿脓杆菌。药敏试验结果显示,该菌对环丙沙星等高敏,对头孢噻吩等耐药。[结论]该试验结果为水貂出仇性肺炎的诊治和预防奠定了基础。%[Objective] The paper was to diagnose and treat hemorrhagic pneumonia of mink. [Method] The diseased minks bred by one raiser in Huangtian Village of Changli County in Qinhuangdao City were used as experimental materials. It was necropsied, and its tissues such as liver, kidney, spleen and lung were taken under aseptic condition, then inoculated into general nutrition agar and blood agar. The bacteria were isolated and purified, and the strains obtained were carried out animal inoculation test and drug sensitivity test. Finally, the relevant treatment and preven- tive measures were put forward. [Conclusion] The bacteria isolated were detected to be negative by Gram staining; it formed hemolysis ring in blood agar; the bacteria could ferment glucose and xylose, which could not ferment sucrose, lactose, maltose and esculin; it was positive in catalase and oxidase test, and negative in urease test and hydrogen sulfide test; so the strain was indentified to be Pseudomonas aerugi- nosa. Drug sensitivity test showed that the bacteria were highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin, which had tolerance to cefoxitin

  11. 社区获得性MRSA所致哺乳期乳腺脓肿耐药性分析%Drug Resistance Analysis of Lactating Breast Abscess infected by Community-acquired MRSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少英; 邹建话; 吴华聪; 吴丽娟; 刘小月; 王飞玲; 陈静

    2016-01-01

    Objective:. The purpose of this study is to analyze the pathogens distribution and drug resistance of lactating breast abscess infected by community-acquired MRSA. Method: We collected 153 pus specimens of breast abscess. their drug sensitivity was tested by K-B disk diffusion method. Result:The resistance rate of MRSA to penicillin was 100%, and to oxazocilline, cefoxitin and erythromycin was up to 94.3%、91.4%and 80%. The sensitivity rate of MRSA to levofloxacin and Cotrimoxazole was 100%. The average age of the 35 cases of MRSA induced lactating breast abscess patients was 26.8 years. It generally appeared earlier during puerperal (P=0.0000). The median size of the abscess was bigger (P=0.0083). Conclusion: Levofloxacin can be used as the preferred drug treatment. It is of great significance for clinical diagnosis and treatment to select the antimicrobial drugs based on drug sensitivity test, avoid indiscriminate use and abuse of antibiotics.%目的:分析社区获得性MRSA所致哺乳期乳腺脓肿的病原菌分布和耐药状况。方法:收集153份乳腺脓肿脓汁标本进行细菌分离鉴定及药敏试验,用法国梅里埃公司生产的API鉴定系统进行细菌菌株鉴定,用K-B纸片扩散法作药敏试验。结果:金黄色葡萄球菌呈现多重耐药趋势,MRSA对青霉素的耐药率为100%,对苯唑青霉素、头孢西丁、红霉素的耐药率分别为94.3%、91.4%和80%,对左氧氟沙星和复方新诺明的敏感率均为100%。35例患者平均年龄26.8岁,一般出现在产后更早时期(P=0.0000),脓肿直径更大(P=0.0083)。结论:社区获得性MRSA是哺乳期乳腺脓肿感染的主要细菌,左氧氟沙星可作为治疗的首选药物,抗菌药物的选择应以药敏结果为指导,避免乱用和滥用抗生素。

  12. Avaliação de métodos comumente usados em laboratórios para a determinação da suscetibilidade à oxacilina entre amostras de Staphylococcus sp, isoladas de um hospital de Vitória, Estado do Espírito Santo Evaluation of methods commonly used in laboratories to determine the susceptibility to oxacillin among Staphylococcus sp samples isolated from a hospital in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo

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    Thais Dias Lemos Kaiser

    2010-06-01

    methods of disk diffusion, agar microdilution, oxacillin screening agar and automated systems, in comparison with PCR for investigating resistance to oxacillin. RESULTS: The mecA gene was detected in 48 strains (42.1%, and 27 strains (23.7% showed discrepant results in at least one of the methods (74.1% of CNS, 25.9% of S. aureus. For S. aureus, with the exception of the Microscan Walkaway, all the methods showed 100% specificity and sensitivity. In relation to CNS, the automated system and cefoxitin disk had lower accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Use of two methods should be the best option for improved accuracy, especially when the diagnostic laboratory only uses an automated system or oxacillin disk diffusion test. Combination of these methods with others presented almost 100% sensitivity and specificity in our study.

  13. 肠杆菌科细菌AmpC酶与基因的检测及耐药分析%Detection and Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance of AmpC Enzyme and Its Gene in Enterobacteriaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈枫; 唐小平; 王晓燕; 林雁; 陈庄; 黄永茂

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究肠杆菌科细菌产AmpC酶情况以及对抗生素的敏感性.方法 收集临床分离的第3代头孢菌素耐药肠杆菌科细菌62株.K-B法对13种抗菌药物敏感性、头孢西丁(FOX)耐药性进行初步筛选;酶粗提物头孢西丁三维实验检测AmpC酶;PCR对产酶菌株AmpC结构基因进行分析.结果 62株肠杆菌科细菌对亚胺培南、头孢吡肟及阿米卡星耐药率低,对氨苄西林-舒巴坦、头孢曲松、头孢他啶等抗菌药物的耐药率较高,FOX的初筛阳性菌有22株;其中17株检测到AmpC基因,并且8株细菌三雏实验阳性.结论 产AmpC酶菌株对各种抗生素的耐药率比非产酶菌株明显增高.治疗产AmpC酶细菌所引起的感染以亚胺培南或头孢吡肟为首选,左氧氟沙星、阿米卡星等可作为选用药物之一.%OBJECTIVE To study the production of AmpC enzymes and the sensitivity to antibiotics in the Enterobacteriaceae. METHODS Sixty two Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third generation cephalosporins were collected, the susceptibility to 13 kinds of antimicrobial drug and the drug tolerance to cefoxitin (FOX) were detected with K-B method. AmpC enzyme was detected by the enzyme extracts FOX three-dimensional test. And structural gene of AmpC was analyzed by PCR. RESULTS The resistant rate of 62 Enterobacteriaceae strains was low to cefepime, imipenem and amikacin, but high resistance to ampicillm/sulbactam, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime. There were 22 positive bacteria screened by FOX, 8 three-dimensional test positive bacteria; and 17 strains bacteria in which the AmpC gene were detected in the 22 screening-positive strains. CONCLUSION The resistant rate of the Enterobacteriaceae producing AmpC β-lactamases is significantly higher than those of non-producing AmpC. Imipenem or cefepime is the first-use drug for infections caused by AmpC-producing bacteria, and levofloxacin, amikacin are also effective for the treatment of such infections.

  14. 临床分离表皮葡萄球菌的耐药性分析及与icaD基因表达关系的研究%Analysis of drug resistance and relationship with icaD genetypes of clinically isolated staphylococcus epidermidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓光; 周树生; 戴媛媛; 刘宝

    2012-01-01

    Objective To detect the drug resistance of our ICU staphylococcus epidermidis to antibiotics, and to provide evidence for reasonable prevention and control measures to guide clinical medication . Methods mecA gene and icaD gene of the 125 strains staphylococcus epidermidis from clinical specimens and healthy skin were inspected and analyzed the drug resistance by K -B disk diffusion method and molecular biology method Results In two groups, icaD gene expression was correlated with mecA' s ( r = 0. 528, P = 0. 000; r = 0. 309, P = 0. 016 ) MecA gene expression in humor of clinical patients group was significantly higher than that in non -humor of normal people, and there was significant difference (P <0. 01) , while there was no significant difference in bacterial strain of icaD gene expression. Staphylococcus epidermidis in two groups were sensitive to rifampicin , nitrofurantoin, linezol-id and Vancomycin. The resistant rates of mecA gene expression bacterial strain to antibacterial agents had no sig -nificant difference in two groups , but the resistant rates of icaD gene expression had significant difference in ampi -cillin, cefoxitin, bactrim, erythromycin and chloramphenicol( P < 0. 05 ) Conclusion That ICU staphylococcus epidermidis to antibacterial agents have high drug resistance ,we must strengthen resistance monitoring, and according to antimicrobial susceptibility test results to choose rational drug , control nosocomial infection.%目的 了解我院ICU表皮葡萄球菌对抗生素的耐药性,为制定合理的预防控制措施,指导临床用药提供依据.方法 采用K-B纸片扩散法和分子生物学方法 对临床标本和健康人皮肤分离的共125株表皮葡萄球菌的耐药性及其mecA和icaD基因进行检测分析.结果 ①两组在icaD基因的表达与mecA基因表达均存在相关性(r=0.528,P=0.000;r=0.309,P=0.016);②mecA基因表达在临床患者体液组中较健康自愿者非体液组明显增

  15. Detection of a IMP-4 type metal beta lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumonia highly resistant to carbapenem drugs%一株高度耐碳青霉烯类药物的肺炎克雷伯菌耐药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭明; 李天娇; 莫成锦

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the resistant mechanism of a Klebsiella pneumonia strain highly resistant to to carbapenem drugs. Methods Both broth microdilution and Etest method were usef for antimicrobial susceptibility test of Klebsiella pneumonia to carbapenemases, modified Hodge test and double disk synergy method were uxed for phenotype detection and multiple groups of carbapenem resistance related gene primers PCR and sequencing was used for genotype determination with assistance of Beijing University Institute of Clinical Pharmacology. Results Klebsiella pneumonia resistant to on commonly used clinical imipenem (mic>32ug/ml),meropenem (mic>32ug/ml),the first to fourth generation of cephalosporins, quinolone and gentamicin, cefoxitin, aztreonam trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, telracycline minocycline, ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoperazone/sulbactam, but sensitive to amikacin and polymyxin B. carbapenem resistance gene was blaIMP-4. Conclusion IMP-4 type metal lactamase Klebsiella pneumonia resistant to most common antibacterials has been detected in this hospital and attention be paid to monitoring and treatment.%目的 了解从临床患者病灶中分离到的一株高度耐碳青霉烯类药物的肺炎克雷伯菌的耐药机制.方法 药敏试验采用微量肉汤稀释法与etest法,碳青霉烯酶表型检测采用改良Hodge试验和双纸片增效法,其基因型测定采用多组碳青霉烯耐药相关基因引物PCR并测序,由北京大学临床药理研究所负责完成.结果 药敏测试结果除对阿米卡星和多粘菌素敏感外,对临床常用亚胺培南(mic>32ug/ml)、美罗培南(mic>32ug/ml)、一至四代的头孢菌素类、硅诺酮类以及庆大霉素、头孢西丁、氨曲南、复方新诺明、四环素、美满霉素、氨苄西林、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、哌拉西林、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦、阿莫西林/棒酸、头孢哌酮/舒巴坦,

  16. Caracterização de Staphylococcus aureus isolados da barra de mão de carrinhos e alças de cestas de supermercados

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    Daiane Buzzatto Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    supermarkets from the city of Campo Mourão – PR, and characterize the susceptibility of isolates to oxacillin. One hundred twenty samples, of which 60 collected from bars hand stands and collected 60 of the handles of baskets. This micro-organism was isolated in 75 samples (62.5%, and of this total, 35 samples (46,7% were isolated from carts and 40 (53,3% of shopping baskets. The positive samples for Staphylococcus aureus were submitted to susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method to oxacillin (cefoxitin and all samples were found to be sensitive to this drug. It found that the bars of hands and the handles of supermarket baskets can be considered as fomites in the dissemination of Staphylococcus aureus, being extremely important to sanitization these objects in order to reduce the risk of contamination in the community.Keywords: Surfaces. Contamination. Staphylococcus aureus. Oxacillin.

  17. Detecção de Listeria, Salmonella e Klebsiella em serviço de alimentação hospitalar Detection of Listeria, Salmonella and Klebsiella in a hospital food service

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    Uelinton Manoel Pinto

    2004-09-01

    equipment used for food preparation in a hospital food service, and four samples collected from enteral diets were tested for bacteria of genera Listeria, Salmonella and Klebsiella. Typical colonies of bacteria of the genus Listeria from enteral diet were isolated in Oxford agar and contamination by L. monocytogenes was confirmed by immunoanalysis. RESULTS: L. monocytogenes, S. rissen and Klebsiella were isolated from enteral diet. For their relevance as agents of hospital infections, bacteria of the genus Klebsiella were evaluated. K. pneumoniae were found in equipment and utensil, and K. oxytoca were found in environment, equipment and enteral diet samples. L. monocytogenes showed resistance to cefoxitin and all Klebsiella were resistant to amoxacillin and ampicillin. S. rissen showed susceptibility to all 13 antibiotics tested. CONCLUSION: The study showed that 11% of the analyzed samples were contaminated with, at least, one of the investigated pathogens. Such results reiterate the need for awareness and knowledge of effective hygienic procedures in the hospital food manipulation areas, in order to ensure patients' safety.

  18. 余姚市福氏1c志贺菌感染监测结果分析%Surveillance of Shigella flexneri subserotype 1c bacterial infection among diarrhea patients in Yuyao, Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建群; 张怡明; 罗学辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand Shigella flexneri subserotype 1c bacterial infection among diarrhea patients and explore the drug sensitivity of the isolated strains in Yuyao, Zhejiang. Methods Stool or anal swab specimens were collected from diarrhea patients for Shigella flexneri testing. The culture, isolation and identification of Shigella flexneri serotypes were performed according to the National Standard Protocol of GB/T 4789. 5-2003 and WS 287-2008. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was completed with the National Standard Protocol of WS/T 125-1999. Results A total of 440 diarrhea specimens were tested. The positive rate of Shigella flexneri was 5. 0% (22/440). Shigella flexneri subserotype lc was the major subserotype of the isolated bacterial strains (50%, 11/22). The isolated strains were 100% sensitive to cefoxitin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, gentamycin, amikacin, obramycin, netilmicin and imipenem,81. 82% sensitive to ceftriaxone and cefoperazone, and 72. 28% sensitive to norfloxacin. Drug resistance was found in the other 9 tested antibiotics. Eleven strains had multiple drug resistance. Conclusion Shigella flexneri subserotype lc bacterial infection played an important role in diarrhea in Yuyao, Zhejiang. It is important to select sensitive drugs for clinical treatment.%目的 了解浙江省余姚市感染性腹泻病人中首次发现的福氏1c志贺菌感染情况及对抗生素的敏感情况,为制订预防措施和临床治疗提供参考依据.方法 采集感染性腹泻病人的大便或肛试标本,依据GB/T 4789.5-2003和WS 287-2008进行增菌、分离、生化鉴定、血清分型,药敏试验依据WS/T 125-1999.结果 440份感染性腹泻病人粪便中检出志贺菌22株,检出率为5.0%,福氏1c志贺菌检出率最高2.5%,占50.00%.药敏试验:11株福氏1c志贺菌多重耐药,对头孢西丁、头孢他啶、头孢噻肟、庆大霉素、阿米卡星、妥布霉素、奈替米星、亚胺培南的敏感率达100%.头孢曲

  19. Analysis on Change of Serum Types and Drug Resistance of Shigella in Xicheng District of Beijing from 2008 to 2010%2008-2010年北京市西城区志贺菌血清型变迁及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 苗元; 王丽萍; 崔京辉; 王永全; 吉彦莉

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To analyze the change of serum types and drug resistance of Shigella in Xicheng district of Beijing from 2008 to 2010. [Methods]The study was conducted according to the National protocol of shigellosis surveillance. [Results]In 2008, there were 7 strains of Shigella flexneri and 4 strains of Shigella sonnei in Xicheng district, which accounted for 63. 6% and 36.4% respectively. In 2009, there were 12 strains of Shigella flexneri, 19 strains of Shigella sonnei and 1 strain of Shigella boydii, which accounted for 37.5% , 59.4% and 3.1% respectively. In 2010, there were 6 strains of Shigella flexneri and 36 strains of Shigella sonnei, which accounted for 14.3% and 85.7% respectively. The results of drug sensitivity test showed that Shigella was sensitive to cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin and aztreonam, and it was resistant to ampicillin, sulfanila-mide and nalidixie acid. [ Conclusion] From 2008 to 2010, the main serum types of Shigella in Xicheng district of Beijing are Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei, while the former decreased and the latter increased year by year. Shigella is sensitive to cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones which are suggested for the clinical treatments.%目的 2008-2010年北京市西城区志贺菌血清型变迁及耐药性分析。方法 按《全国细菌性痢疾监测方案》的要求进行。结果 2008年西城区福氏志贺菌7株,占63.6%;宋内志贺菌4株,占36.4%。2009年西城区福氏志贺菌12株,占37.5%;宋内志贺菌19株,占59.4%;鲍氏志贺菌1株,占3.1%。2010年福氏志贺菌6株,占14.3%;宋内志贺菌36株,占85.7%。药敏试验结果:志贺菌对头孢吡肟、头孢西丁、头孢他啶、氧氟沙星、左氧氟沙星、诺氟沙星、氨曲南药物敏感。对氨苄西林、磺胺、奈啶酸耐药。结论 2008-2010年北京市西城区志贺菌血清型主要为福氏志贺菌和宋内志贺菌,但是福氏

  20. Detection and drug resistance of ESBLs-producing Shigella%志贺菌产ESBLs酶的检测及其耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边锋芝; 苑广盈; 孙玉国; 张延芳; 李金文

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the detection rate and drug resistance of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)-producing Shigella in the district, in order to provide a guidance to clinical ra-tional use of antibiotics. Methods ESBLs were detected by E-test, and AmpC was detected by the modified three-dimensional test; disc diffusion test (K-B method) was used to study the drug resist- ance of Shigella isolated from clinical specimens. The date analysis was performed with WHONET5.4 software. Results In 275 strains of Shigella,12 strains (4.4%) of ESBLs-producing Shigella were de-tected consider ESBLs, and no AmpC-producing strain was found in Shigella. The resistance rate of ESBLs-producing strains to first,second and third-generation cephalosporins as well as aztreonam was respectively significantly higher than that of ESBLs non-producing strains, but both of them were high sensitive to imipenem,cefoxitin,ciprofloxacin and gentamiein. Conclusion The positive rate of ESBLs-producing Shigella stains is lower in the district, but the trend of nosocomial infection to community in-fection should be paid more attention to. It is vital to use antibiotics rationally.%目的 了解本地区产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)志贺菌的检出率以及耐药情况,为临床治疗菌痢提供试验依据.方法 E-test试验进行ESBLs志贺菌的检测,改良三维试验检测AmpC酶,K-B纸片扩散法进行药敏试验,用WHONET5.4软件进行数据分析.结果 275株志贺菌中,产ESBLs志贺菌12株,检出率为4.4%,未检测出产AmpC酶菌株.产ESBLs组对第1代、第2代、第3代头孢菌素和氨曲南耐约性均明显高于非产ESBLs组,氨苄西林、氯霉素、四环素、复方新诺明耐药率在两组均有较高水平.对亚胺培南、头孢西丁、环丙沙星、庆大霉素较敏感.结论 本地区ESBLs志贺菌检出率虽然较低,但已经有院内感染向社区感染转化的趋势,应引起重视,合理使用抗菌药物至关重要.

  1. Correlation analysis on drug resistance ofKlebsiella pneumoniae and dose of antibiotics in Central People’s Hospital of Zhanjiang from 2010 to 2014%2010-2014年湛江中心人民医院肺炎克雷伯菌耐药性与抗菌药物用量的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何清华; 张亮; 曹堃; 郭卫; 黎汉坤; 黄云平

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析湛江中心人民医院肺炎克雷伯菌耐药性与抗菌药物用量的相关性,为临床合理用药提供参考。方法采用回顾性调查方法,统计湛江中心人民医院2010—2014年13种抗菌药物的用药频度(DDDs)及同期肺炎克雷伯菌的耐药率,采用Pearson法对肺炎克雷伯菌耐药性与抗菌药物用量的相关性进行统计分析。结果肺炎克雷伯菌对亚胺培南的耐药率与亚胺培南用量呈显著正相关,与头孢噻肟用量呈显著负相关;对莫西沙星的耐药率与头孢哌酮/舒巴坦、头孢西丁用量呈显著正相关;对美罗培南的耐药率与头孢唑林、左氧氟沙星用量呈显著负相关(P<0.05)。结论肺炎克雷伯菌对抗菌药物耐药水平变化与抗菌药物用量存在相关关系,临床应合理选用抗菌药物,以减少或延缓耐药菌株的产生。%Objective To analyze the correlation between drug resistance ofKlebsiella pneumoniae and dose of antibiotics in Central People’s Hospital of Zhanjiang, and to provide reference for rational drug use.MethodsDefined daily doses (DDDs) of 13 antibiotics and drug resistance rate of K. pneumoniae in Central People’s Hospital of Zhanjiang from 2010 to 2014 were reviewed, retrospectively. The correlation between drug resistance ofK. pneumoniae and dose of antibiotics were analyzed by Pearson method.ResultsThe resistance rate ofK. pneumoniae against immipenam had positive correlation with the dose of immipenam, and negative correlation with the dose of cefotaxime. The resistance rate against moxifloxacin had positive correlation with the doses of cefoperazone/sulbactam and cefoxitin. The resistance rate against meropenem had negative correlation with the doses of cefozolin and levofloxacin, respectively (P < 0.05).ConclusionsThe resistance changes ofK. pneumoniae have correlation with the doses of antibiotics. The proper choice of antibiotics could reduce or delay the

  2. Pathogens and drug resistance analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in neonatal purulent meningitis%新生儿化脓性脑膜炎脑脊液病原菌分布和耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晓萌; 杨娟; 刘翠青

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bacteria distribution of neonatal purulent meningitis,antibiotic sensitivity and resistance,and provide laboratory evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment.Methods Twenty-eight cases diagnosed purulent meningitis were recruited into this study.The bacterial culture,drug resistance and sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid from the patients were analyzed.Results The pathogen distribution in the cerebrospinal fluid of 28 cases with neonatal purulent meningitis:27 cases with cultured single strain,just 1 case with two strains.In this findings,there were 20 gram-negative bacteria strains (68.96%),8 gram-positive bacteria strains (27.59%),1 candida albicans strain (3.45%).The drug resistant rate of gram-negative bacteria to ampicillin,cotrimoxazole,piperacillin was more than 80.00%;on the other hand,it was up to 60.00% to cefazolin,tetracycline,cefotaxime.Eight strains of extended spectrum beta lactamase bacteria were tested in this study.Gram-negative bacteria resistant to meropenem and amikacin were not detected.Most gram-positive bacteria showed drug resistance to ampicillin,cotrimoxazole,erythromycin,cefoxitin.There was none detected in gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin.Conclusion Gram-negative bacteria was the major pathogens in neonatal purulent meningitis,and they were resistant to multiple antibiotics.%目的:探讨新生儿化脓性脑膜炎脑脊液病原菌分布、抗生素敏感和耐药情况,为临床诊治提供实验室依据。方法对临床诊断的28例化脓性脑膜炎患儿脑脊液细菌培养和耐药性以及敏感性进行分析。结果28例化脓性脑膜炎患儿脑脊液病原菌分布:单菌株27例,双菌株1例。其中革兰阴性菌20株(68.96%),革兰阳性菌8株(27.59%),白色念珠菌1株(3.45%)。革兰阴性菌对氨苄西林、复方新诺明、哌拉西林的耐药率达80.00%以上,对头孢唑林、四环素、头孢噻肟的耐药率在60

  3. Bacteremias por Staphylococcus coagulase negativos oxacilina resistentes em um hospital escola na cidade de Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci bacteremia at a teaching hospital in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Rigatti

    2010-12-01

    isolates were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity using disk diffusion and automation (MicroScan® - Siemens. The presence of mecA gene was identified by the polymerase chain reaction molecular technique. RESULTS: The most common species was Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=40, 67%. The mecA gene was detected in 54 (90% strains, while analysis of the sensitivity profiles revealed a high rate of resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobial drugs. However, all isolates were uniformly sensitive to vancomycin and tigecycline. The cefoxitin disk was the phenotypic method that best correlated with the gold standard. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the clinical significance of CoNS isolated from hemocultures and the precise detection of oxacillin resistance represent decisive factors for the correct choice of antibiotic therapy. Although vancomycin constitutes the normal treatment in most Brazilian hospitals, reduction in its use is recommended.

