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Sample records for cebus apella linnaeus

  1. O SISTEMA CARÓTICO DO ENCÉFALO DE PRIMATA NEOTROPICAL, ANATOMIA DA ARTÉRIA INTER-HEMISFÉRICA (Cebus apella, Linnaeus, 1766

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    Juliana Soares Pires

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Trinta hemisférios cerebrais do primata Cebus apella foram estudados. Os cérebros foram injetados com solução de látex corado (neoprene 450 e sulvinil corante, fixados em formaldeído a 10% e dissecados sob lupa óptica para fins de estudo da morfologia da artéria inter-hemisférica e destino de seus ramos. A artéria representa o resultado da anastomose da artéria cerebral rostral dos antímeros direito e esquerdo, após sua penetração na fenda inter-hemisférica. Originam-se da artéria inter-hemisférica ramos em diferentes disposições para as regiões cerebrais: pré-frontal; frontopolar; fronto-superior, pré-central e pós-central. A análise morfológica do aporte sangüíneo dessas regiões cerebrais é indicativa do abundante suprimento dessas regiões corticais cerebrais responsáveis por movimentos voluntários típicos deste primata. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Artéria cerebral anterior, Cebus apella, primata, sistema carotídico

  2. CANDIDÍASE CUTÂNEA EM CEBUS APELLA (MACACO PREGO CUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS IN A CEBUS APELLA (CAPUCHINS MONKEYS

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    Anelise Oliveira Fonseca

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Leveduras do gênero Candida têm sido freqüentemente isoladas de animais domésticos e silvestres, entretanto, candidíase não tem sido reportada em primatas. Encaminhou-se à Faculdade de Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Animal, um macaco-prego (Cebus apella para necropsia, que vinha apresentando emagrecimento profundo e lesões ulcerativas de pele e mucosas. Fragmentos de pele e órgãos foram processados para histologia e corados com H.E. e Groccot. Para micologia, coletaram-se fragmentos de órgãos, exsudato e crostas da pele, sendo realizado exame direto e cultivo a 37oC. Macroscopicamente, o animal apresentava alopecia, caquexia e ulcerações cutâneas de 1-4 cm. Histologicamente, nas ulcerações, a derme continha infiltrado de mononucleares e proliferação fibroblástica. Mediante utilização de Groccot, encontraram-se hifas e/ou pseudo-hifas e blastoconídeos intralesionais. Em cultivos de crostas e exsudato, observaram-se colônias brilhantes, com superfície lisa e coloração branca a creme. A microscopia das colônias revelou células leveduriformes ovaladas ou alongadas, com brotamento unipolar, gram-positivas. No microcultivo em fubá, observaram-se blastoconídeos globosos terminais, com parede espessa e pseudomicélio abundante e ramificado, com formação de tubo germinativo em albumina de ovo, sendo a levedura classificada como Candida albicans. O estudo aborda o risco da infecção por micoses oportunistas como a candidíase em animais silvestres em cativeiro.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Candidiasis, Candida albicans, pele, Cebus apella.

    Candida spp has been frequently isolated from domestic and sylvan animals, however, Candidiasis has not been reported in primates. One Cebus apella, with progressive thinning and ulcerative skin lesions and mucous, was

  3. Chronic experimental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in Cebus apella monkeys

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    A. Riarte

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty young male Cebus apella monkeys were infected with CAl Trypanosoma cruzi strain and reinfected with CA l or Tulahuen T.cruzi strains, with different doses and parasite source. Subpatent parasitemia was usually demonstrated in acute and chronic phases. Patent parasitemia was evident in one monkey in the acute phase and in four of them in the chronic phase after re-inoculations with high doses of CAl strain. Serological conversion was observed in all monkeys; titers were low, regardless of the methods used to investigate anti-T. cruzi specific antibodies. Higher titers were induced only when re-inoculations were perfomed with the virulent Tulahuén strain or high doses of CAl strain. Clinical electrocardiographic and ajmaline test evaluations did not reveal changes between infected and control monkeys. Histopathologically, cardiac lesions were always characterized by focal or multifocal mononuclear infiltrates and/or isolated fibrosis, as seen during the acute and chronic phases; neither amastigote nests nor active inflammation and fibrogenic processes characteristic of human acute and chronic myocarditis respectively, were observed. These morphological aspects more closely resemble those found in the "indeterminate phase" and contrast with the more diffuse and progressive pattern of the human chagasic myocarditis. All monkeys survived and no mortality was observed.

  4. A STUDY OF ROOT CANAL MORPHOLOGY OF Cebus apella TEETH ESTUDO ANATÔMICO DO CANAL RADICULAR DE DENTES DE Cebus apella

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    Priscilla Rocha Afonso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo anatômico em dentes do Cebus apella, para análise da anatomia interna do canal radicular dessa espécie, normatizando seu uso como modelo experimental. Utilizaram-se doze animais adultos. Após a remoção do tecido orgânico, os dentes foram removidos, seccionados e fotografados, sendo analisados com um estereomicroscópio. Os resultados mostraram que os dentes apresentaram características semelhantes às dos seres humanos, mas com algumas peculiaridades, tais como: a anatomia do canal radicular variou de oval para circular; nos caninos inferiores, os canais são semelhantes a um rim, o que reflete o contorno externo da raiz; nos molares superiores, os canais mesiobucal e distobucal são ovais, seguindo o contorno geral do dente. Os autores concluem que esta espécie pode ser utilizada como modelo em pesquisas odontológicas, principalmente em estudos do tratamento do sistema de canal radicular.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Anatomia, dentes, Cebus apella. An anatomic study of Cebus apella root teeth was performed to analyze the internal anatomy of permanent dentition, normalizing its use as experimental model endodontic research. Twelve adult animals were used in this study. After the removal of the organic tissue, the all teeth were removed, sectioned, analyzed and photographed with a stereomicroscope. The results showed that the anatomy of root canal of this species are similar to human dental anatomy, considering the shape, pathway and number of canals, but with some peculiarities, such as: the root canal anatomy varied from oval to circular; in the lower canines, the canals are resembled a kidney, reflecting the outside contour of the root; in the upper molars, the mesiobuccal and distobuccal canals are oval, following the general contour of the tooth. The authors conclude that this primate can be applied as models for study of root canal treatment in human beings, in special the upper central and lateral incisors

  5. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) use positive, but not negative auditory cues to infer food location

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    Heimbauer, Lisa A.; Antworth, Rebecca L.; Owren, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman primates appear to capitalize more effectively on visual cues than corresponding auditory versions. For example, studies of inferential reasoning have shown that monkeys and apes readily respond to seeing that food is present (“positive” cuing) or absent (“negative” cuing). Performance is markedly less effective with auditory cues, with many subjects failing to use this input. Extending recent work, we tested eight captive tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) in locating food using positi...

  6. Plasmid profile in oral Fusobacterium nucleatum from humans and Cebus apella monkeys

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    Paula Marcia O.; GaettiI-Jardim Jr. Elerson; Avilla-Campos Mario J.

    2003-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is a strict anaerobe and is indigenous of the human oral cavity. This organism is commonly recovered from different monomicrobial and mixed infections in humans and animals. In this study, the plasmid profile, the plasmid stability and the penicillin-resistance association in oral F. nucleatum isolated from periodontal patients, healthy subjects and Cebus apella monkeys were evaluated. Forty-five F. nucleatum strains from patients, 38 from healthy subjects and seven fr...

  7. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

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    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda;

    2003-01-01

    . To this end, we investigated the effects of xanomeline on the behavior induced by D-amphetamine and (-)-apomorphine in drug-naive Cebus apella monkeys. Antipsychotic compounds antagonize amphetamine-induced motor unrest and stereotypies in this species. Xanomeline inhibited D-amphetamine-induced motor unrest...... xanomeline was tested in EPS-sensitized Cebus apella monkeys, EPS were not observed at the dose range of xanomeline used in the D-amphetamine-apomorphine combination study (0.5-3 mg/kg). However, when xanomeline was tested at 4 mg/kg, moderate dystonia was seen in two out of three monkeys. It is concluded...... that xanomeline inhibits D-amphetamine- and (-)-apomorphine-induced behavior in Cebus apella monkeys at doses that do not cause EPS. These data further substantiate that muscarinic receptor agonists may be useful in the pharmacological treatment of psychosis....

  8. Morphology of the walls of the cavernous sinus of Cebus apella (tufted capuchin monkey Morfologia das paredes do seio cavernoso em Cebus apella (macaco-prego

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    ROBSON JOSÉ DE SOUSA DOMINGUES

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the dura mater and its relationship with the structures of the cavernous sinus were analyzed in five tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella using histological sections, showing that the walls of the cavernous sinus of this species are similar to those of other primates, including man. Except for the medial wall of the cavernous sinus, the remaining walls consist of two distinct dura mater layers. The deep layer of the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus is contiguous to the sheath of the oculomotor, trochlear and ophthalmic nerves. Arterioles, venules, venous spaces, neuronal bodies and nervous fiber bundles are found on this lateral wall.A morfologia da dura-máter e sua relação com as estruturas do seio cavernoso, analisadas em cinco macacos-prego (Cebus apella através de cortes histológicos, mostrou que as paredes do seio cavernoso nessa espécie são semelhantes a de outros primatas, inclusive o homem. Com exceção da parede medial do seio cavernoso as demais paredes são formadas de duas camadas distintas de dura-máter. A camada profunda da parede lateral do seio cavernoso está em continuidade com a bainha dos nervos oculomotor, troclear e oftálmico. Nesta parede lateral são encontradas arteríolas, vênulas, espaços venosos, corpos de neurônios e feixes de fibras nervosas.

  9. The effect of environmental enrichment on the behavior of captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

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    Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Mikkelsen, L F; Hau, J

    2010-01-01

    The authors provided different forms of environmental enrichment to six old laboratory male tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and studied the behavior of the monkeys during a baseline period and during three enrichment periods. Each observation period lasted 5 d, with an interval of 6 d...... Buster cubes, wood cylinders and bark shavings. When provided with enrichment, the monkeys engaged in natural, species-specific activities and began to exhibit behavioral profiles that more closely resembled those of their natural counterparts. This suggests that their psychological well-being had...

  10. Plasmid profile in oral Fusobacterium nucleatum from humans and Cebus apella monkeys

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    Paula Marcia O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusobacterium nucleatum is a strict anaerobe and is indigenous of the human oral cavity. This organism is commonly recovered from different monomicrobial and mixed infections in humans and animals. In this study, the plasmid profile, the plasmid stability and the penicillin-resistance association in oral F. nucleatum isolated from periodontal patients, healthy subjects and Cebus apella monkeys were evaluated. Forty-five F. nucleatum strains from patients, 38 from healthy subjects and seven from C. apella were identified and analyzed. Plasmid extraction was performed in all the isolated strains. These elements were found in 26.7% strains from patients and one strain from C. apella. Strains from healthy subjects did not show any plasmid. Most of strains showed two plasmid bands ranging from 4 to 16 Kb, but digestions with endonucleases showed that they belonged to a single plasmid. The plasmid profile was similar and stable in human and monkey strains. Also, plasmids were classified into three groups according to size. Two strains were positive to beta-lactamase production and no plasmid DNA-hybridization with a beta-lactamase gene probe was observed, suggesting a chromosomal resistance.

  11. Socially learned preferences for differentially rewarded tokens in the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella).

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    Brosnan, Sarah F; de Waal, Frans B M

    2004-06-01

    Social learning is assumed to underlie traditions, yet evidence indicating social learning in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), which exhibit traditions, is sparse. The authors tested capuchins for their ability to learn the value of novel tokens using a previously familiar token-exchange economy. Capuchins change their preferences in favor of a token worth a high-value food reward after watching a conspecific model exchange 2 differentially rewarded tokens, yet they fail to develop a similar preference after watching tokens paired with foods in the absence of a conspecific model. They also fail to learn that the value of familiar tokens has changed. Information about token value is available in all situations, but capuchins seem to pay more attention in a social situation involving novel tokens. PMID:15250800

  12. Visual responses of ganglion cells of a New-World primate, the capuchin monkey, Cebus apella.

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    Lee, B B; Silveira, L C; Yamada, E S; Hunt, D M; Kremers, J; Martin, P R; Troy, J B; da Silva-Filho, M

    2000-11-01

    1. The genetic basis of colour vision in New-World primates differs from that in humans and other Old-World primates. Most New-World primate species show a polymorphism; all males are dichromats and most females trichromats. 2. In the retina of Old-World primates such as the macaque, the physiological correlates of trichromacy are well established. Comparison of the retinae in New- and Old-World species may help constrain hypotheses as to the evolution of colour vision and the pathways associated with it. 3. Ganglion cell behaviour was recorded from trichromatic and dichromatic members of a New-World species (the capuchin monkey, Cebus apella) and compared with macaque data. Despite some differences in quantitative detail (such as a temporal response extended to higher frequencies), results from trichromatic animals strongly resembled those from the macaque. 4. In particular, cells of the parvocellular (PC) pathway showed characteristic frequency-dependent changes in responsivity to luminance and chromatic modulation, cells of the magnocellular (MC) pathway showed frequency-doubled responses to chromatic modulation, and the surround of MC cells received a chromatic input revealed on changing the phase of heterochromatically modulated lights. 5. Ganglion cells of dichromats were colour-blind versions of those of trichromats. 6. This strong physiological homology is consistent with a common origin of trichromacy in New- and Old-World monkeys; in the New-World primate the presence of two pigments in the middle-to-long wavelength range permits full expression of the retinal mechanisms of trichromatic vision. PMID:11432364

  13. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness

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    Boinski, S.; Swing, S.P.; Gross, T.S.; Davis, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box and toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box and toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n = 16) found that plasma

  14. Living together: behavior and welfare in single and mixed species groups of capuchin (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

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    Leonardi, Rebecca; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Dufour, Valérie; MacDonald, Charlotte; Whiten, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    There are potential advantages of housing primates in mixed species exhibits for both the visiting public and the primates themselves. If the primates naturally associate in the wild, it may be more educational and enjoyable for the public to view. Increases in social complexity and stimulation may be enriching for the primates. However, mixed species exhibits might also create welfare problems such as stress from interspecific aggression. We present data on the behavior of single and mixed species groups of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) housed at the Living Links to Human Evolution Research Centre in the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland's Edinburgh Zoo. These species associate in the wild, gaining foraging benefits and decreased predation. But Cebus are also predators themselves with potential risks for the smaller Saimiri. To study their living together we took scan samples at > or =15 min intervals on single (n=109) and mixed species groups (n=152), and all occurrences of intraspecific aggression and interspecific interactions were recorded. We found no evidence of chronic stress and Saimiri actively chose to associate with Cebus. On 79% of scans, the two species simultaneously occupied the same part of their enclosure. No vertical displacement was observed. Interspecific interactions were common (>2.5/hr), and equally divided among mildly aggressive, neutral, and affiliative interactions such as play. Only one aggressive interaction involved physical contact and was non-injurious. Aggressive interactions were mostly (65%) displacements and vocal exchanges, initiated almost equally by Cebus and Saimiri. Modifications to the enclosure were successful in reducing these mildly aggressive interactions with affiliative interactions increasing in frequency and diversity. Our data suggest that in carefully designed, large enclosures, naturally associating monkeys are able to live harmoniously and are enriched by each other

  15. Effects of whole-body X-radiation on the neutrophils of the peripheral blood of the primate Cebus apella (weeping capuchin); Acao dos raios X corpo total sobre os neutrofilos do sangue periferico em primata Cebus apella (macaco prego)

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    Egami, Mizue Imoto; Silva, Maria Regina Regis; Paiva, Elias Rodrigues de; Segreto, Camilo [Escola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Diniz, Lilian Munao [Fundacao Parque Zoologico de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The effects of ionizing radiation on the neutrophils of Primate Cebus apella were studied after whole-body x-radiation to a single exposure of 25.8 m C/kg (100 R 0), Wright`s stained preparations showed changes in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of neutrophils at 1,3 and 6 days after irradiation. during this period of time, the cytochemical methods revealed a considerable variation in the pattern of distribution of glycogen, sudanophilic and myeloperoxidase positive granules. Under these same experimental conditions the number of caryoschizes increased on the first and third day. On the ninetieth day post exposure, the morphological and cytochemical appearances of neutrophils as well as the number of caryoschized were similar to the controls. (author) 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

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    Andersen, M B; Fuxe, K; Werge, T;

    2002-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 has shown effects similar to dopamine antagonists in behavioural assays in rats predictive for antipsychotic activity, without induction of extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS). In the present study, we examined whether this functional dopamine antagonism...... and lack of EPS in rodents could also be observed in non-human primates. We investigated the effects of CGS 21680 on behaviours induced by D-amphetamine and (-)-apomorphine in EPS-sensitized Cebus apella monkeys. CGS 21680 was administered s.c. in doses of 0.01, 0.025 and 0.05 mg/kg, alone......-induced behaviours (unrest, stereotypies, arousal) were unaffected. EPS were not observed at any dose. At 0.05 mg/kg CGS 21680 produced vomiting. The two lower doses did not produce observable side-effects. Though the differential effect on amphetamine- and apomorphine-induced behaviours is intriguing, CGS 21680...

  17. Exposure to rabies virus in a population of free-ranging capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) in a fragmented, environmentally protected area in southeastern Brazil.

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    Machado, Gustavo Puglia; Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo de Paula; Uieda, Wilson; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Cruvinel, Tatiana Morosini de Andrade; Kataoka, Ana Paula; Martorelli, Luzia Fátima Alves; de Jong, David; Amaral, Jeanne Margareth Gimenes; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Guerra Neto, Guilherme; Megid, Jane

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of rabies antibodies in free-ranging capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) in a fragmented, environmentally protected, rural area of southeastern Brazil. Thirty-six free-ranging monkeys were tested by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test for detection of antibodies against rabies virus. Four individuals (11.11 %) had neutralizing antibody titers ≥ 0.25 IU/mL, demonstrating rabies virus exposure. PMID:22430558

  18. Individual differences in responses toward a mirror by captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella / Differenze individuali nelle risposte allo specchio nei cebi dai cornetti (Cebus apella

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    M. Cristina Riviello

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study examines the responses directed toward a mirror by capuchin monkeys tested both individually (Phases I-III and in group (Phase IV. Subjects were four laboratory-born and tool-using Cebus apella. Manipulative responses decreased over phases for all subjects, whereas social responses decreased in the two adult monkeys and increased in the two juveniles. In addition, one subject preformed peculiar manipulations of the mirror, and the adult male showed reactions typical of psychological distress. No evidence of self-recognition was found. Riassunto Questo studio esamina i comportamenti diretti allo specchio di alcuni cebi dai cornetti testati sia individualmente (Fase I-III sia in gruppo (Fase IV allo scopo di investigare capacità di autoriconoscimento in questa specie. Sono stati osservati 4 soggetti appartenenti a differenti classi di età. Le risposte allo specchio sono state di tipo sociale e manipolativo. Durante il corso delle osservazioni le risposte manipolative sono diminuite in tutti i soggetti presi in esame mentre quelle sociali sono aumentate nei giovani e diminuite negli adulti. Nel corso dell'esperimento i cebi non hanno mostrato capacità di autoriconoscimento.

  19. Toxoplasmose em primatas não humanos: I - Infecções naturais em Macacca Mulatta e Cebus Apella

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    Felippe Nery-Guimarães

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são descritas infecções naturais por Toxoplasma em um Macacca mulatta e em um Cebus apella, ambos tendo apresentado curto período de doença. Ambos se infectaram no cativeiro: o primeiro no biotério do laboratório, onde havia outros mamíferos com toxoplasmose experimental, e o segundo, na casa dos seus donos, em Jacarepaguá, on se habituara a comer carne crua como parte da alimentação. Nessa casa viviam outros platirrinos, entre os quais 2 Cebus libidinosus (um casal, os quais apresentaram Reação de Sabin-Feldman positiva (1:64, do mesmo modo que o tratador dos animais. Microscòpicamente, observaram-se nos 2 animais mortos de toxoplasmose espontânea lesões necróticas no fígado e baço, com a presença de toxoplasmas livres e intracelulares, isolados ou em associação, com maior ou menor número de indivíduos. No Cebus, no qual foi feita autópsia completa, foram observadas lesões e parasitos na suprarenal; e lesões moderadas no encéfalo, mas sem parasitos. É feita uma revisão das infecções naturais por Toxoplasma em primatas não humanos. Em mais de 60 anos de estudos do Txoplasma, foram descritas infecções naturais em apenas 31 exemplares de 18 espécies: 3 Prosimii, 10 Platyrrhinus e 5 Catharrhinus. A baixa freqüência da toxoplasmose no símios em geral é relacionada aos seus hábitos alimentares vegetarianos e insetífagos e à ecologia arborícola. A maior incidência nos platirrinos é relacionada à sua mais fácil domesticação e conseqüente mudança dos hábitos alimentares.

  20. The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M B; Fuxe, K; Werge, T;

    2002-01-01

    and lack of EPS in rodents could also be observed in non-human primates. We investigated the effects of CGS 21680 on behaviours induced by D-amphetamine and (-)-apomorphine in EPS-sensitized Cebus apella monkeys. CGS 21680 was administered s.c. in doses of 0.01, 0.025 and 0.05 mg/kg, alone...... and in combination with D-amphetamine and (-)-apomorphine. The monkeys were videotaped after drug administration and the tapes were rated for EPS and psychosis-like symptoms. CGS 21680 decreased apomorphine-induced behavioural unrest, arousal (0.01-0.05 mg/kg) and stereotypies (0.05 mg/kg) while amphetamine......-induced behaviours (unrest, stereotypies, arousal) were unaffected. EPS were not observed at any dose. At 0.05 mg/kg CGS 21680 produced vomiting. The two lower doses did not produce observable side-effects. Though the differential effect on amphetamine- and apomorphine-induced behaviours is intriguing, CGS 21680...

  1. The substituted (S)-3-phenylpiperidine (-)-OSU6162 reduces apomorphine- and amphetamine-induced behaviour in Cebus apella monkeys

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    Brandt-Christensen, M; Andersen, M B; Fink-Jensen, A;

    2006-01-01

    Low affinity dopamine (DA) D2 antagonists such as the substituted (S)-3-phenylpiperidine (-)-OSU6162 have been proposed to be putative antipsychotic agents not endowed with extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). In the present study we investigated the effects of (-)-OSU6162 on (-)-apomorphine and d-amphetamine......-induced behaviours in EPS sensitised Cebus apella monkeys. (-)-OSU6162 was administered subcutaneously in doses of 1, 3, 6 and 9 mg/kg alone and in combination with (-)-apomorphine (0.25 mg/kg) or d-amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg). (-)-OSU6162 inhibited (-)-apomorphine-(1-9 mg/kg) as well as d-amphetamine (3-9 mg....../kg)-induced arousal and stereotypy. EPS did not occur when (-)-OSU6162 was administered in combination with (-)-apomorphine or d-amphetamine. However, when (-)-OSU6162 was administered alone, dystonia was observed at high doses (6 and 9 mg/kg) in two out of six monkeys. The present study shows that (-)-OSU6162 can...

  2. Generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning: learning strategies and related issues in Macaca mulatta, Cebus apella, and Columba livia.

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    Wright, Anthony A; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2007-11-01

    The generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning was tested with a meta-analysis of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and pigeons (Columba livia) learning a same/different (S/D) task with expanding training sets. The generalization hypothesis states that as the number of training items increases, generalization from the training pairs will increase and could explain the subjects' accurate novel-stimulus transfer. By contrast, concept learning is learning the relationship between each pair of items; with more training items subjects learn more exemplars of the rule and transfer better. Having to learn the stimulus pairs (the generalization hypothesis) would require more training as the set size increases, whereas learning the concept might require less training because subjects would be learning an abstract rule. The results strongly support concept or rule learning despite severely relaxing the generalization-hypothesis parameters. Thus, generalization was not a factor in the transfer from these experiments, adding to the evidence that these subjects were learning the S/D abstract concept.

  3. Grasping primate development: Ontogeny of intrinsic hand and foot proportions in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Sapajus apella).

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    Young, Jesse W; Heard-Booth, Amber N

    2016-09-01

    Young primates have relatively large hands and feet for their body size, perhaps enhancing grasping ability. We test the hypothesis that selection for improved grasping ability is responsible for these scaling trends by examining the ontogeny of intrinsic hand and foot proportions in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Sapajus apella). If selection for improved grasping ability is responsible for the observed patterns of hand and foot growth in primates, we predicted that fingers and toes would be longer early in life and proportionally decline with age. We measured the lengths of manual and pedal metapodials and phalanges in a mixed-longitudinal radiographic sample. Bone lengths were (a) converted into phalangeal indices (summed non-distal phalangeal length/metapodial length) to test for age-related changes in intrinsic proportions and (b) fit to Gompertz models of growth to test for differences in the dynamics of phalangeal versus metapodial growth. Manual and pedal phalangeal indices nearly universally decreased with age in capuchin monkeys. Growth curve analyses revealed that metapodials generally grew at a faster rate, and for a longer duration, than corresponding phalanges. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that primates are under selection for increased grasping ability early in life. Relatively long digits may be functionally adaptive for growing capuchins, permitting a more secure grasp on both caregivers and arboreal supports, as well as facilitating early foraging. Additional studies of primates and other mammals, as well as tests of grasping performance, are required to fully evaluate the adaptive significance of primate hand and foot growth. PMID:27324663

  4. Ricinus communis biocompatibility histological study in the nose of Cebus apella monkeys Avaliação histológica da biocompatibilidade do polímero da mamona no dorso nasal de macacos-pregos (Cebus apella

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    Paulo Cesar de Jesus Dias

    2009-06-01

    realizados. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo consiste em avaliar histologicamente a biocompatibilidade do implante do polímero de mamona no dorso nasal. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram utilizados quatro macacos-pregos da espécie Cebus apella. Um defeito ósseo foi realizado no osso nasal em todos os animais e colocado um implante de polímero de mamona. A eutanásia foi realizada com 270 dias de pós-operatório, e as amostras foram submetidas a estudo histológico. RESULTADOS: Na análise histológica não foi observada a presença de granuloma de corpo estranho ou células fagocitárias. Progressiva formação óssea e maturação foram observadas. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados macroscópicos e microscópicos mostraram que o implante de polímero de mamona foi biocompatível.

  5. USE OF COCONUT WATER SOLUTION AT 37°C AS EXTENDER OF CAPTIVE Cebus apella (CAPUCHIN MONKEY SEMEN USO DE SOLUÇÃO À BASE DE ÁGUA DE COCO A 37 °C COMO DILUIDOR DE SÊMEN DE Cebus apella (MACACO-PREGO MANTIDO EM CATIVEIRO

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    Sheyla Farhayldes Souza Domingues

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was to evaluate the efficiency of in natura coconut water solution at 37º C as seminal extender. Were analyzed fifteen ejaculates collected from 5 adult Cebus apella by electroejaculation. The means volumes of liquid and coagulated fractions were 0.26 + 0.06 mL and 0.98 + 0.02 mL, respectively. The sperm concentration in the liquid fraction (2.1 x 108 + 0.5 108 mL was lower than liquefied fraction (1.6 x 109+ 0.9 109 mL (p = 0.05. The mean percentage of live spermatozoa after 7 hours incubated at 37 °C was 72 + 3%. Only in one sample was observed sperm motility (20% and vigor (2. The results suggest that electroejaculation protocol using 100mA maximum amperage is efficient to obtain semen from adult Cebus apella. The coconut water extender can be used to maintain sperm viability for up to 7 hours at 37 °C. However, studies are necessary to evaluate the sperm functionality extended in natura coconut water based solution.

    KEY WORDS: Cebus apella, electroejaculation water, extender, semen.
    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficiência de um diluidor de sêmen à base de água de coco in natura a 37 °C na dissolução da fração coagulada e conservação do sêmen de macacos-prego. Analisaram-se quinze ejaculados colhidos de cinco (n=5 machos adultos de Cebus apella através de eletroejaculação. Os volumes médios das frações líquida e coagulada foram 0,26 + 0,06 mL e 0,98 + 0,02 mL, respectivamente. A fração líquida apresentou baixa concentração média de espermatozoides (210. 106 + 50 106 mL em relação à fração coagulada (1600. 106+ 900 106 mL (p ? 0,05. O percentual médio de espermatozoides vivos após sete horas de incubação a 37°C foi 72 + 3%. Em apenas uma amostra observaram-se 20% de motilidade e vigor 2. Os resultados sugerem que o protocolo de eletroejaculação utilizando amperagem máxima de 100 mA é eficaz para a obtenção de sêmen de Cebus apella e que o diluidor à base

  6. USE OF COCONUT WATER SOLUTION AT 37°C AS EXTENDER OF CAPTIVE Cebus apella (CAPUCHIN MONKEY) SEMEN USO DE SOLUÇÃO À BASE DE ÁGUA DE COCO A 37 °C COMO DILUIDOR DE SÊMEN DE Cebus apella (MACACO-PREGO) MANTIDO EM CATIVEIRO

    OpenAIRE

    Sheyla Farhayldes Souza Domingues; José Augusto Pereira Carneiro Muniz; Rodrigo del Rio do Valle; Karol Guimarães Oliveira; Julianne Silva de Lima; Luiza Loureiro de Araújo

    2009-01-01

    The aim this study was to evaluate the efficiency of in natura coconut water solution at 37º C as seminal extender. Were analyzed fifteen ejaculates collected from 5 adult Cebus apella by electroejaculation. The means volumes of liquid and coagulated fractions were 0.26 + 0.06 mL and 0.98 + 0.02 mL, respectively. The sperm concentration in the liquid fraction (2.1 x 108 + 0.5 108 mL) was lower than liquefied fraction (1.6 x 109+ 0.9 109 mL) (p = 0.05). The mean percentage of live spermatozoa ...

  7. Avaliação ultra-sonográfica do sistema urinário, figado e útero do macaco-prego, Cebus apella Ultrasonographic evaluation of the urinary system, liver and uterus of Cebus apella monkey

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    Flávio R. Alves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O macaco-prego, Cebus apella, é muito difundido no norte e sul da Amazônia Legal Brasileira e no Cerrado. Estes animais encontram-se rotineiramente submetidos à caça predatória, aumentando assim a necessidade de preservação desta espécie silvestre. Realizou-se um estudo ultra-sonográfico de 10 macacos-prego como forma de descrever a anatomia ultra-sonográfica normal de sua cavidade abdominal. A vesícula urinária apresentou parede com espessura média 0,2cm e em posição anatômica cuja topografia permitiu contato com as paredes do corpo do útero e cólon descendente. À varredura abdominal caudal foi visualizada a aorta, veia cava caudal e veia ilíaca direita. O fígado foi visto em varredura sagital e transversal, possibilitando a observação da vesícula biliar e vasos hepáticos. A varredura renal demonstrou com precisão a pelve, seio renal e relação cortico-medular. O comprimento médio de ambos os rins foi de 6,24±0,31cm, não existindo diferença estatística entre o rim direito e esquerdo (Teste t de Student e ANOVA. O volume renal foi 2,37±0,18cm³. Os coeficientes de Correlação de Pearson entre os comprimentos renais direito e esquerdo e entre volumes renais direito e esquerdo foram dispostos como r = 0,74 e 0,51. As espessuras médias para a região cortical e medular foram 0,75±0,11cm e 0,39±0,06cm, respectivamente. O coeficiente de correlação para a relação cortico-medular entre os rins direito e esquerdo foi de r = 0,19. O exame ultrasonográfico mostrou-se como uma técnica eficiente, nãoinvasiva, rápida e reprodutível, que provê dados importantes aos profissionais da área de clínica e cirurgia de animais silvestres.The Brown Capuchin, Cebus apella, has a wide distribution in the northern and southern Brazilian Amazon region and in the Cerrado (savanna. These monkeys are usually submitted to predatory chase, increasing the need for preservation of this wild animal species. An ultrasonographic

  8. Ordinal judgments of symbolic stimuli by capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): the effects of differential and nondifferential reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Harris, Emily H; Evans, Theodore A; Klein, Emily D; Chan, Betty; Flemming, Timothy M; Washburn, David A

    2008-02-01

    Ordinal learning was investigated in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). In Experiment 1, both species were presented with pairings of the Arabic numerals 0 to 9. Some monkeys were given food rewards equal to the value of the numeral selected and some were rewarded with a single pellet only for choosing the higher numeral within the pair. Both species learned to select the larger numeral, but only rhesus monkeys that were differentially rewarded performed above chance levels when presented with novel probe pairings. In Experiment 2, the monkeys were first presented with arrays of 5 familiar numerals (from the range 0 to 9) and then arrays of 5 novel letters (from the range A to J) with the same reward outcomes in place as in Experiment 1. Both species performed better with the numerals, suggesting that an ordinal sequence of all stimuli had been learned during Experiment 1, rather than a matrix of two-choice discriminations. PMID:18298281

  9. Performance in a tool-using task by common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus), an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalberghi, E; Fragaszy, D M; Savage-Rumbaugh, S

    1995-03-01

    Performance by individual animals of three species of great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, and Pongo pygmaeus) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) was assessed by presenting a food treat inside a clear tube. The subjects readily used a straight stick to obtain the food. When sticks were bundled together, the apes immediately unwrapped the bundle to obtain an individual stick, whereas capuchins attempted to insert the bundled sticks. When a misshapen stick was provided, apes, but not capuchins, showed an improvement in terms of modifying the misshapen stick before insertion. Our results indicate that all these species can solve these tasks. However, only the performance of apes is consistent with emerging comprehension of the causal relations required for the avoidance of errors in the more complex tasks. PMID:7705062

  10. Conservação do sêmen e liquefação do coágulo seminal de macaco-prego (Cebus apella) em água de coco em pó (ACP-118®), em diferentes temperaturas Semen conservation and seminal clot liquefaction of capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) in powdered coconut water extender (PCW) at different temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Karol Guimarães Oliveira; Paulo Henrique Gomes de Castro; José Augusto Pereira Carneiro Muniz; Sheyla Farhayldes Souza Domingues

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a água de coco em pó (ACP) na conservação do sêmen e liquefação do coágulo seminal de Cebus apella. O sêmen de seis machos adultos foi coletado por eletroejaculação (EEJ), diluído em solução à base de ACP-118® e submetido à incubação em banho-maria a 33, 35 e 37°C, por 24 horas. Avaliou-se a integridade espermática por meio da coloração eosina-nigrosina a cada uma hora durante as seis horas iniciais e após 24 horas de incubação. Os volumes médios e as conc...

  11. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus from an ecological station in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Costa da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite protozoan. A large percentage of animals presents specific antibodies caused by a previous exposition, resulting in a chronic infection. Felides are the definitive hosts and the other warm-blooded animals, including primates, are the intermediate hosts. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in free-living tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus from an ecological station located on Mata de Santa Teresa, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. T. gondii antibodies were analyzed by modified agglutination test (MAT in serum samples of 36 tufted capuchin monkeys, considering eight as cut-off titer. From the studied animals, 3/36 (8.33%; CI95% 3.0-21.9% presented T. gondii antibodies, all with titer 32. No significative difference was observed relating to the sex (1/3 male and 2/3 female, and to the age (1/3 young and 2/3 adult (P>0.05. Thus, these results demonstrate the presence of T. gondii antibodies in primates from São Paulo state.

  12. Effects of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonism and antagonism on SKF81297-induced dyskinesia and haloperidol-induced dystonia in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten V; Peacock, Linda P; Werge, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    . Endocannabinoids modulate striatal dopamine activity via type 1 cannabinoid (CB(1)) receptors, and studies in rats and humans suggest beneficial effects of CB(1) ligands on EPS. The present study explored the effects of CB(1) receptor ligands on oral dyskinesia induced by the dopamine D(1) receptor agonist SKF......81297 (SKF) and acute dystonia induced by the dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist haloperidol in Cebus apella monkeys. The monkeys were sensitised to EPS by prior exposure to D(2) receptor antagonists. SKF (0.3 mg/kg) was administered alone and in combination with the CB(1) agonist CP55,940 (0.......0025-0.01 mg/kg) or the CB(1) antagonist SR141716A (0.25-0.75 mg/kg). Haloperidol (individual doses at 0.01-0.02 mg/kg) was administered alone and in combination with CP55,940 (0.005 or 0.01 mg/kg) or SR141716A (0.5 or 0.75 mg/kg). Subsequently, the monkeys were videotaped, and the recordings were rated...

  13. Effects of platelet-rich plasma on healing of alveolar socket: Split-mouth histological and histometric evaluation in Cebus apella monkeys

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    Pessoa Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The prediction of implant treatment is directly influenced by the quality of the remaining bone after tooth extraction. Aims : The purpose of this experimental study was to, histologically and histometrically, evaluate the bone repair process in the central areas of extraction sockets filled with platelet-rich plasma. Materials and Methods: Four young adult male Cebus apella monkeys were used. The extraction of both right and left inferior second premolars was accomplished. After extraction, in one of the extraction sockets, coagulum was maintained while in the other it was removed; the alveolus was dried with gauze compress and filled up with platelet concentrate. For PRP production, Sonnleitner′s protocol was followed. The specimens for histological and histometric assessment were obtained in 30, 90, 120 and 180 days intervals. Results: In 30 days new bone formation was intense in both experimental and control sockets and no significant differences were observed between the two groups. After 90 days of the extraction, while the control group showed signs of decrease in osteogenesis, in the experimental unit, the process of bone formation and fibroblast-like cell proliferation remained intense. After 120 days, the PRP treated socket was occupied by large trabeculae of bone. After 180 days, the control unit was occupied mostly with bone marrow. The experimental unit remained occupied with large amounts of bone tissue. Conclusions: It was possible to conclude that bone repair was enhanced by the use of platelet- rich plasma in alveolar sockets.

  14. Conservação do sêmen e liquefação do coágulo seminal de macaco-prego (Cebus apella em água de coco em pó (ACP-118®, em diferentes temperaturas Semen conservation and seminal clot liquefaction of capuchin monkey (Cebus apella in powdered coconut water extender (PCW at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Guimarães Oliveira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a água de coco em pó (ACP na conservação do sêmen e liquefação do coágulo seminal de Cebus apella. O sêmen de seis machos adultos foi coletado por eletroejaculação (EEJ, diluído em solução à base de ACP-118® e submetido à incubação em banho-maria a 33, 35 e 37°C, por 24 horas. Avaliou-se a integridade espermática por meio da coloração eosina-nigrosina a cada uma hora durante as seis horas iniciais e após 24 horas de incubação. Os volumes médios e as concentrações espermáticas das frações coagulada e líquida foram de 0,20±0,02 e 0,20±0,10mL; 1,1±0,3x10(8 e 1,3±0,9x10(7 espermatozoides mL-1, respectivamente. Somente em uma amostra da fração líquida foram verificados espermatozoides com motilidade (20% e vigor (4, perdurando por 40 minutos. A maior parte do coágulo liquefez em ACP-118® após 12 horas de incubação. O melhor tratamento observado foi sob 33°C, por manter até 47±12,8% de espermatozoides vivos após 24 horas. Conclui-se que o diluente à base de ACP é eficiente na liquefação do coágulo seminal e na manutenção da integridade espermática até 24 horas após a EEJ, nas temperaturas de 33, 35 e 37°C.The aim of this study was to evaluate the powdered coconut water (PCW in the semen conservation and seminal clot liquefaction. The semen of six adult male Cebus apella was collected by electroejaculation (EEJ, diluted in ACP-118® extender and stayed in water bath at 33, 35 and 37°C for 24 hours. The sperm integrity was evaluated by eosin-nigrosine staining every one hour during the six initial hours and after 24 hours of incubation. The average volumes and sperm concentrations of clotted and liquid fractions were 0.20±0.02 and 0.20±0.10mL, 1.1±0.3x108 and 1.3±0.9x107 sperm mL-1, respectively. Immediately after collection, only in a sample of liquid fraction was observed 20% motility and vigor 4, which stopped after 40 minutes. Most of the clot was

  15. Dieta y comportamiento alimentario de un grupo de mico maicero Cebus apella de acuerdo a la variación en la oferta de frutos y artrópodos, en la Amazonía colombiana Diet and feeding behavior of a group of brown capuchin monkeys Cebus apella according to fruits and arthropods availability, in the Colombian Amazon

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    Carolina Gómez-Posada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la relación entre la abundancia de artrópodos y frutos maduros, con el comportamiento alimentario y dieta de un grupo de Cebus apella en la Amazonía colombiana durante 1999. La oferta de frutos se midió por transectos fenológicos y la abundancia de artrópodos por capturas manuales. La oferta de ambos recursos varió a lo largo del año, lo que permitió establecer tres períodos de disponibilidad combinada: abundancia, oferta intermedia y escasez. Se completaron 708 horas de seguimiento al grupo y con el método de barrido lento se determinó una dieta omnívora, siendo principalmente insectívora - frugívora (48.8% - 42.9%. Los maiceros consumieron 96 especies de plantas y la diversidad mensual de frutos en la dieta, no se correlacionó con la oferta de los mismos. En los meses de abundancia de recursos, tanto frutos como artrópodos fueron consumidos en altas cantidades, y los frutos presentaron una distribución agrupada. Durante los períodos de escasez de recursos, la dieta incluyó pocas especies de frutos, considerados clave, de difícil manipulación, como Cariniana micrantha (Lecythidaceae, y fue complementada con partes vegetales. A diferencia de otros estudios, durante la escasez de frutos, no se presentó el mayor consumo de artrópodos, puesto que éstos igualmente escaseaban. Los maiceros mostraron una dieta generalista - oportunista y utilizaron los recursos en la proporción en la que estuvieron disponibles. Así por ejemplo, los valores de selectividad para frutos fueron muy bajos, y las tasas de éxito de captura de artrópodos se correlacionaron con la disponibilidad de los mismos.The relation between the abundance of fruits and arthropods, and the diet and feeding behavior of a group of Cebus apella was studied in the Colombian Amazon during 1999. Fruit availability was measured using phenological transects, and the abundance of arthropods by using manual captures. The abundance of both resources varied

  16. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus from an ecological station in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Frequência de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii em macacos-prego (Cebus apella nigritus de estação ecológica localizada no Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Costa da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite protozoan. A large percentage of animals presents specific antibodies caused by a previous exposition, resulting in a chronic infection. Felides are the definitive hosts and the other warm-blooded animals, including primates, are the intermediate hosts. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in free-living tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus from an ecological station located on Mata de Santa Teresa, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. T. gondii antibodies were analyzed by modified agglutination test (MAT in serum samples of 36 tufted capuchin monkeys, considering eight as cut-off titer. From the studied animals, 3/36 (8.33%; CI95% 3.0-21.9% presented T. gondii antibodies, all with titer 32. No significative difference was observed relating to the sex (1/3 male and 2/3 female, and to the age (1/3 young and 2/3 adult (P>0.05. Thus, these results demonstrate the presence of T. gondii antibodies in primates from São Paulo state.A toxoplasmose é uma das zoonoses mais difundidas no mundo, causada pelo Toxoplasma gondii, um protozoário parasita intracelular obrigatório. Uma alta porcentagem de animais apresenta anticorpos específicos causados por exposição prévia, levando a uma infecção crônica. Os felídeos são os hospedeiros definitivos e outros animais homeotérmicos, incluindo os primatas, são os hospedeiros intermediários. Este estudo objetivou determinar a prevalência da infecção por T. gondii em macacos-prego (Cebus apella nigritus de vida livre da Estação Ecológica localizada na Mata de Santa Teresa, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. Anticorpos anti-T. gondii foram pesquisados pelo método de aglutinação direta modificada (MAT em amostras de soro de 36 macacos-prego, utilizando-se o título oito como de corte. Dos animais estudados, 3/36 (8,33%; IC95% 3,0-21,9% apresentaram anticorpos anti

  17. Proposal of anatomical terminology to call the arteries of the base of the encephalon in the monkey (Cebus paella L., 1766 Nomenclatura proposta para denominar as artérias da base do encéfalo do macaco-prego (Cebus apella L., 1766

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    Jussara Rocha Ferreira

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Arteries of the encephalon basis of 30 monkeys (Cebus paella were studied. Arteries were injected with colored latex, fixed in formaldehyde solution at 10% and dissected under magnifying lenses. Since the animals died from natural causes they had been previously used in other experiments. Human and veterinary anatomical terminology and literature were used as a reference for the determination of vessels studied in the primates. Arteries of the encephalon base represent division branches of three vascular pedicules: the right and left internal carotid arteries and the basilar system. Vessels in the basilar system of the animal were called vertebral arteries; anterior spinal artery; anterior and posterior cerebelar arteries; pontine arteries; satellite cerebelar arteries; caudal and cranial cerebelar arteries. The basilar artery bifurcates into two posterior cerebral arteries (100%. The caudal area of the encephalon’s arterial circuit is thus constituted. Linking between the vertebro-basilar and the carotid segments is done by the posterior communicating artery, that caudally anastomizes (100% with the posterior cerebral artery. The internal carotid artery gives origin to the posterior communicating artery. The right and left internal carotid artery (intracranial portion compounds the carotid system. The following vessels were identified: middle cerebral artery; anterior cerebral artery; interhemispheric artery; olfactory arteries. Results report that Cebus paella presents an arterial pattern of relative morphological stabilityEstudaram-se as artérias da base do encéfalo do Cebus apella em 30 animais, vindos a óbito por morte natural no Zoológico de São Paulo e coletados durante 10 anos. O material recebeu injeção de látex corado, fixado em formol a 10%, e foi dissecado sob lupa. Encontramos dificuldade e denominar estes vasos. As terminologias anatômicas humana e veterinária e a recuperação da literatura nos serviram de base para

  18. Cardiothoracic ratio and vertebral heart size (VHS to standardize the heart size of the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella Linnaeus, 1758 in computerized radiographic images

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    Hermínio J. Rocha-Neto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The VHS and CTR were assessed using computerized thoracic radiographs of ten clinically healthy tufted capuchin monkeys (five males and five females from the Wild Animal Screening Center in São Luís (Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres de São Luís-MA-CETAS. Radiographs were taken in laterolateral and dorsoventral projections to calculate the cardiothoracic ratio (VHS and vertebral heart size (CTR. The VHS showed mean values of 9.34±0.32v (males and 9.16±0.34v (females and there was no statistical difference between males and females (p>0.05. The CTR showed mean values of 0.55±0.04 (males and 0.52±0.03 (females and there was no statistical difference between the sexes (p>0.05. There was positive correlation between VHS and CTR (r=0.78. The thoracic and heart diameters showed mean values of 5.70±0.48cm and 2.16±0.40cm in the males, respectively. In the females they measured 5.32±0.39cm and 2.94±0.32cm. There was no statistical difference between the sexes. Our results show that the high correlation found between VHS and CTR permitted the verification with similar clinical precision between the two methods to estimate alterations in the heart silhouette by radiographic examination of tufted capuchin, making it an easy technique to apply that can be considered in the investigation of heart problems for this wild species.

  19. Infecção experimental de macacos cebus apella sp pelo Trypanosoma cruzi: avaliação clínica, eletrocardiqgráfica e anatomopatológica

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    Eros Antonio de Almeida

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Dos trinta e dois macacos capturados no interior do Estado de São Paulo e mantidos em laboratório em gaiolas individuais (24 a 25 C° e 70% de umidificação após vários xenodiagnósticos negativos, 12 foram infectados por via intraperitoneal com diferentes cepas de Trypanosoma cruzi, cujas formas tripomastigotas injetadas variaram de 1.10(5 a 5.10(6 Os 20 macacos restantes foram mantidos como controle. No período de 1 a 6 anos tanto os animais inoculados como os não inoculados, foram submetidos axenodiagnóstico e teste soro lógico de aglutinação direta, exame clínico e o eletrocardiograma. Posteriormente os macacos foram necropsiados e todos os órgãos submetidos a exame macro e microscópico. O exame clínico e o eletrocardiograma não revelaram alterações. Dos 12 macacos infectados, 4 apresentaram evidências de infecção ao exame histopatológico: utn com formas amastigotas nos tecidos e 3 com miocardite crônica de grau leve. A parasitemiafoi comprovada em 66,66% dos animais na fase aguda e a sorologia em 91,66% na fase crônica. Concluiu-se que os macacos Cebus não expressaram susceptibilidade ao desenvolvimento das lesões que caracterizam a fase . crônica da doença de Chagas mas poderiam ser usados para manter as cepas de T. cruzi e estudos de pesquisa sorológico a longo termo.

  20. Experimental Gastric Carcinogenesis in Cebus apella Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tanielly Cristina Raiol; Andrade Junior, Edilson Ferreira; Rezende, Alexandre Pingarilho; Carneiro Muniz, José Augusto Pereira; Lacreta Junior, Antonio Carlos Cunha; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Demachki, Samia; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We established two gastric carcinogenesis models in New-World nonhuman primates. In the first model, ACP03 gastric cancer cell line was inoculated in 18 animals. In the second model, we treated 6 animals with N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU). Animals with gastric cancer were also treated with Canova immunomodulator. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical, including C-reactive protein, folic acid, and homocysteine, analyses were performed in this study. MYC expression and copy number was also evaluated. We observed that all animals inoculated with ACP03 developed gastric cancer on the 9th day though on the 14th day presented total tumor remission. In the second model, all animals developed pre-neoplastic lesions and five died of drug intoxication before the development of cancer. The last surviving MNU-treated animal developed intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma observed by endoscopy on the 940th day. The level of C-reactive protein level and homocysteine concentration increased while the level of folic acid decreased with the presence of tumors in ACP03-inoculated animals and MNU treatment. ACP03 inoculation also led to anemia and leukocytosis. The hematologic and biochemical results corroborate those observed in patients with gastric cancer, supporting that our in vivo models are potentially useful to study this neoplasia. In cell line inoculated animals, we detected MYC immunoreactivity, mRNA overexpression, and amplification, as previously observed in vitro. In MNU-treated animals, mRNA expression and MYC copy number increased during the sequential steps of intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis and immunoreactivity was only observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Thus, MYC deregulation supports the gastric carcinogenesis process. Canova immunomodulator restored several hematologic measurements and therefore, can be applied during/after chemotherapy to increase the tolerability and duration of anticancer treatments. PMID:21811552

  1. Preference transitivity and symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity--a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A > or = B, B > or = C and A > or = C (where > or = indicates preference. In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic representation.

  2. Analysis of the heterochromatin of Cebus (Primates, Platyrrhini) by micro-FISH and banding pattern comparisons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mariela Nieves; Edivaldo H. C. De Oliveira; Paulo J. S. Amaral; Cleusa Y. Nagamachi; Julio C. Pieczarka; María C. Mühlmann; Marta D. Mudry

    2011-04-01

    The karyotype of the neotropical primate genus Cebus (Platyrrhini: Cebidae), considered the most ancestral one, shows the greatest amount of heterochromatin described among Platyrrhini genera. Banding techniques and restriction enzyme digestion have previously revealed great variability of quantity and composition of heterochromatin in this genus. In this context, we use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to analyse this genomic region and discuss its possible role in the diversification of Cebus. We used a heterochromatin probe for chromosome 11 of Cebus libidinosus (11qHe+ CLI probe), obtained by chromosome microdissection. Twenty-six specimens belonging to the families Atelidae, Cebidae, Callitrichidae and Pithecidae (Platyrrhini) were studied. Fourteen out of 26 specimens were Cebus (Cebidae) individuals of C. libidinosus, C. xanthosternos, C. apella, C. nigritus, C. albifrons, C. kaapori and C. olivaceus. In Cebus specimens, we found 6 to 22 positive signals located in interstitial and telomeric positions along the different species. No hybridization signal was observed among the remaining Ceboidea species, thus reinforcing the idea of a Cebus-specific heterochromatin composed of a complex system of repetitive sequences.

  3. The effect of dietary adaption on cranial morphological integration in capuchins (order Primates, genus Cebus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Makedonska

    Full Text Available A fundamental challenge of morphology is to identify the underlying evolutionary and developmental mechanisms leading to correlated phenotypic characters. Patterns and magnitudes of morphological integration and their association with environmental variables are essential for understanding the evolution of complex phenotypes, yet the nature of the relevant selective pressures remains poorly understood. In this study, the adaptive significance of morphological integration was evaluated through the association between feeding mechanics, ingestive behavior and craniofacial variation. Five capuchin species were examined, Cebus apella sensu stricto, Cebus libidinosus, Cebus nigritus, Cebus olivaceus and Cebus albifrons. Twenty three-dimensional landmarks were chosen to sample facial regions experiencing high strains during feeding, characteristics affecting muscular mechanical advantage and basicranial regions. Integration structure and magnitude between and within the oral and zygomatic subunits, between and within blocks maximizing modularity and within the face, the basicranium and the cranium were examined using partial-least squares, eigenvalue variance, integration indices compared inter-specifically at a common level of sampled population variance and cluster analyses. Results are consistent with previous findings reporting a relative constancy of facial and cranial correlation patterns across mammals, while covariance magnitudes vary. Results further suggest that food material properties structure integration among functionally-linked facial elements and possibly integration between the face and the basicranium. Hard-object-feeding capuchins, especially C. apella s.s., whose faces experience particularly high biomechanical loads are characterized by higher facial and cranial integration especially compared to C. albifrons, likely because morphotypes compromising feeding performance are selected against in species relying on obdurate fallback

  4. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) Remember Future Responses in a Computerized Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Klein, Emily D.; Einstein, Gilles O.

    2012-01-01

    Planning is an important aspect of many daily activities for humans. Planning involves forming a strategy in anticipation of a future need. However, evidence that nonhuman animals can plan for future situations is limited, particularly in relation to the many other kinds of cognitive capacities that they appear to share with humans. One critical aspect of planning is the ability to remember future responses, or what is called prospective coding. Two monkey species performed a series of computerized tasks that required encoding a future response at the outset of each trial. Monkeys of both species showed competence in all tests that were given, providing evidence that they anticipated future responses, and that they appropriately engaged in those responses when the time was right for such responses. In addition, some tests demonstrated that monkeys even remembered future responses that were not as presently motivating as were other aspects of the task environment. These results indicated that monkeys can anticipate future responses and retain and implement those responses when appropriate. PMID:22545901

  5. Attending to the outcome of others: disadvantageous inequity aversion in male capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Grace E

    2008-09-01

    Brosnan and de Waal [Nature 425:297-299, 2003] reported that capuchin monkeys responded negatively to unequal reward distributions between themselves and another individual when comparing their own rewards with that of their partner. It was suggested that social emotions provided the underlying motivation for such behavior and that this inequity aversion is specific to the social domain. However, alternative hypotheses such as the "frustration effect" or the "food expectation hypothesis" may provide more parsimonious explanations for Brosnan and de Waal's [Nature 425:297-299] results, while others have argued that these findings are not congruent with the Fehr-Schmidt inequity aversion model cited by the authors. The claim that inequity aversion behavior is specific to the social domain has also been questioned, as primates also develop expectations about rewards in the absence of partners, and react negatively when those expectations are violated. In this study, a modified Dictator game was used to investigate whether capuchins would exhibit either disadvantageous inequity aversion behavior or reference-dependent expectancy violation in social and nonsocial conditions, respectively. When given the choice between an equitable and an inequitable outcome, the subjects showed disadvantageous inequity aversion behavior, choosing the equitable outcome significantly more in the social condition. In the nonsocial condition, however, subjects did not show negative expectancy violation resulting from the formation of reference-dependent expectations, choosing the equitable outcome at chance levels. These results suggest that capuchins attend to differential payoffs and that they are averse to inequity, which is disadvantageous to themselves. PMID:18521838

  6. Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al.…

  7. Personality and facial morphology: Links to assertiveness and neuroticism in capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] apella)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, V; Lefevre, C. E.; Morton, F. B.; Brosnan, S.F.; Paukner, A.; Bates, T C

    2013-01-01

    Personality has important links to health, social status, and life history outcomes (e.g. longevity and reproductive success). Human facial morphology appears to signal aspects of one’s personality to others, raising questions about the evolutionary origins of such associations (e.g. signals of mate quality). Studies in non-human primates may help to achieve this goal: for instance, facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) in the male face has been associated with dominance not only in humans but ...

  8. Discrimination of functionally appropriate and inappropriate throwing tools by captive tufted capuchins (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore Avery; Westergaard, Gregory Charles

    2004-10-01

    A tool-throwing task was used to test whether capuchin monkeys understand the difference between functionally appropriate and functionally inappropriate tools. A group of monkeys was trained to obtain a sticky treat from a container outside their enclosure using a projectile attached to one end of an anchored line. Subsequently, these monkeys were given choice tests between functional and nonfunctional versions of tools used in training. A different feature of the tool was varied between alternatives in each choice test. The monkeys chose to use functional tools significantly more often than nonfunctional tools in early exposures to each choice test. A second experiment tested whether these subjects, as well as a second group of minimally trained participants, could distinguish between functional and nonfunctional tools that appeared different from those used in training. A new set of design features was varied between tools in these choice tests. All participants continued to choose functional tools significantly more often than nonfunctional tools, regardless of their tool-throwing experience or the novel appearance of the tools. These results suggest that capuchin monkeys, like chimpanzees studied in similar experiments, are sensitive to a variety of functionally relevant tool features.

  9. Do Social Conditions Affect Capuchin Monkeys’ (Cebus apella Choices in a Quantity Judgment Task?

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    Michael eBeran

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Beran et al. (2012 reported that capuchin monkeys closely matched the performance of humans in a quantity judgment test in which information was incomplete but a judgment still had to be made. In each test session, subjects first made quantity judgments between two known options. Then, they made choices where only one option was visible. Both humans and capuchin monkeys were guided by past outcomes, as they shifted from selecting a known option to selecting an unknown option at the point at which the known option went from being more than the average rate of return to less than the average rate of return from earlier choices in the test session. Here, we expanded this assessment of what guides quantity judgment choice behavior in the face of incomplete information to include manipulations to the unselected quantity. We manipulated the unchosen set in two ways: first, we showed the monkeys what they did not get (the unchosen set, anticipating that losses would weigh heavily on subsequent trials in which the same known quantity was presented. Second, we sometimes gave the unchosen set to another monkey, anticipating that this social manipulation might influence the risk-taking responses of the focal monkey when faced with incomplete information. However, neither manipulation caused difficulty for the monkeys who instead continued to use the rational strategy of choosing known sets when they were as large as or larger than the average rate of return in the session, and choosing the unknown (riskier set when the known set was not sufficiently large. As in past experiments, this was true across a variety of daily ranges of quantities, indicating that monkeys were not using some absolute quantity as a threshold for selecting (or not the known set, but instead continued to use the daily average rate of return to determine when to choose the known versus the unknown quantity.

  10. The elusive illusion: Do children (Homo sapiens) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) see the Solitaire illusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Agrillo, Christian; Perdue, Bonnie M; Beran, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    One approach to gaining a better understanding of how we perceive the world is to assess the errors that human and nonhuman animals make in perceptual processing. Developmental and comparative perspectives can contribute to identifying the mechanisms that underlie systematic perceptual errors often referred to as perceptual illusions. In the visual domain, some illusions appear to remain constant across the lifespan, whereas others change with age. From a comparative perspective, many of the illusions observed in humans appear to be shared with nonhuman primates. Numerosity illusions are a subset of visual illusions and occur when the spatial arrangement of stimuli within a set influences the perception of quantity. Previous research has found one such illusion that readily occurs in human adults, the Solitaire illusion. This illusion appears to be less robust in two monkey species, rhesus macaques and capuchin monkeys. We attempted to clarify the ontogeny of this illusion from a developmental and comparative perspective by testing human children and task-naïve capuchin monkeys in a computerized quantity judgment task. The overall performance of the monkeys suggested that they perceived the numerosity illusion, although there were large differences among individuals. Younger children performed similarly to the monkeys, whereas older children more consistently perceived the illusion. These findings suggest that human-unique perceptual experiences with the world might play an important role in the emergence of the Solitaire illusion in human adults, although other factors also may contribute. PMID:26513327

  11. An assessment of memory awareness in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Murray, Elisabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    Humans, apes, and rhesus monkeys demonstrate memory awareness by collecting information when ignorant and acting immediately when informed. In this study, five capuchin monkeys searched for food after either watching the experimenter bait one of four opaque tubes (seen trials), or not watching (unseen trials). Monkeys with memory awareness should look into the tubes before making a selection only on unseen trials because on seen trials they already know the location of the food. In Experiment...

  12. Visual area MT in the Cebus monkey: location, visuotopic organization, and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, M; Gattass, R; Rosa, M G; Sousa, A P

    1989-09-01

    The representation of the visual field in the dorsal portion of the superior temporal sulcus (ST) was studied by multiunit recordings in eight Cebus apella, anesthetized with N2O and immobilized with pancuronium bromide, in repeated recording sessions. On the basis of visuotopic organization, myeloarchitecture, and receptive field size, area MT was distinguished from its neighboring areas. MT is an oval area of about 70 mm2 located mainly in the posterior bank of the superior temporal sulcus. It contains a visuotopically organized representation of at least the binocular visual field. The representation of the vertical meridian forms the dorsolateral, lateral, and ventrolateral borders of MT and that of the horizontal meridian runs across the posterior bank of ST. The fovea is represented at the lateralmost portion of MT, while the retinal periphery is represented medially. The representation of the central visual field is magnified relative to that of the periphery in MT. The cortical magnification factor in MT decreases with increasing eccentricity following a negative power function. Receptive field size increases with increasing eccentricity. A method to evaluate the scatter of receptive field position in multiunit recordings based on the inverse of the magnification factor is described. In MT, multiunit receptive field scatter increases with increasing eccentricity. As shown by the Heidenhain-Woelcke method, MT is coextensive with two myeloarchitectonically distinct zones: one heavily myelinated, located in the posterior bank of ST, and another, less myelinated, located at the junction of the posterior bank with the anterior bank of ST. At least three additional visual zones surround MT: DZ, MST, and FST. The areas of the dorsal portion of the superior temporal sulcus in the diurnal New World monkey Cebus are comparable to those described for the diurnal Old World monkey, Macaca. This observation suggests that these areas are ancestral characters of the simian

  13. Anatomical and radiographic appearance of the capuchin monkey thoracic cavity (Cebus apella Aparência anatômica e radiográfica da cavidade torácica do macaco-prego (Cebus apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio R. Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The capuchin monkey is widespread both north and south of the Legal Amazon and in the Brazilian cerrado. Ten clinically healthy capuchin monkeys were submitted to an anatomical and radiographic study of their thoracic cavities. The radiographic evaluation allowed the description of biometric values associated with the cardiac silhouette and thoracic structures. Application of the VHS (vertebral heart size method showed positive correlation (PO macaco-prego é muito comum tanto no norte, quanto no sul da Amazônia Legal e no cerrado brasileiro. Dez macacos-prego clinicamente saudáveis foram submetidos a um estudo anatômico e radiográfico de suas cavidades torácicas. A avaliação radiográfica permitiu a descrição de valores biométricos associados à silhueta cardíaca e estruturas torácicas. A aplicação do método de VHS (vertebral heart size demonstrou correlação positiva (P <0,05 com a profundidade da cavidade torácica, assim como entre o comprimento do corpo de vértebras T3, T4, T5 e T6 e do comprimento e largura cardíaca. Os campos pulmonares apresentaram padrão intersticial difuso, mais visível nos lobos pulmonares caudais e um padrão brônquial em lobo pulmonar médio e cranial. O exame radiográfico permitiu inferências preliminares a serem realizadas no âmbito da sintopia das estruturas torácicas e de modificação dos padrões pulmonares e anatomia cardíaca para o macaco-prego.

  14. Two-dimensional map of direction selectivity in cortical visual area MT of Cebus monkey

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    ANTONIA CINIRA M. DIOGO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the spatial organization of direction of motion in visual area MT of the Cebus apella monkey. We used arrays of 6 (700 µm apart parallel electrodes in penetrations tangential to the cortical layers to record multi-unit responses to moving bars, at 200 µm steps. We determined the direction selectivity at each recording site. The data from single penetrations showed cyclic and gradual changes in the direction selectivity of clusters of cells, intermixed with abrupt 180º discontinuities along the electrode track. In order to obtain maps of direction of motion selectivity, we examined the spatial distribution of direction of motion in MT and we applied a method to determine the location of the centers of radial arrangements of direction selectivity. This tangential organization is characterized by slow continuous changes in direction of motion, interrupted by discontinuities. The changes in direction selectivity are organized radially in a pinwheel fashion and in slabs of linear variation. The pinwheel arrangements have 800-1400 µm in diameter. The size of the radial arrangement is comparable to the point image size in area MT at each eccentricity.Estudamos a organização espacial da seletividade ao sentido do movimento na área visual MT do macaco Cebus apella. Utilizamos um arranjo de 6 eletródios paralelos (separados por 700µm em penetrações tangenciais às camadas corticais para registrar, a cada 200µm, a atividade multi-unitária em resposta a barras em movimento. Determinamos a seletividade ao sentido de movimento em cada sítio de registro. Os dados captados por um único eletródio mostraram uma mudança cíclica e gradual na seletividade ao sentido de movimento dos grupos de neurônios registrados ao longo da trajetória do eletródio, interrompida por mudanças abruptas de 180º ocasionando descontinuidades na seletividade ao sentido do movimento. Para obter mapas de seletividade ao sentido do movimento, examinamos a

  15. Ontogeny of Manipulative Behavior and Nut-Cracking in Young Tufted Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus Apella"): A Perception-Action Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Resende, Briseida Dogo; Ottoni, Eduardo B.; Fragaszy, Dorothy M.

    2008-01-01

    How do capuchin monkeys learn to use stones to crack open nuts? Perception-action theory posits that individuals explore producing varying spatial and force relations among objects and surfaces, thereby learning about affordances of such relations and how to produce them. Such learning supports the discovery of tool use. We present longitudinal…

  16. The substituted (S)-3-phenylpiperidine (-)-OSU6162 reduces apomorphine- and amphetamine-induced behaviour in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette; Andersen, M B; Fink-Jensen, A;

    2006-01-01

    Low affinity dopamine (DA) D2 antagonists such as the substituted (S)-3-phenylpiperidine (-)-OSU6162 have been proposed to be putative antipsychotic agents not endowed with extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). In the present study we investigated the effects of (-)-OSU6162 on (-)-apomorphine and d...... inhibit (-)-apomorphine-induced behaviours in non-human primates at doses that do not cause EPS. When (-)-OSU6162 was tested against d-amphetamine-induced behaviours a separation between dose levels that inhibit d-amphetamine effects and cause EPS was not observed. The data further substantiate a role...

  17. The hybrid delay task: Can capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) sustain a delay after an initial choice to do so?

