WorldWideScience

Sample records for cedar computers

  1. Silvicultural guide for northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuelle Boulfroy; Eric Forget; Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Catherine Larouche; Guy Lessard; Jean-Martin Lussier; Fred Pinto; Jean-Claude Ruel; Aaron. Weiskittel

    2012-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar; Thuja occidentalis L.) is an important tree species in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, occurring both in pure stands and as a minor species in mixed stands of hardwoods or other softwoods. Yet practitioners have little and often contradictory information about cedar ecology and...

  2. Skeleton decay in red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2013-01-01

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) is a common tree species throughout the eastern United States and the Great Plains. Although “cedar” is in the common name, the scientifc name shows a botanical kinship to the juniper species of the American southwest. Red cedar can survive and thrive within a broad range of soil conditions, seasonal...

  3. The first CEDAR counter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The first differential Cerenkov counter with chromatic corrections (called CEDAR) successfully tested at the PS in July 75. These counters were used in the SPS hadronic beams for particle identification. Some of the eight photomultipliers can be seen: they receive the light reflected back through the annular diaphragm. René Maleyran stands on the left.

  4. Spanish-cedar : Cedrela spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. F. Kukachka

    1964-01-01

    From the earliest days of exploration and colonization in tropical America, Spanish-cedar has been one of the most important timber trees of the area. The wood became an article for the export trade during the 1800’s when the cigar industry demanded the use of Spanish-cedar for packing cigars. These fragrant boxes were commonplace before rising costs in the 1930’s...

  5. Ulmus crassifolia Nutt. Cedar Elm

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Stransky; Sylvia M. Bierschenk

    1990-01-01

    Cedar elm (Ulmus cassifolia) grows rapidly to medium or large size in the Southern United States and northeastern Mexico, where it may sometimes be called basket elm, red elm, southern rock elm, or olmo (Spanish) It usually is found on moist, limestone soils along water courses with other bottomland trees, but it also paws on dry limestone hills. The...

  6. Pecky rot in incense-cedar: evaluation of five scaling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Cahill; W.Y. Pong; D.L. Weyermann

    1987-01-01

    A sample of 58 logs was used to evaluate five methods of making scale deduc-tions for pecky rot in incense-cedar (Libocedrus decurrens Torr.) logs. Bias and ac-curacy were computed for three Scribner and two cubic scaling methods. The lumber yield of sound incense-cedar logs, as measured in a product recovery study, was used as the basis for...

  7. Respiratory tract reactions to western red cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blainey, A D; Graham, V A; Phillips, M J; Davies, R J

    1981-01-01

    1 Asthma due to western red cedar (Thuja plicata) is well recognized, but has not been described frequently in the UK. Two patients who developed asthma and rhinitis due to occupational contact with western red cedar were studied. Both patients developed late asthmatic responses following bronchial challenge with western red cedar. 2 The challenge technique and the results of comparison between different wood dusts and dust extract are described. 3 The technique of anterior rhinometry was used to follow the nasal response to challenge in one patient, and demonstrated a late nasal reaction which followed a similar time course to the bronchial response.

  8. The Cedars ultramafic mass, Sonoma County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, M. Clark; Bailey, Edgar H.; Wentworth, Carl M.

    2012-01-01

    The Cedars ultramafic mass is a mantle fragment that consists of partially serpentinized spinel harzburgite and dunite. Compositional layering and a chromite lineation define a penetrative metamorphic foliation that almost certainly formed in the upper mantle. Although detailed petrofabric and mineral chemistry are presently lacking, it seems reasonable that the Cedars peridotite represents a slice of mantle tectonite that once formed the base of the Coast Range ophiolite, and not an abyssal peridotite tectonically emplaced within the Franciscan accretionary prism.

  9. Drying Western Red Cedar with Superheated Steam

    OpenAIRE

    Elustondo, Diego; Ahmed, Sheikh Ali; Oliveira, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study evaluated the possibility of drying 50-mm-thick western red cedar with superheated steam. Since there are no industrial facilities in Canada drying western red cedar with superheated steam, the study was designed to explore the potential of this technology in terms of lumber quality, moisture content distribution, and drying time. The experiments showed that the 50-mm-thick product can be dried in less than three days without jeopardizing lumber quality (in comparison w...

  10. Selected water-quality data from the Cedar River and Cedar Rapids well fields, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 2006-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    The Cedar River alluvial aquifer is the primary source of municipal water in the Cedar Rapids, Iowa area. Municipal wells are completed in the alluvial aquifer approximately 40 to 80 feet below land surface. The City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have been conducting a cooperative study of the groundwater-flow system and water quality of the aquifer since 1992. Cooperative reports between the City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have documented hydrologic and water-quality data, geochemistry, and groundwater models. Water-quality samples were collected for studies involving well field monitoring, trends, source-water protection, groundwater geochemistry, surface-water-groundwater interaction, and pesticides in groundwater and surface water. Water-quality analyses were conducted for major ions (boron, bromide, calcium, chloride, fluoride, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, silica, sodium, and sulfate), nutrients (ammonia as nitrogen, nitrite as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus), dissolved organic carbon, and selected pesticides including two degradates of the herbicide atrazine. Physical characteristics (alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance and water temperature) were measured in the field and recorded for each water sample collected. This report presents the results of routine water-quality data-collection activities from January 2006 through December 2010. Methods of data collection, quality-assurance, and water-quality analyses are presented. Data include the results of water-quality analyses from quarterly sampling from monitoring wells, municipal wells, and the Cedar River.

  11. Bronchial reactivity in Western red cedar induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, R D; Crockett, A J; Ruffin, R E; Alpers, J H

    1979-08-01

    A patient with Western red cedar induced asthma is described. The diagnosis was confirmed by a bronchial challenge with Western red cedar saw dust and the subsequent prolonged bronchial reactivity changes were measured using histamine inhalation tests.

  12. Mountain cedar allergens found in nonpollen tree parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, D W; Goetz, M A; Whisman, B A

    1995-09-01

    Mountain cedar (Juniperus ashei) pollen is the principal aeroallergen in south central Texas from late December through February. The major mountain cedar allergen is a 40-kD glycoprotein, gp40. To identify allergens in mountain cedar wood, leaves, and berries and to detect mountain cedar allergen in smoke from burning male or female trees. SDS-PAGE plus mountain cedar human sIgE and monoclonal antibody immunoblots identified mountain cedar allergens within pollen and nonpollen tree part extracts. IgE immunoblots identified a single wood allergen at 36 kD and three berry allergens at 36, 26-27, and 21 kD, in addition to known pollen allergens. Mountain cedar monoclonal antibody bound an allergen epitope present not only on 40, 33, and 28-kD pollen allergens, but also on 36 and 32-kD wood allergens, and the 26-27-kD berry allergen. Immunoblot studies detected no mountain cedar allergen in leaves and no allergen in smoke from burning male and female trees. Allergens constituted a much smaller percentage of extractable protein in wood and berries than in pollen. Mountain cedar berry allergen content is too small to give credence to the ingestion of berries as a folk medicine treatment of mountain cedar pollinosis. In addition, while smoke from burning mountain cedar trees may be irritating, it contains no allergens that could cause allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

  13. Selected Water-Quality Data from the Cedar River and Cedar Rapids Well Fields, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1999-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, Gregory R.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    The Cedar River alluvial aquifer is the primary source of municipal water in the Cedar Rapids, Iowa area. Municipal wells are completed in the alluvial aquifer at approximately 40 to 80 feet deep. The City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have been conducting a cooperative study of the groundwater-flow system and water quality near the well fields since 1992. Previous cooperative studies between the City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have documented hydrologic and water-quality data, geochemistry, and groundwater models. Water-quality samples were collected for studies involving well field monitoring, trends, source-water protection, groundwater geochemistry, evaluation of surface and ground-water interaction, assessment of pesticides in groundwater and surface water, and to evaluate water quality near a wetland area in the Seminole well field. Typical water-quality analyses included major ions (boron, bromide, calcium, chloride, fluoride, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, silica, sodium, and sulfate), nutrients (ammonia as nitrogen, nitrite as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus), dissolved organic carbon, and selected pesticides including two degradates of the herbicide atrazine. In addition, two synoptic samplings included analyses of additional pesticide degradates in water samples. Physical field parameters (alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance and water temperature) were recorded with each water sample collected. This report presents the results of water quality data-collection activities from January 1999 through December 2005. Methods of data collection, quality-assurance samples, water-quality analyses, and statistical summaries are presented. Data include the results of water-quality analyses from quarterly and synoptic sampling from monitoring wells, municipal wells, and the Cedar River.

  14. Dendroclimatological potential of the Australian red cedar

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Ingo; Banks, J. C. G.

    2005-01-01

    We examined Toona ciliata M.Roemer (Australian red cedar) for its potential to deliver annually resolved tree-ring proxy data. Such proxies are valuable and sought-after sources for reconstructing climate beyond instrumental records, especially in Australia. T. ciliata was chosen because it is one of the few deciduous tree species in Australia experiencing a seasonally dormant period of the cambium. This was confirmed by a preliminary tree-ring analysis which revealed distinct growth rings. B...

  15. Bronchial inflammation in occupational asthma due to western red cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, A J; Chan, H; Lam, S; Chan-Yeung, M

    1995-02-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage cells and bronchial biopsies were obtained from nine patients with red cedar asthma, six atopic asthmatics and six non-atopic, non-asthmatic control subjects. There were similar proportions of neutrophils, mast cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages in BAL samples from all three groups, but eosinophil numbers were elevated in patients with cedar asthma and atopic asthma (3.0 and 2.5% respectively versus 0.5% in control subjects; p < 0.05 for each group). In bronchial mucosal biopsies, mean numbers of T cells were elevated in both asthmatic groups (cedar asthma 9.8 times, and atopic asthma 2.6 times, control values). CD4+ cells accounted for most of the increase in T-cell numbers, while CD8+ cell numbers were elevated in biopsies from a minority of cedar asthma patients. Absolute numbers of CD25+ (IL-2 receptor-bearing) cells were increased in cedar asthma but the proportion of T cells expressing CD25, was similar in all three groups. Activated eosinophils (EG2+) were increased in both asthmatic groups, with mean numbers 2.5 times greater in the cedar asthma biopsies than in atopic asthmatics. Thus both cedar asthma and atopic asthma are associated with increased numbers of T-cells and activated eosinophils in the bronchial mucosa. There was no major histologic difference between atopic asthma and red cedar asthma.

  16. A study of western red cedar-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mue, S; Ise, T; Ono, Y; Akasaka, K

    1975-05-01

    Seventeen asthmatic patients who were workers dealing with Western Red Cedar in a Japanese wooden frame factory were studied. One fraction from the aqueous extract of the lumber induced a positive skin test, Prausnitz-Kustner test and the inhalation test. This confirms the existence of antigen in Western Red Cedar and its ability to produce allergic asthma in sensitive workers.

  17. Port-Orford-cedar—a poor risk for reforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Hunt; Edward J. Dimock

    1957-01-01

    Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murr.) Parl.) has been the most widely used introduced species in reforestation projects in western Washington and Oregon. However, as a result of two recent and unrelated occurrences, a severe early cold wave and a destructive root disease, the advisability of continued planting of Port-Orford-cedar...

  18. A tale of two cedars – International symposium on western redcedar and yellow-cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance Harrington

    2010-01-01

    From May 24-28, 2010, an international symposium on western redcedar (Thuja plicata) and yellowcedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis [syn., Chamaecyparis nootkatensis]) was held at the University of Victoria on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada. The symposium was entitled “A Tale of Two Cedars” and...

  19. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Japanese Cedar Pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Okubo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of pollinosis caused by cedar pollen has increased by 10% these ten years of 26.5% in the investigation of 2008 in Japan. The pharmacotherapy is a main treatment tool for pollinosis, and the surgical treatment is not acknowledged to the treatment of pollinosis internationally. Moreover, allergen immunotherapy enters a special treatment method, and is an important therapeutic procedure. The allergen immunotherapy is unique for having possibility of curing allergen specific allergic diseases. However the side effect of allergen subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT, such as anaphylaxis is kept at a distance in a medical situation in Japan. Then, a sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT that was safer than it, developed in Europe for pollinosis induced by grass or ragweed, but not in Japan. As a result, the effect of SLIT was proven in the cedar pollinosis in Japan as high level evidence. A whole body immunity induction is thought in the appearance of the effect, and, in addition, it is necessary to be going to be cleared the accurate mechanism of the effect in the future. Moreover, the development of a special SLIT and the import of an overseas product are needed in Japan.

  20. Isotopes - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  1. Diet - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  2. 78 FR 44090 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Hossein Hashemzadeh...

  3. Nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity after exposure to Western Red Cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, D W; Cotton, D J; Mink, J T

    1979-03-01

    A 55-year-old nonatopic man presented with a 2-year history of progressively severe conjunctivitis, rhinitis, and asthma related to exposure to freshly cut red cedar. Chest roentgenogram, lung volumes, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and expiratory flow rates were normal. A histamine inhalation test demonstrated mild, nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity. After a 35-min cumulative exposure to Western Red Cedar sawdust in the laboratory, the patient developed a late asthmatic response. Bronchial reactivity to inhaled histamine increased significantly after exposure to red cedar in the laboraotry and again after natural exposure to red cedar at work. However, on both occasions forced expiraotry volume in one sec was decreased when compared to control values. Exposure to red cedar sawdust for 15 min was repeated in the laboratory, and histamine inhalation tests were performed the day before, for 4 consecutive days after, and 11 days after exposure. Before each test, one-sec forced expiratory volume, lung volumes, specific conductance, maximal expiratory flow rates at 25 and 50 per cent of vital capacity, closing capacity, and the slope of phase III from the single-breath O2 test were measured. Six hours after exposure to cedar, all measurements documented significant airway obstruction that persisted until the second day. Bronchial responsiveness to inhaled histamine also increased on the first 2 days after exposure to cedar, but this increase persisted on the third and fourth day when all other pulmonary function tests had returned to control values. Eleven days later, the bronchial hyperreactivity to inhaled histamine had also returned to control values. In a sensitized subject, exposure to Western Red Cedar induced a transient increase in nonspecific bronchial reactivity that was present in the absence of airflow obstruction. Factors other than decreased airway caliber are probably important in this phenomenon.

  4. Cedar River Chinook genotypes - Estimate relative reproductive success of hatchery and wild fall Chinook salmon in the Cedar River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using genetic pedigree information to estimate the reproductive success of hatchery and wild fall-run Chinook salmon spawning in the Cedar River, Washington....

  5. Hanford Reach - Control of Salt Cedar Plants in an Isolated Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Target Invasive Species: salt cedar (Tamarix sp.; a Class “B” noxious weed in WA, “B” designated weed in OR) minimum of 32 acres within ~760 acres. Salt cedar...

  6. Clinical aspects of Japanese cedar pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Okuda

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis is a major national health problem in Japan. The present review provides an update on information on JCPsis based on clinical data from our research group, through the support of the Department of Health and Welfare (Japanese Government, during the period from 1988 to 1997, because this disease is infrequently documented internationally despite a large number of publications from Japan. The information on JCPsis presented here may be of use in the management of various kinds of pollinosis prevalent in other countries. The prevalence rates of JCPsis vary from district to district and also depend on the age of the subjects, the method of analysis and the year of examination in population. Yet, on an average, the incidence of JCPsis is presumed to be 10-20% in adults and 5-10% in children. The risk factors for sensitization and the onset of symptoms seem to be dependent on the amount of air-borne pollen, the age of school children, hereditary disposition, including human leukocyte antigen type and the high levels of specific IgE in childhood. Because pollen counts also vary depending on many factors, such as the type of pollen samplers used, yearly variations, the number of pollen count stations, the atmospheric temperature and solar radiation in the previous year of the season, accurate predictions of daily and seasonal pollen counts are rather difficult. Commercial crude extracts and purified allergenic substances Cry j I and II correlate well with the skin test and the radioallergosorbent test. Japanese cedar pollen has an allergenic component that is cross-reactive with Japanese cypress. In many patients, the onset of symptoms occurs on the day when the air-borne pollen count is 10/cm2 (the Durham method and, if severe symptoms occur due to intense exposure to pollen, the symptoms will last for a long time despite variations in the pollen count (priming effect. Eye glasses, face masks and keeping windows and

  7. Comparative characterization of extractives in Alaskan Yellow, Eastern Red, and Western Red Cedars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderquita K. Moore; Doreen Mann; Gabriel Epstein; Phoebe Wagner; Brett Hinkforth; Jun Hyunji

    2017-01-01

    Softwoods, more specifically Cedars, are a set of tree species known to have extractive components with many different biological activities. Research has shown that certain compounds in Cedars are able to resist various forms of attack (microbial, fungal, insect, etc.). Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red Cedar, Cupressus/Chamacyparis...

  8. 75 FR 13668 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cedar Rapids, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ...-0916; Airspace Docket No. 09-ACE-12] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cedar Rapids, IA AGENCY: Federal... Cedar Rapids, IA, to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at The Eastern Iowa Airport, Cedar Rapids, IA. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety...

  9. Consumer willingness to pay a price premium for standing-dead Alaska yellow-cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2004-01-01

    Alaska yellow-cedar has declined in Southeast Alaska over the past 100 years, resulting in half a million acres of dead or dying trees. The natural decay resistance of Alaska yellow-cedar means that many of these trees are still merchantable. However, the topography of Southeast Alaska is such that selectively harvesting Alaska yellow-cedar may often require helicopter...

  10. 75 FR 68780 - Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RC11-1-000] Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing November 2, 2010. Take notice that on October 27, 2010, Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC (Cedar Creek) filed an appeal with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) of...

  11. Flood-inundation maps for Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2018-02-27

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 1.9-mile reach of Cedar Creek at Auburn, Indiana (Ind.), from the First Street bridge, downstream to the streamgage at 18th Street, then ending approximately 1,100 feet (ft) downstream of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science web site at https://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Ind. (station number 04179520). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, although forecasts of flood hydrographs are not available at this site (ABBI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Ind. streamgage and the documented high-water marks from the flood of March 11, 2009. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to compute seven water-surface profiles for flood stages referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft, or near bankfull, to 13 ft, in 1-foot increments. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging [lidar] data having a 0.98-ft vertical accuracy and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The availability of these maps, along with internet information regarding current stage from the USGS streamgage at Cedar Creek

  12. Bronchial reactions to western red cedar (Thuja plicata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, M; Barton, G M; McLean, L; Grzybowski, S

    1971-07-10

    The clinical features and the results of investigations (including immunological tests) of three patients with asthma due to western red cedar are described. Bronchial provocation tests with extract of this wood produced immediate asthmatic reaction in one patient, late asthmatic and peripheral reactions in another and late asthmatic reaction alone in the third. While mild immediate skin reactions were detected in two patients, no late skin reactions were observed. Serum precipitins to this extract were not detected. An attempt was made to identify the responsible allergen in the red cedar extract.

  13. Groundwater geochemistry in the Seminole Well Field, Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    The City of Cedar Rapids obtains its municipal water supply from four well fields in an alluvial aquifer along the Cedar River in east-central Iowa. Since 1992, the City and the U.S. Geological Survey have cooperatively studied the groundwater-flow system and water chemistry near the well fields. The geochemistry in the alluvial aquifer near the Seminole Well Field was assessed to identify potentially reactive minerals and possible chemical reactions that produce observed changes in water chemistry. Calcite, dolomite, ferrihydrite, quartz, rhodochrosite, and siderite were identified as potentially reactive minerals by calculating saturation indexes. Aluminosiicate minerals including albite, Ca-montmorillonite, gibbsite, illite, K-feldspar, and kaolinite were identified as potentially reactive minerals using hypothetical saturation indexes calculated with an assumed dissolved aluminum concentration of 1 microgram per liter. Balanced chemical equations derived from inverse-modeling techniques were used to assess chemical reactions as precipitation percolates to the water table. Calcite dissolution was predominate, but aluminosilicate weathering, cation exchange, and redox reactions also likely occurred. Microbial-catalyzed redox reactions altered the chemical composition of water infiltrating from the Cedar River into the alluvial aquifer by consuming dissolved oxygen, reducing nitrate, and increasing dissolved iron and manganese concentrations. Nitrate reduction only occurred in relatively shallow (3 to 7 meters below land surface) groundwater near the Cedar River and did not occur in water infiltrating to deeper zones of the alluvial aquifer.

  14. 78 FR 58470 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 13-182; RM-11701; DA 13-1882] Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  15. Seasonal differences in freezing tolerance of yellow-cedar and western hemlock trees at a site affected by yellow-cedar decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Paul E. Hennon; Amore, David V. D; Gary J. Hawley; Catherine H. Borer; Catherine H. Borer

    2005-01-01

    To assess whether inadequate cold hardiness could be a contributor to yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) decline, we measured the freezing tolerance of foliage from yellow-cedar trees in closed-canopy (nondeclining) and open-canopy (declining at elevations below 130 m) stands at three sites along an elevational gradient in the heart of the decline...

  16. Characterization of Micronutrient Deficiency in Australian Red Cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Silva Moretti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Red Cedar presents a great exploitation potential in Brazil, but works about the nutrient requirements and deficiency characterization in that species are still scarce. The objectives of this work were evaluating the effects of the omission of micronutrients and characterizing the nutrient deficiency symptoms in Australian Red Cedar saplings. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse for a 90-day period. Australian Red Cedar cuttings were cultivated in pots with a nutrient solution under the missing element technique. The omission of the micronutrients B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn affect negatively the height, diameter, and dry matter yield of the Australian Red Cedar plants. The micronutrient which affected the relative growth of the plants the most was B. Australian Red Cedar plants deficient in micronutrients present several visual symptoms characteristic of the metabolism disorders. The perception of the deficiencies through the visual diagnosis can be useful in the nutrient management of the culture of the Australian Red Cedar.

  17. Biomass carbon accumulation in aging Japanese cedar plantations in Xitou, central Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Hung, Chih-Yu; Chen, Chiou-Peng; Pei, Chuang-Wun

    2013-01-01

    Background Japanese cedar (Chrytomeria japonica D. Don) is an important plantation species in Taiwan and represents 10% of total plantation area. It was first introduced in 1910 and widely planted in the northern and central mountainous areas of Taiwan. However, a change in forest management from exotic species to native species in 1980 had resulted in few new Japanese cedar plantations being established. Most Japanese cedar plantations are now between 30 and 50 years old and reaching their r...

  18. Characterization of Micronutrient Deficiency in Australian Red Cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno da Silva Moretti; Antonio Eduardo Furtini Neto; Bruno Peres Benatti; Eduane José de Pádua; Lauana Lopes Santos; Julian Junio de Jesus Lacerda; Soami Fernanda Caio Deccetti

    2012-01-01

    The Australian Red Cedar presents a great exploitation potential in Brazil, but works about the nutrient requirements and deficiency characterization in that species are still scarce. The objectives of this work were evaluating the effects of the omission of micronutrients and characterizing the nutrient deficiency symptoms in Australian Red Cedar saplings. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse for a 90-day period. Australian Red Cedar cuttings were cultivated in pots with a nutrient s...

  19. Mechanical properties of salvaged dead yellow-cedar in southeast Alaska : Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. A. McDonald; P. E. Hennon; J. H. Stevens; D. W. Green

    An intensive decline and mortality problem is affecting yellow-cedar trees in southeast Alaska. Yellow-cedar snags (dead trees) could be important to the economy in southeast Alaska, if some high-value uses for the snags could be established. Due to the high decay resistance of yellow-cedar, the rate of deterioration is so slow that snags may remain standing for a...

  20. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling to quantify effects of peak-flow management on channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat in the Cedar River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Christiana; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    The Cedar River in Washington State originates on the western slope of the Cascade Range and provides the City of Seattle with most of its drinking water, while also supporting a productive salmon habitat. Water-resource managers require detailed information on how best to manage high-flow releases from Chester Morse Lake, a large reservoir on the Cedar River, during periods of heavy precipitation to minimize flooding, while mitigating negative effects on fish populations. Instream flow-management practices include provisions for adaptive management to promote and maintain healthy aquatic habitat in the river system. The current study is designed to understand the linkages between peak flow characteristics, geomorphic processes, riverine habitat, and biological responses. Specifically, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling is used to simulate and quantify the effects of the peak-flow magnitude, duration, and frequency on the channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat. Two study reaches, representative of the typical geomorphic and ecologic characteristics of the Cedar River, were selected for the modeling. Detailed bathymetric data, collected with a real-time kinematic global positioning system and an acoustic Doppler current profiler, were combined with a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model in the overbank area to develop a computational mesh. The model is used to simulate water velocity, benthic shear stress, flood inundation, and morphologic changes in the gravel-bedded river under the current and alternative flood-release strategies. Simulations of morphologic change and salmon-redd scour by floods of differing magnitude and duration enable water-resource managers to incorporate model simulation results into adaptive management of peak flows in the Cedar River. PDF version of a presentation on hydrodynamic modelling in the Cedar River in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.

  1. Effect of fexofenadine on the quality of life of Japanese cedar pollinosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Okubo

    2004-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study showed that fexofenadine administration suppressed the deterioration of overall QOL and alleviated the interference with daily life in patients suffering from Japanese cedar pollinosis.

  2. Insect feeding and oviposition deterrents from western red cedar foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, R I; Pierce, H D; Borden, J H; Oehlschlager, A C

    1981-01-01

    The feeding deterrent activity of fractions from the foliage of western red cedar,Thujaplicata Donn, was studied in laboratory bioassays using the white pine weevil,Pissodes strobi Peck, as a test insect. The most active fraction was the volatile mixture that comprises the leaf oil of this tree species. Further fractionation of the leaf oil indicated feeding deterrent activity in the monoterpene hydrocarbon, thujone, and terpene alcohol fractions. When tested alone, both (-)-3-isothujone and (+)-3-thujone, which made up 75-88% and 5-10% of the leaf oil, respectively, deterred feeding by the weevils. Western red cedar leaf oil also showed antifeedant activity with the alder flea beetle,Altica ambiens (Le Conte), and served as an oviposition deterrent for the onion root maggot,Hylemya antiqua Meigen. The leaf oil, however, had no inhibitory effect on the feeding of the leaf roller,Epinotia solandriana L., and the red-backed sawfly,Eriocampa ovata L.

  3. TREATMENTS TO MINIMIZE EXTRACTIVES STAIN IN WESTERN RED CEDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Rod Stirling,; Paul I. Morris

    2012-01-01

    Under certain conditions involving uneven exposure to weather, stains related to the extractives can reduce the aesthetic appeal of western red cedar in exterior applications such as fence boards, siding, and sidewall shingles. Selected chemical treatments were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the formation of extractives stain. DDACarbonate, alkyl amine oxide, and combinations thereof delayed extractives stain formation in an accelerated field test, with higher loadings having greater ...

  4. Red Cedar River Basin, Wisconsin; low-flow characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    Low-flow characteristics in the Red Cedar River basin, Wis., where surplus water may be diverted, and methods to determine low-flow characteristics at additional sites are presented. The low-flow characteristics were determined by various methods at 71 sites. For the three gaging stations in the basin, frequency analysis was used to determine the low-flow characteristics. At 17 partial-record sites correlation analyses were used to estimate the low-flow characteristics. Where only a single base-flow measurement was available (41 sites), equations were developed to estimate low-flow characteristics. The relationships were determined from multiple-regression analyses that related low-flow characteristics at gaging stations, low-flow partial-record stations, and sewage-treatment-plant sites to the drainage area and base-flow index values. The standard errors of estimate were determined to be 25 percent for the Q7,2 equation and 34 percent for the Q7,10 equation. For the main stem of the Red Cedar River where only one discharge measurement was available the low-flow characteristics were determined from a drainage area-discharge relationship. Low-flow characteristics were determined at an additional 30 sites in the Red Cedar River basin by various methods. The method used for these sites depended upon the type and amount of data available at each site. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. The ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) fauna of the cedar glades and xeric limestone prairies of the Central Basin of Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ants may be the most thoroughly documented group of insects inhabiting the cedar glades of the Central Basin of Tennessee with two studies conducted in the late 1930s reporting ants found in cedar glades of the region. To compare the ant fauna of modern cedar glades with the lists produced in earlie...

  6. Ecology, pathology, and management of Port-Orford-Cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald B. Zobel; Lewis F. Roth; Glenn M. Hawk

    1982-01-01

    Information about the biology, diseases, and management of Port-Orford- cedar was collected from the literature, from unpublished research data of the authors and the USDA Forest Service, conversations with personnel involved in all facets of Port-Orford-cedar management, and visits to stands throughout the range of the species. Information is summarized and presented...

  7. Growth comparison of northern white-cedar to balsam fir and red spruce by site class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour; John C. Brissette

    2006-01-01

    Though northern white-cedar is a common and economically important component of the Acadian Forest of Maine and adjacent Canada, there is little regional data about the growth and development of this species. Sixty sites in northern Maine were used to compare growth of cedar to that of red spruce and balsam fir along a range of site classes and light exposures. On...

  8. Atlantic white-cedar being eliminated by excessive animal damage in south Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; H. A. Somes

    1965-01-01

    Atlantic white-cedar, which grows in the swamps of the New Jersey Pine Region, is a prized timber species. Most areas now growing white-cedar have been clearcut 4 or 5 times since 1700. In contrast, the associated swamp hardwoods-red maple, blackgum, and sweetbay-rarely produce wood that is valuable enough to harvest.

  9. 75 FR 55477 - Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie & Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie & Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard... portions of the Lake Erie during the Revolution 3 Cedar Point Triathlon. The temporary safety zone is... Statement of Energy Effects under Executive Order 13211. Technical Standards The National Technology...

  10. Identification of Cha o 3 homolog Cry j 4 from Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar) pollen: Limitation of the present Japanese cedar-specific ASIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Yuki; Yamada, Akira; Sasaki, Eiji; Utsugi, Teruhiro

    2018-03-07

    About one-third of the Japanese population suffers from Japanese cedar pollinosis, which is frequently accompanied by Japanese cypress pollinosis. Recently, a novel major Japanese cypress pollen allergen, Cha o 3, was discovered. However, whether a Cha o 3 homolog is present in Japanese cedar pollen remains to be determined. Western blot analysis was performed using Cha o 3-specific antiserum. In addition, cloning of the gene encoding Cry j 4 was conducted using total cDNA from the male flower of Japanese cedar trees. Allergen potency and cross-reactivity were investigated using a T-cell proliferation assay, basophil activation test, and ImmunoCAP inhibition assay. A low amount of Cha o 3 homolog protein was detected in Japanese cedar pollen extract. The deduced amino acid sequence of Cry j 4 showed 84% identity to that of Cha o 3. Cross-reactivity between Cry j 4 and Cha o 3 was observed at the T cell and IgE levels. Cry j 4 was discovered as a counterpart allergen of Cha o 3 in Japanese cedar pollen, with a relationship similar to that between Cry j 1-Cha o 1 and Cry j 2-Cha o 2. Our findings also suggest that allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) using Japanese cedar pollen extract does not induce adequate immune tolerance to Cha o 3 due to the low amount of Cry j 4 in Japanese cedar pollen. Therefore, ASIT using Cha o 3 or cypress pollen extract coupled with Japanese cedar pollen extract is required in order to optimally control allergy symptoms during Japanese cypress pollen season. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of mutations in the genes for the pollen allergens of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midoro-Horiuti, T; Goldblum, R M; Brooks, E G

    2001-05-01

    Cedar pollens are important causes of seasonal allergic disease in diverse geographical areas. However, pollens from different families and species vary in their propensity to induce allergic responses. To compare the structure of potential allergens from eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) pollen with those of the highly allergenic cedar (mountain cedar, J. ashei) pollens. The cDNAs for potential pollen allergens, Jun v 1 and Jun v 3, were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, cloned and sequenced. Expression of the native proteins in pollen was characterized by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. The cDNA sequence for one potential major allergen, Jun v 1, was highly homologous to those of the other cedar pollens. The second potential allergen, Jun v 3, was also highly homologous to its counterpart in mountain cedar, but a stop codon in the mRNA would result in a protein of only 91 amino acids, which would lack potential N-glycosylation sites and the IgE binding epitopes of the 199 amino acid homologue from mountain cedar pollen, Jun a 3. IgE from the sera of patients with hypersensitivity to cedar pollen bound to eastern red cedar proteins of four different sizes. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis indicated that two of these proteins (43 and 30 kDa) were either isoforms or processed Jun v 1. No Jun v 3 protein was detected. The N-terminal sequence of an additional 145-kDa allergen, termed Jun v 4, was not homologous to any previously described allergens. These findings suggest that mutations in the genes or post-translational modifications of two potentially allergenic proteins might help to explain why the pollen of eastern red cedar is reported to be less allergenic than those of other members of Cupressaceae and Taxodiaceae families.

  12. Biomass carbon accumulation in aging Japanese cedar plantations in Xitou, central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Hung, Chih-Yu; Chen, Chiou-Peng; Pei, Chuang-Wun

    2013-12-01

    Japanese cedar (Chrytomeria japonica D. Don) is an important plantation species in Taiwan and represents 10% of total plantation area. It was first introduced in 1910 and widely planted in the northern and central mountainous areas of Taiwan. However, a change in forest management from exotic species to native species in 1980 had resulted in few new Japanese cedar plantations being established. Most Japanese cedar plantations are now between 30 and 50 years old and reaching their rotation period. It is of interest to know whether these plantations could be viable for future carbon sequestration through the accumulations of stand carbon stocks. Twelve even-aged Japanese cedar stands along a stand age gradient from 37 to 93 years were selected in Xitou of central Taiwan. The study aims were to investigate the basic stand characteristics and biomass carbon stock in current Japanese cedar stands, and determine the relationships among stand characteristics, tree biomass carbon, and stand age. Our results indicate that existing Japanese cedar plantations are still developing and their live tree biomass carbon continues to accumulate. At stands with a stand age of 90 years, tree density, canopy height, mean diameter at breast height, basal area, and live tree biomass carbon stocks reach to nearly 430 tree ha -1 , 27 m, 48 cm, 82 m 2 ha -1 and 300 Mg C ha -1 , respectively. Therefore, with no harvesting, current Japanese cedar plantations provide a carbon sink by storing carbon in tree biomass.

  13. Increasing Drought Sensitivity and Decline of Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica in the Moroccan Middle Atlas Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Julio Camarero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the interactions between climate change and forest structure on tree growth are needed for decision making in forest conservation and management. In this paper, we investigated the relative contribution of tree features and stand structure on Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica radial growth in forests that have experienced heavy grazing and logging in the past. Dendrochronological methods were applied to quantify patterns in basal-area increment and drought sensitivity of Atlas cedar in the Middle Atlas, northern Morocco. We estimated the tree-to-tree competition intensity and quantified the structure in Atlas cedar stands with contrasting tree density, age, and decline symptoms. The relative contribution of tree age and size and stand structure to Atlas cedar growth decline was estimated by variance partitioning using partial-redundancy analyses. Recurrent drought events and temperature increases have been identified from local climate records since the 1970s. We detected consistent growth declines and increased drought sensitivity in Atlas cedar across all sites since the early 1980s. Specifically, we determined that previous growth rates and tree age were the strongest tree features, while Quercus rotundifolia basal area was the strongest stand structure measure related to Atlas cedar decline. As a result, we suggest that Atlas cedar forests that have experienced severe drought in combination with grazing and logging may be in the process of shifting dominance toward more drought-tolerant species such as Q. rotundifolia.

  14. Quantifying Effectiveness of Streambank Stabilization Practices on Cedar River, Nebraska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naisargi Dave

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive sediment is a major pollutant to surface waters worldwide. In some watersheds, streambanks are a significant source of this sediment, leading to the expenditure of billions of dollars in stabilization projects. Although costly streambank stabilization projects have been implemented worldwide, long-term monitoring to quantify their success is lacking. There is a critical need to document the long-term success of streambank restoration projects. The objectives of this research were to (1 quantify streambank retreat before and after the stabilization of 18 streambanks on the Cedar River in North Central Nebraska, USA; (2 assess the impact of a large flood event; and (3 determine the most cost-efficient stabilization practice. The stabilized streambanks included jetties (10, rock-toe protection (1, slope reduction/gravel bank (1, a retaining wall (1, rock vanes (2, and tree revetments (3. Streambank retreat and accumulation were quantified using aerial images from 1993 to 2016. Though streambank retreat has been significant throughout the study period, a breached dam in 2010 caused major flooding and streambank erosion on the Cedar River. This large-scale flood enabled us to quantify the effect of one extreme event and evaluate the effectiveness of the stabilized streambanks. With a 70% success rate, jetties were the most cost-efficient practice and yielded the most deposition. If minimal risk is unacceptable, a more costly yet immobile practice such as a gravel bank or retaining wall is recommended.

  15. Hydrology and simulation of ground-water flow in Cedar Valley, Iron County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lynette E.; Mason, James L.

    2005-01-01

    sufficient to meet demand. Water levels in many areas are at or close to historic lows.In 2000, withdrawal from wells was estimated to be 36,000 acre-feet per year. About 4,000 acre-feet per year are estimated to discharge to evapotranspiration or as subsurface outflow. Prior to large-scale ground-water development, ground-water discharge by evapotranspiration and discharge to springs was much larger.Ground water along the eastern margin of the valley between Cedar City and Enoch is unsuitable for domestic use because of high dissolved-solids and nitrate concentrations. The predominant ions of Ca and SO4 in this area indicate dissolution of gypsum in the Markagunt Plateau to the east. Data collected during this study were compared to historic data; there is no evidence to indicate deterioration in ground-water quality. The spatial distribution of ground water with high nitrate concentration does not appear to be migrating beyond its previously known extent. No single source can be identified as the cause for elevated nitrate concentrations in ground water. Low nitrogen-15 values north of Cedar City indicate a natural geologic source. Higher nitrogen-15 values toward the center of the basin and associated hydrologic data indicate probable recharge from waste-water effluent. Excess dissolved nitrogen gas and low nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water indicate that denitrification is occurring in some areas.A computer ground-water flow model was developed to simulate flow in the unconsolidated basin fill. The method of determining recharge from irrigation was changed during the calibration process to incorporate more areal and temporal variability. In general, the model accurately simulates water levels and water-level fluctuations and can be considered an adequate tool to help determine the valley-wide effects on water levels of additional ground-water withdrawals and changes in water use. The model was used to simulated water-level changes caused by projecting current

  16. Tamarisk (Salt Cedar) Infestations in Northwestern Nevada Mapped Using Landsat TM Imagery and GIS Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, D.; Geraci, C.; Kolkowitz, S.

    2004-12-01

    Tamarisk, also known as salt cedar (Tamarix sp.) is a prevalent invasive species that has infested many riparian areas in the southwestern United States. Mature salt cedar plants are resistant to high stress environments and fare well in drought conditions, mainly due to their extensive root systems that derive much of their sustenance from the water table rather than surface water and precipitation. The salt cedar root systems have altered hydrological patterns by tapping into underlying aquifers. This has decreased water available for recreational use, regional ecology and plant diversity. Many states have implemented salt cedar monitoring programs at the local level, but the problem of large-scale mapping of this invasive species has continued to be a challenge to land management agencies. Furthermore, inaccessible and unexplored areas continue to be absent in the mapping process. In August 2004, using field data consisting of large areas as training sets for classification of Landsat TM imagery, the DEVELOP student research team at NASA Ames Research Center generated a preliminary map of areas that that were susceptible to salt cedar growth for a region in northwestern Nevada. In addition to the remote sensing-based classification of satellite imagery, the team used the variables of elevation and estimated distance to the water table in conjunction with collected field data and knowledge of salt cedar growth habits to further refine the map. The team has further extended the mapping of key environmental factors of water availability for salt cedar, soil types and species distribution in regions infested by salt cedar. The investigation was carried out by 1) improving an existing GIS layer for water access using a suitable interpolation method, 2) including a GIS layer for soils associated with salt cedar growth and 3) completing field work to evaluate species distribution and regions of presence or absence of salt cedar. The outcome of this project served to

  17. A study of Western Red Cedar sensitivity: workers' allergy reactions and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mue, S; Ise, T; Ono, Y; Akasaka, K

    1975-09-01

    In 154 individuals who work with Western Red Cedar in Japanese wooden frame factories a high incidence (24.7%) of bronchial asthma was observed. A positive intradermal test was found in 89% of the asthmatics and in 56% of all. A highly positive inhalation test was obtained only in the asthmatic group. It is suggested that other symptoms in addition to bronchial asthma might be caused by Western Red Cedar because of the frequency of positive skin reactions to the Western Red Cedar antigen.

  18. Specific IgE antibodies in workers with occupational asthma due to western red cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, K S; Chan, H; Chan-Yeung, M

    1982-05-01

    The presence of specific IgE antibodies in the serum of patients with occupational asthma resulting from exposure to western red cedar (RCA) was studied by a radioallergosorbent test (RAST). The antigen matrix used in the RAST was either a conjugate of Sepharose particles with antigens in a crude cedar extract or with plicatic acid, the major haptenic component of cedar antigens. Of eighteen patients with clinical RCA and positive reaction to antigenic bronchoprovocation, eight were found to have abnormal RAST values. By appropriate absorption experiments, the serum RAST activity was shown to represent cedar antigen-specific IgE antibodies. No significant RAST activity was detected in the serum specimens from sixteen control subjects or from ten patients with negative bronchoprovocation-reaction to antigenic challenge. These results suggest that IgE antibody-mediated allergic reaction may be an important pathogenetic factor in RCA.

  19. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Red Cedar Gathering Company - Sambrito Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the response to public comments and the final synthetic minor NSR permit for the Red Cedar Gathering Company, Sambrito Compressor Station, located on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation in La Plata County, CO.

  20. Proposed Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Red Cedar Gathering Company - Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proposed Synthetic Minor NSR Permit, statement of basis, public notice bulletin, and administrative docket (application and other supporting documents) for Red Cedar Gathering Company - Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants.

  1. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Red Cedar Gathering Company - Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the response to public comments and the final synthetic minor NSR permit for the Red Cedar Gathering Company, Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants, located on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation in La Plata County, CO.

  2. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Red Cedar Gathering Company - Midway Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the administratively revised synthetic minor NSR permit and administrative record for the Red Cedar Gathering Company, Midway Compressor Station, located on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation in La Plata County, CO.

  3. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Red Cedar Gathering Company - South Ignacio Central Delivery Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the final synthetic minor NSR permit for the Red Cedar Gathering Company, South Ignacio Central Delivery Point, located on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation in La Plata County, CO.

  4. Effects of Pranlukast Hydrate on Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Non-Asthmatic Patients with Japanese Cedar Pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Sagara

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: The results indicate that pranlukast hydrate inhibits airway hyperresponsiveness in non-asthmatic patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In turn, this suggests that cysteinyl leukotrienes have a role in increased airway responsiveness.

  5. Growth, movement and survival - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  6. Experimental streams - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  7. Fish abundance, composition, distribution - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  8. Red Cedar Invasion Along the Missouri River, South Dakota: Cause and Consequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, S.; Knox, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    This research evaluates drivers of and ecosystem response to red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) invasion of riparian surfaces downstream of Gavin's Point Dam on the Missouri River. Gavin's Point Dam changed the downstream geomorphology and hydrology of the river and its floodplain by reducing scouring floods and flood-deposited sediment. The native cottonwood species (Populus deltoides) favors cleared surfaces with little to no competitors to establish. Now that there are infrequent erosive floods along the riparian surfaces to remove competitor seeds and seedlings, other vegetation is able to establish. Red cedar is invading the understory of established cottonwood stands and post-dam riparian surfaces. To assess reasons and spatial patterns for the recent invasion of red cedar, a stratified random sampling of soil, tree density and frequency by species, and tree age of 14 forest stands was undertaken along 59 river kilometers of riparian habitat. Soil particle size was determined using laser diffraction and tree ages were estimated from ring counts of tree cores. As an indicator of ecosystem response to invasion, we measured organic matter content in soil collected beneath red cedar and cottonwood trees at three different depths. Of 565 red cedars, only two trees were established before the dam was built. We applied a multiple regression model of red cedar density as a function of cottonwood density and percent sand (63-1000 microns in diameter) in StatPlus© statistical software. Cottonwood density and percent sand are strongly correlated with invasion of red cedar along various riparian surfaces (n = 59, R2 = 0.42, p-values cedar and cottonwood trees (p-value > 0.05 for all depths). These findings suggest that the dam's minimization of downstream high-stage flows opened up new habitat for red cedar to establish. Fluvial geomorphic surfaces reflect soil type and cottonwood density and, in turn, predict susceptibility of a surface to red cedar invasion. Nonetheless

  9. Present state of Japanese cedar pollinosis: the national affliction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takechiyo; Saito, Hirohisa; Fujieda, Shigeharu

    2014-03-01

    Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) caused by Japanese cedar pollen (JCP; ie, sugi-pollinosis) is the most common disease in Japan and has been considered a national affliction. More than one third of all Japanese persons have sugi-pollinosis, and this number has significantly increased in the last 2 decades. In our opinion the reason why sugi-pollinosis became a common disease in the last half century is the increased number of cedar pollens, with global climate change and forest growth caused by the tree-planting program of the Japanese government after World War II playing substantial roles; dust storms containing small particulate matter from China might also contribute to the increased incidence of sugi-pollinosis. To help minimize their symptoms, many Japanese wear facemasks and eyeglasses at all times between February and April to prevent exposure to JCP and aerosol pollutants. Forecasts for JCP levels typically follow the weather forecast in mass media broadcasts, and real-time information regarding JCP levels is also available on the Internet. Because a large amount of JCP is produced over several months, it can induce severe symptoms. Japanese guidelines for allergic rhinitis recommend prophylactic treatment with antihistamines or antileukotrienes before the start of JCP dispersion. Additionally, sublingual immunotherapy will be supported by health insurance in the summer of 2014. However, many patients with sugi-pollinosis do not find satisfactory symptom relief with currently available therapies. Collaboration between scientists and pharmaceutical companies to produce new therapeutics for the control of sugi-pollinosis symptoms is necessary. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Northern White-Cedar Regeneration Following Partial Cutting, with and without Deer Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Larouche

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L. is an important commercial species with a high wildlife value, both as a food source and habitat for many bird and mammal species. Concerns have been expressed about its decreasing abundance across its range, and especially in mixedwood stands, where it has to compete with several other species and can suffer from heavy browsing. In this study, we quantified the development of natural northern white-cedar seedlings and saplings under various partial cutting regimes, with and without white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus Zimmerman browsing, in three selected sites in Quebec (Canada and in Maine (USA. Our data show that northern white-cedar regeneration was present in all studied stands, but that only a few stems were taller than 30 cm on the two sites with high densities of deer. In the absence of heavy browsing, stems reached a height of 30 cm in 11 years, and 130 cm in 28 years. Height growth of northern white-cedar regeneration increased with canopy light transmittance, while ground-level diameter increment increased after partial cutting. This suggests that partial cutting can be used in mixedwood stands to release natural northern white-cedar regeneration, but also that the recruitment of northern white-cedar seedlings to larger size classes constitutes a major challenge in stands subject to heavy deer browsing.

  11. Herpetofauna of the cedar glades and associated habitats of the Inner Central Basin of middle Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiller, M.L.; Graham, Reynolds R.; Glorioso, B.M.; Spiess, J.; Miller, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    The cedar glades and barrens of the Inner Central Basin (ICB) of middle Tennessee support a unique and diverse flora and fauna and represent some of the state's most valued natural areas. We conducted herpetofaunal inventories of the cedar glades, associated barrens, cedar-hardwood forest, and adjacent aquatic habitats of the Stones River drainage of Middle Tennessee, focusing our sampling effort primarily at seven state- or federally owned properties in Rutherford and Wilson counties. These properties included Stones River National Battlefield (SRNB), Flat Rock State Natural Area (FRSNA), Vesta Cedar Glade State Natural Area (VSNA), Fall Creek Recreation Area (FCRA) on J. Percy Priest Wildlife Management Area, Cedars of Lebanon State Forest (CLSF), Cedars of Lebanon State Forest Natural Area (CLSNA), and Cedars of Lebanon State Park (CLSP). We used a variety of inventory techniques in terrestrial, aquatic, and subterranean habitats to survey these properties periodically from 1989 to 2010. We documented 49 species (22 amphibian and 27 reptile) accounting for 75.4% of the 65 herpetofaunal species thought to occur in the ICB, including records for Cemophora coccinea, Aneides aeneus, Gyrinophilus palleucus, Ambystoma barbouri, and Pseudotriton montanus. We found differences in alpha and beta diversity between sites, with the CLSF complex containing a high of 41 herpetofaunal species and FRSNA containing a low of 23 species. Beta diversity comparisons indicated similarity in amphibian species composition between FRSNA and CLSF and between SRNB and CLSF (9 shared species), and in reptile species composition between VSNA and the CLSF complex (16 shared species). We compare the results of our inventory with two previous studies conducted in the area and discuss the relative abundance, conservation, and threats to the herpetofaunal community of these habitats.

  12. Radiocaesium partitioning in Japanese cedar forests following the “early” phase of Fukushima fallout redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Frederic; Hurtevent, Pierre; Loffredo, Nicolas; Simonucci, Caroline; Julien, Anthony; Gonze, Marc-Andre; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Thiry, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Our study focused on radiocaesium (137Cs) partitioning in forests, three vegetation periods after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. 137Cs distribution in forest components (organic and mineral soil layers as well as tree compartments: stem, bark, needles, branches and roots) was measured for two Japanese cedar stand ages (17 and 33 years old). The results showed that around 85% of the initial deposit was found in the forest floor and topsoil. For the youngest stand almost 70% of the deposit is present in the forest floor, whereas for the oldest stand 50% is present in the 0–3 cm mineral soil layer. For trees, old and perennial organs (including dead and living needles and branches, litter fall and outer bark) directly exposed to the fallout remained the most contaminated. The crown concentrated 61–69% of the total tree contamination. Surprisingly the dead organs concentrated 25 ± 9% (young cedars) to 36 ± 20% (mature cedar) of the trees’ residual activity, highlighting the importance of that specific compartment in the early post-accident phase for Japanese cedar forests. Although the stem (including bark) represents the highest biomass pool, it only concentrates 3.3% and 4.6% of the initial 137Cs deposit for mature and young cedars, respectively. PMID:27876870

  13. Soft-hydrothermal processing of red cedar bedding reduces its induction of cytochrome P450 in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Okano, S; Yoshinari, K; Miyamoto, T; Yamazoe, Y; Shinya, K; Ioku, K; Kasai, N

    2009-04-01

    Red cedar-derived bedding materials cause changes in cytochrome P450-dependent microsomal enzyme systems in laboratory animals. We examined the effect of essential oil of red cedar (EORC), as well as the effect of bedding from which it had been removed, on the hepatic expression cytochrome P450s in mice. EORC was obtained from liquid extracts of red cedar bedding by a soft-hydrothermal process and was administered orally to mice. Between days 1 and 2 after administration, hepatic P450s were significantly induced as follows: CYP3As, 7.1x; CYP1As, 1.6x; CYP2E1, 1.5x; CYP2Cs, 1.6x. A housing study of mice indicated that red cedar bedding increased the levels of these P450s in mouse liver, whereas mice housed in cedar bedding from which EORC had been removed (ST-cedar bedding) showed significantly lower levels of P450s, especially CYP3As, CYP1As and CYP2E1. Soft-hydrothermal processing partially removed many components of EORC. In particular, several volatile sesquiterpenes, naphthalene-derived aromatics and 4,4-dimethyl-13alpha-androst-5-ene were decreased in the ST-cedar bedding, suggesting that these may be responsible for P450 induction. This study demonstrated that the removal of these volatile compounds by soft-hydrothermal processing can decrease the hepatic P450-inducing effect of red cedar bedding.

  14. Influence of forest canopy and snow on microclimate in a declining yellow-cedar forest of southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Hennon; David V. D' Amore; Dustin T. Witter; Melinda B. Lamb

    2010-01-01

    Site factors predispose yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don (Spach)) to a widespread climate-induced mortality in southeast Alaska. We investigated the influence of canopy cover and snow on microclimate at two small watersheds across a range of declining yellow-cedar stands on Baranof and Chichagof Islands in southeast Alaska. Two...