  4. 产AmpC酶弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌的耐药基因研究%Study on resistance gene of AmpC β-lactamase in Citrobacter freundii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾红莲; 赵东明; 徐韫健; 张晓坤

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the drug resistance gene of AmpC β-Lactamase from ten Citrobacter freundii.Methods -lactamases of ten strains was extracted by ultrasonic crushing,and AmpC -lactamases was tested with Cefoxitin in three dimensional test,the genotype of AmpC were amplified by multiple PCR and PCR products were sequenced subsequently. Drug sensitivity of ten strains were determined. Results There were 4 strains positive in three-dimensional test.The genotype of β-lactamases were not detected in CMY-G1 (1/10),CMY-G2 (2/10),FOX (1/10),CIT(2/10),ACT,DHA and MOX genes in ten strains. The 1 146bp DNA fragment of CMY-type AmpC β-Lactamase gene sequence shared 99 % amino acid identity with blaCMY that already appeared in Guangzhou. The resistant strains overexpressing AmpC β-lactamases were multi-drug resistant. Conclusion The surveillance of overexpressing AmpC β-lactamases in Citrobacter freundii should be emphasized so as to choose effective antibiotic for dealing with AmpC β-lactamases producing strains.%目的 对广州医学院第一附属医院临床分离的10株弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌进行AmpC酶的耐药基因研究.方法 用超声破碎法提取10株菌的β-内酰胺酶粗提物,进行三维试验;提取10株细菌的总DNA,PCR扩增CMY-G1、CMY-G2、FOX、ACT、DHA、MOX、CIT耐药基因并进行测序;对菌株进行MIC药物敏感试验.结果 三维试验阳性的有4株,β-内酰胺酶基因的检出率:CMY-G1(1/10)、CMY-G2(2/10)、FOX(1/10)、CIT(2/10),ACT、DHA和MOX未检出;CMY基因经全序列测定得到1 146bp的基因片段,与广州地区报道的CMY基因有99%同源;AmpC酶阳性的菌株茵呈多重耐药现象.结论 加强菌弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌产AmpC酶的监测,以选择合适的抗生素应对产酶株.

  5. 枸橼酸杆菌医院感染特点及耐药性检测%Nosocomial infection and antibiotic resistance surveillance of citrobacter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红梅; 姜玉昌

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and antibiotic resistance of citrobacter for anti-infection therapy .Methods The citrobacter were identified by Walk-Away-40 according to《National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Procedures》 .Kirby-Bauer(K-B ) were used for drug sensitive test and WHONET5.4 for statistics .Results We isolated 172 strains of citrobacteT .Of which C .freundii was major (70.3%) ,then Citrobacter am alonaticus (14.0%) and Citrobacter diversus (5.2%).In 172 strains of citrobacte which came mainly from respiratoy tract (67 .4%) and urogenital tract was the next(22.1% ).The infected ward were neurology ward (29.1%) ,respiratoy ward(27.9%)nephrology ward (16.9%)and oncology ward(11.0%).Drug sensitive test showed higher resistance rate in 172 strains of citrobacter to ampicillin ,cefazolin and Cefoxitin were above 87% ,while to amikacin ,imipenem and sulperazone were lower 20% .Conclusion C .freundii was the common citrobacter in nosocomial infection and came mainly from respiratory tract.Citrobacter produced multi-β-lactam ase resistance .Imipenem ,sulperazone and amikacin have higher antibacterial activities to citrobacte.%目的 了解枸橼酸杆菌在医院感染中的分布特点及耐药特性,为临床抗感染治疗提供依据.方法 细菌分离培养按进行;采用WalkAway-40全自动细菌鉴定仪对临床分离菌株进行菌种鉴定;采用K-B法进行药敏试验,用WHONET5.4软件进行统计分析.结果 共分离枸橼酸杆菌属细菌172株,其中弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌最多,占70.3%,其次为丙二酸盐阴性枸橼酸杆菌和异型枸橼酸杆菌,分别占14.0%和5.2%,172株枸橼酸杆菌的感染部位以呼吸道最多(67.4%),其次为泌尿生殖道(22.1%);病区分布主要为神经内科病房、呼吸内科病房、肾内科病房和肿瘤病房,分别占29.1%、27.9%、16.9%和11.0%;药敏结果显示,172株枸橼酸杆菌对氨苄西林、头孢唑啉、头孢

  6. Analysis on the production of extended-spectrum β-Lactamases and drug-resistance of 906 strains of Escherichia coli%906株大肠埃希菌产超广谱β-内酰胺酶状况及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈捷; 李南洋; 李健平; 张伟嫦

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the production of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) by Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the drug resistance of E. coli to commonly used antibiotics, and to provide reference for clinical anti-infective drug therapy. Methods Ceftazidime and ceftazidime plus clavulanic acid, cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid in the double disk confirmatory test were adopted to detect ESBLs. K-B disk diffusion assay was used to determine antibiotic resistance of E. coli. Results The detection rates of E. coli ESBLs were 38.65%, 42.86%, 43.28% and 48.84% from 2007 to 2010, respectively. Antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli was low to ceforera-zone/sulbactam, imipenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin and amikacin, and the resistance rates to other antibiotics tested were mostly more than 50%. Conclusion The drug resistance status of E. coli is severe. We should strengthen the drug-resistance monitoring of E. coli and the management of antibiotics use to control the spread and prevalence of the drug-resistant bacteria.%目的 了解大肠埃希菌产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)及其对常用抗菌药物的耐药情况,为临床抗感染治疗提供用药依据.方法 采用头孢他啶与头孢他啶/克拉维酸、头孢噻肟与头孢噻肟/克拉维酸的双纸片确证试验检测ESBLs,采用纸片扩散法(K-B法)检测大肠埃希菌对常用抗菌药物的耐药性.结果 2007年、2008年、2009年、2010年产ESBLs大肠埃希菌的检出率分别为38.65%、42.86%、43.28%和48.84%.大肠埃希菌对常用抗菌药物的耐药率以头孢哌酮/舒巴坦、亚胺培南、哌拉西林/也唑巴坦、阿莫西林/克拉维酸、头孢西丁、阿米卡星较低,其余抗菌药物的耐药率大多在50%以上,对氨苄西林和哌拉西林的耐药率甚至超过80%.结论 大肠埃希菌的耐药形势严峻,应加强其耐药性监测,合理使用抗菌药物,严格控制耐药菌的产生和医院感染暴发流行.

  7. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMMUNOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE OF KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM FARM ANIMALS AT TAIF GOVERNORATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M.A. Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative enterobacterium that has historically been and currently remains, a significant cause of human disease and several kinds of infections in animals. In the present work, trials for the isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae from diseased and apparently healthy farm animals (cows, sheep, goats and camels were done for recognition of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies. It was noticed that there was a marked variation between incidences of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies in examined animals as regards to health condition. The frequency was greater among samples collected from diseased animals 25.2% as compared with apparently healthy one 5.5%. It was found that there was great difference between the prevalence of Klebsiella isolated from various animal origins. On biochemical identification Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae was the most prevalent followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae and Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. Rhinoscleromatis. Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis was not isolated from apparently healthy animals. The in vitro sensitivity of isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies recovered from different animal species to 23 antimicrobial agents was tested. It was found that were resistance to cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, amoxicillin and ampicillin. The most potent antibiotics showing 100% activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. isolated in this study were imipenem, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin and kanamycin. While 96.2% of all examined isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ticarcillin/clavulanic acid. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that CPSs of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies contained wide variety of different molecular weights which ranged from 15.52 kDa to106.29 kDa and gave 10-13 bands. Evaluation of humoral immune response of mice immunized with CPSs was done using ELISA. It was found that the

  8. Resistance of extended-spectrum β-lactamases-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in pediatric inpatients%儿科住院患者感染产ESBLs肺炎克雷伯杆菌的耐药性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中良; 董其勇; 向萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence and resistance of extended-spectrum β-lactamases(ESBLs)-producing Klebsiel a pneumoniae. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on the isolates and drug sensitivity of ESBLs-producing Klebsiel a pneumoniae in sputum specimens, which were taken from pediatric patients hospitalized from July, 2011 to June ,2012. Results: A total of 159 Klebsiel a pneumoniae were isolated, 95 (59.75%) strains of Klebsiel a pneumoniae were ESBLs-producing strains. Resistance to amoxicil in/clavulanic acid, ticarcil in/clavulanic acid, ampicil in/sulbactam, piperacil in/tazobactam and imipenem were 54.74%, 47.37%, 83.16%, 16.84%and 3.16%, respectively, in ESBLs-producing Klebsiel a pneumoniae, resistance to cefoxitin was 61.05%, resistance to quinolones and aminoglycosides was lower. Conclusion: The prevalence of ESBLs-producing Klebsiela pneumoniae is high in sputum specimens from hospitalized pediatric patients. The ESBLs-producing strains showed the highest sensitivity to carbopenems, piperacil in/tazobactam has the lower resistance than other beta-lactam/beta-lactamases inhibitors.%  目的:分析产超广谱β-内酰胺酶肺炎克雷伯杆菌的检出率及耐药性。方法:对2011年7月至2012年6月儿科住院患者痰标本产ESBLs肺炎克雷伯杆菌的分离情况及药敏特性进行回顾性分析。结果:分离出肺炎克雷伯杆菌159株,其中产ESBLs菌95株,检出率为59.75%。在产ESBLs肺炎克雷伯杆菌中,阿莫西林/克拉维酸、替卡西林/克拉维酸、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦和亚胺培南的耐药率分别为54.74%、47.37%、83.16%、16.84%和3.16%,头孢西丁的耐药率为61.05%,氟喹诺酮类、氨基糖苷类的耐药率处于较低水平。结论:在儿科住院患者痰标本中产ESBLs肺炎克雷伯杆菌的检出率较高,碳青霉烯类仍是针对产ESBLs菌株作用最强的一类抗菌药物,哌拉西林/他唑巴坦与其他β-内

  9. 肺炎克雷伯菌中超广谱β-内酰胺酶基因分布及转移研究%The distribution and transfer of genes of duper broad-spectrumβ-lactamase in klebsiella pneumoniae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢锋

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究肺炎克雷伯菌中超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)基因类型及转移方式。方法回顾性分析该院2011年1月至2013年1月收集的460例住院患者菌株的临床资料,并对其ESBLs基因进行分型和研究耐药性。结果460株β-内酰胺酶的KPN检出6种β-内酰胺酶基因,其中bla TEM占总数的5%,bla SHV占总数的20%, bla CTX-M-1群占总数的5%,bla CTX-M-9群占总数的25%,bla OXA-1群占总数的10%,bla DHA 占总数的30%等;本研究共发现322种菌株耐药谱,菌株耐药在9种抗菌药物以上。阿莫西林/替卡西林/头孢噻吩等、阿莫西林/克拉维酸和头孢西丁、哌拉西林/克拉维酸、亚胺培南的耐药性分别为100%、60%、45%、35%和0。结论肺炎克雷伯菌中ESBLs基因类型主要是bla TEM和bla CTX-M-1,并具有较为严重的耐药性。%Objective To study the distribution and transfer of genes of super broad-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL s) in klebsiella pneumoniae .Methods The information of 460 strains of hospitalized patients who had been treated in our hospital from January 2011 to January 2013 were retrospectively analyzed .Results 460 β-lactamase KPN detected six kinds of β-lactamase gene ,which bla TEM of the total 5% ,bla SHV accounted for 20% ,bla CTX-M-1 group accounted for 5% ,bla CTX-M-9 group accounted for 25% ,bla OXA-1 group accounted for 10% ,bla DHA 30% of the total ,etc .;this study found that 322 strains resistant spectrum ,strains resistant to antibiotics in 9 above .Amoxicillin/ticarcillin/cephalosporin thiophene ,amoxicillin/clavulanic acid ,cefoxitin ,piperacillin/clavulanic acid ,imipenem were 100% ,60% ,45% ,35% and 0 .Conclusion Klebsiella pneumoniae Super spectrum β-lactamase gene type are primarily bla TEM and bla CTX-M-1 ,they have more serious resistance .

  10. Detection of sasX gene in Staphylococcus aureus and molecular epidemiological characteristics%金黄色葡萄球菌sasX基因的检测及其分子流行特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟一鸣; 丁健生; 刘文恩; 李虹玲; 晏群; 刘清霞

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查医院金黄色葡萄球菌 sasX 基因的携带情况并探究其分子流行特征,为揭示该基因在本地区的流行状况提供依据。方法收集中南大学湘雅医院2012年1-12月临床分离鉴定的金黄色葡萄球菌128株,采用 PCR 检测 sasX 基因,对该基因阳性的菌株采用多重 PCR 检测 SCCmec 分型、PCR 扩增 pvl 毒素基因,并进行多位点序列分型(MLST )和葡萄球菌 A 蛋白序列分析。结果128株金黄色葡萄球菌中共检测出2株 sasX 基因阳性菌株,检出率为1.6%,经头孢西丁鉴定这2株菌株均为耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA),SCCmec Ⅲ分型均为 SCCmec Ⅲ型,pv l 基因均阴性,MLST 分型为 ST239,spa 分型为 t037型。结论首次在湖南地区临床分离的金黄色葡萄球菌中发现存在 sasX 基因,sasX 基因可能是导致医院持续感染的毒力因素之一,应密切关注其流行发展趋势。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the prevalence of sasX gene in Staphylococcus aureus (S .aureus) strains and explore the molecular epidemiological characteristics so as to reveal the prevalence of the gene in this area . METHODS A total of 128 clinical S .aureus isolates were collected from Xiangya Hospital ,Central South Universi-ty from Jan 2012 to Dec 2012 ,then the sasX gene was detected by using PCR ,the SCCmec Ⅲ genotypes were de-tected for the sasX-positive strains with the use of multiple PCR ,the pvl toxin gene was amplified by PCR ,the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was conducted to determine the sequence types(STs) ,and the staphylococcal protein A sequence typing (spa) of the sasX-positive strains was performed .RESULTS Of the 128 strains of S .au-reus ,2 were detected positive for the sasX gene ,with the detection rate 1 .6% ;both of the 2 strains were identi-fied as methicillin-resistant S .aureus (MRSA) by cefoxitin ,all of the SCCmec Ⅲ genotypes were SCCmec Ⅲ ,and the pvl gene was detected

  11. Detection of the new type of aminoglycoside acetyltransferase gene in Enterobacter cloacae isolates%临床分离阴沟肠杆菌中新型氨基糖苷类乙酰转移酶基因的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊自忠; 王鹏; 王中新; 李俊

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of aac(6')-Ib-cr gene in Enterobacter cloacae isolates.Methotis PCR and sequencing were performed on 81 strains of Enterobacter cloacae isolated clinically in Anhui province to identifv aac(6')-IB-cr gene. Disk diflusion method was used to test the susceptibility of the Enterobacter cloacae isolates with aac(6')-Ib-cr gene to fluoroquinolones,aminoglycosides,and other antimicrobial agents.AmpC and extended-spectrum β-lactamases(ESBLs)were detected by modified three-dimensional extract test,and the molecular typing was analyzed by ERIC-PCR.Resuits aac(6')-Ib-cr gene was identified in 3(3.7%)of the 81 Enterobacter cloacae isolates with different ERIC-PCR patterns.The isolates with aac(6')-Ib-cr gene were resistant to fluoroquinolones.aminoglycosides,chloramphenicol,ampicillin,cefoxitin,and second and third generation cephalosporins.Two of the 3 isolates produced AmpC and ESBLs,and 1 isolate produced only ESBLs.Conclusion aac (6')-Ib-cr gene is prevalent in Enterobacter cloaeae isolates with resistance to most of antimicrobial agents and no clone spread in found in them.%目的 了解临床分离阴沟肠杆菌中新型氨基糖苷类乙酰转移酶基因[aac(6')-Ib-cr基因]的分布.方法 PCR检测aac(6')-Ib-cr基因并将阳性扩增产物进行测序分析;纸片扩散法测定aac(6')-Ib-cr基因阳性菌株对13种抗菌药物的敏感性;改良三维试验检测高产AmpC酶和ESBLs; ERIC-PCR法进行aac(6')-Ib-cr基因阳性菌株同源性检测.结果 81株阴沟肠杆菌中,3株aac(6')-Ib-cr基因阳性(3.7%); aac(6')-Ib-cr基因阳性菌株对氟喹诺酮类,氨基糖苷类,氯霉素,氨苄西林,头孢西丁,第2、3代头孢菌素等显示多重耐药2株产ESBLs和AmpC,1株产ESBLs;ERIC-PCR电泳图谱型显示,3株aac(6')-Ib-cr基因阳性细菌均不属于同一型别.结论 临床分离阴沟肠杆菌中存在aac(6')-Ib-cr基因阳性菌株,为多重耐药、非克隆传播菌株,临床应加强检测和监测.

  12. Detection of ESBLs and AmpC enzyme in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and analysis of drug resistance%铜绿假单胞菌ESBLs和AmpC酶的检测及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛武智; 林平

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解铜绿假单胞菌临床分离株ESBLs和AmpC酶的产生及对常用抗菌药物敏感性,指导临床合理选用抗生素.方法 常规培养分离细菌,采用VITEK-60型全自动细菌鉴定仪鉴定细菌;按NCCLS推荐的双纸片确证法和K-B纸片扩散法检测ESBLs和药敏试验;采用头孢西丁纸片扩散法筛选疑产AmpC酶阳性菌株,确诊采用三维试验.结果 铜绿假单胞菌产ESBLs和AmpC酶总检出率分别为40.8%和38.2%,其中,单产AmpC酶、单产ESBLs和同产AmpC酶+ESBLs检出率分别为19.7%、26.3%和14.5%.药敏试验显示:产酶株的耐药性明显高于非产酶株,耐药现象在同产AmpC酶和ESBLs菌株中更为严重.结论 台州地区临床分离的铜绿假单胞菌产ESBLs和AmpC酶菌株检出率较高.产AmpC酶和ESBLs的菌株呈高度耐药,临床上对产酶菌株引起感染的治疗应根据细菌药敏试验结果,合理选择有效的抗菌药物联合治疗,减少产酶菌株的产生和流行.%Objective To investigate the production of ESBLs and AmpC enzymes and antimicrobial resistance in the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the hospital and direct reasonable use of drugs. Method The clinically isolated P. aeruginosa strains were collected, identified by VITEK-60 type automatic bacteria identification system; ESBLs and drug resistance were detected by K-B method; the results were evaluated according to the relevant documents of NCCLS. The strains suspected producing AmpC enzymes were screened by cefoxitin disk diffusion method and confirmed by three dimensional tests. Result The total detection rates of ESBLs and AmpC positive phenotype in P. aeruginosa were 40.8% and 38.2%, respectively. The detection rates of single AmpC enzyme, single ESBLs enzyme and AmpC + ESBLs enzyme were 19.7%, 26.3% and 14.5%, respectively. Drug susceptibility tests showed that the antimicrobial resistance ratio of the strains producing AmpC enzyme was significantly higher than

  13. 产AmpC酶肺炎克雷伯菌的耐药性及基因型研究%A study on resistance and genotypes of AmpC beta-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Anhui province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉林; 高帆; 张晓妮; 程君; 殷俊; 李家斌; 叶英

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify the plasmid-mediated AmpC gene and to investigate its prevalence in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains i-solated in Anhui Province. Methods The AmpC-preducing isolates were chosen by cefoxitin and identified by the three-dimensional test. The plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases were detected by multiplex PCR. The PCR products were directly sequenced and ana-lyzed. M-H agar dilution method was used to determine MIC of 17 antimicrobial agents against the AmpC positive isolates. Results Of the 180 strains,21 (11.67%) proved to be plasmid-mediated highly productive AmpC by DNA sequence test. Blast results indicated that the positive AmpC group was composed of 17 strains which carried DHA type and 4 strains which carried EBC type. DNA sequence analysis revealed three novel AmpC genotypes ( GenBank accession: FJ237366, FJ237367, and FJ237368 ). All AmpC positive isolates exhibited high resistance to the third or fourth generation cephalosporins,aminoglycosides,and quinolones. But all of them were suscep-tible to imipenem and meropenem. Conclusions The plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases were found in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated in Anhui Province and DHA type was dominant. Moreover, three novel AmpC genotypes were identified. The carbapene-ms are recommended to treat the AmpC-preducing isolates.%目的 了解安徽地区产AmpC酶肺炎克雷伯菌的基因型特征及耐药性.方法 对180株肺炎克雷伯菌进行头孢西丁纸片法初筛,三维实验筛选高产AmpC酶茼,PCR扩增、测序和BLAST比对分析以确定AmpC基因型,琼脂稀释法检测耐药性.结果 产AmpC酶菌株有21株(11.67%),其中DHA型17株,EBC型4株.3株EBC型为新基因(gene bank登录号为FJ237366,FJ237367,FJ237368);药敏显示产酶株除对亚胺培南与美罗培南敏感外,对其他抗菌药物均有不同程度的耐药.结论 安徽地区产AmpC酶的肺炎克雷伯菌以DHA型为主,同时存在EBC型突变株.高产AmpC酶菌的感染推荐

