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Sample records for cds quantum dots

  1. Electroluminescent Cu-doped CdS quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouwdam, J.W.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Incorporating Cu-doped CdS quantum dots into a polymer host produces efficient light-emitting diodes. The Cu dopant creates a trap level that aligns with the valence band of the host, enabling the direct injection of holes into the quantum dots, which act as emitters. At low current densities, the

  2. Optical transitions and nature of Stokes shift in spherical CdS quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Demchenko, D. O.; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2006-01-01

    We study the structure of the energy spectra along with the character of the states participating in optical transitions in colloidal CdS quantum dots (QDs) using the {\\sl ab initio} accuracy charge patching method combined with the %pseudopotential based folded spectrum calculations of electronic structure of thousand-atom nanostructures. In particular, attention is paid to the nature of the large resonant Stokes shift observed in CdS quantum dots. We find that the top of the valence band st...

  3. An alternative route towards monodisperse CdS quantum dots for hybrid solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Fengfeng; Wang, Hao; Xia, Zhouhui; Dai, Xiao; Cong, Shan; Dong, Chao; Sun, Baoquan; Lou, Yanhui; Sun, Yinghui; Zhao, Jie; Zou, Guifu

    2015-01-01

    Monodisperse CdS quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized by thermal decomposition of organic complexes in the system of the cost-effective commercial 0 # diesel at 200 °C. The prepared CdS QDs have a good dispersion and high crystallization. When the CdS QDs are doped into the blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6, 6)C61 (PCBM) for hybrid solar cells (HSCs), the HSCs achieve about 25% increase of power conversion efficiency in comparison to the reference device without the CdS QDs. The improvement of the cell performance mainly attributes to the increased short-circuit current density arising from the absorption enhancement in the wavelength range of 350–550 nm by introducing the synthesized CdS QDs into the P3HT: PCBM active layer. - Highlights: • Monodisperse CdS quantum dots. • A cost-effective route to synthesize crystalline CdS quantum dots. • CdS quantum dots based hybrid solar cells with power conversion efficiency enhancement

  4. An alternative route towards monodisperse CdS quantum dots for hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Fengfeng; Wang, Hao [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Xia, Zhouhui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Dai, Xiao; Cong, Shan [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Dong, Chao [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of New Mexico, ABQ 87120 (United States); Sun, Baoquan [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Lou, Yanhui, E-mail: yhlou@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Sun, Yinghui; Zhao, Jie [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zou, Guifu, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Monodisperse CdS quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized by thermal decomposition of organic complexes in the system of the cost-effective commercial 0{sup #} diesel at 200 °C. The prepared CdS QDs have a good dispersion and high crystallization. When the CdS QDs are doped into the blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6, 6)C61 (PCBM) for hybrid solar cells (HSCs), the HSCs achieve about 25% increase of power conversion efficiency in comparison to the reference device without the CdS QDs. The improvement of the cell performance mainly attributes to the increased short-circuit current density arising from the absorption enhancement in the wavelength range of 350–550 nm by introducing the synthesized CdS QDs into the P3HT: PCBM active layer. - Highlights: • Monodisperse CdS quantum dots. • A cost-effective route to synthesize crystalline CdS quantum dots. • CdS quantum dots based hybrid solar cells with power conversion efficiency enhancement.

  5. Influence of hydrogen peroxide on the stability and optical properties of CdS quantum dots in gelatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyuev, V.G.; Volykhin, D.V., E-mail: volykhin.d@ya.ru; Ivanova, A.A.

    2017-03-15

    Influence of hydrogen peroxide on the stability and optical characteristics of CdS quantum dots obtained by aqueous synthesis in gelatin is investigated. It is shown that the action of hydrogen peroxide on the CdS quantum dots reduces the average particle size, increases monodispersity of particle size distribution, and also increases the photoluminescence intensity. A model that explains the behavior of CdS quantum dots photoluminescence with a decrease of particle size as a result of treatment with hydrogen peroxide is presented.

  6. Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the size and properties of CdS quantum dots in reverse micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekasova, O.D.; Revina, A.A.; Rusanov, A.L.; Kornienko, E.S.; Kurganov, B.I.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide quantum dots 1.3–5.6 nm in size have been synthesized in sodium bis(2-ethylhexy1)sulfosuccinate (AOT)–water–isooctane micellar solutions with various [H 2 O]/[AOT] molar ratios (w=2.5, 5.0 or 10). Gamma irradiation method has been used to change the size and optical properties of quantum dots. It has been found that γ-irradiation reduces the size polydispersity of quantum dots in the micellar system and alters their fluorescent properties. Fluorescence intensity is enhanced after γ-irradiation. The average fluorescence lifetime of single quantum dots sized 5.2±0.4 nm increases from 5.14 to 6.39 ns after γ-irradiation at a dose of 7.9 kGy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on fluorescence lifetime of single CdS quantum dots in micellar solution. - Highlights: • Gamma irradiation method has been used successfully to change the size and optical properties of CdS quantum dots synthesized in micellar solutions. • γ-Irradiation reduces the size polydispersity of quantum dots in the micellar system. • Fluorescence intensity of CdS quantum dots is enhanced after γ-irradiation. • Fluorescence lifetime of single CdS quantum dots increases after γ-irradiation

  7. Enhanced Performance of DSSCs Based on the Insertion Energy Level of CdS Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulfide (CdS quantum dots (QDs are assembled onto the TiO2 films by chemical bath deposition method (CBD. And the QDs size is controlled by the times of CBD cycles. They are characterized by UV-visible absorption. To avoid the photo corrosion and electrolyte corrosion, CdS and N719 are sequentially assembled onto the nanocrystalline TiO2 films to prepare a CdS/N719 cosensitized photo electrode for the dye-sensitized solar cells. In the structure of TiO2/CdS/N719 electrode, the reorganization of energy levels between CdS and N719 forms a stepwise structure of band-edge levels which is advantageous to the electron injection and hole recovery of CdS and N719 QDs. The open circuit voltage (Voc, short circuit current density (Jsc, and efficiency are increased.

  8. Photoacoustic Study of CdS QDs for Application in Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdallah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties and photovoltaic characterization of CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs were studied. CdS QDs were prepared by the chemical solution deposition (CD technique. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PA was employed to study the optical properties of the prepared samples. The sizes of the CdS QDs were estimated from transmission electron microscope (TEM micrographs gives radii ranged from 1.57 to 1.92 nm. The current density-voltage (J-V characteristic curves of the assembled QDSSCs were measured. Fluorine doped Tin Oxide (FTO substrates were coated with 20 nm-diameter TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs. Presynthesized colloidal CdS quantum dots of different particles size were deposited on the TiO2-coated substrates using direct adsorption (DA method. The FTO counter electrodes were coated with platinum, while the electroelectrolyte containing I-/I-3 redox species was sandwiched between the two electrodes. The short current density (Jsc and efficiency (η increases as the particle size increases. The values of Jsc increases linearly with increasing the intensities of the sun light which indicates the greater sensitivity of the assembled cells.

  9. Photovoltaic and impedance characteristics of modified SILAR grown CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatehmulla, Amanullah; Farooq, W. A.; Aslam, M.; Atif, M.; Ali, S.M.; Al-Dhafir, A. M.; Yakuphanoglu, F.; Yahia, I.S.

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) were deposited on nanostructured TiO 2 film using a modified Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. Nanostructured TiO 2 on FTO glass and Platinum on FTO are used as photoelectrode and Counter electrode respectively. High resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRT EM) image revealed CdS QDs adsorbed on nanostructured TiO 2 . The photovoltaic characteristics and impedance spectroscopy properties of CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) were analyzed under air mass 1.5 illuminations. At the SILAR adsorption time of 2 min (10 cycles), the QDSSC measured a short circuit current density of 2 mA/cm 2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.45 V under air mass 1.5. In a widespread frequency range, the capacitance – voltage, the conductance – voltage, the series resistance - voltage measurements were carried out for the QDSSC applications. A conduct of positive to negative capacitance was observed from the measured characteristics of capacitance - voltage which is attributed to the injection of electrons from FTO electrode into TiO 2 . Key words: Nanostructured TiO 2 , CdS QDSSC, SILAR method, photovoltaic measurements, impedance characteristic

  10. Au Nanoparticles as Interfacial Layer for CdS Quantum Dot-sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Guang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO/Au/TiO2/CdS photoanode and polysulfide electrolyte are fabricated. Au nanoparticles (NPs as interfacial layer between FTO and TiO2 layer are dip-coated on FTO surface. The structure, morphology and impedance of the photoanodes and the photovoltaic performance of the cells are investigated. A power conversion efficiency of 1.62% has been obtained for FTO/Au/TiO2/CdS cell, which is about 88% higher than that for FTO/TiO2/CdS cell (0.86%. The easier transport of excited electron and the suppression of charge recombination in the photoanode due to the introduction of Au NP layer should be responsible for the performance enhancement of the cell.

  11. Eco-friendly intracellular biosynthesis of CdS quantum dots without changing Escherichia coli's antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng-Yu; Du, Qing-Qing; Qian, Jing; Wan, Dong-Yu; Wu, Sheng-Mei

    2017-01-01

    In the paper, a green and efficient biosynthetical technique was reported for preparing cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots, in which Escherichia coli (E. coli) was chosen as a biomatrix. Fluorescence emission spectra and fluorescent microscopic photographs revealed that as-produced CdS quantum dots had an optimum fluorescence emission peak located at 470nm and emitted a blue-green fluorescence under ultraviolet excitation. After extracted from bacterial cells and located the nanocrystals' foci in vivo, the CdS quantum dots showed a uniform size distribution by transmission electron microscope. Through the systematical investigation of the biosynthetic conditions, including culture medium replacement, input time point of cadmium source, working concentrations of raw inorganic ions, and co-cultured time spans of bacteria and metal ions in the bio-manufacture, the results revealed that CdS quantum dots with the strongest fluorescence emission were successfully prepared when E. coli cells were in stationary phase, with the replacement of culture medium and following the incubation with 1.0×10 -3 mol/L cadmium source for 2 days. Results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing indicated that the sensitivities to eight types of antibiotics of E. coli were barely changed before and after CdS quantum dots were prepared in the mild temperature environment, though a slight fall of antibiotic resistance could be observed, suggesting hinted the proposed technique of producing quantum dots is a promising environmentally low-risk protocol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. White light emitting device based on single-phase CdS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Nie, Chao; You, Lai; Jin, Xiao; Zhang, Qin; Qin, Yuancheng; Zhao, Feng; Song, Yinglin; Chen, Zhongping; Li, Qinghua

    2018-05-01

    White light emitting diodes (WLEDs) based on quantum dots (QDs) are emerging as robust candidates for white light sources, however they are suffering from the problem of energy loss resulting from the re-absorption and self-absorption among the employed QDs of different peak wavelengths. It still remains a challenging task to construct WLEDs based on single-phase QD emitters. Here, CdS QDs with short synthesis times are introduced to the fabrication of WLEDs. With a short synthesis time, on one hand, CdS QDs with a small diameter with blue emission can be obtained. On the other hand, surface reconstruction barely has time to occur, and the surface is likely defect-ridden, which enables the existence of a broad emission covering the range of green, yellow and red regions. This is essential for the white light emission of CdS QDs, and is very important for WLED applications. The temporal evolution of the PL spectra for CdS QDs was obtained to investigate the influence of growth time on the luminescent properties. The CdS QDs with a growth time of 0.5 min exhibited a colour rendering index (CRI) of 79.5 and a correlated colour temperature (CCT) of 6238 K. With increasing reaction time, the colour coordinates of the CdS QDs will move away from the white light region in the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram. By integrating the as prepared white light emission CdS QDs with a violet GaN chip, WLEDs were fabricated. The fabricated WLEDs exhibited a CRI of 87.9 and a CCT of 4619 K, which satisfy the demand of general illumination. The luminous flux and the luminous efficiency of the fabricated WLEDs, being less advanced than current commercial white light sources, can be further improved, meaning there is a need for much more in-depth studies on white light emission CdS QDs.

  13. Proton exchange mechanism of synthesizing CdS quantum dots in nafion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandakumar, P.; Vijayan, C.; Murti, Y.V.G.S.; Dhanalakshmi, K.; Sundararajan, G.

    1999-01-01

    Nanocrystals of CdS are synthesized in the proton exchange membrane nafion in different sizes in the range 1.6 to 6 nm. To understand the process leading to the formation of these quantum dots, we have probed the proton exchange by ac conductance measurements in the frequency range 100 Hz to 13 MHz. Nafion shows good electrical conductivity due to proton transport probably via the Grothus mechanism. Incorporation of cadmium ions by replacement of the hydrogen ions in the sulphonic acid group resulted in a large decrease in conductance indicating the reduction of the mobile carrier density. The conductivity plots all show strong frequency dependence with higher conductance towards the higher frequencies where a near-flat frequency response is seen. After the formation of CdS clusters, there is a partial recovery of conductance corresponding to the reinstatement of the protonic carriers on the side groups. The conductivity of the nafion films embedded with the semiconductor quantum dots exhibits a size-dependence with the highest conductivity obtained for the largest clusters. These findings lend clear experimental evidence for the model of synthesis of quantum dots in nafion by the exchange mechanism. (author)

  14. Study on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between CdS quantum dots and Eosin Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengyu; Zhang, Zhengwei; Yu, Yan; Chen, Jianqiu

    2015-03-01

    Water-soluble CdS quantum dots (QDs) were prepared using mercaptoacetic acid (TGA) as the stabilizer in an aqueous system. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system was constructed between water-soluble CdS QDs (donor) and Eosin Y (acceptor). Several factors that impacted the fluorescence spectra of the FRET system, such as pH (3.05-10.10), concentration of Eosin Y (2-80 mg/L) and concentration of CdS QDs (2-80 mg/L), were investigated and refined. Donor-to-acceptor ratios, the energy transfer efficiency (E) and the distance (r) between CdS QDs and Eosin Y were obtained. The results showed that a FRET system could be established between water-soluble CdS QDs and Eosin Y at pH 5.0; donor-to-acceptor ratios demonstrated a 1: 8 proportion of complexes; the energy transfer efficiency (E) and the distance (r) between the QDs and Eosin Y were 20.07% and 4.36 nm,respectively. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Synthesis and Adsorption Study of BSA Surface Imprinted Polymer on CdS Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ping-ping; Cai, Ji-bao; Su, Qing-de

    2010-04-01

    A new bovine serum albumin (BSA) surface imprinting method was developed by the incorporation of quantum dots (QDs) into molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP), which can offer shape selectivity. Preparation and adsorption conditions were optimized. Physical appearance of the QDs and QDs-MIP particles was illustrated by scanning electron microscope images. Photoluminescence emission of CdS was quenched when rebinding of the template. The quenching of photoluminescence emissions is presumably due to the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between quantum dots and BSA template molecules. The adsorption is compiled with Langmuir isotherm, and chemical adsorption is the rate-controlling step. The maximum adsorption capacity could reach 226.0 mg/g, which is 142.4 mg/g larger than that of undoped BSA MIP. This study demonstrates the validity of QDs coupled with MIP technology for analyzing BSA.

  16. Surface modification effects on defect-related photoluminescence in colloidal CdS quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, TaeGi; Shimura, Kunio; Kim, DaeGwi

    2018-05-03

    We investigated the effects of surface modification on the defect-related photoluminescence (PL) band in colloidal CdS quantum dots (QDs). A size-selective photoetching process and a surface modification technique with a Cd(OH)2 layer enabled the preparation of size-controlled CdS QDs with high PL efficiency. The Stokes shift of the defect-related PL band before and after the surface modification was ∼1.0 eV and ∼0.63 eV, respectively. This difference in the Stokes shifts suggests that the origin of the defect-related PL band was changed by the surface modification. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the surface of the CdS QDs before and after the surface modification was S rich and Cd rich, respectively. These results suggest that Cd-vacancy acceptors and S-vacancy donors affect PL processes in CdS QDs before and after the surface modification, respectively.

  17. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with a progressive reduction of recombination using Cu-doped CdS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthalif, Mohammed Panthakkal Abdul; Lee, Young-Seok; Sunesh, Chozhidakath Damodharan; Kim, Hee-Je; Choe, Youngson

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu-doped CdS QDs were deposited on TiO_2 by SILAR method. • Cu-doped CdS electrodes contributes reduction of charge recombination and longer electron lifetime. • A promising power conversion efficiency of 3% is obtained for the Cu-doped CdS Quantum dot sensitized solar cell. - Abstract: In this article, we have systematically probed the effect of Cu-doping in CdS quantum dots (QDs) to enhance the photovoltaic performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The Cu-doped CdS photoanodes were prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and the corresponding cell devices were fabricated using CuS counter electrodes with a polysulfide electrolyte. The photovoltaic performance results demonstrate that 3 mM Cu-doped CdS QDs based QDSSCs exhibit the efficiency (η) of 3% including J_S_C = 9.40 mA cm"−"2, V_O_C = 0.637 V, FF = 0.501, which are higher than those with bare CdS (η = 2.05%, J_S_C = 7.12 mA cm"−"2, V_O_C = 0.588 V, FF = 0.489). The structural, topographical and optical properties of the thin films have been studied with the help of X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV–vis spectrophotometer. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and open circuit voltage decay (OCVD) measurements indicate that Cu-dopant can inhibit the charge recombination at the photoanode/electrolyte interface and extend the lifetime of electrons. These results reveal that incorporation of copper metal in CdS QDs is a simple and effective method to improve the photovoltaic properties of QDSSCs.

