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Sample records for cefoxitin

  1. [Appendiceal peritonitis in childhood, antibiotic treatment with cefoxitin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristegui, J; de la Fuente, E; Pérez Legorburu, A; de Gárate, J

    1982-11-01

    Twenty one cases of appendiceal peritonitis in children are reviewed. An antibiotic (sodium cefoxitine) has been used during the post-operative course to decrease the risk of suppurative complications. Cultures obtained from peritoneal exudate yielded "E. coli" and "Bacteroides" sp. as the most commonly isolated bacteria. External drainage was placed as a rutine and the percentage of suppurative complications was 14%. No patient showed evidence of adverse reactions to the antibiotic and the mortality of the serie was zero. Obtained results allow to state that cefoxitine is effective in the management of appendiceal peritonitis in children.

  2. Observation on the compatible stability of injected cefoxitin sodium and dexamethasone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Qing Xie

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the compatible stability of cefoxitin sodium in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and dexamethasone sodium phosphate. Methods:The cefoxitin sodium was compatible with dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection at 25℃. HPLC was used to determine the change of cefoxitin sodium content in the compatible liquids within 0-6 h. The appearance of pharmaceutical liquids was observed, and the change of PH value was detected.Results:No obvious change of cefoxitin sodium content in the compatible liquids within 0-6 h, and no change of PH value, appearance, and characteristics were observed. The insoluble particles conformed to the specifications.Conclusions:Cefoxitin sodium can be compatible with dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection within 6 h.

  3. Single-Blind, Prospective, Randomized Study of Cefmetazole and Cefoxitin in the Treatment of Postcesarean Endometritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Mark; Grimes, David A.; Chatterjee, Molly; Noah, Melvin; Stamp-Cole, Marion M.; Perry, Kimberly T.; the Cefmetazole Study Group

    1995-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of cefmetazole given by IV push with that of parenterally administered cefoxitin for the treatment of endometritis following cesarean delivery. Methods: In a single-blind, multicenter, prospective, randomized study, 355 patients with endometritis after cesarean delivery were enrolled and received medication. Administered was either cefmetazole sodium, 2 g by IV push over 1 min q 8 h, or cefoxitin sodium, 2 g IV q 6 h in a 2:1 ratio. The patients were followed for clinical responses and side effects. Results: The cure rate for cefmetazole was 89% and for cefoxitin it was 79% (P = 0.006). The adverse events were similar in both groups. Conclusions: Cefmetazole was significantly more effective than cefoxitin in the treatment of endometritis following cesarean delivery. PMID:18475417

  4. Evaluation of oxacillin and cefoxitin disks for detection of resistance in coagulase negative staphylococci

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    Ana Lúcia Souza Antunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. was considered nonpathogenic until the emergence of multiresistance and the demonstration of their participation as infectious agents. In Brazil, oxacillin resistance may be present in over 80% of isolates, and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standardized a disk-diffusion method to predict this resistance in Staphylococcus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability among commercial disks of oxacillin (1 µg and cefoxitin (30 µg widely used in clinical laboratories of microbiology, compared with mecA gene and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of oxacillin. The use of oxacillin and cefoxitin disks simultaneously allowed the detection of important differences, particularly, in less frequent species such as S. cohnii, S. haemolyticus, S. saprophyticus, and S. sciuri. Disks of cefoxitin of the brand 2 displayed good correlation with the mecA gene (98.7% and oxacillin MIC (97.8%, while major discrepancies were observed using disks of brand 1. One of the critical points in the diffusion disk test is the quality of the disks: the use of better quality disks associated with molecular methods lead to better results to define the best antibiotic therapy.

  5. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; and ... effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while using this medication.If you experience ...

  6. Evaluation of a cefoxitin disk diffusion test for the detection of mecA-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashide, Masato; Kuroda, Makoto; Ohkawa, Saburo; Ohta, Toshiko

    2006-06-01

    In order to validate the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria for the detection of mecA-mediated resistance in Staphylococcus saprophyticus, 101 clinical isolates, including 8 mecA-positive isolates, were investigated. All the isolates were in the range of the resistant category for coagulase-negative staphylococci with the 1 microg oxacillin disk diffusion method and agar dilution method, despite 93 isolates (92%) being mecA-negative. On the other hand, the 30 microg cefoxitin disk diffusion method showed clearly distinguishable zone diameters between the mecA-positive and -negative isolates. However, four of the mecA-negative isolates that would be considered resistant were false positive, and the current interpretive criteria of the CLSI may thus require reconsideration. This study suggests that the cefoxitin disk diffusion method could be more suitable than the oxacillin disk diffusion method for detecting mecA-mediated resistance in S. saprophyticus.

  7. Antimicrobial Hyaluronic Acid-Cefoxitin Sodium Thin Films Produced by Electrospraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahire, Jayesh J; Dicks, Leon M T

    2016-08-01

    The healing properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the recovery of wounds are well known. Cefoxitin (Cef), a cephalosporin antibiotic, is generally used to prevent and treat postoperative infections. In this study, we describe the incorporation of Cef in HA thin films (Cef-HAF) by using electrospraying. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that HA-containing thin films (HAF) were composed of numerous nanoparticles (255 ± 177 nm in diameter) with irregular surfaces, connected to each other with nanofibers of 50 ± 11 nm in diameter. Cef-HAF contained fewer, but larger, particles (551 ± 293 nm) with smooth surfaces and were interconnected with nanofibers of 61 ± 13 nm in diameter. Differences in surface morphology between HAF and Cef-HAF were confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that Cef was not modified when incorporated into Cef-HAF and remained active against Klebsiella pneumoniae Xen 39, Staphylococcus aureus Xen 36 and Listeria monocytogenes EDGe. Nanofiber scaffolds of HA-containing Cef may be used in dressings to control postoperative infections. PMID:27146506

  8. Development and Characterization of Cefoxitin Loaded D,L-PLA Nanoparticles

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    Sílvia Regina Pengo Machado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles containing cefoxitin (CEF made of D,L-PLA (PLA were designed by a multiple emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The particles were extensively evaluated in relation to morphology, encapsulation efficiency, drug-polymer interactions as well as in vitro drug release kinetics. Nanoparticles were spherical in shape and isolated, with a mean diameter of about 600 nm. The thermal behaviour (DSC of CEF-containing nanoparticles suggested that the drug was dispersed at a molecular level within the system. The drug encapsulation efficiency in the system for a CEF concentration of 30 mg/mL was 5.5%, as assessed after the drug extraction, by a validated HPLC method. This low encapsulation efficiency is understandable, since CEF is highly hydrophilic. The in vitro assays showed a strong sustained drug release profile from the nanoparticles with kinetics following pure Fickian diffusion. Keywords: Nanoparticles. Controlled release. D,L-PLA. Cefoxitin. In vitro release. RESUMO Desenvolvimento e Caracterização de Nanopartículas de D,L-PLA contendo Cefoxitina As nanopartículas de D, L-PLA (PLA contendo cefoxitina (CEF foram preparadas pelo método de emulsão múltipla / evaporação do solvente. As partículas foram avaliadas em relação à morfologia, à eficiência de encapsulação, às interações polímero-fármaco, bem como à cinética de liberação do fármaco in vitro . As nanopartículas são esféricas e isoladas, com um diâmetro médio de cerca de 600 nm. O comportamento térmico (DSC das nanopartículas contendo CEF sugeriu que o fármaco está disperso em um nível molecular dentro do sistema. A eficiência de encapsulação do fármaco no sistema quando a concentração de CEF é 30 mg / mL foi de 5,5%, determinada após a extração de fármaco, através de um método de HPLC validado. Esta baixa eficiência de encapsulação é compreensível, uma vez que a CEF é altamente hidrofílica. Os ensaios in vitro mostraram um

  9. 头孢西丁钠稳定性改进%Improvement on Stability of Cefoxitin sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏青杰

    2011-01-01

    头孢西丁钠是一种具有长效、广谱抗菌特点的第二代头孢类抗生素。通过对头孢西丁钠原料药结晶工艺进行筛选,调节头孢西丁钠的pH值、加稳定剂、改变残氧量及不同的结晶状态,使其稳定性得到改善,收率为95%左右。%Cefoxitin sodium,the second-generation cephalosporins,is permanence and has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity.To study the stability of the product.Through choosing of crystallization technology of the API cefoxitin sodium,adjusting pH value,adding stabilizer,changing remind oxygen and crystallization condition,the drug stability has been improved,the yield reached about 95%.

  10. Cefoxitin resistance mediated by loss of a porin in clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli

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    Ananthan S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Porins are outer membrane protein (OMP that form water filled channels that permit the diffusion of small hydrophilic solutes like -lactam antibiotics across the outer membrane. Two major porins that facilitate diffusion of antimicrobials have been described in Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli. The present study was carried out to examine the role of porins among Extended Spectrum -Lactamase (ESBL and AmpC -Lactamase positive strains of Klebsiella spp. and E.coli. METHODS: Preparation of OMP from phenotypically characterized clinical isolates K.pneumoniae and E.coli and the separation of the proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were performed as per a previously described procedure. RESULTS: OMP analysis revealed that cefoxitin and ceftazidime resistance was mediated by loss of a porin Omp K35 in the isolates of K.pneumoniae and E.coli. CONCLUSIONS: Loss of porin mediated resistance mechanism against cefoxitin was observed among the multidrug resistant K.pneumoniae and E.coli.

  11. Comparison of cefoxitin disk diffusion test and mecA gene PCR results for methicillin resistance detection in Staphylococcus intermedius group isolates from canine origin in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Bruno; Rabello, Renata F; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated cefoxitin disk diffusion tests breakpoints and their correlation to mecA gene PCR results for detecting Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius Group (MRSP) isolates from dogs in Brazil. Agreement using proposed breakpoint (resistant ≤ 30 mm) was encouraging. The current study reinforces that an epidemiological breakpoint can be established to predict presence of MRSP.

  12. Comparison of the BD Phoenix System with the Cefoxitin Disk Diffusion Test for Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci▿

    OpenAIRE

    Mencacci, Antonella; Montecarlo, Ines; Gonfia, Francesca; Moretti, Amedeo; Cardaccia, Angela; Farinelli, Senia; Pagliochini, Maria Rita; Giuliani, Angela; Basileo, Michela; Pasticci, Maria Bruna; Bistoni, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The BD Phoenix system was compared to the cefoxitin disk diffusion test for detection of methicillin (meticillin) resistance in 1,066 Staphylococcus aureus and 1,121 coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) clinical isolates. The sensitivity for Phoenix was 100%. The specificities were 99.86% for S. aureus and 88.4% for CoNS.

  13. Evaluation of Oxacillin and Cefoxitin Disk and MIC Breakpoints for Prediction of Methicillin Resistance in Human and Veterinary Isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M T; Burnham, C-A D; Westblade, L F; Dien Bard, J; Lawhon, S D; Wallace, M A; Stanley, T; Burd, E; Hindler, J; Humphries, R M

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a coagulase-positive species that colonizes the nares and anal mucosa of healthy dogs and cats. Human infections with S. pseudintermedius range in severity from bite wounds and rhinosinusitis to endocarditis; historically, these infections were thought to be uncommon, but new laboratory methods suggest that their true incidence is underreported. Oxacillin and cefoxitin disk and MIC tests were evaluated for the detection of mecA- or mecC-mediated methicillin resistance in 115 human and animal isolates of the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG), including 111 Staphylococcus pseudintermediusand 4 Staphylococcus delphini isolates, 37 of which were mecA positive. The disk and MIC breakpoints evaluated included the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M100-S25 Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus lugdunensis oxacillin MIC breakpoints and cefoxitin disk and MIC breakpoints, the CLSI M100-S25 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) oxacillin MIC breakpoint and cefoxitin disk breakpoint, the CLSI VET01-S2 S. pseudintermedius oxacillin MIC and disk breakpoints, and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) S. pseudintermedius cefoxitin disk breakpoint. The oxacillin results interpreted by the VET01-S2 (disk and MIC) and M100-S25 CoNS (MIC) breakpoints agreed with the results of mecA/mecC PCR for all isolates, with the exception of one false-resistant result (1.3% of mecA/mecC PCR-negative isolates). In contrast, cefoxitin tests performed poorly, ranging from 3 to 89% false susceptibility (very major errors) and 0 to 48% false resistance (major errors). BD Phoenix, bioMérieux Vitek 2, and Beckman Coulter MicroScan commercial automated susceptibility test panel oxacillin MIC results were also evaluated and demonstrated >95% categorical agreement with mecA/mecC PCR results if interpreted by using the M100-S25 CoNS breakpoint. The Alere penicillin-binding protein 2a test accurately detected all

  14. Evaluation of Oxacillin and Cefoxitin Disk and MIC Breakpoints for Prediction of Methicillin Resistance in Human and Veterinary Isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M T; Burnham, C-A D; Westblade, L F; Dien Bard, J; Lawhon, S D; Wallace, M A; Stanley, T; Burd, E; Hindler, J; Humphries, R M

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a coagulase-positive species that colonizes the nares and anal mucosa of healthy dogs and cats. Human infections with S. pseudintermedius range in severity from bite wounds and rhinosinusitis to endocarditis; historically, these infections were thought to be uncommon, but new laboratory methods suggest that their true incidence is underreported. Oxacillin and cefoxitin disk and MIC tests were evaluated for the detection of mecA- or mecC-mediated methicillin resistance in 115 human and animal isolates of the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG), including 111 Staphylococcus pseudintermediusand 4 Staphylococcus delphini isolates, 37 of which were mecA positive. The disk and MIC breakpoints evaluated included the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M100-S25 Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus lugdunensis oxacillin MIC breakpoints and cefoxitin disk and MIC breakpoints, the CLSI M100-S25 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) oxacillin MIC breakpoint and cefoxitin disk breakpoint, the CLSI VET01-S2 S. pseudintermedius oxacillin MIC and disk breakpoints, and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) S. pseudintermedius cefoxitin disk breakpoint. The oxacillin results interpreted by the VET01-S2 (disk and MIC) and M100-S25 CoNS (MIC) breakpoints agreed with the results of mecA/mecC PCR for all isolates, with the exception of one false-resistant result (1.3% of mecA/mecC PCR-negative isolates). In contrast, cefoxitin tests performed poorly, ranging from 3 to 89% false susceptibility (very major errors) and 0 to 48% false resistance (major errors). BD Phoenix, bioMérieux Vitek 2, and Beckman Coulter MicroScan commercial automated susceptibility test panel oxacillin MIC results were also evaluated and demonstrated >95% categorical agreement with mecA/mecC PCR results if interpreted by using the M100-S25 CoNS breakpoint. The Alere penicillin-binding protein 2a test accurately detected all

  15. Correlation between the VITEK2 system and cefoxitin disk diffusion for the daily detection of oxacillin resistance in a large number of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, P; Juvin, M E; Le Gargasson, G; Drugeon, H; Reynaud, A; Corvec, S

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of the new VITEK2 AST-P551 card with the cefoxitin disk diffusion method for the daily detection of methicillin resistance with a high number of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates. Detection of the PBP2a protein or mecA gene was performed for each discordant case. Seventy (3.3%) isolates out of 2,107 clinical strains showed discordant results, two very major errors, four major errors and 64 minor errors. Fifty-nine (84%) discordant results were resolved, with a final overall agreement of 99.5%. Eleven (0.5%) strains remained discordant (minor error [mE]). Four of 370 MRSA strains were misclassified as susceptible in daily practice by the cefoxitin disk diffusion method. All of these strains were resistant to aminoglycosides and/or fluoroquinolones. The VITEK2 system is highly reliable for methicillin resistance detection at the routine level. Oxacillin-susceptible classified clinical strains with associated resistance patterns required attention.

  16. Identification of the related substances in cefoxitin sodium for injection by LC- MS/MS%LC - MS/MS法分析注射用头孢西丁钠中的有关物质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋秋玲; 石金芳; 狄斌; 刘竟飞; 杨鹏博

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish an LC - MS/MS method for the identification of the related substances in cefoxitin sodium for injection. Methods; The HPLC separation was carried out on a Thermo Syncronis Cl8 column(4. 6 mm ×250 mm, 5μm) by gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of 1% formic acid aqueous solution ( A) and acetonitrile ( B) at a flow rate of 1. 0 mL · min-1. The results were obtained by ESI - MS and tandem mass spectrometry. The PDA, parent ions and the corresponding product spectra of all the related substances in cefoxitin sodium for injection were determined and elucidated. Results; Good resolution of cefoxitin sodium and the main related substances were achieved. Fifteen related substances in cefoxitin sodium for injection were separated and detected by the LC — MS/MS method, and the structures were elucidated. Conclusions:The established method is effective for the separation and identification of the related substances in cefoxitin sodium for injection and the results are useful for its quality control and process optimization.%目的:建立LC - MS/MS法分析注射用头孢西丁钠中的有关物质.方法:采用Thermo Syncronis C18 (4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm)色谱柱,以1%甲酸水溶液(A)-乙腈(B)为流动相,1.0 mL·min-1线性梯度洗脱分离;柱后分流,电喷雾离子化MS测定.采集有关物质的PDA谱、质谱母离子及子离子谱,并进行解析,推测有关物质的结构.结果:在所建立的条件下,头孢西丁钠及其有关物质分离良好,检测出15个有关物质,并对其进行结构解析.结论:建立的LC - MS/MS法能有效地分离分析头孢西丁钠及其有关物质,为注射用头孢西丁钠的质量控制和工艺优化提供了参考.

  17. Carbapenem and cefoxitin resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains associated with porin OmpK36 loss and DHA-1 β-lactamase production

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    Weifeng Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae strains are being increased worldwide. Five pan-resistant K. pneumoniae strains have been isolated from respiratory and ICU wards in a Chinese hospital, and reveal strong resistance to all β-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Totally 27 β-lactamase genes and 2 membrane pore protein (porin genes in 5 K. pneumoniae strains were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The results indicated that all of 5 K. pneumoniae strains carried blaTEM-1 and blaDHA-1 genes, as well as base deletion and mutation of OmpK35 or OmpK36 genes. Compared with carbapenem-sensitive isolates by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, the resistant isolates markedly lacked the protein band of 34-40 kDa, which might be the outer membrane proteins of OmpK36 according to the electrophoresis mobility. In addition, the conjugation test was confirmed that blaDHA-1 mediated by plasmids could be transferred between resistant and sensitive strains. When reserpine (30 µg/mL and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP (50 µg/mL were added in imipenem and meropenem, the MICs had no change against K. pneumoniae strains. These results suggest that both DHA-1 β-lactamase and loss or deficiency of porin OmpK36 may be the main reason for the cefoxitin and carbapenem resistance in K. pneumoniae strains in our hospital.

  18. Clinical Analysis of 5 Cases of Induced by Intravenous Injection of Cefoxitin Sodium Delayed Phlebitis%5例静脉注射头孢西丁钠致迟发性静脉炎的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何逢清; 殷红霞

    2014-01-01

    头孢西丁钠临床主要用于敏感菌所致的呼吸道感染、心内膜炎、腹膜炎、肾盂肾炎、尿路感染、败血症以及骨、关节、皮肤和软组织等感染。临床效果良好,我科在临床应用头孢西丁钠时2月内出现5例迟发性静脉炎,出现时间均为停药出院5~7d后。静脉炎的防治重在预防。%Cefoxitin sodium clinical mainly for sensitive bacteria caused by respiratory infections, endocarditis, peritonitis, pyelonephritis, urinary tract infection, septicemia and bone, joint, skin and soft tissue infection. The clinical ef ect was good, I Division in the clinical application of cefoxitin sodium in February in 5 cases of delayed phlebitis, time is 5-7 days after stopping drug discharge. Phlebitis prevention prevention.

  19. Clonal spread of both oxyimino-cephalosporin- and cefoxitin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates co-producing SHV-2a and DHA-1 beta-lactamase at a burns intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Jae-Seok; Kim, Jonghyun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Roh, Kyoung Ho

    2006-12-01

    Over a 1-month period, a total of 16 ceftriaxone- and cefoxitin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were isolated from 15 patients hospitalised at a burns intensive care unit (ICU). These isolates showed negative results for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) by the Vitek system and were highly resistant to ceftazidime, aztreonam and cefoxitin (minimum inhibitory concentrations > or =128 microg/mL). The bla(SHV-2a) and bla(DHA-1) genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of the isolates were identical. AmpC disk tests for AmpC enzymes as well as double-disk tests and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) confirmatory disk tests for ESBLs yielded positive results for all the isolates. However, only three isolates (18.8%) were shown to produce ESBL by CLSI confirmatory tests using broth microdilution. We report the first outbreak of colonisations and infections due to K. pneumoniae isolates co-producing an SHV-2a ESBL and a DHA-1 AmpC beta-lactamase in a Korean hospital, which were suggested to represent a single clonal spread at a burns ICU. In addition, this report presents problems associated with ESBL detection using broth microdilution in isolates that co-produce an ESBL and an AmpC beta-lactamase. PMID:17095195

  20. Laboratory tests in the detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase production: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS screening test, the E-test, the double disk confirmatory test, and cefoxitin susceptibility testing

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    Pedro A. d'Azevedo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL production by Klebsiella sp. and E. coli is an emerging problem. In this study, 107 clinical isolates (53 E. coli, 47 K. pneumoniae and 7 K. oxytoca screened as ESBL producers by the NCCLS disk diffusion procedure were submitted to a double disk confirmatory test (DDT and to the E-test double strip for confirmation of ESBL production by demonstration of clavulanic acid inhibition effect (CAIE. Only 72/107 (67% of the isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers by DDT, with diverse results among species. By the E-test, 58/107 (54% isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers, and 18/107 (17% were not determinable. Susceptibility to cefoxitin was found in 57/68 (83% of strains that did not show CAIE. ESBL detection remains a controversial issue and clinical laboratories are in need of a simple and effective way to recognize strains with this kind of resistance.

  1. 头孢西丁钠治疗急性肾盂肾炎64例疗效观察%The Observation of Clinical Effect of Cefoxitin Sodium on Acute Pyelonephritis in Sixty-four Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷薇; 梁玉梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical effect and safety of cefoxitin sodium treating acute pyelonephritis.Methods:Sixty-four patients were divided into two groups,in a randomized ,double-blind,controlled study.Patients were treated with intravenous cefoxitin sodium 2.0g once every 8 hours daily in treatment group (n=32).Intravenous levofloxacin 0.2g was given twice daily in control group (n=32 ).The duration of treatment was 10 ~14 days in both groups,The primary efficacy parameter was clinical and bacteriological response at the end of treatment in the evaluable patients.Results:The effective rate and bacteria clearance rates in treatment group vs.in control group were 90.6% vs 87.5%,87.1%vs86.2 %,respectively,showing no significance between the 2 groups (P>0.05).The incidence of adverse reactions was mild.Conclusions:It is proved that cefoxitin sodium is an effective and safe drug in the treatment of acute pyelonephritis.%目的:评价头孢西丁钠治疗急性肾盂肾炎的临床疗效和安全性。方法:采用随机、双盲、对照的方法,64例患者分为两组:治疗组32例给予试验药物头孢西丁钠2.0g/次静滴,每8小时一次,对照组32例予左氧氟沙星注射液0.2g/次,每日2次;治疗10-14d后评价疗效。结果:两组病人经治疗后症状、体征、恢复的时间无显著差异(P>005)。试验组中治疗有效率90.6%,细菌学清除率87.1%;对照组中治疗有效率87.5%,细菌学清除率86.2%;两组比较差异无显著性(P>0.05)。观察期间不良反应轻微。结论:头孢西丁钠用于急性肾盂肾炎时对常见致病菌大多敏感,细菌耐药少见,治疗效果好,无明显临床不良反应。

  2. Study on the molecular biology of cefoxitin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains%头孢西丁耐药的肺炎克雷伯菌分子生物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾英; 贺飞; 李桂玲; 何昕; 多丽波

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular biology of one cefoxitin-resistant Klebsiela pneumoniae strain. Methods AmpC and AmpR genes of one cefoxitin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were analyzed by PCR, and then the pET22b( + )-AmpR expression plasmid and expression strain were constructed. Results A 1 140 bp segment of AmpC and a 876 bp segment of AmpR were cloned. These sequences showed that recombinant AmpC and AmpR genes were highly identical to those of Morganella morganii. Fusion protein about 34 kD was expressed by E. coli BI21 ( DE3 ) transfected with recombinant plasmid pET22b ( + )-AmpR.Conclusion There are regulator AmpR genes in plasmid of cefoxitin-resistant Klebsiella pneunoniae isolates. AmpR genes express AmpR fusion protein. Induced resistance mechanism is also found in plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase.%目的 检测本院分离的对头孢西丁耐药的肺炎克雷伯菌分子生物学特点.方法 以本院临床分离的一株对头孢西丁耐药的肺炎克雷伯菌为研究对象,采用聚合酶链反应(PCR),分别用特异性引物进行AmpC酶全编码基因及AmpR 调节基因的扩增,并且构建pET-22b(+)-AmpR的表达质粒和表达菌株.结果 PCR分别扩增出约1 140 bp和876 bpDNA片段,经测序证实,1 140 bp的序列与摩根摩根菌染色体上AmpC酶全长编码基因同源性达99.1%,876 bp的序列与摩根摩根菌染色体上AmpR 基因同源性达98%.重组质粒pET-22b(+)-AmpR转化E.coli BL21(DE3)后表达融合蛋白的相对分子量为34 kD,与预期分子量相符.结论 对头孢西丁耐药的肺炎克雷伯菌质粒上存在调控因子AmpR,能够表达AmpR蛋白,诱导性耐药机制同样存在于质粒介导的AmpCβ-内酰胺酶中.

  3. 头孢西丁不敏感肺炎克雷伯杆菌临床分离株的耐药性及β内酰胺酶的流行性分析%Analysis on the resistance of clinically cefoxitin -non -susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and prevalence of β-lactamase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹小利; 徐学静; 张之烽; 沈翰; 宁明哲; 周万青; 张葵; 郑波; 吕媛

    2014-01-01

    目的:对头孢西丁不敏感肺炎克雷伯杆菌临床分离株进行耐药性分析,并对β内酰胺酶的流行情况进行调查分析。方法对非重复分离的62株头孢西丁不敏感肺炎克雷伯杆菌进行耐药性(敏感性由 K -B 法测定)分析,并与同期分离的239株头孢西丁敏感肺炎克雷伯杆菌的耐药性进行比对分析;用双纸片协同法确证测定超广谱头孢菌素酶(ESBLs)的产生情况;改良 Hodge 法初筛碳青霉烯酶;聚合酶链式反应(PCR)法和 DNA 测序法分析 AmpC 酶及肺炎克雷伯杆菌碳青霉烯酶(KPC)编码基因。结果氨苄西林除外,头孢西丁不敏感性肺炎克雷伯杆菌对几乎所测的抗菌药物耐药率均显著增高(P <0.05);表型初筛检出产 ESBLs 菌55株(88.7%),产碳青霉烯酶菌39株(62.9%)。 PCR 和 DNA测序分析结果显示:产 AmpC 酶8株(12.9%),产 KPC 酶39株(62.9%)。结论我院头孢西丁不敏感肺炎克雷伯杆菌大多产 ESBLs 酶和 KPC 型碳青霉烯酶,伴有 AmpC 酶的流行,使临床抗感染治疗和院感控制面临严峻挑战。%Objective To analyze the resistance of clinically cefoxitin -non -susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and the prevalence ofβ-lactamase.Methods WHONET 5.6 was used to analyze the resist-ance of 62 strains with non -susceptibility to cefoxitin recovered.Chi -square test was adopted to compare the resistance rates of 62 isolates with the 239 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates susceptible to cefoxitin collected during the same period.Meanwhile, the 62 clinical isolates were further taken for preliminary screening for ESBLs and carbapenmase by disk -diffusion tests and modified Hodge tests, respectively.Further analysis for detecting the resistant genes encoding AmpC and carbapenemase was carried out by PCR and DNA sequencing.Results On the whole, cefoxin -non - susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates displayed

  4. 毛细管气相色谱法检测头孢西丁钠原料药中的残留溶剂%Determination of residual solvents in active pharmaceutical ingredient of Cefoxitin Sodium by capillary gas chromatography(CGC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱珏; 刘文华

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立气相色谱法测定头孢西丁钠原料药中的有机残留溶剂乙醇、丙酮及乙酸乙酯.方法 色谱柱为HP-5(30m×0.53mm×1.5μm),载气为氮气,进样器温度为180℃,火焰离子检测器(FID)温度为250℃,柱温为50℃,以水为溶剂,进样量1μl.结果 乙醇、丙酮及乙酸乙酯的线性关系r分别为0.9998、0.999及0.997,平均回收率分别为98.6%、102.6%及101.9%,最小检出量分别为6.0E~4ng、2.9E~4ng及3.1E~4ng.3批样品中均检测出丙酮残留,而未检出乙醇和乙酸乙酯.结论 该方法 高效、灵敏、准确,适用于同时检测头孢西丁钠原料药中有机残留溶剂乙醇、丙酮及乙酸乙酯的含量.

  5. Detection of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci by the Vitek 2 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kristen N; Andreacchio, Kathleen; Edelstein, Paul H

    2014-09-01

    The accurate performance of the Vitek 2 GP67 card for detecting methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is not known. We prospectively determined the ability of the Vitek 2 GP67 card to accurately detect methicillin-resistant CoNS, with mecA PCR results used as the gold standard for a 4-month period in 2012. Included in the study were 240 consecutively collected nonduplicate CoNS isolates. Cefoxitin susceptibility by disk diffusion testing was determined for all isolates. We found that the three tested systems, Vitek 2 oxacillin and cefoxitin testing and cefoxitin disk susceptibility testing, lacked specificity and, in some cases, sensitivity for detecting methicillin resistance. The Vitek 2 oxacillin and cefoxitin tests had very major error rates of 4% and 8%, respectively, and major error rates of 38% and 26%, respectively. Disk cefoxitin testing gave the best performance, with very major and major error rates of 2% and 24%, respectively. The test performances were species dependent, with the greatest errors found for Staphylococcus saprophyticus. While the 2014 CLSI guidelines recommend reporting isolates that test resistant by the oxacillin MIC or cefoxitin disk test as oxacillin resistant, following such guidelines produces erroneous results, depending on the test method and bacterial species tested. Vitek 2 cefoxitin testing is not an adequate substitute for cefoxitin disk testing. For critical-source isolates, mecA PCR, rather than Vitek 2 or cefoxitin disk testing, is required for optimal antimicrobial therapy. PMID:24951799

  6. Phenotypic methods of greater accuracy to detect the mecA gene product for the recognition of MRSA in resource constraint settings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rasheed MU; Ahmed Z

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) and analyze the performance of Mastalex MRSA(Mast,UK).Methods:Two hundred and ten Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)strains were isolated from different clinical samples and were tested for methicillin resistance by Oxacillin (1μg) and Cefoxitin (30 μg) disc diffusion, oxacillin agar screen, and minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin and cefoxitin.S. aureus isolates were grown on the blood agar and mannitol salt agar with (2mg/L) and without oxacillin for the analysis of MastalexMRSA.Results: Out of210S. aureus strains tested,103 strains were detected as methicillin resistant by Cefoxitin disk diffusion, Cefoxitin minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) and MastalexMRSA test. Whereas oxacillin disc diffusion and oxacillin agar screen detected91 and97 MRSA respectively. The Cefoxitin MIC test performance was equivalent to Cefoxitin disc diffusion.103 (100%)strains grown on blood agar without and with oxacillin, and76 (74%) and93 (91%) strains grown on mannitol salt agar without and with oxacillin shown positive agglutination with MastalexMRSA test respectively.Conclusions: The cefoxitin disk diffusion/ MastalexMRSA is very suitable for detection ofMRSA and the tests can be an alternative toPCR for detection ofMRSA in resource constraint settings. Mastalex test would be particularly useful when confirmation of resistance is urgently required.

  7. Evaluation of ceftiofur and cefquinome for phenotypic detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus using disk diffusion testing and MIC-determinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Skov, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have emerged in animals. Testing 98 mecA negative and 71 mecA positive S. aureus we compared the usefulness of ceftiofur and cefquinome to cefoxitin, for detection of MRSA and found that these cephalosporins are not as efficient as cefoxitin....

  8. Development of EUCAST disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing of the Bacteroides fragilis group isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagy, Elisabeth; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Eitel, Zsuzsa;

    2015-01-01

    -clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, tigecycline by agar dilution method previously. The inhibition zones of the same antibiotics including meropenem disc were determined by the disc diffusion on Brucella blood agar supplemented with haemin...

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Chromogenic Agar Medium for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, John D.; Davies, Amie; Butterworth, Lynne A.; Hopley, Andrew L. J.; Nicholson, Audrey; Gould, F. Kate

    2004-01-01

    We describe here the development and evaluation of MRSA ID, a new chromogenic agar medium for the specific isolation and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We used S. aureus ID (bioMérieux, La Balme Les Grottes, France) and supplemented it with various antimicrobials, including cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, and methicillin. Cefoxitin proved to be superior to the other antimicrobials for the selection of MRSA from other strains of S. aureus. MRSA ID (c...

  10. Evaluation of a New Chromogenic Medium, MRSA Select, for Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Louie, Lisa; Soares, Deirdre; Meaney, Helen; Vearncombe, Mary; Simor, Andrew E

    2006-01-01

    We compared MRSA Select to mannitol-salt agar with 8 μg/ml cefoxitin for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from 6,199 clinical samples submitted for MRSA screening. The sensitivities and specificities of MRSA Select and mannitol-salt agar with cefoxitin were 98% and 92% versus 90% and 78%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Most (96%) MRSA were detected after overnight incubation using MRSA Select.

  11. Evaluation of four phenotypic methods for the rapid identification of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasinga R. Bandaru

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The cefoxitin disc diffusion method, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI was found to be a reliable method for MRSA detection but it should be supplemented with some other method like latex agglutination to enhance the isolation rate of MRSA. We recommend that along with cefoxitin disc diffusion with another reliable method, preferably latex agglutination should be routinely used in all microbiology diagnostic laboratories to detect MRSA which help for its control of spread. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2271-2275

  12. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of cephalosporins in pharmaceutical preparations using tris (2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II)-potassium permanganate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flow injection (FI) method using the tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy)32+]-potassium permanganate chemiluminescence(CL) was developed for the rapid and sensitive determination of cephalosporins such as cefoxitin, cefazolin, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefaclor and cefoperazone. The method is based on the CL reaction of cephalosporins and Ru(bpy)32+ with potassium permanganate in the presence of perchloric acid, catalyzed by Mn(II). Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curves are linear over the range 0.10-12.0 μg ml-1 for cefoxitin, 0.10-10.0 μg ml-1 for cefoperazone and 0.10-15.0 μg ml-1 for cefazolin, cephalexin, cefadroxil, and cefaclor, respectively. The limits of detection (3σ) are 0.03 μg ml-1 for cefoxitin and cefadroxil, 0.06 μg ml-1 for cefoperazone and 0.08 μg ml-1 for cefazolin, cephalexin and cefaclor, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of cefoxitin, cefazolin, cephalexin and cefadroxil in pharmaceutical formulations with a sample throughput of 90 h-1. There were no interference effects from some common excipients used in pharmaceutical preparations

  13. Study of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Danish pigs at slaughter and in imported retail meat reveals a novel MRSA type in slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Hasman, Henrik; Cavaco, Lina M.;

    2012-01-01

    soya broth with 4mg/L cefoxitine and 75mg/L aztreonam) and selective plating on Brilliance Chromogenic MRSA agar. The presence of mecA was confirmed by PCR and the MRSA isolates were spa typed. Novel MRSA spa types were characterized by MLST, PFGE and SCCmec typing. Thirteen percent (101...

  14. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteroides fragilis Bacteremia in a US Resident: An Emerging Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Merchan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of Bacteroides fragilis bacteremia associated with paraspinal and psoas abscesses in the United States. Resistance to b-lactam/b-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, and metronidazole was encountered despite having a recent travel history to India as the only possible risk factor for multidrug resistance. Microbiological cure was achieved with linezolid, moxifloxacin, and cefoxitin.

  15. Comparative activity of ciprofloxacin against anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter, V L; Kwok, Y Y; Bulkacz, J

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin was assessed against 362 strains of anaerobic bacteria and compared with that of cefoxitin, clindamycin, metronidazole, and mezlocillin. Only 31% of the strains tested were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The other agents were active against most of the strains tested.

  16. Study of the Electrophoretic Behavior of Cephalosporins by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Hancu; Adina Sasebeşi; Aura Rusu; Hajnal Kelemen; Adriana Ciurba

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was the characterization of the electrophoretic behavior of cephalosporins from different generation having different structural characteristics in order to develop a rapid, simple and efficient capillary electrophoretic method for their identification and simultaneous separation from complex mixtures. Methods: Ten cephalosporin derivatives (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ce...

  17. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of cephalosporins in pharmaceutical preparations using tris (2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II)-potassium permanganate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thongpoon, Chalermporn [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Liawruangrath, Boonsom [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Liawruangrath, Saisunee [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wheatley, R. Alan [Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Townshend, Alan [Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: A.townshend@hull.ac.uk

    2005-11-30

    A flow injection (FI) method using the tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy){sub 3} {sup 2+}]-potassium permanganate chemiluminescence(CL) was developed for the rapid and sensitive determination of cephalosporins such as cefoxitin, cefazolin, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefaclor and cefoperazone. The method is based on the CL reaction of cephalosporins and Ru(bpy){sub 3} {sup 2+} with potassium permanganate in the presence of perchloric acid, catalyzed by Mn(II). Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curves are linear over the range 0.10-12.0 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for cefoxitin, 0.10-10.0 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for cefoperazone and 0.10-15.0 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for cefazolin, cephalexin, cefadroxil, and cefaclor, respectively. The limits of detection (3{sigma}) are 0.03 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for cefoxitin and cefadroxil, 0.06 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for cefoperazone and 0.08 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for cefazolin, cephalexin and cefaclor, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of cefoxitin, cefazolin, cephalexin and cefadroxil in pharmaceutical formulations with a sample throughput of 90 h{sup -1}. There were no interference effects from some common excipients used in pharmaceutical preparations.

  18. Evaluation of Two New Chromogenic Media, CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID, for Identifying Staphylococcus aureus and Screening Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Hedin, Göran; Fang, Hong

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with diverse genetic backgrounds and two reference strains were correctly identified as S. aureus on CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID media. Growth inhibition on CHROMagar MRSA was noted. A combination of cefoxitin disk and S. aureus ID was found suitable for rapid MRSA screening.

  19. Comparison of four diagnostic methods for detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Pourmand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a well-known pathogen with a worldwide distribution. Given the increasing rate of MRSA infections, implementing of reliable, accurate and rapid testing for diagnosis of MRSA is necessary. The aim of this study was to compare four diagnostic methods for detection of MRSA isolates.From December 2012 to April 2014, 120 S. aureus isolates were collected from three hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. MRSA isolates were detected by four different methods including cefoxitin disc diffusion test, oxacillin disc diffusion test, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of oxacillin as determined by MIC test strip, and mecA detection by PCR.Out of 120 S. aureus isolates, cefoxitin disc diffusion test, oxacillin disc diffusion test and MIC test strip identified 60 (50%, 48 (40%, 55 (45.83% isolates as MRSA, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for oxacillin disc diffusion, cefoxitin disc diffusion and MIC of oxacillin were 80% and 100%, 100% and 100%, and 91.6% and 100%, respectively.Cefoxitin disc diffusion test is reliable substitute for detection of MRSA in clinical laboratory where MIC detection and molecular methods are not accessible.

  20. Clostridium difficile from healthy food animals: Optimized isolation and prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two isolation methods were compared for isolation of Clostridium difficile from food animal feces. The single alcohol shock method (SS) used selective enrichment in cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose broth supplemented with 0.1% sodium taurocholate (TCCFB) followed by alcohol shock and isolation on tryp...

  1. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteroides fragilis Bacteremia in a US Resident: An Emerging Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Sunita; Siegfried, Justin; Dubrovskaya, Yanina; Rahimian, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of Bacteroides fragilis bacteremia associated with paraspinal and psoas abscesses in the United States. Resistance to b-lactam/b-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, and metronidazole was encountered despite having a recent travel history to India as the only possible risk factor for multidrug resistance. Microbiological cure was achieved with linezolid, moxifloxacin, and cefoxitin. PMID:27418986

  2. mecA-positive methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates in Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamberović, Farah; Ibrahimagić, Amir; Uzunović, Selma; Budimir, Ana; Rijnders, Michelle I A; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2015-01-01

    Forty-four mecA-positive and eight mecA-negative Staphylococcus aureus isolates confirmed by PCR were further tested by disc-diffusion (DD) oxacillin and cefoxitin, oxacillin Epsilon (E)-test, and oxacillin and cefoxitin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) Strip methicillin-resistant phenotype in S. aureus (MRSA) tests. Among 44 mecA-positive S. aureus isolates, two (4·5%) were detected as MRSA by DD-oxacillin, 17 (38·6%) by DD-cefoxitin test, and seven (15·9%) by the E-test. In the cefoxitin MIC Strip MRSA test, 19 (43·2%) isolates were resistant. In the oxacillin MIC Strip MRSA test, 18 (40·9%) isolates were resistant and 26 (59·1%) were sensitive, i.e. oxacillin-sensitive MRSA (OS-MRSA) (MIC range 0·25-≤0·25 mg/l). Fifteen out of 26 OS-MRSA (57·7%) belonged to spa-CC 355/595, 78% of which belonged to the largest PFGE clone. Some discrepancies between the phenotypic methods for MRSA identification obtained in this study were caused by large proportion of OS-MRSA. Misidentification of OS-MRSA as MSSA might result in an appearance of highly resistant MRSA in patients treated with beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:25112955

  3. Comparison of Chromogenic Media to BD GeneOhm Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PCR for Detection of MRSA in Nasal Swabs▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, Larry J.; Lapsley, Linda; Fontecchio, Karen; Jacosalem, Dollie; Young, Carol; Hankerd, Rosemary; Newton, Duane W.

    2009-01-01

    To select a method for detecting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nasal swabs, we compared BD GeneOhm MRSA PCR and various culture media (mannitol salt agar with cefoxitin, MRSASelect, CHROMagar MRSA, and Spectra MRSA). While PCR detection of MRSA was more rapid, MRSASelect and Spectra MRSA demonstrated performance equivalent to that of PCR with maximal detection at 24 h.

  4. Comparison of two different sensitivity testing agard for detecting methicillin resistance in staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the accuracy of Mueller-Hinton agar and Isosensitest agar using cefoxitin disc for detecting methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus using mecA gene PCR assay as gold standard. One hundred clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated; 64 MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and 36 MSSA (methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus) by mecA PCR assay. All the isolates were tested with cefoxitin 30 macro g disc using semi-confluent growth on Mueller-Hinton agar as well as on Iso-sensitest agar in ambient air at 35-37degree C after an overnight incubation as per recommendations of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute. Following diameters provided the best sensitivity and specificity without substantial overlapping between the zones of resistant and sensitive isolates; Mueller-Hinton agar: R/sup 2/ 20 mm (sensitivity 100% and specificity 100%), S/sup 3/ 22 mm (sensitivity 97.2% and specificity 100%), and Iso-sensitest agar: R/sup 2/ 26 mm (sensitivity 100% and specificity100%), S/sup 3/ 26 mm (sensitivity 100% and specificity 100%). High accuracy was obtained with cefoxitin disc on both media. Performance of both media was equally convincing for reliable prediction of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by placing cefoxitin 30 macro g disc on either of these in routine susceptibility testing. (author)

  5. Comparison of different phenotypic methods of detection of methicillin resistance in staphylococcus aureus with the molecular detection of mec-a gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate accuracy, cost-effectiveness and ease to perform different phenotypic methods i.e. Cefoxitin 30 micro g disc, Oxacillin 1micro g disc and Oxacillin agar screening plate (6 micro g/ml) for early and accurate identification of MRSA by comparing with the detection of mec-A gene in our clinical isolates. Out of 200 clinical samples, conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was done on 62 pure biochemically identified S. aureus isolates for mec-A gene detection. Phenotypic methods for detecting methicillin sensitivity (Cefoxitin 30 microg disc, Oxacillin 1 micro g disc and Oxacillin agar screening plate) were also used according to the recommended incubation time, duration and temperature on the same isolates. Out of 62 isolates of S. aureus, mec-A gene were detected (MRSA) in 32, whereas 30 were mec-A gene negative (MSSA). Cefoxitin disc and agar screening plate correctly identify all MRSA isolates with the sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Single isolate was false, positively detected as sensitive with Oxacillin 1g disc, due to which, the sensitivity and negative predictive value of this method were reduced to 96.9% and 96.8% respectively, while positive predictive value and specificity remained 100%. Comparing different phenotypic methods for MRSA screening in routine microbiology laboratory, Cefoxitin disc and Oxacillin agar screening has better sensitivity and specificity comparative to Oxacillin disc. However, Cefoxitin disc can be preferred especially for small laboratories because it is easy to perform, do not require special technique and media preparation is consequently more cost-effective. (author)

  6. Survey of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian G Loo

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone and spectinomycin were determined for 300 consecutive strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae collected from physicians’ offices in Ontario. Only four isolates were found to produce beta-lactamase. Of the remaining 296 isolates, five (1.7% had penicillin MICs greater than or equal to 1 mg/L, 78 (26.3% had tetracycline MICs greater than or equal to 1 mg/L, 13 (4.4% had cefoxitin MICs greater than or equal to 1 mg/L and 43 (14.5% had erythromycin MICs greater than or equal to 1 mg/L. Two isolates (0.7% had high level tetracycline resistance with MICs greater than or equal to 16 mg/L. All N gonorrhoeae isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and to spectinomycin.

  7. Detection of Amp C genes encoding for beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shanthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Amp C beta-lactamase are Ambler class C enzymes that confer resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and are not inhibited by beta-lactamase inhibitors. Their detection is crucial, since the phenotypic tests are not standardised leading to ambiguity in interpretation of results. This study was done to detect the types of Amp C prevalent in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods : Seventy-seven consecutive cefoxitin resistant clinical isolates of E. coli (n = 25 and K. pneumoniae (n = 52 were included in the study. Antibiotic susceptibility testing to various classes of antibiotics was performed by disc diffusion using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to cefoxitin, imipenem and meropenem were determined by broth microdilution method. Isolates were screened for production of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL. Multiplex PCR was performed for the detection of Amp C genes after phenotypic testing (Hodge test and inhibitor based test. Results : Cefoxitin Hodge test was positive in 40 isolates which included 20 E. coli and 20 K. pneumoniae. There was zone enhancement with boronic acid in 55 isolates, of which 36 were K. pneumoniae and 19 were E. coli. Multiplex PCR detected Amp C in 11/25 E. coli and 12/52 K. pneumoniae isolates. The Amp C genes detected were CIT (Amp C origin - Citrobacter freundii, DHA (Dhahran Hospital, Saudi Arabia, ACC (Ambler class C, EBC (Amp C origin - Enterobacter cloacae groups. ESBL was co-produced in 54 isolates. Conclusions : Amp C was detected in 29.87% of the study isolates. Majority of them co-produced ESBL. The most common Amp C was the CIT family. Screen tests for cefoxitin resistance may be falsely positive due to production of carbapenamases.

  8. Typing by serovar, antibiogram, plasmid content, riboprobing, and isoenzyme typing to determine whether Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates requiring proline, citrulline, and uracil for growth are clonal.

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, L K; Dillon, J R

    1993-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates requiring proline, citrulline, and uracil for growth (PCU-) have homogeneous phenotypes; most are plasmid-free, belong to few serovars, and are significantly associated with intermediate levels of susceptibility to penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and cefoxitin. Because of their lack of variation by these criteria, molecular typing methods, ribotyping (restriction fragment length polymorphism [RFLP] of rRNA genes), and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis we...

  9. Effect of clavulanic acid on the activities of ten beta-lactam agents against members of the Bacteroides fragilis group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, F; Auger, F; Lacroix, J M

    1984-01-01

    Clavulanic acid reduced the MICs of amoxicillin, carbencillin , cefamandole, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, cephalothin, and penicillin G, but not of cefoxitin or moxalactam, against 77 isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group, all rapidly beta-lactamase positive by the nitrocefin slide test. It had no effect on the susceptibilities of eight Bacteroides distasonis strains that were slowly beta-lactamase positive (18 h of incubation). PMID:6732233

  10. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility. PMID:3619428

  11. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility.

  12. Simultaneous Identification and Susceptibility Determination to Multiple Antibiotics of Staphylococcus aureus by Bacteriophage Amplification Detection Combined with Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Jon C; Pierce, Carrie L; Schieltz, David M; Barr, John R

    2015-07-01

    The continued advance of antibiotic resistance in clinically relevant bacterial strains necessitates the development and refinement of assays that can rapidly and cost-effectively identify bacteria and determine their susceptibility to a panel of antibiotics. A methodology is described herein that exploits the specificity and physiology of the Staphylococci bacteriophage K to identify Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and determine its susceptibility to clindamycin and cefoxitin. The method uses liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to monitor the replication of bacteriophage after it is used to infect samples thought to contain S. aureus. Amplification of bacteriophage K indicates the sample contains S. aureus, for it is only in the presence of a suitable host that bacteriophage K can amplify. If bacteriophage amplification is detected in samples containing the antibiotics clindamycin or cefoxitin, the sample is deemed to be resistant to these antibiotics, respectively, for bacteriophage can only amplify in a viable host. Thus, with a single work flow, S. aureus can be detected in an unknown sample and susceptibility to clindamycin and cefoxitin can be ascertained. This Article discusses implications for the use of bacteriophage amplification in the clinical laboratory.

  13. Cephalosporin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melano, Roberto G; Davidson, Ross J; Musgrave, Heather L; Forward, Kevin R

    2006-10-01

    From 2116 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated between January 2001 and December 2002 in Nova Scotia, Canada, 25 (1.18%) showed a reduced susceptibility to cefoxitin or extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Narrow-spectrum beta-lactamase genes (bla(SHV-11), bla(SHV-1), bla(SHV-26), bla(SHV-32), bla(SHV-36), and bla(SHV-40)) were the most prevalent. Four new variants were identified (bla(LEN-17), bla(OKP-B-13), bla(OKP-B-14), and bla(OKP-A-11)), representing the 1st description of bla(OKP) in the Americas. Among the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes, bla(SHV-2), bla(SHV2a), bla(SHV-12), and bla(CTX-M-15) were detected (ESBL prevalence of 0.14%). Nineteen strains were resistant to cefoxitin (MIC, 32 to >256 microg/mL). Nevertheless, an AmpC-like activity was detected in only 1 strain, which expressed CMY-2. The combined effects of narrow-spectrum beta-lactamase production and decreased or nonexpression of OmpK35/36 porins did not account for the cefoxitin resistance observed in some of these strains. PMID:16769193

  14. The mecA homolog mecC confers resistance against β-lactams in Staphylococcus aureus irrespective of the genetic strain background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhausen, Britta; Kriegeskorte, André; Schleimer, Nina; Peters, Georg; Becker, Karsten

    2014-07-01

    In staphylococci, methicillin resistance is mediated by mecA-encoded penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a), which has a low affinity for beta-lactams. Recently, a novel PBP2a homolog was described as being encoded by mecC, which shares only 70% similarity to mecA. To prove that mecC is the genetic determinant that confers methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, a mecC knockout strain was generated. The S. aureus ΔmecC strain showed considerably reduced oxacillin and cefoxitin MICs (0.25 and 4 μg/ml, respectively) compared to those of the corresponding wild-type methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain (8 and 16 μg/ml, respectively). Complementing the mutant in trans with wild-type mecC restored the resistance to oxacillin and cefoxitin. By expressing mecC and mecA in different S. aureus clonal lineages, we found that mecC mediates resistance irrespective of the genetic strain background, yielding oxacillin and cefoxitin MIC values comparable to those with mecA. In addition, we showed that mecC expression is inducible by oxacillin, which supports the assumption that a functional beta-lactam-dependent regulatory system is active in MRSA strains possessing staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type XI. In summary, we showed that mecC is inducible by oxacillin and mediates beta-lactam resistance in SCCmec type XI-carrying strains as well as in different S. aureus genetic backgrounds. Furthermore, our results could explain the comparatively low MICs for clinical mecC-harboring S. aureus isolates. PMID:24752255

  15. Determination of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and ampc production in uropathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli and susceptibility to fosfomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection due to Escherichia coli is one of the common problem in clinical practice. Various drug resistance mechanisms are making the bacteria resistant to higher group of drugs making the treatment options very limited. This study was undertaken to detect ESBLs and AmpC production in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern with special reference to fosfomycin. Materials and Methods: A total number of 150 E. coli isolates were studied. ESBL detection was done by double disc synergy and CLSI method. AmpC screening was done using cefoxitin disc and confirmation was done using cefoxitin/cefoxitin-boronic acid discs. In AmpC positive isolates, ESBLs was detected by modifying CLSI method using boronic acid. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined following CLSI guidelines. Fosfomycin susceptibility was determined by disc diffusion and E-test methods. Results: ESBLs production was seen in 52.6% of isolates and AmpC production was seen in 8% of isolates. All AmpC producers were also found to be ESBLs positive. ESBLs positive isolates were found to be more drug resistant than ESBLs negative isolates. All the strains were found to be fosfomycin sensitive. Conclusions: ESBLs and AmpC producing isolates are becoming prevalent in E. coli isolates from community setting also. Amongst the oral drugs, no in-vitro resistance has been seen for fosfomycin making it a newer choice of drug (although not new in future. An integrated approach to contain antimicrobial resistance should be actually the goal of present times.

  16. In Vitro Activities of Cefminox against Anaerobic Bacteria Compared with Those of Nine Other Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Hoellman, Dianne B.; Spangler, Sheila K.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    The agar dilution MIC method was used to test the activity of cefminox, a β-lactamase-stable cephamycin, compared with those of cefoxitin, cefotetan, moxalactam, ceftizoxime, cefotiam, cefamandole, cefoperazone, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 357 anaerobes. Overall, cefminox was the most active β-lactam, with an MIC at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC50) of 1.0 μg/ml and an MIC90 of 16.0 μg/ml. Other β-lactams were less active, with respective MIC50s and MIC90s of 2.0 and 64.0...

  17. The soil microbiota harbors a diversity of carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamases of potential clinical relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Bortolaia, Valeria; Amos, Greg;

    2016-01-01

    to identification of seven new MBLs in presumptive Pedobacter roseus (PEDO-1), Pedobacter borealis (PEDO-2), Pedobacter kyungheensis (PEDO-3), Chryseobacterium piscium (CPS-1), Epilithonimonas tenax (ESP-1), Massilia oculi (MSI-1), and Sphingomonas sp. (SPG-1). Carbapenemase production was likely an intrinsic...... (PEDO-1), an unusual amino acid residue at a key position for MBL structure and catalysis (CPS-1), and overlap with a putative OXA β-lactamase (MSI-1). Heterologous expression of PEDO-1, CPS-1, and ESP-1in E. coli significantly increased the MICs of ampicillin, ceftazidime, cefpodoxime, cefoxitin...

  18. Threat of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Western Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatta, Dharm R.; Cavaco, Lina; Nath, Gopal;

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates from Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. MethodsThis study was conducted over a period of 11 months (September 2012–August 2013) at the Manipal...... using disc diffusion test by cefoxitin (30 μg) and oxacillin (1 μg) disc, further confirmation was done by detection of mecA gene using PCR. ResultsOut of 400 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 139 (34.75%) were found to be MRSA. Among the MRSA isolates, 74 (53.2%) were from inpatient departments, 58 (41...

  19. Determination of cefoperazone concentration in serum and muscle tissue with a versatile high-pressure liquid chromatographic method.

    OpenAIRE

    Muder, R R; Diven, W. F.; Yu, V L; Johnson, J

    1982-01-01

    A rapid, specific, and reproducible high-pressure liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of cefoperazone concentration in serum and tissue. The assay uses a simple methanol extraction, with cefoxitin as the internal standard. The limits of detection are 1 to 150 micrograms/ml; the maximum coefficient of variation is 7.4%. Using the same chromatography column, muBondapak phenyl, and mobile-phase 0.005 M tetrabutylammonium buffer-acetonitrile (80:20), the method can b...

  20. Enterobacter Asburiae Pneumonia with Cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Enterobacter species have increasingly been identified as pathogens over the past several decades. These bacterial species have become more important because most are resistant to cephalothin and cefoxitin, and can produce extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase. Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a gram-negative rod of the family Enterobacteriaceae, named in 1986. Since then, there has been only one clinical report of E. asburiae pneumonia. We report a case of E. asburiae pneumonia with cavitation and compare it with the previous case.

  1. Profiling of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid replicon types in β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Seung Won; Jung, Myunghwan; Shin, Min-Kyung; Yoo, Han Sang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 78 isolates of Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle farms were investigated for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC β-lactamase. In the disc diffusion test with ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefoxitin, 38.5% of the isolates showed resistance to all of ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin. The double disc synergy method revealed that none of the isolates produced ESBL or AmpC β-lactam...

  2. Detection of Oxacillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from the Neonatal and Pediatric Units of a Brazilian Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cataneli Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine, by phenotypic and genotypic methods, oxacillin susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit patients seen at the University Hospital of the Botucatu School of Medicine.Methods: A total of 100 S. aureus strains isolated from the following materials were studied: 25 blood cultures, 21 secretions, 12 catheters, 3 cannulae and one chest drain from 62 patients in the neonatal unit, and 36 blood cultures, one pleural fluid sample and one peritoneal fluid sample from 38 patients in the pediatric unit. Resistance of the S. aureus isolates to oxacillin was evaluated by the disk diffusion method with oxacillin (1 μg and cefoxitin (30 μg, agar screening test using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 6 μg/ml oxacillin and 4% NaCl, and detection of the mecA gene by PCR. In addition, the isolates were tested for β-lactamase production using disks impregnated with Nitrocefin and hyperproduction of β-lactamase using amoxicillin (20 μg and clavulanic acid (10 μg disks.Results: Among the 100 S. aureus strains included in the study, 18.0% were resistant to oxacillin, with 16.1% MRSA being detected in the neonatal unit and 21.0% in the pediatric unit. The oxacillin (1 μg and cefoxitin (30 μg disk diffusion methods presented 94.4% and 100% sensitivity, respectively, and 98.8% specificity. The screening test showed 100% sensitivity and 98.8% specificity. All isolates produced β-lactamase and one of these strains was considered to be a hyperproducer.Conclusions: The 30 μg cefoxitin disk diffusion method presented the best result when compared to the 1 μg oxacillin disk. The sensitivity of the agar screening test was similar to that of the cefoxitin disk diffusion method and higher than that of the oxacillin disk diffusion method. We observed variations in the percentage of oxacillin-resistant isolates during the study period, with a decline over the last years which

  3. A comparative study of capillary zone electrophoresis and pH-potentiometry for determination of dissociation constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasi, Melinda; Buglyo, Peter; Zekany, Laszlo; Gaspar, Attila

    2007-09-01

    Acidity constants of six cephalosporin antibiotics, cefalexin, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefotaxim, cefoperazon and cefoxitin are determined using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and pH-potentiometric titrations. Since CZE is a separation method, it is not necessary for the samples to be of high purity and known concentration because only mobilities are measured. The effect on determination of dissociation constants of different matrices (serum, 0.9% NaCl, fermentation matrix) was examined. The advantages of CZE can be utilized in those fields where potentiometry has limitations (sample quantity, solubility, purity, simultaneous determinations), although pK(a) values that are close to each other can be determined by potentiometry with more accuracy.

  4. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Rodrigues Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased frequency and dissemination of enterobacteria resistant to various antimicrobials is currently worldwide concern. In January 2010, a 94-year-old patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia was admitted to the University Hospital. This patient died 21 days after hospitalization due to the clinical worsening. Klebsiella pneumoniae producing of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs was isolated of urine culture. This bacterium demonstrated resistance to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ertapenem and imipenem. Susceptibility to cefoxitin, cefepime, meropenem, colistin and tigecycline. This study reports the first case of infection by Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying the blakpc gene in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

  5. The first report of infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying the bla kpc gene in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Rodrigues Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased frequency and dissemination of enterobacteria resistant to various antimicrobials is currently worldwide concern. In January 2010, a 94-year-old patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia was admitted to the University Hospital. This patient died 21 days after hospitalization due to the clinical worsening. Klebsiella pneumoniae producing of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs was isolated of urine culture. This bacterium demonstrated resistance to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ertapenem and imipenem. Susceptibility to cefoxitin, cefepime, meropenem, colistin and tigecycline. This study reports the first case of infection by Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying the bla kpc gene in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

  6. AVALIAÇÃO FENOTÍPICA E GENOTÍPICA DO PERFIL DE RESISTÊNCIA DE AMOSTRAS DE Staphylococcus aureus ISOLADAS DE CULTURAS CLÍNICAS E DE VIGILÂNCIA DE UM HOSPITAL DE ENSINO BRASILEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Cafundó Almeida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus can cause a variety of infections, especially nosocomial. Its importance lies in the combination of virulence, invasiveness and antibiotic resistance constituting therapeutic challenges. This study aimed to assess the genotype and phenotypic resistance profiles of samples of S. aureus isolated from hospitalized patients in a Brazilian teaching hospital. We evaluated 1078 samples obtained from surveillance cultures and clinical S. aureus in hospitalized patients. To assess the phenotypic resistance profile was used disk diffusion method according to CLSI criteria, 2011. For the determination of genotypic resistance was the presence of the mecA gene by polymerase chain reaction - PCR. Of the 1078 samples tested phenotypically, it was observed that 75.1% of the samples were Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and of these, 98.4% were resistant to oxacillin and 100%, cefoxitin. To determine genotype was performed for the PCR amplification of the mecA gene. Of the 443 samples tested for the mecA 336 samples were positive (75.8%. Of these samples, 85.7% showed resistance phenotype oxacillin and cefoxitin 88.4%. Due to the high rate of MRSA, concludes the need for investment in research, rational use of antimicrobials and creation of reference laboratories for verification of antimicrobial resistance.

  7. Clinically significant anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients in a South African academic hospital: antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, S; Perovic, O; Richards, G A; Duse, A G

    2011-09-27

    BACKGROUND. Increasing resistance to some antimicrobial agents among anaerobic bacteria has made susceptibility patterns less predictable. METHOD. This was a prospective study of the susceptibility data of anaerobic organisms isolated from clinical specimens from patients with suspected anaerobic infections from June 2005 until February 2007. Specimens were submitted to the microbiology laboratory at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, where microscopy, culture and susceptibility testing were performed the using E test® strip minimum inhibitory concentration method. Results were interpreted with reference to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines for amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, metronidazole, penicillin, ertapenem, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol and piperacillin-tazobactam. RESULTS. One hundred and eighty anaerobic isolates were submitted from 165 patients. The most active antimicrobial agents were chloramphenicol (100% susceptible), ertapenem (97.2%), piperacillin-tazobactam (99.4%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (96.7%). Less active were metronidazole (89.4%), cefoxitin (85%), clindamycin (81.7%), ceftriaxone (68.3%) and penicillin (33.3%). CONCLUSION. Susceptibility testing should be performed periodically to identify emerging trends in resistance and to modify empirical treatment of anaerobic infections.

  8. Evaluation of cephamycins as supplements to selective agar for detecting Campylobacter spp. in chicken carcass rinses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Ji; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyunsook; Song, Kwang-Young; Sung, Kidon; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-04-16

    Although cefoperazone is the most commonly used antibiotic in Campylobacter-selective media, the distribution of cefoperazone-resistant bacteria such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is increasing. Here we evaluated the potential of cephamycins for use as supplements to improve modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) by replacing cefoperazone with the same concentrations (32 mg/L) of cefotetan (modified charcoal-cefotetan-deoxycholate agar, mCCtDA) and cefoxitin (modified charcoal-cefoxitin-deoxycholate agar, mCCxDA). In chicken carcass rinse samples, the number of mCCDA plates detecting for Campylobacter (18/70, 26%) was significantly lower than that of mCCtDA (42/70, 60%) or mCCxDA plates (40/70, 57%). The number of mCCDA plates (70/70, 100%) that were contaminated with non-Campylobacter species was significantly higher than that of mCCtDA (20/70, 29%) or mCCxDA plates (21/70, 30%). The most common competing species identified using mCCDA was ESBL-producing E. coli, while Pseudomonas species frequently appeared on mCCtDA and mCCxDA.