    OpenAIRE

    Paglieri, Fabio; Focaroli, Valentina; Bramlett, Jessica; Tierno, Valeria; McIntyre, Joseph M.; Addessi, Elsa; Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Choosing to wait for a better outcome (delay choice) and sustaining the delay prior to that outcome (delay maintenance) are both prerequisites for successful self control in intertemporal choices. However, most existing experimental methods test these skills in isolation from each other, and no significant correlation has been observed in performance across these tasks. In this study we introduce a new paradigm, the hybrid delay task, which combines an initial delay choice with a subsequent d...

  18. Linnaeus garden. [Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Delaporte

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since XVIII century, garden is the place of both the know-how and the knowledge accomplished by experimental botanic. Starting from this point a definition will be advanced of what a technical environment is: an environment of culture made of norms and laws. But this technical environment should be distinguished from the natural environment. This one refers to an environment occupied by wild species. The point is, therefore, to determine the nature of the relationship between technical and natural environment. Linnaeus used to assign the products of culture a positive value. Rousseau goes the opposite way. He assigns nature a positive value. Linnaeus valuates the garden, he stands for the culture. Rousseau devaluates the garden, he stands for nature. The debate about modified organisms may begin.

  19. Distribution of NADPH-diaphorase in the superior colliculus of Cebus monkeys, and co-localization with calcium-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J G M; Mendez-Otero, R; Gattass, Ricardo

    2003-08-01

    We examined the distribution of the enzyme dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) in the superior colliculus (SC) of the New World monkey Cebus apella, and the co-localization of this enzyme with the calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) calbindin-D28K, parvalbumin and calretinin. Despite the intensely labeled neuropil, rare NADPH-d-positive cells were observed in the stratum griseum superficiale (SGS). Most of the labeled cells in the SC were found in the intermediate layers, with a great number also in the deeper layers. This pattern is very similar to that described in the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and in the cat, and different from the pattern found in the rat, which shows labeled cells mainly in the SGS. Cells doubly stained for NADPH-d and CaBPs were observed throughout the SC, although in a small number. Of the NADPH-d-positive cells, 20.3% were doubly labeled for NADPH-d and parvalbumin, 10.2% revealed co-localization with calretinin, and 5.6% with calbindin. The low number of double-stained cells for NADPH-d and the CaBPs indicates that these molecules must participate in different functional circuits within the SC. PMID:12871769

  20. Cortical afferents of visual area MT in the Cebus monkey: possible homologies between New and Old World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, M G; Soares, J G; Fiorani, M; Gattass, R

    1993-01-01

    Cortical projections to the middle temporal (MT) visual area were studied by injecting the retrogradely transported fluorescent tracer Fast Blue into MT in adult New World monkeys (Cebus apella). Injection sites were selected based on electrophysiological recordings, and covered eccentricities from 2-70 deg, in both the upper and lower visual fields. The position and laminar distribution of labeled cell bodies were correlated with myeloarchitectonic boundaries and displayed in flat reconstructions of the neocortex. Topographically organized projections were found to arise mainly from the primary, second, third, and fourth visual areas (V1, V2, V3, and V4). Coarsely topographic patterns were observed in transitional V4 (V4t), in the parieto-occipital and parieto-occipital medial areas (PO and POm), and in the temporal ventral posterior area (TVP). In addition, widespread or nontopographic label was found in visual areas of the superior temporal sulcus (medial superior temporal, MST, and fundus of superior temporal, FST), annectent gyrus (dorsointermediate area, DI; and dorsomedial area, DM), intraparietal sulcus (lateral intraparietal, LIP; posterior intraparietal, PIP; and ventral intraparietal, VIP), and in the frontal eye field (FEF). Label in PO, POm, and PIP was found only after injections in the representation of the peripheral visual field (> 10 deg), and label in V4 and FST was more extensive after injections in the central representation. The projections from V1 and V2 originated predominantly from neurons in supragranular layers, whereas those from V3, V4t, DM, DI, POm, and FEF consisted of intermixed patches with either supragranular or infragranular predominance. All of the other projections were predominantly infragranular. Invasion of area MST by the injection site led to the labeling of further pathways, including substantial projections from the dorsal prelunate area (DP) and from an ensemble of areas located along the medial wall of the hemisphere

  1. Anatomia e histologia do trato urinário do macaco-prego (Sapajus apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. Lima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Sapajus apella é um primata do Novo Mundo de porte médio e com distribuição geográfica desde a América do Sul até a Argentina. São bons modelos para estudo e nos últimos anos vêm sendo amplamente utilizados para este fim. A destruição progressiva do habitat natural desses animais os tem levado a migrarem para outras regiões, tornando-os, assim, mais susceptíveis à caça predatória. A necessidade de preservação das espécies silvestres desperta interesse por um maior conhecimento anatômico e clínico para estes animais. O presente estudo teve como objetivo examinar e descrever os aspectos morfológicos, quanto a anatomia macroscópica e microscópica dos órgãos do sistema urinário de fêmeas da espécie Sapajus apella visando estender o conhecimento anatômico para esta espécie. Foram utilizadas quatro fêmeas, oriundas do Centro Nacional de Primatas de Ananindeua/PA. istema urinário de S. apella apresenta características similares a outros primatas tanto humanos quanto não humanos e aos animais domésticos. Os rins apresentaram aspectos macroscópicos semelhantes aos rins de humanos, mas com a mesma classificação de outros primatas não humanos e alguns animais domésticos. A bexiga assemelhou-se aos animais domésticos e aos primatas de maneira geral, humano e não humano. O mesmo ocorreu quando analisamos estes órgãos histologicamente.

  2. Bad math in Linnaeus' Philosophia Botanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podani, János; Szilágyi, András

    2016-09-01

    In Philosophia Botanica (1751), Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) presented a calculation of the number of plant genera that may be distinguished based on his taxonomic concepts. In order to derive that number, he relied upon the organs of fructification, which represent the flower and the fruit, by selecting over 30 elements from them, and then assuming that each could vary by four dimensions. However, while Linnaeus was good in counting stamens and pistils, he and many of his followers who edited or translated Philosophia Botanica were less careful, basing their calculations of the number of possible genera on flawed assumptions, or even introducing basic arithmetic errors. Furthermore, although mathematics was quite advanced in the eighteenth century, the gap between combinatorial and botanical thinking was too deep, preventing Linnaeus to seek a reasonable solution to the problem he raised. The authors demonstrate this by a historical analysis of 15 editions of Philosophia Botanica, plus many references to it, and conclude that the desired number almost always appeared in error during the past 265 years. The German botanist J. G. Gleditsch (1714-1786) was the most successful with respect to Linnaeus' original intention. Elementary mathematics demonstrates that if Linnaeus' assumptions were taken seriously, then the possible number of genera would be astronomical. The practice he followed in Genera Plantarum (1754) shows, however, that the fructification dimensions served as a universal set for Linnaeus from which he chose only the relevant ones for describing a particular genus empirically. Based on the corrections and modifications implemented in reworked editions, we suggest an evolutionary network for the historical and modern versions or translations of Philosophia Botanica.

  3. Bad math in Linnaeus' Philosophia Botanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podani, János; Szilágyi, András

    2016-09-01

    In Philosophia Botanica (1751), Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) presented a calculation of the number of plant genera that may be distinguished based on his taxonomic concepts. In order to derive that number, he relied upon the organs of fructification, which represent the flower and the fruit, by selecting over 30 elements from them, and then assuming that each could vary by four dimensions. However, while Linnaeus was good in counting stamens and pistils, he and many of his followers who edited or translated Philosophia Botanica were less careful, basing their calculations of the number of possible genera on flawed assumptions, or even introducing basic arithmetic errors. Furthermore, although mathematics was quite advanced in the eighteenth century, the gap between combinatorial and botanical thinking was too deep, preventing Linnaeus to seek a reasonable solution to the problem he raised. The authors demonstrate this by a historical analysis of 15 editions of Philosophia Botanica, plus many references to it, and conclude that the desired number almost always appeared in error during the past 265 years. The German botanist J. G. Gleditsch (1714-1786) was the most successful with respect to Linnaeus' original intention. Elementary mathematics demonstrates that if Linnaeus' assumptions were taken seriously, then the possible number of genera would be astronomical. The practice he followed in Genera Plantarum (1754) shows, however, that the fructification dimensions served as a universal set for Linnaeus from which he chose only the relevant ones for describing a particular genus empirically. Based on the corrections and modifications implemented in reworked editions, we suggest an evolutionary network for the historical and modern versions or translations of Philosophia Botanica. PMID:27412708

  4. A Novel Polypeptide from Cervus elaphus Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangWENG; QiuLiZHOU; 等

    2002-01-01

    A novel polypeptide having stimulant effect on some cell proliferation was isolated from the velvet antler (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus). The velvet antler polypeptide consists of a single chain of 32 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence of the polypeptide was identified as:VLSAADKSNVKAAWGKVGGNAPAFGAEALLRM.

  5. Anatomy of the arteries of the arm of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000 monkeys = Anatomia das artérias do braço do macaco Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário de Souza Lima-e-Silva

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cebus monkey displays a high capacity for adaptation to urbanenvironments, and its high level of encephalization has generated great interest by scientific community to study it. The study of the vascularization of the arm of Cebus is important because of its arboreal habits. Twenty-four animals donated by Ibama (Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources from the city of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and housed in the anatomy collections of the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU and the Federal University of Goiás (UFG were used. The arterialsystem of these animals was injected with coloring latex, after which the arteries were dissected using stereoscopic microscope or the naked eye. In general terms, the findings on the brachial vessels of the Cebus monkey are identical to those found in humans and inother primates. In specific terms, the most outstanding variation was the small size or the absence of the brachial artery in Cebus. The arterial model of Cebus corroborates its arboreal behavior and constant use of its thoracic limbs.O macaco Cebus possui alta capacidade de adaptação em ambientes urbanos e o seu elevado índice de encefalização tem gerado grande interesse por parte da comunidade científica em estudá-lo. A importância do estudo da vascularização do braço desses animais éem virtude do seu hábito arbóreo. Foram usados 24 animais doados pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (Ibama de Sete Lagoas, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, depositados nas coleções anatômicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU e Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG. O sistema arterial dos espécimes foi injetado com látex corado e, posteriormente, as artérias foram dissecadas com o auxílio de microscópico estereoscópico ou a olhos desarmados. Em termos gerais, os achados em Cebus acerca de vasos braquiais são idênticos aos encontrados em humanos e outros primatas. Em termos

  6. Carolus Linnaeus and the Edible Dormouse

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Violani; Bruno Zava

    1995-01-01

    Abstract Carolus Linnaeus was totally unacquainted with the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis (L.), a species not found in Sweden: while describing Mus Rattus in the 10th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1758), the Swedish naturalist confessed his ignorance concerning the "Glis" of the ancients and suggested that it might have been the marmot or the hamster. Thanks to written information received from his ...

  7. Carl Linnaeus and the visual representation of nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmantier, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) is reputed to have transformed botanical practice by shunning the process of illustrating plants and relying on the primacy of literary descriptions of plant specimens. Botanists and historians have long debated Linnaeus's capacities as a draftsman. While some of his detailed sketches of plants and insects reveal a sure hand, his more general drawings of landscapes and people seem ill-executed. The overwhelming consensus, based mostly on his Lapland diary (1732), is that Linnaeus could not draw. Little has been said, however, on the role of drawing and other visual representations in Linnaeus's daily work as seen in his other numerous manuscripts. These manuscripts, held mostly at the Linnean Society of London, are peppered with sketches, maps, tables, and diagrams. Reassessing these manuscripts, along with the printed works that also contain illustrations of plant species, shows that Linnaeus's thinking was profoundly visual and that he routinely used visual representational devices in his various publications. This paper aims to explore the full range of visual representations Linnaeus used through his working life, and to reevaluate the epistemological value of visualization in the making of natural knowledge. By analyzing Linnaeus's use of drawings, maps, tables, and diagrams, I will show that he did not, as has been asserted, reduce the discipline of botany to text, and that his visual thinking played a fundamental role in his construction of new systems of classification. PMID:22363966

  8. ESTUDO ANATÔMICO DAS ARTÉRIAS DO OMBRO DE Cebus libidinosus (RYLANDS, 2000; PRIMATES – CEBIDAE ANATOMIC STUDY OF ARTERIES OF SHOULDER Cebus libidinosus (RYLANDS, 2000; PRIMATES - CEBIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandra Cássia Lobato do Prado

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As pesquisas nos Cebus libidinosus têm sido incremAs pesquisas nos Cebus libidinosus têm sido in¬crementadas, em razão do pouco conhecimento de sua morfofisiologia e por terem expressivo desenvolvimento psicomotor comparável ao dos primatas do Velho Mundo. A região do ombro merece especial atenção, em virtude dos hábitos arborícolas e as constantes manipulações de objetos. Neste trabalho utilizaram-se 24 exemplares de Cebus libidinosus doados pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (IBAMA de Sete Lagoas, MG, Brasil, sacrificados de acordo com as recomendações do Comitê Brasileiro de Experimentação Animal (COBEA e inclu¬ídos nas coleções anatômicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU e Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG. O sistema arterial destes indivíduos foi injetado com látex corado e posteriormente dissecaram-se as artérias sob lupa estereoscópica. Na maioria dos casos, as artérias encontra¬da, apresentaram relativa correspondência de distribuição e número comparável ao modelo humano e de outros primatas, com variações quanto à frequência e origem dos vasos. De modo geral as artérias do ombro deste Cebídeo se originaram de vasos derivados indiretamente da artéria axilar, uma vez que surgiram como pequenos troncos arte¬riais que se subdividiram, e não como ramos individuais, como descrito nos outros animais estudados, e de modo específico ocorreram variações de todas as estruturas em relação aos outros primatas estudados. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Anatomia, artérias, Cebus libidinosus, primatas. The researches in Cebus libidinosus has been reali¬zed because less known about your morphophisiology and its expressive psychomotor development comparative with Old World primates. The shoulder regions deserve special attention because behavior paste and objects manipulations. Twenty four Cebus specimens were donated by the “Bra¬zilian Institute for Environment and Recyclable Natural Resources

  9. Miocardite no macaco Cebus após inoculações repetidas com Schizotrypanum cruzi

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    C. Magarinos Torres

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Chagas disease is realized through contamination of ocular conjunctiva, mucosa or skin with infected dejections eliminated by the insect vectors of Schizotrypanum cruzi (Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus and Rhodnius prolixus. The triatomid bugs live in holes and craks in the walls, in beds, behind trunks, etc. Found in primitive mud huts covered with thatched roofs, and so the human dwellers have many chances to contract the disease, reinfections being reasonably more to expect than a single inoculation. Experimental work reproducing those natural conditions is welcomed as some important features in the pathologic picture of the disease such as the extensive myocardial fibrosis seen in chronic cases are still incompletely known. Microscopic changes were studied in the heart muscle of seven Cebus monkeys infected by S. cruzi. This animal survives the acute stage of the disease and so is particularly suited to experiments of long duration in which several inoculations of S. cruzi are performed. Three different strains of S. cruzi isolated from acute cases of Chagas' disease were employed. One monkey was injected in the skin with infected blood and necropsied after 252 days. Two monkeys were three times, and one, eight times infected in skin, one of them with contaminated blood, and two with contaminated blood and dejections from infected bugs. The necropsies were performed after 35, 95 and 149 days. One monkey was three times inoculated through the intact ocular conjunctiva (one time with infected blood, two times with dejections from infected bugs, and one time through the wounded buccal mucosa, and necropsied after 134 days. Another monkey was six times inoculated, four times through the intact ocular conjunctiva (one time with contaminated blood, three times with dejections from infected bugs and two times injected in the skin with infected blood, and necropsied after 157 days. Finally, another monkey was nine times

  10. LINNAEUS: A species name identification system for biomedical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadic Goran

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The task of recognizing and identifying species names in biomedical literature has recently been regarded as critical for a number of applications in text and data mining, including gene name recognition, species-specific document retrieval, and semantic enrichment of biomedical articles. Results In this paper we describe an open-source species name recognition and normalization software system, LINNAEUS, and evaluate its performance relative to several automatically generated biomedical corpora, as well as a novel corpus of full-text documents manually annotated for species mentions. LINNAEUS uses a dictionary-based approach (implemented as an efficient deterministic finite-state automaton to identify species names and a set of heuristics to resolve ambiguous mentions. When compared against our manually annotated corpus, LINNAEUS performs with 94% recall and 97% precision at the mention level, and 98% recall and 90% precision at the document level. Our system successfully solves the problem of disambiguating uncertain species mentions, with 97% of all mentions in PubMed Central full-text documents resolved to unambiguous NCBI taxonomy identifiers. Conclusions LINNAEUS is an open source, stand-alone software system capable of recognizing and normalizing species name mentions with speed and accuracy, and can therefore be integrated into a range of bioinformatics and text-mining applications. The software and manually annotated corpus can be downloaded freely at http://linnaeus.sourceforge.net/.

  11. Carolus Linnaeus and the Edible Dormouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Violani

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carolus Linnaeus was totally unacquainted with the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis (L., a species not found in Sweden: while describing Mus Rattus in the 10th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1758, the Swedish naturalist confessed his ignorance concerning the "Glis" of the ancients and suggested that it might have been the marmot or the hamster. Thanks to written information received from his correspondent in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linnaeus was able to include the new species Sciurus Glis in his 12th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1766, reporting almost verbatim a summary of Scopoli's description of the rodent. Scopoli's letter is still preserved in the Library of the Linnean Society of London. The Linnean type locality "Habitat in Europa australi" for the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis glis must therefore be restricted to "Southern Carniola, Slovenia", contra "Germany" as stated, for instance, by Miller (1912, Toschi (1965, Corbet (1978 and Storch (1978. A new name is required for the continental European form, for which M. glis germanicus ssp. nov. is here proposed. Some information on the appreciation of Myoxus glis as a delicacy ("carnes avide eduntur" in Linnaeus' words conclude the paper. Riassunto Carlo Linneo ed il Ghiro - Dopo aver descritto Mus Rattus nella decima edizione del "Systema Naturae" (1758 il naturalista svedese Carlo Linneo confessava di non essere a conoscenza del "Glis" degli antichi autori e ne suggeriva l'identificazione con la Marmotta o con il Criceto comune; è infatti noto che Myoxus glis non è diffuso in Svezia. In base ad una lettera ricevuta dal suo corrispondente in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linneo fu in grado di descrivere questa nuova specie come Sciurus Glis nella dodicesima edizione del "Systema

  12. Nematodes in the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758) and the common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula Linnaeus, 1758) (Anatidae) from Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Daria I; Yakovleva, Galina A; Ieshko, Evgeny P

    2015-10-01

    There are first data on nematodes of Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 (mallard) and Bucephala clangula Linnaeus, 1758 (common goldeneye) from Northern Europe (Ladoga Lake region). The ducks were found to be infected with nine nematode species. A. platyrhynchos hosted eight nematode species and B. clangula was host to four nematode species. All species except Capillaria anatis were found in the region for the first time. Nematodes Amidostomum acutum, Streptocara crassicauda, and Tetrameres fissispina parasitized on both hosts and were the most abundant. The biggest number of parasites revealed was biohelminths with a direct life cycle.

  13. Pairing and recombination features during meiosis in Cebus paraguayanus (Primates: Platyrrhini

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    Garcia-Cruz Raquel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among neotropical Primates, the Cai monkey Cebus paraguayanus (CPA presents long, conserved chromosome syntenies with the human karyotype (HSA as well as numerous C+ blocks in different chromosome pairs. In this study, immunofluorescence (IF against two proteins of the Synaptonemal Complex (SC, namely REC8 and SYCP1, two recombination protein markers (RPA and MLH1, and one protein involved in the pachytene checkpoint machinery (BRCA1 was performed in CPA spermatocytes in order to analyze chromosome meiotic behavior in detail. Results Although in the vast majority of pachytene cells all autosomes were paired and synapsed, in a small number of nuclei the heterochromatic C-positive terminal region of bivalent 11 remained unpaired. The analysis of 75 CPA cells at pachytene revealed a mean of 43.22 MLH1 foci per nucleus and 1.07 MLH1 foci in each CPA bivalent 11, always positioned in the region homologous to HSA chromosome 21. Conclusion Our results suggest that C blocks undergo delayed pairing and synapsis, although they do not interfere with the general progress of pairing and synapsis.

  14. Spatial selectivity to manipulate portable objects in wedge-capped capuchins (Cebus olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Michel Jean; Gerard, Jean-François; Pontes, Fernando

    2005-04-01

    We studied the manipulative activity of five wedge-capped capuchins (Cebus olivaceus) confronted with different types of unfamiliar and portable objects: wooden blocks, plastic rings, spoons, and coconuts. Combinatorial manipulations involving two portable objects of the same type were quite frequent. The lately introduced objects, whatever their kind, appeared as the most attractive. Nevertheless, some objects remained very attractive throughout the overall experiment, especially the wooden blocks which elicited more combinatorial and striking behaviors than the other objects. Concerning space, we observed that the individuals choose specific locations to perform their manipulative acts. The spatial distributions of these acts were more concentrated, and less concordant between individuals, in the present study than in two others conducted with the same group but involving the manipulation of familiar objects. This suggests that individual differences were more marked when the subjects manipulated unfamiliar objects than when they manipulated familiar ones. This finding may have applications when the members of a group have to benefit from an enrichment of their environment. PMID:15549610

  15. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae Extratos de folhas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae atuam como larvicida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Josiane Somariva Prophiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito larvicida de extratos hidro-etanólicos de folhas verdes e secas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae em Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. Todos os extratos avaliados induziram mortalidade em larvas de 3º e 4º estágios de Aedes aegypti, após 24 e 48 horas de exposição aos produtos. Embora estudos prévios tenham demonstrado a ação de sementes e frutos de Melia azedarach em larvas de diferentes populações de Aedes aegypti, o presente estudo é o primeiro a reportar o efeito larvicida de folhas verdes e secas desta planta.

  16. The effects of observer presence on the behavior of Cebus capucinus in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Katharine M; Lenz, Bryan B; Healan, Erin; Rudman, Sara; Schoof, Valérie A M; Fedigan, Linda

    2008-05-01

    We report on the responses of Cebus capucinus in the Santa Rosa Sector of the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica, to the presence of observers over a 4-week period. Study groups were habituated to different degrees: (1) Cerco de Piedra (CP): continuous observations began in 1984; (2) Exclosure (EX): focus of an 18-month study on males from 1998 to 1999; and (3) NBH: never studied/followed but the group frequently encounters researchers. We collected three types of data: group scans (group state was coded as calm or agitated at observer presence), focal animal data (observer-directed behaviors were recorded), and fecal cortisol levels. The two less-habituated groups (NBH and EX) differed significantly from the habituated group (CP) in their behavioral and cortisol responses, and they showed an increase in habituation over the study period (agitation and cortisol levels both dropped). Individuals in NBH also decreased their responses to observers during focal follows; however, at the end of the study the responses of the two less-habituated groups (NBH and EX) remained elevated in comparison to the habituated group (CP), suggesting the need for further habituation. Unlike capuchin groups that rarely encounter humans, NBH and EX never fled from observers and they rarely emitted observer-directed alarm calls. We suggest that the permanence of habituation and the ability to habituate animals passively through a neutral human presence are both important considerations for researchers conducting studies in areas where animal safety from poachers, etc. cannot be guaranteed. PMID:18076061

  17. Carcinoma mamário pouco diferenciado em macaco-prego, Cebus sp. (Cebidae

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    Liane Ziliotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As neoplasias mamárias são raras em primatas não humanos, enquanto que nas mulheres apresentam alta incidência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência e os resultados do tratamento de um Cebus sp. (fam. Cebidae fêmea, com carcinoma mamário pouco diferenciado encaminhado ao Serviço de Atendimento de Animais Selvagens da Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste. À inspeção o animal apresentava aumento de volume em região mamária direita e ao exame radiográfico foram observados três pontos de radiopacidade, característicos de projétil balístico de arma de pressão, com um deles alojado ao centro da massa de tecido mamário Após estabilização, a paciente foi submetida à exérese cirúrgica de aumento de volume e o material foi encaminhado para análise histopatológica. O diagnóstico obtido foi de carcinoma de alto grau, compatível com carcinoma adenoescamoso. Após a retirada dos pontos a paciente foi encaminhada ao convívio de outros animais. Mais de 20 meses após a terapia cirúrgica não há sinais de recidiva. A paciente alimenta-se bem, convive normalmente com o grupo, sugerindo que a terapia adotada foi eficiente até o momento em alcançar qualidade de vida e aumento de sobrevida do animal.

  18. Comparative anatomy of the thigh nerves of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000

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    R.A.G.M.F. Aversi-Ferreira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-human primates have constituted an important group among animals subjected to various studies. Ethological, evolutionary and paleontological studies have revealed changes in anatomical structures linked to the evolution of primates, considered in studies on the comparative anatomy between Cebus libidinosus and other neotropical monkeys or those from the Old World, and the detailed knowledge on their anatomy may represent an important factor for their preservation and protection when the animals are brought to veterinary clinics after accidents or illnesses. In terms of veterinary importance, sometimes these animals arrive in the veterinary medical clinics after accidents, needing surgery or clinical treatment, but the little data available on anatomy has impaired the correct proceedings. The main justification for studies on C. libidinosus, is due to little information about the anatomy related to C. libidinosus in Brazilian and worldwide scientific literature. In this study, the distribution, enervation and path of the femoral and sciatic nerves of the pelvic limb (thigh of C. libidinosus were studied and these results were compared with literature on the anatomy of humans, chimpanzees and baboons. In general, the enervation model of the four primates is identical, but in specific terms, the differences in enervations indicate evolution convergence closer to the branch of baboons in the evolutionary tree, and these data corroborate other comparative studies in relation to the same primates to vessels, muscles and nerves. In conclusion, the nerve organization in the thigh of C. libidinosus is identical to baboon, chimpanzee and homo, but more similar to baboon. The specific differences found indicate an ancient phylogenic origin to C. libidinosus and baboons (data corroborated by other studies.

  19. Comparative anatomical study of the leg's nerves of Cebus (barbed capuchins with baboons, chimpanzees and modern humans Estudo anatômico comparativo dos nervos da perna de Cebus (macaco-prego com babuínos, chimpanzés e humanos modernos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá de Abreu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical comparative studies among the primates are important for the investigation of ethology, evolution, taxonomy, and comprehension of tools by hominoids. Especially the anatomical knowledge of Cebus contributes to conservation of the species, and to development of surgical procedures and clinical treatments of these animals, as they frequently are victims of automobile accidents. Recent anatomical studies came to a wrong conclusion regarding behavioral traits of Cebus, ascribed to few data available in previous literature. Therefore, to provide anatomical data and to support the other sciences related to anatomy, and to develop surgical and/or clinical procedures, we described the nerves of the legs of Cebus foccusing on their position and trajectory, as wll as innerved muscles, and compared these results with those of humans and other primates. Eight adult capuchin specimens were used for this study. The anatomical comparative study of the leg's nerves of Cebus demonstrated that, in general, structural organization of the nerves is similar among the four primates analyzed here (Cebus, chimpanzees, baboons and humans, which might be attributed to the fact that the all four primates have similar body structures. However, nerve trajectory and muscles innervation in Cebus was more similar to baboons.Os estudos anatômicos comparativos entre os primatas são importantes para pesquisas associadas com a etologia, evolução, taxonomia e compreensão dos usos de ferramentas pelos hominídeos. Especificamente, o conhecimento anatômico sobre Cebus contribui para sua própria conservação e para o desenvolvimento de procedimentos cirúrgicos e tratamentos clínicos destes animais, pois são frequentemente vítimas de acidentes automobilísticos. Recentemente, estudos sobre características comportamentais de Cebus indicaram conclusões erradas sobre sua anatomia, o que pode ser atribuído aos poucos dados disponíveis sobre a anatomia desses

  20. Attempted eradication of Porphyrio porphyrio Linnaeus in the Florida Everglades

    OpenAIRE

    Dave EGGEMAN; Marsha WARD; Ellen DONLAN; Scott HARDIN

    2011-01-01

    Porphyrio porphyrio (Fulica porphyrio Linnaeus) was reported to the South Florida Water Management District in a Water Conservation Area and in constructed wetlands in the Everglades in 2006. A rapid assessment, including casual observations and surveys of land managers, indicated a limited number of P. porphyrio (~300 birds) was present, and an eradication attempt was initiated. From 2006 – 2008, more than 3100 P. porphyrio were killed by shotgun from airboats during 73 hunts, suggesting the...

  1. Morfologia externa dos imaturos de Caligo teucer (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae External morphology of the immatures of Caligo teucer (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuda A. de Souza

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve os imaturos de Caligo teucer (Linnaeus, 1758. O material criado é proveniente do nordeste do Brasil. As larvas se alimentam de folhas de bananeira Musa spp. (Musaceae, Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae, Canna indica (Cannaceae e Alpinia purpurata (Zingiberaceae.This paper describes the immatures of Caligo teucer teucer (Linnaeus,1758, from material reared in northeast Brazil. The larva feed on leaves of Musa spp. (Musaceae, Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae, Canna indica (Cannaceae and Alpinia purpurata (Zingiberaceae.

  2. Morfologia externa dos imaturos de Caligo teucer (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) External morphology of the immatures of Caligo teucer (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Neuda A. de Souza; Antônio F. S. L. Veiga; Casagrande, Mirna M; Manoel G. C. Gondim Jr

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho descreve os imaturos de Caligo teucer (Linnaeus, 1758). O material criado é proveniente do nordeste do Brasil. As larvas se alimentam de folhas de bananeira Musa spp. (Musaceae), Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae), Canna indica (Cannaceae) e Alpinia purpurata (Zingiberaceae).This paper describes the immatures of Caligo teucer teucer (Linnaeus,1758), from material reared in northeast Brazil. The larva feed on leaves of Musa spp. (Musaceae), Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae), Canna ind...

  3. Ledra aurita (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hem., Cicadellidae) rediscovered in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The remarkable leafhopper Ledra aurita (Linnaeus, 1758) has been rediscovered in Norway. Three specimens were captured at light at Ø, Hvaler: Asmaløy (EIS 12) in July-Aug. 1995. An unpublished record from AK, Frogn: Drøbak (EIS 28) from August 1949 is also presented. In Norway the species has previously only been recorded from Ø, Hvaler: Kirkøen (EIS 20) in last century and again in 1915. Biology and distribution are briefly discussed. Due to the sparse and local distribution in Norway, the s...

  4. Manejo de primates en cautiverio: interpretación de marcadores etológicos de adaptación en Cebus libidinosus juveniles Management of Captive Primates: Ethological Bookmarks in Cebus libidinosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M Giudice

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los primates mantenidos en cautiverio, evidencian la necesidad de estimular su comportamiento natural y de promover su bienestar. Esta contribución describe los cambios en los marcadores etológicos en Cebus libidinosus (CLI juveniles (1 macho y 2 hembras mantenidos en cautiverio (ECAS, Berazategui, Argentina, bajo dos condiciones de alojamiento. Se utilizó el muestreo de barrido. Se evaluó la conducta "locomoción estereotipada". El tiempo total de observación fue de 290 horas. El nivel de locomoción estereotipada descendió y la jeraquía social se modifico. CLI mantenidos en cautiverio muestran: incremento en el comportamiento de interacción ambiente físico-social luego del cambio de recinto y la frecuencia de locomoción estereotipada se relacionó con las tareas de mantenimiento. Debido a la condición social de las especies de primates, el mantener grupos sociales formados según su estructura social en vida libre, resulta en un aumento de bienestar mayor que cambios en las condiciones físicas del alojamiento.The primates maintained in captivity, highlight the need to encourage their natural behavior and promote their welfare. In this paper we describe the changes in the ethological markers in Cebus libidinosus (CLI juvenile (1 male and 2 females kept in captivity (ECAS, Berazategui, Argentine, under two housing conditions. We used scan sampling. We evaluated the behavior "stereotyped locomotion". The total observing time was 290 hours. Stereotyped locomotion level decrease and the social hierarchy was modified. CLI maintained in captivity shows: an increase in the behavior of the physical environment and social interaction after the change of enclosure and frequency of stereotyped locomotion was associated with maintenance. Because the social status of the species of primates, maintaining in groups formed according to their social structure in the wild, resulting in a greater welfare benefit that changes in the physical conditions

  5. First record of Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae is recorded for the first time in Brazil (Bahia. It was originally described from Europe and is currently widely distributed in that continent and Asia.

  6. Evidence of Sperm Storage in Nursehound (Scyliorhinus stellaris, Linnaeus 1758): Juveniles Husbandry and Tagging Program

    OpenAIRE

    Micarelli, Primo; Sperone, Emilio; Serena, Fabrizio; Compagno, Leonard J. V.

    2016-01-01

    Nursehound, Scyliorhinus stellaris (Linnaeus 1758), is a shark of the Scyliorhinidae family, close to the Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus 1758), frequently hosted in public aquaria. Information on biology and ecology is deficiently available regarding this species of sharks. In the Mediterranean basin, they are occasional rare and vulnerable species (Serena, 2005). In 2003 a female specimen of Scyliorhinus stellaris, 90 cm long, fished in the Tyrrhenian Sea was transferred to Tuscany Argentar...

  7. Evaluación del impacto de la caza en mamíferos de la cuenca del río Alto Itaya, Amazonía peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Aquino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se informa sobre la abundancia, presión de caza y el impacto de la caza en mamíferos que habitan los bosques de la cuenca del río Alto Itaya. La información procede de censos por transectos y registros de caza llevados a cabo en seis comunidades. Entre los mamíferos de caza, el choro (Lagothrix poeppigii Schinz fue el más abundante con 15,4 individuos/km², mientras que el mono aullador (Alouatta seniculus Linnaeus y el venado colorado (Mazama americana Erxleben fueron los menos abundantes con 0,15 individuos/km² y 0,5 individuos/ km2, respectivamente. Por otro lado, del área fueron cosechados un promedio anual de 1176 mamíferos, equivalente a 14184,6 kg. Finalmente, el modelo de cosecha sugiere sobrecaza del tapir (Tapirus terrestris Linnaeus, huangana (Tayassu pecari Link, choro (L. poeppigii, mono aullador (A. seniculus y machín negro (Cebus apella Linnaeus, cuyas cosechas en algunos casos alcanzaron el 100% de la producción anual.

  8. Attempted eradication of Porphyrio porphyrio Linnaeus in the Florida Everglades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave EGGEMAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrio porphyrio (Fulica porphyrio Linnaeus was reported to the South Florida Water Management District in a Water Conservation Area and in constructed wetlands in the Everglades in 2006. A rapid assessment, including casual observations and surveys of land managers, indicated a limited number of P. porphyrio (~300 birds was present, and an eradication attempt was initiated. From 2006 – 2008, more than 3100 P. porphyrio were killed by shotgun from airboats during 73 hunts, suggesting the initial population assessment was severely underestimated. After removing nearly 1500 P. porphyrio in 2008, we concluded that eradication was not possible. Failure of this eradication attempt is attributed to P. porphyrio’s affinity with dense emergent vegetation, which greatly limited shooting effectiveness. Further, the failed eradication underscores the importance of a reporting network to improve early detection and the chance to eliminate naturalized or feral populations of non‐native species.

  9. Linnaeus' study of Swedish swidden cultivation: Pioneering ethnographic work on the 'economy of nature'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    Carl Linnaeus' work on the 'economy of nature' was a major early development in what became the modern field of ecology. This analysis suggests that a key subject of this work that has been ignored or misunderstood for 250 years is the rural livelihoods, especially swidden (or slash-and-burn) agriculture, which Linnaeus studied during his expeditions through rural Sweden. Rereading his reports in the light of modern work on swiddens, political ecology, and the history of science affords a new appreciation of Linnaeus' insights into traditional systems of resource exploitation. The logic of nutrient cycling in swidden agriculture and its utilization of natural dynamics to serve human ends exemplify the principles of the 'economy of nature', and gave Linnaeus a philosophical basis for understanding and defending this system of agriculture as well as other rural resource use systems in Sweden. This analysis sheds new light on Linnaeus' ethnographic work, his view of folk environmental knowledge, and his often derided identification with Sweden's ethnic peoples. PMID:25155194

  10. Ecotourism and primate habituation: Behavioral variation in two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Shasta E; McCoy, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    The increase of ecotourism operations within Costa Rica during the last 20 yrs has brought more and more humans into close, direct contact with several wildlife species. One of these species is the white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinos), highly gregarious, and with exposure over time, willing to come into close vicinity of humans and their developments. Such contact has its advantages and disadvantages for the ecotourism industry. We observed white-faced monkeys in order to assess the impact of human presence and development on monkey behavior, with a focus on aggressive, affiliative, and foraging behaviors in Curú Wildlife Refuge (CWR), located in Puntarenas, Costa Rica, and to ascertain the degree of over-habituation of capuchin popula- tions at CWR. Though there exists no discrete behavioral parameters that measure over-habituation, it can be defined as an extreme state of habituation in which non-human primates not only lose fear of humans, but also actively include humans in social interactions or treat them as a food resource. We used instantaneous focal animal and group scan sampling during 8 wks in March and April 2012. Two groups (approximately 20-30 individuals each) of capuchins were observed; the first near the tourist development at the Southwestern area of CWR, representing a habituated population that regularly foraged, rested, and groomed in the presence of humans. The second, was observed in the Northeastern area of CWR, did not visit the center of human activity and exhibited fear of humans. The habituated group exhibited significantly fewer instances of threatened behavior in response to human presence (p ecotourism, increases. Over-habituation is a problem that affects capuchins in certain ecotourism sites in Costa Rica. It is critical that the consequences of habituation be studied more carefully, primarily in areas where ecotourism operations draw visitors to wildlife habitats.

  11. Effects of Fragment and Vegetation Structure on the Population Abundance of Ateles hybridus, Alouatta seniculus and Cebus albifrons in Magdalena Valley, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Christopher; Link, Andres; King-Bailey, Gillian; Donati, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Many primate species currently subsist in fragmented and anthropogenically disturbed habitats. Different threats arise depending on the species' life history strategy, dietary requirements and habitat preference. Additionally, anthropogenic disturbance is far from uniform and may affect individual forest fragments in a single landscape in differing ways. We studied the effects of fragmentation on three species of diurnal primate, Cebus albifrons, Alouatta seniculus and Ateles hybridus, in Magdalena Valley, Colombia. We tested the assumption that generalist species are more resilient than specialist species to habitat degradation by examining the fragments' vegetation and spatial structure and how these affected primate presence and abundance patterns. We found C. albifrons, a generalist, to be the most abundant species in 9 of 10 forest fragments, regardless of the level of habitat disturbance. A. hybridus, a large-bodied primate with a specialist diet, was either absent or low in abundance in fragments that had experienced recent disturbances and was found only in higher-quality fragments, regardless of the fragment size. A. seniculus, a species considered to have a highly flexible diet and the ability to survive in degraded habitat, was found in intermediate abundances between those of Cebus spp. and Ateles spp., and was more frequently found in high-quality fragments. PMID:27093602

  12. Evaluation of hematological profile, biochemical and peripheral blood smear with a view to the health profile in primates of the Cebus genre maintained in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baruc Cruvinel Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-human primates serve as a model for studies on the dynamics of transmission routes and natural history of diseases shared between humans and animals. The captive environment is conducive the dissemination of zoonotic diseases. Many of these animals do not present clinical symptomatology, even when infected, which characterize them as an important source of infection for domestic animals and man. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sanity of non-human primates kept in captivity through hematological and biochemical analysis as well as peripheral blood smear, aiming to investigate the presence of zoonotic pathogens, serving as a model for future studies on the dynamics of routes of transmission of diseases shared between humans and animals. Were collected samples of blood from 15 nail monkeys (Cebus sp., adults, clinically healthy and belonging to Park Zoobotanic of Teresina. Were stained smear sanguine blades and obtained the haematological and biochemical profiles of each animal. The data analysis was based on basic statistics. Did not observed any haemoparasite present in peripheral blood. All animals were anemic, 46,7% thrombopenics and 87% of the animals showed some type of pathological process of chronic evolution, due to the high rate of monocytes found. All animals showed high rates of alkaline phosphatase, and transaminases AST and ALT, indicating injury of the hepatic parenchyma. New studies should be conducted to better elucidate of results, seeing that biochemical physiological data primate of the genus Cebus are scarce in literature.

  13. Ecotourism and primate habituation: Behavioral variation in two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Shasta E; McCoy, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    The increase of ecotourism operations within Costa Rica during the last 20 yrs has brought more and more humans into close, direct contact with several wildlife species. One of these species is the white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinos), highly gregarious, and with exposure over time, willing to come into close vicinity of humans and their developments. Such contact has its advantages and disadvantages for the ecotourism industry. We observed white-faced monkeys in order to assess the impact of human presence and development on monkey behavior, with a focus on aggressive, affiliative, and foraging behaviors in Curú Wildlife Refuge (CWR), located in Puntarenas, Costa Rica, and to ascertain the degree of over-habituation of capuchin popula- tions at CWR. Though there exists no discrete behavioral parameters that measure over-habituation, it can be defined as an extreme state of habituation in which non-human primates not only lose fear of humans, but also actively include humans in social interactions or treat them as a food resource. We used instantaneous focal animal and group scan sampling during 8 wks in March and April 2012. Two groups (approximately 20-30 individuals each) of capuchins were observed; the first near the tourist development at the Southwestern area of CWR, representing a habituated population that regularly foraged, rested, and groomed in the presence of humans. The second, was observed in the Northeastern area of CWR, did not visit the center of human activity and exhibited fear of humans. The habituated group exhibited significantly fewer instances of threatened behavior in response to human presence (p < 0.0001) than the non-habituated group, and spent significantly more time eating and foraging (p < 0.0001). While the habituated monkeys at CWR may not be over-habituated, they could become that way as development, especially ecotourism, increases. Over-habituation is a problem that affects capuchins in certain ecotourism sites in Costa Rica

  14. Antischistosomal activity of acridanone- hydrazones in Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with the SJ strain of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four compounds were utilized at the dose of 12.5mg/kg body weight, p.o., to treat Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with about 200 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (SJ strain, via transcutaneous route. The oograms performed with rectal snips, as well as stool examinations carried out periodically, showed no viable eggs of the parasite, from day 29 to 226post-treatment. The perfusion undertaken after killing the animals showed absence of worms in the treated monkeys, whereas 83 worms were recovered from the control, thus corroborating the results obtained by means of oograms and coproscopy. These results confirm the efficacy of 9-acridanone- hydrazones previously tested against the LE strain of S. mansoni. The low curative dose and apparent absence of toxicity render these dmgs an important therapeutic reserve, taking into consideration the reports on the resistance of S. mansoni to the modern drugs oxamniquine and praziquantel.No presente trabalho, quatro compostos foram utilizados na dose de 12,5mg/kg de peso, por via oral, em macacos infectados transcutaneamente com cerca de 200 cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni. Os oogramas realizados com fragmentos de mucosa retal e os exames de fezes realizados, periodicamente, demonstraram a ausência de ovos viáveis do parasito a partir do 29- até o 226a dia pós-tratamento. A perfusão, apôs sacrifício dos animais tratados, não detectou vermes, enquanto que do macaco cotztrole 83 vermes foram recuperados, confirmando assim os resultados dos oogramas e da coproscopia. Estes resultados confirmam a eficácia das 9-acridanonas- hydrazonas já observada anteriormente contra a cepa LE de S. mansoni. A baixa dosagem curativa e aparente ausência de toxicidade colocam estas drogas como uma reserva terapêutica importante, tendo em vista o relato de resistência do S. mansoni às drogas modernas oxamniquína e praziquantel.

  15. Descripción del sincraneo de Ameiva Ameiva (Linnaeus (Squamata, Teiidae Description of the syncranium of Ameiva Ameiva (Linnaeus (Squamata, Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Tedesco

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available An osteological description of the syncranium and hyoid apparatus of Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758 is presented. By comparison between males and females signiflcant intersexual differences were found in relation to: skull size, frontal, parietal and basisphenoid bones, interpterygoid opening and teeth number and mor-phology. Absence of pterygoid teeth in A. ameiva is verified out. The specimens used for this study carne from Chaco and Formosa provinces (Argentina.

  16. Descripción del sincraneo de Ameiva Ameiva (Linnaeus) (Squamata, Teiidae) Description of the syncranium of Ameiva Ameiva (Linnaeus) (Squamata, Teiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    María Esther Tedesco; Ligia Krause; Blanca Beatríz Alvarez

    1999-01-01

    An osteological description of the syncranium and hyoid apparatus of Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) is presented. By comparison between males and females signiflcant intersexual differences were found in relation to: skull size, frontal, parietal and basisphenoid bones, interpterygoid opening and teeth number and mor-phology. Absence of pterygoid teeth in A. ameiva is verified out. The specimens used for this study carne from Chaco and Formosa provinces (Argentina).

  17. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroz-Romero Héctor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST analysis and RNA interference (RNAi. Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160 were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group, reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations.

  18. Alimentación de mamíferos de caza en los «aguajales» de la Reserva Nacional de Pacaya-Samiria (Iquitos, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Aquino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo contiene información relacionada a los mamíferos de caza que habitan los aguajales de los bosques inundables de la Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria y su interrelación con las plantas alimenticias. Está basado en censos por transectos en aguajales de origen reciente y aguajales semi-eutrofizados. Fueron registrados 24 especies de mamíferos de caza haciendo uso de los aguajales; de ellas, los primates fueron los más representativos y de mayor abundancia en ambos tipos de aguajales. Entre los primates, el fraile (Saimiri boliviensis E. Geoffroy & R. de Blainville y el machín negro (Cebus apella Linnaeus fueron los más abundantes en aguajales de origen reciente (350 individuos/km2 y 90 individuos/km2 , respectivamente, mientras que el machín blanco (Cebus albifrons Humboldt fue el más abundante en aguajales semi-eutrofizados (90 individos/ km2 . En términos de biomasa, los ungulados tuvieron la mayor biomasa y estuvieron representados por el pecarí labiado (Tayassu pecari Link con 825 kg/km2 y el tapir (Tapirus terrestris Linnaeus con 126,6 kg/km2 . Finalmente, en los aguajales fueron registradas 16 especies de plantas alimenticias, la mayoría habitando en los aguajales semi-eutrofizados; de ellas, el aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L.f., la shapaja (Scheelea cephalotes Poepp. Ex Mart y los renacos (Ficus spp., constituyeron los recursos alimenticios más importantes, de cuyos frutos y semillas se alimentaron alrededor de 14 especies de mamíferos de caza.

  19. Morfologia radicular da dentição permanente de Sapajus apella: morfometria, anatomia macroscópica, ultraestrutura e propriedades físicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanna Melo Pereira Fernandes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi contribuir com o estudo anatômico, morfométrico, ultraestrutural e propriedades físicas dos dentes permanentes do primata Sapajus apella. Para tal, foram utilizados 10 animais adultos e machos. Os dentes foram avaliados quanto ao seu comprimento e quanto à anatomia radicular externa e interna considerando número de raízes e canais, forma e direção radicular e forma do canal, assim como análise da densidade e diâmetro tubular do canal radicular, composição e microdureza dentinária. A anatomia radicular desse primata apresentou especificidades, como o número de raízes do segundo pré-molar superior e a presença do terceiro pré-molar. Quanto à densidade e o diâmetro dos túbulos dentinários, observou-se uma diminuição do número e diâmetro de túbulos ao longo do canal radicular, havendo diferença estatisticamente significante ao se comparar o terço apical com as regiões cervical e média, padrão de densidade e tamanho semelhantes a dentes humanos. Semelhanças também foram encontradas com dentes humanos quando comparados os valores de microdureza e proporção de elementos químicos encontrados na dentina radicular.

  20. Analysis on Nutrient Compositions and Nutritional Quality of Lota lota( Linnaeus) Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Gefeng; Wang; Yuyu; Bai; Qingli; Li; Xiaolong; Jia; Zhonghe

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the nutritional quality of Lota lota(Linnaeus) muscle,the common nutrient components,amino acid composition and fatty acid composition in muscle of wild Lota lota(captured in Hailang reaches of Mudan River) were determined by routine methods. The results showed that the contents of moisture,crude protein,crude fat and ash were 81. 82%,15. 93%,0. 44% and 1. 06% in fresh muscle of Lota lota,respectively. Totally 17 amino acids,including seven kinds of essential amino acids(EAA),were detected in dry muscle of Lota lota(Linnaeus),accounting for 72. 43% of total dry muscle. The content of EAA was 29. 82%,accounting for 41. 17% of TAA,meeting the amino acid composition of high-quality protein standard required by Food and Agriculture Organization /Word Health Organization(FAO /WHO). There were four delicious amino acids(DAA) in dry muscle,accounting for 28. 34% of total dry weight.The percentage of DAA to TAA was 39. 13% in dry muscle. The contents of C20:5n- 3(EPA) and C22:6n- 3(DHA) in dry muscle were 8. 65% and 20. 32%respectively,which were significantly higher than that of the artificially cultured fish species,such as Oxyeleotris marmorata(EPA:2. 24%,DHA:4. 74%),Spinibarbus sinensis(EPA:0. 87%,DHA:3. 08%) and Glossogobius giuris(EPA: 3. 94%,DHA: 8. 10%). Based on the amino acids score(AAS) and chemical score(CS),the first limited amino acid in Lota lota(Linnaeus) was sulfur-containing amino acid(methionine + cysteine). The essential amino acids index(EAAI) of Lota lota(Linnaeus) was 62.58. It is concluded that Lota lota(Linnaeus) is abundant in amino acids and high-unsaturated fatty acids,and rational in composition of amino acids. Thus,Lota lota(Linnaeus) is a high quality freshwater fish with high nutritional value and health value,possessing good exploitation and utilization prospects.

  1. Karyological studies in ten species of Citrus (Linnaeus, 1753 (Rutaceae of North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlykynti Hynniewta

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Ten Citrus (Linnaeus, 1753 species of North-East India have been karyo-morphologically analysed. All studied species had 2n=18 chromosomes without any evidence of numerical variation. All the chromosomes were found to be of metacentric and sub-metacentric in all the species; the morphology of the chromosomes showing size difference only. Symmetrical karyotype which does not have much difference in the ratio of longest to shortest chromosome in all the species was observed. Three species, C. grandis (Osbeck, 1757, C. reticulata (Blanco, 1837 and C. medica (Linnaeus, 1753 are identified as true basic species from asymmetry studies of karyotypes as they reflect on the primitive nature of their genomes. C. indica (Tanaka, 1937 occupies a special taxonomic position within the genus Citrus as a progenitor for other cultivated species

  2. The mortality of Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae induced by powdered plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłyś Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether powdered plants of different species namely: peppermint Mentha piperita (L. (Lamiaceae, wormwood Artemisia absinthium (L. (Asteraceae, common sage Salvia officinalis (L. (Lamiaceae, allspice Pimenta dioica (Linnaeus et Merrill (Myrtaceae and common garlic Allium sativum (L. (Amaryllidaceae, added to semolina using concentrations of 1.23, 3.61, and 5.88%, influence the mortality rate in the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory at 28°C and relative humidity 60±5%. At the concentration of 1.23%, allspice seeds caused the highest mortality amongst the saw-toothed grain beetle. When concentrations of 3.61 and 5.88% were used, sage, peppermint and wormwood caused the highest statistically significant mortality of O. surinamensis

  3. Linnaeus' restless system: translation as textual engineering in eighteenth-century botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    In this essay, translations of Linnaeus' Systema naturae into various European languages will be placed into the context of successively expanded editions of Linnaeus' writings. The ambition and intention of most translators was not only to make the Systema naturae accessible for practical botanical use by a wider readership, but also to supplement and correct it, and thus to shape it. By recruiting more users, translations made a significant contribution to keeping the Systema up to date and thus maintaining its practical value for decades. The need to incorporate countless additions and corrections into an existing text, to document their provenance, to identify inconsistencies, and to refer to relevant observations, descriptions, and illustrations in the botanical literature all helped to develop and refine techniques of textual montage. This form of textual engineering, becoming increasingly complex with each translation cycle, shaped the external appearance of new editions of the Systema, and reflected the modular architecture of a botanical system designed for expansion. PMID:27391666

  4. An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Salinas-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758 were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864 near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest.

  5. Extract of Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus induces angiogenesis in vitro and activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Wei, Jianteng; Wang, Hui; Ding, Lili; Zhang, Yuyan; Lin, Xiukun

    2012-09-01

    Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus has long been used as traditional Chinese medicine in oriental medicine. The angiogentic activity of the extract of M. meretrix was investigated in this study, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Extract of M. meretrix Linnaeus (AFG-25) was prepared with acetone and ethanol precipitation, and further separated by Sephadex G-25 column. The results show that AFG-25 promoted proliferation, migration, and capillary-like tube formation in HUVECs, and in the presence of eNOS inhibitor NMA, the tube formation induced by AFG-25 is inhibited significantly. Moreover, AFG-25 could also promote the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the resultant elevation of nitric oxide (NO) production. The results suggested that M. meretrix contains active ingredients with angiogentic activity and eNOS/NO signal pathway is in part involved in the proangiogenesis effect induced by AFG-25.

  6. Four cases of pediculosis caused by Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) from peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakeer, O; Jeffery, J; Mohamed, A M; Ahmad, F; Baharudin, O

    2007-12-01

    Four cases of pediculosis, two in adults and two in children, caused by the crab-louse, Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) is reported from peninsular Malaysia. This is the second report of the problem to be documented from the country. Although P. pubis is closely associated with genital hairs, it is, however, also found to occur on the eyelashes, eyebrows, hairs of the body, head and axilla. The few reported cases of pthiriasis probably do not reflect the true situation.

  7. Progress of Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du; Zhengcai; Hou; Xiaotao; Huang; Qing; Deng; Jiagang; Fanshi; Fangcao

    2014-01-01

    Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus is a traditional marine drug. There are more than two thousand years of history using clamshell as a component of medicine.After a review of relevant literature at home and abroad for nearly 20 years,the author summarized chemical composition and pharmacological effects of M. meretrix,in order to provide a scientific basis for further development and utilization of M. meretrix.

  8. Grammoplites vittatus (Valenciennes), (Scorpaeniformes, Platycephalidae), removed from synonymy with Grammoplites scaber (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Leslie W; Imamura, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Grammoplites vittatus (Valenciennes), often previously overlooked by authors or regarded as a junior synonym of G. scaber (Linnaeus), is shown here to be a valid species.  It has more gill rakers (7-8) then G. scaber and G. knappi (usually 6) and a narrower interorbital width than G. scaber.  A key to the species of Grammoplites Fowler is  given.  PMID:25112262

  9. Scale insect species names combined with the genus name Chermes Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D J

    2015-01-01

    Species names in the scale insects that have been combined with the genus name Chermes Linnaeus, 1758, are listed. This list supplements a list published already for the Sternorrhyncha but that was restricted to names of species that had been described originally in the genus. The present list includes, in addition, all species names in the scale insects that have been combined with the name Chermes. 

  10. Identification of lysozyme activity from two edible bivalves - Perna viridis (Linnaeus) and Meretrix casta (Chemnitz)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, S.; Tanu; Chatterji, A.

    Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 32(1): 85 - 90 (2009) ISSN: 1511-3701 ©Universiti Putra Malaysia Press Received: 20 May 2008 Accepted: 8 October 2008 * Corresponding Author Identification of Lysozyme Activity from Two Edible Bivalves - Perna viridis... (Linnaeus) and Meretrix casta (Chemnitz) Sumita Sharma 1* , Tanu 2 and Anil Chatterji 3 1 National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India 2 Banasthali Universiti, Rajasthan 3 Institute of Tropical Aquaculture, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu...

  11. New records of Piscicola geometra (Linnaeus 1758 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae in Ebro River Basin (N Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscoz, J., Tomás, P., Durán, C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This note represents a contribution to the knowledge of the presence of the fish leech Piscicola geometra (Linnaeus 1758 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae in the Ebro River Basin. This species was collected in two rivers in the Ebro River Basin. Although this species has been reported from the Iberian Peninsula, these records are scarce and, to the author’s best knowledge, this study presents the first record of Piscicola geometra in the Ebro River Basin.

  12. Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823) e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823) and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Isai Jorge de Castro; Claudia Regina Silva; Arley José Silveira Da Costa; Ana Carolina Moreira Martins

    2011-01-01

    Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae). Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chiroptera, Phy...

  13. Contribution to the knowledge of Leucosiidae I. The identity of Leucosia craniolaris (Linnaeus, 1758), and redefinition of the genus Leucosia Weber, 1795 (Crustacea: Brachyura)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galil, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    A study of the genus Leucosia Weber, 1795, led to the establishment of the identity of the type species, L. craniolaris (Linnaeus, 1758), designation of a neotype and redefinition of the genus. Leucosia is now restricted to 4 species: the type species L. craniolaris (Linnaeus, 1758), L. punctata Bel

  14. Validity of animal models for the cholesterol-raising effects of coffee diterpenes in human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, de, B.; Sawyer, J K; Katan, M.B.; Rudel, L L

    1999-01-01

    Cafestol and kahweol, coffee lipids present in unfiltered coffee brews, potently increase LDL-cholesterol concentration in human subjects. We searched for an animal species in which cafestol similarly increases LDL-cholesterol. Such an animal model could be used subsequently as a model to study the mechanism of action of cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol increased serum lipids in African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), cebus (Cebus apella) and rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys,...

  15. Behavioural Repertoires and Time Budgets of Semi-Free-Ranging and Captive Groups of Wedge-Capped Capuchin Monkeys, Cebus olivaceus, in Zoo Exhibits in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárano, Zaida; López, Marie Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The behavioural repertoires and time budgets of 2 captive groups and 1 semi-free-ranging group of Cebus olivaceus were determined with the aim to assess the impact of the zoo environment on behaviour. The repertoires were qualitatively similar between groups and to those reported for wild troops, but the captive groups showed self-directed and stereotyped behaviours not reported in the wild. The differences in repertoires between groups were easily associated with the opportunity to interact directly with the visitors, with particularities of the enclosure and with the severity of confinement. Overall, females spent more time foraging than males in the 2 captive groups, and adults rested and watched more than subadults in all the groups. Time budgets were dominated by foraging, resting, movement and affiliative interactions, but their relative importance varied between groups, with foraging being especially prominent in the most confined group. The time budgets also varied qualitatively from those reported for wild troops. We conclude the species is behaviourally able to adjust to captivity, but the slight differences along the continuum from wild to semi-free to captive are suggestive of mild stress or social tension probably due to unstimulating environmental conditions, high visitor pressure and deviations from typical sex-age group composition.

  16. Comparative Anatomy of the Hind Limb Vessels of the Bearded Capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus with Apes, Baboons, and Cebus capucinus: With Comments on the Vessels' Role in Bipedalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capuchin monkeys are known to exhibit sporadic bipedalism while performing specific tasks, such as cracking nuts. The bipedal posture and locomotion cause an increase in the metabolic cost and therefore increased blood supply to lower limbs is necessary. Here, we present a detailed anatomical description of the capuchin arteries and veins of the pelvic limb of Sapajus libidinosus in comparison with other primates. The arterial pattern of the bearded capuchin hind limb is more similar to other quadrupedal Cebus species. Similarities were also found to the pattern observed in the quadruped Papio, which is probably due to a comparable pelvis and the presence of the tail. Sapajus' traits show fewer similarities when compared to great apes and modern humans. Moreover, the bearded capuchin showed unique patterns for the femoral and the short saphenous veins. Although this species switches easily from quadrupedal to bipedal postures, our results indicate that the bearded capuchin has no specific or differential features that support extended bipedal posture and locomotion. Thus, the explanation for the behavioral differences found among capuchin genera probably includes other aspects of their physiology.

  17. Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Bionomics aspects of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana de Oliveira Torres

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos bionômicos da vespa social Neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar alguns aspectos bionômicos da vespa social neotropical Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758. Vinte e seis colônias foram acompanhadas entre abril de 2004 e julho de 2006, no município de Mundo Novo, estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Os resultados encontrados nesse estudo sugerem que o padrão fenológico de Polistes canadensis canadensis é assincrônico nessa região, com fundações e abandonos podendo ocorrer o ano todo. A duração média dos estágios imaturos foi diferente entre as estações climáticas fria-seca e úmida-quente. Diferentes substratos foram escolhidos para nidificação, contudo em ambientes que forneceram condições físicas mais homogêneas durante o dia foram encontradas as maiores freqüências de sucesso. Colônias nessa espécie são fundadas por haplometrose ou pleometrose, no entanto, o sucesso tem sido maior para colônias pleometróticas.Certain aspects of the bionomics of the Neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied. Twenty-six colonies were observed from April 2004 through July 2006, in the municipal district of Mundo Novo, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central-Brazil. The results suggest that the colony phenological pattern of this species is asynchronous, and colonies may be founded or abandoned at any time of the year. The mean duration of the immature stages differed between the cold-dry and warm-rainy seasons. Colonies were founded on several different kinds of substrates, but were more successful in environments that provided more-homogeneous physical conditions during the day. Colonies in this species are founded by haplometrosis or pleometrosis, and pleometrotic colonies were more successful.

  18. Biologia reprodutiva da cobra-coral Erythrolamprus aesculapii Linnaeus (Colubridae, no Sudeste do Brasil Reproductive biology of the coral snake Erythrolamprus aesculapii Linnaeus (Colubridae in the Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio A.V. Marques

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissection of 286 specimens of the "false" coral snake Erythrolamprus aesculapii Linnaeus, 1766, combined with data on captive individuais, provided information on the reproductive biology of this colubrid snake. Adult females (x snout-vent length = 74.5cm attain larger body size than males (x SVL = 62.6. Clutch size ranged from one to eight eggs and was correlated with maternal body size. Neonates measured 20.2-22.5cm SVL and weighed 5.1-5.8g. Males attain sexual maturity earlier than females. Reproduction seems to be aseasonal, with vitellogenesis occurring throughout the year. Apparently the growth rate of folheies decreases in the dry season, possibly due to lower tempeiatures during this period. Multiple clutches were recorded in captive snakes. Foraging strategies and availability of prey may explain continuous reproduction in E. aesculapii. However, data for other related snakes suggest that continuous reproduction is conservative in the Xenodontini.

  19. Four cases of pediculosis caused by Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) from peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakeer, O; Jeffery, J; Mohamed, A M; Ahmad, F; Baharudin, O

    2007-12-01

    Four cases of pediculosis, two in adults and two in children, caused by the crab-louse, Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) is reported from peninsular Malaysia. This is the second report of the problem to be documented from the country. Although P. pubis is closely associated with genital hairs, it is, however, also found to occur on the eyelashes, eyebrows, hairs of the body, head and axilla. The few reported cases of pthiriasis probably do not reflect the true situation. PMID:18209717

  20. Metabolic costs of avian flight in relation to flight velocity : a study in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, S; Biebach, H; Visser, GH

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic costs of flight at a natural range of speeds were investigated in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus) using doubly labelled water. Eight birds flew repeatedly and unrestrained for bouts of 6 h at speeds from 9 to 14 m s(-1) in a low-turbulence wind tunnel, corresponding

  1. Zur intraspezifischen Lautkommunikation des Russischen Desmans Desmana moschata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Insectivora: Talpidae: Desmaninae) nebst einigen Angaben zu seinem Sozialverhalten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanow, Peter; Poduschka, Walter; Deutsch, Werner

    1996-01-01

    The Russian Desman Desmana moschata (Linnaeus, 1758) is a highly endangered semiaquatic mammal, confined to disjunct areas. Between 1983 and 1992 several specimens were kept and investigated, firstly in the zoological garden of Moscow (4 ♀ ♀, 1 ♂), and afterwards in the field station of the former S

  2. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 7. Black-naped oriole Oriolus chinensis Linnaeus, 1766: some old nomenclatural issues explained

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, E.C.

    2000-01-01

    Any exploration of the development of our knowledge of the distribution and nomenclature of the black-naped oriole produces a bewildering complex of names. It is the more complex because the origin of the specimen named Oriolus chinensis Linnaeus, 1766, was disputed. When it was proposed that the or

  3. THE DETECTION OF Ochetosoma heterocoelium (TRAVASSOS, 1921) (TREMATODA: DIGENEA: OCHETOSOMATIDAE) IN Chironius exoletus (LINNAEUS, 1758) (OPHIDIA: COLUBRIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    R. J. DA SILVA; R.R. Rodrigues; M. F. B. Stein; G. P. M. SIPOLI; R. PINHÃO; C. A. M. LOPES

    1999-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-two specimens of Ochetosoma heterocoelium (Travassos, 1921) (Trematoda: Digenea: Ochetosomatidae) were detected in the mouth and esophagus of the snake Chironius exoletus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Ophidia: Colubridae) at the serpentarium of the Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals (CEVAP) of São Paulo State University (UNESP) in Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

  4. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-03-01

    This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

  5. Evidence of Sperm Storage in Nursehound (Scyliorhinus stellaris, Linnaeus 1758: Juveniles Husbandry and Tagging Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Micarelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nursehound, Scyliorhinus stellaris (Linnaeus 1758, is a shark of the Scyliorhinidae family, close to the Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus 1758, frequently hosted in public aquaria. Information on biology and ecology is deficiently available regarding this species of sharks. In the Mediterranean basin, they are occasional rare and vulnerable species (Serena, 2005. In 2003 a female specimen of Scyliorhinus stellaris, 90 cm long, fished in the Tyrrhenian Sea was transferred to Tuscany Argentario Mediterranean Aquarium and placed in a 20.000 L tank. The female laid 42 eggs and juveniles were born on 2004 and 2005. They were transferred to the aquarium laboratory in order to get standard protocol for correct juveniles husbandry. After a total of 18-month observations, some of them were tagged and let free on 2006. To collect data about nursehound shark needs in terms of feeding and growing in captivity, especially during the first life years, is a necessary and fundamental step in order to develop a Mediterranean program of tagging and study in the field of conservation policy proposal. Husbandry protocol for this species’ juveniles was developed in this study. This is the first reported case of a nursehound storing sperm for 2 years, in captivity (Pratt, 1993; Hamlett et al., 2002; Awruch, 2007.

  6. Determinación de niveles de variabilidad genética y de números efectivos en ocho especies de primates neotropicales en Colombia mediante los microsatélites AP6, AP68, AP40, AP74, D5S111, D5S117, D6S260, D8S165, D14S51, y D17S804

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-García M.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de 8 especies de primates neotropicales directamente muestreados en el campo (Cebus albifrons, Cebus apella, Cebus capucinus, Saimiri sciureus, Aotus nancymae, Alouatta seniculus,
    Ateles fusciceps y Lagothrix lagotricha con 10 marcadores microsatélites reveló una serie de características genético poblacionales de todas ellas. En todas se determinó la posible existencia de equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg, desequilibrio gamético y adicionalmente, se midieron los niveles de diversidad génica (heterocigosis esperada en las 8 especies citadas.