  18. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with a progressive reduction of recombination using Cu-doped CdS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthalif, Mohammed Panthakkal Abdul [Department of Polymer Science and Chemical Engineering, Pusan National University, Geumjeong-Ku, Jangjeong-Dong, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young-Seok [School of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Geumjeong-Ku, Jangjeong-Dong, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Sunesh, Chozhidakath Damodharan [Department of Polymer Science and Chemical Engineering, Pusan National University, Geumjeong-Ku, Jangjeong-Dong, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Je [School of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Geumjeong-Ku, Jangjeong-Dong, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Youngson, E-mail: choe@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Chemical Engineering, Pusan National University, Geumjeong-Ku, Jangjeong-Dong, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Cu-doped CdS QDs were deposited on TiO{sub 2} by SILAR method. • Cu-doped CdS electrodes contributes reduction of charge recombination and longer electron lifetime. • A promising power conversion efficiency of 3% is obtained for the Cu-doped CdS Quantum dot sensitized solar cell. - Abstract: In this article, we have systematically probed the effect of Cu-doping in CdS quantum dots (QDs) to enhance the photovoltaic performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The Cu-doped CdS photoanodes were prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and the corresponding cell devices were fabricated using CuS counter electrodes with a polysulfide electrolyte. The photovoltaic performance results demonstrate that 3 mM Cu-doped CdS QDs based QDSSCs exhibit the efficiency (η) of 3% including J{sub SC} = 9.40 mA cm{sup −2}, V{sub OC} = 0.637 V, FF = 0.501, which are higher than those with bare CdS (η = 2.05%, J{sub SC} = 7.12 mA cm{sup −2}, V{sub OC} = 0.588 V, FF = 0.489). The structural, topographical and optical properties of the thin films have been studied with the help of X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV–vis spectrophotometer. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and open circuit voltage decay (OCVD) measurements indicate that Cu-dopant can inhibit the charge recombination at the photoanode/electrolyte interface and extend the lifetime of electrons. These results reveal that incorporation of copper metal in CdS QDs is a simple and effective method to improve the photovoltaic properties of QDSSCs.

  19. Atomic Layer Deposition of CdS Quantum Dots for Solid-State Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.; Ardalan, Pendar; Lee, Han-Bo-Ram; Bakke, Jonathan R.; Ding, I-Kang; McGehee, Michael D.; Bent, Stacey F.

    2011-01-01

    Functioning quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells have been fabricated using the vacuum deposition technique atomic layer deposition (ALD). Utilizing the incubation period of CdS growth by ALD on TiO 2, we are able to grow QDs of adjustable size which act as sensitizers for solid-state QDsensitized solar cells (ssQDSSC). The size of QDs, studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), varied with the number of ALD cycles from 1-10 nm. Photovoltaic devices with the QDs were fabricated and characterized using a ssQDSSC device architecture with 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p methoxyphenylamine) 9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as the solid-state hole conductor. The ALD approach described here can be applied to fabrication of quantum-confined structures for a variety of applications, including solar electricity and solar fuels. Because ALD provides the ability to deposit many materials in very high aspect ratio substrates, this work introduces a strategy by which material and optical properties of QD sensitizers may be adjusted not only by the size of the particles but also in the future by the composition. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Atomic Layer Deposition of CdS Quantum Dots for Solid-State Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.

    2011-10-04

    Functioning quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells have been fabricated using the vacuum deposition technique atomic layer deposition (ALD). Utilizing the incubation period of CdS growth by ALD on TiO 2, we are able to grow QDs of adjustable size which act as sensitizers for solid-state QDsensitized solar cells (ssQDSSC). The size of QDs, studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), varied with the number of ALD cycles from 1-10 nm. Photovoltaic devices with the QDs were fabricated and characterized using a ssQDSSC device architecture with 2,2\\',7,7\\'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p methoxyphenylamine) 9,9\\'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as the solid-state hole conductor. The ALD approach described here can be applied to fabrication of quantum-confined structures for a variety of applications, including solar electricity and solar fuels. Because ALD provides the ability to deposit many materials in very high aspect ratio substrates, this work introduces a strategy by which material and optical properties of QD sensitizers may be adjusted not only by the size of the particles but also in the future by the composition. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. An improved pyrolysis route to synthesize carbon-coated CdS quantum dots with fluorescence enhancement effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kejie; Liu Xiaoheng

    2011-01-01

    Well-dispersed carbon-coated CdS (CdS-C) quantum dots were successfully prepared via the improved pyrolysis of bis(1-dodecanethiol)-cadmium(II) under nitrogen atmosphere. This simple method effectively solved the sintered problem resulted from conventional pyrolysis process. The experimental results indicated that most of the as-prepared nanoparticles displayed well-defined core-shell structures. The CdS cores with diameter of ∼5 nm exhibited hexagonal crystal phase, the carbon shells with thickness of ∼2 nm acted as a good dispersion medium to prevent CdS particles from aggregation, and together with CdS effectively formed a monodisperse CdS-Carbon nanocomposite. This composite presented a remarkable fluorescence enhancement effect, which indicated that the prepared nanoparticles might be a promising photoresponsive material or biosensor. This improved pyrolysis method might also offer a facile way to prepare other carbon-coated semiconductor nanostructures. - Graphical abstract: We demonstrated a facile approach to synthesize well-dispersed carbon-coated CdS quantum dots. The as-prepared nanoparticles presented remarkable fluorescence enhancement effect. Highlights: → Carbon-coated CdS quantum dots were synthesized by an one-step pyrolysis method. → Well-dispersed CdS-carbon nanoparticles were obtained by an acid treatment process. → As-prepared nanoparticles presented remarkable fluorescence enhancement effect.

  2. Fast-grown CdS quantum dots: Single-source precursor approach vs microwave route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fregnaux, Mathieu [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique: Approche Multi-échelles des Milieux Complexes, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, 1 Boulevard Arago, 57070 Metz (France); Dalmasso, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.dalmasso@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique: Approche Multi-échelles des Milieux Complexes, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, 1 Boulevard Arago, 57070 Metz (France); Durand, Pierrick [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, Résonance Magnétique et Modélisations, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, UMR CNRS 7036, Faculté des Sciences, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre lès Nancy (France); Zhang, Yudong [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux, Université de Lorraine, UMR CNRS 7239, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz cedex 01 (France); Gaumet, Jean-Jacques; Laurenti, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique: Approche Multi-échelles des Milieux Complexes, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, 1 Boulevard Arago, 57070 Metz (France)

    2013-10-01

    A cross-disciplinary protocol of characterization by joint techniques enables one to closely compare chemical and physical properties of CdS quantum dots (QDs) grown by single source precursor methodology (SSPM) or by microwave synthetic route (MWSR). The results are discussed in relation with the synthesis protocols. The QD average sizes, reproducible as a function of the temperatures involved in the growth processes, range complementarily in 2.8–4.5 nm and 4.5–5.2 nm for SSPM and MWSR, respectively. Hexagonal and cubic structures after X-ray diffraction on SSPM and MWSR grown CdS QDs, respectively, are tentatively correlated to a better crystalline quality of the latter with respect to the further ones, suggested by (i) a remarkable stability of the MWSR grown QDs after exposure to air during several days and (ii) no evidence of their fragmentation during mass spectrometry (MS) analyses, after a fair agreement between size dispersities obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and MS, in contrast with the discrepancy found for the SSPM grown QDs. Correlatively, a better optical quality is suggested for the MWSR grown QDs by the resolution of n > 1 excitonic transitions in their absorption spectra. The QD average sizes obtained by TEM and deduced from MS are in overall agreement. This agreement is improved for the MWSR grown QDs, taking into account a prolate shape of the QDs also observed in the TEM images. For both series of samples, the excitonic responses vs the average sizes are consistent with the commonly admitted empirical energy-size correspondence. A low energy PL band is observed in the case of the SSPM grown QDs. Its decrease in intensity with QD size increase suggests a surface origin tentatively attributed to S vacancies. In the case of the MWSR grown QDs, the absence of this PL is tentatively correlated to an absence of S vacancies and therefore to the stable behavior observed when the QDs are exposed to air. - Highlights: • Single

  3. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with a progressive reduction of recombination using Cu-doped CdS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalif, Mohammed Panthakkal Abdul; Lee, Young-Seok; Sunesh, Chozhidakath Damodharan; Kim, Hee-Je; Choe, Youngson

    2017-02-01

    In this article, we have systematically probed the effect of Cu-doping in CdS quantum dots (QDs) to enhance the photovoltaic performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The Cu-doped CdS photoanodes were prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and the corresponding cell devices were fabricated using CuS counter electrodes with a polysulfide electrolyte. The photovoltaic performance results demonstrate that 3 mM Cu-doped CdS QDs based QDSSCs exhibit the efficiency (η) of 3% including JSC = 9.40 mA cm-2, VOC = 0.637 V, FF = 0.501, which are higher than those with bare CdS (η = 2.05%, JSC = 7.12 mA cm-2, VOC = 0.588 V, FF = 0.489). The structural, topographical and optical properties of the thin films have been studied with the help of X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis spectrophotometer. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and open circuit voltage decay (OCVD) measurements indicate that Cu-dopant can inhibit the charge recombination at the photoanode/electrolyte interface and extend the lifetime of electrons. These results reveal that incorporation of copper metal in CdS QDs is a simple and effective method to improve the photovoltaic properties of QDSSCs.

  4. Trap elimination and reduction of size dispersion due to aging in CdS x Se1- x quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Abhishek; Nagpal, Swati; Pandey, Praveen K.; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C.

    2007-12-01

    Quantum Dots of CdS x Se1- x embedded in borosilicate glass matrix have been grown using Double-Step annealing method. Optical characterization of the quantum dots has been done through the combinative analysis of optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy at room temperature. Decreasing trend of photoluminescence intensity with aging has been observed and is attributed to trap elimination. The changes in particle size, size distribution, number of quantum dots, volume fraction, trap related phenomenon and Gibbs free energy of quantum dots, has been explained on the basis of the diffusion-controlled growth process, which continues with passage of time. For a typical case, it was found that after 24 months of aging, the average radii increased from 3.05 to 3.12 nm with the increase in number of quantum dots by 190% and the size-dispersion decreased from 10.8% to 9.9%. For this sample, the initial size range of the quantum dots was 2.85 to 3.18 nm. After that no significant change was found in these parameters for the next 12 months. This shows that the system attains almost a stable nature after 24 months of aging. It was also observed that the size-dispersion in quantum dots reduces with the increase in annealing duration, but at the cost of quantum confinement effect. Therefore, a trade off optimization has to be done between the size-dispersion and the quantum confinement.

  5. Assembly of CdS Quantum Dots onto Hierarchical TiO2 Structure for Quantum Dots Sensitized Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mansoor Ali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dot (QD sensitized solar cells based on Hierarchical TiO2 structure (HTS consisting of spherical nano-urchins on transparent conductive fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate is fabricated. The hierarchical TiO2 structure consisting of spherical nano-urchins on transparent conductive fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate synthesized by hydrothermal route. The CdS quantum dots were grown by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction deposition method. The quantum dot sensitized solar cell based on the hierarchical TiO2 structure shows a current density JSC = 1.44 mA, VOC = 0.46 V, FF = 0.42 and η = 0.27%. The QD provide a high surface area and nano-urchins offer a highway for fast charge collection and multiple scattering centers within the photoelectrode.

  6. Simulation of MeV electron energy deposition in CdS quantum dots absorbed in silicate glass for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baharin, R; Hobson, P R; Smith, D R, E-mail: ruzalina.baharin@brunel.ac.u [Centre for Sensors and Instrumentation, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-01

    We are currently developing 2D dosimeters with optical readout based on CdS or CdS/CdSe core-shell quantum-dots using commercially available materials. In order to understand the limitations on the measurement of a 2D radiation profile the 3D deposited energy profile of MeV energy electrons in CdS quantum-dot-doped silica glass have been studied by Monte Carlo simulation using the CASINO and PENELOPE codes. Profiles for silica glass and CdS quantum-dot-doped silica glass were then compared.

  7. Simulation of MeV electron energy deposition in CdS quantum dots absorbed in silicate glass for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharin, R; Hobson, P R; Smith, D R

    2010-01-01

    We are currently developing 2D dosimeters with optical readout based on CdS or CdS/CdSe core-shell quantum-dots using commercially available materials. In order to understand the limitations on the measurement of a 2D radiation profile the 3D deposited energy profile of MeV energy electrons in CdS quantum-dot-doped silica glass have been studied by Monte Carlo simulation using the CASINO and PENELOPE codes. Profiles for silica glass and CdS quantum-dot-doped silica glass were then compared.

  8. La Doping of CdS for Enhanced CdS/CdSe Quantum Dot Cosensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Qi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CdS/CdSe system of quantum dot cosensitized solar cells (QDCSCs is one of the most attractive structures for high-efficiency due to its effect of level adjusting. However, the stepwise structure formed between levels of CdS and CdSe has a limitation for enhancing the efficiencies. Metal ions doping in quantum dots have emerged as a common way for changing the Fermi level, band gap, and conductance. Here we report an innovative concept for the rare earth materials La-doped of the CdS layer in the CdS/CdSe QDCSCs by means of the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR. Then we tested that La doped quantum dots can help more electrons accumulate in CdS film, which makes the Fermi level shift up and form a stepped structure. This method leads to enhanced absorption intensity, obviously increasing current density in CdS/CdSe QDCSCs. Our research is a new exploration for improving efficiencies of quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

  9. Chemical synthesis of CdS onto TiO2 nanorods for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sachin A.; Patil, Dipali S.; Lokhande, Abhishek C.; Gang, Myeng Gil; Shin, Jae Cheol; Patil, Pramod S.; Kim, Jin Hyeok

    2016-08-01

    A quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) is fabricated using hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorods and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) deposited CdS. Surface morphology of the TiO2 films coated with different SILAR cycles of CdS is examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy which revealed aggregated CdS QDs coverage grow on increasing onto the TiO2 nanorods with respect to cycle number. Under AM 1.5G illumination, we found the TiO2/CdS QDSSC photoelectrode shows a power conversion efficiency of 1.75%, in an aqueous polysulfide electrolyte with short-circuit photocurrent density of 4.04 mA/cm2 which is higher than that of a bare TiO2 nanorods array.

  10. Viscoelastic wormlike micelles formed by ionic liquid-type surfactant [C16imC8]Br towards template-assisted synthesis of CdS quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yimin; Han, Jie; Ge, Lingling; Guo, Rong

    2018-01-31

    In this paper, viscoelastic wormlike micelles consisting of cationic liquid-type surfactant, 1-hexadecyl-3-octyl imidazolium bromide ([C 16 imC 8 ]Br), water and different additives were utilized for the synthesis of CdS quantum dots. First, the influence of different additives, such as [Cd(NH 3 ) 6 ]Cl 2 and ethanethioamid (precursors for the synthesis of CdS quantum dots), and temperature on the viscoelasticity of the [C 16 imC 8 ]Br aqueous solution was studied by dynamic and steady rheology. Furthermore, the synthesized CdS quantum dots and their photoluminescence properties were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). In the end, the mechanism for the synthesis of CdS quantum dots in [C 16 imC 8 ]Br wormlike micelles is proposed.

  11. Data on HepG2 cells changes following exposure to cadmium sulphide quantum dots (CdS QDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Paesano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data included in this paper are associated with the research article entitled "Markers for toxicity to HepG2 exposed to cadmium sulphide quantum dots; damage to mitochondria" (Paesano et al. [1]. The article concerns the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of CdS QDs in HepG2 cells and the mechanisms involved. In this dataset, changes in expression levels of candidate genes are reported, together with details concerning synthesis and properties of CdS QDs, additional information obtained through literature survey, measures of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the glutathione redox state.