  9. The determination of resistance to ertapenem and other antibiotics with ESBL product of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytekin Çıkman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Enterobacteriaceae is the most frequently isolated bacteria in urinary system infections. This study investigated the antibiotic susceptibility including ertapenem and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production of bacteria belons to Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the urinary culture. Methods: Enterobacteriaceae strains, identified by using conventional methods in our laboratory between January 2012 and March 2012, were included the study. The antibiotic susceptibilities were investigated with the KirbyBauer disc diffusion method and the ESBL productions were examined with the double-disc synergy method in accordance with the suggestions of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results:In the study, a total of 148 strains were isolated (117 E.coli, 23 Klebsiella spp. and 4 Proteus spp. and 4 Enterobacter spp.. While 26 of E.coli strains (22%, and 8 of Klebsiella spp. strains (35% were considered ESBL positive, no ESBL roduction was determined for Proteus spp. and Enterobacter spp. strains. All the isolated strains were found to be susceptible to ertapenem and meropenem. Amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoxitin were determined to be other antibiotics with the greatest effect on Enterobacteriaceae species. Conclusion: Ertapenem was observed to be alternative in the treatment of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the urinary culture. Carbapenems in particular, amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoxitin were found to be the most effective antibiotics in the treatment of this infection.

  10. Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Fish Handlers in Maiduguri, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafsat Ali Grema

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-drug resistant bacteria were isolated from fresh fish and fish handlers using conventional methods of bacterial isolation such as colonial morphology, gram staining and biochemical tests. The bacteria isolated include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp, E. coli, Klebsiella sp, Proteus sp. and Brucella sp. bacterial isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing using disc diffusion technique against ten antimicrobial agents. S. aureus isolates showed resistance to gentamycin, tetracycline, oxacillin, ciprofloxacin and cefoxitin while Streptococcus sp were resistant to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and clindamycin. All the bacterial isolates were resistant to tetracycline while susceptible to cefoxitin, cephazolin, erythromycin and clindamycin. The multi drug resistance pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolates showed resistance to three and more antimicrobial agents while none was resistant to 10 antimicrobial agents. All other isolates were resistant to four and more different antimicrobial agents while no isolates was resistant to one and ten antimicrobial agents. Therefore the continuous monitoring and surveillance of multi-drug resistant bacteria in fish and fish handlers will not only reduce the risk of disease to the fishes but public health hazard to fish handlers and consumers in general.

  11. [Antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus saprophyticus strains isolated from urine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernohorská, L; Votava, M

    2010-04-01

    Eighty-seven Staphylococcus saprophyticus strains isolated from urine of 87 patients with cystitis were examined in 2005-2009. All strains were tested for resistance to vancomycin, nitrofurantoin, doxycycline, oxacillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefoxitin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and for biofilm formation by a modified Christensen method. None of the tested strains of S. saprophyticus showed resistance to vancomycin, while 2 strains (2.3 %) were resistant to nitrofurantoin, 9 (10.3%) to doxycycline, 20 (23.0 %) to oxacillin, 6 (6.9%) to amoxicillin/clavulanate, 6 (6.9%) to cefoxitin and 1 (1.1%) to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. S. saprophyticus was detected as the causative agent of cystitis in 0.4 % of 20,375 culture positive urine samples analyzed in our laboratory between 2005 and 2009. Most 67 (77.0%) S. saprophyticus strains were recovered from women, particularly from young women. Biofilm formation was detected in 16 (18.4 %) out of 87 S. saprophyticus strains.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of phenotypic detection methods of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunava Kali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although conventional antibiotic susceptibility tests are most commonly performed for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, the results of these phenotypic tests are dependent on the standardization of the culture conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the conventional phenotypic screening tests in comparison to the mecA gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR. One hundred and two clinical isolates of MRSA identified by the oxacillin disk diffusion were subjected to PCR for the mecA gene and by the cefoxitin disk diffusion test and culture on oxacillin screen agar, mannitol salt agar, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Agar (MeReSA selective medium, for MRSA. Although all 102 isolates were resistant in oxacillin and cefoxitin disk diffusion, 92 (90.1% isolates were positive for the mecA gene. The sensitivities of the mannitol salt agar, MeReSA agar, and oxacillin screen agar were 89.13, 97.82, and 98.91%, respectively. The oxacillin screen agar may be recommended for confirming methicillin resistance in the disk diffusion test in resource-poor settings, where molecular methods are not available.

  13. MecA基因在耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌对β-内酰胺类抗生素耐药中的作用%Analysis of the relationship between the MecA gene and resistance of β-Iactam antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄辉; 周建党; 聂新民; 易琦峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanisms by which MecA gene expression leads to β-lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and to study the resistance mechanism of MRSA at the molecular level.Methods: A variety of molecular biological techniques were employed, including screening MRSA using cefoxitin paper disk method, extraction of MRSA mRNA, reverse transcription into cDNA, real-time fluorescence PCR for quantitation of MecA gene expression, and agar dilution method for assessment of minimum inhibitory concentrations in MRSA treated with cefoxitin, oxacillin, vancomycin, or linezolid.Results: According to the level of resistance of MRSA to cefoxitin, 40 MRSA strains were divided into a low resistance group (n=12), a middle resistance group (n=15), and a high resistance group (n=13). The expression level of the MecA gene in the low resistance group, the middle resistance group, and the high resistance group was 58.87±30.30, 363.37±200.05, and 1257.72±446.63,respectively. MRSA resistance to cefoxitin and oxacillin was 100%; MRSA resistance to vancomycin or linezolid could not be detected. For all 40 MRSA strains the MIC90 for vancomycin was 2.0 μg/mL. Conclusion: MecA gene expression levels may correlate with the MRSA level of resistance to cefoxitin within a certain range of concentration.%目的:探讨耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)中MecA基因表达水平对β-内酰胺类抗生素耐药的机制与作用.方法:利用头孢两丁纸片法筛选MRSA,提取MRSA细菌RNA,反转录成cDNA,实时荧光PCR检测MecA基因的表达水平;琼脂稀释法检测MRSA对头孢西丁、苯唑西林、万古霉素、利奈唑胺的最低抑菌浓度.结果:40株MRSA分为低水平耐药组(12株)、中水平耐药组(15株)、高水平耐药组(13株).MecA基因的表达水平在MRSA低水平耐药组、中水平耐药组、高水平耐药组分别为58.87±30.30,363.37±200.05,1257.72±446.63,MRSA对头孢西丁、

  14. In vitro activities of cefminox against anaerobic bacteria compared with those of nine other compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoellman, D B; Spangler, S K; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    1998-03-01

    The agar dilution MIC method was used to test the activity of cefminox, a beta-lactamase-stable cephamycin, compared with those of cefoxitin, cefotetan, moxalactam, ceftizoxime, cefotiam, cefamandole, cefoperazone, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 357 anaerobes. Overall, cefminox was the most active beta-lactam, with an MIC at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC50) of 1.0 microg/ml and an MIC90 of 16.0 microg/ml. Other beta-lactams were less active, with respective MIC50s and MIC90s of 2.0 and 64.0 microg/ml for cefoxitin, 2.0 and 128.0 microg/ml for cefotetan, 2.0 and 64.0 microg/ml for moxalactam, 4.0 and > 128.0 microg/ml for ceftizoxime, 16.0 and > 128.0 microg/ml for cefotiam, 8.0 and >128.0 microg/ml for cefamandole, and 4.0 and 128.0 microg/ml for cefoperazone. The clindamycin MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.5 and 8.0 microg/ml, respectively, and the metronidazole MIC50 and MIC90 were 1.0 and 4.0 microg/ml, respectively. Cefminox was especially active against Bacteroides fragilis (MIC90, 2.0 microg/ml), Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (MIC90, 4.0 microg/ml), fusobacteria (MIC90, 1.0 microg/ml), peptostreptococci (MIC90, 2.0 microg/ml), and clostridia, including Clostridium difficile (MIC90, 2.0 microg/ml). Time-kill studies performed with six representative anaerobic species revealed that at the MIC all compounds except ceftizoxime were bactericidal (99.9% killing) against all strains after 48 h. At 24 h, only cefminox and cefoxitin at 4x the MIC and cefoperazone at 8x the MIC were bactericidal against all strains. After 12 h, at the MIC all compounds except moxalactam, ceftizoxime, cefotiam, cefamandole, clindamycin, and metronidazole gave 90% killing of all strains. After 3 h, cefminox at 2 x the MIC produced the most rapid effect, with 90% killing of all strains. PMID:9517922

  15. Prevalence of the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Gene in Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated From Hospitals the Ilam Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostamzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Panton-Valentine leukocidin (luk-pv is a cytotoxin that causes leukocyte destruction and tissue necrosis. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the pv1, femA, and mecA genes in staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical specimens in hospitals in Ilam, Iran. Materials and Methods One hundred and sixty Staphylococcus aureus isolates were collected from hospitals in Ilam, Iran, and phenotypic and genotypic examinations for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA isolates were carried out. The antibiotic profiles of these isolates, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of MRSA isolates was determined using the agar dilution method with vancomycin, cefoxitin, and oxacillin. All isolates were examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers for the femA, mecA, and Panton Valentine leukocidin (luk-pv genes. Results The results showed 91 isolates (56.88% were coagulase-positive, and 69 isolates (43.12% were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus (CNSA. Out of 91 (56.88% coagulase-positive staphylococci, 32 isolates (35.16% were resistant to cefoxitin, and 30 isolates (32.96% were resistant to oxacillin, using disc diffusion method. PCR revealed the presence of the femA gene (510 bp band in all coagulase-positive isolates (100%, and the mecA gene (513 bp band was detected in 32 isolates (35.16%; out of 32 MRSA isolates, 13 isolates (40.62% were positive for presence of the luk-pv gene (433 bp band. Conclusions The cefoxitin disk diffusion method showed the best results when compared to oxacillin disk, similar to results from detecting the mecA gene in PCR as a golden test. Studies on MRSA that carry the luk-pv gene should continue to provide significant insight into the prevalence and epidemiology of these important resistant pathogens. Also, the rate of pvl gene-producing isolates showed to be relatively high, and it should be detected in all staphylococcal infections.

  16. Laboratory identification of anaerobic bacteria isolated on Clostridium difficile selective medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Cristina; Warszawski, Nathalie; Korsak, Nicolas; Taminiau, Bernard; Van Broeck, Johan; Delmée, Michel; Daube, Georges

    2016-06-01

    Despite increasing interest in the bacterium, the methodology for Clostridium difficile recovery has not yet been standardized. Cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose taurocholate (CCFT) has historically been the most used medium for C. difficile isolation from human, animal, environmental, and food samples, and presumptive identification is usually based on colony morphologies. However, CCFT is not totally selective. This study describes the recovery of 24 bacteria species belonging to 10 different genera other than C. difficile, present in the environment and foods of a retirement establishment that were not inhibited in the C. difficile selective medium. These findings provide insight for further environmental and food studies as well as for the isolation of C. difficile on supplemented CCFT.

  17. Antibiotic susceptibility of different lactic acid bacteria strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetkov, N; Georgieva, R; Rumyan, N; Karaivanova, E

    2011-12-01

    Five lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains belonging to species Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus were tested for their susceptibility to 27 antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of each antimicrobial were determined using a microdilution test. Among the strains a high susceptibility was detected for most of the cell-wall synthesis inhibitors (penicillins, cefoxitin and vancomycin) and resistance toward inhibitors of DNA synthesis (trimethoprim/sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones). Generally, the Lactobacillus strains were inhibited by antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, erythromycin and tetracycline at breakpoint levels lower or equal to the levels defined by the European Food Safety Authority. Despite the very similar profile of S. thermophilus LC201 to lactobacilli, the detection of resistance toward erythromycin necessitates the performance of additional tests in order to prove the absence of transferable resistance genes.

  18. PERFIL DE SENSIBILIDADE MICROBIANA IN VITRO DE LINHAGENS PATOGÊNICAS DE Escherichia coli ISOLADAS DE CARNE BOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Pirola Santos Mantilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli strains (EPEC A, EPEC B, EPEC C, EIEC A e EIEC B isolated from bovine meat. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was evaluated using the technique described by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The strains were resistant to most antibiotics tested, and gentamicin showed the best efficiency, with 84.9% of the strains showing sensitivity. In addition, cefoxitin was the least effective antimicrobial agent, have a higher percentage of resistant strains. The multidrug resistance to antimicrobials is a finding of great importance to public health, as resistant pathogens may be conveyed to consumers by the ingestion of animal products, making difficult the treatment of bacterial infections and increasing the occurrence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics.

  19. Fabrication, characterization and in vitro profile based interaction with eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells of alginate-chitosan-silica biocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaure, Paul Catalin; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Ficai, Anton; Huang, Keng-Shiang; Yang, Chih-Hui; Chifiriuc, Carmen Mariana; Lin, Yung-Sheng

    2013-01-30

    This work is focused on the fabrication of a new drug delivery system based on polyanionic matrix (e.g. sodium alginate), polycationic matrix (e.g. chitosan) and silica network. The FT-IR, SEM, DTA-TG, eukaryotic cell cycle and viability, and in vitro assay of the influence of the biocomposite on the efficacy of antibiotic drugs were investigated. The obtained results demonstrated the biocompatibility and the ability of the fabricated biocomposite to maintain or improve the efficacy of the following antibiotics: piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, piperacillin, imipenem, gentamicin, ceftazidime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and cefazolin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefoxitin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 reference strains.

  20. BEL-1, a Novel Clavulanic Acid-Inhibited Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase, and the Class 1 Integron In120 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirel, Laurent; Brinas, Laura; Verlinde, Annemie; Ide, Louis; Nordmann, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    Screening by a double-disk synergy test identified a Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate that produced a clavulanic acid-inhibited expanded-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). Cloning and sequencing identified a novel ESBL, BEL-1, weakly related to other Ambler class A ESBLs. β-Lactamase BEL-1 hydrolyzed significantly most expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam, and its activity was inhibited by clavulanic acid, tazobactam, cefoxitin, moxalactam, and imipenem. This chromosome-encoded ESBL gene was embedded in a class 1 integron containing three other gene cassettes. In addition, this integron was bracketed by Tn1404 transposon sequences at its right end and by P. aeruginosa-specific sequences at its left end. PMID:16127048

  1. Infections of diabetic foot ulcers with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-García, Estrella; García-González, Rafael; Reséndiz-Albor, Aldo; Salazar-Schettino, Paz Maria

    2015-03-01

    Infected diabetic foot is the most common reason for hospitalization and complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is frequently isolated from such lesions, and its presence is growing, seriously deteriorating the infected patient's quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MRSA as well as other microbiota in 100 patients diagnosed with (DM2) and with infected foot ulcers at the Hospital General de Mexico. The main results obtained show a prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (42%), followed by Escherichia coli (36%) and, in lower percentages, other bacteria. MRSA was predominant (34%), and we conclude that the use of cefoxitin instead of oxacillin as the first-choice antibiotic has an advantage because it is a better inducer of methicillin-resistance expression. PMID:25573977

  2. Profils de virulence et de résistance aux B-lactamines de souches cliniques de Klebsiellapneumoniae isolées de sondes endotrachéales

    OpenAIRE

    BELAID, KHADIDJA

    2015-01-01

    La présence étude visait à détecter les facteurs de virulence et de résistance aux B-lactamines des souches cliniques de Kiebsiella pneumoniae isolées des prélèvements à partir des sondes d'aspiration trachéale. Au totale, 10 souches de K. pneumoniae ont été isolées, identifiées, et - testés leurs résistances vis-à-vis de 7 antibiotiques (B-Iactamine). Les antibiotiques qui présentent le plus d'efficacité sont: Imipenème et Cefoxitine. La résistance a l'Ampiciline et Ticarcilli...

  3. Isolation and characterization of Enterobacteriaceae species infesting post-harvest strawberries and their biological control using bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtböke, D Ipek; Palk, A; Marker, A; Neuman, C; Moss, L; Streeter, K; Katouli, M

    2016-10-01

    Strawberry is a significantly consumed fruit worldwide, mostly without being subjected to disinfection processes. During the harvest and transfer from farm to consumers as well as where organic farming practises have been employed, the surface of the fruit may become contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. Post-harvest strawberry fruits in punnets available for public consumption were thus screened for the presence of enteric bacteria in the Sunshine Coast region of Queensland, Australia. Some of the tested samples (13 %) were found to carry such bacteria and even in greater numbers if organic amendments were used (69 %). The bacteria were found to belong in the genera of Escherichia, Enterobacter, Raoultella, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Shigella, Citrobacter and Cronobacter within the family Enterobacteriaceae. Some of the isolates were found to adhere to Caco-2 cells representing human gut epithelium as well as carrying virulence and toxin genes. Resistance mostly against sulphafurazole, cefoxitin, ampicillin and nitrofurantoin was found among 14 different antimicrobial agents tested including 100 % resistance to cefoxitin and ampicillin in the genus Pantoea. In the second phase of the study, bacteriophages were isolated against the isolates and were subsequently applied to post-harvest fruits. A significant (P ≤ 0.001) reduction in the number of enteric bacteria was observed when a high-titre polyvalent bacteriophage suspension (×10(12) PFU/mL) was applied to the fruit surface. Bacteriophages also decreased the adhesion of the Escherichia coli isolates to Caco-2 cells. Findings might indicate that biological control using bacteriophages might be of significant value for the industry targeting to reduce pathogenic loads of bacteria on the fruit.

  4. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarieh, Parvin; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Feizabadi, Mohamad Mehdi; Bostanabad, Saeed Zaker; Nobar, Mostafa Ghalami; Hashemi Shahraki, Abodolrazagh

    2016-03-01

    Many species of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have long been identified as important causes of human disease, the incidence of which is rising. Several reports have suggested increasing trend of both in vitro and in vivo resistance to available treatment regimes. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibiotic susceptibility of clinically relevant NTM isolates using standard microbroth dilution test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed following National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards methods for NTM isolates, including 85 Mycobacterium fortuitum, 39 Mycobacterium chelonae, and 30 Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus as rapidly growing mycobacteria and 48 Mycobacterium simiae and 40 Mycobacterium kansasii as slowly growing mycobacteria. All isolates were recovered from various types of clinical samples and identified by multilocus sequence analysis. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ), amikacin, tobramycin, clarithromycin, moxifloxacin, linezolid, and imipenem showed better activity against M. fortuitum rather than meropenem, ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin, and doxycycline. Amikacin was active against 93% of M. abscessus subsp. abscessus. Linezolid, clarithromycin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, moxifloxacin, tobramycin, TMP-SMZ, doxycycline, and meropenem showed some activities on M. abscessus subsp. abscessus as well. The majority of M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and M. chelonae strains were multidrug resistant. Among the 40 isolates of M. kansasii, all were susceptible to ethambutol, isoniazid, clarithromycin, moxifloxacin, and linezolid. These isolates were also resistant to doxycycline and 50% were resistant to rifampicin and ciprofloxacin. M. simiae was resistant to clarithromycin, doxycycline, isoniazid, and TMP-SMZ, and the majority of isolates showed high levels of resistance to linezolid, ethambutol, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, and rifampicin. The majority of M. simiae isolates were multidrug resistant. Our data

  5. First report of mecC MRSA in human samples from Austria: molecular characteristics and clinical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kerschner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports of mecC methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains have been published from several European countries. We describe the first six mecC MRSA isolates of human origin from Austria and report the application of a rapid PCR test. Candidate isolates (n = 295 received between 2009 and 2013 were investigated phenotypically by cefoxitin screening and streaking on ChromID MRSA plates. The presence of mecC was confirmed in six isolates from blood cultures, wound swabs and screening samples of four female and two male patients (age range 7–89 years by an in-house PCR method and the new Genspeed MRSA test (Greiner Bio-One, Kremsmünster, Austria. The mecC MRSA were further characterized by whole genome sequencing, multilocus sequence and spa typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Eucast disk-diffusion method and Vitek 2. The six mecC MRSA isolates were from two clonal lineages (CC130, including a new single-locus variant, and CC599 and four different spa types (t843, t1535, t3256, t5930. Analysis for virulence factor genes yielded lukED, eta, etd2 and edin-B (CC130 isolates and tst, lukED, eta and sel (ST599 isolates. The Genspeed MRSA test identified mecC in all isolates whereas Vitek 2 failed to detect methicillin resistance in one isolate. The strains were susceptible to a wide range of non-β-lactam antibiotics. All patients were successfully treated or decolonized. mecC MRSA are present in Austria as colonizers but may also cause infections. Thus, laboratories must choose appropriate test methods such as cefoxitin screening and confirmation using molecular assays specifically targeting mecC.

  6. Profiling of β-lactam selectivity for penicillin-binding proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae D39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Ozden; Tsui, Ho-Ching T; Winkler, Malcolm E; Carlson, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    Selective fluorescent β-lactam chemical probes enable the visualization of the transpeptidase activity of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) at different stages of bacterial cell division. To facilitate the development of new fluorescent probes for PBP imaging, we evaluated 20 commercially available β-lactams for selective PBP inhibition in an unencapsulated derivative of the D39 strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Live cells were treated with β-lactam antibiotics at different concentrations and subsequently incubated with Bocillin FL (Boc-FL; fluorescent penicillin) to saturate uninhibited PBPs. Fluorophore-labeled PBPs were visualized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorescence scanning. Among 20 compounds tested, carbapenems (doripenem and meropenem) were coselective for PBP1a, PBP2x, and PBP3, while six of the nine penicillin compounds were coselective for PBP2x and PBP3. In contrast, the seven cephalosporin compounds tested display variability in their PBP-binding profiles. Three cephalosporin compounds (cefoxitin, cephalexin, and cefsulodin) and the monobactam aztreonam exhibited selectivity for PBP3, while only cefuroxime (a cephalosporin) was selective for PBP2x. Treatment of S. pneumoniae cultures with a sublethal concentration of cefuroxime that inhibited 60% of PBP2x activity and less than 20% of the activity of other PBPs resulted in formation of elongated cells. In contrast, treatment of S. pneumoniae cultures with concentrations of aztreonam and cefoxitin that inhibited up to 70% of PBP3 activity and less than 30% of other PBPs resulted in no discernible morphological changes. Additionally, correlation of the MIC and IC50s for each PBP, with the exception of faropenem, amdinocillin (mecillinam), and 6-APA, suggests that pneumococcal growth inhibition is primarily due to the inhibition of PBP2x. PMID:25845878

  7. Antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria, antibiotics, and mercury in surface waters of Oakland County, Michigan, 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Crowley, Suzanne L.; Hardigan, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Water samples collected from 20 stream sites in Oakland and Macomb Counties, Mich., were analyzed to learn more about the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the co-occurrence of antibiotics and mercury in area streams. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded the Michigan recreational water-quality standard of 300 E. coli colony forming units (CFU) per 100 milliliters of water in 19 of 35 stream-water samples collected in Oakland County. A gene commonly associated with enterococci from humans was detected in samples from Paint Creek at Rochester and Evans Ditch at Southfield, indicating that human fecal waste is a possible source of fecal contamination at these sites. E. coli resistant to the cephalosporin antibiotics (cefoxitin and/ or ceftriaxone) were found at all sites on at least one occasion. The highest percentages of E. coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone were 71 percent (Clinton River at Auburn Hills) and 19 percent (Sashabaw Creek near Drayton Plains), respectively. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected more frequently in samples from intensively urbanized or industrialized areas than in samples from less urbanized areas. VRE were not detected in any sample collected in this study. Multiple antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) were detected in water samples from the Clinton River at Auburn Hills, and tylosin (an antibiotic used in veterinary medicine and livestock production that belongs to the macrolide group, along with erythromycin) was detected in one water sample from Paint Creek at Rochester. Concentrations of total mercury were as high as 19.8 nanograms per liter (Evans Ditch at Southfield). There was no relation among percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and measured concentrations of antibiotics or mercury in the water. Genetic elements capable of exchanging multiple antibiotic

  8. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from ready-to-eat food of animal origin--phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Łaniewska-Trokenheim, Łucja

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from 146 ready-to-eat food of animal origin (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes). 58 strains were isolated, they were classified as Staphylococcus xylosus (n = 29), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 16); Staphylococcus lentus (n = 7); Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n = 4); Staphylococcus hyicus (n = 1) and Staphylococcus simulans (n = 1) by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Isolates were tested for resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, linezolid, trimetoprim, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin by the disk diffusion method. PCR was used for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes encoding: methicillin resistance--mecA; macrolide resistance--erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mrs(A/B); efflux proteins tet(K) and tet(L) and ribosomal protection proteins tet(M). For all the tet(M)-positive isolates the presence of conjugative transposons of the Tn916-Tn1545 family was determined. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (41.3%) followed by clindamycin (36.2%), tigecycline (24.1%), rifampicin (17.2%) and erythromycin (13.8%). 32.2% staphylococcal isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). All methicillin resistant staphylococci harboured mecA gene. Isolates, phenotypic resistant to tetracycline, harboured at least one tetracycline resistance determinant on which tet(M) was most frequent. All of the isolates positive for tet(M) genes were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545 -like integrase family gene. In the erythromycin-resistant isolates, the macrolide resistance genes erm(C) or msr(A/B) were present. Although coagulase-negative staphylococci are not classical food poisoning bacteria, its presence in food could be of public health significance due to the possible spread of

  9. Comparative Efficacy of Ceftaroline with Linezolid against Staphylococcus Aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective:To compare the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of ceftaroline with linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. Methodology: Clinical samples from respiratory tract, blood, pus and various catheter tips routinely received in the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi were innoculated on blood and MacConkey agar. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by colony morphology, Gram reaction, catalase test and coagulase test. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus detection was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using cefoxitin disc (30g) and the isolates were considered methicillin resistant if the zone of inhibition around cefoxitin disc was /sup 2/ 21 mm. Bacterial suspensions of 56 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 50 MRSA isolates were prepared, which were standardized equal to 0.5 McFarland's turbidity standard and inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar plates followed by application of ceftaroline and linezolid disc (Oxoid, UK), according to manufacturer's instructions. The plates were then incubated at 37 Degree C aerobically for 18 - 24 hours. Diameters of inhibition zone were measured and interpretated as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Out of 106 isolates all of the 56 Staphylococcus aureus (100%) were sensitive to ceftaroline and linezolid. However, out of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 48 (96%) were sensitive to ceftaroline whereas, 49 (98%) were sensitive to linezolid. Conclusion: Ceftaroline is equally effective as linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (author)

  10. 凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌菌种鉴定与苯唑西林耐药凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌检测准确性%Correlation between species-level identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci and accuracy of methicillin resistance coagulase-negative staphylococci detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辜依海; 郭秀荣; 张军; 武建; 李小波; 柴阳; 王克

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate accuracy of cefoxitin disk testing for detecting oxacillin resistance coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS). Methods 139 clinical coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were detected with ID32 STAPH. Cefoxitin disk and oxacillin disk testing were used to detect MRCNS. PBP2a was tested by latex agglutination us a reference method. Results 139 CNS isolates were identified to 8 species: Staphylococcus haemolyticus , S. epidermidis , S. hominis , S. xylosus , S. saprophyticus , S. auricularis , S. simulans and S. warneri. The sensitivity and specificity for cefoxtin disk and oxacillin disk testing were 99.0% vs. 86.0% and 91.7% vs. 74.4%, respectively. One S. epidermidis strain was identified to affect the sensitivity of cefoxitin disk testing. S. xylosus, S. warned, and S. saprophyticus were major species related to the decrease of specificity of cefoxitin disk testing. S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. simulans and S. auricularis were major species related to the decrease of sensitivity of oxacillin disk testing. And the decrease of specificity of oxacillin disk testing were mainly related to S. hominis , S. simulans , S. xylosus , S. auricularis , S. saprophyticus and S. warneri. Conclusions The accuracy of MRCNS detection by cefoxitin disk testing is varied due to different CNS species. So it is necessary to test PBP2a or mecA gene according to CNS species, especially for S. xylosus, S. warned and S. saprophyticus.%目的 评价凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌(CNS)菌种鉴定与苯唑西林耐药凝固酶阴件葡萄球菌(MRCNS)检测的准确性.方法 139株临床分离CNS,经ID 32 STAPH鉴定到种,用头孢西丁(FOX)、苯唑西林(OXA)纸片扩散法检测MRCNS,以Slidex MRSA detection乳胶凝集法检测青霉素结合蛋白2a(PBP2a)作为参考方法.结果 139株CNS鉴定为8个种,依次为溶血葡萄球菌、表皮葡萄球菌、人葡萄球菌、木糖葡萄球菌、腐生葡萄球菌、耳葡萄球菌、模仿葡萄球菌、沃

  11. Genotypic and Phenotypic Detection of AmpC β-lactamases in Enterobacter spp. Isolated from a Teaching Hospital in Malaysia.

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    Fatin Izzati Mohd Khari

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of chromosomal and plasmid-mediated β-lactamases (AmpC genes in a collection of Malaysian isolates of Enterobacter species. Several phenotypic tests for detection of AmpC production of Enterobacter spp. were evaluated and the agreements between tests were determined.Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for 117 Enterobacter clinical isolates obtained from the Medical Microbiology Diagnostic Laboratory, University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, from November 2012-February 2014 were determined in accordance to CLSI guidelines. AmpC genes were detected using a multiplex PCR assay targeting the MIR/ACT gene (closely related to chromosomal EBC family gene and other plasmid-mediated genes, including DHA, MOX, CMY, ACC, and FOX. The AmpC β-lactamase production of the isolates was assessed using cefoxitin disk screening test, D69C AmpC detection set, cefoxitin-cloxacillin double disk synergy test (CC-DDS and AmpC induction test.Among the Enterobacter isolates in this study, 39.3% were resistant to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone and 23.9% were resistant to ceftazidime. Ten (8.5% of the isolates were resistant to cefepime, and one isolate was resistant to meropenem. Chromosomal EBC family gene was amplified from 36 (47.4% E. cloacae and three (25% E. asburiae. A novel blaDHA type plasmid-mediated AmpC gene was identified for the first time from an E. cloacae isolate. AmpC β-lactamase production was detected in 99 (89.2% of 111 potential AmpC β-lactamase producers (positive in cefoxitin disk screening using D69C AmpC detection set. The detection rates were lower with CC-DDS (80.2% and AmpC induction tests (50.5%. There was low agreement between the D69C AmpC detection set and the other two phenotypic tests. Of the 40 isolates with AmpC genes detected in this study, 87.5%, 77.5% and 50.0% of these isolates were positive by the D69C AmpC detection set, CC-DDS and AmpC induction tests, respectively

  12. Antibioticoterapia profilática em obstetrícia: comparação entre esquemas Prophylactic antibiotic treatment in obstetrics: comparison of regimens

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    Heraldo Francisco Costa

    1998-10-01

    group where all patients received three doses of 1 g EV cefalotin at six-hour intervals. In the medium risk group, the incidence of puerperal infection was 5.3% for the patients who used three doses of 1 g EV cefoxitin; 5.1% for those who used three doses of 1 g EV cefalotin; 4.0% when a single cefoxitin dose was used and 3.4% when a single cefalotin dose was used. Conclusions: it is not necessary to use prophylactic antibiotic therapy in low risk patients and the first generation cephalosporins (cefalotin are as efficacious as the second generation cephalosporins (cefoxitin to prevent puerperal infection, independent of the applied dosage. Cefalotin seems to be effective in preventing puerperal infection in patients at high risk.

  13. Comparative antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative bacteria from community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem in Taiwan

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    Fung Chang-Phone

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ertapenem is a once-a-day carbapenem and has excellent activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria. The susceptibility of isolates of community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem has not been reported yet. The present study assesses the in vitro activity of ertapenem against aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired bacteremia by determining and comparing the MICs of cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin. The prevalence of extended broad spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL producing strains of community-acquired bacteremia and their susceptibility to these antibiotics are investigated. Methods Aerobic and facultative bacteria isolated from blood obtained from hospitalized patients with community-acquired bacteremia within 48 hours of admission between August 1, 2004 and September 30, 2004 in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan, were identified using standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by Etest according to the standard guidelines provided by the manufacturer and document M100-S16 Performance Standards of the Clinical Laboratory of Standard Institute. Antimicrobial agents including cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin were used against the bacterial isolates to test their MICs as determined by Etest. For Staphylococcus aureus isolates, MICs of oxacillin were also tested by Etest to differentiate oxacillin-sensitive and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus. Results Ertapenem was highly active in vitro against many aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens commonly recovered from patients with community-acquired bacteremia (128/159, 80.5 %. Ertapenem had more potent activity than ceftriaxone, piperacillin

  14. Antibiotic-Resistant Fecal Bacteria, Antibiotics, and Mercury in Surface Waters of Oakland County, Michigan, 2005-2006

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    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Crowley, Suzanne L.; Hardigan, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Water samples collected from 20 stream sites in Oakland and Macomb Counties, Mich., were analyzed to learn more about the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the co-occurrence of antibiotics and mercury in area streams. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded the Michigan recreational water-quality standard of 300 E. coli colony-forming units (CFU) per 100 milliliters of water in 19 of 35 stream-water samples collected in Oakland County. A gene commonly associated with enterococci from humans was detected in samples from Paint Creek at Rochester and Evans Ditch at Southfield, indicating that human fecal waste is a possible source of fecal contamination at these sites. E. coli resistant to the cephalosporin antibiotics (cefoxitin and/or ceftriaxone) were found at all sites on at least one occasion. The highest percentages of E. coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone were 71 percent (Clinton River at Auburn Hills) and 19 percent (Sashabaw Creek near Drayton Plains), respectively. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected more frequently in samples from intensively urbanized or industrialized areas than in samples from less urbanized areas. VRE were not detected in any sample collected in this study. Multiple antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) were detected in water samples from the Clinton River at Auburn Hills, and tylosin (an antibiotic used in veterinary medicine and livestock production that belongs to the macrolide group, along with erythromycin) was detected in one water sample from Paint Creek at Rochester. Concentrations of total mercury were as high as 19.8 nanograms per liter (Evans Ditch at Southfield). There was no relation among percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and measured concentrations of antibiotics or mercury in the water. Genetic elements capable of exchanging multiple antibiotic

  15. 亚胺培南西司他丁钠致中毒性表皮坏死松解型药疹1例%One case of toxic epidermal necrolysis induced by imipenem and cilastatin sodium

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    徐锦龙; 王雄雄; 陈武; 胡东军; 叶忠亮; 马卫成

    2014-01-01

    One 48-year-old male patient with head trauma surgery was hospitalized because of unconsciousness for 1 month. The patient had no drug and food allergic history. After the evacuation of hematoma by craniotomy in emergency, the patient was fever, and the cefoxitin was used according to the susceptibility test. After 5 days, cefoxitin was discontinued, and the antibacterial agent was adjusted to imipenem and cilastatin sodium. Three days later, red rash appeared mainly in the patient's back and chest, and gradually spread to the whole body with peeling. Patient was diagnosed with toxic epidermal necrolysis. Then imipenem and cilastatin sodium was stopped, cefoperazone and sulbactam sodium and fosfomycin sodium were used for anti-infection, and methylprednisolone sodium succinate and other antiallergic treatments were given. Since then, no new rash appeared, skin wound gradually dried, and lesion area gradually diminished.%1例48岁男性患者,因头颅外伤术后伴意识不清1个月入院。既往无药物、食物过敏史。急诊行开颅血肿清除术,术后患者出现发热,根据药敏试验结果给予头孢西丁。5d后停用头孢西丁,改为亚胺培南西司他丁钠,3d后患者出现红色皮疹,以胸背部为主,并逐步蔓延至全身,部分伴脱皮,皮肤科会诊后诊断为中毒性表皮坏死松解型药疹。遂停用亚胺培南西司他丁钠,改为头孢哌酮舒巴坦钠与磷霉素钠,并给予甲泼尼龙琥珀酸钠等抗过敏治疗,之后患者再无新发皮疹,皮损创面逐步干燥,面积也逐渐缩小。

  16. Evaluation of the in vitro activity of six antimicrobial agents against Neisseria gonorrhoeae Avaliação in vitro da atividade de seis drogas antimicrobianas contra Neisseria gonorrhoeae

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    Walter Belda Junior

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Use of antimicrobials for the treatment of gonorrhea started in 1930 with the utilization of sulfonamides. With the years other drugs were used for its treatment such as penicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, and others. Although highly specific in the beginning, these drugs, with time did not show anymore the expected therapeutic results because of aspects of chromosomal and plasmid-mediated resistance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains to six drugs used for its treatment (penicillin, tetracycline, cefoxitin, thiamphenicol, spectinomycin and ofloxacin by the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations of these drugs. We concluded that drugs, such as cefoxitin, thiamphenicol and spectinomycin still are excellent pharmacological agents for the treatment of gonorrhea. Penicillin, although still efficient, needs more attention regarding its use, as well as ofloxacin, because of the emergence of resistant strains. Tetracycline and its derivatives should be strongly contraindicated for the treatment of gonorrhea.A utilização de antimicrobianos no tratamento da gonorréia iniciou-se em 1930 com a utilização das sulfonamidas. No decorrer dos anos outras drogas passaram a ser utilizadas em seu tratamento como a penicilina, tetraciclina, espectinomicina e outras. Embora altamente eficazes no início, essas drogas, ao longo do tempo, passaram a não mais apresentar o resultado terapêutico esperado em virtude do aparecimento de quadros de resistência cromossômica e plasmidial. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a sensibilidade de cepas de Neisseria gonorrhoeae a seis drogas utilizadas no seu tratamento (penicilina, tetraciclina, cefoxitina, tianfenicol, espectinomicina e ofloxacina através da concentração inibitória mínima. Concluimos que drogas como a cefoxitina, o tianfenicol e a espectinomicina ainda constituem excelentes fármacos para o tratamento da gonorréia. A

  17. Bacterial Diversity in Buffalo Meat and Bowel from Traditional Market and the Sensitivity of Some Bacteria to Irradiation and Antibiotics

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    Harsojo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The population of buffaloes in Indonesia was 1.37 million in 2012, representing an increase of 5.5 % over its population the previous year. Buffaloes have been in Indonesia for such a long time, they have become a part of the lives of the majority of the Indonesian society. Research has been conducted to know the bacteria diversity in domestic buffalo meat and bowels from traditional markets in Pandeglang, Banten, in order to ascertain their safety based on their initial contamination and also to study the sensitivity of several of the bacteria to irradiation and antibiotics. The total bacterial was assessed by total plate count method as index of quality. The buffalo meat and bowel samples were taken from livers, intestines, lymph, lungs and tripe. Results showed that the contaminating bacteria were aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria including Escherichia coli (E. coli, and Staphylococcus spp. in buffalo meat and bowel. The numbers of aerobic bacteria were in the 1.7×105- 2.3×106 CFU/g range, while the total coliform bacteria were in the 2.0×103- 6.8×104 CFU/g range. The total number of E. coli was in the 2.0×103- 6.0×104 CFU/g range, and Staphylococcus spp. was in the 2.0×104- 2.7×105 CFU/g range. No Salmonella was detected in any of the samples observed. The total coliform bacteria, E. coli, and Staphylococcus spp. in all buffalo meat and bowel samples exceeded the maximum numbers of microbes permitted by the Indonesian National Standard (SNI. The maximum of total coliform, E. coli, and Staphylococcus spp. permitted by SNI are 1.0×102, 1.0×10 and 1.0×102 CFU/g, respectively. The D10 values of S. aureus were in the 0.13 - 0.23 kGy range, while for E. coli they were in the 0.07 - 0.13 kGy range. The isolate of S. aureus from the lungs was the most resistant to cefoxitin, tetracycline, and amoxicillin antibiotics. The isolate of E. coli from buffalo bowels were almost sensitive to cefoxitin, tetracycline, and amoxicillin antibiotics.

  18. Population distribution of Beta-lactamase conferring resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in human clinical Enterobacteriaceae in the Netherlands.

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    Guido M Voets

    Full Text Available There is a global increase in infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae with plasmid-borne β-lactamases that confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. The epidemiology of these bacteria is not well understood, and was, therefore, investigated in a selection of 636 clinical Enterobacteriaceae with a minimal inhibitory concentration >1 mg/L for ceftazidime/ceftriaxone from a national survey (75% E. coli, 11% E. cloacae, 11% K. pneumoniae, 2% K. oxytoca, 2% P. mirabilis. Isolates were investigated for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs and ampC genes using microarray, PCR, gene sequencing and molecular straintyping (Diversilab and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. ESBL genes were demonstrated in 512 isolates (81%; of which 446 (87% belonged to the CTX-M family. Among 314 randomly selected and sequenced isolates, bla(CTX-M-15 was most prevalent (n = 124, 39%, followed by bla(CTX-M-1 (n = 47, 15%, bla(CTX-M-14 (n = 15, 5%, bla(SHV-12 (n = 24, 8% and bla(TEM-52 (n = 13, 4%. Among 181 isolates with MIC ≥16 mg/L for cefoxitin plasmid encoded AmpCs were detected in 32 and 27 were of the CMY-2 group. Among 102 E. coli isolates with MIC ≥16 mg/L for cefoxitin ampC promoter mutations were identified in 29 (28%. Based on Diversilab genotyping of 608 isolates (similarity cut-off >98% discriminatory indices of bacteria with ESBL and/or ampC genes were 0.994, 0.985 and 0.994 for E. coli, K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae, respectively. Based on similarity cut-off >95% two large clusters of E. coli were apparent (of 43 and 30 isolates and 21 of 21 that were typed by belonged to ST131 of which 13 contained bla(CTX-M-15. Our findings demonstrate that bla(CTX-M-15 is the most prevalent ESBL and we report a larger than previously reported prevalence of ampC genes among Enterobacteriaceae responsible for resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.

  19. Investigation of Various Tissue Culture Monolayers Sensitivity in Detection of Clostridium difficile Toxin

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    MH Salari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Backround: Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. It is usually a consequence of antibi­otic treatment, but sporadic cases can occur. The purpose of this study was to investigate five tissue culture monolayers sen­sitivity in detection of C. difficile-toxin. Methods: A total of 402 stool samples from patients with nosocomial diarrhea hospitalized in three hospitals of Tehran Uni­versity of Medical Sciences (TUMS were collected. The samples were cultured on a selective cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA and incubated in anaerobic conditions, at 37 °C for 4 days. Isolates were characterized to species level by con­ventional biochemical tests. Bacterial cytotoxicity was assayed on five tissue culture monolayers. Results: Our findings show that of the total patients, 24 toxigenic C. difficile (6% were isolated. All 24 C. difficile toxins showed cytotoxic effect at ³ 1:10 dilution on Hela, Hep2, Vero, McCoy and Mdck cells after 16, 20, 24, 24 and 30 hours, re­spectively. C. difficile toxin showed cytotoxic effect at ³ 1:100 dilutions only on Hela cell monolayer after 48 hours. Conclusion: Hela cell monolayer may be a satisfactory substitute for the detection of C. difficile toxin in clinical specimens.   

  20. Occurrence and characterization of Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat retail foods from Vancouver, British Columbia.

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    Kovačević, Jovana; Mesak, Lili R; Allen, Kevin J

    2012-06-01

    The occurrence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in retail RTE meat and fish products in Vancouver, British Columbia (B.C.) was investigated. To assess potential consumer health risk, recovered L. monocytogenes isolates were subjected to genotypic and phenotypic characterization. Conventional methods were used to recover Listeria spp. from deli meat (n = 40) and fish (n = 40) samples collected from 17 stores. Listeria spp. were recovered only from fish samples (20%); 5% harboured Listeria innocua, 5% had L. monocytogenes and 10% contained Listeria welshimeri. L. monocytogenes isolates serotyped as 1/2a and 1/2b, possessed dissimilar PFGE patterns, and had full-length InlA. Three 1/2a clonal isolates encoded the 50 kb genomic island, LGI1. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiling showed all Listeria spp. possessed resistance to cefoxitin and nalidixic acid. L. monocytogenes were resistant to clindamycin, two were resistant to streptomycin, and one to amikacin. Reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was seen in all L. monocytogenes, L. innocua and three L. welshimeri isolates. Reduced susceptibility to amikacin and chloramphenicol was also observed in one L. monocytogenes and three L. welshimeri isolates, respectively. Recovery of L. monocytogenes in fish samples possessing AMR, full-length InlA, LGI1, and serotypes frequently associated with listeriosis suggest B.C. consumers are exposed to high-risk strains.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance and co-selection phenomenon in Listeria spp. recovered from food and food production environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Jovana; Sagert, Jason; Wozniak, Anna; Gilmour, Matthew W; Allen, Kevin J

    2013-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), co-selection phenomenon, and the relationship between reduced susceptibility (RSC) to ciprofloxacin (CIP) and resistance to other antimicrobials in Listeria spp. (n = 103) recovered from food processing environments (FPE) and food were investigated. Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes and other listeriae, respectively, to cefoxitin (FOX; 98% vs. 88%), CIP (7% vs. 4%), clindamycin (CLI; 33% vs. 59%) and tetracycline (6% vs. 8%) was observed, as was RSC to CIP (67% vs. 57%) and CLI (65% vs. 41%). L. monocytogenes also possessed RSC to linezolid (LZD; 6%), rifampicin (2%) and streptomycin (6%), with other listeriae displaying RSC to chloramphenicol (4%). L. monocytogenes serotype 1/2a (90%) isolates were more frequently resistant or possessed RSC to CIP compared to serotype 4b (55%) (p = 0.015). When eight strains were experimentally adapted to high concentrations of CIP, co-selection occurred as MICs to benzalkonium chloride (BAC) increased (n = 5), gentamicin MICs remained the same (n = 6) or increased 2-fold (n = 2), and led to RSC to LZD (n = 1) and resistance to CLI (n = 8). Overall, levels of resistance/RSC to CIP in food chain isolates, particularly 1/2a, are concerning. Further, reduced sensitivity to disparate antimicrobials following CIP exposure highlights the need for increased knowledge of co-selection phenomenon linked with antimicrobial agents.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM Β-LACTAMASE-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS ISOLATED FROM DAIRY PRODUCTS

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    Rahem Khoshbakht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs are enzymes that hydrolyze the β-lactam ring, and ESBL-producing E. coli has rapidly spread worldwide with pose a serious hazard for humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli and molecular evaluation of four ESBL-associated genes among E. coli strains isolated from milk and cheese in southern Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out for a total of 150 isolates of E. coli, previously collected from dairy products. ESBL production was screened using a double-disc synergy test (DDST and presence of four ESBL genes (PER, VEB, TEM and CTX-M was tested using PCR. Among 150 E. coli strains 57 (38% isolates were identified as ESBL-producing strains. All ESBL positive isolates could be typed for one or more genes and the most prevalent ESBL-associated gene was CTX-M (80.7%. The PER gene was not present among isolates. Isolates showed high susceptibility to imipe¬nem and cefoxitin. The results showed the high prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli strains among dairy products and high occurrence of CTX-M-associated ESBL activity among isolates indicating the hazards of increasing the strains with antibiotic resistance which can transfer to human trough the dairy food products.

  3. Detection of AmpC β lactamases in gram-negative bacteria

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    Gunjan Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amp C β-lactamases are clinically important cephalosporinases encoded on the chromosomes of many Enterobacteriaceae and a few other organisms, where they mediate resistance to cephalothin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, most penicillins, and β-lactamase inhibitor/β-lactam combinations. The increase in antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is a notable example of how bacteria can procure, maintain and express new genetic information that can confer resistance to one or several antibiotics. Detection of organisms producing these enzymes can be difficult, because their presence does not always produce a resistant phenotype on conventional disc diffusion or automated susceptibility testing methods. These enzymes are often associated with potentially fatal laboratory reports of false susceptibility to β-lactams phenotypically. With the world-wide increase in the occurrence, types and rate of dissemination of these enzymes, their early detection is critical. AmpC β-lactamases show tremendous variation in geographic distribution. Thus, their accurate detection and characterization are important from epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and infection control point of view. This document describes the methods for detection for AmpC β-lactamases, which can be adopted by routine diagnostic laboratories.

  4. The use of molecular typing to evaluate the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative rods in Brazilian hospitals

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    Iraci Tosin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance has increased rapidly in Brazil and worldwide during the past few years, giving rise to a growing necessity for antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs. These programs have been instituted in order to monitor bacterial resistance in various regions, and to guide empirical antimicrobial therapy. We evaluated the use of molecular typing in multicenter surveillance programs. We also studied the dissemination modes of selected resistance profiles. Antimicrobial susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents was evaluated by the reference broth microdilution method. Bacterial isolates with selected susceptibility patterns were characterized by pulsed field-gel electrophoresis (PFGE. A total of 119 Gram-negative bacteria were molecularly typed, including 22 imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 26 ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, 27 cefoxitin-resistant-ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, 33 Enterobacter spp., 8 Citrobacter spp., and 3 S. marcescens isolates resistant to ceftazidime. The isolates were from clinically apparent bacteremia of patients hospitalized in medical centers located in 13 cities of 11 Brazilian states. Our molecular typing results revealed a great genetic diversity among isolates of the same species. However, some major PFGE patterns were found in more than one isolate. All repeated PFGE patterns were detected in only 2 isolates, which were isolated within the same institutions or in different medical centers. We conclude that the ability to characterize organisms phenotypically and genotypically is a powerful epidemiologic tool and it provides unique information that is very important for multicenter surveillance programs.

  5. Epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of B. fragilis group organisms isolated from clinical specimen and human intestinal microbiota Epidemiologia e resistência a antimicrobianos de microorganismos do grupo B. fragilis isolados de espécime clínico e microbiota intestinal humana

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    Cibele Barreto Mano de Carvalho

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological aspects and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the Bacteroides fragilis group isolated from clinical and human intestinal specimens were examined in this study. B. fragilis group strains were isolated from 46 (37% of 124 clinical specimens and the source of the samples was: Blood culture (3, intraabdominal infection (27, brain abscess (2, soft tissue infection (17, respiratory sinus (3, pleural aspirate (9, breast abscess (3, surgical infected wound (22, pelvic inflammatory disease (22, chronic otitis media (9 and miscellaneous (7. Intraabdominal and soft tissue infections were responsible for more than half of the clinical isolates. Susceptibility to penicillin, cefoxitin, tetracycline, metronidazole, chloramphenicol and clindamycin was examined. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole and chloramphenicol. For clindamycin and cefoxitin the resistance rates observed were 21.7% and 10.9% respectively. Susceptibility profiles varied among the different species tested. A total of 37 species of B. fragilis group isolated from intestinal microbiota of individuals who had no antimicrobial therapy for at least 1 month before the sampling was also examined. All strains were also susceptible to chloramphenicol and motronidazole and the resistance rates to clindamycin and cefoxitin were 19.4% and 5.4% respectively. A few institutions, in Brazil, have monitored the antimicrobial susceptibility of B. fragilis group strains isolated from anaerobic infections. The resistance rates to cefoxitin and clindamycin and the variation in susceptibility patterns among the species isolated in this study emphasize the need for monitoring of susceptibility patterns of B. fragilis group organisms isolated, especially at our University Hospitals.Alguns aspectos epidemiológicos e o perfil de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de amostras do grupo B. fragilis isoladas de espécime clínico e microbiota intestinal humana foram delineados neste

  6. Integron presence in a multiresistant Morganella morganii isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Laura; Vinuesa, Teresa; Tubau, Fe; Truchero, Consol; Benz, Roland; Viñas, Miguel

    2006-06-01

    A multiresistant strain of Morganella morganii was isolated from a patient affected by several severe pathologies. The isolate was found to be resistant to the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, nalidixic acid, cefalothin, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, novobiocin, penicillin, rifampicin, tetracycline and violet crystal. Mechanisms leading to this multiresistance were studied. Porins of M. morganii multiresistant and wild-type strains were analysed by sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and were characterised by their ability to form channels in planar black lipid bilayers. The channels formed by porins from multiresistant and susceptible strains suggested that the porins of the multiresistant strain were not responsible for resistance. A 6.6 kb plasmid (pML2003) was detected, isolated and studied. pML2003 included two integrons. Direct sequencing revealed that one of the integrons contained two cassettes, aminoglycoside adenyltransferase (aadB) and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (catB3) conferring resistance to aminoglycosides and chloramphenicol, respectively. The second integron contained carbenicillinase (blaP1b) and adenyltransferase (aadA2), which confer resistance to beta-lactamases and streptomycin, respectively.

  7. Occurrence and characterisation of MRSA and extended-spectrum ß-lactamases producing Escherichia coli isolated from mastitic cows’ milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner Marcin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was the preliminary evaluation of the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and extended spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL - producing Escherichia coli in 650 milk and inflammatory secretions from cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis. One millilitre of the sample was added to Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented with 6.5% NaCl, Tryptone Soya Broth with cefoxitin and aztreonam, and then to MRSA ID agar. Presumptive MRSA colonies were analysed for the presence of mecA gene. Parallel to MRSA identification, the samples were incubated in buffered peptone water, lauryl tryptose broth and McConkey agar supplemented with cefotaxim for ESBL-producing E. coli isolation. These bacteria were identified using API Rapid 32 E and the ability of ESBL production was initially established using disc test D68C and confirmed by MIC technique using Sensititre ESBL plates. The primers (blaCTX, blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCMY-2-group for the detection of some of the genes encoding ESBL production were used. The 45 strains of S. aureus with mecA gene and 41 strains of E. coli with blaTEM gene were detected.

  8. 苦参碱葡萄糖注射液致水样腹泻%Watery diarrhea induced by matrine and glucose injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾生旺; 蒋兆荣

    2012-01-01

    1例55岁女性患者因肝癌、肝硬化静脉滴注苦参碱葡萄糖注射液250 ml,1次/d.次日出现水样腹泻,立即停药.第3天腹泻消失.间隔2 d后,患者再次静脉滴注苦参碱葡萄糖注射液250 ml,1次/d.第3天发生严重无痛性水样腹泻.给予大蒜素、诺氟沙星、复方地芬诺酯、头孢西丁,但腹泻无缓解.第4天停用苦参碱葡萄糖注射液.次日,腹泻停止.%55-year-old female received an IV infusion of matrine and glucose injection 250 ml once daily for liver cancer and cirrhosis. The next day, she developed watery diarrhea, and matrine and glucose injection was stopped immediately. On day 3, diarrhea disappeared. Two days later, the patient was readministered an IV infusion of matrine and glucose injection 250 ml once daily. On day 3 , she presented with severe painless watery diarrhea. Despite receiving garlicin, norfloxacin, compound diphenoxylate, and cefoxitin, her diarrhea did not improve. On day 4, matrine and glucose injection was discontinued. The following day, the patient's diarrhea resolved.

  9. Isolation and characterization of Aeromonas schubertii from diseased snakehead, Channa maculata (Lacepède).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y F; Liang, R S; Zhuo, X L; Wu, X T; Zou, J X

    2012-06-01

    Pure bacterial cultures were isolated from diseased snakeheads, Channa maculata (Lacepède), suffering high mortality in a farm in Zhongshan, southern China. Three isolates, namely ZS20100725, ZS20100725-1 and ZS20100725-2, were identified as Aeromonas schubertii. All the isolates showed high 16S rRNA sequence similarities with A. schubertii. The isolates exhibited strong virulence to snakeheads in experimental challenges with LD(50) ranging between 1.4 × 10(4) and 6.4 × 10(6) CFU g(-1). Two of the isolates were positive for haemolysin, elastase, lipase and lecithinase by phenotypic determination, which was further confirmed by PCR amplification of the haemolysin and elastase genes. In sterile liquid medium, the best growth conditions of strain ZS20100725 were 30 °C, pH 7 and 0.5% salinity (w/v). Antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that strain ZS20100725 was susceptible to cefoxitin, cefoperazone and chloramphenicol. Furthermore, histopathology of diseased snakeheads infected with A. schubertii showed necrosis and congestion in liver, kidney and spleen and also damage to the cardiac muscle, intestine and gills.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance and presence of the SXT mobile element in Vibrio spp. isolated from aquaculture facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aljaro, Cristina; Riera-Heredia, Jordi; Blanch, Anicet R

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the susceptibility of Vibrio spp. strains isolated from fish cultures against some usually applied antibiotics and the occurrence of the SXT mobile genetic element among them. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed by the standard disk diffusion technique while the presence of the SXT mobile genetic element was determined by conventional PCR. High levels of resistance to ampicillin (70%), cefoxitin (44%), streptomycin (31%), aztreonam (25%) and sulfamethoxazole (21%) were detected, and a high inter-and-intraspecies diversity in the resistance profile was observed for the majority of the analysed isolates. The SXT mobile genetic element was detected in only 4 isolates belonging to the species V. diazotrophicus (1), V. mediterranei (2) and V. vulnificus (1), which showed a variable antibiotic resistance profile. Horizontal antibiotic resistance gene transfer from the V. diazotrophicus SXT-positive strain to a laboratory E. coli strain was demonstrated under laboratory conditions. Our results suggest that the Vibrio spp. isolated from aquaculture facilities analysed in this study, although not being pathogenic, they constitute a source of antimicrobial resistance genes that could be mobilized to other bacterial populations through mobile genetic elements. However, the low occurrence of the SXT element in these isolates supports the hypothesis that this element is not involved in the development of resistance in the majority of Vibrio spp. in the examined aquaculture facilities.

  11. Study of the Electrophoretic Behavior of Cephalosporins by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

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    Gabriel Hancu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was the characterization of the electrophoretic behavior of cephalosporins from different generation having different structural characteristics in order to develop a rapid, simple and efficient capillary electrophoretic method for their identification and simultaneous separation from complex mixtures. Methods: Ten cephalosporin derivatives (cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefalexin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone were analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis using different background electrolyte solutions at different pH values. Electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes were calculated, the influence of the electrophoretic parameteres on the separation was established and the analytical conditions were optimized. Results: Taking into consideration their structural and chemical properties cephalosporins can be detected over a pH range between 6 and 10. The best results were obtained using a buffer solution containing 25 mM disodium hydrogenophosphate - 25 mM sodium dihydrogenophosphate, at a pH – 7.00, + 25 kV voltage at a temperature of 25 C, UV detection at 210 nm. Using the optimized analytical conditions we achieved the simultaneous baseline separation for seven cephalosporins in less then 10 minutes. Conclusion: Using the described optimized electrophoretic procedures, capillary electrophoresis can be used for the identification and determination of cephalosporins in formulated pharmaceutical products and for their separation from complex mixtures.

  12. Berberine Enhances the Antibacterial Activity of Selected Antibiotics against Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus Strains in Vitro

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    Robert D. Wojtyczka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic interactions between commonly used antibiotics and natural bioactive compounds may exhibit therapeutic benefits in a clinical setting. Berberine, an isoquinoline-type alkaloid isolated from many kinds of medicinal plants, has proven efficacy against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. The aim of the presented work was to assess the antibacterial activity of berberine chloride in light of the effect exerted by common antibiotics on fourteen reference strains of Staphylococccus spp., and to evaluate the magnitude of interactions of berberine with these antistaphylococcal antibiotics. In our study minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of berberine chloride against CoNS ranged from 16 to 512 µg/mL. The most noticeable effects were observed for S. haemolyticus ATCC 29970, S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, S. capitis subsp. capitis ATCC 35661, S. galinarium ATCC 700401, S. hominis subsp. hominis ATCC 27844, S. intermedius ATCC 29663 and S. lugdunensis ATCC 49576. The most significant synergistic effect was noticed for berberine in combination with linezolid, cefoxitin and erythromycin. The synergy between berberine and antibiotics demonstrates the potential application of compound combinations as an efficient, novel therapeutic tool for antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.

  13. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates to Propolis Extract Alone or in Combination with Antimicrobial Drugs

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    Mieczysław Sajewicz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Polish propolis (EEPP against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA clinical isolates. The combined effect of EEPP and 10 selected antistaphylococcal drugs on S. aureus clinical cultures was also investigated. EEPP composition was analyzed by a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method. The flavonoid compounds identified in Polish Propolis included flavones, flavonones, flavonolols, flavonols and phenolic acids. EEPP displayed varying effectiveness against twelve S. aureus strains, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC within the range from 0.39 to 0.78 mg/mL, determined by broth microdilution method. The average MIC was 0.54 ± 0.22 mg/mL, while calculated MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.39 mg/mL and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of the EEPP ranged from 0.78 to 3.13 mg/mL. The in vitro combined effect of EEPP and 10 antibacterial drugs was investigated using disk diffusion method-based assay. Addition of EEPP to cefoxitin (FOX, clindamycin (DA, tetracycline (TE, tobramycin (TOB, linezolid (LIN, trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole (SXT, penicillin (P, erythromycin (E regimen, yielded stronger, cumulative antimicrobial effect, against all tested S. aureus strains than EEPP and chemotherapeutics alone. In the case of ciprofloxacin (CIP and chloramphenicol (C no synergism with EEPP was observed.

  14. Angina monocitica con sovrainfezione da Prevotella denticola: caso clinico

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    Maria Teresa Allù

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Monocytic angina with superinfection of Prevotella denticola: clinical case Monocytic angina is a clinical sindrome caused by Epstein-Barr virus characterized by fever, pharyngitis, exudative tonsillitis, swollen lymphoglands, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly.The inflamed pharynx and necrotic tonsils of infectious mononucleosis are subject to bacterial superinfection initially or during the course of the illness; the reduced PO2 tension and low oxidation-reduction potential that prevail in a vascular and necrotic tissues favour the growth of anaerobes. In this article we reported the clinical case of a ten years old children, who presented fever and tonsillopharyngitis; he was treated with cefotaxime and piperacillin, he did not improve in health. He was admitted to hospital (Department of Otorhinolaryngology. The patient was treated with aminoglycoside (tobramycin, piperacillin and cortisone; the clinical situation deteriorated. Pus sample was collected from the tonsils and cultured. Isolated strain from culture anaerobic was identified biochemically (Rapid-ID32ANA.The microorganism isolated was: Prevotella denticola (oral anaerobic gram-negative rods; β-lactamase production was tested by using the chromogenic cephalosporin disk test.The susceptibility to antibiotics was performed according to NCCLS recommendations. Prevotella denticola (β-lactamase production was resistant to penicillin, cefoxitin, cefotetan, piperacillin, clindamycin and metronidazole it was susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ticarcillin-clavulanate, imipenem and chloramphenicol. Children was treated with piperacillin-tazobactam, with rapid symptomatic relief.

  15. Molecular characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and its correlation with clinical laboratory standards institute interpretive criteria for disk diffusion susceptibility testing in enterobacteriaceae isolates in Thaialnd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangkoskul, Teerawit; Tiengrim, Surapee; Onsomang, Supiluck; Pati, Naratchaphan; Aswapokee, Nalinee; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2012-11-01

    We performed extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypic testing and molecular characterization of three ESBL genes (TEM, SHV and CTX-M) and susceptibility testing by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) disk diffusion method against three cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime) and a cephamycin (cefoxitin) among 128 Thai Escherichia coli and 84 Thai Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates. ESBL production was discovered in 62% of E. coli and 43% of K. pneumoniae isolates. All isolates susceptible to ceftriaxone were ESBL-negative. Nearly all isolates non-susceptible to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and cefepime produced ESBL; the presence of CTX-M genes in the isolates correlated with a ceftriaxone non-susceptible phenotype. Thirty-nine of 83 isolates (47%) of ceftazidime-susceptible E. coli and 50 of 99 isolates (50.5%) of cefepime-susceptible E. coli were ESBL-producing. SHV-type beta-lactamase genes were more prevalent among K. pneumoniae than E. coli isolates. CTX-M was the major ESBL gene harbored by ESBL-producers in both E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. Non-CTX-M ESBL-producers were found only among K. pneumoniae isolates. This study reveals an increase in ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among Thai isolates and demonstrates gaps in the current CLSI disk diffusion susceptibility guidelines; it indicates the results of ceftazidime and cefepime disk diffusion susceptibility testing using CLSI criteria should be interpreted with caution.