  15. 76 FR 78641 - Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RC11-1-002; Docket No. RC11-2-002] Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of Filing Take...) June 16, 2011 Order.\\1\\ \\1\\ Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC and Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC, 135...

  16. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CEDAR AUSTRALIAN IN DIFFERENT DOSES OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Australian cedar is a forest species of Meliaceae family with great potential for the production of hardwood. Studies related to fertilization and nutrition of this species are still incipient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth and early development of the Australian cedar at different levels of fertilization with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK in a cerrado Oxisol. In this sense, the experiment was developed at IFMG - Campus Bambuí. The experimental design was randomized blocks, using five treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of doses corresponding to 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150% of the recommendation for Eucalyptus. The best growth and development of Australian cedar, at 180 days after planting, was obtained when applied doses of 45 kg ha-1 N, 135 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 67.5 kg ha-1 K2O.

  17. The “anomalous cedar trees” of Lake Ashi, Hakone Volcano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Y.

    1984-01-01

    On the bottom of Lake Ashi at Hakone, Japan, there stand great trees that, since ancient times, have been widely known as the "Anomalous Cedar Trees" of Ashi. It is not known why these trees grow on the bottom of the lake, and it remains one of the mysteries of Hakone. It was formerly thought that, at the time Lake Ashi was born, a great forest of cedar trees which was growing in the caldera of the volcano sank into the water. From radioactive carbon dating techniques, it is known that a steam explosion in the Kami Mountains created the caldera approximately 3,000 years ago. The age of the "Anomalous Cedars" is placed at approximately. 

  18. Quality of life and employment status of workers with Western red cedar asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimich-Ward, Helen; Taliadouros, Virginia; Teschke, Kay; Chow, Yat; Abboud, Raja; Chan-Yeung, Moira

    2007-09-01

    The impact of current employment status and other factors on quality of life was evaluated for workers diagnosed with western red cedar asthma in British Columbia, Canada. Telephone interviews by questionnaire included the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and Marks Asthma quality-of-life instruments. Of the 302 subjects contacted, 70.5% (n = 213) participated. Employment status was the most consistent predictor of quality-of-life domains, with highest scores for employed subjects, particularly those who were no longer exposed to red cedar. Subjects who had quit work because of their asthma had worse scores, particularly for vitality and general health perceptions. Other factors independently associated with specific aspects of poor quality of life were having asthma-like symptoms, taking medication, and not being married. Continued employment was associated with better quality of life for workers with western red cedar asthma.

  19. Geomorphic and hydrologic study of peak-flow management on the Cedar River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Marineau, Mathieu D.

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the linkages between high-flow events, geomorphic response, and effects on stream ecology is critical to river management. High flows on the gravel-bedded Cedar River in Washington are important to the geomorphic function of the river; however, high flows can deleteriously affect salmon embryos incubating in streambed gravels. A geomorphic analysis of the Cedar River showed evidence of historical changes in river form over time and quantified the effects of anthropogenic alterations to the river corridor. Field measurements with accelerometer scour monitors buried in the streambed provided insight into the depth and timing of streambed scour during high-flow events. Combined with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, the recorded accelerometer disturbances allowed the prediction of streambed disturbance at the burial depth of Chinook and sockeye salmon egg pockets for different peak discharges. Insight gained from these analyses led to the development of suggested monitoring metrics for an ongoing geomorphic monitoring program on the Cedar River.

  20. Selected hydrologic data from the Cedar Rapids area, Linn County, Iowa, April 1996 through March 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, R.A.; Kuzniar, R.L.; Schulmeyer, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The City of Cedar Rapids, Iowa obtains its municipal water supply from four well fields along the Cedar River. The wells are completed at depths of about 60 to 80 feet in a shallow alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Cedar River. The City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have conducted a cooperative study of the groundwater flow system and water quality near the well fields since 1992. The purpose of this report is to document selected hydrologic data collected from April 1996 through March 1999. Data include the results of water-quality analyses, ground-waterlevels continuously measured with pressure transducers and data recorders, and physical properties continuously monitored using multiprobe instruments. Water-quality samples were collected from selected wells and the Cedar River to conduct periodic monitoring, to evaluate ground-water geochemistry, to assess the occurrence of pesticides and herbicide degradates in the alluvial aquifer, and to characterize water quality in shallow ground water near a wetland area in the Seminole Well Field. Types of water-quality analyses included common ions (calcium, chloride, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, silica, sodium, and sulfate), trace elements (boron, bromide, and fluoride), nutrients (ammonia as nitrogen, nitrite as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus), dissolved organic carbon, and selected pesticides and herbicide degradates. Ground-water levels in selected observation wells were continuously measured to assess temporal trends in groundwater levels in the alluvial aquifer and bedrock aquifer, to help calibrate a ground-water flow model being constructed to simulate local groundwater flow under transient conditions near the well fields, and to assess hydrologic conditions near a wetland area in the Seminole Well Field. Physical properties (specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, and water temperature) were continuously monitored to assess temporal

  1. Cedar virus: a novel Henipavirus isolated from Australian bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn A Marsh

    Full Text Available The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new paramyxovirus from pteropid bats, Cedar virus (CedPV, which shares significant features with the known henipaviruses. The genome size (18,162 nt and organization of CedPV is very similar to that of HeV and NiV; its nucleocapsid protein displays antigenic cross-reactivity with henipaviruses; and it uses the same receptor molecule (ephrin-B2 for entry during infection. Preliminary challenge studies with CedPV in ferrets and guinea pigs, both susceptible to infection and disease with known henipaviruses, confirmed virus replication and production of neutralizing antibodies although clinical disease was not observed. In this context, it is interesting to note that the major genetic difference between CedPV and HeV or NiV lies within the coding strategy of the P gene, which is known to play an important role in evading the host innate immune system. Unlike HeV, NiV, and almost all known paramyxoviruses, the CedPV P gene lacks both RNA editing and also the coding capacity for the highly conserved V protein. Preliminary study indicated that CedPV infection of human cells induces a more robust IFN-β response than HeV.

  2. [Suppressive Effects of Extract of Cedar Wood on Heat-induced Expression of Cellular Heat Shock Protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Junji; Matsubara, Eri; Narita, Eijiro; Koyama, Shin; Shimizu, Yoko; Kawai, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

     In recent years, highly antimicrobial properties of cedar heartwood essential oil against the wood-rotting fungi and pathogenic fungi have been reported in several papers. Antimicrobial properties against oral bacteria by hinokitiol contained in Thujopsis have been also extensively studied. The relation of naturally derived components and human immune system has been studied in some previous papers. In the present study, we focused on Japanese cedar, which has the widest artificial afforestation site in the country among various tree species. Extract oil was obtained from mixture of sapwood and heartwood of about 40-year cedar grown in Oguni, Kumamoto, Japan. We examined the influence of extract components from Japanese cedar woods on the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) during heating, and on the micronucleus formation induced by the treatment of bleomycin as a DNA damaging agent. Cell lines used in this study were human fetal glial cells (SVGp12) and human glioma cells (MO54). Remarkable suppression of the Hsp70 expression induced by heating at 43°C was detected by the treatment of cedar extract in both SVGp12 and MO54 cells. We also found that cedar extract had an inhibitory tendency to reduce the micronucleus formation induced by bleomycin. From these results, the extract components from Japanese cedar woods would have an inhibitory effect of the stress response as a suppression of the heat-induced Hsp70 expression, and might have a reductive effect on carcinogenicity.

  3. Symptoms, pulmonary function, and bronchial hyperreactivity in western red cedar workers compared with those in office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, M; Vedal, S; Kus, J; MacLean, L; Enarson, D; Tse, K S

    1984-12-01

    An epidemiologic health study was carried out on 652 cedar mill workers and a control group of 440 male office workers not exposed to air contaminants. Participants completed a medical-occupational questionnaire with trained interviewers, had allergy skin tests, performed spirometry, and had bronchial reactivity assessed by methacholine inhalation testing. After adjusting for differences in age, race, and smoking, cedar workers were found to have significantly higher prevalences of cough, phlegm, and dyspnea than did office workers. Symptoms of asthma and work-related asthma, but not persistent wheeze or doctor-diagnosed asthma, were reported in a significantly higher proportion of cedar workers than of office workers. Cedar workers also had significantly lower lung function test results than did office workers after controlling for height, age, race, and smoking. Bronchial hyperreactivity, defined by a methacholine PC20 less than 8 mg/ml, was more prevalent among cedar workers than among office workers, with the increase being limited to the nonatopic subgroup of workers. The prevalence of bronchial hyperreactivity increased with duration of employment among cedar workers but not among office workers. We conclude that exposure to western red cedar dust is harmful to the respiratory health of the workers, causing asthma and other respiratory symptoms, bronchial hyperreactivity, and lower levels of lung function.

  4. Deterioration of wood from live and dead Alaska yellow-cedar in contact with soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Hennon; Bessie Woodward; Patricia Lebow

    2007-01-01

    The deterioration of heartwood from live and dead Alaska yellow-cedar trees was evaluated by exposing ministakes in soils at field sites in Alaska and Mississippi for 2 and 4 year intervals. Southern yellow pine sapwood served as a control. The vastly greater deterioration, as measured by weight loss, in Mississippi compared to Alaska (60 and 10 percent after 4 years,...

  5. Antioxidant activity of extracts from the wood and bark of Port OrFord cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng Gao; Todd F. Shupe; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chung Y. Hse

    2007-01-01

    Heartwood, sapwood, and inner and outer bark of Port Orford cedar were extracted with methanol, and the extracts evaluated for antioxidant activity. The total phenol content (TPC) of the extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Butylated hydroxytoluene was used as a positive control in the free-radical-...

  6. Natural decay resistance of heartwood from dead, standing yellow-cedar trees : laboratory evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney C. De Groot; Bessie Woodward; Paul E. Hennon

    2000-01-01

    Yellow-cedar trees have been mysteriously dying for more than a century in southeast Alaska. As these stems continue to stand for decades in the forest, foliage, twigs, and branches deteriorate. The sapwood in the stem degrades, leaving columns of essentially heartwood standing like ghosts in the forest until they eventually drop. To estimate the potential for...

  7. Methods for screening Port-Orford-cedar for resistance to Phytophthora lateralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett M. Hansen; Paul Reeser; Wendy Sutton; Richard A. Sniezko

    2012-01-01

    Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl.) (POC) is an economically and ecologically valuable tree in the forests of southwest Oregon and northern California and in the horticultural trade worldwide. Phytophthora lateralis, the aggressive, invasive cause of POC root disease, was introduced to the native...

  8. Regional climatic and North Atlantic Oscillation signatures in West Virginia red cedar over the past millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Buckley, Brendan; Cook, Ed; Wilson, Rob

    2012-03-01

    We describe a millennial length (~ 1500-yr) tree-ring chronology developed from West Virginia (WVA), USA red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) ring widths that is significantly correlated with local to regional temperature and precipitation for the region. Using ensemble methods of tree-ring standardization, above average ring widths are indicated for the period between ~ 1000 and 1300 CE, the approximate time of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the most recent major warm episode prior to the modern era. The chronology then transitions to more negative overall growth persisting through much of the subsequent period known as the Little Ice Age (LIA). While WVA cedar growth levels during the MCA are broadly similar to the 20th century mean, the most positive values during the MCA are associated with RCS-standardized chronologies, which pseudoproxy tests reveal are likely biased artificially positive, warranting further investigation. This cedar record is significantly correlated with the NAO, due to the tendency for warmer, wetter conditions to occur in the eastern-central USA during the NAO's positive phase. These types of conditions are inferred for this cedar chronology during the MCA period, during which NAO reconstructions suggest a persistently-positive NAO state.

  9. Composition of the heartwood essential oil of incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens Torr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeba Veluthoor; Rick G. Kelsey; M.P. Gonzalez-Hernandez; Nicholas Panella; Marc Dolan; Joe. Karchesy

    2011-01-01

    Incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens) is a tree native to Oregon and California, perhaps best known for its aromatic wood and use in the manufacturing of pencils. The wood is also highly valued for its decorative appearance and durability in lumber, related sawmill products, and fence posts. Chemical investigations of heartwood extracts have shown...

  10. PERCHLORATE UPTAKE BY SALT CEDAR (TAMARIX RAMOSISSIMA) IN THE LAS VEGAS WASH RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchlorate ion (CIO4-) has been identified in samples of dormant salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima) growing in the Las vegas Wash. Perchlorate is an oxidenat, but its reduction is kineticaly hindered. CXoncern over thyrpoid effects caused the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...

  11. Phytochemical Analysis of an Extract prepared from Eastern Red Cedar Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is one of the few conifer species native to the Midwest plains, and is one of the few tree species whose range and plant numbers have actually increased in the past century. Because of its encroachment onto open lands, it is now considered an invasive spe...

  12. Bioprospection of Eastern Red Cedar from Nine Physiographic Regions in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniperus virginiana (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called as Eastern Red Cedar, is a widely distributed species in the United States and parts of Canada. It produces two important chemical products, the anticancer compound podophyllotoxin and essential oil. The objective of this study was to evalu...

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 754 - Unprocessed Western Red Cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unprocessed Western Red Cedar No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 2...

  14. Development of wood decay in wound-initiated discolored wood of eastern red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Shortle; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Logs of eastern red cedar, Juniperus virginiana L., with well-developed bands of light-colored wood ("included sapwood") within heartwood can be unsuitable for sawn wood products. This finding is in contrast to published information that the "included sapwood" is (1) a heartwood anomaly rather than sapwood and (2) its occurrence...

  15. 76 FR 40875 - Cedar Gulch Mine, Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest, Josephine County, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... environmental consequences to surface resources, resulting from road use and mine operations, as well as to... Forest Service Cedar Gulch Mine, Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest, Josephine County, OR AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The...

  16. 78 FR 35787 - Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie... restrict vessel traffic during the swim portion of the Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, OH.... Basis and Purpose Each year, the Revolution 3 Triathlon occurs at Cedar Point near Sandusky, OH. This...

  17. Cedar Pollen Aggravates Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood Monozygotic Twin Patients with Allergic Rhino Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Murakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 7-year-old monozygotic twin patients with atopic dermatitis. The HLA haplotypes were HLA A2, A11, B27, B61, DR1, and DR4. Both serum IgE levels and cedar pollen radioallergosorbent test (RAST scores were high in the twins (elder/younger sister: IgE: 5170/3980 IU/ml and Japansese cedar pollen: >100/64.0 in contrast to low mite and food RAST scores (Dermatophagoides Pterygonium; 0.59/0.4 and egg white 9.24/4.6. The patients showed positive immediate (20 min in both sisters and delayed (24 hours in elder sister, 24, 48, 72 hours in younger sister reactions to a scratch test with Japanese cedar pollen. Skin lesions on the face were aggravated and extended to the trunk and extremities during the Japanese cedar pollen season and gradually subsided in summer. Oral provocation with egg white or cow milk showed no exacerbations, and topical corticosteroid did not improve the eczema. In contrast, successful protection from severe scratching behaviors was achieved by use of topical anti-allergic eye drops and wearing nightgowns made by the mother.

  18. Natural regeneration following timber harvest in interior cedar-hemlock-white pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis E. Ferguson

    1994-01-01

    Natural regeneration of interior cedar-hemlock-white pine forests is usually prompt and abundant. These productive sites support up to 10 commercial timber species. Retrospective examination of cutover forest stands allowed determination of variables that are important predictors of regeneration. This report discusses variables such as habitat type, slope, aspect,...

  19. Valencene oxidase CYP706M1 from Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cankar, K.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Goedbloed, M.A.; Renirie, R.; Jong, de R.M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Bosch, H.J.; Sonke, Th.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    (+)-Nootkatone is a natural sesquiterpene ketone used in grapefruit and citrus flavour compositions. It occurs in small amounts in grapefruit and is a major component of Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis) heartwood essential oil. Upon co-expression of candidate cytochrome P450 enzymes from

  20. Distribution of ^<90>Sr and ^<137>Cs in Annual Tree Rings of Japanese Cedar, Cryptomeria Japonica D.Don.

    OpenAIRE

    千木良, みどり; 斎藤, 裕子; 木村, 幹; MIDORI, CHIGIRA; YUKO, SAITO; KAN, KIMURA; 青山学院大学理工学部; 青山学院大学理工学部; 青山学院大学理工学部; Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University; Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University; Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University

    1988-01-01

    The contents of ^Sr and ^Cs in two samples of Japanese cedar from Takao and Tsukui districts were determined in tree rings cut into segments representing steps of 5 years of growth. ^Sr in both cedar samples and ^Cs in the Tsukui cedar sample were determined after ashing and chemical isolation, while ^Cs in the Takao sample was directly determined from the sample ash. The distribution of ^Sr fallout in tree rings suggests that ^Sr had given a rather direct effect and showed no significant tra...

  1. Minearl associated microbial communities from The Cedars, associate with specific geological features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, A. R.; Wanger, G. P.; Bhartia, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Cedars, an area of active serpentinization located in the Russian River area of Northern California, represents one of the few terrestrial areas on Earth undergoing active serpentinization. One of the products of the serpentinization reaction is the formation of hydroxyl radicals making the springs of the Cedars some of the most alkaline natural waters on Earth. These waters, with very high pH (pH>11), low EH and, low concentrations of electron acceptors are extremely inhospitible; however microbial life has found a way to thrive and a distinct microbial community is observed in the spring waters. Previous work with environmental samples and pure culture isolates [3] derived from The Cedars has suggested the importance of minearal association to these characteristic microbes. Here we show the results combined spectroscopic and molecular studies on aseries of mineral colonization experiemnts performed with a pure culture Cedar's isolate (Serpentenamonas str. A1) and in situ at CS spring. Centimeter scale, polished coupons of a variety of mminerals were prepared in the lab, spectroscopically characterized (Green Raman, DUV Raman, and DUV Fluorescence maps) and deployed into the springs for three months. The coupons were recovered and the distribution of the microbes on the minerals was mapped using a deep-UV native fluorescent mapping sustem that allows for non-destructive mapping of organics and microbes on surfaces. Subsequently the DNA from the minerals was extracted for community structure analysis. The MOSAIC (i.e. deep UV Fluorescence) showed extensicve colonization of the minerals and in some cases we were able to correlate microbial assemblages with specific geological features. In one example, organisms tended to associate strongly with carbonate features on Chromite mineral surfaces (Figure 1). The 16s rDNA revealed the microbial assemblages from each slide was dominated by active Cedars community memebers (i.e., Serpentinamonas and Silanimonas species

  2. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the adhesion time of Penicillium spores to cedar wood surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soumya, Elabed; Saad, Ibnsouda Koraichi; Abdellah, Houari; Hassan, Latrache

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the adhesion of 4 Penicillium strains (Penicillium granulatum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium commune and Penicillium chrysogenum) on cedar wood was examined qualitatively and quantitatively by using the extended DLVO (XDLVO) approach and the environmental scanning electronic microscopy (ESEM) technique. A comparison between the XDLVO theories and the ESEM technique was also investigated. The adhesion tests revealed that P. chrysogenum was not able to adhere on the cedar wood substrata, as predicted by the XDLVO approach. We have also found by ESEM that the three Penicillium strains (P. granulatum, P. crustosum, P. commune) adhered on wood, as not predicted theoretically. Moreover, the time of adhesion (3 h and 24 h) was used not only to compare the capacity of adhesion according to contact time but also to explain the discrepancies between the XDLVO approach prediction and the adhesion experiments. A positive relationship between the XDLVO approach and adhesion experiments has been observed after 3 h of adhesion. In contrast, a contradiction between the XDLVO predictions and the adhesion test results has been noted after 24 h of adhesion of Penicillium strains to the wood surface. Highlights: ► Calculation of free energy of adhesion to cedar wood of Penicillium by XDLVO approach ► Adhesion is not favorable for all Penicillium spores–cedar wood combinations. ► Adhesion tests demonstrated the ability of Penicillium spores to adhere to cedar wood. ► XDLVO approach correlated well with the results obtained after 3 h of adhesion. ► Discrepancy between XDLVO predictions and experimental observations at 24 h of adhesion

  3. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the adhesion time of Penicillium spores to cedar wood surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soumya, Elabed [Laboratoire de Biotechnologie Microbienne, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Fès-Saïs (Morocco); Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Centre Universitaire Régional d' Interface-Fès (Morocco); Saad, Ibnsouda Koraichi, E-mail: ibnsouda@hotmail.com [Laboratoire de Biotechnologie Microbienne, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Fès-Saïs (Morocco); Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Centre Universitaire Régional d' Interface-Fès (Morocco); Abdellah, Houari [Laboratoire de Biotechnologie Microbienne, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Fès-Saïs (Morocco); Hassan, Latrache [Laboratoire de Valorisation et de Sécurité des Produits Agroalimentaires, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Beni Mellal (Morocco)

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the adhesion of 4 Penicillium strains (Penicillium granulatum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium commune and Penicillium chrysogenum) on cedar wood was examined qualitatively and quantitatively by using the extended DLVO (XDLVO) approach and the environmental scanning electronic microscopy (ESEM) technique. A comparison between the XDLVO theories and the ESEM technique was also investigated. The adhesion tests revealed that P. chrysogenum was not able to adhere on the cedar wood substrata, as predicted by the XDLVO approach. We have also found by ESEM that the three Penicillium strains (P. granulatum, P. crustosum, P. commune) adhered on wood, as not predicted theoretically. Moreover, the time of adhesion (3 h and 24 h) was used not only to compare the capacity of adhesion according to contact time but also to explain the discrepancies between the XDLVO approach prediction and the adhesion experiments. A positive relationship between the XDLVO approach and adhesion experiments has been observed after 3 h of adhesion. In contrast, a contradiction between the XDLVO predictions and the adhesion test results has been noted after 24 h of adhesion of Penicillium strains to the wood surface. Highlights: ► Calculation of free energy of adhesion to cedar wood of Penicillium by XDLVO approach ► Adhesion is not favorable for all Penicillium spores–cedar wood combinations. ► Adhesion tests demonstrated the ability of Penicillium spores to adhere to cedar wood. ► XDLVO approach correlated well with the results obtained after 3 h of adhesion. ► Discrepancy between XDLVO predictions and experimental observations at 24 h of adhesion.

  4. Groundwater-Mining-Induced Subsidence and Earth Fissures in Cedar Valley, Southwestern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, T. R.; Inkenbrandt, P.; Lund, W. R.; Lowe, M.; Bowman, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater pumping in excess of recharge (groundwater mining) has lowered the potentiometric surface in Cedar Valley, southwestern Utah, by as much as 114 feet since 1939. Lowering the potentiometric surface (head decline) has caused permanent compaction of fine-grained sediments of the Cedar Valley aquifer. Recently acquired interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) imagery shows that land subsidence is occurring over an ~100 square-mile area, including two pronounced subsidence bowls in the northeastern (Enoch graben) and southwestern (Quichapa Lake area) parts of the valley. A lack of accurate historical benchmark elevation data over much of the valley prevents detailed long-term quantification of subsidence. In response to the land subsidence, earth fissures have formed along the margins of the Enoch graben and north and west of Quichapa Lake. Our initial inventory of Cedar Valley fissures, which relied on aerial-photography analysis, identified 3.9 miles of fissures in 2009. With newly acquired light detection and ranging (LiDAR) coverage in 2011, we more than doubled the total length of mapped fissures to 8.3 miles. Fissures on the west side of the Enoch graben exhibit ongoing vertical surface displacement with rates as high as 1.7 inches/year. The largest Enoch-graben-west fissure has displaced street surfaces, curb and gutter, and sidewalks, and has reversed the flow direction of a sewer line in a partially developed subdivision. Several Cedar Valley fissures are closely associated with, and in some places coincident with, mapped Quaternary faults. While the majority of Cedar Valley fissures are mapped in agricultural areas, continued groundwater mining and resultant subsidence will likely cause existing fissures to lengthen and new fissures to form that may eventually impact other developed areas of the valley.

  5. Features of the rheological properties of dough with sunflower and cedar flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gaysina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Promising directions of development of assortment of flour confectionery products are currently creating new combinations, more extraordinary and interesting, the reduction in calories, increase the nutritional value, development of formulations of functional products. As enriching additives in the manufacture of pastry products can be used flour sunflower flour and cedar. Sunflower meal – one of the possible sources of increase of food value. The only raw material component of this product are sunflower seeds that have passed the purification from impurities and shell of the particles, with the subsequent removal of oil from them and grinding. In this torment, to the maximum extent maintained all the valuable biological active substances and vitamins. Sunflower flour is a complex product: it is good recommendation system of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, including fiber, vitamins, phospholipids and mineral substances. Cedar flour is characterized by high protein content (up to 48 % is well balanced in amino acids resultant composition contains b vitamins, food fibers, micro - and macroelements, necessary for life of the human body. Cedar flour has a good functional and technological properties In this paper we study the effect of cedar flour and sunflower meal on the rheological characteristics of dough. Effect of formulation components on the rheological properties of the test is evaluated in terms of water absorption of the flour, the duration of doughing, degree of its dilution and stability when mixing. It was found that the addition of 17% sunflower meal increases the viscosity of the dough and has a strengthening effect on the structure of the dough. Adding cedar flour in the amount of 20% caused the decrease in viscosity and getting more flexible dough.

  6. Exposure to an environment containing the aromatic red cedar, Juniperus virginiana: procarcinogenic, enzyme-inducing and insecticidal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine, J R

    1975-11-01

    (1) Shavings from the Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) were examined for three diverse biological properties, i.e. enzyme induction, procarcinogenicity and insecticidal activity. (2) The ability of a cedar environment to stimulate liver drug-metabolizing enzymes in mice was confirmed by lowered values for barbiturate sleeping time. (3) In susceptible strains of mice (C3H-Avy, C3H-AvyfB and CBA/J) the use of cedar shavings as bedding increased significantly the incidence of spontaneous tumors of the liver and mammary gland, and also reduced the average time at which tumors appeared. (4) Cedar and some of its derivatives (Oil of Cedarwood, cedrene, cedrol) disrupted the reproductive and developmental cycle of a number of insects, including the Peanut Trash Bug (Elasmolomus sordidus), the Indian Meal Moth (Plodia interpunctella) and the Forage Mite (Tyrophagus putrescentiae).

  7. Measurement of injected Sr in the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.; Aoki, T.; Ko, S.; Yoshida, K.

    1999-01-01

    Distribution profiles of Sr injected into the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) were determined using PIXE. The Sr injected into the middle of the sapwood of the cedar stem moved upwards easily along the grain. The Sr in the stem moved in a radial direction in the sapwood section (assumed to be through the ray) and there was almost no tangential movement. (author)

  8. Determining Accuracy of Thermal Dissipation Methods-based Sap Flux in Japanese Cedar Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Man-Ping; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Laplace, Sophie; Lin, Song-Jin; Kume, Tomonori

    2017-04-01

    Thermal dissipation method, one kind of sap flux measurement method that can estimate individual tree transpiration, have been widely used because of its low cost and uncomplicated operation. Although thermal dissipation method is widespread, the accuracy of this method is doubted recently because some tree species materials in previous studies were not suitable for its empirical formula from Granier due to difference of wood characteristics. In Taiwan, Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar) is one of the dominant species in mountainous area, quantifying the transpiration of Japanese cedar trees is indispensable to understand water cycling there. However, no one have tested the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux for Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. Thus, in this study we conducted calibration experiment using twelve Japanese cedar stem segments from six trees to investigate the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux in Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. By pumping water from segment bottom to top and inserting probes into segments to collect data simultaneously, we compared sap flux densities calculated from real water uptakes (Fd_actual) and empirical formula (Fd_Granier). Exact sapwood area and sapwood depth of each sample were obtained from dying segment with safranin stain solution. Our results showed that Fd_Granier underestimated 39 % of Fd_actual across sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 150 (cm3m-2s-1); while applying sapwood depth corrected formula from Clearwater, Fd_Granier became accurately that only underestimated 0.01 % of Fd_actual. However, when sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 50 (cm3m-2s-1)which is similar with the field data of Japanese cedar trees in a mountainous area of Taiwan, Fd_Granier underestimated 51 % of Fd_actual, and underestimated 26 % with applying Clearwater sapwood depth corrected formula. These results suggested sapwood depth significantly impacted on the accuracy of thermal dissipation

  9. Distribution of DRB1 and DQB1 HLA class II alleles in occupational asthma due to western red cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, C; Quintana, P J; Keown, P A; Dimich-Ward, H; Chan-Yeung, M

    2000-05-01

    Occupational asthma caused by western red cedar is a common problem in sawmill industries. The objective of this study was to examine a possible association of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genetic markers with susceptibility or resistance to western red cedar induced asthma. The distribution of DRB1 and DQB1 HLA class II alleles and DRB1-DQB1 haplotypes was studied in 56 Caucasian patients with proven red cedar asthma and 63 healthy Caucasian control subjects exposed to red cedar dust. DRB1 and DQB1 high resolution typing was performed by the polymerase chain reaction-based method. Patients with red cedar asthma had a higher frequency of HLA DQB1*0603 and DQB1*0302 alleles compared to a group of healthy exposed control subjects and a reduced frequency of DQB1*0501 allele. The frequency of the DRB1*0401-DQB1* 0302 haplotype was increased and the DRB1*0101-DQB1*0501 haplotype was reduced. These findings suggest that genetic factors such as human leukocyte antigen class II antigens may be associated with susceptibility or resistance to development of red cedar asthma.

  10. Effects of Inhalation of Emissions from Cedar Timber on Psychological and Physiological Factors in an Indoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Azuma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Components extracted from cedar timber have been reported to have stress-reducing effects in humans. If the positive effects of cedar timber in indoor environments are scientifically proven, an indoor environment that utilizes cedar timber may contribute to the improvement or promotion of well-being in humans. In this study, we evaluated the effects of inhaling emissions of volatile constituents from cedar timber (Cryptomeria japonica on the psychological and physiological factors in indoor environments. A case-control study with a crossover design was conducted with 10 subjects occupying two rooms that were controlled for interior materials, indoor climate, and room size. Cedrol and β-eudesmol were specifically detected in the case room. However, no significant differences were observed in psychological and physiological factors. There was a significant loss in vigor in the control group from the time before entering the room to the time after leaving the room; however, this loss in vigor was not seen in the case group. Temperature conditions were higher than the indoor environmental standard in Japan but similar in the two groups. Our results showed a minor positive change in vigor among participants exposed to cedar timber for a short term. Inhalation of emissions of volatile constituents from cedar timber may have positive effects in humans; however, further research on their efficacy is needed.

  11. Comparison of Organic Matter Dynamics in Soil between Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) Forest and Adjacent Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) Forest Established on Flatland

    OpenAIRE

    Terumasa, Takahashi; Akiko, Minami; Yoshito, Asano; Tatsuaki, Kobayashi; Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba Universit; Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University:(Present)Hashikami town office; Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University; Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University

    1999-01-01

    In order to clarify the effects of tree species on organic matter dynamics in soil, we investigated the amount of forest floor material, leaf litter decomposition rate, soil chemical characteristics, soil respiration rate and cellulose decomposition rate in a Japanese cedar forest (cedar plot) and an adjacent Japanese red pine forest (pine plot) established on a flatland. The amount of forest floor material in the cedar plot was 34.5 Mg ha^ which was greater than that in the pine plot. Becaus...

  12. Reconstructing Northeastern United States temperatures using Atlantic white cedar tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Jessie K.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Pederson, Neil; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.

    2017-11-01

    Our knowledge of climate variability in the densely populated Northeastern United States is limited to instrumental data of the last century. Most regional paleoclimate proxies reflect a mix of climate responses, which makes reconstructing historical climate a challenge. Here we analyze tree-ring chronologies from Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) as a potential regional paleotemperature proxy. We evaluate our tree-ring network for spatiotemporal climate signal strength and reconstruction skill across New England. Atlantic white cedar sites in the northern section of the species’ range exhibit positive significant annual growth relationships with local and regional temperatures. Chronologies constructed from northern sites yield skillful reconstructions of temperature that reproduce centennial, multidecadal, and interannual variability in the instrumental record, providing a novel paleotemperature record for New England.

  13. Cedar oil manufacturing by the supercritical extraction; Chorinkai chushutsu niyoru sedayu seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-05

    It succeeded experimentally in getting the cedar oil that the scientist of rice agriculture research service center is the substance 100% yield from the juniper using the supercritical fluid extraction and that it is bitten, and that it is high-quality. Moreover, the degradation of the product quality by the steam was a problem on the yield in the general steam distillation method at about 50%. The sample was obtained by the fact of 100 degrees C and 280kg/cm{sup 2} in which it dealt with the raw material chip in the 50ml cell under the carbon dioxide existence. Application of the cedar oil is cosmetics, perfumes and insecticides, etc. (translated by NEDO)

  14. Mechanism of occupational asthma due to western red cedar (Thuja plicata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, M

    1994-01-01

    Occupational asthma due to Western red cedar is the most common form of occupational asthma in the Pacific Northwest and affects 4-13.5% of the exposed population. It has been shown to be caused by plicatic acid, a low molecular weight compound present uniquely in the wood. The mechanism of asthma induced by plicatic acid is not known, as specific IgG antibodies were found only in about 20% of patients. Sera from patients with red cedar asthma failed to passively sensitize human lung fragments of human basophils. Basophils from patients with this disease released histamine when challenged directly with plicatic acid in a specific manner. Immunologic mechanisms other than Type I hypersensitivity reaction are likely to be involved.

  15. Clinical and socioeconomic features of subjects with red cedar asthma. A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marabini, A; Dimich-Ward, H; Kwan, S Y; Kennedy, S M; Waxler-Morrison, N; Chan-Yeung, M

    1993-09-01

    A follow-up study of 128 subjects with red cedar asthma was conducted to evaluate the clinical and socioeconomic impact of the disease in determining the working status of the subjects after the diagnosis was made. The results suggest that the severity of asthma is not the main determinant of working status. Comparing the data at diagnosis and at follow-up examination, we found that the persistence of exposure resulted in a deterioration in the asthma despite the use of more medications. Subjects who were working were younger and had a larger number of dependents than the subjects who were not working at the time of the follow-up examination. We conclude that the socioeconomic factors are important in determining the working status of subjects with red cedar asthma. To prevent severe impairment and disability, there should be more economic incentives for these subjects to choose other jobs.

  16. Produce of seedlings of cedar in function of types of container and fertilization sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Henrique de Castro Pias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of cedar seedlings according to the size of containers and nutrient sources. It was tested three types of containers (Root trainers, plastic bag and plastic vase, three sources of fertilization (Conventional, Kimcoat® and Osmocote® in seven evaluations. The cedar seedlings in root trainers, fertilized with source Osmocote® presented the greatest increments in height and stem diameter when compared to another sources of fertilization. The plastic bag and plastic vase containers promoted similar seedlings height growth. However the seedlings grown in plastic vase presented greatest growth in stem diameter when compared with the ones in plastic bag.

  17. Valencene oxidase CYP706M1 from Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; van Houwelingen, Adèle; Goedbloed, Miriam; Renirie, Rokus; de Jong, René M; Bouwmeester, Harro; Bosch, Dirk; Sonke, Theo; Beekwilder, Jules

    2014-03-18

    (+)-Nootkatone is a natural sesquiterpene ketone used in grapefruit and citrus flavour compositions. It occurs in small amounts in grapefruit and is a major component of Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis) heartwood essential oil. Upon co-expression of candidate cytochrome P450 enzymes from Alaska cedar in yeast with a valencene synthase, a C. nootkatensis valencene oxidase (CnVO) was identified to produce trans-nootkatol and (+)-nootkatone. Formation of (+)-nootkatone was detected at 144±10μg/L yeast culture. CnVO belongs to a new subfamily of the CYP706 family of cytochrome P450 oxidases. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating the Invasion of Red Cedar (Juniperus viriginiana) Downstream of Gavins Point Dam, Missouri National Recreational River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, S.; Knox, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Gavins Point Dam, the final dam on the main-stem Missouri River, alters downstream river form and function. Throughout a 59-mile downstream reach, the dam reduces overbank flooding and lowers the water surface by 1-3 meters. Under the dam-created hydro-geomorphic conditions, native cottonwood trees are unable to regenerate. The limited regeneration of native riparian cottonwoods, the lowered water surface, and the reduced overbank flooding creates a terrace environment within the riparian habitat. Consequently, red cedars, a native upland tree, are invading this new terrace-like riparian environment. To this end, we apply Bayesian statistical models to investigate patterns of red cedar riparian invasion and assess ecosystem function patterns along this flow-regulated reach. We set up plots within cottonwood stands along a 59-km reach downstream of Gavins Point Dam. Within each plot, we collected soil samples, litter samples, stem densities of trees, and collected cores of the largest cottonwood and largest red cedar in each plot. To assess influences of red cedar on soil indicators of ecosystem function and general patterns of ecosystem function within the study area, we measured organic carbon, nitrogen, pH, electrical conductivity, and hydrophobicity. To determine drivers and patterns of invasion and ecosystem function we conducted Bayesian linear regressions and means comparison tests. Red cedars existed along the floodplain prior to regulation. However, according to our tree age data and stem density data red cedars existed at a lower population than today. We found that 2 out of 565 red cedars established before the dam was completed. Also, we found no significant difference in soil properties between soils with established red cedar and soils with established cottonwood. By studying soil texture data, and interpreting fluvial geomorphic surfaces in the field and via aerial photography, we found soil texture generally reflects the type of fluvial surface

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Document Server

    M. Kasemann

    Overview In autumn the main focus was to process and handle CRAFT data and to perform the Summer08 MC production. The operational aspects were well covered by regular Computing Shifts, experts on duty and Computing Run Coordination. At the Computing Resource Board (CRB) in October a model to account for service work at Tier 2s was approved. The computing resources for 2009 were reviewed for presentation at the C-RRB. The quarterly resource monitoring is continuing. Facilities/Infrastructure operations Operations during CRAFT data taking ran fine. This proved to be a very valuable experience for T0 workflows and operations. The transfers of custodial data to most T1s went smoothly. A first round of reprocessing started at the Tier-1 centers end of November; it will take about two weeks. The Computing Shifts procedure was tested full scale during this period and proved to be very efficient: 30 Computing Shifts Persons (CSP) and 10 Computing Resources Coordinators (CRC). The shift program for the shut down w...

  20. Moessbauer spectroscopic study of iron in Japanese cedar bark (Paper No. HF-02)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, T.B.; Ichikuni, M.

    1990-02-01

    The bark samples of Japanese cedar collected from mountainous and urban areas were characterised by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The Moessbauer spectra showed that iron in the bark samples was distributed among paramagnetic Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ and magnetic iron and their relative abundance changed appreciably from one area to other. Further, low Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ ratio and high magnetic iron in urban samples indicated an influence of human activities. (author). 1 tab., 1 fig

  1. Increasing Drought Sensitivity and Decline of Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica) in the Moroccan Middle Atlas Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Linares, Juan C.; Taïqui, Lahcen; Camarero, Jesús Julio

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of the interactions between climate change and forest structure on tree growth are needed for decision making in forest conservation and management. In this paper, we investigated the relative contribution of tree features and stand structure on Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica) radial growth in forests that have experienced heavy grazing and logging in the past. Dendrochronological methods were applied to quantify patterns in basal-area increment and drought sensitivity of Atla...

  2. Is tyrosine kinase activation involved in basophil histamine release in asthma due to western red cedar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, A; Chan, H; Salari, H; Chan-Yeung, M

    1998-02-01

    Occupational asthma due to western red cedar is associated with histamine release from basophils and mast cells on exposure to plicatic acid (PA), but the mechanisms underlying this response remain unclear. Specific kinase inhibitors were used to study the role of tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases in PA-induced histamine release from human basophils. Pretreatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor methyl 2,5-dihydroxy-cinnamate (MDHC) attenuated histamine release from basophils triggered by anti-IgE (29.8% inhibition; n = 15; P < 0.01) or grass pollen (48% inhibition; n = 6; P < 0.01). Inhibition was concentration-dependent and could be reversed by washing the cells in buffer, while the inactive stereoisomer of MDHC did not affect histamine release. In contrast, the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine did not affect histamine release by either anti-IgE or grass pollen. Pretreatment with MDHC partially inhibited PA-induced histamine release from basophils of 6/9 patients with red cedar asthma (25.4% vs 33.8%; P = NS). Staurosporine gave a similar level of inhibition of PA-induced histamine release (25.3% vs 33.8%; P = NS). Thus, signal transduction of the human basophil Fc epsilon RI appears to depend upon tyrosine kinase activation, but not on protein kinase C (serine/threonine kinase) activation. The lack of specific effect on plicatic acid-induced histamine release in basophils obtained from patients with occupational asthma due to western red cedar suggests that tyrosine kinases are not as important in this disease as in atopic asthma, and is consistent with the view that histamine release in red cedar asthma is largely IgE-independent.

  3. Forests in decline: yellow-cedar research yields prototype for climate change adaptation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Paul Hennon; David D' Amore

    2013-01-01

    Yellow-cedar has been dying across 600 miles of North Pacific coastal rain forest—from Alaska to British Columbia—since about 1880. Thirty years ago, a small group of pathologists began investigating possible biotic causes of the decline. When no biotic cause could be found, the scope broadened into a research program that eventually encompassed the fields of ecology,...

  4. INFLUENCE OF THE MINICUTTING POSITION, IN THE QUALITY OF AUSTRALIAN CEDAR CUTTINGS AND THEIR INICIAL GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele de Alvarenga Ferreira; Deborah Guerra Barroso; Mírian Peixoto Soares da Silva; Juliana Sobreira de Souza; Teresa Aparecida Soares de Freitas; José Geraldo de Araújo Carneiro

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987553The Toona ciliata (Australian cedar), originated from Australia showed high acclimatization in Brazil, where it found appropriate conditions for its growth, particularly in southern Bahia and throughout the southeastern region. However, the plantings presented irregular stems. Besides the seeds are a limiting resource, in result of their production seasonality and short viability period. This study aimed the evaluation of the quality of cuttings grown fro...

  5. Effect of Preservative Treatment on Fungal Colonization of Teak, Redwood, and Western Red Cedar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera Orozco, Yohanna; Freitag, F.; Morrell, Jeffrey J.

    Fungal flora present in preservative treated samples or non-treated samples from sapwood and heartwood of teak, western red cedar, redwood, and southern yellow pine was assessed after 6 to 18 months of exposure near Hilo, Hawaii. The objectives were to compare fungal composition and diversity bet...... identification but the limitation of the sampling process, (iii) the remarkably high diversity of fungi colonizing wood in a ground proximity test under these tropical conditions...

  6. Effect of Antihistamine Eye Drops on the Conjunctival Provocation Test with Japanese Cedar Pollen Allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Dake

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: Preadministration of antihistamine eye drops suppressed the symptoms induced by the allergen, which suggests that this is an effective early therapy for Japanese cedar pollinosis, if it is started before the pollen season. However, self-protection by patients using a mask may not be effective enough to suppress nasal symptoms during the pollen season, requiring them to additionally wear glasses to avoid exposure to the allergen.

  7. Antibiofilm and Antihyphal Activities of Cedar Leaf Essential Oil, Camphor, and Fenchone Derivatives against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jintae

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans can form biofilms composed of yeast, hyphal, and pseudohyphal elements, and C. albicans cells in the hyphal stage could be a virulence factor. The present study describes the chemical composition, antibiofilm, and antihyphal activities of cedar leaf essential oil (CLEO), which was found to possess remarkable antibiofilm activity against C. albicans but not to affect its planktonic cell growth. Nineteen components were identified in CLEO by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry...

  8. Atlantic white cedar: ecology, restoration, and management: Proceedings of the Arlington Echo symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Sheridan

    2005-01-01

    A symposium was held on the globally threatened and coastally restricted tree species, Atlantic white-cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides (L) B.S.P.) at the Arlington Echo Outdoor Education Center, Millersville, MD, in June 2003. The theme of the symposium was “Uniting Forces for Action,” and participants in the symposium came from throughout the range of this species, from...

  9. Biologically Important Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from Alaska Cedar Heartwood Essential Oil and Their Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Khasawneh, Mohammad A.; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Karchesy, Joe J.

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, val...

  10. Growth and mineral nutrition in seedlings of australian cedar (Toona ciliata subjected to nutrient deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Silva Moretti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate nutritional requirements and the effect of nutrient deprivation on the development of seedlings of Australian cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis, a greenhouse experiment was conducted. The substrate used was a dystroferric red latosol with low nutrient availability, using 15 treatments and applying the missing element technique. The experiment included two complete treatments (one provided N, P, K, S, B, Cu, Zn with limestone while another provided N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu and Zn without limestone, besides deprivation of each nutrient (-N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -S, -B, -Cu and -Zn, one treatment with combined deprivation of B, Cu and Zn, one treatment applying limestone only, one treatment applying N, P, K, S, B, Cu and Zn, without limestone, and one absolute control treatment (natural soil. The following characteristics were evaluated: height, diameter, shoot dry matter and root dry matter, and nutrient content in the shoot dry matter after 150 days. Australian cedar plants have high nutritional requirements, and nutrients P, N, S, Ca, K, Mg and Cu, in that order, were found to be limiting factors to plant development. B and Zn deprivation did not affect plant development. Limestone application was essential for the development of Australian cedar plants. Initial deficiency symptoms were found to be the result of S, limestone and N deprivation.

  11. Breeding for a low pollen variety of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Teiji [Forest Tree Breeding Center, Juo-machi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The number of sufferers of Japanese cedar pollinosis has been increasing recently and this type of pollinosis is a serious allergic disease in Japan, where one of ten persons is suffering it to some extent. Breeding of Japanese cedar trees was attempted to produce less pollen and set fewer male flowers. Because the degree of male flower setting was varied among plus trees, it was thought possible to select the plus trees that set fewer than normal male flowers for use as low pollen varieties. The degree of male flower setting was evaluated under natural conditions and the conditions of gibberellic acid treatment. Since a spontaneous male sterile mutant was previously identified, it was thought possible to induce such mutation. Therefore, the cedars cultivars growing in the {gamma}-field of Institute of Radiation Breeding were examined in respect of male fertility and some abnormal male flowers were obtained. The changes after transplanting these varieties from the {gamma}-field remain to be resolved. Further, it is necessary to monitor the volume and the number of male flowers, and also the allergen content. (M.N.)

  12. Breeding for a low pollen variety of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Teiji

    1998-01-01

    The number of sufferers of Japanese cedar pollinosis has been increasing recently and this type of pollinosis is a serious allergic disease in Japan, where one of ten persons is suffering it to some extent. Breeding of Japanese cedar trees was attempted to produce less pollen and set fewer male flowers. Because the degree of male flower setting was varied among plus trees, it was thought possible to select the plus trees that set fewer than normal male flowers for use as low pollen varieties. The degree of male flower setting was evaluated under natural conditions and the conditions of gibberellic acid treatment. Since a spontaneous male sterile mutant was previously identified, it was thought possible to induce such mutation. Therefore, the cedars cultivars growing in the γ-field of Institute of Radiation Breeding were examined in respect of male fertility and some abnormal male flowers were obtained. The changes after transplanting these varieties from the γ-field remain to be resolved. Further, it is necessary to monitor the volume and the number of male flowers, and also the allergen content. (M.N.)

  13. Estimation of lead sources in a Japanese cedar ecosystem using stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yuko; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Takahashi, Masamichi; Okamoto, Toru; Yoshinaga, Shuichiro

    2007-01-01

    Anthropogenic Pb affects the environment worldwide. To understand its effect on forest ecosystem, Pb isotope ratios were determined in precipitation, various components of vegetation, the forest floor, soil and parent material in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) forest stand. The average 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio in bulk precipitation was 1.14 ± 0.01 (mean ± SD), whereas that in the subsoil (20-130 cm) was 1.18 ± 0.01. Intermediate ratios ranging from 1.15 to 1.16 were observed in the vegetation, the forest floor, and the surface soil (0-10 cm). Using the 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios, the contribution of anthropogenic sources to Pb accumulated in the forest were estimated by the simple binary mixing model. Sixty-two percent of the Pb in the forest floor, 71% in the vegetation, and 55% in the surface soil (0-10 cm) originated from anthropogenic sources, but only 16% in the sub-surface soil (10-20 cm) was anthropogenic. These results suggest that internal Pb cycling occurs mainly between surface soil and vegetation in a Japanese cedar ecosystem, and that anthropogenic Pb strongly influences Pb cycling. Although the Japanese cedar ecosystem has a shallow forest floor, very little atmospherically derived Pb migrated downward over 10 cm in depth

  14. Essential Oil of Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) Wood Increases Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Levels after Monotonous Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Eri; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Ohira, Tatsuro; Sugiyama, Masaki

    2017-01-21

    Employee problems arising from mental illnesses have steadily increased and become a serious social problem in recent years. Wood is a widely available plant material, and knowledge of the psychophysiological effects of inhalation of woody volatile compounds has grown considerably. In this study, we established an experimental method to evaluate the effects of Japanese cedar wood essential oil on subjects performing monotonous work. Two experiment conditions, one with and another without diffusion of the essential oil were prepared. Salivary stress markers were determined during and after a calculation task followed by distribution of questionnaires to achieve subjective odor assessment. We found that inhalation of air containing the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil increased the secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s). Slight differences in the subjective assessment of the odor of the experiment rooms were observed. The results of the present study indicate that the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil affect the endocrine regulatory mechanism to facilitate stress responses. Thus, we suggest that this essential oil can improve employees' mental health.

  15. Conversion of steam-exploded cedar into ethanol using simultaneous saccharification, fermentation and detoxification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Chikako; Sasaki, Chizuru; Takamatsu, Tomoki; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the simultaneous saccharification, fermentation and detoxification SSDF process of steam-exploded cedar using a detoxification microorganism, Ureibacillus thermosphaericus A1, to facilitate efficient ethanol production. Steam explosion was applied as a pretreatment before enzymatic saccharification followed by alcohol fermentation. The highest glucose conversion rate was observed in the sample pretreated with a steam pressure of 45atm for 5min. Alcohol production by a heat-tolerant yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae BA11, was inhibited strongly by inhibitory materials present in the steam-exploded cedar, such as formic acid, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. The maximum amount of ethanol, i.e., 0.155g ethanol/g dry steam-exploded cedar, which corresponded to 74% of the theoretical ethanol yield, was obtained using the SSDF when U. thermosphaericus A1 degraded the inhibitory materials. A fed batch SSDF culture, in which U. thermosphaericus A1 was used to maintain low concentrations of inhibitory materials, was effective for increasing the ethanol concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Airway hyperresponsiveness and quality of life in Western red cedar asthmatics removed from exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Qing He

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Most western red cedar asthmatics (WRCA continue to have symptoms even after removal from exposure. Consequently, health-related quality of life (HRQL is often impaired. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between two measures of AHR and HRQL scores in those with WRCA. METHODS: HRQL was determined by the short form 36 (SF-36 in 46 male, non-smoking individuals with WRCA removed from exposure to western red cedar, on average, 15 years earlier. The relationships between the SF-36 total score and its eight domains with 2 indices from methacholine-stimulated airway hyperresponsiveness (the provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV(1 [PC(20] and bronchial reactivity index [BRI] were analyzed by the Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: PC(20 was significantly correlated with the SF-36 total score and its two domains of bodily pain and general health (r = 0.34, 0.40, 0.40, p = 0.023, 0.006, 0.006, respectively. BRI was significantly correlated with bodily pain and general health (r = -0.35, -0.42, p = 0.017, 0.004, respectively; correlations remain significant after adjusting for age, ethnicity, years since diagnosis, years since last exposure and use of inhaled corticosteroid. BRI and other measures of airway responsiveness were not associated with inhaled corticosteroids use. CONCLUSIONS: In Western red cedar asthmatics removed from exposure, measures of airway responsiveness are associated with HRQL.