  12. Photovoltaic performance enhancement of CdS quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 photoanodes with plasmonic gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Aiping; Ren, Qinghua; Zhao, Ming; Xu, Tao; Yuan, Ming; Zhao, Tingyu; Tang, Weihua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CdS QD-sensitized TiO 2 porous photoanode with plasmonic gold. • A prominent light absorption enhancement of hybrid was attained by gold plasmon. • The photovoltaic response of hybrid was tunable by CdS amount. • The Au/TiO 2 /CdS hybrid had a potential application in energy conversion devices. -- Abstract: The CdS quantum dot-sensitized TiO 2 films with plasmonic gold nanoparticles were designed as photoanodes by the electrodeposition of gold combined with the “successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction” (SILAR) method for CdS deposition on porous TiO 2 films. A prominent enhancement in light absorption of Au/TiO 2 /CdS hybrid was attained by efficient light scattering of gold plasmons as sub-wavelength antennas and concentrators. The photogenerated electron formed in the near-surface region of TiO 2 and CdS were facilitated to transfer to the plasmonic gold, resulting in the enhancement of photocurrent and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of hybrid photoanode upon photoirradiation. Furthermore, the photovoltaic response of hybrid was highly tunable with respect to the number of SILAR cycles applied to deposit CdS. The thicker absorber layer with less porous structure and larger CdS crystals might limit the electrolyte diffusion into the hybrid electrode and impose a barrier for electron tunneling and transferring. The highly versatile and tunable properties of Au/TiO 2 /CdS photoanodes demonstrated their potential application in energy conversion devices

  13. Effects of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Solid-State CdS Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ardalan, Pendar; Brennan, Thomas P.; Lee, Han-Bo-Ram; Bakke, Jonathan R.; Ding, I-Kang; McGehee, Michael D.; Bent, Stacey F.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are of interest for solar energy conversion because of their tunable band gap and promise of stable, low-cost performance. We have investigated the effects of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with phosphonic acid headgroups on the bonding and performance of cadmium sulfide (CdS) solid-state QDSSCs. CdS quantum dots ∼2 to ∼6 nm in diameter were grown on SAM-passivated planar or nanostructured TiO 2 surfaces by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), and photovoltaic devices were fabricated with spiro-OMeTAD as the solid-state hole conductor. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, water contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and electrical measurements were employed to characterize the materials and the resulting device performance. The data indicate that the nature of the SAM tailgroup does not significantly affect the uptake of CdS quantum dots on TiO2 nor their optical properties, but the presence of the SAM does have a significant effect on the photovoltaic device performance. Interestingly, we observe up to ∼3 times higher power conversion efficiencies in devices with a SAM compared to those without the SAM. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Effects of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Solid-State CdS Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ardalan, Pendar

    2011-02-22

    Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are of interest for solar energy conversion because of their tunable band gap and promise of stable, low-cost performance. We have investigated the effects of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with phosphonic acid headgroups on the bonding and performance of cadmium sulfide (CdS) solid-state QDSSCs. CdS quantum dots ∼2 to ∼6 nm in diameter were grown on SAM-passivated planar or nanostructured TiO 2 surfaces by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), and photovoltaic devices were fabricated with spiro-OMeTAD as the solid-state hole conductor. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, water contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and electrical measurements were employed to characterize the materials and the resulting device performance. The data indicate that the nature of the SAM tailgroup does not significantly affect the uptake of CdS quantum dots on TiO2 nor their optical properties, but the presence of the SAM does have a significant effect on the photovoltaic device performance. Interestingly, we observe up to ∼3 times higher power conversion efficiencies in devices with a SAM compared to those without the SAM. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Plasmon resonance-induced photoluminescence enhancement of CdTe/Cds quantum dots thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu [Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructure and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Ling, E-mail: xuling@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructure and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, Yangqing; Xu, Jun; Ma, Zhongyuan; Chen, Kunji [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructure and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • CdTe/CdS quantum dots/Au nano-rods nano-composite films were fabricated. • PL intensity of the quantum dots films was enhanced due to Au nanorods. • Internal quantum efficiency increased due to localized surface plasmon resonance. • The lifetimes of quantum dots films decreased after interaction with Au nano-rods. - Abstract: CdTe/CdS quantum dots/Au nano-rods nano-composite films were fabricated on planar Si substrates. The optical properties of all samples were investigated and the corresponding simulations were studied. It was found that the photoluminescence intensity of the CdTe/CdS quantum dots films was enhanced about 9-fold after the incorporation of Au nano-rods, the internal quantum efficiency increased from 24.3% to 35.2% due to the localized surface plasmon resonance. The time-resolved luminescence decay curves showed that the lifetimes of CdTe/CdS quantum dots films decreased to 2.8 ns after interaction with Au nano-rods. The results of finite-difference time-domain simulation indicated that Au nano-rods induced the localization of electric field, which enhanced the PL intensity of quantum dots films in the vicinity of Au nano-rods.

  16. Pulsed laser induced optical nonlinearities in undoped, copper doped and chromium doped CdS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dimple; Malik, B. P.; Gaur, Arun

    2015-04-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) of CdS, Cu doped and Cr doped CdS were synthesized through chemical co- precipitation method. The synthesized QDs have been characterized by x-ray diffraction, ultraviolet visible absorption spectroscopy. The diameters of QDs were calculated using Debye-Scherrer’s formula and Brus equation. They are found to be in 3.5-3.8 nm range. The nonlinear properties has been studied by the open and closed aperture Z-scan technique using frequency double Nd:YAG laser. The nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), third order nonlinear susceptibilities (χ3) of QDs has been calculated. It has been found that the values of nonlinear parameters are higher for doped QDs than undoped CdS QDs. Hence they can be regarded as potential material for the development of optoelectronics and photonics devices.

  17. Large-scale preparation of CdS quantum dots by direct thermolysis of a single-source precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhiguo; Cai Wei; Sui Jiehe [School of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China)

    2008-01-23

    CdS quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized on a large scale, based on the direct thermolysis of one single-source precursor (Me{sub 4}N){sub 4}[S{sub 4}Cd{sub 10}(SPh){sub 16}], in hexadecylamine (HDA). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations show that the CdS QDs are well-defined, nearly spherical particles. The clear lattice fringes in high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) images confirm the crystalline nature of the QDs. The broad diffraction in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and diffuse diffraction rings of the selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern are typical of nanomeric-size particles and indicative of the hexagonal phase of CdS QDs. The absorption spectra confirm quantum confinement of CdS QDs. The synthesis process for CdS QDs was investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that the nucleation and growth stages were separated automatically in a homogeneous system.

  18. Photovoltaic and Impedance Spectroscopy Study of Screen-Printed TiO₂ Based CdS Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, M; Farooq, W A; Fatehmulla, Amanullah; Aslam, M; Ali, Syed Mansoor

    2015-01-19

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on screen-printed TiO₂ were assembled using a screen-printing technique. The CdS quantum dots (QDs) were grown by using the Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. The optical properties were studied by UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy. Photovoltaic characteristics and impedance spectroscopic measurements of CdS QDSSCs were carried out under air mass 1.5 illuminations. The experimental results of capacitance against voltage indicate a trend from positive to negative capacitance because of the injection of electrons from the Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode into TiO₂.

  19. A fast bottom-up route for preparing CdS quantum dots using laser ablation in a liquid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonça, Leonardo T.B; Azevedo, Walter M. de, E-mail: wma@ufpe.br

    2016-03-15

    In this paper bright, water-dispersible and very stable CdS quantum dots (QDs) emitting from 400 to 700 nm with a narrow size distribution were synthesized in aqueous medium using a combination of the laser ablation technique and the action of thioglycerol as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of thiosulfate and as a stabilizing agent for the nanoparticles. In this case, instead of using a conventional, highly toxic sulfur source like H{sub 2}S, the decomposition of thiosulfate catalyzed by thioglycerol is used to produce S{sup 2−} ions that interact with Cd{sup 2+} ions produced by the ablation of a Cd foil by the second order light of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The ejected Cd{sup 2+} ions react with S{sup 2−} to form CdS quantum dots. Spectroscopic, X-ray and TEM measurement analysis showed that 2.75 nm monodisperse CdS QDots were synthesized and exhibited bright photoluminescence in the yellow-orange region of the spectra when excited with 355 nm with a quantum yield of 3.25%.

  20. In vitro and in vivo assessment of nanotoxicity of CdS quantum dot/aminopolysaccharide bionanoconjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2I, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG (Brazil); Department of Physiology and Biophysics, ICB, UFMG (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (Center of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, and Innovation-CeNano2I, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG (Brazil); Department of Physiology and Biophysics, ICB, UFMG (Brazil))" >Carvalho, S.M. de; 2I, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (Center of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, and Innovation-CeNano2I, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG (Brazil))" >Mansur, A.A.P.; 2I, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (Center of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, and Innovation-CeNano2I, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG (Brazil))" >Mansur, H.S.; Guedes, M.I.M.C.; Lobato, Z.I.P.; Leite, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    The nanotoxicity of Cd-containing quantum dots (QDs) for biomedical applications is very controversial and not completely understood. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of surface-biofunctionalized CdS QDs with chitosan directly synthesized via aqueous route at room temperature. These core-shell CdS-chitosan nanoconjugates showed different degrees of cytotoxic responses using MTT cell proliferation assay toward three human cell cultures, human osteosarcoma cell line (SAOS), non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma (Toledo), and human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293T), under three exposure times (1, 3, and 5 days) and three colloidal concentrations (10 nM, 50 nM, and 100 nM). The results clearly demonstrated that the CdS QDs, regardless to the fact that they were coated with a biocompatible aminopolysaccharide shell, induced a severe dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell viability. In addition, the HEK293T and SAOS cell lines showed much more sensitive response compared to Toledo, which indicated that the cytotoxicity was also cell-type dependent. The exceptional resistance of Toledo cells to toxic effects of CdS nanoconjugates even at severe test conditions was assigned to specific role of B-lineage cells of the immune defense system. Remarkably, no conclusive evidence of toxicity of CdS nanoconjugates was observed in vivo using intravenous injections of CdS nanoconjugates in BALB/c mouse animal models for 30 days, but localized fluorescence was detected in ex-vivo liver tissue samples. Therefore, these results prove that there is no guarantee of “risk-free” use of CdS nanoconjugates for in vivo applications, even when functionalized with biopolymer ligands, as they can pose an excessive threat due to unpredicted and uncorrelated responses under in vitro and in vivo biological assays with highly toxic cadmium ions. - Graphical abstract: Biocompatible surface functionalization with aminopolysaccharide is not enough for assuring safe biomedical

  1. In vitro and in vivo assessment of nanotoxicity of CdS quantum dot/aminopolysaccharide bionanoconjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, S.M. de [Center of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, and Innovation-CeNano" 2I, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG (Brazil); Department of Physiology and Biophysics, ICB, UFMG (Brazil); Mansur, A.A.P. [Center of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, and Innovation-CeNano" 2I, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG (Brazil); Mansur, H.S., E-mail: hmansur@demet.ufmg.br [Center of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, and Innovation-CeNano" 2I, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG (Brazil); Guedes, M.I.M.C.; Lobato, Z.I.P. [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary School, UFMG (Brazil); Leite, M.F. [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, ICB, UFMG (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    The nanotoxicity of Cd-containing quantum dots (QDs) for biomedical applications is very controversial and not completely understood. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of surface-biofunctionalized CdS QDs with chitosan directly synthesized via aqueous route at room temperature. These core-shell CdS-chitosan nanoconjugates showed different degrees of cytotoxic responses using MTT cell proliferation assay toward three human cell cultures, human osteosarcoma cell line (SAOS), non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma (Toledo), and human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293T), under three exposure times (1, 3, and 5 days) and three colloidal concentrations (10 nM, 50 nM, and 100 nM). The results clearly demonstrated that the CdS QDs, regardless to the fact that they were coated with a biocompatible aminopolysaccharide shell, induced a severe dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell viability. In addition, the HEK293T and SAOS cell lines showed much more sensitive response compared to Toledo, which indicated that the cytotoxicity was also cell-type dependent. The exceptional resistance of Toledo cells to toxic effects of CdS nanoconjugates even at severe test conditions was assigned to specific role of B-lineage cells of the immune defense system. Remarkably, no conclusive evidence of toxicity of CdS nanoconjugates was observed in vivo using intravenous injections of CdS nanoconjugates in BALB/c mouse animal models for 30 days, but localized fluorescence was detected in ex-vivo liver tissue samples. Therefore, these results prove that there is no guarantee of “risk-free” use of CdS nanoconjugates for in vivo applications, even when functionalized with biopolymer ligands, as they can pose an excessive threat due to unpredicted and uncorrelated responses under in vitro and in vivo biological assays with highly toxic cadmium ions. - Graphical abstract: Biocompatible surface functionalization with aminopolysaccharide is not enough for assuring safe biomedical

  2. Decrease of back recombination rate in CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells using reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawi Ali

    2015-01-01

    The photovoltaic performance of CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) using the 0.2 wt% of reduced graphene oxide and TiO 2 nanoparticles (RGO+TiO 2 nanocomposite) photoanode is investigated. CdS QDs are adsorbed onto RGO+TiO 2 nanocomposite films by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique for several cycles. The current density–voltage (J–V) characteristic curves of the assembled QDSSCs are measured at AM1.5 simulated sunlight. The optimal photovoltaic performance for CdS QDSSC was achieved for six SILAR cycles. Solar cells based on the RGO+TiO 2 nanocomposite photoanode achieve a 33% increase in conversion efficiency (η) compared with those based on plain TiO 2 nanoparticle (NP) photoanodes. The electron back recombination rates decrease significantly for CdS QDSSCs based on RGO+TiO 2 nanocomposite photoanodes. The lifetime constant (τ) for CdS QDSSC based on the RGO+TiO 2 nanocomposite photoanode is at least one order of magnitude larger than that based on the bare TiO 2 NPs photoanode. (paper)

  3. Probing the fungicidal property of CdS quantum dots on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis using MALDI-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manikandan, Muthu; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, we report the successful application of inhouse synthesized CdS quantum dots (QDs) with particle sizes between 1 and 7 nm exhibiting excellent fungicidal activity based on the interactions with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis. The growth curves and the growth rates of both fungi were established in the presence of three varying concentrations of CdS QDs. It was observed that the CdS QDs were highly inhibitory even at the lowest concentration of 10 mg/L used in this study, while the untreated control cells followed a normal growth pattern in the cases of both Saccharomyces and Candida. MALDI-MS was applied to substantiate the observations obtained by direct cell count method. It was observed that the trend observed in the case of Saccharomyces and Candida was well-represented in the MALDI-MS spectra. This study proposes a mechanism for the first time based on MALDI-MS results, that the CdS QDs interact with the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and remove small molecules from EPS layer; on the other hand, it was observed that CdS QDs at all concentrations lead to enrichment of protein signals in MALDI-MS. We have substantiated these results by quantifying the EPS in the control and treated cells and also using TEM to further confirm the results

  4. Probing the fungicidal property of CdS quantum dots on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis using MALDI-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikandan, Muthu; Wu, Hui-Fen, E-mail: hwu@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw [National Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Chemistry (China)

    2013-07-15

    For the first time, we report the successful application of inhouse synthesized CdS quantum dots (QDs) with particle sizes between 1 and 7 nm exhibiting excellent fungicidal activity based on the interactions with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis. The growth curves and the growth rates of both fungi were established in the presence of three varying concentrations of CdS QDs. It was observed that the CdS QDs were highly inhibitory even at the lowest concentration of 10 mg/L used in this study, while the untreated control cells followed a normal growth pattern in the cases of both Saccharomyces and Candida. MALDI-MS was applied to substantiate the observations obtained by direct cell count method. It was observed that the trend observed in the case of Saccharomyces and Candida was well-represented in the MALDI-MS spectra. This study proposes a mechanism for the first time based on MALDI-MS results, that the CdS QDs interact with the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and remove small molecules from EPS layer; on the other hand, it was observed that CdS QDs at all concentrations lead to enrichment of protein signals in MALDI-MS. We have substantiated these results by quantifying the EPS in the control and treated cells and also using TEM to further confirm the results.