  7. Determinación de niveles de variabilidad genética y de números efectivos en ocho especies de primates neotropicales en Colombia mediante los microsatélites AP6, AP68, AP40, AP74, D5S111, D5S117, D6S260, D8S165, D14S51, y D17S804

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-García M.

    2001-01-01

    El análisis de 8 especies de primates neotropicales directamente muestreados en el campo (Cebus albifrons, Cebus apella, Cebus capucinus, Saimiri sciureus, Aotus nancymae, Alouatta seniculus,
    Ateles fusciceps y Lagothrix lagotricha) con 10 marcadores microsatélites reveló una serie de características genético poblacionales de todas ellas. En todas se determinó la posible existencia de equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg, desequilibrio gamético y adicionalmente, se midieron los niveles de div...

  8. Ocorrência de anticorpos e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Leptospira spp. em Cebus spp. mantidos em cativeiro no Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora R.A. Ferreira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Leptospira e os fatores de risco associados à infecção em primatas do gênero Cebus mantidos em cativeiro no Nordeste do Brasil. Foram analisadas 139 amostras de soro sanguíneo de diferentes espécies de primatas de ambos os sexos e idades variadas. Para a pesquisa de anticorpos empregou-se a técnica de Soroaglutinação Microscópica (SAM e para estudo dos fatores de risco utilizou-se análise multivariada. Foram observados anticorpos anti-Leptospira, sorovar Patoc em 6,5% dos primatas (09/139. O fator de risco identificado nesse estudo foi a não higienização diária de bebedouros (Odds ratio=12,095; IC 95% = 1,73-84,52; p=0,012,. Conclui-se que a população de Cebus mantidos em cativeiros no Nordeste do Brasil está exposta à infecção por anticorpos anti-Leptospira e que medidas corretivas de manejo dos animais, especificamente aquelas relacionadas à higienização diária de bebedouros devem ser implementadas para reduzir o risco de infecção por sorovares de Leptospira spp.

  9. Diversidad y estado de conservación de primates en las Sierras de Contamana, Amazonía peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Aquino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo contiene información del inventario, abundancia y estado de conservación de las especies de primates que habitan en los bosques de las Sierras de Contamana. Hemos registrado 87 grupos correspondientes a 11 especies. De ellas, Saguinus mystax Spix, Ateles chamek Humboldt, Cebus apella Linnaeus y Lagothrix poeppigii Schinz fueron las más avistadas con 14, 13, 13 y 11 grupos, respectivamente. El rango de variación del tamaño de grupo resultaron similares a los registrados para otras áreas, con excepción de A. chamek, cuyos grupos en la mayoría de los casos estuvieron compuestos por más de 16 individuos. En el área de estudio, las poblaciones más abundantes correspondieron al Cacajao calvus ucayalii Thomas (479 individuos/100 km, L. poeppigii (178,5 individuos/100 km y A. chamek (148,2 individuos/100 km. los mayores avistamientos ocurrieron en los bosques de terraza alta (46% y de colina baja (27%, constituyéndose así en los hábitats de mayor uso por los primates. Entre las especies registradas, C. calvus ucayalii y S. mystax aún no están protegidas en ninguna de las actuales áreas naturales protegidas del Perú.

  10. Contribution to the knowledge of Leucosiidae I. The identity of Leucosia craniolaris (Linnaeus, 1758), and redefinition of the genus Leucosia Weber, 1795 (Crustacea: Brachyura)

    OpenAIRE

    Galil, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    A study of the genus Leucosia Weber, 1795, led to the establishment of the identity of the type species, L. craniolaris (Linnaeus, 1758), designation of a neotype and redefinition of the genus. Leucosia is now restricted to 4 species: the type species L. craniolaris (Linnaeus, 1758), L. punctata Bell, 1855, L. moresbiensis Haswell, 1880, and a new species, L. rubripalma. They differ from all other species heretofore assigned to the genus in having first male pleopod with a screw-like tightly ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-1377 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-1377 sp|Q95LF4|DUFFY_CEBAP Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor (CD234 ant...igen) gb|AAL09454.1|AF311919_1 Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Cebus apella] Q95LF4 1e-114 64% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-1526 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-1526 sp|Q95LF4|DUFFY_CEBAP Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor (CD234 ant...igen) gb|AAL09454.1|AF311919_1 Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor [Cebus apella] Q95LF4 1e-131 73% ...

  13. Ontogeny of Foraging Competence in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus capucinus for Easy versus Difficult to Acquire Fruits: A Test of the Needing to Learn Hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Christine Eadie

    Full Text Available Which factors select for long juvenile periods in some species is not well understood. One potential reason to delay the onset of reproduction is slow food acquisition rates, either due to competition (part of the ecological risk avoidance hypothesis, or due to a decreased foraging efficiency (a version of the needing to learn hypothesis. Capuchins provide a useful genus to test the needing to learn hypothesis because they are known for having long juvenile periods and a difficult-to-acquire diet. Generalized, linear, mixed models with data from 609 fruit forage focal follows on 49, habituated, wild Cebus capucinus were used to test two predictions from the needing-to-learn hypothesis as it applies to fruit foraging skills: 1 capuchin monkeys do not achieve adult foraging return rates for difficult-to-acquire fruits before late in the juvenile period; and 2 variance in return rates for these fruits is at least partially associated with differences in foraging skill. In support of the first prediction, adults, compared with all younger age classes, had significantly higher foraging return rates when foraging for fruits that were ranked as difficult-to-acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.30-0.41, p-value range 0.008-0.016, indicating that the individuals in the group who have the most foraging experience also achieve the highest return rates. In contrast, and in support of the second prediction, there were no significant differences between age classes for fruits that were ranked as easy to acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.97-1.42, p-value range 0.086-0.896, indicating that strength and/or skill are likely to affect return rates. In addition, fruits that were difficult to acquire were foraged at nearly identical rates by adult males and significantly smaller (and presumably weaker adult females (males relative to females: 1.01, p = 0.978, while subadult females had much lower foraging efficiency than the similarly-sized but more

  14. Distribution of blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1758 in Trang Province

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    Buncha Somboonsuke

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The fishery of the blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1758 is very important to the economy of small-scale fishermen. Greater knowledge about its distribution could lead to more efficient management. This study was conducted in Trang Province from October 2006 to August 2007 using collapsible crab traps. To reveal the spatial distribution of the species, we analyzed the data using geostatistical methods. The standard interpolate procedure was applied to model the crab distribution. There were clear spatial distribution differences among the small crabs, large crabs and ovigerous females in study area. The mapping showed that small crabs (carapace width 10 cm were farther offshore. Ovigerous females peaked in abundance during 2 periods: March – April and August – September. This information can be used to support decision making concerning the designation of fishing zones and the optimization of the blue swimming crab fishery in the study area.

  15. Helmintofauna of turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) from the southern Baltic Sea including new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, M; Rolbiecki, L

    2015-01-01

    Turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) is a fish belonging to the Pleuronectiformes order. It is commonly observed in waters of the northern Atlantic, and also in the Baltic Sea. As an economically significant species, it is fished on an industrial scale, and also farmed in some European countries. Seventy-two turbots from the Gulf of Gdańsk (26th ICES zone) were examined for parasite presence in the years 2010-2012. The study revealed the presence of the tapeworm Bothriocephalus scorpii (Müller, 1776) and acanthocephalan Corynosoma semerme (Forssell, 1904). The overall (both parasites) prevalence of turbot infection was 100% with a mean intensity of 18.7. C. semerme is a parasite which has not been noted so far in turbot from the southern Baltic. The presence of C. semerme in turbot was emphasized in the context of possible infection of terrestrial mammals, including humans. PMID:26618593

  16. Inhibiting Effects of S.acus Linnaeus Extracts on GLT-82 Tumor Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Hailong S.acus Linnaeus was chosen as the experimental material in the experiments and changes of cell morphology, forming rate of clone and changes of division index were conducted to identify the inhibiting effects of Hailong extract on human tumor cell lines (GLT-82). Four days after medication, most of the cells changed their normal morphology of tumor cells and became round, broken and even broke into pieces. The inhibiting rates could reach 75.1% on the fourth day. The division index reduced strongly and the clone could not form or the forming rate was very low. With the extract concentration increasing and the time prolonging, the inhibiting effect increased. These results indicate that Hailong has striking anti-tumor effects and will have a perfect future in the fields of treatment and prevention of cancer.

  17. The complete mitogenome of blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1766 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xian-Liang; Jia, Fu-Long; Liu, Ping; Li, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1766 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae) was determined in this study. The full length mitogenome is 16 157 bp in size, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region, with the base composition of 33.70% for A, 18.99% for C, 12.22% for G, and 35.09% for T. The gene order of P. pelagicus mainly retains as the pancrustacean ground pattern, except for a single translocation of tRNA(His) gene. The mitogenome data provide a basis for further studies on population genetics and phylogenetics. PMID:26171873

  18. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON CERTAIN BIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF A LADYBEETLE COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTA TA LINNAEUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShefaliSrivastava; Dmkar

    2003-01-01

    Influence of temperature on certain biological attributes of an aphidophagous ladybeetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, feeding on mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), at five different temperatures, viz. 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35℃ was investigated. Its developmental period was shortest (11.7±0.09days) at 35℃ and longest (20.6±0.35 days) at 20℃. Developmental rate increased with increase in temperature. Hatching percent, larval survival, adult emergence and growth index were maximum at 30℃ and minimumat 20℃. Oviposition period and fecundity were highest at 30℃ and lowest at 20℃. A positive linear relationship exists between temperature and developmental rate and negative correlation between the duration of immature life stages and temperature. The proportion of developmental period allocated to each immature stage was found to be similar at each temperature regime. Thus, 30℃ was found as the most suitable for C. septempunctata amongst the five temperatures tested.

  19. Analysis of the blackening of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced weight percentage after sun drying, and the changes in colour and appearance of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries after blanching and sun drying. The results show that the degree of reduced weight percentage and browning in green pepper berries after blanching for 10 min is greater at 100°C than at 90 and 80°C. Moreover, the samples blanched at 100°C for 10 min had the fastest water loss, but the lowest PPO activity. Thus, the PPO enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols might not be the only reason for the browning of green pepper berries. This result is significantly different from that of Variyar, Pendharkar, Banerjeea, and Bandyopadhyay (1988) and therefore deserves further study.

  20. Contribution to the butterfly species of Belasitsa Mountain (SW Bulgaria and second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767 from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuben Domozetski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available At present, according to the literature data for Belasitsa Mountain are published 139 butterfly species. This article contributes to the knowleage of the butterfly fauna of the mountain by adding five more species. With this supplement the number of the butterflies’ fauna of Belasitsa Mountain increase to 144 species. This article also presents information about the second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767 in Bulgaria.

  1. Contribution to the butterfly species of Belasitsa Mountain (SW Bulgaria) and second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767) from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Liuben Domozetski

    2013-01-01

    At present, according to the literature data for Belasitsa Mountain are published 139 butterfly species. This article contributes to the knowleage of the butterfly fauna of the mountain by adding five more species. With this supplement the number of the butterflies’ fauna of Belasitsa Mountain increase to 144 species. This article also presents information about the second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767) in Bulgaria.

  2. Spatial distribution and esterase activity in populations of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) resistant to temephos

    OpenAIRE

    Wanessa Porto Tito Gambarra; Walter Fabrício Silva Martins; Maurício Lilioso de Lucena Filho; Ingredy Meneses Cavalcanti de Albuquerque; Otávia Karla dos Santos Apolinário; Eduardo Barbosa Beserra

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypti collected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba. METHODS: Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a...

  3. Upstream migration, reproduction and fishery of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758) in the River Ulla (NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Silva; Sandra Barca; María José Servia

    2015-01-01

    After a juvenile haematophagous stage developed mainly at sea, the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758 stop feeding and return to the river to spawn. One of the main pressures in this stage is the presence of obstacles that reduce the accessible habitat, the mobility of individuals within this section and the energy resources available for gonad development and spawning. In addition, in the River Ulla, adults are targeted in a commercial fishery, using fyke-nets in the upper estuary...

  4. The Study Progress on Curcuma Linnaeus Plants%姜黄属花卉植物研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雪慧

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing the aspects of resource distribution and types of Curcuma Linnaeus flowers ,its biological characteristics , method of propagation ,and the significance of research ,this paper summarized the research status of Curcuma Linnaeus flow‐ers ,and put forward that the research focus would put on the breeding of new varieties ,cultivation techniques and industriali‐zation of Curcuma Linnaeus flower in the future .%从姜黄属花卉的资源分布与种类、生物学特性、繁殖方法、研究开发意义、研究前景展望等方面总结了姜黄属花卉的研究现状,认为姜黄属花卉将来研究的重点会集中在选育新品种、栽培技术与姜黄属花卉的产业化发展上。

  5. Ontogenia do fruto em desenvolvimento de Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae Ontogeny of fruits of Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Carvalho Harthman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus são espécies invasoras que ocorrem em culturas e terrenos baldios na região de Maringá, Paraná. O trabalho teve por objetivo a análise morfoanatômica dos frutos em desenvolvimento e estruturas não pericárpicas dessas duas espécies, com a finalidade de contribuir com informações estruturais para identificação das espécies, classificação dos frutos e investigações ecológicas. Flores e frutos foram coletados no campus da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, fixados em Glutaraldeído, secionados em micrótomo de rotação e corados com a azul de Toluidina. As bractéolas e perigônio são persistentes nos frutos e têm estrutura diferente nas duas espécies. O aquênio de Alternanthera tenella mantém o mesmo número de estratos celulares que o ovário, que sofrem colapso na fase madura, exceto o mesocarpo interno que se mantém com espessamento parietal em U e cristais. O utrículo de Amaranthus blitum é semelhante ao ovário em número de camadas celulares e apresenta aerênquima quando maduro. As sementes maduras são exotestais, com mesotesta e endotesta colapsadas, e embrião curvo. Nesse estudo, foram registrados alguns caracteres estruturais dos perigônios e dos frutos que são potencialmente significativos para caracterização e separação das espécies, ao contrário das sementes que são muito semelhantes.Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus are weeds that occur in crops and uncultivated areas in the Maringá region of Paraná. In this study, a morphoanatomical analysis of fruit development and the pericarp of A. tenella and A. blitum was made in order to contribute structural information for species identification, fruit classification, and ecological investigations. Flowers and fruits were collected at the campus of the State University of Maringá, Paraná, fixed in glutaraldehyde, sectioned with a rotary microtome and stained with

  6. Reprodução de Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus no litoral de Santa Catarina, Brasil Reproduction of the Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus in the Santa Catarina's coast, Brazil

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    Joaquim O. Branco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O savacu Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758 é uma espécie de hábitos crepusculares e noturnos, com ampla distribuição geográfica. Sua biologia reprodutiva tem sido intensivamente estudada nos países de ocorrência, entretanto, no Brasil, é comumente citada nos levantamentos de ornitólogos, mas não existem informações disponíveis sobre seu ciclo de vida. Esse trabalho objetiva contribuir para o conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva dessa espécie no litoral catarinense. As amostragens foram realizadas nos anos de 2000 a 2002 na Ilha dos Pássaros e de 2002 na Ilha dos Lobos, Santa Catarina. As maiores abundâncias de exemplares e ninhos com ovos ocorreram em outubro, sendo que o comprimento médio dos ovos variou entre 5,02 ± 0,23 a 5,07 ± 0,21 cm e o volume 31,71 ± 2,64 a 35,92 ± 3,47 cm³ e as maiores freqüências de filhotes em novembro, culminando o abandono da colônia em meados de janeiro. Foram identificados sete itens nos regurgitos dos filhotes, sendo que os peixes marinhos representaram 44,4% da massa total. O principal predador na colônia foi o urubu-comum, que atuou sobre os ovos no início da temporada e os filhotes no final.The black-crowned night heron N. nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758 is a aquatic bird with twilight and night habits, with wide geographical distribution. His reproductive biology has been studied intensively at the occurrence countries, however, in Brazil, it is mentioned commonly in the ornithologists' risings, but available information don't exist on his life cycle. This work aims to contribute for the knowledge of the reproductive biology of that species in the Santa Catarina coast. The samplings were accomplished in the years from 2000 to 2002 in the Ilha dos Pássaros and of 2002 in the Ilha dos Lobos, Santa Catarina. The largest abundances of individuals and nests with eggs happened in October, and the medium length of the eggs varied between 5.02 ± 0.23 to 5.07 ± 0.21 cm and the volume 31

  7. Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isai Jorge de Castro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. A vocalização dos morcegos provavelmente atraiu os marsupiais para a rede, onde estes os predaram aproveitando que estavam presos. Este tipo de interação pode ocorrer naturalmente, no entanto, com maior dificuldade de registro.We observed three occasional predations of bats captured in mist nets by marsupials and a frog during studies in a várzea forest in the Amapá state. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed upon by Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed on by Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. The bats vocalizations probably attracted the marsupials and a frog to the mist nets where they preyed. This interaction form can occur naturally, however, are more difficult to observed.

  8. Metabolic Plasticity of Nitrogen Assimilation by Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jang K.Kim; George P.Kraemer; Charles Yarish

    2012-01-01

    The physical stresses associated with emersion have long been considered major factors determining the vertical zonation of intertidal seaweeds.We examined Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing thalli from the vertical extremes in elevation of an intertidal population (i.e.upper and lower intertidal zones) to determine whether Porphyra thalli acclimate to different vertical elevations on the shore with different patterns of nitrate uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities in response to different degrees of emersion stress.We found that the nitrate uptake and NR recovery in the emersed tissues took longer in lower intertidal sub-population than in upper intertidal sub-population; and GS activity was also significantly affected by emersion and,interestingly,such an activity was enhanced by emersion of thalli from both upper and lower intertidal zones.These results suggested that intra-population variability in post-emersion recovery of physiological functions such as nutrient uptake and NR activity enables local adaptation and contributes to the wide vertical distribution of P.umbilicalis.The high GS activity during periodic emersion stress may be a protective mechanism enabling P.umbilicalis to assimilate nitrogen quickly when it again becomes available,and may also be an evidence of photorespiration during emersion.

  9. Cutaneous myxidiosis in European eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758): histopathology, histochemistry and laminin immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, M; Borreca, C; Dezfuli, B S

    2016-07-01

    Histopathology, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry of the integument of European eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758), infected by Myxidium sp. are reported. Skin samples from affected and unaffected eels were dissected, formalin fixed, paraffin embedded, sectioned and stained with H&E, Periodic acid-Schiff's staining method, Alcian Blue 8 GX pH 2.5/Periodic acid-Schiff's and McCallum-Goodpasture's Gram stain. Moreover, immunohistochemistry was performed using a primary polyclonal laminin antibody. Histologically, cysts (diameter 2-3 mm) were observed mainly under the scale pockets, encircled by a thin collagen layer, lined by elongated, flattened fibroblasts and containing bipolar, PAS- and Gram-positive spores with opposite polar capsules. The epidermis stretched by the underlying cyst appeared dysplastic, thinned with a significant reduction in mucous cells number. Only inconsistent and aspecific inflammatory reaction was noted around the cysts at the dermis/epidermis interface. Intense laminin-like protein immunolabel was documented in the plasmodial ectoplasm and related to host anergia. This was the first report of laminin immunolabel in a member of the Myxozoa. Epidermal dysplasia represents likely an aspecific response against the underlying tensile force exerted by the developing parasite cyst, while fibroblast and collagen encapsulation denote a parasite-driven host response protecting, rather than harming, the encircled parasite. PMID:26525491

  10. Prevalence of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus Skuse in Koderma, Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K; Dhiman, R C; Dua, V K

    2011-09-01

    Entomological survey was carried out in different localities of Koderma district of Jharkhand with a view to study the prevalence, distribution and stratification of areas for Aedes mosquito species. A total of 233 houses were covered during house to house larval and adult survey. Aedes breeding could be detected in 157 houses. In all, a total of 942 domestic water containers were searched, out of which 461 were found positive. The overall house index(HI) container index(CI) breteau index(B1) and pupal index(PI) were 67.38%, 48.94%, 197.85% and 79.4%, respectively. The survey revealed that Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus Skuse are well established in Koderma with most of the areas showing high adult and larval indices. The preventive strategy needs to be directed towards minimizing the breeding potential of Aedes and water management practice by individuals along with implementation of urban bye-laws as well as IEC activities to contain Aedes breeding in future. PMID:23781636

  11. Antioxidant Activity of the Brown Macroalgae Fucus spiralis Linnaeus Harvested from the West Coast of Ireland

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    Anna Soler-vila

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The extraction and isolation of natural antioxidants with potential in reducing the incidences of oxidative stress in the body and their potential inclusion into functional foods is a major topic of research at present. In this study, the aim was to investigate food-friendly Accelerated Solvent Extraction® (ASE® samples and a Viscozyme® hydrolysate of the brown macroalga Fucus spiralis Linnaeus for total phenolic content and antioxidant activities. Furthermore, the effect of ultra-filtration steps on the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of the Fucus spiralis hydrolysate were also evaluated.ethanolic-aqueous and methanolic-aqueous ASE® extracts displayed high phenolic contents of 37.03±3.01 and 39.04±5.72 µg phloroglucinol equivalents mg/sample, respectively. Both the Fucus spiralis Viscozyme® hydrolysate and ASE® extracts displayed in vitro antioxidant activities. Our findings suggest that food-friendly extracts of Fucus spiralis show potential as alternative sources of antioxidants.

  12. Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

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    Andréa Roveré Franz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Stored grains are subject to losses in quality nutritional value and in sanitation from the time they are stored to the time they are consumed. Botanical insecticides may offer an alternative solution for pest control. The objective was to test the insecticidal properties of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (leaf, Zingiber officinale (root and Mentha sp. (leaf. The efficacy of these oils was tested to control the rice weevil, S. oryzae, using hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis of the essential oils was carried out by gas chromatography. Major components of C. citratus were geranial (48% and neral (31%, of Z. officinale were α-zingibereno (13%, geranial (16%, neral (10% and α-farneseno (5% and of Mentha sp. was menthol (92%. Bioassays were carried out by fumigation and topical application. In topical application assays, the essential oil of C. citratus had greater toxicity (LC50 0.027 µL mL-1 and shorter exposure time than the oils of the other two plants. After 24 h and 48 h, 70% and 100% mortality of S. oryzae occurred, respectively. In fumigation assays, essential oil of Z. officinale had a lower LC50 (1.18 µL cm-2 and 70% mortality after 24 h exposure. Therefore, we recommend the use of essential oils of C. citratus and Z. officinale to control the rice weevil S. oryzae.

  13. Population size structure indices and growth standards for Salmo (trutta trutta Linnaeus, 1758 in Central Italy

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    Pedicillo G.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide reference data on the growth and population structure of brown trout Salmo (trutta trutta Linnaeus, in Central Italy. Standards for growth (percentiles and a standard growth model were developed from the von Bertalanffy growth model by using length-at-age data obtained from 122 sampling sites in the River Tiber basin. Length-frequency indices provide a numeric estimation for deviations of the population structure from a balanced population. We adapted the traditional North American Relative Stock Density (RSD and Proportional Stock Density (PSD indices to brown trout populations in Central Italy by means of two methods. In the first method, the benchmarks of length categories were established by using percentages applied to the largest individual in the dataset. In the second method, asymptotic length and size at maturity were used to define the length categories for index calculation. Both methods were tested on length-frequency data from 263 sampling sites in the River Tiber basin. The results showed that the PSD calculated by the first method provided a better insight into the population structures of brown trout. These results provide tools that will help ichthyologists and fish managers to compare the growth and population structure of brown trout throughout Central Italy.

  14. Egg-laying-hormone immunoreactivity in the neural ganglia and ovary of Haliotis asinina Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitongdee, P; Apisawetakan, S; Anunruang, N; Poomthong, T; Hanna, P; Sobhon, P

    2005-11-01

    Immunoreactivity against the abalone egg-laying hormone (aELH) was detected in the fine granules of type 1 and 2 neurosecretory (NS) cells, neurites in the neuropil, and blood sinuses in the connective tissue sheath of the cerebral, pleuropedal, and visceral ganglia of the tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina Linnaeus. The number of positive NS cells, and the intensity of staining in the ganglia, varied and might be related to the stage of ovarian cycle. At any stage, positive cells were most numerous in the pleuropedal, and least numerous in the visceral ganglion. In addition, several cells of the statocyst and associated nerves also exhibited the immunoreactivity. In the ovary, the most intense reactivity was detected in the follicular and granular cells adjacent to mature oocytes, in the trabeculae and the ovarian capsule. The cytoplasm of mature oocytes was also moderately stained. The results indicate that the cerebral, pleuropedal, and visceral ganglia are the main sites of aELH-producing cells. The ovary may also produce aELH locally.

  15. Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ayhan; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu

    2009-11-01

    In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance. Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed that the temperature varied between 9 and 12 degrees C in sale conditions. In addition, we assumed the arrival time of the fish at the fish market to be 0 (zero) h. Biochemical analyses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase activity] of carp tissues (muscle, liver, heart, spleen, brain) were carried out on fish which were held for 24 and 48 h, as well as on fresh fish (0 h). In addition, sensory analysis was conducted by a panel consisting of experienced judges of sensory evaluation. Statistically significant (P 0.05) increase in MDA level in heart tissue of carp after 24 h. There was a statistically significant (P deals with the effects of post-slaughter time and storage temperature on carp tissues. It is concluded that by considering the storage temperature (9-12 degrees C) and storage time (post-slaughter) the product maintained acceptable quality up to 24 h. There was significant deterioration of sensory quality, as a result of changes in chemical constituents. PMID:19533401

  16. Anatomy of the liver of Guinea pig fetuses in late gestation (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758

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    Mariangela de Toledo Barbino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To describe the anatomy of the liver of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758] fetuses in late gestation and to obtain anatomical characteristics that can support and help the understanding of the physiology of fetal circulation. Three fetuses of Guinea pig in late gestation have been used, which were dissected and had their livers removed. These were analized, described, and photographed macroscopically and microscopically through light microscopy in HE and scanning electronic microscopy. Macroscopically, the fetuses livers have a reddish brown color and their division into lobes is clearly seen, as well as the presence of the gallbladder. The liver is divided into left lateral lobe, left medial lobe, right lateral lobe, right medial lobe, quadrate lobe, and caudate lobe with caudate and papillary processes. Through light microscopy, highly vascularized tissue is observed, and the left portion of the liver receive blood from the placenta through the umbilical vein, and the right portion is irrigated by the portal vein. The structures found on the liver of Guinea pig fetuses in late gestation are anatomically similar to those of other mammalian species.

  17. A note on captive breeding and reproductive parameters of the Chinese pangolin, Manis pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758

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    Fuhua Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758 is a critically endangered species, and documents on its captive breeding and reproductive parameters are scarce. MP8, kept in the Pangolin Research Base for Artificial Rescue and Conservation Breeding of South China Normal University (the PRB-SCNU, gave birth to a male offspring (MP86 on 19 October 2011. The baby pangolin was well developed, with a weight of 120 g and a total length of 23.2 cm. The gestation length of MP8 was estimated to be from 182 to 225d. Reproductive parameters of the Chinese pangolin are discussed based on collected data about this species. The Chinese pangolin has an obvious reproductive seasonality and its gestation length is typically six to seven months. In this observation, estrus and mating principally occurred in a one-year period from February to July. Parturition principally took place from September to February of the next year. Chinese pangolins usually give birth to one offspring at a time (n = 27. Sex ratio at birth was 0.71:1 (♀:♂, n = 12. Average weight for the reproducible females was 3.57 ± 1.38 kg (2.14–6.8 kg, n = 15. We estimated that Chinese pangolins could reach sexual maturity before they were one year old.

  18. Metabolic plasticity of nitrogen assimilation by Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang K.; Kraemer, George P.; Yarish, Charles

    2012-12-01

    The physical stresses associated with emersion have long been considered major factors determining the vertical zonation of intertidal seaweeds. We examined Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing thalli from the vertical extremes in elevation of an intertidal population ( i.e. upper and lower intertidal zones) to determine whether Porphyra thalli acclimate to different vertical elevations on the shore with different patterns of nitrate uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities in response to different degrees of emersion stress. We found that the nitrate uptake and NR recovery in the emersed tissues took longer in lower intertidal sub-population than in upper intertidal sub-population; and GS activity was also significantly affected by emersion and, interestingly, such an activity was enhanced by emersion of thalli from both upper and lower intertidal zones. These results suggested that intra-population variability in post-emersion recovery of physiological functions such as nutrient uptake and NR activity enables local adaptation and contributes to the wide vertical distribution of P. umbilicalis. The high GS activity during periodic emersion stress may be a protective mechanism enabling P. umbilicalis to assimilate nitrogen quickly when it again becomes available, and may also be an evidence of photorespiration during emersion.

  19. Ultrastructure of the spermatozoa of Psammotettix striatus (Linnaeus) and Exitianus nanus (Distant) (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mei; Dietrich, Christopher H; Zhang, Yalin; Dai, Wu

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies of insect spermatozoa indicate that these specialized cells have undergone significant morphological evolution and exhibit traits useful for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships. Although leafhoppers (Cicadellidae) are among the largest and most economically important insect families, few comparative studies of their spermatozoa have been published. Here, the ultrastructure of mature spermatozoa of two leafhoppers Psammotettix striatus (Linnaeus) and Exitianus nanus (Distant), representing two different tribes of the largest leafhopper subfamily, Deltocephalinae, was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The shape and ultrastructure of spermatozoa of the two species are very similar to those of other Cicadellidae as well as other Auchenorrhyncha, comprising a conical acrosome invaginated to form a subacrosomal space, a filiform homogeneously condensed nucleus, a lamellate centriolar adjunct connecting the nucleus with the mid-piece/flagellum, a long flagellum with a 9 + 9 + 2 axoneme pattern and two symmetrical mitochondrial derivatives with an orderly array of peripheral cristae, and two drop-shaped accessory bodies. They may be distinguished by the size of the sperm, and the shape of the nucleus, accessory bodies, and paracrystalline region of mitochondrial derivatives. The fine morphology and ultrastructure of spermatozoon in P. striatus and E. nanus are illustrated, along with a brief discussion of the implications for classification and phylogenetic analyses of the subfamily.

  20. Miologia do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

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    Leonardo M. Leal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Objetivam-se descrever os músculos do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766, mediante dissecção anatômica dessa região. Foram utilizadas dez Cuniculus paca adultas, machos e fêmeas, pesando entre cinco e 10 kg do plantel de pacas do setor de Animais Silvestres da FCAV, Unesp, Jaboticabal/SP. Os animais foram fixados em formaldeído 10% e conservados em solução salina a 30% para dissecação anatômica da musculatura da pelve, coxa e perna, identificando-se a origem e inserção de cada músculo. Os resultados foram fotodocumentados e discutidos com base na literatura sobre animais domésticos, ratos e cobaias. Salvo algumas variâncias na origem e inserção de cada músculo e na fusão dos ventres de alguns grupos musculares, de forma geral, a musculatura da paca assemelha-se a dos animais domésticos e a de outros roedores.

  1. Locomotion of Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus (Gastropoda, Muricidae on a mixed shore of rocks and sand

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    Marcos G. Papp

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed shores of rocks and sand are appropriate systems for the study of limitations that the isolation of rocks may impose for gastropods that typically inhabit rocky shores. We marked 52 Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 snails on a mixed shore and found that 34 of them moved between rocks one to four times during 15 surveys in a period of 72 days. In the experiments, the snails moved on rock by continuous, direct, ditaxic, alternate undulations of the foot sole but on submerged sand they used slower arrhythmic discontinuous contractions of the foot sole. They switched between modes of locomotion in response to the type and topography of the substrate and possibly to water dynamics. In nature, snails moved between rocks forming aggregations where they oviposited. This may have masked other causes of movement, such as availability of prey. Most snails burrowed into the sand when the rocks became exposed during low tides. Further experiments are needed to explicitly address the possible causes of movements among rocks and burial.

  2. First Occurrence Of The Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus Niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 In Lesina Lagoon (Eastern Italian Coast

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    G. SCORDELLA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of the tilapia species Oreochromis niloticus niloticus(Linnaeus, 1758 were caught in Lesina Lagoon during experimental sampling for the shrimp Penaeus kerathurus using fyke net traps from December 1999 to September 2000. The species O. niloticusis not native in Italian coastal waters, although attempts of tilapia culture in land-based aquaculture farms were occasionally carried out in the past. The number of individuals captured in the samples suggests a colonization of the area of Lesina lagoon. The highest catches were observed during July. In July, the individuals caught represented the 22.3±4.1 % of the total catch weight. Such colonization of a marine environment byO. niloticusniloticus is the first case reported for Italy. The occurrence of the species in Lesina lagoon is attributed to fish which escaped from fish farms in the area and entered the lagoon through the numerous streams and irrigation-drainage channels that outflow along the south coastline.

  3. Uptake, retention and organic/tissue distribution of 137Cs by Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus linnaeus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This works describes the uptake, retention/biological elimination of 137Cs by Japanese Catfish (Silurus asotus linnaeus) under laboratory conditions. The fish were divided in to three groups viz. large, medium and small and reared in to the host water contaminated by 137Cs. The accumulated 137Cs concentration in the whole body of the fish was measured at certain intervals up to 60 days. A significant accumulation of 137Cs was found but a steady state accumulation of 137Cs was not achieved by the end of the experiment. The bioaccumulation factors and the distribution of the radionuclide in different organs/tissues of the fish were determined. To determine the effective half-life, the fish were transferred and reared into the non contaminated host water. The concentration of the radionuclide in the whole body of the fish was measured up to 66 days. Neglecting the small first compartment for a few days, the average effective half-life of 137Cs in the fish species was found to be ∼ 30 days for all size of fish. Accumulation of 137Cs in muscle/flesh of the fish was found to be ∼ 75% of whole body accumulation. (author)

  4. Diet of crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Canidae), in a suburban area of southern Brazil Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Canidae), em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Ezequiel Pedó; Ana C. Tomazzoni; Sandra M. Hartz; Alexandre U. Christoff

    2006-01-01

    The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trai...

  5. Predation on Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae) by Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Felidae) Predação em Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae) por Leopardus pordalis (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Felidae)

    OpenAIRE

    João M. D. Miranda; Itiberê P. Bernardi; Kauê C. Abreu; Fernando C. Passos

    2005-01-01

    There are a few studies about predation on primates. Howler monkeys, being relatively large animals, were believed to be preyed on successfully only by medium to large-sized carnivores and large birds of prey. Our study took place at Chácara Payquerê, which is situated in the municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Fingers and nails from Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 were founded in two faecal samples from Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758). With our document...

  6. Maturation and growth curves of Macrobrachium Carcinus (Linnaeus) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae) from Ribeira de Iguape River, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner C. Valenti; Jeanette de T.C. de Mello; Vera L Lobão

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, female Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758) maturation curve, weight/length relationship, length and weight growth curves were studied. Prawns were captured, by traps, in Ribeira de Iguape river (24ºS and 47ºW), southern Brazil. There were used 207 females. It was observed that M. carcinus presents several spawnings during its life cycle and reproductive period goes on, at least till six years old. Weight/length relationship can be represented for the equation W = 8.73 E-3 L...

  7. Size and quality of wood used by Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in beech woodlands of Gipuzkoa (northern Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    De Castro, A.

    2012-01-01

    La conservación de la especie saproxilófaga legalmente protegida Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758) en los hayedos de Europa conlleva una gestión adecuada de los árboles muertos y moribundos. Sin embargo, los parámetros de los árboles preferidos (tamaño y calidad de la madera) permanecen aún poco conocidos. En esta contribución se analizan los datos de distribución procedentes de seis años de trabajo en cuatro Lugares de Interés Comunitario de la provincia de Gipuzkoa (norte de España). Los indi...

  8. 栉江珧生殖细胞的发生%Gametogenesis in Atria pectinata Linnaeus (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅芳; 余祥勇; 王如才

    2000-01-01

    通过观察栉江珧(Atrina pectinata linnaeus)的未分化生殖细胞,精原细胞和卵原细胞,精母细胞和卵母细胞,精子和卵子的形态结构与分布状况及核仁在卵成熟过程中的变化,对栉江珧生殖细胞发生及成熟过程的有关问题进行了探讨.

  9. First report of five nematode species in Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus (Aves, Galliformes, Phasianidae in Brazil Primeiro registro de cinco espécies de nematóides em Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus (Aves, Galliformes, Phasianidae no Brasil

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    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the first report of the nematodes Dispharynx nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819 Stiles & Hassall, 1920, Gongylonema ingluvicola Ransom, 1904, Oxyspirura mansoni (Cobbold, 1879 Ransom, 1904, Subulura brumpti (Lopez-Neyra, 1922 Cram, 1923 and Tetrameres fissipina (Diesing, 1860 Travassos, 1914, parasitizing the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus, 1758 in Brazil. Morphological data on the parasites as well as on the prevalence, mean intensity, mean abundance and range of intensity of the nematodes in the infected birds are provided.O presente trabalho diz respeito à primeira referência dos nematóides Dispharynx nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819 Stiles & Hassall, 1920, Gongylonema ingluvicola Ransom, 1904, Oxyspirura mansoni (Cobbold, 1879 Ransom, 1904, Subulura brumpti (Lopez-Neyra, 1922 Cram, 1923 e Tetrameres fissipina (Diesing, 1860 Travassos, 1914, parasitando o faisão-coleira, Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus, 1758 no Brasil. São fornecidos dados morfológicos sobre os parasitos, bem como sobre a prevalência, intensidade média, abundância média e amplitude de variação da intensidade de infecção dos nematóides nas aves parasitadas.

  10. Características morfológicas da distribuição vascular cerebral de Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla Morphological characteristics of the cerebral vascular distribution of Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla

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    Jurandyr de A. Câmara Filho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a vascularização arterial do encéfalo do javali, Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758, Suidae, e comparar com outras espécies. Cinco machos e cinco fêmeas foram injetados com látex colorido. O suprimento arterial do encéfalo foi descrito e análises morfológicas foram feitas. Nesta espécie o circuito arterial do encéfalo é formado por ramos da artéria carótida interna, como: as artérias comunicantes caudais, o ramo rostral, as artérias cerebrais rostrais, e artérias comunicantes rostrais.The aim this study was to verify the arterial vascularization of the wild boar brain, Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758, Suidae, and compare with other species. Five male and five female were injected with colored latex. The arterial supply of the brain was described and were done morphological analyses. In this species the arterial circuit of the brain is formed by the internal carotid artery branches, such as: the caudal communicant arteries, rostral branch, rostral cerebral arteries and rostral communicant arteries.

  11. Predation on Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae by Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae Predação em Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae por Leopardus pordalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. D. Miranda

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a few studies about predation on primates. Howler monkeys, being relatively large animals, were believed to be preyed on successfully only by medium to large-sized carnivores and large birds of prey. Our study took place at Chácara Payquerê, which is situated in the municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Fingers and nails from Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 were founded in two faecal samples from Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758. With our documentation large howler monkey remains in faeces, the possibility of ocelot being a potential predator of all Neotropical primates should be taken into consideration.São poucos os estudos sobre a predação de primatas. Sendo os bugios animais relativamente grandes, acredita-se que somente médios e grandes carnívoros e grandes rapineiros possam lograr sucesso em sua predação. O estudo foi realizado na Chácara Payquerê, situada no município de Balsa Nova, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Dedos e unhas de Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 foram encontradas em duas amostras fecais de Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 que foram coletadas. Com este registro de grande primata em fezes, a possibilidade de a jaguatirica ser um potencial predador de todos os primatas neotropicais pode ser levada em consideração.

  12. Uptake, retention and organ/tissue distribution of 137Cs by Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work describes the uptake, retention/biological elimination and organ/tissue distribution of 137Cs by freshwater Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus) under laboratory conditions. The fish were divided into three groups based on their size and age and reared in 137Cs-spiked water. The concentration of 137Cs in the whole body of the live fish was measured at regular intervals up to 60 days. A significant accumulation of 137Cs was found, but a steady state condition was not achieved by the end of the experiment. The bioaccumulation factors at steady state and the required time to reach steady state were estimated to be 1.55 and 255 days, 1.76 and 180 days and 1.99 and 160 days for large, medium and small size fish, respectively. To determine the effective half-life of 137Cs, the fish were transferred and reared in the non-contaminated host water. The concentration of the remaining 137Cs in the whole body of the live fish was measured up to 66 days. The average effective half-life of 137Cs in the fish species was found to be ∼142 days for fish of all sizes. The distribution of 137Cs in different organs/tissues of the fish was determined. Accumulation of 137Cs in muscle/flesh of the fish was found to be ∼75% of whole body accumulation. The uptake rate and the retention capability of juvenile fish were found to be higher and therefore, these were more susceptible to 137Cs than adult and old fish, and could be an important source of 137Cs in the human food chain

  13. Genetic parameter estimation for juvenile growth and upper thermal tolerance in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tianshi; KONG Jie; LIU Baosuo; WANG Qingyin; CAO Baoxiang; LUAN Sheng; WANG Weiji

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-six half-sib groups (53 full-sib families) of turbot,Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus, were obtained by artificial insemination. We measured growth in the offspring (40-50 individuals/family) and subjected them to a thermal tolerance challenge over a period of 34 d. There was no significant difference in daily mor-tality (range: 0.580%-1.391%) between Days 1-13 during the thermal tolerance challenge. However, daily cumulative mortality increased rapidly between Days 14 and 29, especially on Days 15 and 16 (20.232% and 34.377%, respectively). Mortality was highest on Day 16 (14.145%). We estimated the genetic parameters using the average information restricted maximum likelihood method. We used a likelihood ratio test to evaluate the significance of effects in models with and without identity as an effect, and compared the final log-likelihoods (maximum log L). Lastly, we estimated phenotypic and genetic correlation between the up-per thermal tolerance limit (UTT) and body weight (BW). In this study, the positive phenotypic correlation was low between UTT and BW (0.093±0.029). The genetic correlation between UTT and BW was negative (-0.044±0.239). The heritability for upper thermal tolerance was low (0.087±0.032), which is of approximate-ly moderate heritability. The heritability for body weight was high (0.303±0.074). Our results suggest there is significant potential for improvement in the culture of turbot by selective breeding.

  14. Biochemical Mechanism of Chlorantraniliprole Resistance in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhen-di; FENG Xia; LIN Qing-sheng; CHEN Huan-yu; LI Zhen-yu; YIN Fei; LIANG Pei; GAO Xi-wu

    2014-01-01

    The insecticide chlorantraniliprole exhibits good efifcacy and plays an important role in controlling the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella Linnaeus. However, resistance to chlorantraniliprole has been observed recently in some ifeld populations. At present study, diamondback moths with resistance to chlorantraniliprole (resistant ratio (RR) was 82.18) for biochemical assays were selected. The assays were performed to determine potential resistance mechanisms. The results showed that the selected resistant moths (GDLZ-R) and susceptible moth could be synergized by known metabolic inhibitors such as piperonyl butoxide (PBO), triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and diethyl-maleate (DEM) at different levels (1.68-5.50-fold and 2.20-2.89-fold, respectively), and DEM showed the maximum synergism in both strains. In enzymes assays, a high level of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was observed in the resistant moth, in contrast, moths that are susceptible to the insecticide had only 1/3 the GST activity of the resistant moths. The analysis of short-term exposure of chlorantraniliprole on biochemical response in the resistant strain also showed that GST activity was signiifcantly elevated after exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of chlorantraniliprole (about 1/3 LC50, 12 mg L-1) 12 and 24 h, respectively. The results show that there is a strong correlation between the enzyme activity and resistance, and GST is likely the main detoxiifcation mechanism responsible for resistance to chlorantraniliprole in P. xylostella L., cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) and carboxy-lesterase (CarE) are involved in to some extent.

  15. Improvement of the sterile insect technique for codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to facilitate expansion of field application

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key pest of most pome fruit (apple, pear and quince) and walnut orchards in the temperate regions of the world. Efforts to control the codling moth have in the past mostly relied on the use of broad spectrum insecticide spra...

  16. The potential of periphyton-based culture of two Indian major carps, rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and gonia Labeo gonius (Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Dam, van A.A.; Beveridge, M.C.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of periphyton, grown on bamboo substrates, on growth and production of two Indian major carps, rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and gonia, Labeo gonius (Linnaeus), were studied at the Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. For each species, five ponds were provided with bamboo subs

  17. A hitherto unrecorded sighting of the Common Pochard Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae in Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India

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    Samidurai Jayakumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Pochard Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae is recorded for the first time in Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India. As this species is recorded in other parts of Tamil Nadu, a brief sightings and distribution map is also specified.

  18. First natural infection by Ascocotyle (Phagicola longa Ransom (Digenea, Heterophyidae in an avian host, Ardea cocoi Linnaeus (Aves, Ciconiiformes, Ardeidae in Brazil

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    Luciano Antunes Barros

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The first case of a natural avian infection caused by the digenetic trematode Ascocotyle (Phagicola longa Ransom, 1920 in Brazil, is reported from the ardeid bird Ardea cocoi Linnaeus, 1766. This represents a new host record and data on clinical and pathological findings are also reported.

  19. Nosema sp. PM-1, a new isolate of microsporidian from infected Papilio machaon Linnaeus, based on ultrastructure and molecular identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Xu, Jinshan; Luo, Bo; Chen, Jie; Li, Zeng; Li, Tian; Pan, Guoqing; Li, Xueyan; Zhou, Zeyang

    2015-06-01

    A new microsporidium, Nosema sp. PM-1, was first isolated from Papilio machaon Linnaeus. The spore shape of the PM-1 isolate was a long oval with an average size of 3.22 μm × 1.96 μm. Ultrastructure observation showed that PM-1 had a typical Nosema common diplokaryotic nuclei structure with 10-13 polar filament coils, spore wall, plasma membrane, and anchoring disk. The complete rRNA gene sequences were obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification and each rRNA unit was arrayed as follows: 5'-LSU (2497 bp)-ITS (179 bp)-SSU (1232 bp)-IGS (278 bp)-5S (115 bp)-3', which was the same as typical Nosema. The phylogenetic trees of rRNA, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit, and tubulin genes all show that PM-1 was a sister to the clade comprising Nosema bombycis, Nosema spodopterae, and Nosema sp. PX1. The spore morphology, ultrastructure, and complete rRNA structure indicate that this isolate assigned to the ˝true˝ Nosema group, can parasitized in Papilio machaon Linnaeus, which provides a wider host range for Nosema. PMID:26204003

  20. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction and characterization of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus skin

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    Weiwei Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus skin contains high amount of nutrients including unsaturated fatty acids and collagen. A pepsin-assisted extraction procedure was developed and optimized for the extraction of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus skins. Objective: To determine the optimum conditions with the maximum yield of the pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC extraction. Materials and Methods: The conditions of the extraction were optimized using response surface methodology. The Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the three independent variables (extraction time, enzyme concentration, and solid-liquid ratio on the PSC yield of the sturgeon skin. Results: The optimal conditions were: solid-liquid ratio of 1:11.88, enzyme concentration of 2.42%, and extraction time of 6.45 h. The maximum yield of 86.69% of PSC was obtained under the optimal conditions. This value was not significantly different from the predicted value (87.4% of the RSM (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the production of PSC from sturgeon skin is feasible and beneficial. The patterns of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns (SDS-PAGE indicated that the sturgeon skin contains type I collagen, which is made of α-chain and β-chain. The infrared spectra of the collagens also indicated that pepsin hydrolysis does not affect the secondary structure of collagen, especially triple-helical structure.

  1. Ocorrência de Mirounga leonina Linnaeus (Pinnipedia, Phocidae no extremo-sul do Brasil: agressão e patologias Occurrence of Mirüunga leonina Linnaeus (Pinnipedia, Phocidae from Southernmost Brazil: injury and pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Jaeger Drehmer

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A male specimen of Mirounga leonina Linnaeus, 1758 age estimated betvveen 7-8 years old, collected at Santa Vitória do Palmar, Rio Grande do Sul State, soutiiernmost Brazil (32º44'S and 53º22'W is presented. Ali the skeleton was recovered except the rostral region. It shows an advanced osteomyelitis in the lefl dentary, extending from the synfisis until the middle portion of the body; as well as Scheuermann disease at lumbar vertebrae. Such diseases could explain its presence at that locality, where rt was shot. The bullct was recovered from the rostrum, and might be responsible for death. This is the first vhlually complete skeleton of M. leonina recovered from Brazilian coast.

  2. Diet of the fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera in a mangrove area of southern Brazil Dieta do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera em uma área de manguezal do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to December 1999, the diet of Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 was determined in a salt-water ecosystem, by analysing the feces of bats captured in mist nets. Of the 61 samples analyzed, most contained remains of fish (90.2%, followed by insects (70.5% and crustaceous (29.5%. The most frequent fishes species were: silversides Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, anchovies Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 and scaly sardines Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. The most frequent insects were moths (Saturniidae and beetles (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae and Coccinellidae, as well as two species of bat ectoparasites (Streblidae. Among the crustaceous the shrimp (Palaemonidae and crabs (Gecarcinidae are was present. The consumption of fish, insects and crustaceans was different for the males and females throughout the year.De janeiro a dezembro de 1999, foi estudada a dieta de Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 em um ecossistema de manguezal, através da análise das fezes de morcegos capturados com redes-neblina. Das 61 amostras analisadas, a maioria continha fragmentos de peixes (90.2%, seguido de insetos (70.5% e crustáceos (29,5%. As espécies de peixes mais freqüentes foram: peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, manjuba Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 e sardinha Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. Os insetos mais freqüentes foram mariposas (Saturniidae e besouros (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae e Coccinellidae, além de duas espécies de ectoparasitas (Streblidae. Entre os crustáceos, houve a presença apenas de camarões (Palaemonidae e siris (Gecarcinidae. O consumo de peixes, insetos e crustáceos foi diferente para machos e fêmeas ao longo do ano.

  3. Maturation and growth curves of Macrobrachium Carcinus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae from Ribeira de Iguape River, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner C Valenti

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, female Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 maturation curve, weight/length relationship, length and weight growth curves were studied. Prawns were captured, by traps, in Ribeira de Iguape river (24ºS and 47ºW, southern Brazil. There were used 207 females. It was observed that M. carcinus presents several spawnings during its life cycle and reproductive period goes on, at least till six years old. Weight/length relationship can be represented for the equation W = 8.73 E-3 L3.28. Expressions obtained for length and weight growth curves are Lt = 21 .0 (1-e-0493t and Wt= 190 (1-e-0493t3.28. respectively. A symptotic maximum length and asymptotic maximum weight are nearly attained at six and eight years old, respectively.

  4. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL LIMITATIVE FACTORS FOR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS LINNAEUS, 1758 IN EXTENSIVELY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. DIMA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The oldest and most common method of increasing fish is a fish breeding ponds in which the supervision of nutrition and growth of biological material. Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus ruthenus Linnaeus 1785 is the 4th of sturgeon scale and economic importance as a share of production of these fish .Monitoring of physicochemical parameters of sturgeons ponds has a crucial role to obtain satisfactory yields both in qualitative and quantitative. Chemical characteristics of water were determined in laboratory ecosystems Chemistry of the Institute of Research and Development for Ecology Aquaculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture Galaţi for the samples have been taken of the total water. Determination of the chemical characteristics was performed by standardized methods. Physic-chemical parameters of water were determined according to norm on the classification of surface water quality in order to establish the ecological status of water (Order no. 161/2006, for Class II of quality.

  5. Población y distribución del búho real Bubo bubo (Linnaeus, 1758 en Gipuzkoa

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    ALVAREZ, K., OLANO, M., UGARTE, J., VAZQUEZ, J., AIERBE, T., ANSORREGI, F., GALDOS, A., URRUZOLA, A., HURTADO, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado la población de búho real Bubo bubo (Linnaeus, 1758 en el Territorio Histórico de Gipuzkoa (País Vasco durante las temporadas de reproducción de 2009-2010 y 2010-2011. En total se han registrado dos y tres territorios ocupados por la especie cada temporada, respectivamente, y se ha confirmado la reproducción exitosa de 2 parejas. Los resultados obtenidos muestran una ligera mejora de la situación de la especie en Gipuzkoa, si bien se continúan detectando amenazas que pueden poner en peligro la estabilidad de la misma.

  6. Description of Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), a parasite of Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae) in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; da Costa, Paulo André Ferreira Borges; Maschio, Gleomar Fabiano; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    A new lung-dwelling nematode species is described from the common lancehead Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) in the Brazilian Amazon Region. The species is assigned to the genus Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 based on the presence of six lips arranged in two lateral groups, the absence of prominent cuticular inflations, and lung parasitism in snakes. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. differs from other species of the genus mainly by details of the morphology of the anterior end: cuticularised ring surrounding the anterior part of the buccal cavity and six minute onchia present in the oesophastome. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. is the seventh species of the genus known from the Neotropical Realm and the second species described from viperid snakes.

  7. Anidamientoydieta de Harpia harpyja Linnaeus en la Comunidad Nativa de Infierno, Madre de Dios, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Renzo P. Piana

    2013-01-01

    El Águila Arpía (Harpia harpyja Linnaeus) es la rapaz de mayor tamaño que habita los bosques amazónicos, sin embargo en el Perú, es muy poco lo que se sabe de esta especie. Desde 1996 a 2001, realizó una investigación en la Comunidad Nativa de Infi erno para obtener información sobre la biología de la especie mediante la localización y observación de nidos activos y abandonados. La investigación permitió encontrar los primeros nidos activos descritos para el Águila Arpía en Perú e indica...

  8. Effects of seasonal variations and collection methods on the mineral composition of propolis from Apis mellifera Linnaeus Beehives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E A; Zaluski, R; Veiga, N; Orsi, R O

    2016-06-01

    The effects of seasonal variations and the methods of collection of propolis produced by Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, on the composition of constituent minerals such as magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), and potassium (K) were evaluated. Propolis was harvested from 25 beehives by scraping or by means of propolis collectors (screen, "intelligent" collector propolis [ICP], lateral opening of the super [LOS], and underlay method). During the one-year study, the propolis produced was harvested each month, ground, homogenized, and stored in a freezer at -10 ºC. Seasonal analyses of the mineral composition were carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey-Kramer's test to compare the mean values (pminerals (Mg, Fe, Na, Ca, and Cu), and the propolis harvesting method affects the contents of 4 minerals (Mg, Zn, Fe, and Ca). PMID:26934152

  9. Ecosystem engineering potential of the gastropod Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767) in mangrove wastewater wetlands--a controlled mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil; Bartolini, Fabrizio; Limbu, Samwel; Cannicci, Stefano; Mgaya, Yunus; Kristensen, Erik; Paula, José

    2010-01-01

    The effect of different sewage concentrations (0, 20, 60 and 100%), vegetation (Bare, Avicennia marina or Rhizophora mucronata) and immersion periods (immersion/emersion period of 12/12 h or 3/3 days just for 100%) conditions were studied for 6 months on survival and growth rates of Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767). Gastropods' activity and ecosystem engineering preformed at bare and A. marina planted cells and 3 sewage conditions (0, 20 and 60%) were determined. Survival rates were higher than 70% in all treatments. Growth rate decreased significantly with increasing sewage concentrations (mainly at unplanted conditions) and longer immersion periods. A complete shift (from immersion to emersion periods) and a significant decrease in mobility and consequently its engineer potential, due to sewage contamination, lead to a 3-4 fold decrease in the amount of sediment disturbed. Sewage contamination, primary producers' abundance and environmental conditions may have influenced the gastropods survival, growth and its ecosystem engineering potential. PMID:19640623

  10. Ecological Status of a Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) Population at the Southern Edge of its Distribution (River Paiva, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ronaldo; Amorim, Ângela; Sobral, Carina; Froufe, Elsa; Varandas, Simone; Teixeira, Amílcar; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

    2013-11-01

    An important population of the critically endangered pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) was surveyed at the edge of its southern distribution (River Paiva, Portugal). Although an earlier study suggested that this population had a very low number of individuals (animals but 3.7 % of the individuals collected were juveniles (<60 mm in length); therefore, this population can be considered functional. Environmental characterization indicated that this river is still in excellent or good condition although some areas showed deterioration due to discharge of domestic effluents. The main conservation requirements of M. margaritifera in the River Paiva include maintaining the water quality (and if possible stopping the discharge of domestic effluents), increasing riparian vegetation cover, removing several weirs to increase connectivity, and increasing trout density.

  11. Description of Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), a parasite of Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae) in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; da Costa, Paulo André Ferreira Borges; Maschio, Gleomar Fabiano; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    A new lung-dwelling nematode species is described from the common lancehead Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) in the Brazilian Amazon Region. The species is assigned to the genus Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 based on the presence of six lips arranged in two lateral groups, the absence of prominent cuticular inflations, and lung parasitism in snakes. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. differs from other species of the genus mainly by details of the morphology of the anterior end: cuticularised ring surrounding the anterior part of the buccal cavity and six minute onchia present in the oesophastome. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. is the seventh species of the genus known from the Neotropical Realm and the second species described from viperid snakes. PMID:26739285

  12. KUNJKA (Arca noae LINNAEUS, 1758) – ŠTO MORAMO ZNATI PRIJE UVOĐENJA OVE VRSTE U AKVAKULTURU?

    OpenAIRE

    Župan, Ivan; Peharda, Melita; Ezgeta-Balić, Daria; Šarić, Tomislav

    2012-01-01

    Kunjka Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758 jedna je od najvažnijih komercijalno iskorištavanih vrsta školjkaša na istočnoj obali Jadrana. Visoki intenzitet ribolova, kao posljedica rastuće potražnje na tržištu, u budućnosti bi mogao dovesti do pretjerane eksploatacije prirodnih populacija u pojedinim područjima. Kada se navedenim činjenicama pridoda i visoka cijena na tržištu, kunjka A. noae se nameće kao moguća nova vrsta u akvakulturu. Nedavno je provedeno nekoliko istraživanja o biologiji i ekologij...

  13. PREBAČAJ KUNJKE Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758 IZ PRIRODNIH UVJETA U RAZLIČITE UVJETE EKSPERIMENTALNOG UZGOJA

    OpenAIRE

    Župan, Ivan; Rogošić, Jozo; Šarić, Tomislav; Kanski, Danijel

    2013-01-01

    Kunjka Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758 je jedna od komercijalno važnih vrsta školjkaša u Hrvatskoj koja se izlovljava iz prirodnih staništa. Istražili smo odnos dužina prema spolu, udio spolova i preživljavanje nakon prebačaja iz prirodnog staništa u eksperimentalne uzgojne uvjete. Statistički značajno manje dužine uočene su kod mužjaka (x=52,6±8,7 mm) u odnosu na ženke (x=60,2±9,5 mm). Ukupni udio spolova bio je 1,8 : 1,0 u korist mužjaka. Preživljavanje nakon 17 mjeseci iznosilo je 20,5%. Istraživ...

  14. Activity budget, diet, and habitat use in the critically endangered Ka'apor capuchin monkey (Cebus kaapori) in Pará State, Brazil: a preliminary comparison to other capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, S G; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Veiga, Liza M

    2014-10-01

    The Ka'apor capuchin, Cebus kaapori, is perhaps the most endangered primate of the Brazilian Amazon. Endemic to a region with extreme intensification of habitat-degrading activities, it survives in remnant populations in a completely fragmented landscape. Before now, the only data available were isolated observations of feeding, locality records, and information on population densities and group size obtained during census. Here we present the first data on the activity budget, diet, and daily path length of the species, and compare our preliminary results with those for other capuchin monkeys. A group of nine Ka'apor capuchins was monitored over a period of four months during the dry season in the Goianésia do Pará municipality, Pará, Brazil. We used instantaneous scan sampling (n = 4,647 scans) to construct an activity budget for the monkeys, and we identified the plants in their diet to species level (n = 41 plant taxa), allowing us to compare dietary overlap with other gracile capuchin species, as well as with the robust capuchin (Sapajus spp.), a potential competitor present throughout the range of the Ka'apor capuchin. Like other species of gracile capuchins, C. kaapori was highly frugivorous, with the vast majority of the feeding records of arils and fruit pulp (74%), supplemented by arthropods (13%) and seeds (10%), although diet composition was highly variable across months. The group used a total area of 62.4 ha during the study period, and average daily path length was 2,173 m (±400 m), with the entire home range utilized in every month of the study. We found significant overlap in the diet of the Ka'apor capuchin and Sapajus, highlighting the urgency to increase knowledge of the ecological needs of C. kaapori and understand synergistic effects of sympatry with competitive species, increasing forest fragmentation, and widespread human impact on C. kaapori sustainability.

  15. THE NUTRITION OF A PIKEPERCH, Stizostedion lucioperca Linnaeus, 1758 in THE RIVER NERETVA

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    Sadbera Trožić-Borovac

    2007-04-01

    ., 1976; T r o ž i ć – B o r o v a c, 2002a, it could be concluded that a pikeperch has no competitor. The other fish species have fed on the invertebrates and plants of benthos, accept a rare lake trout Salmo trutta m. lacustris Linnaeus, 1758 specimens which have shown tendency to the greedy way of the nutrition. This paper is the contribution to the knowledge of a pikeperch nutrition in the river Neretva accumulations that is, beside the reproduction, the important character of population growth control of this greedy animal, and in the aim of the survival of the autochthonous ichthyopopulations in the river Neretva system.

  16. Parhadjelia cairinae n. sp. (Nematoda: Habronematoidea: Habronematidae) in the Muscovy duck, Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae), from the area de conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R

    2005-04-01

    A new species of Parahadjelia occurs in the muscovy duck, Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The new species differs from Parhadjelia neglecta Lent and Freitas, 1939, in the body size, in the spicules shape and ratio of spicules, and in having 2 pairs of sessile papillae near the tail tip of the male. The characters exhibited by P. neglecta and the new species validate its generic status distinct from Hadjelia.

  17. First study of the chemistry of the luminous system in a deep-sea shark, Etmopterus spinax Linnaeus, 1758 (Chondrichthyes: Etmopteridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Renwart, M.; Mallefet, J

    2013-01-01

    The chemistry of the luminous system in a shark is addressed for the first time. Assuming that many luminous species acquire their luminous substrate (luciferin) through the food chain, we investigated the feeding habits of a Norwegian population of the lantern shark Etmopterus spinax Linnaeus, 1758 in order to identify potential alimentary sources of luciferin in this species. Among the major groups of preys found in the diet of E. spinax, we identified three potential sources of luciferin: ...

  18. NOAH’S ARK SHELL (ARCA NOAE LINNAEUS, 1758) – WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW FOR STARTING UP ITS AQUACULTURE?

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Župan; Tomislav Šarić; Melita Peharda; Daria Ezgeta-Balić

    2012-01-01

    Noah’s ark shell Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most important commercially exploited bivalve species in the eastern Adriatic Sea. High harvesting pressure, as a consequence of increasing market demands, could in the future result in its overexploitation in some areas. All mentioned above, together with a high market price, make A. noae a new species for introduction into aquaculture. Several studies have recently been conducted concerning biology and ecology of A. noae in the Adriati...

  19. Update on geographic spread of invasive lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first nonnative marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic/Caribbean region. The chronology of the invasion was reported last year (Schofield 2009) using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. This article provides an update of lionfish geographic spread (as of October 2010) and predictions of future range.

  20. The Primate Community of Cachoeira (Brazilian Amazonia): A Model to Decipher Ecological Partitioning among Extinct Species

    OpenAIRE

    Anusha Ramdarshan; Thomas Alloing-Séguier; Gildas Merceron; Laurent Marivaux

    2011-01-01

    International audience Dental microwear analysis is conducted on a community of platyrrhine primates from South America. This analysis focuses on the primate community of Cachoeira Porteira (Para, Brazil), in which seven sympatric species occur: Alouatta seniculus, Ateles paniscus, Cebus apella, Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia Pithecia, Saguinus midas, and Saimiri sciureus. Shearing quotients are also calculated for each taxon of this primate community. Dental microwear results indicate signi...

  1. Serological survey for Leishmania sp. infection in wild animals from the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil

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    EM Voltarelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania sp. infection was investigated in wild animals from the Ingá Park, in the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil, where American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is an endemic disease. Sixty-five mammals, comprising Didelphis albiventris, Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua, were captured. Blood samples were collected for parasite cultivation. Antibodies were investigated by direct agglutination test (DAT using Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis as antigen. Flagellates were observed in blood cultures of 14 (35.9% Didelphis albiventris. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 31 (51.6% specimens of Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua. These results suggest that Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex vetulus (crab-eating fox, Cebus apella (capuchin monkey, Dasyprocta azarae (agouti, Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon and Nasua nasua (coati play an important role in the ACL transmission cycle in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil.

  2. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 a antibióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Belém-Costa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, isolates from tilapia and pacu were uniformly resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, lincomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin, penicillin, and trimetoprim+sulfametoxazole. The A. hydrophila type strain presented resistance to the same antimicrobial substances and also against rifampicin; the bacterial isolate from pacu were the only strain resistant to tetracyclin. Isolates from both pacu and tilapia had intermediate reaction with erytromycin. The use of drugs in commercial fish farms in Brazil can favor the development of resistant bacterial strains in native fish species as already observed for exotic species, commercially produced for longer time.Um dos maiores problemas envolvendo o tratamento com antibióticos contra Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de peixes confinados é a rápida resistência ao antibiótico desenvolvida pela bactéria. A atividade antimicrobiana de quimioterapêuticos em isolados a partir de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 foi verificada pelo método de difusão de antibiótico em discos de Kirby-Bauer, sobre uma superfície de Agar Mueller-Hinton previamente inoculada com 100 µL de suspensão bacteriana. Após o período de incubação, os isolados de tilápia e pacu foram uniformemente resistentes a amoxicilina, ampicilina, lincomicina, novobiocina, oxacilina, penicilina e trimetoprim+sulfametoxazol. A cepa tipo para A. hydrophila apresentou resistência às mesmas subst

  3. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

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    Chang HB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong-Bin Chang,1 Bing-Huei Chen1,21Department of Food Science, 2Graduate Institute of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 µg/mL, demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 µg/mL, and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 µg/mL. A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 µg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.Keywords: curcuminoid extract, curcuminoid nanoemulsion, Curcuma longa Linnaeus, lung cancer cell, cell cycle, apoptosis mechanism

  4. Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae: a survey across Europe

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    David Sadílek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4 and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57. The karyotype of all the specimens of C. lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3% from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the

  5. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino médio de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae midgut

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    Edy de Lello

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, 1781 midgut is internally lined by an epithelium of polytenic cells, some low others prismatic with well developed brush border. Their apical portion are enlarged by secretory vesicles, forming button-like structures that are pinched off to the lumen, some accompained by the nucleus characterizing apocrine and holocrine secretions. This epithelium is gradually renewed by small, non polytenic regenerative cells, found scattered at its basal portion. At the end of the third instar the metamorphosis begins. The epithelial cells present signs of degeneration and at the first day of pupation the regenerative cells increase in number. By the 5th day of pupation these regenerative cells, besides being increased in number, differentiate themselves into two layers: one similar to the dense conective tissue that sustainning the larval epithelium is pinched off to the midgut lumen forming the "yellow bodies"; the other, develops right under it as the imaginal epitelium. The disorganized muscles bundles of the midgut wall, are invaded by phagocytes. At the end of pupation the midgut has a low prismatic epithelium with brush-border. In the adult, the torax portion of the midgut has prismatic homogeneously basophilic epithelium while in the abdominal portion the epithelium is made of high prismatic cells full of small vacuoles. The larval midgut epithelium suffers programmed cell death non compatible with apoptose. During the metamorphosis the midgut lenght diminishes from 31mm in the larva to 14mm in the adult.