  17. Airway hyperresponsiveness and quality of life in Western red cedar asthmatics removed from exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian-Qing; Chan-Yeung, Moira; Carlsten, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Most western red cedar asthmatics (WRCA) continue to have symptoms even after removal from exposure. Consequently, health-related quality of life (HRQL) is often impaired. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between two measures of AHR and HRQL scores in those with WRCA. HRQL was determined by the short form 36 (SF-36) in 46 male, non-smoking individuals with WRCA removed from exposure to western red cedar, on average, 15 years earlier. The relationships between the SF-36 total score and its eight domains with 2 indices from methacholine-stimulated airway hyperresponsiveness (the provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV(1) [PC(20)] and bronchial reactivity index [BRI]) were analyzed by the Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression. PC(20) was significantly correlated with the SF-36 total score and its two domains of bodily pain and general health (r = 0.34, 0.40, 0.40, p = 0.023, 0.006, 0.006, respectively). BRI was significantly correlated with bodily pain and general health (r = -0.35, -0.42, p = 0.017, 0.004, respectively); correlations remain significant after adjusting for age, ethnicity, years since diagnosis, years since last exposure and use of inhaled corticosteroid. BRI and other measures of airway responsiveness were not associated with inhaled corticosteroids use. In Western red cedar asthmatics removed from exposure, measures of airway responsiveness are associated with HRQL.

  18. Twentieth-century warming and the dendroclimatology of declining yellow-cedar forests in southeastern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beier, C.M. [Alaska Fairbanks Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Biology and Wildlife; Sink, S.E.; Juday, G.P. [Alaska Fairbanks Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences; Hennon, P.E.; D' Amore, D.V. [United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Juneau, AK (United States). Pacific Northwest Research Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory

    2008-06-15

    The decline of yellow cedar in temperate rainforests in southeastern Alaska was investigated. Dieback of the species has been observed as early as 1909. The dehardening process for the species is highly temperature-dependent. Declining stands have been found in open-canopy forests on poorly drained sites. Historical climate data sets were compiled suing extensive tree-ring chronologies. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that a specific suite of microclimatic conditions that occur during late winter involving early dehardening, reduced snowpack, and freezing injury are responsible. The assumption was tested by examining regional climatic trends and growth responses of declining cedar populations. Results of the study showed increasing winter temperatures in the region which have resulted in the frequent occurrence of severe thaw-freeze events. Late winter weather was the best predictor of annual growth for surviving trees. Results of the study also verified the impact of elevational gradients of temperature and snow cover on the exposure of the trees to climatic stressors. It was concluded that yellow cedars may continue to decline with continued climatic warming. 36 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs.

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction CMS distributed computing system performed well during the 2011 start-up. The events in 2011 have more pile-up and are more complex than last year; this results in longer reconstruction times and harder events to simulate. Significant increases in computing capacity were delivered in April for all computing tiers, and the utilisation and load is close to the planning predictions. All computing centre tiers performed their expected functionalities. Heavy-Ion Programme The CMS Heavy-Ion Programme had a very strong showing at the Quark Matter conference. A large number of analyses were shown. The dedicated heavy-ion reconstruction facility at the Vanderbilt Tier-2 is still involved in some commissioning activities, but is available for processing and analysis. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Facility and Infrastructure operations have been active with operations and several important deployment tasks. Facilities participated in the testing and deployment of WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request...

  20. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview During the past three months activities were focused on data operations, testing and re-enforcing shift and operational procedures for data production and transfer, MC production and on user support. Planning of the computing resources in view of the new LHC calendar in ongoing. Two new task forces were created for supporting the integration work: Site Commissioning, which develops tools helping distributed sites to monitor job and data workflows, and Analysis Support, collecting the user experience and feedback during analysis activities and developing tools to increase efficiency. The development plan for DMWM for 2009/2011 was developed at the beginning of the year, based on the requirements from the Physics, Computing and Offline groups (see Offline section). The Computing management meeting at FermiLab on February 19th and 20th was an excellent opportunity discussing the impact and for addressing issues and solutions to the main challenges facing CMS computing. The lack of manpower is particul...

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    The Computing Project is preparing for a busy year where the primary emphasis of the project moves towards steady operations. Following the very successful completion of Computing Software and Analysis challenge, CSA06, last fall, we have reorganized and established four groups in computing area: Commissioning, User Support, Facility/Infrastructure Operations and Data Operations. These groups work closely together with groups from the Offline Project in planning for data processing and operations. Monte Carlo production has continued since CSA06, with about 30M events produced each month to be used for HLT studies and physics validation. Monte Carlo production will continue throughout the year in the preparation of large samples for physics and detector studies ramping to 50 M events/month for CSA07. Commissioning of the full CMS computing system is a major goal for 2007. Site monitoring is an important commissioning component and work is ongoing to devise CMS specific tests to be included in Service Availa...

  2. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing activity had ramped down after the completion of the reprocessing of the 2012 data and parked data, but is increasing with new simulation samples for analysis and upgrade studies. Much of the Computing effort is currently involved in activities to improve the computing system in preparation for 2015. Operations Office Since the beginning of 2013, the Computing Operations team successfully re-processed the 2012 data in record time, not only by using opportunistic resources like the San Diego Supercomputer Center which was accessible, to re-process the primary datasets HTMHT and MultiJet in Run2012D much earlier than planned. The Heavy-Ion data-taking period was successfully concluded in February collecting almost 500 T. Figure 3: Number of events per month (data) In LS1, our emphasis is to increase efficiency and flexibility of the infrastructure and operation. Computing Operations is working on separating disk and tape at the Tier-1 sites and the full implementation of the xrootd federation ...

  3. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann P. McBride Edited by M-C. Sawley with contributions from: P. Kreuzer D. Bonacorsi S. Belforte F. Wuerthwein L. Bauerdick K. Lassila-Perini M-C. Sawley

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the comput...

  4. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion An activity that is still in progress is computing for the heavy-ion program. The heavy-ion events are collected without zero suppression, so the event size is much large at roughly 11 MB per event of RAW. The central collisions are more complex and...

  5. Early results from genetic trials on the growth of Spanish cedar and itssusceptibility to the shoot borer moth in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheila E. Ward; Kevyn E. Wightman; Bartolo. Rodriguez Santiago

    2008-01-01

    Cedrela odorata (Spanish cedar) is a neotropical broadleaf tree species that is in high demand for furniture and interior fittings. In 1998, seed collections were made from Spanish cedar in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, for genetic conservation and tree improvement projects. Progeny from these collections were established in genetic trials at Bacalar, Noh Bec, and Zoh...

  6. Evaluation and process development of salt cedar and juniper biocomposites as tools to utilize exotic and invasive species and restore native ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy; Craig M. Clemons; Nicole M. Stark; James H. Muehl; R. Sam Williams

    2005-01-01

    This research program is developing and evaluating potential value-added uses for a variety of exotic invasive woody species, such as salt cedar (Tamarisk spp.), one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma), and eastern red- cedar (Juniperus virginiana). Because each of these species is encroaching into America's natural indigenous ecosystems, land managers need tools...

  7. Adaptation to exploit nitrate in surface soils predisposes yellow-cedar to climate-induced decline while enhancing the survival of western redcedar: a new hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    David V. D' Amore; Paul E. Hennon; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley

    2009-01-01

    Yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) and western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn), two valuable tree species of Pacific Northwest forests, are competitive in low productivity forests on wet, nearly saturated soils with low nitrogen (N) availability and turnover. We propose a mechanism where cedar trees survive in...

  8. Effect of root strength and soil saturation on hillslope stability in forests with natural cedar decline in headwater regions of SE Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelaide C. Johnson; Peter. Wilcock

    1998-01-01

    A natural decline in the population of yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) is occurring in pristine southeast Alaska forests and may be the most significant forest decline in the western United States. The frequency of landslides in cedar decline areas is three times larger than in areas of healthy forest. Three regions are investigated in...

  9. Evaluation of soil saturation, soil chemistry, and early spring soil and air temperatures as risk factors in yellow-cedar decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.V. D' Amore; P.E. Hennon

    2006-01-01

    Yellow-cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis (D. Don) Oerst.) is a valuable tree species that is experiencing a widespread decline and mortality in southeast Alaska. This study evaluated the relative importance of several potential risk factors associated with yellow-cedar decline: soil saturation, soil aluminum (Al) toxicity or calcium (Ca) deficiency...

  10. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    It has been a very active year for the computing project with strong contributions from members of the global community. The project has focused on site preparation and Monte Carlo production. The operations group has begun processing data from P5 as part of the global data commissioning. Improvements in transfer rates and site availability have been seen as computing sites across the globe prepare for large scale production and analysis as part of CSA07. Preparations for the upcoming Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 are progressing. Ian Fisk and Neil Geddes have been appointed as coordinators for the challenge. CSA07 will include production tests of the Tier-0 production system, reprocessing at the Tier-1 sites and Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 sites. At the same time there will be a large analysis exercise at the Tier-2 centres. Pre-production simulation of the Monte Carlo events for the challenge is beginning. Scale tests of the Tier-0 will begin in mid-July and the challenge it...

  11. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CCRC’08 challenges and CSA08 During the February campaign of the Common Computing readiness challenges (CCRC’08), the CMS computing team had achieved very good results. The link between the detector site and the Tier0 was tested by gradually increasing the number of parallel transfer streams well beyond the target. Tests covered the global robustness at the Tier0, processing a massive number of very large files and with a high writing speed to tapes.  Other tests covered the links between the different Tiers of the distributed infrastructure and the pre-staging and reprocessing capacity of the Tier1’s: response time, data transfer rate and success rate for Tape to Buffer staging of files kept exclusively on Tape were measured. In all cases, coordination with the sites was efficient and no serious problem was found. These successful preparations prepared the ground for the second phase of the CCRC’08 campaign, in May. The Computing Software and Analysis challen...

  12. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion The Tier 0 infrastructure was able to repack and promptly reconstruct heavy-ion collision data. Two copies were made of the data at CERN using a large CASTOR disk pool, and the core physics sample was replicated ...

  13. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the co...

  14. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Computing continued with a high level of activity over the winter in preparation for conferences and the start of the 2012 run. 2012 brings new challenges with a new energy, more complex events, and the need to make the best use of the available time before the Long Shutdown. We expect to be resource constrained on all tiers of the computing system in 2012 and are working to ensure the high-priority goals of CMS are not impacted. Heavy ions After a successful 2011 heavy-ion run, the programme is moving to analysis. During the run, the CAF resources were well used for prompt analysis. Since then in 2012 on average 200 job slots have been used continuously at Vanderbilt for analysis workflows. Operations Office As of 2012, the Computing Project emphasis has moved from commissioning to operation of the various systems. This is reflected in the new organisation structure where the Facilities and Data Operations tasks have been merged into a common Operations Office, which now covers everything ...

  15. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction During the past six months, Computing participated in the STEP09 exercise, had a major involvement in the October exercise and has been working with CMS sites on improving open issues relevant for data taking. At the same time operations for MC production, real data reconstruction and re-reconstructions and data transfers at large scales were performed. STEP09 was successfully conducted in June as a joint exercise with ATLAS and the other experiments. It gave good indication about the readiness of the WLCG infrastructure with the two major LHC experiments stressing the reading, writing and processing of physics data. The October Exercise, in contrast, was conducted as an all-CMS exercise, where Physics, Computing and Offline worked on a common plan to exercise all steps to efficiently access and analyze data. As one of the major results, the CMS Tier-2s demonstrated to be fully capable for performing data analysis. In recent weeks, efforts were devoted to CMS Computing readiness. All th...

  16. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The first data taking period of November produced a first scientific paper, and this is a very satisfactory step for Computing. It also gave the invaluable opportunity to learn and debrief from this first, intense period, and make the necessary adaptations. The alarm procedures between different groups (DAQ, Physics, T0 processing, Alignment/calibration, T1 and T2 communications) have been reinforced. A major effort has also been invested into remodeling and optimizing operator tasks in all activities in Computing, in parallel with the recruitment of new Cat A operators. The teams are being completed and by mid year the new tasks will have been assigned. CRB (Computing Resource Board) The Board met twice since last CMS week. In December it reviewed the experience of the November data-taking period and could measure the positive improvements made for the site readiness. It also reviewed the policy under which Tier-2 are associated with Physics Groups. Such associations are decided twice per ye...

  17. Distribution of 90Sr and 137Cs in annual tree rings of Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria Japonica D. Don

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigira, Midori; Saito, Yuko; Kimura, Kan

    1988-01-01

    The contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in two samples of Japanese cedar from Takao and Tsukui districts were determined in tree rings cut into segments representing steps of 5 years of growth. 90 Sr in both cedar samples and 137 Cs in the Tsukui cedar sample were determined after ashing and chemical isolation, while 137 Cs in the Takao sample was directly determined from the sample ash. The distribution of 90 Sr fallout in tree rings suggests that 90 Sr had given a rather direct effect and showed no significant translocation from sapwood to heartwood, whereas 137 Cs tends to concentrate in heartwood irrespective of the effect of the fallout. Average contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs were 22 and 9.4 pCi/kg in the Takao sample (9.61 kg air dried) and were 23 and 12 in the Tsukui (4.71 kg air dried) in 1982. (author)

  18. [Environmental control for allergic diseases--avoiding and killing effect on housedust-mite by eastern red cedar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, T; Ohnishi, S; Dake, Y; Shibano, A; Sakoda, T; Saitoh, Y; Sogoh, H; Yamana, T; Mastui, K

    1999-06-01

    Housedust-mite has been a trigger factor for allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis and eczema. Therefore, it is important to remove housedust-mite from the environment of an allergic patient. Eastern red cedar is one kind of cypress tree which grows naturally in Northern America. It is used for the material of pencils, and the essence of soap. Its oil is used for oily substance for microscope lens. Using original system, we examined eastern red cedar and its oil, and found that it is effective for killing and preventing housedust-mites. The result was very effective. In conclusion the eastern red cedar and its oil seems to be useful for controlling mites in the home environment of allergic patients.

  19. PRODUCTION OF AUSTRALIAN CEDAR SEEDLINGS INOCULATED WITH ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONTAINERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élida Ribeiro do Carmo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed to evaluate the growth and the levels of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in Australian cedar seedlings which had been inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF in different types of containers. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse and the experimental design was that of randomized complete blocks (RCB, with a 4 x 4 factorial design consisting of four inoculation treatments with AMF (Rhizophagus clarum, Gigaspora margarita, a mixed inoculation (R. clarum + G. margarita and the control (with no AMF inoculation; four types of containers (plastic bags measuring 250 cm3, tubes of 55 and 130 cm3 and pressed blocks 440 cm3. plant-1, with four repetitions. The height, the diameter of the stem base, the aerial part dry weight (APDW, the dry weight of the root (DWR and the total plant dry weight (DW were measured, along with the Dickson quality index, the percentage of mycorrhizal colonization and the levels of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in the aerial part dry weight. One hundred and thirty eight days (138 days after sowing, the greatest growth and/or the highest levels of P, K and Ca could be observed in the aerial part dry weight of the Australian cedar seedlings which had been planted in the pressed block container and inoculated with a mixture of the two AMF species (G. margarita + R. clarum or with just R. clarum. Thus it can be seen that AMF can make a significant contribution to the production of Australian cedar seedlings.

  20. Spatial distribution of chlordanes and PCB congeners in soil in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Andres; Erdman, Nicholas R.; Rodenburg, Zachary L.; Eastling, Paul M.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2012-01-01

    Residential soils from Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA were collected and analyzed for chlordanes and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study is one of the very few urban soil investigations in the USA. The chlordanes concentrations ranged from 0 to 7500 ng g −1 dry weight (d.w.), with a mean and standard deviation of 130 ± 920 ng g −1 d.w., which is about 1000 times larger than background levels. ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 3 to 1200 ng g −1 d.w., with a mean and standard deviation of 56 ± 160 ng g −1 d.w. and are about 10 times higher than world-wide background levels. Both groups exhibit considerable variability in chemical patterns and site-to-site concentrations. Although no measurements of dioxins were carried out, the potential toxicity due to the 12 dioxin-like PCBs found in the soil is in the same order of magnitude of the provisional threshold recommended by USEPA to perform soil remediation. - Graphical Abstract: Spatial location and measured concentrations of ΣPCB (left, 64 sites) and chlordanes (right, 66 sites) (ng g −1 d.w.) in soil from Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Samples were collected in August 2008. Estimated flood area was obtained from the Linn County Auditor's Office. Highlights: ► Chlordanes and PCBs congeners were measured in surficial soil from Cedar Rapids, Iowa. ► Measured values for both chemical groups are similar to other urban/industrial site around the world. ► This is one of the few urban soil studies in the USA. ► TEQs values are in the same order of magnitude of the provisional threshold recommended by USEPA to perform soil remediation. - Chlordane compounds (trans-, cis- and trans-nonachlor) and PCBs (164 peaks for 209 congeners) were measured in the soils of a small medium-sized American city.

  1. Clinical features and natural history of occupational asthma due to western red cedar (Thuja plicata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, M; Lam, S; Koener, S

    1982-03-01

    After an average follow-up interval of three and a half years (range one to nine years), 125 patients with occupational asthma due to red cedar exposure were re-examined. Fifty patients remained in the same job. All of them continued to have asthmatic attacks requiring regular medication for relief of symptoms. They had worse lung function and ther bronchial reactivity to methacholine increased. Seventy-five patients left the industry; half of them became asymptomatic, whereas the remaining half continued to have recurrent attacks of asthma. Several factors were of prognostic significance. Those with a shorter duration of exposure as well as a shorter duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis and removal from exposure showed improvement. Those who remained symptomatic tended to be older; they had longer duration of exposure and a longer duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis. They tended to have more abnormal results of lung function studied and more marked bronchial hyper-reactivity to methacholine at the time of diagnosis. They also tended to have dual asthmatic reaction rather than late asthmatic reaction to inhalation challenge with red cedar extract. Smoking, race and degree of peripheral blood eosinophilia did not play a role in determining the outcome. Since none of these patients had symptomatic asthma before employment and since they reacted to inhalation challenge of red cedar, it could be assumed that persistent asthma in those who failed to recover is the result of their previous occupational exposure. Early diagnosis and removal from exposure were found to be associated with recovery.

  2. ABOVE AND BELOW GROUND INTERACTIONS IN THE AGROFORESTAL ASSOCIATION 'RED CEDAR-PERSIAN LIME-CHAYA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Mao Estanislao Aguilar-Luna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Above and below ground interactions were analyzed in the agroforestal association 'red cedar-Persian lime-chaya', to know the initial optimum planting density (PD, in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Red cedar and Persian lime were placed in a 'Nelder' circle of 3154 m2 which consisted of 20 concentric circles alternating red cedars and Persian limes to 1.50 m apart and 10 plants per circle; chaya rectangular frame was set at 1.50 x 3.00 m, superimposed on the 'Nelder' circle. Defined eight PD 2602 to 3772 pl·ha-1 with 10 repetitions, to evaluate the length of main root (LMR, radical exploration range (RER, below ground interaction (BGI, plant height (PH, crown diameter (CD, above ground interaction (AGI and soil fertility (SF. The growth intraspecific he present statistical difference (P≤0.05 when moving from one PD to another PD, while the growth interespecific manifested different growth habit. The agroforestal association propitious in soil decreased phosphorous ±2 %, and increases organic matter ±14 % and nitrogen ±10 % on all PD. The BGI was increased in direct relation with the PD, reaching its highest value (64±5.8 % to 3772 pl·ha-1; the AGI also increased in direct relation with the PD, its highest value (52±3.1 % went to 3772 pl·ha-1; therefore, to higher PD increased BGI and AGI, at 20 months after planting.

  3. Perchlorate uptake by salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima) in the Las Vegas wash riparian ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbansky, E T; Magnuson, M L; Kelty, C A; Brown, S K

    2000-07-10

    Perchlorate ion (ClO4-) has been identified in samples of dormant salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima) growing in the Las Vegas Wash. Perchlorate is an oxidant, but its reduction is kinetically hindered. Concern over thyroid effects caused the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to add perchlorate to the drinking water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). Beginning in 2001, utilities will look for perchlorate under the Unregulated Contaminants Monitoring Rule (UCMR). In wood samples acquired from the same plant growing in a contaminated stream, perchlorate concentrations were found as follows: 5-6 microg g(-1) in dry twigs extending above the water and 300 microg g(-1) in stalks immersed in the stream. Perchlorate was leached from samples of wood, and the resulting solutions were analyzed by ion chromatography after clean-up. The identification was confirmed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry after complexation of perchlorate with decyltrimethylammonium cation. Because salt cedar is regarded as an invasive species, there are large scale programs aimed at eliminating it. However, this work suggests that salt cedar might play a role in the ecological distribution of perchlorate as an environmental contaminant. Consequently, a thorough investigation of the fate and transport of perchlorate in tamarisks is required to assess the effects that eradication might have on perchlorate-tainted riparian ecosystems, such as the Las Vegas Wash. This is especially important since water from the wash enters Lake Mead and the Colorado River and has the potential to affect the potable water source of tens of millions of people as well as irrigation water used on a variety of crops, including much of the lettuce produced in the USA.

  4. Biodeterioration of products made from australian cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Amarante Almeida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the natural resistance of composite and solid wood panels from Toona ciliata to fungal attack through accelerated laboratory testing, to characterize the anatomical components of the wood according to IAWA, to quantify the soluble and insoluble lignin contents by acid hydrolysis and to determine the colorimetric parameters before and after fungal attack by using the CIE-L*a*b*(1976 system. Solid wood was classified as moderately and highly resistant to white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor and to brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum. OSB panels were found to be resistant and moderately resistant to white-rot fungus and highly resistant to brown-rot fungus. Variation in species and particle type did not have a positive effect on the treatments. As regards the wood, both fungi were inhibited by the presence of phenolic resin. Particleboard panels were classified as moderately resistant to white-rot fungus. Treatments T2 (cedar and T4 (cedar-eucalyptus were resistant while treatment T3 (cedar-pine was not resistant to attack by brown-rot fungus. The urea-formaldehyde resin failed to inhibit attack in the same way the phenolic resin did. Anatomically, the species was found to have medium texture, straight vessel lines, pleasant smell after incision and poor luster on the radial surface. Its anatomical structure favored colonization by the threadlike filaments of the fungi. All treatments caused wood darkening after attack by the G. trabeum fungus, with total variation in color. It was observed that with weight loss an increase followed in insoluble lignin contents, in all treatments, indicating that this chemical property is a determining factor in wood resistance to the attack of the fungi being evaluated.

  5. [Adverse Events of Sublingual Immunotherapy in 207 Patients with Japanese Cedar Pollinosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukiko; Yuta, Atsushi; Arikata, Masahiko; Kozaki, Hideaki; Ohta, Nobuo; Suzuki, Yusuke; Shimizu, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for Japanese cedar pollinosis is effective, however, caution must be exercised against allergen-specific adverse events (AEs) during SLIT. The purpose of this study was to clarify the AEs of SLIT in a large cohort of patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. We conducted a detailed survey, by both questionnaires and direct interviews, of 207 patients receiving SLIT at our clinic. Eighty-four of the 207 patients (40.5%) developed AEs, with AEs involving the oral cavity and throat being the most common (56 patients; 27.1%). Sixteen patients (7.9%) had local mucosal swelling, but the swelling resolved in all the cases. Other allergen-induced symptoms such as nasal symptoms (29 events, 14.0%), eye symptoms (14 events, 6.8%) and ear symptoms (20 events, 9.7%) were also recognized. All the AEs were minor, and discontinuation of SLIT was not necessitated in any of the patients because of AEs. There were 52 AEs (25.0%) in the up-dose phase and 61 AEs (29.3%) in the maintenance phase. However, only 4 of the 161 patients (2.5%) developed AEs during the pollen season. Most AEs developing during the maintenance phase occurred in the first few weeks. In 60% of the cases, the AEs disappeared within 2 weeks, and in 6.0% (5 events), they persisted for longer than 2 months. There were no age-or sex-related differences in the prevalence of cedar pollen-specific IgE, or in the adherence to the treatment. AEs in SLIT were shown in many patients, however, the severity of AEs was mild and no events interfered SLIT.

  6. The Influence of Salmon Recolonization on Riparian Communities in the Cedar River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravek, J.; Clipp, H.; Kiffney, P.

    2015-12-01

    Salmon are a valuable cultural and economic resource throughout the Pacific Northwest, but increasing human activity is degrading coastal ecosystems and threatening local salmon populations. Salmon conservation efforts often focus on habitat restoration, including the re-colonization of salmon into historically obstructed areas such as the Cedar River in Washington, USA. However, to assess the implications of salmon re-colonization on a landscape scale, it is critical to consider not only the river ecosystem but also the surrounding riparian habitat. Although prior studies suggest that salmon alter riparian food web dynamics, the riparian community on the Cedar River has not yet been characterized. To investigate possible connections between salmon and the riparian habitat, we surveyed riparian spider communities along a gradient of salmon inputs (g/m2). In 10-m transects along the banks of the river, we identified spiders and spider webs, collected prey from webs, and characterized nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. We found that the density of aquatic macroinvertebrates, as well as the density of spider prey, both had significant positive relationships with salmon inputs, supporting the hypothesis that salmon provide energy and nutrients for both aquatic and riparian food webs. We also found that spider diversity significantly decreased with salmon inputs, potentially due to confounding factors such as stream gradient or vegetation structure. Although additional information is needed to fully understand this relationship, the significant connection between salmon inputs and spider diversity is compelling motivation for further studies regarding the link between aquatic and riparian systems on the Cedar River. Understanding the connections between salmon and the riparian community is critical to characterizing the landscape-scale implications of sustainable salmon management in the Pacific Northwest.

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Matthias Kasemann

    Overview The main focus during the summer was to handle data coming from the detector and to perform Monte Carlo production. The lessons learned during the CCRC and CSA08 challenges in May were addressed by dedicated PADA campaigns lead by the Integration team. Big improvements were achieved in the stability and reliability of the CMS Tier1 and Tier2 centres by regular and systematic follow-up of faults and errors with the help of the Savannah bug tracking system. In preparation for data taking the roles of a Computing Run Coordinator and regular computing shifts monitoring the services and infrastructure as well as interfacing to the data operations tasks are being defined. The shift plan until the end of 2008 is being put together. User support worked on documentation and organized several training sessions. The ECoM task force delivered the report on “Use Cases for Start-up of pp Data-Taking” with recommendations and a set of tests to be performed for trigger rates much higher than the ...

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. MacBride

    The Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 has been the main focus of the Computing Project for the past few months. Activities began over the summer with the preparation of the Monte Carlo data sets for the challenge and tests of the new production system at the Tier-0 at CERN. The pre-challenge Monte Carlo production was done in several steps: physics generation, detector simulation, digitization, conversion to RAW format and the samples were run through the High Level Trigger (HLT). The data was then merged into three "Soups": Chowder (ALPGEN), Stew (Filtered Pythia) and Gumbo (Pythia). The challenge officially started when the first Chowder events were reconstructed on the Tier-0 on October 3rd. The data operations teams were very busy during the the challenge period. The MC production teams continued with signal production and processing while the Tier-0 and Tier-1 teams worked on splitting the Soups into Primary Data Sets (PDS), reconstruction and skimming. The storage sys...

  9. COMPUTING

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Just two months after the “LHC First Physics” event of 30th March, the analysis of the O(200) million 7 TeV collision events in CMS accumulated during the first 60 days is well under way. The consistency of the CMS computing model has been confirmed during these first weeks of data taking. This model is based on a hierarchy of use-cases deployed between the different tiers and, in particular, the distribution of RECO data to T1s, who then serve data on request to T2s, along a topology known as “fat tree”. Indeed, during this period this model was further extended by almost full “mesh” commissioning, meaning that RECO data were shipped to T2s whenever possible, enabling additional physics analyses compared with the “fat tree” model. Computing activities at the CMS Analysis Facility (CAF) have been marked by a good time response for a load almost evenly shared between ALCA (Alignment and Calibration tasks - highest p...

  10. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing operation has been lower as the Run 1 samples are completing and smaller samples for upgrades and preparations are ramping up. Much of the computing activity is focusing on preparations for Run 2 and improvements in data access and flexibility of using resources. Operations Office Data processing was slow in the second half of 2013 with only the legacy re-reconstruction pass of 2011 data being processed at the sites.   Figure 1: MC production and processing was more in demand with a peak of over 750 Million GEN-SIM events in a single month.   Figure 2: The transfer system worked reliably and efficiently and transferred on average close to 520 TB per week with peaks at close to 1.2 PB.   Figure 3: The volume of data moved between CMS sites in the last six months   The tape utilisation was a focus for the operation teams with frequent deletion campaigns from deprecated 7 TeV MC GEN-SIM samples to INVALID datasets, which could be cleaned up...

  11. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

      Introduction Computing activity has been running at a sustained, high rate as we collect data at high luminosity, process simulation, and begin to process the parked data. The system is functional, though a number of improvements are planned during LS1. Many of the changes will impact users, we hope only in positive ways. We are trying to improve the distributed analysis tools as well as the ability to access more data samples more transparently.  Operations Office Figure 2: Number of events per month, for 2012 Since the June CMS Week, Computing Operations teams successfully completed data re-reconstruction passes and finished the CMSSW_53X MC campaign with over three billion events available in AOD format. Recorded data was successfully processed in parallel, exceeding 1.2 billion raw physics events per month for the first time in October 2012 due to the increase in data-parking rate. In parallel, large efforts were dedicated to WMAgent development and integrati...

  12. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction A large fraction of the effort was focused during the last period into the preparation and monitoring of the February tests of Common VO Computing Readiness Challenge 08. CCRC08 is being run by the WLCG collaboration in two phases, between the centres and all experiments. The February test is dedicated to functionality tests, while the May challenge will consist of running at all centres and with full workflows. For this first period, a number of functionality checks of the computing power, data repositories and archives as well as network links are planned. This will help assess the reliability of the systems under a variety of loads, and identifying possible bottlenecks. Many tests are scheduled together with other VOs, allowing the full scale stress test. The data rates (writing, accessing and transfer¬ring) are being checked under a variety of loads and operating conditions, as well as the reliability and transfer rates of the links between Tier-0 and Tier-1s. In addition, the capa...

  13. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Contributions from I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The start of the 2012 run has been busy for Computing. We have reconstructed, archived, and served a larger sample of new data than in 2011, and we are in the process of producing an even larger new sample of simulations at 8 TeV. The running conditions and system performance are largely what was anticipated in the plan, thanks to the hard work and preparation of many people. Heavy ions Heavy Ions has been actively analysing data and preparing for conferences.  Operations Office Figure 6: Transfers from all sites in the last 90 days For ICHEP and the Upgrade efforts, we needed to produce and process record amounts of MC samples while supporting the very successful data-taking. This was a large burden, especially on the team members. Nevertheless the last three months were very successful and the total output was phenomenal, thanks to our dedicated site admins who keep the sites operational and the computing project members who spend countless hours nursing the...

  14. Radiocarbon dating for tree rings of dendro-chronologically dated Japan cedars buried in the paddy field at Fukui

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, S.; Kawano, E.; Kimura, K.; Mine, T.; Harada, M.

    1999-01-01

    14 C dating of 6 Japan cedars having the relative growing ages were made. On the basis of correlation analysis of our data to a 14 C age data set, INTCAL of CALIB (Stuiver), the growing ages of these Japan cedars were estimated (BC 1090-2375). The atmospheric 14 C concentration (Δ 14 C) at their growing ages were obtained from the 14 C age data. The variation of Δ 14 C shows basically the same pattern with that of Europe or America (r=0.783). (author)

  15. [Effects of quantity of Japanese cedar pollen, air pollution and urbanization on allergic rhinitis morbidity in Ibaraki prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunling, Wu; Tamura, Kenji; Matsumoto, Yukio; Endo, Tomohiko; Watari, Chisato; Arai, Takashi; Murakami, Masataka

    2002-07-01

    It has been reported that morbidity from allergic rhinitis in the National Health Insurance records in Ibaraki Prefecture for May correlated with the quantity of Japan cedar pollen scattered in each year. The purpose of the present investigation was to clarify the Japanese cedar pollinosis contribution to morbidity, and also clarifying the influence of air pollution and medical resources on the crisis and symptoms of allergic rhinitis. The charts in four otolaryngology facilities were used for analyzing the Japan cedar pollinosis content with reference to the allergic rhinitis during the pollen season. The age-adjusted morbidity of allergic rhinitis was annually compared employing data of National Health Insurance records for medical examinations made in May during the period between 1988 and 1996 in Ibaraki Prefecture. The quantity of Japanese cedar pollen was measured at seven area points in Ibaraki Prefecture during the three-year period from 1994 to 1996, and was compared with the degree of Japan cedar wood occupation in each municipality. Traffic volume according to municipalities in Ibaraki Prefecture was taken as a surrogate indicator of air pollution. The area otolaryngology facilities and doctors were taken as medical resources. Values were thus compared with allergic rhinitis morbidity. Sixty to eighty percent of the allergic rhinitis patients examined in May were found to be suffering from pollinosis. The quantities of Japanese cedar pollen scatter at the seven points in Ibaraki Prefecture varied in concert every year, the quantities correlating well with the area of Japanese cedar woods stands in each municipality in some but not in other years. The morbidity in the records of allergic rhinitis according to municipalities correlated negatively with the proportion of the population occupied in farming (r = -0.38) and with the area of Japanese cedar woods in each municipality (r = -0.40). The traffic volume calculated according to municipalities in

  16. Carbon, cesium and iodine isotopes in Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T.; Cresswell, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima were analyzed for carbon, cesium and iodine isotopic compositions before and after the 2011 nuclear accident. The Δ14C values reflect ambient atmospheric 14C concentrations during the year the leaves were sampled/defoliated, and also previous year......(s). The elevated 129I and 134,137Cs concentrations are attributed to direct exposure to the radioactive fallout for the pre-fallout-expended leaves and to internal translocation from older parts of the tree for post-fallout-expended leaves. 134Cs/137Cs and 129I/137Cs activity ratios suggest insignificant isotopic...

  17. Transfer of 7Be, 210Pb and 210Po in a forest canopy of Japanese cedar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.; Tagawa, Y.; Sugihara, S.; Maeda, Y.; Inokura, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The concentrations of 7 Be, 210 Pb and 210 Po of ca. 60 parts of a whole tree of Japanese cedar and of underlying litter and soil samples were determined for studying their transfer in a forest canopy. The results suggest that the mean residence times of 7 Be and 210 Pb in the forest canopy were ca. 20 and 900 days, respectively, and the dry deposition rate of 7 Be on the forest canopy was about a half of the total deposition rate. (author)

  18. Xylophage complex associated with the decline of the Atlas cedar Belezma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamina, T.; Taril, B.R.

    2015-01-01

    The study of insects associated with the decline of Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica Manetti) in the massif of Belezma (Algeria), resulted in the determination of18 species of xylophagous beetles. Their majority (85%) are represented by the subfamily of Scolytinae. The most dominant were Scolytus amygdali Guerin, 1847 andCryphalus numidicus Eichhoff, 1878.The Buprestidae occupy second place with 14.24% from the total of inventoried xylophagouswith 6 species, whereas the most common was Melanophila marmottani (Fairmaire, 1868). The knowledge of bioecology and outbreaks mechanisms of these species is necessary in order to develop efficient protection strategy against them. (author)

  19. Adsorption of Acid Red 18 by Activated Carbon Prepared from Cedar Tree: Kinetic and Equilibrium Study

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Samarghandi; D. Izadi; M. Noori Sepehr; M. Zarrabi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Textile effluents are one of the main environmental pollution sources and contain toxic compounds which threat the environment. For that reason, the activated carbon prepared from Cedar Tree was used for removal of Acid Red 18 as an Azo Dye. Material and Methods: Activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation and was used in batch system for dye removal. Effect of various experimental parameters such as pH (3 to11), initial dye concentration (50, 75 and 100 mg/L), contact ...

  20. Root system responses of Japanese red cedar saplings to acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano; Hijii

    2000-10-01

    Stemflow from Japanese red cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) enters forest soil at a low pH. We evaluated the responses of the root system of Japanese red cedar saplings to acidic conditions, used to simulate this situation, in two different growth media, a brown forest soil (BS) and a Yahagi sand (YS). Soils were acidified by the addition of solutions at pH 2.0, 3.0 and 5.5 (control). Root morphology, root surface area index, root respiration activity and root biomass were measured. In the pH 3.0 treatment, no significant effects were found on the root systems compared with the controls in either soil, except for a slight difference in root-tip diameter in the Yahagi sand. In the pH 2.0 treatment, the surface area index and dry weight ratios of the whole root in the Yahagi sand were significantly lower than those in the other treatments. No significant effects on the whole root were observed in the brown forest soil. These results suggest that detrimental effects of acidic solutions on the root systems would be less significant in brown forest soil, which contains humus, than in the Yahagi sand, which lacks humus. They also suggest that the threshold pH value causing visible morphological changes on the roots of Japanese red cedar saplings falls in the pH range between 2 and 3. White roots in the pH 2.0 treatment had low respiration activity and showed visible morphological changes in both soils. These responses were presumably related to the effects of excess Al in the soil solution. White roots in the pH 2.0 treatment typically produced exodermis. The results suggest that stemflow with a pH of 3.0 has no effects on the root systems of Japanese red cedar, and that the morphology of white roots was adversely affected not by treatment at pH 2.0 but by excess water-soluble Al in the soil.

  1. A rabbit model of hypersensitivity to plicatic acid, the agent responsible for red cedar asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, H; Tse, K S; Van Oostdam, J; Moreno, R; Pare, P D; Chan-Yeung, M

    1987-05-01

    We describe a rabbit model for the study of the immunogenicity and allergenicity of plicatic acid (PA), the small molecular weight compound in western red cedar responsible for occupational asthma in exposed workers. Specific anti-PA IgE as well as IgG antibodies could be raised, depending on the method of immunization. The sensitized rabbits reacted to antigenic challenge with PA-protein conjugates intravenously, with increases in respiratory frequency and pulmonary resistance. This animal model may be used for the further elucidation of the mechanism of occupational asthma induced by small molecular weight chemical compounds.

  2. Resistance of pine, australian red cedar woods and their derivate products to Cryptotermes brevis attack

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Xisto Ribeiro; Lina Bufalino; Lourival Marin Mendes; Vania Aparecida de Sá; Alexandre dos Santos; Gustavo Henrique Denzin Tonoli

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the resistance of Australian red cedar (Toona ciliata) and pine (Pinus sp.) woods and particleboards made from these species to dry-wood termite Cryptotermes brevis attack, as much as to quantify the mortality of the insects. 30 termite pseudo-workers were put in each 9,5 cm-diameter Petri dishes containing the samples (1,5 x 1,5 x 0,5 cm) and cotton sheets positioned on the perforated covers, daily moisturized with 5 ml of water. The dishes were maintained...

  3. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Computing Team successfully completed the storage, initial processing, and distribution for analysis of proton-proton data in 2011. There are still a variety of activities ongoing to support winter conference activities and preparations for 2012. Heavy ions The heavy-ion run for 2011 started in early November and has already demonstrated good machine performance and success of some of the more advanced workflows planned for 2011. Data collection will continue until early December. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Operational and deployment support for WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request Manager components, routinely used in production by Data Operations, are provided. The GlideInWMS and components installation are now deployed at CERN, which is added to the GlideInWMS factory placed in the US. There has been new operational collaboration between the CERN team and the UCSD GlideIn factory operators, covering each others time zones by monitoring/debugging pilot jobs sent from the facto...

  4. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CMS relies on a well functioning, distributed computing infrastructure. The Site Availability Monitoring (SAM) and the Job Robot submission have been very instrumental for site commissioning in order to increase availability of more sites such that they are available to participate in CSA07 and are ready to be used for analysis. The commissioning process has been further developed, including "lessons learned" documentation via the CMS twiki. Recently the visualization, presentation and summarizing of SAM tests for sites has been redesigned, it is now developed by the central ARDA project of WLCG. Work to test the new gLite Workload Management System was performed; a 4 times increase in throughput with respect to LCG Resource Broker is observed. CMS has designed and launched a new-generation traffic load generator called "LoadTest" to commission and to keep exercised all data transfer routes in the CMS PhE-DEx topology. Since mid-February, a transfer volume of about 12 P...

  5. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of the Condensed Tannins from Alaska Cedar Inner Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Rosales-Castro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and antioxidant activity of condensed tannins isolated from Alaska Cedar inner bark have been investigated. Oligomers of flavan-3-ol were purified by column chromatography (Sephadex LH-20 and analyzed by 13CNMR and MALDI-TOF MS spectrometries. Their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1’-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS free radicals scavenging, ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP, and β-carotene-linoleic acid model system (β-CLAMS assays. Results showed that the condensed tannins consents of both homogeneous and heterogeneous oligomers of procyanidins (catechin/epicatechin and prodelphinidins (gallocatechin/ epigallocatechin flavan-3-ol units; and oligomers from trimmers to heptamers with dominant interflavan linkages B-type as it is most common in proanthocyanidins. Condensed tannins showed significant ntioxidant activity as the median inhibition capacity IC 50 is comparable to the catechin control response. Alaska Cedar inner bark oligomers show high antioxidant capacity, evaluated by both methods based on electron transfer mechanisms and hydrogen atom transfer reactions. This bark may be considered as a new source of natural antioxidants for nutraceutical ingredients.

  6. Growth and quality of australian cedar saplings originated from different multiclonal minigarden systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Peixoto Soares da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forestry researchers often evaluate minicutting vegetative propagation of Australian cedar (Toona ciliata as a viable technique for this species. However, the adoption of minigarden systems for commercial propagation still requires viability and quality testing of saplings produced after multiple harvests. In the present work, we evaluate survival, growth, and quality of Australian cedar saplings grown from minicuttings originating from multiple harvests of ministumps planted in gutter or tube systems. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse using a completely randomized design with a 2 × 4 factorial treatment structure (two minigarden systems and four minicutting harvests. For the gutter system, six minicutting harvests were performed 50, 86, 115, 149, 177 and 212 days after planting ministumps, whereas for the tube system, four harvests were performed 115, 149, 177 and 212 days after planting ministumps. At the end of each sapling production cycle (105 days after each minicutting harvest, saplings were evaluated for survival, foliar area, dry mass of aerial parts, number and length of adventitious roots, dry mass of the root system, height to diameter ratio, ratio between the dry mass of aerial parts and dry mass of root system, and Dickson’s Quality Index. Sapling survival was not affected by minigarden system, except for a reduction observed in fourth cycle saplings from the tube system. Sapling quality was also similar between systems. However, sapling growth potential decreased with production cycle, indicating that ministumps lose vigor with multiple harvests.

  7. Detection of wood discoloration in a canker fungus-inoculated Japanese cedar by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Aoki, Y.; Yamato, M.; Komatsu, M.; Kusumoto, D.; Suzuki, K.; Nakanishi, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron radiography (NRG) was applied to trace the development of discolored tissue in the wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) after being infected with a canker fungus. Japanese cedar seedlings were wound inoculated with a virulent and avirulent isolate of a canker fungus, Guignardia cryptomeriae. Three, 7, 13 and 22 days after the inoculation, the seedlings were irradiated with thermal neutrons. The image on the X-ray film showed that the whiteness in the image corresponded to the water content in the sample. Discolored tissue and surrounding dry zones induced by the fungal inoculation were detected as dark areas, indicating water deficiency with a high resolution. Through image analysis, the dry zones were detected as early as 3 days after inoculation. Neutron images also showed the difference in the size of water deficient parts due to the tissue damage among the treatments. The neutron beam dose used in this experiment had no effect on the growth rate of the fungus on a medium, showing that NRG is an effective method for pathological research of trees. (author)

  8. Estimation of Throughfall and Stemflow Bacterial Flux in a Subtropical Oak-Cedar Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Thais B.; Pound, Preston; Whitetree, Ansley; Moore, L. Dean; Van Stan, John T.

    2018-02-01

    Transport pathways of microbes between ecosystem spheres (atmosphere, phyllosphere, and pedosphere) represent major fluxes in nutrient cycles and have the potential to affect microbially mediated biogeochemical processes. Novel data on bacterial fluxes from the phyllosphere to the pedosphere during rainfall via throughfall (rain dripping from/through the canopy) and stemflow (rain funneled down tree stems) are reported. Bacterial concentrations were quantified using flow cytometry and validated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays in rainfall samples from an oak-cedar forest in coastal Georgia (southeastern U.S.). Bacteria concentrations (cells mL-1) and storm-normalized fluxes (cells m-2 h-1, cells m-2 mm-1) were greater for cedar versus oak. Total bacterial flux was 1.5 × 1016 cells ha-1 yr-1. These previously unexamined bacterial fluxes are interpreted in the context of major elemental pools and fluxes in forests and could represent inoculum-level sources of bacteria (if alive), and organic matter and inorganic solute inputs (if lysed) to soils.

  9. Yellow-Cedar, Callitropsis (Chamaecyparis) nootkatensis, Secondary Metabolites, Biological Activities, and Chemical Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchesy, Joseph J; Kelsey, Rick G; González-Hernández, M P

    2018-05-01

    Yellow-cedar, Callitropsis nootkatensis, is prevalent in coastal forests of southeast Alaska, western Canada, and inland forests along the Cascades to northern California, USA. These trees have few microbial or animal pests, attributable in part to the distinct groups of biologically active secondary metabolites their tissues store for chemical defense. Here we summarize the new yellow-cedar compounds identified and their biological activities, plus new or expanded activities for tissues, extracts, essential oils and previously known compounds since the last review more than 40 years ago. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the most abundant compounds in foliage, while heartwood contains substantial quantities of oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes, with one or more tropolones. Diterpenes occur in foliage and bark, whereas condensed tannins have been isolated from inner bark. Biological activities expressed by one or more compounds in these groups include fungicide, bactericide, sporicide, acaricide, insecticide, general cytotoxicity, antioxidant and human anticancer. The diversity of organisms impacted by whole tissues, essential oils, extracts, or individual compounds now encompasses ticks, fleas, termites, ants, mosquitoes, bacteria, a water mold, fungi and browsing animals. Nootkatone, is a heartwood component with sufficient activity against arthropods to warrant research focused toward potential development as a commercial repellent and biopesticide for ticks, mosquitoes and possibly other arthropods that vector human and animal pathogens.

  10. Microbial diversity in The Cedars, an ultrabasic, ultrareducing, and low salinity serpentinizing ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shino; Ishii, Shun'ichi; Wu, Angela; Cheung, Andrea; Tenney, Aaron; Wanger, Greg; Kuenen, J Gijs; Nealson, Kenneth H

    2013-09-17

    The Cedars, in coastal northern California, is an active site of peridotite serpentinization. The spring waters that emerge from this system feature very high pH, low redox potential, and low ionic concentrations, making it an exceptionally challenging environment for life. We report a multiyear, culture-independent geomicrobiological study of three springs at The Cedars that differ with respect to the nature of the groundwater feeding them. Within each spring, both geochemical properties and microbial diversity in all three domains of life remained stable over a 3-y period, with multiple samples each year. Between the three springs, however, the microbial communities showed considerable differences that were strongly correlated with the source of the serpentinizing groundwater. In the spring fed solely by deep groundwater, phylum Chloroflexi, class Clostridia, and candidate division OD1 were the major taxa with one phylotype in Euryarchaeota. Less-abundant phylotypes include several minor members from other candidate divisions and one phylotype that was an outlier of candidate division OP3. In the springs fed by the mixture of deep and shallow groundwater, organisms close to the Hydrogenophaga within Betaproteobacteria dominated and coexisted with the deep groundwater community members. The shallow groundwater community thus appears to be similar to those described in other terrestrial serpentinizing sites, whereas the deep community is distinctly different from any other previously described terrestrial serpentinizing community. These unique communities have the potential to yield important insights into the development and survival of life in these early-earth analog environments.

  11. A longitudinal study of the occurrence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in western red cedar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedal, S; Enarson, D A; Chan, H; Ochnio, J; Tse, K S; Chan-Yeung, M

    1988-03-01

    Two hundred twenty-seven workers in a western red cedar sawmill underwent methacholine bronchoprovocation testing at least 2 times during 3 surveys over a 2-yr period. At the first survey, workers completed a respiratory and occupational questionnaire, performed spirometry, gave serum for measurement of plicatic acid-specific IgE antibodies by radioallergosorbent testing, and had skin prick tests to detect atopy. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was present initially in 18% of the workers. Approximately 15% of those with initially no hyperresponsiveness developed hyperresponsiveness during the follow-up period; 15% of those with initial hyperresponsiveness also lost it during follow-up. Development of hyperresponsiveness tended to coincide with a decrease in level of pulmonary function, whereas loss of hyperresponsiveness was associated with improvement in pulmonary function. Workers with either persistent bronchial hyperresponsiveness or with varying responsiveness had a higher prevalence of plicatic acid IgE antibodies and lower levels of initial pulmonary function than did workers with persistent nonresponsiveness. Workers with persistent hyperresponsiveness had higher initial estimated total airborne dust exposure than did other workers. Age, duration of sawmill employment, atopy, race, and cigarette smoking did not influence the occurrence of hyperresponsiveness. Levels of plicatic-acid-specific IgE antibodies did not change substantially over the 2 yr. These results indicate that immunologic sensitivity to plicatic acid and change in airway caliber are associated with the occurrence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in cedar workers.

  12. Recombinant pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases from western red cedar (Thuja plicata) catalyze opposite enantiospecific conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, M; Gang, D R; Davin, L B; Lewis, N G

    1999-01-08

    Although the heartwood of woody plants represents the main source of fiber and solid wood products, essentially nothing is known about how the biological processes leading to its formation are initiated and regulated. Accordingly, a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-guided cloning strategy was employed to obtain genes encoding pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases from western red cedar (Thuja plicata) as a means to initiate the study of its heartwood formation. (+)-Pinoresinol-(+)-lariciresinol reductase from Forsythia intermedia was used as a template for primer construction for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplifications, which, when followed by homologous hybridization cloning, resulted in the isolation of two distinct classes of putative pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase cDNA clones from western red cedar. A representative of each class was expressed as a fusion protein with beta-galactosidase and assayed for enzymatic activity. Using both deuterated and radiolabeled (+/-)-pinoresinols as substrates, it was established that each class of cDNA encoded a pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase of different (opposite) enantiospecificity. Significantly, the protein from one class converted (+)-pinoresinol into (-)-secoisolariciresinol, whereas the other utilized the opposite (-)-enantiomer to give the corresponding (+)-form. This differential substrate specificity raises important questions about the role of each of these individual reductases in heartwood formation, such as whether they are expressed in different cells/tissues or at different stages during heartwood development.

  13. Western red cedar dust exposure and lung function: a dose-response relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noertjojo, H K; Dimich-Ward, H; Peelen, S; Dittrick, M; Kennedy, S M; Chan-Yeung, M

    1996-10-01

    The relationship between levels of cumulative red cedar dust exposure and decline in lung function was explored in an 11-yr follow-up study of 243 sawmill workers who participated in at least two occasions. We also studied 140 office workers in a similar manner as control subjects. Workers with asthma were excluded from the analysis. During the period of the study, 916 personal and 216 area samples of dust were collected from the sawmill. Cumulative wood dust exposure was calculated for each sawmill worker according to the duration and exposure in each job, based on the geometric mean of all dust measurements for that job. Average daily dust exposure was calculated by dividing the total cumulative exposure by the number of days of work. Workers were divided into low-, medium-, and high-exposure groups with mean daily level of exposure of 0.4 mg/m3, respectively. Sawmill workers had significantly greater declines in FEV1 and FVC compared with office workers adjusted for age, smoking, and initial lung function. A dose-response relationship was observed between the level of exposure and the annual decline in FVC. We conclude that exposure to Western red cedar dust is associated with a greater decline in lung function which may lead to development of chronic airflow limitation.

  14. Variation of podophyllotoxin in leaves of Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Kent E; Maqbool, Muhammad; Gerard, Patrick D; Bedir, Ebru; Lata, Hemant; Moraes, Rita M

    2003-05-01

    Leaves of Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L. Cupressaceae) have been reported to contain podophyllotoxin, a pharmaceutical compound used to manufacture drugs for treatment of cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, genital warts, psoriasis, and multiple sclerosis. Podophyllotoxin content of leaves of immature, mature male, and mature female plants (approximately 1.45 mg x g -1) was significantly higher than that of leaves of juvenile plants (0.60 mg x g -1). Sampling date also affected podophyllotoxin content. Leaves harvested in January and April exhibited higher podophyllotoxin contents (1.56 and 1.45 mg x g -1, respectively) than leaves harvested in February and June (1.06 and 1.08 mg x g -1, respectively). There was no obvious pattern or trend in the data due to sampling date. There was no significant interaction between plant type and sampling date. These results indicate that foliage of mature Eastern red cedar, a waste product of the lumber industry, could be a low-yielding, but relatively stable, source of podophyllotoxin.