  5. In vitro and in vivo assessment of nanotoxicity of CdS quantum dot/aminopolysaccharide bionanoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, S M; Mansur, A A P; Mansur, H S; Guedes, M I M C; Lobato, Z I P; Leite, M F

    2017-02-01

    The nanotoxicity of Cd-containing quantum dots (QDs) for biomedical applications is very controversial and not completely understood. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of surface-biofunctionalized CdS QDs with chitosan directly synthesized via aqueous route at room temperature. These core-shell CdS-chitosan nanoconjugates showed different degrees of cytotoxic responses using MTT cell proliferation assay toward three human cell cultures, human osteosarcoma cell line (SAOS), non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma (Toledo), and human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293T), under three exposure times (1, 3, and 5days) and three colloidal concentrations (10nM, 50nM, and 100nM). The results clearly demonstrated that the CdS QDs, regardless to the fact that they were coated with a biocompatible aminopolysaccharide shell, induced a severe dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell viability. In addition, the HEK293T and SAOS cell lines showed much more sensitive response compared to Toledo, which indicated that the cytotoxicity was also cell-type dependent. The exceptional resistance of Toledo cells to toxic effects of CdS nanoconjugates even at severe test conditions was assigned to specific role of B-lineage cells of the immune defense system. Remarkably, no conclusive evidence of toxicity of CdS nanoconjugates was observed in vivo using intravenous injections of CdS nanoconjugates in BALB/c mouse animal models for 30days, but localized fluorescence was detected in ex-vivo liver tissue samples. Therefore, these results prove that there is no guarantee of "risk-free" use of CdS nanoconjugates for in vivo applications, even when functionalized with biopolymer ligands, as they can pose an excessive threat due to unpredicted and uncorrelated responses under in vitro and in vivo biological assays with highly toxic cadmium ions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Multidentate Biopolymer Based on Polyacrylamide Grafted onto Kappa-Carrageenan on the Spectrofluorometric Properties of Water-Soluble CdS Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Rezanejade Bardajee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fluorescent composite based on CdS quantum dots immobilized on the multidentate biopolymer matrix is prepared through the graft copolymerization of the acrylamide onto kappa-Carrageenan. A variety of techniques like thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR was used to confirm the structure of the obtained samples. To investigate the spectrofluorometric properties, fluorescence spectroscopy of the obtained quantum dots was studied.

  7. A direct investigation of photocharge transfer across monomolecular layer between C{sub 60} and CdS quantum dots by photoassisted conductive atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xiaohong; Liu, He; Zhang, Xingtang; Cheng, Gang; Wang, Shujie; Du, Zuliang, E-mail: zld@henu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials, Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004, PR. China (China)

    2016-04-15

    The composite assembly of C{sub 60} and CdS Quantum Dots (QDs) on ITO substrate was prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique using arachic acid (AA), stearic acid (SA) and octadecanyl amine (OA) as additives. Photoassisted conductive atomic force microscopy was used to make point contact current-voltage (I-V) measurements on both the CdS QDs and the composite assembly of C{sub 60}/CdS. The result make it clear that the CdS, C{sub 60}/CdS assemblies deposited on ITO substrate showed linear characteristics and the current increased largely under illumination comparing with that in the dark. The coherent, nonresonant tunneling mechanism was used to explain the current occurrence. It is considered that the photoinduced carriers CdS QDs tunneled through alkyl chains increased the current rapidly.

  8. A direct investigation of photocharge transfer across monomolecular layer between C60 and CdS quantum dots by photoassisted conductive atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The composite assembly of C60 and CdS Quantum Dots (QDs on ITO substrate was prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB technique using arachic acid (AA, stearic acid (SA and octadecanyl amine (OA as additives. Photoassisted conductive atomic force microscopy was used to make point contact current-voltage (I-V measurements on both the CdS QDs and the composite assembly of C60/CdS. The result make it clear that the CdS, C60/CdS assemblies deposited on ITO substrate showed linear characteristics and the current increased largely under illumination comparing with that in the dark. The coherent, nonresonant tunneling mechanism was used to explain the current occurrence. It is considered that the photoinduced carriers CdS QDs tunneled through alkyl chains increased the current rapidly.

  9. Ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescent immunoassay for morphine using a gold electrode modified with CdS quantum dots, polyamidoamine, and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, Wenjuan; Chen, Feifei; Sun, Li; Li, Qianhua; Wu, Ying; Yang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    We report on a novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) immunoassay for the ultrasensitive determination of morphine by making use of a gold electrode which was modified with a nanocomposite film containing self-assembled polyamidoamine (PAMAM) CdS quantum dots and electrodeposited gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs). The highly uniform and well-dispersed quantum dots were capped with PAMAM dendrimers. Due to the synergistic effect of the modified quantum dots and the electrodeposited Au-NPs, the ECL response is dramatically enhanced. Under optimal experimental conditions, the immunoreaction between morphine and anti-morphine antibody resulted in a decrease of the ECL signal because of steric hindrance. The calibration plot is linear in the morphine concentration range from 0.2 to 180 ng•mL −1 , with a detection limit as low as 67 pg•mL −1 . The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of morphine in blood plasma. This kind of assay is expected to pave new avenues in label-free drug assays. (author)

  10. Synthesis and application of luminescent single CdS quantum dot encapsulated silica nanoparticles directed for precision optical bioimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeranarayanan S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Srivani Veeranarayanan, Aby Cheruvathoor Poulose, M Sheikh Mohamed, Yutaka Nagaoka, Seiki Iwai, Yuya Nakagame, Shosaku Kashiwada, Yasuhiko Yoshida, Toru Maekawa, D Sakthi KumarBio Nano Electronics Research Centre, Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Kawagoe, JapanAbstract: This paper presents the synthesis of aqueous cadmium sulfide (CdS quantum dots (QDs and silica-encapsulated CdS QDs by reverse microemulsion method and utilized as targeted bio-optical probes. We report the role of CdS as an efficient cell tag with fluorescence on par with previously documented cadmium telluride and cadmium selenide QDs, which have been considered to impart high levels of toxicity. In this study, the toxicity of bare QDs was efficiently quenched by encapsulating them in a biocompatible coat of silica. The toxicity profile and uptake of bare CdS QDs and silica-coated QDs, along with the CD31-labeled, silica-coated CdS QDs on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and glioma cells, were investigated. The effect of size, along with the time-dependent cellular uptake of the nanomaterials, has also been emphasized. Enhanced, high-specificity imaging toward endothelial cell lines in comparison with glioma cells was achieved with CD31 antibody-conjugated nanoparticles. The silica-coated nanomaterials exhibited excellent biocompatibility and greater photostability inside live cells, in addition to possessing an extended shelf life. In vivo biocompatibility and localization study of silica-coated CdS QDs in medaka fish embryos, following direct nanoparticle exposure for 24 hours, authenticated the nanomaterials' high potential for in vivo imaging, augmented with superior biocompatibility. As expected, CdS QD-treated embryos showed 100% mortality, whereas the silica-coated QD-treated embryos stayed viable and healthy throughout and after the experiments, devoid of any deformities. We provide highly cogent and convincing evidence for such

  11. Synthesis of CdS quantum dots decorated graphene nanosheets and non-enzymatic photoelectrochemical detection of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xuyan; Xu, Fang; Zhao, Bingqing; Ji, Xin; Yao, Yanwen; Wu, Dapeng; Gao, Zhiyong; Jiang, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene-CdS hybrid materials were prepared via one-step hydrothermal method. • Graphene-CdS was used as non-enzymatic photoelectrochemical sensor to detect glucose. • Glucose in real sample was detected and showed good specificity and sensitivity. - ABSTRACT: Graphene-CdS quantum dots (QDs) hybrid materials were successfully prepared via one-step hydrothermal method. CdS QDs with average size of ∼6 nm were dispersed on graphene sheets with high coverage through non-covalent bonding. Photocurrent and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results suggested that the best dosage of graphene oxide for graphene-CdS hybrid materials is 0.5% (G0.5-CdS). When G0.5-CdS QDs was used as photoanode materials in non-enzymatic sensor, and the sensor was used to detect glucose and displayed satisfactory analytical performance with good linear range from 0.1∼4 mmol dm −3 with a detection limit of 7 μmol dm −3 at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The sensor also possessed high selectivity and durability in trace detection of glucose

  12. Photovoltaic and Impedance Spectroscopy Study of Screen-Printed TiO2 Based CdS Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Atif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulphide (CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs based on screen-printed TiO2 were assembled using a screen-printing technique. The CdS quantum dots (QDs were grown by using the Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR method. The optical properties were studied by UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy. Photovoltaic characteristics and impedance spectroscopic measurements of CdS QDSSCs were carried out under air mass 1.5 illuminations. The experimental results of capacitance against voltage indicate a trend from positive to negative capacitance because of the injection of electrons from the Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO electrode into TiO2.

  13. Preparation and photovoltaic properties of CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cell based on zinc tin mixed metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiupeng; Zhao, Yifan; Zhu, Yatong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Shi, Peng; Xiao, Hongdi; Du, Na; Hou, Wanguo; Qi, Genggeng; Liu, Jianqiang

    2017-07-15

    The present study reports a new type of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) using the zinc tin mixed metal oxides (MMO) as the anode materials, which were obtained from the layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursor. The successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method is applied to deposit CdS quantum dots. The effects of sensitizing cycles on the performance of CdS QDSSC are studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are used to identify the surface profile and crystal structure of the mixed metal oxides anode. The photovoltaic performance of the QDSSC is studied by the electrochemical method. The new CdS QDSSC exhibits power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 0.48% when the anode was sensitized for eight cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. СHIRAL RECOGNITION OF CYSTEINE MOLECULES BY CHIRAL CdSe AND CdS QUANTUM DOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Mukhina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report the investigation of mechanism of chiral molecular recognition of cysteine biomolecules by chiral CdSe and CdS semiconductor nanocrystals. To observe chiral recognition process, we prepared enantioenriched ensembles of the nanocrystals capped with achiral ligand. The enantioenriched samples of intrinsically chiral CdSe quantum dots were prepared by separation of initial racemic mixture of the nanocrystals using chiral phase transfer from chloroform to water driven by L- and D-cysteine. Chiral molecules of cysteine and penicillamine were substituted for achiral molecules of dodecanethiol on the surfaces of CdSe and CdS samples, respectively, via reverse phase transfer from water to chloroform. We estimated an efficiency of the hetero- (d-L or l-D and homocomplexes (l-L formation by comparing the extents of corresponding complexing reactions. Using circular dichroism spectroscopy data we show an ability of nanocrystals enantiomers to discriminate between left-handed and right-handed enantiomers of biomolecules via preferential formation of heterocomplexes. Development of approaches for obtaining chiral nanocrystals via chiral phase transfer offers opportunities for investigation of molecular recognition at the nano/bio interfaces.

  15. Photovoltammetric behavior and photoelectrochemical determination of p-phenylenediamine on CdS quantum dots and graphene hybrid film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yuhan; Yan, Kai; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Jingdong, E-mail: zhangjd@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2015-07-16

    Highlights: • Photovoltammetric behavior of PPD on CdS–GS hybrid film was studied. • GS doped in CdS greatly improved the photoelectrochemical response of PPD. • CV of PPD on CdS–GS film became a sigmoidal shape under photoirradiation. • Novel photoelectrochemical strategy for PPD determination was developed. - Abstract: A photoelectroactive film composed of CdS quantum dots and graphene sheets (GS) was coated on F-doped SnO{sub 2} (FTO) conducting glass for studying the electrochemical response of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) under photoirradiation. The result indicated that the cyclic voltammogram of PPD on CdS–GS hybrid film became sigmoidal in shape after exposed under visible light, due to the photoelectrocatalytic reaction. Such a photovoltammetric response was used to rapidly optimize the photoelectrocatalytic activity of hybrid films composed of different ratios of CdS to GS toward PPD. The influences of scan rate and pH on the photovoltammetric behavior of PPD on CdS–GS film revealed that although the controlled step for electrochemical process was not changed under photoirradiation, more electrons than protons might participate the photoelectrocatalytic process. Furthermore, the photoelectroactive CdS–GS hybrid film was explored for PPD determination based on the photocurrent response of film toward PPD. Under optimal conditions, the photocurrent signal on CdS–GS film was linearly proportional to the concentration of PPD ranging from 1.0 × 10{sup −7} to 3.0 × 10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1}, with a detection limit (3S/N) of 4.3 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1}. Our work based on CdS–GS hybrid film not only demonstrated a new facile photovoltammetric way to study the photoinduced electron transfer process of PPD, but also developed a sensitive photoelectrochemical strategy for PPD determination.

  16. Cytotoxicity and cellular mechanisms involved in the toxicity of CdS quantum dots in hemocytes and gill cells of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsumiti, A. [CBET Research Group, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology and Research Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology PIE, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Basque Country (Spain); Gilliland, D. [EU Commission–Joint Research Centre, Institute of Health and Consumer Protection, NSB Unit, Ispra (Italy); Arostegui, I. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Statistics and Operations Research, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Leioa (Spain); Cajaraville, M.P., E-mail: mirenp.cajaraville@ehu.es [CBET Research Group, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology and Research Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology PIE, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Basque Country (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • CdS QDs were cytotoxic for mussel hemocytes and gill cells in vitro. • Ionic Cd was the most toxic form, followed by CdS QDs and bulk CdS. • CdS QDs altered oxidative balance and caused DNA damage in mussel cells. • CdS QDs caused a particle-specific immunostimulation on phagocytosis of hemocytes. • Conceptual models for cellular handling and toxicity of CdS QDs are proposed. - Abstract: CdS quantum dots (QDs) show a great promise for treatment and diagnosis of cancer and for targeted drug delivery, due to their size-tunable fluorescence and ease of functionalization for tissue targeting. In spite of their advantages it is important to determine if CdS QDs can exert toxicity on biological systems. In the present work, cytotoxicity of CdS QDs (5 nm) at a wide range of concentrations (0.001–100 mg Cd/L) was screened using neutral red (NR) and thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays in isolated hemocytes and gill cells of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The mechanisms of action of CdS QDs were assessed at sublethal concentrations (0.31–5 mg Cd/L) in the same cell types through a series of functional in vitro assays: production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), catalase (CAT) activity, DNA damage, lysosomal acid phosphatase (AcP) activity, multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) transport activity, Na-K-ATPase activity (only in gill cells) and phagocytic activity and damage to actin cytoskeleton (only in hemocytes). Exposures to CdS QDs lasted for 24 h and were performed in parallel with exposures to bulk CdS and ionic Cd. Ionic Cd was the most toxic form to both cell types, followed by CdS QDs and bulk CdS. ROS production, DNA damage, AcP activity and MXR transport were significantly increased in both cell types exposed to the 3 forms of Cd. CAT activity increased in hemocytes exposed to the three forms of Cd while in gill cells only in those exposed to ionic Cd. No effects were found on hemocytes cytoskeleton integrity. Effects on

  17. Use of CdS quantum dot-functionalized cellulose nanocrystal films for anti-counterfeiting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Lai, C.; Marchewka, R.; Berry, R. M.; Tam, K. C.

    2016-07-01

    Structural colors and photoluminescence have been widely used for anti-counterfeiting and security applications. We report for the first time the use of CdS quantum dot (QD)-functionalized cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as building blocks to fabricate nanothin films via layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly for anti-counterfeiting applications. Both negatively- and positively-charged CNC/QD nanohybrids with a high colloidal stability and a narrow particle size distribution were prepared. The controllable LBL coating process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and ellipsometry. The rigid structure of CNCs leads to nanoporous structured films on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates with high transmittance (above 70%) over the entire range of visible light and also resulted in increased hydrophilicity (contact angles of ~40 degrees). Nanothin films on PET substrates showed good flexibility and enhanced stability in both water and ethanol. The modified PET films with structural colors from thin-film interference and photoluminescence from QDs can be used in anti-counterfeiting applications.Structural colors and photoluminescence have been widely used for anti-counterfeiting and security applications. We report for the first time the use of CdS quantum dot (QD)-functionalized cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as building blocks to fabricate nanothin films via layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly for anti-counterfeiting applications. Both negatively- and positively-charged CNC/QD nanohybrids with a high colloidal stability and a narrow particle size distribution were prepared. The controllable LBL coating process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and ellipsometry. The rigid structure of CNCs leads to nanoporous structured films on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates with high transmittance (above 70%) over the entire range of visible light and also resulted in increased hydrophilicity (contact angles of ~40 degrees). Nanothin films

  18. Photovoltaic performance enhancement of CdS quantum dot-sensitized TiO{sub 2} photoanodes with plasmonic gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Aiping, E-mail: liuaiping1979@gmail.com [Center for Optoelectronics Materials and Devices, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Ren, Qinghua; Zhao, Ming; Xu, Tao; Yuan, Ming; Zhao, Tingyu [Center for Optoelectronics Materials and Devices, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Tang, Weihua [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communication, Beijing University Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • CdS QD-sensitized TiO{sub 2} porous photoanode with plasmonic gold. • A prominent light absorption enhancement of hybrid was attained by gold plasmon. • The photovoltaic response of hybrid was tunable by CdS amount. • The Au/TiO{sub 2}/CdS hybrid had a potential application in energy conversion devices. -- Abstract: The CdS quantum dot-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films with plasmonic gold nanoparticles were designed as photoanodes by the electrodeposition of gold combined with the “successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction” (SILAR) method for CdS deposition on porous TiO{sub 2} films. A prominent enhancement in light absorption of Au/TiO{sub 2}/CdS hybrid was attained by efficient light scattering of gold plasmons as sub-wavelength antennas and concentrators. The photogenerated electron formed in the near-surface region of TiO{sub 2} and CdS were facilitated to transfer to the plasmonic gold, resulting in the enhancement of photocurrent and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of hybrid photoanode upon photoirradiation. Furthermore, the photovoltaic response of hybrid was highly tunable with respect to the number of SILAR cycles applied to deposit CdS. The thicker absorber layer with less porous structure and larger CdS crystals might limit the electrolyte diffusion into the hybrid electrode and impose a barrier for electron tunneling and transferring. The highly versatile and tunable properties of Au/TiO{sub 2}/CdS photoanodes demonstrated their potential application in energy conversion devices.