  6. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino anterior de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae foregut

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    Ana Maria Vieira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Foregut in D. hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 as the majority of the larval Diptera somatic tissue, is made up of polytenic cells, and grows at the expenses of the polytenization of its nuclei followed by the increase in size of each cell. The oesophagus, of ectodermic origem, is interiorly covered by a chitinous squamous epithelium that rests upon a very thin basal lamina. This sheet is surrounded by thick muscle bundles. The oesophagus intussuscepts the midgut forming the cardia. The cardia, with three epithelial layers: two internal ones, of ectodermal origin and one external of endodermic origin. At the anterior portion of the cardia, between these two types of epithelium, there is a cluster of small, non polytenic cells, forming the imaginal disk of the foregut. Metamoiphosis begins at the end of the larval period with signs of nuclear degeneration of all the polytenic cells, as well as the increase in number of the imaginal disk ones. The oesophagic portion intussuscepted into the cardia, everts; its cells suffer apoptosis and are replaced by the new cells growing from the imaginal disk. The external layer cells also degenerate and are pinched off into the lumen of the very anterior portion of the midgut. The newly formed oesophagus intussuscepts "de novo" to form the two internal layers of the adult cardia. At the same time the midgut regenerative cells grow anteriorly to form the new external layer of the adult cardia.

  7. Susceptibility of larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae to entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae

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    María L. PESCHIUTTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae es vector de los agentes etiológicos de la fiebre amarilla y del dengue. Una alternativa al control químico de este vector es el uso de agentes biológicos. Los nematodos entomopatógenos son efectivos en el control de plagas. La infectividad y el ciclo de vida de un aislado argentino de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae en larvas de A. aegypti se registró por primera vez bajo condiciones de laborato - rio. Para cada unidad experimental, 30 larvas de mosquito de segundo estadio fueron expuestas a 8 dosis del nematodo (0:1, 1:1, 5:1, 15:1, 100:1, 500:1, 750:1, 1500:1. Los juveniles infectivos (JIs utilizados fueron multiplicados sobre Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. La continuidad infectiva de los JIs obtenidos de A. aegypti fue probada aplicándolos en una dosis de 100:1 sobre larvas del mosquito . Las tasas de mortalidad fueron de 0% a 84%. El número de nematodos desarrollados dentro de la larva de mosquito, la mortalidad larval y los nuevos JIs se incrementaron con el aumento de la dosis de nematodos. Los resultados indican que H. bacteriophora es capaz de infectar larvas de A. aegypti , se desarrolla y produce nuevos JIs, permitiendo la continuidad de su ciclo de vida.

  8. Ecosystem engineering potential of the gastropod Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767) in mangrove wastewater wetlands - A controlled mesocosm experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil, E-mail: gil.penha-lopes@biology-research.co [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Bartolini, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Limbu, Samwel [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Cannicci, Stefano [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Mgaya, Yunus [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Kristensen, Erik [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Paula, Jose [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal)

    2010-01-15

    The effect of different sewage concentrations (0, 20, 60 and 100%), vegetation (Bare, Avicennia marina or Rhizophora mucronata) and immersion periods (immersion/emersion period of 12/12 h or 3/3 days just for 100%) conditions were studied for 6 months on survival and growth rates of Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767). Gastropods' activity and ecosystem engineering preformed at bare and A. marina planted cells and 3 sewage conditions (0, 20 and 60%) were determined. Survival rates were higher than 70% in all treatments. Growth rate decreased significantly with increasing sewage concentrations (mainly at unplanted conditions) and longer immersion periods. A complete shift (from immersion to emersion periods) and a significant decrease in mobility and consequently its engineer potential, due to sewage contamination, lead to a 3-4 fold decrease in the amount of sediment disturbed. Sewage contamination, primary producers' abundance and environmental conditions may have influenced the gastropods survival, growth and its ecosystem engineering potential. - Terebralia palustris high ecosystem engineering potential in constructed mangrove wetlands.

  9. Description and evaluation of imposex in Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Strombidae): a potential bio-indicator of tributyltin pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cob, Zaidi Che; Arshad, Aziz; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Abd Ghaffar, Mazlan

    2011-07-01

    Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is an important gastropod species within the study area and was traditionally collected for food by the locals. The objective of the present study is to assess the incidence of imposex and its severity in this species. Adult conchs were sampled during their main reproductive period, from October 2005 to January 2006, at Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor Straits, Malaysia. A total of 32.81% of adult females showed imposex characteristics, with varying degrees of severity though. The relative penis size (RPS) index ranged from 1.74 to 33.29 (mean = 13.40 ± 2.27, n = 21), while the relative penis length (RPL) index ranged from 6.28 to 55.19 (mean = 25.83 ± 3.33, n = 21). The use of vas deferens sequence (VDS) index was however cannot be applied as the presence of egg groove obscured any vas deferens development in affected females. Sequence of imposex (male penis) development in female conch, from merely a small stump to an advance male penis homologous was therefore carefully analyzed and described, and an alternative imposex classification scheme was proposed. S. canarium can be a good indicator for monitoring of organotin pollution within the study area. However, more studies are needed in order to further develop and test its validity and application, such as its correlation with levels of pollutant within the tissues and the environment, as well as its application on other Strombus species. PMID:20824325

  10. Origin, distribution, and insertion of the brachial plexus nerves in Blue-and-yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Achôa Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has about 80 species of parrots cataloged, and five of them are identified as Macaws. As the vast majority of birds, Macaws use flight as their primary means of locomotion. However, the strength and power generated during the cycle of beating wings require a mechanism of active neuromuscular control and specialized adaptations of muscles responsible for flight, which are innervated by the brachial plexus. This study aims to describe the origin and distribution of peripheral nerves that make up the brachial plexus in Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus, 1758, in order to aid the veterinarian to recognize and locate neuromuscular lesions in this species. We used five dead bodies, obtained from the Screening Center for Wild Animals in Paraíba, Brazil, in which the nerves were identified by direct dissection. Four nerve roots were viewed, originating three nerve trunks, which stem from the intervertebral spaces between the tenth cervical vertebra and the second thoracic vertebra. Nerves from the dorsal cord innervated extensor muscles, while ventral cord nerves innervated flexor muscles of the wing, in addition to the pectoral branches, responsible to innervate the superficial thoracic and shoulder muscles.

  11. Modeling suitable habitat of invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) in North and South America’s coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Paul H.; Young, Nicholas E.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2016-01-01

    We used two common correlative species-distribution models to predict suitable habitat of invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) in the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. The Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) model were applied using the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling. We compared models developed using native occurrences, using non-native occurrences, and using both native and non-native occurrences. Models were trained using occurrence data collected before 2010 and evaluated with occurrence data collected from the invaded range during or after 2010. We considered a total of 22 marine environmental variables. Models built with non-native only or both native and non-native occurrence data outperformed those that used only native occurrences. Evaluation metrics based on the independent test data were highest for models that used both native and non-native occurrences. Bathymetry was the strongest environmental predictor for all models and showed increasing suitability as ocean floor depth decreased, with salinity ranking the second strongest predictor for models that used native and both native and non-native occurrences, indicating low habitat suitability for salinities species distribution models for invasive species.

  12. Trace Metals in Noah's Ark Shells (Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758): Impact of Tourist Season and Human Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanković, Dušica; Erk, Marijana; Župan, Ivan; Čulin, Jelena; Dragun, Zrinka; Bačić, Niko; Cindrić, Ana-Marija

    2016-10-01

    Commercially important bivalve Noah's Ark shell (Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758) represents a high-quality seafood product, but the data on levels of metal contaminants that could pose a human health risk and also on some essential elements that are important for health protection are lacking. This study examined the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, and Zn in the soft tissue of A. noae from harvesting area in the central Adriatic Sea, to survey whether heavy metals are within the acceptable limits for public health and whether tourism could have an impact on them. The concentrations of analysed metals varied for Cd: 0.15-0.74, Pb: 0.06-0.26, Cr: 0.11-0.34, Ni: 0.09-0.22, Cu: 0.65-1.95, Co: 0.04-0.09, and Zn: 18.3-74.7 mg/kg wet weight. These levels were lower than the permissible limits for safe consummation of seafood, and only for Cd, some precautions should be taken into account if older shellfish were consumed. Increase of Cd, Cr, and Cu in shell tissue was observed during the tourist season at the site closest to the marine traffic routes, indicating that metal levels in shellfish tissue should be monitored especially carefully during the peak tourist season to prevent eventual toxic effects due to increased intake of metals, specifically of Cd. PMID:27423875

  13. Spatial distribution and esterase activity in populations of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae resistant to temephos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Porto Tito Gambarra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypti collected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba. METHODS: Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a./L and multiple concentrations that caused mortalities between 5% and 99%. Electrophoresis of isoenzymes was used to verify the patterns of esterase activity among populations of the vector. RESULTS: All populations of Aedes aegypti were resistant to temephos, presenting a resistance rate (RR greater than 20. The greatest lethal dose 50% of the sample (CL50 was found for the municipality of Lagoa Seca, approximately forty-one times the value of CL50 for the Rockefeller population. The populations characterized as resistant showed two to six regions of α and β-esterase, called EST-1 to EST-6, while the susceptible population was only seen in one region of activity. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes aegypti is widely distributed and shows a high degree of resistance to temephos in all municipalities studied. In all cases, esterases are involved in the metabolism and, consequently, in the resistance to temephos.

  14. Temperature induced variation in oxygen consumption of juvenile and adult stage of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium (Linnaeus 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Wan Nurul Husna Wan; Amin, S. M. Nurul; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2015-09-01

    Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the important edible sea snail within the western Johor Straits, Malaysia. In this study, the impact of temperature on oxygen consumption (MO2) of L. canarium based on their ontogenetic changes (juvenile and adult) was measured in the laboratory condition at 22.0, 26.0, 30.0 and 34.0°C. Measurement of MO2 were taken every 1 s for 60 min on 4.20 - 34.00 g dog conch using respirometry chamber. All experiments were carried out in static conditions in five replicates with one snail per chambers. The results of oxygen consumption showed that juvenile dog conch respired at the rate of 0.163 ml h-1 and adult respired at the rate of 0.119 ml h-1. Consequently, the oxygen consumption in juvenile and adult dog conch was expressed as a total energy spends. The results indicates that total energy spend for oxygen consumed (ml h-1) of L. canarium at different temperature regimes (22.0 to 34.0°C) slightly increased over time period (0.63 ± 0.12 to 3.24 ± 0.05 J h-1) respectively. This finding of the present study suggested L. canarium is well adapted for life in high temperature environment.

  15. Trace Metals in Noah's Ark Shells (Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758): Impact of Tourist Season and Human Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanković, Dušica; Erk, Marijana; Župan, Ivan; Čulin, Jelena; Dragun, Zrinka; Bačić, Niko; Cindrić, Ana-Marija

    2016-10-01

    Commercially important bivalve Noah's Ark shell (Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758) represents a high-quality seafood product, but the data on levels of metal contaminants that could pose a human health risk and also on some essential elements that are important for health protection are lacking. This study examined the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, and Zn in the soft tissue of A. noae from harvesting area in the central Adriatic Sea, to survey whether heavy metals are within the acceptable limits for public health and whether tourism could have an impact on them. The concentrations of analysed metals varied for Cd: 0.15-0.74, Pb: 0.06-0.26, Cr: 0.11-0.34, Ni: 0.09-0.22, Cu: 0.65-1.95, Co: 0.04-0.09, and Zn: 18.3-74.7 mg/kg wet weight. These levels were lower than the permissible limits for safe consummation of seafood, and only for Cd, some precautions should be taken into account if older shellfish were consumed. Increase of Cd, Cr, and Cu in shell tissue was observed during the tourist season at the site closest to the marine traffic routes, indicating that metal levels in shellfish tissue should be monitored especially carefully during the peak tourist season to prevent eventual toxic effects due to increased intake of metals, specifically of Cd.

  16. Effect of unialgal diets on the composition of fatty acids and sterols in juvenile ark shell Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jilin; Zhou, Haibo; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhou, Chengxu; Zhu, Peng; Ma, Bin

    2012-04-18

    This study has investigated the effects of six different unialgal diets ( Chaetoceros calcitrans , Platymonas helgolandica , Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana , Nannochloropsis oculata , and Pavlova viridis ) on the composition of fatty acids and sterols in juvenile ark shell Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus. The best feeding effects on the growth of shellfish were found in C. calcitrans, followed by I. galbana and P. viridis, whereas Chlorella sp. and N. oculata exhibited relatively poor effects. The fatty acid and sterol compositions in the six microalgae and the juvenile ark shell after feeding were analyzed, and 39 fatty acids and 18 sterols were identified. Although the results demonstrate a close correlation between the sterol compositions in algal species and juvenile ark shell, a similar correlation was not observed between fatty acids. In the juvenile ark shell fed microalgae, the ratio of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) rapidly decreases, whereas the proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) increases considerably. The abundances of AA, EPA, and DHA increase most significantly in shellfish with better growth (fed C. calcitrans, I. galbana, and P. viridis). The number of sterol species is reduced, but the total sterol content in groups fed corresponding microalgae increases, and abundant plant sterols, instead of cholesterol, are accumulated in juvenile ark shell fed appropriate microalgae I. galbana and P. viridis. Therefore, to be more conducive to human health, I. galbana and P. viridis, of the six experimental microalgae, are recommended for artificial ark shell culture.

  17. Anidamientoydieta de Harpia harpyja Linnaeus en la Comunidad Nativa de Infierno, Madre de Dios, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo P. Piana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El Águila Arpía (Harpia harpyja Linnaeus es la rapaz de mayor tamaño que habita los bosques amazónicos, sin embargo en el Perú, es muy poco lo que se sabe de esta especie. Desde 1996 a 2001, realizó una investigación en la Comunidad Nativa de Infi erno para obtener información sobre la biología de la especie mediante la localización y observación de nidos activos y abandonados. La investigación permitió encontrar los primeros nidos activos descritos para el Águila Arpía en Perú e indicarían una cierta preferencia para anidar en castañales. Así mismo, la información recogida ha permitido establecer que el área de anidamiento de una pareja de Águilas Arpía en la zona de estudio es de aproximadamente 4300 hectáreas. El análisis de los restos de las presas consumidas y de las egagrópilas recolectadas dentro y alrededor de la base de los nidos nos han permitido hacer una primera descripción de la dieta de la especie, la cual está compuesta principalmente por mamíferos arbóreos.

  18. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of <70%, and 12 hours photophase. Fifteen hymenopteran specimens were dissected daily to evaluate their stage and development time. The phenology concluded that S. endius had a development cycle of 19 days with an incubation period of 24 hours. The development of the larvae of S. endius occurred in the subsequent eight days, during which a series of morphological alterations were observed. The pre-pupal stage occurred on the tenth day, where the movement ceased and elimination of the meconium started. The pupal stage occurred from the 11th to the 19th day, with emergence of males first, followed by female emergence approximately 24 hours later. These results allowed the evaluation of aspects of the detailed bionomics of the development of S. endius in order to record and program production of this parasitoid, thus optimizing its utilization as a biological control agent.

  19. Sexual segregation of Echinorhynchus borealis von Linstow, 1901 (Acanthocephala) in the gut of burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomainen, Arto; Tellervo Valtonen, E; Benesh, Daniel P

    2015-01-01

    Helminths often occupy defined niches in the gut of their definitive hosts. In the dioecious acanthocephalans, adult males and females usually have similar gut distributions, but sexual site segregation has been reported in at least some species. We studied the intestinal distribution of the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus borealis von Linstow, 1901 (syn. of E. cinctulus Porta, 1905) in its definitive host, burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus). Over 80% of female worms were found in the pyloric caeca, whereas the majority of males were in the anterior two-thirds of the intestine. This difference was relatively consistent between individual fish hosts. Worms from different parts of the gut did not differ in length, so site segregation was not obviously related to worm growth or age. We found proportionally more males in the caeca when a larger fraction of the females were found there, suggesting mating opportunities influence gut distribution. However, this result relied on a single parasite infrapopulation and is thus tentative. We discuss how mating strategies and/or sexual differences in life history might explain why males and females occupy different parts of the burbot gut. PMID:26580557

  20. Spatial distribution and esterase activity in populations of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae resistant to temephos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Porto Tito Gambarra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypti collected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba. METHODS: Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a./L and multiple concentrations that caused mortalities between 5% and 99%. Electrophoresis of isoenzymes was used to verify the patterns of esterase activity among populations of the vector. RESULTS: All populations of Aedes aegypti were resistant to temephos, presenting a resistance rate (RR greater than 20. The greatest lethal dose 50% of the sample (CL50 was found for the municipality of Lagoa Seca, approximately forty-one times the value of CL50 for the Rockefeller population. The populations characterized as resistant showed two to six regions of α and β-esterase, called EST-1 to EST-6, while the susceptible population was only seen in one region of activity. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes aegypti is widely distributed and shows a high degree of resistance to temephos in all municipalities studied. In all cases, esterases are involved in the metabolism and, consequently, in the resistance to temephos.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Monogalactosyl Diacylglycerols and a Monoacylglycerol from the Edible Brown Seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciliana Lopes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A monoacylglycerol (1 and a 1:1 mixture of two monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDGs (2 and 3 were isolated from the brown seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means (NMR and MS and by comparison with the literature. Compound 1 was composed of a glycerol moiety linked to oleic acid (C18:1 Ω9. Compounds 2 and 3 contained a glycerol moiety linked to a galactose unit and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 Ω3 combined with octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4 Ω3 or linolenic acid (C18:3 Ω3, respectively. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. All of them inhibited NO production at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The fraction consisting of compounds 2 and 3, in a ratio of 1:1, was slightly more effective than compound 1 (IC50 of 60.06 and 65.70 µg/mL, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of these compounds from F. spiralis and on their anti-inflammatory capacity.

  2. Study of peripheral blood cell cultivetion and karyotype of Sander lucioperca Linnaeus%梭鲈的淋巴细胞培养及其核型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金善; 范兆廷

    2012-01-01

    The blood cell of Sander lucioperca was cultured (Linnaeus)by the whole culture medium of RPMI 1640 in vitro. By evaluating the content of colchicines and permeating time, establish a set of mature experimental method to cultivate the blood lymphocytic cell and prepare chromosome of pike-perch. Metaphase chromosome specimens of Sander lucioperca Linnaeus were prepared from short-term culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes with air-drying technique. Experimental results indicated that the diploid chromosome number was 2n=48 and the karyotype was compose of 2m, 10sm, 10st,12t, NF=60.%采用RPMI1640全培养基对梭鲈(Sander lucioperca Linnaeus)淋巴细胞进行体外培养,经空气干燥制备染色体玻片标本并对其核型进行分析.结果表明,梭鲈染色体数目为48条,包括2条中部着丝点染色体、10条亚中部着丝点染色体、12条亚端部着丝粒染色体和24条端部着丝粒染色体,未发现异型性染色体对和随体.梭鲈核型公式为2n=48,2m+10sm+12st+24t,其染色体总臂数(NF)为60.

  3. Coexistence of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) and blue mussels Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 on a sheltered intertidal bivalve bed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, M.W.; Davids, J.K.; Dolmer, Per;

    2016-01-01

    The invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793 was introduced in Denmark for aquaculture in the 1970s. Presently, feral populations are found in many parts of the country, with the largest populations established on existing beds of blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758...... and M. edulis were collected from the bivalve bed, shell lengths were converted into biomass, which were interpolated to create biomass contours and combined with modelled topography of the bivalve bed to study niche separation. The bivalve bed slowly extended northwards over a period of 11 years, where...

  4. Results regarding growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758) fed with an additive feed, vitamin C, in a recirculating aquaculture system.

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Ciortan Mirea

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the vitamin C status on growth performance, survival rate and biochimical parameters from tissue of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758) with average weight of 93±1,0 g were fed with different dietary vitamin C rations and reared in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). Growth performance , survival rate and biochimical parameters from tissue of Nile tilapia were measured in groups fed diets supplemented with 100, 750, 2000 mg.kg-1L-a...

  5. A GLIMPSE ON THE DIET OF TYTO ALBA (SCOPOLI 1769) AND ASIO OTUS (LINNAEUS, 1758) FROM THE WETLANDS OF WESTERN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    IOAN DUMA; ZOLTAN BOROS; IORDACHE ION

    2009-01-01

    The diet of Tyto alba (Scopoli 1769) and Asio otus (Linnaeus, 1758) was analyzed by studying pellets collected from Dumbrava and Lugoj localities (Timis County, Romania). We have found that in the winter of 2007-2008 shrews made up 38.95% from the diet of Tyto alba that were hunting around Dumbrava locality. Although rodents were still the main prey items found in the pellets of Tyto alba the ratio between them and shrews was of 1.56:1. Among the Soricidae, Crocidura suaveolens represented a ...

  6. Behavioural responses of captive-born greater rheas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae submitted to antipredator training Respostas comportamentais de emas cativas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae submetidas a treinamentoanti-predação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano S. de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Human activities have been diminishing greater rhea Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758 populations throughout their natural distribution. The reintroductions of captive-born greater rheas have been tried but without success; since the individuals reintroduced were killed by predators. Captive-born animals that have been isolated from predators for many generations can lose their predator recognition abilities. To enhance the survival rates of the reintroduced animals, researchers are now using antipredator training techniques. We studied the response of 15 zoo-borne greater rheas to antipredator training. The animals were divided into three groups: two test groups and one control group. We ran 15 antipredator tests and four control testes with each group. Antipredator tests consisted of pairing a taxidermized predator model or a real predator (domestic dog with a simulation of a capture procedure. Control tests consisted of presenting the predator model (jaguar to the birds, after training but not associating it with an aversive event and recording behavioural responses. All tests were video-recorded and analysed a posteriori. Results showed that the trained rheas responded appropriately to the predators, becoming more vigilant and that there was considerable individual differences in response to antipredator training. The results demonstrated that antipredator training is effective and therefore an invaluable tool for reintroduction projects involving greater rheas. Furthermore, the methods employed in this research project should be applicable to other species of flightless birds.As atividades humanas têm diminuído as populações de emas Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758 por toda sua área de distribuição. Reintroduções de emas nascidas em cativeiro têm sido tentadas, mas sem sucesso, uma vez que os indivíduos reintroduzidos são mortos por predadores. Animais nascidos em cativeiro que foram isolados de seus predadores por várias gera

  7. Diet of crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, in a suburban area of southern Brazil Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Pedó

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trails inside the Reserve. Samples were dried in an oven for 24h at 60ºC, immersed in 70% alcohol, and prey items were identified using a stereomicroscope. The diet of the crab-eating fox was essentially carnivorous (87.62% composed by vertebrates, with seasonal variation (p = 0.0009 and absence of fruits. Small non-flying mammals and birds were the most frequent prey, being proportionally more preyed in autumn and summer, respectively. Arthropods were more preyed in winter and spring and bird/reptile eggs only in summer and spring, in the reproduction period of these groups.O graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, é um canídeo de pequeno porte de hábito crepuscular e noturno que ocorre nas savanas e florestas da América do Sul. Neste estudo foi avaliada a sazonalidade e a dieta de C. thous na Reserva Biológica do Lami, uma unidade de conservação com 179,78ha, situada na região suburbana do município de Porto Alegre, no sul do Brasil. Durante o ano de 2000 foram coletadas 80 amostras fecais - 20 por estação do ano - em coletas realizadas a cada duas ou três semanas, percorrendo as trilhas existentes na Reserva. As amostras foram desidratadas em estufa por 24h a 60ºC, imersas em álcool a 70%, e as presas foram identificadas com auxílio de estereomicroscópio. A dieta do graxaim-do-mato apresentou-se essencialmente carnívora (87,62% composta por vertebrados, com variação sazonal (p = 0,0009 e ausência de frutos. Pequenos mamíferos n

  8. Osteologia craniana de Platalea ajaja (Linnaeus (Aves, Ciconiiformes, comparada com outras espécies de Threskiornithidae Skull osteology of Platalea ajaja (Linnaeus (Aves, Ciconiiformes, compared with others species of Threskiornithidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina D. Ferreira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Platalea ajaja (Linnaeus, 1758 pertence Threskiornithidae (curicacas e afins e colhereiros, Threskiornithoidea, Ciconiiformes. Threskiornithidae (colhereiros, curicacas e afins são subdivididos em dois grupos: Threskiornithinae que compreende curicacas e afins, caracteriza-se por seus representantes possuírem um bico longo, estreito e curvo, ao passo que Plataleinae inclui os colhereiros, que apresentam bico longo e achatado na ponta. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo descrever a osteologia craniana de P. ajaja (Plataleinae e comparar com outras espécies pertencentes à Threskiornithinae. As espécies utilizadas para tal comparação foram: Mesembrinibis cayennensis (Gmelin, 1789, Phimosus infuscatus (Lichteinstein, 1823, Theristicus caudatus (Boddaert, 1783 e Plegadis chivi (Vieillot, 1817. Outras espécies pertencentes a ordem Ciconiiformes também foram utilizadas para comparação. A partir do presente estudo, observou-se que P. ajaja (Plataleinae apresenta como características que a separa dos Threskiornithinae: 1 sutura frontonasal conspícua; 2 processo supra-orbital do osso lacrimal curto; 3 maxila superior achatada dorsoventralmente, sendo alargada na extremidade, tomando forma de uma colher; 4 narina curta e de forma oval; e 5 processo retroarticular curto. Entretanto, são necessários estudos osteológicos que contemplem as outras espécies da família, bem como um estudo filogenético do grupo para maior compreensão das relações existentes entre os Threskiornithidae.Platalea ajaja (Linnaeus, 1758 belongs to the Threskiornithidae (ibises and spoonbills, Threskiornitoidea, Ciconiiformes. The Threkiornithidae are currently divided into two groups: Threskiornithinae (ibises and allies, which have curved bills used to probe into the mud, and Plataleinae that have specialized flat bill shapes. The goal of the present work was to describe the cranial osteology of P. ajaja (Plataleinae and compare it with other species of the

  9. Fertilidade do caranguejo de mangue Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae, em Iguape (São Paulo, Brasil Fertility of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae, at Iguape (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Yomar Hattori

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 58 Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763 ovigerous females in final embryonic stage were collected in mangrove forest at Iguape (São Paulo. Each female were kept in laboratory until the larvae hatching and had their carapace width (CW measured with caliper (0.05 mm and the larval number (LN calculated by volumetric method. The hatching rates (HR were calculated for each animal's size class (5 mm. The values of LN and CW obtained were subjected to regression analyses and the best fitting model was chosen by comparing the obtained determination coefficients (R². The fertility varied from 71,200 to 220,800 larvae (147,169 ± 32,070 larvae, corresponding to 41.7 to 76.8 mm CW (63.7±7.9 mm, respectively. The relationship LNxCW was expressed by the equation LN = 284.1CW1.5º¹ (N = 58; R² = 0.74; p < 0.01, that showed a positive correlation between the variables. Most part of ovigerous females (89.7% showed their hatching during the nightly period. A negative correlation between HR and CW was observed in these animals (p < 0.05, probably due to reduction of spermatophores in the seminal receptacle (multiparous females or due to senility in the females with large size. The biological studies of U. cordatus are very important for practices adoption that preserve and make the rational use of this recourse in Brazilian's mangrove forests.

  10. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.

  11. Variation in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae infestation in artificial containers in Caxias, state of Maranhão, Brazil

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    Joelma Soares-da-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dengue is a serious public health problem worldwide, with cases reported annually in tropical and subtropical regions. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762, the main vector of dengue, is a domiciliary species with high dispersal and survival capacities and can use various artificial containers as breeding sites. We assessed potential container breeding sites of A. aegypti in the municipality of Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: In the initial phase, we analyzed 900 properties in 3 neighborhoods during the dry and rainy seasons (August-October 2005 and February-April 2006, respectively. During the second sampling period, September 2006-August 2007, we used 5 assessment cycles for 300 properties in a single neighborhood. RESULTS: During the dry and rainy seasons, water-storage containers comprised 55.7% (n = 1,970 and 48.5% (n = 1,836 of the total containers inspected, and showed the highest productivity of immature A. aegypti; we found 23.7 and 106.1 individuals/container, respectively, in peridomicile sites. In intradomicile sites, water-storage containers were also the most important breeding sites with 86.4% (n = 973 and 85.6% (n = 900 of all containers and a mean of 7.9 and 108.3 individuals/container in the dry and rainy seaso-October 2006 (1,342. The highest number of positives (70 was recorded in May, mostly (94% in storage containers. CONCLUSIONS: Storage containers are the principal and most productive A. aegypti breeding sites and are a major contributing factor to the maintenance of this vector in Caxias.

  12. Induction of gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid and doubled haploid development in the brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, O; Dobosz, S; Zalewski, T; Sapota, M; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-04-01

    Gynogenetic and androgenetic brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758) haploids (Hs) and doubled haploids (DHs) were produced in the present research. Haploid development was induced by radiation-induced genetic inactivation of spermatozoa (gynogenesis) or eggs (androgenesis) before insemination. To provide DHs, gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid zygotes were subjected to the high pressure shock to suppress the first mitotic cleavage. Among haploids, gynogenetic embryos were showing lower mortality when compared to the androgenetic embryos; however, most of them die before the first feeding stage. Gynogenetic doubled haploids provided in the course of the brown trout eggs activation performed by homologous and heterologous sperm (rainbow trout) were developing equally showing hatching rates of 14.76 ± 2.4% and 16.14 ± 2.90% and the survival rates at the first feeding stage of 10.48 ± 3.48% and 12.78 ± 2.18%, respectively. Significantly, lower survival rate was observed among androgenetic progenies from the diploid groups with only few specimens that survived to the first feeding stage. Cytogenetic survey showed that among embryos from the diploid variants of the research, only gynogenetic individuals possessed doubled sets of chromosomes. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that radiation employed for the genetic inactivation of the brown trout eggs misaligned mechanism responsible for the cell divisions and might have delayed or even arrested the first mitotic cleavage in the androgenetic brown trout zygotes. Moreover, protocol for the radiation-induced inactivation of the paternal and maternal genome should be adjusted as some of the cytogenetically surveyed gynogenetic and androgenetic embryos exhibited fragments of the irradiated chromosomes. PMID:25601334

  13. Simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Lycium barbarum Linnaeus by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbaraj, B Stephen; Lu, H; Kao, T H; Chen, B H

    2010-02-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry method with electrospray ionization mode (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in fruits of Lycium barbarum Linnaeus, a widely used traditional Chinese herb possessing vital biological activity. Both phenolic acids and flavonoids were extracted with 50% ethanol and purified using a polymeric solid phase extraction cartridge followed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis. By employing a Vydac C18 column, a total of 52 phenolic acids and flavonoids were separated within 70min using a gradient mobile phase of 0.5% (v/v) formic acid in water and acetonitrile-water (94:6, v/v) with flow rate at 1mL/min, column temperature at 30 degrees C and detection wavelength at 280nm. Of 52 compounds, 15 phenolic acids and flavonoids were positively identified based on both absorption and mass spectra, with the remaining 37 tentatively identified by comparison of absorption spectra with reported values in the literature. Internal standards 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and hesperidin were used for quantitation of phenolic acids and flavonoids, respectively. Among the 15 positively identified compounds, quercetin-rhamno-di-hexoside was present in largest mass fraction (438.6microg/g), followed by quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (281.3microg/g), dicaffeoylquinic acid isomers (250.1microg/g), chlorogenic acid (237.0microg/g), quercetin-di-(rhamnohexoside) (117.5microg/g), quercetin-di-(rhamno)-hexoside (116.8mug/g), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (97.7microg/g), isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (72.1microg/g), p-coumaric acid (64.0microg/g), caffeic acid (23.7microg/g) and vanillic acid (22.8microg/g). PMID:19819093

  14. Spatially explicit genetic structure in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1759 within the framework of the monopolisation hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Lucentini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An apparent paradox is known for crustaceans, rotifers and bryozoans living in inland small water bodies: a potential for wide distribution due to the presence of resting stages is coupled with marked genetic differences between nearby water bodies, with enclave distributions masking clear phylogeographic patterns. According to the monopolisation hypothesis, this is due to the accumulation of resting stages, monopolising each water body. Freshwater sponges could represent a useful system to assess the generality of the mo- nopolisation hypothesis: these organisms i live in the same habitats as crustaceans, rotifers and bryozoans, ii produce resting stages that can accumulate, and iii have indeed a wide distribution. Currently, no studies on spatially explicit genetic differentiation on fresh- water sponges are available. The aim of the present study is to provide additional empirical evidence in support of the generality of the scenario for small aquatic animals with resting stages by analysing genetic diversity at different spatial scales for an additional model system, the freshwater sponge ephydatia fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1759. We expected that system genetic variability would follow enclave distributions, no clear phylogeographical patterns would be present, and nearby unconnected water bodies would show markedly different populations for this new model too. We analysed the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions 5.8S-ITS2-28S, the D3 domain of 28S subunit, the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I (COI and ten specific microsatellite markers of nine Italian and one Hungarian populations. Mitochondrial and nuclear sequences showed no or very low genetic polymorphism, whereas high levels of differentiation among populations and a significant polymorphism were observed using microsatellites. Microsatellite loci also showed a high proportion of private alleles for each population and an overall correlation between geographic and genetic

  15. Fungos Filamentosos Associados às Espécies Atta sexdens (Linnaeus e Atta laevigata (F. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Aline Dornelas

    2016-04-01

    Abstract. Leaf-cutting ants, Atta and Acromyrmex genera, are considered major pests in a neotropical agroforestry system because they cut plant material that will serve as food for the symbiotic fungus cultivated by them. Several fungi naturally occurring in the soil can be found associated with leaf-cutting ants, many of them are demonstrably entomopathogenic. However, these agents have not been used as biological control of leaf-cutting ants. The aim of this study was to isolate and to identify filamentous fungi associated with forage workers of Atta sexdens (Linnaeus and Atta laevigata (F. Smith and to test their pathogenicity against workers from laboratory colonies. To isolate filamentous fungi, it was collected a total of 180 forage workers (30 in each colony in six field colonies, 90 of A. sexdens and 90 workers of A. laevigata. Six fungi species from A. sexdens were isolated and identified: Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff Sorokin, Aspergillus flavus Link, Acremonium sp. 1, Aspergillus sp. 1, Colletotrichum sp. and Acremonium sp. 2. In A. laevigata, it was found four species: Mucor sp., Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium solani (Martius Saccardo, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem. Three of these fungi were selected for pathogenicity tests against workers of the leaf-cutting ant A. sexdens: A. flavus, A. niger and M. anisopliae. The LT50 (time to cause 50% mortality of workers in tests with A. niger and M. anisopliae were five days and significantly lower than the control group. Therefore, further tests should proceed with those isolates to demonstrate their potential use in the biological control of leaf-cutting ants.

  16. DYNAMICS OF PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS LINNAEUS, 1758 AGE STRUCTURE IN THE DNIEPER LOWER REACHES IN CONNECTION WITH FISHING

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    K. Geina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the dynamics of pike (Esox luceus Linnaeus, 1758 age structure of the Dnieper lower reaches in conditions of the modification of fishing pressure. Methodology. An analysis of fishing situation has been performed based on data of official fishery statistics. Fish sampling was done at control-observation posts of the Institute of Fisheries of the NAAS of Ukraine and directly in the fishery. Juvenile fish yield was determined using a complex of fry fishing gears using a stationary net-station. Field and cameral processing of the material was performed using generally accepted methods. Findings. A retrospective analysis of the situation in the Dnieper-Bug lower reach system clearly indicates on the presence of continuous tendency of catch decline of representative of native fish fauna – pike. With relatively uniform indices of the “yield” of its juveniles before Dnieper flow impoundment and in conditions of present time, its commercial catches significantly dropped. The dynamics of pike current age structure indicates on an increase of relative density of age groups, which form the recruitment of the commercial portion of the population (1-1+ and a decrease of importance of the component of the right side of age series. A discrepancy between the observed changes of the age group and commercial harvest quantities indicates on increased human pressure on this species. Originality. For the first, we analyzed the dynamics of fish juvenile “yield” and age structure of pike commercial stock of the Dnieper lower reaches in the river flow transformation process. Practical value. A decrease of the ichthyomass of piscivorous fishes in the Dnieper lower reaches results in changes of fish populations of littoral biotopes towards the prevalence of the dominance of coarse species that lead to a deterioration of forage availability for a number of valuable commercial species. An increase of the number of pike can regulate the strain

  17. Upstream migration, reproduction and fishery of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758 in the River Ulla (NW Spain

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    Sergio Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available After a juvenile haematophagous stage developed mainly at sea, the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758 stop feeding and return to the river to spawn. One of the main pressures in this stage is the presence of obstacles that reduce the accessible habitat, the mobility of individuals within this section and the energy resources available for gonad development and spawning. In addition, in the River Ulla, adults are targeted in a commercial fishery, using fyke-nets in the upper estuary and fishing in pesqueiras, which are stone constructions placed on the river bed, in the low section of the river. This study advances in the knowledge of the upstream migration (and related impact of barriers, reproduction and fishery of P. marinus in the River Ulla. The study combined fieldwork (radiotelemetry tracking of 19 adults in years 2012 and 2013 and inventory and characterization of obstacles, with information on the capture of lampreys (years 2000 to 2010 by commercial fishing and by a fixed trap located in the middle section of the river. The migration period in this river runs from January, or even December, until June, followed by reproduction in May and June. A total of 48 anthropogenic obstacles (all small-medium sized barriers except the last three, which are impassable, including 20 pesqueiras, were identified as a relevant obstacle for sea lamprey migration (which joins the impact of fishing performed in these sites. Hence, still more attention must be paid to "small" barriers, as pesqueiras, and to fisheries to properly conserve and manage populations of this and other anadromous lamprey species.

  18. A new species of Agonopterix feeding on giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) in the Caucasus, with a discussion of the nomenclature of A. heracliana (Linnaeus) (Depressariidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Lvovsky, Alexandr L.; Nielsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Agonopterix caucasiella sp.n. is described and compared with its closest relatives, A. ciliella (Stainton, 1849) and A. heracliana (Linnaeus, 1758). Adults and genitalia of these species are figured. The life history of A. caucasiella sp.n. in the Caucasus is described. Its larva feeds in the...

  19. Ocorrência e abundância de Rynchops niger Linnaeus, no litoral de Santa Catarina, Brasil Occurrence and abundance of Rynchops niger Linnaeus in the coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim O. Branco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O talha-mar Rynchops niger Linnaeus, 1758 habita os grandes rios, lagos e regiões costeiras durante as migrações, na América do Sul e do Norte. Esse trabalho tem por objetivo disponibilizar informações básicas sobre a ocorrência e abundância de talha-mar no litoral de Santa Catarina. Durante o período de abril/2002 a maio/2003 foram realizados censos sazonais (trimestrais e mensais em Itajaí, com auxílio de binóculos 10 x 50. O talha-mar é mais freqüente no aterro da Baía Sul (Florianópolis, no verão e outono, na primavera-verão em São José e Tijucas e no outono-inverno no estuário do Saco da Fazenda (Itajaí. Neste estuário, a população apresentou flutuações acentuadas ao longo do ano, com as maiores abundâncias ocorrendo em agosto/2001, janeiro/2002 e março/2003.The black skimmer inhabits the great rivers, lakes and coastal areas during the migrations, in South and North America. This work aims to make available basic information about the occurrence and abundance of the black skimmer in the coast of Santa Catarina. From April/2002 to May/2003 seasonal censuses were accomplished, and monthly in Itajaí, with aid of binoculars 10 x 50. The black skimmer is more frequent in the embankment of the South Bay (Florianópolis, in the summer and autumn, in the spring-summer in São José and Tijucas and in the autumn-winter in the estuary of the Saco da Fazenda (Itajaí. In this estuary, the population presented accentuated flotation along the year, with the largest abundances happening in August/2001, January/2002 and March/2003.

  20. Cottus gobio (Linnaeus, 1758, a new fish-species in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunn E. Frilund

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Frilund GE, Koksvik J, Rikstad A and Berger HM. 20092009. Cottus gobio (Linnaeus, 1758, a new fish-species in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. Fauna Norvegica 29: 55-60. Cottus gobio, a freshwater sculpin, was discovered by electrical fishing in rivers draining to Murusjøen in Lierne, Nord-Trøndelag County in the middle of Norway. Until now, this sculpin has only been found in a few river systems in the south-eastern and north-eastern parts of Norway. Species specific characters (glands and fins were used to distinguish C. gobio from the close relative C. poecilopus. The sculpin dominated the catches in all the investigated rivers. In August 2008 in the River Fiskløysa, a total of 194 specimens were collected. Their length varied from 37 mm to 105 mm, indicating the presence of both juvenile (age 0 and adult individuals. In September 2008, qualitative sampling was conducted in another part of Fiskløysa and in the rivers Kveelva and Murubekken. In River Fiskløysa, the species was not registered above a presumably impassable waterfall about 1.6 km from Lake Murusjøen. In River Kveelva sculpins were caught below a nine meters moderate waterfall, close to the outlet of Lake Kvesjøen, but no sculpins were registered above the waterfall. This indicates that the waterfall is a possible barrier for further upstream dispersal into Lake Kvesjøen. Sculpins were also registered in River Murubekken.The paper discusses possibilities for C. gobio being spread naturally or artificially into the river systems in Lierne. It is predicted that the dispersal most likely has been natural from populations in Sweden, as there are no distinct barriers preventing the sculpin from spreading westwards. The time-period of the dispersal, however, is still unknown, and the sculpin may still be expanding its home range in these water systems. 

  1. Inventory and bioecological aspects of parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) associated to Erinnys ello (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) in cassava crops = Inventário e aspectos bioecológicos de parasitóides do gênero Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) associados a Erinnys ello (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) em cultura da mandioca

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Carlos Dias Rocha; Geraldo Andrade Carvalho; Alexandre Pinho de Moura

    2006-01-01

    This work aimed to study the population dynamics, to determinate thespecies of Trichogramma occurring in cassava crops in the city of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, as well as to evaluate biological parameters of those parasitoids associated to Erinnys ello (Linnaeus, 1758). This study was carried out from January of 2000 to February of 2003, in plants taken at 15-days intervals. The collected eggs were kept in laboratorial climatic chambers at 25±2ºC, RH of 70±10% and 12h photophase. Du...

  2. Hematological characterization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 reared intensively in a recirculating aquaculture system in relation to water temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Ciortan Mirea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain a basic knowledge of the hematological response of Oreochromis niloticus mantained in different tchnological condition induced by different temperatures. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 with average weight of 33,5±1,0 g, they were stocked in 12 rearing units at 20, 24,30 and 280C (control water temperature for 30 days. Diet of 41 % protein was offered as feed, 3 times daily. The sampling of Oreochromis niloticus blood from the four variants before and after the experimental trial allowed determination of hematological indices. Red blood cel count (RBCc, hematocrit values (Hct, hemoglobin concentration (Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular concentration (MCHC, glucose and protein from blood were measured and analysed, with routine methods udes in fish hematology.

  3. Introduction to a new invasive pest, Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae)%外来入侵新害虫——无花果蜡蚧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海斌; 武三安

    2013-01-01

    无花果蜡蚧Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus)原产于非洲,是危害经济林和园林树种的重要害虫.2007年被列入《中华人民共和国进境植物检疫性有害生物名录》中.2012年4月下旬,该虫于广东省茂名市和四川省攀枝花市的榕树上被首次发现,为我国的新入侵害虫.本文介绍了其形态特征、地理分布、寄主植物、生物学和经济重要性等.

  4. Bed bug cytogenetics: karyotype, sex chromosome system, FISH mapping of 18S rDNA, and male meiosis in Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snejana Grozeva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera are frequently used as examples of unusual cytogenetic characters, and the family Cimicidae is one of most interest in this respect. We have performed a cytogenetic study of the common bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 using both classical (Schiff-Giemsa and AgNO3-staining and molecular cytogenetic techniques (base-specific DAPI/CMA3 fluorochromes and FISH with an 18S rDNA probe. Males originated from a wild population of C. lectularius were found to have 2n = 26 + X1X2Y, holokinetic chromosomes, 18S rRNA genes located on the X1 and Y chromosomes; achiasmate male meiosis of a collochore type; MI and MII plates nonradial and radial respectively.

  5. Modification of the liver fatty acids by Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (Malvaceae) infusion, its possible effect on vascular reactivity in a metabolic syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Torres, Israel; Zúñiga Muñoz, Alejandra; Beltrán-Rodríguez, Ulises; Díaz-Díaz, Eulises; Martínez-Memije, Raúl; Guarner Lans, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (HSL)-fed infusion on the fatty acid (FA) profile in liver of metabolic syndrome (MS) rats and its possible effect on vascular reactivity. Body mass, intra-abdominal fat, triglycerides, insulin, blood pressure, saturated, monounsaturated FA, NEFAs, Δ(9)-, Δ(6)-desaturases and vasoconstriction were increased, while vasorelaxation, polyunsaturated FA, endothelial nitric oxide and [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] ratio decreased in MS versus Control, but HSL infusion modified it and increased Δ(5)-desaturase. The results suggest that the alteration in FA liver metabolism in the MS contributes to impaired vascular reactivity, but treatment with of HSL infusion can improve this condition. PMID:23734849

  6. A GLIMPSE ON THE DIET OF TYTO ALBA (SCOPOLI 1769 AND ASIO OTUS (LINNAEUS, 1758 FROM THE WETLANDS OF WESTERN ROMANIA

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    IOAN DUMA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of Tyto alba (Scopoli 1769 and Asio otus (Linnaeus, 1758 was analyzed by studying pellets collected from Dumbrava and Lugoj localities (Timis County, Romania. We have found that in the winter of 2007-2008 shrews made up 38.95% from the diet of Tyto alba that were hunting around Dumbrava locality. Although rodents were still the main prey items found in the pellets of Tyto alba the ratio between them and shrews was of 1.56:1. Among the Soricidae, Crocidura suaveolens represented a proportion of 24.15%, Neomys anomalus 13.8% and Crocidura leucodon only 1%. The summer diet varied considerably but still contained 15.45% shrews. In contrast the pellets of Asio otus contained a smaller proportion of shrews both in winter and in summer month.

  7. Biosécurité et productivité du tilapia du Nil Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958 élevé en zone rurale ivoirienne

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    Kone, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosecurity and Productivity of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958 Bred in Ivoirian's Rural Zone. Fingerlings of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were bred in three types of fish farming of rural zone in Ivory Coast to determine impacts of the compliance of biosecurity measures on zootechnical parameters of these bred fishes. Fish farming were shared out in three types of farming based on the value of biosecurity measures compliance, which were 5%, 55%, and 83%. No significant differences were observed between mean values of physic and chemical parameters of ponds water from three types of fish farming. Concerning mean values of zootechnical parameters, the fish breeding with 83% of rate compliance of biosecurity measures had registered better values of zoo technical performance with significant differences compared with others types of fish farming.

  8. The morphology and histology of the male reproductive system in Dolycoris baccarum Linnaeus 1758 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)--light and scanning electron micoscope studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Nurcan; Candan, Selami; Suludere, Zekiye

    2013-01-01

    The male reproductive system of Dolycoris baccarum (Linnaeus 1758) is studied morphologically and histologically using both light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). The reproductive system of the male D. baccarum consists of a pair of testis, a pair of vas deferens, a pair of seminal vesicles, accessory glands (mesadenia, ectadenia), a bulbus ejaculatorius, a pair of ectodermal sacs, and a ductus ejaculatorius. The number of testicular follicles varies from four to six. The testicular follicles have three different development zones (growth zone, maturation zone, differentiation zone). The testes are connected to the seminal vesicles by the vas deferens. Vas deferens and seminal vesicles, which are fine-long and cylindrical. The seminal vesicle is connected with bulbus ejaculatorius which is balloon-shaped and surrounded with accessory glands. The bulbus ejaculatorius is continuous with ductus ejaculatorius which connected to the aedeagus.

  9. Infestação de Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae em Plantas de Euterpe oleracea Martius (Arecaceae no Estado do Acre

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    Rodrigo Santos

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. The açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Martius is a native palm tree from the Amazon region floodplains and may be indicated as the most economically profitable species of this genus. Its fruit pulp is extracted and widely consumed by the population of northern Brazil in several ways. With the expansion of the planted area many factors may affect the production and limit the cultivation, highlighting the occurrence of insect pests that cause losses in production. This report presents the first occurrence of the leafhopper Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae in E. oleracea plants. The occurrence of this insect associated with açai palms in Rio Branco, Acre, increases the list of hosts for this leafhopper in Brazil and reinforces the need for studies of population dynamics, survey of natural enemies, levels of damage and control methods in order to anticipate population outbreaks of this pest in commercial plantations of açai palms in the State.

  10. Infracommunities of intestinal helminths of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 from Italian Alps

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    Anna Rita Di Cerbo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most common carnivore in Italy and its spread includes almost the whole national territory. The species shows an high ecological plasticity and a variable diet composition connected in part to human sources. This high adaptability permits the red foxes to colonize different habitats like the suburbs of large cities as well as the small villages located in mountain areas. On the other hand, the tourism pressure seems to assume a great importance in the Alps, also in those areas where the foxes live. So, indirect interactions could take place between these animals and the humans. The role of V. vulpes in the zoonoses has not to be understated since this carnivore could transmit parasitic diseases that are able to cause serious pathologies in humans. This study aims just to investigate on intestinal communities of helmiths of V. vulpes in order to make progress in current knowledge on epidemiological situation in Italian Alps. During 1998-2003, we have examined 450 foxes from Trentino Alto Adige, Veneto, Lombardia and Valle d'Aosta. The specimens collected were found dead or have been hunted (according to national law n. 157/92 in localities situated between 170 and 2200 m a.s.l. The carcasses were carried to the provincial sections of Zooprofilattici Institutes, where the intestine was drawn by each sample and all the material was sent to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Milan. Parasitological examination of the small intestines was performed by the analysis of the whole sediment and counting technique (SCT. Parasites were preserved in alcohol 70° before to be clarified or stained and identified by microscope (Zeiss Axioscop. Mean abundance, mean intensity and prevalence were calculated for each taxon of helminth. Dates of sampling were grouped within the four seasons. Statistic tests were performed with software package SPSS rel. 11.5 and spatial analysis with the

  11. Una nueva especie de Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 del suroeste de Marruecos incluida en el grupo de M. (Eurymeloe) rugosus Marsham, 1802 (Coleoptera: Meloidae)

    OpenAIRE

    JOSÉ L. RUIZ; García-París, M.

    2015-01-01

    The scientific collections of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC, Madrid) hold an extense set of entomological materials collected in Morocco along the first decades of the XXth century by the preeminent naturalist M. Martínez de la Escalera. Morphological studies of the specimens of the genus Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Meloidae) reveals the existence of populations morphologically differentiated along the coastal regions of Essaouira and Ifni. These populations are in...

  12. Enterobactérias associadas a adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro Enterobacteria associated to adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae at the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    V.C. Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterobactérias foram identificadas em adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Ambas as espécies foram capturadas no Jardim Zoológico da cidade do Rio de Janeiro e tiveram a superfície externa do corpo lavada e o sistema digestivo dissecado, para análise bacteriológica. Identificaram-se Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. e Salmonella Agona. P. mirabilis foi o isolado bacteriano mais freqüente. Em duas amostragens (8% de C. megacephala, isolou-se Salmonella Agona. As amostras de E. coli não foram enteropatogênicas. M. domestica e C. megacephala são potenciais veiculadoras de bactérias causadoras de enterites em humanos e animais.Enterobacteria were identified in adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Both species were captured in the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro. They had their external body surface washed and their digestive system dissected for bacteriological analysis. Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. and Salmonella serovar Agona were isolated in the samples. P. mirabilis was the species most frequent isolated. Strains of Salmonella Agona were isolated from two samples (8% of C. megacephala. Enteropathogenic E. coli was not isolated. M. domestica and C. megacephala showed themselves as potential vectors of agents related to enteric diseases in humans and other animals.

  13. Ocorrência de Vibrio parahaemolyticus em mexilhões (Perna perna, Linnaeus, 1758 de banco natural do litoral do município de Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brasil Occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in mussels (Perna perna, Linnaeus, 1758 from a natural coastal bed in the municipality of Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Rita Maria B. Archer

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a ocorrência de Vibrio parahaemolyticus em quarenta amostras de mexilhões (Perna perna, Linnaeus, 1758 procedentes de banco natural da praia da Pinheira, município de Palhoça, Santa catarina, durante um período de três meses. Na metodologia de isolamento foi utilizada a técnica do Número Mais Provável (NMP com enriquecimento em água alcalina peptonada e subseqüente plaqueamento em ágar TCBS (thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose. Em 52,5% das amostras de mexilhões foi constatada a presença de Vibrio parahaemolyticus, com níveis de contaminação entre A study was carried out on the occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in forty samples of mussels (Perna perna, Linnaeus, 1758 from a natural bed at Pinheira Beach, Municipality of Palhoça, Santa Catarina (Brazil, during a three-month period. The most probable number technique was used for isolation methodology with prior enrichment of samples in alkaline peptone water and subsequent planting on thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was found in 52.5% of samples of mussels with a most probable number range of < 3 to 93 organisms/g. Serotyping was performed on 61 isolates and our findings indicate that 36.1% of these isolates were serologically non-typable; 54.1% of isolates displayed only flagellate antigenic structures and 8.2% had both antigenic structures. None of the isolates were Kanagawa positive.

  14. Some aspects on the reproductive cycle of European conger eel, Conger conger (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Anguilliformes, Congridae captured from Western Algerian coasts: a histological description of spermatogenesis

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    Abi-ayad Sidi-Mohammed El-Amine

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the annual reproductive cycle of European conger eel (Conger conger,Linnaeus, 1758 through analysis and description of spermatogenesis. A sample of 168 males was capturedbetween September 2008 and August 2009 from the Western coast of Algeria, from Béni Saf. Fish length andweight varied between 26.20-112 cm and 0.45-3.44 kg, respectively.Condition factors (K, gonadosomatic index (G.S.I. and hepatosomatic index (H.S.I. were calculatedmonthly. Factor K reached the minimum in August/September (0.10% corresponding to reproductive periodand a maximum in January (0.18%. Although G.S.I. values revealed to be statistically not significant, therewere two peaks for G.S.I., the first in March, denoting the beginning of spermatogenesis, and the second inAugust/September, indicating the reproduction period. H.S.I. reached a peak in December (1.90%, then thevalue decreased to a minimum in April.Histological analysis of testis allowed us to distinguish 5 stages summarized as follows: Stage 1:Spermatogonia A; Stage 2: Spermatogonia B; Stage 3: Spermatocytes and spermatids; Stage 4: Spermatocytes,spermatids and spermatozoa (cytodifferentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa; Stage 5: Spermatozoa(spermiogenesis or cytodifferentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa.

  15. A wide hybrid zone of chromosome races of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia, between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers (Belarus

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    Yu Borisov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Karyological study of 75 specimens of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from 8 localities in the Berezina River basin (eastern Belarus was carried out. A wide hybrid zone (not less than 100 km between the northern West Dvina chromosome race (XX / XYY, af, bc, gm, hk, ip, jl, no, qr, tu and the southern Turov race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g, h/k, i, jl, m, n, o, p, q, r, tu was revealed in this region. Frequencies of fused-unfused arms comprising four diagnostic metacentrics of the West Dvina race (g/m, h/k, n/o, q/r were calculated in all capture sites. Taking into consideration the absence of metacentric ip in specimens from six northern localities, the Borisov (Bs race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g/m, h/k, i, jl, n/o, p, q/r, tu (Orlov, Borisov, 2009 was distinguished in these sites. Common shrews from two southern localities on the right and left banks of the Berezina River (Berezino vicinity were referred to the Turov race. The presence of four metacentrics descended from the West Dvina race in the Bs race testifies to the hypothesis expressed earlier that the polymorphic populations of the S. araneus between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers originated as a result of the West Dvina race spreading from the north and of hybridization between this race and local populations with acrocentric chromosomes.

  16. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (-)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (-)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (-)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H₂DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound.

  17. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae, against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Orlando Salvador-Neto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (−-elatol and (+-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (−-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (−-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H2DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound.

  18. Laboratory and field evaluation of the effects of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid on the oviposition response of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Gloria Elsa Antonio-Arreola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we assessed the suitability of using the neonicotinoid imidacloprid with standard ovitraps by evaluating the ovicidal properties of imidacloprid and its influence on the oviposition response of gravid females of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae. First, we calculated the imidacloprid lethal dose 99 (LD99 by exposing third instar larvae of the target species to different concentrations of the insecticide. Next, Ae. aegypti eggs were exposed to the imidacloprid LD99 for 24 h and hatching inhibition was recorded. Finally, we investigated any potential repellent effect of the imidacloprid solution on the oviposition response of gravid Aedes females in field and laboratory conditions. The LD99 obtained from larvae tests proved to be sufficient to keep any exposed eggs from hatching. No repellent effect was observed; females laid as many eggs in imidacloprid-treated ovitraps as in traps containing either clean water or temephos-treated water in both field and laboratory conditions. Our results indicate that imidacloprid is a suitable insecticide for treating ovitraps against Ae. aegypti.

  19. Absorbed dose rate due to intake of natural radionuclides by Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) estimated near uranium anomaly at Santa Quiteria, Ceara, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium mining at Santa Quiteria (Santa Quiteria Unit - USQ) is in its environmental licensing phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the USQ, a monitoring program is underway. However, radioprotection of biota is not explicitly mentioned in Brazilian norms. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to behave in a pro-active way as expected by licensing organs, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology, based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected biomarker was the fish tilapia (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). Since there are no exposition limits for biota, in Brazil, the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5 x 103 μGy/y has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for tilapia was 2.76 x 100 μGy/y, that is less than 0.1 % of the limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was U-238, with 99% of the absorbed dose rate. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that in pre-operational conditions analyzed natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to the biota. (author)

  20. Results regarding growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 fed with an additive feed, vitamin C, in a recirculating aquaculture system.

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    Catalina Ciortan Mirea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the vitamin C status on growth performance, survival rate and biochimical parameters from tissue of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 with average weight of 93±1,0 g were fed with different dietary vitamin C rations and reared in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS. Growth performance , survival rate and biochimical parameters from tissue of Nile tilapia were measured in groups fed diets supplemented with 100, 750, 2000 mg.kg-1L-ascorbic acid (AA and almost ascorbate free diet (Total AA> 5 mg.kg-1 as a control. They were stocked in 12 rearing units at 28 oC water temperature for 30 days. Diet of 33 % protein was offered as feed, 3 times daily. Growth measurements of tilapia were recorded on beginning and at the end of the experiment. Results showed that growth performance for Nile tilapia had not significantly (p>0.05 differences between the control and the tretments . Survival rate was the same for al the treatments. The feed conversio ratio (FCR was not significant (p>0.05 between the control and the treatments. Resuls showed that the feed impoved with AA had no significant differences between treatments and control regarding the  optimum growth performance and survival rate at Nile tilapia.  

  1. Estimating the Potential Production of the Brown Mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 Reared in Three Tropical Bays by Different Methods of Condition Indices

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    Petrus Galvao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 is the main marine bivalve mussel yielded commercially in Brazil. In spite of this, scientific data is very scarce regarding its productivity in tropical shallow waters. The Condition Index (CI is used worldwide in mariculture to assess animal health, harvest time, and yield. In this study, the authors used CI results from nine different methods to assess the season effect on the mussel CI and also to evaluate the potential yield of three southern Brazilian bays. The results from nine CI methods were used for the comparison of the seasonality and yield of mussels reared in three marine bays. Sampling was carried out monthly within two 4-month periods, from December 2008 to August 2009. The results show a trend for seasonal effects on the CI results. The winter months showed the highest and the lowest values. Between bays, higher CI values were detected in animals reared at Sepetiba Bay, followed by Guanabara Bay and Ilha Grande Bay. We suggest that the CI (that considers the ratio between bivalve soft tissue wet weight and total length should be used by fishermen, since this formula was able to detect differences between sites and is more easily applied.

  2. Use of space and temporal distribution of Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus in the region of Sagi, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil (Sirenia, Trichechidae

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    Danielle Paludo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine manatee Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758 is endangered in the Brazilian Atlantic coast due to indiscriminate hunting practiced in the past, and to the low reproductive rate of the species. This work studies its use of space and temporal occurrence in the coastal area of Sagi, Northeastern Brazil. Daily observations from the beach of the animals in the sea were made during daytime from 1990 through 1993. The presence of reefs covered with marine algae is a determinant factor in the occurrence of the manatee. They were sighted feeding on algae that grow over the reefs close to beaches that were of high energy during high tide. The range used by manatees shifted according to tide. They occur in depths of 0.4 to 3.8 m; the distance from the beach varies according to the tide level. They show marked seasonality of occurrence, with higher frequencies in December - January and lowest in June - July. Two possible causes of the seasonal occurrence are discussed. Sagi is important for the conservation of the species in Northeastern Brazil as feeding and reproductive grounds.

  3. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (−)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (−)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (−)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H2DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound. PMID:26821032

  4. Descripción osteológica del rorcual común (Balaenoptera physalus, Linnaeus, 1758 del Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Barcelona

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    Carrillo, M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of the skeleton of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, Linnaeus, 1758 at the Natural History Museum of Barcelona We describe the osteology of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, L., registration code MZB 83-308 at the Natural History Museum of Barcelona. The specimen was stranded and died on a beach in Llançà (Girona, Spain in 1862. The skeleton weighed 1,161.59 kg and measured 14. 6 m, although the live animal would have been longer because the invertebral tissue was not included in the length originally stated. The newly reconstructed skeleton includes the invertebral discs and is 17.5 m long. The skull weighs 484 kg and the condilobasal length is 431 cm ( 24. 84% of the total length, corresponding to the mean length of specimens in the Mediterranean. The vertebral column has 58 vertebra structured following the formula: C7 T14 L14 Cd23. It is 10.29 m long and weighs 470.95 kg. All the cervical vertebra are free and show dorsoventral compression, differing from the thoracic, lumbar and first caudal vertebra that are relatively uniform, and rounded. From Cd14 se onwards, the vertebra vary in shape and the relationship between width and height is greater than 1, indicating lateral compression. The lack of suture lines in the epiphysis of the ulna and radius indicates the specimen is an adult that has reached ossification maturation.

  5. Revision of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), with new and previously described species from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Scatophagidae) in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Nguyen, Ha Van; Ha, Ngo Duy; Heckmann, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    An emended diagnosis of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) is provided based on specimens of six species collected from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Scatophagidae) in Vietnam: M. scatophagi Yamaguti, 1953 (type-species); M. cf. yamagutii Mizelle & Price, 1964; M. mizellei Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. kulkarnii Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. ypsilocleithrum n. sp.; and M. similis n. sp. Methaliotrema filamentosum Venkatanarasaiah, 1981 from the whipfin silver-biddy Gerres filamentosus Cuvier (Gerreidae) is included as the only other valid member of the genus. Metahaliotrema arii Yamaguti, 1953 from an ariid catfish is considered incertae sedis within the Dactylogyridae; and Metahaliotrema srivastavai Singh & Agarwal, 1994 from a bagrid catfish is transferred to Chauhanellus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1969 as Chauhanellus srivastavai (Singh & Agarwal, 1994) n. comb. Metahaliotrema geminatohamula Pan, Ding & Zhang, 1995 from spotted scat in China is determined to be a junior subjective synonym of M. scatophagi. The two new species and M. scatophagi, M. mizellei, and M. kulkarnii are described or redescribed based on specimens from Vietnam. PMID:27095662

  6. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit—URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 μGy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 μGy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  7. 丁鱥鱼胚胎及仔鱼发育的观察%Observations on embryonic and larvae development in Tinca tinca Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福艳; 梁万文; 冯鹏霏; 黄光华

    2011-01-01

    [Objective ]The present experiment was aimed to study the growth and development of Tinca tinca Linnaeus under high water temperatures in southern China in order to solve the lack of fry in extending production in southern China.[Method]Entire process of growth from embryonic stage to larva and fish development in Tinca tinca Linnaeus had been observed during the artificial reproduction. [Result]The parturition was found to be induced within 11 hours , and the average fertilization and hatching rate were recorded as 75.3 and 82.7% , respectively. The survival rate of larvae fish was 59.3%.The fertilization spawn of Tinca tinca Linnaeus was spherical, steel grey in color and viscous, measuring 0.50 mm to 0.77 mm in diameter. At 27 to 31℃ water temperatures, fertilized spawn experienced 1936 min to complete the fertilizing to hatching stage, the effective accumulated temperature was 908.89℃·h. The embryonic development process included 6 stages with 30 phases. The average length of hatched larvae fish was 3.84 to 3.87 mm. Ahout 60 to 80% of yolk sac was absorbed within 3 days after hatching, and approximately 30% of larvae fish began to intake the food. After 4 days of hatching, 90% yolk sac was ahsorbed, and about 90% of larvae fish began to intake food. The yolk sac was found to b absorbed completely after 5 days of' hatching. [Conclustion] Tinca tinca Linnaeus was found reproducing and raising its fry suitably in southern China in the waters with 20-27℃ temperature. The harmful things should be removed from water to keep it clean and maintain high water quality. The fish bait should be given to larvae fish timely according to the water temperature.%[目的]研究丁鳞鱼在南方较高水温条件下的生长发育情况,解决丁鱥鱼在南方推广养殖中苗种欠缺的瓶颈问题.[方法]对丁鱥亲鱼进行人工繁殖,然后对其胚胎及仔鱼发育过程进行观察记录.[结果]丁鱥鱼催产效应时间11h,受精率为75.3%,

  8. Analysis of Isozyme Diversities in Atrina pectinata Linnaeus (Mollusca,Bivalvia)%栉江珧同工酶多态性的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余祥勇; 王梅芳; 杨书婷; 桂建芳

    2005-01-01

    采用垂直板聚丙烯酰胺梯度凝胶电泳对栉江珧(Atrina pectinata Linnaeus)消化盲囊进行了5种酶(SOD、EST、MDH、ME、LDH)的同工酶分析.结果表明不同个体的同工酶表达呈现多态现象,个体间酶带带型既有相一致的共同特征谱带,又有较多的变异,5种酶均可把样品大致区分为差异明显的2种或3种类型,而且酶谱类型与形态类型基本对应,同工酶表达上的多样性表明栉江珧种内在生化遗传上存在较大的变异,具有较丰富的遗传多态性.