  14. 铜绿假单胞菌DHA-1型AmpC酶的检测及耐药性分析%Detection of DHA-1 Ampc enzymes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and analysis of their drug resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金保富; 林平; 陈佳玉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the production of ESBLs, AmpC enzyme and genotype of AmpC enzyme in clinically isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and their resistance to common antibiotics. Methods Bacteria were identified with VITEK-60, ESBLs were detected and drug sensitive test was performed in accordance with the double disk confirmatory test and K-B disk diffusion recommended by the CLSI, AmpC enzymes were detected by screening suspected positive strains with cefoxitin disk diffusion method and confirming them by a three-dimensional test, and structural genes were amplified by using PCR. Results The detection rates of ESBLs- and AmpC enzyme-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa were respectively 40.8% and 38.2%, among which 19.7% produced only AmpC enzymes, 26.3% produced only ESBLs and 14.5% produced both of them. The 26 positive isolates confirmed by the three-dimensional test were found to have 23 strains of DHA-1 gene by PRC amplification. Drug sensitive tests indicated that the resistance of enzyme-producing strains to drugs was significantly higher than that of non-enzyme-producing ones, especially so in those producing both ESBL and AmpC enzyme, and imipenem was more sensitive to both enzyme-producing and non-enzyme-producing strains. Conclusion ESBLs- and AmpC enzyme-producing strains from clinically isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa have a higher detection rate. AmpC enzyme genotype is mainly of DHA-1 type. ESBLs and AmpC enzyme-producing strains have higher resistance to drugs.%目的 调查临床分离铜绿假单胞菌ESBLs、AmpC酶的产生、AmpC酶的基因型及对常用抗菌药物的耐药特征.方法 采用VITEK-60型全自动细菌鉴定仪鉴定细菌;ESBLs检测及药敏试验按CLSI推荐的双纸片确证法和K-B纸片扩散法;AmpC酶检测采用头孢西丁纸片扩散法筛选疑产阳性菌株,再经三维试验确诊;PCR扩增DHA结构基因.结果 铜绿假单胞菌产ESBLs和AmpC酶总检出率分别为40.8%和38.2%,其中,单产AmpC

  15. 产CMY型AmpC酶费劳地枸橼酸杆菌的分子学特性研究%Study on molecule characteristics of a novel CMY-type AmpC β-Lactamase from Citrobacter freundii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓坤; 徐韫健; 廖伟娇; 张东梅; 张丽梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 对产CMY型AmpC酶费劳地枸橼酸杆菌进行耐药表型及分子学特性进行研究,探讨研制新的酶抑制剂.方法 对临床分离的两株费劳地枸橼酸杆菌所产CMY型AmpC酶用纸片扩散法、三相水解试验进行耐药表型检测,以该菌总基因组DNA和质粒DNA为模板进行PCR扩增、序列分析、质粒接合试验、构建重组表达载体及AmpC酶检测.结果 两株菌株对青霉素类、头孢菌素类、喹诺酮类、氨基糖苷类抗生素均表现为耐药,对呋喃类和碳青霉烯类表现为敏感;三相水解试验结果显示该菌能水解头孢西丁;PCR扩增出大小为1 146 bp的基因片段,与GenBank上多种CMY亚型的基因序列同源性为97%;质粒接合试验证实质粒上含CMY基因,为可转移质粒.结论 两株菌株所产CMY型AmpC酶为新的CMY型头孢菌素酶,它介导了该菌对青霉素类、头孢菌素类、喹诺酮类等抗生素耐药,其耐药性能水平传播.%Objective To investigate the antibiotic phenotype and moleculelogy characteristics of novel CMY-type AmpC β-Lactamase from Citrobacter freundii,in order to triturate homologue enzyme inhibitors. Methods Slip diffusion method and three-phase hydrolyses test were used to analyze antibiotic phenotype of novel CMY-type AmpC β-Lactamase from Citrobacter freundii that was detached from clinic.The DNA and plasmid of CMY-type AmpCβ-Lactamase from Citrobacter freundii Strain was amplified by PCR、sequence analysis.Plasmid Conjugation tests、construction recombinant expression vector and AmpC induce tests. Results Two strains were resistant to penicillins , cephalosporin, quinolone, aminoglycoside , and susceptible to nitrofuran , carbapenem , The results of three-dimension test showed, AmpCβ-Lactamase from DNA Strain and recombinant strain could hydrolyz cefoxitin,The 1 l46bp DNA fragment of CMY-type AmpC β-Lactamase encoding gene sequence shared 97% amino acid identity with CMY-type AmpC β-Lactamase that

  16. Neonatal Escherichia Coli Septicemia: A Study of 40 Cases%新生儿大肠埃希菌败血症40例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉蓉

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨新生儿大肠埃希菌败血症的药物敏感特点,为合理治疗提供临床依据.方法:对成都市儿童医院新生儿科2007年1月~2010年12月收治的临床怀疑败血症的新生儿血标本进行培养、分离、鉴定,选择培养结果为大肠埃希菌的病例作药敏及临床分析.结果:40例大肠埃希菌对碳青霉烯类抗生素敏感率达100%,对头孢西丁敏感率达75.0%,对含酶抑制剂抗生素如哌拉西林/他唑巴坦、替卡西林/克拉维酸敏感率为87.5%,对新生儿较少应用的氨基糖苷类、喹诺酮类抗生素敏感率为62.5%~93.8%.对较常用的青霉素、头孢菌素均不敏感,对氨苄西林完全耐药.产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)菌株有逐步上升趋势,晚发型高于早发型,但晚发型治疗效果较早发型好.结论:新生儿大肠埃希菌败血症临床症状无特异性,但可伴严重的并发症,部分大肠埃希菌为产ESBLs菌株,耐药性强,对一般抗生素不敏感,故应根据药敏实验结果,指导选择敏感抗生素,以控制疾病发展,降低病死率.%Objective: To investigate the drug sensitivity of neonatal Escherichia coli septicemia in order to provide guidance for reasonable treatment. Methods-. Blood samples of clinical septicemia neonates in our hospital from January 2007 to December 2010 were cultured, isolated and tested, and those with positive blood culture results in Escherichia coli were selected to perform susceptibility tests and clinical analysis. Results: It was found that all the Escherichia coli strains were completely sensitive to carbapenems such as imipenem and meropenem. To cephamycins such as cefoxitin, the sensitivity rate was 75.0%. To the compound with enzyme inhibition, such as piperacillin tazobactam and ticarcillin clavulanate, the sensitivity rate was 87.5%. To aminoglycosiders and quinolones, which were hardly used in the newborn, the sensitivity rates were 62. 5% ~93.8%. The Escherichia coli

  17. 福建东南沿海某战区医院MRSA感染特点及基因多态性分型研究%A Study on Characteristics and Genetic Polymorphisms of MRSA Infection in a PLA Hospital in Southeast Coastal Region of Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏智艺; 程君涛; 李小毅; 刘丁井

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics and genetic polymorphisms of methicillin resistant staphylo-coccus aureus ( MRSA) infection in a PLA hospital in southeast coastal region of Fujian Province, and to provide the mo-lecular biological basis for prevention and control strategies of nosocomial MRSA infection. Methods MRSA strains were initially detected using Cefoxitin indicator paper, and MecA genes were detected using polymerase chain reaction ( PCR) technology, MRSA strains detected from clinical samples were identified, and then genotyping of detected MRSA strains were studied using synthetic primer and random amplification of polymorphic DNA technique ( RAPD ) . Results The MecA genes after PCR detection showed that 42 strains of MRSA strains were isolated from clinical specimens and the medical staff. The MRSA genotypes were differentiated with RAPD technology, and homologous analysis categorized 42 clinical MRSA strains into 12 genotypes, in which 7 strains of Type I, 2 of Type II, 4 of Type III, 4 of Type IV, 7 of Type V, 1 of Type VI, 1 of Type VII, 1 of Type VIII, 8 of Type IX, 2 of Type X, 3 of Type XI and 2 of Type XII. Con-clusion MRSA strains have genetic distances of different sizes of similarity in our hospital, therefore nosocomial cross infection is possible.%目的:了解福建东南沿海某战区医院MRSA感染特点及基因多态性分型情况,为制定院内MRSA感染的防治策略提供分子生物学依据。方法采用头孢西丁试纸片法初步鉴定MRSA菌株,聚合酶链反应( PCR)技术检测MecA基因,最终鉴定临床送检标本所检测出的MRSA菌株,并通过随机引物DNA扩增技术( RAPD)对所检测的MRSA菌株进行基因分型研究。结果经PCR对MecA基因检测,从临床标本及医护人员身上共分离出42株MRSA菌株。采用随机引物DNA扩增技术( RAPD)对细菌进行基因分型,根据同源性分析,42株临床菌株共可以分为12型。其中Ⅰ型共7株,Ⅱ型共2株,Ⅲ型共4

  18. Analysis on resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphy lococcus aureus infections in neurosurgical patients%神经外科患者耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌感染病原菌耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小改; 郭琳; 张志红; 翟雪雁; 邵彩霞; 牛浩雨

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨神经外科患者耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(M RS A )感染部位分布及病原菌耐药性,以期为临床提供参考。方法回顾性分析医院2008年9月-2014年1月住院患者送检各类标本细菌培养及药敏试验结果,对确诊存在M RSA感染的61例患者细菌培养及药敏试验结果进行分析,采用SPSS16.0软件进行统计分析。结果神经外科61例M RS A感染患者感染部位主要为下呼吸道感染为主,共35例占57.38%;M RS A对青霉素、氨苄西林、头孢唑林、哌拉西林、头孢西丁、哌拉西林、克林霉素、阿奇霉素、左氧氟沙星耐药率达100.00%。结论神经外科M RS A感染患者感染部位以下呼吸道感染及切口感染多见,对临床多种抗菌药物完全耐药,了解M RS A的感染部位分布及耐药性,加强M RS A监测,合理使用抗菌药物,严格执行手卫生及消毒隔离等制度,避免M RS A的医院感染发生及传播。%OBJECTIVE To investigate distribution and resistance of pathogens in the neurosurgical methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections for clinical reference .METHODS The retrospective analysis was conducted on bacterial culture of all kinds of specimens and drug susceptibility test results for hospitalized pa‐tients in Sep .2008-Jan .2014 ,the bacterial culture and drug susceptibility test results were analyzed for the 61 confirmed cases of patients with MRSA infections (61 strains) .The software SPSS16 .0 was used for statistical a‐nalysis .RESULTS The 61 cases of neurosurgical MRSA infections were mainly lower respiratory tract infection (35 cases ,57 .38% ) .The resistant rate of MRSA was up to 100 .00% to penicillin ,ampicillin ,cefazolin ,pip‐eracillin ,cefoxitin ,piperacillin ,clindamycin ,azithromycin ,and levofloxacin .CONCLUSION Neurosurgical M R‐SA infection is mostly seen in lower respiratory tract and incision infections ,and completely

  19. Detection of plasmid-mediated Carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamaseKPC-2 in a strain of Carbapenem-resistant C.freundii%碳青酶烯类抗生素耐药弗劳地枸橼JH酸杆菌KPC-2基因的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪安勇; 王中新; 沈继录

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of Carbapenem resistance in C. Freudii. Methods Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by agar dilution method. Conjugation experiments were carried out in mixed broth cultures. Plasmid DNA preparations were obtained by using an alkalinelysis technique and were digested by various endonucleases; The crude β-lactamase extracts of C. Freudii and E. Coli transconjugant were subjected to analytical isoelectric focusing( IEF )Specific PCR amplification and DNA sequence analysis were performed to confirm the β-lactamse type. Results The C. Freundii isolate showed resistance against Carbapenemes. The MICs of imipen-em and meropenem were both 64 mg · L-1 . The isolate was also resistant against penicillins, cephalosorins, cefoxitins, aztreonam, quinolo-nes,and aminoglycosides. The conjugant results showed the antibiotics can transfer by plasmid. Isoelectric focusing demonstrated two β-lactamases with the isoelectric points of 5. 0 and 7. 5 in conjugant. Specific PCR amplification and DNA sequence analysis show ed that the C. Freudii produce the gene of KPC-2. Coclusion the product of KPC-2 Carbapenem was the first and foremost dues of Carbapenem-risitance and it can transfer by plasmid.%目的 研究弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌对碳青霉烯类抗生素的耐药机制.方法 采用琼脂对倍稀释法检测弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌对亚胺培南和美罗培南以及其他常见药物的最低抑菌浓度(MIC).等电聚集电泳分析其β-内酰胺酶类型,聚合酶链反应(PCR)和DNA序列分析检测β-内酰胺酶基因型,接合试验分析其耐药质粒传递情况.结果 弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌对亚胺培南和美罗培南的MIC均为64 mg·L-1,对青霉素类、头孢菌素类、头孢西丁、氨曲南和氨基糖苷类均耐药.转移接合结果显示对亚胺培南和美罗培南的耐药性可以通过质粒转移.等电聚焦电泳结果显示转移接合子具有等电点(PI)约为5.0、7.5的2种β-内酰

  20. 社区感染肺炎克雷伯菌ESBLs及AmpC酶的检测及耐药性分析%The Detection of ESBLs and AmpC β-Lactamase in Klebsiella Pneumoniea Infected in Communities and Analysis of their Drug Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐华东; 林平

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解社区感染肺炎克雷伯菌超广谱β-内酰胺酶( ESBLs)及头孢菌素β-内酰胺(AmpC)酶产生的情况及耐药特性.方法:采用VITEK-60型全自动细菌鉴定仪鉴定细菌;按CLSI推荐的确证试验检测ESBLs和K-B纸片法测定药敏结果;采用头孢西丁纸片扩散法筛选疑产AmpC酶菌株,再经三维试验确证产AmpC酶菌株.结果:从社区感染各类标本中分离的86株肺炎克雷伯菌ESBLs检出率31.4%,产AmpC酶菌株检出率19.8%,其中同产ESBLs和AmpC酶菌株检出率8.1%;药敏试验结果:产酶株的耐药性明显高于非产酶株,同产ESBLs和AmpC酶菌株耐药现象更为严重.结论:社区感染肺炎克雷伯菌产ESBLs、AmpC酶菌株检出率较高,其耐药性颇为严峻.可能与社区感染患者不合理使用抗菌药有关.有必要加强社区抗菌药使用的管理,加强对社区感染细菌的检测,以减少肺炎克雷伯菌耐药菌株的产生.%Objective: To understand the detection of ESBLs and AmpC p-Lactamase in Kkbsiella pneumoniea infected in communities and its characteristics of resistance. Methods: VITEK-60 automatic bacterial identification system was used to identify the bacteria, the ESBLs were detected by the confirmatory test recommended by CLSI and the drug susceptibility results were tested with the method of K-B test paper. The method of cefoxitin disk diffusion was adopted to screen the suspected AmpC p-Lactamase-producing strains and to be confirmed by the three-dimensional test of AmpC (3-Lactamase-producing strains. Results;86 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniea were separated from the types of the community infection, with the rate of detection of ESBLs being 31.4% , AmpC p-Lactamase-producing, 19.8%, and ESBLs and AmpC, 8.1%. The results of the drug sensitive test were as follows; the resistance of p-Lactamase producing strains was significantly higher than that of non-p-Lactamase producing strains with the phenomenon of resistance in ESBLs

  1. 摩氏摩根菌耐药性和超广谱β-内酰胺酶检测%Antibiotic resistance and detection of extended spectrum β-lactamases in Morganella morganii strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范建中; 周田美; 董晓勤; 王贤军

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解摩根摩根菌临床分离株对抗菌药物的体外敏感性和临床分布,研究摩氏摩根菌超广谱β-内酰胺酶基因类型分布.方法 用K-B法对67株摩氏摩根菌进行药物敏感性检测;PCR法检测超广谱β-内酰胺酶基因,并对PCR结果进行测序分析.结果 摩氏摩根菌株对氨苄西林、头孢唑林、头孢呋辛、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、庆大霉素、呋喃妥因均已产生较高的耐药率;而对环丙沙星、左旋氧氟沙星和第三代头孢菌素的耐药率保持在较低水平;对亚胺培南、美洛培南、头孢西丁100%敏感.基因型分析显示有5株携带CTX-M基因,其中3株摩根摩根菌基因型为CTX-M-14型,2株为CTX-M-15型.结论 摩氏摩根菌ESBLs检出率仍较低;5株产超广谱β-内酰胺酶摩氏摩根菌对多种抗菌药物耐药,其基因型为CTX-M-15或者CTX-M-14;需加强对不常见肠杆菌科细菌的耐药监测.%Objective To determine the antibiotic resistance and clinical distribution of Morganella morgani strains i-solated from clinical specimens and explore the distribution and genetypes of the pathogen' s extended spectrum β-lactamases. Methods A total of 69 strains of Morganella morgani were analysed for their antimicrobial susceptibility. The blagene of ES-BLs producing isolates were detected by PCR and then sequenced. Results None of these Morganella morgani isolates was found resistant to imipenem, mempenem, and cefoxitin. The resistances of Morganella morgani isolates to common antibiotics were higher, but remained lower to fluoroquinolones and the third generation cephalosporins with a resistance range from 4% to 15%. Of the 69 isolates, 5 (7.46%) strains were identified as ESBLs producers. The genotypes of these strains included CTX-M-14 (2/5) and CTX-M-15 (3/5). Conclusion 5 Morganella morganii strains produce CTX-M-14 or CTX-M-15 ES-BLs, which results in their resistance to most β-lactams. More attention should be paid to the

  2. 鲍曼不动杆菌肺部感染药物治疗和耐药特点分析%Analysis of treatments and resistance of pulmonary infection of Acinetobacter Baumanniiat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖顺琼

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To retrospectively study the clinical characteristics, treatment, and drug resistance characteristics of pulmonary infection of Acinetobacter baumannii in our hospital. METHODS Clinical symptoms, peripheral blood leukocytes and the ratio of neutral granulocytes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of Carbapenems, sulbactam, polymyxin, tetracy-cline and doxycycline. Randomly selected 110 Acinetobacter baumannii colonies isolated and identified and analyzed the drug resistance characters of Acinetobacter baumannii in our hospital. RESULTS WBC count and neutrophil ratio, CD3 cells and CD8 cells, and CD4/CD8 cell ratio results showed that therapeutic effect of Carbapenems plus tetracycline and doxycycline for treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii in our hospital were significantly better than sulbactam and polymyxin (P< 0.05). Acinetobacter baumanniis was resisted to ampicillin, cefotaxime, cefoperazone, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoperazone/sulbactam, cefoxitin, pyridine, etc. CONCLUSION Carbapenems and tetracyclines can be used for additional prostacyclin treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii and the rational use of antibiotics should be used in treatment of pulmonary infection of Acinetobacter baumannii.%目的 回顾性分析某院2008~2010年鲍曼不动杆菌肺部感染患者55例的治疗方法和耐药性特点.方法 从临床症状和外周血白细胞和中性粒细胞比值来评价碳青酶烯类,舒巴坦,多黏菌素,四环素类和5种抗生素治疗鲍曼不动杆菌肺部感染的临床效果.从分离和鉴定的鲍曼不动杆菌菌落中随机抽取110例,用于抗生素耐药性分析,分析该院鲍曼不动杆菌的耐药特点.结果 从外周血白细胞计数和中性粒细胞比值,CD3细胞和CD8细胞数量,和CD4/CD8细胞比值得出,与舒巴坦和多黏菌素的治疗效果相比,碳青酶烯类,四环素类治疗鲍曼不动杆菌肺部感染效果显著(P均<0.05).该院鲍曼不动杆菌对氨苄西林,头孢噻肟,

  3. 陕西部分地区不同食源性大肠杆菌耐药性检测%Drug Resistance Detection of Escherichia Coli from Different Food Origins in Some Districts of Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    只帅; 席美丽; 刘攻关; 吴淑鹏; 殷童; 姚远; 杨保伟; 孟江洪

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance and prevalence of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli were determined among Escherichia coli isolates collected from retail meats and ready-to-eat food in supermarkets and open markets in Xi'an and Yangling areas of Shaanxi Province. Antimicrobial Susceptibility to 15 antibiotics of 748 Escherichia coli isolates were determined by using agar dilution methods, which was recommended by National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standard(NCCLS), and using E.coli. ATCC25922, E. faecalis ATCC29212, Staphylococcus Aureus ATCC25923 as quality control strains. The results indicated that the isolates were most resistant to streptomycin at 88.2%, followed by resistance to tetracycline (84.4%),trimethoprim-suffamethoxazole (64.4%), nalidixic acid (62.6%), ampicillin (56.0%),ciprofloxacin (39.2%), chloramphenicol (37.6%), kanamycin (34.9%), gentamicin (34.2% ), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (28.9%),gatifloxacin(26.9%). The isolates displayed lower resistance to amikacin (8.3%), cefoxitin (11.5%), ceftriaxone(13.8%),cefoperazone (19.5%). 73.9% of the isolates were multidrug-resistant. Two Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates were isolated from pork and mutton samples. Escherichia coli isolates recovered from retail meats and ready-to-eat food in Xi'an district were seriously resistant to common antibiotics.%对陕西西安市和杨凌示范区超级市场及农贸市场零售内及凉拌菜中的大肠杆菌耐药性及肠产志贺样毒素大肠杆菌进行检测.采用美国临床实验室标准化委员会(National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standard,NCCLS)推荐的琼脂稀释法,以大肠埃希氏菌ATCC25922、金黄色葡萄球菌ATCC25923及粪肠球菌ATCC29212为质控菌株,对来源于不同食品的748株大肠杆菌进行15种抗生素药敏性检测.发现大肠杆菌分离株对链霉素的抗性最高(88.2%),其次为四环素(84.4%)、甲氧苄啶-新诺明(644%)、萘啶酮酸(62.6%)

  4. Molecular subtyping and antibiotic resistance of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from food in Beijing%北京市食源性非伤寒沙门菌的分子分型和耐药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓嫒; 王迪; 陈倩

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular characteristics and antibiotic resistance of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from food in Beijing.Methods A total of 100 strains were isolated from foodborne pathogenic bacteria monitoring network in Beijing from 2004 to 2010,and were analyzed by PFGE and antimicrobial susceptibility test.Results The isolates were divided into 62 PFGE pattern,and each contains 1-11 strains.The result of antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that 55 strains were resistant to at least one antibiotic,including 15 multidrug resistant strains.The resistance rate to the eight antibiotics were nalidixic acid (40%),tetracycline (30%),chloramphenicol (15%),gentamicin (10%),trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (10%),ciprofloxacin (9%),cefoxitin (1%),and cefotaxime (0%).Conclusion PFGE profiles,antibiotic resistance patterns and serotypes of Salmonella showed high consistency.The antibiotic resistance of foodborne nontyphoidal Salmonella in Beijing was serious,and enhancing the joint monitoring of molecular subtyping and antibiotic resistance has significant importance.%目的 了解北京市食源性非伤寒沙门菌的分子特征及耐药情况.方法 对2004-2010年北京市食源性致病菌监测网收集的100株沙门菌进行脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)分型和抗生素敏感性检测.结果 100株非伤寒沙门菌通过PFGE分型分为62个不同的带型,每个带型包含1~11株菌.抗生素敏感性结果显示,100株菌中有55株菌表现为对至少1种抗生素耐药,其中多重耐药菌株15株.菌株对各抗生素的耐药率为萘啶酸40%、四环素30%、氯霉素15%、庆大霉素10%、甲氧苄啶/磺胺甲恶唑10%、环丙沙星9%、头孢西丁1%、头孢噻肟0%.结论 沙门菌PFGE带型和耐药谱均与血清型存在很高的一致性.提示北京市食源性非伤寒沙门菌的耐药情况比较严重,开展对该菌分子分型与耐药特征分析的联合监测意义重大.