  16. Phenotypic and genotypic detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hunting dogs in Maiduguri metropolitan, Borno State, Nigeria

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    Muhammad Mustapha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the presence of MRSA in hunting dogs in Maiduguri metropolitan. Materials and Methods: Phenotypic methods used includes microscopic technique, colony morphology study, catalase-coagulase tests, and the use of mannitol salt agar test, oxacillin resistance screening agar base, and antibiotic susceptibility testing methods. Genotypic approach was used for deoxyribonucleic acid extraction, and the presence of nuc and mecA gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Results: Examination of 416 swab samples from nasal and perineal region of dogs revealed a total of 79.5% of S. aureus, where 62.5% of the isolates were MRSA. Molecular analysis revealed that 7nuc genes specific for S. aureus from 20 presumptive MRSA assay were all mecA PCR negative. The isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin but proved resistant to cefoxitin and oxacillin. Conclusion: High isolation rate of MRSA was found in hunting dogs. Significant level (p<0.05 of MRSA was isolated in the nasal cavity of hunting dogs than its perineum. Only nuc genes were detected from the MRSA isolates.

  17. Detection of AmpC β-lactamase and drug resistance of Enterobacter cloacae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong WANG; Shangwei WU; Xue LI; Ping HE; Yunde LIU

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide useful information for effective control and clinical therapy of infection, the resistance status and the rate of carrying AmpC β-1actamase of Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacae) were investigated. By VITEK (Bacterial automatic biochemical analyzer), the isolates of E. cloacae were identified and the drag resistance was measured. The AmpC enzyme was detected by the five-disk diffusion test. Antibiotic sensitivity test showed that the resistance effects of E. cloacae to cefazolin, cefoxitin and ampicillin were more serious, with resistant rates of 80.5%, 75.3% and 70.1%, respectively. However, it was more sensitive to Sulperazone (cefoperazone/sulbactam, 13.0%), amikacin (16.9%) and ciprofloxacin (19.5%). Meanwhile, the phenotype detection showed that 35.06% (27/77) isolates of E. cloacae produced AmpC β-1actamase. Most of E. cloacae are multi-drug resistant strains. Sulperazone (cefoperazone/sulbactam), a kind of component β-1actamase, is a more effective antibiotic for treating infection caused by E. cloacae. Unreasonable application of the third generation cephalosporins plays an important role in leading to emergence of high-yield AmpC β-1actamase strains, so antibiotics should be used wisely.

  18. Heavy metal and antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from the environment of swine farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to determine the level of heavy metal resistance and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from environment of swine farms in China. A total of 284 bacteria were isolated, 158 from manure, 62 from soil and 64 from wastewater in different swine farm samples. All the isolates were tested for resistant against eight heavy metals. From the total of 284 isolates, maximum bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to Zn/sup 2+/ (98.6%) followed by Cu/sup 2+/ (97.5%), Cd/sup 2+/ (68.3%), Mn/sup 2+/ (60.2%), Pb/sup 2+/(51.4%), Ni/sup 2+/(41.5%) and Cr/sup 2+/(45.1%). However, most of the isolates were sensitive to Co/sup 2+/. Meanwhile,all the isolates were tested for sensitively to nine antibiotics. The results shows that most isolates were sensitive to cefoxitin and oxacillin, but resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, gentamicin, amikacin, erythromycin, clindamycin were widespread. Multiple resistant to metals and antibiotics were also observed in this study. Most isolates were tolerant to different concentrations of various heavy metals and antibiotics. Our results confirmed that environment of swine farms in China has a significant proportion of heavy metal and antibiotic resistant bacteria, and these bacteria constitute a potential risk for swine health and public health. (author)

  19. Antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of resistance genes in intestinal Bacteroidales strains

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    Viviane Nakano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study examined the antimicrobial resistance profile and the prevalence of resistance genes in Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides distasonis strains isolated from children's intestinal microbiota. METHODS: The susceptibility of these bacteria to 10 antimicrobials was determined using an agar dilution method. β-lactamase activity was assessed by hydrolysis of the chromogenic cephalosporin of 114 Bacteriodales strains isolated from the fecal samples of 39 children, and the presence of resistance genes was tested using a PCR assay. RESULTS: All strains were susceptible to imipenem and metronidazole. The following resistance rates were observed: amoxicillin (93%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (47.3%, ampicillin (96.4%, cephalexin (99%, cefoxitin (23%, penicillin (99%, clindamycin (34.2% and tetracycline (53.5%. P-lactamase production was verified in 92% of the evaluated strains. The presence of the cfiA, cepA, ermF, tetQ and nim genes was observed in 62.3%, 76.3%, 27%, 79.8% and 7.8% of the strains, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate an increase in the resistance to several antibiotics in intestinal Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides distasonis and demonstrate that these microorganisms harbor antimicrobial resistance genes that may be transferred to other susceptible intestinal strains.

  20. In vitro Comparison of Disk Diffusion and Agar Dilution Antibiotic Susceptibility Test Methods for Neisseria gonorrhoeae

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    Marta C de Castillo

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available At present, most Neisseria gonorrhoeae testing is done with ß-lactamase and agar dilution tests with common therapeutic agents. Generally, in bacteriological diagnosis laboratories in Argentina, study of antibiotic susceptibility of N.gonorrhoeae is based on ß-lactamase determination and agar dilution method with common therapeutic agents. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS has recently described a disk diffusion test that produces results comparable to the reference agar dilution method for antibiotic susceptibility of N.gonorrhoeae, using a dispersion diagram for analyzing the correlation between both techniques. We obtained 57 gonococcal isolates from patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Tucumán, Argentina. Antibiotic susceptibility tests using agar dilution and disk diffusion techniques were compared. The established NCCLS interpretive criteria for both susceptibility methods appeared to be applicable to domestic gonococcal strains. The correlation between the MIC's and the zones of inhibition was studied for penicillin, ampicillin, cefoxitin, spectinomycin, cefotaxime, cephaloridine, cephalexin, tetracycline, norfloxacin and kanamycin. Dispersion diagrams showed a high correlation between both methods.

  1. High-dose antibiotic therapy is superior to a 3-drug combination of prostanoids and lipid A derivative in protecting irradiated canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K.S.; Srinivasan, V.; Toles, R.E.; Miner, V.L.; Jackson, W.E.; Seed, T.M. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2002-12-01

    There is an urgent need to develop non-toxic radioprotectors. We tested the efficacy of a 3-drug combination (3-DC) of iloprost, misoprostol, and 3D-MPL (3-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A) and the effects of postirradiation clinical support with high doses of antibiotics and blood transfusion. Canines were given 3-DC or the vehicle and exposed to 3.4 Gy or 4.1 Gy of {sup 60}Co radiation. Canines irradiated at 4.1 Gy were also given clinical support, which consisted of blood transfusion and antibiotics (gentamicin, and cefoxitin or cephalexin). Peripheral blood cell profile and 60-day survival were used as indices of protection. At 3.4 Gy, 3-DC- or vehicle-treated canines without postirradiation clinical support survived only for 10 to 12 days. Fifty percent of the canines treated with 3-DC or vehicle and provided postirradiation clinical support survived 4.1-Gy irradiation. Survival of canines treated with vehicle before irradiation significantly correlated with postirradiation antibiotic treatments, but not with blood transfusion. The recovery profile of peripheral blood cells in 4.1 Gy-irradiated canines treated with vehicle and antibiotics was better than drug-treated canines. These results indicate that therapy with high doses of intramuscular aminoglycoside antibiotic (gentamicin) and an oral cephalosporin (cephalexin) enhanced survival of irradiated canines. Although blood transfusion correlated with survival of 3-DC treated canines, there were no additional survivors with 3-DC treated canines than the controls. (author)

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of clinical Escherichia coli isolates from dogs and cats in the United States: January 2008 through January 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thungrat, Kamoltip; Price, Stuart B; Carpenter, D Mark; Boothe, Dawn Merton

    2015-09-30

    Escherichia coli is among the most common bacterial pathogens in dogs and cats. The lack of a national monitoring program limits evidence-based empirical antimicrobial choices in the United States. This study describes antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for presumed clinical E. coli isolates from dogs (n=2392) or cats (n=780) collected from six geographic regions in the United States between May 2008 and January 2013. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for 17 drugs representing 6 drug classes. Urinary tract isolates were most common (71%). Population MIC distributions were generally bimodal with the second mode above the resistant breakpoint for all drugs except gentamicin, amikacin, and meropenem. The MIC90 exceeded the susceptible breakpoint for ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin (surrogate drug for cephalexin), and doxycycline but was below the susceptible breakpoint for all others. None of isolates was susceptible or resistant to all drug tested; 46% were resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobial categories, and 52% to more than three categories. The resistance percentages were as follows: doxycycline (100%), cephalothin (98%)>ampicillin (48%)>amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (40%)>ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (18%)>cefpodoxime (13%), cefotaxime (12%), cefoxitin (11%), cefazolin (11%), enrofloxacin (10%), chloramphenicol (9.6%)>ciprofloxacin (9.2%), ceftazidime (8.7%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (7.9%), gentamicin (7.9%)>meropenem (1.5%), amikacin (0.7%) (Pcephalexin, ampicillin, or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Based on susceptibility patterns, trimethoprim-sulfonamides may be the preferred empirical oral treatment. PMID:26165272

  3. Risk factors of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among health care staff in a teaching hospital in central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Humaidan, Ohoud S.; El-Kersh, Talat A.; Al-Akeel, Raid A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate possible risk factors of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage associated with various health troubles among healthcare workers (HCWs) at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH). Method: This prospective study was conducted between May 2012 and January 2013 in KKUH, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 200 nasal swabs were collected from HCWs. Identification was carried out based on morphology, Gram stain, catalase and coagulase test, Staphaurex PlusH test, chromogenic medium, oxacillin, and cefoxitin test using disc diffusion method. Characterization was carried out using disk diffusion method and E-test. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out to confirm using GeneXpert® Dx System (Cepheid) to detect mecA gene. Results: Among the 200 isolates, 80 (40%) were S. aureus carriers, and 36 (18%) of all HCWs were identified as MRSA carriers. There was a significant difference of S. aureus according to gender with male carriers (p=0.012), occupation particularly among nurses (p=0.006), and duration of working years in the hospital among 4-6 years group (p=0.002). Moreover, none of the risk factors assessed were significantly associated with the carriage rate of MRSA (p>0.05). Conclusion: The current study revealed that nursing staff was the potential colonizers of S. aureus and MRSA compared with other HCWs. Regular screening of carriers is required for prevention of nosocomial infections. PMID:26318466

  4. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae: occurrence, risk factors for fecal carriage and strain traits in the Swiss slaughter cattle population younger than 2 years sampled at abattoir level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reist

    Full Text Available During the past decade extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae have become a matter of great concern in human and veterinary medicine. In this cross-sectional study fecal swabs of a geographically representative number of Swiss cattle at slaughterhouse level were sampled i to determine the occurrence of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Swiss slaughter cattle population younger than 2 years, and ii to assess risk factors for shedding ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae. In total, 48 (8.4%; 95% C.I. 6.3-11.1% independent ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae were detected among the 571 tested animals. Species identification revealed 46 E. coli strains, one Enterobacter cloacae and one Citrobacter youngae. In view of beta-lactam antibiotics, all 48 isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin and cefpodoxime. Forty-five (93.8% isolates were resistant cefuroxime; one (2.1% isolate to cefoxitin, 28 (58.3% isolates to cefotaxime, 2 (4.2% isolates to ceftazidime, and 2 (4.2% isolates to cefepime. Risk factors for shedding ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae were (i age (OR 0.19 and 0.12 in age category 181 d to 1 y and 1 y to 2 y compared to ≤180 d, (ii primary production type, meaning dairy compared to beef on farm of origin (OR 5.95, and (iii more than 1 compared to less than 1 animal movement per d per 100 animals on farm of origin (OR 2.37.

  5. Prevalence of beta-lactamases among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from food animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2004-01-01

    The genetic background for beta-lactamase-mediated resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was examined by PCR and sequencing in 160 ampicillin-resistant isolates (109 Escherichia coli and 51 Salmonella) obtained from healthy and diseased food animals in Denmark. Sequencing revealed three different...... variants of bla(TEM-1), of which bla(TEM-1b) was the most frequently detected (80 E. coli and 47 Salmonella), followed by bla(TEM-1a) (eight E. coli, one Salmonella) and bla(TEM-1c) (seven E. coli). A few isolates were found to express OXA, TEM-30, or PSE beta-lactamases. Mutations in the ampC promoter...... leading to increased production of the AmpC beta-lactamase were demonstrated in 11 cefoxitin-resistant or intermediate E. coli isolates. Nine of these isolates did not contain any bla(TEM) genes, whereas the remaining two did. No genes encoding SHV or extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were detected. Two...

  6. Incidence of gonorrhoea due to penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Japan 1981-3 and treatment using a new antibiotic combination, BRL25000 (amoxycillin and clavulanic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osato, K; Tsugami, H; Harada, K; Maruyama, J

    1986-01-01

    During the three years 1981-3, 134 (9.1%) of 1473 patients presenting at our clinics were found to be infected with penicillinase producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of benzylpenicillin and ampicillin against these PPNG strains were 8 mg/l or more, whereas against non-PPNG strains they were consistently 4 mg/l or less. In contrast, the MIC of BRL25000 (two parts amoxycillin and one part clavulanic acid, the beta lactamase inhibitor) was 4 mg/l or less even against PPNG strains. MICs of a number of other drugs commonly used to treat gonorrhoea, such as cephaloridine, cefoxitin, tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, kanamycin, and spectinomycin, showed no appreciable differences between non-PPNG and PPNG strains and the MIC of cephaloridine in particular was relatively high. BRL25000 proved to be very effective in the treatment of PPNG infection and cured all of 121 patients treated. A daily dose of 2.25g, cured 105 patients in two days, 11 patients in three days, four patients in four days, and one patient in five days. A new rapid diagnostic method for detecting PPNG strains, capable of application at an outpatient clinic and providing a result on the following day, is described. Images PMID:3089905

  7. BACTERIAL SPECTRUM AND PATTERN OF ANTIMICROBIAL SENSITIVITY AMONG OUTPATIENTS WITH PNEUMONIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Sushma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To outline the spectrum of bacteria causing pneumonia and the pattern of antimicrobial sensitivity in outpatients with pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital in Himachal Pradesh. METHODS: Sputum of 108 immuno competent pneumonia patients attending outpatient departments of Medicine and Pulmonary medicine of Dr. R. P. Government Medical College , Kangra at Tanda was sent for Gram staining and culture and sensitivity testing. RESULTS: Commensals were detected in most of the cases (32 , 29.6% followed by Staphylococcus aureus in 17(15.7% and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 16(14.8%. This was followed by three Gram negative organisms namely E Coli (11 , 10.2% , Pseudomonas (10 , 9.2% and Klebsiella (8 , 7.2%. No growth was obtained in 7(6.5% and other organisms were isolated in 7(6.5% specimens. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to vancomycin , clindamycin , cefoxitin , azithromycin and cotrimoxazole. Streptococcus pneumoniae was found to be sensitive to vancomycin , clindamycin , gentamicin , azithromycin , penicillin , cotrimoxazole , amoxicillin +clavulanic acid. Klebsiella was found to be sensitive to imipenem , azithromycin , ciprofloxacin , gentamicin and amoxicillin +clavulanic acid. E coli was sensitive to imipenem , gentamicin and amoxicillin +clavulanic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be sensitive to gentamicin , cefta zidime , imipenem , ticarcillin and piperacillin. CONCLUSION: Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the commonest organism causing pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumoniae is resistant to many antibiotics. Azithromycin can be the first line therapy for pneumonia.

  8. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Emerging Cause of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

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    Catherine L. Haggerty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted pathogen that is increasingly identified among women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID. Although Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae frequently cause PID, up to 70% of cases have an unidentified etiology. This paper summarizes evidence linking M. genitalium to PID and its long-term reproductive sequelae. Several PCR studies have demonstrated that M. genitalium is associated with PID, independent of gonococcal and chlamydial infection. Most have been cross-sectional, although one prospective investigation suggested that M. genitalium was associated with over a thirteenfold risk of endometritis. Further, a nested case-control posttermination study demonstrated a sixfold increased risk of PID among M. genitalium positive patients. Whether or not M. genitalium upper genital tract infection results in long-term reproductive morbidity is unclear, although tubal factor infertility patients have been found to have elevated M. genitalium antibodies. Several lines of evidence suggest that M. genitalium is likely resistant to many frequently used PID treatment regimens. Correspondingly, M. genitalium has been associated with treatment failure following cefoxitin and doxycycline treatment for clinically suspected PID. Collectively, strong evidence suggests that M. genitalium is associated with PID. Further study of M. genitalium upper genital tract infection diagnosis, treatment and long-term sequelae is warranted.

  9. Agar dilution method for susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

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    Marta C de Castillo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Tucumán, Argentina, were determined by the agar dilution method (MIC. 3.5% of the isolates produced ²-lactamase. A total of 96.5% of ²-lactamase negative isolates tested were susceptible to penicillin (MIC < 2 µgml-1; 14.03% of the tested isolates were resistant to tetracycline (MIC < 2 µgml-1, and 98% of the tested isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin (MIC < 64 µgml-1. The MICs for 95% of the isolates, tested for other drugs were: < 2 µgml-1 for cefoxitin, < 0.06 µgml-1 for cefotaxime, < 0.25 µgml-1 for norfloxacin, < 10 µgml-1 for cephaloridine, < 10 µgml-1 for cephalexin, and < 50 µgml-1 for kanamycin. Antibiotic resistance among N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Tucumán, Argentina, appeared to be primarily limited to penicillin and tetracycline, which has been a general use against gonorrhoeae in Tucumán since 1960. Periodic monitoring of the underlying susceptibility profiles of the N. gonorrhoeae strains prevalent in areas of frequent transmission may provide clues regarding treatment options and emerging of drug resistance.

  10. Clonal diversity of Staphylococcus aureus originating from the small ruminants goats and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrero, M Concepción; Hasman, Henrik; Vela, Ana I; Fernández-Garayzábal, Jose F; Domínguez, Lucas; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2012-04-23

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in humans and many animal species. The prevalence of different clonal types in animal species remains largely unknown. We analyzed 267 S. aureus from intramammary infections in goats (47) and sheep (220) by spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial susceptibility. The most frequent spa types in goats were t337 (N=9), t759 (N=6) and t1534 (N=5). Sheep isolates mainly belonged to spa types t1534 (N=72), t2678 (N=29) and t3576 (N=20). Eighteen novel spa-types were observed; two from goat strains, 13 from sheep and three in both species. The majority of the goat strains grouped in MLST CC133 (N=10) and ST522 (N=10), followed by CC9 (N=9), while the majority of the sheep strains were of ST522 (N=108) followed by CC133 (N=86) and CC130 (N=11). Nine new MLST types were detected; three in goat and sheep isolates (ST1739, ST1758 and ST1780), two identified in goats only (ST1740 and ST2061) and four in sheep only (ST1742, ST1743, ST1781 and ST2011). Strains showed resistance below 20% against penicillin and tetracycline; a strong association between CC-types and penicillin resistance was observed. No resistance was detected to cefoxitin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, rifampicin and vancomycin. This study suggests that ST522 is the most common S. aureus clone associated with small ruminants followed by CC133.

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Microorganisms Isolated from Orofacial Infections

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    Sinan TOZOĞLU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine an effective antimicrobial therapy ofcausative agents for orofacial abscesses. In order to do that, bacterial strains isolated from patientsamples were identified based on “bacterial fatty acid profiles” and determined the antimicrobialsusceptibilities by using disc diffusion test for aerobic bacteria, and E test for anaerobic bacteria.Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in 71 patients with a diagnosis oforofacial infections in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic of Atatürk University. Aerobic andanaerobic bacteria were isolated from 71 clinical specimens by Microbial Identification Systemand their antibiotic sensitivity was tested. Results: The most frequently isolated species were Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp.and Bacteroides spp. The highest rate of resistance was detected in the aerobic strains againstpenicillin (58.4%, followed by eriythromycin (46.7%, clindamycin (35.1%, tetracycline(32.5%, amoxycillin/clavulonic acid (31.1% and cefazoline (27.3%, respectively. The highestrate of resistance was detected in the anaerobic strains against to penicillin (60%, clindamycin(53.3%, metronidazole (30%, cefoxitin (20% piperacillin/tazobactam (11.6% and imipenem(0.3%, respectively. Conclusions: In order to treat orofacial infections more effectively, and to prevent antimicrobialresistance which has increased recently, antibiotic susceptility tests should be performedroutinely in regions where antibacterial resistance is high like our area.

  12. Increasing Trend of Resistance to Penicillin, Tetracycline, and Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae from Pakistan (1992–2009

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    Kauser Jabeen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergence and spread of drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is global concern. We evaluated trends of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae over years 1992–2009 in Pakistan. Resistance rates were compared between years (2007–2009 and (1992–2006. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI criteria using the disk diffusion methodology against penicillin, ceftriaxone, tetracycline and ofloxacin. Additional antibiotics tested in 100 strains isolated during 2007–2009, included cefotaxime, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefipime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, cefixime, cefpodoxime, spectinomycin and azithromycin. Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226 was used as control. Chi-square for trend analysis was conducted to assess resistance trend over the study period. During study period significant increase in combined resistance to penicillin, tetracycline and ofloxacin was observed (P value <0.01. Resistance rates during the two study period also increased significantly (P value <0.01. Ceftriaxone resistance was not observed. None of the isolates were found to be resistant or with intermediate sensitivity to additional antibiotics. Our findings suggest that penicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline should not be used in the empirical treatment of gonorrhea in Pakistan. Ceftriaxone and cefixime should be the first line therapy; however periodic MICs should be determined to identify emergence of strains with reduced susceptibility.

  13. Distribution and persistence of cephalosporins in cephalosporin producing wastewater using SPE and UPLC-MS/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Tang, Xinyao; Zuo, Jiane; Zhang, Mengyu; Chen, Lei; Li, Zaixing

    2016-11-01

    An investigation to study the distribution and persistence of cephalosporins in the cephalosporin producing wastewater was carried out in this paper. The target cephalosporins included ceftriaxone (CRO), cefalexin (CEF), cefotaxime (CTX), cefazolin (CZO), cefuroxime (CXM), cefoxitin (CFX) and cefradine (CF). A rapid and reliable detection method for cephalosporins was established based on solid phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry. In the cephalosporin producing wastewater effluent (CPWWeff), the limit of quantification for the targets ranged from 27.5ng/L to 131.8ng/L, and the recoveries for all of the analytes ranged from 73% to 102%. The mean concentrations of the seven cephalosporins were 12.85-141.55μg/L and 0.05-24.38μg/L in cephalosporin producing wastewater influent and effluent, respectively. Although high removal efficiencies were achieved for the cephalosporins (78.8-99.7%), up to 1.9kg of cephalosporins was discharged per day from the investigated C-WWTP. The degradation processes of CRO, CEF, CZO and CXM followed first-order kinetics in CPWWeff under all of the testing conditions. The degradation rates of tested cephalosporins were accelerated by high temperature and light. Persistence of CXM was the highest among the four tested cephalosporins in CPWWeff. PMID:27328396

  14. FEATURES OF THE LARGE INTESTINE MICROFLORA OF CHILDREN – DONOR LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

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    N. I. Gabrielyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study microecology of the large intestine of children with cirrhosis before transplantation of the share liver. Materials and methods. Studied the flora of the colon 157 children of 1 to 17 years admitted to hospital for liver transplantation fragment from a related donor. Identification was carried out using microbial panels BD Crystal and databases BBL Crystal MIND. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci were determined by their sensiti- vity to oxacillin and cefoxitin. Beta-lactamase activity was tested using discs with ceftazidime and ceftazidime/ clavulanic acid. Results. Microecological revealed deep irregularities in the large intestine transplantation in children up lobe of the liver on a spectrum and composition of the microflora. Among the resident microflora decreased levels of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and coliform bacteria, especially in children under one year. A sig- nificant portion of the children surveyed (over 60–70% had an increase of frequency of finding stateally bacteria, especially Klebsiella and enterobacteria in third children – non-fermenting bacteria – Pseudomonas and Acine- tobacter spp. Revealed the spread of strains of gram-negative bacteria with extended-spectrum betalaktamaz.Conclusion. Expressed microecological violations in the large intestine in children with higher levels of bac- teria are conditionally risk factor reeks of infectious complications in the postoperative period and require are complex tools to assist in eliminatsii.s given antibiotic resistance of bacteria. 

  15. Mutant Prevention Concentrations of Imipenem and Meropenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii

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    E. Dahdouh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of the MPC of carbapenems against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. and to assess its possible relationship with mechanisms of resistance. Detection of the mechanisms of resistance was performed using Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing, Double Disk Synergy, disk antagonism, addition of NaCl to the medium, addition of PBA or EDTA to Carbapenem disks, addition of PBA to Cefoxitin disks, and CCCP test for 10 Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter baumannii strains. The MIC and MPC were determined using the broth macrodilution and plate dilution methods, respectively. Four Acinetobacter baumannii strains produced MBL. Two of them produced Oxacillinase and one produced ESBL. Two Pseudomonas spp. isolates produced both KPC and MBL. The resistant Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. strains had higher MPC values than susceptible ones. However, the Mutant Selection Window was found to be dependent on the degree of resistance but not on a particular mechanism of resistance. The usefulness of the MPC was found to be dependent on its value. Based on our data, we recommend determining the MPC for each isolate before using it during treatment. Furthermore, the use of T>MSW instead of T>MIC is suggested.

  16. Nasal carriage of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among healthy population of Kashmir, India

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    B A Fomda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nasal colonisation with community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA is being increasingly reported, especially in places where people are in close contact and where hygiene is compromised. The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA colonising anterior nares of healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Nasal swabs of healthy subjects were collected aseptically and cultured using standard microbiological protocols. Antibiotic susceptibility was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Methicillin resistance was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion method and confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and amplification of mecA gene by PCR. Strain typing of MRSA strains was done by PFGE. Results: Out of 820 samples, S.aureus was isolated from 229 (27.92% subjects. Of the 229 isolates, 15 were methicillin resistant. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Nasal carriage of MRSA was found to be 1.83% among healthy population. The isolates were found to be polyclonal by PFGE analysis. Conclusion: High prevalence of MRSA is a cause of concern and strategies to interrupt transmission should be implemented.

  17. The Incidence of Nosocomial Toxigenic Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea in Tehran Tertiary Medical Centers

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    Norakhoda Sadeghifard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. It is usually a consequence of antibiotic treatment, But sporadic cases can occur. This study was aimed to determine the frequency of the nosocomial Clostridium difficile (C. difficile associated diarrhea in Tehran University of Medical Sciences hospitals and study of antibacterial susceptibility of isolates. In this study a total of 942 stool samples from patients with nosocomial diarrhea that were hospitalized in Imam Khomeini hospital, Shariati hospital and Children clinical center were collected. The samples were cultured on a selective cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA and incubated in anaerobic conditions, at 37°C for 5 days. Isolates were characterized to species level by conventional biochemical tests. Bacterial cytotoxicity was assayed on tissue culture (vero. Antimicrobial sensitivity of isolated toxigenic C. difficile were investigated by kirby Beuer method (disk diffusion. Our findings show that, of the total patients, 57 toxigenic C. difficile (6.1% were isolated. Results of statistical analysis show significant differences between the rate of isolated toxigenic C. difficile and age group of patients (P

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Protocatechuic Acid Ethyl Ester on Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Strains Alone and in Combination with Antistaphylococcal Drugs

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    Maria Miklasińska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented study was to examine in vitro the antibacterial activity of protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, EDHB against Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates alone and in the combination with four selected antibiotics. The EDHB antimicrobial activity was tested against twenty S. aureus strains isolated from the clinical samples, and three reference strains. The phenotypes and genotypes of resistance to methicillin for the tested strains were defined as well as the phenotypic resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B (MLSB. EDHB displayed diverse activity against examined S. aureus strains with the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC within the range from 64 to 1024 µg/mL. Addition of ¼ MIC of EDHB into the Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA resulted in augmented antibacterial effect in the presence of clindamycin. In the case of cefoxitin no synergistic effect with EDHB was noted. For erythromycin and vancomycin the decrease of mean MICs in the presence of EDHB was observed but did not reach statistical significance. The results of the present study showed that in vitro EDHB possesses antibacterial activity against S. aureus clinical strains and triggers a synergistic antimicrobial effect with clindamycin and to the lesser extent with erythromycin and vancomycin.

  19. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERN OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES FROM DAKSHINA KANNADA

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    Rao Venkatakrishna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important cause of infections in hospitals and pose a great challenge to the treating clinicians; even emergence of vancomycin resistance has been reported. Therefore the knowledge of prevalence of MRSA and their antimicrobial profile becomes necessary. This study is aimed to determine prevalence of MRSA and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in Dakshina Kannada.Clinical specimens and carrier samples were cultured as per standard methods. The isolates were identified by using catalase test, coagulase tube test, mannitol fermentation and DNAase test. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done for the isolates as per Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method; the isolates were also tested for methicillin resistance using oxacillin and cefoxitin discs.A total of 250 isolates were tested (200 clinical isolates and 50 from carriers and 67 MRSA isolates were obtained (52 clinical samples and 15 from carriers. The degree of resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin and erythromycin were 100%, 100%, 53-56%, 14-16 % and 45-48% respectively. Resistance to vancomycin was not found. As the degree of resistance of MRSA towards antibiotics varies from region to region, in vitro susceptibility testing of every isolate of MRSA in clinical laboratories is inevitable.

  20. Detection of Genes for Superantigen Toxins in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates in Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To detect genes for enterotoxins, exfoliative and toxic shock syndrome toxins in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains isolated from clinical specimens. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Molecular Genetics, Dr. Ziauddin Hospital, Karachi, from January to December 2010. Methodology: Two hundred and ninety eight S. aureus clinical isolates were obtained from various clinical samples received at Dr. Ziauddin Hospital, Karachi. Out of these, 115 were detected as methicillin resistant (MRSA) by cefoxitin disk diffusion test showing a prevalence rate of 38.6%. Detection of individual toxin genes was performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) by using only one primer pair for each tube. Uniplex primers were preferred as multiplex primers are longer in base pairs and have the potential for cross reaction due to non-specific binding and increase in optimization time. Results: The possession of a single gene or more than a single gene in MRSA isolates was found in 61.73% of clinical samples; the highest number was found in pus swab, followed by sputum, blood, urethral swab, and urine. The prevalence of toxin genes was higher in MRSA as compared to methicillin sensitive (MSSA) isolates (19.12%). Conclusion: PCR detects strains possessing toxin genes independent of their expression. The possession of genes for super-antigens seems to be a frequent and habitual trait of S. aureus more so in MRSA. (author)

  1. In vitro susceptibility of chloramphenicol against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the in vitro susceptibility of chloramphenicol against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January to June 2012. Methodology: One hundred and seventy four isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were included in this study using cefoxitin (30 A g) disc for detection. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of chloramphenicol against MRSA was determined by using E-strip (AB BIO DISK). The susceptibility was determined by swabbing the Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) plates with the resultant saline suspension of MRSA and applying E-strip of chloramphenicol from AB Biodisk Sweden and determining the MIC of chloramphenicol (in A g/ml). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations of A=8 A g/ml being sensitive, 16 A g/ml as intermediate and A 32 A g/ml as resistant were followed in interpreting the results. Results: Out of the 174 MRSA isolates, 132 (75.86%) isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol with MICs of A=8 A g/ml, 38 (21.84%) were resistant A=32 A g/ml while 4 (2.30%) were in intermediate range with MIC of 16 A g/ml. Conclusion: Chloramphenicol has shown good in vitro activity against MRSA and is likely to have a key role in the treatment of MRSA infections providing us a good alternative to newer expensive antimicrobials in resource limited countries. (author)

  2. 龟分枝杆菌和脓肿分枝杆菌药物敏感性分析及E试验法应用评价%Drug sensitivity analysis of Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium abscessus and evaluation of Etest for susceptibility testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂静; 王峰; 洪创跃; 李金莉; 梁静

    2013-01-01

    profile of Mycobacterium(M.) chelonae and M.abscessus and to evaluate the clinical application of Etest (epsilometer test) for susceptibility testing.Methods Twenty clinical isolates of M.abscessus and 16 clinical isolates of M.chelonae from clinical specimens were collected.Strain identification was carried out by GenoType Mycobacterium CM assay (Hain Lifescience,Germany).The accuracy was evaluated by comparing Etest results to those obtained by broth microdilution.Thirty-six isolates were tested against amikacin,cefoxitin,ciprofloxacin,clarithromycin,doxycycline,imipenem,linezolid,sulfamethoxazole and tobramycin.The agreement among MICs and interpretive category was evaluated.Chi-squared test was used to compare observed frequency of each of the 2 examples.Results All of the isolates(36/36) were sensitive to amikacin and cefoxitin,and only 1 isolate (1/36) was resistant to clarithromycin,but more isolates (29/36) were resistant to ciprofloxacin,doxycycline,imipenem and sulfamethoxazole.For M.chelonae,only 2/16 were resistant to linezolid,and 7/16 resistant to tobramycin.For M.abscessus,more than 12/20 were resistant to linezolid and 16/20resistant to tobramycin.The agreement between broth microdilution MICs and Etest MICs for 9 drugs was 149/324.With amikacin,clarithromycin,doxycycline and imipenem,the agreement for interpretive category was excellent(35/36),followed by sulfamethoxazole(34/36),which corresponded to rarely very major error of 2/36.With ciprofloxacin and tobramycin,agreement for interpretive category was 31/36 and 26/36.With cefoxitin and linezolid,the agreement of Etest MICs was the lowest (14/36),resulting in the resistant category.Conclusions Isolates of M.chelonae and M.abscessus exhibit far more susceptibility to amikacin,cefoxitin and clarithromycin than any other antimicrobial agents.Linezolid and tobramycin showed sensitivity to some isolates of M.chelonae.It is suitable for the Etest method as a simple reliable method for the drug susceptibility

  3. Molecular characterization of encoding plasmid-mediated ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamases genes in Citrobacter freundii%质粒介导产ESBLs与AmpCβ-内酰胺酶基因弗氏柠檬酸杆菌的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坚; 余方友

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the resistant mechanism of Citrobacter freundii which coexisted with ESBLs and AmpC genes. METHODS A multi-resistant Citrobacter freundii was isolated from hospital by VITEK-60 system. The detection of ESBLs was performed by the CLSI-recommended confirmatory test, Cefoxitin three-dimentional test was presented to identify AmpC β-lactamases, the mimimal inhibitative concentration (MIC) was determined by E-test. Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and sequencing were carried out for analyzing the encoding genes of β-lactamases. Conjugation study was performed to determine whether resistant genes were likely transferred by plasmid. RESULTS The isolate was highly resistant to ceftazidime (MICs,96 jug/ml), cefotaxime (MlCs,96 μg/ml), cefoxitin(MICs.256 μg/ml) , aztreonam(MICs, 192 fig/ml) , ampicillin(MICs,>256 μg/ml) and sinomin compositea(MICs,>32 fig/ml). The clinical isolate produced AmpCs and ESBLs. The presence of blacrx-M-3 and blaCMY-2 of clinical isolate were identified by PCR and sequenced. Those genes of clinical isolate could be transferred to Escherichia coli J53 through conjugation. CONCLUSION Citrobacter freundii carries ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamases genes synchronously, which were mediated by plasmid.%目的 研究一株同时产ESBLs和AmpC β-内酰胺酶弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(CFR)的耐药机制.方法 2008年1月从临床尿液标本中分离出多药耐药弗氏柠檬酸杆菌1株,采用双纸片扩散法检测产ESBLs,头孢西丁三维试验检测AmpC酶,E-test法测定抗菌药物最低抑菌浓度(MIC),聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测产ESBss和AmpC酶基因,DNA测序决定基因型;接合试验测定耐药基因的转移性.结果 临床分离出一株同时产ESBLs和AmpCβ-内酰胺酶的多药耐药弗氏柠檬酸杆菌,对头孢他啶、头孢噻肟、头孢西丁、氨曲南、氨苄西林、磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶的MIC分别为96、96、256、192、>256、>32 μg/ml,PCR扩增及测序

  4. Drug Resistance Analysis of Genitourinary Tract Secretion Neisseria Gonorrheae%泌尿生殖道分泌物淋病奈瑟菌耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常改凤; 赖玉华; 刘志伟; 周小合; 余高冰; 陈灿锋; 罗俊生

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the gender differences of patients with genitourinary tract secretion neisseria gonorrheae and the drug resistance of neisseria gonorrheae, to analyze the epidemic characteristics of drug-resistant strains, and provide evidence for rational drug use in clinic. [ Methods] TM selective medium was adopted for neisseria gonorrheae separation of identification, Drug susceptibility adopted K-B method. [Results] Of 219 cases of gonorrhea infection, male and female infection rate was 22.80%,5.40%, respectively. Its resistance to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline was above 80%, 72.60% for Penicillin, 10.05% for ceftriaxone, 13.47% for cefotaxime and 2.74% for spectinomycin. While drug-resistant strains to cefoxitin were not found. [ Conclusion ] Neisseria gonorrheae is highly sensitive to spectinomycin and cefoxitin which can be taken as first choice for clinical use by doctors'experiences. It is highly resistant to penicillin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. Therefore, these antibiotics should be used as little as possible to reduce the generation of drug-resistant strains.%目的 了解深圳市宝安区部分地区患者泌尿生殖道分泌物淋病奈瑟菌感染性别差异及耐药谱,分析耐药菌株的流行特点,为临床制定合理用药方案提供依据.方法 淋病奈瑟菌采用TM选择性培养基进行分离鉴定,药敏结果采用K-B法.结果 219例淋病患者中男性女性感染率分别为22.80%、5.40%,其对氟喹诺酮类和四环素耐药率均达80%以上,对青霉素耐药率为72.60%,对头孢曲松、头孢噻肟和大观霉素的耐药率分别为10.05%、13.47%和2.74%,未发现对头孢西丁耐药菌株.结论 淋病奈瑟菌对大观霉素和头孢西丁的敏感性较高,可作为医生凭经验治疗的首选药物,对青霉素、四环素和环丙沙星高水平耐药,尽量少用以提高疗效和减少耐药菌株的产生.

  5. Perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em amostras de cocos Gram-positivos, catalase negativos, isoladas de mastite subclínica bubalina Profile of antimicrobial susceptibility in strains of Gram positive cocos, negative catalase, isolated from buffalo subclinical mastitis

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    Maria C.E. Vianni

    2003-06-01

    the State of Rio de Janeiro. The test used was diffusion of disks in agar Müller Hinton, according to recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards - NCCLS. There were tested disks with ampicillin (10mg, cefalotin (30mg, cefotaxime (30mg, cefoxitin (30mg, cloranfenicol (30mg, eritromycin (15mg, gentamycin (10mg, nitrofurantoin (300mg, norfloxacin (10mg, penicillin (10 IU, tetracyclin (30mg and vancomycin (30mg. The results showed that with Lactococcus garvieae, the most efficient antimicrobial was nitrofurantoin, revealing 85.71% sensibility, followed by cefotaxime (61.90%, vancomycin (52.38%, norfloxacin (47.62& and cefalotin (47.62%. The highest resistance was developed against penicillin and ampicillin, with 95.24% resistance for the two antimicrobials. The susceptibility profile developed by the strains of Enterococcus gallinarum showed low sensibility against the tested antimicrobials; the highest resistance observed was against eritromycin and gentamycin, with 33.34% sensibility for both. The antimicrobial evaluation showed 100% resistance against vancomycin and tetracyclin, followed by cloranfenicol, penicillin, ampicillin, cefoxitin, cefotaxim, norfloxacin and nitrofurantoin; all of them showed a resistance of 83.33% with the samples tested.

  6. Investigation of susceptibility of Staphylococcus species to some antibacterial drugs by disk diffusion and broth microdilution

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    Ašanin Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify isolated Staphylococcus species and to investigate their sensitivity to some antibacterial drugs. The material used for these investigations were Staphylococcus isolates originating from milk samples. A total of 25 strains of Staphylococcus isolates were examined, including 24 from milk samples from cows with mastitis, and one strain was isolated from a milk sample from a cow following treatment for mastitis. For primary identification, catalase and oxidase tests were used, as well as the free coagulase test. Following the preliminary tests, the isolated strains were identified using commercial systems ID32 STAPH (bioMérieux, France and the BBL Crystal Gram-Positive ID Kit (Becton Dickinson, USA according to the enclosed instructions. The Staphylococcus isolates were examined for sensitivity to the following: oxacillin, penicillin, cefoxitin, gentamicin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim, and vacomycin using the disk diffusion method and the broth microdilution method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Strandards Institute - CLSI(2003, and the results were interpreted according to CLSI recommendations from 2008 and 2010. Antibiogram disks manufactured by Becton Dickinson (USA were used, and the broth microdilution method was applied using pure antibiotic substances from different manufacturers: erythromycin, chloramphenicol, cefoxitin, gentamicin, oxacillin, tetracycline (Sigma Aldrich, USA, sulfametoxazol (Fluka, USA, penicillin (Calbiochem, Germany, vancomycin (Abbott laboratories, USA, ciprofloxacin and trimetoprim (Zdravlje A.D., Serbia. All 25 strains were catalase positive and oxidase negative. Of the 25 strains, 19 were coagulase positive and 6 were coagulase negative.With the implementation of the disk diffusion method on 19 strains of S. aureus, 17 were established to be resistant to penicillin (89.5%, and 2 strains to gentamicin

  7. Drug resistance of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and factors for enzyme production%产超广谱β-内酰胺酶大肠埃希菌的耐药性及产酶因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆海霞; 陈俊清; 吴容

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the factors associated with production of extended spectrum fl- lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and the measures to prevent its sprgad and treatment. METHODS A total of 2Q5 E. Coli strains isolated from various specimens of in patients admitted from Jan 2008 to Jan 2010 were analysed. The drug resistance of these strains were analysed using KB method recommended by CLSI. RESULTS A total of 89 ESBLs-producing E. Coli were isolated from the 205 E. Coli strains during the 3 years. The isolation rate was 43. 5%. All ESBLs producing" strains were sensitive to imipenium and amikacin and the resistancerate to njtrofurantion piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoxitin was less than 10. 0%. The resistance rate remained almost the same in the 3 years. Prolon ged continuous use of antibiotics, high freguency of antibiotics usage, the use of the third generation cephalosporins, combination of antibiotics and frequent changes of antibiotics could induce the emergence of ESBLs producing strains. CONCLUSIONS The sensitivity rates of ESBLs producing strains to impenium amikacin, nitrofurantion, piperacillin/tagobactam and cefoxitin are higher than 90. 0% but the strains themselves are cross-resistant and multidrug-resistant to other antibiotics. Continuous use of antibiotics for a long time, the use of third generation cephalosporin, combination of antibiotics and frequent dressing can easily lead to ESBLs-producing.%目的 分析医院2008年1月-2010年1月产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)大肠埃希菌的耐药性及其产酶因素.方法收集2008年1月-2010年1月住院患者不同标本分离的大肠埃希菌205株,按照CLSI推荐的纸片扩散法(K-B法),进行耐药性检测和产ESBLs菌株的确认;产ESBLs组与非产ESBLs组之间比较计数资料采用t检验、卡方检验及多因素logistic回归进行分析.结果 205株大肠埃希菌中,检出产ESBLs大肠埃希菌89株,检出率43.4%;所有产ESBLs大肠埃希菌对亚胺培南

  8. Long-Term Evolution Studies of E. Coli under Combined Effects of Simulated Microgravity and Antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Tirumalai, Madhan R.; Ott, Mark C.; Pierson, Duane L.; Fox, George E.; Tran, Quyen

    2016-07-01

    , Cefoxitin and Tetracycline), even after 11 cycles of 'erasure' of the 'adaptation memory' - this 'erasure' was accomplished by re-growing the evolved cells under shaker flask conditions and 1 cycle equals 10 generations. In the case of the cells evolved using heat sterilized HARVs, no resistance was observed to any of the an-tibiotics used (Ampicillin, Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid, Piperacillin/Tazobactam, Cefalotin, Cefazolin, Cefuroxime, Cefuroxime Axetil, Cefoxitin, Cefpodox-ime, Ceftazidime, Ceftriaxone, Cefepime, Gentamicin, Tobramycin, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Tetracycline, Nitrofurantoin, and Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole), even after 1000 generations of growth under LSMMG. Competition experiments using an isogenic pair revealed that the adaptive advantage of the 1000G strain (in both cases) over an unexposed strain was rapidly eliminated. While this obviously implies that the adaptation was primarily environmental rather than genomic, the levels of antibiotic resistance observed to be consistently maintained, raises the concern of persistent resistance conferred to bacterial communities through exposure to antibiotics on space missions. Supported by grants from the Center for Bionanotechnology and Environmental Research at Texas Southern University (NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX08B4A47A).

  9. 黏质沙雷菌中AmpC酶的检测及药敏率分析%Antimicrobial resistance of AmpC-producing serratia marcescens in Anhui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海飞; 程君; 胡立芬; 刘艳艳; 潘亚超; 朱玉林; 李家斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the resistance of AmpC - producing Serratia marcescens for providing the scientific evidence in clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods Potential AmpC - producing strains were detected by the cefoxitin disk diffusion method as described by CLSI 2010. Three - dimensional test was adopted for confirming AmpC - producing strains. The MICs of Serratia marcescens were determined by broth microdilution method. The results were judged according to the criteria recommended by CLSI 2010. Results The majority of Serratia marcescens were isolated from the specimen of sputum, accounting for 59. 6% . The bacteria were mostly detected in Respiratory department, followed by Intensive Care Unit, Gerontology Department. 41 of 104 isolates were identified as resistant to cefoxitin, accounting for 39. 4%. 8 strains ( 7. 7% ) produced AmpC β - lactamases. The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that all strains were sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. The rates of resistance to cefepime, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin remained relatively unchanged between AmpC - producing strains and non - AmpC - producing strains. The resistant rates to other antimicrobial agents were significantly statistical difference ( P <0. 05 ) between the AmpC - producers and the non - AmpC - producers. Conclusion It showed that the production of AmpC β -lactamases in Serratia marcescens confers a high level of resistance to most kinds of antimicrobial agents. Carbapenems, fluoro-quinolones, and fourth generation cephalosporins should be selected in empirical therapy of serious infections caused by AmpC - producing Serratia marcescens.%目的 了解安徽省临床分离的104株黏质沙雷菌中AmpC酶的产生情况及其对常用抗菌药物的耐药特征,以指导临床合理用药.方法 采用头孢西丁纸片扩散法筛选疑产AmpC酶阳性菌株,并用酶粗提物进行三维试验确证产AmpC酶菌株.药敏试验采用琼脂稀释法,依据CLSI 2010年推荐的

  10. ADC-57型头孢菌素酶分子进化及与底物结合自由能分析%Molecular evolution and binding free energy analysis of substrates of cephalosporinase ADC-57

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周军; 王玉月; 张秋娣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze molecular evolution and binding free energies of cephalosporinase ADC-57.Methods Minimum Evolution method in MEGA 5.0 was used to analyze molecular evolution of cephalosporinase ADC-57 and other 19 kinds of beta-lactamases.Tertiary structure of ADC-57 was predicted by homology modeling referring to tertiary structure of CMY-2.The molecular docking of ADC-57 to 11kinds of beta-lactams substrates was performed using DOCK module in ArgusLab 4.1and the binding free energies (△G) was calculated.Results ADC-57,CMY-2,DHA-1,ADC-7,ADC-56 were all belong to class C beta-lactamase,and molecular evolution between ADC-57 and ADC-56 was closest.The top three antibiotics with declining binding free energy of beta-lactams were ertapenem,cefoxitin and ceftazidine,while the last two were clavulanic acid and aztreonam.Conclusions Catalytic activities of cephalosporinase ADC-57 to ertapenem,cefoxitin and ceftazidine are high,while to clavulanic acid and aztreonam are low. Hydrolytic activities of enzyme to beta-lactams (substrates) can be analyzed by molecular docking.%目的 分析ADC-57型头孢菌素酶分子进化及其对各种底物的结合自由能.方法 用MEGA 5.0软件中的最小进化法分析ADC-57和其他19种β-内酰胺酶的分子进化,参照同类酶CMY-2型酶作同源建模获得ADC67型头孢菌素酶分子的3D结构,并用ArgusLab 4.1软件中的DOCK模块作ADC-57型头孢菌素酶与11种β-内酰胺类药物底物的分子对接,最后计算酶与底物的结合自由能值(△G).结果 ADC-57与CMY-2、DHA-1、ADC-7、ADC-56归属为C类β-内酰胺酶,均为头孢菌素酶,且与ADC-56关系最为密切.ADC-57与β-内酰胺类药物结合自由能下降居前3位的为厄他培南、头孢西丁和头孢他啶,结合自由能下降排在后2位的为克拉维酸和氨曲南.结论 ADC-57型头孢菌素酶对厄他培南、头孢西丁和头孢他啶的催化能力高,而对克拉维酸和氨曲南的催化能力低.分子对接

  11. Atividade in vitro de cinco drogas antimicrobianas contra Neisseria gonorrhoeae Activity of five antimicrobial agents in vitro against Neisseria gonorrhoeae

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    Walter Belda Júnior

    2002-12-01

    morbidity, it was necessary to carry out a program of epidemiologic surveillance evaluating the sensitivity behavior of the etiologic agents against the various therapeutic agents. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: The objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to the five drugs which are mostly used for the treatment of gonorrhea in Brazil (pencillin; cefoxitine; tetracycline; thiamphenicol and spectinomycine, by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We concluded that drugs such as cefoxitine, thiamphenicol and spectinomycine are still excellent drugs for the treatment of gonorrhea. Although penicillin continues to be effective, its use requires greater care, due to the emergence of resistant strains, and tetracycline must be absolutely avoided for the treatment of gonorrhea.

  12. Analysis and Detection of Plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase Genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae of One Hospital in Changsha by Using Multiplex PCR%长沙某医院产质粒AmpC酶型肺炎克雷伯菌的多重PCR检测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雨昕; 叶湘漓; 陶科; 雷立芳

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and genotype of the plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases of Klebsiella pneumoniae in clinical isolates from one hospital of Changsha, a total of 104 non-duplicate clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, which were saved mindedly from March 2008 to October 2010 in this hospital, were selected by cefoxitin disk diffusion test firstly. Then multiple PCR method was employed to test ampC resistance genotypes in AmpC enzyme phe-notype-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Among the 104 Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates, 19 strains were not sensitive to cefoxitin disk. 12 strains of these 19 non-sensitive clinical isolates were presented positive at the 400 bp bands (11 strains) and 350 bp band ( 1 strain) separately by multiple PCR, and the specific PCR determined that these 12 strains carried DHA type (11 strains) and ACC type ( 1 strain) ampC resistance gene seperately. The separation rate of producing plasmid-mediated AmpC enzyme of Klebsiella pneumoniae was 11.5% (12/104). The separation rate of producing plasmid-mediated AmpC enzyme of clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in this hospital is high, and much attention should be paid to their detections and surveillance.%为了了解湖南长沙某医院临床分离的肺炎克雷伯菌中质粒介导AmpC β-内酰胺酶的产生情况及其基因型,收集了该医院2008年3月至2010年10月临床分离的多重耐药肺炎克雷伯菌104株,用头孢西丁纸片扩散法对这些菌株进行表型初筛,用多重PCR确定ampC耐药基因型;结果发现其中有19株对头孢西丁纸片不敏感,疑为产AmpC酶菌株;再经多重PCR扩增,有12株菌分别在约400 bp(11株)和约350 bp(1株)出现了阳性条带,特异性PCR证明此12株菌分别携带了DHA型(11株)和ACC型(1株)ampC耐药基因;产质粒介导AmpC酶肺炎克雷伯菌的分离率为11.5%(12/104).该医院产质粒介导AmpC酶肺炎克雷伯菌的分离率较高,应对其检测与

  13. Application evaluation of the real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR in the rapid identification of MRSA%实时荧光定量PCR在快速检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭; 肖淑珍; 董丹凤; 杨海慧; 李生香; 倪语星; 韩立中

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application significance; of the real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) in the rapid identification of met hi cill in -resist ant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA ). Methods A total of 85 Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from clinical samples, and MRSA and met hi cill in-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus ( MSSA) were detected and differentiated by cefoxitin disk diffusion method and conventional PCR amplification of mecA gene. These strains were also detected by the real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. The accordance of the real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR with conventional methods was evaluated. Results According to the results of the cefoxitin disk diffusion method and conventional PCR amplification of mecA gene, 45 out of 85 strains were MRSA, and 40 out of 85 strains were MSSA. The real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR had an excellent accordance ( 100% ) with those methods. Conclusions The real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR has an excellent accordance with conventional methods for detecting MRSA, and it has the advantages of ease of performance and costing short turn-around time. As a rapid identification method, the real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR can identify MRSA accurately, which is helpful for the clinical therapy of MRSA infections and for the control of MRSA transmission in hospitals.%目的 评价实时荧光定量聚合酶链反应(PCR)在快速检测耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)中的应用.方法 采用头孢西丁纸片扩散法和mecA基因PCR检测法,将85株临床分离的金黄色葡萄球菌区分为MRSA和甲氧西林敏感金黄色葡萄球菌(MSSA),并采用实时荧光定量PCR对这些菌株进行检测,评价MRSA检测中实时荧光定量PCR与目前常规检测方法的一致性.结果 根据头孢西丁纸片扩散法和mecA基因扩增结果进行分组,85株金黄色葡萄球菌中MRSA组菌株45株,MSSA组菌株40株;实时荧光

  14. Prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the district of Pomoravlje

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    Petrović-Jeremić Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA strains appear to have rapidly disseminated among population in the community without established risk factors for MRSA worldwide. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL is a cytolytic toxin, encoded by the lukF-PV and lukF-PV genes. PVL may be the key toxin responsible for enhanced virulence of CA-MRSA. The aim of this study was to detect the genes encoding PVL in CA-MRSA isolates from healthy people from the District of Pomoravlje. Methods. We took throat and nose swabs from healthy, employed persons with mandatory sanitary examinations and analyzed the presence of MRSA, between January 2011 and December 2012 in the District of Pomoravlje. Susceptibility of isolated strains to cefoxitin was investigated by using disc diffusion according to the recommendation of CLSI (Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute, and by E test. The presence of penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a in Staphylococci was detected using latex agglutination Slidex ®MRSA Detection test. The gold standard, polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay, was used for detection of mecA gene and PVL gene, and typing of SCCmec region. Results. Our investigation showed that staphylococcal carrier state was present in 2.58% of 52,910 throat and nasal swabs, and in 50 of them (3.67% MRSA was isolated. Among these MRSA, 2 (4% isolates were PVL-positive. Conclusion. The prevalence of CAMRSA and the presence of PVL gene among healthy, employed population in the District of Pomoravlje were low. The values obtained in this study show that, our region is not significantly different from the other parts of our country, nor from the other European countries.

  15. Incidence, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Toxin Genes Possession Screening of Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Chicken Livers and Gizzards

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    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Few recent outbreaks in Europe and the US involving Campylobacter and Salmonella were linked to the consumption of chicken livers. Studies investigating Staphylococcus aureus in chicken livers and gizzards are very limited. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence of S. aureus and MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in retail chicken livers and gizzards in Tulsa, Oklahoma. In this study, 156 chicken livers and 39 chicken gizzards samples of two brands were collected. While one of the brands showed very low prevalence of 1% (1/100 for S. aureus in chicken livers and gizzards, the second brand showed prevalence of 37% (31/95. No MRSA was detected since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. Eighty seven S. aureus isolates from livers and 28 from gizzards were screened for antimicrobial resistance to 16 antimicrobials and the possession of 18 toxin genes. Resistance to most of the antimicrobials screened including cefoxitin and oxacillin was higher in the chicken gizzards isolates. While the prevalence of enterotoxin genes seg and sei was higher in the gizzards isolates, the prevalence of hemolysin genes hla, hlb, and hld was higher in the livers ones. The lucocidin genes lukE-lukD was equally prevalent in chicken livers and gizzards isolates. Using spa typing, a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are not known to be livestock associated and, hence, may be of a human origin. In conclusion, this study stresses the importance of thorough cooking of chicken livers and gizzards since it might contain multidrug resistant enterotoxigenic S. aureus. To our knowledge this is the first study to specifically investigate the prevalence of S. aureus in chicken livers and gizzards in the US.

  16. The Soil Microbiota Harbors a Diversity of Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing β-Lactamases of Potential Clinical Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Bortolaia, Valeria; Amos, Greg; Wellington, Elizabeth M H; Brandt, Kristian K; Poirel, Laurent; Nielsen, Jesper Boye; Westh, Henrik; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The origin of carbapenem-hydrolyzing metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) acquired by clinical bacteria is largely unknown. We investigated the frequency, host range, diversity, and functionality of MBLs in the soil microbiota. Twenty-five soil samples of different types and geographical origins were analyzed by antimicrobial selective culture, followed by phenotypic testing and expression of MBL-encoding genes in Escherichia coli, and whole-genome sequencing of MBL-producing strains was performed. Carbapenemase activity was detected in 29 bacterial isolates from 13 soil samples, leading to identification of seven new MBLs in presumptive Pedobacter roseus (PEDO-1), Pedobacter borealis (PEDO-2), Pedobacter kyungheensis (PEDO-3), Chryseobacterium piscium (CPS-1), Epilithonimonas tenax (ESP-1), Massilia oculi (MSI-1), and Sphingomonas sp. (SPG-1). Carbapenemase production was likely an intrinsic feature in Chryseobacterium and Epilithonimonas, as it occurred in reference strains of different species within these genera. The amino acid identity to MBLs described in clinical bacteria ranged between 40 and 69%. Remarkable features of the new MBLs included prophage integration of the encoding gene (PEDO-1), an unusual amino acid residue at a key position for MBL structure and catalysis (CPS-1), and overlap with a putative OXA β-lactamase (MSI-1). Heterologous expression of PEDO-1, CPS-1, and ESP-1in E. coli significantly increased the MICs of ampicillin, ceftazidime, cefpodoxime, cefoxitin, and meropenem. Our study shows that MBL producers are widespread in soil and include four genera that were previously not known to produce MBLs. The MBLs produced by these bacteria are distantly related to MBLs identified in clinical samples but constitute resistance determinants of clinical relevance if acquired by pathogenic bacteria. PMID:26482314

  17. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage, Antibiotic Resistance and Molecular Pathogenicity among Healthy Individuals Exposed and Not Exposed to Hospital Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Veena; Renushri, Bhadravati Virupaksha; Nagaraj, Elkal Rajappa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthcare workers as well as healthy community-dwelling individuals may be colonised by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Healthcare workers who carry MRSA may transmit it to patients, causing various nosocomial infections. Literature shows that the differences between MRSA isolated from healthcare settings and from community settings, with regard to multi-drug resistance (traditionally exhibited by the former) and possession of pvl genes (traditionally exhibited by the latter), is diminishing due to a large community reservoir and increasing influx of community harboured strains into the hospital. However, there is no literature on the current scenario in India. Aims and Objectives: This study examines the influence of exposure to hospital environment on MRSA carriage, antimicrobial resistance patterns of MRSA, and the presence of genes encoding five extracellular pathogenicity determinants (pvl, sea, seb, tsst-1 and hly a). Materials and Methods: Nasal, throat and palmar swabs were collected from 119 nursing students of the age group 18-23 years (exposed group) and 100 age matched pharmacy students (non-exposed group). S. aureus was identified and antibiogram obtained as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. MRSA was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion test and by growth on oxacillin screen agar as per CLSI guidelines. Conventional PCR was performed for mecA, pvl, sea, seb, tsst-1 and hly a. Results: The differences in carrier rates, antibiotic resistance patterns and expression of extracellular pathogenicity determinants between MRSA isolates from the two study groups were not significant, and pvl was found in all the MRSA isolates. Conclusion: The nursing students carried MRSA strains similar to those carried by the non-exposed group. Our results suggest that healthcare workers could act as a link and transmit MRSA acquired from the community to patients. PMID:25177563

  18. Clostridium difficile infection diagnosis in a paediatric population: comparison of methodologies.

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    Hart, J; Putsathit, P; Knight, D R; Sammels, L; Riley, T V; Keil, A

    2014-09-01

    The increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in paediatric hospitalised populations, combined with the emergence of hypervirulent strains, community-acquired CDI and the need for prompt treatment and infection control, makes the rapid, accurate diagnosis of CDI crucial. We validated commonly used C. difficile diagnostic tests in a paediatric hospital population. From October 2011 to January 2012, 150 consecutive stools were collected from 75 patients at a tertiary paediatric hospital in Perth, Western Australia. Stools were tested using: C. Diff Quik Chek Complete, Illumigene C. difficile, GeneOhm Cdiff, cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA) culture, and cell culture cytotoxin neutralisation assay (CCNA). The reference standard was growth on CCFA or Cdiff Chromagar and PCR on isolates to detect tcdA, tcdB, cdtA, and cdtB. Isolates were PCR ribotyped. The prevalence of CDI was high (43 % of patients). Quik Chek Complete glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) demonstrated a low negative predictive value (NPV) (93 %). Both CCNA and Quik Chek Complete toxin A/B had poor sensitivity (33 % and 29 % respectively). Molecular methods both had 89 % sensitivity. Algorithms using GDH + Illumigene or GeneOhm reduced the sensitivity to 85 % and 83 % respectively. Ribotype UK014/20 predominated. GDH NPV and GeneOhm and Illumigene sensitivities were reduced compared with adult studies. Quik Chek Complete and CCNA cannot reliably detect toxigenic CDI. A GDH first algorithm showed reduced sensitivity. In a high prevalence paediatric population, molecular methods alone are recommended over the use of GDH algorithm or culture and CCNA, as they demonstrate the best test performance characteristics. PMID:24781004

  19. Screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers among individuals exposed and not exposed to the hospital environment and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern

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    Bhadravathi Virupaksha Renushri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluated the influence of exposure to the hospital environment on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA carriage. The antibiograms of the MRSA isolates were examined. Materials and Methods: Nasal, throat, and web-space swabs were collected from 119 nursing students of the age group 18-23 years (exposed group and 100 age-matched pharmacy students (nonexposed group. S. aureus was identified and antibiogram obtained as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. MRSA was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion test and by growth on oxacillin screen agar as per CLSI guidelines. The presence of the mecA gene was confirmed by conventional polymerase chain reaction. Results: The MRSA carrier rates were 11.8% and 4% in the exposed and nonexposed groups, respectively. Association of exposure to the hospital environment with MRSA colonization was statistically significant. All MRSA isolates showed sensitivity to netilmicin, linezolid, tetracycline, vancomycin and teicoplanin. Among the exposed group, 71.4% MRSA isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 64.3% to cotrimoxazole, 64.3% to erythromycin, 28.6% to gentamicin and 21.4% to clindamycin. Among the nonexposed group, 75% MRSA isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 25% to cotrimoxazole, 25% to erythromycin, 25% to gentamicin and 25% to clindamycin. Conclusion: Exposure to the hospital environment was found to be a significant risk factor for MRSA carriage. Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA isolates showed greater resistance toward antimicrobials compared with community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA isolates. This highlights the need for the appropriate institution of pharmacotherapy in cases of HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA infections and control of transmission by carriers.

  20. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Ready-to-Eat Foods in China.