  19. Temperature dependence of the optical energy gap in CdS sub x Se sub 1 sub - sub x quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Kunets, V P; Kunets, V P; Lisitsa, M P; Malysh, N I

    2002-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the optical energy gap E sub g (T) in CdS sub x Se sub 1 sub - sub x quantum dots synthesized in a borosilicate glass matrix has been investigated in the range of 4.2-500 K. A dependence similar to that for bulk crystals is observed for dots with r-bar > a sub B (r-bar being an average radius of the dot and a sub B the Bohr exciton radius in the bulk), which is described by Varshni formula within the whole temperature range. Deviations from the Varshni dependence in the range 4.2-100 K and smaller band-gap temperature coefficient are observed for dots with r-bar < a sub B. These results are explained in terms of the decrease of the macroscopic electron-phonon interaction potential and the modification of the vibration spectrum peculiar to the dot volume shrinkage

  20. First principles DFT study of dye-sensitized CdS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Kalpna; Singh, Kh. S. [Department of Physics, D. J. College, Baraut -250611, U.P. (India); Kishor, Shyam, E-mail: shyam387@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, J. V. College, Baraut -250611, U.P. (India); Josefesson, Ida; Odelius, Michael [Fysikum, Albanova University Center, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Ramaniah, Lavanya M. [High Pressure and Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Dye-sensitized quantum dots (QDs) are considered promising candidates for dye-sensitized solar cells. In order to maximize their efficiency, detailed theoretical studies are important. Here, we report a first principles density functional theory (DFT) investigation of experimentally realized dye - sensitized QD / ligand systems, viz., Cd{sub 16}S{sub 16}, capped with acetate molecules and a coumarin dye. The hybrid B3LYP functional and a 6−311+G(d,p)/LANL2dz basis set are used to study the geometric, energetic and electronic properties of these clusters. There is significant structural rearrangement in all the clusters studied - on the surface for the bare QD, and in the positions of the acetate / dye ligands for the ligated QDs. The density of states (DOS) of the bare QD shows states in the band gap, which disappear on surface passivation with the acetate molecules. Interestingly, in the dye-sensitised QD, the HOMO is found to be localized mainly on the dye molecule, while the LUMO is on the QD, as required for photo-induced electron injection from the dye to the QD.

  1. Quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouwenhoven, L.; Marcus, C.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum dots are man-made ''droplets'' of charge that can contain anything from a single electron to a collection of several thousand. Their typical dimensions range from nanometres to a few microns, and their size, shape and interactions can be precisely controlled through the use of advanced nanofabrication technology. The physics of quantum dots shows many parallels with the behaviour of naturally occurring quantum systems in atomic and nuclear physics. Indeed, quantum dots exemplify an important trend in condensed-matter physics in which researchers study man-made objects rather than real atoms or nuclei. As in an atom, the energy levels in a quantum dot become quantized due to the confinement of electrons. With quantum dots, however, an experimentalist can scan through the entire periodic table by simply changing a voltage. In this article the authors describe how quantum dots make it possible to explore new physics in regimes that cannot otherwise be accessed in the laboratory. (UK)

  2. Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovskii, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by

  3. Platelike WO3 sensitized with CdS quantum dots heterostructures for photoelectrochemical dynamic sensing of H2O2 based on enzymatic etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhu; Gao, Chaomin; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei

    2016-11-15

    A platelike tungsten trioxide (WO3) sensitized with CdS quantum dots (QDs) heterojunction is developed for solar-driven, real-time, and selective photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing of H2O2 in the living cells. The structure is synthesized by hydrothermally growing platelike WO3 on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) and subsequently sensitized with CdS QDs. The as-prepared WO3-CdS QDs heterojunction achieve significant photocurrent enhancement, which is remarkably beneficial for light absorption and charge carrier separation. Based on the enzymatic etching of CdS QDs enables the activation of quenching the charge transfer efficiency, thus leading to sensitive PEC recording of H2O2 level in buffer and cellular environments. The results indicated that the proposed method will pave the way for the development of excellent PEC sensing platform with the quantum dot sensitization. This study could also provide a new train of thought on designing of self-operating photoanode in PEC sensing, promoting the application of semiconductor nanomaterials in photoelectrochemistry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Co-sensitization of ZnO by CdS quantum dots in natural dye-sensitized solar cells with polymeric electrolytes to improve the cell stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junhom, W.; Magaraphan, R. [Polymer Processing and Polymer Nanomaterials Research Unit, Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2015-05-22

    The CdS quantum dots (QDs) were deposited on ZnO layer by chemical bath deposition method to absorb light in the shorter wavelength region and used as photoanode in the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) with natural dye extracted from Noni leaves. Microstructures of CdS-ZnO from various dipping time were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX. The results showed that the CdS is hexagonal structure and the amount of CdS increases when the dipping time increases. The maximal conversion efficiency of 0.292% was achieved by the DSSCs based on CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film obtained from 9 min-dipping time. Furthermore, the stability of DSSCs was improved by using polymeric electrolyte. Poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) and Polyacrylamide (PAM) were introduced to CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film from 9 min-dipping time. Each polymeric electrolyte was prepared by swelling from 0.1-2.0 %w in H2O. The maximal conversion efficiency of 0.207% was achieved for DSSCs based on CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film with PAM 1.0% and the conversion efficiency was decreased 25% when it was left for1 hr.

  5. Interfacial passivation of CdS layer to CdSe quantum dots-sensitized electrodeposited ZnO nanowire thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Chuanzhen; Bai, Shouli; Luo, Ruixian; Chen, Aifan; Sun, Lina; Lin, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    ZnO porous thin films with nanowire structure were deposited by the one-step electrochemical deposition method. And a CdS layer was coated on the as-deposited ZnO nanowire thin films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method to passivate surface states. Then the films were further sensitized by CdSe quantum dots (QDs) to serve as a photoanode for fabricating quantum dots-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The effect of the CdS interfacial passivation layer on the performance of the QDSSCs was systematically investigated by varying the SILAR cycle number and heating the passivation layer. The amorphous CdS layer with an optimized thickness can effectively suppress the recombination of the injected electrons with holes on QDs and the redox electrolyte. The newly formed CdS layer on the surface of the ZnO nanowire thin film obviously prolongs the electron lifetime in the passivated ZnO nanoporous thin film because of the lower surface trap density in the ZnO nanowires after CdS deposition, which is favorable to the higher short-circuit photocurrent density (J sc ). For the CdSe QDs-sensitized ZnO nanoporous thin film with the interfacial passivation layer, the J sc and conversion efficiency can reach a maximum of 8.36 mA cm −2 and 2.36%, respectively. The conversion efficiency was improved by 83.47% compared with that of the cell based on the CdSe QDs-sensitized ZnO nanoporous thin film without CdS interfacial passivation (0.39%)

  6. Photoelectrochemical detection of copper ions by modulating the growth of CdS quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinyte, Ruta; Barroso, Javier; Díez-Buitrago, Beatriz; Saa, Laura; Möller, Marco; Pavlov, Valeri

    2017-09-15

    We discovered that copper ions (Cu 2+ ) catalyze the oxidation of cysteine (CSH) by oxygen (O 2 ) to modulate the growth of CSH-capped cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs). This new chemical process was applied to sensitive fluorogenic and photoelectrochemical (PEC) detection of Cu 2+ ions in real samples of mineral and tap water using the photocatalytic activity of the resulting NPs. Disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPCEs) modified with electroactive polyvinylpyridine bearing osmium complex (Os-PVP) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) were employed for PEC analytical system. CdS NPs formed during the assay photocatalyze oxidation of 1-thioglycerol (TG) upon application of 0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl to SPCEs. Os-PVP complex mediated the electron transfer between the electrode surface and CdS NPs. We proved that our assays did not suffer from interference from other ions accompanying Cu 2+ and the sensitivity of our assays covers the European Union standard limit of Cu 2+ ions in drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Controllable synthesis and characterization of CdS quantum dots by a microemulsion-mediated hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Rongrong; Han, Boning; Yang, Lin, E-mail: yanglin@hbu.edu.cn; Yang, Yanmin; Xu, Ying; Mai, Yaohua, E-mail: yaohuamai@hbu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    CdS QDs were successfully synthesized through a chemical reaction between cadmium acetate dehydrate and thioacetamide by using a microemulsion-mediated hydrothermal method. The properties of as-prepared CdS QDs can be controlled by using Emulsifier OP and CTAB surfactant, which produce a universal cubic phase and an unusual hexagonal phase, respectively. As a comparison, CdS QDs prepared by CTAB exhibit a better crystallinity and dispersibility. A possible mechanism involving the critical role of surfactant in the formation of crystal structure has also been explored in this paper. It is also found that the crystal size gradually increase with the increase of temperature, and the observation of red-shift in the absorption and emission peaks gives a clear evidence of the quantum confinement effect. All the desired properties of CdS QDs synthesized in this study imply the possibility of the preparation of high quality QDs under the appropriate reaction conditions.

  8. Luminescent nanocomposites of conducting polymers and in-situ grown CdS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borriello, C.; Masala, S.; Nenna, G.; Minarini, C.; Di Luccio, T.; Bizzarro, V.; Re, M.; Pesce, E.

    2010-01-01

    Luminescent PVK:CdS and P3HT:CdS nanocomposites with enhanced electrooptical properties have been synthesized. The nucleation and growth of CdS nanoparticles have been obtained by the thermolysis of a single Cd and S precursor dispersed in the polymers. The size distribution and morphology of the nanoparticles have been studied by TEM analyses. Monodispersive and very small nanoparticles of diameter below 3 nm in PVK and 2 nm in P3HT, have been obtained. The application of such nanocomposites as emitting layers in OLED devices is discussed.

  9. Effect of tube depth on the photovoltaic performance of CdS quantum dots sensitized ZnO nanotubes solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lili; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Jinghai; Yan, Yongsheng; Sun, Yunfei; Cao, Jian; Gao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ZnO nanotubes as photoanode can enhance the energy conversion efficiency. ► ZnO nanotubes with larger surface area can load more CdS QDs to absorb more light. ► ZnO nanotubes can provide two transfer channels for photo-injected carrier. - Abstract: High-density and vertically-aligned ZnO nanotubes (ZNTs) with different depth and ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) were used as photoelectrodes to assemble the CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). In comparison with the CdS sensitized ZNRs solar cell, up to 170% enhancement in energy conversion efficiency was achieved for the CdS sensitized ZNTs under the white light illumination intensity of 100 mW/cm 2 . The investigation about the effects of tube depth on the photovoltaic performance of ZNTs/CdS electrodes revealed that at least two factors induce the enhancement of their conversion efficiency. One is that the higher surface-volume ratio of ZNTs can effectively increase the loading amount of CdS QDs, which can effectively absorb the light. The other is that the outer and inner wall of ZNTs can provide two transfer channels for photo-injected carriers, which can improve the efficiency of current collection.

  10. Surface biofunctionalized CdS and ZnS quantum dot nanoconjugates for nanomedicine and oncology: to be or not to be nanotoxic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Alexandra AP; Mansur, Herman S; de Carvalho, Sandhra M; Lobato, Zélia IP; Guedes, Maria IMC; Leite, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Herein, for the first time, we demonstrated that novel biofunctionalized semiconductor nanomaterials made of Cd-containing fluorescent quantum dot nanoconjugates with the surface capped by an aminopolysaccharide are not biologically safe for clinical applications. Conversely, the ZnS-based nanoconjugates proved to be noncytotoxic, considering all the parameters investigated. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity were remarkably dependent on the chemical composition of quantum dot (CdS or ZnS), the nature of the cell (human cancerous and embryonic types), and the concentration and time period of exposure to these nanomaterials, caused by the effects of Cd2+ on the complex nanotoxicity pathways involved in cellular uptake. Unexpectedly, no decisive evidence of nanotoxicity of CdS and ZnS conjugates was observed in vivo using intravenous injections in BALB/c mice for 30 days, with minor localized fluorescence detected in liver tissue specimens. Therefore, these results proved that CdS nanoconjugates could pose an excessive threat for clinical applications due to unpredicted and uncorrelated in vitro and in vivo responses caused by highly toxic cadmium ions at biointerfaces. On the contrary, ZnS nanoconjugates proved that the “safe by design” concept used in this research (ie, biocompatible core–shell nanostructures) could benefit a plethora of applications in nanomedicine and oncology. PMID:27695325

  11. Co-sensitization of quantum dot sensitized solar cells composed of TiO2 nanocrystalline photoanode with CdS and PbS nanoparticles and effect of PbS on the performance of solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Marandi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, CdS and PbS quantum dots were applied as the light sensitizers in TiO2 based nanostructured solar cells. The PbS quantum dots could absorb a wide range of the sunlight spectrum on earth due to their low bandgap energy. As a result, the cell sensitization is more effective by application of both CdS and PbS quantum dots sensitizers. The TiO2 nanocrystals were synthesized through a hydrothermal process and deposited on FTO glass substrates as the photoanode scaffold. Then PbS quantum dots were grown on the surface of this nanocrystalline layer by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. The CdS quantum dots were over-grown in the next step through a similar deposition method. Finally this sensitized layer was applied as the photoelectrode of the corresponding quantum dot sensitized solar cells. The results demonstrated that the maximum efficiency was achieved for the cell with a photoanode made of co-sensitization through 2 and 6 cycles of PbS and CdS deposition, respectively. The photovoltaic parameters of this cell were measured as Jsc of 10.81 mA/cm2, Voc of 590 mv and energy conversion efficiency of 2.7+0.2%.

  12. Quantum dots as mediators in gas sensing: A case study of CdS sensitized WO{sub 3} sensing composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concina, Isabella, E-mail: concina@sensor.ing.unibs.it [CNR-INO SENSOR Laboratory, via Branze, 45, 25131 Brescia (Italy); SENSOR, Department of Information Engineering, Brescia University, via Valotti, 9, 25133 Brescia (Italy); Comini, Elisabetta [CNR-INO SENSOR Laboratory, via Branze, 45, 25131 Brescia (Italy); SENSOR, Department of Information Engineering, Brescia University, via Valotti, 9, 25133 Brescia (Italy); Kaciulis, Saulius [CNR-ISMN, Institute for the Study of Nanostructured Materials, Via dei Taurini, 19, 00185 Roma (Italy); Sberveglieri, Giorgio [CNR-INO SENSOR Laboratory, via Branze, 45, 25131 Brescia (Italy); SENSOR, Department of Information Engineering, Brescia University, via Valotti, 9, 25133 Brescia (Italy)

    2014-01-30

    In this study the proof of principle of the use of naked semiconductor directly generated on metal oxide surface as mediators in gas sensing is provided. Successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) technique has been applied to sensitize a WO{sub 3} thin film with CdS quantum dots. Response to gases of bare WO{sub 3} is deeply modified: quantum dots dramatically increase the metal oxide conductance, otherwise rather poor, and modify the capability of detecting environmental pollutants, such as CO and NO{sub 2}. A modified sensing mechanism is proposed to rationalize the mediation exerted by the semiconducting active layer on the interaction between gaseous species and WO{sub 3} surface.