  9. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (-)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (-)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (-)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H₂DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound. PMID:26821032

  10. Molineus torulosus (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea a parasite of Neotropical primates: new morphological and histological data

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    Durette-Desset M.-C.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Molineus torulosus (Molin, 1861 parasite of Cebus spp. from South America is redescribed in Cebus apella and C. olivecaeus (new host from French Guyana with emphasis on the synlophe. During the maturation process, the larvae dwelt in the cysts carved alongside the external part of the small intestine. The turn-out of the mature worms and the laid eggs depended on the tissular organisation of cyst walls as the inflammatory process waned and fibrosis progressed to seal the cystic lumen. Adult worms entwine themselves in the cysts, live there permanently as their presence has never been evidenced in the intestinal lumen. They copulated, laid eggs, degenerated and died once entrapped by the fibrotic process. Laid eggs released in the intestinal lumen through a narrow channel ensured the continuation of the developmental cycle. However, erratic migration was possible via the vascular channels surrounding the cysts.

  11. Polyspecific associations between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and other primates in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2011-11-01

    One of the most common types of polyspecific association observed in Neotropical primate communities is that between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and capuchins (Cebus). The present study focused on association patterns in two Saimiri sciureus groups in eastern Brazilian Amazonia, between March and October, 2009. The associations were analyzed in terms of the species involved, the degree of association, and niche breadth and overlap. The study involved two S. sciureus groups (B4 and GI) on the right and left bank of the Tocantins River, respectively, within the area of the Tucuruí reservoir in southeastern Pará. Relations between species were classified as associations (individuals within 50 m and moving in the same direction), and encounters (individuals within 50 m and no coordinated movement). Group B4 was in association with Cebus apella during 100% of monitoring, and with Chiropotes satanas in 20.2%. By contrast, Group GI associated with Cebus 54.8% of the time, and with Chiropotes utahickae 2.5%. Encounters with Alouatta belzebul and Saguinus niger were recorded at both sites, with Aotus azarae and Dasyprocta prymnolopha at B4, and with Callicebus moloch, Dasyproct aleporina, Mazama gouazoubira, and Nasua nasua at GI. Overall, Saimiri had a broader niche than Cebus in terms of vertical spacing and diet, but not for substrate use. This pattern did not appear to be affected by association. While group GI spent significantly (P foraging patterns at the two sites, and the varying potential benefits of association for Saimiri. PMID:21809365

  12. Comparative and functional myology of the prehensile tail in New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelin, P

    1995-06-01

    The caudal myology of prehensile-tailed monkeys (Cebus apella, Alouatta palliata, Alouatta seniculus, Lagothrix lagotricha, and Ateles paniscus) and nonprehensile-tailed primates (Eulemur fulvus, Aotus trivirgatus, Callithrix jacchus, Pithecia pithecia, Saimiri sciureus, Macaca fascicularis, and Cercopithecus aethiops) was examined and compared in order to identify muscular differences that correlate with osteological features diagnostic of tail prehensility. In addition, electrophysiological stimulation was carried out on different segments of the intertransversarii caudae muscle of an adult spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) to assess their action on the prehensile tail. Several important muscular differences characterize the prehensile tail of New World monkeys compared to the nonprehensile tail of other primates. In atelines and Cebus, the mass of extensor caudae lateralis and flexor caudae longus muscles is more uniform along the tail, and their long tendons cross a small number of vertebrae before insertion. Also, prehensile-tailed monkeys, especially atelines, are characterized by well-developed flexor and intertransversarii caudae muscles compared to nonprehensile-tailed primates. Finally, Ateles possesses a bulkier abductor caudae medialis and a more cranial origin for the first segment of intertransversarii caudae than do other prehensile-tailed platyrrhines. These myological differences between nonprehensile-tailed and prehensile-tailed primates, and among prehensile-tailed monkeys, agree with published osteological and behavioral data. Caudal myological similarities and differences found in Cebus and atelines, combined with tail-use data from the literature, support the hypothesis that prehensile tails evolved in parallel in Cebus and atelines. PMID:7595958

  13. Primate diversity, habitat preferences, and population density estimates in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R B; Painter, R L; Taber, A B

    1998-01-01

    This report documents primate communities at two sites within Noel Kempff Mercado National Park in northeastern Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia. Diurnal line transects and incidental observations were employed to survey two field sites, Lago Caiman and Las Gamas, providing information on primate diversity, habitat preferences, relative abundance, and population density. Primate diversity at both sites was not particularly high, with six observed species: Callithrix argentata melanura, Aotus azarae, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, A. seniculus, and Ateles paniscus chamek. Cebus showed no significant habitat preferences at Lago Caiman and was also more generalist in use of forest strata, whereas Ateles clearly preferred the upper levels of structurally tall forest. Callithrix argentata melanura was rarely encountered during surveys at Lago Caiman, where it preferred low vine forest. Both species of Alouatta showed restricted habitat use and were sympatric in Igapo forest in the Lago Caiman area. The most abundant primate at both field sites was Ateles, with density estimates reaching 32.1 individuals/km2 in the lowland forest at Lago Caiman, compared to 14.1 individuals/km2 for Cebus. Both Ateles and Cebus were absent from smaller patches of gallery forest at Las Gamas. These densities are compared with estimates from other Neotropical sites. The diversity of habitats and their different floristic composition may account for the numerical dominance of Ateles within the primate communities at both sites. PMID:9802511

  14. Estudio genético de la estructura poblacional y conectividad de dos corales endémicos del Mediterráneo: Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766) y Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767)

    OpenAIRE

    Casado-Amezúa, P.

    2012-01-01

    [ES] El objetivo general de la presente tesis es determinar la estructura genética y el alcance de la conectividad de las poblaciones de dos corales escleractinios del Mediterráneo, Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766) y Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767). Estos procesos están generalmente ligados a diferentes características biológicas de las especies, tales como la densidad y distribución de las poblaciones, la fecundidad, el éxito reproductor, el tipo de desarrollo larvario, la capacida...

  15. Body mass and acquisition of breeding plumage of wintering Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus (Aves, Scolopacidae in the coast of Pernambuco, north-eastern Brazil

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    Carmem E. Fedrizzi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Annually, large flocks of semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 winter along South America coast, between September-April. They store fats in order to moult and return to their breeding grounds. Here, was examined body masses and plumage of adults Semipalmated Sandpipers during the departure month to evaluate the relationship between body mass and plumage. Fieldwork was conducted at Coroa do Avião (7º40'S, 34º50'W, Pernambuco. Birds were trapped in mist-nets between April 1990 and 1997. They were weighed, and aged according to plumage. Adult plumage may be (1 non-breeding, (2 pre-breeding, and (3 breeding. A total of 213 birds were weighed and examined, so that 8.0% (17 presented non-breeding plumage, 54.0% (115 pre-breeding, and 38.0% (81 breeding plumage. As in Semipalmated Sandpiper, 25g is the minimum body mass required to migrate, birds with breeding plumage and most with pre-breeding, were potentially apt to migrate. Non-breeding plumage birds presented smaller body mass. Apparently physiological problems and infestation may be important factors to explain over-summering, i.e., individuals remaining in the wintering grounds during the boreal summer.Anualmente grandes bandos de Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 invernam ao longo da costa da América do Sul, entre setembro e abril. Estas aves acumulam gordura para realizar mudas e retornar aos seus locais de reprodução. Neste estudo foram examinadas a massa corpórea e a plumagem de C. pusilla adultos durante o mês de retorno aos sítios reprodutivos, de forma a avaliar sua relação. A amostragem foi conduzida na Coroa do Avião (7º40'S, 34º50'W, Pernambuco. As aves foram capturadas com redes de neblina entre abril de 1990 e 1997. Os adultos e os jovens foram diferenciados através da análise de plumagem. A plumagem dos adultos foi classificada em: (1 não-reprodutiva, (2 pré-reprodutiva e (3 reprodutiva. Um total de 213 aves foi examinado e sua massa corp

  16. Una nueva especie de Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 del suroeste de Marruecos incluida en el grupo de M. (Eurymeloe rugosus Marsham, 1802 (Coleoptera: Meloidae

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    Ruiz, José L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific collections of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC, Madrid hold an extense set of entomological materials collected in Morocco along the first decades of the XXth century by the preeminent naturalist M. Martínez de la Escalera. Morphological studies of the specimens of the genus Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Meloidae reveals the existence of populations morphologically differentiated along the coastal regions of Essaouira and Ifni. These populations are included within the Meloe rugosus Marsham, 1802 species group in the subgenus Eurymeloe Reitter, 1911. Their differential traits with respect to all other North African and European species of the Meloe rugosus species group are constant, and permit considering these populations as a taxonomic independent unit described herein, Meloe baamarani n. sp. This new species is characterized by having a black, opaque, general coloration all over the body and appendages; black short vestiture; broad head with broadly rounded temples, without median longitudinal groove; long antennae, with segments III to VIII subcylindrical and longer than wide; pronotum transverse, with convergent sides toward the base, without median groove; head and pronotum punctuation dense; aedeagus narrow, median lobe wide and strong, dorsally sinuous, with ventral hooks close to the apex. Meloe baamarani can be only confused on the western regions of northern Africa with Meloe mediterraneus Müller, 1925. This species shares a general appearance with M. baamarani, but differs in many morphological traits. Among those, tegument micro-reticulation, absence of median groove along the head, pronotum morphology and macrosculpture, and configuration of the male genitalia, are included.Las colecciones científicas del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC, Madrid albergan un extenso material entomológico recogido en Marruecos a principios del siglo XX por el insigne naturalista M. Mart

  17. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation

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    Shanivarsanthe Leelesh Ramya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n = 13 and adults (n = 12 of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%, followed by bacilli (15.4%. Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%, bacilli (16.7% and flavobacteria (16.7%. Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32 µmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus – KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans – KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26 µmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM.

  18. Cestodes of the blue shark, Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758), (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae), off the west coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Oscar; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    The cestode species recovered from the spiral intestines of 27 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported from the western coast of Baja California Sur (BCS). The sampling was undertaken on a monthly basis from January 2003 to January 2004. The helminthological examination indicated the presence of four species of cestodes: Platybothrium auriculatum Yamaguti, 1952; Prosobothrium japonicum Yamaguti, 1934; Anthobothrium caseyi (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke & Caira, 2009; and Paraorygmatobothrium prionacis (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke, 1994. Of all the 27 sharks examined, 88.8% were infected with at least one cestode species. The most frequent species was P. auriculatum infecting 85% of the spiral intestines examined. In contrast the species with the highest mean intensity was P. prionacis (80.4 200). The species richness of cestodes in P. glauca is very similar in other regions of the world despite its wide distribution; however, this richness is low compared with other species of sharks within the same family. The feeding and host-specific are important factors that influence the parameters of infection of cestodes in this shark. On the west coast of BCS, Prionace glauca feeds mainly on red crab Pleuroncodes planipes Stimpson, 1860; squids Gonatus californiensis Young, 1972, Ancistrocheirus lesueurii (D'Orbigny, 1842), Haliphron atlanticus Steenstrup, 1861, and low proportion of fish teleosts as Merluccius productus (Ayres, 1855), Sardinops sp. Hubbs, 1929 and Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1872. We speculate that these prey could be involved as the second intermediate hosts of these cestodes, as in other members of these genera, although the life cycles of none are known. PMID:27394312

  19. Comparative biology of Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763 and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae focusing on the control of Cinara spp. (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Josiane Teresinha Cardoso

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant conifer aphids Cinara pinivora (Wilson, 1919 and Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera, Aphididae have been observed attacking Pinus spp. in Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The coccinellids, on the other hand, were found feeding on these aphids in the field, which can be regarded as potential biological control agents. The biological cycle and mortality rate of larvae of Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763 and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae were evaluated using twenty larvae of each predator species fed with nymphs of Cinara. The vials with the insects were kept under 15 ºC, 20 ºC and 25 ºC, with 12h photophase and 70 ± 10% relative humidity. The consumption was evaluated every 24 hours and the nymphs replaced. For C. sanguinea, the egg incubation time was 10.5, 5.0 and 4.0 days; the average larval development period was 33.3, 15.8 and 8.6 days and the larval mortality rate 20%,0% and 15%, respectively at 15 ºC, 20 ºC and 25 ºC. For H. convergens, the larval development time was 41.9, 19.3 and 10.9 days at 15 ºC, 20 ºC and 25 ºC, respectively. The larval mortality rate was 35%, 15% and 0% under the three temperatures. Both species developed adequately when fed nymphs of Cinara, however, C. sanguinea performed better than H. convergens, even at 15 ºC, at which temperature the biological cycles of the coccinellids are prolonged, but the temperature is favorable for the development of Cinara populations in the field.

  20. Padrão de atividade e comportamento de forrageamento do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Activity pattern and foraging behavior of bulldog-bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae in Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, Brazil

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    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre 18 de janeiro a 16 de dezembro de 1999 foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento e o padrão de atividade do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, em uma área de manguezal na Baía de Guaratuba, Sul do Brasil. Os grupos de N. leporinus observados permaneceram em atividade ao longo de todo o período noturno, mas com um aparente padrão bimodal. Durante os meses de abril a setembro, N. leporinus inicia a sua atividade geralmente às 18:00 h, uma hora mais cedo do que durante os meses de outubro a março, quando inicia sua atividade geralmente às 19:00 h. O comportamento de predação sobre os cardumes de peixes mostrou variações quanto ao local de forrageamento ao longo do período de atividade. Em baixos níveis de maré, os grupos de morcegos pescaram longe da margem em águas mais profundas, mas nos níveis de maré alta os grupos de morcegos permaneceram pescando sempre junto à margem, em águas mais rasas. Este padrão de comportamento em N. leporinus parece ser determinado pelo padrão de deslocamento dos cardumes de peixes na área de estudo.From January 18 to December 16 of 1999 the foraging behavior and activity pattern of fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied in mangrove ecosystem of Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil. The groups of N. leporinus observed remained active during all nightly period but showed an apparent bimodal pattern. During April and September N. leporinus generally begin their activity at 18:00h, one hour earlier than October to March months, when their activity started at 19:00 h. The foraging behavior on fish shoal varied spatially along all the activity period. During low tide level the bat groups remained fishing distant from margin on deeper water, but during high tide level the bats were always observed fishing close to the margin on flat water. This pattern in foraging behavior of N. leporinus appears to be determined by the fish shoal displacement pattern in

  1. Inventory and bioecological aspects of parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae associated to Erinnys ello (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae in cassava crops = Inventário e aspectos bioecológicos de parasitóides do gênero Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae associados a Erinnys ello (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae em cultura da mandioca

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    Luiz Carlos Dias Rocha

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the population dynamics, to determinate thespecies of Trichogramma occurring in cassava crops in the city of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, as well as to evaluate biological parameters of those parasitoids associated to Erinnys ello (Linnaeus, 1758. This study was carried out from January of 2000 to February of 2003, in plants taken at 15-days intervals. The collected eggs were kept in laboratorial climatic chambers at 25±2ºC, RH of 70±10% and 12h photophase. During the collecting period, variations were observed in the population dynamics of Trichogramma spp.. Variations were also observed in the months of high rainfall when, due to the high host occurrence, the parasitoids presented the highest population density. The average rate of natural parasitism of E. ello eggs was 52.6%, the sex ratio was 0.8, and deformation was 0.4%. Two species were notified on E. ello: Trichogramma demoraesi Nagaraja, 1983 and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879.Objetivou-se neste trabalho realizar o levantamento populacional, determinar as espécies de Trichogramma que ocorrem no município de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, associadas à cultura damandioca, bem como avaliar parâmetros biológicos desses parasitóides em Erinnys ello (Linnaeus, 1758. As coletas foram realizadas de janeiro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2003, em plantas tomadas ao acaso durante um período de busca de uma hora, em intervalos médios de 15 dias. Os ovos coletados foram mantidos no laboratório em câmaras climáticas reguladas a 25±2ºC, UR de 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Durante o período de realização desse estudo, observaram-se variações na flutuação populacional de Trichogramma spp., sendo que nos meses de elevada precipitação pluviométrica, em função da maior disponibilidade do hospedeiro, os parasitóides apresentaram maior densidade populacional. A taxa de parasitismo natural média realizada por Trichogramma spp. foi de 52

  2. Synthèses enzymatiques de néoglucoconjugués catalysées par l'alpha-glucosidase purifiée de la blatte Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus

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    Kamenan A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic synthesis of neoglucoconjugates by purified α-glucosidase from cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus. Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus contains in his digestive tract an acid (pH 5,0 and mesophile (50°C α-glucosidase. This enzyme, purified to homogeneity, hydrolyses highly maltose, sucrose and p-nitrophenyl-α-Dglucopyranoside. The ability of α-glucosidase from cockroach purified to homogeneity to catalyse transglucosylation reactions was tested using maltose and saccharose as glucosyl donors and 2-phenylethanol and phenol as acceptors. The experimental conditions were optimized in relation to the time course of the reaction, pH and concentrations of glucosyl donors and acceptors. The yields in transglucosylation reactions at 37 °C were very high and could attain 67% and 48% with 2-phenylethanol and phenol respectively as glucosyl acceptors. This α-glucosidase hydrolyzed the products formed. It seems that the products formed were the phenylethyl-α-D-glucoside and phenyl-α-D-glucoside. These results suggest that α- glucosidase from cockroach is an exoglucosidase which catalyse the splitting of the α-glucosyl residue from the non reducing terminal of the substrate to liberate α-glucose. This comportment indicates that this enzyme operated by a mechanism involving the retention of the anomeric configuration. On the basis of this work, α-glucosidase from P. americana appears to be a valuable tool for the preparation of α-neoglucoconjugates.

  3. Estudo de uma população relictual de veado-campeiro, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Cervidae no municipio da Lapa, Paraná, Brasil A relictual population study of pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Cervidae at Lapa, Paraná State, Brazil

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    Fernanda Góss Braga Mauro de Moura-Britto

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was studied between August 1996 and September 1997 at Fazenda Santa Maria (25º34' and 25º36'S, 49º46'and 49º49'W at Lapa, Paraná State. During that period we have collected information on feeding habits, group composition, time of the year for birth of youngsters and time for antlers change. The presence of the animal in the area was confirmed by the finding of vestiges and visual occurrences. Animais were observed feeding on young leaves of soya been (Glicine max, oat (Avenasaliva, ryegrass (Lolium mulliflorum and barley (Hordeum vulgare. Only one female was observed feeding on dry leaves. A stag was observed feeding on a barley ear. Group's average size was 1.5 individual. Stags/female proportion was 1: 0.96. Animais displaying velvet coated antlers were observed in June and July which is in accordance with literature about antlers change in a definite period restricted to winter. Only one youngster was observed in September 1996. It is believed that the species survive in the region despite human activities through adaptation of feeding habits with the introduction of agricultura! species. This population could disappear in a few years because of the small number of individuais and their isolation.

  4. Antimicrobial effect of human serum on oral Fusobacterium nucleatum isolates from humans and monkeys Atividade antimicrobiana do soro humano sobre isolados de Fusobacterium nucleatum obtidos de humanos e macacos

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    Elerson GAETTI-JARDIM JÚNIOR

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of eighty F. nucleatum isolates from periodontal patients, healthy subjects and Cebus apella monkeys to human pooled sera was tested. The resistance to serum bactericidal effects was observed in 46.9% of the isolates from periodontal patients, 28.6% of the healthy subjects and 40% of the monkeys. These results support the hypothesis that serum plays an ecological role by controlling the microbial population inside either the gingival crevice or periodontal pocket.Foi avaliada a susceptibilidade de oitenta isolados de F. nucleatum obtidos de pacientes com doença periodontal, indivíduos sadios e Cebus apella (macaco-prego frente ao soro humano. A resistência à atividade bactericida do soro foi observada em 46,9% das fusobactérias isoladas de pacientes com doença periodontal, 28,6% das obtidas de indivíduos sadios e em 40% das fusobactérias de primatas não humanos. Esses resultados suportam o conceito de que o soro possui um papel ecológico em controlar a população microbiana no interior do sulco gengival ou bolsa periodontal.

  5. Presença de anticorpos da classe IgM de Leptospira interrogans em animais silvestres do Estado do Tocantins, 2002 Presence of IgM antibodies for Leptospira interrogans in wild animals from Tocantins State, 2002

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    Milton Formiga de Souza Júnior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Quatrocentos e vinte e sete amostras de soro provenientes de animais silvestres foram testadas frente a 18 sorovariedades de Leptospira interrogans. De 286 amostras de Cebus apella, 46 (16,1% foram positivas para as sorovariedades pomona, brasiliensis, mini, swajizak, grippothyphosa, sarmin, fluminense, autumnalis, hebdomadis, guaratuba, javanica e icterohaemorhagiae. Das 82 de Alouatta caraya, 2 (2,4% foram positivas para as sorovariedades mangus e fluminense. Das 31 de Nasua nasua, 4 (12,9% foram positivas para as sorovariedades fluminense e javanica. Das 10 amostras de Cerdocyon thous, 2 (20% foram positivas para as sorovariedades fluminense e brasiliensis. Sete de Dasyprocta sp, 6 de Tamandua tetradactila e 5 de Euphractus sexcintus não apresentaram reatividade.Four hundred and twenty-seven serum samples of wild animals were tested against 18 serovars of Leptospira interrogans. Of 286 samples of Cebus apella, 46 (16.1% were positive for the serovars pomona, brasiliensis, mini, swajizak, grippotyphosa, sarmin, fluminense, autumnalis, hebdomadis, guaratuba, javanica and icterohaemorrhagiae. Of 82 samples of Alouatta caraya, 2 (2.4% were positive for the serovars mangus and fluminense. Of 31 samples of Nasua nasua, 4 (12.9% were positive for the serovars fluminense and javanica, and of 10 samples of Cerdocyon thous, 2 (20 % were positive for the serovars fluminense and brasiliensis. Seven samples of Dasyprocta sp, 6 of Tamandua tetradactyla and 5 of Euphractus sexcintus did not present reactivity.

  6. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae: physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences

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    Priscilla Scacchetti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3 and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (G. sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, G. inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, G. pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758 from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. G. sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st, G. pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st, while G. inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a and G. cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of G. inaequilabiatus, G. cf. carapo, and G. pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in G. inaequilabiatus, G. cf. carapo, and G. pantherinus, and on pair 2 in G. sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in G. sylvius and G. pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in G. sylvius and two pairs in G. pantherinus; G. inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and G. cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of G. inaequilabiatus and G. cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of G. sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGGn indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present study reveals valuable cytotaxonomic markers for this group and allows a more precise evaluation of the processes involved in the

  7. 贻贝多糖胶囊毒理学安全性研究%A toxicological security study of Mytihus Edulis Linnaeus Polysaccharides Capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴涓; 孙倩; 储智勇; 祝德秋; 汪家春; 栾洁; 张术

    2011-01-01

    目的:对贻贝多糖胶囊的食用安全性进行毒理学评价.方法:采用急性毒性实验、遗传毒性实验(Ames试验、小鼠骨髓微核试验、小鼠精子畸形试验)和30 d喂养试验进行评价.结果:小鼠经口MTD均大于15.0 g/kg,Ames试验、小鼠骨髓微核试验、小鼠精子畸形试验三项遗传毒性试验结果均为阴性.30 d喂养试验未见大鼠的生长发育、血液学、生化、脏器比及组织病理学有异常变化.结论:贻贝多精胶囊急性毒性分级属无毒级,无遗传毒性,最大无损害作用剂量大于1.6 g/kg,相当于人体推荐摄人量的120倍.在本实验剂量范围内,贻贝多糖胶囊属安全性保健食品.%Objective:To estimate the toxicological characterization of mytihus edulis linnaeus polysaccharides (MELP) capsule. Motheds: Acute toxicity test, genetic toxicity test ( Ames test, micronucleus test of bom marrow in mice, sperm shape abnormality test in mice) and thirty - day feeding test in rats were used in this study according to the procedures for toxicological assessment of food. Results: The oral MTD in mice was more than 15.0 g/kg, the results of Ames test, micronucleus test of born marrow in mice and sperm shape abnormality in mice were negative. The thirty - day feeding test in rats demonstrated that it had no obvious toxic effects on growth and development, routine blood, biochemical index, VSI and histopathologica changes. Conclusion: MELP capsule test results showed non -toxic and non -genetic toxicity in acute toxicity test. The lagest dose of this sample for no obvious adverse effects was 1.6 g/kg, which is equivalent to 120 times of the recommended amount for human body. Within the scope of this test dose, MELP capsule is a kind of health food products.

  8. Controle de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 e Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 através de formulados contendo Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis em temperaturas controladas

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    João Zequi

    2011-11-01

    Abstract. Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus and Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Say are important pathogen vectors in urban environments. This study was designed to evaluate commercial formulations containing Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis de Barjac for the control of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus and to assess their efficiency as compared to manufacturers´ claims. The tested products were the liquid formulation of Aquabac® XT 1200 ITU/mg, Teknar® 3000AAU/mg, and Vectobac® AS 1200 ITU/mg, and the solid products Vectobac® WDG 3000 ITU/mg, Vectobac® Tablet 2200 ITU/mg, and the trial formulation of Biouel 500 ITU/mg. All products were tested at 25±2°C temperature and the liquid formulations were also tested at 15±2°C, 35±2°C, and at room temperature (25.37 to 28.73ºC. The experiments were conducted with 25 larvae at the early 4th stage, in 150 mL of distilled water; the dead larvae were counted 24 hours after product application. Results were analyzed using Probit to calculate CL50. The 25±2°C temperature, Vectobac WDG, and Vectobac Tablet were the most efficient in controlling Ae. aegypti, with CL50 of 0.10 (0.08 – 0.11 mg/L and 0.10 (0.09 – 0.11 mg/L, respectively. The most efficient products for Cx. quinquefasciatus were Vectobac WDG, Vectobac AS, Biouel, and Vectobac T. When the potency claimed by manufacturers was compared to our laboratory results, Biouel had the best performance for both species. Vectobac AS was the most efficient for both species of Culicidae tested at 15±2°C, 35±2°C and at room temperature (25.37 to 28.37°C. Lower product concentrations were required at 35±2°C room temperature to control Cx. quinquefasciatus than for Ae. aegypti.

  9. 条纹锯(鮨)胚胎发育及卵黄囊仔鱼形态变化的观察%Preliminary studies on embryonic development and morphology of the yolk-sac larvae of Centropristis striata Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾瑞锦; 陈超; 王鲁; 赵从明; 公光业; 孙曙光; 于宏; 王彦怀; 孙涛; 王贺

    2012-01-01

    通过观察条纹锯(鮨)的胚胎发育过程及卵黄囊仔鱼形态变化,研究其胚胎发育及卵黄囊仔鱼的形态特征、特点.采用Nikon E200显微镜对其胚胎发育形态及卵黄囊仔鱼形态变化进行连续拍照取样,详细描述了其从受精卵到初孵仔鱼的26个具体发育时期的形态特征、孵化温度、发育时间及卵黄囊仔鱼的形态变化特征.结果显示,条纹锯(鮨)的受精卵为球形、游离的浮性卵,平均卵径为0.950±0.039mm;条纹锯(鮨)受精卵孵化需经过卵裂期、囊胚期、原肠胚期、神经胚期、器官生成期和孵化期6个主要时期,在80目的孵化网箱中,水温20~20.5℃、盐度28~32、DO≥5mg/L、pH 7.6~8.4静水微充气的条件下需要46 h 53 min孵化;卵黄囊在仔鱼出膜2d后被吸收.%Nikon E200 microscope was used to observe the embryonic development of Centropristis striata Linnaeus. Detailed changes from the fertilized egg to the newly hatched fish, and morphological characteristics of 26 specific developmental stages were described. The results showed that fertilized eggs of C. striata Linnaeus were free-floating and spherical, at an average diameter of 0. 950 + 0. 039mm; Embryonic development C. striata Linnaeus experienced six main stages including cleavage, blastocyst,gastrulation, neurula embryo,organogenesis and hatching stage. The results showed that, at water temperatures of 20~20. 5 ℃, salinity 28~32, 5mg/L,and pH 7. 6~8. 4, fertilized eggs of C. striata maintained in cages with slight areation were hatched in 47 h,and yolk-sac in the larvae disappeared after 2 days.

  10. Dieta e dispersão de sementes por Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnívora, Canidae, em um fragmento florestal no Paraná, Brasil Diet and seed dispersal by Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus in a forest fragment in Paraná (Carnivora, Canidae

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    Vlamir J. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora o cachorro-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1706, seja um Canidae relativamente comum, não há muita informação sobre sua dieta e seu papel como dispersor de sementes nos diferentes habitats onde ocorre. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de reportar a dieta de C. thous e sua importância como dispersor e/ou predador de sementes, e ainda testar a taxa de germinação de sementes após passar pelo trato digestório do animal. O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento (680 ha de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, o Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, localizado na cidade de Londrina, Paraná, sul do Brasil. A metodologia consistiu de coletas de fezes de C. thous, as quais foram analisadas em laboratório para identificar os itens consumidos. Nos testes de germinação, as sementes foram dispostas para germinar em placas de Petri com algodão umedecido em água. Noventa e três amostras fecais com 219 itens de origem vegetal e animal foram registradas, sendo 36,52% contendo restos de pequenos roedores, 24,19% de gramíneas, 13,24% de aves, 10,47% de insetos, 6,39% de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassm., 4,6% de outros itens de origem animal e 4,54% de outros itens de origem vegetal. Ainda, C. thous dispersou nove espécies de plantas, com relevante importância para a germinação de algumas sementes que passaram pelo trato digestório do animal, exceto para S. romanzoffiana, cujas sementes não germinaram nas condições de laboratório. Conclui-se que, C. thous apresentou uma dieta generalista e oportunista, sobrevivendo em áreas degradadas e antrópicas, e agindo como dispersor de sementes nestes locais.Although the crab eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1706, is a relatively common Canidae, there isn't much information about its diet and its role as a seed disperser in the different habitats where it occurs. The aim of this work was to report the diet of the C. thous and its importance as a seed disperser and / or a seed predator and

  11. Eficiência do Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner, 1915 no controle da traça da cera Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae Efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner, 1915 for control of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Deodoro Magno Brighenti

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência do Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner no controle de Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos do Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, a 28±2ºC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Aplicou-se formulação comercial de B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki por meio de pulverização, imersão dos favos e também foi incorporada à dieta artificial fornecida às lagartas de terceiro ínstar da traça da cera. A aplicação do produto fitossanitário por meio da pulverização dos favos mostrou-se eficiente no controle de lagartas, atingindo níveis iguais ou superiores a 85% de mortalidade quando foram utilizados 5 g/100 mL de água. Na aplicação por imersão dos favos, todas as dosagens testadas foram eficientes atingindo até 100% de mortalidade. Adicionada à dieta artificial, a concentração com maior porcentagem de mortalidade foi de 10g/60g de dieta. Sintomas de infecção pelo B. thuringiensis foram identificados nas lagartas e o isolamento da bactéria, por meio de uma cultura de Bacillus, comprovou a causa da morte desses insetos em todas as dosagens da formulação comercial do B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki utilizadas.This research aim at evaluating the efficiency of Bacillus thruringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner in the control of Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus.The experiments were conducted in the Insect Biology Laboratory of the Entomology Department of the Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brazil, at 28±2ºC, RH 70±10% and 12-hour photophase. Commercial formulation of B. thuringiensis. var. kurstaki was applied through spraying, comb soaking and also incorporated into the artificial diet fed to third instar caterpillars of the greater wax moth. Application of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki through the spraying of the combs was efficient for control, reaching levels

  12. Shyness and boldness in greater rheas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae: the effects of antipredator training on the personality of the birds Timidez e coragem em emas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae: os efeitos do treinamento anti-predação na personalidade das aves

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    Cristiano S. de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The shy-bold continuum is an axis of behavioural variation for some species, but the consequences of shyness and boldness in antipredatory behaviour is unknown. Bold animals have the tendency to be predated first after release in comparison to shy animals, who naturally avoid the predators. Antipredatory training has been used to enhance the defence behaviours of naive animals by various researchers around the world. For greater rheas, Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758, this kind of study is pioneer. In this study we have investigated if there are relationships between personality and performance of greater rheas in antipredatory training. We also investigated if the training procedures influenced the behaviour of the birds when presented to novel objects. Fifteen zoo-borne greater rheas were studied and 16 personality tests were run, being eight before the application of antipredator training, and eight after the training. We presented to the birds four novel objects (ball, box, bag and person and recorded their behaviour and the distance of the birds in relation to the objects. Results showed that the birds behave boldly before training and shyly after it. The antipredator training modified significantly the behaviour of the rheas, making them more careful about novel situations. Personalities affected the behaviour of the birds during antipredator training. The study of the animal personalities can be an useful tool in reintroduction programs since it helps to choose the animals with the highest chance of survival to reintroduce.O contínuo timidez-coragem é um eixo de variação comportamental para algumas espécies, mas as conseqüências da timidez e coragem no comportamento anti-predação não são conhecidas. Animais corajosos tendem a ser predados primeiramente após a reintrodução em comparação com os animais tímidos, que naturalmente evitam os predadores. O treinamento anti-predação tem sido usado para aumentar os comportamentos

  13. Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae and birds in the Lami Biological Reserve, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Associações alimentares entre capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Ana C. Tomazzoni

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 and some bird species were registered in the Lami Biological Reserve, southern Brazil, through observations in a set of transects established in the five major vegetation types of the study area: shrubby and herbaceous swamps, wet grasslands, sandy grasslands and forests. Data included: date and time, vegetation type, bird species, number of individuals (birds and capybaras, type of prey consumed, foraging strategy of the birds and the behavior of the capybaras in relation to the presence of birds. Five species of birds were registered: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777, Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788, Machetornis rixosus (Vieillot, 1819, Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816 and Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789. The interactions were observed in the shrubby swamp (M. bonariensis, forest (C. plancus and wet grassland (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. chimachima. The foraging strategies were: (1 use of the capybara as a perch, hunting from its back (M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (2 use of the capybara as a beater, hunting in the ground (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (3 foraging in the skin of the capybara, by picking the ectoparasites (C. plancus, F. rufus, M. chimachima. Strategies (1 and (2 were employed to catch arthropods flushed from the vegetation. Sometimes, capybaras lay down and exposed the abdomen and lateral areas of their bodies to facilitate cleaning by M. chimachima, but the presence of other bird species seemed to be neutral to capybaras.Foram registradas associações alimentares entre capivaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, sul do Brasil, por meio de observações em um conjunto de transecções estabelecidas nos cinco principais tipos de vegetação existentes na área: banhado arbustivo, banhado herbáceo, campo úmido, campo arenoso e mata. As informações coletadas foram: data, horário, tipo de vegeta

  14. Flutuação populacional e previsão de gerações de Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch = Populational fluctuation and generation prediction of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch

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    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa-oriental, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, encontra-se distribuída em quase todas as partes do mundo, constituindo importante praga do pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. Este estudo foi desenvolvido em pomar comercial de pessegueiro localizado em Taiúva, São Paulo, durante os anos 1997 a 2003, visando obter a flutuação populacional de adultos de G. molesta relacionando-a com fatores meteorológicos. O estudo também visou determinar uma data biofix adequada para prever a ocorrência de gerações da praga por meio de um modelo de graus-dia. A amostragem da mariposa-oriental e de insetos predadores foi efetuada com armadilha plástica com suco de pêssego e armadilha adesiva amarela, respectivamente. A influência de fatores físicos e biológicos foi avaliada por análise de correlação linear simples. Os maiores picos populacionais de G. molesta ocorreram nos meses de maio, julho e outubro. As correlações obtidas sugerem que a baixa umidade ambiental pode ter sido fator de mortalidade para G. molesta. O elevado número de pulverizações de inseticida pode ter causado impacto negativo sobre inimigos naturais contribuindo para a elevada densidade do inseto-praga no período de 1998 a 1999. A data de constatação dapresença de gemas vegetativas e de flor diferenciadas no pessegueiro mostrou-se adequada para se iniciar a contagem de graus-dia para prever gerações de G. molesta. Esses resultados devem ajudar aimplementação de programas para prever picos populacionais de adultos de G. molesta visando à aplicação de inseticidas. Recomenda-se a validação do modelo de graus-dia em outras localidades para comprovar os resultados obtidos.The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, is spread around the world and is considered an important pest on peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. This work was carried out at a commercial peach orchard located in Taiúva, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1997 to

  15. Quadro citológico vaginal, concentração plasmática de progesterona durante a gestação e medidas fetais em paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 Vaginal citology, serum progesterone concentration during pregnancy and fetal measurements in paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

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    Vânia Maria França Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Em 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 objetivou-se descrever aos 30, 60 e 90 dias (D de prenhez diagnosticada por ultrassonografia (US, os tipos celulares do epitélio vaginal em esfregaços vaginais, relatar as condições de abertura da vulva e as características do muco vaginal, determinar a concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 por radioimunoensaio, e ainda, mensurar por ultrassonografia (US o diâmetro biparietal (DBP fetal aos 60 e 90 dias de prenhez. No D30, 40% das amostras exibiram células (com características estrogênicas superficiais e presença de núcleos nus. Nos D60 e D90, células parabasais, intermediárias, superficiais e naviculares estavam presentes nas mesmas proporções, mas células endocervicais foram descritas em apenas 73,9% e 69% das amostras daqueles dias, respectivamente. No D30 a maior proporção de células naviculares e superficiais diferiu (p The objective of this work was to describe in 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 at 30, 60 and 90 days (D of pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasonography (U.S. the cell types of the vaginal epithelium by vaginal smears, to report the vulva opening condition and the characteristics of vaginal mucus, to determine the progesterone (P4 serum concentration by radioimmunoassay, and also measure by ultrasound (U.S. the fetuses biparietal diameter (BPD at 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. At D30, 40% of the smears exhibited surface cells (with estrogenic characteristics and of naked nuclei. At D60 and D90, parabasal, intermediate, superficial, and navicular cells were present in the same proportions, but endocervical cells were described in only 73.9% and 69% of those day's smears, respectively. At D30 the highest proportion of navicular and surface cells differed (p < 0.05 compared with other cell types. The vaginal mucus was crystalline and fluid in 100% and 70% of females at D30 and D60, respectively. It was observed the vaginal vestibule open in around 50% of

  16. Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana de extrato de folhas de goiabeira, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, sobre bactérias entéricas diarreiogênicas, isoladas de camarão sete-barbas, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia A. Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds.O chá de folhas de goiaba Psidium guajava Linnaeus é comumente usado como remédio nas gastrenterites e diarréias infantis por aqueles que não têm acesso a antibióticos. Esta pesquisa estudou o efeito antibacteriano sobre bactérias causadoras de diarréias, do óleo essencial e do extrato de folhas de goiabeira usando como diluente: metanol, hexano e acetato de etila. Os extratos foram testados sobre Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. e Escherichia coli. As bactérias testadas foram isoladas de camarão sete-barbas Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller usando-se como controle cepas padrão, de cada espécie. Das bactérias testadas, o melhor efeito inibitório foi

  17. Species Composition and Parasitic Characteristics of Parasites of Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus in Ergis River%额尔齐斯河鲤鱼寄生虫的种类组成及寄生特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓玲; 焦丽; 郝翠兰; 汪博良; 贾舒安; 岳城

    2012-01-01

    [目的]调查研究额尔齐斯河(中国段)鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus)寄生虫种类组成及寄生特性.[方法]按照鱼类寄生虫的常规调查及研究方法,于2009年4月至2010年1月分四季,对额尔齐斯河111尾鲤鱼进行剖检,分析其寄生虫的种类组成及其感染情况.[结果]共检出寄生虫8种,分别为伸展指环虫(Dactylogyrus extensus)、日本真双身虫(Eudiplozoon nipponicum,)、复口吸虫幼虫(Diplostomum larva sp.)、鲤蠢绦虫幼虫(Caryophyllaeus larva sp.)、线虫幼虫(Nematoda larva sp.)、泡吻棘头虫(Pomphorhynchus laevis sp.)、鳋(Ergasilidae larva sp.)、椭圆尾鲺(Argulus ellipticaudatus).隶属于4门、6纲、8目、8科、8属.[结论]伸展指环虫在夏季、秋季、冬季三季均有感染,感染率较高,Berge - Parker优势指数在群落中最大,为鲤鱼寄生虫群落中的优势种;泡吻棘头虫集中在春、夏季感染,感染率均大于10%,在春季的感染率最高;复口吸虫幼虫和鲤蠢绦虫幼虫都仅在一季发现,感染率和感染强度相对较高;日本真双身虫、线虫幼虫、鳋、椭圆尾鲺感染率和感染强度相对较低.%[Objective] The purpose of this project was to investigate and research the species composition and parasitic characteristics of parasites of Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus in Ergis River, China. [Method] By the routine methods of investigation and research on fish parasites, composition and infection in four different seasons from April, 2009 to January 2010, 111 Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus were anatomized to have their parasites species analyzed. [ Result ] The result showed that 8 species of parasites were: Dactylogyrus exten, Eudiplozoon nipponicum, Diplostomum larva sp. , Caryophyllaeus larva sp. , Nematode larva sp. , Pomphorhynchus laevis sp. , Ergasilidae larva sp. , Argulus ellipticaudatus. They belong to 8 phyla, 8 classes, 8 orders, 6 families, 4 genera. [Conclusion] Dactylogyrus extensus is the dominant species

  18. Significance of the Oviposition Records of Three Western Ghats Endemics, the Malabar Raven, Papilio dravidarum Wood-Mason, Malabar Rose, Atrophaneura pandiyana Moore and Crimson Rose, Atrophaneura hector Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae

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    V.S. Revathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made on the biology and bionomics of the three Western Ghats Endemics, the Malabar Raven (Papilio dravidarum Wood-Mason, Malabar Rose (Atrophaneura pandiyana Moore and Crimson Rose (A. hector Linnaeus. The size of the caterpillar (length and breadth, mode of feeding, pupation and emergence were recorded. The biology took 36-40 days for completion in Malabar Raven, 35-37 days in A. pandiyana and A. hector. Butterflies found in different habitats tend to show marked differences in their general appearance and biology as evidenced by the "Ecological races" reported in several species of butterflies. Thorough understanding of the life history and their behavioural patterns of immature stages will help in recognizing geographical and ecological races.

  19. Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first non-native marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic. The chronology of the invasion is reported here using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. Currently, lionfish are established off the Atlantic coast of the USA from the Florida Keys to Cape Hatteras (North Carolina), the Great Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos. The species have been reported from only one island in the Lesser Antilles (St. Croix), but it is not yet established there. Lionfish are established in Mexico, Honduras and Costa Rica. Reports have come from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida), Belize, Panama and Colombia; although lionfish are not considered established in these localities at this time (August 2009), invasion is likely imminent.

  20. Ecologia da comunidade de metazoários parasitos da anchova Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus (Osteichthyes, Pomatomidae do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Community ecology of metazoan parasites of bluefish Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus (Osteichthyes, Pomatomidae from the littoral of State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    José Luis Luque

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-five specimens of bluefish, Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus, 1766, collected at Cabo Frio (23ºS, 42ºW, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between March 1995 and November 1995, were necropsied to study their infracommunities of metazoan parasites. Sixteen species of metazoan parasites were collected. All fish were parasitized by one or more metazoan. The digeneans were the majority of the parasite specimens collected, with 44.2%, followed by the helminth larval stages (cestodes, acanthocephalans, and nematodes with 40.6%. The Simpson index for all parasite species was 0.097, indicating lack of dominance by any species in the parasite community. Microcotyle pomatomi Goto, 1899 showed the higher frequency of dominance and mean relative dominance. The parasite species of P. saltator showed the typical overdispersed pattern of distribution. The majority of parasite species showed positive correlation between the host's total body length and prevalence or parasite abundance. Two species, Brachyphallus parvus (Manter, 1947 and Phocanema sp. have differences in their prevalences and abundances in relation to sex of the hosts. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of P. saltator was H'=1.243±0.521, with correlation with the host's total length and without difference between male and female fish. The components of the parasite community of P. saltator showed overall positive association. All pairs confonned by ectoparasites and adult endoparasites species showed signiticant positive association or covariation between their abundances. Five pairs of endoparasites larval species showed positive association or covariation, and two pairs, showed negative association and covariation. The parasite community of P. saltator was dominated by species with high prevalence values, that composed a high number of associations, thus, is considered closer to the interactive type.

  1. Registro recente de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus (Aves, Accipitridae, na Mata Atlântica da Reserva Natural Vale do Rio Doce, Linhares, Espírito Santo e implicações para a conservação regional da espécie Recent record of harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus (Aves, Accipitridae, in Atlantic forest of Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil and implications for the regional conservation of the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Srbek-Araujo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente comunicação reporta o registro de um macho adulto de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758, na Reserva Natural da Vale do Rio Doce (RNVRD, região norte do Espírito Santo, em agosto de 2005. A análise deste e de registros históricos da espécie nesta reserva indica a presença de uma população residente na região compreendida pela RNVRD e pela Reserva Biológica de Sooretama. Estas duas reservas, contíguas entre si, compreendem cerca de 46250 ha de Floresta Atlântica de baixada (Mata de Tabuleiro, na sua maior parte bem conservada. Além da grande extensão de floresta, a rica e densa fauna de mamíferos presente nestas reservas contribuem para a permanência das harpias na região.The present communication reports an observation occurred in August 2005 of the harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758, in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve (VRDNR, located in northern Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. The analysis of this and past records of the species in this reserve indicates the presence of a resident population in the region encompassed by the VRDNR and the Sooretama Biological Reserve. These two reserves total circa 46,250 ha of lowland Atlantic forest (Tabuleiros forest, which are mostly well preserved. Besides the great extension of forests, the rich and abundant mammal fauna present in these two reserves contribute to the regional permanence of the harpy eagle.

  2. 伊犁河欧鲇某些生物学特性的研究%Biological Study of Silurus glaris Linnaeus in Yili River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任波

    2012-01-01

    本文测定了移植于伊犁河的欧鲇(Silurus glaris Linnaeus)的形态、年龄与生长,观察了繁殖和食性等生物学特性,用Von.Bertalanffy生长方程等从理论上阐明生长特征。结果表明:河欧鲇在渔获物组成中的比例为:体长分布在16~121cm之间,以体长40~70为主,占60.36%;体质量在50~13400g之间,以500~20000 g为主,占56.7%;年龄为0+~8+,9个年龄组,以1+~3+龄为主,占65.1%。补充群体大于剩余群体,由Von.Berta-lanffy生长方程推导运算的生长参数为:L∞=191.1cm、W∞=59 875g、-k=0.087、to=0.038,tmax=34.5,tip=12.7。4+龄体长70 cm,体质量3500g的个体即可性成熟,6月份产卵,雄鱼有营巢和护卵孵化习性。为典型的肉食性鱼类。欧鲇生长快、个体大,适应能力以及扩展能力强,移植后极易形成群体,已成为伊犁河水系主要经济鱼类之一。%Biological study of Silurus glaris Linnaeus that was transplanted in Yili River before was conducted, including of morpholo- gy measurement, age and growth relationship, reproduction and feeding habit. Growth equation of this fish species was calculated based on Von .Bertalanffy's method. The fish catches composed of individuals with body length of 16-121 cm, mainly in 40-70cm (60.36%), individuals with body weight of 50-13400g, mainly in 500-20000g (56.7%) and individuals at 0^+-8^+ years old, mainly at 1^+-3^+ ages (55.85%). The number of recruit populations was more than that of residual populations. The growth parameters were L∞=191.1cm, W∞=59 875g, -k=0.087, t0=0.038, tmax=34.5 and trt=12.7, respectively. Silurus glaris were able to achieve sex maturity and reproduce in June every year as it growed 4^+ years old, 70cm and 3500g. The male fish had habits of construction net and protection egg, which were behaviors of typical carnivore. This fish species have advantages of fast growth, big body, strong adaptation and ex- tensive abilities

  3. Utilisation des sécrétions de myriapodes chez les lémurs et les sapajous : fonction curative ou signalisation sociale ? Fur-rubbing with millipedes in lemurs and capuchin monkeys: social function or zoopharmacognosy?

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    Bruno Simmen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available L’utilisation des myriapodes en friction sur le pelage et d’autres zones corporelles est documentée chez les primates en conditions naturelles, notamment à partir des observations récurrentes menées chez le genre Cebus. La typologie de ces comportements suggère différentes hypothèses, fonctionnelles (zoopharmacognosie, alimentaire, sociale ou non (sensorielle, auto-stimulation. Nous présentons des observations qualitatives comparées de l’utilisation non alimentaire de myriapodes diplopodes chez une forme hybride du genre Eulemur au Sud de Madagascar (occurrences en janvier 2005 et chez le sapajou Cebus apella en Guyane Française (occurrences en mars-avril 1996. L’application des sécrétions à benzoquinones sur une large partie du pelage chez Cebus contraste avec la friction exclusive de la zone périgénitale faisant suite au flairage du diplopode chez Eulemur qui manifeste en outre une réponse stéréotypée analogue au flehmen. Dans notre étude, l’imprégnation de fluides à forte intensité olfactive potentialiserait la signalisation de l’identité individuelle chez Eulemur alors que le "fur-rubbing" chez Cebus est compatible avec l’hypothèse commune d’une forme d’appropriation des défenses antiparasitaires de ces invertébrés. La sécrétion de ces défenses chimiques n’est pas automatiquement déclenchée par la manipulation des diplopodes. Le stress induit par les morsures légères (Eulemur et Cebus et l’arrachage des pattes sur plusieurs segments (Cebus augmente la probabilité de sécrétion, ce qui témoignerait d’un apprentissage d’autant plus efficace des conditions d’émission de ces fluides que l’usage est spécifique et très opportuniste.Body-rubbing with millipedes is repeatedly documented in primates living under natural conditions, mainly in capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp.. Various functional (zoopharmacognosy, ingestion, social and non-functional hypotheses (sensory, auto

  4. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions Fenologia de Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae em pupas de Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae em condições de laboratório

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    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of Objetivando conhecer o ciclo de desenvolvimento de Spalangia endius sob condições de laboratório, 360 pupas de Musca domestica com idade de 24 a 48 horas foram expostas a 15 casais de S. endius por um período de 48 horas a 26 ± 2ºC. Estas pupas foram mantidas em BOD. Com mesma temperatura, umidade relativa <70% e com fotofase de 12 horas, onde diariamente dissecava-se 15 espécimes para avaliar o estágio e tempo de desenvolvimento do himenóptero. A fenologia permite concluir que S. endius apresenta um ciclo de desenvolvimento de 19 dias, cujo período de incubação foi de 24 horas, o desenvolvimento de larvas de S. endius ocorreu nos oito dias subsequentes nos quais uma série de alterações morfológicas foi observada. O estágio de pré-pupa deu-se no décimo dia onde cessa a movimentação e inicia a eliminação de mecônio. O estágio pupal ocorreu do décimo primeiro dia ao décimo nono, momento da emergência dos primeiros machos, já as fêmeas iniciaram a emergência aproximadamente 24 horas após. Estes resultados permitem avaliar aspectos da bionomia pormenorizada do desenvolvimento de S. endius para armazenar e programar a produção deste parasitóide, otimizando sua utilização como agente de controle biológico.

  5. Avaliação de inseticidas no controle de Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae e Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae em trigo armazenado Efficacy of insecticides to control Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae in stored wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui S. Furiatti

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus, 1763 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792 (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae was determined exposing them to treated wheat in laboratory. Each plot, which was composed by 1.2 kg of wheat grain, was treated with 5 ml of the concentration/kg of wheat using a propelling air atomizer. Fifteen days after treatment 50 g samples of the grain were taken, from each plot, placed in plastic jars into which 10 adult insects of each species were released. This was repeated every 30 days until 165 days after treatment. The number of dead insects was counted 15 days after each infestation thus the evaluations were made at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after the insecticide application. Esfenvalerate+fenitrothion+pyperonil butoxide (0,375+7,5+3,0 and 0,5+10,0+4,0 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+esfen-valerate (7,5+0,375 and 10,0+0,375 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+synergised deltamethrin (7,5+0,375 g a.i./t and fenitrothion (7,5 g a.i./t were effective against Sitophilus oryzae until 180 days after treatment. Esfenvalerate+fenitrothion+pyperonil butoxide (0,5+10,0+4,0 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+esfenvalerate (7,5+0,375 and 10,0+0,375 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+synergised deltamethrin (7,5+0,375 g a.i./t were effective against R. dominica until 180 days after treatment. Synergised deltamethrin (0,375 g a.i./t was effective against S. oryzae until 150 days and against R. dominica until 120 days after treatment. Esfenvalerate (0,5 g a.i./t was ineffective against S. oryzae and effective until 60 days after treatment against R. dominica. Fenitrothion (7,5 g a.i./t was ineffective against R. dominica. The use of mixtures of organophosphorus plus pyrethroids were more effective against S. oryzae and R. dominica when compared with these insecticides used alone.

  6. Pharmacological researches of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus on mouse benign prostatic hyperplasia model induced by fetal urogenital sinus implants%尖海龙对胚胎尿生殖窦致小鼠前列腺增生模型的药理作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许东晖; 蒋国津; 梅雪婷; 许实波

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究尖海龙对尿生殖窦致小鼠前列腺增生(benign prostatic hyperplasia,BPH)模型的药理作用,探讨尖海龙应用于治疗良性前列腺增生海洋药物开发的可行性.方法 建立16 d龄胎鼠尿生殖窦组织植入法诱导小鼠BPH模型,连续灌胃给予尖海龙(50,100,200 mg·kg-1)30 d后,评价对BPH小鼠前列腺指数和精囊腺指数、血清酸性磷酸酶(ACP)、前列腺组织形态参数的影响.结果 与模型组相比,尖海龙具有升高精囊腺指数,降低前列腺指数、血清ACP、腺体周长、腺体面积、腺上皮高度的作用.结论 尖海龙具有治疗BPH的作用,同时补肾壮阳,克服治疗前列腺增生药物阳痿少精等副作用,可开发成为治疗BPH的海洋药物.%Objective To study the effects of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus on mouse benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by fetal urogenital sinus implants, and to investigate the possibility of applying Syngnathus acus Linnaeus to BPH treatment. Methods Mouse BPH model was established by implanting 16 days old embryo urogenital sinus of mouse. After oral administration of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus (50,100,200 mg · kg-1) for 30 days, the indices of seminal vesicle and prostatic weight, serum acid phosphatase (ACP), prostatic gland perimeter, gland area and gland epithelial height of mice were measured. Results Compared to BPH model group,oral administration of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus reduced the prostatic weight, serum ACP, prostatic gland perimeter, gland area and gland epithelial height, and increased the index of seminal vesicle. Conclusion As a traditional drug for invigorating the kidney and strengthening Yang, increasing number of sperms, Syngnathus acus Linnaeus showed therapeutic effects on BPH, hence could be developed a marine drug for treatment of BPH without side effects such as impotence and oligospermatism.

  7. 火麻仁油及甾醇对家蚕寿命影响的观察%Observation of Influence of Semen Cannabis Oil and Sterol on Bombyx Mori Linnaeus Life-span

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李寒冰; 孙静雅; 马永洁; 李根林; 任慧玲

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察火麻仁油及火麻仁甾醇对家蚕寿命的影响,探讨火麻仁油及甾醇的抗衰老作用.方法:取龄期相同、生长整齐的三眠蚕随机分为8组,即空白对照组,火麻仁油高、中、低剂量组,火麻仁甾醇高、中、低剂量组,维生素E对照组,每组110条.使用涂抹法将药液涂抹于新鲜桑叶上,4龄期内喂食3次,5龄期内喂食6次.结果:火麻仁油及甾醇高、中、低剂量组均对家蚕幼虫生存期较空白对照组明显延长(P<0.01或P<0.05),其中火麻仁甾醇能显著延长家蚕全生存期(P<0.01或P<0.05).与空白组相比,火麻仁油及甾醇均能显著延长5龄期家蚕耐饥饿时间(P<0.01).结论:火麻仁油及甾醇均能够延长家香各龄期生存期时间.%Objective:To observe the influence of Semen Cannabis oil and sterol on bombyx mori linnaeus life-span and discuss their anti-aging effect. Methods: Sanmian silkworm with the same age and growth were randomly divided into eight groups, namely blank control group, high, middle, low dose of Semen Cannabis oil group, high, meddle, low dose of Semen Cannabis oil and sterol group, positive control group. Physic liquor is daubed on the mulberry leaf ,3 times during 4 instars and 6 times during 5 instars. Results:The life-span of bombyx mori linnaeus larva was significantly longer in high, meddle, low dose of Semen Cannabis oil and sterol group compared with control group(P<0.01 or P<0.05). Semen Cannabis oil and sterol can significantly extend the all life span(P<0.01 or P<0.05). Compared with the blank control group, Semen Cannabis oil and sterol can significantly extend the hunger resistance time during 5 instars (P <0.01), Conclusion:both Semen Cannabis oil and sterol can extend the life span time of bombyx mori Linnaeus during any instars.

  8. Metazoários parasitos do coió Dactylopterus volitans (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes: Dactylopteridae do litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1320 Metazoan parasites of flying gurnards, Dactylopterus volitans (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes: Dactylopteridae from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1320

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    Andrea da Silva Cordeiro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Setenta e oito espécimes de Dactylopterus volitans (Linnaeus, 1758 coletados do litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (aprox. 21-23º S, 41-45º W, Brasil, desde dezembro de 2002 até janeiro de 2003, foram necropsiados para o estudo dos seus metazoários parasitos. Vinte e sete espécies de parasitos foram coletadas: 1 aspidogastreo, 15 digenéticos, 1 monogenético, 2 cestóides, 2 acantocéfalos, 4 nematóides, 1 branquíuro e 1 isópode. O acantocéfalo Rhadinorhynchus sp. foi a espécie mais dominante e prevalente. Todas as espécies encontradas constituíram primeiro registro para D. volitans. Opecoeloides sp. mostrou correlação positiva entre o comprimento total do hospedeiro e sua prevalência parasitária, enquanto para Rhadinorhynchus sp. essa correlação foi negativa. Um par de espécies de endoparasitos (Dinurus sp. – Lecithochirium sp. mostrou covariação positiva entre suas abundâncias. Como em outras comunidades parasitárias de peixes bentônicos do Rio de Janeiro, a comunidade parasitária de D. volitans é aparentemente um complexo de espécies pouco ordenado, caracterizado pela dominância de endoparasitosSeventy-eigth specimens of Dactylopterus volitans (Linnaeus,1758 collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro (21-23º S, 41-45º W, Brazil, from December 2002 to January 2003, were necropsied to study their metazoan parasites. Twenty-seven species of parasites were collected: 1 aspidogastrean, 15 digenean, 1 monogenean, 2 cestodes, 2 acantocephalan, 4 nematodes, 1 branquiuran, and 1 isopod. All parasite species were recorded by the first time in D. volitans. The acanthocephalan Rhadinorhynchus sp. was the most dominant species with the highest prevalence in the parasite community of D. volitans. Opecoeloides sp. showed positive correlation between the host total length and parasite prevalence, while Rhadinorhynchus sp. have a negative correlation between the host´s total length and prevalence. One

  9. Comparative morphology of Cymothoa spp.(Isopoda, Cymothoidae from Brazilian fishes, with the description of Cymothoa catarinensis sp. nov. and redescriptions of C. excisa Perty and C. oestrum (Linnaeus

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    Thatcher Vernon E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cymothoa catarinensis sp. nov. collected at Camboriú, Santa Catarina State, Brazil is described. The new species is of small size, has a cephalon that is little immersed in pereonite 1, anterolateral angles of pereonite 1 that reach or surpass the eyes and a pleon that is deeply immersed in pereonite 7. The pleopods of the new species have small, lobular accessory gills projecting from the bases. Cymothoa excisa Perty, 1830, and Cymothoa oestrum (Linnaeus, 1758 are redescribed. Both are of large size (25-35 mm in length. C. excisa has pointed anterolateral margins of pereonite 1 that reach or surpass the eyes. This species also has trilaminate pleopods in the female and bilaminate pleopods in the male. C. oestrum has rounded anterolateral margins of pereonite 1 and no visible eyes. This is the first time the latter species has been reported from Brazil. These three species are compared to four others that have been reported from Brazilian waters, namely: C. liannae Sartor & Pires, 1988; C. brasiliensis, C. gerris and C. ianuarii, all described by Schiödte & Meinert, 1884. A key is provided to aid in the separation of the Brazilian species of Cymothoa.

  10. Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on the Activity of NAGase from Yellow Mealworm( Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus)%二甲亚砜对黄粉虫NAGase活力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢进金; 陈丽娟

    2006-01-01

    研究二甲亚砜(DMSO)对黄粉虫(Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus)N-乙酰-β-D-氨基葡萄糖苷酶活力(NAGase)的影响.结果表明:该酶的剩余活力随着二甲亚砜浓度增大而呈指数下降,导致酶活力丧失50%的二甲亚砜的浓度(抑制半衰期,IC50)为5%,说明二甲亚砜对黄粉虫NA-Gase有明显的失活作用.该酶的失活过程属于可逆过程,抑制机理表现为混合型抑制类型,进一步测定游离酶(E)和底物络合物(ES)与二甲亚砜的结合常数(KI和KIS),分别为6.12%和26.2%,KI<KIS,说明底物存在对酶被二甲亚砜的失活作用有一定的保护作用.

  11. ATTACHMENT OF LARVA, SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF JUVENILE VARIANT SCALLOPS (Chlamys varia Linnaeus, 1758 IN CONTROLLED BREEDING IN ŠARINA DRAGA BAY — MOUTH OF THE KRKA RIVER

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    Drago Marguš

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In Croatia, the capture of scallop (Chlamys varia Linnaeus, 17583 from natural populations are sporadic and unorganized, while there is no controlled cultivation of this species. To determine the possibility of the establishment of their commercial cultivation, the research comprehended the condition index of adults, larval attachment, juvenile survival and growth in Šarina draga Bay, in a locality with dense scallop populations. The changes of condition index shoved on main spawning season in spring (March–May and second one, but less intensive, in autumn (October. According to results, the best season for juvenile collection is recommended the period from July to September at depths between 2 to 10 m, and salinities above 30 x 10–3. Low larval settlement at 2.5 m depth is surely result of salinity decrease by Krka river intensive fresh water inflow. Shellfish mean size from 16.4±2.1 to 17.6±2.2 mm and with a mean mass from 0.95 to 1.35 g reached mean size from 42.7±3.2 to 47.5±3.0 mm and mean mass from 12.1 to 17.5 g in one year. Total mortality during this study was ranged from 25 to 57%.

  12. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  13. Report on Discovery of Natural Infection of Echinococcus multilocularis Metacestode in Water Vole (Arvicola terrestris Linnaeus, 1758) from Bayimuza Area of Emin County, Xinjiang, China%新疆额敏县首次发现水(鼠平)感染多房棘球蚴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅承; 伊斯拉音·乌斯曼; 焦伟; 柴君杰

    2001-01-01

    2001年5月在新疆塔城地区额敏县境内塔尔巴哈台山和齐吾尔喀什尔山区域的巴衣木扎地区在一只水(鼠平)(Arvicola terrestris linnaeus,1758)肝脏中发现有多房棘球蚴(Metacestode of Echinococcus multilocularis)自然感染,感染率为1.6%(1/61),为我国水(鼠平)中发现多房棘球蚴寄生的首次记录.

  14. The effect of Plantago major Linnaeus on serum total sialic acid, lipid-bound sialic acid, some trace elements and minerals after administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oto, Gokhan; Ekin, Suat; Ozdemir, Hulya; Levent, Abdulkadir; Berber, Ismet

    2012-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Plantago major Linnaeus (PM) extract on serum total sialic acid (TSA), lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA), some trace elements (copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron) and mineral levels (magnesium, calcium and sodium) in Wistar albino rat administrated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Rats were divided into three equal groups (n = 6). Group I comprised the control group, group II was treated with DMBA (100 mg/kg, single dose) and group III was treated with DMBA (100 mg/kg single dose) and aqueous extract of PM 100 mg/kg/day for 60 days. After 60 days, statistical analyses showed that TSA and LSA levels in DMBA and DMBA + PM groups were significantly higher compared to the control group (TSA: p < 0.01, p < 0.05; LSA: p < 0.05, p < 0.05, respectively). Serum Zn levels were decreased in subjects treated with DMBA (p < 0.01) and DMBA + PM (p < 0.05) compared to the control group values. Serum Cu levels were increased in DMBA group and PM-treated group compared to the control group values. The results of this investigation showed that the levels of TSA and LSA changed significantly, which are sensitive markers for detecting the toxic effects of DMBA. On the other hand, observed decline in Zn levels in rats from DMBA + PM group might be due to decreased generation of free radicals and oxidative stress. Results from this study suggest that PM may be partially effective in preventing carcinogenesis initiated by environmental carcinogen DMBA. PMID:21996710

  15. First report on the occurrence of the comb pen shell, Atrina pectinata (Linnaeus, 1767) (Bivalvia: Pinnidae) in Ulleungdo Island in the East Sea: Ecology and molecular identification of the species using COI gene sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Sung; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Park, Heung-Sik; Noh, Choong Hwan; Jeong, Eui-Young; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2015-12-01

    Pen shell is one of the largest marine bivalves inhabiting shallow subtidal soft bottoms in the west Pacific and Indian Oceans. In Korea, the comb pen shell Atrina pectinata fisheries has been established on the south and west coasts. Recently, a pen shell population has been discovered from a subtidal sand flat (25-30 m depth) in Ulleungdo Island located in the East Sea of Korea, suggesting a potential shellfish resource in this area. In the present study, we first surveyed the population density and size of the unique pen shell using SCUBA, and identified the pen shell to species level using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) sequence. An underwater survey carried out from July to September 2013 revealed that populations of pen shell patched on subtidal sand flat at a depth of 20-25 m. Grain size analysis indicated that sand particles accounted for 99% of the 600 × 700 m sand flat. The underwater survey also indicated that density of the pen shell ranged between 6-19 ind/m2, with a mean of 11 ind/m2. Shell height (i.e. longest axis of the shell) of the pen shell on the sand flat varied between 17.2 cm to 28.8 cm, with a mean of 25.1 cm, and the age was estimated to range between 1.5-7.5 yrs, with a mean of 5 yr. COI DNA sequence obtained from the pen shell in this study showed 98.9-99.2% similarity to Atrina pectinata (Linnaeus 1767) reported from Japan. In the cluster analysis, the COI DNA sequence of the pen shells from Ulleungdo Island was grouped with A. pectinata reported from Japan and China, indicating that the pen shell discovered in this study was A. pectinata, commonly distributed on the west and south coasts of Korea.