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    Yang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jumei; Yu, Shubo; Wu, Qingping; Guo, Weipeng; Huang, Jiahui; Cai, Shuzhen

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA), is a life-threatening pathogen in humans, and its presence in food is a public health concern. MRSA has been identified in foods in China, but little information is available regarding MRSA in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in Chinese retail RTE foods. All isolated S. aureus were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and MRSA isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. Of the 550 RTE foods collected from 2011 to 2014, 69 (12.5%) were positive for S. aureus. Contamination levels were mostly in the range of 0.3-10 most probable number (MPN)/g, with five samples exceeding 10 MPN/g. Of the 69 S. aureus isolates, seven were identified as MRSA by cefoxitin disc diffusion test. Six isolates were mecA-positive, while no mecC-positive isolates were identified. In total, 75.8% (47/62) of the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates and all of the MRSA isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Amongst the MRSA isolates, four were identified as community-acquired strains (ST59-MRSA-IVa (n = 2), ST338-MRSA-V, ST1-MRSA-V), while one was a livestock-associated strain (ST9, harboring an unreported SCCmec type 2C2). One novel sequence type was identified (ST3239), the SCCmec gene of which could not be typed. Overall, our findings showed that Chinese retail RTE foods are likely vehicles for transmission of multidrug-resistant S. aureus and MRSA lineages. This is a serious public health risk and highlights the need to implement good hygiene practices.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus: resistance pattern and risk factors

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    Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.

  2. Clostridium difficile infection diagnosis in a paediatric population: comparison of methodologies.

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    Hart, J; Putsathit, P; Knight, D R; Sammels, L; Riley, T V; Keil, A

    2014-09-01

    The increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in paediatric hospitalised populations, combined with the emergence of hypervirulent strains, community-acquired CDI and the need for prompt treatment and infection control, makes the rapid, accurate diagnosis of CDI crucial. We validated commonly used C. difficile diagnostic tests in a paediatric hospital population. From October 2011 to January 2012, 150 consecutive stools were collected from 75 patients at a tertiary paediatric hospital in Perth, Western Australia. Stools were tested using: C. Diff Quik Chek Complete, Illumigene C. difficile, GeneOhm Cdiff, cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA) culture, and cell culture cytotoxin neutralisation assay (CCNA). The reference standard was growth on CCFA or Cdiff Chromagar and PCR on isolates to detect tcdA, tcdB, cdtA, and cdtB. Isolates were PCR ribotyped. The prevalence of CDI was high (43 % of patients). Quik Chek Complete glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) demonstrated a low negative predictive value (NPV) (93 %). Both CCNA and Quik Chek Complete toxin A/B had poor sensitivity (33 % and 29 % respectively). Molecular methods both had 89 % sensitivity. Algorithms using GDH + Illumigene or GeneOhm reduced the sensitivity to 85 % and 83 % respectively. Ribotype UK014/20 predominated. GDH NPV and GeneOhm and Illumigene sensitivities were reduced compared with adult studies. Quik Chek Complete and CCNA cannot reliably detect toxigenic CDI. A GDH first algorithm showed reduced sensitivity. In a high prevalence paediatric population, molecular methods alone are recommended over the use of GDH algorithm or culture and CCNA, as they demonstrate the best test performance characteristics.

  3. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria isolated from hematologic patients in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Cristina Motta Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic therapy in hematologic patients, often weak and susceptible to a wide range of infections, particularly nosocomial infections derived from long hospitalization periods, is a challenging issue. This paper presents ESBL-producing strains isolated from such hematologic patients treated at the Amazon Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation (HEMOAM in the Brazilian Amazon Region to identify the ESBL genes carried by them as well as the susceptibility to 11 antimicrobial agents using the E-test method. A total of 146 clinical samples were obtained from July 2007 to August 2008, when 17 gram-negative strains were isolated in our institution. The most frequent isolates confirmed by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing were E. coli (8/17, Serratia spp. (3/17 and B.cepacia (2/17. All gram-negative strains were tested for extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases (ESBLs, where: (12/17 strains carried ESBL; among these, (8/12 isolates carried blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaOXA, blaSHV genes, (1/12 blaTEM gene and (3/12 blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaOXA genes. Antibiotic resistance was found in (15/17 of the isolates for tetracycline, (12/17 for ciprofloxacin, (1/17 resistance for cefoxitin and chloramphenicol, (1/17 for amikacin and (3/17 cefepime. This research showed the presence of gram-negative ESBL-producing bacteria infecting hematologic patients in HEMOAM. These strains carried the blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M and blaOXA genes and were resistant to different antibiotics used in the treatment. This finding was based on a period of 13 months, during which clinical samples from specific populations were obtained. Therefore, caution is required when generalizing the results that must be based on posological orientations and new breakpoints for disk diffusion and microdilution published by CLSI 2010.

  4. Evaluation of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants.

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    Wojewoda, Christina M; Sercia, Linda; Navas, Maria; Tuohy, Marion; Wilson, Deborah; Hall, Geraldine S; Procop, Gary W; Richter, Sandra S

    2013-07-01

    Rapid identification of pathogens from blood cultures can decrease lengths of stay and improve patient outcomes. We evaluated the accuracy of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture (BC-GP) nucleic acid test for investigational use only (Nanosphere, Inc., Northbrook, IL) for the identification of Gram-positive bacteria from blood cultures. The detection of resistance genes (mecA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and vanA or vanB in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis) by the BC-GP assay also was assessed. A total of 186 positive blood cultures (in BacT/Alert FA bottles) with Gram-positive cocci observed with Gram staining were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. The BC-GP results were compared with the identification and susceptibility profiles obtained with routine methods in the clinical laboratory. Discordant results were arbitrated with additional biochemical, cefoxitin disk, and repeat BC-GP testing. The initial BC-GP organism identification was concordant with routine method results for 94.6% of the blood cultures. Only 40% of the Streptococcus pneumoniae identifications were correct. The detection of the mecA gene for 69 blood cultures with only S. aureus or S. epidermidis was concordant with susceptibility testing results. For 3 of 6 cultures with multiple Staphylococcus spp., mecA detection was reported but was correlated with oxacillin resistance in a species other than S. aureus or S. epidermidis. The detection of vanA agreed with susceptibility testing results for 45 of 46 cultures with E. faecalis or E. faecium. Comparison of the mean times to results for each organism group showed that BC-GP results were available 31 to 42 h earlier than phenotypic identifications and 41 to 50 h earlier than susceptibility results.

  5. Determination of antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance profiles of some bacteria isolated from aquatic amphibian and reptile species.

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    Hacioglu, Nurcihan; Tosunoglu, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the level of antibiotic resistance patterns and distribution of heavy metal resistance of bacterial isolates from aquatic animals (Lissotriton vulgaris, Pelophylax ridibundus, Emys orbicularis, Mauremys rivulata, and Natrix natrix) in Turkey (Kavak Delta). A total of 153 bacteria have been successfully isolated from cloaca and oral samples of the aquatic amphibians and reptilians which were found, namely, Aeromonas sp. (n = 29), Plesiomonas sp. (n = 7), Vibrio sp. (n = 12), Citrobacter sp. (n = 12), Enterobacter sp. (n = 11), Escherichia sp. (n = 22), Klebsiella sp. (n = 22), Edwardsiella sp. (n = 6), Hafnia sp. (n = 1), Proteus sp. (n = 19), Providencia sp. (n = 8), and Pseudomonas sp. (n = 4). In terms of antibiotic and heavy metal susceptibility testing, each isolate was tested against 12 antibiotics and 4 metals. There was a high incidence of resistance to cefoxitin (46.40 %), ampicillin (44.44 %), erythromycin (35.29 %), and a low incidence of resistance to gentamicin (6.53 %), kanamycin (8.49 %), chloramphenicol (9.15 %), and cefotaxime (10.45 %). The multiple antibiotic resistance index of each bacterial species indicated that bacteria from raised amphibians and reptiles have been exposed to tested antibiotics, with results ranging from 0 to 0.58. Most isolates showed tolerance to different concentrations of heavy metals, and minimal inhibition concentrations ranged from100 to >3,200 μg/mL. According to these results, a significant occurrence of bacteria in the internal organs of reptiles and amphibians, with a high incidence of resistance against antibiotics and heavy metals, may risk aquatic animals and the public health. These data appoint the importance of epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring and reinforce the need to implement environment protection programs for amphibian and reptile species.

  6. PREDISPOSING FACTORS AND AETIOLOGY OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN

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    Prem Prakash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common infection in pregnant women. It is responsible for range of complications causing perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. AIM To assess the associated risk factors, aetiology and their antibiogram of UTI among pregnant women. METHODOLOGY This is a cross-sectional study carried out in Department of Microbiology & Department of Obstetrics from March 2015 to February 2016. The patient details and risk factors were recorded. Midstream & catheter urine specimens from pregnant women with symptoms of UTI were collected and sent for routine microscopy, culture and sensitivity. RESULTS In 550 pregnant women, 122(22.18% had significant bacteriuria and 72(17.72% had low colony count UTI. The most affected number age group was 25-35 years (58.85% followed by 15-25 years. Of the associated risk factors, multiparity 45.31%, low socioeconomic status 42.18%, anaemia 39.06% etc. were important. Escherichia coli was most frequently isolated with a percentage of 29.14%, followed by Klebsiella species (17.49%, S. aureus (14.34% etc. Other isolated micro-organisms included Enterococci, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter species. The antibiotics with more than 50% sensitivity against Gram-negative isolates were Imipenem (74.7%, Levofloxacin (73.17%, Ciprofloxacin (69.10%, Amikacin (57.72%, Amoxiclav (55.28%, and Cefoperazone/Sulbactam (50.40%. The antibiotics for Gram-positive isolates were Linezolid (88.46%, Cefoxitin (78.84%, Teicoplanin (69.23% and Vancomycin (65.22%. CONCLUSION We found associated risk factors such as multiparity, low socioeconomic status, etc. E. coli was the most common bacteria isolated in our setting. Therefore, pregnant women should be assessed for associated risk factors and evaluated for the pathogenic organism during their regular follow-up. The drug sensitivity should be taken into consideration with their side effects related to pregnancy.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance in Dschang, Cameroon

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    Fusi-Ngwa Catherine Kesah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-care-associated and community infections remain problematic in most of Africa where the increasing incidences of diseases, wars, poverty, malnutrition, and general environmental deterioration have led to the gradual collapse of the health-care system. Detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR remains imperative for the surveillance purposes and optimal management of infectious diseases. This study reports the status of AMR in pathogens in Dschang. Materials and Methods: From May 2009 to March 2010, the clinical specimens collected at two hospitals were processed accorded to the standard procedures. Antibiotic testing was performed by E test, and antimycotics by disc-agar diffusion, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute on pathogens comprising Staphylococcus aureus (100 strains, Enterococcus faecalis (35, Klebsiella pneumoniae (75, Escherichia coli (50, Proteus mirabilis (30, Pseudomonas aruginosa (50, Acinetobacter species (20, and Candida albicans (150 against common antimicrobials. Results: There was no vancomycin resistance in the cocci, the minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of these strains MIC 90 was 3 μg/ml, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA was 43%, benzyl penicillin 89% resistance in S. aureus as opposed to 5.7% in E. faecalis. Low resistance (<10% was recorded to cefoxitin, cefotaxime, and nalidixic acid (MIC 90 3-8 μg/ml against the coliforms, and to ticarcillin, aztreonam, imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin among the non-enterobacteria; tetracycline, amoxicillin, piperacillin, and chloramphenicol were generally ineffective. Resistance rates to fluconazole, clotrimazole, econazole, and miconazole were <55% against C. albicans. The pathogens tested exhibited multidrug-resistance. Conclusion: The present findings were intended to support antimicrobial stewardship endeavors and empiric therapy. The past, present, and the future investigations in drug efficacy will continue

  8. Assessment of accuracy of Cockcroft-Gault and MDRD formulae in critically ill Indian patients

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    Mohit Kharbanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cockroft-Gault (CG and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD formulae have not been validated in critically ill Indian patients. We sought to quantify the discrepancy, if any, in Glomerular Filteration Rate (GFR estimated by CG and MDRD formulae with 24 hrs urine Creatinine Clearance (Cr Cl. Materials and Methods: Prospective cohort study in 50 adult patients in a mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit. Inclusion criteria: Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU stay >48 hrs and indwelling urinary catheter. Exclusion criteria: Age <18 years, pregnancy, dialysis, urine output <400 ml/day and patients receiving ranitidine, cefoxitin, trimethoprim or diuretics. We estimated Creatinine Clearance by CG and MDRD formula and measured GFR by 24 hrs urine creatinine clearance. Bland Altman plot was used to find the difference between the paired observations. The association between the methods was measured by the product moment correlation coefficient. Result: The mean GFR as calculated by Creatinine Clearance was 79.76 ml/min/1.73 m 2 [95% Confidence Interval (CI 65.79 to 93.72], that by CG formula was 90.05 ml/min/1.73 m 2 [95% CI: 74.50 to 105.60], by MDRD was 85.92 ml/min/1.73 m 2 [95% CI: 71.25 to 100.59]. The Bias and Precision between CG and Cr Cl were -4.5 and 140.24 respectively, between MDRD and Cr Cl was -6.1 and 122.52. The Correlation coefficient of CG formula as a measure of GFR was 0.65 ( P < 0.0001, that of MDRD was 0.70 ( P < 0.0001. Conclusion: We conclude that CG and MDRD formulae have a strong correlation with measured GFR but are not a reliable measure and overestimate GFR in critically ill Indian patients.

  9. Antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates from cases of urinary tract infections among hospitalized and out-patients at a tertiary health facility in South Western Nigeria

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    Oyekale Oluwalana Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most common human infections with distribution of causative agents and their susceptibility pattern to antibiotics varying from region to region. This study aimed at determining the bacterial uropathogens and their antibiotic resistance profile among patients in a Nigerian tertiary health care facility. Materials and Methods: Appropriate urine specimens (midstream/catheter specimen urine of all suspected cases of UTI by clinicians were processed in the medical microbiology laboratory for detection of significant bacteriuria. Bacteria uropathogens isolated were identified by standard biochemical tests and antibiotic susceptibility test to eight antibiotics was carried out on them using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was identified by cefoxitin disc diffusion technique and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing enterobacteria were detected using double-disc synergy test. Results: Of the total 157 males and 189 females investigated, 35.7% and 66.1% respectively had significant bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated bacterial pathogen both among in- and out-patients (52.6% vs. 65.5%. Other isolated organisms were S. aureus (13.4% vs. 19.0%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.3% vs. 2.4%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.2% vs. 7.1% and K. aerogenes (7.2% vs. 1.2%. Resistance rate of uropathogens to antibiotics was higher among in-patients. Resistance rate to ofloxacin, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone was generally very low compared to other tested antibiotics. Multiple resistant bacteria: MRSA and ESBL-producing enterobacteria were detected among both in-and out-patient with no significant difference in isolation rate. Conclusion: There is a need for continuous monitoring of uropathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity profile for evidence-based empirical treatment of UTI. There is an urgent need for the establishment of antibiotic

  10. PREVALENCE OF DRUG RESISTANCE AND VIRULENCE FEATURES IN Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM FOODS ASSOCIATED OR NOT WITH SALMONELLOSIS IN BRAZIL

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    Ruth Estela Gravato Rowlands

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is the most common etiological agent of cases and outbreaks of foodborne diarrheal illnesses. The emergence and spread of Salmonella spp., which has become multi-drug resistant and potentially more pathogenic, have increased the concern with this pathogen. In this study, 237 Salmonella spp., associated or not with foodborne salmonellosis in Brazil, belonging mainly to serotype Enteritidis, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of the virulence genes spvC, invA, sefA and pefA. Of the isolates, 46.8% were sensitive to all antimicrobials and 51.9% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent was observed in 10.5% of the strains. The highest rates of resistance were observed for streptomycin (35.9% and nalidixic acid (16.9%. No strain was resistant to cefoxitin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. The invA gene was detected in all strains. Genes spvC and pefA were found in 48.1% and 44.3% of strains, respectively. The gene sefA was detected in 31.6% of the strains and only among S. Enteritidis. Resistance and virulence determinants were detected in Salmonella strains belonging to several serotypes. The high rates of antibiotic-resistance in strains isolated from poultry products demonstrate the potential risk associated with the consumption of these products and the need to ensure good food hygiene practices from farm to table to reduce the spread of pathogens relevant to public health.

  11. Prevalence of drug resistance and virulence features in Salmonella spp. isolated from foods associated or not with salmonellosis in Brazil.

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    Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Ikuno, Alice A; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Jakabi, Miyoko; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is the most common etiological agent of cases and outbreaks of foodborne diarrheal illnesses. The emergence and spread of Salmonella spp., which has become multi-drug resistant and potentially more pathogenic, have increased the concern with this pathogen. In this study, 237 Salmonella spp., associated or not with foodborne salmonellosis in Brazil, belonging mainly to serotype Enteritidis, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of the virulence genes spvC, invA, sefA and pefA. Of the isolates, 46.8% were sensitive to all antimicrobials and 51.9% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent was observed in 10.5% of the strains. The highest rates of resistance were observed for streptomycin (35.9%) and nalidixic acid (16.9%). No strain was resistant to cefoxitin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, amikacin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem. The invA gene was detected in all strains. Genes spvC and pefA were found in 48.1% and 44.3% of strains, respectively. The gene sefA was detected in 31.6% of the strains and only among S. Enteritidis. Resistance and virulence determinants were detected in Salmonella strains belonging to several serotypes. The high rates of antibiotic-resistance in strains isolated from poultry products demonstrate the potential risk associated with the consumption of these products and the need to ensure good food hygiene practices from farm to table to reduce the spread of pathogens relevant to public health.

  12. Extended spectrum β-lactamase and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli fecal isolates from healthy companion animals in Algeria.

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    Yousfi, Massilia; Mairi, Assia; Touati, Abdelaziz; Hassissene, Lila; Brasme, Lucien; Guillard, Thomas; De Champs, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of fecal carriage of Escherichia coli strains producing Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) isolated from healthy pets (dogs and cats) in Algeria. Fecal samples from 171 healthy pets (102 dogs and 69 cats) in one veterinary practice and private owners were included. After isolates identification, antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion procedure. ESBL were detected by combination disk tests. PCR and sequencing were used to characterize genes encoding ESBLs and PMQR. Transfer of ESBL and PMQR genes was assessed by conjugation experiments. Phylogenetic groups of E. coli were determined by PCR. Of the 171 animals, 20 carried an ESBL producing E. coli giving a prevalence of ESBL fecal carriage of 11.7%. All isolates were susceptible to carbapenems, cefoxitin, piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin and fosfomycine. For the rest of the tested β-lactams, susceptibility rates ranged from 35% to 70% for cefepime and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid respectively. Concerning the non-beta-lactams antibiotics, the rates of susceptibility ranged between 5% to trimethoprim and 95% for chloramphenicol. The beta-lactamase genes identified in E. coli isolates were blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-1, blaSHV-12 and blaTEM-1. The PMQR determinants aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrS1 and qnrB5 genes were identified in 15 isolates. Transconjugants were obtained for two isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that E. coli isolates belong to commensal phylogroups of A and B1. We reported here for the first time in Algeria ESBL and PMQR-producing E. coli in healthy cats and dogs. PMID:27132028

  13. Biochemical and molecular characterization of three new variants of AmpC beta-lactamases from Morganella morganii.

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    Power, Pablo; Galleni, Moreno; Ayala, Juan A; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2006-03-01

    Morganella morganii produces an inducible, chromosomally encoded AmpC beta-lactamase. We describe in this study three new variants of AmpC within this species with apparent pIs of 6.6 (M19 from M. morganii strain PP19), 7.4 (M29 from M. morganii strain PP29), and 7.8 (M37 from M. morganii strain PP37). After gene sequencing, deduced amino acid sequences displayed one to six substitutions when compared to the available Morganella AmpC sequences. An AmpR-encoding gene was also found upstream of ampC, including the LysR regulators' helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain and the putative T-N11-A-protected region in the ampR-ampC intercistronic sequence. All three AmpC variants were purified from in vitro-generated derepressed mutants and showed overall similar kinetic parameters. None of the observed amino acid changes, occurring at the surface of the protein, appear to have a major influence in their catalytic properties. Morganella AmpCs exhibit the highest catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) on classical penicillins, cefoxitin, narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, and cefotaxime. Cefotaxime was more effectively hydrolyzed than other oxyimino-cephalosporins, whereas cefepime was 3 log-fold less efficiently hydrolyzed than other cephalosporins such as cephalothin. Several differences with other AmpC beta-lactamases were found. Ampicillin was more efficiently hydrolyzed than benzylpenicillin. High k(cat)/K(m) values were observed for oxacillin and piperacillin, which are usually poor substrates for AmpC. A fairly efficient hydrolysis of imipenem was detected as well. Aztreonam, carbenicillin, and tazobactam were effective transient inactivators of these variants.

  14. Development of a Novel Chromogenic Medium for Improved Campylobacter Detection from Poultry Samples.

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    Teramura, Hajime; Iwasaki, Mihoko; Ogihara, Hirokazu

    2015-09-01

    The presence of expanded-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is a common problem in the isolation of Campylobacter from poultry samples using conventional cefoperazone-based selective media. A novel chromogenic medium (CM-HT), based on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA), has been developed as a solution for improved Campylobacter detection from poultry samples. Although the basic components of CM-HT are the same as mCCDA, CM-HT uses both granular charcoal and sodium cefoxitin to enhance viewability and inhibit ESBL-producing bacteria. All tested Campylobacter jejuni (n = 31) and Campylobacter coli (n = 6) strains grew and formed purple-colored colonies on CM-HT. In contrast, the growth of all other tested microorganisms, including ESBL-producing E. coli strains, was suppressed by this medium. Additionally, 84 poultry samples were examined for the presence of Campylobacter using the ISO 10272-1 method (enrichment with Bolton broth) and the NIHSJ-02 method (enrichment with Preston broth) with mCCDA and CM-HT media for the isolation. The numbers of samples from which Camplylobacter was detected on CM-HT using Preston and Bolton broth were 22 and 18, whereas the numbers on mCCDA were 22 and 13, respectively. Only Campylobacter was detected on CM-HT using both enrichment broths; however, there were 5 and 19 samples from which ESBL-producing E. coli was detected on mCCDA using Preston and Bolton broth, respectively. Thus, there was a significant difference between CM-HT and mCCDA in selectivity for ESBL-producing E. coli regardless of which enrichment broth was used. The results obtained demonstrated that CM-HT is a possible solution for the improved isolation of Campylobacter from poultry samples.

  15. Phenotypic detection of Metallo- and AmpC β-lactamases producing strains of P. aeruginosa in the state of Himachal Pradesh (India

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    Naveen Minhas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A prospective study was undertaken to detect metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs and AmpC β-lactamases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from patients at Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla (H.P. Objective: The study aimed at determining the prevalence of MBL and AmpC producing P. aeruginosa isolates. Material and Methods: A total of 180 isolates were preliminarily screened for their susceptibility to carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, doripenem and ertapenem and cefoxitin by in vitro antibiotic cultural sensitivity. The confirmation of MBL producing isolates was done by combined disc test and E test whereas AmpC production was confirmed by disc antagonism test and E test. Results and Conclusion: P. aeruginosa isolates (22.22% were MBL producers on the basis of resistance to imipenem and meropenem while 60% were AmpC β-lactamase producers in preliminary screening test. Of the MBL producers, 50% isolates were confirmed by E test and 45% by combined disc test. However, only 13.33% were positive by both the confirmatory tests. By disc antagonism test, 46.33% isolates were detected as AmpC producers while 6.67% were positive by E test. It is interesting to note that of the 180 isolates examined, 14 (7.78% were both MBL and AmpC producers. Both MBL and AmpC as mechanisms of resistance were thus, observed among the isolates of P. aeruginosa in the state of Himachal Pradesh. Emergence of such strains is of public health concern as such organisms pose therapeutic challenge.

  16. Modulation of Membrane Influx and Efflux in Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Has an Impact on Bacterial Motility, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model.

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    Pantel, Alix; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Ngba Essebe, Christelle; Mesureur, Jennifer; Sotto, Albert; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Energy-dependent efflux overexpression and altered outer membrane permeability (influx) can promote multidrug resistance (MDR). The present study clarifies the regulatory pathways that control membrane permeability in the pandemic clone Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) and evaluates the impact of efflux and influx modulations on biofilm formation, motility, and virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans model. Mutants of two uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains, MECB5 (ST131; H30-Rx) and CFT073 (ST73), as well as a fecal strain, S250 (ST131; H22), were in vitro selected using continuous subculture in subinhibitory concentrations of ertapenem (ETP), chloramphenicol (CMP), and cefoxitin (FOX). Mutations in genes known to control permeability were shown for the two UPEC strains: MECB5-FOX (deletion of 127 bp in marR; deletion of 1 bp and insertion of an IS1 element in acrR) and CFT073-CMP (a 1-bp deletion causing a premature stop in marR). We also demonstrated that efflux phenotypes in the mutants selected with CMP and FOX were related to the AcrAB-TolC pump, but also to other efflux systems. Alteration of membrane permeability, caused by underexpression of the two major porins, OmpF and OmpC, was shown in MECB5-ETP and mutants selected with FOX. Lastly, our findings suggest that efflux pump-overproducing isolates (CMP mutants) pose a serious threat in terms of virulence (significant reduction in worm median survival) and host colonization. Lack of porins (ETP and FOX mutants) led to a high level of antibiotic resistance in an H30-Rx subclone. Nevertheless, this adaptation created a physiological disadvantage (decreased motility and ability to form biofilm) associated with a low potential for virulence. PMID:26926643

  17. Detection of OXA-1 β-lactamase gene of Klebsiella pneumoniae from blood stream infections (BSI by conventional PCR and in-silico analysis to understand the mechanism of OXA mediated resistance.

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    Madhan Sugumar

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae strains producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL exhibit resistance to antibiotic classes. The production of ESBLs (TEM-1, TEM-2, SHV-1, OXA-1 results in resistance to ampicillin, ticarcillin, piperacillin and cephalosporins. High levels of β-lactamases leads to development of resistance to β-lactamase inhibitors. The present study deals with characterizing antimicrobial resistance pattern among septicemia causing K. pneumoniae and the prevalence of inhibitor resistant OXA-1 β-lactamase genes among them. Of 151 study isolates, 59 were resistant to piperacillin/tazobactam and these isolates were further selected for blaOXA-1 screening. Amplification of β-lactamases genes by conventional PCR showed the presence of blaOXA-1 genes among 12 K. pneumoniae (20.3% isolates. OXA-1 β-lactamase producing strains were found to be resistant to piperacillin/tazobactam(100%, levofloxacin (91.6%, amikacin (75%, cefoxitin (50%, ertapenem (25%, imipenem (16.6% and meropenem (16.6%; all were susceptible to tigecycline. 3D models of OXA-1 β-lactamase were generated and docking was performed with various β-lactam antibiotics. Molecular docking (MD revealed the molecular basis of drug sensitivity. MD simulation results clearly confirmed the notable loss in stability for tigecycline-blaOXA-1 complex. Findings of the present study will provide useful insights for understanding the mechanism of resistance and help with strategies for the development of new antibiotics. The conventional PCR assay designed in this study can be routinely used in clinical microbiology laboratories to determine the blaOXA-1 genes.

  18. The Soil Microbiota Harbors a Diversity of Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing β-Lactamases of Potential Clinical Relevance.

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    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Bortolaia, Valeria; Amos, Greg; Wellington, Elizabeth M H; Brandt, Kristian K; Poirel, Laurent; Nielsen, Jesper Boye; Westh, Henrik; Guardabassi, Luca

    2015-10-19

    The origin of carbapenem-hydrolyzing metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) acquired by clinical bacteria is largely unknown. We investigated the frequency, host range, diversity, and functionality of MBLs in the soil microbiota. Twenty-five soil samples of different types and geographical origins were analyzed by antimicrobial selective culture, followed by phenotypic testing and expression of MBL-encoding genes in Escherichia coli, and whole-genome sequencing of MBL-producing strains was performed. Carbapenemase activity was detected in 29 bacterial isolates from 13 soil samples, leading to identification of seven new MBLs in presumptive Pedobacter roseus (PEDO-1), Pedobacter borealis (PEDO-2), Pedobacter kyungheensis (PEDO-3), Chryseobacterium piscium (CPS-1), Epilithonimonas tenax (ESP-1), Massilia oculi (MSI-1), and Sphingomonas sp. (SPG-1). Carbapenemase production was likely an intrinsic feature in Chryseobacterium and Epilithonimonas, as it occurred in reference strains of different species within these genera. The amino acid identity to MBLs described in clinical bacteria ranged between 40 and 69%. Remarkable features of the new MBLs included prophage integration of the encoding gene (PEDO-1), an unusual amino acid residue at a key position for MBL structure and catalysis (CPS-1), and overlap with a putative OXA β-lactamase (MSI-1). Heterologous expression of PEDO-1, CPS-1, and ESP-1in E. coli significantly increased the MICs of ampicillin, ceftazidime, cefpodoxime, cefoxitin, and meropenem. Our study shows that MBL producers are widespread in soil and include four genera that were previously not known to produce MBLs. The MBLs produced by these bacteria are distantly related to MBLs identified in clinical samples but constitute resistance determinants of clinical relevance if acquired by pathogenic bacteria.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from skin and soft tissue infections of outpatients from a university hospital in Recife - PE, Brazil*

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    Caraciolo, Fabiana Beserra; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira; dos Santos, Josemir Belo; Rabelo, Marcelle Aquino; Magalhães, Vera

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus has a notable ability to acquire resistance to antibiotics, and methicillin resistance represents a growing public health problem. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has also become important outside the hospital environment, particularly in the United States. In Brazil, since 2005, cases of community skin infections caused by MRSA have been reported, but resistance studies involving outpatients are scarce. OBJECTIVE To know the resistance profile of S. aureus involved in skin and soft tissue infections of patients seen at the Dermatology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in Recife, Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. METHODS Prospective study involving 30 patients with skin and soft tissue infections, seen at the Dermatology outpatient clinic from May until November 2011. To evaluate the susceptibility of S. aureus to antibiotics, the disk diffusion method and oxacillin screening agar were used. RESULTS From a total of 30 samples of skin lesions, 19 (63%) had positive culture for S. aureus. The following resistance patterns of S. aureus were observed: penicillin, 95%; tetracycline, 32%; erythromycin, 21%; gentamicin, 16%; cefoxitin, 11%; oxacillin, 11%; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 11%; chloramphenicol, 11%; clindamycin, 5% ; and ciprofloxacin, 0%. One of the identified MRSA was obtained from a patient without risk factors for its acquisition, and was resistant, beyond to the beta-lactams, only to tetracycline. CONCLUSIONS With regard to the resistance patterns of S. aureus, resistances to tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin were the highest. It was documented, for the first time in Pernambuco, a case of skin infection caused by community-associated MRSA. PMID:23197204

  20. PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA ISOLATES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN PUNJAB

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    Satish

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. This prospective study was undertaken to know the prevalence of MRSA, to study antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from the indoor patients of a tertiary care hospital in Punjab. MATERIALS AND METHODS : All the iso lates of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from various clinical specimens were identified by standard methods. MRSA was detected using 30ug cefoxitin disc by disc diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines, 2007. Each isolate was tested for other anti - staphyloc occal antibiotics by Kirby - Bauer disc diffusion method. Additionally, inducible clindamycin resistance was studied by disc induction test (D test. RESULTS : During a period of one year, a total of 252 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were obtained. Eighty six (34.1% isolates were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and the remaining 166 (65.8% isolates were methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA. MRSA isolates were significantly less sensitive to common anti - staphylococcal anti biotics as compared to MSSA isolates. However, MRSA isolates showed relatively better sensitivity to some of the antibiotics like netilmicin, levofloxacin, tetracycline and clindamycin. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was low in both MSSA (19.8% and MRSA (9.3%. None of the isolate of Staphylococcus aureus was resistant to vancomycin, linezolid and teicoplanin. Inducible clindamycin resistance was present in 17 (19.7% MRSA isolates as against 8 (4.8% MSSA isolates. CONCLUSION : Robust antimicrobial stewa rdship and strengthened infection control measures are required to prevent spread and reduce emergence of resistance

  1. The Importance of Growth Kinetic Analysis in Determining Bacterial Susceptibility against Antibiotics and Silver Nanoparticles

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    Karsten eTheophel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Routine antibiotics susceptibility testing still relies on standardized cultivation-based analyses, including measurement of inhibition zones in conventional agar diffusion tests and endpoint turbidity-based measurements. Here, we demonstrate that common off-line monitoring and endpoint determination after 18–24 h could be insufficient for reliable growth-dependent evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility. Different minimal inhibitory concentrations were obtained in 20- and 48-h microdilution plate tests using an Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate (strain UKI-MB07 as a model organism. Hence, we used an on-line kinetic assay for simultaneous cultivation and time-resolved growth analysis in a 96-well format instead of off-line susceptibility testing. Growth of the Enterococcus test organism was delayed up to 30 h in the presence of 0.25 µg mL-1 of vancomycin and 8 µg mL-1 of fosfomycin, after which pronounced growth was observed. Despite the delayed onset of growth, treatment with fosfomycin, daptomycin, fusidic acid, cefoxitin, or gentamicin resulted in higher maximum growth rates and/or higher final optical density values compared with antibiotic-free controls, indicating that growth stimulation and hormetic effects may occur with extended exposure to sublethal antibiotic concentrations. Whereas neither maximum growth rate nor final cell density correlated with antibiotic concentration, the lag phase duration for some antibiotics was a more meaningful indicator of dose-dependent growth inhibition. Our results also reveal that non-temporal growth profiles are only of limited value for cultivation-based antimicrobial silver nanoparticle susceptibility testing. The exposure to Ag(0 nanoparticles led to plasma membrane damage in a concentration-dependent manner and induced oxidative stress in Enterococcus faecium UKI-MB07, as shown by intracellular ROS accumulation.

  2. Molecular characterisation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and plasmid AmpC-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from broilers in Béjaïa, Algeria.

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    Belmahdi, Mohamed; Bakour, Sofiane; Al Bayssari, Charbel; Touati, Abdelaziz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to characterise the molecular support of antibiotic resistance in expanded-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates recovered from healthy broilers in Béjaïa, northeast Algeria. A total of 61 intestinal swabs from slaughtered broilers from four regions in Béjaïa locality, Algeria, were collected between February and April 2014, from which 20 ESC-resistant E. coli strains were isolated. Escherichia coli isolates were identified by classical biochemical and MALDI-TOF methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods. Screening for β-lactamases, aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME)-encoding genes and qnr determinants was performed by PCR and sequencing. Clonal relatedness was determined using molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that the isolates showed high rates of resistance (>90%) to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, aztreonam, ceftazidime, streptomycin, tobramycin, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Low rates of resistance were observed for kanamycin (35%), amikacin (30%), cefoxitin (20%) and cefotaxime (15%). Molecular characterisation revealed that all of the isolates expressed the blaTEM-1 gene. Fourteen of them harboured the blaSHV-12 gene, two harboured the blaCTX-M-1 gene and four isolates harboured blaCMY-2. Screening for AME-encoding genes demonstrated that all isolates contained the aadA gene. In addition, qnrA was detected as the quinolone resistance determinant in 13 isolates. MLST revealed four known sequence types (STs), including ST744, ST38, ST1011 and ST2179, as well as one new sequence type (ST5086). Here we report the first study describing the clonal diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid AmpC-producing E. coli isolated from healthy broilers in Algeria. PMID:27530851

  3. Frequency of Aminoglycoside-Resistance Genes in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Isolates from Hospitalized Patients

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    Mahdiyoun, Seyed Mohsen; Kazemian, Hossein; Ahanjan, Mohammad; Houri, Hamidreza; Goudarzi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important causative agents in community- and hospital-acquired infections. Aminoglycosides are powerful bactericidal drugs that are often used in combination with beta-lactams or glycopeptides to treat staphylococcal infections. Objectives The main objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of aminoglycoside resistance among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in hospitalized patients in Sari and Tehran, Iran. Methods In this study, 174 MRSA strains isolated from different clinical samples, such as blood, sputum, tracheal exudates, bronchus, pleura, urine, wounds, and catheters, were collected from hospitalized patients in Tehran and Sari during 2014. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed against nine antibiotics with the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. The MRSA strains were examined with oxacillin and cefoxitin disks. MRSA was then validated by detection of the mecA gene. PCR was used to evaluate the prevalence of the aminoglycoside-resistance genes aac (6’)-Ie/aph (2”), aph (3’)-IIIa, and ant (4’) among the MRSA isolates. Results The results of drug susceptibility testing showed that the highest rate of resistance was against erythromycin in Tehran (84.4%) and gentamicin (71.7%) in Sari. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, and all strains harbored the mecA gene. The aac (6’)-Ie/aph (2”), aph (3’)-IIIa, and ant (4’)-Ia genes were detected among 134 (77%), 119 (68.4%), and 122 (70.1%) of the isolates, respectively. Conclusions The present study showed a high prevalence of aminoglycoside-resistance genes among MRSA isolates in two cities in Iran.

  4. Development of a Novel Chromogenic Medium for Improved Campylobacter Detection from Poultry Samples.

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    Teramura, Hajime; Iwasaki, Mihoko; Ogihara, Hirokazu

    2015-09-01

    The presence of expanded-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is a common problem in the isolation of Campylobacter from poultry samples using conventional cefoperazone-based selective media. A novel chromogenic medium (CM-HT), based on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA), has been developed as a solution for improved Campylobacter detection from poultry samples. Although the basic components of CM-HT are the same as mCCDA, CM-HT uses both granular charcoal and sodium cefoxitin to enhance viewability and inhibit ESBL-producing bacteria. All tested Campylobacter jejuni (n = 31) and Campylobacter coli (n = 6) strains grew and formed purple-colored colonies on CM-HT. In contrast, the growth of all other tested microorganisms, including ESBL-producing E. coli strains, was suppressed by this medium. Additionally, 84 poultry samples were examined for the presence of Campylobacter using the ISO 10272-1 method (enrichment with Bolton broth) and the NIHSJ-02 method (enrichment with Preston broth) with mCCDA and CM-HT media for the isolation. The numbers of samples from which Camplylobacter was detected on CM-HT using Preston and Bolton broth were 22 and 18, whereas the numbers on mCCDA were 22 and 13, respectively. Only Campylobacter was detected on CM-HT using both enrichment broths; however, there were 5 and 19 samples from which ESBL-producing E. coli was detected on mCCDA using Preston and Bolton broth, respectively. Thus, there was a significant difference between CM-HT and mCCDA in selectivity for ESBL-producing E. coli regardless of which enrichment broth was used. The results obtained demonstrated that CM-HT is a possible solution for the improved isolation of Campylobacter from poultry samples. PMID:26319731

  5. Factors associated with the occurrence of MRSA CC398 in herds of fattening pigs in Germany

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    Alt Katja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MRSA in herds of fattening pigs in different regions of Germany, and to determine factors associated with the occurrence of this pathogen. For this purpose pooled dust samples were collected, and a questionnaire covered information regarding herd characteristics and management practices. Samples were pre-enriched in high-salt medium followed by selective enrichment containing cefoxitin/aztreonam, and culturing. Presumptive colonies were confirmed by multiplex-PCR targeting nuc-, mecA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Isolates were spa- and SCCmec-, and in selected cases, multilocus sequence-typed. Susceptibilities to 13 antimicrobials were determined by broth microdilution. Statistical analysis was carried out using backward stepwise logistic regression to calculate odds ratios with the MRSA test result as the outcome and herd characteristics as categorical covariates. Results Overall, 152 of 290 (52% fattening pig farms tested positive for MRSA. The prevalence in the east, north- and south-west of Germany ranged from 39 to 59%. t011 (66% and t034 (23% were the most commonly identified spa-types, and 85% of isolates carried SCCmec Type V. Identified spa-types were all associated with clonal complex CC398. Susceptibility testing revealed that all isolates were resistant to tetracycline. High resistance rates were also found for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (40%, and quinupristin/dalfopristin (32%. In addition, 83% of strains displayed multidrug resistant (> 3 substance classes phenotypes. Logistic regression revealed herd size (large farms OR: 5.4; CI: 2.7-11.2; p Conclusions MRSA CC398 is widely distributed among herds of fattening pigs in Germany. Farm management plays a crucial role in the dissemination of MRSA with herd size, and production type representing potential major indicators.

  6. Methods of detection and typing of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from animals

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    Radosavljević V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work there was evaluated the method of detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA by using two molecular and three phenotypic tests in investigation procedure of 70 strains of S.aureus isolated from animals. Recent findings of the new mecA homologue, mecALGA251, minimise the significance of mecA gene presence detection as a confirmation method of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus identification. For this reason, along with multiplex PCR set of primers(165rDNK, nuc, mecA for detection mecA gene, there was also used multiplex PCR set of primers (spa, mecA, pvl, mecALGA251 for differentiation mecALGA251 from mecA, with simultaneous detection of luk-PV and spa gene fragments. In all 70 investigated isolates there was detected the presence of specific 16 SrDNK fragment and nuc gene which encodes a thermostable S. aureus nuclease, while in 5 out of 70 S. aureus isolates, there was proven mecA gene presence using two multiplex PCR tests. In the investigated strains there was determined neither mecC (mecALGA251gene presence, nor Panton Valentine Leukocidin encoding gene. By application cefoxitin disk-diffusion, latex-agglutination and two multiplex PCR tests, the identical results in identification 5 methicillin resistant out of 70 investigated S. aureus strains were obtained. In our investigation there was determined a complete correlation between the results of phenotypic and genotypic identification of methicillin resistant S. aureus. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31079

  7. The carriage of antibiotic resistance by enteric bacteria from imported tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) destined for the pet trade.

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    Casey, Christine L; Hernandez, Sonia M; Yabsley, Michael J; Smith, Katherine F; Sanchez, Susan

    2015-02-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a growing public health concern and has serious implications for both human and veterinary medicine. The nature of the global economy encourages the movement of humans, livestock, produce, and wildlife, as well as their potentially antibiotic-resistant bacteria, across international borders. Humans and livestock can be reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant bacteria; however, little is known about the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harbored by wildlife and, to our knowledge, limited data has been reported for wild-caught reptiles that were specifically collected for the pet trade. In the current study, we examined the antibiotic resistance of lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae isolates from wild-caught Tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) imported from Indonesia for use in the pet trade. In addition, we proposed that the conditions under which wild animals are captured, transported, and handled might affect the shedding or fecal prevalence of antibiotic resistance. In particular we were interested in the effects of density; to address this, we experimentally modified densities of geckos after import and documented changes in antibiotic resistance patterns. The commensal enteric bacteria from Tokay geckos (G. gecko) imported for the pet trade displayed resistance against some antibiotics including: ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin and tetracycline. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria after experimentally mimicking potentially stressful transportation conditions reptiles experience prior to purchase. There were, however, some interesting trends observed when comparing Tokay geckos housed individually and those housed in groups. Understanding the prevalence of antibiotic resistant commensal enteric flora from common pet reptiles is paramount because of the potential for humans exposed to these animals to acquire antibiotic

  8. Anaerobic bacteria colonizing the lower airways in lung cancer patients

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    Anna Malm

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobes comprise most of the endogenous oropharyngeal microflora, and can cause infections of airways in lung cancer patients who are at high risk for respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and species diversity of anaerobes in specimens from the lower airways of lung cancer patients. Sensitivity of the isolates to conventional antimicrobial agents used in anaerobe therapy was assessed. Respiratory secretions obtained by bronchoscopy from 30 lung cancer patients were cultured onto Wilkins- -Chalgren agar in anaerobic conditions at 37°C for 72–96 hours. The isolates were identified using microtest Api 20A. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for penicillin G, amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoxitin, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole were determined by E-test. A total of 47 isolates of anaerobic bacteria were detected in 22 (73.3% specimens. More than one species of anaerobe was found in 16 (53.3% samples. The most frequently isolated were Actinomyces spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp., followed by Eubacterium lentum, Veillonella parvula, Prevotella spp., Bacteroides spp., Lactobacillus jensenii. Among antibiotics used in the study amoxicillin/clavulanate and imipenem were the most active in vitro (0% and 2% resistant strains, respectively. The highest resistance rate was found for penicillin G and metronidazole (36% and 38% resistant strains, respectively. The results obtained confirm the need to conduct analyses of anaerobic microflora colonizing the lower respiratory tract in patients with lung cancer to monitor potential etiologic factors of airways infections, as well as to propose efficient, empirical therapy. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 263–266

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Salmonella spp. from Agricultural Environments in Fruit Production Systems.

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    Gomba, Annancietar; Chidamba, Lizyben; Korsten, Lise

    2016-09-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks involving fresh produce have increased in recent years. The risk of infection from contaminated food is worsened by the increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains. This study evaluated the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella isolates (n = 263) from agricultural production systems through to the final packed product. Salmonella isolates were preliminarily identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) and API 20E and identities confirmed by invA gene polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed with 15 antimicrobial agents using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test. Of the 263 Salmonella isolates assessed, 59.3% were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. The most frequently detected resistance was against chloramphenicol and kanamycin (46.7%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (28%), and streptomycin (14%), and the less frequently detected resistance was toward ampicillin (1.14%), amikacin (0.76%), and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (0.38%). Multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) (resistance to ≥3 antibiotics) was found in 48.7% (76/156) isolates. The most common MAR phenotype was to chloramphenicol and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-kanamycin (43.6%). Resistance to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was only observed in MAR phenotypes. All isolates were susceptible to ceftiofur, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, and tetracycline. This study confirms the importance of fresh produce production environments as potential reservoirs and fresh produce as carriers of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella spp. with significant clinical importance. Further studies to evaluate the actual level of health risk from these pathogens should include characterization of the antibiotic resistance determinant genes among the isolates. PMID:27294335

  10. Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility among Clostridium difficile isolated from an integrated human and swine population in Texas.

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    Norman, Keri N; Scott, Harvey M; Harvey, Roger B; Norby, Bo; Hume, Michael E

    2014-04-01

    Clostridium difficile can be a major problem in hospitals because the bacterium primarily affects individuals with an altered intestinal flora; this largely occurs through prolonged antibiotic use. Proposed sources of increased community-acquired infections are food animals and retail meats. The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial resistance patterns of C. difficile isolated from a closed, integrated population of humans and swine to increase understanding of the bacterium in these populations. Swine fecal samples were collected from a vertically flowing swine population consisting of farrowing, nursery, breeding, and grower/finisher production groups. Human wastewater samples were collected from swine worker and nonworker occupational group cohorts. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 523 C. difficile strains from the population using the commercially available agar diffusion Epsilometer test (Etest(®)) for 11 different antimicrobials. All of the swine and human strains were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, and vancomycin. In addition, all of the human strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol. The majority of the human and swine strains were resistant to cefoxitin and ciprofloxacin. Statistically significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibility were found among the swine production groups for ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and clindamycin. No significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibility were found across human occupational group cohorts. We found that 8.3% of the swine strains and 13.3% of the human strains exhibited resistance to metronidazole. The finding of differences in susceptibility patterns between human and swine strains of C. difficile provides evidence that transmission between host species in this integrated population is unlikely.

  11. STUDY OF BACTERIAL FLORA OF HANDS OF HEALTH CARE GIVERS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN EASTERN INDIA

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    Asim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial contamination of palm of hand of health care givers like doctors and nurses can be an important source of nosocomial infections. Proper hand hygiene is hence key to prevent spread of such cross - infection. We studied the bacterial flora of palm of hand of 101 clinical staff ( D octors of clinical specialties and nurses and compared it with bacterial flora of 99 non - clinical staff (Doctors of non - clinical specialties and lab technicians and attendants. Hand swab was collected by a sterile swab moistened with sterile normal saline. Out of 101 clinical staff , 63 (62. 37% showed hand swab positivity for bacteria. On the other hand , out of 99 non - clinical staff , 72 showed hand swab positivity for bacteria (72.72%. Among clinical staff , hands of 60. 3% doctors (38 out of 63 and 65. 7% nursing staff (25 out of 38 was contaminated with bacteria. The bacterium most commonly isolated from hands of clinical staff was Staphylococcus aureus , while the bacteria most frequently recovered from ha nds of non - clinical staff were Acinetobacter lwoffii . Only 1 isolate of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was recovered , from hand of a doctor in Pediatrics department. Antibiotic susceptibility test of the isolates was also performed agai nst 3 antibiotics: Cotrimoxazole , Amikacin and Levofloxacin; in addition , Cefoxitin (30 μg disk was used to check for MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus . Most of the strains were sensitive to all the 3 antibiotics. This study highlights th e importance of proper hand washing and awareness of its importance and monitoring among hospital staff.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Korea.

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    Nam, Hyang-Mi; Lee, Ae-Li; Jung, Suk-Chan; Kim, Mal-Nam; Jang, Geum-Chan; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Lim, Suk-Kyung

    2011-02-01

    A total of 402 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis milk collected during 2003-2009 in Korea were tested for susceptibility to 20 antimicrobial agents. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to 11 of 20 antimicrobials tested; no resistance was observed against pirlimycin, telithromycin, novobiocin, penicillin/novobiocin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, clindamycin, rifampin, ciprofloxacin, trimethprim/sulfamethoxazol, vancomycin, and linezolid. Over 66% of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin. Resistance was also seen for gentamicin (11.9%), erythromycin (7.7%), methicillin (oxacillin and cefoxitin, 6.2%), and tetracycline (4.2%). No noticeable change was observed in penicillin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance over the 7-year period. Tetracycline resistance appeared to decrease consistently, whereas methicillin resistance was observed from 2005. About 2.7% (11/402) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials. Genotyping of the 17 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated from each cow revealed two staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types (IV and IVa), three spa types (t286, t324, and untypable), and two sequence types (ST1 and ST72). Eleven of 17 (64.7%) MRSA strains belonged to SCCmec IVa-t324-ST72. The rest of strains belonged to SCCmec IVa-t286-ST1 (n = 3) and SCCmec IV-untypable-ST72 (n = 3). None of the MRSA carried the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. These characteristics are the same as those found in community-acquired (CA) MRSA strains prevalent in humans in Korea. Three pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types (A-C) were observed among the 17 MRSA strains examined, and 14 strains belonged to the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern regardless of their geographical origin and year of isolation. The results of this study provide evidence of CA-MRSA infection in dairy cattle for the first time in Korea. PMID:21034263

  13. Staphylococcus species and their Methicillin-Resistance in 7424 Blood Cultures for Suspected Bloodstream Infections

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    Ariana ALMAŞ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of Staphylococcus species in bloodstream infections and to assess their susceptibility to methicillin. Material and Methods: Between January 1st 2008 - December 31st 2010, 7424 blood culture sets were submitted to the Laboratory Department of the Hospital for Clinical Infectious Diseases in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The blood cultures were performed using BacT/Alert until January 2010 and BacT/Alert 3D automated system (bioMérieux after that date. The blood culture bottles were incubated at 37°C in a continuously monitoring system for up to 7 days. The strain identifications were performed by conventional methods, ApiStaph galleries and Vitek 2 Compact system. Susceptibility to methicillin was determined by disk diffusion method with cefoxitin disk and by using Vitek 2 Compact system. Results: From the total number of performed blood cultures, 568 were positive with Staphylococcus species. From 168 bacteriemic episodes 103 were with Staphylococcus aureus. Among 65 coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequently isolated species (34, followed by Staphylococcus hominis (15, Staphylococcus haemolyticus (8, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (3, Staphylococcus cohnii (1, Staphylococcus auricularis (1, and 3 strains that were not identified at species level. Methicillin resistance was encountered in 53.40% of Staphylococcus aureus strains and in 80% of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Conclusions: An important percentage of blood cultures were contaminated with Staphylococcus species. The main species identified in true bacteriemia cases were Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The percentage of methicillin-resistance, proved to be high not only for coagulase-negative staphylococci but also for Staphylococcus aureus.

  14. Retail ready-to-eat food as a potential vehicle for Staphylococcus spp. harboring antibiotic resistance genes.

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    Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Laniewska-Trokenheim, Lucja

    2014-06-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) food, which does not need thermal processing before consumption, could be a vehicle for the spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. As part of general microbiological safety checks, staphylococci are routinely enumerated in these kinds of foods. However, the presence of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci in RTE food is not routinely investigated, and data are only available from a small number of studies. The present study evaluated the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from 858 RTE foods (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes, salads). Of 113 strains isolated, S. aureus was the most prevalent species, followed by S. xylosus, S. saprophyticus, and S. epidermidis. More than half (54.9%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one class of tested antibiotic; of these, 35.4% of the strains were classified as multidrug resistant. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (49.6%), followed by clindamycin (39.3%), tigecycline (27.4%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (22.2%), rifampin (20.5%), tetracycline (17.9%), and erythromycin (8.5%). All methicillin-resistant staphylococci harbored the mecA gene. Among the isolates resistant to at least one antibiotic, 38 harbored tetracycline resistance determinant tet (M), 24 harbored tet (L), and 9 harbored tet (K). Of the isolates positive for tet (M) genes, 34.2% were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545-like integrase family gene. Our results indicated that retail RTE food could be considered an important route for the transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harboring multiple antibiotic resistance genes.

  15. Survey of Staphylococcus isolates among hospital personnel, environment and their antibiogram with special emphasis on methicillin resistance

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    Shobha K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find the prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. carriage among hospital personnel and hospital environment and their antibiogram with special emphasis on methicillin resistance. A total of 205 samples from hospital personnel and environment were collected from casualty, oncology and multidisciplinary cardiac unit ward of Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Manipal. Samples were collected using sterile cotton wool swabs and inoculated into brain heart infusion broth. Subcultures were done onto blood agar and MacConkey′s agar. Isolates were identified by standard methods up to species level. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed according to standardized disc diffusion Kirby-Bauer method. Each of the isolates was screened for methicillin resistance using oxacillin disc on Mueller Hinton agar plate followed by MIC for methicillin and cefoxitin susceptibility test by disc diffusion method. Sixty five out of 205 strains (31.7% were Staphylococcus spp. and all of them were coagulase negative. Most of the strains belonged to S.epidermidis 49.23%(32/65 followed by S. saprophyticus 26.15%(17/65. Maximum isolates of S.epidermidis were from anterior nares 28.12%(9/32 strains of S.epidermidis . Highest number of methicillin resistant coagulase negative strains (3/9, 33.33% were isolated from stethoscope of multidisciplinary cardiac unit ward followed by carriers in the anterior nares (2/9, 22.22%. Methicillin resistant coagulase negative staphylococci are prevalent in anterior nares of hospital personnel and in the hospital environment thereby providing a definite source for hospital acquired infection. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and amikacin.

  16. Aerobic bacterial profile and antibiotic resistance in patients with diabetic foot infections

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    Michele Cezimbra Perim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the frequencies of bacterial isolates cultured from diabetic foot infections and assess their resistance and susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics.METHODS: This prospective study included 41 patients with diabetic foot lesions. Bacteria were isolated from foot lesions, and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and/or broth method [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC].RESULTS: The most common location of ulceration was the toe (54%, followed by the plantar surface (27% and dorsal portion (19%. A total of 89 bacterial isolates were obtained from 30 patients. The infections were predominantly due to Gram-positive bacteria and polymicrobial bacteremia. The most commonly isolated Gram-positive bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The most commonly isolated Gram-negative bacteria were Proteus spp. and Enterobacterspp., followed by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonasspp., and Citrobacterspp. Nine cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA had cefoxitin resistance, and among these MRSA isolates, 3 were resistant to vancomycin with the MIC technique. The antibiotic imipenem was the most effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and gentamicin was effective against Gram-negative bacteria.CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirmed the high prevalence of multidrug-resistant pathogens in diabetic foot ulcers. It is necessary to evaluate the different microorganisms infecting the wound and to know the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the isolates from the infected wound. This knowledge is crucial for planning treatment with the appropriate antibiotics, reducing resistance patterns, and minimizing healthcare costs.

  17. Clinical isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus in Guangzhou area most possibly from the environmental infection showed variable susceptibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO Feng-lin; SUN Zhao-gang; LI Chuan-you; LIU Zhi-hui; CAI Lin; ZHOU Cheng; ZHANG Jian-zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium abscessus (M.abscessus) can cause a variety of human infections,involving the lung,skin and soft tissues,and is generally believed to be acquired from environmental sources.The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of M.abscessus isolates as the basis for strategies to improve control and management of infection.Methods Seventy M.abscessus isolates from patients attending the Guangzhou Thoracic Hospital were identified from 2003 to 2005 by biochemical tests,gas chromatography,polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction analysis (PRA) of heat shock protein gene hsp65,and sequencing of the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA.Susceptibilities to six antibiotics were determined by micro-broth dilution.Isolates were genotyped using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis.Results Most isolates (63/70; 90%) were susceptible to amikacin but rates of susceptibility to other antibiotics varied from moderate,clarithromycin (60%) and imipenem (43%),to low for ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin (3%),and 87% of isolates had intermediate susceptibility to cefoxitin.RAPD analysis showed that the 70 clinical isolates displayed 69 unique RAPD patterns.Conclusions The high genetic diversity of isolates suggests that they are not transmitted from person to person but,presumably,are acquired independently from environmental sources.M.abscessus isolates displayed variable levels of susceptibility to all antibiotics tested,other than amikacin,indicating a need for routine susceptibility testing to guide treatment.

  18. Retail ready-to-eat food as a potential vehicle for Staphylococcus spp. harboring antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Laniewska-Trokenheim, Lucja

    2014-06-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) food, which does not need thermal processing before consumption, could be a vehicle for the spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. As part of general microbiological safety checks, staphylococci are routinely enumerated in these kinds of foods. However, the presence of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci in RTE food is not routinely investigated, and data are only available from a small number of studies. The present study evaluated the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from 858 RTE foods (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes, salads). Of 113 strains isolated, S. aureus was the most prevalent species, followed by S. xylosus, S. saprophyticus, and S. epidermidis. More than half (54.9%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one class of tested antibiotic; of these, 35.4% of the strains were classified as multidrug resistant. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (49.6%), followed by clindamycin (39.3%), tigecycline (27.4%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (22.2%), rifampin (20.5%), tetracycline (17.9%), and erythromycin (8.5%). All methicillin-resistant staphylococci harbored the mecA gene. Among the isolates resistant to at least one antibiotic, 38 harbored tetracycline resistance determinant tet (M), 24 harbored tet (L), and 9 harbored tet (K). Of the isolates positive for tet (M) genes, 34.2% were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545-like integrase family gene. Our results indicated that retail RTE food could be considered an important route for the transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harboring multiple antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:24853524

  19. Modulation of Membrane Influx and Efflux in Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Has an Impact on Bacterial Motility, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model

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    Pantel, Alix; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Ngba Essebe, Christelle; Mesureur, Jennifer; Sotto, Albert; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Energy-dependent efflux overexpression and altered outer membrane permeability (influx) can promote multidrug resistance (MDR). The present study clarifies the regulatory pathways that control membrane permeability in the pandemic clone Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) and evaluates the impact of efflux and influx modulations on biofilm formation, motility, and virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans model. Mutants of two uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains, MECB5 (ST131; H30-Rx) and CFT073 (ST73), as well as a fecal strain, S250 (ST131; H22), were in vitro selected using continuous subculture in subinhibitory concentrations of ertapenem (ETP), chloramphenicol (CMP), and cefoxitin (FOX). Mutations in genes known to control permeability were shown for the two UPEC strains: MECB5-FOX (deletion of 127 bp in marR; deletion of 1 bp and insertion of an IS1 element in acrR) and CFT073-CMP (a 1-bp deletion causing a premature stop in marR). We also demonstrated that efflux phenotypes in the mutants selected with CMP and FOX were related to the AcrAB-TolC pump, but also to other efflux systems. Alteration of membrane permeability, caused by underexpression of the two major porins, OmpF and OmpC, was shown in MECB5-ETP and mutants selected with FOX. Lastly, our findings suggest that efflux pump-overproducing isolates (CMP mutants) pose a serious threat in terms of virulence (significant reduction in worm median survival) and host colonization. Lack of porins (ETP and FOX mutants) led to a high level of antibiotic resistance in an H30-Rx subclone. Nevertheless, this adaptation created a physiological disadvantage (decreased motility and ability to form biofilm) associated with a low potential for virulence. PMID:26926643

  20. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among hospital healthcare workers in a tertiary care hospital: A cross-sectional study

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    Kannan Sridharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Healthcare workers (HCWs act as carriers for MRSA and transmit the organism across individuals. Hence, we undertook this study to assess the prevalence of MRSA among HCWs in a tertiary care hospital and their hand washing hygienic practices. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study between March and November 2014 was conducted. Dry swabs were taken from the nasal mucosal membrane, both the palms, web space between the fingers from each of the participants and were subsequently cultured on mannitol salt agar and antibiotic susceptibility to methicillin was assessed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method using cefoxitin. In addition, information on demographics, occupation, and use of antiseptics were collected from the study participants. Results: A total of 17/150 (11.3% were found to be MRSA positive of which 10 were staff nurses, three each were laboratory technicians and class IV employees and one was a doctor. Of the 17, 11 (64.7% had shown growth from nasal swabs, 5 (29.4% from digital and 1 (5.9% in both the regions. Of them, 8/15 (53.3% reported the use of only soap for hand washing whereas 7/15 (46.7% were using soap and hand sanitizers and the remaining two not responded to this question. Only 9/15 (60% frequently washed their hands, and the rest rarely did. Conclusion: More awareness and training sessions on the importance of MRSA and hand hygienic measures to contain the carrier status of MRSA among hospital care workers is warranted.

  1. Beta-lactamase characterization in Escherichia coli isolates with diminished susceptibility or resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins recovered from sick animals in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Teshager, Tirushet; Zarazaga, Myriam; Sáenz, Yolanda; Porrero, Concepción; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    A total of 1439 Escherichia coli isolates from sick animals were received from the Spanish Network of Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (VAV) from 1997 to 2001. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed and diminished susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftazidime was identified in 2.5% and 2.8% of the isolates, respectively. Beta-lactamase characterization was carried out in the group of 20 E. coli isolates with both characteristics. The MIC ranges of different beta-lactams showed by these 20 isolates were as follows (in microg/ml): ampicillin (64-->256), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (4-64), ticarcillin (8-->128), cefazolin (32-->256), cefoxitin (4-->128), cefotaxime (1-64), ceftazidime (2-->64), ceftriaxone (0.5-64), imipenem (32). TEM, SHV, CMY, and FOX beta-lactamase genes were analyzed by PCR and sequencing. The beta-lactamase genes detected were the following ones (number of isolates): bla(TEM-1b) (3), bla(TEM-1a) (1), bla(TEM-30f) (2), bla(TEM-1b) + bla(CMY-2) (2), and bla(SHV-12) (1). Sequences of the promoter and/or attenuator region of the chromosomal ampC gene were studied in all the 20 isolates. Mutations at position -42 or -32 were detected in 16 isolates and these mutations were associated with the presence of a TEM type beta-lactamase in 6 isolates. Besides, a high variety of plasmidic beta-lactamases was detected including TEM-30 and CMY-2. To our knowledge, this is the first time that TEM-30 beta-lactamase has been detected in E. coli isolates of animal origin.

  2. In vivo selection of resistant E. coli after ingestion of milk with added drug residues.

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    Richard Van Vleck Pereira

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance represents a major global threat to modern medicine. In vitro studies have shown that very low concentrations of drugs, as frequently identified in the environment, and in foods and water for human and animal consumption, can select for resistant bacteria. However, limited information is currently available on the in vivo impact of ingested drug residues. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of feeding preweaned calves milk containing antimicrobial drug residues (below the minimum inhibitory concentration, similar to concentrations detected in milk commonly fed to dairy calves, on selection of resistant fecal E. coli in calves from birth to weaning. At birth, thirty calves were randomly assigned to a controlled feeding trial where: 15 calves were fed raw milk with no drug residues (NR, and 15 calves were fed raw milk with drug residues (DR by adding ceftiofur, penicillin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline at final concentrations in the milk of 0.1, 0.005, 0.01, and 0.3 µg/ml, respectively. Fecal samples were rectally collected from each calf once a week starting at birth prior to the first feeding in the trial (pre-treatment until 6 weeks of age. A significantly greater proportion of E. coli resistant to ampicillin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, streptomycin and tetracycline was observed in DR calves when compared to NR calves. Additionally, isolates from DR calves had a significant decrease in susceptibility to ceftriaxone and ceftiofur when compared to isolates from NR calves. A greater proportion of E. coli isolates from calves in the DR group were resistant to 3 or more antimicrobial drugs when compared to calves in the ND group. These findings highlight the role that low concentrations of antimicrobial drugs have on the evolution and selection of resistance to multiple antimicrobial drugs in vivo.