  5. 我院2009-2010年抗菌药物使用与细菌耐药性分析%Utilization of Antibacterial Agents and Analysis of Drug Resistance in Our Hospital during 2009-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董懿珍

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To realize the change of the drug resistance and the application of antibacterial agents in recent 2 years, to discuss the relativity of the amount of antibacterial agents and the change of drug resistance in our hospital, and to guide the rational drug use in the clinic. METHODS: We collected the distribution, constitution and drug resistance of the pathogenic bac-teria which were isolated and cultivated from the clinical samples and the DDDs of the commonly used antibacterial agents in the clinic from 2009 to 2010 were analyzed retrospectively and comparatively. RESULTS: We isolated 1977 strains of pathogenic bacte-ria for two years. Gram-negative bacilli was 67.98% of all; Gram-positive coccus was 31.21% of all; the fung was 0.81% of all. Top 5 pathogenic bacteria were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. DDDs of 12 kinds of antibacterial agents increased among the top 20 ones, especially the DDDs of cefox-itin and ceftazidime; the separation of the multiple drug-resistant strains and the drug resistance rate ascended in varying degrees year by year. CONCLUSION: With the large amount of the third generation cephalosporin and the cephamycins used, the drug re-sistance rate of bacteria is increasing yearly in our hospital. We need enhance the management of the clinical antibacterial drugs in grading application and monitoring of drug resistance.%目的:了解我院近2年抗菌药物使用情况及病原菌耐药性变化,探讨抗菌药物用量与细菌耐药性变迁间的相关性,指导临床合理用药.方法:采用收集、统计、时比分析方法,对我院2009-2010年临床各类标本培养分离出的病原菌分布、构成和耐药性及临床常用抗菌药物用药频度( DDDs)进行回顾性分析.结果:2年共分离出1 977株病原菌,其中革兰阴性杆菌占67.98%,革兰阳性球菌占31.21%,真菌占0.81%;分离率位于前5位的病原

  6. Tendências na utilização de antimicrobianos em um hospital universitário, 1990-1996 Trends in antimicrobial utilization in a university hospital, 1990-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Silveira de Castro

    2002-10-01

    specifically related to antimicrobial utilization. In developing countries, few resources are intended for monitoring on rational drug use. Moreover, there are limited data on the use of antimicrobial agents in hospitals. A study was carried out to describe patterns of use of antimicrobial agents over a 7-year period (1990 to 1996. METHODS: The study was conducted in a 690-bed tertiary care university hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Hospital records were reviewed to identify inpatient antibiotics use. Results were expressed in defined daily dose per 100-beds/day. Cluster analysis was performed to determine the trends in use of individual agents. RESULTS: Antimicrobials use increased year after year, from 83.8 DDD per 100 beds-day in 1990 to 124.58 DDD per 100 beds-day in 1996. Penicillins were the drug group mostly used (39.6%, followed by cephalosporins (15.0%, aminoglycosides (14.4%, sulfonamides (12.8%, glycopeptides (3.6%, and lincosamides (3.1%. These groups were responsible for around 90% of all agents used. The use of antimicrobial agents was divided into thirteen groups based on cluster analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Antimicrobial use increased dramatically in the study period, and this increase was significantly higher when compared to other studies. When newer alternative agents became available in the hospital, the use of already existing drugs decreased and in some cases remained relatively stable. After implementing specific interventions, such as an effort for the correct use of cefoxitin, the expected changes in use were observed.

  7. Detection and homology analysis on metallo-β-lactamases gene in clinically isolated gram-negative bacteria%临床分离革兰阴性菌金属β-内酰胺酶基因检测及其同源性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚楠; 郭育奇; 黄红兰; 武晓琳; 韦珍; 孙超; 赵春燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the detection of IMP andVIM metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs)genes in clinically iso-lated gram-negative bacteria as well as bacterial resistance toβ-lactam antimicrobial agents.Methods 113 clinically isolated bacteria were performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby-Bauer method ,drug-resistant genes IMP and VIM were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR),PCR products were sequenced and aligned with BLAST software. Results VIM gene was detected in 1 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain ,IMP gene was detected in 15 strains ,they were Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=6),Acinetobacter baumannii (n=3),Escherichia coli (n=2),Ralstonia picket-tii (n=1),Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=1 ),Citrobacter amalonaticua (n=1 ),and Enterobacter cloacae (n=1 ). BLAST results showed that VIM gene was VIM-2 subtype,similarity with gene bank was 99%;all IMP genes were IMP-1 subtype,which were highly homologous ,similarity was 98%-99%.Resistant rates of IMP positive strains to ceftriaxone,cefotaxime,cefoxitin,aztreonam and imipenem were all significantly higher than negative strains (all P <0.05).Conclusion IMP genes of different strains are highly homologous,all are IMP-1 type,indi-cating that IMP genes are highly transmissible and can spread among different species of bacteria.IMP genes are related with resistance ofβ-lactam antimicrobial agents.%目的:了解临床分离革兰阴性菌产 IMP 及VIM 金属β-内酰胺酶(MβLs)基因的检出情况,以及对β-内酰胺类抗生素的耐药状况。方法采用 K-B 法对临床分离的113株细菌进行药物敏感试验,采用聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测耐药基因 IMP 和 VIM ,测序并进行 BLAST 比对分析。结果1株荧光假单胞菌检出 VIM 基因;15株菌中检出 IMP 基因,其中肺炎克雷伯菌6株,鲍曼不动杆菌 3株,大肠埃希菌2株,罗尔斯顿菌、铜绿假单胞菌、无丙二酸柠檬酸杆菌、阴沟肠杆菌各1株。BLAST 结果显示,VIM

  8. 糖尿病足合并骨髓炎创面病原菌分布及危险因素分析%Distribution of pathogens in diabetic foot osteomyelitis and risk factors of osteomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄莺; 曹瑛; 邹梦晨; 李文霞; 罗祥蓉; 蒋娅; 薛耀明; 高方

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨合并骨髓炎的糖尿病足感染病原菌分布、耐药性特点及其危险因素。方法收集我院2011年1月~2014年12月372例糖尿病足感染住院患者的病历资料,根据有无合并骨髓炎分为有骨髓炎(OM)组(54.6%)及无骨髓炎组(Non-OM)组(45.4%),比较组间创面感染病原菌分布及耐药性特点,用Logistic回归分析发生骨髓炎的危险因素。结果 OM组以革兰阴性(G-)菌感染为主(53.7%),而Non-OM组以革兰阳性菌(G+)菌感染占优势(56.7%)(P=0.001)。G+菌以葡萄球菌属最常见(35.1%),OM组中葡萄球菌对苯唑西林、头孢西丁的耐药率(64.9%、68.5%)显著高于Non-OM组(29.2%、32.6%)(P4 cm2的患者应警惕骨髓炎的发生。%Objective To explore the distribution and antibiotic resistance of pathogens in lesions of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) and analyze the risk factors causing osteomyelitis. Methods A total of 372 patients with diabetic foot infections hospitalized between January 2011 and December 2014, including 203 with osteomyelitis (OM group) and 169 without osteomyelitis (non-OM group), were examined for the distribution and antibiotic resistance profile of the pathogens in the wounds. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors causing osteomyelitis. Results Gram-negative bacteria were the predominant pathogens (53.7%) in the infected wounds in OM group, whereas Gram-positive bacteria were the most frequently found (56.7%) in non-OM group (P=0.001). Among the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus was the dominating flora (35.1%). The resistance rate to oxacillin and cefoxitin of the isolated bacteria in OM group (64.9%and 68.5%, respectively) was significantly higher than that in non-OM group (29.2%and 32.6%, respectively;P4 cm2 were the risk factors for osteomyelitis in patients with diabetic foot infections (P<0.05). Conclusions In addition to an empirical anti

  9. Enterotoxin genes of Staphylococcus aureus of clinical specimens and drug resistance%临床患者标本金黄色葡萄球菌肠毒素基因及耐药性的检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪永禄; 王多春; 张萍; 陶勇; 王利; 王艳; 阚飙

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the enterotoxin carrying situation and drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus(5. aureus ) isolated from clinical specimens. Methods Mini-VIDAS and PCR amplification were used to detect 5. aureus enterotoxin and its genes,5. aureus enterotoxin and enterotoxin genes sea ~ see(sea、seb、sec、sed、see)、seg ~ sej(seg、seh、 sei、sej) and tsst. Amplification products were tested by agarose gel electrophoresis. Cefoxitin was used to detect Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).The strain susceptibility was tested by agar dilution. Results 40(72.73%) out of 55 5. aureus strains were enterotoxin positive,mainly,sea 14.55% (8/55) , sec 12.73% (7/55) and seb 9. 10% (5/55) ,9. 09(5/55) strains carrying two or more enterotoxins; In addition,17 out of 19 MRSA strains carried enterotoxin (89.47% ) ,sea is the main enterotoxin gene,accounting for 26.32% (5/19) ; 23 out of 36 MSSA strains carried enterotoxin (63. 89% ) ,sec was the main enterotoxin gene,accounting for 16. 67% (6/36). 5. aureus was susceptible to furadantin, but resistant to 11 kinds of antibiotics, including penicillin, oxacillin, et al. MRSA had stronger resistance to MSSA. Conclusions More attention should be paid to the detection of S. aureus enterotoxin and MRSA, and rational use of antibiotics was important for the control of MRSA infection in hospital.%目的 了解临床标本分离的金黄色葡萄球菌的产肠毒素携带情况及耐药现状.方法 应用mini-VIDAS仪器检测金黄色葡萄球菌肠毒素、PCR扩增肠毒素基因sea~see(sea、seb、sec、sed、see)、seg~sej(seg、she、sei、sej)和tsst基因,电泳检测扩增产物,耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)检测用检测头孢西丁方法,药敏试验采用琼脂稀释法进行.结果 55株金黄色葡萄球菌中40株携带肠毒素基因,占72.73%,主要为sea型14.55%(8/55)、sec型12.73%(7/55)、seb型9.10% (5/55),同时携带≥2种肠毒素的占9.09%(5/55);

  10. 牛源耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌的检测%Detection of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏洋; 蒲万霞; 邓海平; 李春慧; 梁红雁; 陈智华

    2013-01-01

    本研究旨在了解甘肃地区奶牛乳房炎金黄色葡萄球菌的耐药性和耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌的感染情况,为奶牛乳房炎的防制提供理论依据.采用KB纸片扩散法,检测17株金黄色葡萄球菌对8种不同抗菌药物的敏感性;再用琼脂稀释法检测了苯唑西林、万古霉素对金黄色葡萄球菌的最小抑菌浓度(MICs);头孢西丁纸片扩散法和PCR扩增特异性mecA耐药基因对所有受试菌株进行全面的耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌检测.结果表明,菌株对青霉素、磺胺异恶唑具有较强抗性,而对环丙沙星、头孢唑啉、万古霉素和苯唑西林全敏感;头孢西丁纸片扩散法未能检测出表型为MRSA的阳性菌株,而PCR方法却检测出8株mecA基因阳性菌株,且这些菌株的苯唑西林MIC均小于2μg/mL.菌株的耐药情况较严重,对甲氧西林敏感而携带mecA基因的菌株高频存在于被调查地区的奶牛场中.%The aim of present study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance, and the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated from bovine mastitis in Gansu province, to provide credible theory evidence for prevention and treatment on bovine mastitis. Eight commonly used antimicrobial agents were used for determining antimicrobial susceptibility of 17 total S. aureus strains by disk diffusion method. Agar screen method was used for determining the oxacil-lin and vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration value as well. Disk diffusion method using the cephamycin antibiotics ce-foxitin and detection of mecA gene by PCR assay were performed to detect the presence of MRSA. Most of strains showed a high resistance for penicillin and sulfafurazole, yet keeping complete sensitivity for ciprofloxacin, cefazolin, vancomycin and ox-acillin. None MRS A isolate was identified by the phenotypic detection method, but eight MRSA isolates with the MIC of oxac-illin lower than 2 μg/mL were

  11. 白内障术前结膜囊菌群分布和药敏试验研究%The Research about the distribution of conjunctival sac bacterial flora & experiment of drug sensitivity before cataract surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛梅民; 张小娟; 黄怀洁; 李克勤; 廖忠; 杨怡; 陈振南; 陈琼志

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨白内障术前结膜囊细菌种类和药物敏感情况,为临床用药提供依据.方法 对白内障术前205例(205眼)结膜囊采集标本进行细菌培养,观察培养阳性的细菌对常用抗菌药物的敏感性变化.结果 细菌培养阳性26例(26眼),阳性率为12.68%.白内障患者术前结膜囊主要细菌构成为革兰阳性球菌(96.15%),其中以表皮葡萄球菌为主(69.23%),其次为溶血性葡萄球菌、产色葡萄球菌、腐生葡萄球菌;革兰阴性杆菌为洋葱假单胞菌.大多数细菌对万古霉素、阿米卡星、替考拉宁、克林霉素、莫匹罗星、呋喃妥因、吗啉唑酮敏感,耐药性小于20%,普遍对氨苄西林、四环素、头孢西丁、苯唑西林、红霉素明显耐药(68.0%以上).结论 表皮葡萄球菌是白内障术前结膜囊存在的最常见条件致病菌,预防感染或抗感染可以选用阿米卡星、克林霉素、呋喃妥因等常用抗菌药物.%Objective To research the distribution of conjunctival sac bacterial flora & experiment of drug sensitivity before cataract surgery,base on this research,provide the basis for clinical medication.Methods Collect Conjunctival sac of 205 eyes from 205 cases and make germiculture,observe the movement of positive Gram' s sensibility which effect by common antibacterial.Results There were 26 eyes with cultured positive Gram from 205 case,the ratio of positive was 12.68%.The preoperative conjunctival sac of cataract patients was mainly made up of Gram positive bacteria(96.15%),and most of them were Staphylococcus epidermidi(69.23%),there were also Staphylococcus haemolyticus,Staphylococcus chromogenes and Staphylococcus saprophyticus,Gram negative bacilli was the Pseudomonas cepaci.Most of grams were sensitive to Vancomycin,Amikacin,Teicoplanin,Clindamycin,Mupirocin,Furadantin and Morpholine trazodone,the tolerance was less than 20%,and they usually had higher tolerance to Cephalexin Penicillin,Tetracycline,Cefoxitin

  12. Analysis of drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus infection at severely burned wounds surface%重度烧伤创面金黄色葡萄球菌感染的耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟朝晖; 钱小毛; 王亚玲

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解重度烧伤患者创面金黄色葡萄球菌(SAU )感染的耐药性,为临床预防和治疗用药提供科学依据。方法共207株S A U均为2009年1月-2011年12月重度烧伤患者创面分离株;药敏试验采用 K-B法;MRSA检测采用头孢西丁纸片法;克林霉素诱导性耐药采用D试验。结果 SAU对万古霉素、利奈唑胺、替加环素和呋喃妥因全部敏感,其他药物的耐药率:替考拉宁为1.4%,磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶为36.2%;对红霉素耐药而对克林霉素敏感的36株进行D试验,结果有19株阳性,阳性率52.8%;207株S A U共检出M RS A 134株,检出率64.7%;MRSA的耐药率明显高于MSSA。结论 SAU创面感染株的耐药性很高,临床应及时做病原菌检测,充分利用实验室所提供的细菌耐药趋势和有关耐药机制的信息,合理使用抗菌药物,积极处理烧伤创面,严格执行消毒隔离制度,有助于减少SAU感染,降低感染菌的耐药性。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the status of drug resistance of a Staphylococcus aureus (SAU ) isolated from a severe burn wound ,thereby providing the scientific evidence for the clinical prevention and treatment of pharmacy .METHODS From Jan .2009 to Dec .2011 ,samples of 207 strains of SAU were acquired from severe burn wounds and then their drug sensitivity tests were carried out by K-B .Cefoxitin disk was used to detect MRSA .D-test was used to detect the inducible resistance of clindamycin .RESULTS All bacterial strains were sensitive to vancomycin ,linezolid ,tigecycline and nitrofurantoin .The rate of drug resistance of other drugs were 1 .4% against teicoplanin , 36 .2% against sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim ; The 36 strains resistant to erythromycin but sensitive to clindamycin were given D-test ,19 strains were positive ,accounting for 52 .8% ;Among 207 strains of SAU ,134 strains of MRSA were detected ,accounting for 64 .7% ;the resistant rate of

  13. Environmental "Omics" of International Space Station: Insights, Significance, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-07-01

    detected. The nine-erythromycin sensitive S. aureus strains exhibited spontaneous mutation when rifampin was tested. Some of the S. aureus strains tolerated gentamycin and tobramycin but cefazolin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin and oxacillin inhibited the growth of the S. aureus. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of 21 ISS strains, exhibiting resistance to various antibiotics, was carried out. The antibiotic resistant genes deduced from the WGS were compared with the resistomes generated directly from the gene pool of the environmental samples. Using a targeted amplification panel consisting of over 500 antimicrobial resistance genes, we were able to confirm the results of the phenotypic assays. Specifically, the presence of multiple β-lactamase genes was observed. The class A β-lactamase genes, tem-1 (ampicillin-resistance) and ctx-M-14 (cefotaxime conferring gene), were found in multiple sites of ISS. In addition, presence of mecA gene (penicillin clusters) was confirmed in several sampling locations from both ISS flights. Finally, the existence of the ermA gene (erythromycin) was established. These results suggest widespread and consistent distribution of multiple antibiotic resistance genes throughout the ISS. The resistome data generated via molecular methods will be extremely important in determining the microbial significance to the crew health and the ISS maintenance. These data sets will be placed in the NASA GeneLab bioinformatics environment - consisting of a database, computational tools, and improved methods - that would subsequently be made open to the scientific research community to encourage innovation.

  14. Analysis of Gram-positive bacterial infection in patients following liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong; YU De-lei; REN lei; ZHONG Lin; PENG Zhi-hai; TENG Mu-jian

    2012-01-01

    Background Liver transplantation is the most effective treatment for patients with end-stage liver failure,however infection after transplantation is a serious clinical complication.The purpose of this research was to investigate the molecular epidemiology and the influence of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infection in patients,following liver transplantation,to provide reference for clinical treatment and prevention of Gram-positive bacterial infection.Methods We isolated and detected bacteria from phlegm,throat swabs,urine,wound or wound secretions,blood,and fecal samples from 221 liver transplant patients in our hospital from January 2007 to April 2010.All isolated bacterial strains were identified and tested by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) drug-sensitive detection using the BioMerieux ATB bacterial identification instrument and repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR)detection of bacterial homology.Risk factors were calculated by multivariate Logistic regression analysis.Results We collected 250 specimens from 221 patients hospitalized following liver transplantation surgery,of which 29patients developed multiple infections.Sixty-five Gram-positive bacterial strains were isolated from different specimens from 53 infectious patients.We detected 29 multidrug-resistant Gram-positive strains from 29 patients (44.62%),including 20 Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) strains (68.97%) and nine Enterococcus strains (31.03%).All 20 S.aureus strains were highly resistant to aminoglycosides (gentamicin),cephalosporins (cefoxitin),quinolones (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin),lincomycins (clindamycin),penicillin,and erythromycin.The resistance rate reached 100% in some cases.The S.aureus strains were highly sensitive to vancomycin and oxazolidinone (linezolid),with MIC50 <2 μg/ml for both.The nine Enterococci strains were also highly resistant to aminoglycosides,quinolones,and penicillins,and highly sensitive to vancomycin

  15. Bacterial distribution and drug resistance change of nosocomial infection in intensive care unit%重症监护室院内感染细菌分布及其耐药性变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑伟浩; 伍国达; 张丽珊; 赵英萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bacterial distribution and the changing trend of drug resistance in intensive care unit.Methods Bacterial distribution and antimicrobial resistant results of nosocomial infection in department of ICU,Jiangmen Central Hospital,between January 2008 and December 2010 were analyzed statistically.Results The 37.1% of nosocomial infections were Gram-positive(G +)bacteria,62.9% were Gram-negative(G-) bacteria,and about 81.3% of which were lower respiratory tract infections.Among G+ bacteria,staphylococcus aureus accounted for 38.9%,staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococcus haemolyticus accounted for 19.5%,respectively; The sensitive rates of staphylococcus to glycopeptide,linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin maintained 100%,except chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole,the resistance rates of S.aureus to other drugs were very high,more than 60% ; and the resistant rate of coagulase-negative staphylococci was more higher.Among G- bacteria,gram-negative bacilli accounted for 20%,and non-fermentative bacteria accounted for 50%,moreover,acinetobacter baumannii and stenotrophomonas maltophilia were increasing year by year.The resistance rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae to carbapenem and amikacin were the lowest,less than 8%,and which significant decreased; Resistance to cefoxitin was about 20%,and the other antimicrobial agents increased significantly.The resistance rates of Escherichia coli to piperacillin / tazobactam,cefoperazone /sulbactam,carbapenems and amikacin were below 20%,resistance rates to cephalosporins (except cefoxitin) and quinolone were more than 80%.The lowest resistance rate to Pseudomonas aeruginosa was Polymyxin B,followed by was amikacin,piperacillin / tazobactam,the resistance rates of other antibiotic were very high,but showed a significant decline trend.The resistance rates of acinetobacter baumannii to imipenem and minocycline were no more than 20% ; resistances to cefoperazone / sulbactam were