  13. White emitting CdS quantum dot nanoluminophores hybridized on near-ultraviolet LEDs for high-quality white light generation and tuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizamoglu, Sedat; Mutlugun, Evren; Akyuz, Ozgun; Perkgoz, Nihan Kosku; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Liebscher, Lydia; Sapra, Sameer; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmueller, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    To generate white light using semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) quantum dots integrated on light emitting diodes (LEDs), multiple hybrid device parameters (emission wavelengths of the NCs and the excitation platform, order of the NCs with different sizes, amount of the different types of NCs, etc) need to be carefully designed and properly implemented. In this study, we introduce and demonstrate white LEDs based on simple device hybridization using only a single type of white emitting CdS quantum dot nanoluminophores on near-ultraviolet LEDs. Here we present their design, synthesis-growth, fabrication and characterization. With these hybrid devices, we achieve high color rendering index (>70), despite using only a single NC type. Furthermore, we conveniently tune their photometric properties including the chromaticity coordinates, correlated color temperature, and color rendering index with the number of hybridized nanoluminophores in a controlled manner

  14. Surface biofunctionalized CdS and ZnS quantum dot nanoconjugates for nanomedicine and oncology: to be or not to be nanotoxic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur AAP

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra AP Mansur,1 Herman S Mansur,1 Sandhra M de Carvalho,1–3 Zélia IP Lobato,2 Maria IMC Guedes,2 Maria F Leite3 1Center of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, and Innovation-CeNano2I, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, 2Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary School, 3Department of Physiology and Biophysics, ICB, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil Abstract: Herein, for the first time, we demonstrated that novel biofunctionalized semiconductor nanomaterials made of Cd-containing fluorescent quantum dot nanoconjugates with the surface capped by an aminopolysaccharide are not biologically safe for clinical applications. Conversely, the ZnS-based nanoconjugates proved to be noncytotoxic, considering all the parameters investigated. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity were remarkably dependent on the chemical composition of quantum dot (CdS or ZnS, the nature of the cell (human cancerous and embryonic types, and the concentration and time period of exposure to these nanomaterials, caused by the effects of Cd2+ on the complex nanotoxicity pathways involved in cellular uptake. Unexpectedly, no decisive evidence of nanotoxicity of CdS and ZnS conjugates was observed in vivo using intravenous injections in BALB/c mice for 30 days, with minor localized fluorescence detected in liver tissue specimens. Therefore, these results proved that CdS nanoconjugates could pose an excessive threat for clinical applications due to unpredicted and uncorrelated in vitro and in vivo responses caused by highly toxic cadmium ions at biointerfaces. On the contrary, ZnS nanoconjugates proved that the “safe by design” concept used in this research (ie, biocompatible core–shell nanostructures could benefit a plethora of applications in nanomedicine and oncology. Keywords: fluorescent nanoparticles, semiconductor quantum dots, nanotoxicity, bionanoconjugates, nanoprobes

  15. Performance improvement of CdS quantum dots sensitized TiO{sub 2} solar cells by introducing a dense TiO{sub 2} blocking layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Yasuhiro; Umekita, Kazuya; Otsuka, Yasuhide; Kuwabata, Susumu [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: y.tachibana@chem.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2008-05-21

    A dense TiO{sub 2} electron blocking layer was introduced on a conducting glass in CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells to investigate electron leakage into the electrolyte. A ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox couple was employed, as a model electrolyte, possessing a high standard rate constant. The analysis of the I-V characteristics, using a one-diode model, revealed that an increase in this layer, up to 50 nm, significantly suppresses the electron leakage, enhancing the shunt resistance by a factor of 200. An energy conversion efficiency of 1.0% was attained on account of the improved open circuit voltage and fill factor. (fast track communication)

  16. Reduced cytotoxicity of insulin-immobilized CdS quantum dots using PEG as a spacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Moon-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cytotoxicity is a severe problem for cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CSNPs in biological systems. In this study, mercaptoacetic acid-coated CSNPs, typical semiconductor Q-dots, were synthesized in aqueous medium by the arrested precipitation method. Then, amino-terminated polyethylene glycol (PEG was conjugated to the surface of CSNPs (PCSNPs in order to introduce amino groups to the surface. Finally, insulin was immobilized on the surface of PCSNPs (ICSNPs to reduce cytotoxicity as well as to enhance cell compatibility. The presence of insulin on the surface of ICSNPs was confirmed by observing infrared absorptions of amide I and II. The mean diameter of ICSNPs as determined by dynamic light scattering was about 38 nm. Human fibroblasts were cultured in the absence and presence of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles to evaluate cytotoxicity and cell compatibility. The results showed that the cytotoxicity of insulin-immobilized cadmium sulfide nanoparticles was significantly suppressed by usage of PEG as a spacer. In addition, cell proliferation was highly facilitated by the addition of ICSNPs. The ICSNPs used in this study will be potentials to be used in bio-imaging applications.

  17. Phosphate Favors the Biosynthesis of CdS Quantum Dots in Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ATCC 19703 by Improving Metal Uptake and Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ulloa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported the production of Cadmium sulfide (CdS fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots, QDs by acidophilic bacteria of the Acidithiobacillus genus. Here, we report that the addition of inorganic phosphate to Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ATCC 19703 cultures favors the biosynthesis of CdS QDs at acidic conditions (pH 3.5. The effect of pH, phosphate and cadmium concentrations on QDs biosynthesis was studied by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM, a multivariate technique for analytical optimization scarcely used in microbiological studies to date. To address how phosphate affects intracellular biosynthesis of CdS QDs, the effect of inorganic phosphate on bacterial cadmium-uptake was evaluated. By measuring intracellular levels of cadmium we determined that phosphate influences the capacity of cells to incorporate this metal. A relation between cadmium tolerance and phosphate concentrations was also determined, suggesting that phosphate participates in the adaptation of bacteria to toxic levels of this metal. In addition, QDs-biosynthesis was also favored by the degradation of intracellular polyphosphates. Altogether, our results indicate that phosphate contributes to A. thiooxidans CdS QDs biosynthesis by influencing cadmium uptake and cadmium tolerance. These QDs may also be acting as a nucleation point for QDs formation at acidic pH. This is the first study reporting the effect of phosphates on QDs biosynthesis and describes a new cadmium-response pathway present in A. thiooxidans and most probably in other bacterial species.

  18. Effect of sodium acetate additive in successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction on the performance of CdS quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, I.-Ping; Chen, Liang-Yih; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2016-09-01

    Sodium acetate (NaAc) is utilized as an additive in cationic precursors of the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process to fabricate CdS quantum-dot (QD)-sensitized photoelectrodes. The effects of the NaAc concentration on the deposition rate and distribution of QDs in mesoporous TiO2 films, as well as on the performance of CdS-sensitized solar cells are studied. The experimental results show that the presence of NaAc can significantly accelerate the deposition of CdS, improve the QD distribution across photoelectrodes, and thereby, increase the performance of solar cells. These results are mainly attributed to the pH-elevation effect of NaAc to the cationic precursors which increases the electrostatic interaction of the TiO2 film to cadmium ions. The light-to-energy conversion efficiency of the CdS-sensitized solar cell increases with increasing concentration of the NaAc and approaches a maximum value (3.11%) at 0.05 M NaAc. Additionally, an ionic exchange is carried out on the photoelectrode to transform the deposited CdS into CdS1-xSex ternary QDs. The light-absorption range of the photoelectrode is extended and an exceptional power conversion efficiency of 4.51% is achieved due to this treatment.

  19. Ag nanoclusters could efficiently quench the photoresponse of CdS quantum dots for novel energy transfer-based photoelectrochemical bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Sun, Yue; Liang, Yan-Yu; He, Jian-Ping; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2016-11-15

    Herein the influence of ultrasmall Ag nanoclusters (Ag NCs) against CdS quantum dots (QDs) in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) nanosystem was exploited for the first time, based on which a novel PEC bioanalysis was successfully developed via the efficient quenching effect of Ag NCs against the CdS QDs. In a model system, DNA assay was achieved by using molecular beacon (MB) probes anchored on a CdS QDs modified electrode, and the MB probes contain two segments that can hybridize with both target DNA sequence and the label of DNA encapsulated Ag NCs. After the MB probe was unfolded by the target DNA sequence, the labels of oligonucleotide encapsulated Ag NCs would be brought in close proximity to the CdS QDs electrode surface, and efficient photocurrent quenching of QDs could be resulted from an energy transfer process that originated from NCs. Thus, by monitoring the attenuation in the photocurrent signal, an elegant and sensitive PEC DNA bioanalysis could be accomplished. The developed biosensor displayed a linear range from 1.0pM to 10nM and the detection limit was experimentally found to be of 0.3pM. This work presents a feasible signaling principle that could act as a common basis for general PEC bioanalysis development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ROS-mediated apoptotic cell death in prostate cancer LNCaP cells induced by biosurfactant stabilized CdS quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Braj R; Singh, Brahma N; Khan, W; Singh, H B; Naqvi, A H

    2012-08-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) have raised great attention because of their superior optical properties and wide utilization in biological and biomedical studies. However, little is known about the cell death mechanisms of CdS QDs in human cancer cells. This study was designed to investigate the possible mechanisms of apoptosis induced by biosurfactant stabilized CdS QDs (denoted as "bsCdS QDs") in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. It was also noteworthy that apoptosis correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress and chromatin condensation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Results also showed involvement of caspases, Bcl-2 family proteins, heat shock protein 70, and a cell-cycle checkpoint protein p53 in apoptosis induction by bsCdS QDs in LNCaP cells. Moreover, pro-apoptotic protein Bax was upregulated and the anti-apoptotic proteins, survivin and NF-κB were downregulated in bsCdS QDs exposed cells. Protection of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) against ROS clearly suggested the implication of ROS in hyper-activation of apoptosis and cell death. It is encouraging to conclude that biologically stabilized CdS QDs bear the potential of its applications in biomedicine, such as tumor therapy specifically by inducing caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death of human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phosphate Favors the Biosynthesis of CdS Quantum Dots in Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ATCC 19703 by Improving Metal Uptake and Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Giovanni; Quezada, Carolina P.; Araneda, Mabel; Escobar, Blanca; Fuentes, Edwar; Álvarez, Sergio A.; Castro, Matías; Bruna, Nicolás; Espinoza-González, Rodrigo; Bravo, Denisse; Pérez-Donoso, José M.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, we reported the production of Cadmium sulfide (CdS) fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots, QDs) by acidophilic bacteria of the Acidithiobacillus genus. Here, we report that the addition of inorganic phosphate to Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ATCC 19703 cultures favors the biosynthesis of CdS QDs at acidic conditions (pH 3.5). The effect of pH, phosphate and cadmium concentrations on QDs biosynthesis was studied by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), a multivariate technique for analytical optimization scarcely used in microbiological studies to date. To address how phosphate affects intracellular biosynthesis of CdS QDs, the effect of inorganic phosphate on bacterial cadmium-uptake was evaluated. By measuring intracellular levels of cadmium we determined that phosphate influences the capacity of cells to incorporate this metal. A relation between cadmium tolerance and phosphate concentrations was also determined, suggesting that phosphate participates in the adaptation of bacteria to toxic levels of this metal. In addition, QDs-biosynthesis was also favored by the degradation of intracellular polyphosphates. Altogether, our results indicate that phosphate contributes to A. thiooxidans CdS QDs biosynthesis by influencing cadmium uptake and cadmium tolerance. These QDs may also be acting as a nucleation point for QDs formation at acidic pH. This is the first study reporting the effect of phosphates on QDs biosynthesis and describes a new cadmium-response pathway present in A. thiooxidans and most probably in other bacterial species. PMID:29515535

  2. Enhanced solar cell efficiency and stability using ZnS passivation layer for CdS quantum-dot sensitized actinomorphic hexagonal columnar ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yanli; Tao, Qiang; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin; Zhou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yanyan; Su, Shi; Wang, Peng; Li, Minghui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The synthetic of ZnS/CdS QDs/AHC-ZnO photoanode with a simple method. • The power conversion efficiency of the ZnS/CdS QDs/AHC-ZnO is 1.81%. • The effects of photovoltaic performances caused by CdS and ZnS amounts were studied. • ZnS passivation layer enhanced electron lifetime significantly. - Abstract: We report the photoanodes consisting of CdS quantum-dots (QDs) sensitized actinomorphic hexagonal columnar ZnO (CdS QDs/AHC-ZnO) with ZnS passivation layer are applied for solar cells. Simple chemical solution synthesized AHC-ZnO films on transparent conducting glass substrates, and then, AHC-ZnO is functionalized with uniform CdS and ZnS QDs via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The as-prepared materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, UV–vis diffused reflectance absorption spectra and photovoltaic performances analysis. Photovoltaic performances results indicate the quantity of CdS QDs as well as the visible light absorption threshold can be effectively controlled by varying the coating cycles during the SILAR process, and the photocurrent density (Jsc) is greatly improved by increasing the amount of ZnS. By optimizing the AHC-ZnO with the amount of CdS and ZnS, the best efficiency of 1.81% was achieved for solar cell under AM 1.5 G illumination with Jsc = 7.44 mA/cm 2 , Voc = 0.57 V and FF = 43%

  3. Fabrication, Characterization, and Optimization of CdS and CdSe Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells with Quantum Dots Prepared by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CdS and CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs were used for the study of determining the optimum preparation parameters that could yield the best solar cell performance. The quantum dots (QDs were coated on the surface of mesoporous TiO2 layer deposited on FTO substrate using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. In this method the QDs are allowed to grow on TiO2 by dipping the TiO2 electrode successively in two different solutions for predetermined times. This method allows the fabrication of QDs in a facile way. Three preparation parameters that control the QD fabrication were investigated: concentration of precursor solutions, number of dipping cycles (SILAR cycles, and dipping time in each solution. CdS based QDSSC showed optimum performance when the QDs were prepared from precursor solutions having the concentration of 0.10 M using 4 dipping cycles with the dipping time of 5 minutes in each solution. For CdSe QDSSC, the optimum performance was achieved with QDs prepared from 0.03 M precursor solutions using 7 dipping cycles with 30 s dipping time in each solution. The QDs deposited on TiO2 surface were characterized using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, FESEM, and TEM imaging.

  4. Effect of photoanode surface coverage by a sensitizer on the photovoltaic performance of titania based CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra M B; Pathan, Habib M

    2016-04-08

    In spite of the promising design and architecture, quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) have a long way to go before they attain the actual projected photoconversion efficiencies. Such an inferior performance displayed by QDSSCs is primarily because of many unwanted recombination losses of charge carriers at various interfaces of the cell. Electron recombination due to back electron transfer at the photoanode/electrolyte interface is an important one that needs to be addressed, to improve the efficiency of these third generation nanostructured solar cells. The present work highlights the importance of conformal coverage of CdS quantum dots (QDs) on the surface of the nanocrystalline titania photoanode in arresting such recombinations, leading to improvement in the performance of the cells. Using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process, photoanodes are subjected to different amounts of CdS QD sensitization by varying the number of cycles of deposition. The sensitized electrodes are characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and transmission electron microscopy to evaluate the extent of surface coverage of titania electrodes by QDs. Sandwich solar cells are then fabricated using these electrodes and characterized employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and J-V characteristics. It is observed that maximum solar cell efficiency is obtained for photoanodes with conformal coating of QDs and any further deposition of sensitizer leads to QD aggregation and so reduces the performance of the solar cells.

  5. Influence of the temperature on the synthesis of CdS quantum dots stabilized with poly (vinil alcohol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Andre L.B. de; Mansur, Alexandra A.P.; Mansur, Herman S.; Gonzalez, Juan C.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (Quantum Dots, QDs) have been the subject of recent research by presenting quantum properties. This property has stimulated the study of these particles in biological applications such as bookmarks, which creates the necessity of using different synthesis routes resulting in biocompatible systems. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature on the properties of QDs cadmium sulfide, aqueous route using poly (vinyl alcohol), a biocompatible polymer, such as stabilizing agent. The characterization of particles produced was performed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra for obtaining the absorption and emission, respectively and Transmission microscopy (TEM) for analysis of the diameter of the nanocrystals. (author)

  6. CdS quantum dots in a novel glass with a very low activation energy and its variation of diffusivity with temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Swati

    2011-07-01

    CdS quantum dots of different average sizes in the range 2 to 3.8 nm were grown by diffusion-limited growth process in indigenously made silicate glass. The absorption spectra showed a strong quantum confinement effect with a blue shift of the order of 500 meV depending on the average size. Critical radius of quantum dots was found to be 1.8 nm. The size dispersion decreased from 15.2 to 12.5% with a 20% increase in the particle size. The activation energy for diffusion was found to be very low i.e. 193 kJ mol-1 and the diffusion coefficient increased by 60% for 10 K rise in temperature. The PL emission spectra showed the presence of only deep traps around 600 nm with a red shift of 200 nm. No shallow traps or band edge emission was observed. The PL peak position changed from 560 to 640 nm with a 35 K increase in annealing temperature.

  7. Synthesis of N-acetyl-L-cysteine capped Mn:doped CdS quantum dots for quantitative detection of copper ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiupei; Jia, Zhihui; Cheng, Xiumei; Luo, Na; Choi, Martin M. F.

    2018-06-01

    In this work, a new assembled copper ions sensor based on the Mn metal-enhanced fluorescence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine protected CdS quantum dots (NAC-Mn:CdS QDs) was developed. The NAC and Mn:CdS QDs nanoparticles were assembled into NAC-Mn:CdS QDs complexes through the formation of Cdsbnd S and Mnsbnd S bonds. As compared to NAC capped CdS QDs, higher fluorescence quantum yields of NAC-Mn:CdS QDs was observed, which is attributed to the surface plasmon resonance of Mn metal. In addition, the fluorescence intensity of as-formed complexes weakened in the presence of copper ions. The decrease in fluorescence intensity presented a linear relationship with copper ions concentration in the range from 0.16-3.36 μM with a detection limit of 0.041 μM . The characterization of as-formed QDs was analyzed by photoluminescence (PL), ultra violet-visible (UV-vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) respectively. Furthermore, the recoveries and relative standard deviations of Cu2+ spiked in real water samples for the intra-day and inter-day analyses were 88.20-117.90, 95.20-109.90, 0.80-5.80 and 1.20-3.20%, respectively. Such a metal-enhanced QDs fluorescence system may have promising application in chemical and biological sensors.