  15. Prophylactic effect of Lactobacillus oral vaccine expressing a Japanese cedar pollen allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkouchi, Kayo; Kawamoto, Seiji; Tatsugawa, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Noboru; Takaoka, Yuki; Miyauchi, Sayumi; Aki, Tsunehiro; Yamashita, Mitsuo; Murooka, Yoshikatsu; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2012-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) represent an attractive delivery vehicle for oral allergy vaccine because of their safety as a food microorganism as well as their potent adjuvant activity triggering anti-allergic immune response. Here, we report the generation of recombinant LAB expressing a major Japanese cedar pollen allergen Cry j 1 (Cry j 1-LAB), and their prophylactic effect in vivo. To facilitate heterologous expression, the codon usage in the Cry j 1 gene was optimized for the host LAB strain Lactobacillus plantarum by the recursive PCR-based exhaustive site-directed mutagenesis. Use of the codon-optimized Cry j 1 cDNA and a lactate dehydrogenase gene fusion system led to a successful production of recombinant Cry j 1 in L. plantarum NCL21. We also found that oral vaccination with the Cry j 1-LAB suppressed allergen-specific IgE response and nasal symptoms in a murine model of cedar pollinosis. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cleaning oil refining drainage waters out of emulsified oil products with thermic treated cedar nut shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatanova, P. A.; Adeeva, L. N.

    2017-08-01

    It was elaborated the ability of the sorbent produced by thermic treatment of cedar nut shell to destruct model and real first kind (direct) emulsions in static and dynamic conditions. In static conditions optimal ratio sorbent-emulsion with the original concentration of oil products 800 mg/l was in the range of 2.0 g per 100 ml of emulsion which corresponds to the level of treatment 94.9%. The time of emulsion destruction was 40 minutes. This sorbent is highly active in dynamic processes of oil-contaminated water treatment, the level of treatment 96.0% is being achieved. Full dynamic sorptive capacity of the sorbent is 0.85 g/g. Sorbent based on the thermic treated cedar nut shell can be elaborated as sorptive filter element of local treatment facilities of oil refining and petrochemical processes. After the treatment with this sorbent of drainage waters of oil refinery in dynamic conditions the concentration of oil products became less than mpc on oil products for waste waters coming to biological treatment.

  17. Flood-inundation maps for Grand River, Red Cedar River, and Sycamore Creek near Lansing, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Matthew; Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2015-08-26

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a total of 19.7 miles of the Grand River, the Red Cedar River, and Sycamore Creek were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Lansing, Michigan, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, show estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at three USGS streamgages: Grand River at Lansing, MI (04113000), Red Cedar River at East Lansing, MI (04112500), and Sycamore Creek at Holt Road near Holt, MI (04112850). Near-real-time stages at these streamgages can be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at all of these sites.

  18. Biologically Important Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from Alaska Cedar Heartwood Essential Oil and Their Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe J. Karchesy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, valencene, nootaktene, carvacrol, methyl carvacrol, nootkatol (2, and eremophil-1(10,11-dien-13-ol (3. The last two compounds were isolated for the first time from Alaska cedar in this research. The absolute stereochemistry at C-2 of nootkatol was shown to have the (S configuration using the Mosher ester method. Assignment of stereochemistry for valencene-13-ol (3 was established by synthesis from valencene (6. Finally, two related sesquiterpenoids were synthesized from nootkatone and valencene. These sesquiterpenoids were nootkatone-1,10-11,12-diepoxide (5 and valencene-13-aldehyde (4, respectively.

  19. Biologically important eremophilane sesquiterpenes from alaska cedar heartwood essential oil and their semi-synthetic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasawneh, Mohammad A; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Karchesy, Joe J

    2011-06-08

    The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, valencene, nootaktene, carvacrol, methyl carvacrol, nootkatol (2), and eremophil-1(10),11-dien-13-ol (3). The last two compounds were isolated for the first time from Alaska cedar in this research. The absolute stereochemistry at C-2 of nootkatol was shown to have the (S) configuration using the Mosher ester method. Assignment of stereochemistry for valencene-13-ol (3) was established by synthesis from valencene (6). Finally, two related sesquiterpenoids were synthesized from nootkatone and valencene. These sesquiterpenoids were nootkatone-1,10-11,12-diepoxide (5) and valencene-13-aldehyde (4), respectively.

  20. Safety evaluation of standardized allergen extract of Japanese cedar pollen for sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitobe, Yuko; Yokomoto, Yasuki; Ohashi-Doi, Katsuyo

    2015-04-01

    Japanese cedar (JC) pollinosis is caused by Japanese cedar pollen (JCP) and most common seasonal allergic disease in Japan. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) with allergen extract of JCP (JCP-allergen extract) is well established for JC pollinosis treatment with improvement of symptoms. However, major drawbacks for SCIT are repeated painful injections, frequent hospital visits and anaphylactic risk. Currently, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has received much attention as an advanced alternative application with lower incidence of systemic reactions because the liquid or tablet form of allergen is placed under the tongue. The aim of this study was safety evaluation of standardized JCP-allergen extract currently developed for SLIT in JC pollinosis. JCP-allergen extract showed no potential genotoxicity. No systemic effects were observed in rats administered JCP-allergen extract orally for 26 weeks followed by 4-week recovery period. Mild local reactions such as hyperplasia and increased globule leukocytes resulting from vehicle (glycerin)-induced irritation were observed in stomach. No-observed-adverse-effect level was greater than 10,000 JAU/kg/day for systemic toxicity, equivalent to 300-fold the human dose. No local irritation was found in rabbits oral mucosae by 7-day sublingual administration. These results demonstrate the safe profile of standardized JCP-allergen extract, suggesting it is suitable for SLIT in JC pollinosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A simple method to estimate radiation interception by nursery stock conifers: a case study of eastern white cedar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Goudriaan, J.; Stilma, E.S.C.; Challa, H.

    2003-01-01

    A simple method was developed to estimate the fraction radiation intercepted by small eastern white cedar plants (Thuja occidentalis 'Brabant'). The method, which describes the crop canopy as rows of cuboids, was compared with methods used for estimating radiation interception by crops with

  2. Nitrogen uptake efficiency by white cedar under different irrigation and fertilisation strategies on a sandy soil: model calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Heinen, M.; Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.

    2007-01-01

    A combined conifer growth-soil water balance model was extended and parameterised to simulate the nitrogen (N) dynamics of a common nursery stock system [i.e., white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) grown for 2 years on a sandy soil]. The model was used to explore the effects on N uptake efficiency

  3. Shifting climate, altered niche, and a dynamic conservation strategy for yellow-cedar in the North Pacific coastal rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Hennon; David V. D' Amore; Paul G. Schaberg; Dustin T. Wittwer; Colin S. Shanley

    2012-01-01

    The extensive mortality of yellow-cedar along more than 1000 kilometers of the northern Pacific coast of North America serves as a leading example of climate effects on a forest tree species. In this article, we document our approaches to resolving the causes of tree death, which we explain as a cascade of interacting topographic, forest-structure, and microclimate...

  4. Biometric-based estimation of net ecosystem production in a mature Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation beneath a flux tower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Yuichiro; Lee, Na-Yeon M; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Shizu, Yoko; Saitoh, Taku M; Koizumi, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Quantification of carbon budgets and cycling in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations is essential for understanding forest functions in Japan because these plantations occupy about 20% of the total forested area. We conducted a biometric estimate of net ecosystem production (NEP) in a mature Japanese cedar plantation beneath a flux tower over a 4-year period. Net primary production (NPP) was 7.9 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) and consisted mainly of tree biomass increment and aboveground litter production. Respiration was calculated as 6.8 (soil) and 3.3 (root) Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). Thus, NEP in the plantation was 4.3 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). In agreement with the tower-based flux findings, this result suggests that the Japanese cedar plantation was a strong carbon sink. The biometric-based NEP was higher among most other types of Japanese forests studied. Carbon sequestration in the mature plantation was characterized by a larger increment in tree biomass and lower mortality than in natural forests. Land-use change from natural forest to Japanese cedar plantation might, therefore, stimulate carbon sequestration and change the carbon allocation of NPP from an increment in coarse woody debris to an increase in tree biomass.

  5. Naturally occurrence of Sr and Ca in the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.; Aoki, T.; Ko, S.; Yoshida, K.

    2000-01-01

    Distribution profiles of Sr and Ca occurring naturally in the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) were determined using PIXE. The average concentration of Sr was around 7.5 ppm and the average Ca concentration was about 540 ppm. (author)

  6. Geomorphic response to flow regulation and channel and floodplain alteration in the gravel-bedded Cedar River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Czuba, Christiana R.

    2012-01-01

    Decadal- to annual-scale analyses of changes to the fluvial form and processes of the Cedar River in Washington State, USA, reveal the effects of flow regulation, bank stabilization, and log-jam removal on a gravel-bedded river in a temperate climate. During the twentieth century, revetments were built along ~ 60% of the lower Cedar River's length and the 2-year return period flow decreased by 47% following flow regulation beginning in 1914. The formerly wide, anastomosing channel narrowed by over 50% from an average of 47 m in 1936 to 23 m in 1989 and became progressively single threaded. Subsequent high flows and localized revetment removal contributed to an increase in mean channel width to about 34 m by 2011. Channel migration rates between 1936 and 2011 were up to 8 m/year in reaches not confined by revetments or valley walls and less than analysis uncertainty throughout most of the Cedar River's length where bank armoring restricted channel movement. In unconfined reaches where large wood and sediment can be recruited, contemporary high flows, though smaller in magnitude than preregulation high flows, form and maintain geomorphic features such as pools, gravel bars, and side channels. Reaches confined by revetments remain mostly unmodified in the regulated flow regime. While high flows are important for maintaining channel dynamics in the Cedar River, their effectiveness is currently reduced by revetments, limited sediment supply, the lack of large wood available for recruitment to the channel, and decreased magnitude since flow regulation.

  7. Oral Administration of Heat-Killed Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 Reduces Cedar Pollen Antigen-Induced Peritoneal Eosinophilia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Sashihara

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: We demonstrated that the oral administration of heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 suppresses eosinophilia via the modulation of Th1/Th2 balance. These observations suggested that heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 might potentially ameliorate the increased number of eosinophils in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis.

  8. Technology Transfer: Learning from Lost Opportunities and Sharing Best Practices--Experiences at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vari, Sandor G.; Laur, James D.

    2006-01-01

    One significant aspect of Cedars-Sinai Medical Center's charitable mission is to ensure that its research results benefit society at large. This is accomplished through researcher education, securing appropriate intellectual property protection and licensing so that inventions are developed into useful products. The Swan-Ganz and Barath balloon…

  9. Comprehensive Education Data and Research System (CEDARS) Data Manual: 2012-2013 School Year. Version 5.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Randy; Came, Deb

    2012-01-01

    The Comprehensive Education Data and Research System (CEDARS) is a longitudinal data system that will allow Washington's Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) to collect, store and report data related to students, courses, and teachers in order to meet state and federal reporting requirements and to help educators and policy makers…

  10. 77 FR 3840 - Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd.-Lease Exemption-Line of Cedar Rapids and Iowa City Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Surface Transportation Board Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd.--Lease Exemption--Line of Cedar Rapids and Iowa City Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of Exemption. SUMMARY.... 10902 for Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd. (IAIS), a Class II rail carrier, to lease and operate 8.4 miles...

  11. Influence of soil site class on growth and decay of northern white-cedar and two associates in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.V. Hofmeyer; R.S. Seymour; L.S. Kenefic

    2009-01-01

    Basal area growth of outwardly sound northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) was compared with that of balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) across site and light exposure class gradients on 60 sites throughout northern Maine. Once adjusted for sapwood area,...

  12. Fine root dynamics in moso bamboo and Japanese cedar forest by scanner method in central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Po-Hsuan; Kume, Tomonori

    2017-04-01

    is to characterize the temporal and spatial variation of fine root dynamics in moso bamboo forests in central Taiwan by using scanner method with 6 acrylic boxes. Other the other hand, this study compared the result with those of adjacent Japanese cedar forests with 8 acrylic boxes. Consequently, we found the fine root production rate and decomposition rate of the bamboo forest are higher than cedar forest. Also, the timing of first observation of new roots was earlier in bamboo forest than cedar forest. This study also examined differences of temporal patterns among measurement locations based on long-term data after box installation.

  13. ROOTING OF MINICUTTINGS AND MANAGED PRODUCTIVITY OF AUSTRALIAN CEDAR MINISTRAINS GROWN IN LIFTED SEEDBEDS AND TUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Peixoto Soares da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987552The planted forest stands aim to supply the growing demand for wood, especially for the sawing and veneer industries, that exclusively used wood from native forests. The Australian cedar (Toona ciliata belongs to the family Meliaceae, is the species of interest for this sector. Studies with the Australian cedar propagation have carried out in latest years, mainly involving the use of mini-cuttings due to the need for high quality cuttings. The objectives of this paper were to evaluate the rooting and the productive capacity of Australian cedar mini-strains, managed in lifted seedbeds and 180 cm3 plastic tubes systems. So, two mini-clone                                                                      gardens were set up. The mini-strains of both gardens were grown from cut-off seedlings originated from seeds. Successive collections of sprouts were carried out to get the mini-cuttings. Afterwards, they remained in the rooting area under intermittent mist. Thirty days later the rooting characteristics of the cuttings originated from both mini-gardens were evaluated. The period of permanence of the cuttings in the gardens was seven-month long. During this period, six collections from the lifted seedbed and four from the plastic tubes were carried out. The mini-strains in the two systems showed 100% of survival rate. At the end of this seven-month period, an increasing tendency of the average number of mini-cutting was found out in both systems. Those from the lifted seedbed showed more productivity than those ones from the tubes. The plants from the mini-cuttings of the tube showed higher number and length of adventitious roots at the end rooting stage.

  14. Carbon, cesium and iodine isotopes in Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T; Cresswell, Alan J; Dunbar, Elaine; Freeman, Stewart P H T; Hou, Xiaolin; Kinch, Helen; Naysmith, Philip; Sanderson, David W C; Zhang, Luyuan

    2016-01-01

    Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima were analyzed for carbon, cesium and iodine isotopic compositions before and after the 2011 nuclear accident. The Δ 14 C values reflect ambient atmospheric 14 C concentrations during the year the leaves were sampled/defoliated, and also previous year(s). The elevated 129 I and 134,137 Cs concentrations are attributed to direct exposure to the radioactive fallout for the pre-fallout-expended leaves and to internal translocation from older parts of the tree for post-fallout-expended leaves. 134 Cs/ 137 Cs and 129 I/ 137 Cs activity ratios suggest insignificant isotopic and elemental fractionation during translocation. However, fractionation between radioiodine and radiocesium is significant during transportation from the source.

  15. Carbon, cesium and iodine isotopes in Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Xu; Cresswell, A.J.; Cook, G.T.; Dunbar, Elaine; Freeman, S.P.H.T.; Kinch, Helen; Naysmith, Philip; Sanderson, D.W.C.; Xiaolin Hou; Luyuan Zhang; Xi'an AMS Center, SKLLQG, CAS, Xi'an

    2016-01-01

    Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima were analyzed for carbon, cesium and iodine isotopic compositions before and after the 2011 nuclear accident. The Δ 14 C values reflect ambient atmospheric 14 C concentrations during the year the leaves were sampled/defoliated, and also previous year(s). The elevated 129 I and 134,137 Cs concentrations are attributed to direct exposure to the radioactive fallout for the pre-fallout-expended leaves and to internal translocation from older parts of the tree for post-fallout-expended leaves. 134 Cs/ 137 Cs and 129 I/ 137 Cs activity ratios suggest insignificant isotopic and elemental fractionation during translocation. However, fractionation between radioiodine and radiocesium is significant during transportation from the source. (author)

  16. Monolignol radical-radical coupling networks in western red cedar and Arabidopsis and their evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung K.; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of a nine-member multigene dirigent family involved in control of monolignol radical-radical coupling in the ancient gymnosperm, western red cedar, suggested that a complex multidimensional network had evolved to regulate such processes in vascular plants. Accordingly, in this study, the corresponding promoter regions for each dirigent multigene member were obtained by genome-walking, with Arabidopsis being subsequently transformed to express each promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. It was found that each component gene of the proposed network is apparently differentially expressed in individual tissues, organs and cells at all stages of plant growth and development. The data so obtained thus further support the hypothesis that a sophisticated monolignol radical-radical coupling network exists in plants which has been highly conserved throughout vascular plant evolution.

  17. Dinosaur tracks from the Cedar Mountain Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Arches National Park, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Martin G.; White, Diane K.; Kirkland, James I.; Santucci, Vincent L.

    2004-01-01

    The seventh and largest known dinosaur tracksite from the Cedar Mountain Formation is reported from two important stratigraphic levels in the Ruby Ranch Member within the boundaries of Arches National Park. Previous reports of sites with a few isolated tracks are of limited utility in indicating the fauna represented by track makers. The Arches site reveals evidence of several theropod morphotypes, including a possible match for the coelurosaur Nedcolbertia and an apparently didactyl Utahraptor-like dromeosaurid. Sauropod tracks indicate a wide-gauge morphotype (cf. Brontopodus). Ornithischian tracks suggest the presence of an iguandontid-like ornithopod and a large ankylosaur. Dinosaur track diversity is high in comparison with other early Cretaceous vertebrate ichnofaunas, and it correlates well with faunal lists derived from skeletal remains, thus providing a convincing census of the known fauna.

  18. Osteology of the basal hadrosauroid Eolambia caroljonesa (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) from the Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Andrew T; Bird, John; Kirkland, James I; Dodson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Eolambia caroljonesa is known from copious remains from the lower Cenomanian Mussentuchit Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation in eastern Utah; however, the taxon has been only briefly described. Thus, we present herein a complete osteological description of Eolambia. The description of Eolambia presented here is based upon the holotype partial skeleton (CEUM 9758), paratype partial skull (CEUM 5212), and abundant disarticulated elements from two bonebeds that contain juvenile individuals. These remains allow the skeletal anatomy of Eolambia to be documented almost fully and a revised diagnosis to be proposed. The description provided here facilitates comparisons between Eolambia and other iguanodontians and allows Eolambia to be coded for additional characters in phylogenetic analyses. The close affinity between Eolambia and Probactrosaurus gobiensis from the Early Cretaceous of China supports previous hypotheses of faunal interchange between Asia and North America in the early Late Cretaceous.

  19. Individual taper models for natural cedar and Taurus fir mixed stands of Bucak Region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Özçelik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the performance of different types of taper equations for predicting tree diameters at specific heights and total stem volumes for mixed stands of Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Taurus fir (Abies cilicica Carr.. We used data from mixed stands containing a total of 131 cedar and 124 Taurus fir trees. We evaluated six commonly used and well-known forestry taper functions developed by a variety of researchers (Biging (1984, Zakrzewski (1999, Muhairwe (1999, Fang et al. (2000, Kozak (2004, and Sharma and Zhang (2004. To address problems related to autocorrelation and multicollinearity in the hierarchical data associated with the construction of taper models, we used appropriate statistical procedures for the model fitting. We compared model performances based on the analysis of three goodness-of-fit statistics and found the compatible segmented model of Fang et al. (2000 to be superior in describing the stem profile and stem volume of both tree species in mixed stands. The equation used by Zakrzewski (1999 exhibited the poorest fitting results of the three taper equations. In general, we found segmented taper equations to provide more accurate predictions than variable-form models for both tree species. Results from the non-linear extra sum of squares method indicate that stem tapers differ among tree species in mixed stands. Therefore, a different taper function should be used for each tree species in mixed stands in the Bucak district. Using individual-specific taper equations yields more robust estimations and, therefore, will enhance the prediction accuracy of diameters at different heights and volumes in mixed stands.

  20. Spatial and temporal variations in sap flux density in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) trees, central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Han; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Wey, Tsong-Huei; Kume, Tomonori

    2013-04-01

    Sap flow measurement method is a technique widely used for measuring forest transpiration. However, variations in sap flow distribution can make accurately estimating individual tree-scale transpiration difficult. Significant spatial variations in sap flow across the sapwood within tree have been reported in many studies. In contrast, few studies have discussed azimuthal variations in sap flow, and even fewer have examined their seasonal change characteristics. This study was undertaken to clarify within-tree special and temporal variations in sap flow, and to propose an appropriate design for individual-tree scale transpiration estimates for Japanese cedar trees. The measurement was conducted in a Japanese cedar plantation located in Central Taiwan. Spatial distribution of sap flux density through the sapwood cross-section was measured using Granier's thermal dissipation technique. Sensors were installed at 1.3 m high on the east, west, north and south sides of the stem at 0-2 cm in 8 trees, and at 2-4 cm in the 6 larger trees. We found, in radial profile analysis, that sap flux densities measured at the depth of 2-4 cm were 50 % in average of those measured at depth of 0-2 cm. In azimuthal profile analysis, we found significant azimuthal variations in sap flux density. In one individual tree, the ratio of sap flux density on one aspect to another could be approximately 40-190 %, with no dependency on directions. Both radial and azimuthal profiles in most sample trees were fairly consistent throughout the measurement period. We concluded that radial and azimuthal variations in sap flow across sapwood might introduce significant errors in individual tree-scale transpiration estimations based on single point sap flow measurement, and seasonal change of within-tree spatial variations in sap flow could have insignificant impacts on accuracy of long-term individual tree-scale transpiration estimates. Keywords: transpiration, sap flow measurement, scaling up, sap flow

  1. Relationship between freezing tolerance and shoot water relations of western red cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossnickle, S C

    1992-10-01

    Freezing tolerance and shoot water relations parameters of western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn) seedlings were measured every 2 weeks from October 1989 to April 1990. Freezing tolerance, measured by freeze-induced electrolyte leakage, showed seasonal shifts in the temperature causing 50% foliage electrolyte leakage (LT(50)). The LT(50) value was -4 degrees C in October, it decreased to -20 degrees C in February and then increased to -6 degrees C in April. The foliage index of injury at -10 degrees C (II(-10)) also showed seasonal shifts from a high of 98% in October to a low of 18% in February followed by an increase to 82% in April. Osmotic potentials at saturation (Psi(s(sat))) and turgor loss point (Psi(s(tlp))) were, respectively, -1.07 and -1.26 MPa in October, -1.57 and -2.43 MPa in January, and -1.04 and -1.86 MPa in April. Dry weight fraction (DWF) increased and symplastic volume at full turgor (V(o)) decreased during the fall-winter acclimation phase, whereas DWF decreased and V(o) increased during the late winter-spring deacclimation phase. Relationships between seasonal patterns of freezing tolerance and shoot water relations parameters showed that LT(50) and II(-10) decreased linearly as Psi(s(tlp)) and V(o) decreased and DWF increased. There was no discernible difference in the relationship during fall acclimation or spring deacclimation. The freezing dehydration index at -10 degrees C (FDI(-10)) declined from 0.69 in November to 0.41 in February and increased to 0.56 in April. The value of II(-10) decreased linearly as FDI(-10) decreased, although a measurement made on actively growing spring foliage did not fit this relationship. The results indicate that seasonal changes in freezing tolerance of western red cedar are partially due to changes in tissue water content, symplastic volume, passive osmotic adjustment and FDI(-10).

  2. Involvement of immunologic mechanisms in a guinea pig model of western red cedar asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, H; Howard, S; Chan, H; Dryden, P; Chan-Yeung, M

    1994-05-01

    Western red cedar asthma is the most common form of occupational asthma in the Pacific Northwest. Plicatic acid (PA) is the chemical component of Western red cedar that causes asthma. The role of immunologic processes involved in the PA-induced asthmatic reaction has not been established. To characterize the mechanisms of PA-induced asthmatic reaction, guinea pigs were sensitized to PA through biweekly injection of PA-ovalbumin conjugate with aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant for a period of 6 months. Specific IgG1 antibodies to PA were detected in the blood 3 months after sensitization of animals. The level of specific IgG1 antibodies to ovalbumin after 6 months was about two times the level of specific IgG1 to PA. At 6 months, tracheal tissue from PA-ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs contracted after exposure to either PA or ovalbumin in vitro. The degree of contraction induced by PA was two to three times less than the contraction induced by ovalbumin. PA caused histamine, prostaglandin D2, and leukotriene D4 release from both lung mast cells and blood basophils. The amount of histamine and eicosanoids released by PA was also two to three times less than the amount of mediators released by ovalbumin. When the trachea of normal guinea pigs was passively sensitized with serum from PA-ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs, it contracted in response to PA or ovalbumin in an organ bath. When the serum of PA-ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs was depleted of immunoglobulins and then used for passive sensitization of normal trachea, no contraction was observed when challenged with PA, suggesting that IgG1 antibodies mediate the tracheal reaction to PA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Immunologic studies of the mechanisms of occupational asthma caused by western red cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, A; Chan, H; Dryden, P; Salari, H; Lam, S; Chan-Yeung, M

    1993-09-01

    Occupational asthma caused by western red cedar (Thuja plicata) is a common problem in sawmill industries. The objective of this study was to examine the cellular and immunologic mechanisms of western red cedar asthma (WRCA) more closely. Bronchial biopsy specimens, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) mast cells and peripheral blood basophils from patients with WRCA, patients with atopic asthma, and nonatopic control subjects were challenged in vitro with plicatic acid (PA), PA-human serum albumin conjugate (PA-HSA), grass pollen, or calcium ionophore. PA (100 micrograms/ml) released histamine from the basophils of 9 of 11 patients with WRCA, 1 of 7 patients with atopic asthma, and 2 of 7 normal subjects. PA triggered histamine release from 10 of 11 bronchial biopsy specimens and 8 of 8 BAL samples from patients with WRCA. Interestingly, PA released histamine from BAL cells and bronchial biopsy specimens from 3 of 7 normal subjects but in none of the patients with atopic asthma. PA-HSA-induced histamine release from basophils and biopsy specimens was confined to patients with WRCA. PA-specific IgE was not detectable in serum from most patients with WRCA, and their serum did not transfer PA sensitivity to human lung fragments or lactate-stripped basophils. After pretreatment with anti-IgE in the absence of calcium, basophils from 14 subjects with WRCA still responded to PA (mean 64% to 67% of pretreatment response), whereas responses to grass pollen or anti-IgE were abolished. This study confirms that PA releases histamine from bronchial mast cells of most patients with WRCA but not from those of patients with atopic asthma. The PA response of some normal subjects suggests that PA may have both specific and nonspecific actions on mast cells and basophils, whereas the serologic studies indicate histamine release in WRCA cannot simply be attributed to PA-specific IgE.

  4. Leaf longevity of western red cedar (Thuja plicata) increases with depth in the canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Benjamin A; Duursma, Remko A; Marshall, John D

    2005-05-01

    Leaf longevity determines the annual cost of replacing foliage biomass and influences water and nutrient budgets. Longevity is readily estimated in most evergreen species by annual bud scars along the shoot. However, some species with indeterminate growth do not show these annual markers, making estimation of longevity difficult. One of these species is the widespread and economically valuable western red cedar (Thuja plicata J. Donn ex D. Don), for which no dependable estimates of leaf longevity exist. In this study, we estimated leaf longevity for western red cedar by counting growth rings in shoots at the point of leaf abscission. Estimates were obtained on 26 dominant or codominant trees growing in natural stands in a montane forest in northern Idaho, USA. Leaf longevity averaged 8.9 (SE = 0.2) years, but it strongly increased with depth in the canopy (0.3 year m(-1); mean crown depth was 15 m), increasing from a mean of 6.8 years in the upper third of the canopy to 10.6 years in the lower third. The increase in longevity with depth in the crown is consistent with many reports showing that longevity increases in resource-limiting environments. Longevity did not vary significantly with altitude or solar insolation in these montane forests. Among stand-level variables, longevity was correlated only with leaf area index: it increased slightly in stands with high leaf area indices. This approach to longevity estimation may be useful for any species that produces annual rings but no obvious bud scars, including many Cupressaceae species.

  5. Effect of Cedar Honey in the Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sanatkhani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Oral Lichen Planus(OLPis a chronic mucocutaneus disease with an immunological etiology. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Cedar honey in treatment of erosive- atrophic OLP.Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with confirmed clinical and histopathologic of OLP participated in a randomized clinical trial in Mashhad Dental School.Patients were randomly allocated in two groups. Both groups received the standard treatment of OLP (dexamethasone mouthwash 0.5mg 3 times daily and fluconazole capsule 100 mg daily.Intervention group received Cedar honey (20 ml 3 times daily , swish and swallow techniquein addition to standard treatment. The patients were followed for 4 weeks.The pain and severity of the lesions were recorded at the initial visit and follow ups. All recorded data were analyzed with chi- square, T test, ANOVA using SPSS version 11.5and p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results: Thirty patients were included in the study. Both groups had markedly reduction in pain, size of erosive area and atrophic lesions specially in first follow up but there was not a significant different between two groups (p>0.05. Honey was effective in healing of ulcerative lesions.(The average recovery in experimental group was 69% while the average relief of ulcerative lesion in control group was 50%.but this difference was not significant(p=0.896Conclusion :No significant difference was found in the treatment of atrophic and erosive lesions of OLP by using honey as an alternative treatment, but it may be effective in ulcerative lesions of OLP , although more research with larger sample size is necessary.

  6. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy characterization of the adhesion of conidia from Penicillium expansum to cedar wood substrata at different pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abed, Soumya; Ibnsouda, Saad Koraichi; Latrache, Hassan; Meftah, Hasna; Tahri, Nezha Joutey; Hamadi, Fatima

    2012-04-01

    Initial microbial adhesion to surfaces is a complicated process that is affected by a number of factors. An important property of a solution that may influence adhesion is pH. The surface properties of the cedar wood were characterized by the sessile drop technique. Moreover, the interfacial free energy of surface adhesion to the cedar wood was determined under pH values (2, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11). The results showed that cedar wood examined at different pH levels could be considered hydrophobic ranged from Giwi = -13.1 mJ/m(2) to Giwi = -75 mJ/m(2). We noted that the electron-donor character of cedar wood was important at both basic and limit acidic conditions (pH 11 and pH 3) and it decreased at intermediate pH (pH 5). The cedar wood substratum presents a weak electron acceptor under various pH's. In addition, the adhesion of conidia from Penicilllium expansum to the cedar wood surfaces at different pH values (2, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11) was investigated using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy and image analysis was assessed with the Mathlab(®) program. The data analysis showed that the conidia from P. expansum were strongly influenced by the pH. The maximum adhesion occurs in the pH 11 and pH 3 and decreased to 24% at pH 5.

  7. Census Cities experiment in urban change detection. [mapping of land use changes in San Francisco, Washington D.C., Phoenix, Tucson, Boston, New Haven, Cedar Rapids, and Pontiac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, J. R. (Principal Investigator); Milazzo, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Mapping of 1970 and 1972 land use from high-flight photography has been completed for all test sites: San Francisco, Washington, Phoenix, Tucson, Boston, New Haven, Cedar Rapids, and Pontiac. Area analysis of 1970 and 1972 land use has been completed for each of the mandatory urban areas. All 44 sections of the 1970 land use maps of the San Francisco test site have been officially released through USGS Open File at 1:62,500. Five thousand copies of the Washington one-sheet color 1970 land use map, census tract map, and point line identification map are being printed by USGS Publication Division. ERTS-1 imagery for each of the eight test sites is being received and analyzed. Color infrared photo enlargements at 1:100,000 of ERTS-1 MSS images of Phoenix taken on October 16, 1972 and May 2, 1973 are being analyzed to determine to what level land use and land use changes can be identified and to what extent the ERTS-1 imagery can be used in updating the 1970 aircraft photo-derived land use data base. Work is proceeding on the analysis of ERTS-1 imagery by computer manipulation of ERTS-1 MSS data in digital format. ERTS-1 CCT maps at 1:24,000 are being analyzed for two dates over Washington and Phoenix. Anniversary tape sets have been received at Purdue LARS for some additional urban test sites.

  8. Variation of radiocesium concentrations in cedar pollen in the Okutama area since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruoka, H.; Inoue, K.; Sakano, Y.; Hamada, M.; Shimizu, H.; Fukushi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to releases of radionuclides in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) has been incorporated into large varieties of plant species and soil types. There is a possibility that radiocesium taken into plants is being diffused by pollen. Radiocesium concentrations in cedar pollen have been measured in Ome City, located in the Okutama area of metropolitan Tokyo, for the past 3 y. In this research, the variation of radiocesium concentrations was analysed by comparing data from 2011 to 2014. Air dose rates at 1 m above the ground surface in Ome City from 2011 to 2014 showed no significant difference. Concentration of 137 Cs contained in the cedar pollen in 2012 was about half that in 2011. Between 2012 and 2014, the concentration decreased by approximately one-fifth, which was similar to the result of a press release distributed by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. (authors)

  9. Recurrent nocturnal asthma after bronchoprovocation with Western Red Cedar sawdust: association with acute increase in non-allergic bronchial responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, D W; Hoeppner, V H; Werner, G D

    1984-01-01

    Recurrent nocturnal asthma following a single exposure to Western Red Cedar sawdust was documented by measurements of peak flow rates in two sensitized subjects. The nocturnal asthma followed a dual asthmatic response in the first subject and a late (non-immediate) asthmatic response in the second. Both subjects developed a 10-fold reduction in the dose of histamine required to decrease the FEV1 by 20%. This cedar-induced increase in non-specific bronchial reactivity was maximal at the time of the recurrent nocturnal asthma, and persisted after nocturnal asthma had ceased and after FEV1 had returned to normal. We hypothesize that the enhanced non-specific bronchial reactivity which occurs following late asthmatic responses to bronchial challenge is the cause of recurrent nocturnal asthma following single exposure to a sensitizing agent.

  10. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in pollen of Atlas cedar: first steps towards a new palaeoecological proxy for Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Benjamin; Fletcher, William; Ryan, Peter; Grant, Helen; Ilmen, Rachid

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of stable carbon isotopes can provide information on climate and the environmental conditions at different growth stages of the plant, both past and present. Carbon isotope discrimination in plant tissue is already well understood, and can be used as a drought stress indicator for semi-arid regions. Stable carbon isotope ratios measured directly on pollen provides the potential for the development of long-term environmental proxies (spanning thousands of years), as pollen is well preserved in the environment. Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica Endl. Manetti ex Carrière), is an ideal test case to develop a pollen stable carbon isotope proxy. The tree grows across a wide altitudinal and climatic range and is extremely sensitive to moisture availability. The pollen is abundant, and easily identifiable to the species level in pollen analysis because different cedar species are geographically confined to different regions of the world. In 2015 we sampled 76 individual cedar trees across latitudinal, altitudinal and environmental gradients, highly focused on the Middle Atlas region of Morocco, with 25 additional samples from botanical gardens across Europe and the US to extend these gradients. Here, we report new stable carbon isotope data from pollen, leaf and stem wood from these samples with a view to assessing and quantifying species-specific fractionation effects associated with pollen production. The isotopic response of individual trees at local and wider geographical scales to altitude and climatic conditions is presented. This research forms part of an ongoing PhD project working to develop and calibrate a modern carbon isotope proxy in Atlas cedar pollen, which can ultimately be applied to fossil sequences and complement existing multi-proxy records (e.g. pollen analysis in lake sediments, tree-rings).

  11. Geomorphic Framework to assess changes to aquatic habitat due to flow regulation and channel and floodplain alteration, Cedar River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Little, Rand

    2010-01-01

    Flow regulation, bank armoring, and floodplain alteration since the early 20th century have contributed to significant changes in the hydrologic regime and geomorphic processes of the Cedar River in Washington State. The Cedar River originates in the Cascade Range, provides drinking water to the Seattle metropolitan area, and supports several populations of anadromous salmonids. Flow regulation currently has limited influence on the magnitude, duration, and timing of high-flow events, which affect the incubation of salmonids as well as the production and maintenance of their habitat. Unlike structural changes to the channel and floodplain, flow regulation may be modified in the short-term to improve the viability of salmon populations. An understanding of the effects of flow regulation on those populations must be discerned over a range of scales from individual floods that affect the size of individual year classes to decadal high flow regime that influences the amount and quality of channel and off-channel habitat available for spawning and rearing. We present estimates of reach-scale sediment budgets and changes to channel morphology derived from historical orthoimagery, specific gage analyses at four long-term streamflow-gaging stations to quantify trends in aggradation, and hydrologic statistics of the magnitude and duration of peak streamflows. These data suggest a gradient of channel types from unconfined, sediment-rich segments to confined, sediment-poor segments that are likely to have distinct responses to high flows. Particle-size distribution data and longitudinal water surface and streambed profiles for the 56 km downstream of Chester Morse Lake measured in 2010 show the spatial extent of preferred salmonid habitat along the Cedar River. These historical and current data constitute a geomorphic framework to help assess different river management scenarios for salmonid habitat and population viability. PDF version of a presentation on changes to aquatic

  12. Follow-up study of 232 patients with occupational asthma caused by western red cedar (Thuja plicata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, M; MacLean, L; Paggiaro, P L

    1987-05-01

    A total of 232 patients with red cedar asthma diagnosed by inhalation provocation tests were observed an average of 4 years after the initial diagnosis. The status during the follow-up examination was as follows: 96 patients continued to work with red cedar, and 136 left the industry and had no further exposure to red cedar in their jobs or hobbies. Of the 136 patients who left the industry, only 55 (40.4%) recovered completely, whereas the remaining 81 (59.6%) continued to experience attacks of asthma of varying severity. The initial pulmonary function tests were significantly higher among the asymptomatic group compared to the symptomatic group (FEV1 99.3 +/- 2.7% versus 90.5 +/- 2.2% predicted, respectively). Methacholine PC20 during the initial examination was higher among the asymptomatic group than in the symptomatic group (1.46 +/- 3.96 mg/ml versus 0.77 +/- 4.52 mg/ml, respectively). These findings indicate that the patients in the asymptomatic group were diagnosed at an earlier stage of the disease. This observation was confirmed by the significantly shorter duration of symptoms before diagnosis among the asymptomatic patients compared to the symptomatic patients (1.6 +/- 1.9 versus 2.6 +/- 4.3 years). Race, smoking status, immediate skin reactivity, and presence of plicatic acid-specific IgE antibodies did not influence the outcome of these patients. Of the 96 patients who continued to work with red cedar, 47 were exposed daily, whereas 41 were exposed intermittently.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Occupational asthma and rhinitis due to Western red cedar (Thuja plicate), with special reference to bronchial reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandevia, Bryan; Milne, James

    1970-01-01

    Gandevia, B., and Milne, J. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 235-244. Occupational asthma and rhinitis due to Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), with special reference to bronchial reactivity. With the increasing use of Western, or Canadian, red cedar (Thuja plicata) in the timber industry, a distinctive respiratory syndrome of rhinitis and asthma has been observed with increasing frequency in clinical and industrial practice. Six cases of asthma and four of rhinitis are described in some detail; the onset of symptoms some hours after exposure, the nocturnal predominance of symptoms, especially of cough, and their persistence for days or weeks after cessation of exposure may conspire to make diagnosis difficult if the occupational hazard is not appreciated. Both immediate and late skin reactions to extracts of Western red cedar were mild or absent, and serum precipitins were absent in the two cases in which they were sought. Positive bronchial reactions, reflected in serial estimations of ventilatory capacity, occurred in response to provocative inhalations of extracts of the cedar dust, commonly at four to six hours and at night, rarely within the first hour. In some instances, a single provocative exposure to the nebulized extract over 90 seconds was shown to produce exacerbations of asthma for two or three successive nights, with normal or reduced ventilatory capacity during the intervening days. Regularly recurring asthma after an isolated exposure has not previously been documented, and is perhaps of fundamental importance to the understanding of non-occupational asthma. Bronchial reactions were not observed to house dust extract, to which patients consistently showed dermal sensitivity. Symptoms subsided gradually when exposure was avoided, but there was considerable individual variation as to how much exposure could be tolerated without relapse; symptomatic therapy, with or without specific hyposensitization, did not adequately control the symptoms. PMID

  14. Cellular and protein changes in bronchial lavage fluid after late asthmatic reaction in patients with red cedar asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S; LeRiche, J; Phillips, D; Chan-Yeung, M

    1987-07-01

    To investigate the sequence of cellular and protein changes after a late asthmatic reaction (LAR), bronchial lavage was carried out in 44 patients with red cedar asthma at different time intervals after bronchial challenge with plicatic acid. The results were compared to five patients with red cedar asthma who became asymptomatic after removal from exposure to red cedar for more than 2 months and 31 healthy subjects without asthma. The LAR was found to be associated with an increase in eosinophils in the lavage fluid, an increase in sloughing of bronchial epithelial cells, and an increase in degenerated cells consisting mainly of degenerated epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. There was an increase in vascular permeability as reflected by an increase in albumin in the lavage fluid. Although there was a slight but significant increase in neutrophils 48 hours after bronchial challenge, neutrophil infiltration was not a prominent feature earlier. The potential role of loss of epithelial cells to account for an increase in nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness after an LAR was discussed.

  15. Coupling legacy geomorphic surface facies to riparian vegetation: Assessing red cedar invasion along the Missouri River downstream of Gavins Point dam, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Samantha L.; Knox, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Floods increase fluvial complexity by eroding established surfaces and creating new alluvial surfaces. As dams regulate channel flow, fluvial complexity often decreases and the hydro-eco-geomorphology of the riparian habitat changes. Along the Missouri River, flow regulation resulted in channel incision of 1-3 m within the study area and disconnected the pre-dam floodplain from the channel. Evidence of fluvial complexity along the pre-dam Missouri River floodplain can be observed through the diverse depositional environments represented by areas of varying soil texture. This study evaluates the role of flow regulation and depositional environment along the Missouri River in the riparian invasion of red cedar downstream of Gavins Point dam, the final dam on the Missouri River. We determine whether invasion began before or after flow regulation, determine patterns of invasion using Bayesian t-tests, and construct a Bayesian multivariate linear model of invaded surfaces. We surveyed 59 plots from 14 riparian cottonwood stands for tree age, plot composition, plot stem density, and soil texture. Red cedars existed along the floodplain prior to regulation, but at a much lower density than today. We found 2 out of 565 red cedars established prior to regulation. Our interpretation of depositional environments shows that the coarser, sandy soils reflect higher energy depositional pre-dam surfaces that were geomorphically active islands and point bars prior to flow regulation and channel incision. The finer, clayey soils represent lower energy depositional pre-dam surfaces, such as swales or oxbow depressions. When determining patterns of invasion for use in a predictive statistical model, we found that red cedar primarily establishes on the higher energy depositional pre-dam surfaces. In addition, as cottonwood age and density decrease, red cedar density tends to increase. Our findings indicate that flow regulation caused hydrogeomorphic changes within the study area that

  16. Uptake and translocation of radiocesium in cedar leaves following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikiori, Tatsuhiro [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Watanabe, Mirai, E-mail: watanabe.mirai@nies.go.jp [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Koshikawa, Masami K.; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Ishii, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Takenaka, Akio [Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Watanabe, Keiji [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115 (Japan); Hayashi, Seiji [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    Cryptomeria japonica trees in the area surrounding Fukushima, Japan, intercepted {sup 137}Cs present in atmospheric deposits soon after the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. To study the uptake and translocation of {sup 137}Cs in C. japonica leaves, we analyzed activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and the concentration ratios of {sup 137}Cs to {sup 133}Cs ({sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs) in old and new leaves of C. japonica collected from a forest on Mount Tsukuba between 9 and 15 months after the accident. Both isotopes were also analyzed in throughfall, bulk precipitation and soil extracts. Water of atmospheric and soil origin were used as proxies for deciphering the absorption from leaf surfaces and root systems, respectively. Results indicate that 20–40% of foliar {sup 137}Cs existed inside the leaf, while 60–80% adhered to the leaf surface. The {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios inside leaves that had sprouted before the accident were considerably higher than that of the soil extract and lower than that of throughfall and bulk precipitation. Additionally, more than 80% of {sup 137}Cs in throughfall and bulk precipitation was present in the dissolved form, which is available for foliar uptake, indicating that a portion of the {sup 137}Cs inside old leaves was presumably absorbed from the leaf surface. New leaves that sprouted after the accident had similar {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios to that of the old leaves, suggesting that internal {sup 137}Cs was translocated from old to new leaves. For 17 species of woody plants other than C. japonica, new leaves that sprouted after the accident also contained {sup 137}Cs, and their {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios were equal to or higher than that of the soil extract. These results suggested that foliar uptake and further translocation of {sup 137}Cs is an important vector of contamination in various tree species during or just after radioactive fallout. - Highlights: • {sup 137}Cs was absorbed into cedar leaves

  17. Growth Response of Northern White-Cedar (Thuja occidentalis to Natural Disturbances and Partial Cuts in Mixedwood Stands of Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Ruel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis is a species of high commercial and ecological value, the abundance of which has been declining since the middle of the 19th century. Very little information regarding its silviculture in mixedwood stands is currently available, even though a significant portion of wood resources comes from these stands. The present study is a retrospective analysis of white-cedar growth in partially harvested mixedwood stands of western Quebec, Canada. Eight stands distributed across two regions were analyzed. Dendrochronological approaches examined long-term diameter growth for sample white-cedar trees and stems of associated species. These approaches were used to reconstruct stand characteristics at the time of harvesting, together with local harvesting intensity. The study demonstrated white-cedar’s capacity to maintain good growth for long periods of time and at large tree sizes. Accession to the upper canopy positions occurs through repeated episodes of suppression/release, most of which seem to be associated with spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana outbreaks. White-cedar response to partial harvesting varies with tree size, residual basal area and species composition. Growth response was generally stronger for small trees, even though large trees still maintained the best diameter growth. Growth of white-cedar was negatively affected by an increase in softwood proportion in basal area. Growth responses to harvesting could be sustained for a period of 20 years.

  18. Microbial nitrification in throughfall of a Japanese cedar associated with archaea from the tree canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Keiji; Kohzu, Ayato; Suda, Wataru; Yamamura, Shigeki; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Takenaka, Akio; Koshikawa, Masami Kanao; Hayashi, Seiji; Watanabe, Mirai

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the nitrification potential of phyllospheric microbes, we incubated throughfall samples collected under the canopies of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and analyzed the transformation of inorganic nitrogen in the samples. Nitrate concentration increased in the unfiltered throughfall after 4 weeks of incubation, but remained nearly constant in the filtered samples (pore size: 0.2 and 0.4 µm). In the unfiltered samples, δ(18)O and δ(15)N values of nitrate decreased during incubation. In addition, archaeal ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes, which participate in the oxidation of ammonia, were found in the throughfall samples, although betaproteobacterial amoA genes were not detected. The amoA genes recovered from the leaf surface of C. japonica were also from archaea. Conversely, nitrate production, decreased isotope ratios of nitrate, and the presence of amoA genes was not observed in rainfall samples collected from an open area. Thus, the microbial nitrification that occurred in the incubated throughfall is likely due to ammonia-oxidizing archaea that were washed off the tree canopy by precipitation.

  19. Growth response of Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani) plantations to thinning intensity in Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carus, Serdar; Catal, Yilmaz

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the growth response of 25 yr old Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) plantation to thinnings of different intensities in Isparta in western Turkey. The thinning intensity was measured by using the residual basal area (%) as parameter. In spring of 2005, three treatments were tested; light, moderate and heavy thinning with respectively 10, 25 and 35% of basal area removed. The statistical design of the experiment was a randomized incomplete block with two blocks and three treatments. Variables such as diameter at breast height (diameter) and height were measured. Growth rate ratios of diameter in moderately thinned and heavily thinned stands were 1.02 and 1.03, respectively. Basal area growth rates in moderately thinned and heavily thinned plots were 0.93 and 1.05, respectively. The largest values for the mean tree were observed with the heaviest thinning treatment. Absolute diameter increment was positively correlated with initial diameter in all plots. Relative diameter growth was negatively correlated with initial diameter. Growth rate interpretations were supported by analysis of variance using Duncan's test of range multiple. The results obtained show significant differences between treatments for tree height growth, for the two inventories carried out (2005, 2008). However diameter basal area and volume were no found between treatments for tree.

  20. Tissue culture methods for the clonal propagation and genetic improvement of Spanish red cedar (Cedrela odorata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Ramírez, Yuri; Juárez-Gómez, Juan; González-Rodríguez, José Antonio; Robert, Manuel L

    2012-01-01

    The choice of a method to culture red cedar tissues depends on the final objectives pursued. If homogeneous clonal material is required for experimental purposes, the easiest way is to generate the lines through adventitious shoot induction from seedlings germinated from seeds. If the objective is to generate high yielding material for plantation purposes, the choice will be the same method but starting from mature vegetative tissues from selected elite plants. Most of the process are the same, but the initial steps are less efficient and much more elaborate. If the purpose is to generate lines with new genetic characteristics through somaclonal variation, mutagenesis, or genetic transformation, somatic embryogenesis will be required. No single method in its present form is suitable for all purposes. Eventually, the efficient production of somatic embryos from rejuvenated shoots collected from mature selected plants is the ideal way to culture this species, but for the time being we have to choose one or the other. In this chapter, we present a grafting procedure to rejuvenate and maintain mother plants in the greenhouse and the in vitro culture systems we have developed for the production of Cedrela odorata propagules using explants from both young seedlings and mature tissues from selected old trees. Using a modified TY17 medium and the BioMINT(®) temporary immersion system, we obtained high multiplication and ex vitro transplantation rates for efficient large-scale propagation of this species.

  1. Resistance of pine, australian red cedar woods and their derivate products to Cryptotermes brevis attack

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    Marcelo Xisto Ribeiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the resistance of Australian red cedar (Toona ciliata and pine (Pinus sp. woods and particleboards made from these species to dry-wood termite Cryptotermes brevis attack, as much as to quantify the mortality of the insects. 30 termite pseudo-workers were put in each 9,5 cm-diameter Petri dishes containing the samples (1,5 x 1,5 x 0,5 cm and cotton sheets positioned on the perforated covers, daily moisturized with 5 ml of water. The dishes were maintained in BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand at 24±5 ºC and 24 h of escotophase. A control sample without any feed source was included in the bioassay. The deterioration index (ID and mortality of the insects were evaluated after 60 days. Termites from the control sample presented higher termite mortality than the other treatments, which did not differ among each other. Toona ciliata wood was more resistant than Pinus sp. wood to Cryptotermes brevis attack. The average deterioration indexes were 1.74% and 6.62% respectively for those woods. The average deterioration index of the panels made with 100% Toona ciliata (ID=1.58% was similar to the deterioration index of particleboards made with this specie mixed with Pinus sp. (ID=1.87%.

  2. Longitudinal decline in lung function in patients with occupational asthma due to western red cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, F J; Dimich-Ward, H; Chan-Yeung, M

    1996-11-01

    There are few reports about longitudinal changes in lung function in asthmatic patients. Patients with asthma had a greater loss of lung function than normal healthy adults. To date, there have been no studies about the longitudinal changes in lung function in patients with occupational asthma. 280 male patients with red cedar asthma (RCA) who were followed up for at least one year were the study group. The exposed controls consisted of 399 male sawmill workers. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured with a Collins water spirometer. Changes in FEV1 over time (FEV1 slope) were calculated by a two point method for each subject. Atopy was considered to be present if the subjects showed at least one positive response to three allergens by skin prick test. Multiple regression analysis was carried out to examine factors that might affect longitudinal decline in FEV1. Patients with RCA who were still exposed had a greater decline in FEV1 slope (-26 ml/y) than sawmill workers. Smokers also showed a greater rate of decline in FEV1 (-43 ml/y) than non-smokers. Patients with RCA who continued to be exposed had a greater rate of decline in FEV1 than sawmill workers. Early diagnosis of occupational asthma and removal of these patients from a specific sensitiser is important in the prevention of further deterioration of lung function and respiratory symptoms.