  16. Influência do período de quiescência dos ovos sobre o ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório

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    Silva Heloisa Helena Garcia da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência do período de quiescência dos ovos no ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório, na busca de informações que possam melhorar o direcionamento das ações de controle, pois sabe-se que o ovo é a forma mais resistente do ciclo biológico, possibilitando ao mosquito ampla sobrevida, devido à resistência às adversidades climáticas. Os experimentos foram realizados numa câmara biológica, mantida à temperatura de 28 ± 1oC, com umidade relativa de 80 ± 5% e fotofase de 12 horas. Apresentam-se os dados da influência de diferentes períodos de quiescência sobre a eclosão das larvas, desenvolvimento larval e pupal, ciclo evolutivo. Verificou-se o efeito altamente significativo do período de quiescência na eclosão das larvas. O período de quiescência não influenciou nas durações dos períodos de incubação, larval e pupal. Constatou-se que ovos de um mesmo período de quiescência apresentaram períodos de incubação estatisticamente diferentes entre si. As larvas eclodiam em grupos, definidos pela incubação, e este efeito de grupo foi significativo na duração do ciclo. Pode-se afirmar que, em 99,8% dos ciclos, a variação foi determinada pela incubação.

  17. How nest translocation-time, clutch size and presence of yolkless eggs affected hatching success in Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus, 1766 (Testudines: Dermochelyidae, at Projeto Tamar-Ibama, Espirito Santo, Brazil

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    Dal Pont Morisso, Eduardo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analizó el manejo de los nidos de la especie Dermochelys coriacea, utilizados por el Proyecto Tamar-Ibama entre las temporadas reproductivas de 1989/1990 a 1998/1999, para verificación del éxito de la eclosión en relación a los tiempos de traslación. El estudio se realizó en el litoral norte del Estado de Espírito Santo. Existió tendencia a que el tiempo de traslación influencie el éxito de eclosión de los nidos. Los nidos trasladados entre 6 y más de 24 horas presentaron mayor cantidad de huevos sin desarrollo embrionario. No se encontró relación entre el número de huevos inviables trasladados y el tamaño de la postura, con el porcentual de eclosión. Se sugiere que la traslación sea realizada hasta las 6 horas, o 15 días después de la oviposición. The results of managing Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus, 1766 nests by Projeto TAMAR - IBAMA, in Northern Espírito Santo, Brazil, during the nesting seasons from 1989/90 to 1998/99 are analyzed. The influence of the translocation time on hatching success of the studied nests is discussed. The time translocation, in relation to natural oviposition, seems to increase the number of non-developed eggs found in each nest if translocated between 6 hours and 15 days post egg-laying. There was no relationship established between either the number of yolkless eggs in a translocated nest or the clutch size, with hatching success. The translocation of Dermochelys nests either within 6 hours or after 15 days from natural oviposition is recommended.

  18. Evaluation of Impact of Pollen Grains from Bt, Bt/CpTI Transgenic Cotton and Bt Corn Plants on the Growth and Development of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-dong; YE Gong-yin; WU Kong-ming; WANG Xiao-qi; GUO Yu-yuan

    2002-01-01

    The δ-endotoxin genes of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and proteinase inhibitor (PI) genes aretwo kinds of genes popularly used for developing transgenic plants resistant to insect pests. To clarify whetherthere is any risk concerning the effects of pollens from these transgenic crops on non-target insects with eco-nomic importance, such as the effects on the growth and development as well as cocoon quality of the silk-worm, Bombyx mori Linnaeus, a series of feeding experiments were conducted, using pollens from transgeniccotton or corn containing crylAc, cry1A+-CpTI or crylAb genes, compared with pollens from non-transgenicnormal cotton and corn as well as the non-pollen treatment. In contrast to the latter ones, pollens from trans-genic plants showed no significant adverse effects on larval mortality, cocoon weight, pupa weight, cocoonshell weight, pupation rate, emergence rate and fecundity of the silkworm after neonates were fed with thepollens for 72 h. In addition, no dosage effects of pollens were found. Though the duration of 1st instar larvaewas prolonged in the case of feeding with transgenic pollens as compared with those of the non-pollen treat-ment, but they were not significantly different from those fed with pollens from non-transgenic cotton or corn.Meanwhile, the body weight of the 3rd instar molters fed with transgenic pollens was obviously different fromthose for non-pollen treatment, and was all significantly heavier than that of the controls. Consequently, it isconsidered that the adverse effect of pollens from transgenic insect-resistant cotton and corn on the growth anddevelopment of the silkworm is negligible.

  19. Associations between primates and other mammals in a central Amazonian forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Peres, Carlos A

    2008-07-01

    Little information exists on mixed-species groups between primates and other mammals in Neotropical forests. In this paper, we describe three such associations observed during an extensive large-vertebrate survey in central Amazonia, Brazil. Mixed-species groups between a primate species and another mammal were observed on seven occasions between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri cf. ustus) and either South American coatis (Nasua nasua) or tayras (Eira barbara) and between brown capuchins (Cebus apella) and coatis. All associations were restricted to floodplain forest during its dry stage. We suggest that the associations involving the coatis are connected to foraging and vigilance but may be induced by a common alternative food resource at a time of food shortage. PMID:18306981

  20. Virulence of oral Fusobacterium nucleatum from humans and non-human primates in mice

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    Gaetti-Jardim Júnior Elerson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The lethal action in Balb/c mice of 80 oral Fusobacterium nucleatum recovered from patients with adult periodontitis, healthy subjects or Cebus apella monkeys was studied. Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with each bacterial inoculum of 5 x 10(8 CFU/ml. All the clinical isolates induced weight and coordinated movements loss. Pathological alterations in liver, CNS, heart, and kidney with inflammatory reactions or vascular congestion were observed. Of all the tested F. nucleatum isolates, 61.2% from periodontal patients, 57.1% from healthy subjects and 60% from monkeys, were capable of killing the mice in 48h. The clinical isolates were significantly more pathogenic than F. nucleatum ATCC 10953 or ATCC 25586. B. fragilis ATCC 23745 showed lethality against control mice. Our results suggest that LPS could be involved in lethal action against mice and it may play an important role in producing tissue damage or death of mice.

  1. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) predation on primates in Caratinga Biological Station, Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Rita De Cassia; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

    2007-10-01

    This study demonstrates that ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) extensively use primates as a food resource at the Caratinga Biological Station (CBS) in Southeast Brazil. Analysis of 60 fecal samples collected over 4 years revealed predation upon the brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba), the muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), and the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). The most frequent items found in the fecal samples analyzed were Calomys (n=16) and non-identified Aves (n=15), followed by A. guariba (n=12). Although Rodentia was the most common group consumed (n=52) Primates were found in 27% of total fecal samples and were the third most consumed group in relation to the total items. Particularly, predation of A. guariba by ocelots (20% of the total fecal samples) was not an isolated event; our results showed that this species was preyed on across several months. Predation on primates was far higher at CBS than at other sites where comparable studies have been carried out. PMID:17330310

  2. Image-based red cell counting for wild animals blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Claudio R M; Schneider, Fabio K; Dos Santos, Leonilda Correia

    2010-01-01

    An image-based red blood cell (RBC) automatic counting system is presented for wild animals blood analysis. Images with 2048×1536-pixel resolution acquired on an optical microscope using Neubauer chambers are used to evaluate RBC counting for three animal species (Leopardus pardalis, Cebus apella and Nasua nasua) and the error found using the proposed method is similar to that obtained for inter observer visual counting method, i.e., around 10%. Smaller errors (e.g., 3%) can be obtained in regions with less grid artifacts. These promising results allow the use of the proposed method either as a complete automatic counting tool in laboratories for wild animal's blood analysis or as a first counting stage in a semi-automatic counting tool. PMID:21096766

  3. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

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    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  4. Grooming, rank, and agonistic support in tufted capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schino, Gabriele; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    Studies investigating the relation between allogrooming and social rank in capuchin monkeys (genus Cebus) have yielded inconsistent results. In this study, we investigated the relation between grooming, agonistic support, aggression and social rank in a captive group of tufted capuchin monkeys (C. apella). Differently from most previous studies, we based our analyses on a relatively large database and studied a group with known genealogical relationships. Tufted capuchin females did not exchange grooming for rank-related benefits such as agonistic support or reduced aggression. Coherently with this picture, they did not groom up the hierarchy and did not compete for accessing high-ranking grooming partners. It is suggested that a small group size, coupled with a strong kin bias, may make the exchange of grooming for rank-related benefits impossible or unprofitable, thus eliminating the advantages of grooming up the hierarchy. We provide several possible explanations for the heterogeneity of results across capuchin studies that have addressed similar questions.

  5. A Simple Method for Identifying Sex of Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) Larva, Pupa and Adult%小菜蛾幼虫、蛹和成虫的雌雄形态识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艺欣; 田厚军; 魏辉; 占志雄; 黄玉清

    2011-01-01

    Based on the morphological appearances and descriptions in literature, a simple and convenient method for identifying the sex of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was developed. The results showed that the sex of the first- and second-instar larvae was not easily distinguishable by naked eyes or optical microscopic observation. However, the male third- and fourth-instar larva showed a lighter colored fifth abdominal segment than that on the female counterparts. On the male pupae, a lump on each side of a short, longitudinal slip was visible near the gonopore on the 9-1 abdominal segment. The female pupae had a long, longitudinal slip between the genital pore on the 8th abdominal segment and the oviporus on the 9th segment. The adult males had characteristic brown wings with a wavy edge on the posterior margin and a yorked abdominal end. The female adults, on the other hand, were lighter in color and bigger on body size than the males, and had their abdominal ends appeared round in shape.%在形态观察基础上,结合相关文献,系统描述了小菜蛾幼虫、蛹和成虫的雌雄形态快速识别特征.结果表明,用肉眼和光学显微镜无法区分小菜蛾1龄和2龄幼虫的性别,但可以区分3龄和4龄幼虫的性别,主要特征是雄虫在第5腹节内有睾丸,背面呈浅黄色,与相邻体节形成明显区别.小菜蛾雄蛹第9腹节腹面有1个生殖孔,形成短纵裂缝且两边各有一瘤状突起,而雌蛹第8腹节腹面有1个生殖孔,第9腹节腹面有1个产卵孔,2孔之间连成长纵裂缝.雄蛾翅后缘从翅基到外缘呈三度曲波状的黄褐色带,腹部末端钳状,抱握器微张开;雌蛾体色较雄蛾淡,个体较雄蛾大,腹部末端圆筒形.

  6. Molecular cloning and tissue expression analysis of immunoglobulin light κ chain cDNA from cobia Rachycentron canadium Linnaeus%军曹鱼Igκ轻链cDNA克隆及组织表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯月娥; 冯娟; 宁章勇; 茅莉娜; 郭志勋; 许海东; 孔小明

    2011-01-01

    The technique of homologous cloning and Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends(RACE) was used to amplify full length cDNA gene of immunoglobulin light chain(κ chain) from cobia (Rachycentron canadium Linnaeus). The full length cDNA of κ in cobia is 969 bp, containing a 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of 188 bp, a 5′ UTR of 52 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 729 bp, encoding 242 amine acids. The estimated molecular weight ofIg κ is 26.255 kD, and the theoretical isoelectric point is 7.52. The deduced Igκ amino acid sequences of cobia were compared with those of other teleost species. For the constant region of Igκ, higher percentage similarity was obtained from comparisons between R. canadium and Seriola quinqueradiata and between R. canadium and Salmo salar, which was higher than 77%. For the variable region, higher percentage similarity was obtained from comparisons between R. canadium and S. quinqueradiata, which reached 87%. By the phylogenetic tree of immunoglobulin light chain constant region, Igκ amino acid sequences of cobia were clustered with S. quinqueradiata (1,2,3) and Ictalurus punctatus G chain which belong to the type of κ chain, so IgL of cobia was supposed to type of κ. Salmo salar L2 chain, Danio rerios L2 chain, Cyprinus carpio L2 chain that belong to the type of λ chain were clustered together. The expression of Igκ gene in healthy cobia was initially measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that the expression of the Igκ existed more obviously in liver and gill than in other tissues, but they were hardly expressed in intestine and brain. The expression of the target gene in head kidney, spleen, intestine and gill increased obviously after cobia was immunized by intraperitoneal injection with Vibrio carchariae strain JT2, while the expression in liver decreased. The result indicated that head kidney, spleen, intestine and gill are main organs for Igκ production after stimulation, and play a critical role in host

  7. Dental microwear texture analysis of late Pliocene Procynocephalus subhimalayanus (Primates: Cercopithecidae) of the Upper Siwaliks, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank; Holmes, Noelle

    2012-09-01

    Late Pliocene Procynocephalus subhimalayanus from the Upper Siwaliks, India is known from only three specimens. The dietary proclivities of this taxon have implications for reconstructing the paleoecology of the Upper Siwaliks. The dental microwear texture properties of Procynocephalus are compared to those from extant tropical forest primates including Alouatta palliata (n = 11), Cebus apella (n = 13), Gorilla gorilla (n = 9), Lophocebus albigena (n = 15) and Trachypithecus cristatus (n = 12). Dental microwear textures are generated by scanning the surface enamel of Facet 9 using white-light confocal microscopy at 100x. Four variables were extracted from scale-sensitive fractal analysis, and the data were ranked before ANOVA with post-hoc tests of significance and multivariate analyses were performed. Procynocephalus clusters closest to Lophocebus, Cebus and some Gorilla specimens suggesting hard-object feeding characterized a portion of its diet. The dental microwear texture of Procynocephalus supports interpretations of widespread grasslands of the Late Pliocene Kansal Formation (Pinjor zone). The extreme enamel complexity characterizing Procynocephalus may derive from consumption of underground storage organs, or other foods with high grit loads. Foods consumed near ground level carry a heavy load of abrasive minerals possibly contributing to greater enamel surface complexity and textural fill volume.

  8. Abundance, diversity, and patterns of distribution of primates on the Tapiche River in Amazonian Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C L; Leonard, S; Carter, S

    2001-06-01

    This work presents data on the relative diversity, abundance, and distribution patterns of primates in a 20 km2 area of the Tapiche River in the Peruvian Amazon. Population data were collected while the study area was both inundated and dry (March to September 1997) using conventional line-transect census techniques. Survey results reflected the presence of 11 primate species, but population parameters on only eight of the species will be presented, including saddleback tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis), Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis), brown capuchins (Cebus apella), white-fronted capuchins (Cebus albifrons), monk sakis (Pithecia monachus), red titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), red uakaris (Cacajao calvus), and red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha), night monkeys (Aotus nancymaae), and pygmy marmosets (Callithrix pygmaea) were also seen in the area. The data for the smaller-bodied primates is similar to that reported almost 18 years earlier, but the data for the larger-bodied primates reflect a loss in the number of animals present in the area. Pressure from hunters and the timber industry may account for declining numbers of large-bodied primates, while it appears that natural features peculiar to the conservation area contribute to the patchy pattern of distribution. PMID:11376449

  9. 乌江网箱养殖丁(魚歲)细菌的分离与分子鉴定%Isolation and Molecular Identification of Bacteria from Tinca tinca Linnaeus of Net Cage Culture in the Wujiang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李顺; 王庆容

    2009-01-01

    利用微生物学常用的细菌分离、纯化方法从丁(魚歲)中分离出9株菌株,编号分别为Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ、Ⅵ、Ⅶ、Ⅷ、Ⅸ.分别扩增出9株菌株的16S rRNA基因约600 bp的片段,并对其测序,将测序结果输入到NCBI(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/)中,用BLAST工具对序列进行同源性比对分析,并利用MEGA4绘制系统进化树,结果表明:9株菌株的16S rRNA基因测序结果分别与不动杆菌(Acinetobacter)、嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophi-la)、希瓦氏菌(Shewanella baltica)、不动杆菌(Acinetobacter)、希瓦氏菌(Shewanella baltica)、霍乱弧菌(Vibriocholerae)、枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)、杀鲑气单胞菌(Aeromonas salmonicida)、肺炎克雷伯氏菌(Klebsiellapneumoniae)的16S rRNA基因的核苷酸序列同源,同源性分别为96%,99%,99%,97%,98%,98%,99%,98%,98%.9株菌株的系统进化树明显分为3支,Ⅰ和Ⅳ聚为一支,Ⅶ独聚一支,Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅴ、Ⅵ、Ⅷ、Ⅸ聚为一支,其中Ⅱ和Ⅷ相聚,Ⅲ和Ⅴ相聚后再与Ⅵ相聚,最后与Ⅸ相聚.%The present experiment was undertaken with the tranditional microbiology method to isolate the bacteria from Tinca tinca Linnaeus of net cage culture in Wujiang River and 9 strains were isolated. The numbers of 9 strains were Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ, Ⅴ, Ⅵ, Ⅶ, Ⅷ, Ⅸ respectively and the 600bp fragments of 16S rRNA gene of nine strains were amplificated by PCR methold. These 600bp sequences were successfully sequenced and were entered into the NCBI (http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/). Objective to analyse the homology, BLAST tool was used and the Phylogenetic tree of the nine strains was constructed by the soft-ware of MEGA4. The results indicated that: the sequencing results of 16S rRNA gene of 9 strains have homology with the 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence of Acinetobacter, Aeromonas hydrophila, Shewanella baltica, Acinetobacter, Shewanella bahica, Vibrio cholerae, Bacillus subtilis, Aeromonas

  10. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of São Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in São Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23º 37'S - 45° 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23º 57'S - 46º 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all seasons of the year, beginning in spring 2008 and ending in winter 2009. The samples

  11. The early development of the nervous system in staged insectivore and primate embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, F; O'Rahilly, R

    1980-10-01

    The early development of the nervous system was studied in stage embryos of hemicentetes semispinosus, Microcebus murinus, Alouatta seniculus, Cebus appella, Cebus albifrons, macaca mulatta, and Homo sapiens. The specimens were assigned to Carnegie stages 11-13. Serial transverse sections were examined and graphic reconstructions were prepared. The early development of the neural tube is basically similar in all the species investigated but differences in detail are noticeable. The mesencephalic flexure serves in all cases as a landmark for malpighi's tripartite subdivision of the brain. The nonhuman embryos seem to show a little more variation than the human in the closure of the neuropores in relation to somitic count. With the exception of the later-appearing terminal-vomeronasal component, all major portions of the neural crest as classified by O'Rahilly ('65) are represented in both the nonhuman and the human embryos studied. No crest is present at the level of rhombomere 1, nor at rhombomere 3 except in the platyrrhines and some human embryos, nor at rhombomere 5 except in certain human specimens. An indication of the division of the trigeminal ganglion into its primary divisions is rare at stage 11 (C. apella), may be visible at stage 12 (Alouatta, macaca, Homo), and is definite (in Homo) at stage 13. Ganglionic contributions from head ectoderm (epipharyngeal placodes), as previously described in the human and some other vertebrate embryos, were sought and found in Cebus apella. In both nonhuman and human, a tendency is noted whereby the rostral limit of the occipitospinal crest, high at stage 11, seems to descend relatively at stage 12, and ascend again at stage 13 (at least in the human) to become associated with the appearance of the accessory and hypoglossal nerves. In general, the motor components of the nerves are identifiable before the sensory elements, and, in the present study, nerve fibers were first observed in the human at stage 13 in some of

  12. Ecologia das comunidades de metazoários parasitos, do xaréu, Caranx hippos (Linnaeus e do xerelete, Caranx latus Agassiz (Osteichthyes, Carangidae do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Community ecology of metazoan parasites of the crevalle jack, Caranx hippos (Linnaeus and the horse-eye jack, Caranx latus Agassiz (Osteichthyes, Carangidae from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Luque

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty specimens of Caranx hippos (Linnaeus, 1766 and fifty-five specimens of Caranx latus Agassiz, 1831 collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro (21-23ºS, 41-45ºW, Brazil, from October 1998 to October 1999, were necropsied to study their metazoan parasites. All specimens of C. hippos were parasitized, and the majority of specimens of C latus (96.4% were parasitized by one or more metazoan species. Nineteen species of parasites were collected in C. hippos: 5 digeneans, 5 monogeneans, 2 cestodes, 5 nematodes, and 2 copepods. Seventeen species of parasites were collected in C. latus: 6 digeneans, 2 monogeneans, 3 cestodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 copepods. The endoparasites (digeneans, cestodes, and nematodes were the majoriry, 76.4% and 63.3%, of the total number of parasite specimens collected in C. hippos and C. latus, respectively. The monogeneans Allopyragraphorus hippos (Hargis, 1956 and Cemocotyle carangis (MacCallum, 1913 were the most dominant species with the highest parasitic prevalence in the parasite community of C. hippos and C. latus, respectively. The metazoan parasites of the two host species showed the typical overdispersed pattern of distribution. Bucephalus varicus Manter, 1940. A. hippos, Protomicrocotyle mirabilis (MacCallum, 1918, Cucullanus pulcherrimus Barreto, 1918, and Lemanthropus giganteus KrΦyer, 1863 had a positive correlation only between the host's total length and abundance andlor prevalence in C. hippos. Bucephalus varicus, Tergestia pectinata (Linton, 1905, C. carangis, and Pseudoterranovo sp. had a positive correlation between the host's total length and abundance and/or prevalence in C. latus. In C. hippos, the copepod Caligus robustus Bassett-Smith, 1898 had the highest values of prevalence and abundance in the female hosts. No parasite species showed influence of the host's sex on their prevalence and abundance in C. latus. The mean diversity and the parasite species richness of the

  13. Linnaeus II: Software for Biodiversity Research Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H. Schalk; A.C. Pierrot-Bults

    2005-01-01

    Sharing of information, and truly global collaboration is imperative to generate the knowledge needed to underpin sensible and realistic policies for a responsible use of the Earth¿s natural resources. ETI BioInformatics is a NGO in operational relation with UNESCO, dedicated to developing innovativ

  14. Lawsonia inermis Linnaeus: A Phytopharmacological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Chaudhary

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lawsonia inermis L. is a much branched glabrous shrub or small tree, cultivated for its leaves although stem bark, roots, flowers and seeds have also been used in traditional medicine. The plant is reported to contain carbohydrates, proteins, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds, alkaloids, terpenoids, quinones, coumarins, xanthones and fatty acids. The plant has been reported to have analgesic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antitrypanosomal, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, antifertility, tuberculostatic and anticancer properties. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. This review gives a bird’s eye view mainly on the pharmacognostic characteristics, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological actions of the plant.

  15. Biologia reprodutiva de Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus (Pisces, Osteichthyes, Tetraodontidae da gamboa do Baguaçu, Baía de Paranaguá, Paraná, Brasil Reproduetive biology of Sphoeroides testudineus (Linneus (Pisces, Osteichthyes, Tetraodontidae of the gamboa do Baguaçu, bay of Paranaguá, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rocha

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to elucidatc reproduetive aspects of Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus, 1758, Tetraodontidae. Monthly collections were accomplished for one year (November/98-October/99, in the gamboa do Baguaçu, Bay of Paranaguá with a Fyke net. The macroscopic analysis of the gonad stages allowed us to estimate the sexual proportion as 1:1 during the whole period, except in the months of May and October, when the proportions of two females for one male and two males for one female were observed respectively. The analysis of the relative frequency of the monthly gonad stages and the Curve of Maturation aided in the determination of the reproduetive period, that oceurred from September to January. Microscopic analyses of the female gonads allowed us to characterize four develo-pment phases of the ovarian follicle, six stages of ovarian development and the type of spawn, which was parceled. The first maturation for females was estimated to be betwecn 10-11 cm of length.

  16. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 57. Revision and phylogenetic position of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae), with descriptions of new species from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) in Mexico and the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Boeger, Walter A; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Vianna, Rogério T

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae) is amended to include viviparous species having a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ, two band-like projections originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and hooks evenly distributed along the haptoral margins. Two new species of Scleroductus are described from the external surfaces of siluriform fishes of Mexico and Brazil: Scleroductus lyrocleithrum n. sp. from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Heptapteridae) in a cenote on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; and Scleroductus angularis n. sp. from the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Pimelodidae) in the Rio Tocantins, Tocantins, Brazil. Scleroductus sp. is recorded from the jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard) (Heptapteridae) in the Iguaçu drainage of southern Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA suggest that Scleroductus (represented in the analyses by Scleroductus sp. from R. quelen), Ieredactylus Schelkle, Paladini, Shinn, King, Johnson, van Oosterhout, Mohammed & Cable, 2011 (represented by its type-species) and Gyrodactyloides Bychowsky, 1947 (represented by G. bychowskii Al'bova, 1948) comprise the sister taxon to the remaining viviparous gyrodactylids, with Scleroductus serving as the sister group to Ieredactylus + Gyrodactyloides. The clade containing the three taxa is supported by two putative synapomorphic features: two band-like projections (R1 sclerites) originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ. PMID:23263939

  17. Occurrence of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758 in capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Massote Dracz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fasciola hepatica is a parasite that affects the hepatic ducts of several species of domestic and wild vertebrates, causing huge economic losses to livestock rearing worldwide. Reports on occurrences of F. hepatica in capybaras are an important epidemiological aspect of this disease, since these rodents can be a source of contamination for other animals and humans. In the present study, conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Confins, Minas Gerais, fresh feces from capybaras were collected from the ground near a lagoon at the edge of the Ribeirão da Mata river. These were examined using the technique of four metal sieves. F. hepatica eggs were recovered. This trematode species was confirmed by observing morphological characteristics and measuring the eggs recovered from the capybara feces, and through experimental infection of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817 by miracidia from these eggs and subsequent infection of C57/BL06 mice with metacercariae originating from these infected mollusks. The data suggest the occurrence of natural cycle of F. hepatica in this region and provide a warning that expansion of the geographical distribution of this parasite by means of this rodent is possible. It is therefore important to adopting measures for epidemiological control of this helminthiasis.

  18. Occurrence of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758) in capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) (Linnaeus, 1766) in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracz, Ruth Massote; Ribeiro, Vinicius Marques Antunes; Pereira, Cintia Aparecida de Jesus; Lima, Walter Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasite that affects the hepatic ducts of several species of domestic and wild vertebrates, causing huge economic losses to livestock rearing worldwide. Reports on occurrences of F. hepatica in capybaras are an important epidemiological aspect of this disease, since these rodents can be a source of contamination for other animals and humans. In the present study, conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Confins, Minas Gerais, fresh feces from capybaras were collected from the ground near a lagoon at the edge of the Ribeirão da Mata river. These were examined using the technique of four metal sieves. F. hepatica eggs were recovered. This trematode species was confirmed by observing morphological characteristics and measuring the eggs recovered from the capybara feces, and through experimental infection of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) by miracidia from these eggs and subsequent infection of C57/BL06 mice with metacercariae originating from these infected mollusks. The data suggest the occurrence of natural cycle of F. hepatica in this region and provide a warning that expansion of the geographical distribution of this parasite by means of this rodent is possible. It is therefore important to adopting measures for epidemiological control of this helminthiasis.

  19. Preliminary observations on habitat utilization and diet in eight Surinam Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermeier, R A; van Roosmalen, M G

    1981-01-01

    The eight monkey species occurring in Surinam were studied in the Raleigh-vallen-Voltzberg Nature Reserve along the Coppename River. Special emphasis was placed on determining how these eight species divide up available habitat and food resources within a 300-ha study area. Cebus apella apella is probably the most adaptable of the Surinam monkeys. It was found mainly in the understory and lower to middle parts of the canopy of all five forest types (high rain forest, low rain forest, mountain savanna forest, liane forest, pina swamp forest) in the study area, and entered a variety of edge habitats. Saguinus midas midas, the only callitrichid in Surinam, also occurred mainly in the understory and lower to middle parts of the canopy of all five forest types, but was the only species to spend more time in edges than in non-edge habitats. Alouatta seniculus was most often seen in the middle to upper strata of high forest, but occasionally entered the four other forest types and a variety of edges. Cebus nigrivittatus is apparently less adaptable than its congener and was largely restricted to the understory and lower to middle strata of high forest. It occasionally entered two other forest types as well, but was rarely seen in edges. Chiropotes and Pithecia were both found almost exclusively in high forest and mountain savanna forest, but Chiropotes was mainly in the upper part of the canopy and in emergents, whereas Pithecia occupied the lower to middle parts of the canopy and the understory. Neither species made much use of edges. Ateles paniscus paniscus and Saimiri sciureus represent the extremes of primate adaptation in the Voltzberg area. Ateles was the most restricted species, and was found almost exclusively in high forest. It very rarely entered edges and was most often seen in the uppermost forest strata. In contrast, Saimiri was the only species that was not found most often in high forest, and it occurred consistently lower than any other monkey in the area

  20. Estado poblacional y distribución de los primates no humanos en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novo, Nelson M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los monos del Nuevo Mundo ofrecen modelos para estudiar paralelismos que ayudan a elucidar principios generales aplicables a todos los primates, y modelar el comportamiento de homínidos tempranos. En la Argentina encontramos cuatro especies de primates, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Alouatta fusca y Aotus azarai. El último estudio sobre su situación poblacional fue publicado en 1994. En este trabajo presentamos una actualización del estado poblacional en Argentina y nuestras evaluaciones poblacionales de A.caraya en las Provincias del Chaco y Corrientes. Solo existen datos para 4 poblaciones de A. caraya en zonas no protegidas, 1 población de A. azarai en zonas no protegidas, 1 población de C. apella en el PN Iguazú y no existen datos para A. fusca una especie incluida en cites II. Las poblaciones de A. caraya bajo estudio (n=4 aumentaron probablemente como consecuencia de un incremento de los bosques secundarios, como resultado de la deforestación. Existen 7 Parques Nacionales que representan menos del 4 % de la superficie de selvas que contienen primates y no hay relevamientos poblacionales en los mismos. Nuestros resultados indican una situación incierta para las restantes tres especies en Argentina. Ante la falta de control y protección de sus habitats, recomendamos realizar estudios comparativos a largo plazo en zonas protegidas y zonas no protegidas. Estos estudios nos permiten develar patrones y principios validos que no pueden ser identificados solamente con el estudio de la especie humana.

  1. Diversidade de helmintos intestinais em mamíferos silvestres e domésticos na Caatinga do Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Sudeste do Piauí, Brasil Diversity of wild and domestic mammal's intestinal helminths from the Caatinga of the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Southeast of Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandão Martha Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre biodiversidade permitem avaliações ecossistêmicas e monitoramentos de impactos e mudanças ambientais. A diversidade parasitária pode refletir o processo coevolutivo entre parasitos e hospedeiros, e mudanças ambientais que permitem a perda, ganho ou a manutenção das espécies nesse processo. O presente trabalho utilizou espécies/morfotipos de ovos de helmintos encontrados em fezes de sete mamíferos silvestres (os grupos Dasypodidae e grandes felinos, e as espécies: Tamandua tetradactyla, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Cerdocyon thous, Pecari tajacu e dois domésticos (Canis familiaris e Sus scrofa, que cohabitam o Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara (PNSC e seu entorno, para analisar a diversidade dos helmintos intestinais desses mamíferos. Neste trabalho, utilizou-se achados da fauna helmintológica de mamíferos silvestres e domésticos, para avaliar um possível fluxo de helmintos entre estes dois grupos hospedeiros usando Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA dos hospedeiros com base na composição de suas faunas helmintológicas. Os resultados indicam que a região do PNSC, ainda mantém condições ambientais que ainda propiciam a manutenção da composição da fauna de helmintos de mamíferos silvestres, diferente da encontrada nos animais domésticos.Biodiversity studies allow ecosystem assessment and monitoring of environmental changes and impacts. Parasite diversity could reflect the host/ parasite coevolutionary process and the environment changes that permit the loss, gain or maintenance of species. This survey used species/morphotypes of helminths eggs found in feces from seven wild mammal species (the groups Dasypodidae and Large Cats, and Tamandua tetradactyla, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Cerdocyon thous, Pecari tajacu and from two domestic species (Canis familiaris and Sus scrofa, which occur within the Serra da Capivara National Park (PNSC and surrounding areas in order to analise

  2. Contribución al conocimiento de los reservorios del Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas,1909 en la Provincia de Corrientes, Argentina Contribution to knowledge of reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909 in Corrientes Province, Argentina

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    María Esther Bar

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de identificar a reservorios del Trypanosoma cruzi se investigaron 60 mamíferos en los Departamentos Capital y San Luis del Palmar. Se examinaron: primates, roedores, marsupiales, carnívoros y edentados; 40 vivían en cautiverio y 20 fueron capturados mediante trampas en una comunidad rural forestal. Los mamíferos fueron analizados por xenodiagnóstico, empleándose ninfas de 3o o 4o estadío de Triatoma infestans ayunadas durante 2 semanas. Las heces de los triatominos fueron observadas al microscopio (400x a los 30, 60 y 90 días post-alimentación. En 2 Saimiri sciureus y en 1 Cebus apella se constató infección por tripanosomas cruziformes. Se concluye que la parasitemia detectada fue baja. La presencia de Didelphis albiventris, reservorio potencial del Trypanosoma cruzi , en una zona de transmisión activa del parásito representa un factor de riesgo, por lo que son necesarias futuras investigaciones epidemiológicas para determinar la real diagnosis de esta parasitosis en la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina.In order to identify Trypanosoma cruzi reservoirs in transmission areas, 60 mammals in Capital and San Luis del Palmar Departments, Corrientes, Argentina were studied. Primates, rodents, carnivores, marsupials and edentates were investigated, 40 of them living in captivity and 20 caught with traps in a rural area. The mammals were examined by xenodiagnosis and third or fourth instars nymphs of Triatoma infestans starved for 2 weeks were used. The feces were microscopically observed (400x for Trypanosoma cruzi infection at 30, 60 and 90 days after feeding. Trypanosoma cruzi-like parasites were identified in 2 Saimiri sciureus and 1 Cebus apella analyzed by xenodiagnosis. It was concluded that parasitemia was low. Howewer, the presence in a forest area of Didelphis albiventris, potential reservoir of the parasite, indicates a risk factor and deserves further epidemiological study for a true diagnosis of this

  3. Bacteriocin-like activity of oral Fusobacterium nucleatum isolated from human and non-human primates Atividade semelhante a bacteriocina de Fusobacterium nucleatum orais isolados de primatas humanos e não-humanos

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    Elerson Gaetti-Jardim Júnior

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusobacterium nucleatum is indigenous of the human oral cavity and has been involved in different infectious processes. The production of bacteriocin-like substances may be important in regulation of bacterial microbiota in oral cavity. The ability to produce bacteriocin-like substances by 80 oral F. nucleatum isolates obtained from periodontal patients, healthy individuals and Cebus apella monkeys, was examinated. 17.5% of all tested isolates showed auto-antagonism and 78.8% iso- or hetero-antagonism. No isolate from monkey was capable to produce auto-inhibition. In this study, the antagonistic substances production was variable in all tested isolates. Most of the F. nucleatum showed antagonistic activity against tested reference strains. These data suggest a possible participation of these substances on the oral microbial ecology in humans and animals. However, the role of bacteriocins in regulating dental plaque microbiota in vivo is discussed.Fusobacterium nucleatum é indígena da cavidade oral humana e tem sido envolvido em diferentes processos infecciosos. A produção de substâncias semelhantes a bacteriocinas pode ser importante na regulação da microbiota bacteriana da cavidade oral. A capacidade de produzir substâncias tipo bacteriocina de 80 isolados de F. nucleatum orais, obtidos de pacientes com doença periodontal, indivíduos sadios e macaco Cebus apella, foi avaliada. 17,5% de todos os isolados mostrou auto-antagonismo e 78,8% iso- ou hetero-antagonismo. Nenhum isolado de macaco foi capaz de produzir auto-inibição. Neste estudo, a produção de substâncias antagonístas foi variável em todos os isolados testados. A maioria dos F. nucleatum mostrou atividade antagonísta para as cepas de referência testadas. Esses dados sugerem a possível participação dessas substâncias sobre a ecologia microbiana em humanos e animais. Entretanto, o papel das bacteriocinas na regulação da microbiota da placa dental in vivo

  4. The primate community of Cachoeira (Brazilian Amazonia: a model to decipher ecological partitioning among extinct species.

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    Anusha Ramdarshan

    Full Text Available Dental microwear analysis is conducted on a community of platyrrhine primates from South America. This analysis focuses on the primate community of Cachoeira Porteira (Para, Brazil, in which seven sympatric species occur: Alouatta seniculus, Ateles paniscus, Cebus apella, Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia Pithecia, Saguinus midas, and Saimiri sciureus. Shearing quotients are also calculated for each taxon of this primate community. Dental microwear results indicate significant differences between taxa, but are somewhat insufficient when it comes to discriminating between ecologically similar taxa. The primates of Cachoeira Porteira all incorporate a certain amount of fruit in their diet, entailing a definite amount of inter-specific competition as they must share food resources. Alouatta is the most folivorous taxon of this community, which is corroborated by dental microwear analysis. Ateles, although of a similar size to Alouatta, limits inter-specific competition by incorporating more fruit in its diet. Cebus has a very diverse omnivorous diet, which is highlighted in this study, as it compares to both fruit and leaf eating taxa. In some cases, microwear results need to be supplemented by other methods. For example, dental microwear seems insufficient to distinguish between Pithecia and Chiropotes, which eat foods with similar physical properties. However, other methods (i.e. shearing quotients and body mass provide enough complimentary information to be able to highlight differences between the two taxa. On the other hand, dental microwear can highlight differences between primates which have similar diets, such as Saimiri and Saguinus. In this case, differences could be due to other exogenous factors.

  5. The primate community of Cachoeira (Brazilian Amazonia): a model to decipher ecological partitioning among extinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdarshan, Anusha; Alloing-Séguier, Thomas; Merceron, Gildas; Marivaux, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Dental microwear analysis is conducted on a community of platyrrhine primates from South America. This analysis focuses on the primate community of Cachoeira Porteira (Para, Brazil), in which seven sympatric species occur: Alouatta seniculus, Ateles paniscus, Cebus apella, Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia Pithecia, Saguinus midas, and Saimiri sciureus. Shearing quotients are also calculated for each taxon of this primate community. Dental microwear results indicate significant differences between taxa, but are somewhat insufficient when it comes to discriminating between ecologically similar taxa. The primates of Cachoeira Porteira all incorporate a certain amount of fruit in their diet, entailing a definite amount of inter-specific competition as they must share food resources. Alouatta is the most folivorous taxon of this community, which is corroborated by dental microwear analysis. Ateles, although of a similar size to Alouatta, limits inter-specific competition by incorporating more fruit in its diet. Cebus has a very diverse omnivorous diet, which is highlighted in this study, as it compares to both fruit and leaf eating taxa. In some cases, microwear results need to be supplemented by other methods. For example, dental microwear seems insufficient to distinguish between Pithecia and Chiropotes, which eat foods with similar physical properties. However, other methods (i.e. shearing quotients and body mass) provide enough complimentary information to be able to highlight differences between the two taxa. On the other hand, dental microwear can highlight differences between primates which have similar diets, such as Saimiri and Saguinus. In this case, differences could be due to other exogenous factors. PMID:22076156

  6. Morphological adaptation to diet in platyrrhine primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anapol, F; Lee, S

    1994-06-01

    Morphological features of the jaws and teeth are examined in eight species of platyrrhine monkeys that coexist in the Suriname rainforest. Z-scores calculated from geometric predictions for several features of the feeding apparatus thought to have some functional significance (e.g., tooth dimensions, jaw robusticity, leverage of primary jaw elevators) are compared to a profile of the naturalistic dietary behavior of these species (i.e., proportions of fruit mesocarp, seeds, leaves, and fauna eaten). Several features are found exclusively in those platyrrhines whose dietary preferences are the most limited. Such specializations appear to be associated with a particular protein source exploited by a species to supplement a largely frugivorous diet. Ateles paniscus, which feeds primarily on the mesocarp of ripe fruit, has an adaptive morphology that emphasizes broad incisors. Chiropotes satanas (and to a slightly lesser extent, Pithecia pithecia) is a frugivore/seed predator with large upper and lower canines and a robust mandible. The frugivore/folivore Alouatta seniculus has a relatively large total molar area and effective mandibular condyle height. In all four of these strictly vegetarian species, the leverage of the masseter muscle is greater than that of temporalis. Of the omnivorous species, Cebus apella and C. nigrivittatus exploit both fauna and seeds for protein and exhibit an array of many of the above features, such as large teeth and thick mandibles. Saimiri sciureus, not particularly known for seed predation, departs from Cebus in having less robust canines and a more gracile mandible. All three cebid omnivores have a temporalis with greater leverage than the masseter, indicating a requirement for resisting anteriorly directed forces, for example, using the jaws for vigorous foraging. The lack of any enlarged features, other than incisors, in the omnivorous Saguinus midas may be attributable to the functional constraints of small body size. Because the

  7. Grooming up the hierarchy: the exchange of grooming and rank-related benefits in a new world primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiddi, Barbara; Aureli, Filippo; Schino, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Seyfarth's model assumes that female primates derive rank-related benefits from higher-ranking females in exchange for grooming. As a consequence, the model predicts females prefer high-ranking females as grooming partners and compete for the opportunity to groom them. Therefore, allogrooming is expected to be directed up the dominance hierarchy and to occur more often between females with adjacent ranks. Although data from Old World primates generally support the model, studies on the relation between grooming and dominance rank in the New World genus Cebus have found conflicting results, showing considerable variability across groups and species. In this study, we investigated the pattern of grooming in wild tufted capuchin females (Cebus apella nigritus) in Iguazú National Park, Argentina by testing both the assumption (i.e., that females gain rank-related return benefits from grooming) and predictions (i.e., that females direct grooming up the dominance hierarchy and the majority of grooming occurs between females with adjacent ranks) of Seyfarth's model. Study subjects were 9 adult females belonging to a single group. Results showed that grooming was given in return for tolerance during naturally occurring feeding, a benefit that higher-ranking females can more easily grant. Female grooming was directed up the hierarchy and was given more often to partners with similar rank. These findings provide supporting evidence for both the assumption and predictions of Seyfarth's model and represent, more generally, the first evidence of reciprocal behavioural interchanges driven by rank-related benefits in New World female primates.

  8. Mamíferos do município de Fênix, Paraná, Brasil: etnozoologia e conservação Mammals of the municipality of Fênix, Paraná, Brazil: ethnozoology and conservation

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    Fabiana Rocha-Mendes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com base na abordagem etnozoológica foram resgatadas informações históricas e atuais sobre a mastofauna do município de Fênix, mesorregião centro-ocidental do estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Para tanto, no ano de 2004, foram realizadas entrevistas com 19 moradores locais por meio de uma conversa informal que tinham por objetivo o preenchimento de um questionário básico e a apresentação de fotografias da fauna potencial da região. Como resultado, foram registradas 39 espécies de mamíferos, sendo que destas, pelo menos seis são novos registros para a área. Informações obtidas em relação à caça indicam que esta atividade, muito comum no passado, ainda é presente, inclusive em unidades de conservação, como o Parque Estadual Vila Rica do Espírito Santo. As espécies que sofreram e sofrem maior pressão de caça são as mesmas citadas para outras partes do neotrópico. Atualmente, Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 (Hydrochaeridae é a espécie mais procurada, dada à facilidade de encontrá-la em diversas áreas naturais ou parcialmente antropizadas do município. No que se refere à predação causada por animais silvestres sobre animais domésticos, quase 80% dos entrevistados relataram ter sofrido perdas em suas criações, principalmente galinhas, resultantes de ataques de carnívoros de médio porte. Dados sobre alterações temporais na composição da mastofauna também foram obtidos junto aos entrevistados, como a extinção local de alguns mamíferos de grande porte (Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758 (Felidae, Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758 (Tapiridae e Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795 (Tayassuidae e o aumento populacional de Cebus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809 (Cebidae e de Nasua nasua (Linnaeus 1766 (Procyonidae, supostamente relacionado ao consumo de plantações como o milho.Based on an ethnozoological approach we obtained historical and present information on the mammalian fauna of the municipality of Fênix

  9. Distribución, ecología y origen de las poblaciones de Vitrina pellucida (O. F. Müller, 1774 y Cepaea nemoralis (Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora en las Cordilleras Béticas Orientales (Andalucía, España

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    Arrebola, J. R.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the chorology and ecology of the andalusian terrestrial malacofauna (South of the Iberian Peninsula, has showed the presence of a group of climatic relicts characteristics from the Eurosiberian region, in the Eastern Betics Mountains Chains. The ecology and distribution of two of these species (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Millier, 1774: and Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeus, 1758 is exposed, being the main limiting factor the typical mediterranean summer drought. The adaptative response of these species against the scarcity of water depends on its different ecophysiologies. Vitrina pellucida (eurithermic lives in low-lands where the availability of water along the year is constant, as well as in dry soils of high mountains because of the cold weather. Cepaea nemoralis (stenothermic lives only in habitats with wet soils and heavy vegetal cover placed below 1500 m. The absence of similar vegetation over this altitude and the extreme climate conditions of the High Mediterranean Mountains prevents its appearance, contrarily to the High Eurosiberian Mountains.

    [fr]
    L'étude de la chorologie et de l'écologie de la malacofaune terrestre d'Andalousie (sud de la Péninsule Ibérique, a permis de déterminer la présence, dans les cordillères Bétiques Orientales, d'un groupe de reliques climatiques propres à la région Euro-sibérienne. L'écologie et la distribution de deux de ces espèces (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Müller, 1774 et Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeux, 1758 sont exposées ici, et on montre que le principal facteur limitant est la sécheresse estivale caractéristique du climat méditerranéen. La réponse adaptative de dex deux espèces face à la rareté de l'eau durant l'été est déterminée par leurs écophysiologies différentes, Vitrina pellucida (eurytherme utilise aussi bien les écosystèmes des terres basses là où la disponibilité en eau est constante tout au long de l

  10. Evaluation of dental pulp repair using low level laser therapy (688 nm and 785 nm) morphologic study in capuchin monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretel, H.; Oliveira, J. A.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Ramalho, L. T. O.

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) 688 nm and 785 nm accelerate dentin barrier formation and repair process after traumatic pulp exposure. The sample consisted of 45 premolars of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) with pulp exposure Class V cavities. All premolars were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), divided in groups of 15 teeth each, and analyzed on 7th, 25th, and 60th day. Group GI - only Ca(OH)2, GII - laser 688 nm, and GIII - laser 785 nm. Laser beam was used in single and punctual dose with the parameters: continuous, 688 nm and 785 nm wavelength, tip's area of 0.00785 cm2, power 50 mW, application time 20 s, dose 255 J/cm2, energy 2 J. Teeth were capped with Ca(OH)2, Ca(OH)2 cement and restored with amalgam. All groups presented pulp repair. On 25th day the thickness of the formed dentin barrier was different between the groups GI and GII (p < 0.05) and between groups GI and GIII (p < 0.01). On 60th day there was difference between GI and GIII (p < 0.01). It may be concluded that, LLLT 688 nm and 785 nm accelerated dentin barrier formation and consequently pulp repair process, with best results using infrared laser 785 nm.

  11. [Diversity of wild and domestic mammal's intestinal helminths from the Caatinga of the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Southeast of Piauí, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Martha Lima; Chame, Marcia; Cordeiro, José Luis Passos; de Miranda Chaves, Sérgio Augusto

    2009-12-01

    Biodiversity studies allow ecosystem assessment and monitoring of environmental changes and impacts. Parasite diversity could reflect the host/ parasite coevolutionary process and the environment changes that permit the loss, gain or maintenance of species. This survey used species/morphotypes of helminths eggs found in feces from seven wild mammal species (the groups Dasypodidae and Large Cats, and Tamandua tetradactyla, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Cerdocyon thous, Pecari tajacu) and from two domestic species (Canis familiaris and Sus scrofa), which occur within the Serra da Capivara National Park (PNSC) and surrounding areas in order to analise the diversity of mammal intestinal helminths. This work used the helminthological fauna findings of wild and domestic mammals, to consider a possible helminth flux between these two host groups using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) of the hosts based on helminthological fauna composition. The results indicate that the region of the PNSC still maintains environmental conditions that still keep wild mammal helminthological fauna composition different from the one found for domestic mammals.

  12. [Diversity of wild and domestic mammal's intestinal helminths from the Caatinga of the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Southeast of Piauí, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Martha Lima; Chame, Marcia; Cordeiro, José Luis Passos; de Miranda Chaves, Sérgio Augusto

    2009-12-01

    Biodiversity studies allow ecosystem assessment and monitoring of environmental changes and impacts. Parasite diversity could reflect the host/ parasite coevolutionary process and the environment changes that permit the loss, gain or maintenance of species. This survey used species/morphotypes of helminths eggs found in feces from seven wild mammal species (the groups Dasypodidae and Large Cats, and Tamandua tetradactyla, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Cerdocyon thous, Pecari tajacu) and from two domestic species (Canis familiaris and Sus scrofa), which occur within the Serra da Capivara National Park (PNSC) and surrounding areas in order to analise the diversity of mammal intestinal helminths. This work used the helminthological fauna findings of wild and domestic mammals, to consider a possible helminth flux between these two host groups using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) of the hosts based on helminthological fauna composition. The results indicate that the region of the PNSC still maintains environmental conditions that still keep wild mammal helminthological fauna composition different from the one found for domestic mammals. PMID:20040186

  13. Repellent efficacy of formic acid and the abdominal secretion of carpenter ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) against Amblyomma ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falótico, Tiago; Labruna, Marcelo B; Verderane, Michele P; De Resende, Briseida D; Izar, Patrícia; Ottoni, Eduardo B

    2007-07-01

    Formic acid is a substance produced by some ants for defense, trail marking, and recruitment. Some animals are known to rub ants or other arthropods on parts of their plumage or fur to anoint themselves with released substances. A recent study with a semifree-ranging group of capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella L., in the Tietê Ecological Park, Sao Paulo, Brazil, an area of occurrence of the tick species Amblyomma cajennense (F.), revealed that "anting" with carpenter ants, Camponotus rufipes F. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), occurs frequently, especially during the A. cajennense subadult season. Based on these observations, we tested the repellent effect of the formic acid and the ants themselves against A. cajennense and Amblyomma incisum Neumann nymphs, and Amblyomma parcum Aragdo adult ticks in the laboratory. The results revealed a significant repellent effect of formic acid and ant secretion, and a significant duration of the repellent effect. The results suggest that the anting behavior of capuchin monkeys, and other vertebrates, may be related with repellence of ticks and other ectoparasites. PMID:17695031

  14. Advantage of dichromats over trichromats in discrimination of color-camouflaged stimuli in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Atsuko; Mikami, Akichika; Kawamura, Shoji; Ueno, Yoshikazu; Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Widayati, Kanthi A; Suryobroto, Bambang; Teramoto, Migaku; Mori, Yusuke; Nagano, Kunitoshi; Fujita, Kazuo; Kuroshima, Hika; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2005-12-01

    Due to a middle- to long-wavelength-sensitive (M/LWS) cone opsin polymorphism, there is considerable phenotypic variation in the color vision of New World monkeys. Many females have trichromatic vision, whereas some females and all males have dichromatic vision. The selective pressures that maintain this polymorphism are unclear. In the present study we compared the performance of dichromats and trichromats in a discrimination task. We examined tri- and dichromatic individuals of two species: brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). We also examined one protanomalous chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The subjects' task was to discriminate a circular pattern from other patterns in which textural elements differed in orientation and thickness from the background. After they were trained with stimuli of a single color, the subjects were presented with color-camouflaged stimuli with a green/red mosaic overlaid onto the pattern. The dichromatic monkeys and the protanomalous chimpanzee selected the correct stimulus under camouflaged conditions at rates significantly above chance levels, while the trichromats did not. These findings demonstrate that dichromatic nonhuman primates possess a superior visual ability to discriminate color-camouflaged stimuli, and that such an ability may confer selective advantages with respect to the detection of cryptic foods and/or predators. PMID:16342068

  15. Number and topography of cones, rods and optic nerve axons in New and Old World primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Barbara L; Franco, Edna Cristina S; Yamada, Elizabeth S; Crowley, Justin C; Parsons, Michael; Muniz, José Augusto P C; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L

    2008-01-01

    To better understand the evolution of spatial and color vision, the number and spatial distributions of cones, rods, and optic nerve axon numbers were assessed in seven New World primates (Cebus apella, Saimiri ustius, Saguinus midas niger, Alouatta caraya, Aotus azarae, Calllithrix jacchus, and Callicebus moloch). The spatial distribution and number of rods and cones was determined from counts of retinal whole mounts. Optic axon number was determined from optic nerve sections by electron microscopy. These data were amassed with existing data on retinal cell number and distribution in Old World primates, and the scaling of relative densities and numbers with respect to retinal area, eye and brain sizes, and foveal specializations were evaluated. Regular scaling of all cell types was observed, with the exceptionally large, rod-enriched retina of the nocturnal owl monkey Aotus azarae, and the unusually high cone density of the fovea of the trichromatic howler monkey Alouatta caraya presenting interesting variations on this basic plan. Over all species, the lawful scaling of rods, cones, and retinal ganglion cell number is hypothesized to result from a conserved sequence of cell generation that defends retinal acuity and sensitivity over a large range of eye sizes. PMID:18598400

  16. Absence of intestinal colonization by vancomycin-resistant enterococci in nonhuman primates Ausência de enterococos resistentes à vancomicina na microbiota intestinal de primatas não-humanos

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    Diego Batista Xavier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The animal reservoirs of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE have important role in the epidemiology of the bacteria and resistant genes. The present work searched fecal samples taken off nonhuman primates for the presence of VRE. Resistance profiles, virulence traits, and genetic variability among enterococci isolates were also analyzed. The samples included Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, n=28 and Common marmoset (Callithrix penicillata, n=37 housed in the Primate Center of the University of Brasília, Brazil. Most individuals were captive monkeys from the Central-West and South-East regions of Brazil (n=48. We collected rectal swabs and carried out selective isolation followed by multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR to identify species and resistance genes. No vanA or vanB-containing enterococci were found. The carriage rates ranged from 1.5% for the VanC-type E. casseliflavus and E. gallinarum until 12.3% (n=8 for Enterococcus faecalis. All E. faecalis isolates showed susceptibility to vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin, gentamicin, and streptomycin. The virulence genes ace and esp were prevalent (100.0%, 87.5%. Multilocus variable number of tandem repeats (MLVA revealed diversity in the number of repeats among E. faecalis isolates and targets, which was higher for espC, efa5, and efa6. We identified six different MLVA genotypes that were divergent from those described in human beings. Also, they were clustered into two genogroups that showed host-specificity for the species Cebus apella or Callithrix penicillata. In conclusion, no vanA- or vanB-containing enterococci were found colonizing those primate individuals. This finding suggested that the primate individuals investigated in our study are not directly involved in the epidemiological chain of high-level vancomycin-resistant genes vanA or vanB in Brazil. Our study also showed that E. faecalis isolated from nonhuman primates carry virulence traits and have ability to spread their

  17. Evaluation of dental pulp repair using low level laser therapy (688 nm and 785 nm) morphologic study in capuchin monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) 688 nm and 785 nm accelerate dentin barrier formation and repair process after traumatic pulp exposure. The sample consisted of 45 premolars of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) with pulp exposure Class V cavities. All premolars were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), divided in groups of 15 teeth each, and analyzed on 7th, 25th, and 60th day. Group GI – only Ca(OH)2, GII – laser 688 nm, and GIII – laser 785 nm. Laser beam was used in single and punctual dose with the parameters: continuous, 688 nm and 785 nm wavelength, tip's area of 0.00785 cm2, power 50 mW, application time 20 s, dose 255 J/cm2, energy 2 J. Teeth were capped with Ca(OH)2, Ca(OH)2 cement and restored with amalgam. All groups presented pulp repair. On 25th day the thickness of the formed dentin barrier was different between the groups GI and GII (p th day there was difference between GI and GIII (p < 0.01). It may be concluded that, LLLT 688 nm and 785 nm accelerated dentin barrier formation and consequently pulp repair process, with best results using infrared laser 785 nm

  18. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhia eCatapano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good’s price can have irrational effects on people’s preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased, we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human price effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling.

  19. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Rhia; Buttrick, Nicholas; Widness, Jane; Goldstein, Robin; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good's price can have irrational effects on people's preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased), we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human pricing effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling. PMID:25520677

  20. Same/different concept learning by capuchin monkeys in matching-to-sample tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Truppa

    Full Text Available The ability to understand similarities and analogies is a fundamental aspect of human advanced cognition. Although subject of considerable research in comparative cognition, the extent to which nonhuman species are capable of analogical reasoning is still debated. This study examined the conditions under which tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella acquire a same/different concept in a matching-to-sample task on the basis of relational similarity among multi-item stimuli. We evaluated (i the ability of five capuchin monkeys to learn the same/different concept on the basis of the number of items composing the stimuli and (ii the ability to match novel stimuli after training with both several small stimulus sets and a large stimulus set. We found the first evidence of same/different relational matching-to-sample abilities in a New World monkey and demonstrated that the ability to match novel stimuli is within the capacity of this species. Therefore, analogical reasoning can emerge in monkeys under specific training conditions.

  1. Can old-world and new-world monkeys judge spatial above/below relations to be the same or different? Some of them, but not all of them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Roger K R; Flemming, Timothy M; Hagmann, Carl Erick

    2016-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with the aid of token training can achieve analogical reasoning, or the ability to understand relations-between-relations (e.g., Premack, 1976; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). However, extraordinarily few numbers of old- and new-world monkeys have demonstrated this ability in variants of relational matching to sample tasks. Moreover, the rarity of replications leaves open the question of whether the results are normative for other captive colonies of the same species. In experiment one we attempted to replicate whether old world rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) might demonstrate the same level of proficiency on a spatial above/below relational matching task as reported for old world baboons (Papio papio). None of the rhesus monkeys attained above chance performances over 10,000 training trials. In experiment two we attempted to replicate results demonstrating that new-world capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) match above/below relations. The capuchin monkeys performed above chance only in the absence of 'Clever Hans' controls for cuing of the correct choice by the experimenters. These failures to replicate previously reported results demonstrate that some, but definitely not all monkeys can judge the equivalence of abstract 'relations between relations' and warrant further investigations into the behavioral and cognitive characteristics that underlie these similarities and differences within population and between individuals of different primate species.

  2. Morphology of the muscles of the shoulder, arms and forearms of the coati (Nasua nasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The coati is an animal that belongs to the Phylum Chordata, the Class Mammalia, the Order Carnivora and the Procyonidae family. The striking feature of the family Procyonidae is the presence of five digits on the paws. These animals are classified as plantigrades and can do hand movements in different directions. It has habits of climbing trees to procreate, fleeing from danger, and sleeping at night. It feeds on fruits, small vertebrates, insects, nectar, eggs and vegetables. For this work were used three euthanized animals, from the Scientific Breeding Center (CECRIMPAS – UNIFEOB authorized by IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76, fixed in formaldehyde solution 10%. This work describes the morphology of the muscles of the forelimb of the coati, through dissection and photographic documentation. In the studied species, we found anatomical adaptations of thoracic limb muscles which had a mass volume much greater than in other species (puma, alpaca, dog, cat, lhama and Cebus apella monkeys, and this fact was found to be directly related to their abilities in climbing and handicraft.

  3. The impact of moving to a novel environment on social networks, activity and wellbeing in two new world primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, V; Sueur, C; Whiten, A; Buchanan-Smith, H M

    2011-08-01

    Among the stressors that can affect animal welfare in zoos, the immediate effect of relocation to a novel environment is one that has received little attention in the literature. Here, we compare the social network, daily activity and the expression of stress-related behavior in capuchins (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) before and just after they were relocated to a new enriched enclosure. Results showed similar immediate responses to the move in the two species. Both showed a substantial increase in the time spent resting and spent more time in the highest and "safest" part of their enclosure after relocation. Both capuchins and squirrel monkeys spent significantly more time in close proximity to other group members after relocation, compared to before. In squirrel monkeys, the structure of the social network, which was initially correlated to affiliation, was no longer so after the move. In capuchins, the network analysis showed that individuals regrouped by age, with the youngsters who were potentially more affected by stress being in the center of the network. Social network analysis helped to achieve a more complete picture of how individuals were affected by relocation. We suggest that this type of analysis should be used alongside traditional methods of observation and analysis to encompass the most complex aspects of animal behavior in times of stress and to improve welfare. PMID:21381071

  4. Fruit availability, frugivore satiation and seed removal in 2 primate-dispersed tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratiarison, Sandra; Forget, Pierre-Michel

    2011-09-01

    During a mast-fruiting event we investigated spatial variability in fruit availability, consumption, and seed removal at two sympatric tree species, Manilkara bidentata and M. huberi (Sapotaceae) at Nouragues Natural Reserve, French Guiana. We addressed the question of how Manilkara density and fruits at the community level might be major causes of variability in feeding assemblages between tree species. We thus explored how the frugivore assemblages differed between forest patches with contrasting relative Manilkara density and fruiting context. During the daytime, Alouatta seniculus was more often observed in M. huberi crowns at Petit Plateau (PP) with the greatest density of Manilkara spp. and the lowest fruit diversity and availability, whereas Cebus apella and Saguinus midas were more often observed in M. bidentata crowns at both Grand Plateau (GP), with a lowest density of M. bidentata and overall greater fruit supply, and PP. Overall, nearly 53% and 15% of the M. bidentata seed crop at GP and PP, respectively, and about 47% of the M. huberi seed crop were removed, otherwise either spit out or defecated beneath trees, or dropped in fruits. Small-bodied primates concentrated fallen seeds beneath parent trees while large-bodied primate species removed and dispersed more seeds away from parents. However, among the latter, satiated A. seniculus wasted seeds under conspecific trees at PP. Variations in feeding assemblages, seed removal rates and fates possibly reflected interactions with extra-generic fruit species at the community level, according to feeding choice, habitat preferences and ranging patterns of primate species. PMID:21910838

  5. Meiosis and chromosome painting of sex chromosome systems in Ceboidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudry, M D; Rahn, I M; Solari, A J

    2001-06-01

    The identity of the chromosomes involved in the multiple sex system of Alouatta caraya (Aca) and the possible distribution of this system among other Ceboidea were investigated by chromosome painting of mitotic cells from five species and by analysis of meiosis at pachytene in two species. The identity of the autosome #7 (X2) involved in the multiple system of Aca and its breakage points were demonstrated by both meiosis and chromosome painting. These features are identical to those described by Consigliere et al. [1996] in Alouatta seniculus sara (Assa) and Alouatta seniculus arctoidea (Asar). This multiple system was absent in the other four Ceboidea species studied here. However, data from the literature strongly suggest the presence of this multiple in other members of this genus. The presence of this multiple system among several species and subspecies that show high levels of chromosome rearrangements may suggest a special selective value of this multiple. The meiotic features of the sex systems of Aca and Cebus apella paraguayanus (Cap) are strikingly different at pachytene, as the latter system is similar to the sex pair of man and other primates. The relatively large genetic distances between species presently showing this multiple system suggest that its origin is not recent. Other members of the same genus should be investigated at meiosis and by chromosome painting in order to know the extent and distribution of this complex sex-chromosome system. PMID:11376445

  6. Repellent efficacy of formic acid and the abdominal secretion of carpenter ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) against Amblyomma ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falótico, Tiago; Labruna, Marcelo B; Verderane, Michele P; De Resende, Briseida D; Izar, Patrícia; Ottoni, Eduardo B

    2007-07-01

    Formic acid is a substance produced by some ants for defense, trail marking, and recruitment. Some animals are known to rub ants or other arthropods on parts of their plumage or fur to anoint themselves with released substances. A recent study with a semifree-ranging group of capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella L., in the Tietê Ecological Park, Sao Paulo, Brazil, an area of occurrence of the tick species Amblyomma cajennense (F.), revealed that "anting" with carpenter ants, Camponotus rufipes F. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), occurs frequently, especially during the A. cajennense subadult season. Based on these observations, we tested the repellent effect of the formic acid and the ants themselves against A. cajennense and Amblyomma incisum Neumann nymphs, and Amblyomma parcum Aragdo adult ticks in the laboratory. The results revealed a significant repellent effect of formic acid and ant secretion, and a significant duration of the repellent effect. The results suggest that the anting behavior of capuchin monkeys, and other vertebrates, may be related with repellence of ticks and other ectoparasites.

  7. Dietary proclivities of Paranthropus robustus from Swartkrans, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L’Engle Williams Frank

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene Paranthropus robustus fossils from Swartkrans have yielded stable isotope values suggesting some foraging on C4 plants possibly including underground storage organs. Dental microwear texture analysis on P. robustus (SK 6, SK 34 and SK 47 from Swartkrans Member 1 is performed to examine whether tooth surface damage from mastication agrees with prior dietary inferences from carbon isotopes. There is considerable variation in textural characteristics among the P. robustus specimens. Specifically, adult SK 34 stands apart from the two subadult specimens, SK 6 and SK 47, suggesting life history could be reflected in patterns of dental microwear texture characteristics, although seasonality and availability of fallback foods may also explain the variation observed in P. robustus. The fossils all exhibit elevated surface texture complexity, resembling the values for Lophocebus albigena and Cebus apella, and to a lesser extent, Pan troglodytes. Paranthropus robustus is dissimilar to primary folivores, such as Trachypithecus cristatus or folivore- frugivores such as Alouatta palliata suggesting leaves comprised very little of its diet. The textural fill volume of P. robustus differs from that observed in extant primates from tropical forests indicating extreme durophagy, perhaps a function of differences in habitat. Ingestion of extraneous grit on the underground parts of plants and from terrestrial resources, perhaps as fallback foods or as dietary staples, may account for these enamel textural properties and may help explain the mixed C3/C4 isotopic signal in P. robustus.