  3. National surveillance study on carbapenem non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan: the emergence and rapid dissemination of KPC-2 carbapenemase.

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    Sheng-Kang Chiu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The global spread and increasing incidence of carbapenem non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (CnSKP has made its treatment difficult, increasing the mortality. To establish nationwide data on CnSKP spread and carbapenem-resistance mechanisms, we conducted a national surveillance study in Taiwanese hospitals. METHODS: We collected 100 and 247 CnSKP isolates in 2010 and 2012, respectively. The tests performed included antibiotic susceptibility tests; detection of carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL, and AmpC β-lactamases genes; outer membrane porin profiles; and genetic relationship with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence type. RESULTS: The resistance rate of CnSKP isolates to cefazolin, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, and ciprofloxacin was over 90%. Susceptibility rate to tigecycline and colistin in 2010 was 91.0% and 83.0%, respectively; in 2012, it was 91.9% and 87.9%, respectively. In 2010, carbapenemase genes were detected in only 6.0% of isolates (4 bla IMP-8 and 2 bla VIM-1. In 2012, carbapenemase genes were detected in 22.3% of isolates (41 bla KPC-2, 7 bla VIM-1, 6 bla IMP-8, and 1 bla NDM-1. More than 95% of isolates exhibited either OmpK35 or OmpK36 porin loss or both. Impermeability due to porin mutation coupled with AmpC β-lactamases or ESBLs were major carbapenem-resistance mechanisms. Among 41 KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, all were ST11 with 1 major pulsotype. CONCLUSIONS: In 2010 and 2012, the major mechanisms of CnSKP in Taiwan were the concomitance of AmpC with OmpK35/36 loss. KPC-2-KP dissemination with the same ST11 were observed in 2012. The emergence and rapid spread of KPC-2-KP is becoming an endemic problem in Taiwan. The identification of NDM-1 K. pneumoniae case is alarming.

  4. Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. dhakensis isolated from feces, water and fish in Mediterranean Spain.

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    Esteve, Consuelo; Alcaide, Elena; Blasco, María Dolores

    2012-01-01

    Eight Aeromonas hydrophila-like arabinose-negative isolates from diverse sources (i.e., river freshwater, cooling-system water pond, diseased wild European eels, and human stools) sampled in Valencia (Spain) during 2004-2005, were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and extensive biochemical testing along with reference strains of most Aeromonas species. These isolates and all reference strains of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis and A. aquariorum showed a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 99.8-100%, and they all shared an identical phenotype. This matched exactly with that of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis since all strains displayed positive responses to the Voges-Prokauer test and to the use of dl-lactate. This is the first report of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis recovered from environmental samples, and further, from its original isolation in India during 1993-1994. This was accurately identified and segregated from other clinical aeromonads (A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii biovars veronii and sobria, A. trota, A. schubertii and A. jandaei) by using biochemical key tests. The API 20 E profile for all strains included in A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis was 7047125. The prevalence of this species in Spanish sources was higher for water (9.4%) than for feces (6%) or eels (1.3%). Isolates recovered as pure cultures from diseased eels were moderately virulent (LD(50) of 3.3×10(6) CFU fish(-1)) to challenged eels in experimental trials. They were all resistant to ticarcillin, amoxicillin-clavuranic acid, cefoxitin, and imipenem, regardless of its source. Our data point to A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis as an emerging pathogen for humans and fish in temperate countries. PMID:22472298

  5. blaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV inEnterobacteriaceae from North-Indian tertiary hospital:high occurrence of combination genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Shahid; Anuradha Singh; Farrukh Sobia; Mohammad Rashid; Abida Malik; Indu Shukla; Haris Manzoor Khan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To delineate the frequency of occurrence ofblaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV in Enterobacteriaceae from North-Indian tertiary hospital.Methods: A random collection of a subset of45Escherichia coli (E. coli) and28Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) that was resistant to a third generation cephalosporin and obtained during2007-2008 was selected for detailed screening forblaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV by monoplexPCRs. The isolates demonstrating the presence of blaCTX-M alleles were characterized for the specificCTX-M-genogroup by using a multiplexPCR.Results:Resistance to cefoperazone, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefoxitin and piperacillin was 100% each inK. pneumoniae isolates, whereas these resistance-rates forE. coli isolates were93.1%, 83.8%, 91.9%, 93.6%, 97.3% and97.1%, respectively. Concomitant resistance to aminoglycosides, quinolones and aztreonam was also noticed. Presence of any of the bla genes (blaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV) was noticed in a total of28 (38.4%) isolates of the73isolates studied. Many isolates demonstrated occurrence of these genes in various combinations.blaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV were noticed in 28.8%,10.9% and13.7% isolates, respectively. MultiplexPCR inblaCTX-Mharboring isolates demonstrated the presence ofCTX-M-Genogroup-1 and sequencing for the specificCTX-M-type revealed presence ofCTX-M-15 type. RAPD typing showed wide diversity in isolates.Conclusions:This is amongst the premier report describing the simultaneous occurrence ofblaTEM,blaSHV, andblaampC in IndianEnterobacteriaceae and that wider dissemination of these genes, as demonstrated by diversity of isolates, raises concern and emphasizes a need for extensive search for the presence of these gene pools in Indian subcontinent.

  6. The importance of growth kinetic analysis in determining bacterial susceptibility against antibiotics and silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theophel, Karsten; Schacht, Veronika J; Schlüter, Michael; Schnell, Sylvia; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana; Schaumann, Reiner; Bunge, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Routine antibiotics susceptibility testing still relies on standardized cultivation-based analyses, including measurement of inhibition zones in conventional agar diffusion tests and endpoint turbidity-based measurements. Here, we demonstrate that common off-line monitoring and endpoint determination after 18-24 h could be insufficient for reliable growth-dependent evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility. Different minimal inhibitory concentrations were obtained in 20- and 48 h microdilution plate tests using an Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate (strain UKI-MB07) as a model organism. Hence, we used an on-line kinetic assay for simultaneous cultivation and time-resolved growth analysis in a 96-well format instead of off-line susceptibility testing. Growth of the Enterococcus test organism was delayed up to 30 h in the presence of 0.25 μg mL(-1) of vancomycin and 8 μg mL(-1) of fosfomycin, after which pronounced growth was observed. Despite the delayed onset of growth, treatment with fosfomycin, daptomycin, fusidic acid, cefoxitin, or gentamicin resulted in higher maximum growth rates and/or higher final optical density values compared with antibiotic-free controls, indicating that growth stimulation and hormetic effects may occur with extended exposure to sublethal antibiotic concentrations. Whereas neither maximum growth rate nor final cell density correlated with antibiotic concentration, the lag phase duration for some antibiotics was a more meaningful indicator of dose-dependent growth inhibition. Our results also reveal that non-temporal growth profiles are only of limited value for cultivation-based antimicrobial silver nanoparticle susceptibility testing. The exposure to Ag(0) nanoparticles led to plasma membrane damage in a concentration-dependent manner and induced oxidative stress in Enterococcus faecium UKI-MB07, as shown by intracellular ROS accumulation. PMID:25426104

  7. Detection of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

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    N O Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detecting plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC β-lactamase-producing organism is important for optimal infection control and providing accurate and effective treatment option for physicians. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pAmpC β-lactamase and compare the results of boronic acid (BA disk test with other phenotypic tests detecting AmpC positive isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 273 clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (n: 82 and Escherichia coli (n: 191 were analysed. The presence of pAmpC β-lactamase was determined by BA disk test, cefoxitin (FOX screening test, modified three dimensional test (M3DT, and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to evaluate the genetic similarities between isolates. To detect extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL in the presence of AmpC β-lactamase, ESBL confirmation test was carried out with and without BA solution. Results: Of the 273 strains tested, 127 strains were found FOX resistant, 114 were positive by M3DT, 108 were positive in BA disk test, and the multiplex PCR detected 24 pAmpC β-lactamase-positive isolate. The prevalence of AmpC-producing strains was 10.9% in E. coli and 3.6% in K. pneumoniae in the tested population by PCR. CIT and MOX group genes were predominant type in these strains. Conclusion: These results emphasize that clinical laboratories should consider testing the presence of pAmpC enzymes particularly in FOX-resistant isolates, and BA disk test will improve detection of this emerging resistance phenotype.

  8. Detecting bacteria and Determining Their Susceptibility to Antibiotics by Stochastic Confinement in Nanoliter Droplets using Plug-Based Microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boedicker, J.; Li, L; Kline, T; Ismagilov, R

    2008-01-01

    This article describes plug-based microfluidic technology that enables rapid detection and drug susceptibility screening of bacteria in samples, including complex biological matrices, without pre-incubation. Unlike conventional bacterial culture and detection methods, which rely on incubation of a sample to increase the concentration of bacteria to detectable levels, this method confines individual bacteria into droplets nanoliters in volume. When single cells are confined into plugs of small volume such that the loading is less than one bacterium per plug, the detection time is proportional to plug volume. Confinement increases cell density and allows released molecules to accumulate around the cell, eliminating the pre-incubation step and reducing the time required to detect the bacteria. We refer to this approach as stochastic confinement. Using the microfluidic hybrid method, this technology was used to determine the antibiogram - or chart of antibiotic sensitivity - of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to many antibiotics in a single experiment and to measure the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug cefoxitin (CFX) against this strain. In addition, this technology was used to distinguish between sensitive and resistant strains of S. aureus in samples of human blood plasma. High-throughput microfluidic techniques combined with single-cell measurements also enable multiple tests to be performed simultaneously on a single sample containing bacteria. This technology may provide a method of rapid and effective patient-specific treatment of bacterial infections and could be extended to a variety of applications that require multiple functional tests of bacterial samples on reduced timescales.

  9. 院内获得性肺炎老年患者产超广谱β-内酰胺酶病原菌的分布及耐药性分析%Distribution and antibiotic resistance analysis of extended spectrum β-lactamases in older patients with hospital-acquired pulmonary infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍; 庄伟荣; 金小玲; 周瑛; 秦兴国; 李惠萍

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and antibiotic resistance of the extended spectrum lactamases (ESBLs) in older patients with hospital-acquired pulmonary infection. Methods A total of 978 patients who were treated in Yangpu Geriatric Hospital and Shidong Hospital during Oct. 2006 to Oct. 2007 were studied, and 78 patients meeting the hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) criterion were retrospectively analyzed. Results The incidence of HAP was 7.98% (78/978). The qualified sputum specimen bacterial positive rate was 61.9% (164/265). There were 39 strains of ESBLs bacteria, accounting for 31.7% (39/123)of the gram-negative bacteria. ESBLs-producing strains were positive in 51.5% (17/33) of Escherichia coli, 45.2% (14/31) of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 17.6% (3/17) of Proteus mirabilis isolates. ESBLs-producing Escherichia coil strains had a >90% resistant rates to Ampicillin Sodium, Piperacillin Ciprofloxacin, Cefuroxime, Cefotaxime, and Cefazolin, and had a resistance rate of 54.7% to Aztreonam, but had a lower resistance rate to Cefoxitin, Cefoperazone/Sulbactam, Piperacillin Sodium and Tazobactam Sodium, Cefoxitine, and Ceftazidime. ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae had a >90% resistance rate to Ampicillin Sodium, Cefuroxime, and Cefazolin, a>80% resistance rate to Cefotaxine and Piperacillin, a resistance rate of 71.7% to Aztreonam, and lower resistance rates to Piperacillin/Tazobactam and Cefoxitin. Conclusions The ESBLs producing stains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are high in our cohort, and most of them are multiple drugs resistant. ESBLs-producing strains should be suspected when the isolated Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonioe are resistant to third generation cephalosporin, such as Cefotaxime and Ceftriaxone. ESBLs-producing strains should also be suspected when Gram negative strains are sensitive to third generation cephalosporin, but failure in treatment occurs.%目的 探讨院内获得性肺炎老年患者产超广谱

  10. Antibioticoprofilaxia na colecistectomia videolaparoscópica eletiva: estudo prospectivo randomizado e duplo cego Antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective, randomized and double blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Petry de Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a necessidade de profilaxia antibiótica em colecistectomias videolaparoscópicas eletivas. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo, randomizado e duplo-cego, em pacientes submetidos à colecistectomia videolaparoscópica eletiva, durante o período de Junho de 2003 a Julho de 2007, com alocação de 163 pacientes em dois grupos: A (n=82, recebeu profilaxia com cefoxitina 2g intravenoso na indução anestésica; B (n=81, recebeu solução salina 2 mililitros intravenoso. A equipe e a técnica cirúrgica utilizadas foram as mesmas. O desfecho avaliado foram complicações infecciosas de sítio cirúrgico, isto é, infecção de ferida operatória e abscessos superficiais e/ou profundos. Os pacientes foram revisados em sete e 28 dias pós-operatório. Os dados foram analisados pelo Teste exato de Fisher (pBACKGROUND: To identify the need for antibiotic prophylaxis usage in routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: A prospective, randomized double-blind study was done in patients submitted to routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy from June 2003 to July 2007, with 163 patients divided in two groups: Group A (n=82 received antibiotic prophylaxis with Cefoxitin 2g IV at anesthesia induction; Group B (n=81 received 2 mL of isotonic sodium chloride solution at same time. Surgical technique and team were the same. The purpose of this study was to search the outcome for surgical site infections and superficial or deep abscesses. The patients were examined at 7 and 28 days after surgery. Data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: This study showed infection complication rates of 4.76% in group A and 6.17% in group B. There were no statistical significant differences (p = 0.746 for infection complication rates in both groups. The groups were homogeneous and comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Patients submitted to routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy with low surgical risk do not need antibiotic prophylaxis, because it will not result in lower

  11. Role of Non-Active-Site Residue Trp-93 in the Function and Stability of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, M. Tabish

    2015-01-01

    New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) is expressed by various members of Enterobacteriaceae as a defense mechanism to hydrolyze β-lactam antibiotics. Despite various studies showing the significance of active-site residues in the catalytic mechanism, there is a paucity of reports addressing the role of non-active-site residues in the structure and function of NDM-1. In this study, we investigated the significance of non-active-site residue Trp-93 in the structure and function of NDM-1. We cloned blaNDM-1 from an Enterobacter cloacae clinical strain (EC-15) and introduced the mutation of Trp-93 to Ala (yielding the Trp93Ala mutant) by PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis. Proteins were expressed and purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. The MICs of the Trp93Ala mutant were reduced 4- to 8-fold for ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, imipenem, and meropenem. The poor hydrolytic activity of the Trp93Ala mutant was also reflected by its reduced catalytic efficiency. The overall catalytic efficiency of the Trp93Ala mutant was reduced by 40 to 55% (the Km was reduced, while the kcat was similar to that of wild-type NDM-1 [wtNDM-1]). Heat-induced denaturation showed that the ΔGDo and Tm of Trp93Ala mutant were reduced by 1.8 kcal/mol and 4.8°C, respectively. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) analysis showed that the α-helical content of the Trp93Ala mutant was reduced by 2.9%. The decrease in stability and catalytic efficiency of the Trp93Ala mutant was due to the loss of two hydrogen bonds with Ser-63 and Val-73 and hydrophobic interactions with Leu-65, Val-73, Gln-123, and Asp-124. The study provided insight into the role of non-active-site amino acid residues in the hydrolytic mechanism of NDM-1. PMID:26525789

  12. MARCADORES DE PATOGENICIDADE EM Yersinia enterocolitica O: 3 ISOLADAS DE SUÍNOS DO RIO DE JANEIRO Genetic markers of pathogenicity in Yersinia enterocolitica O: 3 isolated from healthy pigs from Rio de Janeiro

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    Tereza C. A. Leal

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada a caracterização genotípica e fenotípica de fatores de patogenicidade em 16 amostras de Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 isoladas de suínos sadios do Rio de Janeiro. Foi observado que apenas 6 cepas possuíam o plasmídio de virulência, pYV (+ 70 kb e apresentavam dependência ao cálcio no meio MOX a 37C. Um plasmídio críptico de cerca de 8,6 kb foi encontrado em uma cepa. Doze cepas revelaram sensibilidade à pesticina enquanto que apenas três se revelaram capazes de hidrolisar a esculina. Através de PCR com "primers" específicos, foi constatada a presença dos genes ail em 14 cepas, irp2, em 1 cepa e a ausência de psaA em todas as cepas analisadas. Quanto aos quimioterápicos, a quase totalidade das cepas mostrou-se ao mesmo tempo resistente à ampicilina e carbenicilina e sensível ao sulfazotrin e à cefoxitina. As respostas foram variadas frente ao cloranfenicol, tetraciclina, kanamicina, gentamicina e ácido nalidíxo.Sixteen Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3 strains, isolated from pigs from Rio de Janeiro, have been analyzed for genetic and phenotypic markers of pathogenicity. It was observed that only 6 strains harbored the pYV (+70 kb plasmid and one strain harbored a small cryptic plasmid of about 8.6 kb. Accordingly only strains harboring pYV were calcium dependent in the MOX medium at 370C. Twelve strains showed pesticin sensitivity and the esculin reaction was negative in 13 strains. PCR analysis of pathogenicity genes using specific primers showed the presence of the ail gene in 14 strains, the irp2 gene in one and the psaA in none. Most of the strains were resistant to ampicillin and carbenicillin, although they were susceptible to sulfazotrin and cefoxitin. For chloramphenicol, tetracycline, kanamycin, gentamicin and nalidixic acid the results varied among the strains.

  13. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in Bangladesh.

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    Taslima T Lina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resistance to cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae is mainly due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL. Little is known about ESBL-producing bacteria in Bangladesh. Therefore, the study presents results of phenotypic and molecular characterization of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli from hospitals in Bangladesh. METHODS: A total of 339 E. coli isolated from patients with urinary tract and wound infections attending three different medical hospitals in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh between 2003-2007 were screened for ESBL-production by the double disk diffusion test. Isolates with ESBL-phenotype were further characterized by antibiotic susceptibility testing, PCR and sequencing of different β-lactamase and virulence genes, serotyping, and XbaI-macrorestriction followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. RESULTS: We identified 40 E. coli with ESBL phenotype. These isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, aztreonam, cefepime, and nalidixic acid but remained susceptible to imipenem. All but one isolate were additionally resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 3 isolates were resistant to cefoxitin. ESBL genes of blaCTX-M-1-group were detected in all isolates; blaTEM-type and blaOXA-1-type genes were detected in 33 (82.5% and 19 (47.5% isolates, respectively. Virulence genes that are present in diarrhoeagenic E. coli were not found. Class-1 integron was present in 20 (50% isolates. All the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates harbored plasmids ranging between 1.1 and 120 MDa. PFGE-typing revealed 26 different pulsotypes, but identical pulsotype showed 6 isolates of serotype O25:H4. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli isolates appears to be high and the majority of the isolates were positive for blaCTX-M. Although there was genetic heterogeneity among isolates, presence of a cluster of isolates belonging to serotype O25:H4 indicates dissemination of the

  14. 2011年夏季某院分离志贺菌特点及某地区志贺菌血清型流行趋势分析%Characters of shigella strains in certain hospital and epidemic tendency analysis of shigella serotypes in ceratin area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志远; 马玉芝; 潘健; 张婷菊; 康利新; 刘贵建

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological features of shigella strains separated in this Hospital in 2011 ,and to the explore variation trend of shigella serotypes in Beijing. Methods Shigella strains were identified with Vitek Ⅱ Compact. Serotype was detected with serological testing. Drug susceptibility was determined by K-B methods. Results 15 strains of shigella were isolated, including 14 of Shigella sonnei and 1 of Shigella flexneri. No strains were sensitive to Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, Pip-eracillin, Ampicillin. All Shigella sonnei strains were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Amikacin, Cefoxitin, Ceftazidime, Az-treonam,Cefepime,Imipenem,Piperacillin-tazobactam. Conclusion Shigella sonnei might be new prevalent serotype in Beijing. It might be improper to perform drug susceptibility only for ampicillin,a fluoroquinolone,and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as suggested by CLSI.%目的 了解该院2011年分离的志贺菌及相关病例特点,结合其他区县志贺菌分离情况,总结北京市志贺菌血清型转变特点.方法 Vitek Ⅱ Compact鉴定志贺菌,血清玻片凝集法鉴定血清型,药敏试验采用K-B法.结果 共分离获得志贺菌15株,其中宋内Ⅰ型14株,福氏F2a型1株;15株菌对复方新诺明、哌拉西林、氨苄西林均耐药,14株宋内Ⅰ型菌对环丙沙星、左氧氟沙星、阿米卡星、头孢他啶、头孢西丁、亚胺培南、头孢吡肟、氨曲南、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦均敏感.结论 宋内Ⅰ型志贺菌为主要分离菌,对环丙沙星、左氧氟沙星、阿米卡星、头孢他啶、头孢西丁、亚胺培南、头孢吡肟、氨曲南、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦保持高度敏感;宋内志贺菌已成为北京市流行志贺菌的主要血清型.

  15. Investigation of the prevalence of patients co-colonized or infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycinresistant enterococci in China: a hospital-based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen; CAO Bin; LIU Ying-mei; GU Li; WANG Chen

    2009-01-01

    Background Nosocomial infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) could lead to increased morbidity and mortality. In 2006, VRE nosocomial spread became a reality in our hospital since the first VRE nosocomial infection in 2003. Little is known about the prevalence of coexistence with VRE and MRSA in the patients. The primary objective of the study was to identify the molecular characteristics of epidemic MRSA clones in our hospital and the prevalence of the coexistence with MRSA and VRE in same patients during the 2-year period, 2006-2007.Methods The clinical features, laboratory test results, and therapeutic outcomes of 129 cases who isolated MRSAcollected from January 2006 to December 2007 were retrospectively analyzed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine mecA-femB type and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type. All the participants were screened for clinical and microbiological data to identify the coexistence of VRE strains with MRSA.Results One hundred and twenty-nine MRSA isolates were included in the study: 71 (55%) from the intensive care unit,35 (27.2%) from the surgical wards and 23 (17.8%) from the medical wards. The most frequent source of isolation of MRSA was sputum (76.7%). From seven patients we isolated MRSA and VRE (E. faecium) simultaneously during their inpatient stay. One hundred and twenty-seven (127/129, 98.4%) MRSA isolates harboured SCCmec type Ⅲ, only 2 MRSA strains contained SCCmec type Ⅱ. All of the 129 MRSA isolates remained sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid. Higher sensitivity rates were noted for chloramphenicol 99.2% (128/129). Only 20.2% (26/129) of the MRSA isolates were sensitive to rifampin. All isolates presented resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents with high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), including: β-lactams (penicillin, oxacillin, cefoxitin, and cefazolin), tetracycline

  16. Preliminary molecular epidemiology of the Staphylococcus aureus in lower respiratory tract infections: a multicenter study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-zhi; HU Ke; CAI Shao-xi; WAN Huan-ying; WANG Qiu-yue; WEI Li-ping; DU Juan; YU Qin; ZHONG Xiao-ning; WANG Rui-qin; MA Jian-jun; CHEN Yu-sheng; TIAN Gui-zhen; WANG Si-qin; GAO Zhan-cheng; YANG Jing-ping; ZHANG Wei; HU Cheng-ping; LI Jia-shu; MU Lan; HU Ying-hui; GENG Rong

    2011-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) remains as an important microbial pathogen resulting in community and nosocomial acquired infections with significant morbidity and mortality. Few reports for S. aureus in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) have been documented. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular epidemiology of S.aureus in LRTIs in China.Methods A multicenter study of the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in LRTIs was conducted in 21 hospitals in Beijing, Shanghai and twelve other provinces from November 2007 to February 2009. All the collected S. aureus strains were classified as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), mecA gene, virulence genes Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)and y-hemolysin (hlg), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type, agr type, and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST).Results Totally, nine methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 29 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were isolated after culture from a total of 2829 sputums or bronchoalveolar lavages. The majority of MRSA strains (22/29) had a MIC value of ≥512 μg/ml for cefoxitin. The mecA gene acting as the conservative gene was carried by all MRSA strains.PVL genes were detected in only one S. aureus strain (2.63%, 1/38). The hlg gene was detected in almost the all S.aureus (100% in MSSA and 96.56% in MRSA strains). About 75.86% of MRSA strains carried SCCmec Ⅲ. Agr type 1 was predominant (78.95%) among the identified three agr types (agr types 1,2, and 3). Totally, ten sequence type (ST) of S. aureus strains were detected. A new sequence type (ST1445) was found besides confirming ST239 as the major sequence type (60.53%). A dendrogram generated from our own MLST database showed all the bootstrap values≤50%.Conclusion Our preliminary epidemiology data show SCCmec Ⅲ, ST239 and agr type 1 of S. aureus as the predominant strains in LRTIs in Mainland of China.

  17. Usefulness of Microscan System panels with EUCAST clinical breakpoints to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of ß-lactamase producing- Gram negative isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Nucleo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the ability of NBC45, NBC46 and NB40 Microscan (MS panels, updated to 2010 EUCAST breakpoints, to identify at species level and to correctly define the susceptibility to ß-lactams of 61 ß-lactamases (BLs producing Gram-negative isolates. A collection of 73 fully identified strains was analyzed: 21 Klebsiella spp., 17 E. coli, 15 P. mirabilis, 9 A. baumannii (Ab, 7 P. aeruginosa and 4 Enterobacter spp.. 61/73 were BLs and/or carbapenemases producers: 15 were CTX-M-1/-2/-14/-15 positive, and among them two were also VIM-1 positive. Four were TEM-52/-92, 3 PER-1, 2 SHV-12/-18 and 6 CMY-16 producers, while 11 were KPC-2/-3, 9 OXA-51/-58/-23, 8 VIM-1 and 2 IMP-13 positive. One K. oxytoca K-1 iper-producer, 11 non-BL producers/ATCC control strains and a OprD2 porin lacking P. aeruginosa were also included. All isolates were identified by Api-20E and VITEK-2 System and antibiotic susceptibilities were obtained by broth microdilution method. Resistance genes were identified by PCR and sequencing. All 73 isolates were correctly identified and a complete agreement for susceptibility patterns was observed for both ATCC control strains and non-BL clinical isolates. MS failed to detect a BL/Extended-Spectrum-ß-Lactamase (ESâL production in 5/61 cases: any ESßL alert was detected using NBC46 panel for 3/15 CTX-M positive strains and 2 VIM-1/CTX-M-15 producing K. pneumoniae isolates. Intermediate resistance to cefoxitin (MIC 16 mg/L, susceptibility to cefepime (MIC 8 mg/L for ertapenem (ETP, according to previously results. All VIM-1 producers resulted intermediate/resistant to imipenem (IP and meropenem (MP; decreased MIC values were observed in 2/8 cases. Carbapenem MICs >8 mg/L were detected for IP-13 P. aeruginosa producers; 6/9 OXA carbapenemases- producing Ab showed IP MIC >8 mg/L and 3/6 MP MIC >8 mg/L. 3/9 Ab OXA-58/-51 producers, tested using NB40 panel, were intermediate or resistant to doripenem and meropenem

  18. High Prevalence of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-1 (NDM-1 Producers among Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Kuwait.

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    Wafaa Y Jamal

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of New Delhi metallo-β lactamase-1 (NDM-1 producing Enterobacteriaceae in Kuwait over a one year period. Consecutive Enterobacteriaceae isolates with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems were collected from four government hospitals in Kuwait from January-December 2014. Their susceptibility to 18 antibiotics was performed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration. Isolates resistant to carbapenems were tested by PCR for resistant genes. Finger printing of the positive isolates was done by DiversiLab®. Clinical data of patients harboring NDM-1 positive isolates were analyzed. A total of 764 clinically significant Enterobacteriaceae isolates were studied. Of these, 61 (8% were carbapenem-resistant. Twenty one out of these 61 (34.4% were NDM-1-producers. All patients positive for NDM-1-carrying bacteria were hospitalized. About half were females (11/21 [52.3%], average age was 53.3 years and the majority were Kuwaitis (14/21 [66.6%]. Six patients (28.5% gave a history of travel or healthcare contact in an endemic area. Mortality rate was relatively high (28.6%. The predominant organism was Klebsiella pneumoniae (14 [66.6%] followed by E. coli (4 [19%]. All NDM-1-positive isolates were resistant to meropenem, ertapenem, cefotaxime, cefoxitin and ampicillin, while 95.2% were resistant to imipenem, cefepime, and piperacillin-tazobactam. They were multidrug resistant including resistance to tigecycline, but 90% remained susceptible to colistin. About two-thirds of isolates (61.9% co-produced-extended spectrum β-lactamases. During the study period, an outbreak of NDM-1 positive K. pneumoniae occurred in one hospital involving 3 patients confirmed by DiversiLab® analysis. In conclusion, NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a growing healthcare problem with increasing prevalence in Kuwait, especially in hospitalized patients, leaving few therapeutic options. A high prevalence of NDM-1

  19. High Prevalence of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-1 (NDM-1) Producers among Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Wafaa Y; Albert, M John; Rotimi, Vincent O

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of New Delhi metallo-β lactamase-1 (NDM-1) producing Enterobacteriaceae in Kuwait over a one year period. Consecutive Enterobacteriaceae isolates with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems were collected from four government hospitals in Kuwait from January-December 2014. Their susceptibility to 18 antibiotics was performed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration. Isolates resistant to carbapenems were tested by PCR for resistant genes. Finger printing of the positive isolates was done by DiversiLab®. Clinical data of patients harboring NDM-1 positive isolates were analyzed. A total of 764 clinically significant Enterobacteriaceae isolates were studied. Of these, 61 (8%) were carbapenem-resistant. Twenty one out of these 61 (34.4%) were NDM-1-producers. All patients positive for NDM-1-carrying bacteria were hospitalized. About half were females (11/21 [52.3%]), average age was 53.3 years and the majority were Kuwaitis (14/21 [66.6%]). Six patients (28.5%) gave a history of travel or healthcare contact in an endemic area. Mortality rate was relatively high (28.6%). The predominant organism was Klebsiella pneumoniae (14 [66.6%]) followed by E. coli (4 [19%]). All NDM-1-positive isolates were resistant to meropenem, ertapenem, cefotaxime, cefoxitin and ampicillin, while 95.2% were resistant to imipenem, cefepime, and piperacillin-tazobactam. They were multidrug resistant including resistance to tigecycline, but 90% remained susceptible to colistin. About two-thirds of isolates (61.9%) co-produced-extended spectrum β-lactamases. During the study period, an outbreak of NDM-1 positive K. pneumoniae occurred in one hospital involving 3 patients confirmed by DiversiLab® analysis. In conclusion, NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a growing healthcare problem with increasing prevalence in Kuwait, especially in hospitalized patients, leaving few therapeutic options. A high prevalence of NDM-1 necessitates

  20. The carriage of antibiotic resistance by enteric bacteria from imported tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) destined for the pet trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a growing public health concern and has serious implications for both human and veterinary medicine. The nature of the global economy encourages the movement of humans, livestock, produce, and wildlife, as well as their potentially antibiotic-resistant bacteria, across international borders. Humans and livestock can be reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant bacteria; however, little is known about the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harbored by wildlife and, to our knowledge, limited data has been reported for wild-caught reptiles that were specifically collected for the pet trade. In the current study, we examined the antibiotic resistance of lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae isolates from wild-caught Tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) imported from Indonesia for use in the pet trade. In addition, we proposed that the conditions under which wild animals are captured, transported, and handled might affect the shedding or fecal prevalence of antibiotic resistance. In particular we were interested in the effects of density; to address this, we experimentally modified densities of geckos after import and documented changes in antibiotic resistance patterns. The commensal enteric bacteria from Tokay geckos (G. gecko) imported for the pet trade displayed resistance against some antibiotics including: ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin and tetracycline. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria after experimentally mimicking potentially stressful transportation conditions reptiles experience prior to purchase. There were, however, some interesting trends observed when comparing Tokay geckos housed individually and those housed in groups. Understanding the prevalence of antibiotic resistant commensal enteric flora from common pet reptiles is paramount because of the potential for humans exposed to these animals to acquire antibiotic

  1. Transconjugation and genotyping of the plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase and extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei-feng; ZHOU Jun; QIN Jian-ping

    2009-01-01

    Backgroud AmpC β-lactamases and extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are becoming predominant causes of resistance to third and forth-generation cephalosporins in Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. Pneumoniae). It is very difficult to treat infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant K. Pneumoniae. The purpose of the present study was to investigate transconjugation and characteristics of β-lactamase genes in K. Pneumoniae producing AmpC β-lactamases and ESBLs.Methods AmpC β-lactamases were detected by three-dimension test and ESBLs by disc confirmatory test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution. Transfer of resistance to EC600 (Rif') was attempted by conjugation in broth and screened on agar containing cefotaxime (2 μg/ml) plus rifampin (1024 μg/ml). The genes encoding AmpC or ESBLs and their transconjugants were detected by PCR and verified by DNA sequencing. Results The resistant rates to ampicillin and piperacillin were 100% in 18 isolates of K. Pneumoniae. However, imipenem was still of great bactericidal activity on K. Pneumoniae, and its MIC50 was 0.5 μg/mL. Eleven β-lactamase genes, including TEM-1, TEM-11, SHV-13, SHV-28, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-22, CTX-M-55, OXA-1, LEN, OKP-6 and DHA-1, were found from 18 isolates. And at least one β-lactamase gene occurred in each isolate. To our surprise, there were six β-lactamase genes in the CZ04 strain. Among 18 isolates of K. Pneumoniae, the partial resistant genes in 8 isolates were conjugated successfully, which had 100% homological sequence with donors by sequence analysis. Compared with donors, 8 transconjugants had attained resistance to most β-lactams, including ampicillin, piperacillin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime and aztreonam, or even amikacin and gentamicin.Conclusions R plasmids can be easily transferred between the resistant and sensitive negative bacilli. It is very difficult to block and prevent the spread of antimicrobial resistance. So more attention should be paid

  2. STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS NASAL CARRIAGE AMONG INJECTING AND NON-INJECTING DRUG USERS AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

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    Mojtaba Varshochi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus Aureus (SA is one of the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in human beings. Approximately 20% of healthy persons are persistent carriers and 60% are intermittent carriers of SA. Nasal cavity is one of the most important sites of its colonization. Intravenous (IV drug abuse has been proposed as a risk factor for colonization of SA in the nasal mucosa. The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of SA carriers in nasal cavity among IV and non-IV drug abusers (addicts, as well as to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the positive cases. In a cross-sectional analysis of 300 drug addicts (Group I: 100 non-injecting addicts, Group II: 100 IV injecting drug addicts in rehab, Group III: 100 IV injecting drug addicts not in rehab in the infectious diseases clinics of Tabriz’s Imam Reza and Sina teaching hospitals and the rehabilitation center of Razi hospital, were investigated. Hospitalized addicts, insulin-dependent diabetic cases, HIV positive patients and those on chronic hemodialysis were excluded. The nasal mucosal sample was prepared from each case for SA isolation and its antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated by antibiogram. Eighty-four cases (28% were culture positive for SA, including 26 cases in group one, 32 cases in group two and 26 cases in group three (p = 0.55. There was only one MRSA isolate present in all the cases studied (1.2%. No resistance to linozolid, rifampin and vancomycin was observed. The resistance to erythromycin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, co-trimoxazol and gentamicin were 3.6, 4.8, 2.4, 3.6, 1.2 and 2.4% respectively. No statistically significant differences existed between the three groups in antibacterial susceptibility pattern. Sensitivity to oxacillin using the E-test results and disc diffusion were completely consistent. The percentage of carries of SA in the anterior nasal mucosa among IV and non-IV drug addicts is not considerably higher than the

  3. 肾移植病房耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌随机扩增多态DNA分型研究%Genotyping of meticillin-resistant Stophylococcs aureus by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA in kidney transplant department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷金娥; 刘军辉; 田普训; 答嵘; 沈燕芳; 辜依海; 曾晓艳; 李宝珍

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the characteristics of molecular epidemiology of meticillin-resistant Staphy-lococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in kidney transplant department so as to verify the prevalence of MRSA strains. METHODS MRSA isolates were detected by cefoxitin disk diffusion, and double-PCR was adopted to detect mecA and femA genes in Staphylococcus aureus, then randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was applied to analyze the homology of MRSA strains which were isolated from the infection sites of the hospitalized patients, environment, as well as doctors'and nurses in the kidney transplant department. RESULTS There were 5 of 16 patients who were infected with MRSA; one MRSA strain was isolated from 57 samples including the air, the nares and hands of the healthcare workers; the genotyping of RAPD of 5 strains of MRSA was highly homologous; there was no homology of genotyping of the MRSA strains isolated from the healthcare workers and the patients. CONCLUSION There exists the wide spread of MRSA isolates in the kidney transplant department of our hospital, it is necessary to detect MRSA in time so as to prevent the spread of the bacteria causing nosocomial infections.%目的 研究医院肾移植病房耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)的分子流行病学特征,以确定病房内是否存在MRSA流行.方法 用头孢西丁纸片扩散法检测MRSA,用双重PCR方法检测金黄色葡萄球菌的femA,mecA基因,采用随机扩增多态DNA技术(RAPD),对肾移植病房一段时间内临床患者感染部位及环境和医务人员分离的MRSA作同源性分析.结果 16例患者中有5例感染MRSA;从57份医护人员鼻腔、手部、环境分离出1株MRSA;5株患者MRSA的RAPD分型具有较高的同源性;医护人员分离的MRSA与患者分型结果无同源性.结论我们医院肾移植病房存在严重的MRSA局部流行,应及时检测MRSA,防止医院感染菌株的播散.

  4. Clinical distribution and resistance analyses of acinetobacter baumanii%267株鲍曼不动杆菌感染临床分布与耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾雪峰; 陈锋; 王晓霞; 李凯; 李群

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical distribution and the drug resistance of acinetobacter baumanii in order to offer reference for the clinical therapeutics. Methods The distribution and the susceptibility results of Baumanii in our hospital from Jan. 2009to. Dec. 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Results The majority of these resistant strains were isolated from sputum,and distributed in ICUs. The resistant rates of 267 strains to Cefoxitin, Aztreonam, Piperacillin, Piperacillin/tazobactam, Ticarcillin/Clavulanic Acid, Cefotaxime and Cefepime is 100%, 85.0%, 76.8%, 71.5%, 70.8%, 67.8%, 65.2% respectively. Conclusion The drug-resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii is severe in our hospital. and Imipenem or Cefeperazone/sulbactam was recommended.%目的 了解鲍曼不动杆菌的临床分布及其对常用抗生素的耐药状况,为临床使用抗生素治疗提供依据.方法 对我院2009年1月~2009年12月住院患者送检标本分离的287株鲍曼不动杆菌的分布及药敏结果进行回顾性分析.结果 267株鲍曼不动杆菌大多分离自痰液,主要来自于ICU病房;鲍曼不动杆菌对头孢西丁耐药率最高,为100 %,依次是氨曲南(85.0%)、哌拉西林(76.8%)、哌拉西林/三唑巴坦(71.5%)、替卡西林/克拉维酸(70.8%)、头孢噻肟(67.8 %)、头孢吡肟(65.2%)等.结论 我院鲍曼不动杆菌耐药情况严重,治疗首选碳青霉烯类抗生素,其次可选用头孢哌酮/舒巴坦.

  5. 艰难梭菌核糖体分型及腹泻发病危险因素研究%PCR ribotype profiles of Clostridium difficile and risk factors of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨富英; 李萍; 李永强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate risk factors of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), to explore PCR ribotype profiles of Clostridium difficile, and to provide empirical evidence for prevention of CDAD. Methods Among 449 patients suffered from antibiotic-associated diarrhea, 92 of them were diagnosed with CDAD. Risk factors of CDAD were extracted by using Logistic regression analysis. Clostridium difficile grown on Cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar were molecularly typed with PCR ribotyping method. Results Nasogastric tube feeding, multiple chronic diseases, higher APACHE Ⅱ score, high level of serum C reaction protein, and use of third-generation cephalosporin, quinolone or combination of antibiotics increased the odds of CDAD, whereas use of glycopeptide or nitro-inidazole antibiotics decreased the odds of CDAD (P<0. 05,P<0. 01). Twenty strains of Clostridium difficile were classified into 5 ribotypes, and 8 of them were GZ Ⅲ. Conclusion Morbidity of CDAD is high in inpatients, measures which contribute to reducing risk factors should be taken to prevent CDAD.%目的 探讨艰难梭菌相关性腹泻(CDAD)发病危险因素及进行艰难梭菌核糖体分型,为针对性防护提供依据.方法 选取449例抗生素相关性腹泻患者,其中92例诊断为CDAD;采用Logistic回归分析筛选CDAD发病危险因素;厌氧菌培养艰难梭菌再行PCR核糖体分型.结果 CDAD发病的危险因素是鼻饲,多种慢性病,高APACHEⅡ评分,高超敏C反应蛋白,应用第三代头孢菌素、喹诺酮类抗生素及联用抗生素;使用糖肽类、硝基咪唑类抗生素降低CDAD发病(P<0.05,P<0.01).20株艰难梭菌分为5个亚型即GZⅠ~GZⅣ型,其中GZⅢ型8株.结论 住院患者CDAD发病率较高,需针对危险因素进行防护.

  6. 上海地区119家医院2009-2011年头孢菌素类药利用分析%Analysis of the Utilization of Cephalosporin Antibacterial Drugs in 119 Hospitals from Shanghai Area during 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石卫峰; 归成; 李晓宇; 刘皋林

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utilization and tendency of cephalosporin antibacterial drugs in hospitals from Shanghai area. METHODS: The utilization of cephalosporins in 119 hospitals of Shanghai area during 2009 - 2011 was analyzed statistically in respect of main categories, consumption sum, DDDs and DDC, etc. RESULTS: The consumption sum of cephalosporins reached a peak in 2010 and decreased obviously in 2011. The consumption sum of oral cephalosporins showed a small increase and that of injections showed a downward trend. Over the 3 years, cefaclor, cefixime and cefdinir ranked the top 3 in the list of consumption sum; and cefuroxime axetil, cefaclor and cefixime ranked the top 3 in the list of DDDs; cefotiam, cefuroxime and cefoxi-tin occupied the top 3 in the list of consumption sum and DDDs of injections. CONCLUSIONS: The management of clinical application of cephalosporin antibacterial drugs should continue to be strengthened so as to ensure effective, safe and economical use of drugs in the clinic.%目的:评价上海地区医院头孢菌素类药的应用现状和趋势.方法:对2009-2011年上海地区119家医院头孢菌素类药的主要品种、销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)、日均费用(DDC)等进行统计、分析.结果:该地区医院头孢菌素类药的销售金额在2010年达到高峰,2011年出现明显下降;口服剂的销售金额呈现小幅增长,注射剂的销售金额有下降趋势;3年来,头孢克洛、头孢克肟和头孢地尼的销售金额在口服剂中排名前3位,头孢呋辛酯、头孢克洛和头孢克肟的DDDs排名前3位,头孢替安、头孢呋辛和头孢西丁在注射剂中占销售金额和DDDs排名的前3位.结论:应继续加强头孢菌素类的临床应用管理,以确保临床用药的有效、安全和经济.

  7. Penicillin Binding Protein 1 Is Important in the Compensatory Response of Staphylococcus aureus to Daptomycin-Induced Membrane Damage and Is a Potential Target for β-Lactam–Daptomycin Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Andrew D.; Theisen, Erin; Sauer, John-Demian; Nonejuie, Poochit; Olson, Joshua; Pogliano, Joseph; Sakoulas, George; Nizet, Victor; Proctor, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    The activity of daptomycin (DAP) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is enhanced in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics. This effect is more pronounced with β-lactam antibiotics that exhibit avid binding to penicillin binding protein 1 (PBP1). Here, we present evidence that PBP1 has a significant role in responding to DAP-induced stress on the cell. Expression of the pbpA transcript, encoding PBP1, was specifically induced by DAP exposure whereas expression of pbpB, pbpC, and pbpD, encoding PBP2, PBP3, and PBP4, respectively, remained unchanged. Using a MRSA COL strain with pbpA under an inducible promoter, increased pbpA transcription was accompanied by reduced susceptibility to, and killing by, DAP in vitro. Exposure to β-lactams that preferentially inactivate PBP1 was not associated with increased DAP binding, suggesting that synergy in the setting of anti-PBP1 pharmacotherapy results from increased DAP potency on a per-molecule basis. Combination exposure in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model system with β-lactams that preferentially inactivate PBP1 (DAP-meropenem [MEM] or DAP-imipenem [IPM]) resulted in more-rapid killing than did combination exposure with DAP-nafcillin (NAF) (nonselective), DAP-ceftriaxone (CRO) or DAP-cefotaxime (CTX) (PBP2 selective), DAP-cefaclor (CEC) (PBP3 selective), or DAP-cefoxitin (FOX) (PBP4 selective). Compared to β-lactams with poor PBP1 binding specificity, exposure of S. aureus to DAP plus PBP1-selective β-lactams resulted in an increased frequency of septation and cell wall abnormalities. These data suggest that PBP1 activity may contribute to survival during DAP-induced metabolic stress. Therefore, targeted inactivation of PBP1 may enhance the antimicrobial efficiency of DAP, supporting the use of DAP–β-lactam combination therapy for serious MRSA infections, particularly when the β-lactam undermines the PBP1-mediated compensatory response. PMID:26525797

  8. Diversity of Plasmids and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Healthy Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C R; Davis, J A; Frye, J G; Barrett, J B; Hiott, L M

    2015-09-01

    The presence and transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes from commensal bacteria in companion animals to more pathogenic bacteria may contribute to dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance gene content and the presence of genetic elements in antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli from healthy companion animals. In our previous study, from May to August, 2007, healthy companion animals (155 dogs and 121 cats) from three veterinary clinics in the Athens, GA, USA area were sampled and multidrug-resistant E. coli (n = 36; MDR, resistance to ≥ 2 antimicrobial classes) were obtained. Of the 25 different plasmid replicon types tested by PCR, at least one plasmid replicon type was detected in 94% (34/36) of the MDR E. coli; four isolates contained as many as five different plasmid replicons. Nine replicon types (FIA, FIB, FII, I2, A/C, U, P, I1 and HI2) were identified with FIB, FII, I2 as the most common pattern. The presence of class I integrons (intI) was detected in 61% (22/36) of the isolates with eight isolates containing aminoglycoside- and/or trimethoprim-resistance genes in the variable cassette region of intI. Microarray analysis of a subset of the MDR E. coli (n = 9) identified the presence of genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides (aac, aad, aph and strA/B), β-lactams (ampC, cmy, tem and vim), chloramphenicol (cat), sulfonamides (sulI and sulII), tetracycline [tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), tet(D) and regulator, tetR] and trimethoprim (dfrA). Antimicrobial resistance to eight antimicrobials (ampicillin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, streptomycin, gentamicin, sulfisoxazole and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) and five plasmid replicons (FIA, FIB, FII, I1 and I2) were transferred via conjugation. The presence of antimicrobial resistance genes, intI and transferable plasmid replicons indicate that E. coli from companion animals may play an important role in the

  9. Detecção do gene mecA em estafilococos coagulase negativa resistentes à oxacilina isolados da saliva de profissionais da enfermagem Detection of mecA gene in oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from the saliva of nursing professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Oliveira Rosa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Estafilococos coagulase negativa estão frequentemente associados às infecções nosocomiais e os profissionais da saúde podem ser reservatório e dissemina-los no hospital e comunidade. O objetivo desse estudo foi identificar espécies de estafilococos coagulase negativa isolados da saliva de profissionais da enfermagem, determinar o perfil de resistência e detectar o gene mecA. Foram selecionados 100 estafilococos coagulase negativa, sendo 41 identificados como Staphylococcus epidermidis, 25 Staphylococcus saprophyticus, 18 Staphylococcus haemolyticus, 8 Staphylococcus cohnii, 4 Staphylococcus lugdunenses, 3 Staphylococcus capitis, e 1 Staphylococcus Simulans. Desses, 32% apresentaram resistência à oxacilina, 84,4% à mupirocina, 32% à cefoxitina, e todos sensíveis a vancomicina. Dos estafilococos coagulase negativa resistentes à oxacilina, 93,7% desenvolveram-se no agar oxacilina (6µg/ml e o gene mecA foi detectado em 75%. Os resultados sinalizam que maiores investimentos devem ser direcionados a identificação das espécies de estafilococos coagulase negativa nas instituições de saúde e na comunidade.Coagulase-negative staphylococci are frequently associated with nosocomial infections, and healthcare professionals can be reservoirs and spread them in hospitals and in the community. The aim of this study was to identify species of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from the saliva of nursing professionals, determine the resistance profile and detect the mecA gene. One hundred coagulase-negative staphylococci were selected: 41 were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis, 25 as Staphylococcus saprophyticus, 18 as Staphylococcus haemolyticus, eight as Staphylococcus cohnii, four as Staphylococcus lugdunenses, three as Staphylococcus capitis and one as Staphylococcus simulans. Of these, 32% presented oxacillin resistance, 84.4% mupirocin resistance and 32% cefoxitin resistance, and all were vancomycin sensitive. Among the

  10. [Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Resistance Mutations in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Isolates from Human and Meat Sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Akira; Murakami, Koichi; Etoh, Yoshiki; Sera, Nobuyuki; Horikawa, Kazumi

    2015-03-01

    Recently, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and its genetic determinants in Campylobacter species isolated from meat and human subjects in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. Between 2011 and 2013, 55 and 64 isolates were collected from meat (chicken meat and beef liver) and humans, respectively, in this prefecture. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were conducted using the agar dilution method in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines, using the following 11 antimicrobial agents : cephalexin, cefoxitin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, minocycline, ampicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin and erythromycin. The susceptibility rates of the isolates to three quinolones (nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin) were 43.7%, 41.2%, 40.3%, respectively. All the isolates were multidrug resistant. Whereas 46.9%-51.6% of the human isolates were resistant to one or more of the quinolones, only 32.7%-34.5% of the meat isolates were resistant to one or more of the drugs. DNA sequencing showed that of the 50 quinolone resistant isolates 44 had position 86 isoleucine (Ile) substituted for threonine (Thr) in the GyrA protein (Thr86Ile). This amino acid substitution resulted from ACA to ATA and ACT to ATT mutations of codon 86 in C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. Furthermore, two of the four C. jejuni isolates lacking the Thr86Ile mutation had combined Ser22Gly-Asn203Ser substitutions, while the remaining two isolates had combined Ser22Gly-Asn203Ser-Ala 206Val substitutions. These four isolates also had cmeABC sequences that differed from the quinolone sensitive C. jejuni ATCC33560(T) strain. In conclusion, C. jejuni and C. coli have relatively high quinolone resistance, and are resistant to other antibiotics. The new combination of amino acid

  11. The carriage of antibiotic resistance by enteric bacteria from imported tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) destined for the pet trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Christine L. [Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Hernandez, Sonia M., E-mail: shernz@uga.edu [Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Yabsley, Michael J. [Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Smith, Katherine F. [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Sanchez, Susan [The Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); The Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a growing public health concern and has serious implications for both human and veterinary medicine. The nature of the global economy encourages the movement of humans, livestock, produce, and wildlife, as well as their potentially antibiotic-resistant bacteria, across international borders. Humans and livestock can be reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant bacteria; however, little is known about the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harbored by wildlife and, to our knowledge, limited data has been reported for wild-caught reptiles that were specifically collected for the pet trade. In the current study, we examined the antibiotic resistance of lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae isolates from wild-caught Tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) imported from Indonesia for use in the pet trade. In addition, we proposed that the conditions under which wild animals are captured, transported, and handled might affect the shedding or fecal prevalence of antibiotic resistance. In particular we were interested in the effects of density; to address this, we experimentally modified densities of geckos after import and documented changes in antibiotic resistance patterns. The commensal enteric bacteria from Tokay geckos (G. gecko) imported for the pet trade displayed resistance against some antibiotics including: ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin and tetracycline. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria after experimentally mimicking potentially stressful transportation conditions reptiles experience prior to purchase. There were, however, some interesting trends observed when comparing Tokay geckos housed individually and those housed in groups. Understanding the prevalence of antibiotic resistant commensal enteric flora from common pet reptiles is paramount because of the potential for humans exposed to these animals to acquire antibiotic

  12. Prevalence of β-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli from Retail Meat in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivanlar Önen, Sevda; Aslantaş, Özkan; Şebnem Yılmaz, Ebru; Kürekci, Cemil

    2015-09-01

    Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC) producing Escherichia coli have been shown to be present in humans and animals representing a significant problem worldwide. This study aimed to search the presence of ESBL and/or AmpC-producing E. coli in retail meats (chicken and beef) in Turkey. A total of 88 β-lactamase-producing E. coli were isolated from chicken (n = 81/100) and beef meat (n = 7/100) samples and their susceptibility to several antimicrobials were tested using disc diffusion method. E. coli isolates were further characterized for their phylogenetic groups. β-Lactamase encoding (blaTEM , blaSHV , blaOXA , blaCTX-M , and blaAmpC ) and quinolone resistance genes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qepA, and acc(6')-Ib-cr) were also secreened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, in regard to β-lactamase genes, 84 of 88 isolates were positive for blaCTX-M-1 (n = 39), blaCTX-M-3 (n = 5), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 4), blaTEM-1b (n = 2), blaSHV-12 (n = 1), blaCTX-M-1 /blaTEM-1b (n = 10), blaCTX-M-1 /blaTEM-1b /blaSHV-5 (n = 1), blaCTX-M-1 /blaCMY-2 (n = 1) and blaTEM-1b /blaCMY-2 (n = 6), blaCTX-M-15 /blaSHV-12 (n = 1), blaCTX-M-15 /blaTEM-1b (n = 1), blaTEM-1b /blaSHV-12 (n = 1), and blaCMY-2 (n = 12) genes. Resistance to cefuroxime (75.6% and 85.7%), nalidixic acid (89% and 85.7%), tetracycline (91.4% and 100%), streptomycin (40.2% and 100%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (36.6% and 85.7%) was observed among strains isolated from chicken and beef, respectively. However, all isolates were found to be susceptible to amikacin, imipenem, and cefepime. Resistance to ampicillin and cefoxitin was significantly linked to blaCMY-2 gene, while there was a significant correlation between CTX-M type ESBL and antimicrobial resistance to cefuroxime and streptomycin (P < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that raw chicken retail meats are highly contaminated with ESBL-producing E. coli implementing a great risk to human health in

  13. Characterization of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci in milk from cows with mastitis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nathalia C C; Guimarães, Felipe F; de P Manzi, Marcela; Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Gómez, Paula; Araújo-Júnior, Joao P; Langoni, Helio; Rall, Vera L M; Torres, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Staphylococci are one of the most prevalent microorganisms in bovine mastitis. Staphylococcus spp. are widespread in the environment, and can infect animals and humans as opportunistic pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of methicillin-resistance (MR) among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) previously obtained from milk of mastitic cows in Brazil and to characterize the antimicrobial resistance phenotype/genotype and the SCCmec type of MRCoNS isolates. Identification of MRCoNS was based on both biochemical and molecular methods. Susceptibility testing for eleven antimicrobials was performed by disk-diffusion agar. Antimicrobial resistance genes and SCCmec were investigated by specific PCRs. Twenty-six MRCoNS were detected (20 % of total CoNS), obtained from 24 animals, and were identified as follows: S. epidermidis (7 isolates), S. chromogenes (7), S. warneri (6), S. hyicus (5) and S. simulans (1). All MRCoNS isolates carried mecA while the mecC gene was not detected in any CoNS. The SCCmec IVa was demonstrated in nine MRCoNS, while the remaining 17 isolates harbored non-typeable SCCmec cassettes. In addition to oxacillin and cefoxitin resistance, MRCoNS showed resistance to tetracycline (n = 7), streptomycin (n = 6), tobramycin (n = 6), and gentamicin (n = 4), and harbored the genes tet(K) (n = 7), str (n = 3), ant(4') (n = 6) and aac(6')-aph(2″) (n = 4), respectively. In addition, seven strains showed intermediate resistance to clindamycin and two to streptomycin, of which two harboured the lnu(B) and lsa(E) genes and two the aad(E) gene, respectively. One isolate presented intermediate erythromycin and clindamycin resistance and harbored an erm(C) gene with an uncommon 89-bp deletion rendering a premature stop codon. MRCoNS can be implicated in mastitis of cows and they constitute a reservoir of resistance genes that can be transferred to other pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24817534

  14. PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOGRAM OF EXTENDED SPECTRUM BET A- LACTAMASE PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI

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    Mohd.

    2013-04-01

    .33%, followed by pus (62.62%, urine (61.80% a nd blood (60.61% samples. The antibiogram revealed no resistance to imipenem, whi le the highest resistance rate was detected against cefoperazone, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, a mpicillin, cefotaxime, aztreonam, cefoxitin, piperacillin, ceftazidime, and ceftriaxone. CONCLUSIONS: ESBL producing strains of Escherichia coli show extremely wide spectrum of antibiotic resi stance including resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones . This leads to significant implications in the management of patients. Advanced drug resistanc e surveillance and determination of molecular characteristics of ESBL isolates are nece ssary to formulate antibiotic prescription policies, so as to ensure appropriate and judicious use of the available antimicrobial drugs.

  15. The distribution and the vicissitudes of antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hospital from 2009 to 2012.%2009~2012医院内感染铜绿假单胞菌的临床分布及耐药性变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱义城; 卢玉贞; 汤凤珍; 欧阳英娥

    2012-01-01

      目的了解我院院内感染铜绿假单胞菌的临床分布和耐药情况,为临床预防和治疗铜绿假单胞菌院内感染提供依据.方法采用回顾性分析方法分析2009-2012年间院内住院患者分离铜绿假单胞菌病区分布、药敏结果、耐药性变化和耐药组合情况.结果4年间铜绿假单胞菌分离率较高的科室分别为神经外科、中心重症监护室和神经内科.痰标本检出铜绿假单胞菌最多,占74.4%.药敏结果显示哌拉西林,哌拉西林/他唑巴坦,庆大霉素,头孢吡肟(FEP)等20种抗菌药物耐药率呈下降的趋势.结论医院内获得铜绿假单胞菌感染以下呼吸道感染为主,且耐药性明显高于其他部位分离菌株.铜绿假单胞菌耐药机制复杂,临床应根据其分布特点和药敏结果合理用药.%  Objective To investigate antimicrobial resistance of clinical isolates of our hospital ,to offer information for preventing and curing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods the retrospective analytical method test was employed to study the antimicrobial resistance. Results the top three the division of isolating rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is neurosurgery,ICU and neurology department. The strains were separated from sputum accounted for 74.4% ,which is the most. There is an obvious descending tendency of antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for Amikacin, Aztreonam, Aztreonam, Piperacilin, Piperacilin/ Tazobactam, Gentamycin, Gentamycin/ Clavulanic Acid, Cefepime, Ceftazidime, Tobramycin, Imipenem, Levofloxacin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone. Oppositey, there is not for Cefotaxime/ Clavulanic Acid, Ampicilin, Ampicilin/ Ampicilin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, Cefoxitin, Cephazolin. Conclusion the primary infection in Hospitals is lower respiratory tract infection, which is supper than other position infection. The antimicrobial resistance mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is multiplicity. So, we should take the rational

  16. Tratamento não-cirúrgico de abscessos intra-cavitários pós-apendicectomia Non surgical management of post appendectomy intraperitoneal abscesses

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    Giliatt Hanois Falbo Neto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a eficácia do tratamento não cirúrgico em crianças que desenvolveram abscessos intra-cavitários pós-apendicectomia, no Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco, Recife, Brasil, e comparar os resultados obtidos com dois esquemas antimicrobianos (Cefoxitina versus Amicacina com Metronidazol utilizados. MÉTODOS: o estudo corresponde ao período de janeiro de 1997 a janeiro de 2000 no qual 427 crianças foram apendicectomizadas; 41 delas desenvolveram abscessos intra-cavitários sendo 39 incluídas no estudo. O diagnóstico dos abscessos intra-cavitários baseou-se em sinais clínicos e exames complementares. RESULTADOS: A incidência de abscessos intra-cavitários pós-apendicectomias foi de 9,6%. 89,7% dos pacientes obtiveram sucesso com o tratamento. Não houve diferença entre os percentuais de cura obtidos com os dois esquemas antimicrobianos. CONCLUSÕES: o tratamento não cirúrgico de abscessos intra-cavitários pós-apendicectomias, baseado na antibioticoterapia endovenosa é uma opção segura e eficaz. Os esquemas antimicrobianos com Cefo-xitina e associação de Amicacina com Metronidazol têm eficácia semelhantes. A associação Amicacina com Metronidazol é recomenda pelo seu menor custo.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the effectiveness of non-surgical treatment of post appendectomy, abdominal abscesses in children at the Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil and to compare the results of two anti-microbial schemes (Cefoxitin versus Amikacin plus Metronidazole. METHODS: the study corresponds to the period from January 1997 to January 2000. There were 427 appendectomies performed in children during this period and 41 of them developed intra-abdominal abscesses. Thirty-nine were studied. The diagnosis of the abscesses was based on clinical signs, laboratorial tests and ultrasound examination. RESULTS: abscesses developed in 9,6% of the cases. Healing of the abscess occurred in 89,7% of the patients

  17. 415例介入治疗患者抗菌药物预防使用情况分析%Prophylactic Use Situation of Antibacterial Drugs in 415 Cases of Intervention Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怡苹; 秦侃; 汪永宏; 范鲁雁

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查介入手术患者围手术期预防使用抗菌药物情况,分析存在的问题。方法回顾性分析医院2012年1月至12月介入手术患者抗菌药物使用情况,剔除原有感染已使用抗菌药物的病例,同时实施干预管理。结果监测患者415例,预防使用抗菌药物27例,使用率6.51%;用药天数1~7 d,平均1.78 d;使用频率排名前5位的依次为头孢孟多、头孢西丁、青霉素、头孢哌酮他唑巴坦、头孢拉定。结论介入手术患者抗菌药物预防性使用情况比较合理,但仍存在用药时间过长、选取不正确等情况,需进一步提高临床医师对抗菌药物使用知识的了解,提高抗菌药物预防性应用的合理性。%Objective To investigate the perioperative prophylactic antibacterial drug use in the patients with intervention surgery and to analyze the existing problems. Methods The retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the perioperative antibacterial drug use in the patients with intervention surgery from January to December 2012. The cases of original infection treated by the antibacterial drugs were excluded and at the same time the intervention management was implemented. Results A total of 415 cases were monitored, 27 cases used the prophylactic antibacterial drugs with the use rate of 6. 51%,the medication time ranged 1-7 d, average 1. 78 d. The top 5 of antibacterial drug use frequency in turn were cefamandole, cefoxitin, penicillin, cefoperazone tazobactam and cephradine. Conclusion The use of perioperative prophylactic antibacterial drug use in the patients undergoing intervention surgery is basically rea-sonable, but there are still some conditions such as too long time of antibacterial drug use and incorrect selection of antibacterial drugs, which needs to further increase the clinical doctors' understanding on the use knowledge of prophylactic antibacterial drugs for enhanc-ing the rationality of prophylactic

  18. Molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Hajime; Navarro, Rizalina B; Yano, Hisakazu; Sombrero, Lydia T; Capeding, Ma Rosario Z; Lupisan, Socorro P; Olveda, Remigio M; Arai, Kazuaki; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Hirakata, Yoichi; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    β-Lactamases, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC β-lactamases, are major resistance mechanisms of Enterobacteriaceae. Emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants in ESBL-producing isolates poses a global threat. The molecular characterisitcs of ESBL and PMQR determinants in the Philippines are not well characterized. In this study, we investigated ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamases in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from the Philippines, and analyzed the association between ESBL and PMQR genes. A total of 91 amoxicilin non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae were collected at the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine of the Philippines from 2006 to 2008. AmpC- or ESBL-producing isolates were screened by detecting a zone diameter for cefoxitin ≤ 14 mm or cefpodoxime ≤ 20 mm, respectively. Possible ESBL-producing strains were assessed by the ESBL confirmation test of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. PCR and sequencing were performed to detect the ESBL and PMQR genes. The number of ESBL-producers and AmpC-producers confirmed phenotypically was 17 (18.7%) and 61 (67.0%), respectively. Of 17 phenotypic ESBL-producers, 14 isolates had ESBL genes, including 6 of Escherichia coli, 3 of Enterobacter cloacae, 2 of Enterobacter aerogenes, 2 of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 1 of Klebsiella ozaenae. Among these isolates, there were 13, 4, and 12 with bla(CTX-M), bla(SHV), and bla(TEM), respectively. Of the bla(CTX-M)-positive isolates, bla(CTX-M-15) shows the highest prevalence, followed by bla(CTX-M-3) and bla(CTX-M-14). Of 14 ESBL-producers identified by PCR, 4, 6, and 7 isolates were positive for qnrB, qnrS, and aac(6')-Ib-cr, respectively. The frequency of aac(6')-Ib-cr positivity was significantly higher among CTX-M-15-producing isolates. Thus, we identified bla(CTX-M), aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qnr in ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae from the Philippines, and revealed a significant association between bla

  19. 我院大肠埃希菌耐药性分析%Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance of 266 Escherichia Coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任晓华; 崔文丽; 张英; 安翠平; 霍卫池; 汤慧芳; 彭雯; 马涛; 何士彦

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and situation of antimicrobial resistance of escherichia coli isolated from our hospital in 2011, sa as to provide reference for antimicrobial treatment. Methods A total of 266 strains of escherichia coli isolated during Jan. 2011 and Dec. 2011 were retrospectively analyzed according to the source of specimens and drug-resistance. Results The drug resistance to all kinds of antibiotics was strong. The highest resistance rate of escherichia coli was present in cipro-floxacin (83.2%). In gentamicin, cefazolin, cefuroxitne and ceftriaxone, a lower resistance rate of escherichia coli varying from 70% to 80% was confirmed. In levofloxacin, cefotaxime and ampicillin/sulbactam, the resistance rate was between 60% to 70% , and only the resistance rate of Cefoxitin was less than 50%. Conclusion Escherichia coli, isolated from the patients, has shown a high rate of resistance to routine antimicrobial agents, and even has presented multiple antibacterial resistance. So rational use of antimicrobial agents must be emphasized in order to reduce or delay the production of multi-drug resistant strains.%目的 了解我院2011年大肠埃希菌对常用抗菌药物的耐药现状及标本分布,为临床治疗提供依据.方法 对2011年1月~12月临床科室送培标本分离出的266株大肠埃希菌的耐药情况进行回顾性分析.结果 我院分离的266株大肠埃希菌对各类常用抗菌药物均表现为严重耐药,其中环丙沙星的耐药率最高,达83.2%,庆大霉素、头孢唑林钠、头孢呋辛钠和头孢曲松钠耐药率达70%~80%,左氧氟沙星、头孢噻肟钠、氨苄西林/舒巴坦钠的耐药率在60%~70%,仅头孢西丁钠的耐药率低于50%.结论 我院分离的大肠埃希菌耐药严重,且呈多重耐药,故临床必须重视合理使用抗菌药物,以减少或延缓多重耐药菌株的产生.