  16. Analysis of clinical distribution and drug resistance of bloodstream infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae%肺炎克雷伯菌血流感染的临床分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查翔远; 宋有良; 林建; 崔小玲; 潘晓龙; 倪世峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical distribution and antimicrobial resistance of bloodstream infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae .Methods Patients with bloodstream infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in Tongling People's Hospital in Anhui province from January 2008 to December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed.Results A total of 71 cases were found with bloodstream infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae, the top three clinical distribution departments were infectious diseases department, ICU and oncology de-partment, and the top three complications were pulmonary infection, malignant tumor, biliary tract infection as well as diabetes mellitus. There were 24 strains of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, accounting for 33.8%among 71 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the blood samples, in which 18 (52.9%) strains of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae among 34 hospital acquired infection cases and 6 ( 1 6 .2%) strains of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae among 3 7 community acquired infection cases;the positive rate of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains among hospital acquired infection cases was significantly higher than that of community acquired in-fection cases(χ2 =10.680, P=0.05).Among 71 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, no imipenem or meropenem-resistant isolate was found, and the resistance rates to amikacin, levofloxacin, ciprofIoxacin, cefoxitin, cefepime, cefoperazone/sulbactam and piperacillin/tazobactam were low(<20%) .The resistance rates of stains isolated from hospital acquired infection cases to piperaeillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cef-operazone/sulbactam, ampicillin/sulbactam, ticareillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefazolin, cefoperazone, cefuroxime, ceftazi-dime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and aztreonam were significantly higher than those of stains isolated from community acquired infection cases. The resistance rates of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains to 20 antimicrobial

  17. 牛源金黄色葡萄球菌耐药性及甲氧西林敏感和耐甲氧西林菌株演化相关性研究%The Current Status of the Drug Resistance and Evolutionary Relationship of MSSA and MRSA Isolates from Bovine of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王登峰; 段新华; 吴建勇; 杨学云; 李建军; 李娜; 王治才

    2011-01-01

    MRSA是在抗生素的选择压力下由来源于不同克隆复合群的MSSA获得SCCmec Ⅳ而产生,推测同一克隆株MRSA的扩散并不是MRSA大范围出现的主要原因.%The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of the antimicrobial resistance of bovine Staphylococcus aureus isolates, so as to do research on carried drug-resistant genes and molecular epidemiology profiles of methicillin-susceptibility Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) which isolated from bovine, further, to reveal the evolutionary relationship between MSSA and MRSA, and origin and diffusion of MRSA. Total 54 isolates which isolated from Xinjiang, Zhejiang, Shandong, Neimenggu and Shanghai in 2009 were investigated antibiotics susceptibility by disc diffusion method, and 12 isolates of MSSA and MRSA which confirmed by Cefoxitin sensitive test by disc diffusion method and mecA PCR were used to detected the antimicrobial resistance genes and typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Drug sensitive test results showed that 88. 8% isolates resisted to erythromy-cin, 81. 5% to clindamycin, 88. 9% to penicillin, 90. 7% to ulfamethoxazole compound, 92. 6% to doxycycline, 94. 4% to tetracycline, 79. 6% to chloramphenicol, 63. 0% to ciprofloxacin, 70. 4% to gentamicin. Besides that, 5. 6% isolates resisted to all 10 antibiotics, 85. 2% isolates resisted to more than 5 antibiotics, 6 isolates (11. 1%) resisted to cefoxitin. Furthermore, 3 MRSA isolates resisted to 10 antibiotics, Xinjiang MSSA isolates resisted to 2-4 antibiotics, other provinces MSSA isolates resisted to 7 antibiotics, and analyzed result of the antimicrobial resistance gene of MSSA and MRSA, found all isolates carried ermC and tetK genes, but no ermA gene, 6 MRSA isolates carried aac(6')/aph(2"), 5 and 4 MRSA isolates carried tetM and aph (3')- Ⅲ respectively, but only 4 MSSA isolates carried tetM gene, no MSSA isolates carried aac (6')/aph(2") and aph(3')-

  18. Clinical study on pathogenic flux and drug resistance of neonatal sepsis%新生儿败血症病原学变迁及耐药性的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓茂文; 蔡强

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristic of etiology and drug resistance of neonatal sepsis for rational use antibiotics in clinic.Methods The etiology and drug resistance of 167 positive hemoculture examples of 365 neonatal sepsis examples were retrospectively analyzed,and the characteristic of etiology diversify and drug resist-ance characteristic of neonatal sepsis were also analyzed.Results In 365 blood culture examples of neonatal sepsis, there were 167 positive cases,positive ratio was 45.75%.Among pathogenic bacterium,the first etiology was staphylo-coccus epidermidis,there were fifty -eight examples and account of 34.73%.The second was staphylococcus haemo-lyticus and accounts twenty -nine examples and 17.37%.The third was staphylococcus aureus which had twenty -two examples and account 13.17%.The annual infection rate of staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococcus hae-molyticus in the second five years were increased obviously.Gram -positive coccus drug resistance to penicillin,cep-hazolin,oxazocilline and cefoxitin were very high and the rate of the second five years were higher than that of the first five years.Gram -positive coccus drug resistance to third -generation cephaloporins and imipenem and meropenem were higher than vancocin and the rate of the second five years were higher than that of the first five years.Gram -positive coccus was 100.00% sensitive to vancomycin.Gram negative bacilli drug resistance rate to penbritin and cep-hazolin and third -generation cephaloporins was the highest.Gram negative bacilli to meropenem and imipenem was hypersensitive in all antibiotics.Conclusion The chief pathogenic bacteria of neonatal septicemia is staphylococci. Among pathogenic bacterium,the main pathogenic bacteria is CoNS,and staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococ-cus haemolyticus goes up significantly.Among gram -negative bacilli,the escherichia coli goes up.The drug resist-ance to bacteria goes up in neonatal sepsis,it is very important to monitor

  19. 金黄色葡萄球菌毒力基因检测及分子分型研究%Study of the virulence genes and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童俊; 占志平

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular characteristics and virulence genes of 488 Staphylococcus aureus ( S.aureus) strains isolated from the People′s Hospital of Huangzhou District in Hubei Province during 2009 to 2013.Methods The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Oxacillin and Cefoxitin to S.aureus were determined by agar dilution method .PCR analysis was used for the detection of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec ( SCCmec ) and multilocus-sequence typing ( MLST ) .Multiplex PCR analysis was performed to detect the 31 common virulence genes .Results A total of 227 methicillin-resistant S.aureus ( MRSA) strains were identified from 488 S.aureus strains with a prevalence rate of 46.5%.The SCCmec Ⅲtype was the prevalent genotype accounting for 81.5% of the 227 MRSA strains, followed by Ⅳtype which accounted for 10.1%.The predominant clonal complex ( CC) of MRSA strains was CC8 accounting for 81.1%, followed by CC59 (4.8%) and CC5 (3.1%).CC1 was the predominant clonal complex of methicillin-sensitive S.aureus (MSSA) strains, accounting for 34.1% of the 261 MSSA strains, followed by CC398 (21.8%), CC121 (14.9%) and CC59 (13.0%).The number of MSSA iso-lates carrying no less than 15 test virulence genes was 109 ( 48 .2%) , which was significantly higher than that of MRSA isolates (28.2%) (P=0.002).A close relationship between the enterotoxins genes (sed, sej and ser) and the CCs of CC8 and CC5 was identified.Exfoliatin genes (eta and etb) and lukED gene were detected only in strains that belonged to CC 1.Strains that belonged to CC 1 and CC59 clones showed higher rates of pvl gene as compared with those belonging to other CCs (P<0.05).Conclusion The prevalence rate of MRSA strains was 46.5%in Huangzhou District, Hubei Province, which was consistent with the na-tional average rate .The predominant genotype of MRSA strains was ST 239-MRSA-SCCmecIII , accounting for 79.3%.Effective measures should be taken by Health sectors to control the spread of

  20. Analysis of resistance to antibiotics of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from 149 children with blood stream infections%149例革兰阴性杆菌血流感染患儿病原菌耐药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊卫红; 周晓英; 刘杰; 周海峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the pathogens and drug resistance of Gram-negative bacilli in children with blood stream infections, and to provide a reference for clinical medication. Methods: According to National Committee for Clinical Laboratary Standards (2010), Gram-negative bacilli isolates from blood specimens of 149 children admitted in 2011 were identified, and their antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by VITEK-2 automatic identification microbiological analysis system. Results: Sixty-nine strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from blood samples of 149 children, in which 59 (85.51%) were extended-spectrum β-actamases producing strains (ESBLs), 10 (14. 49%) were non-ESBLs-producing strains. In 30 strains of intestine Escherichia coli bacteria, 12 (40. 00%) were ESBLs-producing strains and 18 (60. 00%) were non-ESBLs-producing strains. Twenty-six Acinetobacter baumannii strains and 24 other bacteria strains were identified All the ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains were susceptible to imipenem, cefoxitin, Levofloxacin, and Cipfofloxacin, and their drug resistance to β-lactam was significantly higher than non-ESBLs-producing strains, and the resistance rates to piperacillin and ampicillin was as high as 100. 00%. Tazobactam inhibited ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae significantly. The inhibitory effect of piperacillin/tazobactam on ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was stronger than ampicillin / sulbactam(resistance rates was 18. 64% and 89. 83% respectively). Carbapenems (imi-penem, meropenem) were good choice for ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. The resistance rate of Escherichia coli was lower than that of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions; Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major pathogen of pediatric blood stream infections due to Gram-negative bacilli, in which the incidence of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infection is very high. Imipenem and meropenem are good choice for treatment of infections caused by

  1. 2011年中国CHINET肠杆菌属细菌耐药性监测%CHINET 2011 surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Enterobacter spp.in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈中举; 汪玥; 孙自镛; 徐英春; 张小江; 杨青; 魏莲花; 吴玲; 徐元宏

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解2011年我国不同地区15所医院肠杆菌属细菌的分布和耐药状况.方法 全国15所教学医院2011年1-12月临床分离的2 519株肠杆菌属细菌,采用K-B法或微量稀释法进行药物敏感性试验,试验结果以CLSI 2011年版标准判读.结果 2519株肠杆菌属细菌中阴沟肠杆菌占74.7%(1 882/2 519),产气肠杆菌占23.0%(579/2 519).主要分离自呼吸道标本者占56.6%(1 426/2 519).肠杆菌属细菌对氨苄西林、阿莫西林-克拉维酸、头孢唑林和头孢西丁的耐药率高,均>89%,对头孢他啶和头孢噻肟的耐药率分别为37.3%和50.7%,对哌拉西林-他唑巴坦、头孢吡肟、头孢哌酮-舒巴坦、厄他培南、阿米卡星、环丙沙星的耐药率较低,均为10%~20%,对亚胺培南和美罗培南的耐药率分别为4.2%和4.5%.各所医院阴沟肠杆菌和产气肠杆菌对亚胺培南和美罗培南的耐药率分别为0~7.4%和0~24.6%.结论 2011年肠杆菌属细菌对抗菌药物耐药情况仍十分严重,应采取有效措施控制降低耐药率.%Objective To investigate the distribution and antibiotic resistance of clinical Enterobacter isolates.Methods A total of 2 519 clinical strains of Enterobacter spp.were collected from 15 hospitals from January 1 through December 31,2011.Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with Kirby-Bauer or minimum inhibitory concentration method.The results were analyzed according to CLSI 2011 standards.Results Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes accounted for 74.7% (1 882/2 519) and 23.0% (579/2 519) of the 2 519 Enterobacter strains,respectively.The main source of the isolates was sputum,accounting for 56.6% (1 426/2 519).The Enterobacter strains showed the highest resistance rate to ampicillin,amoxicillin-clavulanic acid,cefazolin and cefoxitin (>89%),relatively higher resistance to cefazidime and cefotaxime (37.3% and 50.7%,respectively),and lower resistance to

  2. Pathogenic Bacteria Distribution and Drug Resistance in the Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Urethral Catheterization%留置尿管相关性尿路感染的病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓红; 周云; 陶云珍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bacterial spectrum of the CAtlTI and the Bnti-microbial resistance of commonly used antimicrobial agents,and to provide scientific basis for clinical rational use of antibiotics. Methods 427 cases of detaining ure-thral catheter children from July 2009 to July 2011 in Children' s Hospital of Soochow University were collected, urine culture was done in the day before drawing tube,bacteriological culture was performed among any positive,drug sensitive test was conducted to the separated pathogen by Kir-Bauer AGAR diffusion method. Results Among 427 cases of detaining urethra) catheter urine samples of children,53 slrains( 12.4% ) of pathogenic bacteria were separated ,with gram-positive bacteria 31 cases,gram-negative bacteria 20 cases, candida albicans in 2 cases. Gram-positive cocci were highly resistant to rifampin( >77.8% ) ,and had a certain resistance to aminoglycosides, but were sensitive to the linezolid and vancomycin. Enterocoecus faecalis' s resistance to penicillin and levofloxacin were significantly lower than Enterococcus faecium.but almost all of them were resistant to dalfopris-lin. All of the Enterococcus faecium were resistant to penicillin,also had a very high resistance to levofloxacin( >87.5% ). Cram-negative bacteria had a high drug-resistant rate to 1 -3 generations and penicillins (about 75% ) ,were lowly resistant to imipen-em,amikaein, piperacillin-tazobactam, and cefoxitin( <30%). Conclusion Gram-positive enterocoecua and escherichia coli were primarily in urinary catheter related urinary tract infections,and showed multiple resistance;to different pathogens,sensitive drugs were quite different. Drug resistance should be tested before treatment.%目的 了解留置尿管相关性尿路感染(CAUTIU)的细菌谱及其对常用抗菌药物的耐药性,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供参考.方法 收集苏州大学附属儿童医院小儿泌尿外科2009年7月-2011年7月住

  3. Distribution and antimicrobial resistance analysis of gram-negative bacteria in sterile sites%无菌部位常见革兰阴性菌的分布特点与耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄益澄; 吴微微; 杨丹红; 潘红英

    2016-01-01

    Provincial People's Hospital from 2008 to 2012 were analyzed retrospectively, and the data were analyzed by WHONET-5 software. Results A total of 2 018 isolates were collected. The top 5 most common pathogens were Escherichia coli (586 strains, 29.0% ), Klebsiella pneumoniae (413 strains, 20.5% ), Acinetobacter baumannii (300 strains, 14.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (192 strains, 9.5%) and Enterobacter cloacae (92 strains, 4.6%). The antimicrobial susceptibility test result showed low resistance rates of antibacterial agents for Enterobacteriaceae were amikacin (12.9%), meropenem (14.1%), imipenem (16.8%), ertapenem (17.5%) and tigecycline (0-9.1%). Escherichia coli showed low drug resistance rates to ertapenem, tigecycline, amikacin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, meropenem, cefotetan, cefoxitin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, imipenem, nitrofurantoin and piperacillin/tazobactam, which were all under 15%. The resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae was a prominent problem, except for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, the resistant rates to other complex preparation containing enzyme inhibitors and quinolones were all higher than 40%. The extended-spectrum β-lactamase strainsof Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia accounted for 54.8% and 25.1%. Among non-fermentative bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii showed low drug resistance to polymyxin B (0) and tigecycline (15.4%), and the drug resistance rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to amikacin (9.2%), tobramycin(10.9%) and gentamicin (19.0%) were low. Conclusions Antimicrobial resistance of the gram-negative bacteria is a serious problem, especially in Klebsiella pneumoniae and non-fermentative bacteria. The surveillance of antimicrobial resistance for the rational use of antibacterial agent should be further strengthened.

  4. 2008-2010年肠杆菌产超广谱β-内酰胺酶流行病学调查与耐药性监测%Epidemiological Survey of Enterobacterium Producing Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases from 2008 to 2010 and Monitoring of Its Drug Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓峰; 童照威; 施柏年

    2012-01-01

    the isolation rate for ESBLs producing escherichia coli, klebsiel-la pneumoniae, klebsiella oxytocam, and proteus were 68. 9% , 54. 6% , 18. 3% and 25. 9% respectively. No other enter-obacteria were found to produce ESBLs. The escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and klebsiella oxytocam mainly came from sputum ( accounting for 42. 2% , 60. 8% , 57. 7% respectively ), while proteus came mainly from urine ( accounting for 40. 0% ). In 2008-2010, the escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae strains showed high degree of antimicrobial resistance to majority of antibiotics, but they were sensitive to carbapenems, enzyme inhibition composite agent piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoperazone/sulbactam, and amikacin. And the proteus was mainly sensitive to imipenem, meropenem piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoxitin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, and amikacin. Conclusion The escherichia coli is the mojor enterobacterium producing ESBLs, followed by klebsiella pneumonia. Escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae are of high antimicrobial resistance to majority of antibiotics, but sensitive to carbapenems, enzyme inhibition composite agent piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoperazone/ sulbactam, and amikacin. Along with widely application of carbapenems clinically, the drug - resistant strains begin to appear. The evident one is klebsiella pneumonia for which the clinical therapy often fails. So the nosocomial infection management and monitoring should be strengthened to prevent the drug - resistant strains from wide spread.

  5. Toxin genes detection and antimicrobial susceptibility test of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from retail chicken in Shaanxi Province%陕西省市售鸡肉中金黄色葡萄球菌的毒力基因及其药敏检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐本锦; 张伟松; 王新; 杨保伟; 席美丽; 夏效东; 孟江洪; 李新平

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of toxin genes and antimicrobial profiles of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains isolated from retail chicken in Shaanxi Province , a total of 122 S . aureus isolates from retail chicken were tested for the prevalence of nine enterotoxin genes and four exotoxin genes by polymerase chain reaction , and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility with 14 antibiotics by the agar dilution method . In the 122 strains of S. aureus, 59 .84% were positive for one or more toxin genes . The 25 .41% of the isolates harbored pvl gene, 51 .64% harbored one or more ses genes, sej (37 .70% ) was the most common pattern , and 4 .92% were positive for mecA gene. None of the isolates harbored see, seg, sei, ets or tsst-1 genes . A total of 20 toxin gene profiles were obtained , and sej (21 .31% ) was the most common profile , following by pvl (8 .20% ) , sej+pvl (4 .92% ), seh+sej+pvl (3 .28% ) and seh+pvl (3 .28% ) . Of these S. aureus isolates , 100 .0% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial , and 88.52% to three or more antimicrobials . Resistance was most frequently observed on erythromycin (87. 70% ), following by trimethoprim/siilfamethoxazole (81.97%), tetracycline (67.21% ), amikacin (59.02%), ciprofloxacin(53 .28% ), oxacillin (52.46% ) and amoxicil-lin/clavulanic acid (40 .16% ) . While significantly fewer isolates were resistant to ampicillin (32 .79% ), chlorampheni-col (27 .05% ) , gentamicin (20 .49% ), cefoxitin (13 .11% ) and cefoperazone (2 .46%). None of the; isolates was resistant to vancomycin . These findings indicated that many S. aureus i-solates from retail chicken in Shaanxi Province harbored multiple toxin genes and exhibited multiple antimicrobial resistances . The presence of S. aureus strains and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in retail chicken poses a potential threat to consumer health , so relevant regulation should be established to strengthen hygiene management of the chicken products .%目的

  6. 2010年医院临床分离细菌的耐药性监测%Surveillance of antibiotic resistance of clinically isolated bacteria in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉瑭; 于超; 杜亭亭; 刘培; 阎世坤; 肖颖; 曹倩; 周亚滨

    2012-01-01

    , gram-negative bacteria were dominated, accounting for 57. 25%; Acinetobacter baumannii was resistant to various antibiotics in general, the drug resistance rate to ampicillin was 99. 13% ;in contrast, the drug resistance rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to minocycline and sulfa drugs, the drug resistance rates to β-lactam, multiple peptide, aminoglycoside antibiotics were around 30. 00%; Escherichia coli was resistant to β-lactam antibiotics in general, the resistance rate to cefoxitin was 12. 04%, piperacillin/tazobactam 3. 14%-, cefoperazone/sulbactam 6. 28%; Staphylococcus aureus was resistant to various antibiotics, the drug resistance rate to β-lactam antibiotics were higher than 90. 00%, sulbactam/ampicillin 81.12%; no strains of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus were detected. CONCLUSION It is necessary to reasonably use antibiotics, strengthen the awareness of bacterial culture and strictly comply the standards of diagnosis so as to improve the quality of clinical anti-infection.