  8. Conservation value of a native forest fragment in a region of extensive agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello

    2000-05-01

    A survey of mammals and birds was carried out in a semi-deciduous forest fragment of 150 ha located in a zone of intensive agriculture in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, south-eastern Brazil. Line transect sampling was used to census mammals and birds during six days, totalling 27.8 km of trails and 27.8 hours of observation. Twenty mammal species were confirmed in the area (except bats and small mammals), including rare or endangered species, such as the mountain lion (Puma concolor), the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), and the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). The brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the black-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) were found frequently, suggesting high population density in the fragment. Regarding the avifauna, 49 bird species were recorded, most of them typical of open areas or forest edges. Some confirmed species, however, are becoming increasingly rare in the region, as for example the muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) and the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco). The results demonstrate that forest fragment of this size are refuges for native fauna in a region dominated almost exclusively by sugar-cane plantations. Besides faunal aspects, the conservation of these fragments is of great importance for the establishment of studies related to species preservation in the long term, including reintroduction and translocation projects, as well as studies related to genetic health of isolated populations. PMID:10959107

  9. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini

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    Cristiani Gifalli-Iughetti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus, Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62. The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates.

  10. Concept learning set-size functions for Clark's nutcrackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A; Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Leonard, Kevin; Kelly, Debbie M

    2016-01-01

    Same/Different abstract-concept learning by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) was tested with novel stimuli following learning of training set expansion (8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, and 1024 picture items). The resulting set-size function was compared to those from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and pigeons (Columba livia). Nutcrackers showed partial concept learning following initial eight-item set learning, unlike the other species (Magnotti, Katz, Wright, & Kelly, 2015). The mean function for the nutcrackers' novel-stimulus transfer increased linearly as a function of the logarithm of training set size, which intersected its baseline function at the 128-item set size. Thus, nutcrackers on average achieved full concept learning (i.e., transfer statistically equivalent to baseline performance) somewhere between set sizes of 64 to 128 items, similar to full concept learning by monkeys. Pigeons required a somewhat larger training set (256 items) for full concept learning, but results from other experiments (initial training and transfer with 32- and 64-item set sizes) suggested carryover effects with smaller set sizes may have artificially prolonged the pigeon's full concept learning. We find it remarkable that these diverse species with very different neural architectures can fully learn this same/different abstract concept, and (at least under some conditions) do so with roughly similar sets sizes (64-128 items) and numbers of training exemplars, despite initial concept learning advantages (nutcrackers), learning disadvantages (pigeons), or increasing baselines (monkeys).

  11. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus,Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62). The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates. PMID:21637455

  12. Status of windowpane oyster Placuna placenta (Linnaeus) population in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Clemente, S.

    of medicines under the Indian system. The percentage of pearl formation in the natural population of P. placenta is higher in Goa (about 35%) compared to other regions in India. There is considerable scope of this important resource particularly for extracting...

  13. Karyotypic analysis of different populations of Carthamus tinctorius Linnaeus (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Malik

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Carthamus tinctorius L. were analysed. A karyotype formula for each studied population was formulated. Although all samples have 2n = 24, they could be differentiated by their karyotype formula and quantitative parameters of the karyotypes. The chromosomes were assorted into different categories on the basis of arms ratio following Levan et al. (1964. These were further subdivided into different types, on the basis of total length of the chromosomes. Based on an evolutionary point of view, variation in total chromosome length without major changes in the karyotype formula suggests that changes in the amounts of genomic DNA are proportional to the relative length of an each chromosome arm. All samples possessed symmetrical or slightly asymmetrical karyotype. The samples belonging to the same species were showing intra-specific or inter-specific chromosome polymorphism. This finding may provide useful information for Carthamus evolutionary, genetic, and breeding studies.

  14. Dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingwang; Mai, Kangsen; Liufu, Zhiguo; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-04-01

    The dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot (initial average weight, 38.2 g ± 0.1 g) reared indoor in aerated aquaria was determined in this study. Five energy equal experimental diets were formulated with fish meal as protein source, which contained different concentrations of protein (47.2%, 51.0%, 54.6%, 59.3% and 63.6% of dry diet). Three groups of fish with 18 individuals in each, were cultured in 300-L tanks and fed twice a day for 8 weeks. During culture, temperature was controlled between 15.0 and 18.0°C, salinity was controlled between 28.5 and 32.0, acidity was controlled between pH7.8 and pH8.5, and ammonia nitrogen was maintained below 0.03 mg L-1 and dissolved oxygen was maintained about 7 mg L-1. Results showed that the growth of fish was significantly affected by dietary protein content ( P turbot increased when dietary protein content varied between 47.2% and 51.0% ( P 0.05). Broken-line regression analysis of SGR showed that the optimal dietary protein requirement of turbot was about 57.0%.

  15. Sperm cryopreservation of lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, E G; Oliveira, I R; Serralheiro, P C S; Cerqueira, V R

    2015-08-01

    This study aims developing and evaluate a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris. Firstly, sperm motility rate, motility time, density and spermatocrit were appraised to characterize the sperm quality of the lane snapper. The effect of three extenders with distinct ionic compositions and pH values combined with seven concentrations of cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0; 12.5 e 15.0%), five cooling rates (110, 90, 60, 45 e 30°C -min), nine equilibration time (1; 2,5; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30 e 60 minutes) e five dilutions ratio (1:1; 1:3; 1:6; 1:10 e 1:20) on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The higher sperm motility rate and motility time (P60% validating the present protocol for lane snapper. The cryoconserved sperm of lane snapper is a viable alternative, being possible to maintain appropriate sperm viability.

  16. The mitochondrial genome of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianrong; Yao, Chengyi; Li, Lei; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Papilio demoleus (GenBank accession number KR024009) by long PCR and primer walking methods. The total length of mitochondrial DNA is 15,249 bp containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a control region. The overall base composition of the genome is A (39.31%), T (41.57%), C (11.33%) and G (7.78%) with an A + T-rich region, similar to other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATG in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4, ND4L, Cob and ND1, while ATA for ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5 and ND6 genes. The stop codon was mainly TAA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes, whereas TAG was found in ND1 gene only. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et) with a length of 403 bp. PMID:26024148

  17. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Cristina Macedo; Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo; Teresa Cristina Sauer Ávila-Pires; Elane Guerreiro Giese; Jeannie Nascimento dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the “Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha” Herpetolog...

  18. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Cristina Macedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the “Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha” Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  19. Morfologia da laringe em Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766

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    Paulo Souza Junior

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Cerdocyon thous (cachorro-do-mato é o canídeo silvestre mais comum em território sul-americano. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho descrever a morfologia macroscópica, microscópica e comparada da laringe nesta espécie. Para tal, as laringes de dezesseis espécimes (quatro machos e doze fêmeas foram analisadas quanto à topografia, forma, morfometria, musculatura intrínseca e histologia. A laringe dispôs-se ventralmente ao áxis e foi constituída por uma cartilagem tireoide e outra cricoide (hialinas, uma epiglótica (elástica e um par de ariteoides (mistas. Um par de cartilagens sesamoides foi identificado entre os processos corniculados e a lâmina da cricoide. A morfometria revelou que a tireoide é a maior cartilagem. Não houve sinais definitivos de dimorfismo sexual na laringe de C. thous. O epitélio predominante foi do tipo pavimentoso estratificado o qual sofreu transição para pseudoestratificado cilíndrico ciliado ao nível do terço caudal da tireoide e rostral da cricoide. A laringe de C. thous mostrou semelhança com a do cão doméstico, ainda que o formato das cartilagens tenha apresentado diferenças.

  20. Sivi puh (Glis glis Linnaeus, 1766), od ulova do namirnice

    OpenAIRE

    Konjević, Dean; Krapinec, Krešimir

    2004-01-01

    Sivi puh (Glis glis L.) je naša autohtona divljač iz reda glodavaca (Rodentia), porodice puhova (Myoxidae) i roda puh (Glis). Tradicija lova na puhove je iznimno stara i potječe još od vremena Rimskog Carstva. U Republici Hrvatskoj se lov na puhove do danas održao na području Gorskog kotara i Like. Za razliku od negdašnjeg pristupa, danas se sivi puh lovi isključivo posebno konstruiranim lovkama, pri čemu je za lov neophodno dobiti odgovarajuću dozvolu. Ulovljeni puhovi koriste se u prehrani,...

  1. Topografia vertebromedular de irara (Eira barbara Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Adami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Um cadáver macho, adulto de irara (Eira barbara foi cedido pelo Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres (Cetas, localizado em Salvador/Bahia, ao Setor de Anatomia Veterinária da Escola de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade Federal da Bahia. Trata-se de um mamífero carnívoro que pertence à Família Mustelidae e Subfamília Mustelinae que contém o Gênero Eira, representado apenas pela Espécie Eira barbara. Objetivamos a investigação da topografia vertebromedular do espécime e assim verificar a relação da medula espinal com o canal vertebral; a identificação, origem, emergência e quantificação dos nervos espinhais relacionados com a medula espinal. Pesquisa número 43245-1 autorizada pelo Sistema de Autorização e Informação em Biodiversidade (Sisbio-ICMBio/IBAMA. O exemplar foi fixado em solução de formaldeído a 10% e posteriormente dissecado e radiografado. Foram identificados oito pares de nervos espinhais cervicais, quatorze torácicos e na porção lombossacral da medula espinhal seis nervos espinais lombares, três sacrais e mais de três nervos espinhais caudais. O término da medula espinal ocorreu no nível quinta vértebra lombar. Os oito segmentos medulares cervicais localizaram-se entre a primeira e sétima vértebras cervicais. Os quatorze nervos espinais torácicos originaram-se na porção cranial das vértebras respectivas. Os segmentos medulares lombares, sacrais e caudais restringiram-se à região lombar da coluna vertebral. O deslocamento cranial dos segmentos medulares foi observado no oitavo cervical, terceiro, quarto e quinto lombares e todos os segmentos sacrais e caudais. As informações obtidas poderão ser utilizadas para análises comparativas com as demais espécies e com a adoção de medidas que visem proporcionar o bem-estar animal e a preservação da espécie.

  2. Uniparidade em pacas criadas em cativeiro (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766 Uniparity in pacas bred in captivity (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766

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    F.S. Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante quatro anos foram detectadas 25 prenhezes, em 13 diferentes pacas, por meio de ultra-sonografia. Após a detecção ultra-sonográfica, as fêmeas foram separadas em baias individuais para o nascimento dos filhotes e aí mantidas até o desmame. Houve nascimento de apenas um animal por parto, ressaltando a característica reprodutiva de uniparidade, o que sugere a tendência de nascimento de apenas um filhote por parto, nessa espécie.During four years 25 pregnancies were detected in 13 different pacas by means of ultrasonography at a wild animal section. After ultrasound detection, females were separated in individual sets for delivering and kept until weaning of newborns. Only one newborn by delivery occurred, remarking the reproductive characteristic of uniparity, what suggests the trend of only one newborn in each delivery.

  3. Variación heterocromática del cariotipo, en el Género Cebus que habita en Colombia

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    Leibovici M.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available El entendimiento de la diversidad de los primates es esencial para establecer prioridades en losplanes de su conservación, la taxonomía precede la conservación y en la mayoría de los génerosde los primates Platyrrhini, la taxonomía aún es controvertida. (Rylans y colaboradores 2000.Por otra parte, son numerosos los ejemplos en los cuales los cariotipos de primates destacancaracterísticas, que contribuyen al reconocimiento de diferentes formas y así pueden aclararproblemas taxonómicos.

  4. Aggression, grooming and group-level cooperation in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus): insights from social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Margaret C; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Maiya, Arun S; Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y

    2011-08-01

    The form of animal social systems depends on the nature of agonistic and affiliative interactions. Social network theory provides tools for characterizing social structure that go beyond simple dyadic interactions and consider the group as a whole. We show three groups of capuchin monkeys from Barro Colorado Island, Panama, where there are strong connections between key aspects of aggression, grooming, and proximity networks, and, at least among females, those who incur risk to defend their group have particular "social personalities." Although there is no significant correlation for any of the network measures between giving and receiving aggression, suggesting that dominance relationships do not follow a simple hierarchy, strong correlations emerge for many measures between the aggression and grooming networks. At the local, but not global, scale, receiving aggression and giving grooming are strongly linked in all groups. Proximity shows no correlation with aggression at either the local or the global scale, suggesting that individuals neither seek out nor avoid aggressors. Yet, grooming has a global but not local connection to proximity. Extensive groomers who tend to direct their efforts at other extensive groomers also spend time in close proximity to many other individuals. These results indicate the important role that prosociality plays in shaping female social relationships. We also show that females who receive the least aggression, and thus pay low costs for group living, are most likely to participate in group defense. No consistent "social personality" traits characterize the males who invest in group defense.

  5. Numerical evaluation indices for differentiation dynamics of body-color of larvae of Agrius convolvuli (Linnaeus) ( Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) and its application%甘薯天蛾幼虫体色分化动态的数值化评价指标及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文礼章; 龚碧涯; 许浩; 杨中侠

    2012-01-01

    To study the quantitative impact laws ot environmental or genetic lactors on the insect body color, we must first solve the measurement problem of characteristics of the standardized values of the insect body color. If different researchers who determine the color do not use the uniform standards, no matter what method is used, such as genetic, molecular, physiological or ecological methods, etc., to study it, the results would be potentially misleading. In order to solve the problem that nearly a thousand kinds of insect body colors with continuous changes can not be described accurately and computed reasonably by the text and mathematics, this study adopted the color measurement technology ofinternational standard-PFG ( Pantone Formula Guide ) color guide as the criterion of insect body color trait, and proposed some evaluation indicators on numerical description of insect body color, such as body-color element ( BCE ) , body-color group ( BCG) , body-color position ( BCP ) , high-frequency color-code index (HFI) , variegated color index (VCI) , etc., and some quantitative analytical methods. Using these indicators and methods, we studied the differentiation diversity, change process and numerical law of the body color on different body positions of different larval individuals of sweet potato hawk moth Agrius convolvuli ( Linnaeus) at different developmental ages under similar environmentalconditions. It was found that A. Convolvuli larvae had a common main body color. The body color variation occurred mainly at different developmental ages in the individuals, accounting for 72.66% of the total variation. The difference of body color on different parts of an individual was also significant, accounting for 24. 45% of the total variation, while the color difference among individuals at the same developmental age was very small, accounting for only 2. 88% of the total variation. The results indicatethat the process of color change occurred with the developmental

  6. Atropelamentos de vertebrados na Floresta Nacional de Carajás, Pará, Brasil Roadkills of vertebrates in Carajas National Forest, Para, Brazil

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    Fabiano Gumier-Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vários pesquisadores têm avaliado impactos de estradas. Estes podem envolver aspectos paisagísticos, degradação do solo, poluição do ar e impactos sobre a fauna, como atropelamentos. Na estrada Raimundo Mascarenhas, que atravessa a Floresta Nacional de Carajás (ca. 400 mil hectares, há intenso tráfego de veículos automotores. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar se há diferenças entre trechos da estrada, em três escalas espaciais; se há alteração ao longo dos anos; se alguns táxons são mais freqüentemente atropelados, e se a freqüência de atropelamentos aumenta com a precipitação mensal. Analisamos a freqüência de atropelamentos de vertebrados de abril/2003 até outubro/2006 ao longo dos 25 km iniciais da estrada. Registramos 155 atropelamentos. O número de atropelamentos diminui ao longo dos anos (P=0,01, e com a distância do início da estrada (P=0,0002. Serpentes (Ophidia e gambás Didelphis marsupialis foram mais atropelados (7,5/ano, seguidos de aves, raposas Cerdocyon thous, quatis Nasua nasua, roedores (Rodentia, e não identificados (4,9/ano; cuíca Marmosops sp., tapeti Sylvilagus brasiliensis, guariba Alouatta sp., irara Eira barbara, jabuti Geochelone sp., lagartos (Lacertilia e macaco prego Cebus apella (1/ano. Não houve relação significativa entre o número mensal de atropelamentos e a precipitação mensal.Several researchers have evaluated impacts of highways. These can involve landscape aspects, soil degradation, air pollution, and impacts upon wildlife, such as roadkills. At the Raimundo Mascarenhas highway, that crosses the Carajás National Forest (ca. 400.000 ha, there is intense traffic of automotive vehicles. The aim of this work was to test if there were differences among higway sections on three spatial scales; if there was alteration along the years; if some taxa suffered more frequently roadkills; and if roadkill frequency increased with monthly precipitation. We analysed roadkill

  7. Caza y estado de conservación de primates en la cuenca del río Itaya, Loreto, Perú

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    Rolando Aquino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este reporte contiene información relacionada a la diversidad e impacto de la caza de los primates, así como las amenazas potenciales para sus poblaciones que habitan en la cuenca del río Alto Itaya. Está basado en censos por transectos y registros de caza llevados a cabo en seis comunidades. Como resultado de los censos, fueron registrados 384 grupos pertenecientes a 9 de las 11 especies que habitan en el área de estudio, correspondiendo los mayores registros al pichico pardo (Saguinus fuscicollis Spix con 25,3%, huapo negro (Pithecia aequatorialis Hershkovitz con 20,6% y mono choro (Lagothrix poeppigii Humboldt con 15,9%. La densidad poblacional fue estimada para nueve especies, siendo Saimiri sciureus Linnaeus la más abundante con 18,2 individuos/km2, seguido por L. poeppigii con 15,5 individuos/km2 y S. fuscicollis con 10,5 individuos/ km2; lo contrario ocurrió en Alouatta seniculus Linnaeus, cuya densidad fue estimada en 0,15 individuos/ km2. Del área de caza estimada en 600 km2 fueron extraídos un promedio anual de 262 ejemplares y cuya biomasa fue calculada en 1677,9. kg. Del total, 119 individuos equivalente al 45% correspondió a L. poeppigii, cuya presión de caza fue calculada en 0,19 individuos/km2. La aplicación del modelo de cosecha sugiere sobrecaza en poblaciones de A. seniculus, L. poeppigii y C. apella. La caza y la deforestación con fines agrícolas son las amenazas potenciales para las poblaciones de primates.

  8. Scream-embrace displays in wild black-horned capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica

    2008-06-01

    Reintroduction of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) into their social group in captivity can elicit sirena screams and embraces. Captive scream-embrace displays are male biased, and females never perform sirena screams. One hypothesis is that scream-embrace displays serve a tension-reduction or reconciliatory function between males with conflicting interests. Alternatively, these displays may function to maintain strong affiliative bonds between friendly male dyads. Scream and/or embrace displays in wild Brazilian black-horned capuchins were analyzed for social and ecological contexts, behavioral components, and individuals involved. Seventy-two displays were observed during the 199-day study period. Among the 66 displays for which both members could be identified by sex, there were 42 occurrences of male-male dyads, 17 of male-female dyads, and seven of female-female dyads. Scream-embrace dyads were male-male pairs significantly more often than expected from group membership, and the alpha male was the only male to engage in scream-embrace displays with females. Female-female pairs did embrace, but never emitted sirena screams. Displays most commonly occurred in "reunion" contexts, primarily the reuniting of subgroups after hours or days out of contact, but also after intergroup encounters, and across groups in "intergroup" displays. Displays were rare, but socially contagious, and subgroup reunions could elicit multiple displays in rapid succession. Although the occurrence of screams and embraces was positively correlated, both behaviors also occurred independently, and their functions may be different. Male sirena screams may be honest advertisements of united alliances, directed toward a third party, whereas the embrace may be a risky affiliative signal, directed primarily within the dyad.

  9. Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Zoo Wild¬life and Pet Birds in Fujian, China

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    Renfeng CHEN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis, a worldwide zoonotic disease, is caused by Toxo­plasma gondii. The distribution of genetic diversity of T. gondii in wild animals is of great importance to understand the transmission of the parasite in the environ­ment. However, little is known about T. gondii prevalence in wild animals and birds in China.Methods: We conducted the genetic characterization of T. gondii isolated from Zoo Wild Animals and Pet Birds in Fujian Province, Southeastern China. Heart tissues were collected from 45 zoo animals and 140 pet birds. After identified using B1 gene, the genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates were typed at 11 genetic markers, including SAG1,5’ and3’-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico, and CS3.Results: Seven of 45 zoo animals and 3 of 140 pet birds were positive by PCR amplifi­cation using T. gondii B1 gene specific primers. Of these positive isolates, 3 isolates from Black-capped (Cebus apella, Peacock (Peafowl and Budgerigar (Melopsitta­cus undulatus were successfully genotyped at 11 genetic loci, and grouped to three distinct genotypes: ToxoDB Genotype #9, #2 and #10, respectively.Conclusion: This is the first genotyping of T. gondii isolated from zoo wild animals and pet birds in Fujian, China. There is a potential risk for the transmission of this parasite through zoo wild animals and pet birds in this region.

  10. Parásitos Gastrointestinales en Monos de Margarita Sapajus apella margaritae (Primates: Cebidae en Estado Silvestre (Nueva Esparta, Venezuela. Hallazgos preliminares -resumen-

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    Glencora M Montesinos-López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El mono capuchino de Margarita es el único primate endémico del territorio insular venezolano y habita las áreas boscosas del oriente de la Isla de Margarita (Edo. Nueva Esparta. Se encuentra bajo la categoría ‘’En Peligro Crítico’’ en la Lista Roja de Especies Amenazadas (UICN y en el Apéndice II del CITES. La fragmentación del hábitat‚ la cacería como plaga de cultivos y el tráfico de monos como mascotas‚ son sus principales amenazas‚ todas de carácter antropogénico. Con el objetivo de evaluar el estado sanitario de esta especie‚ se llevó a cabo un muestreo fecal no invasivo de ejemplares silvestres para realizar descarte de parásitos gastrointestinales. Las muestras se recolectaron durante 2013 - 2014 en el cerro Matasiete (11‚4 Km2 (parte del Monumento Natural Cerros Matasiete y Guayamurí y en el Parque Nacional Cerro El Copey (71,3 km2. Se emplearon plataformas de madera‚ previamente cebadas mediante colocación recurrente de frutas. Se procedió a la recolección seriada de heces sobre las mismas‚ confirmando su origen a través de cámaras trampa y la observación directa de los monos alimentándose sobre estas superficies. Las muestras de heces se conservaron refrigeradas hasta su análisis en el Hospital Veterinario Salamanca‚ para ser procesadas mediante evaluación cualitativa (examen directo y método de concentración por flotación de Willis y técnica especial de cultivos larvarios en algunos casos. Se recolectaron un total de 35 muestras donde se reportó la presencia de huevos de nemátodos de los órdenes Strongylida (45%‚ n=16‚ Rhabditida (20%‚ n=7‚ Spirurida (14%‚ n=5 y Ascaridida (11%‚ n=4‚ identificados en cooperación con la Universidad Central de Venezuela. Estos resultados señalan por primera vez la naturaleza del parasitismo en esta población de primates‚ revelando la necesidad de estudios posteriores con énfasis en identificación más detallada de estos parásitos y su papel en la ecología de esta especie como hospedadores. Se recomienda evaluar su posible efecto deletéreo en la salud de esta especie mediante evaluación de otros parámetros sanitarios‚ considerando su cercanía geográfica y contacto con poblaciones humanas y con monos mantenidos ilegalmente en cautiverio que son posteriormente liberados al hábitat natural‚ como factores que pueden influenciar el parasitismo en esta población. Este estudio contribuye a sentar las bases para la caracterización y monitoreo del estado sanitario de esta especie amenazada‚ sumándose a los esfuerzos para su conservación.

  11. Parásitos Gastrointestinales en Monos de Margarita Sapajus apella margaritae (Primates: Cebidae) en Estado Silvestre (Nueva Esparta, Venezuela). Hallazgos preliminares -resumen-

    OpenAIRE

    Glencora M Montesinos-López; M Pernía; Arlett Pérez; A Aguirre; Natalia Ceballos-Mago; K Rodríguez-Clark

    2014-01-01

    El mono capuchino de Margarita es el único primate endémico del territorio insular venezolano y habita las áreas boscosas del oriente de la Isla de Margarita (Edo. Nueva Esparta). Se encuentra bajo la categoría ‘’En Peligro Crítico’’ en la Lista Roja de Especies Amenazadas (UICN) y en el Apéndice II del CITES. La fragmentación del hábitat‚ la cacería como plaga de cultivos y el tráfico de monos como mascotas‚ son sus principales amenazas‚ todas de carácter antropogénico. Con el objetivo de ev...

  12. Can grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) succeed on a "complex" foraging task failed by nonhuman primates (Pan troglodytes, Pongo abelii, Sapajus apella) but solved by wrasse fish (Labroides dimidiatus)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperberg, Irene M; Hartsfield, Leigh Ann

    2014-08-01

    Linking specific cognitive abilities of nonhuman species on a laboratory task to their evolutionary history-ecological niche can be a fruitful exercise in comparative psychology. Crucial issues, however, are the choice of task, the specific conditions of the task, and possibly the subjects' understanding or interpretation of the task. Salwiczek et al. (2012) compared cleaner wrasse fish (Labroides dimidaitus) to several nonhuman primate species (capuchins, Sapajus paella; chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes; orangutans, Pongo abelii) on a task purportedly related to the ecological demands of the fish, but not necessarily of the nonhuman primates; fish succeeded whereas almost all of the nonhuman primates that were tested failed. We replicated the two-choice paradigm of the task with three Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), whose ecology, evolutionary history, and cortical capacity are arguably more like those of nonhuman primates than fish. Greys succeeded at levels more like fish than all the nonhuman primates, suggesting possible alternative explanations for their success. Fish and nonhuman primate subjects also experienced a reversal of the initial conditions to test for generalization: Greys were similarly tested; they performed more like fish and capuchins (who now succeeded) than the apes (who continued to fail).

  13. 饲料锌含量对方格星虫稚虫生长性能、体成分、体腔液中锌含量及碱性磷酸酶活性的影响%Effects of Dietary Zinc Content on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Coelomic Fluid Zinc Content and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity of Juvenile Peanut Worm, Sipunculus nudus Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许明珠; 张琴; 童潼; 董兰芳; 杨家林; 蒋艳; 黄国强

    2016-01-01

    This trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary zinc content on growth performance, body composition, coelomic fluid zinc content and alkaline phosphatase ( AKP ) activity of juvenile peanut worm, Sipunculus nudus Linnaeus ( S. nudus ) . Juvenile peanut worm with the average body weight of (14.54±0.10) mg were fed six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic microparticle diets with different supplemental levels of zinc ( zinc methionine as zinc source) for 8 weeks, and the measured zinc contents in diets were 9.3, 31.7, 49.9, 90.1, 168.6 and 326.5 mg/kg, respectively. Each diet had three replicates and each replicate had 400 juvenile peanut worm. The results showed that the dietary zinc content had significant effects on weight gain rate ( WGR) , specific growth rate ( SGR) and survival ratio ( SR) of S. nudus ( P0.05). Dietary zinc content significantly affected coelomic fluid zinc content and AKP activity of S. nudus ( P<0.05) . With the increase of dietary zinc content, the coelomic fluid zinc content of S. nudus was sustained rise, when the dietary zinc content was 326.5 mg/kg, it produced the maximum value. Moreover, the coelomic fluid AKP activity was firstly increased and then tended to be stable, when the dietary zinc content was 49.9 mg/kg, it produced the maximum value. With WGR as the evaluating index, the suitable dietary zinc content of juvenile peanut worm is 41.93 mg/kg by regression analysis.%以蛋氨酸锌为锌源,在等氮等能的基础饲料中添加不同水平的锌,配制实际锌含量分别为9.3、31.7、49.9、90.1、168.6和326.5 mg/kg 的6种试验饲料,饲喂平均体重为(14.54±0.10) mg的方格星虫稚虫8周,用以研究饲料锌含量对方格星虫稚虫生长、体成分、体腔液中锌含量及碱性磷酸酶活性的影响。每种试验饲料设3个重复,每个重复饲喂400尾方格星虫稚虫。结果表明:饲料锌含量对方格星虫的成活率、增重率和特定

  14. BIOMETRY OF PACA NEWBORNS BRED IN CAPTIVITY(AGOUTI PACA, LINNAEUS, 1766 NOTA CIENTÍFICA: BIOMETRIA DOS NEONATOS DE PACA CRIADOS EM CATIVEIRO (AGOUTI PACA, LINNAEUS, 1766

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    Júlio Carlos Canola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Biometry provides important data on weight and length of wild animal newborns. After ultrasound pregnancy detection, 22 female pacas were separated in individual bails and kept until weaning of newborns. Newborns were measured with a metric tape (between the tips of the muzzle rostrally and the tail distally and weighted in a digital weight scale. Considering males and females, the average newborn length (average length ± standard deviation was 33.37 ± 0.57cm. Among males, the average weight was 33.30 ± 0.52 cm and among females 33.45 ± 0.62cm. Considering males and females, newborns weighted (average weight ± standard deviation 741.14 ± 51.23g. Among males, average weight was 717.75 ± 49.06g and among females 764.53 ± 53.40g. Female newborns are higher and heavier than males, but averages of weight and length of males and females did not differ themselves by the Tukey test (P<0.05.

    Key-words: Agouti paca, biometry, newborns.

    A biometria proporciona dados importantes no peso e comprimento de neonatos de animais selvagens. Após detecção ultra-sonográfica da prenhez, 22 pacas fêmeas foram separadas em baias individuais e mantidas até o desmame dos filhotes. Os neonatos eram medidos com uma fita métrica flexível (entre as extremidades do focinho e da caudal e então pesados em balança digital de precisão. Considerando-se machos e fêmeas, o comprimento dos neonatos (comprimento ± desvio padrão foi 33,37 ± 0,57 cm. Entre os machos, o comprimento médio foi 33,30 ± 0,52 cm e entre as fêmeas foi de 33,45 ± 0,62 cm. Em relação ao peso e considerando-se machos e fêmeas, os neonatos pesavam (peso ± desvio padrão 741,14 ± 51,23g. Entre os machos, o peso médio foi 717,75 ± 49,06g e entre as fêmeas 764,53 ± 53,40g. Os neonatos fêmeas são maiores e mais pesados que os neonatos machos de paca, mas as médias de peso e de comprimento de machos e fêmeas não diferiram entre si, pelo teste de Tukey (P<0.05.

    Palavras-chaves: Biometria, neonatos, agouti paca.

  15. Consideraciones ecomorfológicas del mecanismo de captura de presas en Xiphias gladius (Linnaeus, 1758 Ecomorphological considerations of the prey capture mechanism of Xiphias gladius (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Cancino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza el mecanismo de captura de presas del pez espada (Xiphias gladius, suponiendo un mecanismo de alimentación RAMy una dieta de amplio espectro trófico. Se estudia la región cefálica y se describe la osteología y miología asociada con el mecanismo de captura de presas. Se aplica el modelo de cuatro barras para evaluar la eficiencia de la apertura bucal y un modelo biocinemático para evaluar la eficacia del cierre bucal. La mayor cantidad de estructuras del neurocráneo se encuentran desplazadas hacia la región posterior, con alto grado de calcificación y prevalencia de articulaciones sinártricas biseladas y suturas. Se destaca la barra vertical del suspensorio que sostiene a la serie opercular y la mandíbula inferior. Premaxilar y maxilar íntimamente unidos sin posibilidad de movimiento relativo aunque persiste el ligamento primordial. La configuración del sistema de palancas del músculo adductor mandibular determina el sistema biocinemático cuya eficiencia en la transmisión de fuerza es del orden del 30% para el fascículo externo (A2 +A3á, mientras que para el fascículo interno (A3ß la eficiencia es del orden del 15%. El Coeficiente de Transmisión Cinemática (K = q • r-1 es de 9,75; mientras que el Coeficiente de la Fuerza Transmitida (f = q • r-1 tiene un valor de 0,102. Se analiza y discute el diseño morfofuncional que posibilita la captura de presas que desarrollan altas velocidades, ya que el coeficiente de transmisión cinemática es alto, valor coincidente con peces de hábitos piscívoros.This paper analyzes the prey capture mechanism of the swordfish (Xiphias gladius, assuming a RAM feeding mechanism and a wide dietary trophic spectrum. The complete cephalic región is studied, and the osteology and miology associated with the prey capture mechanism are described. A four-bar linkage model was applied to assess the efficiency of the mouth opening and a biokinetic model to evalúate the mouth closure efficiency. The majority of the neurocranial structures are displaced towards the posterior región, with a high degree of ossification and a prevalence of joints with beveled edges and sutures. The vertical bar of the suspensorium, which supports the opercular series and lower jaw are noteworthy. The premaxilla and maxilla are closely jointed, without any possibility of relative movement, although a primordial ligament remains. The configuration of the lever system of the adductor mandibulae muscle determines the biokinetic system, whose forcé transmission efficiency is around 30% for the external fascicles (A2 +A3á and 15% for the inner fascicle (A3ß. The kinetic transmission coefficient (K = q • r-1 is 9.75, whereas the forcé transmission coefficient (f = q • r-1 is 0.102. The morphofunctional design that allows the capture of fast-swimming prey is analyzed and discussed; the high kinematic transmission coefficient coincides with the valúes found for piscivorous fishes.

  16. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D González-Acuña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866 por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909 parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región, Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866, are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909 parasiting alpacas in the General Lagos area (I Region is also confirmed. The importance of this situation is discussed in the present report.

  17. Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jürgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

    2014-06-01

    In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ‰), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

  18. Evaluación larvicida de suspensiones acuosas de Annona muricata Linnaeus «guanábana» sobre Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Bobadilla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available EL presente trabajo evaluó la toxicidad larvicida de suspensiones acuosas provenientes de extractos etanólicos de las semillas, flores, hojas, corteza de ramas y corteza de raíces de Annona muricata L. «guanábana» sobre larvas del IV estadio de Aedes aegypti para determinar de esta manera los niveles de susceptibilidad. El mayor efecto tóxico correspondió a la suspensión de las semillas con un 100% de mortalidad a las 24 horas a 0,5 mg/mL, seguidos por las flores a las 48 horas a 10 mg/mL y hojas a las 36 horas a 100 mg/mL. En semillas, las concentraciones letales al 50% (CL50 y 90% (CL90 a las 48 horas de exposición fueron 0,02 mg/mL y 0,11 mg/mL, en flores 3,33 y 12,16 mg/mL, en hojas 8,25 y 26,87 mg/mL y en corteza de ramas 19,21 y 97,23 mg/mL, respectivamente. Los resultados de las rectas probit-logarítmicas indicaron susceptibilidad de los individuos a cada suspensión, gracias a la acción de diversos principios activos distribuidos en todo el árbol.

  19. Monogenoidea en Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus, 1766) de la Cuenca Amazónica Boliviana

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie Córdova; Antoine Pariselle

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo analiza la diversidad de parásitos monogenoideos como un carácter indepen- diente, esperando que por su alta especifi cidad, éstos parásitos puedan caracterizar las poblaciones de sus hospederos, la piraña blanca, Serrasalmus rhombeus . El estudio se llevó acabo en cuatro sub-cuencas de la Cuenca Amazónica Boliviana (Iténez, Beni, Madre de Dios e Ichilo); se obtuvie- ron 1135 parásitos, los cuales fueron agrupados en seis géneros y once especies: Anacanthorus jegui, A. ama...

  20. Protein profile of the seminal plasma of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, E A A; Sousa, P C; Martins, J A M; Moreira, R A; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreno, F B M B; Oliveira, M F; Moura, A A; Silva, A R

    2014-06-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the major proteins of the peccary seminal plasma, based on the semen samples collected from nine adult and reproductively sound animals. Our approach included the use of two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by Coomassie blue staining and analysis of polypeptide maps with PDQuest Software (Bio-Rad). Proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We detected 179 protein spots per gel and 98 spots were identified by mass spectrometry, corresponding to 23 different proteins. The combined intensity of those spots accounted for 56.2±6% of the intensities of all spots and 60.9% of the intensities of spots presented in every protein map. Protein spots identified as clusterin represented 19.7±8.3% of the integrated optical densities of all spots detected in the seminal plasma maps. There was a negative association (r=-0.87; P<0.05) between the intensity of a clusterin spot and the percentage of sperm with functional membrane. Spermadhesin porcine seminal plasma protein 1 and bodhesin 2 comprised 5.4±1.9 and 8.8±3.9% of the total intensity of all spots respectively. Many proteins appeared in a polymorphic pattern, such as clusterin (27 spots), epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase (ten spots), inter-α-trypsin inhibitor (12 spots), and IgG-binding protein (ten spots), among others. In conclusion, we presently describe the major seminal plasma proteome of the peccary, which exhibits a distinct high expression of clusterin isoforms. Knowledge of wild species reproductive biology is crucial for an understanding of their survival strategies and adaptation in a changing environment.

  1. Influence of recovery method and centrifugation on epididymal sperm from collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, José Artur Brilhante; da Silva, Andréia Maria; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; da Silva, Mariana de Araújo; Franco de Oliveira, Moacir; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2014-05-01

    In order to establish protocols for gamete recovery from accidentally killed wild animals, or to take advantage of those slaughtered by captive breeders, we assess the influence of two methods on the recovery of epididymal sperm from collared peccaries, and verify the effect of centrifugation on such gametes. Genitalia from nine animals were used. For each animal, one epididymis was processed by flotation and the other was processed by retrograde flushing, both using a buffered media based on Tris. Following recovery, sperm were evaluated for motility, vigor, viability, functional membrane integrity, and morphology. A 1-mL aliquot of each sample was centrifuged, the supernatant removed, and the pellet suspended and evaluated as fresh samples. The sperm characteristics did not differ between the samples collected by flotation or retrograde flushing (P < 0.05). Centrifugation promoted an increase in head and tail defects, thus reducing the percentage of viable sperm (P < 0.05). No other parameter assessed for both methods was affected by centrifugation. In conclusion, epididymal sperm from collared peccaries can be efficiently collected through flotation or retrograde flushing, but not when either is followed by centrifugation.

  2. Cuticular Biominerals of the Terrestrial Crustacean Oniscus asellus (Isopoda, Linnaeus 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergelsberg, S. T.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Dove, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralization is a phenomenon observed in many eukaryotic organisms and evidence suggests this process began relatively early in the evolution of multicellular life (Marin F et al. 1996). Crustaceans form a large fraction of all eukaryotic biomineralizers by incorporating calcium carbonate (CaCO3) into their cuticle. Terrestrial species are challenged in their production of CaCO3 by the absence of calcium-rich waters. To cope with this limitation, the terrestrial crustacean Oniscus asellus recycles up to 80% (Auzou G 1953) of its total calcium during the molting process. This feat is accomplished by separate molting of the front and back cuticle, with temporary storage of the calcium carbonate as amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) in the front half (Ziegler A 1997). These processes infer a highly efficient and regulated mechanism for biomineralization that is most likely orchestrated by a myriad of proteins (Ziegler A et al. 2012). Until recently, investigations of biomineralization were largely directed toward understanding morphology and large-scale chemistry of the minerals, ignoring the mechanistic roles of biomacromolecules in mineralization processes. More recent work suggests a high involvement of these compounds on the formation of biominerals and, in some cases, the specific polymorphs thereof (Keene EC et al. 2010). This study focuses on identifying the components of the biological mineralization matrix at each stage of the process. Using chemical demineralization of the stored ACC, all biomacromolecules can be separated and purified for subsequent analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. To link the localized biochemistry more intimately to the polymorph of calcium carbonate that forms in the animal, the inorganic phase (';the mineral') will be monitored at each life stage using XRD and TEM. This analysis will reveal the organic components of a very precise biomineralization mechanism and may shed insight on its evolutionary origin. References: Marin F, Westbroek P et al., 1996, Proc Nat Acad Sci 93:1554-1559 Auzou G, 1953, L Ann Sci Nat 15:71-98 Ziegler A, 1997, Zoomorphology 117:181-187 Ziegler A et al., 2012, Cryst Growth Des 12:646-655 Keene EC et al., 2010, Cryst Growth Des 10:1383-1389

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus 1758 Living in San Carlos (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Eduardo Troncoso Toro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies about seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Chile; therefore, this article aims to determine seroprevalence in cats in the district of San Carlos, by ELISA Immuno- Comb® serological technique, and, at the same time, to examine association with variables of sex, age, diet, and habitat. To the effect, 60 cats over 2 months old were randomly sampled. Sera were analyzed using the ELISA ImmunoComb® Biogal Toxo & Chlamydia test kit, which detects specific immunoglobulin G-type antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii with a sensitivity of 92.3% and a specificity of 100%. The study evidenced that 29 individuals were positive (48.3% seroprevalence; when broken down by gender this corresponded to 9 males and 20 females (39.1% and 54%, respectively. By age, seropositivity was higher in the “Adult” group (76.7%, followed by groups “Over 7 years” (50% and “Young” (25%. With respect to diet, higher seropositivity was obtained in animals fed on mixed diet, as opposed to commercial diet (60% vs. 47.2%. By variable habitat, 16 indoor and 13 outdoor cats were positive (45.7% and 52%, showing statistically significant difference only for the variable age (p < 0.05. Finally, through relating age with seropositivity, a negative correlation was evidenced (r = –0.3, indicating that older individuals had lower seroprevalence. The results show the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats.

  4. Morphology of the male genital organs in the coati (Nasua nasua, Linnaeus 1766

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    Daniele dos Santos Martins

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to describe the morphology of the male genital organs in Nasua nasua. Five coati from the CECRIMPAS Scientific Breeding School were used (UNIfeob. The humanely sacrificed animals were fixed in formaldehyde solution 10% and were subsequently dissected. For light microscopic examination, pieces from the genital organs were used that had been processed and immersed in paraffin, cut and stained, for photo documentation. Macroscopically, the penis of the Nasua nasua was not suspended, but was stuck to the abdominal skin in two of the sexually immature animals, while in the three other mature animals, the penis was suspended between the pelvic members. Surrounding the most distal portion of the prepuce, a gland with a white, pasty secretion was observed. The head of the penis presented a proximal dilatation, hard to the touch, that was constituted on the widest part of baculum. The position of the testes inside the scrotum was horizontal. The prostate gland was in globoid form surrounding the urethra. Microscopically, the testes were coated by dense connective tissue, the tunica albuginea. The ductus epididymis was coated by pseudostratified epithelia with stereocilia. The urethra of the penis was surrounded by the corpus spongiosum and the remaining portion presented a corpus cavernosum (erectile tissue.

  5. Morphology of the bronchial tree of coati lungs (Nasua nasua, Linnaeus, 1966

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    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The coati (Nasua nasua is a diurnal, terrestrial and arboricola procionidae. It feeds extensively on the ground and uses trees to procriate, to sleep overnight and to take refuge. Its diet is omnivorous and it feeds on fruits, small vertebrates and invertebrates, nectar, eggs and vegetables. The aim of this work was to characterize microscopically the bronchial tree of the coati. Four coatis (two males and two females, fixed in formaldehyde solution 10%, were used from previous research conducted at CECRIMPAS – UNIFEOB (IBAMA-02027.003731/04-76. For this work, the tissue samples were embedded in paraffin by routine technique and processed for light microscopy in HE staining for analysis under a light microscope. It was found that microscopically, the bronchial tree of the coati is similar to that of other mammals described in the literature, i.e. it has great variations in its architecture, such as a reduced height of the epithelium which changes from ciliated pseudostratified in the larger bronchi to being cubic in the smaller bronchioles, an absence of cilia and glands in the smaller bronchioles, and a decrease in diameter and thickness of its walls.

  6. Topography of the medullary cone in coatimundi (Nasua nasua, Linnaeus 1766

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    Guilherme Buzon Gregores

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidural anesthesia is a regional anesthetic technique that is generally used with good, safe results, and it has been applied in the last 80 years through numerous methodologies aimed at testing anesthesia of the spinal nerves of the lumbar and sacral regions. It is necessary to know not only the anesthetic procedures, but also to apply anatomical knowledge of the species to be manipulated. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the topography of the medullary cone of the coati, supporting the implementation of anesthetic techniques in this species of wild carnivores. We used three adult animals obtained from the CECRIMPAS scientific breeding unit. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Fundação de Ensino Octávio Bastos – UNIFEOB. The animals were fixed and dissected along the entire length of the medullary cord. The conus had its base between the 5th and 6th lumbar vertebrae and apex at the 3rd sacral vertebra, with total length ranging between 5.2cm and 5.8cm. Thus, we conclude that the most appropriate place to perform epidural anesthesia in the coatimundi is in the sacrocaudal region.

  7. Gill monogeneans of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Oreochromis leucostictus (Trewavas, 1933) in Lake Naivasha, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindoria, Nehemiah Mogoi; Mungai, Lewis Kamau; Yasindi, Andrew Wamalwa; Otachi, Elick Onyango

    2016-04-01

    An investigation of gill monogeneans from the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and the blue spotted tilapia Oreochromis leucostictus (50 individuals per species) was done between the months of November 2014 to February 2015 in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Standard parasitological procedures were used to examine fish gills for the presence of monogeneans. The observed monogeneans were collected, preliminarily identified using identification keys, quantified and fixed in 4 % formalin for morphological studies and absolute ethanol for molecular studies. Four parasite species comprising of three species of the genus Cichlidogyrus and one species of the genus Scutogyrus were recovered. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae infested both fish species but the C. sclerosus was most prevalent in O. leucostictus (Prevalence (P) = 100 %, Mean intensity (MI) = 3.4) and C. tilapiae in O. niloticus (P = 8 %, MI = 4). Cichlidogyrus tilapiae had a P = 12 % and MI = 5.0 and a P = 6 % and MI = 3.0 in O. niloticus and O. leucostictus, respectively. Cichlidogyrus halli (P = 4 %, MI = 15.5) and Scutogyrus gravivaginus (P = 2 %, MI = 1.0) were only found in O. leucostictus. This is the first time that these monogeneans have been identified from Lake Naivasha, Kenya, presenting new geographical records. It was concluded that Ancyrocephalids (Cichilidogyrus spp.) dominated the two cichlid fish species in Lake Naivasha, Kenya.

  8. Cultivation of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 in low salinity inland brackish geothermal water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Appelbaum

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the course of attempting to culture gilthead sea bream in inland brackish geothermal water, indoor and outdoor research studies have been ongoing from early 2006 at the "Bengis Centre for Desert Aquaculture" of the Institutes for Desert Research in Israel, some of which are described below. Gilthead sea bream fingerlings with an average weight of 19 g were acclimated to and reared for 56 days in brackish water of three salinities: 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 ppt collected from three different locations. At the salinity of 3.5 ppt the fish grew best (P Artemia nauplii plus larval dry feed and were grown in brackish water of 2.6 ppt salinity for 8 weeks reaching a weight gain of 92% at a survival rate of 83%. The control groups at sea water (39 ppt reached at the same time a weight gain of 95% at a survival rate of 98%. In a further study gilthead sea bream juveniles with an average weight of 2.24 g were reared in brackish water with a salinity of 3.6 ppt for 8 weeks and received salt added diets of 4% and 6%. Compared with the control diet with no salt added, both salt rich diets significantly improved the fingerlings growth and survival rates as well as the feed conversion ratio. The 6% salt rich diet promoted fish weight gain by 560% which was the best performance (P <0.05 followed by 448% weight gain with the 4% salt rich diet while the lowest performance with a weight gain of only 360% was obtained with the control (no salt added diet. The next study with higher levels of salt added diets showed that gilthead sea bream post larvae with an average weight of 0.58 g reared in brackish geothermal water of 2.9 ppt salinity for 10 weeks grew best (P < 0.05 obtaining a weight gain of 778% with the highest survival rate of 88% when fed a diet containing 12% salt. In the studies with the salt rich diets, the salt incorporated was obtained by the evaporation of brine produced during the process of desalination of the brackish geothermal water from the same well supplying the fish rearing water. Worth mentioning at this point is that sea bream, after the termination of the experiments, were further kept for several months in the same brackish water showing further growth with no detrimental effects. The above mentioned research findings show conclusively the possibility of utilizing inland brackish water for culturing gilthead sea bream as an additional alternative to traditional marine farming. This is not surprising, considering the biology of the euryhaline gilthead sea bream, the juvenile of which appears at some stage in their life cycle in low salinity lagoons and river estuaries.

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Woo Kim

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST, Gene Ontology (GO, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species.

  10. High exposure to Tunga penetrans (Linnaeus, 1758 correlates with intensity of infestation

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    Hermann Feldmeier

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Tungiasis is a parasitic skin disease widespread in resource-poor urban and rural communities in Brazil. Inhabitants of an urban slum in Northeast Brazil were examined for the presence of tungiasis lesions and followed-up twice a week for a period of three weeks. Each time the number, stages, and topographic localization of lesions were recorded on a documentation sheet. The infestation rate (number of newly embedded sand fleas per individual and day remained stable during the observation period. The infestation rate was significantly related to the intensity of infestation (total number of lesions present (rho = 0.70, p < 0.0001 and the proportion of viable lesions (rho = 0.28, p < 0.0001. The results indicate that in an endemic area the infestation intensity and the proportion of viable lesions can be used as a proxy to assess the exposure of individuals at risk for tungiasis. Persistently high infestation rates during the transmission season favour the use of prevention measures against invading sand fleas (such as a repellent rather than a drug to kill already embedded parasites.

  11. Biologie a radiace šakala obecného (Canis aureus, Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Krčmová, Hana

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor work is focused on biology and distribution of the species golden jackal (Canis aureus), which is the only one of three species of jackals which live outside the African continent and begins to expand increasingly into Europe and Asia. At first glance it's a reddish yellow-brown coloured beast resembling the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) or the small grey wolf (Canis lupus). Its typical distinguishing feature is partial symphysis of the digital pads in all paws, typically observabl...

  12. Monitoring the reproductive physiology of six-banded armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus, Linnaeus, 1758) through different techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, L B; Peixoto, Gcx; Lima, G L; Castelo, T S; Silva, A M; Freitas, Cia; Silva, A R

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the oestrous cycle using vaginal cytology, ultrasound and measurement of hormone levels associated with the modification of external genitalia in female Euphractus sexcinctus. Five adult female six-banded armadillos were used for the study. Every three days, we chemically restrained the animals with a combined dose of ketamine and xylazine for 90 days. On each occasion, we conducted vaginal cytology and monitored the alterations in the vulval appearance. In addition, we obtained blood samples for serum estradiol and progesterone analysis and evaluated the ovaries by ultrasonography (8 MHz). As results, at least two entire cycles were monitored per female as based on external oestrous signs. We determined that six-banded armadillos' oestrous cycle lasts 23.5 ± 3.12 days, comprising 8.8 ± 1.4 days for oestrogen phase, in which we verified vaginal bloody discharge, vulvar oedema, presence of mucus and ease of introduction of the swab. During oestrus, females presented an oestrogen peak of 240.66 ± 12.69 pg ml(-1) , on average, with a positive visualization of ovary follicles by ultrasound. The progesterone phase lasts 15.62 ± 2.1 days, characterized by the absence of bloody secretion and difficulty in introducing the swab; there was verification of a progesterone plateau of 10.83 ± 1.86 ng ml(-1) , on average, with identification of corpora lutea in 60% of the ovaries. This is apparently the first description of the six-banded armadillos' oestrous cycle, which proves the efficiency of a multiparametric analysis to monitor it. PMID:27443582

  13. Retention and removal 137Cs in Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus) in dressing and cooking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japanese catfish contaminated by 137Cs have been used to investigate how the dressing and cook-ing method affect the removal of radioactivity from the fish. During the dressing, 6.0% of the initial 137Cs activity was removed by washing the live fish, further 30.3% of the activity relative to washed fish was removed by discarding the non-edible body parts (skeletons, fins, visceral mass, liver, kidney etc.) and washing the chopped fish. Fish curry was cooked using various spices, green-stuffs and vegetable oil following a method commonly used in South East and East Asian countries. The cooking process removed a further 61.6% of the 137Cs activity relative to the activity in dressed fish. Taken together, this normal domestic fish dressing and culinary process removed 74.7% of the initial 137Cs activity present in the live fish. During the cook-ing, the radioactivity removed from the fish pieces was found to distributed over the ingredients of the curry. The cooked fish pieces retained an average, 38.5% of the radioactivity present in the dressed raw fish pieces. Among the ingredients, the gravy was found to contain an average of 34.8% of the activity of the dressed fish. The activity in green-stuffs was found to vary from 4.0% (in cauliflower) to 7.2% (in potato). It may be concluded that normal home preparation and culinary processes removed the radio-activity from the fish to a great extent. In addition, discarding the gravy and green-stuffs of the curry further reduce the radioactivity intake into the human body. (author)

  14. Biological activities of Wiedemannia multifida (Linnaeus Bentham and Wiedemannnia orientalis Fisch. & Mey.

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    Sevil Albayrak

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: The present study suggests that methanolic extracts of W. multifida and W. orientalis could be a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in foods, pharmaceuticals preparations.

  15. Biological activities of Wiedemannia multifida (Linnaeus) Bentham and Wiedemannnia orientalis Fisch. & Mey.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sevil Albayrak; Ahmet Aksoy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate total phenolic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of the Wiedemannia multifida (W. multifida) and Wiedemannnia orientalis (W. orientalis). Methods: Phosmomolybdenum assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity andβ-carotene-linoleate bleaching were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. Results: The total phenolics were found to be (22.45±0.60) and (9.53±0.00) mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g in W. multifida and W. orientalis extracts, respectively. The predominant phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD in the both extracts were rutin+ellagic acid and kaempferol. Total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity of W. multifida were higher than W. orientalis. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, both extracts exhibited strong inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the agar diffusion method against fifteen microorganisms. Both extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity. Conclusions:The present study suggests that methanolic extracts of W. multifida and W. orientalis could be a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in foods, pharmaceuticals preparations.

  16. Granulomas caused by Mycobacterium sp. in farmed Turbot Scopthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758

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    D. JERONIMO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Turbot, Scophthlalmus maximus, is a Pleuronectiformes fish that occurs in northeast Atlantic along the European coast and in the Mediterranean Sea and is produced in aquaculture since the last quarter of the twentieth century. During a survey conducted in a turbot fish farm nodular formations were occasionally observed in several organs, especially in the kidney and in the spleen. Microscopic observations showed that these nodules contained acid-fast bacilli. The molecular identification of the isolated bacteria conducted to the Mycobacterium genus. Although no abnormal mortalities were evident morbidity was observed. The normal development and welfare of infected fish decrease and the condition factor, the haematocrit and the haemoglobin concentration in blood decreases significantly with the increase of nodules abundance.

  17. Removal of Pb (II Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Cladophora rivularis (Linnaeus Hoek

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    Naser Jafari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption of Pb(II using Cladophora rivularis was examined as a function of initial pH heavy metal concentration and temperature. The optimum pH value for the biosorption of lead was 4.0. The adsorption equilibriums were well described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and it was implied by the results that the C. rivularis biomass is suitable for the development of efficient biosorbent in order to remove Pb(II from wastewater and to recover it. The high values of correlation coefficient (2=0.984 demonstrate equilibrium data concerning algal biomass, which is well fitted in Freundlich isotherms model equations. The dimensionless parameter RL is found in the range of 0.0639 to 0.1925 (0<<1, which confirms the favorable biosorption process. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR spectroscopy of C. rivularis was used to reveal the main function groups of biosorption, which were hydroxyl, amine groups, C–H stretching vibrations of –CH3 and –CH2, and complexation with functional groups. All these results suggest that C. rivularis can be used effectively for removal of Pb(II.

  18. Geographic variation in the morphology of Macrovipera lebetina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Ophidia: Viperidae in Iran

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    Naeim Moradi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Levantine viper, Macrovipera lebetina, has an extensive geographical range being distributed in central Asia and the Middle East. The species exhibits high levels of polymorphism, especially in colouration and pattern. Recent studies revealed significant morphological differences between the two subspecies from northeastern and western portions of Iran. However, considering limited geographic samplings, taxonomic status of Iranian Macrovipera are controversial. In this study, uni- and multivariate statistical techniques were used to analyze geographic variation in 31 morphological characters measured in 117 specimens of Macrovipera lebetina covering its entire range in Iran. Sexual dimorphism was obvious in number of scales across the head and subcaudals. Univariate analyses detected substantial geographic variation in several meristic characters. Pholidosis exhibits a general north-south pattern of variation and most scale counts averaged higher in southern regions. Colouration displayed a pattern of strong clinal variation among three broad areas consisting of the combined western and northwestern, northeastern, and southern highland regions. Also, morphometric characters exhibited a general north-south pattern of geographic variation and some characters averaged lower in southern regions. Populations from the southern regions remained clearly distinct in Principal Component, Cluster and Discriminant analyses. In the light of these differences, it is concluded that the southern Iranian populations should not be identified as belonging to Macrovipera lebetina obtusa (Dwigubsky, 1832, which occurs in northwestern and western regions of the Iranian Plateau.

  19. A contribution to the intraspecific systematics of Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de L.

    1973-01-01

    A biometrical analysis of preserved specimens of Bufo bufo, supplemented by a detailed examination of the shape of the skin warts, was performed in order to ascertain the taxonomic status of the form described as B.b.spinosus. Indications of a N.-S. clinal variation in the formation of wart thorns a

  20. Preparation and characterization of a Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) mussel reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of certified reference materials in chemical analysis is an important requirement in quality assurance systems, as it allows the validation of analytical methods and the realization of the metrological traceability of results. Then, it is possible to obtain valid and comparable results not only in space, but also in time. In this study, all the steps for the preparation of a national mussel reference material were attained, from the collection of the bulk material to processing steps such as freeze-drying, grinding, bottling and sterilization. Internationally accepted principles were applied for the homogeneity and stability assessment of the material, using instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry as analytical techniques. By means of a collaborative program with participation of Brazilian and foreign laboratories, the chemical characterization of the material was performed. Element content in the mass percentage to mg kg-1 range was determined for 47 elements and some radionuclides, naturally present in the material. With the application of suitable statistical treatment to the data, it was considered that the content of 11 of those elements may be certified: As, Ca, Cl, Co, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se, Th and Zn. This study may be considered an important step in the national metrological development, as it shows that the production and characterization of biological reference materials, mussel in particular, is feasible in Brazil, as a tool for quality assurance of environmental and nutritional studies performed in the country. (author)

  1. Exposure to domoic acid affects larval development of king scallop Pecten maximus (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Kelly, Maeve S; Campbell, Dirk A; Dong, Shuang Lin; Zhu, Jian Xin; Wang, Su Feng

    2007-02-28

    Domoic acid (DA) is a highly toxic phycotoxin produced by bloom forming marine diatoms Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Bivalves can accumulate this toxin to a high level through their feeding activities, and thus illness or death in can occur in consumers of bivalves. In this study, king scallop, Pecten maximus, larvae were exposed to dissolved domoic acid (DA) for 25d, and the toxin accumulation and effects of harbouring this toxin were investigated. Scallop larvae incorporated DA continuously during the larval culture period and accumulated a maximum DA level of 5.21pgind(-1) when exposed to a solution of 50ngml(-1) dissolved DA. As a result of the DA treatment, larval growth, measured in terms of shell length and the appearance of the eye-spot, and larval survival were significantly compromised. This is the first study on DA incorporation dynamics in P. maximus larvae, signifying the potential of using shellfish larvae for the study on mechanisms of phycotoxin accumulation. The negative effect of DA exposure suggests that this toxin could possibly influence natural recruitment in P. maximus, and it may be necessary to protect hatchery-cultured scallop larvae from DA during toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms.

  2. Mating behaviour and gamete release in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758 held in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibarra-Zatarain Zohar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe the reproductive behaviour of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata in captivity. Twenty-four mature gilthead seabream, divided in two tanks, were utilized for the present study. Reproductive behaviour was recorded using submersibles cameras. A total of 67 spawning events were analysed. The mean duration time that gilthead seabream spent spawning was 54 ± 4 min/day, during which mean number of individual spawning events was 5.6 ± 0.2. The mean volume of eggs produced by both broodstocks was 405 ± 13.4 mL with a fertilization rate of 91.6 ± 0.4%. The reproductive behaviour began with a schooling behaviour and then forming light aggregations. From an aggregation or an encounter while swimming freely a female initiated a spawning rush followed by one or more males to gametes liberation. The spawning rush was brief, 1.6 ± 0.5 sec, over an approximately 1.7 ± 0.2 m distance from the tank bottom to the water surface. Pair spawning, between a single female and male, was the most common (71.6%. Group spawning was less common and involved a single female spawning with two males (22.5% or three males (4.9%. Spawning rushes involving more than one female were not observed. Gilthead seabream in the present study presented a tendency to pair spawn and eggs collected as a “spawn” were actually the sum of many separate spawning events over a short time period. This is the first description of gilthead seabream spawning and the findings help to understand microsatellite based observations of spawning kinetics.

  3. Mercury in the sea turtle Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1958 from Ceará coast, NE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés F. Bezerra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury concentrations in carapace fragments of the green turtle Chelonia mydas from the Ceará coast in NE Brazil are reported. Concentrations varied from As concentrações de Hg em fragmentos de carapaça de Chelonia mydas no litoral do Ceará, nordeste do Brasil, são reportadas. Concentrações variaram de <0,34 a 856,6 ng.g -1 em peso seco, e foram maiores (média de 154,8 ng.g -1 em peso seco em indivíduos juvenis (n = 22, enquanto que as menores concentrações (média de 2,5 ng.g -1 em peso seco foram observadas em indivíduos adultos/sub-adultos (n = 3. Houve uma correlação negativa significativa entre tamanho do animal e concentração de Hg provavelmente devido a diferença de dieta entre juvenis e sub-adultos/adultos. Fragmentos de carapaça, que constituem substratos não-invasivos e não letais, podem ser importantes para fins de monitoramento ambiental dessas espécies ameaçadas de extinção.

  4. [Larvicidal activity of Anacardium humile Saint Hill oil on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera, Culicidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Karla Rejane de Andrade; Roel, Antonia Railda; Silva, Márcia Marlene da; Coelho, Rosemary Matias; Scheleder, Eloty Justina Dias; Jeller, Alex Haroldo

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Anacardium humile (monkey nuts) against Aedes aegypti larvae. Hexane, ethanol and aqueous extracts and oil from leaves were obtained from plant material collected from the Brazilian savanna. These were tested at concentrations of 1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.125%, 0.05% and 0.0125%, diluted in 1% dimethyl sulfoxide. The dead larvae were counted 24 hours later. The Probit analysis method was used to obtain the LC(50) and the respective confidence intervals. The conclusion was that only the oil extracted from Anacardium humile leaves caused 100% mortality among fourth-instar Aedes aegypti larvae, using concentrations of up to 0.125%. This seems to indicate that the active ingredients are present in the most apolar phase. This indicates that this plant has potential use as a larvicide against Aedes aegypti. However, new tests should be carried out using other plant organs, as well as using other methods and solvents for the extraction.

  5. ARIES: an expert system supporting legislative tasks. Identifying animal materials using the Linnaeus II software

    OpenAIRE

    van Raamsdonk, Leo W.D.

    2010-01-01

    Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad cow disease) is generally considered to be caused by recycling animal by-products as ingredient in animal, especially ruminant, feed. Feed bans were enforced to minimize the risk on infections, and monitoring programs are effectuated for controlling the ban. The only official detection method is visual (microscopic) examination of the presence of primarily bone fragments, but muscle fibres, hairs, feather filaments, and fish bones a...

  6. Food and feeding habits of Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus, 1758) along the northwest coast of India

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiswar, A.K.; GEORGE, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Megalaspis cordyla as one of the shoaling commercially important pelagic fish in the Northwest coast of India. The study on food and feeding habits of this fish revealed that it is predominantly a carnivorous species feeding primarily on sergestied shrimps like Acetes indicus and small fishes such as Stolephorus species. In addition it feeds on juveniles of Trichiurus, Apogon, Coilia, Sardinella, Nemipterus, Thryssa, and sciaenids. The food of M. cordyla also comprises the young ones of mollu...

  7. Origins, distributions, and ramifications of the femoral nerves in giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseâmely Angélica de Carvalho-Barros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of nerves making up the lumbosacral plexus is extremely important, because it relates the various evolutionary aspects of animals’ posture and locomotion. Taking into account that the femoral nerve is the largest one in the cranial part of the lumbosacral plexus, one aimed to describe the origins, distributions, and ramifications of femoral nerves in giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, comparing them to the literature describing domestic and wild animals, in order to establish correlations of morphological similarities and provide the related areas with means. One used three specimens, prepared through an injection of 10% aqueous formaldehyde solution via femoral artery, for their conservation and posterior dissection. The origins in the right and left antimeres took place in the ventral braches of lumbar spinal nerves 1, 2, and 3. The distributions and ramifications were observed for the major and minor psoas, lateral and medial iliac, pectineus, adductor magnus, sartorius, and femoral quadriceps muscles. Having the origins of the M. tridactyla femoral nerves as a basis, a reframing was observed due to the variance in the number of lumbar vertebrae (L1, L2, and L3. However, a partial morphological similarity was kept with regard to the distributions and ramifications, when compared to the domestic and wild animals taken into account in this study.

  8. Nutritional value of gastropod Babylonia spirata (Linnaeus, 1758) from Thazhanguda, Southeast coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Periyasamy N; Srinivasan M; Devanathan K; Balakrishnan S

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the biochemical composition, i.e., protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acids from Babylonia spirata (B. spirata). Methods:The gastropod (B. spirata) were collected from the Thazhanguda, Southeast coast of India. The animal shell was broken and body muscles (expected digestive gland) were dried at 60℃in an oven and used for biochemical analysis, such as protein, carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and molecular size of muscle protein. Results:The results of proximate composition showed that the percentage of protein in the tissue was (53.86%), followed by the carbohydrate content(16.85%). The amount of lipid was 9.30%, and totally 10 essential and nonessential amino acids were analyzed in B. spirata and the content was 9.911 mg/g. The molecular weight of the gastropod sample was low as 2 kDa on SDS-PAGE. FT-IR analysis revealed the presence of amino acids signals at different ranges. Conclusions:The results of this research showed that B. spirata meat is a valuable food with high quality protein and well-balanced amino acids.

  9. Neue Taxa von Lunatipula Edwards aus der mediterranen Subregion der Palaearktis (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theischinger, Günther

    1987-01-01

    12 new species and 3 new subspecies of Lunatipula Edwards from Greece and Turkey are described or defined. The new taxa are: T. (L.) montifer tasucuensis, T. (L.) musensis, T. (L.) vermooleni, T. (L.) lyrion, Tipula (Lunatipula) paravelox, T. (L.) soosi izmirensis, T. (L.) brinki, T. (L.) canakkalen

  10. Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus) (Echinoidea, Echinometridae) als Wirt einer komplexen Lebensgemeinschaft im Karibischen Meer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppe, Sabine

    1991-09-01

    The association between Acyrtus rubiginosus (Gobiesocidae), Clastotoechus vanderhorsti (Porcellanidae), Ophiothrix sp. (Ophiotrichidae) and their rock-boring host Echinometra lucunter (Echinometridae) has been studied on the rocky shores of Santa Marta, Colombia. The three inhabitants of the sea urchin dwellings benefit from their cohabitation by receiving effective shelter from intertidal effects and from predators. The sea urchin, by contrast, seems neither to be benefitted nor harmed by the association.