  3. Enhancing methane production during the anaerobic digestion of crude glycerol using Japanese cedar charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ryoya; Tada, Chika; Baba, Yasunori; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Yutaka

    2013-12-01

    The use of Japanese cedar charcoal as a support material for microbial attachment could enhance methane production during anaerobic digestion of crude glycerol and wastewater sludge. Methane yield from a charcoal-containing reactor was approximately 1.6 times higher than that from a reactor without charcoal, and methane production was stable over 50 days when the loading rate was 2.17 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1) d(-1). Examination of microbial communities on the charcoal revealed the presence of Uncultured Desulfovibrio sp. clone V29 and Pelobacter seleniigenes, known as 1,3-propandiol degraders. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens were also detected in the archaeal community on the charcoal. Methanosaeta, Methanoregula, and Methanocellus were present in the charcoal-containing reactor. The concentration of propionate in the charcoal-containing reactor was also lower than that in the control reactor. These results suggest that propionate degradation was enhanced by the consumption of hydrogen by hydrogenotrophic methanogens on the charcoal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Soil microbial community profiles and functional diversity in limestone cedar glades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Dzantor, E. Kudjo; Momen, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Rock outcrop ecosystems, such as limestone cedar glades (LCGs), are known for their rare and endemic plant species adapted to high levels of abiotic stress. Soils in LCGs are thin (function of terrestrial ecosystems. SMC profiles and functional diversity were characterized in LCGs using community level physiological profiling (CLPP) and plate-dilution frequency assays (PDFA). Most-probable number (MPN) estimates and microbial substrate-utilization diversity (H) were positively related to soil thickness, soil organic matter (OM), soil water content, and vegetation density, and were diminished in alkaline soil relative to circumneutral soil. Soil nitrate showed no relationship to SMCs, suggesting lack of N-limitation. Canonical correlation analysis indicated strong correlations between microbial CLPP patterns and several physical and chemical properties of soil, primarily temperature at the ground surface and at 4-cm depth, and secondarily soil-water content, enabling differentiation by season. Thus, it was demonstrated that several well-described abiotic determinants of plant community structure in this ecosystem are also reflected in SMC profiles.

  5. Evaluate Habitat Use and Population Dynamics of Lampreys in Cedar Creek, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirtle, Jodi; Stone, Jennifer; Barndt, Scott

    2003-03-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Columbia River basin have declined to a remnant of their pre-1940s populations and the status of the western brook lamprey (L. richardsoni) and river lamprey (L. ayresi) is unknown. Identifying the biological and ecological factors limiting lamprey populations is critical to their recovery, but little research has been conducted on these species within the Columbia River basin. This ongoing, multi-year study examines lamprey populations in Cedar Creek, Washington, a third-order tributary to the Lewis River. This annual report describes the activities and results of the third year of this project. Adult (n = 62), metamorphosed (n = 76), transforming (n = 4), and ammocoete (n = 315) stages of Pacific and western brook lamprey were examined in 2002. Lampreys were captured using adult fish ladders, lamprey pots, rotary screw traps, and lamprey electrofishers. In addition, fifty-four spawning ground surveys were conducted during which 124 Pacific lamprey and 13 western brook lamprey nests were identified. Stream gradient of spawning grounds were surveyed to better understand spawning habitat requirements.

  6. Antibiofilm and Antihyphal Activities of Cedar Leaf Essential Oil, Camphor, and Fenchone Derivatives against Candida albicans

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    Ranjith Kumar Manoharan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans can form biofilms composed of yeast, hyphal, and pseudohyphal elements, and C. albicans cells in the hyphal stage could be a virulence factor. The present study describes the chemical composition, antibiofilm, and antihyphal activities of cedar leaf essential oil (CLEO, which was found to possess remarkable antibiofilm activity against C. albicans but not to affect its planktonic cell growth. Nineteen components were identified in CLEO by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and phenolics were the main constituents. Of these, camphor, fenchone, fenchyl alcohol, α-thujone, and borneol significantly reduced C. albicans biofilm formation. Notably, treatments with CLEO, camphor, or fenchyl alcohol at 0.01% clearly inhibited hyphal formation, and this inhibition appeared to be largely responsible for their antibiofilm effects. Transcriptomic analyses indicated that camphor and fenchyl alcohol downregulated some hypha-specific and biofilm related genes (ECE1, ECE2, RBT1, and EED1. Furthermore, camphor and fenchyl alcohol reduced C. albicans virulence in a Caenorhabditis elegans nematode model. These results demonstrate CLEO, camphor, and fenchyl alcohol might be useful for controlling C. albicans infections.

  7. Fertility variation in two populations of taurus cedar (cedrus libani rich.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozel, H.B.; Bilir, N.

    2016-01-01

    Fertility variation, measured as half-sib family coefficient, based on number of one, two and three years cones were investigated in plantation population (PP), and a natural population (NP) of Taurus Cedar (Cedrus libani Rich.) sampled from southern part of Turkey. Fertility variation was higher in PP than NP for one, two and three years. It was the highest in PP for one year cones (2.34), while it was lowest in NP for three years cones (1.73) as shown in Table 2. The effective number of parents were 21.8 (38.4% of census number) for one year cones, 25.7 (47.9% of census number) for two years cones and 29.8 (52.6% of census number) for three cones in PP. On the other hand the effective number of parents were 28.3 (43.4% of census number) for one year cones, 32.8 (51.6% of census number) for two years cones and 36.4 (58.9% of census number) for three years cones in NP. Diameter at breast height and tree crown area had positive and significant (p<0.05) effective on cone production, while effects of tree height and tree age were not significant (NS) on that (Table 3). There were also positive and significant (p<0.05) correlation between years in cone production. (author)

  8. Contact allergy to finished woods in furniture and furnishings: a small allergic contact dermatitis epidemic to western red cedar in sauna interior decoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huilaja, L; Kubin, M E; Riekki, R

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by wood dust remains uncommon and most cases are occupational. Contact allergy to finished wooden products is even more rare and only few cases of contact dermatitis to wooden furnishings and furniture are described. During 2012-2014 surprisingly many patients with dermatitis associated to sauna baths were referred to our clinic. We report three novel cases with allergic contact dermatitis to western red cedar due to exposure during sauna baths. Three cases of non-occupational contact dermatitis to western red cedar were confirmed by patch testing. Allergic contact dermatitis to interior decoration or furniture is a rarity, but can be induced by novel exposures, like western red cedar in sauna interior decoration. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  9. Improvement of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid secretion during Halomonas sp. KM-1 cultivation with saccharified Japanese cedar by the addition of urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Y; Nojiri, M; Matsushita, I; Tsubota, J

    2015-10-01

    Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) is a major species in artificial Japanese forests. The Halomonas sp. KM-1 was recently isolated and found to grow effectively on saccharified Japanese cedar wood, resulting in the intracellular storage of poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) under aerobic conditions. Under microaerobic conditions, the extracellular secretion of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid ((R)-3-HB) led to the degradation of intracellular PHB. In this study, the production of PHB and the secretion of (R)-3-HB using saccharified Japanese cedar were much improved in cultures that were grown in the presence of urea. The level of intracellular PHB production after 36 h under aerobic cultivation was 23·6 g l(-1) ; after shifting to microaerobic conditions for 24 h, the (R)-3-HB concentration in the medium reached 21·1 g l(-1) . Thus, KM-1 efficiently utilizes saccharified Japanese cedar to produce PHB and secretes (R)-3-HB, making it a practical candidate for use in the industrial production of (R)-3-HB. Japanese cedar is a major species grown in artificial Japanese forests, and its thinning is crucial for the health of artificial forests and the Japanese economy. Halomonas sp. KM-1 grew effectively on saccharified Japanese cedar wood, resulting in intracellular storage of poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) under aerobic conditions. Under microaerobic conditions, extracellular secretion of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid ((R)-3-HB) caused intracellular PHB degradation. (R)-3-HB is a chiral compound that is useful in the chemical, health food and pharmaceutical industries. The production of PHB and secretion of (R)-3-HB using saccharified wood was dramatically improved, which may positively affect its future industrial production. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Cedar Creek, Dekalb and Allen counties, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, William G.; Peters, J.G.; Ayers, M.A.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1979-01-01

    A digital model calibrated to conditions in Cedar Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model indicates that the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the Auburn wastewater effluent and nitrification are the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Cedar Creek during summer low flows. The observed dissolved-oxygen concentration of the Auburn wastewater effluent was low and averaged 30 percent of saturation. Projected nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand loads, from the Indiana State Board of Health, for the Auburn and Waterloo wastewater-treatment facilities will result in violations of the current instream dissolved-oxygen standard (5 mg/l), even with an effluent dissolved-oxygen concentration of 80 percent saturation. Natural streamflow for Cedar Creek upstream from the confluence of Willow and Little Cedar Creeks is small compared with the waste discharge, so benefits of dilution for Waterloo and Auburn are minimal. The model also indicates that, during winter low flows, ammonia toxicity, rather than dissolved oxygen, is the limiting water-quality criterion in the reach of Cedar Creek downstream from the wastewater-treatment facility at Auburn and the confluence of Garrett ditch. Ammonia-nitrogen concentrations predicted for 1978 through 2000 downstream from the Waterloo wastewater-treatment facility do not exceed Indiana water-quality standards for streams. Calculations of the stream 's assimilative capacity indicate that future waste discharge in the Cedar Creek basin will be limited to the reaches between the Auburn wastewater-treatment facility and County Road 68. (Kosco-USGS)

  11. Identification of novel putative causative genes and genetic marker for male sterility in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D.Don).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Kentaro; Hirao, Tomonori; Tsubomura, Miyoko; Tamura, Miho; Kurita, Manabu; Nose, Mine; Hanaoka, So; Takahashi, Makoto; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2018-04-23

    Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) is an important tree for Japanese forestry. Male-sterile marker development in Japanese cedar would facilitate selection of male-sterile plus trees, addressing the widespread social problem of pollinosis and facilitating the identification of heterozygotes, which are useful for breeding. This study used next-generation sequencing for single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery in libraries constructed from several organs, including male-sterile and male-fertile strobili. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms obtained were used to construct a high-density linkage map, which enabled identification of a locus on linkage group 9 strongly correlated with male-sterile trait. Expressed sequence tags corresponding to 11 marker loci from 5 isotigs were associated with this locus within 33.4-34.5 cM. These marker loci explained 100% of the phenotypic variation. Several homologs of these sequences are associated with male sterility in rice or Arabidopsis, including a pre-mRNA splicing factor, a DEAD-box protein, a glycosyl hydrolase, and a galactosyltransferase. These proteins are thus candidates for the causal male-sterile gene at the ms-1 locus. After we used a SNaPshot assay to develop markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS), we tested F 2 progeny between male-sterile and wild-type plus trees to validate the markers and extrapolated the testing to a larger plus-tree population. We found that two developed from one of the candidates for the causal gene were suitable for MAS. More than half of the ESTs and SNPs we collected were new, enlarging the genomic basis for genetic research on Japanese cedar. We developed two SNP markers aimed at MAS that distinguished individuals carrying the male-sterile trait with 100% accuracy, as well as individuals heterozygous at the male-sterile locus, even outside the mapping population. These markers should enable practical MAS for conifer breeding.

  12. Water quality and the effects of changes in phosphorus loading, Red Cedar Lakes, Barron and Washburn Counties, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Garn, Herbert S.

    2003-01-01

    The Red Cedar Lakes consist of three mainstem lakes (Balsam, Hemlock and Red Cedar) on the Red Cedar River in Barron and Washburn Counties, Wisconsin. These lakes are productive because of high phosphorus loading, and classified as mesotrophic to eutrophic. Because of concerns that the water quality of these lakes was degrading, three cooperative studies were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey between 1993 and 2003. As part of these studies, water quality in the lakes was documented in 1993?94, 1996?97, and 2000?01, and water and phosphorus budgets were constructed for water year 2001. Historical water-quality data indicated that the lakes have changed little since the late 1980s. A detailed phosphorus budget indicated that most of the 14,100 pounds of phosphorus input to the lakes during 2001 came from the upstream lakes, streams draining relatively undeveloped land upstream of Hemlock Lake, and ground water. Simulation results from two water-quality models (BATHTUB and WiLMS) indicated that about a 50-percent reduction in phosphorus loading from that measured in 2001 is required for all three lakes to be classified as mesotrophic; therefore, appreciable improvements in the water quality would require improvements in the water quality of the upstream lakes. Although the water quality of the lakes has not changed appreciably in recent years and major improvements in water quality are unlikely without major improvements to upstream lakes, continued efforts to protect the susceptible watershed are necessary to maintain the current level of water quality.

  13. T-lymphocyte responses to plicatic acid-human serum albumin conjugate in occupational asthma caused by western red cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, A; Chang, J H; Chan, H; Quirce, S; Noertjojo, K; Keown, P; Chan-Yeung, M

    1998-06-01

    T cells are known to play a major role in the pathogenesis of atopic allergic asthma, but it is less clear whether they are involved in occupational asthma caused by low molecular weight chemicals such as plicatic acid. We sought to determine whether peripheral blood T cells from patients with western red cedar asthma (WRCA) recognize plicatic acid (PA) conjugated to human serum albumin (HSA) as judged by proliferation or cytokine production and to analyze the response to PA inhalation with flow cytometry. Significant proliferative responses to PA-HSA were observed in eight of 33 patients with WRCA, none of 10 exposed nonasthmatic cedar workers, and one of 18 nonasthmatic control subjects. Two of 25 patients with WRCA also showed proliferative responses to unconjugated PA. All the WRCA responders were either currently exposed to cedar or had ceased exposure within the preceding 2 years. None of the four patients receiving oral steroids responded, but inhaled steroids did not seem to influence responsiveness. No correlations were found between the maximum stimulation response and any of the current FEV1 values, the current PC20 methacholine values, or the magnitude of the late asthmatic response to PA. Peripheral blood T-cell subset proportions and their degree of activation were similar in patients with WRCA and exposed control subjects. There was no change in T-cell phenotypes or their activation markers after PA inhalation challenge. In vitro, PA-HSA stimulation did not affect subset ratios but led to release of small amounts of IL-5 and IFN-gamma, with no detectable increase in IL-4. PA-HSA-specific T lymphocytes seem to be present in small numbers in the peripheral blood of patients with WRCA and may respond to antigenic exposure by producing IFN-gamma and IL-5. However, the proportion of responding cells would appear to be lower than in comparable studies of atopic asthma.

  14. Characterization of Groundwater Flow Processes in the Cedar Creek Watershed and the Cedarburg Bog in Southeastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J. P.; Han, W. S.; Feinstein, D.; Hart, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the geology and groundwater flow of the bog as well as the surrounding area, notably the Cedar Creek Watershed, a HUC (Hydrologic Unit Code) 12 watershed. The watershed is approximately 330 km2, and borders the sub-continental divide separating the Mississippi River Basin from the Great Lakes Basin. The Cedar Creek watershed is composed of mostly agricultural and urban land with a significant stress of groundwater withdrawal for both irrigation and residential use. This watershed has importance due to the contribution to both the Milwaukee River and Lake Michigan, and is integral in the study of regional groundwater flow of Southeastern Wisconsin. Furthermore, the Cedarburg Bog, located in the northeast corner of the Cedar Creek Watershed preserves diverse ecology and is recognized by the U.S. Department of Interior as a National Landmark. Groundwater is the primary driver for the diverse and unique ecology that is contained within the bog. Within the Cedar Creek Watershed, well data and glacial geology maps (Mickelson and Syverson, 1997) were integrated to develop a 3-dimensional subsurface map and watershed-scale groundwater flow model using the LAK3 and the SFR2 package to simulate surface water-aquifer interactions. The model includes 10 zones of the glacial sediments and the weathered and consolidated Silurian Dolomite bedrock. The hydraulic conductivity and storage parameters were calibrated with 203 head targets using universal parameter estimation code (PEST). Then, a series of future climate scenarios, developed by the Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impact, were implemented to the USGS Soil-Water-Balance Code (SWB) to identify variations in recharge. The simulated recharge scenarios were adopted to predict the response of groundwater resources in the watershed and the Cedarburg Bog. Preliminary results produced from the MODFLOW model indicate the bog is acting as a recharge zone under current recharge

  15. Developing dynamic field theory architectures for embodied cognitive systems with cedar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lomp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Embodied artificial cognitive systems such as autonomous robots or intelligent observers connect cognitive processes to sensory and effector systems in real time. Prime candidates for such embodied intelligence are neurally inspired architectures. While components such as forward neural networks are well established, designing pervasively autonomous neural architectures remains a challenge. This includes the problem of tuning the parameters of such architectures so that they deliver specified functionality under variable environmental conditions and retain these functions as the architectures are expanded. The scaling and autonomy problems are solved, in part, by dynamic field theory (DFT, a theoretical framework for the neural grounding of sensorimotor and cognitive processes. In this paper, we address how to efficiently build DFT architectures that control embodied agents and how to tune their parameters so that the desired cognitive functions emerge while such agents are situated in real environments. In DFT architectures, dynamic neural fields or nodes are assigned dynamic regimes, that is, attractor states and their instabilities, from which cognitive function emerges. Tuning thus amounts to determining values of the dynamic parameters for which the components of a DFT architecture are in the specified dynamic regime under the appropriate environmental conditions. The process of tuning is facilitated by the software framework cedar, which provides a graphical interface to build and execute DFT architectures. It enables to change dynamic parameters online and visualize the activation states of any component while the agent is receiving sensory inputs in real-time. Using a simple example, we take the reader through the workflow of conceiving of DFT architectures, implementing them on embodied agents, tuning their parameters, and assessing performance while the system is coupled to real sensory inputs.

  16. Adsorption of Acid Red 18 by Activated Carbon Prepared from Cedar Tree: Kinetic and Equilibrium Study

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    M. R. Samarghandi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Textile effluents are one of the main environmental pollution sources and contain toxic compounds which threat the environment. For that reason, the activated carbon prepared from Cedar Tree was used for removal of Acid Red 18 as an Azo Dye. Material and Methods: Activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation and was used in batch system for dye removal. Effect of various experimental parameters such as pH (3 to11, initial dye concentration (50, 75 and 100 mg/L, contact time (1 to 120 min and adsorbent dosage (2 to 10 g/L were investigated. Equilibrium data was fitted onto Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. In addition, pseudo first order and pseudo second order models were used to investigate the kinetic of adsorption process. Results: Results shows that dye removal was increase with increase in adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial dye concentration. In addition, higher removal efficiency was observed in low pH (pH=3. At 120 min contact time, pH=3, 6 g/L adsorbent dosage and 100 mg/L of initial dye concentration, more than 95% of dye was removed. Equilibrium data was best fitted onto Freundlich isotherm model. According to Langmuir constant, maximum sorption capacity was observed to be 51/28 mg/L. in addition pseudo second order model best describe the kinetic of adsorption of Acid Red 18 onto present adsorbent. Conclusion: The results of present work well demonstrate that prepare activated carbon from Pine Tree has higher adsorption capacity toward Acid Red 18 Azo dye and can be used for removal of dyes from textile effluents.

  17. Radioactive and stable cesium isotope distributions and dynamics in Japanese cedar forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoschenko, Vasyl; Takase, Tsugiko; Hinton, Thomas G; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Konoplev, Alexei; Goto, Azusa; Yokoyama, Aya; Keitoku, Koji

    2018-06-01

    Dynamics of the Fukushima-derived radiocesium and distribution of the natural stable isotope 133 Cs in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) forest ecosystems were studied during 2014-2016. For the experimental site in Yamakiya, Fukushima Prefecture, we present the redistribution of radiocesium among ecosystem compartments during the entire observation period, while the results obtained at another two experimental site were used to demonstrate similarity of the main trends in the Japanese forest ecosystems. Our observations at the Yamakiya site revealed significant redistribution of radiocesium between the ecosystem compartments during 2014-2016. During this same period radionuclide inventories in the aboveground tree biomass were relatively stable, however, radiocesium in forest litter decreased from 20 ± 11% of the total deposition in 2014 to 4.6 ± 2.7% in 2016. Radiocesium in the soil profile accumulated in the 5-cm topsoil layers. In 2016, more than 80% of the total radionuclide deposition in the ecosystem resided in the 5-cm topsoil layer. The radiocesium distribution between the aboveground biomass compartments at Yamakiya during 2014-2016 was gradually approaching a quasi-equilibrium distribution with stable cesium. Strong correlations of radioactive and stable cesium isotope concentrations in all compartments of the ecosystem have not been reached yet. However, in some compartments the correlation is already strong. An increase of radiocesium concentrations in young foliage in 2016, compared to 2015, and an increase in 2015-2016 of the 137 Cs/ 133 Cs concentration ratio in the biomass compartments with strong correlations indicate an increase in root uptake of radiocesium from the soil profile. Mass balance of the radionuclide inventories, and accounting for radiocesium fluxes in litterfall, throughfall and stemflow, enabled a rough estimate of the annual radiocesium root uptake flux as 2 ± 1% of the total inventory in the ecosystem

  18. Airway inflammation, exhaled nitric oxide, and severity of asthma in patients with western red cedar asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, M; Obata, H; Dittrick, M; Chan, H; Abboud, R

    1999-05-01

    Examination of induced sputum and measurement of exhaled NO have been advocated as noninvasive methods of assessing the degree of airway inflammation. In this study, we performed follow-up evaluation on 71 subjects with asthma caused by exposure to Western red cedar; 50 subjects had left exposure, whereas the rest continued to work in the same job. Spirometry, methacholine challenge tests, exhaled nitric oxide, and sputum induction were carried out. Of the 50 subjects who left exposure, 12 had no respiratory impairment according to the American Throacic Society guidelines for assessing respiratory impairment in patients with asthma, 17 belonged to Class 1, 12 to Class 2, five to Class 3, and four to Class 4. The percentage of eosinophils in induced sputum showed a significant inverse relationship with FEV1 (r = -0.46, p < 0.001), and a significant positive correlation with levels of exhaled NO (r = 0.42, p < 0.001) and with the class of respiratory impairment (r = 0.52, p < 0.001). Mean percent eosinophils were 1.5 for impairment Class 0, 2.2 for Class 1, 1.7 for Class 2, 6.8 for Class 3, and 16.3 for Class 4. No relationship was found between the levels of exhaled NO and the functional parameters as well as the impairment class. NO levels in ppb were 21 for impairment Class 0, 30 for Class 1, 22 for Class 2, 26 for Class 3, and 49 for Class 4. This study also provides objective evidence that airway inflammation, as indicated by induced sputum, corroborates the rating of respiratory impairment in patients with asthma.

  19. The Cedar Project: mortality among young Indigenous people who use drugs in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloed, Kate; Pearce, Margo E; Pooyak, Sherri; Zamar, David; Thomas, Vicky; Demerais, Lou; Christian, Wayne M; Henderson, Earl; Sharma, Richa; Blair, Alden H; Yoshida, Eric M; Schechter, Martin T; Spittal, Patricia M

    2017-11-06

    Young Indigenous people, particularly those involved in the child welfare system, those entrenched in substance use and those living with HIV or hepatitis C, are dying prematurely. We report mortality rates among young Indigenous people who use drugs in British Columbia and explore predictors of mortality over time. We analyzed data collected every 6 months between 2003 and 2014 by the Cedar Project, a prospective cohort study involving young Indigenous people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver and Prince George, BC. We calculated age-standardized mortality ratios using Indigenous and Canadian reference populations. We identified predictors of mortality using time-dependent Cox proportional hazard regression. Among 610 participants, 40 died between 2003 and 2014, yielding a mortality rate of 670 per 100 000 person-years. Young Indigenous people who used drugs were 12.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.2-17.5) times more likely to die than all Canadians the same age and were 7.8 (95% CI 5.6-10.6) times more likely to die than Indigenous people with Status in BC. Young women and those using drugs by injection were most affected. The leading causes of death were overdose ( n = 15 [38%]), illness ( n = 11 [28%]) and suicide ( n = 5 [12%]). Predictors of mortality included having hepatitis C at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.76, 95% CI 1.47-5.16), previous attempted suicide (adjusted HR 1.88, 95% CI 1.01-3.50) and recent overdose (adjusted HR 2.85, 95% CI 1.00-8.09). Young Indigenous people using drugs in BC are dying at an alarming rate, particularly young women and those using injection drugs. These deaths likely reflect complex intersections of historical and present-day injustices, substance use and barriers to care. © 2017 Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  20. Hydrologic and atrazine simulation of the Cedar Creek Watershed using the SWAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, M; Heathman, G C; Norton, L D; Engel, B

    2007-01-01

    One of the major factors contributing to surface water contamination in agricultural areas is the use of pesticides. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a hydrologic model capable of simulating the fate and transport of pesticides in an agricultural watershed. The SWAT model was used in this study to estimate stream flow and atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine) losses to surface water in the Cedar Creek Watershed (CCW) within the St. Joseph River Basin in northeastern Indiana. Model calibration and validation periods consisted of five and two year periods, respectively. The National Agricultural Statistics Survey (NASS) 2001 land cover classification and the Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database were used as model input data layers. Data from the St. Joseph River Watershed Initiative and the Soil and Water Conservation Districts of Allen, Dekalb, and Noble counties were used to represent agricultural practices in the watershed which included the type of crops grown, tillage practices, fertilizer, and pesticide application rates. Model results were evaluated based on efficiency coefficient values, standard statistical measures, and visual inspection of the measured and simulated hydrographs. The Nash and Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients (E(NS)) for monthly and daily stream flow calibration and validation ranged from 0.51 to 0.66. The E(NS) values for atrazine calibration and validation ranged from 0.43 to 0.59. All E(NS) values were within the range of acceptable model performance standards. The results of this study indicate that the model is an effective tool in capturing the dynamics of stream flow and atrazine concentrations on a large-scale agricultural watershed in the midwestern USA.

  1. [CLINICAL EFFICACY OF SUBLINGUAL IMMUNOTHERAPY FOR JAPANESE CEDAR POLLINOSIS IN THE FIRST FOLLOW-UP YEAR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuta, Atsushi; Ogawa, Yukiko; Suzuki, Yusuke; Arikata, Masahiko; Kozaki, Hideaki; Shimizu, Takeshi; Ohta, Nobuo

    2015-12-01

    The first drug of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for Japanese Cedar pollinosis (JCP) was purchased in 2014.   The purpose of this study is to clear the clinical efficacy of SLIT by comparing with other therapies, such as subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT), or other pharmacotherapy.   We started SLIT at our clinic in October-December, 2014. We compared the clinical efficacy of 191 SLIT with 48 SCIT, 191 primary pharmacotherapy that started therapies before pollen dispersal, 141 pharmacotherapy that started therapies after pollen disposal, or 169 non-treatment in the first follow-up year. The clinical efficacy was evaluated with quality of life (QOL) scores by Japanese rhino-conjunctivitis QOL questionnaire (JRQLQ No1), symptoms of nose and eye by visual analog scale (VAS), symptom scores and combined symptom-medication scores (SMS).   Mild adverse events (AEs) were observed in many cases, but no patient was discontinued by AEs in SLIT patients. Five cases by unknown reasons and 3 cases by inevitable reasons were dropped out before pollen. Adherence of SLIT was 89±12%. SCIT was better than SLIT in most assessments, but not significant. Both SCIT and SLIT were significantly better than other pharmacotherapy. Patients, whose symptom scores of nose and eye were 0 or 1 point without any rescue drugs, accounted for 16.8% of total SLIT in the first follow-up year.   SCIT was slightly better than SLIT in reducing symptoms and SMS of JCP, and in improving QOL. However, the differences were not significant. SLIT was significantly effective than other pharmacotherapies.

  2. Efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy for two seasons in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Okubo, Kimihiro; Yonekura, Syuji; Hashiguchi, Kazuhiro; Goto, Minoru; Otsuka, Takashi; Murata, Tadayuki; Nakao, Yuji; Kanazawa, Chigiri; Nagakura, Hitoshi; Okawa, Toru; Nakano, Koichi; Hisamitsu, Minako; Kaneko, Shinya; Konno, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Japanese cedar (JC) pollinosis is the most common seasonal allergic rhinitis in Japan. Standardized JC pollen extract is available for subcutaneous immunotherapy, but this treatment is limited by potentially serious side effects. The aim of this double-blind, randomized comparative study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of standardized JC pollen extract in a new oral formulation (CEDARTOLEN®, Torii Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for JC pollinosis. A total of 531 subjects with JC pollinosis were randomized into 2 groups at a ratio of 1:1 to receive daily sublingual administration of standardized JC pollen extract with a maintenance dose of 2,000 Japanese allergy units (JAU) or placebo for 2 consecutive pollen seasons. The efficacy was evaluated using the total nasal symptom and medication score (TNSMS) as the primary end point. Secondary end points included the total ocular symptom and medication score (TOSMS) and scores for individual symptoms and medication. The TNSMS was significantly lower (p < 0.0001) in the SLIT group than in the placebo group in the peak symptom period by 18 and 30% in the first and second seasons, respectively. All secondary end points were also significantly lower in the SLIT group in both seasons. No systemic anaphylaxis occurred. SLIT with daily administration of standardized JC pollen extract was effective for improving nasal and ocular symptoms of JC pollinosis and reducing the use of relief medication. The JC pollen extract was well tolerated with only local adverse events. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The western red cedar (Thuja plicata) 8-8' DIRIGENT family displays diverse expression patterns and conserved monolignol coupling specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung K.; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Fujita, Masayuki; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2002-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of a multigene family of the first class of dirigent proteins (namely that mainly involved in 8-8' coupling leading to (+)-pinoresinol in this case) is reported, this comprising of nine western red cedar (Thuja plicata) DIRIGENT genes (DIR1-9) of 72-99.5% identity to each other. Their corresponding cDNA clones had coding regions for 180-183 amino acids with each having a predicted molecular mass of ca. 20 kDa including the signal peptide. Real time-PCR established that the DIRIGENT isovariants were differentially expressed during growth and development of T. plicata (P < 0.05). The phylogenetic relationships and the rates and patterns of nucleotide substitution suggest that the DIRIGENT gene may have evolved via paralogous expansion at an early stage of vascular plant diversification. Thereafter, western red cedar paralogues have maintained an high homogeneity presumably via a concerted evolutionary mode. This, in turn, is assumed to be the driving force for the differential formation of 8-8'-linked pinoresinol derived (poly)lignans in the needles, stems, bark and branches, as well as for massive accumulation of 8-8'-linked plicatic acid-derived (poly)lignans in heartwood.

  4. Plicatic acid-specific IgE and nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness in western red-cedar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedal, S; Chan-Yeung, M; Enarson, D A; Chan, H; Dorken, E; Tse, K S

    1986-12-01

    In a cross-sectional survey of 652 workers in a western red-cedar sawmill, we obtained data on symptoms, pulmonary function, immediate skin reactivity to common allergens, nonspecific bronchial responsiveness, total IgE level, and sensitization to plicatic acid conjugated with human serum albumin as measured by RAST. Dust exposure was estimated by personal and area sampling for total dust during a work shift and cumulative exposure by duration of employment. Seven percent of the workers had an elevated RAST, and 20% had nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Elevation in RAST was associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Almost half (46%) of the workers with RAST elevation had bronchial hyperresponsiveness compared to 18% in workers with no RAST elevation. The association was unaffected by total IgE level or by limiting the analysis to workers without respiratory symptoms and was most apparent in younger workers. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was associated with increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms as well as with lower levels of pulmonary function. The likelihood of bronchial hyperresponsiveness increased with increasing age but was unrelated to the dust-exposure concentration. RAST elevation was unrelated to employment duration or dust exposure and was not associated with an increased prevalence of symptoms or lower levels of pulmonary function independent of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We conclude that plicatic acid-specific IgE and nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness are associated in western red-cedar workers and that this association may reflect a causal connection.

  5. Activation of complement by plicatic acid, the chemical compound responsible for asthma due to western red cedar (Thuja plicata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, M; Giclas, P C; Henson, P M

    1980-05-01

    Plicatic acid, a low-molecular-weight compound responsible for western red cedar (Thuja plicata) asthma was tested for its ability to activate complement and to generate chemotactic activity from pooled normal human serum (NHS). Dose-dependent complement consumption was found as determined by hemolytic assay (CH50). Activation of complement by plicatic acid was also confirmed by the demonstration of conversion of C3 to C3b on immunoelectrophoresis. This activation was completely prevented by pretreating the serum with either edetate (EDTA) or ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), suggesting that complement was activated via the classical pathway. No conversion of factor B was seen in any of the samples. Leukocyte chemotactic activity was also generated when serum was incubated with plicatic acid. The consumption of C3 and CH50 was unimpaired in two samples of serum from patients with severe, untreated hypogammaglobulinemia and thus appears to be immunoglobulin independent. These observations suggest that plicatic acid could activate complement in vivo, thereby inducing an inflammatory response in the airways and contributing to the higher prevalence of industrial chronic bronchitis in exposed subjects. The pathogenetic role of complement activation in red cedar asthma has yet to elucidated.

  6. Specificity of an Enzyme-1 Inked Immunosorbent Assay for Dog Ige Antibody to Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria Japonica Pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Sakaguchi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a fluorometric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for allergen-specific IgE in dogs with the use of monoclonal anti-dog IgE; we assayed IgE antibody to Japanese cedar pollen in the sera of dogs with Japanese cedar pollinosis. To assess the specificity of this ELISA, a pooled serum sample from pollinosis dogs was subjected to gel chromatography. The peak of anti-pollen allergen IgE activity was different from the peaks of total IgA, IgG and IgM. When IgE antibody positive serum was heated at 56°C for 4 h, antibody activity was markedly reduced. Furthermore, polyclonal anti-dog IgA, IgG and IgM did not interfere with anti-pollen allergen IgE activity in the ELISA. From these results, this assay is considered to have a high specificity for dog IgE.

  7. LEBANON AFTER THE CEDAR REVOLUTION/ARE KNUDSEN AND MICHAEL KERR (eds; LEBANON: A HISTORY, 600--2011/by WILLIAM HARRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Salameh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available LEBANON AFTER THE CEDAR REVOLUTION, ARE KNUDSEN AND MICHAEL KERR (eds; London: C. Hurst & Company, 2012. 323 pp. $29.95. LEBANON: A HISTORY, 600--2011, WILLIAM HARRIS; Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. 360 pp. $34.95.

  8. Effectiveness of Cedar Oil Products for Preventing Host Use by Ips avulsus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in a Modified Small-Bolt Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. L. Strom; L. M. Roton

    2011-01-01

    Insecticide products based on cedar oil are readily available, but evaluations against pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are lacking. In the southeastern U.S., the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm, is the major bark beetle pest for which tree protectants are applied. However, Ips avulsus (Eichhoff) are more consistently...

  9. Nine year survival of 16 Phytophthora lateralis resistant and susceptible Port-Orford-Cedar families in a Southern Oregon field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Jim Hamlin; Everett M. Hansen; Sunny Lucas

    2012-01-01

    Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) has suffered high mortality from the pathogen Phytophthora lateralis in portions of its natural range in southwest Oregon and northwest California, as well as in horticultural plantings in North America, and more recently in Europe. A program to develop genetically resistant...

  10. 33 CFR 334.200 - Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to Cedar Point; aerial and surface firing range and target area, U...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to... Chesapeake Bay, Point Lookout to Cedar Point; aerial and surface firing range and target area, U.S. Naval Air... of Chesapeake Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at the easternmost extremity of...

  11. Changes in heartwood chemistry of dead yellow-cedar trees that remain standing for 80 years or more in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick G. Kelsey; Paul E. Hennon; Manuela Huso; Joseph G. Karchesy

    2005-01-01

    We measured the concentrations of extractable bioactive compounds in heartwood of live yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis noothtensis) trees and five classes of standing snags (1-5, averaging 4, 14,26,5 1, and 81 years since-death, respectively) to determine how the concentrations changed in the slowly deteriorating snags. Three individuals from each of...

  12. Comprehensive Education Data and Research System (CEDARS) Data Manual Appendices: For the 2012-2013 School Year. Version 5.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Randy; Came, Deb

    2012-01-01

    The Comprehensive Education Data and Research System (CEDARS) is a longitudinal data system managed by the Washington State Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) to collect, store and report data related to students, courses, and teachers in order to meet state and federal reporting requirements, and to help educators and policy…

  13. Identifying core habitat and connectivity for focal species in the interior cedar-hemlock forest of North America to complete a conservation area design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance Craighead; Baden Cross

    2007-01-01

    To identify the remaining areas of the Interior Cedar- Hemlock Forest of North America and prioritize them for conservation planning, the Craighead Environmental Research Institute has developed a 2-scale method for mapping critical habitat utilizing 1) a broad-scale model to identify important regional locations as the basis for a Conservation Area Design (CAD), and 2...

  14. Evaluating elevated levels of crown dieback among northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) trees in Maine and Michigan: a summary of evaluation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna Randolph; William A. Bechtold; Randall S. Morin; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of crown condition data for the 2006 national technical report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, exposed clusters of phase 3 plots (by the Forest Inventory and Analysis [FIA] Program of the Forest Service) with northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) crown dieback...

  15. INFLUENCE OF THE MINICUTTING POSITION, IN THE QUALITY OF AUSTRALIAN CEDAR CUTTINGS AND THEIR INICIAL GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele de Alvarenga Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987553The Toona ciliata (Australian cedar, originated from Australia showed high acclimatization in Brazil, where it found appropriate conditions for its growth, particularly in southern Bahia and throughout the southeastern region. However, the plantings presented irregular stems. Besides the seeds are a limiting resource, in result of their production seasonality and short viability period. This study aimed the evaluation of the quality of cuttings grown from 6 cm length apical, middle and basal mini-cutting positions of the sprouts of the mini-strains - from seminal origin - and the initial growth of cuttings. It was established a multi-clone mini-garden containing a total of 284 mini-strains. After cutting off the sprouts of the seedlings - to originate the mini-strains - the mini-cuttings from the above different positions were collected. At the lifting time of the rooting sector, dry mass weight of shoot and root, length, diameter, number of adventitious roots and survival data were collected. The height and diameter were monitored fortnightly, starting from 80 days after the staking of the mini-cuttings. At the end of the production cycle, the dry mass weight of shoot, the root number, the diameter and the length of root cuttings were evaluated. Thirty percent of the cuttings were transplanted to pots of 3.8 L, in the open air where the height and basal diameter, the dry mass of shoot, the leaves and the roots were measured 60 days after the transplanting. Cuttings originated from the basal mini-cuttings at the end of the lifting time of the rooting sector, showed the highest height and diameter, however no difference was pointed out regarding to the basal diameter of cuttings originated from the middle position. There were no differences related to the shoot dry mass and the adventitious root number, the dry mass weight, the total length and the diameter of the adventitious roots of cuttings in relation to

  16. Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) Pollinosis in Jeju, Korea: Is It Increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaechun; Lee, Keun Hwa; Lee, Hye Sook; Hong, Sung Chul; Kim, Jeong Hong

    2015-05-01

    Jeju is an island in South Korea located in a temperate climate zone. The Japanese cedar tree (JC) has become the dominant tree species while used widely to provide a windbreak for the tangerine orchard industry. An increase in pollen counts precedes atopic sensitization to pollen and pollinosis, but JC pollinosis in Jeju has never been studied. We investigated JC pollen counts, sensitization to JC pollen, and JC pollinosis. Participants were recruited among schoolchildren residing in Jeju City, the northern region (NR) and Seogwipo City, the southern region (SR) of the island. The JC pollen counts were monitored. Sensitization rates to common aeroallergens were evaluated by skin prick tests. Symptoms of pollinosis were surveyed. Among 1,225 schoolchildren (49.6% boys, median age 13 years), 566 (46.2%) were atopic. The rate of sensitization to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (35.8%) was highest, followed by D. farinae (26.2%), and JC pollen (17.6%). In the SR, 156 children (23.8%) were sensitized to JC pollen; this rate was significantly higher than that in the NR (59 children, 10.4%, P<0.001). A significant increment in the sensitization rate for JC pollen with increasing school level was observed only in the SR. JC pollen season in the SR started earlier and lasted longer than that in the NR. JC pollen season in Jeju was defined as extending from late January to mid-April. The prevalence of JC pollinosis was estimated to be 8.5%. The prevalence differed significantly between the NR and SR (5.3% vs 11.3%, P<0.001), mainly due to the difference in sensitization rates. JC pollen is the major outdoor allergen for early spring pollinosis in Jeju. JC pollen season is from late January to mid-April. Warmer weather during the flowering season scatters more JC pollen in the atmosphere, resulting in a higher sensitization rate in atopic individuals and, consequently, making JC pollinosis more prevalent.

  17. A multidisciplinary study of the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation, Mussentuchit Wash, Utah: a determination of the paleoenvironment and paleoecology of the Eolambia caroljonesa dinosaur quarry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, J.R.; Brinkman, D.; Nichols, D.J.; Layer, P.; Burge, D.; Thayn, D.

    2007-01-01

    A quarry within the Cedar Mountain Formation in Mussentuchit Wash, Emery County, Utah, produced a fossil assemblage containing the remains of at least eight juvenile iguanodontid dinosaurs (Eolambia caroljonesa). The Cedar Mountain Formation lies stratigraphically between the Tithonian-Berriasian (Upper Jurassic) Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation and the Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) Dakota Formation. Detailed stratigraphic, sedimentological, geochronological, palynological, and paleontological data have been collected along a measured section at the site of the Cifelli #2 Eolambia caroljonesa Quarry. These data provide a chronostratigraphic and a biostratigraphic framework for the Cedar Mountain Formation and allow a detailed reconstruction of the paleoenvironment and the paleoecology of the local paleogeographic area from which E. caroljonesa have been recovered. Three 40Ar/39Ar ages ranging from 96.7 to 98.5 Ma have been obtained three stratigraphically distinct altered volcanic ash layers within the Mussentuchit Member, one of which passes through the E. caroljonesa quarry, that indicate that the quarry is latest Albian in age and that the stratigraphic boundary between the Mussentuchit Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation and the overlying Dakota Formation is at or near the Albian/Cenomanian boundary. Sedimentological and biostratigraphic data suggest that significant long-term and short-term climatic changes are recorded in the Cedar Mountain Formation. During deposition of the lower part of the formation, climatic conditions were warm and arid to semi-arid. During deposition of the upper part of the formation, conditions became more humid. The progressive change in climatic conditions was probably related to the transgression of the Mowry Sea from the north. Cyclic sedimentation in the Mussentuchit Member suggests high-frequency changes from wet to dry periods. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Paleoclimate Signals and Temperature Reconstructions for the Northeastern United States using Atlantic White Cedar Tree-Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, J. K.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Pederson, N.; Donnelly, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    High-resolution paleoclimate records of the Common Era are essential for improving detection and attribution of internal and forced climate system responses. The densely populated northeastern United States is at risk from impending climate shifts as well as sea level rise. Here we present a new network of annually resolved proxy data from Atlantic white cedar trees throughout the northeastern United States. Ring width variability reflects winter through summer temperatures at inland sites north of New Jersey. Climate signals embedded in the full network are evaluated for their potential to provide reconstructions of both temperature and drought variability. We demonstrate skillful climate reconstructions for the last several centuries and the potential to use subfossil samples to extend these records over the Common Era. Our tree-ring network provides the long-term context at multidecadal and centennial time scales for the large-scale ocean-atmospheric processes that influence the climate of the region.

  19. New basal iguanodonts from the Cedar Mountain formation of Utah and the evolution of thumb-spiked dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T McDonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Basal iguanodontian dinosaurs were extremely successful animals, found in great abundance and diversity almost worldwide during the Early Cretaceous. In contrast to Europe and Asia, the North American record of Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts has until recently been limited largely to skulls and skeletons of Tenontosaurus tilletti. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein we describe two new basal iguanodonts from the Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation of eastern Utah, each known from a partial skull and skeleton. Iguanacolossus fortis gen. et sp. nov. and Hippodraco scutodens gen. et sp. nov. are each diagnosed by a single autapomorphy and a unique combination of characters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Iguanacolossus and Hippodraco add greatly to our knowledge of North American basal iguanodonts and prompt a new comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of basal iguanodont relationships. This analysis indicates that North American Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts are more basal than their contemporaries in Europe and Asia.

  20. New Basal Iguanodonts from the Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah and the Evolution of Thumb-Spiked Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Andrew T.; Kirkland, James I.; DeBlieux, Donald D.; Madsen, Scott K.; Cavin, Jennifer; Milner, Andrew R. C.; Panzarin, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Background Basal iguanodontian dinosaurs were extremely successful animals, found in great abundance and diversity almost worldwide during the Early Cretaceous. In contrast to Europe and Asia, the North American record of Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts has until recently been limited largely to skulls and skeletons of Tenontosaurus tilletti. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein we describe two new basal iguanodonts from the Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation of eastern Utah, each known from a partial skull and skeleton. Iguanacolossus fortis gen. et sp. nov. and Hippodraco scutodens gen. et sp. nov. are each diagnosed by a single autapomorphy and a unique combination of characters. Conclusions/Significance Iguanacolossus and Hippodraco add greatly to our knowledge of North American basal iguanodonts and prompt a new comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of basal iguanodont relationships. This analysis indicates that North American Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts are more basal than their contemporaries in Europe and Asia. PMID:21124919

  1. Sputum eosinophils and exhaled nitric oxide during late asthmatic reaction in patients with western red cedar asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, H; Dittrick, M; Chan, H; Chan-Yeung, M

    1999-03-01

    Examination of sputum for eosinophils and measurement of exhaled nitric oxide have been proposed as noninvasive methods of assessing airway inflammation in asthma. The use of these tests in the evaluation of patients with occupational asthma has not been reported. This study investigated the changes in sputum eosinophils and exhaled NO before and at intervals after inhalation challenge with plicatic acid in patients with suspected western red cedar asthma. Of 17 subjects who underwent challenge, nine had a positive bronchoconstrictor reaction (responders) and eight had a negative reaction (nonresponders). At 6 and 24 h after plicatic acid challenge, there was a significant increase in sputum eosinophils among responders, which was inversely related to the fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at 6 h. An increase in sputum eosinophils was also found in three nonresponders. Levels of exhaled NO increased at 24 h after challenge with plicatic acid in both responders and nonresponders, being significant only in nonresponders. No correlation was found between the increase in nitric oxide and the magnitude of the functional changes in the airways. There were significant correlations between the degree of sputum eosinophilia and the level of exhaled NO before and after methacholine and plicatic acid challenge. In conclusion, the late asthmatic reaction induced by plicatic acid in patients with western red cedar asthma is associated with an increase in sputum eosinophils. The usefulness of measuring sputum eosinophils and exhaled nitric oxide in the clinical evaluation of patients with suspected occupational asthma caused by low molecular weight compounds has yet to be determined.

  2. Symptoms and pulmonary function in western red cedar workers related to duration of employment and dust exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedal, S; Chan-Yeung, M; Enarson, D; Fera, T; Maclean, L; Tse, K S; Langille, R

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of total dust concentration were made in a western red cedar sawmill that employed 701 workers. Both area sampling and personal sampling of total dust were done over an 8-hr shift corresponding to job descriptions and locations to assign each worker an exposure level. A total of 652 (93%) of the workers completed a respiratory-occupational questionnaire and performed spirometry, of whom 334 were assigned an exposure level. Dust exposure ranged from undetectable to 6.0 mg/m3 with a median exposure level of 0.2 mg/m3. Only 10% of the workers with an assigned exposure level were exposed to more than 1.0 mg/m3. Work-related asthma, defined as symptoms of asthma which improved on days off work, was reported by 52 workers (8.0%) and was more prevalent after 10 or more yr of employment. Chronic cough, dyspnea, persistent wheeze, and physician-diagnosed asthma were unrelated to either work duration or exposure. Levels of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1.0) were lower with dust concentrations greater than 2.0 mg/m3, controlling for age and smoking; maximum mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF25-75%) and FEV1.0/FVC were unrelated to dust exposure concentration. Work-related symptoms of eye irritation were seen more commonly with exposure to dust concentrations of 3.0 mg/m3 or more. It is concluded that symptoms of work-related asthma in red cedar workers are more common after 10 yr of exposure, and that levels of pulmonary function are lower with higher wood dust exposures.

  3. Nutrition and bud removal affect biomass and nutrient allocation in Douglas-fir and western red cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, B. J.; Henry, G.

    1999-03-01

    Seedlings of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata J. Donn ex D. Don) were grown at high (250 mg l(-1)) and low (20 mg l(-1)) nitrogen (N) supply for a year. Before the second growing season, half of the seedlings in each nutrient treatment were allocated to the other treatment. Half of the seedlings in each nutrient treatment then had all growing points removed. Biomass and N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations of old and new shoots and roots were measured three times in the second year to test the interaction of current-year and previous-year nutrient supply on biomass and nutrient allocation in these two species with different growth habits. Pruned seedlings served as controls. Unpruned seedlings of both species increased in height throughout the second growing season, except for Douglas-fir in the N250 --> N20 treatment. Repeated pruning did not prevent new shoot growth, but resulted in a 12 to 52% reduction in biomass of new shoots and new and old roots. Seedlings receiving a low N supply in the first growing season were more severely affected by pruning than seedings receiving a high N supply. Growth was reduced more by pruning in western red cedar than in Douglas-fir. Concentrations of N, P and K were higher in pruned seedlings than in unpruned seedlings. Although dry weights of all plant parts in all treatments increased throughout the second growing season, some retranslocation of N, P and K was observed from old shoots of both species in the N250 --> N20 and N20 --> N20 treatments after August. Quantities of N, P and K retranslocated were greatest in seedlings grown the previous year in the high-N treatment.