  7. 一株耐碳青霉烯类的阴沟肠杆菌的KPC酶检测%Detection of plasmid-mediated carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamase KPC-2 in a strain of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡加昌; 周宏伟; 陈功祥; 张嵘

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacter cloacae.Methods A carbapenem-resistant strain of E.cloacae (strain ZY1465)was isolated.Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by agar dilution method.Conjugation experiments were carried out in mixed broth cultures.Plasmid DNA preparations were obtained by using an alkalinelysis technique and were digested by various endonucleases;The crude β-lactamase extracts of E.cloacae and E.coli transconjugant were subjected to analytical isoelectric focusing(IEF).Specific PCR amplification and DNA sequence analysis were preformed to confirm the β-lactamase type.Outer membrane proteins(OMPs)were isolated and examined by urea-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.Results The E. cloacae isolate showed resistance against carbapenems.The MICs of imipenem and meropenem were both 32 μg/ml.The isolate was also resistant strongly against penicillins,cephalosporins,cefoxitin,aztreonam,quinolones,and aminoglycosides.Conjugation studies with E.coli resulted in the transfer of reduced carbapenem susceptibility from E.cloacae isolate.Plasmid restriction analysis showed identical restriction profiles between the transconjugants of E. cloacae ZY1465 and Serratia marcescens ZN008.Isoelectric focusing demonstrated six β-lactamases,with the isoelectrie points(pls)of5.4,6.7,7.3,7.8,7.9,and 8.6,in E.cloacae ZY1465.and only one β-lactamase with the pI of 6.7 in transconiugant.Specific PCR amplification and DNA sequence analysis confirmed that E.cloacae ZY1465 harbored TEM-1,KPC-2,DHA-1,CTX-M-14,CTX-M-3 and chromosomal AmpC(not detected in IEF)genes.Urea-SDS-PAGE analysis of OMPs showed that E. cloacae ZY1465 lacked an OMP of approximately 38 000 Da which was present in E. cloacae ATCC13047.Conclusion It is the first detection of plasmid-mediated carbapenemhydrolyzing β-lactamase KPC-2 in a clinical isolate of E.cloacae from China.Production of multiple β-lactamases,especially KPC-2 and

  8. 联合使用抗菌药物对产KPC-2酶肺炎克雷伯菌的影响%Efficacy of synergistic antibiotic combinations against KPC-2 carbapenemase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青; 邹燕萍; 单志明; 魏泽庆; 沈萍; 孔海深; 俞云松

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the synergistic efficacy of different antibiotic combinations against KPC-2 carbapenemase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in vitro and search for effective antibiotic combination.Methods During 2008 - 2009,a total of 24 strains of K.pneumoniae producing KPC-2 carbapenemase were collected from 8 hospitals in the First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School of Zhejiang University,Ningbo LiHuiLi Hospital,Zhejiang People's Hospital,Hangzhou Third Hospital,the Second Hospital of Shaoxing,Hangzhou First Hospital,Fudan University Huashan Hospital,General Hospital of Nanjing Military Region.MLST technique was used for epidemiological analysis.The MIC of antibiotics,such as amikacin,minocycline,imipenem,amoxicillin/clavulanic-acid,ceftazidime,meropenem,gentamicin,cefoxitin,cefepime,rifampicin,polymyxinB,ciprofloxacin were determined by an agar dilution method,the MIC of tigecycline and piperacillin/tazobactain were determined by Etest.The antibacterial activities of cefepime in combination with amoxicillin/clavulanic-acid,amikacin,or ciprofloxacin,amikacin with ciprofloxacin,imipenem with amikacin,ciprofloxacin,polymyxinB,or minocycline,polymyxin B with rifampicin,ceftazidime with amoxicillin/clavulanic-acid were assessed by chequerboard synergy agar dilution tests against all the isolates.Results MLST showed 5 STs among 24 strains of KPC-2 carbapenemase producing K.pneumoniae,and the most prevalent clone was ST11 (15 strains).All isolates were susceptible to polymyxin B and tigecycline,and the resistance rate of minocycline was 4.2%.The synergetic effects were observed in cefepime-amoxicillin/clavulanic acid,imipenem-amikacin,ceftazidime-amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combinations as 19 isolates,13 isolates,and 13 isolates,respectively.Conclusions KPC-2 carbapenemase producing K.pneumoniae is sensitive to polymyxin B,tigecycline and minocycline.The synergetic effect is predominant in cefepime-amoxicillin/clavulanic acid

  9. 革兰阴性杆菌10年耐药性变化分析%Resistance analysis of gram-negative bacilli in 10 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄长武; 丁小娟; 吴倩; 廖璞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the drug-resistance diversity of main Gram-negative bacilli isolated from inpatients from 2001. 1. 1 to 2009. 12. 31 and provide information for rational use of drugs. Methods The antimicrobial sensitivity test results of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter from 2001. 1. 1 to 2009. 12. 31 were analysed by WHONET 5. 4 software. Results The resistance rates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae to Imipenem were less than 5%, to Amikacin, Pip-eracillin/Tazobactam and Cefepime less than 30%, to the third generation Cephalosporins, Cefoxitin and Aztreonam less than 40%, and to Penicillins, Quinolones and SMZ more than 50%. The resistance rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Ceftazidime, Cefepime and Imipenem were less than 40%, while to the other monitored antibiotics more than 50%. The resistance rate of Acinetobacter to Imipenem was less than 25% (except in 2009), and to the other monitored antibiotics was 50% to 96%. The pan-resistance rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii were 0 to 14% and 0 to 48% respectively. Conclusion Gram-negative bacilli are generally resistant to commonly used antimicrobial agents with an increasing trend; The resistance rates of Enterobacteriaceae to Carbapenem, Amikacin, Piperacillin/Tazobactam and Cefepime are relatively low. The resistance of nonfermenters has increased obviously, and the pan-resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter have significantly increased. Strict control on the use of antimicrobial drugs and the spread and breakout of resistant and pan-resistant strains becomes imminent.%目的 对重庆医科大学附属第二医院2001年1月1日至2009年12月31日10年临床标本中分离的主要革兰阴性杆菌耐药性变化进行分析,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法 采用回顾性方法对十年间大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、铜绿假单胞菌和不动杆菌的药敏结果用WHONET 5.4

  10. Surveillance of antibiotics resistance of pathogenic bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients in 2011%2011年住院患者分离病原菌对抗菌药物耐药监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆惠荣; 王继美

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the species and the drug resistance to common antibacterials of the pathogenic bacteria isolated from inpatients of Dongying People's Hospital, so as to provide reference for the clinical selection of antibiotics. METHODS The species of the kinds of microorganisms isolated during year 2011 and their antibacterial-resistance were analyzed by software WHONET5. 4. RESULTS A total of 1272 clinical isolates of non-repeated bacteria were isolated, including 868(68. 23%) strains of gram-negative bacteria, 284 (22. 32%)strains of gram-positive bacteria, and 120(9. 43%)strains of fungi. The drug resistance rates of methi-cillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA)to all the antibiotics except vancomycin, teicoplanin,fusidic acid,and quinupristin/dalfopristin were higher than 60. 0%. The positive rates of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella and Esche-richia coli were 50. 8% and 59. 1% , Except carbopenems, the drug resistance rate of the ESBLs-producing strains to all the antibiotics except carbapenems was significantly higher than that of the non-ESBLs-producing strains,and no strains of carbopenems-resistant strains were found. The detection rate and drug resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa varied little, the drug susceptibility rates to piperacillin/tazobactam,amikacin and cefoxitin were higher than 70. 0%. The detection rate and drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii increased significantly, the drug susceptibility rate was less than 35. 0% to all the tested antibiotics except carbopenems, four strains of A. baumannii strains simultaneously resistant to carbapenems were first reported. CONCLUSION The drug resistance of clinical isolates of bacteria to common antibacterials shows an upward tendency during the year 2011, the multidrug- resistant A. baumannii isolates are first detected, thus it is necessary to strengthen the clinical application management of antibiotics so as to control the nosocomial infections .%目的 了解东营市人民医院

  11. 血流感染病原菌分布及耐药特性分析%The distribution and resistance characteristics analysis of pathogens from bloodstream infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟桥石; 胡龙华; 熊建球; 章白芩; 张黎明; 胡晓彦; 贾坤如

    2012-01-01

    susceptibility testing was determined by disc agar diffusion method. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus(MHS) was detected by cefoxitin method. The antimicrobial susceptibility data was analyzed by WHONET 5.6 Software. Results 598 strains were isolated from blood culture, The isolates included 282 strains from Gram-positive cocci ( 47.2% ), 289 strains from Gram-negative bacilli(48.3%), 15 strains from fungi(2.5%). The Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are the main pathogenic bacterium in our hospital. The detection rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus(MRS) from Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were 63.9% and 87.9%, respectively. The resistance rates of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis to penicillin were more than 95% and all strains were sensitive to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were most sensitive to carbapenems antibiotics,the resistance rates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae to ampicillin were 93.8% and 100% respectively. The resistance rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii to imipenem were 16.7% and 63.6% respectively. The resistant rates of Acinetobacter baumannii to other testing drugs were more than 60%. Conclusion The Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus were the main pathogenic bacterium in our hospital. The resistance rate of Staphylococcus aureus is lower than Staphylococcus epidermidis. The drug resistance of non-fermenting bacteria is higher than Enterobacteriaceae bacteria. Especially, there was no optional antimicrobial agents for bloodstream infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Therefore, in the selection of antimicrobial agents in the treatment of pathogens, doctors should refer to the results of bacterial resistant surveillance.

  12. 新生儿早发型败血症43例病原菌分布及耐药性分析%Pathogen distribution and antimictobial resistance of 43 cases of early onset neonatal septicemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶冯; 昌宏

    2013-01-01

    .3% ), and secondly of meticillin resistant, staphylococcus epidermidis, and streptococcus agalactiae with the same percentage of 9. 3% . G- pathogenic bacteria are mainly composed of escherichia coli ( 20.9% ), and of about 9.3% Klebsiella pneumoniae and 4.6% Acinetobacter baumannii. Except streptococcus agalactiae is sensitive to the penicillin, other G + coccus have high drug-resistant on the penicillin, oxacillin, ceftriaxone, clindamycin and erythrocin. But no such resistant was observed for rifampicin, levofloxacin, linezolid and vancomycin. G- pathogenic bacteria has a high drug-resistant on penicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime sodium, cefuroxime and cefoxitin, but a low resistant on cefoperazone sodium and sulbactam sodium, carbapenem and fluoroquinolones. Conclusions Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are the main pathogenic bacteria which induce the early-onset septicemia of neonate. It should use the correct antibiotics based on their drug sensitive result.

  13. Distribution and drug resistance of enteric pathogenic bacteria in Fengtai, Beijing,2010-2012%2010-2012年北京市丰台区感染性腹泻病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封会茹; 曲梅; 耿荣; 秦萌; 余红; 尉秀霞; 赵伟; 邢洪光; 杨军勇

    2013-01-01

    coli. The time, population and serotype distributions of the pathogens were analyzed by statistical methods. The susceptibility of 140 strains of pathogens to antibiotics was tested by Kirby-Bauer method recommended by US Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results Totally 357 strains of pathogens were isolated from 1108 specimens (32. 22%). V. parahaemolyticus was predominant, accounting for 50. 98% , followed by Salmonella (18.49% ). The seasonality of the positive detection of pathogens was obvious, the detection rate was high during July-September. The differences in detection rate in different age groups were statistical significant ( P < 0. 05 ). The difference in positive rate of V. parahaemolyticus between males and females was statistical significant (P < 0. 01). The major serotype of V. parahaemolyticus was O3K6, the major serotype of Shigella was Shigella Sonnei and the major serotype of Salmonella were Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella senftenberg. The sensitivity of different pathogens to antibiotics varied. Most isolated strains were highly sensitive to cefoxitin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and aztreonam. Conclusion V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella were the main pathogenic bacteria causing infectious diarrhea in Fengtai. The pathogen spectrum had changed. Different pathogenic bacterium had different resistance to antibiotics. The active surveillance of these pathogenic bacteria should be strengthened.

  14. Preliminary analyses on bacterial diversity and resistance in infection-related skin disorders%感染相关皮肤病的细菌多样性及耐药性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽潇; 李东明; 尚盼盼; 孙婷婷; 肖秀美

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the bacterial diversity and resistance in infection-related skin disorders.Methods The samples of blood,pyogenic fluid,exudate and skin dander were collected from 54 outpatients of chronic and recurrent skin disease and cultured for positive pathogens in the dermatological department of Peking University Third hospital from March 2010 to May 2011.Also their drug susceptibilities were examined.Results Among 63 bacterial strains of 22 species in 12 genus,the pathogens were Staphylococcus epidermidis,Staphylococcus aureus,Micrococcus luteus,group A Streptococcus pyogenes,Staphylococcus agalactiae,Corynebacterium sp.,Bacillus subtilis,Bacillus cereus,Acinetobacter baumanii,A.lwoffii,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Enterobacter cloacae,Rhizobium radiobacter,Sphingomonas paucimobilis,Enterococcus faecalis,Neisseria sicca and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.The percentage of methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCNS) was 46.4% (13/28) while the resistant rates of Styphylococci to ampicillin,penicillin,azithromycin,cefoxitin,clindamycin and SMZ-TMP were 88.6% (31/35),88.6% (31/35),68.6% (24/35),37.1 (13/35),28.6 (10/35) and 26.5 (9/34) respectively.Gram negative bacilli were sensitive to ampicillin,amikacin sulfate,ceftazidime.Conclusion There are a wide range of pathogenic bacterial species among refractory infection of outpatients.And drug resistance is among the reasons for refractory infections.%目的 了解感染相关皮肤病细菌多样性及其耐药性.方法 回顾性分析2010年3月至2011年5月北京大学第三医院皮肤科临床拟诊为皮肤细菌感染或继发细菌感染且标本细菌培养阳性的54例患者资料.标本来自皮损痂皮或组织、血液、脓液、渗出液等.应用VITEKⅡ全自动细菌鉴定仪进行细菌鉴定,K-B法进行药敏试验,结果按CLSI-M100.S21标准判读.结果 54例患者共鉴定出63株细菌,分布于12个属,共22种.涉及的菌种有表皮葡萄球菌、金黄色葡

  15. Survey of contamination status of slaughtered pigs with Salmonella and drug resistance in Mianyang City%绵阳市屠宰生猪沙门菌的污染状况及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周良君; 陈果; 王乐; 王学军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the contamination status,serotype and drug resistance of Salmonella in slaughtered pigs in Mianyang City. Methods Carcass surface,lymph nodes and anal swabs were collected from slaughtered pigs and Salmonella strains were isolated. API20E was used for biochemical identification, Salmonella diagnostic serum for serotyping, and K-B method for drug sensitivity test. Results The total contamination rate of Salmonella in slaughtered pigs was24. 67% (37/1500 in Mianyang City,The positive rates of ketone body surface,lymph nodes and anal swabs were 28.33% (17/60),18.33(11/60) and 30.00(9/30)respectively. The predominant serotype was Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella agona belonged to Group B; These Salmonella strains were 100% sensitive to cefotaxime and cefoxitin, and the tolerance to tetracycline and chloromycetin was the highest with 81.1% and 73.0%,respectively. 75.7%(28/37)were multiple resistant to TET-CHL-W-NAL-GNE. Conclusions The contamination of Salmonella in slaughtered pigs. Was serious. Hygienic management of slaughtered pigs be emphasized involved in ante-mortem inspection, cross contamination avoidance during slaughtering and supervision of antibiotic use for livestock breeding. Cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin re the drugs of first choice for treatment of Salmonella infection.%目的 了解绵阳市屠宰生猪中沙门菌的污染状况、血清分型及耐药性,为食品微生物风险评估提供基础数据,为合理使用抗生素提供科学依据. 方法 对屠宰生猪的酮体表面、回肠淋巴结和肛拭子进行采集和分离培养获得分离株;用API 20E进行菌株生化鉴定,沙门菌诊断血清进行血清分型;用K-B法进行药敏实验. 结果 绵阳市屠宰生猪沙门菌总体污染率为24.67%(37/150),猪酮体表面、猪回肠淋巴结和猪肛拭子的污染率分别为28.33%(17/60)、18.33%(11/60)、30.00%(9/30);沙门菌分离株以B群的鼠伤寒

  16. 肿瘤医院粘质沙雷菌所致院内下呼吸道感染情况分析%Analysis of Serratia marcescens causing hospital-acquired lower respiratory tract infection in cancer hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王久惠; 叶波; 贾红; 李舸; 魏晋勇

    2011-01-01

    cancer (27%) or lung cancer(45% )who had accepted operation, chemoeherapy or radiotherapy. Serratia marcescens showed varies degree of drug-resistance to the antibiotics commonly used at present. It showed high rate of drug-resistance of over 50% to Amoxicilin, Ticarcilin, Cefoxitin and Cefuroxime. The sensitivity ratio to Imipenem, Piperacilin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefoperazone/sulbactam,cefepime, amikacin and Levofioxacin were all over 80%. But most of the drug-resistance ratio increased grandually. Conclusion For the tumor patients especially with easophagus cancer,lung cancer who had accepted operation or several courses of chmotherapy or radiotherapy in cancer hospital, the occurence of serratia marcescens causing hospital-acquired infection should be taken consideration. Timely microbiologicaltesting is necessary in order to select antibiotics according drug-sensitivityresults as early as possible. Serratia marcescens shows high drug-resistence to semisynthetic penicillin, second-generation cephalosporins,and different degree of drug-resistence to third-generation cephalosporins which should be paid more attention to by the clinical doctors.

  17. 卫生部全国细菌耐药监测网2011年女性尿标本来源细菌耐药监测%Ministry of Health National Antimicrobial Resistance Investigation Net annual report of 2011 : bacterial resistances monitor of women urine samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐慧敏; 吕媛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To summarize bacterial resistance in the women clinical urine culture samples collected in 2011 from 149 hospitals of Mohnarin. Methods Conventional culture, automatic clinical microbiological system, disk diffusion and E — test methods were used for antibacterial activity of antimicrobial agents and resistances and sensitivity were calculated by using WHONET5. 6 software. Results A total of 32682 strains of bacteria were isolated, of which of E. Coli, Enterococcus faeci-um, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis, respectively. The antimicrobial agents with lower antibiotic resistance rates of E. Coli were carbapenems ( 0.6%), piperacillin/tazobactam (3. 7% ) , nitrofurantoin ( 5. 3% ) , cefoperazone / sulbactam ( 5. 5% ) , amikacin (6. 0% ) ,fosfomycin (8. 7% ) .cefoxitin ( 12. 0% ) ,ticarcillin/ clavulanic acid (12. 5% ) , and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid ( 15. 5% ) , respectively. That of Enterococcus spp. Were teicoplanin(0. 4% -2. 4% ), vancomycin ( 1. 2% — 4. 6% ) , amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (1.4% — 11.3%), piperacillin/tazobactam (8. 1 - 15. 5% ) ,fosfomycin (5. 3% -20. 2% ) and nitrofurantoin (5. 9% - 49. 0% ) , respectively. No linezol id resistant Enterococcus were found. Conclusion E. Coli remains the urinary tract infection major pathogen but the proportion of Enterococci was significantly increased. The overall results of antibiotic resistance were serious. Nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin and amoxicillin / clavulanic acid can be chose as empirical treatment of oral antibiotics. Antimicrobial agents with enzyme inhibitor, cephamycin aminoglycosides and carbapenems can be chose as empirical treatment of injection antibiotics.%目的 总结我国2011年临床女性尿标本来源细菌耐药状况.方法 149家医院女性尿标本中的细菌,用自动化临床微生物测定方法、纸片法或E-test法测定细菌药物敏感性,用WHONET 5.6软件进行分析.结果 共分离细菌32682株,其中排在前5位

  18. Analysis of Drug Resistance and Distribution of Pathogenic Bacteria of Respiratory Tract Infection in NICU%NICU患儿呼吸道感染病原菌的分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟玉葵; 邓秋连; 钟华敏; 谢永强; 刘旻; 周珍文

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of common pathogenic bacterium and drug resistance of respiratory tract infections in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and provide references for rational use of antibiotics in clinic. Methods: Distribution and drug susceptibility of the pathogenic bacteria from respiratory tract specimens were statistically analyzed from January 2009 to December 2010 in NICU. Results: There were 367 strains of pathogens, of which the first 6 isolation rate of pathogenic bacteria were Klebsiella pneumoniae (46%), Escherichia coli (13.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.9%), Enterobacter cloacae (8.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.7%), fungi (4.9%). Analysis of drug resistance, Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance in severe cases, ESBLs production rate 54.4%, the resistance rate of cefotaxime, ceftriaxone is respectively 91.7%, 90.5%, the resistance rate of cefepime, Cefoperazone/sulbactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, gentamicin is respectively 68.6%, 66.9%, 66.9%, 47.3%, 44.4%, low resistance rate of ciprofloxacin and Amikacin, respectively 7.7% and 16.6 %. Escherichia coli high rates of resistance to penicillin, cephalosporins, sensitive or more sensitive to imipenem, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, ESBLs generation rate 51%. Imipenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae bacteria of which the first 6 found. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in addition to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime resistance rate is higher, more sensitive or highly sensitive to other antibiotics. Drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to penicillin, erythromycin is higher, respectively 95.2%, 71.4%, low resistance rate of clindamycin, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, respectively 23.8%, 23.8%, 14.3%, 4.7%, MARSA is detected in 3 strains (14.3%), vancomycin resistant strains not found; Streptococcus pneumoniae among 4 strains resistant to all erythromycin, resistance to β-lactam drugs is not serious. Conclusions: Klebsiella pneumoniae was

  19. Functional gene typing of community-acquired MRSA strains isolated from children%社区获得性耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌儿童分离株功能基因分型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程运涛; 吴为民; 常青; 朱健铭; 翁幸鐾; 欧阳冰; 李琴

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the genotyping of virulence genes and drug-resistant genes for a group of 20 community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) .METHODS Totally 20 strains of MRSA ,which were gained from lesion swab samples from patients suffering from skin or soft tissue infections , were collected from a children′s hospital in one city from Jan .to Dec .2010 .All of them were tested by PCR for six kinds of true virulence genes (sasX ,pvl,psm-mec ,tst,hla,hlg),four kinds of adhesion virulence genes (fnbA ,clfA ,clfB ,icaA) and eight kinds of drug-resistant genes (mecA ,aac(6′)/aph(2″) ,aph(3′)-Ⅲ ,ant (4′) ,ermA/B/C ,tetM ,qacA/B ,nes) .In addition ,genotyping for virulence and drug resistance was performed . RESULTS The 20 strains of CA-MRSA had 100% resistance to oxacillin ,cefoxitin ,and imipenem .Three kinds of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme genes were found in 18 strains of CA-MRSA and the positive rate was 90 .0% . All the virulence genes and drug-resistant genes of CA-MRSA could be divided into 13 types ,among which the positive rate of nontoxic gene in bacteria No .11 and No .19 was 10 .0% .CONCLUSIONS There are few domestic reports about genotyping of MRSA according to virulence factors and drug-resistance .In this research ,the high positive rate of virulence genes of CA-MRSA was correlated with its pathogenicity ,and the high positive rate of drug-resistant genes was identical with phenotypes of multidrug-resistance .However ,sasX and hlg were tested negative .%目的:调查社区获得性耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(C A-M RS A )分离株的毒力基因、耐药基因的分型情况。方法20株C A-M RS A分离自2010年1-12月儿童专科医院门诊因皮肤软组织感染就诊者,为病灶部拭子样本,采用聚合酶链反应(PCR)的方法对菌株进行了6种真性毒力基因(sasX、pvl、psm-mec、tst、hla、hlg)、4种黏附毒力基因(fnbA、clfA、clfB、icaA)和8

  20. 小儿呼吸道感染肺炎克雷伯杆菌耐药性和基因型研究%Drug resistance and genotype of Klebsiella pneumonia in children with respiratory tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包路

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨临海地区小儿呼吸道感染肺炎克雷伯杆菌产超β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs和AmpC酶)的耐药性及耐药基因型分布情况.方法 采用VITEK-60型全自动细菌鉴定仪鉴定细菌,按CLSI推荐的确证试验检测ESBLs 和K-B纸片法测定药敏结果;采用头孢西丁纸片扩散法筛选产AmpC酶阳性菌株,采用PCR检测AmpC酶基因,并对产物进行测序分析基因型.结果 113株肺炎克雷伯杆菌ESBLs和AmpC酶总检测率分别为29.20%和18.58%,其中单产ESBLs、单产AmpC酶和同产AmpC酶+ESBLs检出率分别为23.01%、12.39%和6.19%;AmpC酶阳性菌株的耐药基因型:16株为DHA-1型,5株为ACT-1型.药敏试验:所分离的肺炎克雷伯杆菌对亚胺培南全部敏感,对喹诺酮类耐药率很低,对大多β-内酰胺类抗生素耐药率较高,并且产酶株的耐药性明显高于非产酶株,耐药现象在同产ESBLs和AmpC酶菌株中更为严重.结论 临海地区小儿呼吸道分离的肺炎克雷伯杆菌产ESBLs和AmpC酶检出率较高;AmpC酶以DHA-1基因型流行为主,产酶株呈现出高度多重耐药性.%Objective To investigate the resistance and resistant genotype distribution of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing ultra-β-lactamases (ESBLs and AmpC enzymes) in children with respiratory tract infections in Linhai. Method VITEK-60 Automatic bacterial identification instrument was used to identify the ESBLs bacteria according to the CLSI-recommended confirmatory test detected, and K-B disk method was used to determine the susceptibility; Cefoxitin disk diffusion method was used to screen AmpC-producing strains, and PCR was used to detect AmpC enzyme gene; the products were sequenced for genotypes. Result Of the 113 strains of Klebsiella pneumonia, the total detection rates of ESBLs and AmpC were 29.20% and 18.58% respectively, in which the rates of ESBLs, AmpC enzymes and AmpC enzyme + ESBLs were 23.01% , 12.39% and 6.19% , respectively. The resistant genotypes of