  8. Synthesis of CdS nanoparticles quantum dots capped by 2,2′-dithiodibenzoic acid and study of its interaction with some transition metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Mohammad Saeid; Jahanbani, Hamideh

    2013-01-01

    In this work, CdS quantum dots (QDs) capped by 2,2′-dithiodibenzoic acid (DDBA) were prepared at one step. The size, shape, components and spectral properties of DDBA-capped-CdS QDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectrometry and spectroflourometry. The results showed that the prepared QDs with an average diameter of 15 nm have a favorable fluorescence, which is highly affected by pH of the environment. Interaction of some heavy metal ions including Ag(I), Hg(II), Cu(II), Fe(II), Ni(II), pb(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and Co(II) with DDBA-capped-CdS QDs was investigated at different buffering pH media. Based on the fluorescence quenching of the QDs in the presence of metal ion of interest, feasibility of their determinations were examined according to the Stern–Volmer equation. The investigations showed that Ag(I) ions can be determined in the presence of many co-existence metal ions at the buffering pH of 7. This method was then applied for Ag(I) measurement in some environmental samples, satisfactorily. -- Highlights: ► A new CdS quantum dot capped with 2,2′-dithiodibenzoic acid (DDBA) was prepared. ► The prepared QDs benefit from a favorable fluorescence. ► Interaction of some metal ions with the QDs was examined according to the Stern–Volmer equation. ► The determination of Ag(I) is feasible in the presence of many co-existence metal ions. ► The method benefits from high-speed and considerable simplicity for Ag(I) determination

  9. Effect of Al 2 O 3 Recombination Barrier Layers Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition in Solid-State CdS Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Roelofs, Katherine E.

    2013-03-21

    Despite the promise of quantum dots (QDs) as a light-absorbing material to replace the dye in dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) efficiencies remain low, due in part to high rates of recombination. In this article, we demonstrate that ultrathin recombination barrier layers of Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition can improve the performance of cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with spiro-OMeTAD as the solid-state hole transport material. We explored depositing the Al2O3 barrier layers either before or after the QDs, resulting in TiO2/Al2O3/QD and TiO 2/QD/Al2O3 configurations. The effects of barrier layer configuration and thickness were tracked through current-voltage measurements of device performance and transient photovoltage measurements of electron lifetimes. The Al2O3 layers were found to suppress dark current and increase electron lifetimes with increasing Al 2O3 thickness in both configurations. For thin barrier layers, gains in open-circuit voltage and concomitant increases in efficiency were observed, although at greater thicknesses, losses in photocurrent caused net decreases in efficiency. A close comparison of the electron lifetimes in TiO2 in the TiO2/Al2O3/QD and TiO2/QD/Al2O3 configurations suggests that electron transfer from TiO2 to spiro-OMeTAD is a major source of recombination in ss-QDSSCs, though recombination of TiO2 electrons with oxidized QDs can also limit electron lifetimes, particularly if the regeneration of oxidized QDs is hindered by a too-thick coating of the barrier layer. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  10. Room temperature ferromagnetism in magic-sized Cr-doped CdS diluted magnetic semiconducting quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Punita; Kumar, Pushpendra; Singh, Kedar

    2011-01-01

    Manipulation of carrier spins in semiconductors for spintronics applications has received great attention driven by improved functionalities and higher speed operation. Doping of semiconductor nanocrystals by transition-metal ions pronounced as diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) has attracted tremendous attention. Such doping is, however, difficult to achieve in low-dimensional strongly quantum-confined nanostructures by conventional growth procedures. In the present case, magic-sized, pure, and Cr-doped CdS DM-QDs have been synthesized by solution phase chemistry (lyothermal method). Structural, optical, and magnetic investigation suggest an intrinsic nature of ferromagnetism with highly quantum-confined system. Optical and magnetic results of pure and doped QDs reveal major physical consequences of dopant localization within the capacity to engineer dopant-carrier exchange interactions introducing magnetic functionalities within the host semiconductor lattice. Unpaired Cr ions in Cd substitutional sites could create spin ordering and ferromagnetic coupling. The results presented herein illustrate some of the remarkable and unexpected complexities that can arise in doped QDs.

  11. Performances of some low-cost counter electrode materials in CdS and CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hieng Kiat; Careem, Mohamed Abdul; Arof, Abdul Kariem

    2014-02-10

    Different counter electrode (CE) materials based on carbon and Cu2S were prepared for the application in CdS and CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The CEs were prepared using low-cost and facile methods. Platinum was used as the reference CE material to compare the performances of the other materials. While carbon-based materials produced the best solar cell performance in CdS QDSSCs, platinum and Cu2S were superior in CdSe QDSSCs. Different CE materials have different performance in the two types of QDSSCs employed due to the different type of sensitizers and composition of polysulfide electrolytes used. The poor performance of QDSSCs with some CE materials is largely due to the lower photocurrent density and open-circuit voltage. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy performed on the cells showed that the poor-performing QDSSCs had higher charge-transfer resistances and CPE values at their CE/electrolyte interfaces.

  12. Mn-doped CdS quantum dots sensitized hierarchical TiO2 flower-rod for solar cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Libo; Li, Zhen; Liu, Yingbo; Cheng, Fa; Sun, Shuqing

    2014-01-01

    A double-layered TiO 2 film which three dimensional (3D) flowers grown on highly ordered self-assembled one dimensional (1D) TiO 2 nanorods was synthesized directly on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrate by a facile hydrothermal method and was applied as photoanode in Mn-doped CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The 3D TiO 2 flowers with the increased surface areas can adsorb more QDs, which increased the absorption of light; meanwhile 1D TiO 2 nanorods beneath the flowers offered a direct electrical pathway for photogenerated electrons, accelerating the electron transfer rate. A typical type II band alignment which can effectively separate photogenerated excitons and reduce recombination of electrons and holes was constructed by Mn-doped CdS QDs and TiO 2 flower-rod. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the Mn-doped CdS/TiO 2 flower-rod solar cell reached to 40% with the polysulfide electrolyte filled in the solar cell. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.09% was obtained with the Mn-doped CdS/TiO 2 flower-rod solar cell under one sun illumination (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm 2 ), which is 105.7% higher than that of the CdS/TiO 2 nanorod solar cell (0.53%).

  13. Sensitive Bioanalysis Based on in-Situ Droplet Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Detection of CdS Quantum Dots Label after Enhanced Cathodic Preconcentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Qin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a protocol of CdS-labeled sandwich-type amperometric bioanalysis with high sensitivity, on the basis of simultaneous chemical-dissolution/cathodic-enrichment of the CdS quantum dot biolabel and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV detection of Cd directly on the bioelectrode. We added a microliter droplet of 0.1 M aqueous HNO3 to dissolve CdS on the bioelectrode and simultaneously achieved the potentiostatic cathodic preconcentration of Cd by starting the potentiostatic operation before HNO3 addition, which can largely increase the ASV signal. Our protocol was used for immunoanalysis and aptamer-based bioanalysis of several proteins, giving limits of detection of 4.5 fg·mL−1 for human immunoglobulin G, 3.0 fg·mL−1 for human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, 4.9 fg·mL−1 for human α-fetoprotein (AFP, and 0.9 fM for thrombin, which are better than many reported results. The simultaneous and sensitive analysis of CEA and AFP at two screen-printed carbon electrodes was also conducted by our protocol.

  14. Determination of gold nanoparticles in environmental water samples by second-order optical scattering using dithiotreitol-functionalized CdS quantum dots after cloud point extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandyla, Spyridoula P.; Tsogas, George Z.; Vlessidis, Athanasios G.; Giokas, Dimosthenis L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method has been developed to determine gold nanoparticles in water samples. • Extraction was achieved by cloud point extraction. • A nano-hybrid assembly between AuNPs and dithiol-coated quantum dots was formulated. • Detection was accomplished at pico-molar levels by second-order light scattering. • The method was selective against ionic gold and other nanoparticle species. - Abstract: This work presents a new method for the sensitive and selective determination of gold nanoparticles in water samples. The method combines a sample preparation and enrichment step based on cloud point extraction with a new detection motif that relies on the optical incoherent light scattering of a nano-hybrid assembly that is formed by hydrogen bond interactions between gold nanoparticles and dithiotreitol-functionalized CdS quantum dots. The experimental parameters affecting the extraction and detection of gold nanoparticles were optimized and evaluated to the analysis of gold nanoparticles of variable size and surface coating. The selectivity of the method against gold ions and other nanoparticle species was also evaluated under different conditions reminiscent to those usually found in natural water samples. The developed method was applied to the analysis of gold nanoparticles in natural waters and wastewater with satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity (detection limit at the low pmol L −1 levels), recoveries (>80%) and reproducibility (<9%). Compared to other methods employing molecular spectrometry for metal nanoparticle analysis, the developed method offers improved sensitivity and it is easy-to-operate thus providing an additional tool for the monitoring and the assessment of nanoparticles toxicity and hazards in the environment.

  15. Determination of gold nanoparticles in environmental water samples by second-order optical scattering using dithiotreitol-functionalized CdS quantum dots after cloud point extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandyla, Spyridoula P.; Tsogas, George Z.; Vlessidis, Athanasios G.; Giokas, Dimosthenis L., E-mail: dgiokas@cc.uoi.gr

    2017-02-05

    Highlights: • A new method has been developed to determine gold nanoparticles in water samples. • Extraction was achieved by cloud point extraction. • A nano-hybrid assembly between AuNPs and dithiol-coated quantum dots was formulated. • Detection was accomplished at pico-molar levels by second-order light scattering. • The method was selective against ionic gold and other nanoparticle species. - Abstract: This work presents a new method for the sensitive and selective determination of gold nanoparticles in water samples. The method combines a sample preparation and enrichment step based on cloud point extraction with a new detection motif that relies on the optical incoherent light scattering of a nano-hybrid assembly that is formed by hydrogen bond interactions between gold nanoparticles and dithiotreitol-functionalized CdS quantum dots. The experimental parameters affecting the extraction and detection of gold nanoparticles were optimized and evaluated to the analysis of gold nanoparticles of variable size and surface coating. The selectivity of the method against gold ions and other nanoparticle species was also evaluated under different conditions reminiscent to those usually found in natural water samples. The developed method was applied to the analysis of gold nanoparticles in natural waters and wastewater with satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity (detection limit at the low pmol L{sup −1} levels), recoveries (>80%) and reproducibility (<9%). Compared to other methods employing molecular spectrometry for metal nanoparticle analysis, the developed method offers improved sensitivity and it is easy-to-operate thus providing an additional tool for the monitoring and the assessment of nanoparticles toxicity and hazards in the environment.

  16. Silver ion modulated CdS quantum dots for highly selective detection of trace Hg{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppa, Yuwapon; Kulchat, Sirinan; Ngamdee, Kessarin; Pradublai, Kaewklao [Materials Chemistry Research Unit, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Tuntulani, Thawatchai [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Ngeontae, Wittaya, E-mail: wittayange@kku.ac.th [Materials Chemistry Research Unit, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Research Center for Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (EHWM), Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-10-15

    In the present work, water-soluble cysteamine capped-CdS quantum dots (Cys-CdS QDs) modulated with Ag{sup +} were employed as fluorescence sensors for the determination of Hg{sup 2+} ion. The synthesized Cys-CdS QDs exhibit relatively weak fluorescence emission, however, the emission was enhanced exclusively in the presence of Ag{sup +} compared to other metal ions. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of the Ag{sup +} modulated Cys-CdS QDs (Ag{sup +}@Cys-CdS QDs) was significantly quenched in the presence of trace amounts of Hg{sup 2+} due to high-affinity metallophilic interactions between Hg{sup 2+} and Ag{sup +}. Based on this specific interaction, good selectivity towards the detection of Hg{sup 2+} over other metal ions was achieved. To gain the best sensing performance, parameters affecting the Hg{sup 2+} detection sensitivity were studied and optimized in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the fluorescence intensity of Ag{sup +}@Cys-CdS QDs decreased linearly with Hg{sup 2+} concentration in the range of 0.1–3.5 μM, with a limit of detection of around 0.09 μM. The applicability of this sensor was demonstrated by the determination of Hg{sup 2+} in drinking water samples, corresponding well with results of cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

  17. Improved efficiency of CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cell with an organic redox couple and a polymer counter electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Ting; Li, Xiong; Ku, Zhi-Liang; Wang, Shi; Wu, Shi; Jin, Xiao-Hong; Hu, Chun-Di

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The organic AT - /BAT and T - /T 2 redox couples were used in CdS QDSSCs. • The AT - /BAT and PEDOT are better than polysulfide electrolyte and Pt and CoS CEs. • An improved η of 1.53% was obtained with the AT - /BAT electrolyte and the PEDOT CE. • PEDOT CE deposited at high deposition charge has better electrochemical activity. • The AT - /BAT outperformed T - /T 2 electrolyte due to suppressed charge recombination. - Abstract: Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on an organic thiolate/disulfide redox couple (C 7 H 5 N 4 S - /C 14 H 10 N 8 S 2 or C 2 H 3 N 4 S - /C 4 H 6 N 8 S 2 ) and a polymer counter electrode [poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT] were fabricated and their photovoltaic performance were investigated. In CdS QDSSC, the organic C 7 H 5 N 4 S - /C 14 H 10 N 8 S 2 electrolyte shows better performance than the polysulfide electrolyte, and the PEDOT counter electrode exhibits higher efficiency than that of the Pt counter electrode and the CoS counter electrode. An efficiency of 1.53% was achieved in this QDSSC. The influences of the morphology and the deposition charge of the PEDOT counter electrodes on the cell performance were also studied. Furthermore, it was found that the C 7 H 5 N 4 S - /C 14 H 10 N 8 S 2 redox couple outperformed the C 2 H 3 N 4 S - /C 4 H 6 N 8 S 2 redox couple due to reduced electron recombination

  18. 开关型表面活性剂胶束为模板合成CdS量子点%Facile Synthesis of CdS Quantum Dots in Surfactant Micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何艳娥; 张婷; 代利; 蒋建中; 崔正刚

    2013-01-01

    In this article,CdS quantum dots have been synthesized in micelles system.The micelle could be broken easily and CdS quantum dots could be obtained by simple centrifugation and washing.The quantum dots were then characterized by TEM,XRD.The method using micelles as soft template to prepare CdS quantum dots can be widely applied to synthesize other nanoparticles.%以开关型表面活性剂N'-十二烷基-N,N-二甲基乙基脒碳酸氢盐胶束溶液为软模板合成CdS纳米粒子,反应结束后向体系中通入N2并加热至65℃使体系破乳,该过程避免了传统表面活性剂胶束的繁琐破乳过程.合成的CdS纳米粒子通过TEM、XRD进行表征,结果表明以该表面活性剂胶束为软模板可合成粒径在10 nm以下、具有纳米光学效应的CdS量子点.