  20. Phenotype, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility of Swedish and Thai oral isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Susanne Blomqvist

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigated phenotypes, virulence genotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility of oral Staphylococcus aureus strains in order to get more information on whether oral infections with this bacterium are associated with certain subtypes or related to an over-growth of the S. aureus variants normally found in the oral cavity of healthy carriers. Materials and methods: A total number of 157 S. aureus strains were investigated. Sixty-two strains were isolated from Swedish adults with oral infections, 25 strains were from saliva of healthy Swedish dental students, and 45 strains were from tongue scrapings of HIV-positive subjects in Thailand, and 25 Thai strains from non-HIV controls. The isolates were tested for coagulase, nitrate, arginine, and hemolysin, and for the presence of the virulence genes: hlg, clfA, can, sdrC, sdrD, sdrE, map/eap (adhesins and sea, seb, sec, tst, eta, etb, pvl (toxins. MIC90 and MIC50 were determined by E-test against penicillin V, oxacillin, amoxicillin, clindamycin, vancomycin, fusidic acid, and cefoxitin. Results: While the hemolytic phenotype was significantly (p<0.001 more common among the Thai strains compared to Swedish strains, the virulence genes were found in a similar frequency in the S. aureus strains isolated from all four subject groups. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genotype was found in 73–100% of the strains. More than 10% of the strains from Swedish oral infections and from Thai HIV-positives showed low antibiotic susceptibility, most commonly for clindamycin. Only three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA strains were identified, two from oral infections and one from a Thai HIV patient. Conclusions: S. aureus is occasionally occurring in the oral cavity in both health and disease in Sweden and Thailand. It is therefore most likely that S. aureus in opportunistic oral infections originate from the oral microbiota. S. aureus should be considered in case of oral

  1. Methicilin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage amongst Healthcare Workers of the Critical Care Units in a Nigerian Hospital

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    A. Fadeyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Methicilin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA Nosocomial Infection (NI outbreaks and prevalence among various populations are well reported in literature particularly for developed countries. NI due to MRSA is a known cause of increased hospital stay, cost, morbidity and mortality especially among the critically ill. There is paucity of information on MRSA in developing nations including the carriage by critical healthcare givers who are potential transmitters. In most hospital in developing countries like Nigeria, there is neither surveillance system or control policy for MRSA. Approach: We screened healthcare workers in the critical care units of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH, Ilorin, Nigeria for MRSA and determined vancomycin susceptibility of the isolates. Swabs of both anterior nares and web spaces of the hands were taken, transported and incubated in Tween 80 at 35°C overnight aerobically before inoculation onto Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA. Inoculated MSA were incubated aerobically at 35°C for 18-24 h. Staphylococcus aureus was identified as Gram positive cocci with positive catalase, coagulase and DNAse test. MRSA were identified by combined oxacillin and cefoxitin discs diffusion method. Sensitivity to vancomycin was by vancomycin discs diffusion and vancomycin agar screen plating. Results: Of the 198 healthcare workers screened, 104 had MRSA either in the nose, hand or both giving a carriage rate of 52.5%. Nasal carriage (38.9% was higher than hand (25.3%. Doctors (22.7% and Nurses (16.7% were the predominant carriers. MRSA isolates were resistant to commonly available antibiotics. Only 1 (1.3% of the nasal isolates was vancomycin resistant. Conclusion: MRSA carriage among healthcare workers in the critical care units of the Nigerian hospital is high with doctors and nurses being the major carriers. The MRSA isolates were multi-drug resistant which may lead to increased morbidity and mortality if

  2. Identification and antibiotic sensitivity test of dairy cow recessive mammitis streptococcus%奶牛隐性乳房炎链球菌的分离鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢昆; 蒋成砚; 王会英; 周文树; 唐秀华; 汪镜

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenic bacteria separated from fresh milk in the Mengzi area of Yunnan Province were morphologically and biochemically identified via bacterial culture,and their susceptibilities to 7 common antibiot-ics were also tested.The results showed that the 7 separated streptococcus strains (MZ1—MZ7)were respectively 2 strains of Streptococcus agalactiae (MZ1 and MZ6),3 strains of S.uberis (MZ4,MZ5 and MZ7)and 2 strains of S.dysgalactive (MZ2 and MZ3)according to traditional morphology,physiology and biochemistry as well as The Common Manual ofDeterminative Bacteriology;All the above strains were susceptible to tetracycline,cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin and oxacillin,but low susceptible to gentamicin,vancomycin and penicillin.%从云南省蒙自地区奶牛乳样中采集病原菌,通过细菌培养,进行形态和生化试验鉴定及药敏试验。结果表明:从牛奶中分离得到的7株链球菌(编号为 MZ1—MZ7),按照传统的形态学和生理生化并参照《常见细菌系统鉴定手册》,2株是无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)(MZ1和 MZ6)、3株是乳房链球菌(S.uberis)(MZ4、MZ5和 MZ7)和2株停乳链球菌(S.dysgalactive)(MZ2和 MZ3);这些菌株对四环素、头孢噻吩、环丙沙星和苯唑西林4种药物敏感,对庆大霉素、万古霉素和青霉素3种药物敏感性较低。

  3. Clinical evaluation of three methods in detection of Clost ridium difficile in stool%3 种检测艰难梭菌方法的临床应用评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章黎华; 李贞; 江岑; 万颖蕾; 彭奕冰

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the clinical performance of three methods in the detection of Clostridium difficile ( C . difficile) in stool samples . Clinical samples were subjected to enzyme-linked fluorescence assay for C . difficile toxins A and B (CDAB ) , conventional bacterial cultivation using cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar (CCFA ) and cultivation by chromogenic C . difficile identification medium (chromIDTM ) ,respectively .A combination of bacterial culture and amplification of the tcdB gene was selected as the standard reference method for the evaluation .A total of 164 clinical stool samples were collected ,of which 58 had positive results by the reference method whilst the rest 106 were negative .The CDAB method showed a sensitivity ,specificity ,positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 51 .7% ,95 .3% ,85 .7% and 78 .3% ,respectively ,while the corresponding values of the CCFA method turned out to be 72 .4% , 98 .1% , 95 .5% and 86 .7% , respectively . The chromIDTM method gave corresponding values of 94 .8% , 92 .5% , 87 .3% and 97 .0% , respectively . Among the three methods , chromIDTM method had the best consistency with the reference method (Kappa= 0 .856) .It is concluded that chromIDTM is a simple and cost-effective method for the detection of C . difficile in stool samples , which can present easy-to-judge results and has a preferable value in clinical application .%本研究旨在对3种检测粪便样本中艰难梭菌的方法进行临床应用评估 ,为艰难梭菌的实验室检测提供参考.采用艰难梭菌毒素A/B(Clostridium difficile toxins A and B ,CDAB)酶联免疫荧光检测法、环丝氨酸-头孢西丁-果糖琼脂(cycloserin-cefoxitin-fructose agar ,CCFA)常规培养法和显色培养法(chromIDTM )同步检测粪便样本中的艰难梭菌 ,并对培养所得菌株进行 tcdB基因扩增以验证其产毒性.以艰难梭菌培养联合 tcdB基因扩增为参考方法 ,分别计算上述3种方法的

  4. 老年患者医院感染产超广谱β-内酰胺酶大肠埃希菌的检测与耐药性研究%The detection and antibiotic resistance of extend-spectrumβ-lactamases producing Escherichia coli in old patients with hospital infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛文娟; 荆菁华; 朱建奎

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To find out the detection and antibiotic resistance of extend‐spectrum β‐lactamases (ES‐BLs)‐producing Escherichia coli infected by old patients ,so as to provide basis for rational drug use .METHODS From Jul .2011 to Dec .2013 ,a total of 423 strains of E .coli were isolated and were detected by AST‐GN13 sus‐ceptibility cards .RESULTS The detection rate of ESBLs‐producing E .coli was 56 .3% .ESBLs‐producing E .coli were mainly isolated from urine ,accounting for 33 .2% ,followed by sputum ,accounting for 20 .6% ,blood ,ac‐counting for 13 .4% ,fluid drainage ,accounting for 8 .8% ,bile ,accounting for 7 .6% ,pleural effusion ,account‐ing for 6 .3% ,and secretions ,accounting for 4 .6% . E .coli were mainly isolated from ICU ,accounting for 25 .6% ,followed by emergency department ,accounting for 16 .4% ,oncology ,accounting for 13 .4% ,general surgery ,accounting for 11 .3% ,respiratory medicine ,accounting for 9 .2% ,neurosurgery ,accounting for 7 .6% , gastroenterology accounted for 3 .8% and neurology ,accounted for 2 .9% .The resistance rates of ESBLs‐produ‐cing E .coli to piperacillin ,cefazolin ,cefamandole ,cefoxitin ,ceftriaxone ,ceftazidime ,cefotaxime ,cefoperazone , aztreonam ,ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were significantly higher than those non‐ESBLs‐producing E .coli(P0 .05) .ESBLs‐produ‐cing E .coli showed high resistance to piperacillin ,cefazolin ,cefamandole ,ceftriaxone ,cefotaxime ,cefoperazone , and the resistance rates were all above 80 .0% ,while sensitive to cefoxitin ,ceftazidime ,amikacin and imipenem , and the resistance rates were below 20% .CONCLUSION ESBLs‐producing E .coli are mainly isolated from urine and ICU and have serious drug resistance to antibiotics .Hence clinics should take effective measures based on riskfactors to use drug rationally so as to control emergence and dissemination of resistant strains .%目的:了解老年患者医院感染产超广谱β‐内酰胺酶(ESBLs)

  5. Studies on the clinical characteristics of intestinal infection caused by Aeromonas and drug susceptibility of the strains%气单胞菌肠道感染的临床特点和耐药特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志远; 马玉芝; 潘健; 张婷菊; 齐杰; 刘贵建

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of intestinal infection caused by Aeromonas and their drug suscepti-bility .Methods The data of 52 patients infected with Aeromonas were analyzed retrospectively .Aeromonas strains were identified with Vitek Ⅱ Compact .Drug susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion methods .Cefoxitin combined with ceftazidime ,aztreo-nam ,cefotaxime and ceftriaxone were used to detect inducible expression of AmpC β-lactamase .Results Abdominal pain ,watery di-arrhea ,tenesmus occurred in 75 .0% ,48 .1% ,and 38 .0% of the patients ,respectively .White blood cell tests were positive in 50 .0%patients′stools .52 strains of Aeromonas were isolated ,including 38 strains of Aeromonas hydrophila ,13 strains of Aeromonas so-bria ,and 1 strain of Aeromonas veronii .All strains were sensitive to carbapenems ,the second ,third generation of cephalosporins , monobactam ,fluoroquinolone ,aminoglycosides .The susceptibility rates to chloramphenicol ,trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole ,cefox-itin ,cefazolin ,and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were 94 .2% ,92 .3% ,76 .9% ,51 .9% and 23 .1% ,respectively .75 .0% isolates exhibi-ted inducible expression of AmpC β-lactamas .Conclusion Diarrhea caused by A eromonas has different clinical manifestations .Ceph-alosporins ,monobactam ,fluoroquinolone ,aminoglycosides are available for empirical therapy of diarrhea caused by A eromonas .But the third generation of cephalosporins should be cautiously used because of high prevalence of inducible AmpC β-lactamase in A ero-monas .%目的:了解气单胞菌所致腹泻的临床特点及气单胞菌的耐药情况。方法回顾性分析52例气单胞菌感染性腹泻患者的临床特点,采用Vitek Ⅱ Compact微生物分析仪鉴定气单胞菌,药敏试验采用纸片琼脂扩散法,头孢西丁纸片联合头孢他啶、头孢噻肟、头孢曲松和氨曲南纸片检测诱导型AmpC酶。结果75.0%气单胞菌感

  6. 厌氧菌检测技术在口腔颌面部感染治疗中的应用%Application of anaerobic bacteria detection in oral and maxillofacial infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包振英; 林琴; 孟彦宏; 何淳; 苏家增; 彭歆

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of anaerobic bacteria in the patients with oral and maxillofacial infection.Methods:Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultures from 61 specimens of pus from the patients with oral and maxillofacial infection in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery,Peking University School of Stomatology were identified.The culture type was evaluated by API 20A kit and drug resistance test was performed by Etest method.The clinical data and antibacterial agents for the treatment of the 61 cases were collected,and the final outcomes were recor-ded.Results:The bacteria cultures were isolated from all the specimens,with aerobic bacteria only in 6 cases (9 .8%),anaerobic bacteria only in 7 cases (1 1 .5%),and both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in 48 cases (78.7%).There were 55 infected cases (90.2%)with anaerobic bacteria,and 81 anaero-bic bacteria stains were isolated.The highest bacteria isolation rate of Gram positive anaerobic bacteria could be found in Peptostreptococcus,Bifidobacterium and Pemphigus propionibacterium.No cefoxitin, amoxicillin/carat acid resistant strain was detected in the above three Gram positive anaerobic bacteria. The highest bacteria isolation rate of Gram negative anaerobic bacteria could be detected in Porphy-romonas and Prevotella.No metronidazole,cefoxitin,amoxicillin/carat acid resistant strain was found in the two Gram negative anaerobic bacteria.In the study,48 patients with oral and maxillofacial infection were treated according to the results of drug resistance testing,and the clinical cure rate was 81 .3%. Conclusion:Mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultures are very common in most oral and maxillofa-cial infection patients.Anaerobic bacteria culture and drug resistance testing play an important role in clinical treatment.%目的:探讨口腔颌面部感染患者的厌氧菌病原菌分布及耐药情况,以指导临床治疗。方法:对北京大学口腔医学

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance Analysis and Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Among Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis%牛源金黄色葡萄球菌的耐药性及耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏洋; 蒲万霞; 陈智华; 邓海平

    2012-01-01

    . Meanwhile, agar screen was performed to identify the minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin and vancomycin to all strains. Cefoxitin, oxacillin disk diffusion and oxacillin agar screen were used to detect the phenotype of MRSA, and PCR assay was generated the genotype of MRSA as well. [Result] The isolates had different degrees of antimicrobial resistance to each antibiotic, the frequency of resistance to ampicillin, cefradine, penicillin, cotrimoxazole, novobiocin and streptomycin was more than 45%, yet keeping sensitive to ofloxacin, vancomycin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and cefazolin was over 90%. Two of the strains with vancomycin MIC were 2≥ 16 μg-mL1. The MICs of oxacillin for eight of total strains were ≥ 8 μg-mL-1, others with oxacillin MICs were ≤2 μg-mL-1. The multidrug resistance was severe, 84.21% of the strains were resistant to at least 3 kinds of antimicrobial agent, four of the total strains can survive in the presence of night various antibiotics. 16(42.11%) S.aureus strains carried mecA gene detected by PCR assay. However, there were only seven of them have the minimum inhibitory concentration over 4 μg-mL-1. When cefoxitin, oxacillin disk diffusion and oxacillin agar screen methods were generated the phenotype of MRS A, only 7, 10 and 7 strains of each were identified. [Conclusion] The antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance of S aureus were serious. High incidence of MRSA and OS-MRSA has been associated with bovine mastitis in the surveyed region.

  8. 安徽省104株黏质沙雷菌的分布及耐药性监测%Distribution and resistance surveillance of 104 clinical strains of Serratia marcescens in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程君; 杨海飞; 朱玉林; 胡立芬; 潘亚超; 刘艳艳; 叶英; 李家斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical distribution and antimicrobial resistance profile of Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens), and to provide the scientific evidence supporting clinical diagnosis and treatment.Methods The antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed in 104 strains of S. marcescens by agar dilution method. The results were judged according to the criteria recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2010.The data were analyzed by chi square test. Results The majority of S. marcescens were isolated from sputum specimens,accounting for 59.6% (62/104). The bacteria were most frequently isolated from department of respiratory (33.7%,35/104),followed by intensive care unit (23.1%,24/104),department of gerontology (16.3%, 17/104). The results of antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that the resistance rates of S.marcescens against ampicillin,gentamicin and cephazolin were high,which were 90.4%,86.5% and 79.8%,respectively; those against the 3rd generation of cephalosporins were 24.0%-43.3%. No imipenem and meropenem resistant strains were identified. Compared with cefoxitin-resistant strains,the resistance rates of non-cefoxitin resistant strains against piperacillin (82.9% vs 28.6%),ceftazidime (63.4% vs 9.5%),aztreonam (68.3% vs 9.5%),amikacin (68.3% vs 20.6%),ciprofloxacin (48.8% vs 19.1%) and chloramphenicol (90.3% vs 58.7%) were all lower (all P < 0.05 ). Conclusions S. marcescens is one of the most common conditional pathogenic bacteria leading to nosocomial infections,which is resistant to many kinds of antimicrobial agents.The surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in S. marcescens should be strengthened for purpose of preventing the transmission of multidrug resistant strains.%目的 探讨黏质沙雷菌感染的临床分布及耐药特点,为临床诊断和治疗提供依据.方法 104株黏质沙雷菌药物敏感试验采用琼脂稀释法,结果依据临

  9. Drug resistance and resistant mechanisms of Pasteurella aerogenes from knee joint fluid%膝关节液中产气巴斯德菌的耐药性及耐药机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅海燕; 明德松; 朱焱; 谢尊金

    2012-01-01

    amocillin/clavulanate, cefoxitin, and cephalothin, cefotaxime, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, polymyxin, fluoroquinolon and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole;During the detection of the variety of BLs, 6mm for aztreonam was detected but was drug-resistant, while there were no synergy or antagonism between ceftazidime/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam. Meanwhile, 10 mm ceftazidime was detected as well as 14 mm ceftazidime/clavulanate,14mm cefotaxime, 16mm cefotaxime/clavulanate and 28mm cefoxitin were all susceptible. CONCLUSION The clinical isolate of P. Aerogenes from joint fluid of a patient with knee osteoarthritis is just resistant to some of β-lactams, thus the drug resistance is low, and the resistant mechanism of P. Aerogenes is the production of BLs,being speculated to produce ESBLs by phenotype of drug resistant and ceftazidime-clavulanate synergy test.

  10. 陕西部分地区不同食源性大肠杆菌耐药性检测%Drug Resistance Detection of Escherichia Coli from Different Food Origins in Some Districts of Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    只帅; 席美丽; 刘攻关; 吴淑鹏; 殷童; 姚远; 杨保伟; 孟江洪

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance and prevalence of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli were determined among Escherichia coli isolates collected from retail meats and ready-to-eat food in supermarkets and open markets in Xi'an and Yangling areas of Shaanxi Province. Antimicrobial Susceptibility to 15 antibiotics of 748 Escherichia coli isolates were determined by using agar dilution methods, which was recommended by National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standard(NCCLS), and using E.coli. ATCC25922, E. faecalis ATCC29212, Staphylococcus Aureus ATCC25923 as quality control strains. The results indicated that the isolates were most resistant to streptomycin at 88.2%, followed by resistance to tetracycline (84.4%),trimethoprim-suffamethoxazole (64.4%), nalidixic acid (62.6%), ampicillin (56.0%),ciprofloxacin (39.2%), chloramphenicol (37.6%), kanamycin (34.9%), gentamicin (34.2% ), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (28.9%),gatifloxacin(26.9%). The isolates displayed lower resistance to amikacin (8.3%), cefoxitin (11.5%), ceftriaxone(13.8%),cefoperazone (19.5%). 73.9% of the isolates were multidrug-resistant. Two Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates were isolated from pork and mutton samples. Escherichia coli isolates recovered from retail meats and ready-to-eat food in Xi'an district were seriously resistant to common antibiotics.%对陕西西安市和杨凌示范区超级市场及农贸市场零售内及凉拌菜中的大肠杆菌耐药性及肠产志贺样毒素大肠杆菌进行检测.采用美国临床实验室标准化委员会(National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standard,NCCLS)推荐的琼脂稀释法,以大肠埃希氏菌ATCC25922、金黄色葡萄球菌ATCC25923及粪肠球菌ATCC29212为质控菌株,对来源于不同食品的748株大肠杆菌进行15种抗生素药敏性检测.发现大肠杆菌分离株对链霉素的抗性最高(88.2%),其次为四环素(84.4%)、甲氧苄啶-新诺明(644%)、萘啶酮酸(62.6%)

  11. Molecular subtyping and antibiotic resistance of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from food in Beijing%北京市食源性非伤寒沙门菌的分子分型和耐药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓嫒; 王迪; 陈倩

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular characteristics and antibiotic resistance of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from food in Beijing.Methods A total of 100 strains were isolated from foodborne pathogenic bacteria monitoring network in Beijing from 2004 to 2010,and were analyzed by PFGE and antimicrobial susceptibility test.Results The isolates were divided into 62 PFGE pattern,and each contains 1-11 strains.The result of antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that 55 strains were resistant to at least one antibiotic,including 15 multidrug resistant strains.The resistance rate to the eight antibiotics were nalidixic acid (40%),tetracycline (30%),chloramphenicol (15%),gentamicin (10%),trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (10%),ciprofloxacin (9%),cefoxitin (1%),and cefotaxime (0%).Conclusion PFGE profiles,antibiotic resistance patterns and serotypes of Salmonella showed high consistency.The antibiotic resistance of foodborne nontyphoidal Salmonella in Beijing was serious,and enhancing the joint monitoring of molecular subtyping and antibiotic resistance has significant importance.%目的 了解北京市食源性非伤寒沙门菌的分子特征及耐药情况.方法 对2004-2010年北京市食源性致病菌监测网收集的100株沙门菌进行脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)分型和抗生素敏感性检测.结果 100株非伤寒沙门菌通过PFGE分型分为62个不同的带型,每个带型包含1~11株菌.抗生素敏感性结果显示,100株菌中有55株菌表现为对至少1种抗生素耐药,其中多重耐药菌株15株.菌株对各抗生素的耐药率为萘啶酸40%、四环素30%、氯霉素15%、庆大霉素10%、甲氧苄啶/磺胺甲恶唑10%、环丙沙星9%、头孢西丁1%、头孢噻肟0%.结论 沙门菌PFGE带型和耐药谱均与血清型存在很高的一致性.提示北京市食源性非伤寒沙门菌的耐药情况比较严重,开展对该菌分子分型与耐药特征分析的联合监测意义重大.

  12. 慢性中耳炎及慢性鼻窦炎分泌物培养分析%Culture and Analysis of the Secretion of Chronic Tympanitis and Nasosinusitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付健

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究天津滨海新区地区中耳炎及鼻窦炎分泌物的主要病原菌分布及对抗生素的耐药情况,以指导临床用药.方法 分别对98例鼻部,162例耳部黏性及脓性分泌物培养并对分离的病原菌进行药物敏感试验.结果 分离出病原菌株,耳部以金黄色葡萄球菌和铜绿假单胞菌为主,真菌3株.鼻部以表皮及溶血性链球菌为主,不同细菌有各自的敏感药物谱.耳部对两者敏感性高的为环丙沙星、万古霉素、克林霉素、头孢西丁等,鼻部多为头孢哌酮、夫西地酸钠、头孢地嗪、万古霉素等.结论 金黄色葡萄球菌和铜绿假单胞菌现为滨海新区地区慢性化脓性中耳炎的主要致病菌,而鼻部则以表皮葡萄球菌及溶血性葡萄球菌为主,临床医师应根据细菌培养和药敏结果用药,准确有效地治疗.%Objective To study the pathogenic bacteria distribution of the secretion of tympanitis and sinusitis and their drug resistance in Binhai new district of Tianjin to provide guideliens for clinical medicine use. Methods The melicera or purnlent secretion of 98 patients'samples from noses and 162 samples from ears were cultivated. Medication sensitivity of the bacteria were tested at the end. Results The bacteria were separated successfully. The bacteria in eats are mostly golden staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa. 3 strains of epiphyte were separated too. The bacteria from noses are mostly cuticular and hemolytic streptococcus. Different bacteria have different sensitive drug spectrums. The ears sensitive drugs are ciprofloxacin, vancomycin,clindamycin and cefoxitin. The nose sensitive drugs are cefoperazone, sodium fusidate, cefodizime and vancomycin. Conclusion The golden staphylococcus and aerugo pseudomonas are the most important nosogenesis of chronic purulent tympanitis. And for the nosogenesis of nasosinusitis are cuticle staphylococcus and hemolysis staphylococcus. The clinic physician

  13. Detection of a IMP-4 type metal beta lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumonia highly resistant to carbapenem drugs%一株高度耐碳青霉烯类药物的肺炎克雷伯菌耐药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭明; 李天娇; 莫成锦

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the resistant mechanism of a Klebsiella pneumonia strain highly resistant to to carbapenem drugs. Methods Both broth microdilution and Etest method were usef for antimicrobial susceptibility test of Klebsiella pneumonia to carbapenemases, modified Hodge test and double disk synergy method were uxed for phenotype detection and multiple groups of carbapenem resistance related gene primers PCR and sequencing was used for genotype determination with assistance of Beijing University Institute of Clinical Pharmacology. Results Klebsiella pneumonia resistant to on commonly used clinical imipenem (mic>32ug/ml),meropenem (mic>32ug/ml),the first to fourth generation of cephalosporins, quinolone and gentamicin, cefoxitin, aztreonam trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, telracycline minocycline, ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoperazone/sulbactam, but sensitive to amikacin and polymyxin B. carbapenem resistance gene was blaIMP-4. Conclusion IMP-4 type metal lactamase Klebsiella pneumonia resistant to most common antibacterials has been detected in this hospital and attention be paid to monitoring and treatment.%目的 了解从临床患者病灶中分离到的一株高度耐碳青霉烯类药物的肺炎克雷伯菌的耐药机制.方法 药敏试验采用微量肉汤稀释法与etest法,碳青霉烯酶表型检测采用改良Hodge试验和双纸片增效法,其基因型测定采用多组碳青霉烯耐药相关基因引物PCR并测序,由北京大学临床药理研究所负责完成.结果 药敏测试结果除对阿米卡星和多粘菌素敏感外,对临床常用亚胺培南(mic>32ug/ml)、美罗培南(mic>32ug/ml)、一至四代的头孢菌素类、硅诺酮类以及庆大霉素、头孢西丁、氨曲南、复方新诺明、四环素、美满霉素、氨苄西林、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、哌拉西林、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦、阿莫西林/棒酸、头孢哌酮/舒巴坦,

  14. Distribution of pathogens in diabetic foot osteomyelitis and risk factors of osteomyelitis%糖尿病足合并骨髓炎创面病原菌分布及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄莺; 曹瑛; 邹梦晨; 李文霞; 罗祥蓉; 蒋娅; 薛耀明; 高方

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨合并骨髓炎的糖尿病足感染病原菌分布、耐药性特点及其危险因素。方法收集我院2011年1月~2014年12月372例糖尿病足感染住院患者的病历资料,根据有无合并骨髓炎分为有骨髓炎(OM)组(54.6%)及无骨髓炎组(Non-OM)组(45.4%),比较组间创面感染病原菌分布及耐药性特点,用Logistic回归分析发生骨髓炎的危险因素。结果 OM组以革兰阴性(G-)菌感染为主(53.7%),而Non-OM组以革兰阳性菌(G+)菌感染占优势(56.7%)(P=0.001)。G+菌以葡萄球菌属最常见(35.1%),OM组中葡萄球菌对苯唑西林、头孢西丁的耐药率(64.9%、68.5%)显著高于Non-OM组(29.2%、32.6%)(P4 cm2的患者应警惕骨髓炎的发生。%Objective To explore the distribution and antibiotic resistance of pathogens in lesions of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) and analyze the risk factors causing osteomyelitis. Methods A total of 372 patients with diabetic foot infections hospitalized between January 2011 and December 2014, including 203 with osteomyelitis (OM group) and 169 without osteomyelitis (non-OM group), were examined for the distribution and antibiotic resistance profile of the pathogens in the wounds. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors causing osteomyelitis. Results Gram-negative bacteria were the predominant pathogens (53.7%) in the infected wounds in OM group, whereas Gram-positive bacteria were the most frequently found (56.7%) in non-OM group (P=0.001). Among the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus was the dominating flora (35.1%). The resistance rate to oxacillin and cefoxitin of the isolated bacteria in OM group (64.9%and 68.5%, respectively) was significantly higher than that in non-OM group (29.2%and 32.6%, respectively;P4 cm2 were the risk factors for osteomyelitis in patients with diabetic foot infections (P<0.05). Conclusions In addition to an empirical anti

  15. Pathogens and drug resistance analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in neonatal purulent meningitis%新生儿化脓性脑膜炎脑脊液病原菌分布和耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晓萌; 杨娟; 刘翠青

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bacteria distribution of neonatal purulent meningitis,antibiotic sensitivity and resistance,and provide laboratory evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment.Methods Twenty-eight cases diagnosed purulent meningitis were recruited into this study.The bacterial culture,drug resistance and sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid from the patients were analyzed.Results The pathogen distribution in the cerebrospinal fluid of 28 cases with neonatal purulent meningitis:27 cases with cultured single strain,just 1 case with two strains.In this findings,there were 20 gram-negative bacteria strains (68.96%),8 gram-positive bacteria strains (27.59%),1 candida albicans strain (3.45%).The drug resistant rate of gram-negative bacteria to ampicillin,cotrimoxazole,piperacillin was more than 80.00%;on the other hand,it was up to 60.00% to cefazolin,tetracycline,cefotaxime.Eight strains of extended spectrum beta lactamase bacteria were tested in this study.Gram-negative bacteria resistant to meropenem and amikacin were not detected.Most gram-positive bacteria showed drug resistance to ampicillin,cotrimoxazole,erythromycin,cefoxitin.There was none detected in gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin.Conclusion Gram-negative bacteria was the major pathogens in neonatal purulent meningitis,and they were resistant to multiple antibiotics.%目的:探讨新生儿化脓性脑膜炎脑脊液病原菌分布、抗生素敏感和耐药情况,为临床诊治提供实验室依据。方法对临床诊断的28例化脓性脑膜炎患儿脑脊液细菌培养和耐药性以及敏感性进行分析。结果28例化脓性脑膜炎患儿脑脊液病原菌分布:单菌株27例,双菌株1例。其中革兰阴性菌20株(68.96%),革兰阳性菌8株(27.59%),白色念珠菌1株(3.45%)。革兰阴性菌对氨苄西林、复方新诺明、哌拉西林的耐药率达80.00%以上,对头孢唑林、四环素、头孢噻肟的耐药率在60

  16. 产AmpC酶弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌的耐药基因研究%Study on resistance gene of AmpC β-lactamase in Citrobacter freundii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾红莲; 赵东明; 徐韫健; 张晓坤

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the drug resistance gene of AmpC β-Lactamase from ten Citrobacter freundii.Methods -lactamases of ten strains was extracted by ultrasonic crushing,and AmpC -lactamases was tested with Cefoxitin in three dimensional test,the genotype of AmpC were amplified by multiple PCR and PCR products were sequenced subsequently. Drug sensitivity of ten strains were determined. Results There were 4 strains positive in three-dimensional test.The genotype of β-lactamases were not detected in CMY-G1 (1/10),CMY-G2 (2/10),FOX (1/10),CIT(2/10),ACT,DHA and MOX genes in ten strains. The 1 146bp DNA fragment of CMY-type AmpC β-Lactamase gene sequence shared 99 % amino acid identity with blaCMY that already appeared in Guangzhou. The resistant strains overexpressing AmpC β-lactamases were multi-drug resistant. Conclusion The surveillance of overexpressing AmpC β-lactamases in Citrobacter freundii should be emphasized so as to choose effective antibiotic for dealing with AmpC β-lactamases producing strains.%目的 对广州医学院第一附属医院临床分离的10株弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌进行AmpC酶的耐药基因研究.方法 用超声破碎法提取10株菌的β-内酰胺酶粗提物,进行三维试验;提取10株细菌的总DNA,PCR扩增CMY-G1、CMY-G2、FOX、ACT、DHA、MOX、CIT耐药基因并进行测序;对菌株进行MIC药物敏感试验.结果 三维试验阳性的有4株,β-内酰胺酶基因的检出率:CMY-G1(1/10)、CMY-G2(2/10)、FOX(1/10)、CIT(2/10),ACT、DHA和MOX未检出;CMY基因经全序列测定得到1 146bp的基因片段,与广州地区报道的CMY基因有99%同源;AmpC酶阳性的菌株茵呈多重耐药现象.结论 加强菌弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌产AmpC酶的监测,以选择合适的抗生素应对产酶株.

  17. 产CMY型AmpC酶费劳地枸橼酸杆菌的分子学特性研究%Study on molecule characteristics of a novel CMY-type AmpC β-Lactamase from Citrobacter freundii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓坤; 徐韫健; 廖伟娇; 张东梅; 张丽梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 对产CMY型AmpC酶费劳地枸橼酸杆菌进行耐药表型及分子学特性进行研究,探讨研制新的酶抑制剂.方法 对临床分离的两株费劳地枸橼酸杆菌所产CMY型AmpC酶用纸片扩散法、三相水解试验进行耐药表型检测,以该菌总基因组DNA和质粒DNA为模板进行PCR扩增、序列分析、质粒接合试验、构建重组表达载体及AmpC酶检测.结果 两株菌株对青霉素类、头孢菌素类、喹诺酮类、氨基糖苷类抗生素均表现为耐药,对呋喃类和碳青霉烯类表现为敏感;三相水解试验结果显示该菌能水解头孢西丁;PCR扩增出大小为1 146 bp的基因片段,与GenBank上多种CMY亚型的基因序列同源性为97%;质粒接合试验证实质粒上含CMY基因,为可转移质粒.结论 两株菌株所产CMY型AmpC酶为新的CMY型头孢菌素酶,它介导了该菌对青霉素类、头孢菌素类、喹诺酮类等抗生素耐药,其耐药性能水平传播.%Objective To investigate the antibiotic phenotype and moleculelogy characteristics of novel CMY-type AmpC β-Lactamase from Citrobacter freundii,in order to triturate homologue enzyme inhibitors. Methods Slip diffusion method and three-phase hydrolyses test were used to analyze antibiotic phenotype of novel CMY-type AmpC β-Lactamase from Citrobacter freundii that was detached from clinic.The DNA and plasmid of CMY-type AmpCβ-Lactamase from Citrobacter freundii Strain was amplified by PCR、sequence analysis.Plasmid Conjugation tests、construction recombinant expression vector and AmpC induce tests. Results Two strains were resistant to penicillins , cephalosporin, quinolone, aminoglycoside , and susceptible to nitrofuran , carbapenem , The results of three-dimension test showed, AmpCβ-Lactamase from DNA Strain and recombinant strain could hydrolyz cefoxitin,The 1 l46bp DNA fragment of CMY-type AmpC β-Lactamase encoding gene sequence shared 97% amino acid identity with CMY-type AmpC β-Lactamase that

  18. 枸橼酸杆菌医院感染特点及耐药性检测%Nosocomial infection and antibiotic resistance surveillance of citrobacter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红梅; 姜玉昌

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and antibiotic resistance of citrobacter for anti-infection therapy .Methods The citrobacter were identified by Walk-Away-40 according to《National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Procedures》 .Kirby-Bauer(K-B ) were used for drug sensitive test and WHONET5.4 for statistics .Results We isolated 172 strains of citrobacteT .Of which C .freundii was major (70.3%) ,then Citrobacter am alonaticus (14.0%) and Citrobacter diversus (5.2%).In 172 strains of citrobacte which came mainly from respiratoy tract (67 .4%) and urogenital tract was the next(22.1% ).The infected ward were neurology ward (29.1%) ,respiratoy ward(27.9%)nephrology ward (16.9%)and oncology ward(11.0%).Drug sensitive test showed higher resistance rate in 172 strains of citrobacter to ampicillin ,cefazolin and Cefoxitin were above 87% ,while to amikacin ,imipenem and sulperazone were lower 20% .Conclusion C .freundii was the common citrobacter in nosocomial infection and came mainly from respiratory tract.Citrobacter produced multi-β-lactam ase resistance .Imipenem ,sulperazone and amikacin have higher antibacterial activities to citrobacte.%目的 了解枸橼酸杆菌在医院感染中的分布特点及耐药特性,为临床抗感染治疗提供依据.方法 细菌分离培养按进行;采用WalkAway-40全自动细菌鉴定仪对临床分离菌株进行菌种鉴定;采用K-B法进行药敏试验,用WHONET5.4软件进行统计分析.结果 共分离枸橼酸杆菌属细菌172株,其中弗劳地枸橼酸杆菌最多,占70.3%,其次为丙二酸盐阴性枸橼酸杆菌和异型枸橼酸杆菌,分别占14.0%和5.2%,172株枸橼酸杆菌的感染部位以呼吸道最多(67.4%),其次为泌尿生殖道(22.1%);病区分布主要为神经内科病房、呼吸内科病房、肾内科病房和肿瘤病房,分别占29.1%、27.9%、16.9%和11.0%;药敏结果显示,172株枸橼酸杆菌对氨苄西林、头孢唑啉、头孢

  19. Tendências na utilização de antimicrobianos em um hospital universitário, 1990-1996 Trends in antimicrobial utilization in a university hospital, 1990-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Silveira de Castro

    2002-10-01

    specifically related to antimicrobial utilization. In developing countries, few resources are intended for monitoring on rational drug use. Moreover, there are limited data on the use of antimicrobial agents in hospitals. A study was carried out to describe patterns of use of antimicrobial agents over a 7-year period (1990 to 1996. METHODS: The study was conducted in a 690-bed tertiary care university hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Hospital records were reviewed to identify inpatient antibiotics use. Results were expressed in defined daily dose per 100-beds/day. Cluster analysis was performed to determine the trends in use of individual agents. RESULTS: Antimicrobials use increased year after year, from 83.8 DDD per 100 beds-day in 1990 to 124.58 DDD per 100 beds-day in 1996. Penicillins were the drug group mostly used (39.6%, followed by cephalosporins (15.0%, aminoglycosides (14.4%, sulfonamides (12.8%, glycopeptides (3.6%, and lincosamides (3.1%. These groups were responsible for around 90% of all agents used. The use of antimicrobial agents was divided into thirteen groups based on cluster analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Antimicrobial use increased dramatically in the study period, and this increase was significantly higher when compared to other studies. When newer alternative agents became available in the hospital, the use of already existing drugs decreased and in some cases remained relatively stable. After implementing specific interventions, such as an effort for the correct use of cefoxitin, the expected changes in use were observed.

  20. Detection and homology analysis on metallo-β-lactamases gene in clinically isolated gram-negative bacteria%临床分离革兰阴性菌金属β-内酰胺酶基因检测及其同源性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚楠; 郭育奇; 黄红兰; 武晓琳; 韦珍; 孙超; 赵春燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the detection of IMP andVIM metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs)genes in clinically iso-lated gram-negative bacteria as well as bacterial resistance toβ-lactam antimicrobial agents.Methods 113 clinically isolated bacteria were performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby-Bauer method ,drug-resistant genes IMP and VIM were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR),PCR products were sequenced and aligned with BLAST software. Results VIM gene was detected in 1 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain ,IMP gene was detected in 15 strains ,they were Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=6),Acinetobacter baumannii (n=3),Escherichia coli (n=2),Ralstonia picket-tii (n=1),Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=1 ),Citrobacter amalonaticua (n=1 ),and Enterobacter cloacae (n=1 ). BLAST results showed that VIM gene was VIM-2 subtype,similarity with gene bank was 99%;all IMP genes were IMP-1 subtype,which were highly homologous ,similarity was 98%-99%.Resistant rates of IMP positive strains to ceftriaxone,cefotaxime,cefoxitin,aztreonam and imipenem were all significantly higher than negative strains (all P <0.05).Conclusion IMP genes of different strains are highly homologous,all are IMP-1 type,indi-cating that IMP genes are highly transmissible and can spread among different species of bacteria.IMP genes are related with resistance ofβ-lactam antimicrobial agents.%目的:了解临床分离革兰阴性菌产 IMP 及VIM 金属β-内酰胺酶(MβLs)基因的检出情况,以及对β-内酰胺类抗生素的耐药状况。方法采用 K-B 法对临床分离的113株细菌进行药物敏感试验,采用聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测耐药基因 IMP 和 VIM ,测序并进行 BLAST 比对分析。结果1株荧光假单胞菌检出 VIM 基因;15株菌中检出 IMP 基因,其中肺炎克雷伯菌6株,鲍曼不动杆菌 3株,大肠埃希菌2株,罗尔斯顿菌、铜绿假单胞菌、无丙二酸柠檬酸杆菌、阴沟肠杆菌各1株。BLAST 结果显示,VIM

  1. Detection and drug resistance of ESBLs-producing Shigella%志贺菌产ESBLs酶的检测及其耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边锋芝; 苑广盈; 孙玉国; 张延芳; 李金文

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the detection rate and drug resistance of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)-producing Shigella in the district, in order to provide a guidance to clinical ra-tional use of antibiotics. Methods ESBLs were detected by E-test, and AmpC was detected by the modified three-dimensional test; disc diffusion test (K-B method) was used to study the drug resist- ance of Shigella isolated from clinical specimens. The date analysis was performed with WHONET5.4 software. Results In 275 strains of Shigella,12 strains (4.4%) of ESBLs-producing Shigella were de-tected consider ESBLs, and no AmpC-producing strain was found in Shigella. The resistance rate of ESBLs-producing strains to first,second and third-generation cephalosporins as well as aztreonam was respectively significantly higher than that of ESBLs non-producing strains, but both of them were high sensitive to imipenem,cefoxitin,ciprofloxacin and gentamiein. Conclusion The positive rate of ESBLs-producing Shigella stains is lower in the district, but the trend of nosocomial infection to community in-fection should be paid more attention to. It is vital to use antibiotics rationally.%目的 了解本地区产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)志贺菌的检出率以及耐药情况,为临床治疗菌痢提供试验依据.方法 E-test试验进行ESBLs志贺菌的检测,改良三维试验检测AmpC酶,K-B纸片扩散法进行药敏试验,用WHONET5.4软件进行数据分析.结果 275株志贺菌中,产ESBLs志贺菌12株,检出率为4.4%,未检测出产AmpC酶菌株.产ESBLs组对第1代、第2代、第3代头孢菌素和氨曲南耐约性均明显高于非产ESBLs组,氨苄西林、氯霉素、四环素、复方新诺明耐药率在两组均有较高水平.对亚胺培南、头孢西丁、环丙沙星、庆大霉素较敏感.结论 本地区ESBLs志贺菌检出率虽然较低,但已经有院内感染向社区感染转化的趋势,应引起重视,合理使用抗菌药物至关重要.

  2. 余姚市福氏1c志贺菌感染监测结果分析%Surveillance of Shigella flexneri subserotype 1c bacterial infection among diarrhea patients in Yuyao, Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建群; 张怡明; 罗学辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand Shigella flexneri subserotype 1c bacterial infection among diarrhea patients and explore the drug sensitivity of the isolated strains in Yuyao, Zhejiang. Methods Stool or anal swab specimens were collected from diarrhea patients for Shigella flexneri testing. The culture, isolation and identification of Shigella flexneri serotypes were performed according to the National Standard Protocol of GB/T 4789. 5-2003 and WS 287-2008. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was completed with the National Standard Protocol of WS/T 125-1999. Results A total of 440 diarrhea specimens were tested. The positive rate of Shigella flexneri was 5. 0% (22/440). Shigella flexneri subserotype lc was the major subserotype of the isolated bacterial strains (50%, 11/22). The isolated strains were 100% sensitive to cefoxitin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, gentamycin, amikacin, obramycin, netilmicin and imipenem,81. 82% sensitive to ceftriaxone and cefoperazone, and 72. 28% sensitive to norfloxacin. Drug resistance was found in the other 9 tested antibiotics. Eleven strains had multiple drug resistance. Conclusion Shigella flexneri subserotype lc bacterial infection played an important role in diarrhea in Yuyao, Zhejiang. It is important to select sensitive drugs for clinical treatment.%目的 了解浙江省余姚市感染性腹泻病人中首次发现的福氏1c志贺菌感染情况及对抗生素的敏感情况,为制订预防措施和临床治疗提供参考依据.方法 采集感染性腹泻病人的大便或肛试标本,依据GB/T 4789.5-2003和WS 287-2008进行增菌、分离、生化鉴定、血清分型,药敏试验依据WS/T 125-1999.结果 440份感染性腹泻病人粪便中检出志贺菌22株,检出率为5.0%,福氏1c志贺菌检出率最高2.5%,占50.00%.药敏试验:11株福氏1c志贺菌多重耐药,对头孢西丁、头孢他啶、头孢噻肟、庆大霉素、阿米卡星、妥布霉素、奈替米星、亚胺培南的敏感率达100%.头孢曲

  3. Analysis on Change of Serum Types and Drug Resistance of Shigella in Xicheng District of Beijing from 2008 to 2010%2008-2010年北京市西城区志贺菌血清型变迁及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 苗元; 王丽萍; 崔京辉; 王永全; 吉彦莉

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To analyze the change of serum types and drug resistance of Shigella in Xicheng district of Beijing from 2008 to 2010. [Methods]The study was conducted according to the National protocol of shigellosis surveillance. [Results]In 2008, there were 7 strains of Shigella flexneri and 4 strains of Shigella sonnei in Xicheng district, which accounted for 63. 6% and 36.4% respectively. In 2009, there were 12 strains of Shigella flexneri, 19 strains of Shigella sonnei and 1 strain of Shigella boydii, which accounted for 37.5% , 59.4% and 3.1% respectively. In 2010, there were 6 strains of Shigella flexneri and 36 strains of Shigella sonnei, which accounted for 14.3% and 85.7% respectively. The results of drug sensitivity test showed that Shigella was sensitive to cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin and aztreonam, and it was resistant to ampicillin, sulfanila-mide and nalidixie acid. [ Conclusion] From 2008 to 2010, the main serum types of Shigella in Xicheng district of Beijing are Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei, while the former decreased and the latter increased year by year. Shigella is sensitive to cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones which are suggested for the clinical treatments.%目的 2008-2010年北京市西城区志贺菌血清型变迁及耐药性分析。方法 按《全国细菌性痢疾监测方案》的要求进行。结果 2008年西城区福氏志贺菌7株,占63.6%;宋内志贺菌4株,占36.4%。2009年西城区福氏志贺菌12株,占37.5%;宋内志贺菌19株,占59.4%;鲍氏志贺菌1株,占3.1%。2010年福氏志贺菌6株,占14.3%;宋内志贺菌36株,占85.7%。药敏试验结果:志贺菌对头孢吡肟、头孢西丁、头孢他啶、氧氟沙星、左氧氟沙星、诺氟沙星、氨曲南药物敏感。对氨苄西林、磺胺、奈啶酸耐药。结论 2008-2010年北京市西城区志贺菌血清型主要为福氏志贺菌和宋内志贺菌,但是福氏

  4. 社区感染肺炎克雷伯菌ESBLs及AmpC酶的检测及耐药性分析%The Detection of ESBLs and AmpC β-Lactamase in Klebsiella Pneumoniea Infected in Communities and Analysis of their Drug Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐华东; 林平

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解社区感染肺炎克雷伯菌超广谱β-内酰胺酶( ESBLs)及头孢菌素β-内酰胺(AmpC)酶产生的情况及耐药特性.方法:采用VITEK-60型全自动细菌鉴定仪鉴定细菌;按CLSI推荐的确证试验检测ESBLs和K-B纸片法测定药敏结果;采用头孢西丁纸片扩散法筛选疑产AmpC酶菌株,再经三维试验确证产AmpC酶菌株.结果:从社区感染各类标本中分离的86株肺炎克雷伯菌ESBLs检出率31.4%,产AmpC酶菌株检出率19.8%,其中同产ESBLs和AmpC酶菌株检出率8.1%;药敏试验结果:产酶株的耐药性明显高于非产酶株,同产ESBLs和AmpC酶菌株耐药现象更为严重.结论:社区感染肺炎克雷伯菌产ESBLs、AmpC酶菌株检出率较高,其耐药性颇为严峻.可能与社区感染患者不合理使用抗菌药有关.有必要加强社区抗菌药使用的管理,加强对社区感染细菌的检测,以减少肺炎克雷伯菌耐药菌株的产生.%Objective: To understand the detection of ESBLs and AmpC p-Lactamase in Kkbsiella pneumoniea infected in communities and its characteristics of resistance. Methods: VITEK-60 automatic bacterial identification system was used to identify the bacteria, the ESBLs were detected by the confirmatory test recommended by CLSI and the drug susceptibility results were tested with the method of K-B test paper. The method of cefoxitin disk diffusion was adopted to screen the suspected AmpC p-Lactamase-producing strains and to be confirmed by the three-dimensional test of AmpC (3-Lactamase-producing strains. Results;86 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniea were separated from the types of the community infection, with the rate of detection of ESBLs being 31.4% , AmpC p-Lactamase-producing, 19.8%, and ESBLs and AmpC, 8.1%. The results of the drug sensitive test were as follows; the resistance of p-Lactamase producing strains was significantly higher than that of non-p-Lactamase producing strains with the phenomenon of resistance in ESBLs

  5. 摩氏摩根菌耐药性和超广谱β-内酰胺酶检测%Antibiotic resistance and detection of extended spectrum β-lactamases in Morganella morganii strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范建中; 周田美; 董晓勤; 王贤军

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解摩根摩根菌临床分离株对抗菌药物的体外敏感性和临床分布,研究摩氏摩根菌超广谱β-内酰胺酶基因类型分布.方法 用K-B法对67株摩氏摩根菌进行药物敏感性检测;PCR法检测超广谱β-内酰胺酶基因,并对PCR结果进行测序分析.结果 摩氏摩根菌株对氨苄西林、头孢唑林、头孢呋辛、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、庆大霉素、呋喃妥因均已产生较高的耐药率;而对环丙沙星、左旋氧氟沙星和第三代头孢菌素的耐药率保持在较低水平;对亚胺培南、美洛培南、头孢西丁100%敏感.基因型分析显示有5株携带CTX-M基因,其中3株摩根摩根菌基因型为CTX-M-14型,2株为CTX-M-15型.结论 摩氏摩根菌ESBLs检出率仍较低;5株产超广谱β-内酰胺酶摩氏摩根菌对多种抗菌药物耐药,其基因型为CTX-M-15或者CTX-M-14;需加强对不常见肠杆菌科细菌的耐药监测.%Objective To determine the antibiotic resistance and clinical distribution of Morganella morgani strains i-solated from clinical specimens and explore the distribution and genetypes of the pathogen' s extended spectrum β-lactamases. Methods A total of 69 strains of Morganella morgani were analysed for their antimicrobial susceptibility. The blagene of ES-BLs producing isolates were detected by PCR and then sequenced. Results None of these Morganella morgani isolates was found resistant to imipenem, mempenem, and cefoxitin. The resistances of Morganella morgani isolates to common antibiotics were higher, but remained lower to fluoroquinolones and the third generation cephalosporins with a resistance range from 4% to 15%. Of the 69 isolates, 5 (7.46%) strains were identified as ESBLs producers. The genotypes of these strains included CTX-M-14 (2/5) and CTX-M-15 (3/5). Conclusion 5 Morganella morganii strains produce CTX-M-14 or CTX-M-15 ES-BLs, which results in their resistance to most β-lactams. More attention should be paid to the

  6. Detection, seroprevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pig tonsils in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, S; Bruini, I; D'Incau, M; Van Damme, I; Carniel, E; Brémont, S; Cavallini, P; Tagliabue, S; Brindani, F

    2016-10-17

    Yersiniosis is the third most common reported zoonoses in Europe, with Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis responsible for 98.66% and 0.94% of the confirmed human cases in 2013. From June 2013 to October 2014, 201 pigs at slaughter belonging to 67 batches were tested for Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in tonsils. Diaphragm muscle samples were tested for antibodies against Yersinia by a commercially available ELISA test. Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 was detected in 55/201 pig tonsils (27.4%; 95% CI 23.1-37.1). The positive pigs came from 38/67 batches (56.7%) and were reared in 36/61 farms (59.0%). There was no statistical difference between farrow-to-finish and finishing farms. The mean count of Y. enterocolitica was 3.56±0.85log10CFU/g with a minimum of 2.0log10CFU/g and a maximum of 4.78log10CFU/g. Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 4/201 pig tonsils (2.0%; 95% CI 0.0-4.5). Three isolates belonged to serotype O:3 and one to serotype O:1. The positive pigs belonged to 4/67 batches (6.0%) and came from finishing farms only. Y. pseudotuberculosis could be enumerated in one sample only (4.27log10CFU/g). The ELISA test demonstrated that 56.1% of the meat juice samples were positive for Yersinia antibodies. Serological positivity was found in 67.9% (36/53) of the Y. enterocolitica- and 75.0% (3/4) of the Y. pseudotuberculosis positive pigs. A significant association was found between serological results and the presence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsils (OR=1.97, p=0.044). All the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, ceftazidime, ertapenem and meropenem, 94.5% to cefotaxime, 89.1% to kanamycin and 78.2% to tetracycline. The highest resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (100%), sulphonamides (98.2%) and streptomycin (78.2%). Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested, i.e. amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, azithromycin, cephalothin, cefoxitin

  7. Analysis of detection result and drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in cooked meat products of hotels%酒店酱卤类熟肉制品中金黄色葡萄球菌检测结果及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓红; 孙明华; 徐佩华

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解酱卤类熟肉制品中金黄色葡萄球菌污染状况及耐药情况,为预防食源性疾病及指导临床合理用药提供科学依据.方法:按照国家规定的标准检验方法GB/T4789.10-2008进行检验,药敏试验采用K-B法,依据NCCIS(美国临床实验室标准委员会)规定判断结果.结果:从115份样品中检出18株金黄色葡萄球菌,检出率为8.68%,经抽查50%的酒店酱卤类熟肉制品卫生质量不合格.17种抗生素中以青霉素、氨苄西林的耐药性最高为88.89%,未检出有耐甲氧西林和耐万古霉素的菌株,对头孢唑啉、头孢吡肟、头孢噻吩、万古霉素、庆大霉素、呋喃妥因、克林霉素、头孢西丁完全敏感.结论:酱卤类熟肉制品中金黄色葡萄球菌污染较重,不同的加工制作方式与金黄色葡萄球菌污染存在一定关系.建议加强餐饮业卫生管理,消除食物中毒隐患,做好日常耐药性监测工作,关注耐甲氧西林和耐万古霉素菌株的出现.%Objective:To find out the contamination and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in cooked meat products, and to provide the scientific basis for prevention of foodborne diseases and clinical reasonable medication. Methods: Samples were examined according to GB/T4789.10 - 2008. The drug sensitivity test used the K - B law, and judgments of results were based on NCCLS. Results:A total of 18 out of 115 samples were positive,the positive rate of Staphylococcus aureus was 8.68%, Half of the hotels failed to meet the hygiene quality standard. Drug sensitivity test showed penicillin and ampicillin resistance rates were 88.89% in 17 kinds of antibiotics. None of the strains was MRSA or VRE,and all of them were sensitive to cefazolin,cefepime,cephalothin, vancomycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, clindamycin and cefoxitin. Conclusion: Contamination of Staphylococcus aureus was serious in cooked meat products of hotels, there were certain relationships between different

  8. Microbiological and biochemical studies on certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from certain clinical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Determination of B-lactamase and AmpC-B-lactamase enzyme production were carried out by two methods. Cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, cefoxitin and aztreonam were used with and without amoxycillin clavulanic acid to detect the presence of extended-spectrum B-lactamase (ESBL) harbouring isolates by using double-disk diffusion synergy test (DDST). Combined disk method was used also to detect the presence of ESBL harbouring isolates by using cefoperazone (CFP) and cefoperazone sulbactam (SCF) among the tested strains. Agar dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ampicillin sulbactam, cefoperazone, gentamycin and levofloxacin alone and in combination (Ampicillin sulbactam with both of gentamycin and levofloxacin) and (cefoperazone with both of gentamycin and levofloxacin). Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) for the combined antibiotics were calculated according to checkerboard method and synergistic effect were determined. Some resistant isolates were subjected to molecular studies including plasmid profile (Kleb.52 Morg.60 and Ps.72 ) by using a high pure plasmid isolation kit and protein pattern of Ps.72 before and after irradiation in the presence of different antibiotics alone (cefoperazone, gentamycin and ampicillin sulbactam) or in combined (cefoperazone with gentamycin and ampicillin sulbactam with gentamycin)The result of the present investigation showed that, 9 multi-drug resistant isolates were identified as; 2 isolates Escherichia coli, 2 isolates Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1 isolate Citrobacter freundii, 1 isolate Morganella morganii all were isolated from urine samples

  9. 132株奇异变形杆菌的临床分布及药敏分析%Clinical distribution and drug sensitivity analysis of 132 strains of Proteus mirabilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马巧红; 陈群英; 何娟妃

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical distribution and drug resistance of Proteus mirabilis isolated in Ningbo Women and Children's Hospital, and provide guidance for clinical medication. Method The authors collected 132 strains of Proteus mirabilis isolated from their hospital during June 1, 2009 to May 31 , 2011. The clinical isolates were identified by VITEK-60 of Bio-Merieux oi France. Antibiotic susceptivity test was done by Kirby-Bauer method. And quality control was done with reference strains. Result Most of the clinical specimens came from urine (51.50% ) , followed by wound secretion (21.21% ) , vaginal discharge ( 19. 70% ) , and others (7.59% ). Proteus mirabilis was more sentive to the following antibiotics; Amikacin, Aztreonam, Meropenem, Imipenem, Cefazolin, Cefuroxime axetil, Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime, Cefotaxime, Maxipime, Cefoxitin, Roxithromycin, Ampicillin/sulbactam, Piperacillin/tazobactam, and Cefoperazone/sulbactam, respectively. Conclusion It is important to strengthen the separation, identification and resistance test of Proteus mirabilis to guide clinical selection of antihioties.%目的 了解宁波市妇女儿童医院奇异变形杆菌的临床分布和耐药情况,为临床合理用约提供依据.方法 对该院2009年6月1日至2011年5月31日期间分离的132株奇异变形杆菌进行分析,菌株鉴定采用法国生物梅里埃公司的VITEK 60分析仪,药敏试验采用K-B法,用参考菌株作质量控制.结果 该院分离的奇异变形杆菌主要来自尿液(51.50%),其次是创口分泌物(21.21%),再次是阴道分泌物(19.70%),其他(7.59%).对奇异变形杆菌敏感率较高的抗生素是:丁胺卡那霉素、氨曲南、美罗培南、亚胺培南、头孢唑林、头孢呋辛酯、头孢曲松、头孢他啶、头孢噻肟、马斯平、头孢西丁、罗红霉素、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦和头孢哌酮/舒巴坦.结论 加强奇异变形杆菌的分离鉴定及耐药性的测定,

  10. 传染性单核细胞增多症患儿合并细菌感染的病原菌分布及耐药性分析%Analysis on Drug Resistance and Pathogenic Bacteria Distribution of the Patients of Infectious Mononucleosis Combined with Bacterial Infec-tion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡倚玲; 宋秀兰

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探讨传染性单核细胞增多症患儿合并细菌感染的病原菌分布及耐药性分析。[方法]选取2010年1月至2013年8月入住我院诊断为传染性单核细胞增多症且咽拭子培养阳性的38例患儿为研究对象,对其分离出的病原菌分布及耐药性进行调查研究。[结果]38例标本共检出44株病原菌(其中有6例标本各检出2种病原菌),前3名依次为金黄色葡萄球菌14株(31.8%)、鲍氏不动杆菌10株(22.7%)、肺炎克雷伯菌8株(18.2%)。金黄色葡萄球菌对青霉素G的耐药率最高,占85.7%,鲍氏不动杆菌对氨苄西林、头孢西丁、呋喃妥因耐药率为100%,肺炎克雷伯菌对氨苄西林的耐药率为100%。[结论]传染性单核细胞增多症患儿合并细菌感染的病原菌分布及耐药性有其一定的特点,在诊断和治疗过程中应予以重视。%[Objective] To discuss the pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance of patients of infectious mononucleosis combined with bacterial in-fection. [Method] Choose 38 children patients as research objects who were diagnosed as infectious mononucleosis with positive throat swab culture, and make investigation to the separated pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance.[Result] In the 38 cases of samples, there ’re 44 strains of pathogenic bacteria detected(2 kinds of pathogenic bacteria detected in 6 cases respectively), the front 3 were: 14 strains of staphylococcus aureus(31.8%), 10 acineto-bacter baumannii(22.7%) and 8 klebsiel a pneumaniae(18.2%); the staphylococcus aureus had highest drug resistance to Penicilin G, occupying 85.7%; to ampicil in, cefoxitin and macrodantin, the acinetobacter baumannii had drug resistance 100%; the klebsiel a pneumaniae had drug resistance of 100% to ampicil in.[Conclusion] The pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance of children patients with infectious mononucleosis combined with bacteria infection have

  11. Analysis on antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus Aureus in children with lower respiratory tract infection%下呼吸道感染患儿金黄色葡萄球菌耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄育敏; 涂志华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (SAU) in children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), and to provide guidance for the reasonable use of antibiotics. Methods The bacterial identification of SAU was performed on VITEK-32, and the drug sensitivity testing and D testing were performed by K-B method. Results Of 127 strains of SAU, the detection rate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 32.3% (41/127). The antimicrobial resistance rate of MRSA was higher than that of meticillin-sen-sitive S. aureus (MSSA). The antimicrobial resistance rate of MRSA was 95.1%~100% to/Hactam antibiotics, 80.5% -90.2% to macrolide antibiotics, and 17.0% to Nitrofurantoin. MSSA was highly resistant to Penicillin, Sulfamethoxa-zole Compound, and Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid, with the antimicrobial resistance rates of 90.7%, 56.3% and 46.5% respectively. The antimicrobial sensitive rates of MSSA to Oxacillin and Cefoxitin were both 100%. Conclusion The antimicrobial resistance of SAU is very serious. The monitoring and controlling of the antimicrobial resistance should be strengthen to slow down the increasing tendency of antimicrobial resistance rate.%目的 了解下呼吸道感染患儿金黄色葡萄球菌(SAU)的耐药特性,为临床抗生素使用提供依据.方法 用VITEK-32对SAU进行鉴定,采用K-B法进行药敏试验及D-试验.结果 127株金黄色葡萄球菌中耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)分离率为32.3%(41/127),MRSA的耐药率高于甲氧西林敏感金黄色葡萄球菌(MSSA).MRSA对常用β-内酰胺类抗菌药有极高耐药率(95.1%~100%),对常用大环内脂类抗菌药有高耐药率(80.5%~90.3%),对呋喃妥因的耐药率较低(17.0%);MSSA对青霉素、复方新诺明、阿莫西林/克拉维酸耐药率极高(分别为90.7%、59.3%、46.5%),对苯唑西林、头孢西丁敏感率为100%,对大环内酯类抗菌药的耐药率高于β-内酰胺类抗菌

  12. Analysis of risk factors for nosocomial infections in lung cancer patients caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus%肺癌患者耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌医院感染危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国卿; 苏乘平; 程熙; 付亚斋

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析肺癌患者医院感染耐甲氧西林葡萄球菌(MRSA)的危险因素.方法 收集2004年1月-2010年10月台州市博爱医院肿瘤科90例肺癌患者资料,其中诊断为MRSA感染病例56例为感染组,对照组为同时期同病区未感染MRSA肺癌患者34例;采用纸片扩散(K-B)法进行药敏试验;MRSA的鉴定采用CLSI 2004年指定的头孢西丁法;感染组与对照组之间比较计数资料采用t检验、卡方检验及多因素logistic回归进行分析.结果 t检验、卡方检验结果提示,年龄、混合真菌感染、机械通气、使用糖皮质激素、抗菌药物联合使用为肺癌患者医院感染MRSA的相关因素;多因素logistic回归分析结果表明,混合真菌感染(OR=12.22)、机械通气(OR=8.13)、使用糖皮质激素(OR=6.98)、抗菌药物联合使用(OR=5.18)进入回归方程.结论 混合真菌感染、机械通气、使用糖皮质激素、抗菌药物联合使用为肺癌患者医院感染MRSA的独立危险因素.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the risk factors for nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aueus (MRSA) in lung cancer patients. METHODS A total of 90 lung cancer patients admitted in our hospital from Jan. 2004 to Oct. 2010 were analyzed, including 56 cases of MRSA infection (infection group) and 34 cases of non-MRSA infection (control group). Disk diffusion test was adopted for drug susceptibility test. Cefoxitin method recommend by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS, 2004) was used to identify MRSA. Chi-square test, student t-test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to compare enumeration data between infection group and control group. RESULTS The factors associated with the development of MRSA nosocomial infection were age, co-infection with fungi, mechanical ventilation, use of glucocorticoids and combination of antibiotics. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified four

  13. 福建东南沿海某战区医院MRSA感染特点及基因多态性分型研究%A Study on Characteristics and Genetic Polymorphisms of MRSA Infection in a PLA Hospital in Southeast Coastal Region of Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏智艺; 程君涛; 李小毅; 刘丁井

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics and genetic polymorphisms of methicillin resistant staphylo-coccus aureus ( MRSA) infection in a PLA hospital in southeast coastal region of Fujian Province, and to provide the mo-lecular biological basis for prevention and control strategies of nosocomial MRSA infection. Methods MRSA strains were initially detected using Cefoxitin indicator paper, and MecA genes were detected using polymerase chain reaction ( PCR) technology, MRSA strains detected from clinical samples were identified, and then genotyping of detected MRSA strains were studied using synthetic primer and random amplification of polymorphic DNA technique ( RAPD ) . Results The MecA genes after PCR detection showed that 42 strains of MRSA strains were isolated from clinical specimens and the medical staff. The MRSA genotypes were differentiated with RAPD technology, and homologous analysis categorized 42 clinical MRSA strains into 12 genotypes, in which 7 strains of Type I, 2 of Type II, 4 of Type III, 4 of Type IV, 7 of Type V, 1 of Type VI, 1 of Type VII, 1 of Type VIII, 8 of Type IX, 2 of Type X, 3 of Type XI and 2 of Type XII. Con-clusion MRSA strains have genetic distances of different sizes of similarity in our hospital, therefore nosocomial cross infection is possible.%目的:了解福建东南沿海某战区医院MRSA感染特点及基因多态性分型情况,为制定院内MRSA感染的防治策略提供分子生物学依据。方法采用头孢西丁试纸片法初步鉴定MRSA菌株,聚合酶链反应( PCR)技术检测MecA基因,最终鉴定临床送检标本所检测出的MRSA菌株,并通过随机引物DNA扩增技术( RAPD)对所检测的MRSA菌株进行基因分型研究。结果经PCR对MecA基因检测,从临床标本及医护人员身上共分离出42株MRSA菌株。采用随机引物DNA扩增技术( RAPD)对细菌进行基因分型,根据同源性分析,42株临床菌株共可以分为12型。其中Ⅰ型共7株,Ⅱ型共2株,Ⅲ型共4

  14. Analysis on resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphy lococcus aureus infections in neurosurgical patients%神经外科患者耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌感染病原菌耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小改; 郭琳; 张志红; 翟雪雁; 邵彩霞; 牛浩雨

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨神经外科患者耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(M RS A )感染部位分布及病原菌耐药性,以期为临床提供参考。方法回顾性分析医院2008年9月-2014年1月住院患者送检各类标本细菌培养及药敏试验结果,对确诊存在M RSA感染的61例患者细菌培养及药敏试验结果进行分析,采用SPSS16.0软件进行统计分析。结果神经外科61例M RS A感染患者感染部位主要为下呼吸道感染为主,共35例占57.38%;M RS A对青霉素、氨苄西林、头孢唑林、哌拉西林、头孢西丁、哌拉西林、克林霉素、阿奇霉素、左氧氟沙星耐药率达100.00%。结论神经外科M RS A感染患者感染部位以下呼吸道感染及切口感染多见,对临床多种抗菌药物完全耐药,了解M RS A的感染部位分布及耐药性,加强M RS A监测,合理使用抗菌药物,严格执行手卫生及消毒隔离等制度,避免M RS A的医院感染发生及传播。%OBJECTIVE To investigate distribution and resistance of pathogens in the neurosurgical methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections for clinical reference .METHODS The retrospective analysis was conducted on bacterial culture of all kinds of specimens and drug susceptibility test results for hospitalized pa‐tients in Sep .2008-Jan .2014 ,the bacterial culture and drug susceptibility test results were analyzed for the 61 confirmed cases of patients with MRSA infections (61 strains) .The software SPSS16 .0 was used for statistical a‐nalysis .RESULTS The 61 cases of neurosurgical MRSA infections were mainly lower respiratory tract infection (35 cases ,57 .38% ) .The resistant rate of MRSA was up to 100 .00% to penicillin ,ampicillin ,cefazolin ,pip‐eracillin ,cefoxitin ,piperacillin ,clindamycin ,azithromycin ,and levofloxacin .CONCLUSION Neurosurgical M R‐SA infection is mostly seen in lower respiratory tract and incision infections ,and completely

  15. Environmental "Omics" of International Space Station: Insights, Significance, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-07-01

    detected. The nine-erythromycin sensitive S. aureus strains exhibited spontaneous mutation when rifampin was tested. Some of the S. aureus strains tolerated gentamycin and tobramycin but cefazolin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin and oxacillin inhibited the growth of the S. aureus. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of 21 ISS strains, exhibiting resistance to various antibiotics, was carried out. The antibiotic resistant genes deduced from the WGS were compared with the resistomes generated directly from the gene pool of the environmental samples. Using a targeted amplification panel consisting of over 500 antimicrobial resistance genes, we were able to confirm the results of the phenotypic assays. Specifically, the presence of multiple β-lactamase genes was observed. The class A β-lactamase genes, tem-1 (ampicillin-resistance) and ctx-M-14 (cefotaxime conferring gene), were found in multiple sites of ISS. In addition, presence of mecA gene (penicillin clusters) was confirmed in several sampling locations from both ISS flights. Finally, the existence of the ermA gene (erythromycin) was established. These results suggest widespread and consistent distribution of multiple antibiotic resistance genes throughout the ISS. The resistome data generated via molecular methods will be extremely important in determining the microbial significance to the crew health and the ISS maintenance. These data sets will be placed in the NASA GeneLab bioinformatics environment - consisting of a database, computational tools, and improved methods - that would subsequently be made open to the scientific research community to encourage innovation.