  4. Impact of a low severity fire on soil organic carbon and nitrogen characteristics in Japanese cedar soil Yamagata Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Felix

    2017-04-01

    Slash and burn practices are widely used around the globe with different degrees of success which are mostly related to the impact of fire on the soil properties. In Japan slash and burn practises, known as Yakihata, have a long history and are still used in Yamagata Prefecture today. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a low severity controlled fire on Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest soil (Cambisol) which is the dominant species among plantations in Japan. We measured organic carbon and nitrogen content as well as changes in carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope composition in a steep west facing slope under heavy precipitation ( 2600 mm/a) and heavy snowfall ( 3-4 m/a). The results show that Ctotal and Ntotal values as well as the isotopes ratios of C and N change with decreasing elevation in the forest as well as in the burned site being consistent with leaching and erosion. The accumulation of Ctotal and Ntotal at the bottom of the slopes was remarkably higher at the slash and burned site than in the control forest site. After slash and burn δ15N isotopes in the slope in general became significantly lighter than in the control forest while the δ13C did not show any significant difference between the two sites except at the bottom of the slopes where δ13C was heavier in the forest. The reason for these changes in nitrogen and carbon isotopes appears to be related to the physical changes in soil horizon sequence of the original forest soil layer. Keywords: high precipitation, Japanese cedar forest soil, low severity fire, stable isotopes, steep slopes

  5. Water-soluble low-molecular-weight -(1, 3–1, 6 D-Glucan inhibit cedar pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Jippo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, asthma, and food allergies has increased in several countries. Mast cells have critical roles in various biologic processes related to allergic diseases. Mast cells express the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin (Ig E on their surface. The interaction of multivalent antigens with surface-bound IgE causes the secretion of granule-stored mediators, as well as the de novosynthesis of cytokines. Those mediators and cytokines proceed the allergic diseases. We investigated the effects of water-soluble, low-molecular-weight -(1, 3–1, 6 D-glucan isolated from Aureobasidium pullulans 1A1 strain black yeast (LMW--glucan on mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions. We reported that LMW--glucan dose-dependently inhibited the degranulation of mast cells. Furthermore, we found that orally administered LMW--glucan inhibited the IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA reaction in mice. Here, we examined if LMW--glucan had effects on Japanese cedar pollinosis. Findings: In a clinical study, a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study in 65 subjects (aged 2262 was performed. This study was undertaken 3 weeks before and until the end of the cedar pollen season. During the study, all subjects consumed one bottle of placebo or LMW--glucan daily and all subjects were required to record allergic symptoms in a diary. The LMW--glucan group had a significantly lower prevalence of sneezing, nose-blowing, tears, and hindrance to the activities of daily living than the placebo group. Conclusions: These results suggested that LMW--glucan could be an effective treatment for allergic diseases

  6. The Cedar Project WelTel mHealth intervention for HIV prevention in young Indigenous people who use illicit drugs: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloed, Kate; Friedman, Anton J; Pearce, Margo E; Van Der Kop, Mia L; Thomas, Vicky; Demerais, Lou; Pooyak, Sherri; Schechter, Martin T; Lester, Richard T; Spittal, Patricia M

    2016-03-09

    Despite successes in preventing and treating HIV, Indigenous people in Canada continue to face disproportionately high rates of HIV infection. Programs that support healing from lifetime trauma, support connection to culture, and reduce drug-related harms are critical to preventing HIV among young Indigenous people who use drugs. The Cedar Project WelTel mHealth intervention proposed here is a structured mobile-phone initiative to connect young Indigenous people who use drugs with Cedar Case Managers in a community-based setting. The intervention consists of a package of supports, including a mobile phone and cellular plan, weekly two-way text messaging, and support from Cedar Case Managers. The Cedar Project WelTel mHealth study is a multi-site Zelen pre-randomized trial to measure the effect of a two-way supportive text-message intervention to reduce HIV vulnerability among young Indigenous people who use illicit drugs in two Canadian cities. The trial is nested within the Cedar Project, an ongoing cohort study addressing HIV and hepatitis C vulnerability among young Indigenous people who use drugs in Vancouver and Prince George, British Columbia. The Cedar Project Partnership, an independent body of Indigenous Elders, leaders, and health/social service experts, governs all aspects of the study. Two hundred participants will be followed over a 16-month period, with HIV propensity score at 6 months as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes include HIV propensity at 1 year, HIV risk, resilience, psychological distress, access to drug-related services, and connection to culture measured at 6 months and 1 year. Primary analysis is by intention to treat. Culturally safe interventions that address barriers to HIV prevention while supporting the strength of young Indigenous people who use drugs are urgently needed. Despite presenting a tremendous opportunity to connect young, highly transient Indigenous people who use drugs to prevention services, supportive two-way m

  7. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness and level of exposure in occupational asthma due to western red cedar (Thuja plicata). Serial observations before and after development of symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, M; Desjardins, A

    1992-12-01

    Four workers from a cedar sawmill who developed red cedar asthma are described. They had serial measurements of lung function and nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (NSBH) several years before and after the development of chest symptoms. Measurements of dust concentration and specific IgE antibodies to plicatic acid-human serum albumin (PA-HSA) conjugate were also carried out before the onset of disease. NSBH developed in parallel with the development of asthma and was not present in any of the workers beforehand, indicating that it is not a predisposing host factor. Nasal symptoms preceded chest symptoms in three workers, suggesting that this may be an early marker of the disease. Although dust concentrations for jobs located both inside and outside the sawmill were low, jobs associated with somewhat higher exposures were associated with the initiation of asthma symptoms.

  8. Effects of release cutting on the development of young natural lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich) stands of western Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Ramazan; Eler, Unal

    2009-03-01

    Release cutting is ecologically and economically one of the most important silvicultural treatments for establishing a new stand. The study was designed to determine the suitable silvicultural treatments of different spacing of thinning for release cutting on young natural lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich) stands at the thicket stage. Studies were carried out at Bucak and Gölhisar forest districts in the Western Mediterranean region of Turkey between the years of 1999-2005. Results showed that release cutting treatment had a positive effect on diameter growth for individual trees with the 1.5 m x 3 m spacing and positively correlated with spacing of thinning. However there was not significant effect of the thinning application on height growth of young natural Lebanon cedar stands.

  9. Pattern of specific airway response in asthma due to western red cedar (Thuja plicata): relationship with length of exposure and lung function measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggiaro, P L; Chan Yeung, M

    1987-07-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between the pattern of response (immediate, late and dual) to specific bronchial challenge test with plicatic acid or red cedar extract and the clinical features of asthma, 332 patients with asthma induced by western red cedar dust were examined at the time of diagnosis. Specific challenge test induced in thirty-one patients (9.3%) an isolated immediate reaction, in 144 patients (43.4%) an isolated late reaction and in 157 patients (47.3%) a dual reaction. Patients with a dual reaction had a longer period of exposure to red cedar dust between the onset of the respiratory symptoms and the time of the definitive diagnosis, a lower FEF 25-75% and a greater degree of non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness compared to patients with isolated immediate or isolated late reactions; the difference in bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine among the three groups persisted when the values were adjusted for the different baseline value of FEV1. There was no difference in the prevalence of specific serum IgE antibodies to plicatic acid-human serum albumin conjugate among the three groups of patients with different type of response to red cedar. Except for the greater degree of non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness, patients with isolated late reactions were not different from those with isolated immediate reactions in other clinical findings. These findings indicate that a dual reaction in patients with occupational asthma due to simple chemical agents is indicative of a greater severity of disease at diagnosis. The pathogenetic mechanism of various types of asthmatic reaction is unknown and it is likely to be different between isolated immediate and isolated late reactions.

  10. Recombinant Fusion Allergens, Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 from Japanese Cedar Pollen, Conjugated with Polyethylene Glycol Potentiate the Attenuation of Cry j 1-Specific IgE Production in Cry j 1-Sensitized Mice and Japanese Cedar Pollen Allergen-Sensitized Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Takashi; Fujinami, Koji; Ishikawa, Ryosuke; Tateno, Minoru; Tahara, Yoshio; Okumura, Yasushi; Ohta, Hisashi; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollinosis is the most prevalent seasonal rhinitis in Japan. A standardized Japanese cedar pollen extract (CPE) containing 1.5-4.2 μg of Cry j 1 is currently the highest-concentration extract available for allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) against this pollinosis. Therefore, we developed a PEGylated fusion protein as a more effective SIT vaccine against Japanese cedar pollinosis. The fusion protein of major allergens for Japanese cedar pollen, Cry j 1 and Cry j 2, was expressed in Escherichia coli and conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The purified PEGylated Cry j 1/2 fusion protein (PEG-fusion) was subcutaneously injected four times into Cry j 1- sensitized mice and CPE-sensitized monkeys. The mice were then subcutaneously challenged with Cry j 1 and serum levels of Cry j 1-specific immunoglobulin, and the proliferation and cytokine production of splenocytes were analyzed. The monkeys were intranasally challenged with CPE and analyzed for Cry j 1-specific immunoglobulin levels in plasma. Cry j 1-specific IgE was significantly attenuated in the PEG-fusion-treated group after Cry j 1-challenge and Cry j 1-specific IgG was significantly increased following PEG-fusion treatment in mice and monkeys. Proliferation and Th2-type cytokine production in splenocytes stimulated with Cry j 1 were also reduced in PEG-fusion-treated mice. IL10 and IL2 production were reduced, but not significantly, while IFN-x03B3; was significantly increased in the PEG-fusion-treated group. A high-dose injection of PEG-fusion appears to be a valid candidate for a safer and more effective vaccine than the conventional SIT extract for Japanese cedar pollinosis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The tropical cedar tree (Cedrela fissilis Vell., Meliaceae) homolog of the Arabidopsis LEAFY gene is expressed in reproductive tissues and can complement Arabidopsis leafy mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli

    2006-01-01

    A homolog of FLORICAULA/LEAFY, CfLFY (for Cedrela fissilis LFY), was isolated from tropical cedar. The main stages of the reproductive development in C. fissilis were documented by scanning electron microscopy and the expression patterns of CfLFY were studied during the differentiation of the floral meristems. Furthermore, the biological role of the CfLFY gene was assessed using transgenic Arabidopsis plants. CfLFY showed a high degree of similarity to other plant homologs of FLO/LFY. Southern analysis showed that CfLFY is a single-copy gene in the tropical cedar genome. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization results showed that CfLFY was expressed in the reproductive buds during the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, as well as in floral meristems and floral organs but was excluded from the vegetative apex and leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis lfy26 mutant lines expressing the CfLFY coding region, under the control of the LFY promoter, showed restored wild-type phenotype. Taken together, our results suggest that CfLFY is a FLO/LFY homolog probably involved in the control of tropical cedar reproductive development.

  12. Surface-Water Quantity and Quality of the Upper Milwaukee River, Cedar Creek, and Root River Basins, Wisconsin, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission (SEWRPC), collected discharge and water-quality data at nine sites in previously monitored areas of the upper Milwaukee River, Cedar Creek, and Root River Basins, in Wisconsin from May 1 through November 15, 2004. The data were collected for calibration of hydrological models that will be used to simulate how various management strategies will affect the water quality of streams. The data also will support SEWRPC and Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) managers in development of the SEWRPC Regional Water Quality Management Plan and the MMSD 2020 Facilities Plan. These management plans will provide a scientific basis for future management decisions regarding development and maintenance of public and private waste-disposal systems. In May 2004, parts of the study area received over 13 inches of precipitation (3.06 inches is normal). In June 2004, most of the study area received between 7 and 11 inches of rainfall (3.56 inches is normal). This excessive rainfall caused flooding throughout the study area and resultant high discharges were measured at all nine monitoring sites. For example, the mean daily discharge recorded at the Cedar Creek site on May 27, 2004, was 2,120 cubic feet per second. This discharge ranked ninth of the largest 10 mean daily discharges in the 75-year record, and was the highest discharge recorded since March 30, 1960. Discharge records from continuous monitoring on the Root River Canal near Franklin since October 1, 1963, indicated that the discharge recorded on May 23, 2004, ranked second highest on record, and was the highest discharge recorded since March 4, 1974. Water-quality samples were taken during two base-flow events and six storm events at each of the nine sites. Analysis of water-quality data indicated that most concentrations of dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, fecal coliform bacteria, chloride, suspended

  13. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS) is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m) of that observed in the core populations (15 m). Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m) than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m) populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82) than in the peripheral (Nb = 48) populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short distances. Peripheral

  14. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Madhav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m of that observed in the core populations (15 m. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82 than in the peripheral (Nb = 48 populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short

  15. Seasonal variation in the atmospheric deposition of inorganic constituents and canopy interactions in a Japanese cedar forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sase, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Akiomi; Sato, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Hiroyasu; Nakata, Makoto; Totsuka, Tsumugu

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal changes in throughfall (TF) and stemflow (SF) chemistry and the canopy interactions of K + and N compounds were studied in a Japanese cedar forest near the Sea of Japan. The fluxes of most ions, including non-sea-salt SO 4 2- , from TF, SF, and rainfall showed distinct seasonal trends, increasing from autumn to winter, owing to the seasonal west wind, while the fluxes of NH 4 + and K + ions from TF + SF might have a large effect of canopy interactions. The contact angle (CA) of water droplets on leaves decreased with leaf aging, suggesting that surface wettability increases with leaf age. The K + concentration in TF was negatively correlated with the CA of 1-year-old leaves, while the NH 4 + concentration was positively correlated with the CA. The net fluxes of NH 4 + and NO 3 - from TF were positively correlated with the CA. The increase in wettability may accelerate leaching of K + or uptake of NH 4 + . - Leaf surface properties may contribute to the ion transport process of the forest canopy

  16. [Prediction of the total Japanese cedar pollen counts based on male flower-setting conditions of standard trees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuta, Atsushi; Ukai, Kotaro; Sakakura, Yasuo; Tani, Hideshi; Matsuda, Fukiko; Yang, Tian-qun; Majima, Yuichi

    2002-07-01

    We made a prediction of the Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen counts at Tsu city based on male flower-setting conditions of standard trees. The 69 standard trees from 23 kinds of clones, planted at Mie Prefecture Science and Technology Promotion Center (Hakusan, Mie) in 1964, were selected. Male flower-setting conditions for 276 faces (69 trees x 4 points of the compass) were scored from 0 to 3. The average of scores and total pollen counts from 1988 to 2000 was analyzed. As the results, the average scores from standard trees and total pollen counts except two mass pollen-scattered years in 1995 and 2000 had a positive correlation (r = 0.914) by linear function. On the mass pollen-scattered years, pollen counts were influenced from the previous year. Therefore, the score of the present year minus that of the previous year were used for analysis. The average scores from male flower-setting conditions and pollen counts had a strong positive correlation (r = 0.994) when positive scores by taking account of the previous year were analyzed. We conclude that prediction of pollen counts are possible based on the male flower-setting conditions of standard trees.

  17. Changes in the distribution of radiocesium in the wood of Japanese cedar trees from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hideki; Hirano, Yurika; Igei, Shigemitsu; Yokota, Kahori; Arai, Shio; Ito, Hirohisa; Kumata, Atsushi; Yoshida, Hirohisa

    2016-09-01

    The changes in the distribution of (137)Cs in the wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) trunks within three years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNP) accident in 2011 were investigated. Thirteen trees were felled to collect samples at 6 forests in 2 regions of the Fukushima prefecture. The radial distribution of (137)Cs in the wood was measured at different heights. Profiles of (137)Cs distribution in the wood changed considerably from 2011 to 2013, and the process of (137)Cs distribution change in the wood was clarified. From 2011 to 2012, the active transportation from sapwood to heartwood and the radial diffusion in heartwood proceeded quickly, and the radial (137)Cs distribution differed according to the vertical positon of trees. From 2012 to 2013, the vertical diffusion of (137)Cs from the treetop to the ground, probably caused by the gradient of (137)Cs concentration in the trunk, was observed. Eventually, the radial (137)Cs distributions were nearly identical at any vertical positions in 2013. Our results suggested that the active transportation from sapwood to heartwood and the vertical and radial diffusion in heartwood proceeded according to the vertical position of the tree and (137)Cs distribution in the wood approached the equilibrium state within three years after the accident. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A simple method to estimate radiation interception by nursery stock conifers: a case study of eastern white cedar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronk, A.A.; Goudriaan, J.; Stilma, E.; Challa, H.

    2003-01-01

    A simple method was developed to estimate the fraction radiation intercepted by small eastern white cedar plants (Thuja occidentalis ‘Brabant’). The method, which describes the crop canopy as rows of cuboids, was compared with methods used for estimating radiation interception by crops with homogeneous canopies and crops grown in rows. The extinction coefficient k was determined at different plant arrangements and an average k-value of 0.48 ± 0.03 (R 2 = 0.89) was used in the calculations. Effects of changing plant characteristics and inter- and intra-row plant distances were explored. The fraction radiation intercepted that was estimated with the method for rows of cuboids was up to 20% and for row crops up to 8% lower than estimated with the method for homogeneous canopies at low plant densities and a LAI of 1. The fraction radiation intercepted by small plants of Thuja occidentalis ‘Brabant’ was best estimated by the simple method described in this paper

  19. EVALUATION OF COLOR OF THE JUVENILE AND MATURE CEDAR WOOD BY MEANS OF CIEL*a*b* METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Avila Delucis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to characterize the radial profile of cedar wood (Cedrela fissilis by the colorimetric technique. Three different trees of approximately 100 years old were selected in Canguçu, Rio Grande do Sul. From each felled tree, discs were removed at breast height (1,3 m with a thickness of 20 cm and subsequently samples were segmented in centimeter lengths from pith to bark. The samples were conditioned at equilibrium moisture content of 12%, to carry out the colour evaluation with a portable colorimeter Konica Minolta brand in accordance with the CIEL*a*b* method. To determine the segregation of juvenile and mature woods position was employed the apparent specific gravity to 12% (ρa12% as a parameter. With colorimetric analysis, it was found that the lightness, the green-red coordinate and hue angle presented intimate relation with the transition from juvenile and adult logs. Has a result of blueyellow coordinate and chromaticity showed approximately a linear trend in pith-bark direction.

  20. Relationship of dirigent protein and 18s RNA transcript localization to heartwood formation in western red cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Ann M; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2008-12-01

    Western red cedar (Thuja plicata) heartwood contains abundant amounts of structurally complex plicatic acid-derived lignans that help confer protective properties and longevity to this tissue type. Although the lignan biochemical entry point is dirigent protein-mediated, the formation of heartwood and its associated lignans in some species remains poorly understood due to technical difficulties of working with the former. To begin to address such questions, this study therefore focused on the anatomical localization of dirigent protein and 18s rRNA (control) gene transcripts within recalcitrant woody tissues, including heartwood. This in situ mRNA hybridization approach enabled detection of dirigent protein transcripts in cork cambia, vascular cambia and ray parenchyma cells of the sapwood, but not the heartwood under the conditions employed. By contrast, the hybridization of the 18s rRNA (control) transcript resulted in its detection in all tissue types, including radial parenchyma cells of apparently preformed heartwood. Application of in situ hybridization to such recalcitrant tissues thus demonstrates the utility of this technique in identifying specific cell types involved in heartwood formation, as well as the relationship of dirigent protein localization to that of heartwood metabolite generation.

  1. [A new counting method for airborne Japanese red cedar and grass pollen allergens by the immunoblotting technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y; Katagiri, S; Inouye, S; Sakaguchi, M

    1990-12-01

    We devised a new counting method of pollen allergen particles which improved the fluorescence immunoblotting technique by Schumacher et al (1988). And by which airborne pollen allergens became visible under 10X magnifier or naked eyes. Airborne pollen allergens collected on the Burkard's sampling tape were transferred onto nitrocellulose membrane and were reacted with anti Cry j I rabbit serum or anti Lol p I rabbit serum, and then treated with alkaline phosphatase conjugated F(ab')2 anti rabbit IgG. Finally, bluish purple spots were obtained by staining with BCIP/NBT phosphatase substrate system. This technique does not require any skillful morphological observation, and is more suitable to measure the amounts of airborne pollen allergen for given pollinosis patients because total pollen allergen particles with common antigenicity are measured. In Japanese red cedar pollen counts, we could not count the spots more than 400 grains per 0.16 cm2 of the sample trapping area due to many overlapping spots. In this case, we tried to calculate the value from the ratio of bluish purple coloured area to one pollen area. However, a more suitable method for estimating the content of pollinosis caused airborne allergens may be colorimetric quantitation using densitometry and displaying the value as allergen content.

  2. A geomorphic framework to assess changes to aquatic habitat due to flow regulation and channel and floodplain alteration of the Cedar River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, A. S.; Magirl, C. S.; Barnas, C. R.; Konrad, C. P.; Little, R.

    2010-12-01

    Flow regulation, bank armoring, and floodplain alteration since the early 20th century have contributed to significant changes in the hydrologic regime and geomorphic processes of the Cedar River in Washington State. The Cedar River originates in the Cascade Range, provides drinking water to the Seattle metropolitan area, and supports several populations of anadromous salmonids. Flow regulation currently has limited influence on the magnitude, duration, and timing of high-flow events, which affect the incubation of salmonids as well as the production and maintenance of their habitat. Unlike structural changes to the channel and floodplain, flow regulation may be modified in the short-term to improve the viability of salmon populations. An understanding of the effects of flow regulation on those populations must be discerned over a range of scales from individual floods that affect the size of individual year classes to decadal high flow regime that influences the amount and quality of channel and off-channel habitat available for spawning and rearing. We present estimates of reach-scale sediment budgets and changes to channel morphology derived from historical orthoimagery, specific gage analyses at four long-term streamflow-gaging stations to quantify trends in aggradation, and hydrologic statistics of the magnitude and duration of peak streamflows. These data suggest a gradient of channel types from unconfined, sediment-rich segments to confined, sediment-poor segments that are likely to have distinct responses to high flows. Particle-size distribution data and longitudinal water surface and streambed profiles for the 56 km downstream of Chester Morse Lake measured in 2010 show the spatial extent of preferred salmonid habitat along the Cedar River. These historical and current data constitute a geomorphic framework to help assess different river management scenarios for salmonid habitat and population viability.

  3. Efficacy of oral immunotherapy with a rice-based edible vaccine containing hypoallergenic Japanese cedar pollen allergens for treatment of established allergic conjunctivitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ken; Ishida, Waka; Harada, Yosuke; Wakasa, Yuhya; Takagi, Hidenori; Takaiwa, Fumio; Fukushima, Atsuki

    2018-01-01

    We have previously shown that prophylactic oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing hypoallergenic modified antigens suppressed the development of allergic conjunctivitis induced by Japanese cedar pollen. We have now investigated the efficacy of oral immunotherapy with such transgenic rice for established allergic conjunctivitis in mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with two intraperitoneal injections of Japanese cedar pollen in alum, challenged with pollen in eyedrops, and then fed for 16 days with transgenic rice seeds expressing modified Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 or with nontransgenic rice seeds as a control. They were then challenged twice with pollen in eyedrops, with clinical signs being evaluated at 15 min after the first challenge and the eyes, blood, spleen, and lymph nodes being isolated at 24 h after the second challenge. The number of eosinophils in the conjunctiva and the clinical score for conjunctivitis were both significantly lower in mice fed the transgenic rice than in those fed nontransgenic rice. Oral vaccination with transgenic rice seeds also resulted in a significant increase in the production of IFN-γ by splenocytes, whereas it had no effect on the number of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells in the spleen or submandibular or mesenteric lymph nodes. Oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing hypoallergenic allergens ameliorated allergic conjunctivitis in the established setting. Such a rice-based edible vaccine is potentially both safe and effective for oral immunotherapy in individuals with allergic conjunctivitis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. NMR assignments and ligand-binding studies on a two-domain family GH19 chitinase allergen from Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Tomoya; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Fukamizo, Tamo

    2017-04-01

    A two-domain family GH19 chitinase from Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen, CJP-4, which consists of an N-terminal CBM18 domain and a GH19 catalytic domain, is known to be an important allergen, that causes pollinosis. We report here the resonance assignments of the NMR spectrum of CJP-4. The backbone resonances were almost completely assigned, and the secondary structure was estimated based on the chemical shift values. The addition of a chitin dimer to the enzyme solution perturbed the chemical shifts of the resonances of amino acid residues forming a long extended binding site spanning from the CBM18 domain to the GH19 catalytic domain.

  5. Lack of role for mononuclear cell-derived histamine releasing factors in occupational asthma due to western red cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, A J; Chan, H; Chan-Yeung, M

    1993-10-01

    Occupational asthma due to Western Red Cedar (WRCA) is attributed to sensitization to plicatic acid (PA), but does not appear to be dependent on PA-specific IgE antibodies. Exposure to PA induces histamine release in vivo and in vitro, so if IgE is not important, other mechanisms of histamine release must presumably operate in WRCA. To explore the possible role of histamine-releasing factors in WRCA, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained and cultured with PA, PA-albumin conjugate plicatic acid-human serum albumin (PA-HSA), grass pollen or Concanavalin A using a standard histamine releasing factor (HRF) generation protocol. Supernatants were dialysed to remove endogenous histamine and then assayed for histamine releasing activity using human basophils as targets and a Con A-induced bulk supernatant as an internal HRF standard. In contrast to some previous reports, spontaneous HRF release from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of WRCA patients (n=9) and atopic asthmatic subjects (n=5) was not elevated compared with the non-asthmatic controls (n=11; five atopic and six non-atopic). Both PA and PA-HSA induced the production of small amounts of HRF by PBMC of WRCA patients, but a similar degree of HRF generation was also observed in PBMC from the atopic asthmatic, atopic nonasthmatic, and non-atopic subjects. In contrast, grass pollen induced the production of HRF by PBMC from the subjects with positive skin tests to grass pollen but not by PBMC of non-atopic subjects, confirming that our methods and assay were capable of detecting antigen-specific HRF production. Since neither PA nor PA-HSA induced significantly elevated HRF production from PBMC of WRCA patients, it seems unlikely that PA-induced HRFs play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of WRCA.

  6. HLA class II association with Type I allergy to house dust mite and Japanese cedar pollen in Japanese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Sadanaga

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the incidence of the association of HLA class II phenotype and specific IgE responsiveness against house dust mite (HDM and/or Japanese cedar pollen (Jc in 176 patients with allergic rhinitis, with or without bronchial asthma, and 107 nonallergic subjects. Specific IgE antibody titration against the purified allergens Der f1 and Der f2 from HDM, and against Cry J1 and Cry J2 from Jc, was performed by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and radioimmunoassay (RIA in sera from all subjects. HLA class II oligotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO method on the DRB1*, DQA1*, DQB1* and DPB1* alleles using peripheral blood cells. The high IgE responders ≥ class 4 to the purified allergens were identified by using the IgE antibody reference concentration obtained by ELISA, RIA and routine IgE CAP RAST. Compared to the controls, the patients with both rhinitis and asthma showed significantly higher frequencies of DRB1* 0901, DQB1* 0303, and DPB1* 0401 alleles. High IgE responsiveness to HDM was associated with DRB1* 1101, 0901, DQB1* 0303, and DPB1*0401 alleles. The patients with anti-Der f1 IgE antibody concentration exceeding 72.2 ng/mL showed significantly elevated frequencies for DQB1*0401 and DPB1*0401 alleles, and those with anti Der f2 IgE antibody concentration exceeding 46.2 ng/mL showed significantly elevated frequencies for DPB1*0401 and 0901 alleles. High IgE responsiveness to Jc with Cry j1 and Cryj2was associated with the DRB1* 1201 alleles.

  7. Projecting the land cover change and its environmental impacts in the Cedar River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yiping; Liu Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L; Young, Claudia J

    2013-01-01

    The physical surface of the Earth is in constant change due to climate forcing and human activities. In the Midwestern United States, urban area, farmland, and dedicated energy crop (e.g., switchgrass) cultivation are predicted to expand in the coming decades, which will lead to changes in hydrological processes. This study is designed to (1) project the land use and land cover (LULC) by mid-century using the FORecasting SCEnarios of future land-use (FORE-SCE) model under the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario (future condition) and (2) assess its potential impacts on the water cycle and water quality against the 2001 baseline condition in the Cedar River Basin using the physically based soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). We compared the baseline LULC (National Land Cover data 2001) and 2050 projection, indicating substantial expansions of urban area and pastureland (including the cultivation of bioenergy crops) and a decrease in rangeland. We then used the above two LULC maps as the input data to drive the SWAT model, keeping other input data (e.g., climate) unchanged to isolate the LULC change impacts. The modeling results indicate that quick-response surface runoff would increase significantly (about 10.5%) due to the projected urban expansion (i.e., increase in impervious areas), and the baseflow would decrease substantially (about 7.3%) because of the reduced infiltration. Although the net effect may cause an increase in water yield, the increased variability may impede its use for public supply. Additionally, the cultivation of bioenergy crops such as switchgrass in the newly added pasture lands may further reduce the soil water content and lead to an increase in nitrogen loading (about 2.5% increase) due to intensified fertilizer application. These study results will be informative to decision makers for sustainable water resource management when facing LULC change and an increasing demand for biofuel production in this area. (letter)

  8. Projecting the land cover change and its environmental impacts in the Cedar River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L.; Young, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The physical surface of the Earth is in constant change due to climate forcing and human activities. In the Midwestern United States, urban area, farmland, and dedicated energy crop (e.g., switchgrass) cultivation are predicted to expand in the coming decades, which will lead to changes in hydrological processes. This study is designed to (1) project the land use and land cover (LULC) by mid-century using the FORecasting SCEnarios of future land-use (FORE-SCE) model under the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario (future condition) and (2) assess its potential impacts on the water cycle and water quality against the 2001 baseline condition in the Cedar River Basin using the physically based soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). We compared the baseline LULC (National Land Cover data 2001) and 2050 projection, indicating substantial expansions of urban area and pastureland (including the cultivation of bioenergy crops) and a decrease in rangeland. We then used the above two LULC maps as the input data to drive the SWAT model, keeping other input data (e.g., climate) unchanged to isolate the LULC change impacts. The modeling results indicate that quick-response surface runoff would increase significantly (about 10.5%) due to the projected urban expansion (i.e., increase in impervious areas), and the baseflow would decrease substantially (about 7.3%) because of the reduced infiltration. Although the net effect may cause an increase in water yield, the increased variability may impede its use for public supply. Additionally, the cultivation of bioenergy crops such as switchgrass in the newly added pasture lands may further reduce the soil water content and lead to an increase in nitrogen loading (about 2.5% increase) due to intensified fertilizer application. These study results will be informative to decision makers for sustainable water resource management when facing LULC change and an increasing demand for biofuel production in this area.

  9. Projecting the land cover change and its environmental impacts in the Cedar River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L.; Young, Claudia J.

    2013-06-01

    The physical surface of the Earth is in constant change due to climate forcing and human activities. In the Midwestern United States, urban area, farmland, and dedicated energy crop (e.g., switchgrass) cultivation are predicted to expand in the coming decades, which will lead to changes in hydrological processes. This study is designed to (1) project the land use and land cover (LULC) by mid-century using the FORecasting SCEnarios of future land-use (FORE-SCE) model under the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario (future condition) and (2) assess its potential impacts on the water cycle and water quality against the 2001 baseline condition in the Cedar River Basin using the physically based soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). We compared the baseline LULC (National Land Cover data 2001) and 2050 projection, indicating substantial expansions of urban area and pastureland (including the cultivation of bioenergy crops) and a decrease in rangeland. We then used the above two LULC maps as the input data to drive the SWAT model, keeping other input data (e.g., climate) unchanged to isolate the LULC change impacts. The modeling results indicate that quick-response surface runoff would increase significantly (about 10.5%) due to the projected urban expansion (i.e., increase in impervious areas), and the baseflow would decrease substantially (about 7.3%) because of the reduced infiltration. Although the net effect may cause an increase in water yield, the increased variability may impede its use for public supply. Additionally, the cultivation of bioenergy crops such as switchgrass in the newly added pasture lands may further reduce the soil water content and lead to an increase in nitrogen loading (about 2.5% increase) due to intensified fertilizer application. These study results will be informative to decision makers for sustainable water resource management when facing LULC change and an increasing demand for biofuel production in this area.

  10. Effect of fermented milk prepared with two probiotic strains on Japanese cedar pollinosis in a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Manabu; He, Fang; Kubota, Akira; Hiramatsu, Masaru; Saito, Hiroshi; Ishii, Toyota; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2009-01-15

    There has been much interest in the potential of using probiotic bacteria for treating allergic diseases. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of Lactobacillus GG (LGG) and L. gasseri TMC0356 (TMC0356) in alleviating Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP), a seasonal allergic rhinitis caused by Japanese cedar pollen. Fermented milk prepared with the tested bacteria or placebo yoghurt was administered to 40 subjects with a clinical history of JCP for 10 weeks. Subjective symptoms, self-care measures and blood samples were compared between the two groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from seven patients with JCP and in vitro cytokine production by the isolated PBMCs was analysed in the presence of heat-killed lactic acid bacteria. Consumption of the fermented milk significantly decreased the mean symptom score for nasal blockage after 9 weeks (Pfermented milk prepared with LGG and TMC0356 might be beneficial in JCP because of its effect on nasal blockage. The effects of LGG and TMC0356 might arise at least partly from their specific down-regulation of the human Th2 immune response.

  11. Fate of occupational asthma. A follow-up study of patients with occupational asthma due to Western Red Cedar (Thuja plicata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, M

    1977-12-01

    Thirty-eight patients with red cedar asthma proved by inhalation provocation test were studied after they had left exposure for more than 6 months. Twenty-seven patients became asymptomatic, with normal lung function (group A). Three patients had persistent chronic bronchitis with a moderate degree of airway obstruction, probably as a result of cigarette smoking (group B1). Eight patients continued to have recurrent attacks of asthma that decreased in severity after cessation of exposure, and their symptoms were probably due to previous exposure (group B2). The effect of breathing helium on maximal expiratory flow at 50 per cent of the vital capacity was studied. All except one patient in group A were responders (change in maximal expiratory flow at 50 per cent of vital capacity greater than 30 per cent). Two patients in group B1 and 2 in group B2 were nonresponders, suggesting obstruction in the small airways. All patients with red cedar asthma demonstrated bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine to the same extent as patients with nonoccupational asthma. This hyperreactivity persisted after they left exposure, irrespective of symptoms. It is not known at present whether bronchial hyperreactivity is the predisposing factor in occupational asthma or is the result of the disease.

  12. Use of novel compounds for pest control: insecticidal and acaricidal activity of essential oil components from heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panella, Nicholas A; Dolan, Marc C; Karchesy, Joseph J; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Montenieri, John A; Maupin, Gary O

    2005-05-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the activity of 15 natural products isolated from essential oil components extracted from the heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach., against Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs, Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothchild), and Aedes aegypti (L.) adults. Four of the compounds from the essential oil have been identified as monoterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpene derivatives from valencene and nootkatone, and one as a sesquiterpene outside the eremophilane parent group. Carvacrol was the only monoterpene that demonstrated biocidal activity against ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes with LC50 values after 24 h of 0.0068, 0.0059, and 0.0051% (wt:vol), respectively. Nootkatone from Alaska yellow cedar was the most effective of the eremophilane sesquiterpenes against ticks (LC50 = 0.0029%), whereas the nootkatone grapefruit extract exhibited the greatest biocidal activity against fleas (LC50 = 0.0029%). Mosquitoes were most susceptible to one of the derivatives of valencene, valencene-13-aldehyde (LC50 = 0.0024%), after 24 h. Bioassays to determine residual activity of the most effective products were conducted at 1, 2, 4, and 6 wk after initial treatment. Residual LC50 values for nootkatone did not differ significantly at 4 wk posttreatment from the observations made at the initial 24-h treatment. The ability of these natural products to kill arthropods at relatively low concentrations represents an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides for control of disease vectors.

  13. GEM-CEDAR Challenge: Poynting Flux at DMSP and Modeled Joule Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastaetter, Lutz; Shim, Ja Soon; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Kilcommons, Liam M.; Knipp, Delores J.; Codrescu, Mihail; Fuller-Rowell, Tim; Emery, Barbara; Weimer, Daniel R.; Cosgrove, Russell; hide

    2016-01-01

    Poynting flux into the ionosphere measures the electromagnetic energy coming from the magnetosphere. This energy flux can vary greatly between quiet times and geomagnetic active times. As part of the Geospace Environment Modeling-coupling energetics and dynamics of atmospheric regions modeling challenge, physics-based models of the 3-D ionosphere and ionospheric electrodynamics solvers of magnetosphere models that specify Joule heat and empirical models specifying Poynting flux were run for six geomagnetic storm events of varying intensity. We compared model results with Poynting flux values along the DMSP-15 satellite track computed from ion drift meter and magnetic field observations. Although being a different quantity, Joule heat can in practice be correlated to incoming Poynting flux because the energy is dissipated primarily in high latitudes where Poynting flux is being deposited. Within the physics-based model group, we find mixed results with some models overestimating Joule heat and some models agreeing better with observed Poynting flux rates as integrated over auroral passes. In contrast, empirical models tend to underestimate integrated Poynting flux values. Modeled Joule heat or Poynting flux patterns often resemble the observed Poynting flux patterns on a large scale, but amplitudes can differ by a factor of 2 or larger due to the highly localized nature of observed Poynting flux deposition that is not captured by the models. In addition, the positioning of modeled patterns appear to be randomly shifted against the observed Poynting flux energy input. This study is the first to compare Poynting flux and Joule heat in a large variety of models of the ionosphere.

  14. GEM-CEDAR challenge: Poynting flux at DMSP and modeled Joule heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastätter, Lutz; Shim, Ja Soon; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Kilcommons, Liam M.; Knipp, Delores J.; Codrescu, Mihail; Fuller-Rowell, Tim; Emery, Barbara; Weimer, Daniel R.; Cosgrove, Russell; Wiltberger, Michael; Raeder, Joachim; Li, Wenhui; Tóth, Gábor; Welling, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Poynting flux into the ionosphere measures the electromagnetic energy coming from the magnetosphere. This energy flux can vary greatly between quiet times and geomagnetic active times. As part of the Geospace Environment Modeling-coupling energetics and dynamics of atmospheric regions modeling challenge, physics-based models of the 3-D ionosphere and ionospheric electrodynamics solvers of magnetosphere models that specify Joule heat and empirical models specifying Poynting flux were run for six geomagnetic storm events of varying intensity. We compared model results with Poynting flux values along the DMSP-15 satellite track computed from ion drift meter and magnetic field observations. Although being a different quantity, Joule heat can in practice be correlated to incoming Poynting flux because the energy is dissipated primarily in high latitudes where Poynting flux is being deposited. Within the physics-based model group, we find mixed results with some models overestimating Joule heat and some models agreeing better with observed Poynting flux rates as integrated over auroral passes. In contrast, empirical models tend to underestimate integrated Poynting flux values. Modeled Joule heat or Poynting flux patterns often resemble the observed Poynting flux patterns on a large scale, but amplitudes can differ by a factor of 2 or larger due to the highly localized nature of observed Poynting flux deposition that is not captured by the models. In addition, the positioning of modeled patterns appear to be randomly shifted against the observed Poynting flux energy input. This study is the first to compare Poynting flux and Joule heat in a large variety of models of the ionosphere.

  15. Responses of transpiration and photosynthesis to reversible changes in photosynthetic foliage area in western red cedar (Thuja plicata) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, S; Livingston, N J; Whitehead, D

    2002-04-01

    Experiments were conducted on 1-year-old western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn.) seedlings to determine the response of illuminated foliage to reversible changes in total photosynthetic foliage area (L(A)). Reductions in L(A) were brought about by either shading the lower foliage or by reducing the ambient CO2 concentration (c(a)) of the air surrounding the lower part of the seedling. In the latter case, the vapor pressure was also changed so that transpiration rates (E) could be manipulated independently of photosynthetic rates (A). We hypothesized that following such treatments, short-term compensatory changes would occur in stomatal conductance (g(s)) and A of the remaining foliage. These changes would occur in response to hydraulic signals generated by changes in the water potential gradient rather than changes in the distribution of sources and sinks of carbon within the seedling. When a portion of the foliage was shaded, there was an immediate reduction in whole-seedling E and a concomitant increase in g(s), A and E in the remaining illuminated foliage. However, the intercellular CO2 concentration did not change. These compensatory effects were fully reversed after the shade was removed. When the lower foliage A was reduced to < 0 micromol m-2 s-1, by shading or lowering c(a), and E was either unchanged or increased (by adjusting the vapor pressure deficit), there was no significant increase in g(s) and A in the remaining foliage. We conclude that compensatory responses in illuminated foliage occur only when reductions in L(A) are accompanied by a reduction in whole-plant E. The relationship between the reduction in whole-seedling E and the increase in A is highly linear (r2 = 0.68) and confirms our hypothesis of the strong regulation of g(s) by hydraulic signals generated within the seedling. We suggest that the mechanism of the compensatory effects is a combination of both increased CO2 supply, resulting from increased g(s), and a response of the rate of

  16. Potential in using elemental concentrations in radial increments of old growth eastern red cedar to examine the chemical history of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyette, R.; McGinnes, E.A. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Research examines the potential of utilizing elemental concentrations in the wood of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) to make inferences about past changes in atmospheric and site chemistry. Crossdated growth increments from live trees and remnant wood are analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP Scan) for elements with potential environmental information. Radial heartwood ring series from 300 to 700 years in length are analyzed in 20 year increments for 37 different elements. Evidence for minimal radial translocation of elements in the heartwood is presented. The radial concentration of elements in the bole is found to be coincident with early smelting activities. 7 references, 4 figures

  17. 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopic study of Japanese cedar bark - the variation in chemical states of iron due to influence of human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Motoyuki; Kobayashi, Takaaki; Singh, T.B.; Tsurumi, Makoto; Ichikuni, Masami

    1992-01-01

    Chemical states of iron have been investigated by 57 Fe Moessbauer technique for the barks of Japanese cedar collected from urban and mountainous area of Japan. The Moessbauer spectra of all outer bark samples show two overlapping doublets and one sextet ascribable to paramagnetic ferrous, paramagnetic ferric and magnetic iron, respectively, whereas an inner bark sample consists only of the two doublets. The bark sample from urban area shows the higher relative amount of magnetic component and the smaller ferrous to ferric ratio. These features of iron species in the bark sample indicate that the bark sample can supply a more effective indicator of human activities than airborne particles collected directly by evaluation with an air sampler. (orig.)

  18. Comparison of cellular and protein changes in bronchial lavage fluid of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with red cedar asthma on follow-up examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, M; Leriche, J; Maclean, L; Lam, S

    1988-07-01

    Seventeen patients with occupational asthma due to western red cedar had bronchial lavage during follow-up examination after removal from exposure for at least 1 year. Seven patients were asymptomatic while ten continued to have symptoms of asthma requiring treatment. Symptomatic patients had evidence of airway inflammation, as reflected by a significantly higher total cell count, neutrophils and eosinophils, as well as an increase in protein and albumin in their bronchial lavage fluid compared to those without symptoms. Asymptomatic patients had no evidence of airway inflammation in the lavage fluid. There was no correlation between the degree of non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the number or percentage of inflammatory cells to suggest that cellular infiltration is the sole cause of persistent bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear small subunit rDNA sequences suggests that the endangered African Pencil Cedar, Juniperus procera, is associated with distinct members of Glomeraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubet, Tesfaye; Weiss, Michael; Kottke, Ingrid; Teketay, Demel; Oberwinkler, Franz

    2006-09-01

    The endangered indigenous tree species Juniperus procera, commonly known as African Pencil Cedar, is an important component of the dry Afromontane vegetation of Ethiopia and was shown to be AM in earlier studies. Here we describe the composition of AM fungi in colonized roots of J. procera from two dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia. The nuSSU rDNA gene was amplified from colonized roots, cloned and sequenced using AM fungal specific primers that were partly developed for this study. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the glomeralean sequences obtained belonged exclusively to the genus Glomus (Glomeraceae). Seven distinct Glomus sequence types were identified that all are new to science. The composition of the AM fungal communities between the sampled trees, and between the two study sites in general, differed significantly. Isolation and utilization of the indigenous AM fungal taxa from the respective sites might be required for successful enrichment plantation of this threatened Juniperus species.

  20. Genetic consequences of fragmentation in "arbor vitae," eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.), toward the northern limit of its distribution range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huaitong; Tremblay, Francine; Bergeron, Yves; Paul, Véronique; Chen, Cungen

    2012-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that marginal fragmented populations of eastern white cedar (EWC) are genetically isolated due to reduced pollen and gene flow. In accordance with the central-marginal model, we predicted a decrease in population genetic diversity and an increase in differentiation along the latitudinal gradient from the boreal mixed-wood to northern coniferous forest. A total of 24 eastern white cedar populations were sampled along the north-south latitudinal gradient for microsatellite genotyping analysis. Positive F(is) values and heterozygote deficiency were observed in populations from the marginal (F(is) = 0.244; P(HW) = 0.0042) and discontinuous zones (F(is) = 0.166; P(HW) = 0.0042). However, populations from the continuous zone were in HW equilibrium (F(is) = -0.007; P(HW) = 0.3625). There were no significant latitudinal effects on gene diversity (H(s)), allelic richness (AR), or population differentiation (F(st)). Bayesian and NJT (neighbor-joining tree) analyses demonstrated the presence of a population structure that was partly consistent with the geographic origins of the populations. The impact of population fragmentation on the genetic structure of EWC is to create a positive inbreeding coefficient, which was two to three times higher on average than that of a population from the continuous zone. This result indicated a higher occurrence of selfing within fragmented EWC populations coupled with a higher degree of gene exchange among near-neighbor relatives, thereby leading to significant inbreeding. Increased population isolation was apparently not correlated with a detectable effect on genetic diversity. Overall, the fragmented populations of EWC appear well-buffered against effects of inbreeding on genetic erosion.

  1. Changes in heartwood chemistry of dead yellow-cedar trees that remain standing for 80 years or more in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Rick G; Hennon, Paul E; Huso, Manuela; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2005-11-01

    We measured the concentrations of extractable bioactive compounds in heartwood of live yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) trees and five classes of standing snags (1-5, averaging 4, 14, 26, 51, and 81 years-since-death, respectively) to determine how the concentrations changed in the slowly deteriorating snags. Three individuals from each of these six condition classes were sampled at four sites spanning a 260-km distance across southeast Alaska, and the influence of geographic location on heartwood chemistry was evaluated. Cores of heartwood were collected at breast height and cut into consecutive 5-cm segments starting at the pith. Each segment was extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed by gas chromatography. Concentrations of carvacrol, nootkatene, nootkatol, nootkatone, nootkatin, and total extractives (a sum of 16 compounds) for the inner (0-5 cm from pith), middle (5-10 cm from pith), and surface (outer 1.1-6.0 cm of heartwood) segments from each core were compared within each tree condition class and within segments across condition classes. Heartwood of class 1 and 2 snags had the same chemical composition as live trees. The first concentration changes begin to appear in class 3 snags, which coincides with greater heartwood exposure to the external environment as decaying sapwood sloughs away, after losing the protective outer bark. Within core segments, the concentrations of all compounds, except nootkatene, decrease between snag classes 2 and 5, resulting in the heartwood of class 5 snags having the lowest quantities of bioactive compounds, although not different from the amounts in class 4 snags. This decline in chemical defense is consistent with heartwood of class 5 snags being less decay-resistant than heartwood of live trees, as observed by others. The unique heartwood chemistry of yellow cedar and the slow way it is altered after death allow dead trees to remain standing for up to a century with a profound impact on the ecology of forests

  2. Safety and long-term immunological effects of CryJ2-LAMP plasmid vaccine in Japanese red cedar atopic subjects: A phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Romeu-Bonilla, Eliezer; Anagnostou, Athanasia; Fitz-Patrick, David; Hearl, William; Heiland, Teri

    2017-12-02

    Japanese Red Cedar (JRC) pollen induced allergy affects one third of Japanese and the development of effective therapies remains an unachieved challenge. We designed a DNA vaccine encoding CryJ2 allergen from the JRC pollen and Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 1 (LAMP-1) to treat JRC allergy. These Phase IA and IB trials assessed safety and immunological effects of the investigational CryJ2-LAMP DNA vaccine in both non-sensitive and sensitive Japanese expatriates living in Honolulu, Hawaii. In the Phase IA trial, 6 JRC non-sensitive subjects and 9 JRC and/or Mountain Cedar (MC) sensitive subjects were given 4 vaccine doses (each 4mg/1ml) intramuscularly (IM) at 14-day intervals. Nine JRC and/or MC sensitive subjects were given 4 doses (2 mg/0.5 ml) IM at 14-day intervals. The safety and functional biomarkers were followed for 132 d. Following this, 17 of 24 subjects were recruited into the IB trial and received one booster dose (2 mg/0.5 ml) IM approximately 300 d after the first vaccination dose to which they were randomized in the first phase of the trial. All safety endpoints were met and all subjects tolerated CryJ2-LAMP vaccinations well. At the end of the IA trial, 10 out of 12 JRC sensitive and 6 out of 11 MC sensitive subjects experienced skin test negative conversion, possibly related to the CryJ2-LAMP vaccinations. Collectively, these data suggested that the CryJ2-LAMP DNA vaccine is safe and may be immunologically effective in treating JRC induced allergy.

  3. Cedar Hill Tower Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A meteorological data system was designed, assembled, and installed to obtain, on a continuous basis, wind and temperature information at 12 levels on a television...

  4. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer--eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Madhav; Rajora, Om P

    2012-04-05

    Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS) is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m) of that observed in the core populations (15 m). Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m) than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m) populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82) than in the peripheral (Nb = 48) populations. Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short distances. Peripheral populations have several

  5. Molecular and optical properties of tree-derived dissolved organic matter in throughfall and stemflow from live oaks and eastern red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbins, Aron; Silva, Leticia M.; Dittmar, Thorsten; Van Stan, John T.

    2017-03-01

    Studies of dissolved organic matter (DOM) transport through terrestrial aquatic systems usually start at the stream. However, the interception of rainwater by vegetation marks the beginning of the terrestrial hydrological cycle making trees the headwaters of aquatic carbon cycling. Rainwater interacts with trees picking up tree-DOM, which is then exported from the tree in stemflow and throughfall. Stemflow denotes water flowing down the tree trunk, while throughfall is the water that drips through the leaves of the canopy. We report the concentrations, optical properties (light absorbance) and molecular signatures (ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry) of tree-DOM in throughfall and stemflow from two tree species (live oak and eastern red cedar) with varying epiphyte cover on Skidaway Island, Savannah, Georgia, USA. Both stemflow and throughfall were enriched in DOM compared to rainwater, indicating trees were a significant source of DOM. The optical and molecular properties of tree-DOM were broadly consistent with those of DOM in other aquatic ecosystems. Stemflow was enriched in highly colored DOM compared to throughfall. Elemental formulas identified clustered the samples into three groups: oak stemflow, oak throughfall and cedar. The molecular properties of each cluster are consistent with an autochthonous aromatic-rich source associated with the trees, their epiphytes and the microhabitats they support. Elemental formulas enriched in oak stemflow were more diverse, enriched in aromatic formulas, and of higher molecular mass than for other tree-DOM classes, suggesting greater contributions from fresh and partially modified plant-derived organics. Oak throughfall was enriched in lower molecular weight, aliphatic and sugar formulas, suggesting greater contributions from foliar surfaces. While the optical properties and the majority of the elemental formulas within tree-DOM were consistent with vascular plant-derived organics, condensed aromatic formulas were

  6. The Cedar Project: high incidence of HCV infections in a longitudinal study of young Aboriginal people who use drugs in two Canadian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spittal Patricia M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors associated with HCV incidence among young Aboriginal people in Canada are still not well understood. We sought to estimate time to HCV infection and the relative hazard of risk factors associated HCV infection among young Aboriginal people who use injection drugs in two Canadian cities. Methods The Cedar Project is a prospective cohort study involving young Aboriginal people in Vancouver and Prince George, British Columbia, who use illicit drugs. Participants’ venous blood samples were drawn and tested for HCV antibodies. Analysis was restricted to participants who use used injection drugs at enrolment or any of follow up visit. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify independent predictors of time to HCV seroconversion. Results In total, 45 out of 148 participants seroconverted over the study period. Incidence of HCV infection was 26.3 per 100 person-years (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 16.3, 46.1 among participants who reported using injection drugs for two years or less, 14.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 7.7, 28.9 among participants who had been using injection drugs for between two and five years, and 5.1 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 2.6,10.9 among participants who had been using injection drugs for over five years. Independent associations with HCV seroconversion were involvement in sex work in the last six months (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.42 compared to no involvement, having been using injection drugs for less than two years (AHR: 4.14; 95% CI: 1.91, 8.94 and for between two and five years (AHR: 2.12; 95%CI: 0.94, 4.77 compared to over five years, daily cocaine injection in the last six months (AHR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.51, 4.05 compared to less than daily, and sharing intravenous needles in the last six months (AHR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.47, 4.49 compared to not sharing. Conclusions This study contributes to the limited body of research addressing HCV infection among

  7. Reconstruction of paleo-inlet dynamics using sedimentologic analyses, geomorphic features, and benthic foraminiferal assemblages: former ephemeral inlets of Cedar Island, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, R.; Wood, E. T.

    2017-12-01

    Cedar Island, VA is a low-profile, washover-dominated barrier island that has breached at least three times in the past sixty years. Cedar Island Inlet, a former wave-dominated tidal inlet, was open for the following time periods: 1) 1956-1962, 2) 1992-1997, and 3) 1998-2007. Air photos, satellite imagery, and geomorphic features (i.e., relict flood tidal deltas, recurved-spit ridges) record the spatial and temporal extent of the three ephemeral inlets. Based on three sediment vibracores, benthic foraminiferal and sedimentologic analyses offer high resolution insights of inlet dynamics and lifecycle evolution. Four foraminiferal biofacies are completely dominated by Elphidium excavatum (54-100%) and contain unique assemblages of accessory species based on cluster analyses: tidal inlet floor (low abundance estuarine and shelf species; 23% Haynesina germanica); flood tidal delta/inlet fill (high abundance estuarine and shelf species; 2% Buccella frigida, 2% Ammonia parkinsoniana, and 2% Haynesina germanica); high-energy inlet fill (low abundance, low diversity shelf species; 9% Elphidium gunteri); and washover/beach/aeolian (low abundance, predominantly shelf species; 3% Buccella frigida and 3% Ammonia parkinsoniana). The estuarine biofacies is barren of all foraminifera. Grain size trends indicate a first order coarsening-upward succession with second order coarsening- and fining-upwards packages in inlet throat deposits, while a first order fining-upward succession is observed in flood tidal delta deposits with two second order coarsening-upward packages in the proximal flood tidal delta. Contrary to typical wave-dominated tidal inlets that open, migrate laterally in the direction of net longshore transport, and close, the 1998-2007 tidal inlet, and possibly the 1956-1962 inlet, migrated laterally and rotated, whereas the 1992-1997 inlet remained stationary and did not rotate. In the vicinity of the vibracores, preserved deposits are attributed to the 1956-1962 and

  8. Grid Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    A computing grid interconnects resources such as high per- formance computers, scientific databases, and computer- controlled scientific instruments of cooperating organiza- tions each of which is autonomous. It precedes and is quite different from cloud computing, which provides computing resources by vendors to ...