  11. ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY OF TWO PARASITES INFECTING DOMESTICATED TURKEY MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO LINNAEUS, 1758 (GALLIFORMES: MELEAGRIDINAE) QENA, EGYPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Khalaf Nour Abdel-Wahed

    2015-08-01

    The work gave a detailed systematic morphology by optic and scan electron microscopy of two parasites; Raillietina echinobothriida Megnin, 1880 and Spirora meleagaris n. sp. infecting domesticated turkey, with some important description characters. SEM revealed that tegument of R. echinobothriida exhibits, filamentous, microtriches and sensory papillae densely covered the tegument of entire body, rostellum armed with two rows of hummer-shaped hooks and provide by 16-20 rows of small, rose thorn-shaped accessory spines. In addition, a number of taxonomic features in S. meleagaris n. sp. that differ from other species of the genus, mouth circular, bounded by a cuticular three circles plates, five pairs of cephalic papillae, an inner circle of two pairs situated on the wall of the buccal cavity, one pairs of larges sub-median amphids, and an outer circle of two pairs papillae. Buccal cavity supported by four chitinious cusped molar teeth anteriorly directed .Vulva near the end of the first third of the body, vulvular lips prominent. The male has unique rose like shaped pedunculated and unarranged numerous distributed sessile cervical papillae at the second third of the body that are distinguishable from other spirorid.

  12. Ontogenia da cartilagem e do osso em dourada, Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Faustino, Manuel Almeida dos Ramos

    1996-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado, Química Celular, Unidade de Ciências Exactas e Humanas, Universidade do Algarve, 1996 A dourada (Sparus aurata L) é uma das mais importantes espécies comerciais do sul da Europa, tendo o seu cultivo em cativeiro sido grandemente incrementado, entre nós, na última década. O estudo e caracterização da ontogenia das estruturas que formam o esqueleto, fornece-nos conhecimentos essenciais, para posteriores melhoramentos na produção de larvas e, provavelmente um melho...

  13. Dominant fitness costs of resistance to fipronil in Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Naeem; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Azher, Faheem

    2016-08-15

    House fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) a common pest of poultry, has developed resistance to the commonly used insecticide fipronil. The life history traits were examined in the fipronil-selected (Fipro-SEL), susceptible counterpart (UNSEL), and their hybrid progeny strains in order to design an effective resistant management strategy. Compared to the UNSEL strain, the Fipro-SEL was 181.94-fold resistant to fipronil. This resistance was unstable after five generations without selection. The Fipro-SEL had a significantly longer larval duration, lower pupal weight, lower fecundity, lower hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, lower intrinsic rate of population increase and lower biotic potential than the UNSEL strain. Most fitness parameters of the hybrid progeny were similar and significantly lower than that in the UNSEL strain, suggesting autosomal and dominant fitness costs. Compared to the UNSEL strain, relative the fitness of the Fipro-SEL, Hybrid1 and Hybrid2 was 0.13, 0.33 and 0.30, respectively. Fipronil resistance resulted in high fitness costs and these fitness costs were dominant and autosomal in the Fipro-SEL strain of M. domestica. Rotation of fipronil with other insecticides having no cross resistance should be useful for delaying the development of resistance in M. domestica.

  14. Effects of the European hornet (Vespa crabro Linnaeus 1761) crude venom on its own species

    OpenAIRE

    Nadolski, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Background Lethal dose 50% is a classical index of toxicity that usually employs small rodents as experimental animals. Therefore, scarce data are available on the effects of venom on invertebrates, particularly the impact of wasp venom on its own species. Findings In the present study, the lethality of Vespa crabro venom on its own species was studied. Lethal dose 50% values of crude venom on workers of hornet Vespa crabro were estimated to be 4.0 mg/kg of body weight. Conclusions Wasps can ...

  15. Individual variation related to testicular biometry and semen characteristics in collared peccaries (Tayassu Tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, G C X; Silva, M A; Castelo, T S; Silva, A M; Bezerra, J A B; Souza, A L P; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this research was to study the individual variation with regard to the morphometry of the testes evaluated by ultrasonography and semen characteristics and to verify the existence of relationship between these variables in collared peccaries. In addition, the testes of the animals were evaluated by histology in order to determine the proportion occupied by the seminiferous tubules. A total of 52 ejaculates were obtained from ten adult specimens that had been restrained by anesthesia. The testicular measurements (length, height, and width) were performed by ultrasonography, and the testicular volume was calculated according to Lambert's formula. The scrotal circumference was measured by encircling the thickest portion of the testicle with a graduated nylon tape. The semen was collected by electroejaculation. Testicular fragments were analyzed through classic histology for the determination of the area occupied by the seminiferous tubules. The results show a great amount of individual variation with regard to testicular morphometry and semen characteristics. No significant correlations were obtained between testicular measurements and semen characteristics. The histometric analysis revealed that 67.8% of the testes are occupied by seminiferous tubules. Results show that the measurement of testicular dimensions does not serve as an indicator of the quality of semen obtained by electroejaculation in collared peccaries, as there is no correlation between testicular morphometry and semen characteristics in this species that presents large variations among individuals. PMID:22964034

  16. Gill monogeneans of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Oreochromis leucostictus (Trewavas, 1933) in Lake Naivasha, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindoria, Nehemiah Mogoi; Mungai, Lewis Kamau; Yasindi, Andrew Wamalwa; Otachi, Elick Onyango

    2016-04-01

    An investigation of gill monogeneans from the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and the blue spotted tilapia Oreochromis leucostictus (50 individuals per species) was done between the months of November 2014 to February 2015 in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Standard parasitological procedures were used to examine fish gills for the presence of monogeneans. The observed monogeneans were collected, preliminarily identified using identification keys, quantified and fixed in 4 % formalin for morphological studies and absolute ethanol for molecular studies. Four parasite species comprising of three species of the genus Cichlidogyrus and one species of the genus Scutogyrus were recovered. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae infested both fish species but the C. sclerosus was most prevalent in O. leucostictus (Prevalence (P) = 100 %, Mean intensity (MI) = 3.4) and C. tilapiae in O. niloticus (P = 8 %, MI = 4). Cichlidogyrus tilapiae had a P = 12 % and MI = 5.0 and a P = 6 % and MI = 3.0 in O. niloticus and O. leucostictus, respectively. Cichlidogyrus halli (P = 4 %, MI = 15.5) and Scutogyrus gravivaginus (P = 2 %, MI = 1.0) were only found in O. leucostictus. This is the first time that these monogeneans have been identified from Lake Naivasha, Kenya, presenting new geographical records. It was concluded that Ancyrocephalids (Cichilidogyrus spp.) dominated the two cichlid fish species in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. PMID:26691859

  17. The Sargassum Frogfish (Histrio histrio Linnaeus) observed in mangroves in St. John, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C.S.; Pietsch, T.W.; Randall, J.E.; Arnold, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Sargassum Frogfish (Histrio histrio), the only pelagic member of the frogfish family Antennariidae, is considered an obligate associate of floating mats of the brown algae Sargassum natans and S. fluitans (Adams 1960; Dooley 1972; Pietsch and Grobecker 1987). Between February and April 2010, 20 of these fish were observed in three mangrove-fringed bays in Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, St. John, US Virgin Islands. All of them were clinging to clumps of the red alga Acanthophora spicifera growing on the submerged prop roots of red mangrove trees (Rhizophora mangle) distributed along an estimated total of 2,160 mof shoreline (Fig. 1). All of the fish were at a depth of less than 0.5 meters. Two individuals were seen on one prop root, but the other 18 were solitary. Their estimated standard lengths ranged from about 20 to 100 mm. Littler and Littler (2000, p. 295) published a photograph of one individual in blades of the green alga Ulva lactuca growing on a prop root in Belize. This is the first report of the Sargassum Frogfish living in association with attached algae.

  18. Screening of antibacterial drugs from marine gastropod Chicoreus ramosus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pasiyappazham Ramasamy; Gurusamy Chelladurai; Natarajan Gautham; Sasirekhamani Mohanraj; Jeyaraj Mohanraj

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To screen the antibacterial drugs from different solvent extracts of tissue and egg of marine gastropods Chicoreus ramosus against clinically isolated human pathogenic bacteria.Methods:Vibrio parehaemolyticus (J13300), Aeromonus hydrophilla (IDH1585), Salmonella typhi (C6953), Salmonella paratyphi A (C6915), Vibrio cholerae (IDH5439) and Escherichia coli (H10407) using standard well diffusion method and its minimum inhibitory concentration.Results:Different solvent extracts of Chicoreus ramosus was screened for their activity against egg inhibited the growth of the tested pathogenic bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration of both the extract ranged from 4 to 12 mg/mL. The study revealed that the acetone and chloroform extract of both the tissues and Conclusions: These results suggest that marine gastropods tissue and egg extract contains comparatively good antibacterial activity.

  19. Screening of antibacterial drugs from marine gastropod Chicoreus ramosus (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasiyappazham Ramasamy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen the antibacterial drugs from different solvent extracts of tissue and egg of marine gastropods Chicoreus ramosus against clinically isolated human pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Different solvent extracts of Chicoreus ramosus was screened for their activity against Vibrio parehaemolyticus (J13300, Aeromonus hydrophilla (IDH1585, Salmonella typhi (C6953, Salmonella paratyphi A (C6915, Vibrio cholerae (IDH5439 and Escherichia coli (H10407 using standard well diffusion method and its minimum inhibitory concentration. Results: The study revealed that the acetone and chloroform extract of both the tissues and egg inhibited the growth of the tested pathogenic bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration of both the extract ranged from 4 to 12 mg/mL. Conclusions: These results suggest that marine gastropods tissue and egg extract contains comparatively good antibacterial activity.

  20. Oxygen dynamics around buried lesser sandeels Ammodytes tobianus (Linnaeus 1785): mode of ventilation and oxygen requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane W; Stahl, Henrik J; Steffensen, John F;

    2007-01-01

    The oxygen environment around buried sandeels (Ammodytes tobianus) was monitored by planar optodes. The oxygen penetration depth at the sediment interface was only a few mm. Thus fish, typically buried at 1-4 cm depth, were generally in anoxic sediment. However, they induced an advective transport...... down along the body, referred to as ;plume ventilation'. Yet, within approximately 30 min the oxic plume was replenished by oxygen-depleted water from the gills. The potential for cutaneous respiration by the buried fish was thus of no quantitative importance. Calculations derived by three independent...... methods (each with N=3) revealed that the oxygen uptake of sandeel buried for 6-7 h was 40-50% of previous estimates on resting respirometry of non-buried fish, indicating lower O(2) requirements during burial on a diurnal timescale. Buried fish exposed to decreasing oxygen tensions gradually approached...

  1. Effect of gamma radiation and entomopathogenic nematodes on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus) [Lep., Pyralidae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), is a lepidoptera insect; its larval stage, feeds on wax and pollen stored in combs of active honey bee colonies (Milam, 1970). It does not attack adult bees but destructs combs of a weak colony by chewing the comb; spinning silk-lined tunnels through the cell wall and over the face of the comb, which prevent the bees to emerge by their abdomen from their cell, so they die by starvation as they unable to escape from their cell. They also eat out a place to spin their cocoons in the soft wood of the bee hive. Galleria mellonella can also destroy stored honey combs. Therefore, it is considered a major pest of the honeybee. Damage will vary with the level of infestation and the time that has elapsed since the infestation first began. In time, stored combs may be completely destroyed and the frames and combs become filled with a mass of tough, silky web. In ideal conditions for wax moth development, a box (super) of combs may be rendered useless in about a week. Damage occurs mainly in the warm and hot months of the year when wax moths are most active. However, considerable damage can still occur during the cool part of late autumn and early spring as greater wax moth can produce a large amount of metabolic heat which can raise the immediate temperature around them by up to 25 degree C above the normal environment temperature. At the time of storage, combs that are apparently free of wax moth may contain eggs that will hatch later. They should be monitored

  2. Evolutionary divergence of geographic subspecies within the scalloped spiny lobster Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus 1758.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane D Lavery

    Full Text Available Panulirus homarus is an economically important spiny lobster that is widespread through the Indo-West Pacific Region, but has an uncertain taxonomic status, with three or four geographic subspecies having been described. This study used mitochondrial (16S, COI and control region and nuclear (18S, ITS-1 DNA sequences to examine specimens of all putative subspecies and forms from throughout their range, in order to determine their genetic validity, and understand the evolutionary history of this species. Despite the range of diversity present in the loci examined, the results were consistent across genes. P. h. rubellus from the SW Indian Ocean comprised the most divergent lineage that was reciprocally monophyletic with respect to all other P. homarus (approx. 9% divergence in COI, and has likely evolved reproductive barriers. The putative P. h. "Brown" subspecies from the Marquesas Is in the central Pacific also comprised a somewhat divergent monophyletic lineage (approx. 3% in COI, but may simply be an allopatric population. The widespread P. h. homarus was not diverged at all from the described P. h. megasculpta from the NW Indian Ocean. The degree of evolutionary divergence of populations at the extremes distribution of the species is somewhat surprising, given the long pelagic larval stage, but suggests that allopatric speciation has been an important driver in the evolution of the genus.

  3. The unique sound production of the Death's-head hawkmoth (Acherontia atropos (Linnaeus, 1758)) revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Gunnar; Fischer, Martin; Gorb, Stanislav; Kleinteich, Thomas; Kühn, Bernhard; Neubert, David; Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Wurdinger, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    When disturbed, adults of the Death's-head hawkmoth (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae: Acherontia atropos) produce short squeaks by drawing in and deflating air into and out of the pharynx as a defence mechanism. We took a new look at Prell's hypothesis of a two-phase mechanism by providing new insights into the functional morphology behind the pharyngeal sound production of this species. First, we compared the head anatomy of A. atropos with another sphingid species, Manduca sexta, by using micro-computed tomography (CT) and 3D reconstruction methods. Despite differences in feeding behaviour and capability of sound production in the two species, the musculature in the head is surprisingly similar. However, A. atropos has a much shorter proboscis and a modified epipharynx with a distinct sclerotised lobe projecting into the opening of the pharynx. Second, we observed the sound production in vivo with X-ray videography, mammography CT and high-speed videography. Third, we analysed acoustic pressure over time and spectral frequency composition of six A. atropos specimens, both intact and with a removed proboscis. Single squeaks of A. atropos last for ca. 200 ms and consist of an inflation phase, a short pause and a deflation phase. The inflation phase is characterised by a burst of ca. 50 pulses with decreasing pulse frequency and a major frequency peak at ca. 8 kHz, followed by harmonics ranging up to more than 60 kHz. The deflation phase is characterised by a less clear acoustic pattern, a lower amplitude and more pronounced peaks in the same frequency range. The removal of the proboscis resulted in a significantly shortened squeak, a lower acoustic pressure level and a slightly more limited frequency spectrum. We hypothesise that the uptake of viscous honey facilitated the evolution of an efficient valve at the opening of the pharynx (i.e. a modified epipharynx), and that sound production could relatively easily have evolved based on this morphological pre-adaptation. PMID:26185112

  4. Arterial vascularization of the brain of the agouti (Dasyprocta aguti Linnaeus, 1766

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    Roberto Sávio Bessa da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The agouti, a rodent that is geographically distributed throughout South America, is greatly valued for its meat. This paper describes the arterial vascularization of the base of the agouti’s brain, characterizing behavior, and arterial origin and distribution. Ten animals from the Center for the Multiplication of Wild Animals (CEMAS/UFERSA were used and the study was approved by SISBIO (report number 32413- 1 and the Ethics Committee on Animal Use (CEUA/UFERSA (protocol 02/2010. After euthanasia, the animals were incised in the thoracic cavity by an injection of red-stained Neoprene latex 650 and the skulls were subsequently opened. The brains were extracted from the skulls for ventral surface analysis and then fixed in an aqueous 10% formaldehyde solution. The agouti’s arterial vascularization of the brain has two main components, namely the carotid and vertebrobasilar systems. The agouti’s carotid system accounts for vascularization of almost the entire forebrain, while the vertebrobasilar system accounts for vascularization of almost the entire posterior brain (medulla oblongata, pyramid, trapezoid body, cerebellum, bridge, and part of the third caudal section of the forebrain through the caudal cerebral arteries originating from the terminal branches of the basilar artery. The main arteries on the brain surface include the basilar artery, which is unique, and the arterial pairs, specifically the vertebral arteries, cerebellar caudal arteries, trigeminal artery, rostral cerebellar artery, basilar terminal branch artery, cerebral caudal artery, communicating caudal branch of the cerebral carotid artery, cerebral carotid artery, communicating branch rostral cerebral carotid artery, choroidal rostral artery, medial branch of the communicating branch rostral artery, internal ophthalmic artery, middle cerebral artery, and rostral cerebral artery.

  5. On the fecundity of the bogue Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Turkish Aegean Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Burcu Taylan; Bahar Bayhan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the fecundity of Boops boops (B. boops) from Aegean Sea coast of Turkey. Methods: A total of 470 specimens of B. boops were collected monthly from November in 2008 to October of 2009 in Izmir Bay (central Aegean Sea). Total length and total weight of each fish were measured and the maturity stages of gonads were determined. About 30 mature ovariums were taken to determine fecundity and oocysts were counted by using gravimetric method. Results: About 210 were females (44.7%) and 226 males (48.1%) while 34 (7.2%) were hermafrodite in terms of sexuality with sex ratio (female: male) of 0.93:1.00. The fecundity of the bogue was assessed by the gravimetric method with 30 ovaries from females between the total length of 19.6 and 27.6 cm [(mean: 23.5 ± 2.1) cm]. Estimates of total fecundity varied between 33072 and 66123 oocytes (mean: 49008 ± 8826) and fecundity–total length, fecundity–weight relationships were expressed as :F = 8207.6e0.075TL, F = 30297e0.003TW respectively. Conclusions: The results of the study will contribute to the reproductive biology of B. boops and will be useful for management of fisheries.

  6. Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods. PMID:25186797

  7. Seasonal variation in growth and survival of Strombus canarium (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cob, Z C; Arshad, A; Bujang, J S; Ghaffar, M A

    2009-05-01

    This study was conducted to analyze variation in Strombus canarium larvae development, growth and survivals when cultured during wet (main reproductive period) and dry seasons. Larvae were reared at 200 larvae L(-1) in filtered seawater (0.22 microm) and fed with Isochrysis galbana at 1000 cells mL(-1) ad libitum. The culture environment was maintained at 29 +/- 1 degrees C, salinity of 30 +/- 1 PSU and photoperiod of 12:12 light dark cycle. Growth of the larvae was described on a length-at-age basis using the modified Gompertz regression. There was high correlation in shell length-at-age relationship for both wet season (R2 = 0.99) and dry season (R2 = 0.98) culture experiments. The maximal growth rate (M) and survival rate (S) were higher for larvae cultured during wet season (M = 62.44 microm day(-1), S = 14.36-2.31%), compared with dry season (M = 43.05 microm day(-1), S = 5 +/- 1.15%). The maximal attainable larval size (a) was however lower during wet season (950.19 +/- 66.93 microm shell length) compared with dry season (1343.05 +/- 586.51 microm shell length), which might be due to significantly low larvae density in the latter. Further studies are needed to investigate variation in bio-chemical composition of the egg mass, which was suggested as the main reason for the differences. PMID:19634470

  8. Population Biology of Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus (Echinodermata in Seagrass Beds of Southern Guimaras, Philippines

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    Joshua Militar Regalado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla is a major grazer found in seagrass beds of southern Guimaras, Philippines. Monthly length-frequency data from January 2008 to June 2009 were used to estimate the growth, recruitment pattern and mortality rate with the use of FiSAT II. The estimated values for the Von Bertalanffy growth parameters L(n/k(asymptotic length and K (growth coefficient were 114.2 mm and 1.08 respectively. Monthly densities ranged from 0.06 to 0.58 per m² with a mean value of 0.26 per m². Monthly biomass ranged from 4.1 to 49.5 grams per m² with a mean value of 21.15 grams per m². T. gratilla density and biomass were observed to be highest during the month of November 2008. The recruitment pattern showed a major broad peak and a minor peak separated by four months. Total mortality (Z from the length-converted catch curve was computed to be 4.74 per year.

  9. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758.

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    João C P Ferreira

    Full Text Available Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots' physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva, two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1 and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2: Control (undisturbed, Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM, Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM. Treatments (always one week apart were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment. Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations. Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median at the peak (after 3-9 h, and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural disorders and stress in this bird species, and could also help in their captive management.

  10. Seasonal food habits of brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus Linnaeus, 1758 in Cenral Alborz Protected Area

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    Bagher Nezami Balouchi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountains of Central Alborz Protected Area hold a big population of brown bear, the largest varnivore species in Iran. Understanding food habits is crucial to understanding the ecology of the species. Diet influences many ecological and life-history traits, such as spatial distribution, social and foraging behavior, body mass and reproduction. Therefore, during Jun 2006 to May 2007 we had a comprehensive study on brown bear food habits, as the largest omnivorous of the country in Central Alborz Protected Area. Our investigation showed that plant materials composed the main proportion of food items of the brown bears in the spring until mid-summer. Insects, especially ants were predominantly eaten in the first half of summer. As approaching to hibernation period in late autumn, fruits played the main role of bear food items having high fat content. We never witnessed bear attack on wild herbivores. Furthermore, we never found remains of wild herbivores except a few livestock remains in brown bear scats during our survey period. Accordingly, we concluded that brown bears were almost herbivorous in the Central Alborz Protected Area. We never found any bear scats or fresh signs in three consecutive years, between first of December until mid of March. Also, no direct sighting of brown bear was reported to us by local people and game keepers within the mentioned period. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the brown bears hibernate for a period of 3-3.5 months in winter in the Central Alborz Protected Area.

  11. Oral susceptibility of Singapore Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus to Zika virus.

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    MeiZhi Irene Li

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a little known flavivirus that caused a major outbreak in 2007, in the South-western Pacific Island of Yap. It causes dengue-like syndromes but with milder symptoms. In Africa, where it was first isolated, ZIKV is mainly transmitted by sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes. The virus has also been isolated from Ae. aegypti and it is considered to be the vector involved in the urban transmission of the virus. Transmission of the virus by an African strain of Ae. aegypti has also been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. The aim of the present study is to describe the oral susceptibility of a Singapore strain of Ae. aegypti to ZIKV, under conditions that simulate local climate.To assess the receptivity of Singapore's Ae. aegypti to the virus, we orally exposed a local mosquito strain to a Ugandan strain of ZIKV. Upon exposure, fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29 °C and 70-75% RH. Eight mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day 1 to day 7, and subsequently on days 10 and 14 post exposure (pe. The virus titer of the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using a tissue culture infectious dose(50 (TCID(50 assay. High midgut infection and salivary gland dissemination rates were observed. By day 5 after the infectious blood meal, ZIKV was found in the salivary glands of more than half of the mosquitoes tested (62%; and by day 10, all mosquitoes were potentially infective.This study showed that Singapore's urban Ae. aegypti are susceptible and are potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV. The virus could be established in Singapore should it be introduced. Nevertheless, Singapore's current dengue control strategy is applicable to control ZIKV.

  12. Ultraestructura de esporofitos jovenes de Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus C. Agardh (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales

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    César A. Córdova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el desarrollo anatómico de esporofitos jóvenes de Macrocystis pyrifera obtenidos a partir de cigotos en cultivos de laboratorio. Los talos eran monostromáticos luego de dos semanas de crecimiento y las células eran similares entre sí, fotosintéticas y conectadas por campos de puntuación primarios. A las cinco semanas, los talos eran poliestromáticos y estaban diferenciados internamente en meristodermo, corteza y médula. Filamentos cribosos longitudinales aparecieron en la médula, desarrollándose de la corteza interna y rodeados por una matriz intercelular. Cada elemento criboso presentaba un núcleo, cloroplastos y varios plasmodesmos, los cuales estaban distribuidos más o menos al azar en paredes transversales o agrupados en campos de puntuación primarios en paredes longitudinales. Luego de nueve semanas, los talos eran más gruesos y estaban diferenciados morfológicamente en una lámina, estípite y grampón rizoidal. Además de los filamentos cribosos, aparecieron filamentos menores o «hifas» en la médula. Se discute el desarrollo del esporofito joven y la relación de nuestras observaciones con estudios en otras algas pardas.

  13. High chromosomal variation in wild horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae populations

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    Natalia Forneris

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The horn fly, Haematobia irritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by H. irritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of H. irritans, as previously described using flies from an inbred colony, shows a chromosome complement of 2n=10 without heterochromosomes (sex chromosomes. In this study, we analyze for the first time the chromosome structure and variation of four wild populations of H. irritans recently established in the Southern Cone of South America, collected in Argentina and Uruguay. In these wild type populations, we confirmed and characterized the previously published “standard” karyotype of 2n=10 without sex chromosomes; however, surprisingly a supernumerary element, called B-chromosome, was found in about half of mitotic preparations. The existence of statistically significant karyotypic diversity was demonstrated through the application of orcein staining, C-banding and H-banding. This study represents the first discovery and characterization of horn fly karyotypes with 2n=11 (2n=10+B. All spermatocytes analyzed showed 5 chromosome bivalents, and therefore, 2n=10 without an extra chromosome. Study of mitotic divisions showed that some chromosomal rearrangements affecting karyotype structure are maintained as polymorphisms, and multiple correspondence analyses demonstrated that genetic variation was not associated with geographic distribution. Because it was never observed during male meiosis, we hypothesize that B-chromosome is preferentially transmitted by females and that it might be related to sex determination.

  14. [Mallophaga species observed in white pelicans (Pelecanus onocrotalus, Linnaeus) in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, Uğur

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out on six white pelicans (Pelecanus onocrotalus) between the years 2002-2006. Oral cavities of the pelicans were examined macroscopically. The lice found in the oral cavities were collected by forceps and were preserved in tubes containing 70% alcohol. Also, each pelican was put in a big carton-box, the bottom of which was covered with a white paper and the pelicans were treated with propoxur for a few minutes. The lice that fell on to the paper were collected in a Petri dish and later on they were put in vials containing 70% alcohol. Five (83.3%) out of the six pelicans under examination were found to be infested with at least one lice species. From the oral cavities and bodies of the pelicans 346 lice were collected and three species namely: Piagetiella titan (Piaget, 1880), Pectinopygus forficulatus (Nitzsch, 1866) and Colpocephalum eucarenum (Burmeister, 1838) were identified as three Mallophaga species. Pectinopygus forficulatus and Colpocephalum eucarenum were recorded for the first time from the white pelicans in Turkey.

  15. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Woo; Lee, Joon Ha; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Iksoo; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species. PMID:27167617

  16. Manganese effects on haematopoietic cells and circulating coelomocytes of Asterias rubens (Linnaeus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oweson, Carolina; Skoeld, Helen [Department of Marine Ecology, Goeteborg University, Kristineberg 566, 45034 Fiskebaeckskil (Sweden); Pinsino, Annalisa; Matranga, Valeria [Istituto di Biomedicina e Immunologia Molecolare ' A. Monroy' , Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Hernroth, Bodil [The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Kristineberg 566, 45034 Fiskebaeckskil (Sweden)], E-mail: bodil.hernroth@marecol.gu.se

    2008-08-29

    Manganese (Mn) is a naturally abundant metal in marine sediments where it mainly occurs as MnO{sub 2}. During hypoxic conditions it is converted into a bioavailable state, Mn{sup 2+}, and can reach levels that previously have shown effects on immune competent cells of the crustacean, Nephrops norvegicus. Here we investigated if Mn also affects circulating coelomocytes and their renewal in the common sea star, Asterias rubens, when exposed to concentrations of Mn that can be found in nature. When the sea stars were exposed to Mn it accumulated in the coelomic fluid and the number of circulating coelomocytes, in contrast to what was recorded in Nephrops, increased significantly. By using the substitute nucleotide, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, BrdU, for tracing cell division and by recording mitotic index by nuclei staining, we found that Mn induced proliferation of cells from a putative haematopoietic tissue, the coelomic epithelium. In addition, the haematopoietic tissue and coelomocytes showed stress response in terms of changes in HSP70 levels and protein carbonyls, as judged by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Measurement of dehydrogenase activity, using MTS/PMS, revealed that Mn showed cytotoxic properties. We also found that the phagocytotic capacity of coelomocytes was significantly inhibited by Mn. It was concluded that the exposure of A. rubens to Mn induced renewal of coelomocytes and impaired their immune response.

  17. Behavioral Responses of the Freshwater Fish, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) Following Sublethal Exposure to Chlorpyrifos

    OpenAIRE

    Halappa, Ramesh; David, Muniswamy

    2009-01-01

    Common carp fingerlings were exposed to different concentrations (0.120 to 0.200 mg/L) of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos (20% EC) for 96 h. The acute toxicity (LC50) of chlorpyrifos by static renewal (semi-static) bioassay test was found to be 0.160 mg/L. One-seventh (0.0224 mg/L) and one-fourteenth (0.0112 mg/L) of the 96 h LC50 were selected as sublethal concentrations for subacute studies. The fish were exposed to both the sublethal concentrations for 1, 7 and 14 days and allow...

  18. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758: Biochemical response

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    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and acetylcholinsetrase (AChE activities were measured. Behavioral changes in the fish were also recorded during the experiment. Unbalanced swimming, swimming in the surface water and hyperglycemia, increased blood triglyceride, and increased levels of AST, LDH and CK activities as well as decreased levels of AChE activity were important changes that were observed in the specimens exposed to chlorpyrifos during experimental periods. The most important alterations in the blood biochemical parameters were measured in the specimens exposed to 40 µg/L chlorpyrifos on the 20th and 30th day of the trial. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos as low as 40 µg/L may cause biochemical and behavioral changes in Cyprinus carpio.

  19. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758): Biochemical response

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Banaee; Behzad Nematdoust Haghi; Ahmed Th. A. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT)...

  20. Partição de recursos florais de espécies de Sida Linnaeus e Malvastrum coromandelianum (Linnaeus Garcke (Malvaceae entre Cephalurgus anomalus Moure & Oliveira (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae, Panurginae e Melissoptila cnecomala (Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Eucerini Floral resource partitioning on Sida Linnaeus and Malvastrum coromandelianum (Linnaeus Garcke (Malvaceae between Cephalurgus anomalus Moure & Oliveira (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae, Panurginae and Melissoptila cnecomala (Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Eucerini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Ferreira Morato

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The flowering pattern and the visiting bee species on Sida spp. and Malvastrum coromandelianum (L. Garcke were studied in a restricted area at the campus of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. There were differences among plant species but not among individuals in relation to the flowering time along the day and the time at which the flowers were visited by bees. Melissoptila cnecomala (Moure, 1944 and Cephalurgus anomalus Moure & Oliveira, 1962 were the most frequent visitors. Both species foraged on flowers for nectar and pollen. C. anomalus visited mainly plants with anthesis in the morning and M. cnecomala plants with anthesis in the afternoon. This fact sugests that those species of bees may be showing contrasting foraging strategies and can share the floral resources of Sida and Malvastrum. The males of C. anomalus mate on flowers of Sida and exhibit a behavior known as rendevouz pollination.

  1. Investigation of the Selectivity Parameters for Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) in Seyhan Dam Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Özyurt, Caner Enver; Avşar, Dursun

    2005-01-01

    Selectivity studies are very important for sustainable fisheries. Therefore, in this study, selectivity parameters for the carp in Seyhan Dam Lake were estimated using gill nets having a mesh size of 28, 32, 40 and 45 mm. Gill nets used in pikeperch fishing of mesh size of 28, 30 and 32 mm could cause growth in the overfishing of carp. Therefore, it is recommended that longline fishing should be commonly used instead of gill nets on pikeperch fishing. Consequently gill nets having minimum 50 ...

  2. Nurse egg consumption and intracapsular development in the common whelk Buccinum undatum (Linnaeus 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven

    2013-03-01

    Intracapsular development is common in marine gastropods. In many species, embryos develop alongside nurse eggs, which provide nutrition during ontogeny. The common whelk Buccinum undatum is a commercially important North Atlantic shallow-water gastropod. Development is intracapsular in this species, with individuals hatching as crawling juveniles. While its reproductive cycle has been well documented, further work is necessary to provide a complete description of encapsulated development. Here, using B. undatum egg masses from the south coast of England intracapsular development at 6 °C is described. Number of eggs, veligers and juveniles per capsule are compared, and nurse egg partitioning, timing of nurse egg consumption and intracapsular size differences through development are discussed. Total development took between 133 and 140 days, over which 7 ontogenetic stages were identified. The number of both eggs and veligers were significantly related to capsule volume, with approximately 1 % of eggs developing per capsule. Each early veliger consumed nurse eggs rapidly over just 3-7 days. Within each capsule, initial development was asynchronous, but it became synchronous during the veliger stage. No evidence for cannibalism was found during development, but large size differences between embryos developing within each capsule were observed, and occasionally `empty' veligers were seen, which had not successfully consumed any nurse eggs. These results indicate a high level of competition for nurse eggs within each capsule during development in the common whelk. The initial differences observed in nurse egg uptake may affect individual predisposition in later life.

  3. Bacterial symbionts of the leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklarzewicz, Teresa; Grzywacz, Beata; Szwedo, Jacek; Michalik, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Plant sap-feeding hemipterans harbor obligate symbiotic microorganisms which are responsible for the synthesis of amino acids missing in their diet. In this study, we characterized the obligate symbionts hosted in the body of the xylem-feeding leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae: Evacanthini) by means of histological, ultrastructural and molecular methods. We observed that E. interruptus is associated with two types of symbiotic microorganisms: bacterium 'Candidatus Sulcia muelleri' (Bacteroidetes) and betaproteobacterium that is closely related to symbionts which reside in two other Cicadellidae representatives: Pagaronia tredecimpunctata (Evacanthinae: Pagaronini) and Hylaius oregonensis (Bathysmatophorinae: Bathysmatophorini). Both symbionts are harbored in their own bacteriocytes which are localized between the body wall and ovaries. In E. interruptus, both Sulcia and betaproteobacterial symbionts are transovarially transmitted from one generation to the next. In the mature female, symbionts leave the bacteriocytes and gather around the posterior pole of the terminal oocytes. Then, they gradually pass through the cytoplasm of follicular cells surrounding the posterior pole of the oocyte and enter the space between them and the oocyte. The bacteria accumulate in the deep depression of the oolemma and form a characteristic 'symbiont ball'. In the light of the results obtained, the phylogenetic relationships within modern Cicadomorpha and some Cicadellidae subfamilies are discussed.

  4. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayayee, Paul A; Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host's demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ (13)CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ(13)C) between cockroach (δ (13)CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ (13)CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using (13)C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ (13)CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency. PMID:27231663

  5. Monogenoidea en Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus, 1766 de la Cuenca Amazónica Boliviana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Córdova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza la diversidad de parásitos monogenoideos como un carácter indepen- diente, esperando que por su alta especifi cidad, éstos parásitos puedan caracterizar las poblaciones de sus hospederos, la piraña blanca, Serrasalmus rhombeus . El estudio se llevó acabo en cuatro sub-cuencas de la Cuenca Amazónica Boliviana (Iténez, Beni, Madre de Dios e Ichilo; se obtuvie- ron 1135 parásitos, los cuales fueron agrupados en seis géneros y once especies: Anacanthorus jegui, A. amazonicus , A. rondonensis, A. gravihamulatus, A. sciponophallus, Anacanthorus sp.1 , Anacanthorus sp.2 , Anacanthorus sp.3 ; Notothecium deleastum, N. deleastoideum, Notozothecium teinodendrum; Mymarothecium galeolum; Anphithecium diclonophallum y Enallothecium aegidatum. La elevada diversidad de parásitos encontrada puede deberse a que existe o existió un complejo de especies o poblaciones diferenciadas de Serrasalmus rhombeus.

  6. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e morfometria da veia cava de paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Pinter Garcia Filho

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A paca (Cuniculus paca é o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira. Apresenta carne de excelente qualidade, o que incentiva a criação comercial. Além disso, este animal pode tornar-se uma opção válida em experimentação embora poucas sejam as informações detalhadas sobre sua morfologia. Assim, objetivou-se descrever a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções cranial e caudal da veia cava de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca adultas excedentes do plantel do Setor de Animais Silvestres do Departamento de Zootecnia da FCAV-Unesp. Os segmentos venosos foram analisados à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Foram mensuradas as espessuras do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média, além da túnica adventícia e analisou-se os resultados pela estatística descritiva, teste "T" pareado (p<0,05. Em relação à espessura das túnicas estudadas, comprovou-se que os valores da espessura das túnicas íntima, média e adventícia, para todos os animais, foram significativamente maiores no segmento cranial. As camadas das paredes dos vasos apresentaram variações entre si quanto à estrutura e espessura, supostamente devido a uma adaptação à exigência funcional.

  7. Resolution of the type material of the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Proboscidea, Elephantidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gentry, A.; Palkopoulou, E.;

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of Earth's biodiversity depends critically on the accurate identification and nomenclature of species. Many species were described centuries ago, and in a surprising number of cases their nomenclature or type material remain unclear or inconsistent. A prime example is provided...

  8. Prevalence of Cercariae Infection in Lymnaea auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758 in NorthWest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Imani-Baran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The pond snail Lymnaea auricularia serves as an intermediate host for many digenian species. In West Azerbaijan province, northwestern Iran, the cercariae infection investigation was undertaken in L. auricularia from May to November 2010. Of 6759 collected Lymnaeid snails, 370(5.5% L. auricularia snails were identified. Cercariae infection was found in a number of 276 (74.56 % snails. The results showed that removed cercariae from L. auricularia belonged to Echinostomcercariae (96.38 % and Furcocercariae (3.62 % which were found in two out of 28 sites during the course of study. In summer and fall, the highest prevalence of cercariae infection was recorded for both identified cercariae. It is concluded that L. auricularia could be an important intermediate host of large group digenian trematodes in the region, which is necessary to take consideration in the control program of trematode infection.

  9. Morfologia, ultraestrutura e morfometria do tegumento da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766) criada em cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    José G.M.P. Isola; Paola C. Moraes; Rahal, Sheila C.; Márcia R.F. Machado

    2013-01-01

    Considerando-se a falta de informações detalhadas sobre a morfologia da paca, sendo o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira, de excelente qualidade de carne e, dada a importância do tegumento comum, inclusive para o bom manejo em cativeiro, e até mesmo estudos como uma opção de animal de experimentação, descreveu-se a morfologia, morfometria e a ultraestrutura da pele de oito pacas (Cuniculus paca) machos e fêmeas, mediante a análise comparativa de segmentos cutâneos das regiões cervical, ...

  10. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João C. P.; Fujihara, Caroline J.; Fruhvald, Erika; Trevisol, Eduardo; Destro, Flavia C.; Teixeira, Carlos R.; Pantoja, José C. F.; Schmidt, Elizabeth M. S.; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots’ physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva), two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1) and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2): Control (undisturbed), Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM), Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM) and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM). Treatments (always one week apart) were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment). Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations). Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median) at the peak (after 3–9 h), and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural disorders and stress in this bird species, and could also help in their captive management. PMID:26717147

  11. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, João C. P.; Caroline J Fujihara; Erika Fruhvald; Eduardo Trevisol; Destro, Flavia C.; Teixeira, Carlos R.; José C.F. Pantoja; Elizabeth M.S. Schmidt; Rupert Palme

    2015-01-01

    Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots' physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling ...

  12. DESCRIÇÃO DO PLEXO BRAQUIAL DO CACHORRO-DO-MATO (Cerdocyon Thous LINNAEUS, 1766)

    OpenAIRE

    Luane Lopes Pinheiro; Érika Branco; Damazio Campos Souza; Luiza Helena Corrêa Pereira; Ana Rita Lima

    2014-01-01

    The Cerdocyon thous is a canid that has a wide distribution in South America and, besides some general aspects, its morphology is little known in the literature, especially regarding the nervous system. With the aim of elucidating the anatomical composition of brachial plexus, we studied three male specimens from Paragominas-PA, donated to the Morphological Laboratory of Animal Research (LaPMA), Federal Rural University of Amazonia (UFRA), after death by trampling. The animals were fixed in a...

  13. DESCRIÇÃO DO PLEXO BRAQUIAL DO CACHORRO-DO-MATO (Cerdocyon Thous LINNAEUS, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luane Lopes Pinheiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cerdocyon thous is a canid that has a wide distribution in South America and, besides some general aspects, its morphology is little known in the literature, especially regarding the nervous system. With the aim of elucidating the anatomical composition of brachial plexus, we studied three male specimens from Paragominas-PA, donated to the Morphological Laboratory of Animal Research (LaPMA, Federal Rural University of Amazonia (UFRA, after death by trampling. The animals were fixed in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde for bilateral dissection of the origin of the brachial plexus. The brachial plexus of C. thous is derived from the last three cervical nerves and the first thoracic nerve (C6-T1. The main nerves that compose it, with their respective origins were the suprascapular nerve, subscapular nerve and musculocutaneous nerve (C6-C7, axillary nerve (C7-C8, radial nerve (C7-T1 and C7-C8, median nerve, ulnar nerve, thoracodorsal and thoracic lateral nerve (C8-T1. We conclude that the brachial plexus of C. thous is similar to that described for the domestic dogs, showing small differences in the composition of some nerves.

  14. Gross morphology and morphometry of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus Linnaeus, 1758 female genital organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Branco

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The gross anatomy of the genital organs of four specimens of young female of Saimiri sciureus was investigated. The animals were bred in captivity at the Centro Nacional de Primatas and had died from natural causes. The vulva was limited by the labium minus and presented a well-developed clitoris which seemed to represent a rudimentary penis. The vaginal vestibule was the first cavity and was very short, presenting a thick muscular wall which extended from the vulva comissure to the vaginal ostium. The vagina was constituted by an elongated and dorsally flattened muscular tube with a thin wall between the vaginal vestibule and cervix. The cervix was short with well-developed musculature. The uterus was simple, presenting a global fundus located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. The uterine tubes were elongated and rectilinear, connected to the ovaries which were large, ellipsoid in shape, and presented a smooth surface.

  15. Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758) mussels irradiated by {sup 60}CO gamma rays cytotoxicity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Gisela A.; Pusceddu, Fabio H.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose Roberto, E-mail: gisela.martini@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present work was the study of ionizing radiation effects on aquatic biota regarding the location of nuclear facilities nearby coastal areas assuming the risk of leaks and nuclear accidents. Bivalve mollusks have been widely used in the monitoring of aquatic environment studies mainly for their sessile habit and pollutants bioconcentration ability. So marine mussel Perna perna (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) was used as organism test in this study. The study of radioactive toxicity was performed by cytotoxicity test exposing the organisms to 11Gy gamma radiation dose. After radiation the neutral red retention assay evaluated the lysosomal membrane integrity in the mussel hemocytes. 50% lethal dose assay (LD50) of gamma radiation on Perna perna mussels was carried out by exposure the organisms to {sup 60}Co gamma rays at doses ranging from 0 to 3000 Gy. The result of gamma radiation LD50 for these mussels was 1068 Gy and the neutral red retention time of irradiated organisms was about 47% lower than the control, non irradiated organisms. With the obtained results is expected to contribute in the study to identify the range of ionizing radiation doses which can cause toxic effects in marine invertebrates. (author)

  16. Anatomy and morphometric aspects of the trachea of Saimiri sciureus Linnaeus, 1758: knowledge for emergency procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luane L. Pinheiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the morphological characteristics of the trachea of Saimiri sciureus through quantification and measurement of the cartilaginous rings, providing information to facilitate the election of more appropriate endotracheal tube, laryngeal mask or tracheostomy tube for anesthetic and emergency procedures, as it is a species of Neotropical primates most commonly used as biological models, and little is known about their morphology. Nine animals were investigated, being 4 adults and 5 young acquired from the Centro Nacional de Primatas (National Primate Center - CENP - Ananindeua - PA, which died from natural causes and then fixed in aqueous buffered formalin 10%. Saimiri sciureus trachea comprises an average of 32.8 incomplete rings and an average length of 3.74 cm in young animals, while in adults it demonstrated an average of 30.25 rings and average length of 3.67 cm. The shape of the light and its proportion varied along the trachea. Endotracheal tube with a diameter the 2.0 - 2.5mm, laryngeal mask number 1.0 or tracheostomy tube neonatal Shiley number 3.0, can be placed in animals weighing 600g - 1.2 Kg. Given the great importance of the species studied, which is widely used as a biological model, the detailing on the morphology and morphometry of tracheal animal studies provides new approaches needed in respiratory emergency, as well as, facilitates the development of future anesthetic protocols.Estudou-se as características morfológicas da traqueia do Saimiri sciureus através da quantificação e mensuração dos anéis cartilaginosos, a fim de fornecer informações que facilitem a eleição mais adequada de sonda endotraqueal, máscara laríngea ou cânula de trasqueostomia para procedimentos anestésicos e de emergência, visto que é uma das espécies de primatas neotropicais mais comumente utilizadas como modelos biológicos e pouco se sabe sobre sua morfologia. Foram utilizados nove animais, sendo quatro adultos e cinco jovens, oriundos do Centro Nacional de Primatas (CENP - Ananindeua - PA, os quais vieram a óbito por causas naturais e, posteriormente, foram fixados em solução aquosa de formol tamponado a 10%. A traqueia do Saimiri sciureus é composta por uma média de 32, 8 anéis incompletos nos animais jovens e comprimento médio de 3, 74cm, já os adultos apresentam uma média de 30, 25 anéis e comprimento médio de 3, 67cm. A forma da luz e suas proporções variaram ao longo da traqueia. Sonda endotraqueal com diâmetro de 2, 0 - 2, 5mm, máscara laríngea número 1, 0 ou cânula de traqueostomia neonatal Shiley número 3, 0, podem ser colocados em animais pesando 600g - 1, 2 K. Dada a grande importância da espécie estudada, que é amplamente utilizada como modelo biológico, o detalhamento sobre o estudo da morfologia e morfometria traqueal animal, fornece novas abordagens necessárias em emergência respiratória, bem como facilita o desenvolvimento de futuros protocolos anestésicos.

  17. Molecular characterization of COI gene of Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758 from Serbia

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    Ćakić Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ixodes ricinus tick is common in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. It is a vector of pathogenic agents causing diseases in humans and animals. Little is known about the genetic structure of I. ricinus in this region. We have investigated intraspecific variability of the COI gene among I. ricinus ticks collected from different regions of Serbia, and the correlation between the various types of habitat and genetic variability of ticks. The obtained COI gene sequences are the first barcoding sequences of I. ricinus ticks collected at localities in Serbia. Intraspecific variability of these COI gene sequences was very low, and there was no correlation between the various types of habitat and genetic variability of ticks. Samples from isolated localities (canyon/gorge showed no genetic differentiations from the majority of samples from open areas. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 173006

  18. Human envenomation by an aglyphous colubrid snake, Liophis miliaris (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Costa, María Cristina; Di Bernardo, Marcos

    2001-01-01

    In Brazil, some snakes of the family Colubridae usually regarded as not venomous, are responsable by serious and even so fatal accidents. Some opisthoglyphous snakes that occur in southern Brazil. as Philodrias olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823), Boiruna maculata (Boulenger, 1896), Phalotris lemniscatus trilineatus Boulenger. 1889 and Thamnodynastes strigatus (Günther, 1858) deserve greatest attention because they have already caused human envenomation as reported by many authors (Hoge, 1952; Lema...

  19. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree crop. The papaya genome has more than two times the DNA but about 28% fewer genes than the genome of the related botanical model Arabidopsis. A lack of genome duplication, atypical of angi...

  20. Food and feeding habits of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Ambajogai, Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Vishwas Balasaheb Sakhare; Ashvini Dnayndeo Chalak

    2014-01-01

    The food analysis of 150 specimens of Clarias batrachus revealed that the food consisted of insect larvae, small fish, shrimps and organic debris. Small fish and insect larvae were preferred as the primary food item in all the seasons. On average for all months of the study period, small fish dominated the list with a percentage of 30.27.The other food items in descending order are insect larvae (27.66%), worms (20.27%), shrimps (14.3%) and organic debris (7.05%).The feeding intensity in matu...

  1. Morpho-histological study of kidney in farmed juvenile beluga, Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmi, A; Bahmani, M; Sajjadi, M M; Kazemi, R

    2009-01-01

    In this study, structure, size and distribution of nephron cells on kidney in Huso huso were investigated. The head, body and caudal part of kidney in juvenile Huso huso were sampled: The kidney of Huso huso consisted of glomerulus, proximal, distal and collecting tubule cells. The average area in 1- and 2-year-old sturgeon were 2718.07 +/- 1387.51 and 2793.89 +/- 1348 microm in proximal cells, 2678.80 +/- 1249.12 and 2599.98 +/- 1428.13 microm in distal cells, 2275.44 +/- 1289.52 and 2312.23 +/- 1629.58 microm in collecting tubule cells, 4359.8 +/- 1573.59 and 5071.04 +/- 1916.87 microm in glomerulus and 6019.68 +/- 1800.55 and 8307.49 +/- 2073.53 microm in Bowman's capsule, respectively. Average long and small diameter in 1 and 2 year were 68.03 +/- 17.82 and 49.94 +/- 12.73, 63.29 +/- 16.15 and 45.58 +/- 12.46 microm in proximal cells, 63.25 +/- 16.01 and 44.3 +/- 15.09, 63.514 +/- 15.25 and 45.46 +/- 13.3 microm in distal cells, 51.9 +/- 13.04 and 40.54 +/- 12.21, 57.08 +/- 16.7 and 45.53 +/- 15.28 microm in the collecting tubule cells, 91.18 +/- 17.93 and 68.72 +/- 16.22, 98.7 +/- 21.85 and 72.24 +/- 17.48 microm in glomerulus and 99.32 +/- 19.82 and 76.45 +/- 1896, 125.44 +/- 24.93 and 93.85 +/- 24.78 microm in Bowman's capsule, respectively. In all cases no statistically significant difference detected in the measured cells among 1- and 2-year-old fishes. Morpho-histological pattern of kidney can be developed on the basis of size, feature and distribution of cells in farmed Sturgeon.

  2. In vitro exposure of Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta) to gasoline - Biochemical and morphological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatti, Fernanda Kokowicz; Ramlov, Fernanda; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Débora Tomazi; Costa, Christopher; de Oliveira, Eva Regina; Bauer, Cláudia M; Rocha, Miguel; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-08-01

    Refined fuels have considerable share of pollution of marine ecosystems. Gasoline is one of the most consumed fuel worldwide, but its effects on marine benthic primary producers are poorly investigated. In this study, Ulva lactuca was chosen as a biological model due to its cosmopolitan nature and tolerance to high levels and wide range of xenobiotics and our goal was to evaluate the effects of gasoline on ultrastructure and metabolism of that seaweed. The experimental design consisted of in vitro exposure of U. lactuca to four concentrations of gasoline (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0%, v/v) over 30 min, 1 h, 12 h, and 24 h, followed by cytochemical, SEM, and biochemical analysis. Increase in the number of cytoplasmic granules, loss of cell turgor, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and alterations in the mucilage were some of the ultrastructural alterations observed in thalli exposed to gasoline. Decrease in carotenoid and polyphenol contents, as well as increase of soluble sugars and starch contents were associated with the time of exposure to the xenobiotic. In combination, the results revealed important morphological and biochemical alterations in the phenotype of U. lactuca upon acute exposure to gasoline. This seaweed contain certain metabolites assigned as candidates to biomarkers of the environmental stress investigated and it is thought to be a promise species for usage in coastal ecosystems perturbation monitoring system. In addition, the findings suggest that U. lactuca is able to metabolize gasoline hydrocarbons and use them as energy source, acting as bioremediator of marine waters contaminated by petroleum derivatives. PMID:27192480

  3. Dieta de Leptodactylus ocellatus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Anura:Leptodactylidae en un humedal del oeste de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Sanabria

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo estudia la dieta de una población de Leptodactylus ocellatus de los Humedales de Zonda, San Juan, al oeste de Argentina. Se analizaron 35 estómagos, las presas fueron clasificadas y los individuos se midieron en ancho y largo para calcular su volumen con la fórmula de la esfera elipsoide; además, se estimó la frecuencia de ocurrencia y abundancia. Se calcularon índices de diversidad, de similitud, amplitud de nicho e importancia relativa (IRI. Los presas mas importantes fueron: Hymenoptera, Anura, Coleoptera. Las presas con mayor porcentaje de presencia fueron los Hymenoptera Formicidae que representaron el 22,4%. No se encontró una relación significativa entre el ancho de la boca del depredador y el tamaño medio de la presa. La dieta observada en ambos sexos resultó similar.

  4. The unique sound production of the Death's-head hawkmoth ( Acherontia atropos (Linnaeus, 1758)) revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Gunnar; Fischer, Martin; Gorb, Stanislav; Kleinteich, Thomas; Kühn, Bernhard; Neubert, David; Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Wurdinger, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    When disturbed, adults of the Death's-head hawkmoth (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae: Acherontia atropos) produce short squeaks by drawing in and deflating air into and out of the pharynx as a defence mechanism. We took a new look at Prell's hypothesis of a two-phase mechanism by providing new insights into the functional morphology behind the pharyngeal sound production of this species. First, we compared the head anatomy of A. atropos with another sphingid species, Manduca sexta, by using micro-computed tomography (CT) and 3D reconstruction methods. Despite differences in feeding behaviour and capability of sound production in the two species, the musculature in the head is surprisingly similar. However, A. atropos has a much shorter proboscis and a modified epipharynx with a distinct sclerotised lobe projecting into the opening of the pharynx. Second, we observed the sound production in vivo with X-ray videography, mammography CT and high-speed videography. Third, we analysed acoustic pressure over time and spectral frequency composition of six A. atropos specimens, both intact and with a removed proboscis. Single squeaks of A. atropos last for ca. 200 ms and consist of an inflation phase, a short pause and a deflation phase. The inflation phase is characterised by a burst of ca. 50 pulses with decreasing pulse frequency and a major frequency peak at ca. 8 kHz, followed by harmonics ranging up to more than 60 kHz. The deflation phase is characterised by a less clear acoustic pattern, a lower amplitude and more pronounced peaks in the same frequency range. The removal of the proboscis resulted in a significantly shortened squeak, a lower acoustic pressure level and a slightly more limited frequency spectrum. We hypothesise that the uptake of viscous honey facilitated the evolution of an efficient valve at the opening of the pharynx (i.e. a modified epipharynx), and that sound production could relatively easily have evolved based on this morphological pre-adaptation.

  5. Notes on two interesting specimens of Hippotion celerio (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Catania, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Moths of the genus Hippotion Hübner, 1822 (Family: Sphingidae) are distributed in Africa, Central and southern Asia and as migrants in southern Europe and Australia. Currently, around 30 species are accommodated in this genus. Hippotion celerio is a regular migrant to the Maltese Islands. On the onset of warmer weather conditions, colonies establish themselves in North Africa and Europe. It is a resident species in the Azores and the Atlantic coast of Morocco and most probably als...

  6. Morphology of accessory genital glands of spotted paca (Agouti paca Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Edson Moreira; Branco, Érika; de Lima, Ana Rita; Leal, Leonardo Martins; Martins, Leandro Luiz; Reis, Ana Carolina Gonçalves; Cruz, Claudinei; Machado, Márcia Rita Fernandes; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-02-01

    The spotted paca is the second largest rodent in Brazil, where it is of great economic interest in impoverished regions in view of its prominence as a low-cost source of protein. Little is known about the morphology of the accessory genital glands of this species. Thus, we studied the position and morphology of the genitals in ten adult male spotted pacas. The animals were divided into two groups, five animals were used for fixing of samples in 10% aqueous formaldehyde for macroscopic studies and the other five animals were designated for microscopic analysis. These were arranged in pairs and had the vesicular, prostate, coagulating and bulbourethral glands identified, being structured as mucous glands, which lead into the pelvic urethra. It was concluded that the accessory genital glands found in the paca are the same as those found in most rodents, showing similar histological aspects.

  7. Morfologia, ultraestrutura e morfometria do tegumento da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G.M.P. Isola

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se a falta de informações detalhadas sobre a morfologia da paca, sendo o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira, de excelente qualidade de carne e, dada a importância do tegumento comum, inclusive para o bom manejo em cativeiro, e até mesmo estudos como uma opção de animal de experimentação, descreveu-se a morfologia, morfometria e a ultraestrutura da pele de oito pacas (Cuniculus paca machos e fêmeas, mediante a análise comparativa de segmentos cutâneos das regiões cervical, dorsal e medial do carpo. Observaram-se macroscopicamente as características da pelagem. Parte dos segmentos das regiões cutâneas foi analisada à microscopia de luz e parte, à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Mensuraram-se as espessuras da derme, epiderme, camada córnea, perfis das fibras de colágeno da derme reticular e a área dos perfis das células das glândulas sebáceas repletas. Analisaram-se os resultados pela estatística descritiva e teste "T" (p<0,001. A coloração da pelagem da paca é castanho avermelhado com cerdas organizadas em grupos. A arquitetura da cútis e os anexos cutâneos se assemelham aos dos mamíferos em geral, embora haja ausência de glândulas sudoríparas. De acordo com a analise morfométrica, pôde-se inferir que a arquitetura da cútis de pacas machos e fêmeas apresenta diferenças quando comparada entre os sexos e também em um mesmo animal, diferenciando-se entre diversas regiões corpóreas.

  8. Morfologia das glândulas salivares maiores em cutias (Dasyprocta leporina Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Oliveira Júnior

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Estudos acerca da morfologia de animais silvestres servem de subsídio para trabalhos de manejo e preservação de diferentes espécies, pois fornecem informações para a tomada de medidas que auxiliem na manutenção destes em cativeiro, na preservação em habitat natural ou mesmo para ações voltadas a reintrodução ao habitat de origem. Estudos referentes à morfologia de cutias abordam os diversos sistemas, mas nenhum faz referência à arquitetura ou estrutura de suas glândulas salivares. Assim este trabalho objetivou descrever macro e microscopicamente as glândulas salivares maiores de cutias. Foram utilizados dez animais adultos para o desenvolvimento de metodologias relativas à macroscopia propriamente dita das glândulas, microscopia de luz, microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Foram identificadas quatro glândulas salivares maiores nos animais estudados, denominadas parótida, mandibular, zigomática e sublingual. As glândulas apresentaram-se como sendo do tipo tubuloacinares e contendo em seu parênquima ductos dos mais variados tamanhos. Com exceção da glândula parótida, que era estritamente serosa, as demais eram mistas. Da mesma forma, apenas a glândula mandibular foi identificada a presença de ducto do tipo granuloso. Apresentando as cutias os quatro pares de glândulas salivares maiores, estes animais podem servir de modelo para os estudos acerca das mudanças anatômicas sofridas pelos roedores para se adaptar aos diversos habitat do planeta.

  9. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya ( Carica papaya Linnaeus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qinguyi; Thimmapuram, Jyothi

    2008-01-01

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3 draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angio...

  10. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H.; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L. T.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E

    2008-01-01

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angi...

  11. Cycles of activity, group composition, and diet of Lemur mongoz mongoz Linnaeus 1766 in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, R W; Tattersall, I

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary study of the ecology and behavior of Lemur mongoz mongoz was carried out in the northwest of Madagascar. The animals were observed for approximately 250 h in July till August, 1973, and for 50 h in June, 1974. L.m.mongoz has been reported to be diurnal and to live in groups of 6-8 individuals. However, we found the animals to be nocturnal and that groups contained an adult male, an adult female and their offspring (groups numbering from 2 to 4 individuals). L.m.mongoz is thus the only species of the genus Lemur studied to date that is active exclusively at night and that lives in family groups. L.m.mongoz was also found to have a very specialized diet. During our study, it was observed to feed on only five species of plant and mainly on the nectar-producing parts (flowers and nectaries) of four of these species. It spent most of its feeding time licking nectar from the flowers of the kapok tree, Ceiba pentandra, and is probably a major pollinator of this tree in Madagascar. In Africa and South and Central America, the kapok tree is usually bat-pollinated. A dietary preference for nectar, although common among bats, has not previously been observed in primates.

  12. Two new species of the genus Cobitis Linnaeus (Teleostei: Cobitidae) from southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongxia; Sui, Xiaoyun; Liang, Na; Chen, Yifeng

    2016-05-01

    Two new species of the genus Cobitis from southern China, C. hereromacula from the Luohe River in Guangdong Province and C. baishagensis from the Nandujiang River in Hainan Province, are described and illustrated here. C. hereromacula can be distinguished from its congeners by possessing the following combination of characteristics: absence of the second and third pigmentary zones of Gambetta; 13-16 oval blotches on the dorsum and 10-13 vertical, elongated triangular blotches below the midlateral line with more than 20 vertical dark brown bars between them; 6-7 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical oval spot smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; pointed mental lobes of the lower lip pointed with a slightly filiform tip; one slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the base of the first branched ray of the male pectoral fins. C. baishagensis can be distinguished from its congeners by the fourth Gambetta zone being covered by 10-12 transverse elongated blotches; 4-5 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical blotch smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; males with a slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the second branched pectoral fin ray in males; large scales with a slightly large focal zone; undeveloped mental lobes with a lower lip that does not end posteriorly in a filiform tip.

  13. First record of notoedric mange in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Alessandra; dos Santos, Rafaelle Cunha; Carvalho, Nadino; Martins, Áurea Linhares; Góes-Cavalcante, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case of notoedric mange in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in the Brazilian Amazon region. A young male of approximately four months of age that was illegally kept as a pet was apprehended in Altamira, State of Pará, northern Brazil. The animal was transported to the Mangal das Garças Park in the state's capital city of Belém. The ocelot had pruritus and lesions suggestive of scabies in the head. Skin scraping material was examined under optic microscopy. There was seen a large number of eggs, larvae, nymphs and adult mites. The mean female and male sizes were 230.2 × 200.4 μm and 137.6 × 104.9 μm. Based on the morphologic characteristics and morphometric analysis, this mite was classified as Notoedres cati. This is the first report of notoedric mange in L. pardalis from Brazilian Amazon. PMID:22166390

  14. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Woo; Lee, Joon Ha; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Iksoo; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species.

  15. First record of Planorbis planorbis (Linnaeus) naturally infected with Xiphidiocercariae from Derna, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, E G; Kassem, H H

    1991-04-01

    A review of the literature shows that the fresh water snail Planorbis planorbis (Mollusca: Gastropoda) infected with Xiphidiocercariae has never been recorded in Derna, Libya. In the present paper the first record is made from Wadi Derna (= Darnah), East coast of Libya. The snail harbour Xiphidiocercariae, the percentage of infection during May, 1989, was found to be 7.3%. Morphological description of the snail Planorbis planorbis, Xiphidiocercariae is given in the present investigation. The snail possibly acts as an intermediate host of trematode species in Libya. Further studies are needed to investigate and to observe the exact type of trematode in which the fresh water snail P. planorbis acts as an intermediate host in the life-cycle and to determine the definitive host in Libya.

  16. Effects of Low Levels of Zinc on the Ovarian Development of Tilapia nilotica Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Cariño

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight to ten days posthatch fry of Tilapia nilotica Linn. were exposed to sublethal levels of zinc, 2 mg/l and 5 mg/l. After 30 days, ovarian differentiation occurred in the unexposed fry while gonadal anlage of zinc-exposed fry contained still undifferentiated primordial germ cells (PGC. Normal oogenesis was exhibited by the unexposed ovaries after 57 days. Zinc caused alterations in the egg membrane layers. Histopathological changes as degeneration and hyperemia in treated ovaries were observed under the light and electron microscope.

  17. A Study on Mustela nivalis Linnaeus, 1766 (Mammalia: Carnivora) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOLAK, Ercüment; YİĞİT, Nuri; Sözen, Mustafa

    1999-01-01

    In this study, five specimens of Mustela nivalis collected from five localities in Turkey were examined based on karyological, morphological, bacular and some ecological aspects. The karyotype of M. nivalis has 2n=42, NFa=72 and FN=76. The baculum seems to be similar to that of specimens of M. nivalis dinniki from Erivan (Armenia).

  18. The recent population expansion of boarfish, Capros aper (Linnaeus, 1758): Interactions of climate, growth and recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coad, Julie Olivia; Hüssy, Karin; Farrell, E.D.;

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether temperature changes in the Northeast Atlantic influence the growth and recruitment dynamics of boarfish, Capros aper. Two geographically separate areas were examined, 'north' at the northern distribution range west of Ireland and 'south......' on the main fishing grounds south of Ireland. No significant differences in length-at-age were observed between the two areas. Interannual otolith growth patterns were similar between the two areas with distinct years of faster and slower growth. In the 'north', no significant relationship between adult...... growth and temperature was observed, while growth in the 'south' was positively related to temperature up to approximately 16°C growth rates were suppressed in the years with temperatures above that. Recruitment showed a positive correlation with adult growth the previous year for the Spanish recruitment...

  19. Resultados preliminares de fertilizaciones artificiales realizadas con esperma crioconservado de rodaballo Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Peleteiro-Alonso, J.B. (José Benito); Chereguini-Fernández-Maquieira, M.O. (María del Olvido); Cal, R

    1996-01-01

    Se crioconservó una mezcla de esperma procedente de cuatro machos sometidos a control de fotoperíodo. Después de valorar individualmente el esperma, la mezcla fue homogeneizada y preparada para la crioconservación. Se utilizaron dos diluyentes diferentes: la solución salina modificada de Ringer y la solución de Mounib, a los que se añadió como crioprotectores un 10% de yema de huevo y un 10% de dimetil sulfóxido (DMSO). Las relaciones esperma-diluyente utilizadas fueron 1:2 y 1:3. Una vez ...

  20. Rearing of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Cecília Pereira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Lymnaea columella, collected in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was reared in our laboratory. The aim of the current study was to standardize a rearing and maintenance technique. Two kinds of diet were tested: fresh lettuce (A and rodent ration + 10% CaCO3 plus fresh lettuce (B. The age for the beginning of oviposition ranged from 27 to 57 days. Ten days after oviposition at 24.7°C, 100% eclosion occurred. The complete life cycle varied from 37 to 67 days. The average numbers of eggs per egg mass were 26.3 and 31.1 with diets (A and (B, respectively. The lettuce and ration fed snails presented a increased growth although the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. The mortality rate varied from 40 to 64% after 90 days. The maximum longevity was 183 days, 21.5 mm length and 11 mm wide. The methodology to mass breed and maintain these snails was found to be suitable in the laboratory