  16. 牛源耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌的检测%Detection of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏洋; 蒲万霞; 邓海平; 李春慧; 梁红雁; 陈智华

    2013-01-01

    本研究旨在了解甘肃地区奶牛乳房炎金黄色葡萄球菌的耐药性和耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌的感染情况,为奶牛乳房炎的防制提供理论依据.采用KB纸片扩散法,检测17株金黄色葡萄球菌对8种不同抗菌药物的敏感性;再用琼脂稀释法检测了苯唑西林、万古霉素对金黄色葡萄球菌的最小抑菌浓度(MICs);头孢西丁纸片扩散法和PCR扩增特异性mecA耐药基因对所有受试菌株进行全面的耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌检测.结果表明,菌株对青霉素、磺胺异恶唑具有较强抗性,而对环丙沙星、头孢唑啉、万古霉素和苯唑西林全敏感;头孢西丁纸片扩散法未能检测出表型为MRSA的阳性菌株,而PCR方法却检测出8株mecA基因阳性菌株,且这些菌株的苯唑西林MIC均小于2μg/mL.菌株的耐药情况较严重,对甲氧西林敏感而携带mecA基因的菌株高频存在于被调查地区的奶牛场中.%The aim of present study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance, and the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated from bovine mastitis in Gansu province, to provide credible theory evidence for prevention and treatment on bovine mastitis. Eight commonly used antimicrobial agents were used for determining antimicrobial susceptibility of 17 total S. aureus strains by disk diffusion method. Agar screen method was used for determining the oxacil-lin and vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration value as well. Disk diffusion method using the cephamycin antibiotics ce-foxitin and detection of mecA gene by PCR assay were performed to detect the presence of MRSA. Most of strains showed a high resistance for penicillin and sulfafurazole, yet keeping complete sensitivity for ciprofloxacin, cefazolin, vancomycin and ox-acillin. None MRS A isolate was identified by the phenotypic detection method, but eight MRSA isolates with the MIC of oxac-illin lower than 2 μg/mL were

  17. 临床分离表皮葡萄球菌的耐药性分析及与icaD基因表达关系的研究%Analysis of drug resistance and relationship with icaD genetypes of clinically isolated staphylococcus epidermidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓光; 周树生; 戴媛媛; 刘宝

    2012-01-01

    Objective To detect the drug resistance of our ICU staphylococcus epidermidis to antibiotics, and to provide evidence for reasonable prevention and control measures to guide clinical medication . Methods mecA gene and icaD gene of the 125 strains staphylococcus epidermidis from clinical specimens and healthy skin were inspected and analyzed the drug resistance by K -B disk diffusion method and molecular biology method Results In two groups, icaD gene expression was correlated with mecA' s ( r = 0. 528, P = 0. 000; r = 0. 309, P = 0. 016 ) MecA gene expression in humor of clinical patients group was significantly higher than that in non -humor of normal people, and there was significant difference (P <0. 01) , while there was no significant difference in bacterial strain of icaD gene expression. Staphylococcus epidermidis in two groups were sensitive to rifampicin , nitrofurantoin, linezol-id and Vancomycin. The resistant rates of mecA gene expression bacterial strain to antibacterial agents had no sig -nificant difference in two groups , but the resistant rates of icaD gene expression had significant difference in ampi -cillin, cefoxitin, bactrim, erythromycin and chloramphenicol( P < 0. 05 ) Conclusion That ICU staphylococcus epidermidis to antibacterial agents have high drug resistance ,we must strengthen resistance monitoring, and according to antimicrobial susceptibility test results to choose rational drug , control nosocomial infection.%目的 了解我院ICU表皮葡萄球菌对抗生素的耐药性,为制定合理的预防控制措施,指导临床用药提供依据.方法 采用K-B纸片扩散法和分子生物学方法 对临床标本和健康人皮肤分离的共125株表皮葡萄球菌的耐药性及其mecA和icaD基因进行检测分析.结果 ①两组在icaD基因的表达与mecA基因表达均存在相关性(r=0.528,P=0.000;r=0.309,P=0.016);②mecA基因表达在临床患者体液组中较健康自愿者非体液组明显增

  18. [Investigation of antibiotic resistance patterns and reduced vancomycin susceptibilities of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates: a multi-center study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çıkman, Aytekin; Aydın, Merve; Gülhan, Barış; Parlak, Mehmet; Gültepe, Bilge; Kalaycı, Yıldız; Bayındır Bilmen, Fulya; Solmaz, Sinem; Özekinci, Tuncer

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid, tigecycline, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, ofloxacin and tetracycline and to investigate the reduced vancomycin susceptibility among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated in hospitals located in different geographical regions of Turkey. A total of 100 MRSA strains isolated from patients (of which 50% were from intensive care units) hospitalized in seven centers in Turkey [Istanbul (n= 15), Ankara (n= 15), Izmir (n= 15), Adana (n= 15), Diyarbakir (n=15), Erzincan (n= 15), Van (n= 10)], between August 2013 - August 2014, were included in the study. Fourty-three strains were isolated from blood, whereas 21 were from lower respiratory tract, 17 from wounds, eight from catheters, six from urine, four from nasal swab and one from cerebrospinal fluid samples. Methicillin resistance of the isolates was determined by using cefoxitin (30 µg) disk with standard disk diffusion method, while the MIC values of other antibiotics were determined with E-test in accordance with the recommendations of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). MIC results obtained for quinupristin-dalfopristin (Q/D) were evaluated according to the CLSI criteria used for methicillin-susceptible S.aureus and for tigecycline according to the criteria recommended by the Food and Drug Administration for MRSA. Primarily, agar screening method (ASM) was used for determination of vancomycin-intermediate S.aureus (VISA) and heterogeneous VISA (hVISA) strains. Brain heart infusion agar containing 6 µg/ml vancomycin was used in ASM, and the strains with suspicion of VISA/hVISA were screened by standard E-test and macro E-test methods. All MRSA strains were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, Q/D and linezolid by E-test method; and their rates of susceptibility for tigecycline

  19. 某院腹腔镜阑尾切除术患者围术期抗菌药物应用分析%Perioperative Use of Antibiotics in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Appendectomy in a Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小燕; 许利敏

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To investigate the perioperative use of prophylactic antibiotics in patients undergoing laparoscopic ap-pendectomy in a hospital before and after carrying out the special rectification activity on antibiotic use. METHODS:The utiliza-tion data of antibiotics in surgical patients undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy in a hospital before and after carrying out the rec-tification activity on antibiotic use (in 2012 vs. in 2013) were analyzed statistically. RESULTS:Perioperative use of prophylactic antibiotics was noted in 100% of the patients before and after the rectification activity. Before carrying out the rectification activity, the top 5 drugs in terms of usage frenquency were ornidazole,cefoxitin,cefotiam,cefmetazole and cefoperazone/tazobactam,with drugs used for 6.3 days on average;after carrying out the rectification activity,only 3 kinds were used,the use of cephamycins and special antibiotics were discontinued and the antibiotics were used for an average of 4.2 days. CONCLUSIONS:The periopera-tive use of prophylactic antibiotics in patients undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy is improved after carrying out special rectifica-tion activity on antibiotics.%目的:对比抗菌药物专项整治活动前后某院普外科腹腔镜阑尾切除术患者围术期预防性应用抗菌药物情况。方法:查阅该院普外科2012年(整治前)及2013年(整治后)腹腔镜阑尾切除术患者的出院病历,对各病历中抗菌药物的应用数据进行统计、分析。结果:该院整治前后患者围术期预防性抗菌药物使用率均为100%。整治前应用例次列前5位的药品分别是奥硝唑、头孢西丁、头孢替安、头孢美唑、头孢哌酮/他唑巴坦钠,平均用药时间为6.3 d;整治后共使用3个品种,头霉素及特殊级抗菌药物未再使用,抗菌药物平均用药时间为4.2 d。结论:抗菌药物整治活动后,该院普外科腹腔镜阑尾切除术患者围术期抗菌药

  20. 白内障术前结膜囊菌群分布和药敏试验研究%The Research about the distribution of conjunctival sac bacterial flora & experiment of drug sensitivity before cataract surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛梅民; 张小娟; 黄怀洁; 李克勤; 廖忠; 杨怡; 陈振南; 陈琼志

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨白内障术前结膜囊细菌种类和药物敏感情况,为临床用药提供依据.方法 对白内障术前205例(205眼)结膜囊采集标本进行细菌培养,观察培养阳性的细菌对常用抗菌药物的敏感性变化.结果 细菌培养阳性26例(26眼),阳性率为12.68%.白内障患者术前结膜囊主要细菌构成为革兰阳性球菌(96.15%),其中以表皮葡萄球菌为主(69.23%),其次为溶血性葡萄球菌、产色葡萄球菌、腐生葡萄球菌;革兰阴性杆菌为洋葱假单胞菌.大多数细菌对万古霉素、阿米卡星、替考拉宁、克林霉素、莫匹罗星、呋喃妥因、吗啉唑酮敏感,耐药性小于20%,普遍对氨苄西林、四环素、头孢西丁、苯唑西林、红霉素明显耐药(68.0%以上).结论 表皮葡萄球菌是白内障术前结膜囊存在的最常见条件致病菌,预防感染或抗感染可以选用阿米卡星、克林霉素、呋喃妥因等常用抗菌药物.%Objective To research the distribution of conjunctival sac bacterial flora & experiment of drug sensitivity before cataract surgery,base on this research,provide the basis for clinical medication.Methods Collect Conjunctival sac of 205 eyes from 205 cases and make germiculture,observe the movement of positive Gram' s sensibility which effect by common antibacterial.Results There were 26 eyes with cultured positive Gram from 205 case,the ratio of positive was 12.68%.The preoperative conjunctival sac of cataract patients was mainly made up of Gram positive bacteria(96.15%),and most of them were Staphylococcus epidermidi(69.23%),there were also Staphylococcus haemolyticus,Staphylococcus chromogenes and Staphylococcus saprophyticus,Gram negative bacilli was the Pseudomonas cepaci.Most of grams were sensitive to Vancomycin,Amikacin,Teicoplanin,Clindamycin,Mupirocin,Furadantin and Morpholine trazodone,the tolerance was less than 20%,and they usually had higher tolerance to Cephalexin Penicillin,Tetracycline,Cefoxitin

  1. 制药废水中头孢类抗生素残留检测方法及环境风险评估%Residue analysis method and environmental risk assessment of cephalosporin antibiotics in pharmaceutical wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤薪瑶; 左剑恶; 余忻; 杨波; 王凯军

    2014-01-01

    Based on solid phase extraction (SPE) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), a testing method for 9 cephalosporin antibiotics, i.e., cefaclor, ceftriaxone, cephalexin, cefotaxime, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefalotin and cefradine, in pharmaceutical wastewater was established. The limit of quantitation was from 27.5 to 131.8ng/L, and the recovery efficiencies for different analytes ranged from 72.8% to 102.2%. With this method, cephalosporin antibiotics in the effluent of each processing unit of a pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant (P-WWTP), which adopted two-stage biological oxidation processes, were tested. Ceftriaxone, cefazolin, cefotaxime and cefuroxime were found in the pharmaceutical wastewater. Their average concentrations in influents were 7.6, 12.9, 5.6 and 91.6µg/L, in effluents of first-stage oxidation unit were 4.2, 5.2, 2.2 and 37.4µg/L, and in effluents of second-stage oxidation unit were 2.0, 2.7, 0.6 and 24.4µg/L, respectively. Risk quotient method was utilized to evaluate the environmental risks of these four antibiotics in the effluents, and all the results were high risk levels.%基于固相萃取-超高效液相色谱-两级串联质谱(SPE-UPLC/MS/MS)技术,建立了制药废水中头孢克洛、头孢曲松、头孢氨苄、头孢噻肟、头孢唑啉、头孢呋辛、头孢西丁、头孢噻吩和头孢拉定共9种头孢类抗生素的测试方法,定量限为27.5~131.8ng/L,目标物回收率为72.8%~102.2%;利用该技术,检测某采用两级生物氧化工艺的制药废水处理厂各级单元出水,共检测出头孢曲松、头孢唑啉、头孢噻肟和头孢呋辛4种头孢类抗生素,其在进水中平均浓度分别为7.6,12.9,5.6,91.6µg/L,在一级氧化出水中平均浓度分别为4.2,5.2,2.2,37.4µg/L,在二级氧化出水中平均浓度分别为2.0,2.7,0.6,24.4µg/L;风险商值法评估制药废水出水中残留的头孢曲松、头孢唑啉、头孢噻肟

  2. 髋关节置换术后患者感染早期诊断与病原学临床研究%Clinical study on early diagnosis and etiology of postoperative infections in patients after hip replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志; 周新社; 官建中; 肖玉周; 吴敏; 钟政荣

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the early diagnosis and clinical features of microbiology of infections after hip replacement ,so as to provide a scientific basis for drug selection .METHODS A retrospective analysis was conducted on clinical data of 30 hospitalized patients who had postoperative infections after hip replacement and underwentsecondary renovation from Jan .2006 to Dec .2014 .Joint fluid ,pus or pseudomembranous articular tissues were taken for microbiological culture .The patient's basic information ,epidemiological characteristics , types and distribution of bacteria , susceptibility results and other information were recorded and analyzed . RESULTS The average age of the 30 infected patients was (53 .28 ± 9 .97) years .Infection with complications occurred in a total of 13 cases (43 .33% ) . The causes of infections were mainly multiple fractures and osteonecrosis .There were 26 strains of pathogens cultured from the infected patients ,including 19 strains of gram-positive bacteria accounting for 73 .09% ,5 strains of gram-negative bacteria accounting for 19 .23% ,and 2 strains of fungi accounting for 7 .68% . Escherichia coli had a resistance of 100 .00% to ceftazidime and coagulase-negative Staphylococci had resistances of 77 .78% and 88 .89% to gentamicin and cefoxitin . CONCLUSION The rational diagnostic preoperatively before hip replacement ,selection of better antimicrobials such as vancomycin and linezolid for prophylactic in the course of treatment and strict implementation of aseptic techniques can effective prevent infections after hip replacement .%目的:探讨髋关节置换术后患者感染早期诊断与病原学临床特征,为临床抗菌药物选择提供科学依据。方法回顾性分析2006年1月-2014年12月住院治疗行髋关节置换术后发生感染而翻修的30例患者临床资料,取关节液、脓液、关节腔或者假膜组织进行病原学培养,记录、分析患者的基本信息,流行病学特征

  3. Epidemiological and antibiotic resistant study on extended-spectrum β-lacta mase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Zhejiang Province%浙江省产超广谱β-内酰胺酶大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌流行情况及耐药性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞云松; 周伟琳; 陈亚岗; 丁永祥; 马亦林

    2002-01-01

    目的 调查浙江省产超广谱β-内酰胺酶的大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌流行情况及其耐药性.方法 收集各地区临床分离的大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌共462株,经酶抑制剂增强的肉汤稀释法 筛选出产超广谱β-内酰胺酶细菌,并用浓度梯度法检测其对9种抗生素的耐药性.结果 浙江省大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌中超广谱β-内酰胺酶的检出率分别为34%和38.3%.产 超广谱β-内酰胺酶细菌对头孢他啶、头孢噻肟的耐药率分别为42%和38%,对头孢西丁、头 孢吡肟、头孢哌酮-舒巴坦、哌拉西林-他唑巴坦、阿米卡星、环丙沙星的耐药率均高于不 产酶菌株,所有菌株对亚胺培南都敏感.结论 目前产超广谱β-内酰胺酶细菌感染发生率较高,其对除亚胺培南外的多种抗菌药物有一定 的耐药率.%Objective To investigate the epidemiological status of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoni ae) and the drug resistance profiles of such organisms. Methods A total of 282 clinical isolates of E. coli and 180 of K. pneumoniae were coll ected from different districts of Zhejiang Province. Inhibitor potentiated brot h dilution tests were performed for detecting extended-spectrum β-lactamases . Etests were performed to detect the drug resistance of these strains against nine commonly used antibiotics.Results The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in E. coli and K. pneumoni ae was 34.0% and 38.3%, respectively. The average prevalence of extended-spe ctrum β-lactamases in E. coli and K. pneumoniae was 35.7%. The resistance prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing strains to ceftazidime and cefotaxime was 40% and 26% respectively, so were those to cefepime, cefoxitin , piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoperazone-sulbactam, amikacin and ciprofloxacin . All these strains were sensitive to imipenem. Conclusion The results

  4. Study on Salmonella carrying situation and antibiotic resistance proffie of employees in food service industry at Taizhou%泰州市食品、公共场所从业人员沙门氏菌携带状况及耐药谱变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马智龙

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the carrying situation of Salmonella and its antibiotic resistance profile. Method The anal swabs specimens were collected from employees, and the specimens were carried out pre - enrichment and isolate culture, and then the suspected strains were typed by biochemical and serological methods and followed drug sensitive test Results The detection rates of Salmonella were 0.49% , 0.46% and 0. 38% respectively in 2008, 2009 and 2010, with an average of 0.44% , and there were no significant different between different years ( P > 0. 05 ) . According to the results of identification, the major serotypes of Salmonella were Derby and Agona which belonged to group B, and Thompson which belonged to group C The results of drug sensitive test indicated that Salmonella had gained antibiotic resistance against 19 kinds of antibiotics except of cefotaxime, cefepime and cefoxitin. 180 strains among 247 isolated Salmonella gained 2plex plus antibiotic resistance, in all, 15 serotypes of Salmonella were 2plex plus antibiotic resistance, especially Typhi-murium and Derby were 12plex antibiotic resistance at the most Conclusions Salmonella germ - carrying rate of employees in food service industry had not changed in recent years, but it had gained resistant to commonly used drugs, so enhanced the detection work of enteropathogenic bacteria among employees, and carriers took medicine standardized could control foodborne disease.%目的了解泰州市食品、公共场所从业人员沙门菌的携带状况及耐药谱的变化。方法对从业人员的肛拭子标本进行增菌、分离培养,对分离的可疑菌株进行生化和血清学分型鉴定和药敏试验。结果2008、2009、2010年度的从业人员沙门氏菌检出率分别为0.49%、0.46%、0.38%,平均检出率为0.44%,各年度检出率之间(P>0.05)无显著性差异。在菌型分布中以B群的德尔卑、阿贡纳和C群的汤卜逊沙门氏菌为主要菌型。除对

  5. Randomized clinical trial comparing spinal anesthesia with local anesthesia with sedation for loop colostomy closure Ensaio clínico randomizado comparando raquianestesia com anestesia local, associadas à sedação para o fechamento de colostomia em alça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rone Antônio Alves de Abreu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Recent studies have shown that local anesthesia for loop colostomy closure is as safe as spinal anesthesia for this procedure. OBJECTIVES: Randomized clinical trial to compare the results from these two techniques. METHODS: Fifty patients were randomized for loop colostomy closure using spinal anesthesia (n = 25 and using local anesthesia (n = 25. Preoperatively, the bowel was evaluated by means of colonoscopy, and bowel preparation was performed with 10% oral mannitol solution and physiological saline solution for lavage through the distal colostomy orifice. All patients were given prophylactic antibiotics (cefoxitin. Pain, analgesia, reestablishment of peristaltism or peristalsis, diet reintroduction, length of hospitalization and rehospitalization were analyzed postoperatively. RESULTS: Surgery duration and local complications were greater in the spinal anesthesia group. Conversion to general anesthesia occurred only with spinal anesthesia. There was no difference in intraoperative pain between the groups, but postoperative pain, reestablishment of peristaltism or peristalsis, diet reintroduction and length of hospitalization were lower with local anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: Local anesthesia plus sedation offers a safer and more effective method than spinal anesthesia for loop colostomy closure.CONTEXTO: Estudos recentes têm demonstrado que a anestesia local para o fechamento de colostomia em alça é tão segura quanto a raquianestesia para estes procedimentos. OBJETIVOS: Comparar os resultados do fechamento de colostomia em alça usando essas duas técnicas. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta pacientes foram randomizados para o fechamento de colostomia em alça sob raquianestesia (n = 25 e anestesia local (n = 25. No pré-operatório, o cólon foi avaliado por colonoscopia e o preparo intestinal foi realizado com solução oral de manitol a 10% e limpeza com solução salina fisiológica através do orifício distal da colostomia. Todos os

  6. Resistant mechanisms in Bacillus thuringiensis of a patient with severe chronic hepatitis%重型肝炎患者苏云金杆菌的耐药机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏智军; 明德松

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the resistant mechanisms of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in the blood of a patient with severe hepatitis B. METHODS The susceptibility of antimicrobial agents was detected by Phoenix NMIC/ID-55, and the resistant gene of Bt were detected with PCR and its distribution was confirmed after DNA sequencing and homology analysis. Thirty-nine resistant genes including 29 β-1actamases genes, 6 aminoglycoside-modifying enzymesC AMEs)genes, chlorhexidine-sulfaciazine resistant gene (qacE△-sull)and intergron(intll ,2,3)and so on. RESULTS The pathogen was identified as Bt by 16S rRNA-PCR-DNA sequencing(GeneBank No. :FJ932761) ; it was susceptible to ampicillin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, fusidic acid, linezolid, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin and tetracyclin, but resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, cefoxitin, mupirocin, erythromycin, clindamycin, QD, tobramycin, gentamicin and amikacin; There was one kind of resistant gene which was positive(ant(3")- I , GeneBank No. FJ644661). Thirty-eight kinds of resistant genes were negative. CONCLUSION The resistant mechanism of the Bt to aminoglycoside is mainly related to anf(3")- I .%目的 研究重型肝炎患者苏云金杆菌(Bt)的耐药机制.方法 应用美国BD公司的Phoenix NMIC/ID-55鉴定/药敏板进行鉴定与细菌药敏试验,应用PCR法检测Bt的耐药基因,并经测序及同源性分析证实其分布.结果 该株病原菌经16S rRNA测序及同源性分析(GenBank注册号为FJ932761)证实为Bt;对氨苄西林、万古霉素、替考拉宁、环丙沙星、呋喃妥因、四环素、夫西地酸、利奈唑胺敏感,对青霉素、苯唑西林、红霉素、克林霉素、喹奴普汀/达福普汀、庆大霉素、妥布霉素、阿米卡星、磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶、头孢西丁、莫匹罗星等药耐药;PCR扩增1种AMEs耐药基因阳性,经测序和同源性分析证实为ant(3")-Ⅰ,于GenBank注册号为FJ644661.结论 Bt对氨基糖

  7. Analysis on the production of extended-spectrum β-Lactamases and drug-resistance of 906 strains of Escherichia coli%906株大肠埃希菌产超广谱β-内酰胺酶状况及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈捷; 李南洋; 李健平; 张伟嫦

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the production of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) by Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the drug resistance of E. coli to commonly used antibiotics, and to provide reference for clinical anti-infective drug therapy. Methods Ceftazidime and ceftazidime plus clavulanic acid, cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid in the double disk confirmatory test were adopted to detect ESBLs. K-B disk diffusion assay was used to determine antibiotic resistance of E. coli. Results The detection rates of E. coli ESBLs were 38.65%, 42.86%, 43.28% and 48.84% from 2007 to 2010, respectively. Antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli was low to ceforera-zone/sulbactam, imipenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin and amikacin, and the resistance rates to other antibiotics tested were mostly more than 50%. Conclusion The drug resistance status of E. coli is severe. We should strengthen the drug-resistance monitoring of E. coli and the management of antibiotics use to control the spread and prevalence of the drug-resistant bacteria.%目的 了解大肠埃希菌产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)及其对常用抗菌药物的耐药情况,为临床抗感染治疗提供用药依据.方法 采用头孢他啶与头孢他啶/克拉维酸、头孢噻肟与头孢噻肟/克拉维酸的双纸片确证试验检测ESBLs,采用纸片扩散法(K-B法)检测大肠埃希菌对常用抗菌药物的耐药性.结果 2007年、2008年、2009年、2010年产ESBLs大肠埃希菌的检出率分别为38.65%、42.86%、43.28%和48.84%.大肠埃希菌对常用抗菌药物的耐药率以头孢哌酮/舒巴坦、亚胺培南、哌拉西林/也唑巴坦、阿莫西林/克拉维酸、头孢西丁、阿米卡星较低,其余抗菌药物的耐药率大多在50%以上,对氨苄西林和哌拉西林的耐药率甚至超过80%.结论 大肠埃希菌的耐药形势严峻,应加强其耐药性监测,合理使用抗菌药物,严格控制耐药菌的产生和医院感染暴发流行.

  8. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMMUNOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE OF KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM FARM ANIMALS AT TAIF GOVERNORATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M.A. Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative enterobacterium that has historically been and currently remains, a significant cause of human disease and several kinds of infections in animals. In the present work, trials for the isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae from diseased and apparently healthy farm animals (cows, sheep, goats and camels were done for recognition of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies. It was noticed that there was a marked variation between incidences of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies in examined animals as regards to health condition. The frequency was greater among samples collected from diseased animals 25.2% as compared with apparently healthy one 5.5%. It was found that there was great difference between the prevalence of Klebsiella isolated from various animal origins. On biochemical identification Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae was the most prevalent followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae and Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. Rhinoscleromatis. Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis was not isolated from apparently healthy animals. The in vitro sensitivity of isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies recovered from different animal species to 23 antimicrobial agents was tested. It was found that were resistance to cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, amoxicillin and ampicillin. The most potent antibiotics showing 100% activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. isolated in this study were imipenem, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin and kanamycin. While 96.2% of all examined isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ticarcillin/clavulanic acid. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that CPSs of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies contained wide variety of different molecular weights which ranged from 15.52 kDa to106.29 kDa and gave 10-13 bands. Evaluation of humoral immune response of mice immunized with CPSs was done using ELISA. It was found that the

  9. Resistance of extended-spectrum β-lactamases-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in pediatric inpatients%儿科住院患者感染产ESBLs肺炎克雷伯杆菌的耐药性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中良; 董其勇; 向萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence and resistance of extended-spectrum β-lactamases(ESBLs)-producing Klebsiel a pneumoniae. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on the isolates and drug sensitivity of ESBLs-producing Klebsiel a pneumoniae in sputum specimens, which were taken from pediatric patients hospitalized from July, 2011 to June ,2012. Results: A total of 159 Klebsiel a pneumoniae were isolated, 95 (59.75%) strains of Klebsiel a pneumoniae were ESBLs-producing strains. Resistance to amoxicil in/clavulanic acid, ticarcil in/clavulanic acid, ampicil in/sulbactam, piperacil in/tazobactam and imipenem were 54.74%, 47.37%, 83.16%, 16.84%and 3.16%, respectively, in ESBLs-producing Klebsiel a pneumoniae, resistance to cefoxitin was 61.05%, resistance to quinolones and aminoglycosides was lower. Conclusion: The prevalence of ESBLs-producing Klebsiela pneumoniae is high in sputum specimens from hospitalized pediatric patients. The ESBLs-producing strains showed the highest sensitivity to carbopenems, piperacil in/tazobactam has the lower resistance than other beta-lactam/beta-lactamases inhibitors.%  目的:分析产超广谱β-内酰胺酶肺炎克雷伯杆菌的检出率及耐药性。方法:对2011年7月至2012年6月儿科住院患者痰标本产ESBLs肺炎克雷伯杆菌的分离情况及药敏特性进行回顾性分析。结果:分离出肺炎克雷伯杆菌159株,其中产ESBLs菌95株,检出率为59.75%。在产ESBLs肺炎克雷伯杆菌中,阿莫西林/克拉维酸、替卡西林/克拉维酸、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦和亚胺培南的耐药率分别为54.74%、47.37%、83.16%、16.84%和3.16%,头孢西丁的耐药率为61.05%,氟喹诺酮类、氨基糖苷类的耐药率处于较低水平。结论:在儿科住院患者痰标本中产ESBLs肺炎克雷伯杆菌的检出率较高,碳青霉烯类仍是针对产ESBLs菌株作用最强的一类抗菌药物,哌拉西林/他唑巴坦与其他β-内

  10. 肺炎克雷伯菌中超广谱β-内酰胺酶基因分布及转移研究%The distribution and transfer of genes of duper broad-spectrumβ-lactamase in klebsiella pneumoniae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢锋

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究肺炎克雷伯菌中超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)基因类型及转移方式。方法回顾性分析该院2011年1月至2013年1月收集的460例住院患者菌株的临床资料,并对其ESBLs基因进行分型和研究耐药性。结果460株β-内酰胺酶的KPN检出6种β-内酰胺酶基因,其中bla TEM占总数的5%,bla SHV占总数的20%, bla CTX-M-1群占总数的5%,bla CTX-M-9群占总数的25%,bla OXA-1群占总数的10%,bla DHA 占总数的30%等;本研究共发现322种菌株耐药谱,菌株耐药在9种抗菌药物以上。阿莫西林/替卡西林/头孢噻吩等、阿莫西林/克拉维酸和头孢西丁、哌拉西林/克拉维酸、亚胺培南的耐药性分别为100%、60%、45%、35%和0。结论肺炎克雷伯菌中ESBLs基因类型主要是bla TEM和bla CTX-M-1,并具有较为严重的耐药性。%Objective To study the distribution and transfer of genes of super broad-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL s) in klebsiella pneumoniae .Methods The information of 460 strains of hospitalized patients who had been treated in our hospital from January 2011 to January 2013 were retrospectively analyzed .Results 460 β-lactamase KPN detected six kinds of β-lactamase gene ,which bla TEM of the total 5% ,bla SHV accounted for 20% ,bla CTX-M-1 group accounted for 5% ,bla CTX-M-9 group accounted for 25% ,bla OXA-1 group accounted for 10% ,bla DHA 30% of the total ,etc .;this study found that 322 strains resistant spectrum ,strains resistant to antibiotics in 9 above .Amoxicillin/ticarcillin/cephalosporin thiophene ,amoxicillin/clavulanic acid ,cefoxitin ,piperacillin/clavulanic acid ,imipenem were 100% ,60% ,45% ,35% and 0 .Conclusion Klebsiella pneumoniae Super spectrum β-lactamase gene type are primarily bla TEM and bla CTX-M-1 ,they have more serious resistance .

  11. Detection of the new type of aminoglycoside acetyltransferase gene in Enterobacter cloacae isolates%临床分离阴沟肠杆菌中新型氨基糖苷类乙酰转移酶基因的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊自忠; 王鹏; 王中新; 李俊

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of aac(6')-Ib-cr gene in Enterobacter cloacae isolates.Methotis PCR and sequencing were performed on 81 strains of Enterobacter cloacae isolated clinically in Anhui province to identifv aac(6')-IB-cr gene. Disk diflusion method was used to test the susceptibility of the Enterobacter cloacae isolates with aac(6')-Ib-cr gene to fluoroquinolones,aminoglycosides,and other antimicrobial agents.AmpC and extended-spectrum β-lactamases(ESBLs)were detected by modified three-dimensional extract test,and the molecular typing was analyzed by ERIC-PCR.Resuits aac(6')-Ib-cr gene was identified in 3(3.7%)of the 81 Enterobacter cloacae isolates with different ERIC-PCR patterns.The isolates with aac(6')-Ib-cr gene were resistant to fluoroquinolones.aminoglycosides,chloramphenicol,ampicillin,cefoxitin,and second and third generation cephalosporins.Two of the 3 isolates produced AmpC and ESBLs,and 1 isolate produced only ESBLs.Conclusion aac (6')-Ib-cr gene is prevalent in Enterobacter cloaeae isolates with resistance to most of antimicrobial agents and no clone spread in found in them.%目的 了解临床分离阴沟肠杆菌中新型氨基糖苷类乙酰转移酶基因[aac(6')-Ib-cr基因]的分布.方法 PCR检测aac(6')-Ib-cr基因并将阳性扩增产物进行测序分析;纸片扩散法测定aac(6')-Ib-cr基因阳性菌株对13种抗菌药物的敏感性;改良三维试验检测高产AmpC酶和ESBLs; ERIC-PCR法进行aac(6')-Ib-cr基因阳性菌株同源性检测.结果 81株阴沟肠杆菌中,3株aac(6')-Ib-cr基因阳性(3.7%); aac(6')-Ib-cr基因阳性菌株对氟喹诺酮类,氨基糖苷类,氯霉素,氨苄西林,头孢西丁,第2、3代头孢菌素等显示多重耐药2株产ESBLs和AmpC,1株产ESBLs;ERIC-PCR电泳图谱型显示,3株aac(6')-Ib-cr基因阳性细菌均不属于同一型别.结论 临床分离阴沟肠杆菌中存在aac(6')-Ib-cr基因阳性菌株,为多重耐药、非克隆传播菌株,临床应加强检测和监测.

  12. Caracterização de Staphylococcus aureus isolados da barra de mão de carrinhos e alças de cestas de supermercados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Buzzatto Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    supermarkets from the city of Campo Mourão – PR, and characterize the susceptibility of isolates to oxacillin. One hundred twenty samples, of which 60 collected from bars hand stands and collected 60 of the handles of baskets. This micro-organism was isolated in 75 samples (62.5%, and of this total, 35 samples (46,7% were isolated from carts and 40 (53,3% of shopping baskets. The positive samples for Staphylococcus aureus were submitted to susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method to oxacillin (cefoxitin and all samples were found to be sensitive to this drug. It found that the bars of hands and the handles of supermarket baskets can be considered as fomites in the dissemination of Staphylococcus aureus, being extremely important to sanitization these objects in order to reduce the risk of contamination in the community.Keywords: Surfaces. Contamination. Staphylococcus aureus. Oxacillin.

  13. Analysis on drug resistance of Escherichia coli resistant to Levofloxacin%耐左氧氟沙星大肠埃希菌的耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游春芳; 周利民; 张肃川; 殷明刚; 伍欢

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the isolated rate of Escherichia coli a-mong Zigong First Peoples' Hospital and analyze the drug resistance of strains resistant to Levofloxacin. Methods Kirby-Bauer' s detection technique was applied to detect the resistance feature in 154 strains of Escherichia coli collected from August 2009 to August 2010. Results Total of 76 strains resisted to Levofloxacin were detected in 154 strains of Escherichia coli, with the detection rate as 49.35%. Among the specimens, the isolated rate of strains resistant to Levofloxacin in urina was the highest (51. 32% ) and the second was in sputum ( 23. 68% ). Except for imipenem, mlopen-em, cefoxitin, piperacillin/tazobatan and amikacin, the resistance rate of Levofloxa-cin-resistant strains were significantly higher than that of non-Levofloxacin-resistant strains to ampicillin, cefazolin, cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, gentamycin, cef-operazone/sulbactam ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions Levofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli is resistant to many antibacterial agents. Monitoring of Levofloxacin-resistantstrains should be strengthened and the indication of antibiotics must be mastered strictly to prevent the dissemination of drug resistant strains.%目的 了解本院临床分离的大肠埃希菌的耐药情况,分析耐左氧氟沙星细菌的耐药性.方法 对2009年8月至2010年8月本院临床分离的154株大肠埃希菌用Kirby-Bauer琼脂扩散法进行药物敏感试验.结果 154株大肠埃希菌中共检出耐左氧氟沙星菌76株,检出率49.35%.在各类标本中,尿液中耐左氧氟沙星菌株分离率最高(51.32%),其次为痰(23.68%).除亚胺培南、美罗培南、头孢西丁、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦和阿米卡星外,耐左氧氟沙星菌株对氨苄西林、头孢唑啉、头孢吡肟、头孢噻肟、头孢他啶、庆大霉素、头孢哌酮/舒巴坦的耐药率明显高于非耐左氧氟沙星菌株(P< 0.05).结论 本院耐左氧氟沙星大肠埃希菌株对多种

  14. Ministry of Health National Antimicrobial Resistant Investigation Net 2010 annual report: Bacterial resistances monitor of women urine samples%卫生部全国细菌耐药监测网2010年女性尿标本细菌耐药监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐慧敏; 吕媛; 钱霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To summarize bacterial resistance in the women clinical urine culture samples collected in 2010 from 129 hospitals of Ministry of Health Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring Network ( Mohna-rin ). Methods Conventional culture, automatic clinical microbiological system, disk diffusion and E - test methods were used for antibacterial activity of antimicrobial agents and resistances and sensitivity were calculated by using WHONET 5. 6 software. Results A total of 21904 strains of bacteria were isolated,of which 51. 47% of E. Coli,Enterococcus faecalis ( 7. 66% ) , Enterococcus faecium ( 7. 59% ) , Klebsiella pneumonia (6. 82% ) and Proteus mirabilis (3. 55% ) , respectively. The antimicrobial agents with lower antibiotic resistance rates of E. Coli were carbapen-ems ( ^ 1.5%), fosfomycin ( 2. 4% ) , piperacillin / tazobactam (3. 5% ) , cefoperazone/sulbactam (4. 7% ) , amikacin (7. 4% ) , nitro-furantoin (6. 9% ) , cefoxitin ( 12. 6% ) , and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (21. 1% ), respectively. That of Enterococcus spp. Were linezolid (0), glycopeptides (0.4% -5.1%), fosfomycin (6.7% -17.2%) and nitrofurantoin (6. 6% - 47. 9% ), respectively. Conclusion E. Coli remains the urinary tract infection major pathogen but the proportion of Enterococci was significantly increased.%目的 总结我国2010年临床女性患者尿标本来源细菌耐药状况.方法用常规方法,培养分离卫生部全国细菌耐药性监测网(Mohnarin)所属129家医院2010年度女性尿标本中的细菌,用自动化临床微生物测定方法、纸片法或E- test法,测定细菌药物敏感性,用WHONET 5.6软件进行分析.结果 共分离细菌21904株.其中排在前5位的依次为大肠埃希菌(51.47%)、粪肠球菌(7.66%)、屎肠球菌(7.59%)、肺炎克雷伯杆菌(6.82%)及奇异变形杆菌(3.55%).对大肠埃希菌耐药率较低的抗生素,依次为碳青霉烯类(≤1.5%)、磷霉素(2.4%)、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦(3.5

  15. Analysis of SCCmec genotyping and drug resistance of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus%耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌染色体mec盒基因分型及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱珍; 崔巧珍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status and drug resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in our hospital, and to provide theory basis for rational selection of antibiotics in clinic. Methods Between September 2009 and September 2010,18 MRSA strains isolated from the in-patients in our hospital with complete clinical data were collected and detected their sensitivity to 9 antibacterial agents using Kerby-Bauer. PCR method was then used to perform SCCmec typing on the strains mentioned above. Results The resistant rates of 18 MRSA strains to penicillin, oxacillin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were 100%, those to clin-damycin and red neomycin resistance were 89%, those to rifampicin was 56%, and the mid-sensitivity rate to ri-fampicin was 11%, with no vancomycin resistance strains. A total of 18 strains were found with multidrug resistance, which was mainly manifested by resisting 5 (22%), 6 (33%) and 7 (44%) different antibacterial agents. Eighteen MRSA strains had mecA genes with positive expression. Notably, 9 strains (50%) carried 3 novel SCCmec/subtype (Newl-3), 6 strains (33%) carried IHB type SCCmec, and 3 strains (17%) were undefined strains. Conclusion Of 18 MRSA strains, the SCCmec types were highly polymorphic, and ⅢB SCCmec types were the local advantage type. However, no vancomycin resistance strain was found.%目的 了解我院耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)感染的现状及耐药特征,为临床合理选用抗生素提供理论依据.方法 收集我院2009年9月至2010年9月住院患者标本中分离到的临床资料完整的18株MRSA菌株作为研究对象,采用Kerby-Bauer纸片扩散法检测了18株MRSA对9种抗菌药物的敏感性水平;应用多重聚合酶链反应(PCR)方法对上述菌株进行了葡萄球菌染色体mec盒(SCCmec)分型.结果 18株MRSA对青霉素、苯唑西林、头孢西丁、环丙沙星和庆大霉素的耐药率均为100%,对克林霉素

  16. 70例产超广谱β-内酰胺酶大肠埃希菌尿路感染分析%Analysis of 70 cases with urinary tract infections caused by extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈科帆; 冯秀娟; 吕晓菊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze clinical characteristics, risk factors, drug resistances, treatments and prognosis of patients with urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by extended spectrum P-lactamase producing E. Coli and provides suggestions for rational use of antibiotics. Methods Retrospectively analysis on the relevant clinical data and laboratory data from patients with UTI caused by ESBLs positive E. Coli in West China Hospital of Sichuan University from March 2009 to March 2010. Results A total of 70 cases were enrolled. The clinical manifestations included fever, urinary tract irritation, lower back pain, lower limbs edema, nausea, vomiting and pain in the kidney area rap. Many patients had a variety of underlying diseases and predisposing factors, especially for older women. ESBL-producing E. Coli strains were 100% sensitive to imipenem. Piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoxitin and amikacin retained higher activities against ESBL positive strains than fluoroquinolones and other commonly used antibiotics. Empirical therapeutic effectiveness of the drug resistant in vitro is not satisfied. Conclusion UTI due to ESBLs producing E. Coli easily be found in patients with underlying diseases and risk factors, and had no specific clinical features. Prompt urine pathogenic cultures for patients suspected to have UTI should be done as soon as possible so as to aid rational antibacterial chemotherapy. Fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and sulfonamides were not recommended in empirical therepy for UTI by suspected ESBL producing strain.%目的 分析产超广谱β-内酰胺酶大肠埃希菌尿路感染临床特点、危险因素、耐药情况以及治疗转归,为临床合理使用抗菌药提供参考.方法 收集四川大学华西医院2009年3月到2010年3月尿培养为产ESBLs大肠埃希菌尿路感染70例,回顾分析相关临床与实验室数据.结果 70例产ESBLs大肠埃希菌尿路感染者中,临床表现主要为发热、尿路刺激征、腰背部酸痛、下

  17. Analysis of drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus infection at severely burned wounds surface%重度烧伤创面金黄色葡萄球菌感染的耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟朝晖; 钱小毛; 王亚玲

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解重度烧伤患者创面金黄色葡萄球菌(SAU )感染的耐药性,为临床预防和治疗用药提供科学依据。方法共207株S A U均为2009年1月-2011年12月重度烧伤患者创面分离株;药敏试验采用 K-B法;MRSA检测采用头孢西丁纸片法;克林霉素诱导性耐药采用D试验。结果 SAU对万古霉素、利奈唑胺、替加环素和呋喃妥因全部敏感,其他药物的耐药率:替考拉宁为1.4%,磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶为36.2%;对红霉素耐药而对克林霉素敏感的36株进行D试验,结果有19株阳性,阳性率52.8%;207株S A U共检出M RS A 134株,检出率64.7%;MRSA的耐药率明显高于MSSA。结论 SAU创面感染株的耐药性很高,临床应及时做病原菌检测,充分利用实验室所提供的细菌耐药趋势和有关耐药机制的信息,合理使用抗菌药物,积极处理烧伤创面,严格执行消毒隔离制度,有助于减少SAU感染,降低感染菌的耐药性。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the status of drug resistance of a Staphylococcus aureus (SAU ) isolated from a severe burn wound ,thereby providing the scientific evidence for the clinical prevention and treatment of pharmacy .METHODS From Jan .2009 to Dec .2011 ,samples of 207 strains of SAU were acquired from severe burn wounds and then their drug sensitivity tests were carried out by K-B .Cefoxitin disk was used to detect MRSA .D-test was used to detect the inducible resistance of clindamycin .RESULTS All bacterial strains were sensitive to vancomycin ,linezolid ,tigecycline and nitrofurantoin .The rate of drug resistance of other drugs were 1 .4% against teicoplanin , 36 .2% against sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim ; The 36 strains resistant to erythromycin but sensitive to clindamycin were given D-test ,19 strains were positive ,accounting for 52 .8% ;Among 207 strains of SAU ,134 strains of MRSA were detected ,accounting for 64 .7% ;the resistant rate of

  18. Bacteriologic Profile and Antibiogram of Blood Culture Isolates from a Children's Hospital in Kabul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To identify the bacterial pathogens causing paediatric septicaemia in Kabul and to determine their antibiogram to improve empirical antibiotic therapy. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Laboratory of FMIC, Kabul, Afghanistan, from January 2010 to June 2012. Methodology: Blood cultures from suspected cases of sepsis were processed in BD (Becton Dickinson, USA) for culture BACTEC 9240 Blood Culture System. Positive growths were examined and isolates were identified by conventional biochemical tests. Bacteria were identified to the species level using various Analytical Profile Index (API) identification strips. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Drug resistant strains were studied for extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) production by combination disk method and for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by Cefoxitin disk diffusion method. Results: Out of a total 3360 blood cultures received from in-patients, 410 yielded monomicrobial growth; hence the frequency of positive blood culture was 12.2%. Out of a total 410 isolates, 212 (51.71%) were gram-negative bacilli and 184 (44.88%) were gram-positive cocci. In addition, 14 (3.41%) Candida species were also isolated. The frequently isolated species of gram-negative bacteria belonged to Enterobacteriaceae and included 66 Klebsiella (16.1%), 42 Enterobacter (10.2%), 35 Escherichia (E.) coli (8.5%) and 16 Serratia (3.9%) species. In addition, 21 (5.12%) Pseudomonas species were also isolated. Correspondingly, amongst gram-positive cocci, the most frequently isolated species were 108 coagulase-negative Staphylococci (26.34%) followed by 49 Staphylococcus aureus (11.95%) and 21 Streptococcus species (5.12%). Among gram-negative isolates, those that produced ESBL i.e., 110 out of 212 (51.9%) were found to be multidrug-resistant and showed high resistance to commonly used antibiotics namely

  19. Analysis of clinical distribution and drug resistance of bloodstream infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae%肺炎克雷伯菌血流感染的临床分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查翔远; 宋有良; 林建; 崔小玲; 潘晓龙; 倪世峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical distribution and antimicrobial resistance of bloodstream infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae .Methods Patients with bloodstream infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in Tongling People's Hospital in Anhui province from January 2008 to December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed.Results A total of 71 cases were found with bloodstream infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae, the top three clinical distribution departments were infectious diseases department, ICU and oncology de-partment, and the top three complications were pulmonary infection, malignant tumor, biliary tract infection as well as diabetes mellitus. There were 24 strains of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, accounting for 33.8%among 71 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the blood samples, in which 18 (52.9%) strains of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae among 34 hospital acquired infection cases and 6 ( 1 6 .2%) strains of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae among 3 7 community acquired infection cases;the positive rate of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains among hospital acquired infection cases was significantly higher than that of community acquired in-fection cases(χ2 =10.680, P=0.05).Among 71 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, no imipenem or meropenem-resistant isolate was found, and the resistance rates to amikacin, levofloxacin, ciprofIoxacin, cefoxitin, cefepime, cefoperazone/sulbactam and piperacillin/tazobactam were low(<20%) .The resistance rates of stains isolated from hospital acquired infection cases to piperaeillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cef-operazone/sulbactam, ampicillin/sulbactam, ticareillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefazolin, cefoperazone, cefuroxime, ceftazi-dime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and aztreonam were significantly higher than those of stains isolated from community acquired infection cases. The resistance rates of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains to 20 antimicrobial

  20. Toxin genes detection and antimicrobial susceptibility test of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from retail chicken in Shaanxi Province%陕西省市售鸡肉中金黄色葡萄球菌的毒力基因及其药敏检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐本锦; 张伟松; 王新; 杨保伟; 席美丽; 夏效东; 孟江洪; 李新平

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of toxin genes and antimicrobial profiles of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains isolated from retail chicken in Shaanxi Province , a total of 122 S . aureus isolates from retail chicken were tested for the prevalence of nine enterotoxin genes and four exotoxin genes by polymerase chain reaction , and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility with 14 antibiotics by the agar dilution method . In the 122 strains of S. aureus, 59 .84% were positive for one or more toxin genes . The 25 .41% of the isolates harbored pvl gene, 51 .64% harbored one or more ses genes, sej (37 .70% ) was the most common pattern , and 4 .92% were positive for mecA gene. None of the isolates harbored see, seg, sei, ets or tsst-1 genes . A total of 20 toxin gene profiles were obtained , and sej (21 .31% ) was the most common profile , following by pvl (8 .20% ) , sej+pvl (4 .92% ), seh+sej+pvl (3 .28% ) and seh+pvl (3 .28% ) . Of these S. aureus isolates , 100 .0% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial , and 88.52% to three or more antimicrobials . Resistance was most frequently observed on erythromycin (87. 70% ), following by trimethoprim/siilfamethoxazole (81.97%), tetracycline (67.21% ), amikacin (59.02%), ciprofloxacin(53 .28% ), oxacillin (52.46% ) and amoxicil-lin/clavulanic acid (40 .16% ) . While significantly fewer isolates were resistant to ampicillin (32 .79% ), chlorampheni-col (27 .05% ) , gentamicin (20 .49% ), cefoxitin (13 .11% ) and cefoperazone (2 .46%). None of the; isolates was resistant to vancomycin . These findings indicated that many S. aureus i-solates from retail chicken in Shaanxi Province harbored multiple toxin genes and exhibited multiple antimicrobial resistances . The presence of S. aureus strains and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in retail chicken poses a potential threat to consumer health , so relevant regulation should be established to strengthen hygiene management of the chicken products .%目的

  1. Analysis of the Antimicrobial-Resistant Gene and Virulence Gene Carried by Staphylococcus Aureus Collected from Bloodstream Infections in Tianjin:2006-2011%2006-2011年60株血感染金黄色葡萄球菌毒素及耐药基因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立新; 胡神明; 胡志东; 田彬; 李静; 王凤霞; 杨华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate resistance profile, antimicrobial-resistant genes and virulence genes carried by 60 staphylococcus aureus collected from bloodstream infections in General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University from 2006 to 2011.Methods The bacteria identification and the antimicrobial susceptibility test were conducted by VITEK-2 compact automatic system.Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were screened by disk diffusion method with cefoxitin.The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)was used to detect genes of mecA, qacA, pvl, sea, seb, secI, sed, see and TSST-1.Results The resistance rates of 60 isolates to penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin and gentamicin were 91.7%, 65.0%, 65.0% and 40.0%, respectively.All of the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline.Among the 60 isolates, the positive rates of mecA and qacA werel3 (21.7%) and 3(5.0%) respectively.The positive rates of pvl, sea, seb,sec and sed were 4 (6.7%),20(33.3%), 3 (5%),9 (15.0%) and 7 (11.7%).Both see and tst were negative in all strains.Conclusion The resistance rates of staphylococcus aureus collected from bloodstream infections were high to penicillin , erythromycin, clindamycin and gentamicin.The various toxin and the antimicrobial-resistant genes were positive in staphylococcus aureus.We should pay attention to the detection of the antimicrobial-resistant gene and virulence gene.%目的 了解2006-2011年临床分离的60株血感染金黄色葡萄球菌的耐药情况及毒素基因和耐药基因的流行情况.方法 VITEK 2-compact全自动细菌鉴定仪及配套鉴定卡、药敏卡对细菌进行鉴定及药敏试验;头孢西丁纸片扩散法筛选耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA);应用聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测mecA、耐消毒剂基因(qacA)、杀白细胞素基因(pvl)、肠毒素基因(sea、seb、secl、sed、see)及中毒休克综合征毒素-1基因(tst).结果 60株金黄色葡萄球菌

  2. Distribution and drug resistance of enteric pathogenic bacteria in Fengtai, Beijing,2010-2012%2010-2012年北京市丰台区感染性腹泻病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封会茹; 曲梅; 耿荣; 秦萌; 余红; 尉秀霞; 赵伟; 邢洪光; 杨军勇

    2013-01-01

    coli. The time, population and serotype distributions of the pathogens were analyzed by statistical methods. The susceptibility of 140 strains of pathogens to antibiotics was tested by Kirby-Bauer method recommended by US Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results Totally 357 strains of pathogens were isolated from 1108 specimens (32. 22%). V. parahaemolyticus was predominant, accounting for 50. 98% , followed by Salmonella (18.49% ). The seasonality of the positive detection of pathogens was obvious, the detection rate was high during July-September. The differences in detection rate in different age groups were statistical significant ( P < 0. 05 ). The difference in positive rate of V. parahaemolyticus between males and females was statistical significant (P < 0. 01). The major serotype of V. parahaemolyticus was O3K6, the major serotype of Shigella was Shigella Sonnei and the major serotype of Salmonella were Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella senftenberg. The sensitivity of different pathogens to antibiotics varied. Most isolated strains were highly sensitive to cefoxitin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and aztreonam. Conclusion V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella were the main pathogenic bacteria causing infectious diarrhea in Fengtai. The pathogen spectrum had changed. Different pathogenic bacterium had different resistance to antibiotics. The active surveillance of these pathogenic bacteria should be strengthened.

  3. 2010~2013年重庆医科大学附属永川医院抗菌药物调查分析%Analysis the use of antibiotic in the Yongchuan hospital Chongqing Medical University during 2010-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中良; 金梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the status quo and tendency of the utilization of antibiotics in our hospital in order to provide ref-erence for clinical rational drug use .Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on the consumption sum ,DDDs and defined daily cost(DDC) of antibiotics ,which taken from HIS system in drug storehouse from 2010 to 2013 .Results 2010~2013 ,the anti-microbial drug sales in proportion to the amount of drug sales were 35 .99% ,26 .47% ,14 .69% and 14 .52% respectively .Cephalo-sporins andβ-lactamase inhibitor have been in the forefront of the antimicrobial agents in the sales amount .The sales amount of Ce-foxitin sodium and Piperacillin/tazobactam has rapid grow th ,for three consecutive years of antimicrobial agents in the sales amount ordering frist and second .2010~2013 ,Cephalosporins and Macrolides antibiotics has been in the forefront on the sorting of DDDs . The DDDs of antifungal drugs increased year by year ,quinolones and nitroimidazoles was declining .The DDDs of Clarithromycin tablets ,Azithromycin enteric-coated capsules and Roxithromycin Capsules in the front row .2011-2013 ,the DDC of Cefuroxime in-creased the larger from 15 .37 to 68 .06 .Conclusion The antibacterial drug sales amount of drug sales amount is reduced year by year from 2010 to 2013 ,and the application of antimicrobial agents is given priority to Cephalosporins ,Antifungal drug sustained growth ,Macrolides antibiotics and Penicillins keep at a high level .%目的:评价抗菌药物应用现状和趋势,为临床合理用药提供参考。方法提取2010~2013年本院医院信息系统(HIS)的出库数据,对抗菌药物的销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)和限定日费用(DDC)进行回顾性分析。结果2010~2013年抗菌药物销售金额占药品销售金额的比例分别为35.99%、26.47%、14.69%和14.52%,各类抗菌药物销售金额中头孢菌素类和β-内酰胺酶抑制药一直居前列,头孢西丁钠

  4. Analysis of 572 Cases of Drug-induced Liver Injury Induced by Anti-infective Agents%抗感染药致药源性肝损伤572例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱曼; 徐元杰; 郭代红; 史录文; 韩晟; 任昭; 蔡乐; 凡超; 陈超; 马亮

    2015-01-01

    -inducing drugs,type,route of administration,occurrence time,lab indicator,DILI types and clinical manifestations,the application of liver protective drugs,out-comes,etc. RESULTS:Among 572 DILI cases,there were 412 cases(72.03%)of male patients and 160 cases(27.97%)of female patients,and average age of the patients was(44.54±23.75)years old. ADRs were related to 57 kinds of anti-infective agents in 6 cat-egories. Rifampin was the most frequent in suspected drugs,followed by isoniazid,moxifloxacin,fluconazole,azithromycin,cefurox-ime, cefoperazone/sulbactam, levofloxacin, cefoxitin and voriconazole. Intravenous infusion was the main administration route (74.48%). The occurrence time of ADRs was mainly within two weeks (86.19%). Hepatocellular damage (93.33%) was the main type in 360 cases of ADR for evaluation of liver injury types. The majority of cases(82.17%)were cured or improved after drug with-drawal and symptomatic treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Cephalosporin,fluoroquinolones,antituberculosis and antifungal drugs might be the common agents which caused liver injury. Hepatocellular damage is the most frequent type. Most of patients have a favourable prognosis. Clinical medical staffs should strengthen the awareness of DILI caused by anti-infective agents and ehance the prevetion of it.