  9. Yaku-cedar tells cosmic outbursts in ancient times. Anomalies of cosmic ray intensity in AD 774-775 and AD 993-994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Fusa; Masuda, Kimiaki

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of cosmogenic nuclides, which are radioisotopes produced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere, provide important information regarding extraterrestrial high-energy events. We present 14 C measurements in annual rings of Japanese cedar trees with 1- and 2-year resolutions, and a finding of two sudden increases of 14 C content by significant amount from AD 774 to 775 and AD 993 to 994. The short-term increases of radioactive nuclide production were also found in tree rings of Europe and Antarctic ice core. This strongly indicates that the anomalies were not due to local terrestrial events, but triggered by cosmic outbursts that affected the whole planet. Several conjectures have been made upon the origin of the events, e.g. nearby supernovae (∼200 pc), Galactic short gamma-ray bursts, and violent solar mass ejections like SPEs (solar proton events) or super flares. We investigated energetics and the frequencies of occurrence of the phenomena, and demonstrate that SPE is likely to be the origin of the two 14 C increase events. Astrophysical significances and impact to modern human society are also discussed. (author)

  10. Characterization of sulfur deposition over the period of industrialization in Japan using sulfur isotope ratio in Japanese cedar tree rings taken from stumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takuya; Tayasu, Ichiro; Takenaka, Chisato

    2015-07-01

    We characterized the sulfur deposition history over the period of industrialization in Japan based on the sulfur isotope ratio (δ(34)S) in tree rings of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) stumps. We analyzed and compared δ(34)S values in the rings from two types of disk samples from 170-year-old stumps that had been cut 5 years earlier (older forest stand) and from 40-year-old living trees (younger forest stand) in order to confirm the validity of using stump disks for δ(34)S analysis. No differences in δ(34)S values by age were found between the sample types, indicating that stump disks can be used for δ(34)S analysis. The δ(34)S profile in tree rings was significantly correlated with anthropogenic SO2 emissions in Japan (r = -0.76, p tree rings serve as a record of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. In addition, the values did not change largely from pre-industrialization to the 1940s (+4.2 to +6.1‰). The values before the 1940s are expected to reflect the background sulfur conditions in Japan and, thus, disks containing rings formed before the 1940s contain information about the natural environmental sulfur, which is useful for biogeochemical studies.

  11. [Airborne Japanese red cedar allergens studied by the immunoblotting technique--comparison with pollen counts obtained by Durham sampling and effect of weather].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, M; Murakami, G; Matsuno, M; Onoue, Y; Takayanagi, M; Kayahara, M; Adachi, Y; Adachi, Y; Okada, T

    1993-07-01

    We collected airborne particles with Burkard's sampling tape in Toyama from March to July. According to the immunoblotting technique (Takahashi et al, 1990), the airborne pollen allergens were reacted with anti-Cry j I polyclonal antibody and were stained as blue spots. The areas of these spots were measured with a color image analyzer (CIA) and a densitometer. There were significant correlations between the airborne Cry j I allergen spots (CIA and densitometer) and the pollen counts obtained with a Durham sampler (r = 0.624, 0.555, p < 0.001). The airborne Cry j I allergens however, tended to maintain a higher level than the pollen counts (Durham) in May. We theorized that this discrepancy is caused by cross reactivity with other pollen or crushed cedar pollen particles have allergenicity. There was a negative correlation between the Cry j I spots and rainfall. The pollen counts had a negative correlation with rainfall, and a positive correlation with average wind speed. These results suggest that this method is useful in evaluating fluctuations in airborne Cry j I allergen.

  12. Relationship between types of asthmatic reaction, nonspecific bronchial reactivity, and specific IgE antibodies in patients with red cedar asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S; Tan, F; Chan, H; Chan-Yeung, M

    1983-08-01

    We studied the relationship between specific IgE antibodies, nonspecific bronchial reactivity to methacholine, and the type of asthmatic reaction in patients with red cedar asthma. The level of circulating specific IgE antibodies (expressed as RAST ratios) was not related to the type of asthmatic reaction, the degree of nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity [expressed by the provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% decrease in the forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (PC20)] or the index of reactivity to plicatic acid. On the other hand, methacholine PC20 was found to correlate with the index of reactivity to plicatic acid in the late asthmatic reaction (LAR) and both the immediate and late components of the dual asthmatic reaction (DAR). Development of the LAR is associated with increase in nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity. Repeated inhalation challenge with plicatic acid in eight patients with LAR resulted in DAR in all. The results suggest that the mechanism responsible for the LAR is associated with an increase in nonspecific bronchial reactivity; furthermore, the immediate component of DAR could also be related to heightened bronchial hyperreactivity.

  13. Concentrated protein body product derived from rice endosperm as an oral tolerogen for allergen-specific immunotherapy--a new mucosal vaccine formulation against Japanese cedar pollen allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhya Wakasa

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum-derived type-I protein body (PB-I from rice endosperm cells is an ideal candidate formulation for the oral delivery of bioencapsulated peptides as tolerogens for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In the present study, PBs containing the deconstructed Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cryptomeria japonica 1 (Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were concentrated by treatment with thermostable α-amylase at 90°C to remove the starch from milled rice powder, which resulted in a 12.5-fold reduction of dry weight compared to the starting material. The modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens in this concentrated PB product were more resistant to enzymatic digestion than those in the milled seed powder despite the absence of intact cell wall and starch, and remained stable for at least 10 months at room temperature without detectable loss or degradation. The high resistance of these allergens could be attributed to changes in protein physicochemical properties induced by the high temperature concentration process, as suggested by the decreased solubility of the antigens and seed proteins in PBs in step-wise-extraction experiments. Confocal microscopy showed that the morphology of antigen-containing PB-Is was preserved in the concentrated PB product. The concentrated PB product induced specific immune tolerance against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in mice when orally administered, supporting its potential use as a novel oral tolerogen formulation.

  14. Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen allergen induces elevation of intracellular calcium in human keratinocytes and impairs epidermal barrier function of human skin ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Junichi; Tsutsumi, Moe; Goto, Makiko; Nagayama, Masaharu; Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Cry j1 is the major peptide allergen of Japanese cedar (Sugi), Cryptomeria japonica. Since some allergens disrupt epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis, we hypothesized that Cry j1 might have a similar effect. Intracellular calcium level in cultured human keratinocytes was measured with a ratiometric fluorescent probe, Fura-2 AM. Application of Cry j1 significantly increased the intracellular calcium level of keratinocytes, and this increase was inhibited by trypsin inhibitor or a protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) antagonist. We found that Cry j1 itself did not show protease activity, but application of Cry j1 to cultured keratinocytes induced a rapid (within 30 s) and transient increase of protease activity in the medium. This transient increase was blocked by trypsin inhibitor or PAR-2 antagonist. The effect of Cry j1 on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) of cultured human skin was measured in the presence and absence of a trypsin inhibitor and PAR-2 antagonist. Cry j1 significantly impaired the barrier function of human skin ex vivo, and this action was blocked by co-application of trypsin inhibitor or PAR-2 antagonist. Our results suggested that interaction of Cry j1 with epidermal keratinocytes leads to the activation of PAR-2, which induces elevation of intracellular calcium and disruption of barrier function. Blocking the interaction of Cry j1 with epidermal keratinocytes might ameliorate allergic reaction and prevent disruption of epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis.

  15. Concentrated protein body product derived from rice endosperm as an oral tolerogen for allergen-specific immunotherapy--a new mucosal vaccine formulation against Japanese cedar pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakasa, Yuhya; Takagi, Hidenori; Watanabe, Nobumasa; Kitamura, Noriko; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Ogo, Yuko; Hayashi, Shimpei; Yang, Lijun; Ohta, Masaru; Thet Tin, Wai Wai; Sekikawa, Kenji; Takano, Makoto; Ozawa, Kenjirou; Hiroi, Takachika; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum-derived type-I protein body (PB-I) from rice endosperm cells is an ideal candidate formulation for the oral delivery of bioencapsulated peptides as tolerogens for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In the present study, PBs containing the deconstructed Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cryptomeria japonica 1 (Cry j 1) and Cry j 2 were concentrated by treatment with thermostable α-amylase at 90°C to remove the starch from milled rice powder, which resulted in a 12.5-fold reduction of dry weight compared to the starting material. The modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens in this concentrated PB product were more resistant to enzymatic digestion than those in the milled seed powder despite the absence of intact cell wall and starch, and remained stable for at least 10 months at room temperature without detectable loss or degradation. The high resistance of these allergens could be attributed to changes in protein physicochemical properties induced by the high temperature concentration process, as suggested by the decreased solubility of the antigens and seed proteins in PBs in step-wise-extraction experiments. Confocal microscopy showed that the morphology of antigen-containing PB-Is was preserved in the concentrated PB product. The concentrated PB product induced specific immune tolerance against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in mice when orally administered, supporting its potential use as a novel oral tolerogen formulation.

  16. Computer group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, H.; Black, I.; Heusler, A.; Hoeptner, G.; Krafft, F.; Lang, R.; Moellenkamp, R.; Mueller, W.; Mueller, W.F.; Schati, C.; Schmidt, A.; Schwind, D.; Weber, G.

    1983-01-01

    The computer groups has been reorganized to take charge for the general purpose computers DEC10 and VAX and the computer network (Dataswitch, DECnet, IBM - connections to GSI and IPP, preparation for Datex-P). (orig.)

  17. Computer Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Perry R.

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and the study of perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.).

  18. Computational composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.; Redström, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Computational composite is introduced as a new type of composite material. Arguing that this is not just a metaphorical maneuver, we provide an analysis of computational technology as material in design, which shows how computers share important characteristics with other materials used in design...... and architecture. We argue that the notion of computational composites provides a precise understanding of the computer as material, and of how computations need to be combined with other materials to come to expression as material. Besides working as an analysis of computers from a designer’s point of view......, the notion of computational composites may also provide a link for computer science and human-computer interaction to an increasingly rapid development and use of new materials in design and architecture....

  19. Development of clonal matrices of australian red cedar in different substrates under fertilizer doses Desenvolvimento de matrizes clonais de cedro Australiano em diferentes substratos sob doses de fertilizantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Peres Benatti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate fertilizers doses in different substrates for growth and development of clonal matrices of Australian Red Cedar [Toona ciliata var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur], an experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Five substrates were evaluate, with proportions by volume, the first consisting of 100% of Multiplant florestal®, the second of 50% vermiculite, 20% carbonized rice hulls, 20% soil and 10% coconut fiber, the third with 50% soil and 50% sand, the fourth was composed by 50% Multiplant florestal®, 10% soil and 40% coconut fiber and the fifth with 65% of Multiplant florestal®, 25% vermiculite and 10% carbonized rice hulls. The fertilizers doses applied were 0.0; 0.3; 0.6; 1.2; 2.4 of fertilization suggested by Malavolta (1980 for vases. The characteristics evaluated were: collar diameter of the matrices, production of dry mater by shoots, root system and total and accumulation of nutrients by shoot at the end of the experimental period of 150 days. The Australian Red Cedar plants have high nutritional requirements, as showed by the better development obtained with higher fertilizer doses than those suggested by Malavolta (1980. The substrate three provided the worst development to clonal matrices while the substrates 1, 4 and 5 provided the best environment for the development considering all the fertilizer doses and all variables.Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes substratos com taxas de fertilizantes para o crescimento e desenvolvimento de matrizes clonais de cedro australiano [Toona ciliata var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur], foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação. Foram avaliados cinco substratos, com as proporções em volume, sendo o primeiro composto por 100% Multiplant florestal®, o segundo de 50% Vermiculita, 20% casca de arroz carbonizada, 20% terra e 10% fibra de coco, o terceiro com 50% terra e 50% areia, o quarto com proporção de 50% Multiplant florestal®, 10% terra e 40% de fibra de coco e

  20. Azimuthal and radial variations in sap flux density and effects on stand-scale transpiration estimates in a Japanese cedar forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Yoshinori; Tsuruta, Kenji; Ogura, Akira; Noto, Fumikazu; Komatsu, Hikaru; Otsuki, Kyoichi; Maruyama, Toshisuke

    2013-05-01

    Understanding radial and azimuthal variation, and tree-to-tree variation, in sap flux density (Fd) as sources of uncertainty is important for estimating transpiration using sap flow techniques. In a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don.) forest, Fd was measured at several depths and aspects for 18 trees, using heat dissipation (Granier-type) sensors. We observed considerable azimuthal variation in Fd. The coefficient of variation (CV) calculated from Fd at a depth of 0-20 mm (Fd1) and Fd at a depth of 20-40 mm (Fd2) ranged from 6.7 to 37.6% (mean = 28.3%) and from 19.6 to 62.5% (mean = 34.6%) for the -azimuthal directions. Fd at the north aspect averaged for nine trees, for which azimuthal measurements were made, was -obviously smaller than Fd at the other three aspects (i.e., west, south and east) averaged for the nine trees. Fd1 averaged for the nine trees was significantly larger than Fd2 averaged for the nine trees. The error for stand-scale transpiration (E) estimates caused by ignoring the azimuthal variation was larger than that caused by ignoring the radial variation. The error caused by ignoring tree-to-tree variation was larger than that caused by ignoring both radial and azimuthal variations. Thus, tree-to-tree variation in Fd would be more important than both radial and azimuthal variations in Fd for E estimation. However, Fd for each tree should not be measured at a consistent aspect but should be measured at various aspects to make accurate E estimates and to avoid a risk of error caused by the relationship of Fd to aspect.

  1. Analytical approaches to the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2005-06-01

    Analytical methods are reviewed for the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak). Data are limited but nevertheless clearly establish the critical importance of sample preparation and pre-treatment in the analysis. For example, drying methods invariably reduce the recovery of biophenols and this is illustrated by data for birch leaves where flavonoid glycosides were determined as 12.3 +/- 0.44 mg g(-1) in fresh leaves but 9.7 +/- 0.35 mg g(-1) in air-dried samples (data expressed as dry weight). Diverse sample handling procedures have been employed for recovery of biophenols. The range of biophenols and diversity of sample types precludes general procedural recommendations. Caution is necessary in selecting appropriate procedures as the high reactivity of these compounds complicates their analysis. Moreover, our experience suggests that their reactivity is very dependent on the matrix. The actual measurement is less contentious and high performance separation methods particularly liquid chromatography dominate analyses whilst coupled techniques involving electrospray ionization are becoming routine particularly for qualitative applications. Quantitative data are still the exception and are summarized for representative species that dominate the forest canopy of various habitats. Reported concentrations for simple phenols range from trace level (<0.1 microg g(-1)) to in excess of 500 microg g(-1) depending on a range of factors. Plant tissue is one of these variables but various biotic and abiotic processes such as stress are also important considerations.

  2. CryJ-LAMP DNA Vaccines for Japanese Red Cedar Allergy Induce Robust Th1-Type Immune Responses in Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergies caused by Japanese Red Cedar (JRC pollen affect up to a third of Japanese people, necessitating development of an effective therapeutic. We utilized the lysosomal targeting property of lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1 to make DNA vaccines that encode LAMP-1 and the sequences of immunodominant allergen CryJ1 or CryJ2 from the JRC pollen. This novel strategy is designed to skew the CD4 T cell responses to the target allergens towards a nonallergenic Th1 response. CryJ1-LAMP and CryJ2-LAMP were administrated to BALB/c mice and antigen-specific Th1-type IgG2a and Th2-type IgG1 antibodies, as well as IgE antibodies, were assayed longitudinally. We also isolated different T cell populations from immunized mice and adoptively transferred them into naïve mice followed by CryJ1/CryJ2 protein boosts. We demonstrated that CryJ-LAMP immunized mice produce high levels of IFN-γ and anti-CryJ1 or anti-CryJ2 IgG2a antibodies and low levels of IgE antibodies, suggesting that a Th1 response was induced. In addition, we found that CD4+ T cells are the immunological effectors of DNA vaccination in this allergy model. Together, our results suggest the CryJ-LAMP Vaccine has a potential as an effective therapeutic for JRC induced allergy by skewing Th1/Th2 responses.

  3. CryJ-LAMP DNA Vaccines for Japanese Red Cedar Allergy Induce Robust Th1-Type Immune Responses in Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Connolly, Michael; Marketon, Anthony; Heiland, Teri

    2016-01-01

    Allergies caused by Japanese Red Cedar (JRC) pollen affect up to a third of Japanese people, necessitating development of an effective therapeutic. We utilized the lysosomal targeting property of lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) to make DNA vaccines that encode LAMP-1 and the sequences of immunodominant allergen CryJ1 or CryJ2 from the JRC pollen. This novel strategy is designed to skew the CD4 T cell responses to the target allergens towards a nonallergenic Th1 response. CryJ1-LAMP and CryJ2-LAMP were administrated to BALB/c mice and antigen-specific Th1-type IgG2a and Th2-type IgG1 antibodies, as well as IgE antibodies, were assayed longitudinally. We also isolated different T cell populations from immunized mice and adoptively transferred them into naïve mice followed by CryJ1/CryJ2 protein boosts. We demonstrated that CryJ-LAMP immunized mice produce high levels of IFN-γ and anti-CryJ1 or anti-CryJ2 IgG2a antibodies and low levels of IgE antibodies, suggesting that a Th1 response was induced. In addition, we found that CD4(+) T cells are the immunological effectors of DNA vaccination in this allergy model. Together, our results suggest the CryJ-LAMP Vaccine has a potential as an effective therapeutic for JRC induced allergy by skewing Th1/Th2 responses.

  4. The Cedar Project: resilience in the face of HIV vulnerability within a cohort study involving young Indigenous people who use drugs in three Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Margo E; Jongbloed, Kate A; Richardson, Chris G; Henderson, Earl W; Pooyak, Sherri D; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Christian, Wunuxtsin M; Schechter, Martin T; Spittal, Patricia M

    2015-10-29

    Indigenous scholars have long argued that it is critical for researchers to identify factors related to cultural connectedness that may protect against HIV and hepatitis C infection and buffer the effects of historical and lifetime trauma among young Indigenous peoples. To our knowledge, no previous epidemiological studies have explored the effect of historical and lifetime traumas, cultural connectedness, and risk factors on resilience among young, urban Indigenous people who use drugs. This study explored risk and protective factors associated with resilience among participants of the Cedar Project, a cohort study involving young Indigenous peoples who use illicit drugs in three cities in British Columbia, Canada. We utilized the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale to measure resilience, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire to measure childhood maltreatment, and the Symptom-Checklist 90-Revised to measure psychological distress among study participants. Multivariate linear mixed effects models (LME) estimated the effect of study variables on mean change in resilience scores between 2011-2012. Among 191 participants, 92 % had experienced any form of childhood maltreatment, 48 % had a parent who attended residential school, and 71 % had been in foster care. The overall mean resilience score was 62.04, with no differences between the young men and women (p = 0.871). Adjusted factors associated with higher mean resilience scores included having grown up in a family that often/always lived by traditional culture (B = 7.70, p = 0.004) and had often/always spoken their traditional language at home (B = 10.52, p people in this study have faced multiple complex challenges to their strength. However, cultural foundations continue to function as buffers that protect young Indigenous people from severe health outcomes, including vulnerability to HIV and HCV infection.

  5. Exploring the Stable Isotope Record of Lake Carpenter: A Lacustrine Sequence in the Aptian-Albian Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, E.; Al-Suwaidi, A. H.; Suarez, M. B.; Kirkland, J. I.; Suarez, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Cedar Mountain Formation (CMF) represents the earliest deposition of terrestrial Cretaceous strata in the USA, recording significant changes in biota and climate. Understanding these transitions requires improved time constraints and high-resolution proxy records. Here we present new δ13C (organic carbon & carbonate) chemostratigraphic record of a lacustrine sequence in a locality named "Lake Carpenter", near Moab, Utah. Lake Carpenter (LC) comprises interbedded limestone and mudstone units of the Ruby Ranch Member of the CMF. Results of the chemostratigraphy are constrained by detrital zircons from the section allowing correlation of the chemostratigraphy to the carbon isotope segments C9 to C11 (Bralower et al., 1999) spanning the Late Aptian to Early Albian, and supported by previous litho- and chemostratigraphic work in the CMF. δ13Corg values show a pronounced negative stepped excursion, of -6‰ with values reaching -32.3 ‰ occurring in conjunction with an increase in TOC. This negative excursion is followed by a positive recovery, with values of ~-25‰ and relatively low TOC. δ13Ccarb records positive values, up to +8‰, in the lowermost part of the section (changes in water supply to the lake, or climatic variability resulting in the lake drying out. δ13Corg values may be affected by local lake dynamics, including variations in organic carbon storage and changes in algal productivity, perhaps also indicative of changes in nutrient availability due to increased run off and/or fluctuations in atmospheric carbon particularly light δ13Corg. Both climatic and hydrological variation in the section may be due to the rise of the Sevier Mountains resulting in an orographic impact on the lake either as a result of increase in high altitude run off, or changes in the amount of precipitation.

  6. Long-term sublingual immunotherapy for Japanese cedar pollinosis and the levels of IL-17A and complement components 3a and 5a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Masafumi; Yamada, Takechiyo; Imoto, Yoshimasa; Hirota, Tomomitsu; Tamari, Mayumi; Ito, Yumi; Kubo, Seita; Osawa, Yoko; Takahashi, Noboru; Fujieda, Shigeharu

    2015-09-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only treatment that can alter the natural course of allergic disease. We performed long-term sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis caused by Japanese cedar pollen (SAR-JCP), screened molecules as candidate biomarkers, and investigated serum IL-17A and complement components 3a (C3a) and C5a in order to evaluate whether these molecules show changes correlated to symptom scores. In this study, we found that the long-term SLIT reduced the serum levels of IL-17A and C3a and C5a. The levels of C3a in the patients significantly decreased from year 1 compared with those at the baseline, and their levels of IL-17A significantly decreased from year 2 compared with those at baseline. The levels of IL-17A, C3a, and C5a at year 4 of SLIT were significantly lower than not only those at baseline, but also those at year 1. A significant positive correlation was found between the symptom medication scores and the levels of IL-17A at year 4. The symptom medication scores in the group in which IL-17A levels decreased at year 4 were significantly lower than those in the group without such a decrease. The serum level of IL-17A might prove useful as a biological parameter to ascertain the effectiveness of SLIT for patients with SAR-JCP. It is necessary to produce new therapeutics for non-responders in whom serum IL-17A levels are still higher against long-term SLIT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Computational Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Jens Vinge

    2017-01-01

    The Health Technology Program at Aarhus University applies computational biology to investigate the heterogeneity of tumours......The Health Technology Program at Aarhus University applies computational biology to investigate the heterogeneity of tumours...

  8. Computational Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    The problematic addressed in the dissertation is generally shaped by a sensation that something is amiss within the area of Ubiquitous Computing. Ubiquitous Computing as a vision—as a program—sets out to challenge the idea of the computer as a desktop computer and to explore the potential...... of the new microprocessors and network technologies. However, the understanding of the computer represented within this program poses a challenge for the intentions of the program. The computer is understood as a multitude of invisible intelligent information devices which confines the computer as a tool...... to solve well-defined problems within specified contexts—something that rarely exists in practice. Nonetheless, the computer will continue to grow more ubiquitous as moore's law still apply and as its components become ever cheaper. The question is how, and for what we will use it? How will it...

  9. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  10. Grid Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A computing grid interconnects resources such as high performancecomputers, scientific databases, and computercontrolledscientific instruments of cooperating organizationseach of which is autonomous. It precedes and is quitedifferent from cloud computing, which provides computingresources by vendors to customers ...

  11. Phenomenological Computation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Open peer commentary on the article “Info-computational Constructivism and Cognition” by Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic. Upshot: The main problems with info-computationalism are: (1) Its basic concept of natural computing has neither been defined theoretically or implemented practically. (2. It cannot en...... cybernetics and Maturana and Varela’s theory of autopoiesis, which are both erroneously taken to support info-computationalism....

  12. Quantum computers and quantum computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiev, Kamil' A

    2005-01-01

    This review outlines the principles of operation of quantum computers and their elements. The theory of ideal computers that do not interact with the environment and are immune to quantum decohering processes is presented. Decohering processes in quantum computers are investigated. The review considers methods for correcting quantum computing errors arising from the decoherence of the state of the quantum computer, as well as possible methods for the suppression of the decohering processes. A brief enumeration of proposed quantum computer realizations concludes the review. (reviews of topical problems)

  13. Quantum Computing for Computer Architects

    CERN Document Server

    Metodi, Tzvetan

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computers can (in theory) solve certain problems far faster than a classical computer running any known classical algorithm. While existing technologies for building quantum computers are in their infancy, it is not too early to consider their scalability and reliability in the context of the design of large-scale quantum computers. To architect such systems, one must understand what it takes to design and model a balanced, fault-tolerant quantum computer architecture. The goal of this lecture is to provide architectural abstractions for the design of a quantum computer and to explore

  14. Pervasive Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis-Cividjian, N.

    This book provides a concise introduction to Pervasive Computing, otherwise known as Internet of Things (IoT) and Ubiquitous Computing (Ubicomp) which addresses the seamless integration of computing systems within everyday objects. By introducing the core topics and exploring assistive pervasive

  15. Computational vision

    CERN Document Server

    Wechsler, Harry

    1990-01-01

    The book is suitable for advanced courses in computer vision and image processing. In addition to providing an overall view of computational vision, it contains extensive material on topics that are not usually covered in computer vision texts (including parallel distributed processing and neural networks) and considers many real applications.

  16. Grid Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Based on the Grid Computing: International Symposium on Grid Computing (ISGC) 2007, held in Taipei, Taiwan in March of 2007, this title presents the grid solutions and research results in grid operations, grid middleware, biomedical operations, and e-science applications. It is suitable for graduate-level students in computer science.

  17. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optics has been used in computing for a number of years but the main emphasis has been and continues to be to link portions of computers, for communications, or more intrin- sically in devices that have some optical application or component (optical pattern recognition, etc). Optical digi- tal computers are still some years ...

  18. Human Computation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  19. Parallel computations

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    Parallel Computations focuses on parallel computation, with emphasis on algorithms used in a variety of numerical and physical applications and for many different types of parallel computers. Topics covered range from vectorization of fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient (ICCG) algorithm on the Cray-1 to calculation of table lookups and piecewise functions. Single tridiagonal linear systems and vectorized computation of reactive flow are also discussed.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins by classifying parallel computers and describing techn

  20. Quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, D.

    1992-01-01

    As computers become ever more complex, they inevitably become smaller. This leads to a need for components which are fabricated and operate on increasingly smaller size scales. Quantum theory is already taken into account in microelectronics design. This article explores how quantum theory will need to be incorporated into computers in future in order to give them their components functionality. Computation tasks which depend on quantum effects will become possible. Physicists may have to reconsider their perspective on computation in the light of understanding developed in connection with universal quantum computers. (UK)

  1. Computer sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul H.

    1988-01-01

    The Computer Science Program provides advanced concepts, techniques, system architectures, algorithms, and software for both space and aeronautics information sciences and computer systems. The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA for the advancement of computing technology in aerospace applications. The research program is improving the state of knowledge of fundamental aerospace computing principles and advancing computing technology in space applications such as software engineering and information extraction from data collected by scientific instruments in space. The program includes the development of special algorithms and techniques to exploit the computing power provided by high performance parallel processors and special purpose architectures. Research is being conducted in the fundamentals of data base logic and improvement techniques for producing reliable computing systems.

  2. Computer Literacy: Teaching Computer Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutner, Joanne

    1986-01-01

    Suggests learning activities for teaching computer ethics in three areas: (1) equal access; (2) computer crime; and (3) privacy. Topics include computer time, advertising, class enrollments, copyright law, sabotage ("worms"), the Privacy Act of 1974 and the Freedom of Information Act of 1966. (JM)

  3. Computer programming and computer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hassitt, Anthony

    1966-01-01

    Computer Programming and Computer Systems imparts a "reading knowledge? of computer systems.This book describes the aspects of machine-language programming, monitor systems, computer hardware, and advanced programming that every thorough programmer should be acquainted with. This text discusses the automatic electronic digital computers, symbolic language, Reverse Polish Notation, and Fortran into assembly language. The routine for reading blocked tapes, dimension statements in subroutines, general-purpose input routine, and efficient use of memory are also elaborated.This publication is inten

  4. Organic Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Würtz, Rolf P

    2008-01-01

    Organic Computing is a research field emerging around the conviction that problems of organization in complex systems in computer science, telecommunications, neurobiology, molecular biology, ethology, and possibly even sociology can be tackled scientifically in a unified way. From the computer science point of view, the apparent ease in which living systems solve computationally difficult problems makes it inevitable to adopt strategies observed in nature for creating information processing machinery. In this book, the major ideas behind Organic Computing are delineated, together with a sparse sample of computational projects undertaken in this new field. Biological metaphors include evolution, neural networks, gene-regulatory networks, networks of brain modules, hormone system, insect swarms, and ant colonies. Applications are as diverse as system design, optimization, artificial growth, task allocation, clustering, routing, face recognition, and sign language understanding.

  5. Reference Range of Functional Data of Gated Myocardial Perfusion SPECT by Quantitative Gated SPECT of Cedars-Sinai and 4D-MSPECT of Michigan University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Kim, Moo Hyun; Kim, Young Dae [College of Medicine, Univ. of Donga, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Various programs have been developed for gating of myocardial perfusion SPECT. Among the those program, the most popular program is the Quantitative Gated SPECT (QGS)? developed by Cedars-Sinai hospital and most recently released program is 4D-MSPECT? developed by university of Michigan. It is important to know the reference range of the functional data of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT because it is necessary to determine abnormality of individual patient and echocardiographic data is different from those of gated SPECT. Tc-99m MIBI gated myocardial perfusion SPECT image was reconstructed by dual head gamma camera (Siemens, BCAM, esoft) as routine procedure and analyzed using QGS? and 4D-MSPECT? program. All patients (M: F=9: 18, Age 69{+-}9 yrs) showed normal myocardial perfusion. The patients with following characteristics were excluded: previous angina or MI history, ECG change with Q wave or ST-T change, diabetes melitius, hypercholesterolemia, typical chest pain, hypertension and cardiomyopathy. Pre-test likelihood of all patients was low. (1) In stress gated SPECT by QGS?, EDV was 73{+-}25 ml, ESV 25{+-}14 ml, EF 67{+-}11 % and area of first frame of gating 106.4{+-}21cm{sup 2}. In rest gated SPECT, EDV was 76{+-}26 ml, ESV 27{+-}15 ml, EF 66{+-}12 and area of first frame of gating 108{+-}20cm{sup 2}. (2) In stress gated SPECT by 4D-MSPECT?, EDV was 76{+-}28 ml, ESV 23{+-}16 ml, EF 72{+-}11 %, mass 115{+-}24 g and ungated volume 42{+-}15 ml. In rest gated SPECT, EDV was 75{+-}27 ml, ESV 23{+-}12 ml, EF 71{+-}9%, mass 113{+-}25g and ungate dvolume 42{+-}15 ml, (3) s-EDV, s-EF, r-ESV and r-EF were significantly different between QGS? and 4D-MSPECT? (each p=0.016, p<0.001. p=0.003 and p=0.001). We determined the normal reference range of functional parameters by QGS? and 4D-MSPECT? program to diagnose individually the abnormality of patients. And the reference ranges have to adopted to be patients by each specific gating program.

  6. Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Isabel; Geleijns, Jacob

    After its clinical introduction in 1973, computed tomography developed from an x-ray modality for axial imaging in neuroradiology into a versatile three dimensional imaging modality for a wide range of applications in for example oncology, vascular radiology, cardiology, traumatology and even in interventional radiology. Computed tomography is applied for diagnosis, follow-up studies and screening of healthy subpopulations with specific risk factors. This chapter provides a general introduction in computed tomography, covering a short history of computed tomography, technology, image quality, dosimetry, room shielding, quality control and quality criteria.

  7. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  8. Computational Deception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Acosta, P.S.; Cravo, P.

    2010-01-01

    In the future our daily life interactions with other people, with computers, robots and smart environments will be recorded and interpreted by computers or embedded intelligence in environments, furniture, robots, displays, and wearables. These sensors record our activities, our behaviour, and our

  9. Grid Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Ian

    2001-08-01

    The term "Grid Computing" refers to the use, for computational purposes, of emerging distributed Grid infrastructures: that is, network and middleware services designed to provide on-demand and high-performance access to all important computational resources within an organization or community. Grid computing promises to enable both evolutionary and revolutionary changes in the practice of computational science and engineering based on new application modalities such as high-speed distributed analysis of large datasets, collaborative engineering and visualization, desktop access to computation via "science portals," rapid parameter studies and Monte Carlo simulations that use all available resources within an organization, and online analysis of data from scientific instruments. In this article, I examine the status of Grid computing circa 2000, briefly reviewing some relevant history, outlining major current Grid research and development activities, and pointing out likely directions for future work. I also present a number of case studies, selected to illustrate the potential of Grid computing in various areas of science.

  10. Platform computing

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Platform Computing releases first grid-enabled workload management solution for IBM eServer Intel and UNIX high performance computing clusters. This Out-of-the-box solution maximizes the performance and capability of applications on IBM HPC clusters" (1/2 page) .

  11. Quantum Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 9. Quantum Computing - Building Blocks of a Quantum Computer. C S Vijay Vishal Gupta. General Article Volume 5 Issue 9 September 2000 pp 69-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Computational Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, David N.; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Pfeifer, John D.; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S.; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Gilbertson, John R.; Sinard, John H.; Gerber, Georg K.; Galli, Stephen J.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Becich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Context We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and non-pathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  13. Cloud Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... decade in computing. In this article we define cloud computing, various services available on the cloud infrastructure, and the different types of cloud. We then discuss the technological trends which have led to its emergence, its advantages and disadvan- tages, and the applications which are appropriate ...

  14. GPGPU COMPUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN OANCEA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the first idea of using GPU to general purpose computing, things have evolved over the years and now there are several approaches to GPU programming. GPU computing practically began with the introduction of CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture by NVIDIA and Stream by AMD. These are APIs designed by the GPU vendors to be used together with the hardware that they provide. A new emerging standard, OpenCL (Open Computing Language tries to unify different GPU general computing API implementations and provides a framework for writing programs executed across heterogeneous platforms consisting of both CPUs and GPUs. OpenCL provides parallel computing using task-based and data-based parallelism. In this paper we will focus on the CUDA parallel computing architecture and programming model introduced by NVIDIA. We will present the benefits of the CUDA programming model. We will also compare the two main approaches, CUDA and AMD APP (STREAM and the new framwork, OpenCL that tries to unify the GPGPU computing models.

  15. Computer Insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David L.

    1994-01-01

    College administrators recently appealed to students and faculty to change their computer passwords after security experts announced that tens of thousands had been stolen by computer hackers. Federal officials are investigating. Such attacks are not uncommon, but the most effective solutions are either inconvenient or cumbersome. (MSE)

  16. Quantum Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the first part of this article, we had looked at how quantum physics can be harnessed to make the building blocks of a quantum computer. In this concluding part, we look at algorithms which can exploit the power of this computational device, and some practical difficulties in building such a device. Quantum Algorithms.

  17. Cloud Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... Thus the availability of computing as a utility which allows organizations to pay service providers for what they use and eliminates the need to budget huge amounts to buy and maintain large computing infrastructure is a welcome development. Amazon, an e-commerce company, started operations in 1995.

  18. Computational Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    this understanding could entail in terms of developing new expressional appearances of computational technology, new ways of working with it, and new technological possibilities. The investigations are carried out in relation to, or as part of three experiments with computers and materials (PLANKS, Copper...

  19. Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Simon

    2013-01-01

    with technological changes, the paradigmatic pendulum has swung between increased centralization on one side and a focus on distributed computing that pushes IT power out to end users on the other. With the introduction of outsourcing and cloud computing, centralization in large data centers is again dominating...... the IT scene. In line with the views presented by Nicolas Carr in 2003 (Carr, 2003), it is a popular assumption that cloud computing will be the next utility (like water, electricity and gas) (Buyya, Yeo, Venugopal, Broberg, & Brandic, 2009). However, this assumption disregards the fact that most IT production......), for instance, in establishing and maintaining trust between the involved parties (Sabherwal, 1999). So far, research in cloud computing has neglected this perspective and focused entirely on aspects relating to technology, economy, security and legal questions. While the core technologies of cloud computing (e...

  20. Computational Streetscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Torrens

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Streetscapes have presented a long-standing interest in many fields. Recently, there has been a resurgence of attention on streetscape issues, catalyzed in large part by computing. Because of computing, there is more understanding, vistas, data, and analysis of and on streetscape phenomena than ever before. This diversity of lenses trained on streetscapes permits us to address long-standing questions, such as how people use information while mobile, how interactions with people and things occur on streets, how we might safeguard crowds, how we can design services to assist pedestrians, and how we could better support special populations as they traverse cities. Amid each of these avenues of inquiry, computing is facilitating new ways of posing these questions, particularly by expanding the scope of what-if exploration that is possible. With assistance from computing, consideration of streetscapes now reaches across scales, from the neurological interactions that form among place cells in the brain up to informatics that afford real-time views of activity over whole urban spaces. For some streetscape phenomena, computing allows us to build realistic but synthetic facsimiles in computation, which can function as artificial laboratories for testing ideas. In this paper, I review the domain science for studying streetscapes from vantages in physics, urban studies, animation and the visual arts, psychology, biology, and behavioral geography. I also review the computational developments shaping streetscape science, with particular emphasis on modeling and simulation as informed by data acquisition and generation, data models, path-planning heuristics, artificial intelligence for navigation and way-finding, timing, synthetic vision, steering routines, kinematics, and geometrical treatment of collision detection and avoidance. I also discuss the implications that the advances in computing streetscapes might have on emerging developments in cyber

  1. COMPUTATIONAL THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy K. Khenner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the research is to draw attention of the educational community to the phenomenon of computational thinking which actively discussed in the last decade in the foreign scientific and educational literature, to substantiate of its importance, practical utility and the right on affirmation in Russian education.Methods. The research is based on the analysis of foreign studies of the phenomenon of computational thinking and the ways of its formation in the process of education; on comparing the notion of «computational thinking» with related concepts used in the Russian scientific and pedagogical literature.Results. The concept «computational thinking» is analyzed from the point of view of intuitive understanding and scientific and applied aspects. It is shown as computational thinking has evolved in the process of development of computers hardware and software. The practice-oriented interpretation of computational thinking which dominant among educators is described along with some ways of its formation. It is shown that computational thinking is a metasubject result of general education as well as its tool. From the point of view of the author, purposeful development of computational thinking should be one of the tasks of the Russian education.Scientific novelty. The author gives a theoretical justification of the role of computational thinking schemes as metasubject results of learning. The dynamics of the development of this concept is described. This process is connected with the evolution of computer and information technologies as well as increase of number of the tasks for effective solutions of which computational thinking is required. Author substantiated the affirmation that including «computational thinking » in the set of pedagogical concepts which are used in the national education system fills an existing gap.Practical significance. New metasubject result of education associated with

  2. Computational physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Computers have for many years played a vital role in the acquisition and treatment of experimental data, but they have more recently taken up a much more extended role in physics research. The numerical and algebraic calculations now performed on modern computers make it possible to explore consequences of basic theories in a way which goes beyond the limits of both analytic insight and experimental investigation. This was brought out clearly at the Conference on Perspectives in Computational Physics, held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, from 29-31 October

  3. Computational physics

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A complete introduction to the field of computational physics, with examples and exercises in the Python programming language. Computers play a central role in virtually every major physics discovery today, from astrophysics and particle physics to biophysics and condensed matter. This book explains the fundamentals of computational physics and describes in simple terms the techniques that every physicist should know, such as finite difference methods, numerical quadrature, and the fast Fourier transform. The book offers a complete introduction to the topic at the undergraduate level, and is also suitable for the advanced student or researcher who wants to learn the foundational elements of this important field.

  4. Computer interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Dixey, Graham

    1994-01-01

    This book explains how computers interact with the world around them and therefore how to make them a useful tool. Topics covered include descriptions of all the components that make up a computer, principles of data exchange, interaction with peripherals, serial communication, input devices, recording methods, computer-controlled motors, and printers.In an informative and straightforward manner, Graham Dixey describes how to turn what might seem an incomprehensible 'black box' PC into a powerful and enjoyable tool that can help you in all areas of your work and leisure. With plenty of handy

  5. Computational Viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, Severino P C

    2012-01-01

    This text is a guide how to solve problems in which viscoelasticity is present using existing commercial computational codes. The book gives information on codes’ structure and use, data preparation  and output interpretation and verification. The first part of the book introduces the reader to the subject, and to provide the models, equations and notation to be used in the computational applications. The second part shows the most important Computational techniques: Finite elements formulation, Boundary elements formulation, and presents the solutions of Viscoelastic problems with Abaqus.

  6. Computational Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongtay, Rocio; Robering, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in and recognition of the importance of Computational Literacy, a skill generally considered to be necessary for success in the 21st century. While much research has concentrated on requirements, tools, and teaching methodologies for the acquisit......In recent years, there has been a growing interest in and recognition of the importance of Computational Literacy, a skill generally considered to be necessary for success in the 21st century. While much research has concentrated on requirements, tools, and teaching methodologies...... for the acquisition of Computational Literacy at basic educational levels, focus on higher levels of education has been much less prominent. The present paper considers the case of courses for higher education programs within the Humanities. A model is proposed which conceives of Computational Literacy as a layered...

  7. Computing Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Braxton, Donald M.; Upal, Afzal

    2012-01-01

    The computational approach has become an invaluable tool in many fields that are directly relevant to research in religious phenomena. Yet the use of computational tools is almost absent in the study of religion. Given that religion is a cluster of interrelated phenomena and that research...... concerning these phenomena should strive for multilevel analysis, this article argues that the computational approach offers new methodological and theoretical opportunities to the study of religion. We argue that the computational approach offers 1.) an intermediary step between any theoretical construct...... and its targeted empirical space and 2.) a new kind of data which allows the researcher to observe abstract constructs, estimate likely outcomes, and optimize empirical designs. Because sophisticated mulitilevel research is a collaborative project we also seek to introduce to scholars of religion some...

  8. Computational Controversy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Benjamin; Kuhn, Tobias; Beelen, Kaspar; Aroyo, Lora

    2017-01-01

    Climate change, vaccination, abortion, Trump: Many topics are surrounded by fierce controversies. The nature of such heated debates and their elements have been studied extensively in the social science literature. More recently, various computational approaches to controversy analysis have

  9. COMPUTERS HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Augustynek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, over 12.6 million Polish users of the Web registered. On the average, each of them spent 21 hours and 37 minutes monthly browsing the Web. That is why the problems of the psychological aspects of computer utilization have become an urgent research subject. The results of research into the development of Polish information society carried out in AGH University of Science and Technology, under the leadership of Leslaw H. Haber, in the period from 2000 until present time, indicate the emergence dynamic changes in the ways of computer utilization and their circumstances. One of the interesting regularities has been the inverse proportional relation between the level of computer skills and the frequency of the Web utilization.It has been found that in 2005, compared to 2000, the following changes occurred:- A significant drop in the number of students who never used computers and the Web;- Remarkable increase in computer knowledge and skills (particularly pronounced in the case of first years student- Decreasing gap in computer skills between students of the first and the third year; between male and female students;- Declining popularity of computer games.It has been demonstrated also that the hazard of computer screen addiction was the highest in he case of unemployed youth outside school system. As much as 12% of this group of young people were addicted to computer. A lot of leisure time that these youths enjoyed inducted them to excessive utilization of the Web. Polish housewives are another population group in risk of addiction to the Web. The duration of long Web charts carried out by younger and younger youths has been another matter of concern. Since the phenomenon of computer addiction is relatively new, no specific therapy methods has been developed. In general, the applied therapy in relation to computer addition syndrome is similar to the techniques applied in the cases of alcohol or gambling addiction. Individual and group

  10. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  11. Computing farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    High-energy physics, nuclear physics, space sciences, and many other fields have large challenges in computing. In recent years, PCs have achieved performance comparable to the high-end UNIX workstations, at a small fraction of the price. We review the development and broad applications of commodity PCs as the solution to CPU needs, and look forward to the important and exciting future of large-scale PC computing

  12. ÖĞRETİM TEKNOLOJİSİ AÇISINDAN BİR ÖĞRETİM KURUMUNUN DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ: "RED CEDAR İLKÖĞRETİM OKULU"

    OpenAIRE

    GELİŞLİ, Yücel

    2007-01-01

    Ögrenme ve ögretme sürecinde hedeflenen davranıs degisikliklerinin ögrencilerdeolusturulmasının en önemli unsurlarından biri de okulların ve sınıfların ögretim hedeflerine uygunögretim teknolojileri ve araç gereçlere sahip olmalarıdır.Bu çalısmada, Amerika Birlesik Devletleri’ne 2003 yılında yapılan arastırma gezisindeincelenip, video çekimleri yapılan Michigan Eyalet baskenti Lansing’teki, Red Cedar lkögretimOkulunun fiziki donanımı, derslik ve benzeri ögretim alanları, kullanılan ögretim te...

  13. Computational oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefor, Alan T

    2011-08-01

    Oncology research has traditionally been conducted using techniques from the biological sciences. The new field of computational oncology has forged a new relationship between the physical sciences and oncology to further advance research. By applying physics and mathematics to oncologic problems, new insights will emerge into the pathogenesis and treatment of malignancies. One major area of investigation in computational oncology centers around the acquisition and analysis of data, using improved computing hardware and software. Large databases of cellular pathways are being analyzed to understand the interrelationship among complex biological processes. Computer-aided detection is being applied to the analysis of routine imaging data including mammography and chest imaging to improve the accuracy and detection rate for population screening. The second major area of investigation uses computers to construct sophisticated mathematical models of individual cancer cells as well as larger systems using partial differential equations. These models are further refined with clinically available information to more accurately reflect living systems. One of the major obstacles in the partnership between physical scientists and the oncology community is communications. Standard ways to convey information must be developed. Future progress in computational oncology will depend on close collaboration between clinicians and investigators to further the understanding of cancer using these new approaches.

  14. Genetic diversity in Australian Cedar genotypes selected by mixed models Diversidade genética em genótipos de Cedro Australiano selecionados via modelos mistos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rulfe Tavares

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for raw material for multiple uses of forest products and by-products has attracted the interest for fast growing species, such as the Australian Cedar (Toona ciliata, which presents high productive and economic potential. The present work aimed at estimating genetic diversity by DNA markers and morphological traits supported for the mixed models. The following traits were measured and genotypes were sampled randomly in different areas: diameter at breast height, height, cylindrical volume, diameter, distance between nodes and crown diameter. Twelve RAPD primers were used and generated a total of 91 marks, 82 of which were polymorphic. The high percentage of polymorphic markers, 90.10%, demonstrated that discrimination in this species is efficient, but it yet little studied, for this case we can find the extent of the genetic basis for the application of technical improvement. The assessment of genetic diversity by the UPGMA method using the binary and morphological data provided the expression of genetic dissimilarities among the accessions evaluated, optimizing the perception of this divergence. The use of mixed models was efficient to assess combined genetic diversity to optimize the selection of genotypes with divergent genetic values for diameter at breast height.A crescente demanda por matéria-prima para múltiplos usos dos produtos florestais e subprodutos tem despertado o interesse para espécies de crescimento rápido, como o cedro australiano (Toona ciliata, que apresenta potencial produtivo e econômico. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estimar a diversidade genética por marcadores de DNA e caracteres morfológicos com o uso dos modelos mistos. Os seguintes caracteres foram medidos e os genótipos foram amostrados aleatoriamente em diferentes áreas de plantio: diâmetro à altura do peito, altura, volume cilíndrico, distância entre nós e diâmetro de copa. Doze primers RAPD foram utilizados e geraram um total

  15. Stable carbon isotopes and drought signal in the tree-rings of northern white-cedar trees from boreal central Canada. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, J. C.; Au, R.

    2010-12-01

    Despite the demonstrated value of tree-ring δ13C analysis, there have been a limited number of dendroisotopic δ13C studies conducted throughout the North American boreal forest. Dendroisotopic series are generally short and few tree species/habitats have been investigated. We present recent work conducted in the boreal forest of Manitoba, central Canada. Old northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) trees were sampled at their northwestern limit of distribution. The objectives of the study were 1) to determine the major climatic factors associated with each of the ring-width and δ13C chronology and 2) to provide a multi-century inference of drought events based on tree-ring δ13C and ring width analyses. We also compared the δ13C chronology developed from Thuja occidentalis trees to that of white spruce (Picea glauca Moench) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) trees developed in northern Manitoba. Fifteen T. occidentalis trees were selected for δ13C analysis and holocellulose was isolated from each tree-ring through standard chemical extraction techniques. The annually resolved δ13C chronology spanned from 1650 to 2006 A.D. and incorporated dead and living T. occidentalis trees selected from two sites. Hydric organic conditions on horizontal topography punctuated by scattered wet depressions prevailed at both sites. A ring-width chronology was also developed from both dead and living T. occidentalis trees from the region. All chronology development followed standardization of each of the δ13C series using a 60-year cubic spline function with a 50% frequency response. Results indicated that ring width was more often associated with climate conditions prevailing in the year prior to ring formation compared to the δ13C values. During the year of ring-formation, ring width was associated with spring and early summer conditions whereas, δ13C was more indicative of overall summer conditions. Conditions conducive to moisture stress were however important for

  16. Water utilization of the Cretaceous Mussentuchit Member local vertebrate fauna, Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA: Using oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, C.A.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Cifelli, R.L.; Tremain, E.

    2012-01-01

    While the oxygen isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonate has successfully been used to address the effects of global climate change on the hydrologic cycle, detailed regional paleohydrologic studies are lacking. Since the hydrologic cycle can vary extensively on local or regional scales due to events such as such as mountain building, and since pedogenic carbonates (calcite) form in a narrow moisture regime, other proxies, such as vertebrate remains, must be used to decipher local versus regional variations in paleohydrology. In this study, the oxygen isotopic composition (?? 18O p) of phosphatic remains from a diverse set of vertebrate fossils (fish, turtles, crocodiles, dinosaurs, and micro-mammals) from the Mussentuchit Member (MM) of the Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA (Aptian to Cenomanian) are analyzed in order to determine differences among the available water reservoirs and water utilization of each taxon. Calculated changes in water reservoir ?? 18O w over time are then used to determine the effects of the incursion of the Western Interior Seaway (WIS) and the Sevier Mountains on paleohydrology during the MM time. Calculation of ?? 18O w from the results of isotopic analysis of phosphate oxygen suggests that turtles and crocodiles serve as another proxy for meteoric water ?? 18O that can be used as a measure of average local precipitation ?? 18O w similar to pedogenic calcite. Pedogenic calcites can be slightly biased toward higher values, however, due to their formation during evaporative conditions. Turtles and crocodiles can be used in place of pedogenic calcite in environments that are not conducive to pedogenic carbonate formation. Remains of fish with rounded tooth morphology have ?? 18O p values that predict temperatures consistent with other estimates of mean annual temperature for this latitude and time. The ?? 18O p of ganoid scales and teeth with pointed morphology, however, indicates that these skeletal materials were precipitated from

  17. (S,S)-2,12-, (S,S)-2,13-, and (S,S)-2,14-diacetoxyheptadecanes: sex pheromone components of red cedar cone midge, Mayetiola thujae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Regine; Khaskin, Grigori; Bennett, Robb G; Miroshnychenko, Aleksander; Burden, Kathy; Gries, Gerhard

    2005-12-01

    We identified, synthesized, and field-tested the sex pheromone of female red cedar cone midge Mayetiola thujae (Hedlin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a pest insect in red cedar Thuja plicata seed orchards. Coupled gas chromatographic (GC)-electroantennographic detection analyses of pheromone extract revealed three components (A, B, C) that elicited responses from antennae of males, all of which occurred below the detection threshold of the mass spectrometer and thus had to be identified without spectroscopic data. Taking into account (1) their retention indices (RI) on three GC columns (DB-5, DB-23, and DB-210), (2) intercolumn RI differentials, and (3) the molecular structures of known cecidomyiid pheromones, we synthesized seven candidate pheromone components: 2,10-, 2,11-, 2,12-, 2,13-, 2,14-, 2,15- and 2,16-diacetoxyheptadecanes. Of these, 2,12-, 2,13-, and 2,14-diacetoxyheptadecane had RIs on all columns consistent with those of A, B, and C and elicited strong antennal responses when tested at picogram levels. In field experiments with the twelve stereoselectively synthesized stereoisomers, only the SS-stereoisomers of 2,12-, 2,13-, and 2,14-diacetoxyheptadecane attracted male M. thujae. The three-component SS-stereoisomer blend was more attractive than the 12-component blend of all stereoisomers, suggesting that one or several nonnatural stereoisomers are inhibitory. One-, two-, and three-component lures of the SS-stereoisomers were equally effective in attracting male M. thujae, indicating redundancy in the pheromone. Identification of the M. thujae sex pheromone will allow development of pheromone-based monitoring, and possibly control, of M. thujae populations in T. plicata seed orchards.