  1. 2009~2013年血培养病原菌分布和耐药性分析%Analysis on distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria from blood culture during 2009~2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈菊英; 肖启纹; 夏嵘; 尧荣凤; 李智

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the distribution and drug resistance characteristics of pathogenic bacteria isolated from blood cultures in the infected patients in our hospital during 2009-2013 to provide the newest evidence for the clinical anti-infection ther-apy.Methods The bacterial identification and drug susceptibility test were performed by applying the VITEK-32 System.The dis-tribution situation and the drug susceptibility test results of pathogens isolated from blood culture specimens in our hospital during this period were analyzed.Results 2 301 strains of positive bacteria were isolated from 14 006 cases of blood culture during these five consecutive years.The positive rate was 16.4%.Among them,1 303 strains were Gram positive bacteria(56.6%),954 strains of Gram negative bacilli(41.5%)and 44 strains of fungi(1.9%).Gram-positive bacteria were mainly Staphylococcus aureus,coagu-lase negative staphylococci(CNS),etc.Gram-negative bacteria were mainly E.coli,Klebsiella pneumoniae,etc.E.coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were highly sensitive to carbapenem,amikacin,cefoxitin and antibacterial drugs containing enzyme inhibitor.The detec-tion rates of extended-spectrumβ-lactamase(ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were 55.8% and 18.4%respectively.Acinetobacter baumannii in blood culture had serious resistance to most of antibacterial drugs.Conclusion The kinds of pathogens isolated from blood culture are complex with different sensitivity to antibacterial drugs.Timely understanding the re-sults of blood culture has the important significance to adjust the treatment scheme in clinic and timely discover drug-resistant strains for serve clinic better.%目的:分析该院2009~2013年5年来血培养感染患者中的病原菌分布情况和耐药特点,为临床抗感染治疗提供最新依据。方法应用 VITEK-32系统鉴定细菌和药物敏感试验,分析该院5年中血培养标本所分离的病原菌的分布情况

  2. Analysis on the drug-resistance and distribution of 223 strains ofEscherichia coli%223株大肠埃希菌的耐药性分析及分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the drug-resistance and distribution ofEscherichia coli(E. coli) isolated in clinic, so as to provide evidence for the clinicians to use antibiotics on the basis of experience. Methods Totla of 223 strains ofE. coli were isolated from January 2011 to October 2011 in our hospital. Drug resistance of strains to the antibacterial drug that commonly used in clinical and the distribution were analyzed, respectively. Results The drug-resistance rates of 223 strains ofE. coli to imipenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, amikacin, cefoxitin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, tobramycin, levofloxacin, cefepime, cefotaxime, aztreonam, gentamicin, ciprolfoxacin, cefazolin, ampicillin and cotrimoxazole were 0.45% (1 strain), 4.04% (9 strains), 9.42% (21 strains), 13.00% (29 strains), 14.80% (33 strains), 39.46% (88 strains), 41.70% (93 strains), 48.43 % (123 strains), 51.12% (114 strains), 54.71% (122 strains), 55.16% (123 strains), 55.16% (123 strains), 57.40% (128 strains), 62.78% (140 strains), 71.75% (160 strains) and 86.10%(192 strains), respectively. There were 40.81% (91 strains) ofE. coli were collected from urine specimens, 30.94% (69 strains) from sputum specimens and 9.87% (22 strains) from blood specimens.ConclusionsE. coliseparated in our hospital mainly caused urinary tract infections and respiratory tract infections. The drug-resistance rates to the antimicrobial drugs that commonly used in clinical varied widely and clinicians should use antibiotics on the basis of the susceptibility results.%目的:了解临床分离的大肠埃希菌的耐药性及分布,为临床经验用药提供理论依据。方法对2011年1月至2012年10月本院临床分离的223株大肠埃希菌对临床常用抗菌药物的耐药性及分布进行分析。结果223株大肠埃希菌对亚胺培南、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦、阿米卡星、头孢西丁、阿莫西林/棒酸、头孢他啶、妥布霉素、左氧氟沙星、头孢吡肟、头孢噻

  3. Study on the resistance mechanism of an isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to 3 kinds of carbopenems%一株对3种碳青霉烯类抗菌药物均耐药的肺炎克雷伯菌耐药机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解春宝; 喻华; 肖代雯; 杨永长; 姜伟; 刘华; 黄文芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the resistance mechanism of an isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K30 ) resistant to carbopenems.Methods Minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC)of Klebsiella pneumoniae K30 to 1 3 antibiotics were determined by agar dilution method.Modified Hodge test was used to detect carbopenems.Class A carbopenem (KPC),Class B carbopenem (NDM,IMP,VIM and SIM),extended spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBLs (CTX,TEM and SHV)],AmpC beta-lactamases [Amp C (FOX,EBC,ACC,DHA,CIT and MOX)]and Class Ⅰintegron were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Real-time fluorescence quantitation PCR was carried out to investigate the mRNA expression levels of porin genes(ompK35 and ompK36).Plasmid conjugation experiment was subjected to reveal the transferability of Klebsiella pneumoniae K30 resistant genes. Results The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that Klebsiella pneumoniae K30 was resistant to 1 1 antibiotics,but kept intermediary to cefoxitin sodium and susceptible to amikacin.Modified Hodge test was positive in Klebsiella pneumoniae K30.Class A carbopenem KPC gene and 2 ESBLs CTX and SHV genes were positive by PCR amplification.The genes were conformed as KPC-2,CTX-M3 and SHV-38 by sequencing and comparing in GenBank.No other resistance gene Class Ⅰ integron was detected.The porin gene ompK35 and ompK36 expression levels did not decrease comparing with those of Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 700603 ).Plasmid conjugation experiment was failed in the study.Conclusions The main resistance mechanism of the isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to carbopenems might be associated with the combined producing KPC-2 and ESBLs,and KPC-2 may be not mediated by plasmid.%目的:研究临床分离的一株肺炎克雷伯菌(K30)对碳青霉烯类抗菌药物耐药的机制。方法采用琼脂稀释法测定肺炎克雷伯菌K30对13种抗菌药物的最低抑菌浓度(MIC);用改良Hodge试验检测碳青霉烯酶;聚合酶链反应(PCR)检

  4. The analysis of the genotyping of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases produced by clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae%大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌质粒型 AmpC 酶基因型的检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑港森; 刘赞赞; 张加勤; 黄朝阳; 马晓波; 李庆阁; 宋秀宇

    2015-01-01

    目的:针对该院临床分离大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌质粒型 AmpC 酶基因型进行研究分析。方法收集2011年7月至2012年8月对头孢西丁不敏感无重复临床分离大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌共176株,采用聚合酶链反应(PCR)法和扩增全基因序列分析大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌产 AmpC 酶基因型。结果 PCR 结果显示,AmpC 酶基因(ampC 基因)阳性率为18.2%主要以 DHA 型为主,阳性率为59.4%,CIT 型为37.5%,EBC 为3.1%;其中,大肠埃希菌 ampC 基因阳性率为11.4%,以CIT 型为主,阳性率为77.8%,DHA 型和 EBC 型阳性率均为11.1%;肺炎克雷伯菌 ampC 基因阳性率为23.7%,以 DHA 型为主,阳性率为78.3%,CIT 型为21.7%。基因序列结果显示,DHA 型有18株为 DHA‐1基因型和1株摩根摩根菌 ampC 基因型,一致率97.0%,CIT 型有10株为 CMY‐2基因型,1株 CMY‐42基因型和1株 CMY‐4基因型;EBC 型为阴沟肠杆菌 ampC 基因型,一致率为99.0%。将32株基因序列提交 GenBank ,均被接受,其登录号为 KJ127248~ KJ127279。结论该院临床分离大肠埃希菌 ampC 基因主要以 CMY‐2型为主,而肺炎克雷伯菌主要以 DHA‐1型为主。%Objective To investigate the genotype and epidemiology of plasmid‐mediated AmpC β‐lactamases produced by the clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae .Methods A total of 176 clinical nonrepetitive cefoxitin non‐sensitivity isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was collected from July 2011 to August 2012 .Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for AmpC enzyme gene amplification and DNA sequencing were carried out for genotype of AmpC beta‐lactamases .Results The results of PCR showed that the positive rate of ampC of the 176 strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae AmpC was 18 .2% ,mainly DHA type ,counting for 59 .4% ,CIT

  5. Analysis of the Antimicrobial-Resistant Gene and Virulence Gene Carried by Staphylococcus Aureus Collected from Bloodstream Infections in Tianjin:2006-2011%2006-2011年60株血感染金黄色葡萄球菌毒素及耐药基因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立新; 胡神明; 胡志东; 田彬; 李静; 王凤霞; 杨华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate resistance profile, antimicrobial-resistant genes and virulence genes carried by 60 staphylococcus aureus collected from bloodstream infections in General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University from 2006 to 2011.Methods The bacteria identification and the antimicrobial susceptibility test were conducted by VITEK-2 compact automatic system.Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were screened by disk diffusion method with cefoxitin.The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)was used to detect genes of mecA, qacA, pvl, sea, seb, secI, sed, see and TSST-1.Results The resistance rates of 60 isolates to penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin and gentamicin were 91.7%, 65.0%, 65.0% and 40.0%, respectively.All of the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline.Among the 60 isolates, the positive rates of mecA and qacA werel3 (21.7%) and 3(5.0%) respectively.The positive rates of pvl, sea, seb,sec and sed were 4 (6.7%),20(33.3%), 3 (5%),9 (15.0%) and 7 (11.7%).Both see and tst were negative in all strains.Conclusion The resistance rates of staphylococcus aureus collected from bloodstream infections were high to penicillin , erythromycin, clindamycin and gentamicin.The various toxin and the antimicrobial-resistant genes were positive in staphylococcus aureus.We should pay attention to the detection of the antimicrobial-resistant gene and virulence gene.%目的 了解2006-2011年临床分离的60株血感染金黄色葡萄球菌的耐药情况及毒素基因和耐药基因的流行情况.方法 VITEK 2-compact全自动细菌鉴定仪及配套鉴定卡、药敏卡对细菌进行鉴定及药敏试验;头孢西丁纸片扩散法筛选耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA);应用聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测mecA、耐消毒剂基因(qacA)、杀白细胞素基因(pvl)、肠毒素基因(sea、seb、secl、sed、see)及中毒休克综合征毒素-1基因(tst).结果 60株金黄色葡萄球菌

  6. Analysis on the Results of Germiculture and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test in the Hospitalized Children with Pneumonia%我院住院肺炎患儿病原菌及药敏试验结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 刘海霞; 肖金

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To analyze the results of drug susceptibility test to bacteria in our hospitalized children with pneumonia and to guide the antibiotic application. Methods; To summarize the results of sputum cultures and antimicrobial susceptibility from pneumonia children between January 2009 to March 2010, and to evaluate the correct antibiotic choices for the treatment of children pneumonia. Results; Among the 217 sputum samples, the gram-positive bacteria were mainly staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus pneumoniae type I, and the former was sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and imipenem, and was insensitive to penicillin, cefazolin, and erythromycin. Streptococcus pneumoniae type I was sensitive to penicillin, cefazolin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The gram-negative bacteria were mainly escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumonia and enterobacter cloacae, which were sensitive to the third-generation cephalosporins, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, but were insensitive to ampicillin, cefazolin, cefepime and cefoxitin in over 70% cases. Conclusions; The children with pneumonia in the hospital were generally sensitive to amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid, but were generally insensitive to penicillin and the first and second-generation cephalosporins except for the cases with streptococcus pneumoniae type I infection. The overall susceptibility rates to the third-generation cephalosporins, such as cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime, used to treat gram-negative bacterial infections were about 80% , so these antibiotics are preferred in the treatment of children with pneumonia. Appropriate antibacterial agents should be chosen based on the bacterial spectrum and the antimicrobial susceptibility test.%目的:了解近年我院儿科住院患儿肺炎病原菌及药敏试验结果,指导临床用药.方法:统计我院儿科2009年1月~2010年3月期间住院肺炎患儿痰培养结果及药物敏感情况,对选择

  7. 665株鲍曼不动杆菌耐药性变化与用药频度相关性分析%Correlation between drug resistance and drug comsuption in 665 strains ofAcinetobacter Baumannii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金浩; 仇凡; 孙明忠

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter Baumannii to this drug, Piperacillin/tazobactam (r=0.98,P<0.01), Gentamicin (r=0.87,P<0.01), Czidime (r=0.75,P<0.05), Cefoxitin (r=-0.74,P<0.05). Cefoperazone/sulbactam usage was also negatively correlated with aminoglycoside use frequency (r=-0.84,P<0.05), the drug resistance rate of Amikacin was positively correlated with the frequency of Cephalothin drug usage (r=0.98,P<0.01).Conclusion: hTe drug resistance to common antibiotics by Bauman is more serious, and there is a certain correlation between the use of antibacterial drugs and the rate of bacterial resistance.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus: incidência e resistência antimicrobiana em abscessos cutâneos de origem comunitária Staphylococcus aureus: etiology and susceptibility profile to antimicrobial agents of skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses from community infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zavadinack Netto

    2002-03-01

    profilaxia ou tratamento de infecções por S.aureus, mesmo aqueles de origem comunitária.An analysis of Staphylococcus aureus (Monera, an etiological agent of community infections, is provided. Staphylococcus aureus causes the formation of skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses. Susceptibility profile to antimicrobials used in prophylaxis or therapy of these cutaneous infections will be given. One hundred and seven samples of secretions were collected from January 1996 through July 1997 at the emergency sector of University Hospital of the State University of Maringá, Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil, from infected patients with skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses. Microbiological evaluation was carried out according to Bayle and susceptibility to antimicrobial was evaluated in vitro through the technique of diffusion in agar according to Kirby. Sixteen antimicrobials used in prophylaxis or therapy of skin and subcutaneous cell tissue infections were evaluated. From the one hundred and seven clinical samples collected from patients complaining of infections with skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses, 71 (66.35% were positive to S.aureus and 36 (33,65% were either positive for other microorganisms, or tested negative. In the evaluation of susceptibility to S.aureus a higher sensitivity to vancomycin (100%, teicoplanin (100%, amikacin (100%, cefoxitin (100%, cephalothin (98.53%, lincomycin (98.53%, gentamicin (98.53%, oxacillin (96,4%, norfloxacin (95.77% and sulfazotrin (95.77% was found when compared to penicillin G (08.45%, ampicillin (08.45%, kanamycin (81,69%, erythromycin (88.41%, tetracycline (90.14 and chloramphenicol (94,36%. Results show that S.aureus is the most frequently isolated microorganism from community infections with skin and subcutaneous tissue abscesses. The susceptibility profile evidences high resistance to penicillins, which restricts the use of these antimicrobials as an alternative in the prophylaxis or treatment of S

  9. Etiologia e perfil de sensibilidade de bactérias isoladas de ovelhas com mastite na região nordeste do estado do Pará Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from sheep with mastitis in northeastern Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália da Silva e Silva

    2010-12-01

    isolated were Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negative (26.9%; Staphylococcus aureus (15.,4%; Streptococcus spp. (7.69%; Escherichia coli (7.69% and Citrobacter freundii (11.5%. Were observed associations of Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negative nonhemolytic and Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negative hemolytic (3.85%. The most efficient antibiotics for the Gram positive agents were penicile/novobiocine (100%, cefalotine (100% and florfenicol (100% and for the Citrobacter freundii were ampicilina (100% and florfenicol (100%. In relation to Escherichia coli, 66.7% of isolates to ampicillin, cephalothin, florfenicol and tetracycline were resistant. Mastitis is present in sheep in the State of Pará, and it's necessary to estimate, in future studies, the economic losses caused by this disease. The CMT show satisfactory results and can be recommended as a screening test for diagnosing individual cases of subclinical mastitis in sheep, once had a good relationship with the microbiological examination. In the antibiogram where most of the isolated agents appear sensitive to different antibiotics tested, the antibiotics with the best efficiency were florfenicol and cefoxitin.

  10. 儿童吸入性和血源性金黄色葡萄球菌肺炎临床特点及其致病株耐药性分析%Clinical features of inhaled and blood-borne Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia and analysis of antibiotic resistance of the pathogen in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光莉; 刘茹; 张慧; 李颖; 张东伟; 李俊奇; 张思颖; 朱军; 罗征秀

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical manifestations between inhaled and blood-borne Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia (SAP) and the antibiotic resistance between the isolates of inhaled and blood-borne Staphylococcus aureus. Methods The clinical data of 44 pediatric SAP cases in the Children's Hospital, Chongqing Medical University from January 2008 to December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-four cases were identified as inhaled SAP, and 20 cases as blood-borne SAP. Results Inhaled SAP was more common in children younger than 3 years of age, while blood-borne SAP was more prevalent in children older than 6 years of age. Patients with inhaled SAP had signiifcantly higher incidence rates of cough, wheeze, moist rales, dyspnea and empyema than those with blood-borne SAP (P<0.05). The patients with blood-borne SAP were more vulnerable to severe fever, unconsciousness, dysfunction of liver and kidney, pyogenic osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, sepsis, and abscess of skin and soft tissues (P<0.05). Inhaled SAP isolates had signiifcantly higher rates of resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, oxacillin, and cefoxitin than blood-borne SAP isolates (P<0.05), while the latter had a higher rate of resistance to cotrimoxazole (P<0.05). Conclusions Inhaled SAP often occurs in children younger than 3 years of age, and the respiratory manifestations are commonly seen. Blood-borne SAP often occurs in children older than 6 years of age, with the infectious-toxic symptoms that result in multiple organ infection and dysfunction. The isolates of inhaled and blood-borne SAP have different antibiograms.%目的:比较吸入性和血源性金黄色葡萄球菌肺炎(Staphy1ococcus aureus pneumonia, SAP)的临床特点及分离菌株的耐药性。方法回顾分析该院2008年1月至2013年12月确诊为SAP的44例患儿的临床资料。44例患儿中,24例为吸入性感染,20例为血源性感染。结果吸入性SAP以3岁以下婴幼儿多见,血源性SAP以6

  11. 2010~2013年重庆医科大学附属永川医院抗菌药物调查分析%Analysis the use of antibiotic in the Yongchuan hospital Chongqing Medical University during 2010-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中良; 金梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价抗菌药物应用现状和趋势,为临床合理用药提供参考。方法提取2010~2013年本院医院信息系统(HIS)的出库数据,对抗菌药物的销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)和限定日费用(DDC)进行回顾性分析。结果2010~2013年抗菌药物销售金额占药品销售金额的比例分别为35.99%、26.47%、14.69%和14.52%,各类抗菌药物销售金额中头孢菌素类和β-内酰胺酶抑制药一直居前列,头孢西丁钠和哌拉西林他唑巴坦的销售金额迅速增长,连续3年居抗菌药物销售金额排序第1、2位;2010~2013年各类抗菌药物总DDDs排序中头孢菌素类和大环内酯类一直居前列,抗真菌药物DDDs呈增加趋势,喹诺酮类与硝基咪唑类则呈下降趋势,抗菌药物DDDs排序中克拉霉素片、阿奇霉素肠溶胶囊及罗红霉素胶囊居于前列;2011~2013年头孢呋辛的DDC由15.37增长到68.06。结论2010~2013年本院抗菌药物销售金额占药品销售金额逐年降低,抗菌药物应用中以头孢菌素类为主,抗真菌药持续增长,大环内酯类和青霉素类保持在较高的水平。%Objective To study the status quo and tendency of the utilization of antibiotics in our hospital in order to provide ref-erence for clinical rational drug use .Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on the consumption sum ,DDDs and defined daily cost(DDC) of antibiotics ,which taken from HIS system in drug storehouse from 2010 to 2013 .Results 2010~2013 ,the anti-microbial drug sales in proportion to the amount of drug sales were 35 .99% ,26 .47% ,14 .69% and 14 .52% respectively .Cephalo-sporins andβ-lactamase inhibitor have been in the forefront of the antimicrobial agents in the sales amount .The sales amount of Ce-foxitin sodium and Piperacillin/tazobactam has rapid grow th ,for three consecutive years of antimicrobial agents in the sales amount ordering frist and second .2010

  12. Pathogenic Bacteria Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Children with Acute Otitis Media%儿童急性化脓性中耳炎病原菌及药敏分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丽丽; 王智楠; 张振; 李隽; 夏忠芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze pathogenic bacteria distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility in children with acute otitis media(AOM ) .Methods Otorrhea samples from 146 episodes of AOM were cultured .The antimi‐crobial susceptibility of the main pathogenic bacteria was determined .The results were analyzed by SPSS19 .0 .Re‐sults 1) The strains of bacteria were isolated from 109 children with the positive rate of 74 .66% .Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP ) was the major bacteria(64 episodes ,58 .72% ) ,followed by staphlococcus aureus(SA) (19 epi‐sodes ,17 .43% ) .2) Sp was all sensitive to vancomycin ,levofloxacin ,moderate to penicillin ,amoxicillin ,cefo‐taxime ,and highly resistent to erythromycin and clindamycin .Staphlococcus aureus were all sensitive to vancomy‐cin ,tetracycline ,and Amy card ,and moderate to amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium ,cefoxitin ,and oxacillin ,all resistent to penicillin and ampicillin .3) The strains of SP in age≤1year ,>1 -3years ,and >3 years respectively were 31(50 .82% ) ,25(56 .82% ) ,8 (19 .51% ) .There were significant differences between them(χ2 =14 .073 ,P=0 .001) .4)The strains of SP in 2012 ,2013 ,2014 respectively were 16(30 .19% ) ,22(48 .89% ) ,26(54 .17% ) ,There were significant differences between them(χ2 =6 .557 ,P=0 .038) .The antimicrobial susceptibility of SP had no sig‐nificant differences among 2012 ,2013 ,2014 ,but a yearly resistance decreasing trend was seen .Conclusion SP was the main bacterial contributor for AOM in Wuhan children .SP detection rate increases every year ,mainly in chil‐dren less than 3 years old .T he antimicrobial susceptibility is stable .%目的:探讨儿童急性化脓性中耳炎的病原菌分布及主要病原菌的药敏。方法回顾性分析武汉市儿童医院2012年1月1日~2014年12月31日诊治的146例急性化脓性中耳炎患儿的临床资料,分析患儿中耳脓性分泌物的病原菌培养及药敏结果。结果①146例患儿中,109例(74