  5. Antibacterial Susceptibility and Subtypes of Salmonella Isolates from Retail Chicken in Xi,an in 2007-2008%2007—2008年西安地区鸡肉源沙门氏菌相关特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨保伟; 申进玲; 席美丽; 张秀丽; 崔生辉; 王新; 孟江洪

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The antibacterial susceptibility,and serotype and genotype of 260 Salmonella isolates from retail chicken in Xi,an district of Shaanxi province were determined to explore the microbial safety of retail chicken.Methods: The antibacterial susceptibility was tested using agar dilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.Serotyping was performed using slide agglutination method according to WHO guidelines.DNA fingerprinting profiles of Salmonella were determined using pulse field gel electrophoresis(PFGE) developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,and analyzed using the BioNumerics Software.Results: The drug resistance rates of 260 Salmonella isolates to nalidixic acid,ciprofloxacin,levofloxacin,gatifloxacin,ampicillin,amoxicillin-clavulanic acid,cefoperazone,ceftriaxone and cefoxitin were 81.4%,29.2%,22.4%,21.8%,34.6%,37.7%,32.6%,23.1% and 1.9%,respectively.Twenty-one serotypes were identified in the Salmonella isolates,and the common serotypes were Salmonella Enteritidis,Salmonella Shubra,Salmonella Indiana,Salmonella Typhimurium,Salmonella Djugu,Salmonella Derby,Salmonella Virchow,Salmonella Othmarschen and Salmonella II,respectively.The isolates of serotypes Salmonella Indiana(22.6%) and Salmonella Shubra(6.1%) were resistant to at least 15 antibiotics,which were the most resistant ones.PFGE profiles of Salmonella Enteritidis,Salmonella Shubra,Salmonella Indiana and Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were genetically diverse.The epidemiological regularity of the different serotypes of Salmonella Exhibited differences along with sampling time and places.Conclusion: Salmonella isolates from retail chicken in Xi,an are diverse in serotypic and genotypic characteristics and many of them are resistant to multiple antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of humans and animals.%目的:研究260株2007—2008年分离于西安市零售鸡肉中沙门氏菌的药敏性、血清型和基

  6. The analysis of the genotyping of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases produced by clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae%大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌质粒型 AmpC 酶基因型的检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑港森; 刘赞赞; 张加勤; 黄朝阳; 马晓波; 李庆阁; 宋秀宇

    2015-01-01

    目的:针对该院临床分离大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌质粒型 AmpC 酶基因型进行研究分析。方法收集2011年7月至2012年8月对头孢西丁不敏感无重复临床分离大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌共176株,采用聚合酶链反应(PCR)法和扩增全基因序列分析大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌产 AmpC 酶基因型。结果 PCR 结果显示,AmpC 酶基因(ampC 基因)阳性率为18.2%主要以 DHA 型为主,阳性率为59.4%,CIT 型为37.5%,EBC 为3.1%;其中,大肠埃希菌 ampC 基因阳性率为11.4%,以CIT 型为主,阳性率为77.8%,DHA 型和 EBC 型阳性率均为11.1%;肺炎克雷伯菌 ampC 基因阳性率为23.7%,以 DHA 型为主,阳性率为78.3%,CIT 型为21.7%。基因序列结果显示,DHA 型有18株为 DHA‐1基因型和1株摩根摩根菌 ampC 基因型,一致率97.0%,CIT 型有10株为 CMY‐2基因型,1株 CMY‐42基因型和1株 CMY‐4基因型;EBC 型为阴沟肠杆菌 ampC 基因型,一致率为99.0%。将32株基因序列提交 GenBank ,均被接受,其登录号为 KJ127248~ KJ127279。结论该院临床分离大肠埃希菌 ampC 基因主要以 CMY‐2型为主,而肺炎克雷伯菌主要以 DHA‐1型为主。%Objective To investigate the genotype and epidemiology of plasmid‐mediated AmpC β‐lactamases produced by the clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae .Methods A total of 176 clinical nonrepetitive cefoxitin non‐sensitivity isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was collected from July 2011 to August 2012 .Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for AmpC enzyme gene amplification and DNA sequencing were carried out for genotype of AmpC beta‐lactamases .Results The results of PCR showed that the positive rate of ampC of the 176 strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae AmpC was 18 .2% ,mainly DHA type ,counting for 59 .4% ,CIT

  7. Investigation of Drug and Disinfectants Resistance of Pig Source E.coli O157 ∶ H7%猪源大肠杆菌0157:H7耐药表型和消毒剂抗性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 杨威; 曾芸; 谢宇舟; 冯世文; 彭昊; 陈泽祥; (榻)雄标; 胡帅; 马春霞; 谢永平

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the information of drug resistance phenotypes and disinfectants resistance of pig source E. Coli O157: H7 isolated from Guangxi,the drug sensitive and disinfectants resistance were assayed. Meanwhile, 3 aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance genes,αPh(3)-Iia ,aadA and ααdB were amplified by PCR. The results of drug sensitive to 27 antibiotics showed that 5 strains were sensitive to Florfenicol,Ceftriaxone,Cefoxitin and Cefotaxime. The rate of drug resistance to Rox-ithromycin,Polymyxin B,Rifampin,Lincomycin, Amoxycilin, Ampicilin and Cephalothin were 100%. The rate of drug resistance to other antibiotics,such as Trobicin,Streptomycin,Cefradine were between 20% and 60%. Among of 5 strains, 1 strain, 1 strain and 3 strains were resistances to 23,11 and 9 antibiotics,respectively. The results of PCR confirmed that genome of 5 strains contained aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance genes. Antibiotic resistance genes had a certain correlation with drug resistance phenotypes. The results of disinfectants resistance showed that 5 strains were resistance to Povidone Iodine solution, Bromogeramine solution,Glutaraldehyde solution,double quaternary ammonium salt-iodine disinfection liquid and compound of peracetic acid,except dischloroisocyanuric acid sodium chloride powder. Our results will provide information to prevention and control of E. Coli O157 : H7 in Guangxi.%为了调查广西猪源大肠杆菌O157∶H7分离株的耐药表型和消毒剂抗性情况,本研究测定5株猪源大肠杆菌O157∶H7广西分离株的药物敏感性和消毒剂抗性,并应用PCR对5株细菌的耐氨基糖苷类抗生素基因:氨基糖苷磷酸转移酶基因aph(3) -Iia、乙酰转移酶基因aadA和aadB进行扩增.27种抗菌药物的敏感结果表明,5株菌株只对氟苯尼考、头孢曲松、头孢西丁和头孢噻肟敏感;对罗红霉素、多黏菌素B、利福平、林可霉素、阿莫西林、氨苄西林和头孢噻吩的耐药率为100%;对壮观

  8. Etiologia e perfil de sensibilidade de bactérias isoladas de ovelhas com mastite na região nordeste do estado do Pará Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from sheep with mastitis in northeastern Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália da Silva e Silva

    2010-12-01

    isolated were Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negative (26.9%; Staphylococcus aureus (15.,4%; Streptococcus spp. (7.69%; Escherichia coli (7.69% and Citrobacter freundii (11.5%. Were observed associations of Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negative nonhemolytic and Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negative hemolytic (3.85%. The most efficient antibiotics for the Gram positive agents were penicile/novobiocine (100%, cefalotine (100% and florfenicol (100% and for the Citrobacter freundii were ampicilina (100% and florfenicol (100%. In relation to Escherichia coli, 66.7% of isolates to ampicillin, cephalothin, florfenicol and tetracycline were resistant. Mastitis is present in sheep in the State of Pará, and it's necessary to estimate, in future studies, the economic losses caused by this disease. The CMT show satisfactory results and can be recommended as a screening test for diagnosing individual cases of subclinical mastitis in sheep, once had a good relationship with the microbiological examination. In the antibiogram where most of the isolated agents appear sensitive to different antibiotics tested, the antibiotics with the best efficiency were florfenicol and cefoxitin.

  9. Distribution and drug resistance of pathogens causing hospital-acquired urinary system infections%医院内泌尿系统感染病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马华兰; 付晓; 黄俊; 黄中秀

    2013-01-01

    gram-negative bacteria were 100.0% sensitive to imipenem and meropenem,the drug susceptibility ratesto piperacillin-tazobactam,cefoxitin and amikacin were higher than 90.0%,and the drug susceptibility rate to ampicillin was below 10.0% ; the gram-positive bacteria were most sensitive to linezolid and vancomycin,with the drug susceptibility rate of 100.0%,and the drug susceptibility rate to moxifloxacin was higher than 85.0%,the penicillin lower than 15.0% ; the detection rate of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs)-producing Escherichia coli was 59.7%.CONCLUSION The drug resistance rate of the pathogens keeps an upward trend.It is necessary to perform the timely,rapid,and accurate identification of the pathogens causing urinary system infections and to carry out the drug susceptibility testing so as to provide basis for the reasonable use of antimicrobial agents.

  10. 急性阑尾炎患者阑尾病灶组织分离的病原体及其耐药性分析%Pathogens isolated from lesion in patients of acute appendicitis and drug resistance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗标; 梁结玲; 刘琼章; 徐艳红; 欧阳辉妹; 邓润钦

    2015-01-01

    samples of appendicitis lesions from January 2011 to December 2013 were collected. The bacteria identification and microbial sensitivity were performed using BioMerieux semi-automatic bacteria identifica-tion analyzer. The results of microbial sensitivity were analyzed by WHONET5.6 software. Extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) on Escherichia coli, proteus, Klebsiella pneumoniae were also detected. Results A total of 348 strains of pathogens were isolated, including 322 strains of Gram-negative bacilli (92.52%), and 26 strains of Gram-positive cocci (7.47%). The top five pathogens detected were Escherichia coli (76.15%), Pseudomonas aerugino-sa (6.90%), Proteus mirabilis (3.45%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.16%) and Enterococcus faecalis (1.44%). The microbial sensitivity results showed that the drugs showed low resistance rate to E. coli included imipenem (0%), piperacil-lin-tazobactam (0%), amikacin (5.3%), cefoxitin (10.2%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 24.6%). and that the drugs with high resistance were penicillin antibiotic (86.6%~90.6%), and compound sulfamethoxazole (67.9%) and first and sec-ond generation cephalosporin drugs (60.3%~67.9%). G+cocci showed extremely low resistance to vancomycin, teico-planin, levofloxacin, and were resistant to other antimicrobial agents to varying degrees. Results of ESBL confirmato-ry test showed that 124 of the 265 strains (46.8%) of Escherichia coli were ESBL-producing. No ESBL-producing strains were detected in Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusion Acute appendicitis is mainly caused by G-nagative bacilli, especially Escherichia coli. The bacteria show increasing resistance to penicillin, cephalosporin and quinolone year by year, and the ESBL-producing strains, especially, show multi-resistance. We should strengthen pathogen detection and drug sensitivity test, choose antibiotics reasonably to reduce the generation and diffusion of drug-resistant strains.

  11. 血流感染病原菌分布及耐药特性分析%The distribution and resistance characteristics analysis of pathogens from bloodstream infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟桥石; 胡龙华; 熊建球; 章白芩; 张黎明; 胡晓彦; 贾坤如

    2012-01-01

    susceptibility testing was determined by disc agar diffusion method. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus(MHS) was detected by cefoxitin method. The antimicrobial susceptibility data was analyzed by WHONET 5.6 Software. Results 598 strains were isolated from blood culture, The isolates included 282 strains from Gram-positive cocci ( 47.2% ), 289 strains from Gram-negative bacilli(48.3%), 15 strains from fungi(2.5%). The Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are the main pathogenic bacterium in our hospital. The detection rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus(MRS) from Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were 63.9% and 87.9%, respectively. The resistance rates of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis to penicillin were more than 95% and all strains were sensitive to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were most sensitive to carbapenems antibiotics,the resistance rates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae to ampicillin were 93.8% and 100% respectively. The resistance rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii to imipenem were 16.7% and 63.6% respectively. The resistant rates of Acinetobacter baumannii to other testing drugs were more than 60%. Conclusion The Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus were the main pathogenic bacterium in our hospital. The resistance rate of Staphylococcus aureus is lower than Staphylococcus epidermidis. The drug resistance of non-fermenting bacteria is higher than Enterobacteriaceae bacteria. Especially, there was no optional antimicrobial agents for bloodstream infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Therefore, in the selection of antimicrobial agents in the treatment of pathogens, doctors should refer to the results of bacterial resistant surveillance.

  12. Survey of contamination status of slaughtered pigs with Salmonella and drug resistance in Mianyang City%绵阳市屠宰生猪沙门菌的污染状况及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周良君; 陈果; 王乐; 王学军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the contamination status,serotype and drug resistance of Salmonella in slaughtered pigs in Mianyang City. Methods Carcass surface,lymph nodes and anal swabs were collected from slaughtered pigs and Salmonella strains were isolated. API20E was used for biochemical identification, Salmonella diagnostic serum for serotyping, and K-B method for drug sensitivity test. Results The total contamination rate of Salmonella in slaughtered pigs was24. 67% (37/1500 in Mianyang City,The positive rates of ketone body surface,lymph nodes and anal swabs were 28.33% (17/60),18.33(11/60) and 30.00(9/30)respectively. The predominant serotype was Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella agona belonged to Group B; These Salmonella strains were 100% sensitive to cefotaxime and cefoxitin, and the tolerance to tetracycline and chloromycetin was the highest with 81.1% and 73.0%,respectively. 75.7%(28/37)were multiple resistant to TET-CHL-W-NAL-GNE. Conclusions The contamination of Salmonella in slaughtered pigs. Was serious. Hygienic management of slaughtered pigs be emphasized involved in ante-mortem inspection, cross contamination avoidance during slaughtering and supervision of antibiotic use for livestock breeding. Cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin re the drugs of first choice for treatment of Salmonella infection.%目的 了解绵阳市屠宰生猪中沙门菌的污染状况、血清分型及耐药性,为食品微生物风险评估提供基础数据,为合理使用抗生素提供科学依据. 方法 对屠宰生猪的酮体表面、回肠淋巴结和肛拭子进行采集和分离培养获得分离株;用API 20E进行菌株生化鉴定,沙门菌诊断血清进行血清分型;用K-B法进行药敏实验. 结果 绵阳市屠宰生猪沙门菌总体污染率为24.67%(37/150),猪酮体表面、猪回肠淋巴结和猪肛拭子的污染率分别为28.33%(17/60)、18.33%(11/60)、30.00%(9/30);沙门菌分离株以B群的鼠伤寒

  13. Analysis on Infection Distribution and Drug Resistance of 116 Strains of Acinetobacter Baumannii%116株鲍曼不动杆菌的感染分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林胜兰; 李静; 王龙飞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical distribution and drug resistance of 116 strains of Acinetobacter baumanii in our hospital and to offer reference for clinical therapeutics.Methods The infection distribution and the susceptibility results of 116 strains of Acinetobacter Baumanii were analyzed retrospectively from hospitalized patients during Feb.2009 to Feb.2010 and identified by VITEK-32 System of drug susceptibility.The results were assessed with NCCLS.Results The highest appearing rate of Acinetobacter baumannii strains was in sputum (86.10% ), the second was in the wound secretion.ICU ward showed the highest proportion of Acinetobacter baumanii, followed by the departments of neurosurgery and respiration.In the results of the sensitivity to antibiotics, Acinetobacter baumannii strains had the highest drug resistance rate to cefoxitin(95.60% ), the lowest resistance rate to imipenem(3.60% ).The drug resistance rates to ticarcillin clavulanic, cefoperazone sulbactam, amoxicillin clavulanate were 23.60%, 32.40% and 34.70% respectively, which also had high resistant to other 14 kinds of tested antibiotics.Moreover these strains showed multi- drug resistance.Conclusion Acinetobacter baumanii mainly causes lower respiratory tract infection.The sensitivity drugs are few.Imipenem is the primary choose to treat the infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii.It is important to enhance the surveillance of Acinetobacter baumannii, select rational antibiotic drugs correctly according to the results of antibiotics susceptibility tests to improve drug action,delay the occurrence of bacteria resistance and control the infection effectively.%目的 调查南充市中心医院116株鲍曼不动杆菌的感染分布与耐药情况,为医院临床诊治提供参考.方法 对2009年2月至2010年2月住院患者送检标本分离的116株鲍曼不动杆菌的感染分布与耐药情况进行回顾性分析,采用法国生物梅里埃公司生产的VITEK-32全自

  14. A comparative study on community- and healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus infection%社区获得性和医院获得性金黄色葡萄球菌感染比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明霞; 许铮; 周惠琴; 余勇; 吴永友

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiology and drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) from hospital and community, so as to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods The isolation, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of S, aureus from inpatients and outpatients from January 2008 to January 2010 were performed, epidemiological data of infected patients were studied. Results A total of 140 community-associated(CA) and 135 healthcare-associated(HA) S, aureus isolates were collected, isolation rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in two groups was 22. 86% (32/140)and 50. 37%(68/135) respectively, the difference was significantly different (X2=22. 482,P= 0. 000) ; the main isolation sites of two groups were skin and soft tissue and respiratory tract, but constituent ratio was significantly different (X2= 79. 741,P = 0. 000) , CA-S. aureus had more sources of isolation sites. HA-S. aureus had higher resistant rate to ampicillin, ce-foxitin, tetracycline, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin,and imipenem than that of CA-S. aureus (all P<0. 01). Conclusion CA-S. aureus varied from HA-S. aureus in infection sites and antimicrobial resistance, pathogenic detection and antimicrobial susceptibility testing should be performed timely, antimicrobial agents should be chosen rationally, and disinfection and isolation should be paid more attention, so as to avoid the transmission of S. aureus in family and hospital.%目的 比较社区获得性和医院获得性金黄色葡萄球菌的流行病学特征及对抗菌药物的耐药性,为临床诊疗提供依据.方法 收集某院2008年1月-2010年1月临床和门诊的标本进行金黄色葡萄球菌的分离、鉴定和药敏试验,并收集感染者的流行病学资料进行分析.结果 分别收集社区和医院获得性金黄色葡萄球菌140株和135株,两组中耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)的检出率分别为22

  15. 288例烧伤患者早期创面感染病原菌种类及主要致病菌耐药性分析%Analysis on the Bacterium Species and Drug Resistance of the Main Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from 288 Patients with Earlier Period Infected Burn Wound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董华丽; 张传领; 沈丽蒙; 郭远瑜; 张国祥

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bacteria species and drug resistance characteristics of the main pathogenic bacteria isolated from earlier period infected burn wound patients,and to provide evidence for reasonable clinical treatment with antibiotics.Methods We collected the earlier period infected secretion specimens and clinical and epidemiological data of the bum wound cases from January 2008 to December 2011.The pathogenic bacteria were isolated,cultured and identified,and the drug sensitivity test (DST) was conducted on the main species of the pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics by means of conventional methods.Results A total of 288 bacteria strains were isolated from 288 earlier period infected bum wound patients' secretion samples.There were more than 10 bacteria species identified from these strains,including Staphylococcus aureus (116/288,40.3 %),Staphylococcus epidermidis (36/288,12.5 %),Staphylococcus haemolyticus (27/288,9.4 %),Pseudomonas aeruginosa (35/288,12.2%),Enterobacter cloacae (15/288,5.2%),Escherichia coli (9/288,3.1%),and the other bacteria strains (50/288,17.4%).The results of DST showed that S.aureus and S.epidermidis were highly resistant to penicillin (with the resistant rates of 93.1% and 100%,respectively),but highly sensitive to nitrofurantoin,linezolid,and rifampicin,and in which no vancomycin-resistant strains were found.The resistant rates of P.aeruginosa to ampicillin,cefozolin,cefuroxime and cefoxitin were all of 100 %,but to ceftazidime,cefepime,piperacillin/tazobactam,levofloxacin,gentamycin and kanamycin were all less than 10 %.Conclusions The results of this study show that bacteria species and their drug resistance in earlier period infected burn wound patients are multiple and complex.The main pathogenic bacteria are S.aureus,S.epidermidis,S.haemolyticus and P.aeruginosa.Clinicians should pay attention to the types of pathogenic bacteria which cause earlier period surface infections and the resistance to

  16. Pathogenic Bacteria Distribution and Drug Resistance in the Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Urethral Catheterization%留置尿管相关性尿路感染的病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓红; 周云; 陶云珍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bacterial spectrum of the CAtlTI and the Bnti-microbial resistance of commonly used antimicrobial agents,and to provide scientific basis for clinical rational use of antibiotics. Methods 427 cases of detaining ure-thral catheter children from July 2009 to July 2011 in Children' s Hospital of Soochow University were collected, urine culture was done in the day before drawing tube,bacteriological culture was performed among any positive,drug sensitive test was conducted to the separated pathogen by Kir-Bauer AGAR diffusion method. Results Among 427 cases of detaining urethra) catheter urine samples of children,53 slrains( 12.4% ) of pathogenic bacteria were separated ,with gram-positive bacteria 31 cases,gram-negative bacteria 20 cases, candida albicans in 2 cases. Gram-positive cocci were highly resistant to rifampin( >77.8% ) ,and had a certain resistance to aminoglycosides, but were sensitive to the linezolid and vancomycin. Enterocoecus faecalis' s resistance to penicillin and levofloxacin were significantly lower than Enterococcus faecium.but almost all of them were resistant to dalfopris-lin. All of the Enterococcus faecium were resistant to penicillin,also had a very high resistance to levofloxacin( >87.5% ). Cram-negative bacteria had a high drug-resistant rate to 1 -3 generations and penicillins (about 75% ) ,were lowly resistant to imipen-em,amikaein, piperacillin-tazobactam, and cefoxitin( <30%). Conclusion Gram-positive enterocoecua and escherichia coli were primarily in urinary catheter related urinary tract infections,and showed multiple resistance;to different pathogens,sensitive drugs were quite different. Drug resistance should be tested before treatment.%目的 了解留置尿管相关性尿路感染(CAUTIU)的细菌谱及其对常用抗菌药物的耐药性,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供参考.方法 收集苏州大学附属儿童医院小儿泌尿外科2009年7月-2011年7月住

  17. 神经内科患者下呼吸道感染病原体监测及耐药性分析%Monitoring and drug resistance analysis of pathogens causing lower respiratory tract infections in neurology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛菊兰; 王向荣; 艾彪; 朱丽莎

    2014-01-01

    analyzer (Biomerieux, France), and the drug sensibility test was performed with the K-B method recommended by CLSI .RESULTS A total of 307 strains of pathogens were isolated from the sputum samples, including 148 strains of fungi accounting for 48 .21%, 100 strains of gram-negative bacteria accounting for 32 .57%, 58 strains of gram-positive bacteria accounting for 18 .89% and 1 strain of mycoplasma accounting for 0 .33% .Candida albicans were resistant to flucytosine whose drug resistance rate reached to 83 .04% .The resistance of gram-negative bacteria to ampicillin, cefazolin was more than 80 .00% . The resistance of gram-positive bacteria to cefoxitin, cefoselis, and piperacillin/tazobactam was more than 80 .00%, but it was sensitive to vancomycin .CONCLUSION The main pathogens causing lower respiratory tract infection in neurology were fungi .For those neutropenic fever inpatients with stroke whose fever was persistent after broad-spectrum antimicrobial prophylactic treatment for 3 -7 days and with unknown causes for fever, clinicians should suspect fungal infection, and submit sputum samples immediately for pathogen identification and sensibility monitoring, and reasonably use antibiotics according to the pathogenic bacteria and drug sensitivity results .

  18. Distribution and antimicrobial resistance analysis of gram-negative bacteria in sterile sites%无菌部位常见革兰阴性菌的分布特点与耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄益澄; 吴微微; 杨丹红; 潘红英

    2016-01-01

    Provincial People's Hospital from 2008 to 2012 were analyzed retrospectively, and the data were analyzed by WHONET-5 software. Results A total of 2 018 isolates were collected. The top 5 most common pathogens were Escherichia coli (586 strains, 29.0% ), Klebsiella pneumoniae (413 strains, 20.5% ), Acinetobacter baumannii (300 strains, 14.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (192 strains, 9.5%) and Enterobacter cloacae (92 strains, 4.6%). The antimicrobial susceptibility test result showed low resistance rates of antibacterial agents for Enterobacteriaceae were amikacin (12.9%), meropenem (14.1%), imipenem (16.8%), ertapenem (17.5%) and tigecycline (0-9.1%). Escherichia coli showed low drug resistance rates to ertapenem, tigecycline, amikacin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, meropenem, cefotetan, cefoxitin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, imipenem, nitrofurantoin and piperacillin/tazobactam, which were all under 15%. The resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae was a prominent problem, except for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, the resistant rates to other complex preparation containing enzyme inhibitors and quinolones were all higher than 40%. The extended-spectrum β-lactamase strainsof Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia accounted for 54.8% and 25.1%. Among non-fermentative bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii showed low drug resistance to polymyxin B (0) and tigecycline (15.4%), and the drug resistance rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to amikacin (9.2%), tobramycin(10.9%) and gentamicin (19.0%) were low. Conclusions Antimicrobial resistance of the gram-negative bacteria is a serious problem, especially in Klebsiella pneumoniae and non-fermentative bacteria. The surveillance of antimicrobial resistance for the rational use of antibacterial agent should be further strengthened.

  19. 2008-2010年肠杆菌产超广谱β-内酰胺酶流行病学调查与耐药性监测%Epidemiological Survey of Enterobacterium Producing Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases from 2008 to 2010 and Monitoring of Its Drug Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓峰; 童照威; 施柏年

    2012-01-01

    the isolation rate for ESBLs producing escherichia coli, klebsiel-la pneumoniae, klebsiella oxytocam, and proteus were 68. 9% , 54. 6% , 18. 3% and 25. 9% respectively. No other enter-obacteria were found to produce ESBLs. The escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and klebsiella oxytocam mainly came from sputum ( accounting for 42. 2% , 60. 8% , 57. 7% respectively ), while proteus came mainly from urine ( accounting for 40. 0% ). In 2008-2010, the escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae strains showed high degree of antimicrobial resistance to majority of antibiotics, but they were sensitive to carbapenems, enzyme inhibition composite agent piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoperazone/sulbactam, and amikacin. And the proteus was mainly sensitive to imipenem, meropenem piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoxitin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, and amikacin. Conclusion The escherichia coli is the mojor enterobacterium producing ESBLs, followed by klebsiella pneumonia. Escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae are of high antimicrobial resistance to majority of antibiotics, but sensitive to carbapenems, enzyme inhibition composite agent piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoperazone/ sulbactam, and amikacin. Along with widely application of carbapenems clinically, the drug - resistant strains begin to appear. The evident one is klebsiella pneumonia for which the clinical therapy often fails. So the nosocomial infection management and monitoring should be strengthened to prevent the drug - resistant strains from wide spread.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Aeromonas strains isolated from various aquatic animals in Guangdong Province%广东省水产动物源气单胞菌对抗菌药物的耐药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雅丽; 邓玉婷; 姜兰; 谭爱萍; 薛慧娟; 王伟利; 罗理; 赵飞

    2013-01-01

    为了解广东地区水产动物源气单胞菌的耐药情况,采用K-B纸片法测定了112株1995-2012年来源于不同种类患病水产动物的气单胞菌对20种抗菌药的耐药性,数据用WHONET 5.6耐药监测软件分析.结果显示,气单胞菌对氨苄西林和头孢噻吩的耐药率分别高达85.7%和79.5%,其次对利福平、阿莫西林/克拉维酸、链霉素、萘啶酸、磺胺类、头孢西丁、四环素和磺胺甲基异恶唑/甲氧苄啶的耐药率分别达57.1%、51.8%、49.1%、44.6%、31.2%、28.6%、28.6%和21.4%;对氟喹诺酮类(氧氟沙星、诺氟沙星、环丙沙星)、头孢噻肟、头孢曲松、亚胺培南、阿米卡星、呋喃妥因、氯霉素和多西环素相对敏感.比较不同来源气单胞菌的耐药情况,结果显示爬行、两栖动物和观赏鱼来源的分离菌株对氟喹诺酮类、头孢类等药物的耐药率比养殖鱼、虾类的高;气单胞菌对常用抗菌药呈现不同程度的耐药,不同来源的气单胞菌的耐药率亦不尽相同.水产动物源气单胞菌存在多重耐药菌株应引起重视,今后在气单胞菌疾病防治方面要慎重用药,并且有必要开展水产动物源的细菌耐药性监测,以指导水产养殖合理用药.%112 Aeromonas strains were isolated from various aquatic animals at different time in Guangdong province. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used to detect the resistance of 112 strains against 20 commonly used antimicrobial agents. Resistance rates were analyzed by WHONET 5. 6 software. The overall resistance rates were highest for ampicillin (85. 7%) and cephalothin (79. 5%) followed by rifampicin (57.1% ) ,amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (51. 8% ) .streptomycin (49. 1% ) ,sulfonamides (31. 2% ) ,cefoxitin (28. 6% ) , tetracycline (28.6%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (21.4%). Aeromonas isolates were suseptible to most of antimicrobial agents and a low incidence ( < 10% ) of resistance to imipenem (0

  1. 肿瘤医院粘质沙雷菌所致院内下呼吸道感染情况分析%Analysis of Serratia marcescens causing hospital-acquired lower respiratory tract infection in cancer hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王久惠; 叶波; 贾红; 李舸; 魏晋勇

    2011-01-01

    cancer (27%) or lung cancer(45% )who had accepted operation, chemoeherapy or radiotherapy. Serratia marcescens showed varies degree of drug-resistance to the antibiotics commonly used at present. It showed high rate of drug-resistance of over 50% to Amoxicilin, Ticarcilin, Cefoxitin and Cefuroxime. The sensitivity ratio to Imipenem, Piperacilin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefoperazone/sulbactam,cefepime, amikacin and Levofioxacin were all over 80%. But most of the drug-resistance ratio increased grandually. Conclusion For the tumor patients especially with easophagus cancer,lung cancer who had accepted operation or several courses of chmotherapy or radiotherapy in cancer hospital, the occurence of serratia marcescens causing hospital-acquired infection should be taken consideration. Timely microbiologicaltesting is necessary in order to select antibiotics according drug-sensitivityresults as early as possible. Serratia marcescens shows high drug-resistence to semisynthetic penicillin, second-generation cephalosporins,and different degree of drug-resistence to third-generation cephalosporins which should be paid more attention to by the clinical doctors.

  2. Functional gene typing of community-acquired MRSA strains isolated from children%社区获得性耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌儿童分离株功能基因分型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程运涛; 吴为民; 常青; 朱健铭; 翁幸鐾; 欧阳冰; 李琴

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the genotyping of virulence genes and drug-resistant genes for a group of 20 community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) .METHODS Totally 20 strains of MRSA ,which were gained from lesion swab samples from patients suffering from skin or soft tissue infections , were collected from a children′s hospital in one city from Jan .to Dec .2010 .All of them were tested by PCR for six kinds of true virulence genes (sasX ,pvl,psm-mec ,tst,hla,hlg),four kinds of adhesion virulence genes (fnbA ,clfA ,clfB ,icaA) and eight kinds of drug-resistant genes (mecA ,aac(6′)/aph(2″) ,aph(3′)-Ⅲ ,ant (4′) ,ermA/B/C ,tetM ,qacA/B ,nes) .In addition ,genotyping for virulence and drug resistance was performed . RESULTS The 20 strains of CA-MRSA had 100% resistance to oxacillin ,cefoxitin ,and imipenem .Three kinds of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme genes were found in 18 strains of CA-MRSA and the positive rate was 90 .0% . All the virulence genes and drug-resistant genes of CA-MRSA could be divided into 13 types ,among which the positive rate of nontoxic gene in bacteria No .11 and No .19 was 10 .0% .CONCLUSIONS There are few domestic reports about genotyping of MRSA according to virulence factors and drug-resistance .In this research ,the high positive rate of virulence genes of CA-MRSA was correlated with its pathogenicity ,and the high positive rate of drug-resistant genes was identical with phenotypes of multidrug-resistance .However ,sasX and hlg were tested negative .%目的:调查社区获得性耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(C A-M RS A )分离株的毒力基因、耐药基因的分型情况。方法20株C A-M RS A分离自2010年1-12月儿童专科医院门诊因皮肤软组织感染就诊者,为病灶部拭子样本,采用聚合酶链反应(PCR)的方法对菌株进行了6种真性毒力基因(sasX、pvl、psm-mec、tst、hla、hlg)、4种黏附毒力基因(fnbA、clfA、clfB、icaA)和8

  3. Analysis on the Results of Germiculture and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test in the Hospitalized Children with Pneumonia%我院住院肺炎患儿病原菌及药敏试验结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 刘海霞; 肖金

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To analyze the results of drug susceptibility test to bacteria in our hospitalized children with pneumonia and to guide the antibiotic application. Methods; To summarize the results of sputum cultures and antimicrobial susceptibility from pneumonia children between January 2009 to March 2010, and to evaluate the correct antibiotic choices for the treatment of children pneumonia. Results; Among the 217 sputum samples, the gram-positive bacteria were mainly staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus pneumoniae type I, and the former was sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and imipenem, and was insensitive to penicillin, cefazolin, and erythromycin. Streptococcus pneumoniae type I was sensitive to penicillin, cefazolin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The gram-negative bacteria were mainly escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumonia and enterobacter cloacae, which were sensitive to the third-generation cephalosporins, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, but were insensitive to ampicillin, cefazolin, cefepime and cefoxitin in over 70% cases. Conclusions; The children with pneumonia in the hospital were generally sensitive to amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid, but were generally insensitive to penicillin and the first and second-generation cephalosporins except for the cases with streptococcus pneumoniae type I infection. The overall susceptibility rates to the third-generation cephalosporins, such as cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime, used to treat gram-negative bacterial infections were about 80% , so these antibiotics are preferred in the treatment of children with pneumonia. Appropriate antibacterial agents should be chosen based on the bacterial spectrum and the antimicrobial susceptibility test.%目的:了解近年我院儿科住院患儿肺炎病原菌及药敏试验结果,指导临床用药.方法:统计我院儿科2009年1月~2010年3月期间住院肺炎患儿痰培养结果及药物敏感情况,对选择

  4. 卫生部全国细菌耐药监测网2011年女性尿标本来源细菌耐药监测%Ministry of Health National Antimicrobial Resistance Investigation Net annual report of 2011 : bacterial resistances monitor of women urine samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐慧敏; 吕媛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To summarize bacterial resistance in the women clinical urine culture samples collected in 2011 from 149 hospitals of Mohnarin. Methods Conventional culture, automatic clinical microbiological system, disk diffusion and E — test methods were used for antibacterial activity of antimicrobial agents and resistances and sensitivity were calculated by using WHONET5. 6 software. Results A total of 32682 strains of bacteria were isolated, of which of E. Coli, Enterococcus faeci-um, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis, respectively. The antimicrobial agents with lower antibiotic resistance rates of E. Coli were carbapenems ( 0.6%), piperacillin/tazobactam (3. 7% ) , nitrofurantoin ( 5. 3% ) , cefoperazone / sulbactam ( 5. 5% ) , amikacin (6. 0% ) ,fosfomycin (8. 7% ) .cefoxitin ( 12. 0% ) ,ticarcillin/ clavulanic acid (12. 5% ) , and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid ( 15. 5% ) , respectively. That of Enterococcus spp. Were teicoplanin(0. 4% -2. 4% ), vancomycin ( 1. 2% — 4. 6% ) , amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (1.4% — 11.3%), piperacillin/tazobactam (8. 1 - 15. 5% ) ,fosfomycin (5. 3% -20. 2% ) and nitrofurantoin (5. 9% - 49. 0% ) , respectively. No linezol id resistant Enterococcus were found. Conclusion E. Coli remains the urinary tract infection major pathogen but the proportion of Enterococci was significantly increased. The overall results of antibiotic resistance were serious. Nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin and amoxicillin / clavulanic acid can be chose as empirical treatment of oral antibiotics. Antimicrobial agents with enzyme inhibitor, cephamycin aminoglycosides and carbapenems can be chose as empirical treatment of injection antibiotics.%目的 总结我国2011年临床女性尿标本来源细菌耐药状况.方法 149家医院女性尿标本中的细菌,用自动化临床微生物测定方法、纸片法或E-test法测定细菌药物敏感性,用WHONET 5.6软件进行分析.结果 共分离细菌32682株,其中排在前5位

  5. 联合使用抗菌药物对产KPC-2酶肺炎克雷伯菌的影响%Efficacy of synergistic antibiotic combinations against KPC-2 carbapenemase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青; 邹燕萍; 单志明; 魏泽庆; 沈萍; 孔海深; 俞云松

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the synergistic efficacy of different antibiotic combinations against KPC-2 carbapenemase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in vitro and search for effective antibiotic combination.Methods During 2008 - 2009,a total of 24 strains of K.pneumoniae producing KPC-2 carbapenemase were collected from 8 hospitals in the First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School of Zhejiang University,Ningbo LiHuiLi Hospital,Zhejiang People's Hospital,Hangzhou Third Hospital,the Second Hospital of Shaoxing,Hangzhou First Hospital,Fudan University Huashan Hospital,General Hospital of Nanjing Military Region.MLST technique was used for epidemiological analysis.The MIC of antibiotics,such as amikacin,minocycline,imipenem,amoxicillin/clavulanic-acid,ceftazidime,meropenem,gentamicin,cefoxitin,cefepime,rifampicin,polymyxinB,ciprofloxacin were determined by an agar dilution method,the MIC of tigecycline and piperacillin/tazobactain were determined by Etest.The antibacterial activities of cefepime in combination with amoxicillin/clavulanic-acid,amikacin,or ciprofloxacin,amikacin with ciprofloxacin,imipenem with amikacin,ciprofloxacin,polymyxinB,or minocycline,polymyxin B with rifampicin,ceftazidime with amoxicillin/clavulanic-acid were assessed by chequerboard synergy agar dilution tests against all the isolates.Results MLST showed 5 STs among 24 strains of KPC-2 carbapenemase producing K.pneumoniae,and the most prevalent clone was ST11 (15 strains).All isolates were susceptible to polymyxin B and tigecycline,and the resistance rate of minocycline was 4.2%.The synergetic effects were observed in cefepime-amoxicillin/clavulanic acid,imipenem-amikacin,ceftazidime-amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combinations as 19 isolates,13 isolates,and 13 isolates,respectively.Conclusions KPC-2 carbapenemase producing K.pneumoniae is sensitive to polymyxin B,tigecycline and minocycline.The synergetic effect is predominant in cefepime-amoxicillin/clavulanic acid

  6. Analysis of Drug Resistance and Distribution of Pathogenic Bacteria of Respiratory Tract Infection in NICU%NICU患儿呼吸道感染病原菌的分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟玉葵; 邓秋连; 钟华敏; 谢永强; 刘旻; 周珍文

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of common pathogenic bacterium and drug resistance of respiratory tract infections in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and provide references for rational use of antibiotics in clinic. Methods: Distribution and drug susceptibility of the pathogenic bacteria from respiratory tract specimens were statistically analyzed from January 2009 to December 2010 in NICU. Results: There were 367 strains of pathogens, of which the first 6 isolation rate of pathogenic bacteria were Klebsiella pneumoniae (46%), Escherichia coli (13.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.9%), Enterobacter cloacae (8.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.7%), fungi (4.9%). Analysis of drug resistance, Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance in severe cases, ESBLs production rate 54.4%, the resistance rate of cefotaxime, ceftriaxone is respectively 91.7%, 90.5%, the resistance rate of cefepime, Cefoperazone/sulbactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, gentamicin is respectively 68.6%, 66.9%, 66.9%, 47.3%, 44.4%, low resistance rate of ciprofloxacin and Amikacin, respectively 7.7% and 16.6 %. Escherichia coli high rates of resistance to penicillin, cephalosporins, sensitive or more sensitive to imipenem, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, ESBLs generation rate 51%. Imipenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae bacteria of which the first 6 found. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in addition to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime resistance rate is higher, more sensitive or highly sensitive to other antibiotics. Drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to penicillin, erythromycin is higher, respectively 95.2%, 71.4%, low resistance rate of clindamycin, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, respectively 23.8%, 23.8%, 14.3%, 4.7%, MARSA is detected in 3 strains (14.3%), vancomycin resistant strains not found; Streptococcus pneumoniae among 4 strains resistant to all erythromycin, resistance to β-lactam drugs is not serious. Conclusions: Klebsiella pneumoniae was

  7. 金黄色葡萄球菌毒力基因检测及分子分型研究%Study of the virulence genes and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童俊; 占志平

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular characteristics and virulence genes of 488 Staphylococcus aureus ( S.aureus) strains isolated from the People′s Hospital of Huangzhou District in Hubei Province during 2009 to 2013.Methods The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Oxacillin and Cefoxitin to S.aureus were determined by agar dilution method .PCR analysis was used for the detection of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec ( SCCmec ) and multilocus-sequence typing ( MLST ) .Multiplex PCR analysis was performed to detect the 31 common virulence genes .Results A total of 227 methicillin-resistant S.aureus ( MRSA) strains were identified from 488 S.aureus strains with a prevalence rate of 46.5%.The SCCmec Ⅲtype was the prevalent genotype accounting for 81.5% of the 227 MRSA strains, followed by Ⅳtype which accounted for 10.1%.The predominant clonal complex ( CC) of MRSA strains was CC8 accounting for 81.1%, followed by CC59 (4.8%) and CC5 (3.1%).CC1 was the predominant clonal complex of methicillin-sensitive S.aureus (MSSA) strains, accounting for 34.1% of the 261 MSSA strains, followed by CC398 (21.8%), CC121 (14.9%) and CC59 (13.0%).The number of MSSA iso-lates carrying no less than 15 test virulence genes was 109 ( 48 .2%) , which was significantly higher than that of MRSA isolates (28.2%) (P=0.002).A close relationship between the enterotoxins genes (sed, sej and ser) and the CCs of CC8 and CC5 was identified.Exfoliatin genes (eta and etb) and lukED gene were detected only in strains that belonged to CC 1.Strains that belonged to CC 1 and CC59 clones showed higher rates of pvl gene as compared with those belonging to other CCs (P<0.05).Conclusion The prevalence rate of MRSA strains was 46.5%in Huangzhou District, Hubei Province, which was consistent with the na-tional average rate .The predominant genotype of MRSA strains was ST 239-MRSA-SCCmecIII , accounting for 79.3%.Effective measures should be taken by Health sectors to control the spread of

  8. Pathogenic Bacteria Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Children with Acute Otitis Media%儿童急性化脓性中耳炎病原菌及药敏分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丽丽; 王智楠; 张振; 李隽; 夏忠芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze pathogenic bacteria distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility in children with acute otitis media(AOM ) .Methods Otorrhea samples from 146 episodes of AOM were cultured .The antimi‐crobial susceptibility of the main pathogenic bacteria was determined .The results were analyzed by SPSS19 .0 .Re‐sults 1) The strains of bacteria were isolated from 109 children with the positive rate of 74 .66% .Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP ) was the major bacteria(64 episodes ,58 .72% ) ,followed by staphlococcus aureus(SA) (19 epi‐sodes ,17 .43% ) .2) Sp was all sensitive to vancomycin ,levofloxacin ,moderate to penicillin ,amoxicillin ,cefo‐taxime ,and highly resistent to erythromycin and clindamycin .Staphlococcus aureus were all sensitive to vancomy‐cin ,tetracycline ,and Amy card ,and moderate to amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium ,cefoxitin ,and oxacillin ,all resistent to penicillin and ampicillin .3) The strains of SP in age≤1year ,>1 -3years ,and >3 years respectively were 31(50 .82% ) ,25(56 .82% ) ,8 (19 .51% ) .There were significant differences between them(χ2 =14 .073 ,P=0 .001) .4)The strains of SP in 2012 ,2013 ,2014 respectively were 16(30 .19% ) ,22(48 .89% ) ,26(54 .17% ) ,There were significant differences between them(χ2 =6 .557 ,P=0 .038) .The antimicrobial susceptibility of SP had no sig‐nificant differences among 2012 ,2013 ,2014 ,but a yearly resistance decreasing trend was seen .Conclusion SP was the main bacterial contributor for AOM in Wuhan children .SP detection rate increases every year ,mainly in chil‐dren less than 3 years old .T he antimicrobial susceptibility is stable .%目的:探讨儿童急性化脓性中耳炎的病原菌分布及主要病原菌的药敏。方法回顾性分析武汉市儿童医院2012年1月1日~2014年12月31日诊治的146例急性化脓性中耳炎患儿的临床资料,分析患儿中耳脓性分泌物的病原菌培养及药敏结果。结果①146例患儿中,109例(74

  9. 儿童吸入性和血源性金黄色葡萄球菌肺炎临床特点及其致病株耐药性分析%Clinical features of inhaled and blood-borne Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia and analysis of antibiotic resistance of the pathogen in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光莉; 刘茹; 张慧; 李颖; 张东伟; 李俊奇; 张思颖; 朱军; 罗征秀

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical manifestations between inhaled and blood-borne Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia (SAP) and the antibiotic resistance between the isolates of inhaled and blood-borne Staphylococcus aureus. Methods The clinical data of 44 pediatric SAP cases in the Children's Hospital, Chongqing Medical University from January 2008 to December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-four cases were identified as inhaled SAP, and 20 cases as blood-borne SAP. Results Inhaled SAP was more common in children younger than 3 years of age, while blood-borne SAP was more prevalent in children older than 6 years of age. Patients with inhaled SAP had signiifcantly higher incidence rates of cough, wheeze, moist rales, dyspnea and empyema than those with blood-borne SAP (P<0.05). The patients with blood-borne SAP were more vulnerable to severe fever, unconsciousness, dysfunction of liver and kidney, pyogenic osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, sepsis, and abscess of skin and soft tissues (P<0.05). Inhaled SAP isolates had signiifcantly higher rates of resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, oxacillin, and cefoxitin than blood-borne SAP isolates (P<0.05), while the latter had a higher rate of resistance to cotrimoxazole (P<0.05). Conclusions Inhaled SAP often occurs in children younger than 3 years of age, and the respiratory manifestations are commonly seen. Blood-borne SAP often occurs in children older than 6 years of age, with the infectious-toxic symptoms that result in multiple organ infection and dysfunction. The isolates of inhaled and blood-borne SAP have different antibiograms.%目的:比较吸入性和血源性金黄色葡萄球菌肺炎(Staphy1ococcus aureus pneumonia, SAP)的临床特点及分离菌株的耐药性。方法回顾分析该院2008年1月至2013年12月确诊为SAP的44例患儿的临床资料。44例患儿中,24例为吸入性感染,20例为血源性感染。结果吸入性SAP以3岁以下婴幼儿多见,血源性SAP以6

  10. Preliminary analyses on bacterial diversity and resistance in infection-related skin disorders%感染相关皮肤病的细菌多样性及耐药性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽潇; 李东明; 尚盼盼; 孙婷婷; 肖秀美

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the bacterial diversity and resistance in infection-related skin disorders.Methods The samples of blood,pyogenic fluid,exudate and skin dander were collected from 54 outpatients of chronic and recurrent skin disease and cultured for positive pathogens in the dermatological department of Peking University Third hospital from March 2010 to May 2011.Also their drug susceptibilities were examined.Results Among 63 bacterial strains of 22 species in 12 genus,the pathogens were Staphylococcus epidermidis,Staphylococcus aureus,Micrococcus luteus,group A Streptococcus pyogenes,Staphylococcus agalactiae,Corynebacterium sp.,Bacillus subtilis,Bacillus cereus,Acinetobacter baumanii,A.lwoffii,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Enterobacter cloacae,Rhizobium radiobacter,Sphingomonas paucimobilis,Enterococcus faecalis,Neisseria sicca and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.The percentage of methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCNS) was 46.4% (13/28) while the resistant rates of Styphylococci to ampicillin,penicillin,azithromycin,cefoxitin,clindamycin and SMZ-TMP were 88.6% (31/35),88.6% (31/35),68.6% (24/35),37.1 (13/35),28.6 (10/35) and 26.5 (9/34) respectively.Gram negative bacilli were sensitive to ampicillin,amikacin sulfate,ceftazidime.Conclusion There are a wide range of pathogenic bacterial species among refractory infection of outpatients.And drug resistance is among the reasons for refractory infections.%目的 了解感染相关皮肤病细菌多样性及其耐药性.方法 回顾性分析2010年3月至2011年5月北京大学第三医院皮肤科临床拟诊为皮肤细菌感染或继发细菌感染且标本细菌培养阳性的54例患者资料.标本来自皮损痂皮或组织、血液、脓液、渗出液等.应用VITEKⅡ全自动细菌鉴定仪进行细菌鉴定,K-B法进行药敏试验,结果按CLSI-M100.S21标准判读.结果 54例患者共鉴定出63株细菌,分布于12个属,共22种.涉及的菌种有表皮葡萄球菌、金黄色葡

  11. Establishment and research on Staphylococcus-infected-corneal C57BL/6 mouse model%C57BL/6小鼠葡萄球菌性角膜感染模型的建立及相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春; 袁志云; 杨菲菲; 管怀进; 邵义祥

    2010-01-01

    days.Corneal opacity mutant mice in the F1 generation were selected to backcross with C57BL/6 mice.The bacteria were isolated from the eyeballs of the mutants and cultivated,purified and identified.Drug sensitivity assay was carried out to screen for effective antibiotics for clinic medical care.Results The staphylococcus-infected corneal mouse model(B6-Co) was established successfully,and the Staphylococcus sciuri strain was separated and purified,and then the sensitive antibiotics were distinguished from resistant ones.The sensitive drugs for Staphylococcus sciuri included azithromycin,clindamycin,chloramphenicol,gentamicin,rifampicin,tetracycline,amikacin,sulfamethoxazole compound sinomin,minocycline,levofloxacin,cephalothin,cefotaxime,and furazolidone;whereas this Staphylococcal strain was resistant to cefoxitin,penicillin,ampicillin,novobiocin.Nitrofurantoin showed an intermediate sensitivity.Conclusion The C57BL/6 mouse model is a spontaneous-derived animal model that is infected by coagulase-negative staphylococci,among which the most abundant strain is Staphylococcus sciuri.

  12. Mohnarin2009年度报告:女性尿标本来源细菌耐药监测%Mohnarin 2009 annual report:Bacterial resistances in women urine tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐慧敏; 吕媛

    2011-01-01

    resistance rates of E. coli were carbapenems (0. 4% ), piperacillin / tazobactam (3.5%), cefoperazone / sulbactam ( 5.7% ), amikacin ( 7. 2% ), nitrofurantoin ( 8.4% ), cefoxitin ( 12. 8% ), amoxicillin / clavulanic acid ( 18% ) and fosfomycin ( 18.8% ), respectively. That of Enterococcus spp. were linezolid ( 0. 59% - 0. 8% ), glycopeptides ( 0. 27% - 4. 7% ) fosfomycin (23.5%) and nitrofurantoin ( 6. 98% - 43. 1% ), respectively. Conclusion E. coli remains the urinary tract infection major pathogen but the proportion of enterococci was significantly increased. The overall results of antibiotic resistance were serious. Nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin and amoxicillin / clavulanic acid can be chose as empirical treatment of oral antibiotics. Antimicrobial agents with enzyme inhibitor and carbapenems can be chose as empirical treatment of injection antibiotics.

  13. 665株鲍曼不动杆菌耐药性变化与用药频度相关性分析%Correlation between drug resistance and drug comsuption in 665 strains ofAcinetobacter Baumannii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金浩; 仇凡; 孙明忠

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter Baumannii to this drug, Piperacillin/tazobactam (r=0.98,P<0.01), Gentamicin (r=0.87,P<0.01), Czidime (r=0.75,P<0.05), Cefoxitin (r=-0.74,P<0.05). Cefoperazone/sulbactam usage was also negatively correlated with aminoglycoside use frequency (r=-0.84,P<0.05), the drug resistance rate of Amikacin was positively correlated with the frequency of Cephalothin drug usage (r=0.98,P<0.01).Conclusion: hTe drug resistance to common antibiotics by Bauman is more serious, and there is a certain correlation between the use of antibacterial drugs and the rate of bacterial resistance.

  14. Analysis on distribution and drug resistance of Escherichia coli infection%大肠埃希菌感染的临床分布与耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏爱美; 王云

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the distribution of Escherichia(E .) coli in clinical infection and its drug resistance situation to provide the scientific evidence for the control of outside hospital infection and nosocomial infection and clinical rational drug use . Methods E .coli isolated situation among various types of clinical samples in our hospital during 5 years from January 2010 to De‐cember 2014 ,its department distribution and drug resistance were analyzed .Results The isolated 2 405 strains of E .coli were mainly originated from urine samples (1 049 strains ,43 .60% ) and sputum samples (562 strains ,3 .4% ) .In which the detection rate of extended‐spectrum beta‐lactamase(ESBLs)producing E .coli was 57 .92% ;the resistance rate of E .coli to the most antibacterial drugs including penicillins ,cephalosporins ,fluroquinolones ,aminoglycosides and sulfonamides was more than 50% ,the drugs with the resistance less than 10% were imipenem(0) ,meropenem(0) ,piperacillin/tazobactam(4 .6% ) ,cefoperazone/sulbactam(6 .4% ) and cefoxitin (7 .7% ) ,the resistance to partial third and fourth generation cephalosporins of ceftriaxone ,cefotaxime and cefepime showed the significantly increasing trend .Conclusion E .coli has relatively serious drug resistance situation in hospital‐acquired in‐fections ,clinic should strengthen the pathogen distribution monitoring and drug resistance detection for avoiding the generation of more drug resistant strains in order to reduce the bacterial drug resistance and the hospital infection rate .%目的:分析大肠埃希菌在临床感染中的分布与耐药情况,为其在院内、外感染控制以及临床合理用药方面提供科学依据。方法分析2010年1月至2014年12月5年间该院临床各类标本中大肠埃希菌的分离情况并分析大肠埃希菌的科室分布及其耐药情况。结果分离的2405株大肠埃希菌主要来源于尿液1049株(43.60%)及痰液562株(23.4%);其中产

  15. Staphylococcus aureus: incidência e resistência antimicrobiana em abscessos cutâneos de origem comunitária Staphylococcus aureus: etiology and susceptibility profile to antimicrobial agents of skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses from community infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zavadinack Netto

    2002-03-01

    profilaxia ou tratamento de infecções por S.aureus, mesmo aqueles de origem comunitária.An analysis of Staphylococcus aureus (Monera, an etiological agent of community infections, is provided. Staphylococcus aureus causes the formation of skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses. Susceptibility profile to antimicrobials used in prophylaxis or therapy of these cutaneous infections will be given. One hundred and seven samples of secretions were collected from January 1996 through July 1997 at the emergency sector of University Hospital of the State University of Maringá, Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil, from infected patients with skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses. Microbiological evaluation was carried out according to Bayle and susceptibility to antimicrobial was evaluated in vitro through the technique of diffusion in agar according to Kirby. Sixteen antimicrobials used in prophylaxis or therapy of skin and subcutaneous cell tissue infections were evaluated. From the one hundred and seven clinical samples collected from patients complaining of infections with skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses, 71 (66.35% were positive to S.aureus and 36 (33,65% were either positive for other microorganisms, or tested negative. In the evaluation of susceptibility to S.aureus a higher sensitivity to vancomycin (100%, teicoplanin (100%, amikacin (100%, cefoxitin (100%, cephalothin (98.53%, lincomycin (98.53%, gentamicin (98.53%, oxacillin (96,4%, norfloxacin (95.77% and sulfazotrin (95.77% was found when compared to penicillin G (08.45%, ampicillin (08.45%, kanamycin (81,69%, erythromycin (88.41%, tetracycline (90.14 and chloramphenicol (94,36%. Results show that S.aureus is the most frequently isolated microorganism from community infections with skin and subcutaneous tissue abscesses. The susceptibility profile evidences high resistance to penicillins, which restricts the use of these antimicrobials as an alternative in the prophylaxis or treatment of S

  16. Investigation and analysis of multiple drug-resistant bacteria infection status in hospital%医院多重耐药菌感染状况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈武; 林仕忠; 张儒文; 陈立坚

    2014-01-01

    organism, cefepime, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime. But they still sensitive to carbapenem and third generation cephalosporins compound preparations.For other antimicrobial,they were resisted in different levels. More than 88% methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococcus were resisted to cefazolin, penicillin G, cefoxitin, amoxicillin/rods acid, cefaclor, cefoperazone/ Sulbactam Sodium, clarithromycin which are the most common used antimicrobial.They were still sensitive to vancomycin and minocycline,but resisted to other antimicrobial agents in different levels.Conclusions:This situation should arouse attention of the hospital to strengthen the management of antimicrobial use and to develop a targeted prevention and control measures to restrain the ever increasing of multi-resistant bacteria infection.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and epidemiology of blood stream infections in China, 2012%2012年度全国血标本来源细菌分布及耐药状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田磊; 朱旭慧; 孙自镛

    2015-01-01

    ,应根据药敏结果合理选用抗菌药物。%Objective To investigate the distribution and changing pa-ttern of susceptibility in bloodstream infection.Methods The blood cul-ture isolates from 557 tertiary hospitals and 232 second class hospitals were routinely isolated and identified.Antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates were tested routinely.Results A total of 76483 strains were isolated from blood specimens in the tertiary hospitals during 2012.Gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli accounted for 44.35%and 55.65%, respectively.A total of 6261 strains were isolated from blood specimens in the second-class hospitals during 2012.Gram-po-sitive cocci and gram -negative bacilli accounted for 48.89% and 51.11%, respectively.The most frequent gram-negative bacteria from the tertiary hospitals and the second -class hospitals were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacter cloacae, the most fre-quent gram-positive bacteria were Coagulase-negative Staphylococus, Staphylococus aureus, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.700 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae ( 0.8%) , 28 strains of Hemophilus influenza (80.0%).The sensitivity rates of Enterococcus faecalis to Pencillin and Ampicillin were high (>80.0%).Escherichia coli was sensitive to not only Ampicillin/Sulbactam and Piperacillin/tazobactam (>90.0%) , but also Amikacin and Cefoxitin ( about 80.0%).Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to all of the common antibiotics almost.But it was just the opposite to Acinetobacter baumannii.Polymyxin B and Cefoperazone/Sulbactam were sensitive to Acinetobacter baumannii in the tertiary hospitals and the second-class hospitals, respec-tively(97.6%and 76.7%).Conclusion The datas of 2012 indicated that gram-negative bacilli, especially Esche-richia coli, played an important role in blood stream infections.A large number of Coagulase-negative Staphylococus, Staphylococus aureus were isolated

  18. Epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Jingzhou%荆州地区耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌的流行和耐药特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周义正; 李艳; 王昌富

    2014-01-01

    and hospital-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA) in Jingzhou.Methods A total of 159 MRSA isolates were successively collected from patients in Jingzhou Central Hospital during January 2012 and December 2013.The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 16 antimicrobial agents against 159 MRSA isolates were detected.SCCmec types of the strains were detected by multiplex PCR,and the homology of the strains was analyzed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and cluster analysis of antibiogram.WHONET 5.6 and SPSS 19.0 were used for data analysis.Results Among 159 MRSA strains,131 were hospital-associated,and 28 were community-associated,which accounted for 82.4% and 17.6%,respectively.There were significant differences in the age of patients,ward distribution,specimen type,length of stay,length of anti-infection treatment,type of infection and underlying diseases between patients with CA-MRSA or HA-MRSA infections (x2 =19.103,31.372,59.756,71.703,54.153,59.756 and 54.232,all P < 0.01).No vancomycin,linezolid,tigecyeline and nitrofurantoin resistant strains were found,but all strains were resistant to penicillin,cefoxitin and oxacillin.HA-MRSA had higher resistance rates to moxifloxacin,levofloxacin,rifampicin,ciprofloxacin and gentamicin than CA-MRSA (x2 =30.179,27.352,28.523,28.523 and 25.987,all P < 0.01),but its resistance rates to erythromycin and clindamycin were lower (x2 =13.106 and 11.743,both P < 0.01).Among 159 MRSA strains,12 (7.5%) were of SCCmec type Ⅱ,113 (71.1%) were of SCCmec type Ⅲ,26 (16.4%) were of SCCmec type Ⅳ,and 8 were of undifferentiated type.The predominant SCCmec types were type Ⅳ for CA-MRSA (26/28,92.9%) and type Ⅲ for HA-MRSA (113/131,86.3%),respectively.Six PFGE patters were found in 49 HA-MRSA isolates from ICU,and the predominant patters were A1 (24,49.0%),A2 (9,18.4%) and B (9,18.4%).Cluster analysis of antibiogram showed that three groups of HA-MRSA were of

  19. Antimicrobial resistance monitoring of gram-negative bacilli isolated from 15 teaching hospitals in 2014 in China%2014年中国15家教学医院革兰阴性杆菌耐药性监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王启; 王辉; 俞云松; 徐修礼; 孙自镛; 路娟; 杨滨; 张莉滟; 胡志东

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current situation of antimicrobial resistance of nosocomial gram-negative bacilli in 2014 in China.Methods About 1 430 consecutive and non-repetitive strains of gram-negative bacilli were isolated from 15 teaching hospitals from March to August in 2014.All of these isolates were sent to the central laboratory for reidentification and susceptibility testing.The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)of meropenem and other antibacterial agents were determined by agar dilution method.The data were analyzed by using WHONET-5.6 software.Results The activity of antimicrobial agents against Enterobacteriaceae was listed as followings in descending order of susceptibility:meropenem (94.7%,913/964),amikacin (94.4%,910/964),imipenem (88.5%,853/964),ertapenem (87.8%,847/964),piperacillin-tazobactam (87.2%,841/964),cefoperazone-sulbactam (86.7%,836/964),polymyxin B (77%,742/964),cefepime (74.5%,718/964),cefiazidime (71.8%,692/964),levofloxacin(71.1%,685/964),ciprofloxacin (67.7%,653/964),minocyline (64.2%,619/964),ceftriaxone (56.8%,548/964),cefotaxime (55.8%,538/964),cefoxitin (45.5%,439/964).The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) was 57.6% (114/198)in E.coli and 24.6% (49/199) in Klebsiella pneumonia.The sensitivity of E.coli to carbapenems,amikacin,piperacillin-tazobactam,polymyxin B and cefoperazone-sulbactam was all over 80%.However,over 60% E.coli strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin,levofloxacin,ceflriaxone and cefotaxime.Polymyxin B was the most susceptible antibiotic to Klebsiella pneumoniae (99.5% sensitive),followed by amikacin (89.9%),meropenem (86.4%),imipenem (86.4%) and piperacillin-tazobactam (81.9%),while ceftriaxone (60.8%) and cefotaxime (59.8%) were less sensitive.The activity of antimicrobial agents against E.cloacae,E.aerogenes and Citrobacter freundii was listed as followings in descending order of susceptibility:meropenem (96.1%-97.4