  18. HYDRAULICS, Cedar COUNTY, MISSOURI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  19. Computational creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Mántaras Badia, Ramon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New technologies, and in particular artificial intelligence, are drastically changing the nature of creative processes. Computers are playing very significant roles in creative activities such as music, architecture, fine arts, and science. Indeed, the computer is already a canvas, a brush, a musical instrument, and so on. However, we believe that we must aim at more ambitious relations between computers and creativity. Rather than just seeing the computer as a tool to help human creators, we could see it as a creative entity in its own right. This view has triggered a new subfield of Artificial Intelligence called Computational Creativity. This article addresses the question of the possibility of achieving computational creativity through some examples of computer programs capable of replicating some aspects of creative behavior in the fields of music and science.Las nuevas tecnologías y en particular la Inteligencia Artificial están cambiando de forma importante la naturaleza del proceso creativo. Los ordenadores están jugando un papel muy significativo en actividades artísticas tales como la música, la arquitectura, las bellas artes y la ciencia. Efectivamente, el ordenador ya es el lienzo, el pincel, el instrumento musical, etc. Sin embargo creemos que debemos aspirar a relaciones más ambiciosas entre los ordenadores y la creatividad. En lugar de verlos solamente como herramientas de ayuda a la creación, los ordenadores podrían ser considerados agentes creativos. Este punto de vista ha dado lugar a un nuevo subcampo de la Inteligencia Artificial denominado Creatividad Computacional. En este artículo abordamos la cuestión de la posibilidad de alcanzar dicha creatividad computacional mediante algunos ejemplos de programas de ordenador capaces de replicar algunos aspectos relacionados con el comportamiento creativo en los ámbitos de la música y la ciencia.

  20. Computational mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudreau, G.L.

    1993-03-01

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area sponsors research into the underlying solid, structural and fluid mechanics and heat transfer necessary for the development of state-of-the-art general purpose computational software. The scale of computational capability spans office workstations, departmental computer servers, and Cray-class supercomputers. The DYNA, NIKE, and TOPAZ codes have achieved world fame through our broad collaborators program, in addition to their strong support of on-going Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. Several technology transfer initiatives have been based on these established codes, teaming LLNL analysts and researchers with counterparts in industry, extending code capability to specific industrial interests of casting, metalforming, and automobile crash dynamics. The next-generation solid/structural mechanics code, ParaDyn, is targeted toward massively parallel computers, which will extend performance from gigaflop to teraflop power. Our work for FY-92 is described in the following eight articles: (1) Solution Strategies: New Approaches for Strongly Nonlinear Quasistatic Problems Using DYNA3D; (2) Enhanced Enforcement of Mechanical Contact: The Method of Augmented Lagrangians; (3) ParaDyn: New Generation Solid/Structural Mechanics Codes for Massively Parallel Processors; (4) Composite Damage Modeling; (5) HYDRA: A Parallel/Vector Flow Solver for Three-Dimensional, Transient, Incompressible Viscous How; (6) Development and Testing of the TRIM3D Radiation Heat Transfer Code; (7) A Methodology for Calculating the Seismic Response of Critical Structures; and (8) Reinforced Concrete Damage Modeling.

  1. Quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steane, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This review aims to summarize not just quantum computing, but the whole subject of quantum information theory. Information can be identified as the most general thing which must propagate from a cause to an effect. It therefore has a fundamentally important role in the science of physics. However, the mathematical treatment of information, especially information processing, is quite recent, dating from the mid-20th century. This has meant that the full significance of information as a basic concept in physics is only now being discovered. This is especially true in quantum mechanics. The theory of quantum information and computing puts this significance on a firm footing, and has led to some profound and exciting new insights into the natural world. Among these are the use of quantum states to permit the secure transmission of classical information (quantum cryptography), the use of quantum entanglement to permit reliable transmission of quantum states (teleportation), the possibility of preserving quantum coherence in the presence of irreversible noise processes (quantum error correction), and the use of controlled quantum evolution for efficient computation (quantum computation). The common theme of all these insights is the use of quantum entanglement as a computational resource. It turns out that information theory and quantum mechanics fit together very well. In order to explain their relationship, this review begins with an introduction to classical information theory and computer science, including Shannon's theorem, error correcting codes, Turing machines and computational complexity. The principles of quantum mechanics are then outlined, and the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) experiment described. The EPR-Bell correlations, and quantum entanglement in general, form the essential new ingredient which distinguishes quantum from

  2. Computational hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brebbia, C. A.; Ferrante, A. J.

    Computational hydraulics is discussed in detail, combining classical hydraulics with new methods such as finite elements and boundary elements, both presented in a matrix formulation. The basic properties and concepts of fluids are first reviewed, and pipe flow is treated, giving empirical formulae. Aspects of pipe networks are covered, including energy losses, total systems of equations and their solution, linear and nonlinear analyses and computer programs. Open-channel flow is treated, including Chezy and Manning formulae, optimum hydraulic section, nonuniform flow, and analysis and computation. Potential flow is addressed, including the application of Euler's equations, flow nets, finite element and boundary element solutions and programs. The applications of Navier-Stokes equations to Newtonian fluids and turbulence is considered. Finally, turbomachinery is discussed.

  3. Quantum computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, T D; Jelezko, F; Laflamme, R; Nakamura, Y; Monroe, C; O'Brien, J L

    2010-03-04

    Over the past several decades, quantum information science has emerged to seek answers to the question: can we gain some advantage by storing, transmitting and processing information encoded in systems that exhibit unique quantum properties? Today it is understood that the answer is yes, and many research groups around the world are working towards the highly ambitious technological goal of building a quantum computer, which would dramatically improve computational power for particular tasks. A number of physical systems, spanning much of modern physics, are being developed for quantum computation. However, it remains unclear which technology, if any, will ultimately prove successful. Here we describe the latest developments for each of the leading approaches and explain the major challenges for the future.

  4. Computational Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Krystal, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia arise from abnormalities in brain systems that underlie cognitive, emotional and social functions. The brain is enormously complex and its abundant feedback loops on multiple scales preclude intuitive explication of circuit functions. In close interplay with experiments, theory and computational modeling are essential for understanding how, precisely, neural circuits generate flexible behaviors and their impairments give rise to psychiatric symptoms. This Perspective highlights recent progress in applying computational neuroscience to the study of mental disorders. We outline basic approaches, including identification of core deficits that cut across disease categories, biologically-realistic modeling bridging cellular and synaptic mechanisms with behavior, model-aided diagnosis. The need for new research strategies in psychiatry is urgent. Computational psychiatry potentially provides powerful tools for elucidating pathophysiology that may inform both diagnosis and treatment. To achieve this promise will require investment in cross-disciplinary training and research in this nascent field. PMID:25442941

  5. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Antonopoulos, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing has recently emerged as a subject of substantial industrial and academic interest, though its meaning and scope is hotly debated. For some researchers, clouds are a natural evolution towards the full commercialisation of grid systems, while others dismiss the term as a mere re-branding of existing pay-per-use technologies. From either perspective, 'cloud' is now the label of choice for accountable pay-per-use access to third party applications and computational resources on a massive scale. Clouds support patterns of less predictable resource use for applications and services a

  6. Computer security

    CERN Document Server

    Gollmann, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    A completely up-to-date resource on computer security Assuming no previous experience in the field of computer security, this must-have book walks you through the many essential aspects of this vast topic, from the newest advances in software and technology to the most recent information on Web applications security. This new edition includes sections on Windows NT, CORBA, and Java and discusses cross-site scripting and JavaScript hacking as well as SQL injection. Serving as a helpful introduction, this self-study guide is a wonderful starting point for examining the variety of competing sec

  7. Computational engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  8. Computational vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The range of fundamental computational principles underlying human vision that equally apply to artificial and natural systems is surveyed. There emerges from research a view of the structuring of vision systems as a sequence of levels of representation, with the initial levels being primarily iconic (edges, regions, gradients) and the highest symbolic (surfaces, objects, scenes). Intermediate levels are constrained by information made available by preceding levels and information required by subsequent levels. In particular, it appears that physical and three-dimensional surface characteristics provide a critical transition from iconic to symbolic representations. A plausible vision system design incorporating these principles is outlined, and its key computational processes are elaborated.

  9. Reconfigurable Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Joao MP

    2011-01-01

    As the complexity of modern embedded systems increases, it becomes less practical to design monolithic processing platforms. As a result, reconfigurable computing is being adopted widely for more flexible design. Reconfigurable Computers offer the spatial parallelism and fine-grained customizability of application-specific circuits with the postfabrication programmability of software. To make the most of this unique combination of performance and flexibility, designers need to be aware of both hardware and software issues. FPGA users must think not only about the gates needed to perform a comp

  10. Computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lola

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the discussions, Ocean Climate Data Workshop hosts gave participants an opportunity to hear about, see, and test for themselves some of the latest computer tools now available for those studying climate change and the oceans. Six speakers described computer systems and their functions. The introductory talks were followed by demonstrations to small groups of participants and some opportunities for participants to get hands-on experience. After this familiarization period, attendees were invited to return during the course of the Workshop and have one-on-one discussions and further hands-on experience with these systems. Brief summaries or abstracts of introductory presentations are addressed.

  11. Computer viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  12. Computational artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld; Bansler, Jørgen P.

    2016-01-01

    The key concern of CSCW research is that of understanding computing technologies in the social context of their use, that is, as integral features of our practices and our lives, and to think of their design and implementation under that perspective. However, the question of the nature...... of that which is actually integrated in our practices is often discussed in confusing ways, if at all. The article aims to try to clarify the issue and in doing so revisits and reconsiders the notion of ‘computational artifact’....

  13. Computational Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computational Logistics, ICCL 2013, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2013. The 19 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. They are organized in to...... in topical sections named: maritime shipping, road transport, vehicle routing problems, aviation applications, and logistics and supply chain management.......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computational Logistics, ICCL 2013, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2013. The 19 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. They are organized...

  14. Computational Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacino, Dario; Voss, Stefan; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2013-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computational Logistics, ICCL 2013, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2013. The 19 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. They are organized in to...... in topical sections named: maritime shipping, road transport, vehicle routing problems, aviation applications, and logistics and supply chain management.......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computational Logistics, ICCL 2013, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2013. The 19 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. They are organized...

  15. Computer busses

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, William

    2000-01-01

    As more and more equipment is interface or'bus' driven, either by the use of controllers or directly from PCs, the question of which bus to use is becoming increasingly important both in industry and in the office. 'Computer Busses' has been designed to help choose the best type of bus for the particular application.There are several books which cover individual busses, but none which provide a complete guide to computer busses. The author provides a basic theory of busses and draws examples and applications from real bus case studies. Busses are analysed using from a top-down approach, helpin

  16. Riemannian computing in computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive treatise on Riemannian geometric computations and related statistical inferences in several computer vision problems. This edited volume includes chapter contributions from leading figures in the field of computer vision who are applying Riemannian geometric approaches in problems such as face recognition, activity recognition, object detection, biomedical image analysis, and structure-from-motion. Some of the mathematical entities that necessitate a geometric analysis include rotation matrices (e.g. in modeling camera motion), stick figures (e.g. for activity recognition), subspace comparisons (e.g. in face recognition), symmetric positive-definite matrices (e.g. in diffusion tensor imaging), and function-spaces (e.g. in studying shapes of closed contours).   ·         Illustrates Riemannian computing theory on applications in computer vision, machine learning, and robotics ·         Emphasis on algorithmic advances that will allow re-application in other...

  17. Computational Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lykke

    One of the major challenges in todays post-crisis finance environment is calculating the sensitivities of complex products for hedging and risk management. Historically, these derivatives have been determined using bump-and-revalue, but due to the increasing magnitude of these computations does...

  18. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (For example, the Japanese Earth Simu- lator, a computer system developed by NEC, uses a ..... quite similar to the one shown in Figure 1, except that the phthalocyanine film was replaced by a hollow fiber ... and hence funds were provided accordingly. The areas of space exploration, earth resource utilization, communi-.

  19. Computing News

    CERN Multimedia

    McCubbin, N

    2001-01-01

    We are still five years from the first LHC data, so we have plenty of time to get the computing into shape, don't we? Well, yes and no: there is time, but there's an awful lot to do! The recently-completed CERN Review of LHC Computing gives the flavour of the LHC computing challenge. The hardware scale for each of the LHC experiments is millions of 'SpecInt95' (SI95) units of cpu power and tens of PetaBytes of data storage. PCs today are about 20-30SI95, and expected to be about 100 SI95 by 2005, so it's a lot of PCs. This hardware will be distributed across several 'Regional Centres' of various sizes, connected by high-speed networks. How to realise this in an orderly and timely fashion is now being discussed in earnest by CERN, Funding Agencies, and the LHC experiments. Mixed in with this is, of course, the GRID concept...but that's a topic for another day! Of course hardware, networks and the GRID constitute just one part of the computing. Most of the ATLAS effort is spent on software development. What we ...

  20. Statistical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 10. Statistical Computing - Understanding Randomness and Random Numbers. Sudhakar Kunte. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 10 October 1999 pp 16-21. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Quantum Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It was suggested that the dynamics of quantum systems could be used to perform computation in a much more efficient way. After this initial excitement, things slowed down for some time till 1994 when Peter Shor announced his polynomial time factorization algorithm 1 which uses quantum dynamics. The study of quantum ...

  2. [Grid computing

    CERN Multimedia

    Wolinsky, H

    2003-01-01

    "Turn on a water spigot, and it's like tapping a bottomless barrel of water. Ditto for electricity: Flip the switch, and the supply is endless. But computing is another matter. Even with the Internet revolution enabling us to connect in new ways, we are still limited to self-contained systems running locally stored software, limited by corporate, institutional and geographic boundaries" (1 page).

  3. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debabrata Goswami is at the. Tata Institute of Fundamen- tal Research, Mumbai, where he explores the applications of ultrafast shaped pulses to coherent control, high-speed communication and computing. He is also associated as a Visiting. Faculty at liT, Kanpur, where he will be teaching a new course on Quantum.

  4. Cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Diane M

    2012-01-01

    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use Internet and Web-based technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes how cloud computing can be used in nursing education.

  5. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  6. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 6. Optical Computing - Optical Components and Storage Systems. Debabrata Goswami. General Article Volume 8 Issue 6 June 2003 pp 56-71. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 7. Optical Computing - Research Trends. Debabrata Goswami. General Article Volume 8 Issue 7 July 2003 pp 8-21. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/07/0008-0021. Keywords.

  8. Quantum Computation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 9. Quantum Computation - Particle and Wave Aspects of Algorithms. Apoorva Patel. General Article Volume 16 Issue 9 September 2011 pp 821-835. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Quantum Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    quantum dynamics. The study of quantum systems for computation has come into its own since then. In this article we will look at a few concepts which make this framewor k so powerful. 2. Quantum Physics Basics. Consider an electron (say, in a H atom) with two energy levels (ground state and one excited state). In general ...

  10. Computable Frames in Computable Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Kaushik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We develop some parts of the frame theory in Banach spaces from the point of view of Computable Analysis. We define computable M-basis and use it to construct a computable Banach space of scalar valued sequences. Computable Xd frames and computable Banach frames are also defined and computable versions of sufficient conditions for their existence are obtained.

  11. Computational Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Rylander, Thomas; Bondeson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Computational Electromagnetics is a young and growing discipline, expanding as a result of the steadily increasing demand for software for the design and analysis of electrical devices. This book introduces three of the most popular numerical methods for simulating electromagnetic fields: the finite difference method, the finite element method and the method of moments. In particular it focuses on how these methods are used to obtain valid approximations to the solutions of Maxwell's equations, using, for example, "staggered grids" and "edge elements." The main goal of the book is to make the reader aware of different sources of errors in numerical computations, and also to provide the tools for assessing the accuracy of numerical methods and their solutions. To reach this goal, convergence analysis, extrapolation, von Neumann stability analysis, and dispersion analysis are introduced and used frequently throughout the book. Another major goal of the book is to provide students with enough practical understan...

  12. Spatial Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    2001), Las Vegas, June 2001. [BRM+99] Jonathan Babb, Martin Rinard, Csaba Andras Moritz, Walter Lee, Matthew Frank Rajeev Barua, and Saman...Springer Verlag. [CA88] David E. Culler and Arvind. Resource requirements of dataflow programs. In International Symposium on Computer Architecture...Rajeev Barua, Matthew Frank, Devabhaktuni Srikrishna, Jonathan Babb, Vivek Sarkar, and Saman Amarasinghe. Space-time scheduling of instruction-level

  13. Computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupchek, G.

    2004-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) is an image acquisition process that is used to create digital, 2-dimensional radiographs. CR employs a photostimulable phosphor-based imaging plate, replacing the standard x-ray film and intensifying screen combination. Conventional radiographic exposure equipment is used with no modification required to the existing system. CR can transform an analog x-ray department into a digital one and eliminates the need for chemicals, water, darkrooms and film processor headaches. (author)

  14. Customizable computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu-Ting; Gill, Michael; Reinman, Glenn; Xiao, Bingjun

    2015-01-01

    Since the end of Dennard scaling in the early 2000s, improving the energy efficiency of computation has been the main concern of the research community and industry. The large energy efficiency gap between general-purpose processors and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) motivates the exploration of customizable architectures, where one can adapt the architecture to the workload. In this Synthesis lecture, we present an overview and introduction of the recent developments on energy-efficient customizable architectures, including customizable cores and accelerators, on-chip memory

  15. Multiparty Computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziembowski, Stefan

    papers [1,2]. In [1] we assume that the adversary can corrupt any set from a given adversary structure. In this setting we study a problem of doing efficient VSS and MPC given an access to a secret sharing scheme (SS). For all adversary structures where VSS is possible at all, we show that, up...... here and discuss other problems caused by the adaptiveness. All protocols in the thesis are formally specified and the proofs of their security are given. [1]Ronald Cramer, Ivan Damgård, Stefan Dziembowski, Martin Hirt, and Tal Rabin. Efficient multiparty computations with dishonest minority...

  16. Computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennery, D.; Cunningham, R.; Saund, E.; High, J.; Ruoff, C.

    1981-01-01

    The field of computer vision is surveyed and assessed, key research issues are identified, and possibilities for a future vision system are discussed. The problems of descriptions of two and three dimensional worlds are discussed. The representation of such features as texture, edges, curves, and corners are detailed. Recognition methods are described in which cross correlation coefficients are maximized or numerical values for a set of features are measured. Object tracking is discussed in terms of the robust matching algorithms that must be devised. Stereo vision, camera control and calibration, and the hardware and systems architecture are discussed.

  17. Inferring the chemical form of {sup 137}Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring {sup 137}Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu, E-mail: kanasashi.tsutomu@g.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Takenaka, Chisato [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Sugiura, Yuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 765-1 Funaishikawa, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1184 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    fallout of FDNPP. • Japanese cedar leaves and male cones were good indicators for this evaluation. • A higher proportion of ionic {sup 137}Cs was found distributed along eastern Fukushima. • Variations in the ionic ratio of {sup 137}Cs affect its translocation in Japanese cedar. • High uncertainties were found in the calculated values in some sampling sites.

  18. Research in Computer Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    3 D. WHAT IS COMPUTER FORENSICS ..........................................................6 E. SURVEY OF AGENCIES AND VENDORS PROVIDING COMPUTER...lead to the formulation of computer forensic material for a potential Computer Forensic Course at NPS. 6 D. WHAT IS COMPUTER FORENSICS...Individualization 8. Reconstruction 63 What is Computer Forensics? Computer Forensics involves the identification, extraction, preservation and

  19. Computer Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur AĞAOĞLU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is crucial that gifted and talented students should be supported by different educational methods for their interests and skills. The science and arts centres (gifted centres provide the Supportive Education Program for these students with an interdisciplinary perspective. In line with the program, an ICT lesson entitled “Computer Tree” serves for identifying learner readiness levels, and defining the basic conceptual framework. A language teacher also contributes to the process, since it caters for the creative function of the basic linguistic skills. The teaching technique is applied for 9-11 aged student level. The lesson introduces an evaluation process including basic information, skills, and interests of the target group. Furthermore, it includes an observation process by way of peer assessment. The lesson is considered to be a good sample of planning for any subject, for the unpredicted convergence of visual and technical abilities with linguistic abilities.

  20. Brain computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah N. Abdulkader

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain computer interface technology represents a highly growing field of research with application systems. Its contributions in medical fields range from prevention to neuronal rehabilitation for serious injuries. Mind reading and remote communication have their unique fingerprint in numerous fields such as educational, self-regulation, production, marketing, security as well as games and entertainment. It creates a mutual understanding between users and the surrounding systems. This paper shows the application areas that could benefit from brain waves in facilitating or achieving their goals. We also discuss major usability and technical challenges that face brain signals utilization in various components of BCI system. Different solutions that aim to limit and decrease their effects have also been reviewed.

  1. Social Computing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a momentous transformation in the way people interact with each other. Content is now co-produced, shared, classified, and rated by millions of people, while attention has become the ephemeral and valuable resource that everyone seeks to acquire. This talk will describe how social attention determines the production and consumption of content within both the scientific community and social media, how its dynamics can be used to predict the future and the role that social media plays in setting the public agenda. About the speaker Bernardo Huberman is a Senior HP Fellow and Director of the Social Computing Lab at Hewlett Packard Laboratories. He received his Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Pennsylvania, and is currently a Consulting Professor in the Department of Applied Physics at Stanford University. He originally worked in condensed matter physics, ranging from superionic conductors to two-dimensional superfluids, and made contributions to the theory of critical p...

  2. computer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a new dynamic model for the Token Bucket (TB algorithm used in computer networks and use systems approach for its analysis. This model is then augmented by adding a dynamic model for a multiplexor at an access node where the TB exercises a policing function. In the model, traffic policing, multiplexing and network utilization are formally defined. Based on the model, we study such issues as (quality of service QoS, traffic sizing and network dimensioning. Also we propose an algorithm using feedback control to improve QoS and network utilization. Applying MPEG video traces as the input traffic to the model, we verify the usefulness and effectiveness of our model.

  3. Computational neuroscience

    CERN Document Server

    Blackwell, Kim L

    2014-01-01

    Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science provides a forum for discussion of new discoveries, approaches, and ideas in molecular biology. It contains contributions from leaders in their fields and abundant references. This volume brings together different aspects of, and approaches to, molecular and multi-scale modeling, with applications to a diverse range of neurological diseases. Mathematical and computational modeling offers a powerful approach for examining the interaction between molecular pathways and ionic channels in producing neuron electrical activity. It is well accepted that non-linear interactions among diverse ionic channels can produce unexpected neuron behavior and hinder a deep understanding of how ion channel mutations bring about abnormal behavior and disease. Interactions with the diverse signaling pathways activated by G protein coupled receptors or calcium influx adds an additional level of complexity. Modeling is an approach to integrate myriad data sources into a cohesiv...

  4. Computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on computed tomographic (CT) scanning which has improved computer-assisted imaging modalities for radiologic diagnosis. The advantage of this modality is its ability to image thin cross-sectional planes of the body, thus uncovering density information in three dimensions without tissue superposition problems. Because this enables vastly superior imaging of soft tissues in the brain and body, CT scanning was immediately successful and continues to grow in importance as improvements are made in speed, resolution, and cost efficiency. CT scanners are used for general purposes, and the more advanced machines are generally preferred in large hospitals, where volume and variety of usage justifies the cost. For imaging in the abdomen, a scanner with a rapid speed is preferred because peristalsis, involuntary motion of the diaphram, and even cardiac motion are present and can significantly degrade image quality. When contrast media is used in imaging to demonstrate scanner, immediate review of images, and multiformat hardcopy production. A second console is reserved for the radiologist to read images and perform the several types of image analysis that are available. Since CT images contain quantitative information in terms of density values and contours of organs, quantitation of volumes, areas, and masses is possible. This is accomplished with region-of- interest methods, which involve the electronic outlining of the selected region of the television display monitor with a trackball-controlled cursor. In addition, various image- processing options, such as edge enhancement (for viewing fine details of edges) or smoothing filters (for enhancing the detectability of low-contrast lesions) are useful tools

  5. The Cedar Project: Negative health outcomes associated with involvement in the child welfare system among young Indigenous people who use injection and non-injection drugs in two Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Adam F; Christian, Wayne M; Pearce, Margo E; Jongbloed, Kate A; Caron, Nadine R; Teegee, Mary P; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Schechter, Martin T; Spittal, Patricia M

    2015-05-07

    Indigenous leaders and child and family advocates are deeply concerned about the health impacts of the child welfare system, including HIV vulnerability. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of having been apprehended into the child welfare system and associated HIV vulnerabilities among young Indigenous people who use drugs. The Cedar Project is a cohort of young Indigenous people ages 14-30 years who use illicit drugs in Vancouver and Prince George, British Columbia. Multivariable logistic regression modeling determined associations between a history of involvement in the child welfare system and vulnerability to HIV infection. Of 605 participants, 65% had been taken from their biological parents. Median age of first apprehension was 4 years old. Having been sexually abused, having a parent who attended residential school and being HIV-positive were all independently associated with having been involved in the child welfare system. Participants who had been involved in the child welfare system were also more likely to have been homeless, paid for sex, diagnosed and hospitalized with mental illness, self-harmed, thought about suicide, and attempted suicide. Among participants who used injection drugs, those who had been involved in child welfare were more likely to have shared needles and overdosed. This study has found compelling evidence that young Indigenous people who use drugs in two cities in BC are experiencing several distressing health outcomes associated with child welfare involvement, including HIV infection. Jurisdictional reforms and trauma-informed programs that use culture as intervention are urgently needed.

  6. Preseasonal prophylactic treatment with antihistamines suppresses IL-5 but not IL-33 mRNA expression in the nasal mucosa of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis caused by Japanese cedar pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Ogishi, Hirotaka; Kuroda, Wakana; Hattori, Masashi; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2012-04-01

    These findings suggest that the down-regulation of interleukin (IL)-5 gene expression in collaboration with the suppression of histamine H(1) receptor (H1R) gene expression in the nasal mucosa provides the basis for better therapeutic effects of preseasonal prophylactic treatment with antihistamines in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis caused by Japanese cedar pollen. The effects of prophylactic administration of antihistamines on the expression of IL-5 and IL-33 mRNA in the nasal mucosa of the patients with pollinosis were investigated. Eight patients had already visited the hospital before the peak pollen period and started preseasonal prophylactic treatment with antihistamines. Seventeen patients who first visited the hospital during the peak pollen period were designated as the no treatment group. After local anesthesia, nasal mucosa was obtained by scraping the inferior concha with a small spatula during the peak pollen period. During the peak pollen period, the expression of IL-5 mRNA, but not that of IL-33 mRNA, in the nasal mucosa of patients receiving preseasonal prophylactic treatment with antihistamines was significantly lower in comparison with that of patients without treatment. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the expression of IL-5 mRNA and the nasal symptoms or the expression of H1R mRNA.

  7. Task-Driven Computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhenyu

    2000-01-01

    .... They will want to use the resources to perform computing tasks. Today's computing infrastructure does not support this model of computing very well because computers interact with users in terms of low level abstractions...

  8. Experimental DNA computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkel, Christiaan

    2005-01-01

    Because of their information storing and processing capabilities, nucleic acids are interesting building blocks for molecular scale computers. Potential applications of such DNA computers range from massively parallel computation to computational gene therapy. In this thesis, several implementations

  9. Computer Refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiyen, Norman; Chan, Dominic; Thompson, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The major activity for the 18-month refurbishment outage at the Point Lepreau Generating Station is the replacement of all 380 fuel channel and calandria tube assemblies and the lower portion of connecting feeder pipes. New Brunswick Power would also take advantage of this outage to conduct a number of repairs, replacements, inspections and upgrades (such as rewinding or replacing the generator, replacement of shutdown system trip computers, replacement of certain valves and expansion joints, inspection of systems not normally accessible, etc.). This would allow for an additional 25 to 30 years. Among the systems to be replaced are the PDC's for both shutdown systems. Assessments have been completed for both the SDS1 and SDS2 PDC's, and it has been decided to replace the SDS2 PDCs with the same hardware and software approach that has been used successfully for the Wolsong 2, 3, and 4 and the Qinshan 1 and 2 SDS2 PDCs. For SDS1, it has been decided to use the same software development methodology that was used successfully for the Wolsong and Qinshan called the I A and to use a new hardware platform in order to ensure successful operation for the 25-30 year station operating life. The selected supplier is Triconex, which uses a triple modular redundant architecture that will enhance the robustness/fault tolerance of the design with respect to equipment failures

  10. Computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    In an effort to evaluate the feasibility of introducing computed radiography (FCR) into mass screening for lung cancer, the ability of FCR to detect nodules one cm in diameter was examined using a humanoid chest phantom. Based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the detectability of FCR was compared with that of conventional radiography and photofluorography. The values of area under ROC curves were higher for FCR (0.963 for image similar to that with conventional film-intensifying screen system, image A; and 0.952 for processed image, image B) than the other two methods (0.774 for radiography and 0.789 for photofluorography). Degradation of image quality in FCR could be avoided by a wide latitude even if proper exposure techniques might not be employed. Images A and B in FCR yielded excellent delineation for nodules in the lung field and in the retrocardiac and subdiaphragmatic regions, respectively. This may have implications for the value of simultaneous interpretation of both images in increasing diagnostic accuracy. Structured noise of the ribs and blood vessels had scarcely an effect on nodule detectability in FCR. Radiation dose could be reduced to one third of the standard dose. It can thus be concluded that FCR is feasible in mass screening for lung cancer in terms of increased diagnostic ability and low radiation doses. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  12. Computational technologies advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses questions of numerical solutions of applied problems on parallel computing systems. Nowadays, engineering and scientific computations are carried out on parallel computing systems, which provide parallel data processing on a few computing nodes. In constructing computational algorithms, mathematical problems are separated in relatively independent subproblems in order to solve them on a single computing node.

  13. Computing handbook computer science and software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Teofilo; Tucker, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Overview of Computer Science Structure and Organization of Computing Peter J. DenningComputational Thinking Valerie BarrAlgorithms and Complexity Data Structures Mark WeissBasic Techniques for Design and Analysis of Algorithms Edward ReingoldGraph and Network Algorithms Samir Khuller and Balaji RaghavachariComputational Geometry Marc van KreveldComplexity Theory Eric Allender, Michael Loui, and Kenneth ReganFormal Models and Computability Tao Jiang, Ming Li, and Bala

  14. Specialized computer architectures for computational aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    In recent years, computational fluid dynamics has made significant progress in modelling aerodynamic phenomena. Currently, one of the major barriers to future development lies in the compute-intensive nature of the numerical formulations and the relative high cost of performing these computations on commercially available general purpose computers, a cost high with respect to dollar expenditure and/or elapsed time. Today's computing technology will support a program designed to create specialized computing facilities to be dedicated to the important problems of computational aerodynamics. One of the still unresolved questions is the organization of the computing components in such a facility. The characteristics of fluid dynamic problems which will have significant impact on the choice of computer architecture for a specialized facility are reviewed.

  15. New computing paradigms suggested by DNA computing: computing by carving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, V; Martín-Vide, C; Păun, G

    1999-10-01

    Inspired by the experiments in the emerging area of DNA computing, a somewhat unusual type of computation strategy was recently proposed by one of us: to generate a (large) set of candidate solutions of a problem, then remove the non-solutions such that what remains is the set of solutions. This has been called a computation by carving. This idea leads both to a speculation with possible important consequences--computing non-recursively enumerable languages--and to interesting theoretical computer science (formal language) questions.

  16. Computer Literacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    curricula, systems must reorder their priorities.ඇ One question for computer-literacy advocates is this: What is computer literacy more important...Context." AEDS Journal, 17, 3 (Spring 1984) 1-13. "Reader’s Survey Results: What Is Computer Literacy?" Classroom Computer Learning (March 1986) p. 53...Acquisition of Computer Literacy." Journal of Computer-Based Information, 12, 1 (Winter 1985) 12-16. "\\ What is Computer Literacy?" Article 10c in Cannings

  17. Chemical and energetic characterization for utilization of thinning and slab wood from Australian red cedar Caracterização química e energética para aproveitamento da madeira de costaneira e desbaste de cedro australiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Bufalino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This work aimed to quantify and compare chemical and energetic properties of Australian red cedar Toona ciliata MJ Roem var. australis (FV Muell. C. DC wood from thinning and primary sawing for reconstituted panel and energy production; and also to verify the efficiency of extractive removal by water treatments, in order to improve wood quality for particleboard production. Lignin, holocellulose, extractives, ash, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur contents and higher heating value were determined. Two water treatments for extractive removal were performed: immersion in cold water for 24 hours and immersion in boiling water for 2 hours. Lower values of ash, holocellulose, hydrogen and nitrogen contents and higher contents of lignin, total extractives, hydrogen and nitrogen contents were found for wood from primary sawing residues. For other properties, the values were significantly equal. Australian red cedar wood presents high extractive content, being water pre-treatment necessary for the production of some particleboards. Higher heating values of materials indicate potential for energy production.

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.13

    O objetivo desse trabalho foi quantificar e comparar as propriedades químicas e energéticas da madeira de cedro australiano Toona ciliata MJ Roem var. australis (FV Muell. C. DC proveniente de desbaste e desdobro para produção de painéis reconstituídos e energia, além de verificar a eficiência da remoção de extrativos por tratamentos em água para viabilizar a produção de painéis de partículas. Os teores de lignina, holocelulose, extrativos totais, cinzas, carbono, hidrogênio, oxigênio, nitrogênio, enxofre e poder calorífico superior foram determinados. Dois tratamentos em água para remoção de extrativos foram realizados nos materiais: imersão em água fria durante 24 horas e em água fervente durante 2 horas. Foram encontrados menores teores de cinzas, holocelulose

  18. Applied Parallel Computing Industrial Computation and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; NA NA NA Olesen, Dorte

    Proceedings and the Third International Workshop on Applied Parallel Computing in Industrial Problems and Optimization (PARA96)......Proceedings and the Third International Workshop on Applied Parallel Computing in Industrial Problems and Optimization (PARA96)...

  19. CEDAR Electrodynamics Thermosphere Ionosphere (ETI) Challenge for Systematic Assessment of Ionosphere/Thermosphere Models: NmF2, hmF2, and Vertical Drift Using Ground-Based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, J. S.; Kuznetsova, M.; Rastatter, L.; Hesse, M.; Bilitza, D.; Butala, M.; Codrescu, M.; Emery, B.; Foster, B.; Fuller-Rowell, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Objective quantification of model performance based on metrics helps us evaluate the current state of space physics modeling capability, address differences among various modeling approaches, and track model improvements over time. The Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) Electrodynamics Thermosphere Ionosphere (ETI) Challenge was initiated in 2009 to assess accuracy of various ionosphere/thermosphere models in reproducing ionosphere and thermosphere parameters. A total of nine events and five physical parameters were selected to compare between model outputs and observations. The nine events included two strong and one moderate geomagnetic storm events from GEM Challenge events and three moderate storms and three quiet periods from the first half of the International Polar Year (IPY) campaign, which lasted for 2 years, from March 2007 to March 2009. The five physical parameters selected were NmF2 and hmF2 from ISRs and LEO satellites such as CHAMP and COSMIC, vertical drifts at Jicamarca, and electron and neutral densities along the track of the CHAMP satellite. For this study, four different metrics and up to 10 models were used. In this paper, we focus on preliminary results of the study using ground-based measurements, which include NmF2 and hmF2 from Incoherent Scatter Radars (ISRs), and vertical drifts at Jicamarca. The results show that the model performance strongly depends on the type of metrics used, and thus no model is ranked top for all used metrics. The analysis further indicates that performance of the model also varies with latitude and geomagnetic activity level.

  20. Further computer appreciation

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, T F

    2014-01-01

    Further Computer Appreciation is a comprehensive cover of the principles and aspects in computer appreciation. The book starts by describing the development of computers from the first to the third computer generations, to the development of processors and storage systems, up to the present position of computers and future trends. The text tackles the basic elements, concepts and functions of digital computers, computer arithmetic, input media and devices, and computer output. The basic central processor functions, data storage and the organization of data by classification of computer files,

  1. Computing at Stanford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenbaum, Edward A.; Nielsen, Norman R.

    1969-01-01

    This article provides a current status report on the computing and computer science activities at Stanford University, focusing on the Computer Science Department, the Stanford Computation Center, the recently established regional computing network, and the Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences. Also considered are such topics…

  2. Information and Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, concepts related to information and computation are reviewed in the context of human computation. A brief introduction to information theory and different types of computation is given. Two examples of human computation systems, online social networks and Wikipedia, are used to illustrate how these can be described and compared in terms of information and computation.

  3. Democratizing Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Jane; Goode, Joanna; Ryoo, Jean J.

    2015-01-01

    Computer science programs are too often identified with a narrow stratum of the student population, often white or Asian boys who have access to computers at home. But because computers play such a huge role in our world today, all students can benefit from the study of computer science and the opportunity to build skills related to computing. The…

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special ... the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT ...

  5. Quantum computation with superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Irastorza Gabilondo, Amaia

    2017-01-01

    Quantum computation using supercoducting qubits. Qubits are quantum bits used in quantum computers. Superconducting qubits are a strong option for building a quantum computer. But not just that, as they are macroscopic objects they question the limits of quantum physics.

  6. DNA computing models

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatova, Zoya; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz

    2008-01-01

    In this excellent text, the reader is given a comprehensive introduction to the field of DNA computing. The book emphasizes computational methods to tackle central problems of DNA computing, such as controlling living cells, building patterns, and generating nanomachines.

  7. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  8. Computers and the landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary H. Elsner

    1979-01-01

    Computers can analyze and help to plan the visual aspects of large wildland landscapes. This paper categorizes and explains current computer methods available. It also contains a futuristic dialogue between a landscape architect and a computer.

  9. Soft computing in computer and information science

    CERN Document Server

    Fray, Imed; Pejaś, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a carefully selected and reviewed collection of papers presented during the 19th Advanced Computer Systems conference ACS-2014. The Advanced Computer Systems conference concentrated from its beginning on methods and algorithms of artificial intelligence. Further future brought new areas of interest concerning technical informatics related to soft computing and some more technological aspects of computer science such as multimedia and computer graphics, software engineering, web systems, information security and safety or project management. These topics are represented in the present book under the categories Artificial Intelligence, Design of Information and Multimedia Systems, Information Technology Security and Software Technologies.

  10. Computational Intelligence, Cyber Security and Computational Models

    CERN Document Server

    Anitha, R; Lekshmi, R; Kumar, M; Bonato, Anthony; Graña, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This book contains cutting-edge research material presented by researchers, engineers, developers, and practitioners from academia and industry at the International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Cyber Security and Computational Models (ICC3) organized by PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during December 19–21, 2013. The materials in the book include theory and applications for design, analysis, and modeling of computational intelligence and security. The book will be useful material for students, researchers, professionals, and academicians. It will help in understanding current research trends and findings and future scope of research in computational intelligence, cyber security, and computational models.

  11. Distributed Computing: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Firoj Ali; Rafiqul Zaman Khan

    2015-01-01

    Decrease in hardware costs and advances in computer networking technologies have led to increased interest in the use of large-scale parallel and distributed computing systems. Distributed computing systems offer the potential for improved performance and resource sharing. In this paper we have made an overview on distributed computing. In this paper we studied the difference between parallel and distributed computing, terminologies used in distributed computing, task allocation in distribute...

  12. Computer Virus and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Tutut Handayani; Soenarto Usna,Drs.MMSI

    2004-01-01

    Since its appearance the first time in the mid-1980s, computer virus has invited various controversies that still lasts to this day. Along with the development of computer systems technology, viruses komputerpun find new ways to spread itself through a variety of existing communications media. This paper discusses about some things related to computer viruses, namely: the definition and history of computer viruses; the basics of computer viruses; state of computer viruses at this time; and ...

  13. Computing technology in the 1980's. [computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    Advances in computing technology have been led by consistently improving semiconductor technology. The semiconductor industry has turned out ever faster, smaller, and less expensive devices since transistorized computers were first introduced 20 years ago. For the next decade, there appear to be new advances possible, with the rate of introduction of improved devices at least equal to the historic trends. The implication of these projections is that computers will enter new markets and will truly be pervasive in business, home, and factory as their cost diminishes and their computational power expands to new levels. The computer industry as we know it today will be greatly altered in the next decade, primarily because the raw computer system will give way to computer-based turn-key information and control systems.

  14. Cloud Computing Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Şiclovan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing was and it will be a new way of providing Internet services and computers. This calculation approach is based on many existing services, such as the Internet, grid computing, Web services. Cloud computing as a system aims to provide on demand services more acceptable as price and infrastructure. It is exactly the transition from computer to a service offered to the consumers as a product delivered online. This paper is meant to describe the quality of cloud computing services, analyzing the advantages and characteristics offered by it. It is a theoretical paper.Keywords: Cloud computing, QoS, quality of cloud computing

  15. Quantum computational supremacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrow, Aram W; Montanaro, Ashley

    2017-09-13

    The field of quantum algorithms aims to find ways to speed up the solution of computational problems by using a quantum computer. A key milestone in this field will be when a universal quantum computer performs a computational task that is beyond the capability of any classical computer, an event known as quantum supremacy. This would be easier to achieve experimentally than full-scale quantum computing, but involves new theoretical challenges. Here we present the leading proposals to achieve quantum supremacy, and discuss how we can reliably compare the power of a classical computer to the power of a quantum computer.

  16. Computers in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannone, Carlos A.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter determines: capture and observation of images in computers; hardware and software used, personal computers, networks and workstations. The use of special filters determine the quality image

  17. Plasticity: modeling & computation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borja, Ronaldo Israel

    2013-01-01

    .... "Plasticity Modeling & Computation" is a textbook written specifically for students who want to learn the theoretical, mathematical, and computational aspects of inelastic deformation in solids...

  18. Computer jargon explained

    CERN Document Server

    Enticknap, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Computer Jargon Explained is a feature in Computer Weekly publications that discusses 68 of the most commonly used technical computing terms. The book explains what the terms mean and why the terms are important to computer professionals. The text also discusses how the terms relate to the trends and developments that are driving the information technology industry. Computer jargon irritates non-computer people and in turn causes problems for computer people. The technology and the industry are changing so rapidly; it is very hard even for professionals to keep updated. Computer people do not

  19. Computers and data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deitel, Harvey M

    1985-01-01

    Computers and Data Processing provides information pertinent to the advances in the computer field. This book covers a variety of topics, including the computer hardware, computer programs or software, and computer applications systems.Organized into five parts encompassing 19 chapters, this book begins with an overview of some of the fundamental computing concepts. This text then explores the evolution of modern computing systems from the earliest mechanical calculating devices to microchips. Other chapters consider how computers present their results and explain the storage and retrieval of

  20. Computer hardware fault administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  1. Advances in unconventional computing

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The unconventional computing is a niche for interdisciplinary science, cross-bred of computer science, physics, mathematics, chemistry, electronic engineering, biology, material science and nanotechnology. The aims of this book are to uncover and exploit principles and mechanisms of information processing in and functional properties of physical, chemical and living systems to develop efficient algorithms, design optimal architectures and manufacture working prototypes of future and emergent computing devices. This first volume presents theoretical foundations of the future and emergent computing paradigms and architectures. The topics covered are computability, (non-)universality and complexity of computation; physics of computation, analog and quantum computing; reversible and asynchronous devices; cellular automata and other mathematical machines; P-systems and cellular computing; infinity and spatial computation; chemical and reservoir computing. The book is the encyclopedia, the first ever complete autho...

  2. 8 bit computer

    OpenAIRE

    Jankovskij, Robert

    2018-01-01

    In this paper the author looks into an eight bit computer structure and the computers components, their structure, pros and cons. An eight bit computer which can execute basic instructions and arithmetic operations such as addition and subtraction of eight bit numbers is built out of integrated circuits. Data transfers between computer components are monitored and reviewed.

  3. The Glass Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesler, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Digital computers use different kinds of memory, each of which is either volatile or nonvolatile. On most computers only the hard drive memory is nonvolatile, i.e., it retains all information stored on it when the power is off. When a computer is turned on, an operating system stored on the hard drive is loaded into the computer's memory cache and…

  4. Computability and unsolvability

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Martin

    1985-01-01

    ""A clearly written, well-presented survey of an intriguing subject."" - Scientific American. Classic text considers general theory of computability, computable functions, operations on computable functions, Turing machines self-applied, unsolvable decision problems, applications of general theory, mathematical logic, Kleene hierarchy, computable functionals, classification of unsolvable decision problems and more.

  5. My Computer Romance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Gardner

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author relates the big role of computers in his life as a writer. The author narrates that he has been using a computer for nearly twenty years now. He relates that computers has set his writing free. When he started writing, he was just using an electric typewriter. He also relates that his romance with computers is also a…

  6. Mathematics for computer graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Vince, John

    2006-01-01

    Helps you understand the mathematical ideas used in computer animation, virtual reality, CAD, and other areas of computer graphics. This work also helps you to rediscover the mathematical techniques required to solve problems and design computer programs for computer graphic applications

  7. Adolescents' Computer Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    Adolescents react very positively to computer graphics programs. The biggest obstacle to initiation of computer art in schools is teacher attitudes. Things to consider when starting a computer graphics program are discussed, and some illustrations of student computer art are provided. (RM)

  8. How Computer Graphics Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosise, Jeff

    This document presents the principles behind modern computer graphics without straying into the arcane languages of mathematics and computer science. Illustrations accompany the clear, step-by-step explanations that describe how computers draw pictures. The 22 chapters of the book are organized into 5 sections. "Part 1: Computer Graphics in…

  9. Computational Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Inês

    2017-01-01

    Computational social sciences is a research discipline at the interface between computer science and the traditional social sciences. This interdisciplinary and emerging scientific field uses computationally methods to analyze and model social phenomena, social structures, and collective behavior. The main computational approaches to the social sciences are social network analysis, automated information extraction systems, social geographic information systems, comp...

  10. Marketers increase computer usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    A special study is presented on the use of computers in the fuel oil business. In 1984, 86% of the marketers used a computer and all of them used the computer for the billing. A large portion, 95%, used them to schedule delivery, and 91% used the computer to control credit. All of these percentages were similar to those for 1981.

  11. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  12. Great Principles of Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science. The website ...April 2008 (Rev. 8/31/08) The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science.

  13. Brief: Managing computing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Startzman, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    While computing is applied widely in the production segment of the petroleum industry, its effective application is the primary goal of computing management. Computing technology has changed significantly since the 1950's, when computers first began to influence petroleum technology. The ability to accomplish traditional tasks faster and more economically probably is the most important effect that computing has had on the industry. While speed and lower cost are important, are they enough? Can computing change the basic functions of the industry? When new computing technology is introduced improperly, it can clash with traditional petroleum technology. This paper examines the role of management in merging these technologies

  14. Roadmap to greener computing

    CERN Document Server

    Nguemaleu, Raoul-Abelin Choumin

    2014-01-01

    A concise and accessible introduction to green computing and green IT, this book addresses how computer science and the computer infrastructure affect the environment and presents the main challenges in making computing more environmentally friendly. The authors review the methodologies, designs, frameworks, and software development tools that can be used in computer science to reduce energy consumption and still compute efficiently. They also focus on Computer Aided Design (CAD) and describe what design engineers and CAD software applications can do to support new streamlined business directi

  15. Computer mathematics for programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Abney, Darrell H; Sibrel, Donald W

    1985-01-01

    Computer Mathematics for Programmers presents the Mathematics that is essential to the computer programmer.The book is comprised of 10 chapters. The first chapter introduces several computer number systems. Chapter 2 shows how to perform arithmetic operations using the number systems introduced in Chapter 1. The third chapter covers the way numbers are stored in computers, how the computer performs arithmetic on real numbers and integers, and how round-off errors are generated in computer programs. Chapter 4 details the use of algorithms and flowcharting as problem-solving tools for computer p

  16. Parallel computing works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-23

    An account of the Caltech Concurrent Computation Program (C{sup 3}P), a five year project that focused on answering the question: Can parallel computers be used to do large-scale scientific computations '' As the title indicates, the question is answered in the affirmative, by implementing numerous scientific applications on real parallel computers and doing computations that produced new scientific results. In the process of doing so, C{sup 3}P helped design and build several new computers, designed and implemented basic system software, developed algorithms for frequently used mathematical computations on massively parallel machines, devised performance models and measured the performance of many computers, and created a high performance computing facility based exclusively on parallel computers. While the initial focus of C{sup 3}P was the hypercube architecture developed by C. Seitz, many of the methods developed and lessons learned have been applied successfully on other massively parallel architectures.

  17. Research on Comparison of Cloud Computing and Grid Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yuxi; Wang Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    The development of computer industry is promoted by the progress of distributed computing, parallel computing and grid computing, so the cloud computing movement rises. This study describes the types of cloud computing services, the similarities and differences of cloud computing and grid computing, meanwhile discusses the better aspect of cloud computing than grid computing, and refers the common problems faced to the both computing, and some security issues.

  18. Toward Cloud Computing Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto, Heru; Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil; Kang, Chen Chin

    2012-01-01

    -Information Technology (IT) shaped the success of organizations, giving them a solid foundation that increases both their level of efficiency as well as productivity. The computing industry is witnessing a paradigm shift in the way computing is performed worldwide. There is a growing awareness among consumers and enterprises to access their IT resources extensively through a "utility" model known as "cloud computing." Cloud computing was initially rooted in distributed grid-based computing. ...

  19. Algorithmically specialized parallel computers

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Lawrence; Gannon, Dennis B

    1985-01-01

    Algorithmically Specialized Parallel Computers focuses on the concept and characteristics of an algorithmically specialized computer.This book discusses the algorithmically specialized computers, algorithmic specialization using VLSI, and innovative architectures. The architectures and algorithms for digital signal, speech, and image processing and specialized architectures for numerical computations are also elaborated. Other topics include the model for analyzing generalized inter-processor, pipelined architecture for search tree maintenance, and specialized computer organization for raster

  20. The digital computer

    CERN Document Server

    Parton, K C

    2014-01-01

    The Digital Computer focuses on the principles, methodologies, and applications of the digital computer. The publication takes a look at the basic concepts involved in using a digital computer, simple autocode examples, and examples of working advanced design programs. Discussions focus on transformer design synthesis program, machine design analysis program, solution of standard quadratic equations, harmonic analysis, elementary wage calculation, and scientific calculations. The manuscript then examines commercial and automatic programming, how computers work, and the components of a computer