  13. Antibacterial Susceptibility and Subtypes of Salmonella Isolates from Retail Chicken in Xi,an in 2007-2008%2007—2008年西安地区鸡肉源沙门氏菌相关特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨保伟; 申进玲; 席美丽; 张秀丽; 崔生辉; 王新; 孟江洪

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The antibacterial susceptibility,and serotype and genotype of 260 Salmonella isolates from retail chicken in Xi,an district of Shaanxi province were determined to explore the microbial safety of retail chicken.Methods: The antibacterial susceptibility was tested using agar dilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.Serotyping was performed using slide agglutination method according to WHO guidelines.DNA fingerprinting profiles of Salmonella were determined using pulse field gel electrophoresis(PFGE) developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,and analyzed using the BioNumerics Software.Results: The drug resistance rates of 260 Salmonella isolates to nalidixic acid,ciprofloxacin,levofloxacin,gatifloxacin,ampicillin,amoxicillin-clavulanic acid,cefoperazone,ceftriaxone and cefoxitin were 81.4%,29.2%,22.4%,21.8%,34.6%,37.7%,32.6%,23.1% and 1.9%,respectively.Twenty-one serotypes were identified in the Salmonella isolates,and the common serotypes were Salmonella Enteritidis,Salmonella Shubra,Salmonella Indiana,Salmonella Typhimurium,Salmonella Djugu,Salmonella Derby,Salmonella Virchow,Salmonella Othmarschen and Salmonella II,respectively.The isolates of serotypes Salmonella Indiana(22.6%) and Salmonella Shubra(6.1%) were resistant to at least 15 antibiotics,which were the most resistant ones.PFGE profiles of Salmonella Enteritidis,Salmonella Shubra,Salmonella Indiana and Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were genetically diverse.The epidemiological regularity of the different serotypes of Salmonella Exhibited differences along with sampling time and places.Conclusion: Salmonella isolates from retail chicken in Xi,an are diverse in serotypic and genotypic characteristics and many of them are resistant to multiple antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of humans and animals.%目的:研究260株2007—2008年分离于西安市零售鸡肉中沙门氏菌的药敏性、血清型和基

  14. Preliminary Study on Induction of Multi-drug Resistant Strains of E. coli in vitro%大肠杆菌多重耐药株的体外诱导初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严亮

    2015-01-01

    MICs of 16 antimicrobial agents against the 4 induced strains were also determined when the concentrations of inducers reached to 128×MIC. The results showed that the morphological and biochemical characteristics of the tested strains were identical to E. coli. Before induction, the MICs of 16 antimicrobial agents against the quality control strain ranged from 0.25 to 64.00 μg/mL. MICs of cefotaxime, tetracycline hydrochloride, oxytetracycline, thiamphenicol, norfloxacin, cefoxitin and some of other antibiotics against the tetracycline hydrochloride induced strains were increased by 4 fold or more than 4 fold compared with those against the quality control strain, which showed a statistical significance. While MICs of cefotaxime against the ciprofloxacin hydrochloride induced strain and chloramphenicol induced strain were increased by more than 4 fold compared with that against the quality control strain, no statistical significances were found in the change of MICs of other antibiotics against the ciprofloxacin hydrochloride induced strain and chloramphenicol induced strain. When the concentration of sodium salicylate exceeded 16 ×MIC, the induced strain were not able to grow. It was indicated that the change of MICs of the tested antibiotics against the tetracycline hydrochloride induced strain was most obvious, and the E. coli was prone to become resistant under the selective pressure of tetracycline.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Aeromonas strains isolated from various aquatic animals in Guangdong Province%广东省水产动物源气单胞菌对抗菌药物的耐药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雅丽; 邓玉婷; 姜兰; 谭爱萍; 薛慧娟; 王伟利; 罗理; 赵飞

    2013-01-01

    为了解广东地区水产动物源气单胞菌的耐药情况,采用K-B纸片法测定了112株1995-2012年来源于不同种类患病水产动物的气单胞菌对20种抗菌药的耐药性,数据用WHONET 5.6耐药监测软件分析.结果显示,气单胞菌对氨苄西林和头孢噻吩的耐药率分别高达85.7%和79.5%,其次对利福平、阿莫西林/克拉维酸、链霉素、萘啶酸、磺胺类、头孢西丁、四环素和磺胺甲基异恶唑/甲氧苄啶的耐药率分别达57.1%、51.8%、49.1%、44.6%、31.2%、28.6%、28.6%和21.4%;对氟喹诺酮类(氧氟沙星、诺氟沙星、环丙沙星)、头孢噻肟、头孢曲松、亚胺培南、阿米卡星、呋喃妥因、氯霉素和多西环素相对敏感.比较不同来源气单胞菌的耐药情况,结果显示爬行、两栖动物和观赏鱼来源的分离菌株对氟喹诺酮类、头孢类等药物的耐药率比养殖鱼、虾类的高;气单胞菌对常用抗菌药呈现不同程度的耐药,不同来源的气单胞菌的耐药率亦不尽相同.水产动物源气单胞菌存在多重耐药菌株应引起重视,今后在气单胞菌疾病防治方面要慎重用药,并且有必要开展水产动物源的细菌耐药性监测,以指导水产养殖合理用药.%112 Aeromonas strains were isolated from various aquatic animals at different time in Guangdong province. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used to detect the resistance of 112 strains against 20 commonly used antimicrobial agents. Resistance rates were analyzed by WHONET 5. 6 software. The overall resistance rates were highest for ampicillin (85. 7%) and cephalothin (79. 5%) followed by rifampicin (57.1% ) ,amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (51. 8% ) .streptomycin (49. 1% ) ,sulfonamides (31. 2% ) ,cefoxitin (28. 6% ) , tetracycline (28.6%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (21.4%). Aeromonas isolates were suseptible to most of antimicrobial agents and a low incidence ( < 10% ) of resistance to imipenem (0

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and epidemiology of blood stream infections in China, 2012%2012年度全国血标本来源细菌分布及耐药状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田磊; 朱旭慧; 孙自镛

    2015-01-01

    ,应根据药敏结果合理选用抗菌药物。%Objective To investigate the distribution and changing pa-ttern of susceptibility in bloodstream infection.Methods The blood cul-ture isolates from 557 tertiary hospitals and 232 second class hospitals were routinely isolated and identified.Antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates were tested routinely.Results A total of 76483 strains were isolated from blood specimens in the tertiary hospitals during 2012.Gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli accounted for 44.35%and 55.65%, respectively.A total of 6261 strains were isolated from blood specimens in the second-class hospitals during 2012.Gram-po-sitive cocci and gram -negative bacilli accounted for 48.89% and 51.11%, respectively.The most frequent gram-negative bacteria from the tertiary hospitals and the second -class hospitals were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacter cloacae, the most fre-quent gram-positive bacteria were Coagulase-negative Staphylococus, Staphylococus aureus, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.700 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae ( 0.8%) , 28 strains of Hemophilus influenza (80.0%).The sensitivity rates of Enterococcus faecalis to Pencillin and Ampicillin were high (>80.0%).Escherichia coli was sensitive to not only Ampicillin/Sulbactam and Piperacillin/tazobactam (>90.0%) , but also Amikacin and Cefoxitin ( about 80.0%).Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to all of the common antibiotics almost.But it was just the opposite to Acinetobacter baumannii.Polymyxin B and Cefoperazone/Sulbactam were sensitive to Acinetobacter baumannii in the tertiary hospitals and the second-class hospitals, respec-tively(97.6%and 76.7%).Conclusion The datas of 2012 indicated that gram-negative bacilli, especially Esche-richia coli, played an important role in blood stream infections.A large number of Coagulase-negative Staphylococus, Staphylococus aureus were isolated

  17. Epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Jingzhou%荆州地区耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌的流行和耐药特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周义正; 李艳; 王昌富

    2014-01-01

    and hospital-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA) in Jingzhou.Methods A total of 159 MRSA isolates were successively collected from patients in Jingzhou Central Hospital during January 2012 and December 2013.The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 16 antimicrobial agents against 159 MRSA isolates were detected.SCCmec types of the strains were detected by multiplex PCR,and the homology of the strains was analyzed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and cluster analysis of antibiogram.WHONET 5.6 and SPSS 19.0 were used for data analysis.Results Among 159 MRSA strains,131 were hospital-associated,and 28 were community-associated,which accounted for 82.4% and 17.6%,respectively.There were significant differences in the age of patients,ward distribution,specimen type,length of stay,length of anti-infection treatment,type of infection and underlying diseases between patients with CA-MRSA or HA-MRSA infections (x2 =19.103,31.372,59.756,71.703,54.153,59.756 and 54.232,all P < 0.01).No vancomycin,linezolid,tigecyeline and nitrofurantoin resistant strains were found,but all strains were resistant to penicillin,cefoxitin and oxacillin.HA-MRSA had higher resistance rates to moxifloxacin,levofloxacin,rifampicin,ciprofloxacin and gentamicin than CA-MRSA (x2 =30.179,27.352,28.523,28.523 and 25.987,all P < 0.01),but its resistance rates to erythromycin and clindamycin were lower (x2 =13.106 and 11.743,both P < 0.01).Among 159 MRSA strains,12 (7.5%) were of SCCmec type Ⅱ,113 (71.1%) were of SCCmec type Ⅲ,26 (16.4%) were of SCCmec type Ⅳ,and 8 were of undifferentiated type.The predominant SCCmec types were type Ⅳ for CA-MRSA (26/28,92.9%) and type Ⅲ for HA-MRSA (113/131,86.3%),respectively.Six PFGE patters were found in 49 HA-MRSA isolates from ICU,and the predominant patters were A1 (24,49.0%),A2 (9,18.4%) and B (9,18.4%).Cluster analysis of antibiogram showed that three groups of HA-MRSA were of

  18. 引起儿童腹泻的沙门菌属临床分离株的耐药特点及分子流行病学研究%Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolates recovered from children with diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈强; 余晓君; 李俏俏; 段荣; 柯江维; 杨乐和; 王良兴; 余方友

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. isolates recovered from the stool samples of children with diarrhea. Methods Seventy-two isolates of Salmonella spp. were collected from children with diarrhea. The serum type of Salmonella spp.was determined by serology agglutinating method. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by K-B disk diffusion method and MICs of cefotaxime and ceftazidime were measured by agar dilution method for Salmonella spp. isolates. PCR and DNA sequencing were used for detecting ESBL, ISEcpl and AmpC genes; The transfer of cefotaxime resistance was determined by conjugation experiments. PFGE was performed for determining the homogeneity of the S. typhimurium isolates. Results A total of 72 isolates of Salmonella spp. were collected, among which S. typhimurium accounted for 86 % (62/72) and was the main serum type. S. typhimurium isolates and S. thompson isolates were often resistant to most of clinically used antimicrobial agents. Resistance of S. thompson isolates to ampicillin was the highest (90%, 56/62),followed by tetracycline (81%, 50/62), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (74%, 46/62) and chloramphenicol (66%, 41/62). Seventeen S. typhimurium isolates (27%, 17/62) and two S. thompson isolates were resistant to cefotaxime. Forty-nine S. typhimurium isolates and two S. thompson isolates were positive for blaTEB-1b and resistant to ampicillin. Thirteen ESBL-producing S. typhimurium isolates (21%, 13/62) were positive for blaCTX-M (eight for blaCTX-M-14, three for blaCTX-M-15, one for blaCTX-M-55, one for both blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-55). All isolates harboring blaCTX-M genes were positive for upstream insert sequence ISEcpl. blaDHA-1was detected in a cefoxitin-resistant S. thompson isolate. Two main clones (PFGE type A and D) accounting for 19% (12/62) and 50% (31/62) respectively were found among 62 S. typhimurium isolates. Seven CTXM-producing isolates belonged to PFGE type D

  19. 尿路感染大肠埃希菌遗传种系分型及其耐药性的相关性探讨%Escherichia coli urinary tract infection germ line genetic typing and correlation of drug resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅俪凡; 王荣聪; 焦石

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate different E.coli urinary tract infection germ line genetic typing and drug resistance of relevance.Methods Select our hospital between January 2013 and March 2014 separation of 122 strains within 48 h after admission e.coli urinary tract infection and 108 strains after 48 h after admission urinary tract infection e.coli as a clinical research objects,all samples are selected from mid-stream specimen of urine,urinary tract infection patients with isolated within 48 h after admission in patients with urinary tract infection e.coli as a community infected bacteria,isola-ted after 48 h after admission in patients with urinary tract infection e.coli bacteria for hospital infec-tion,mining API20E enterobacteriaceae bacteria identification kit with the French company ATB mi-crobial identification of strains,semi-automatic analyzer with producer diffusion method determination of urinary tract infection of e.coli drug sensitivity,contrast different genetic types of tie points urina-ry tract infections e.coli resistance,produce broad-spectrum beta lactamase(extended spectrum beta lactamases,ESBLs ) rate and the distribution of infection in hospital and community infection. Results Among the 230 strains of Escherichia coli,138 strains of producing strains were detected, and 34 strains of ESBLs and AmpC were detected by ESBLs76 and AmpC.230 strains of Escherichia coli to antibiotics resistance:resistance to commonly used antibiotics in clinic from top to bottom in turn:cotrimoxazole 81 .7%,piperacillin,pull Westwood 76.7%,74.2% of ampicillin,ampicillin sul-bactam 61 .7%,butylamine card that mildew element 61 .7%,cefuroxime 60.8%,cephalosporins cef-podoxime 59.2%,ammonia aztreonam 59.2%,pethidine pull Xin Lin He cling to Zun 32.5%,ce-fazolin 68.3%,gentamicin 57.5%,cephalosporins cefotaxime 43.3%,cefotaxime cefepime 38.3%, cefotaxime and 33.3% of cefoxitin,imipenem 0.8%.①According to the test results,and no bacterial infection in the community and

  20. 大肠埃希菌临床菌株优势β-内酰胺酶基因型及其诱导表达与抑制的研究%Predominant β-lactamase genotypes of Escherichia coli isolates and induction and inhibition mechanisms of β-lactamase gene expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈潘莉; 汪浙炯; 孙爱华; 严杰; 赵金方

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the predominant β-lactamase genotypes and their carrying modes ofEscherichia coli isolates in Zhejiang province,and the effects of β-1actam antibiotics on inducing or histidine kinase inhibitor closantel (CLO) on inhibiting the expression of β-1actamase genes.Methods Micro-dilution method and E-test were applied to measure the resistant rate and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in E.coli isolates against β-1actam antibiotics.PCR and sequence analysis of PCR products were conducted to detect the β-lactamase genotypes and their carrying modes.Real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR and β-lactamase confirmation test were performed to determine the influence of 1/4 MIC penicillin and cefotaxime,and CLO on the transcription and expression of β-lactamase genes in the resistant E.coli isolates.Results Among the 462 E.coli strains isolated in Zhejiang,285 (61.7%) were resistant to penicillin,ampicillin,cefoxitin,cefotaxim and ceftazidime.In the 285 resistant isolates,the detection rate of TEM or CTX-M β-1actamase gene (83.2% or 75.1%) was significantly higher than that of KPC,SHV or OXA β-lactamase gene (1.4%-10.2%) (P<0.01) and the carrying rate of two or more β-1actamase genes (68.8%) was also significantly higher than that of single β-1actamase gene (31.2%) (P<0.01),and 61.4% of the resistant isolates carried TEM + CTX-M genes (P<0.01).Except KPC gene,1/4 MIC of cefotaxim and penicillin induced a rapid increase of TEM-mRNA,CTX-M-mRNA,SHV-mRNA or OXA-mRNA levels (P<0.01),but 50-500 μg/ml CLO inhibited these levels (P<0.01).After pre-treatment with 100 μg/ml CLO,82.8%-85.6% of the resistant isolates became sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics (P<0.01),while the detection rate of β-lactamases was also decreased from 95.1% to 16.1% (P<0.01).Conclusion TEM and CTX-M are the predominant β-lactamase genotypes in E.coli isolates in Zhejiang and TEM+CTX-M is the predominant carrying mode of

  1. 近两年医院感染常见病原菌分布及耐药性分析%Distribution and Drug Resistance of Common Pathogens of Hospital Infection in the Recent 2 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙光义; 潘鹏; 王冬晓; 彭评志; 庞家莲; 邹超世

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of common pathogens, to provide guidance for reasonable clinical use of antibiotics and control nosocomial infections. Methods Specimens were collected and indentified from 2013 to 2014 in hospitali-zed patients with various clinical departments. The bacterial identification was indentified and performed by VITEK-2 Compact of Biomeriex, France, then the drug susceptibility testing was performed, and the data were analyzed by WHONET 5. 5 software. Results A total of 9 149 strains of pathogens were isolated from 2013-2014, among which the gram-negative bacteria were 6 647 strains, ac-counting for 72. 65%, of which, and the top 4 pathogens in order were escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumonia, pseudomonas aeruginosa and acinetobacter baumannii; gram-positive bacterium were 2 502 strains, accounting for 27. 35%, and the top 4 pathogens in order were staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pneumoniae, enterococcus faecalis, staphylococcus haemolyticus. The drug resistance rate of escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumonia to cefazolin, ceftriaxone and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were more than 50%;the drug re-sistance rate of hemophilus influenzae to ampicillin, levofloxacin and rimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were 61. 45% , 60. 24% and 74. 70%, respectively; the drug resistance rate of enterobacter cloacae to ceftriaxone and aztreonam were 58. 90% and 50. 92%. The main gram-negative bacilli were especially sensitive to amikacin, imipenem, meropenem, cefotetan, cefoxitin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, and the drug resistance rate were more less 20%; the drug resistance rate of the main non-fermentataive bacterial to acinetobacter bau-mannii to common antibacterial drugs were high. The drug resistance rate of the main gram-positive bacteria in addition to vancomycin and linzolid were 0, and had different degrees of drug resistance rate to common antibacterial drugs, among which to penicillin was more than 45%, and to

  2. Regional characteristics of postoperative bacterial infection and antibiotic resistance following traumatic limb fractures%四肢创伤性骨折术后细菌感染及耐药的地域性特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任有亮; 彭笳宸; 李政道; 刘曦明; 杨晋; Stephen L.Kates; Edward M.Schwarz; Chao Xie

    2016-01-01

    .epidermidis,and 50% by Enterococcus avium),tetracycline (40.74% by S.aureus,and 50% by S.epidermidis & Enterococcus avium),cefoxitin (40.74% by S.aureus,and 50% by S.epidermidis) and oxacillin (40.74% by S.aureus,and 75% by S.epidermidis).The antibiotic resistance by the Gram-negative bacteria was observed in cefazolin (100%),ampicillin (88.89% by E.coli,and 100% by E.cloacae and Klebsiella pneumonia),aztreonam (44.44% by E.coli,25% by E.cloacae,and 100% by Klebsiella pneumonia),ceftriaxone (77.78% by E.coli,25% by E.cloacae,and 100% by Klebsiella pneumonia),cefotetan (75% by E.cloacae) and co-trimoxazole (66.67% by E.coli,25% by E.cloacae,and 50% by Klebsiella pneumonia).Fortunately,all the 25 cases of Gram-negative bacteria were sensitive to imipenem,and all the 11 cases of MRSA infection were sensitive to linezolid,ampieillin,quinupristin,tigecycline,pipracillin,furatoin,rifampicin,co-trimoxazole and vancomycin,respectively.Conclusions The most obvious regional characteristics are:the overall postoperative infection rate following surgery for limb fracture at Zunyi Medical University might be lower than the national average in China;the most common infections were monomicrobial in the lower extremities and forearm;S.aureus was the most common pathogen;MRSA was the most common.These findings support an empiric antibiotic therapy of carbapenum and vancomycin for postoperative infections in patients with traumatic limb fractures.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance monitoring of gram-negative bacilli isolated from 15 teaching hospitals in 2014 in China%2014年中国15家教学医院革兰阴性杆菌耐药性监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王启; 王辉; 俞云松; 徐修礼; 孙自镛; 路娟; 杨滨; 张莉滟; 胡志东

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current situation of antimicrobial resistance of nosocomial gram-negative bacilli in 2014 in China.Methods About 1 430 consecutive and non-repetitive strains of gram-negative bacilli were isolated from 15 teaching hospitals from March to August in 2014.All of these isolates were sent to the central laboratory for reidentification and susceptibility testing.The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)of meropenem and other antibacterial agents were determined by agar dilution method.The data were analyzed by using WHONET-5.6 software.Results The activity of antimicrobial agents against Enterobacteriaceae was listed as followings in descending order of susceptibility:meropenem (94.7%,913/964),amikacin (94.4%,910/964),imipenem (88.5%,853/964),ertapenem (87.8%,847/964),piperacillin-tazobactam (87.2%,841/964),cefoperazone-sulbactam (86.7%,836/964),polymyxin B (77%,742/964),cefepime (74.5%,718/964),cefiazidime (71.8%,692/964),levofloxacin(71.1%,685/964),ciprofloxacin (67.7%,653/964),minocyline (64.2%,619/964),ceftriaxone (56.8%,548/964),cefotaxime (55.8%,538/964),cefoxitin (45.5%,439/964).The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) was 57.6% (114/198)in E.coli and 24.6% (49/199) in Klebsiella pneumonia.The sensitivity of E.coli to carbapenems,amikacin,piperacillin-tazobactam,polymyxin B and cefoperazone-sulbactam was all over 80%.However,over 60% E.coli strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin,levofloxacin,ceflriaxone and cefotaxime.Polymyxin B was the most susceptible antibiotic to Klebsiella pneumoniae (99.5% sensitive),followed by amikacin (89.9%),meropenem (86.4%),imipenem (86.4%) and piperacillin-tazobactam (81.9%),while ceftriaxone (60.8%) and cefotaxime (59.8%) were less sensitive.The activity of antimicrobial agents against E.cloacae,E.aerogenes and Citrobacter freundii was listed as followings in descending order of susceptibility:meropenem (96.1%-97.4