  19. Effect of Al 2 O 3 Recombination Barrier Layers Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition in Solid-State CdS Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Roelofs, Katherine E.; Brennan, Thomas P.; Dominguez, Juan C.; Bailie, Colin D.; Margulis, George Y.; Hoke, Eric T.; McGehee, Michael D.; Bent, Stacey F.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the promise of quantum dots (QDs) as a light-absorbing material to replace the dye in dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) efficiencies remain low, due in part to high rates of recombination. In this article

  20. Optimization of the Photoanode of CdS Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Light-Scattering TiO2 Hollow Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, Maziar; Rahmani, Elham; Ahangarani Farahani, Farzaneh

    2017-12-01

    CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) have been fabricated and their photoanode optimized by altering the thickness of the photoelectrode and CdS deposition conditions and applying a ZnS electron-blocking layer and TiO2 hollow spheres. Hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanocrystals (NCs) with dominant size of 20 nm were deposited as a sublayer in the photoanode with thickness in the range from 5 μm to 10 μm using a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The number of deposition cycles was altered over a wide range to obtain optimized sensitization. Photoanode thickness and number of CdS sensitization cycles around the optimum values were selected and used for ZnS deposition. ZnS overlayers were also deposited on the surface of the photoanodes using different numbers of cycles of the SILAR process. The best QDSC with the optimized photoelectrode demonstrated a 153% increase in efficiency compared with a similar cell with ZnS-free photoanode. Such bilayer photoelectrodes were also fabricated with different thicknesses of TiO2 sublayers and one overlayer of TiO2 hollow spheres (HSs) with external diameter of 500 nm fabricated by liquid-phase deposition with carbon spheres as template. The optimization was performed by changing the photoanode thickness using a wide range of CdS sensitizing cycles. The maximum energy conversion efficiency was increased by about 77% compared with a similar cell with HS-free photoelectrode. The reason was considered to be the longer path length of the incident light inside the photoanode and greater light absorption. A ZnS blocking layer was overcoated on the surface of the bilayer photoanode with optimized thickness. The number of CdS sensitization cycles was also changed around the optimized value to obtain the best QDSC performance. The number of ZnS deposition cycles was also altered in a wide range for optimization of the photovoltaic performance. It was shown that the maximum efficiency was increased by

  1. Fluorescence Quenching of Dendrimer-Encapsulated CdS Quantum Dots for the Detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyojung; Kim, Hai Dong; Kim, Joohoon [Kyung Hee Un iversity, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) exists in natural environments as a byproduct of various enzymatic and photochemical reactions. Various approaches have been reported for the synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) QDs using dendrimers, which can be categorized mainly into two general approaches. The first approach utilizes dendrimers as capping agents, resulting in the formation of agglomerates of spatially segregated QDs stabilized by multiple dendrimers. We have described the synthesis and characterization of the CdS QDs using G6-NH{sub 2} dendrimers. By controlling the molar ratios (n = Cd2+/G6-NH{sub 2}) between the Cd{sup 2+} ions and G6-NH{sub 2} dendrimers, we synthesized a set of CdS QDs with different structural and optical properties. Importantly, the synthesized CdS QDs exhibited H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-sensitive fluorescence, which can be utilized for the detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Especially, the CdS QDs with n = 64 displayed a Stern–Volmer relationship between the fluorescence of the CdS QDs and the concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, as well as the strongest fluorescence among the set of the synthesized CdS QDs. Since core-shell structures of QDs often result in enhanced stability and quantum efficiency of the QDs, we are currently working on core-shell structured QDs prepared using dendrimers to improve their stability and quantum yield compared to the CdS QDs reported in the present study.

  2. Photocatalyst based on TiO2 nanotube arrays co-decorated with CdS quantum dots and reduced graphene oxide irradiated by γ rays for effective degradation of ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Ye, Shengying; Song, Xianliang; Luo, Shucan

    2018-06-01

    We report herein a means of transforming TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) from an amorphous state to an anatase crystal state (denoted as ∗TNAs), and present a single-step synthetic route for preparing CdS quantum dots (CdS QDs) as well as reduced graphene oxide (rGO) through gamma-ray irradiation. The as-prepared ∗TNAs, CdS QDs, and rGO, which had all been subjected to gamma-ray irradiation, were then assembled together to produce the desired heterojunction (denoted as CdS QDs/rGO-∗TNAs). X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), ultraviolet/visible diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy (UV/Vis DRS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), micro-Raman spectrometry (RS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been applied to characterize the appearance and performance of this photocatalyst. The photocatalytic activity of CdS QDs/rGO-∗TNAs towards ethylene degradation has been measured by placing it in a simulated cold-storage environment, the temperature and humidity of which were set at about 3 ± 1 °C and 75-90%, respectively. The results showed that the rate constant (K) of ethylene degradation could reach up to 1.07 × 10-3 min-1 with CdS QDs/rGO-∗TNAs, as compared to 2.30 × 10-4 min-1 with ∗TNAs and 6.25 × 10-4 min-1 with CdS QDs-∗TNAs, indicating that the constructed CdS QDs/rGO-∗TNAs constitutes a promising photocatalyst for ethylene removal in a cold storage environment.

  3. Structural, optical and photovoltaic properties of P3HT and Mn-doped CdS quantum dots based bulk hetrojunction hybrid layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Uzma; Adhikari, Tham; Pathak, Dinesh; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

    2018-04-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) and Mn-doped CdS nanocrystals were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The nanocrystals were characterized by Fluorescence, Fourier Transformed Infra-red Spectrometer (FTIR), UV-Visible, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM). A considerable blue shift of absorption band with respect to the cadmium sulphide was observed by the Mn concentration (0.5 M) in the doped sample with decreasing the size of nanocrystals. Other reason for this may be Mn doping. Subsequently the band gap was altered from 2.11 to 2.21 eV due to quantum confinement effect. Scanning electron microscope supplemented with EDAX was operated to find grain size and chemical composition of the synthesized nanomaterials. The PL spectrum of Mn-doped CdS nanocrystals displays three PL bands the first one, within the range of 500 nm and the second band at 537 nm, and the third one around 713 nm is labelled red band emission due to attributed to a 4T1→6A1 transition within the 3d shell of divalent manganese. XRD analysis showed that the material was in cubic crystalline state. A comparative study of surfaces of un-doped and metal doped CdS nanocrystals were investigated using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The synthesized nanomaterial in combination with polymer, poly (3-hexyl thiophene) was operated in the construction of photovoltaic cells. The photovoltaic devices with CdS nanocrystals exhibited power conversion efficiency of 0.34% without annealing and 0.38% with annealing. However, the power conversion efficiency was enhanced by a factor of 0.35 without annealing and 0.42 with annealing with corporation of Mn impurity in CdS lattice. Atomic Force Microscopy was employed for morphology and packing behavior of blend of nanocrystals with organic polymer.

  4. Quantum dot spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots ("solid state atoms") are promising candidates for quantum computers and future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Quantum dots are zero-dimensional electronic systems and therefore have discrete energy levels, similar to atoms or molecules. The size distribution of...

  5. Quantum dot spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan

    Semiconductor quantum dots ("solid-state atoms") are promising candidates for quantum computers and future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Quantum dots are zero-dimensional electronic systems and therefore have discrete energy levels, similar to atoms or molecules. The size distribution of...

  6. Role of ZnO photoanode nanostructures and sensitizer deposition approaches on the photovoltaic properties of CdS/CdSe and CdS1-xSex quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şişman, İlkay; Tekir, Oktay; Karaca, Hüseyin

    2017-02-01

    Hierarchical bundle-like ZnO nanorod arrays (BNRs) were synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal method based on two consecutive temperature steps for cascade CdS/CdSe and ternary CdS1-xSex alloy quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) as photoanode. The CdS/CdSe and CdS1-xSex QDs were deposited on the surface of the ZnO BNRs by conventional and modified successive ionic-layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods, respectively. Using the ZnO BNRs/CdS/CdSe photoanode, the power conversion efficiency reaches 2.08%, which is 1.8 times higher than that of pristine ZnO nanorods/CdS/CdSe photoanode, while by applying ZnO BNRs/CdS1-xSex, the power conversion efficiency improves 2.52%. The remarkably improved photovoltaic performance is mainly derived from the bundle-like nanorod arrays structure, which increases the QDs loading amount and the scattering effect for light absorption, and the appropriate conduction band energy, sufficient Se amount and well coverage of the ternary CdS1-xSex QDs result in enhanced photogenerated electron injection, high light absorption and reduced recombination, respectively. As a result, ZnO BNRs/CdS1-xSex combination can significantly improve performance of QDSSCs.

  7. Uniform deposition of water-soluble CdS quantum dots on TiO2 nanotube arrays by cyclic voltammetric electrodeposition: Effectively prevent aggregation and enhance visible-light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaojiao; Lin, Shiwei; Liao, Jianjun; Pan, Nengqian; Li, Danhong; Cao, Xiankun; Li, Jianbao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Water-soluble CdS QDs were deposited on the TNTAs by DC electrodeposition, CV electrodeposition, and SILAR. • The CV method could effectively prevent the aggregation and uniformly deposit CdS QDs onto the TNTAs. • The CTAB/CdS/TNTAs prepared by the CV method exhibited superior photoelectrical properties and photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: Water-soluble CdS quantum dots (QDs) covered with cationic surfactant-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were deposited on the highly ordered TiO 2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) by various methods, such as direct current (DC) electrodeposition, cyclic voltammetric (CV) electrodeposition, and successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR). The morphology measurements show that CTAB capping could well control the QD size and the CV method could effectively prevent the nanoparticle aggregation and uniformly deposit QDs onto TNTAs. Among all the deposition methods studied, the sample prepared by the CV method possesses superior photoelectrical properties and photocatalytic activity. A maximum photoconversion efficiency of 2.81% is achieved for the CdS/TNTAs prepared by CV electrodeposition, which exhibits about 17 times enhancement over the efficiency of the sample prepared by DC electrodeposition. And the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under visible-light irradiation demonstrates that the rate constant of the sample prepared by the CV method is almost seven times of that of the untreated TNTAs. Moreover, the underlying mechanism for the improving properties has been discussed

  8. A simple and sensitive flow injection method based on the catalytic activity of CdS quantum dots in an acidic permanganate chemiluminescence system for determination of formaldehyde in water and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataee, Alireza; Lotfi, Roya; Hasanzadeh, Aliyeh; Iranifam, Mortaza

    2016-04-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method in which CdS quantum dots (QDs) enhanced the CL intensity of a KMnO4-formaldehyde (HCHO) reaction was offered for the determination of HCHO. This CL system was based on the catalytic activity of CdS QDs and their participation in the CL resonance energy transfer (CRET) phenomenon. A possible mechanism for the supplied CL system was proposed using the kinetic curves of the CL systems and the spectra of CL, photoluminescence (PL) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis). The emanated CL intensity of the KMnO4-CdS QDs system was amplified in the presence of a trace level of HCHO. Based on this enhancement effect, a simple and sensitive flow injection CL method was suggested for the determination of HCHO concentration in environmental water and wastewater samples. Under selected optimized experimental conditions, the increased CL intensity was proportional to the HCHO concentration in the range of 0.03-4.5 μg L(-1) and 4.5-10.0 μg L(-1). The detection limits (3σ) were 0.0003 μg L(-1) and 1.2 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSD%) for eleven replicate determinations of 4.0 μg L(-1) HCHO were 2.2%. Furthermore, the feasibility of the developed method was investigated via the determination of HCHO concentration in environmental water and wastewater samples.

  9. Quantum Dots: Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2009-11-10

    This review covers the description of the methodologies typically used for the calculation of the electronic structure of self-assembled and colloidal quantum dots. These are illustrated by the results of their application to a selected set of physical effects in quantum dots.

  10. Synthesis of quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Hunter

    2017-10-17

    Common approaches to synthesizing alloyed quantum dots employ high-cost, air-sensitive phosphine complexes as the selenium precursor. Disclosed quantum dot synthesis embodiments avoid these hazardous and air-sensitive selenium precursors. Certain embodiments utilize a combination comprising a thiol and an amine that together reduce and complex the elemental selenium to form a highly reactive selenium precursor at room temperature. The same combination of thiol and amine acts as the reaction solvent, stabilizing ligand, and sulfur source in the synthesis of quantum dot cores. A non-injection approach may also be used. The optical properties of the quantum dots synthesized by this new approach can be finely tuned for a variety of applications by controlling size and/or composition of size and composition. Further, using the same approach, a shell can be grown around a quantum dot core that improves stability, luminescence efficiency, and may reduce toxicity.

  11. Transport in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deus, Fernanda; Continetino, Mucio

    2011-01-01

    Full text. In this work we study the time dependent transport in interacting quantum dot. This is a zero-dimensional nano structure system which has quantized electronic states. In our purpose, we are interested in studying such system in a Coulomb blockade regime where a mean-field treatment of the electronic correlations are appropriate. The quantum dot is described by an Anderson type of Hamiltonian where the hybridization term arises from the contact with the leads. We consider a time dependence of both the energy of the localized state in the quantum dot and of the hybridization-like term. These time dependent parameters, under certain conditions, induce a current in the quantum dot even in the absence of difference on the chemical potential of the leads. The approach to this non-equilibrium problem requires the use of a Keldysh formalism. We calculate the non- equilibrium Green's functions and obtain results for the average (equilibrium term) and the non-equilibrium values of the electronic occupation number in the dot. we consider the possibility of a magnetic solution, with different values for the average up and down spins in the quantum dot. Our results allow to obtain, for instance, the tunneling current through the dot. The magnetic nature of the dot, for a certain range of parameters should give rise also to an induced spin current through the dot

  12. A novel "dual-potential" electrochemiluminescence aptasensor array using CdS quantum dots and luminol-gold nanoparticles as labels for simultaneous detection of malachite green and chloramphenicol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaobin; Gan, Ning; Zhang, Huairong; Yan, Qing; Li, Tianhua; Cao, Yuting; Hu, Futao; Yu, Hongwei; Jiang, Qianli

    2015-12-15

    A novel type of "dual-potential" electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor array was fabricated on a homemade screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) for simultaneous detection of malachite green (MG) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in one single assay. The SPCE substrate consisted of a common Ag/AgCl reference electrode, carbon counter electrode and two carbon working electrodes (WE1 and WE2). In the system, CdS quantum dots (QDs) were modified on WE1 as cathode ECL emitters and luminol-gold nanoparticles (L-Au NPs) were modified on WE2 as anode ECL emitters. Then the MG aptamer complementary strand (MG cDNA) and CAP aptamer complementary strand (CAP cDNA) were attached on CdS QDs and L-Au NPs, respectively. The cDNA would hybridize with corresponding aptamer that was respectively tagged with cyanine dye (Cy5) (as quenchers of CdS QDs) and chlorogenic acid (CA) (as quenchers of l-Au NPs) using poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) as a bridging agent. PEI could lead to a large number of quenchers on the aptamer, which increased the quenching efficiency. Upon MG and CAP adding, the targets could induce strand release due to the highly affinity of analytes toward aptamers. Meanwhile, it could release the Cy5 and CA, which recovered cathode ECL of CdS QDs and anode ECL of L-Au NPs simultaneously. This "dual-potential" ECL strategy could be used to detect MG and CAP with the linear ranges of 0.1-100 nM and 0.2-150 nM, with detection limits of 0.03 nM and 0.07 nM (at 3sB), respectively. More importantly, this designed method was successfully applied to determine MG and CAP in real fish samples and held great potential in the food analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots induce oxidative stress and behavioral impairments in the marine clam Scrobicularia plana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Zalouk-Vergnoux, Aurore; Poirier, Laurence; Lopes, Christelle; Risso-de-Faverney, Christine; Guibbolini, Marielle; Gilliland, Douglas; Perrein-Ettajani, Hanane; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots have a number of current applications in electronics and solar cells and significant future potential in medicine. The aim of the present study was to examine the toxic effects of CdS quantum dots on the marine clam Scrobicularia plana exposed for 14 d to these nanomaterials (10 µg Cd L(-1) ) in natural seawater and to compare them with soluble Cd. Measurement of labile Cd released from CdS quantum dots showed that 52% of CdS quantum dots remained in the nanoparticulate form. Clams accumulated the same levels of Cd regardless of the form in which it was delivered (soluble Cd vs CdS quantum dots). However, significant changes in biochemical responses were observed in clams exposed to CdS quantum dots compared with soluble Cd. Increased activities of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were significantly higher in clams exposed in seawater to Cd as the nanoparticulate versus the soluble form, suggesting a specific nano effect. The behavior of S. plana in sediment showed impairments of foot movements only in the case of exposure to CdS quantum dots. The results show that oxidative stress and behavior biomarkers are sensitive predictors of CdS quantum dots toxicity in S. plana. Such responses, appearing well before changes might occur at the population level, demonstrate the usefulness of this model species and type of biomarker in the assessment of nanoparticle contamination in estuarine ecosystems. © 2015 SETAC.

  14. Effect of the nature of cationic precursors for SILAR deposition on the performance of CdS and PbS/CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yingbo; Li, Zhen; Yu, Libo; Sun, Shuqing, E-mail: sunshuqing@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin University, Department of Chemistry (China)

    2015-03-15

    In this work, the influences of cationic precursors on the quality of photoelectrode, consequently on the performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) have been studied. CdS QDSCs have been prepared using successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Three cadmium precursors including nitrate (Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}), chloride (CdCl{sub 2}), and acetate (Cd(Ac){sub 2}) were employed for the synthesis and absorption of CdS nanoparticles on nanostructure TiO{sub 2} film. The loading amount and nanoparticle size of the CdS on mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film showed a significant difference while using various cadmium precursors in the same SILAR cycles. Both the light-harvesting ability and the obtained incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency values show the trend of deposition rate caused by cadmium precursors. Further, it was proposed that an effective cationic precursor could provide a good connection between QD sensitizer and TiO{sub 2} interface by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis. Under AM 1.5 G full one sun illumination, the final power conversion efficiency of CdS QDSC based on Cd(Ac){sub 2} was 2.10 %, and PCE values of 1.57 and 1.20 % were obtained for solar cells sensitized by CdS QDs prepared by CdCl{sub 2} and Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, respectively. The cationic precursor effect was further applied in PbS/CdS co-sensitized solar cells. The PbS/CdS QDSCs based on acetate cationic precursors provide a photocurrent of 19.24 mA/cm{sup 2} and PCE of 3.23 % in comparison with 11.26 mA and 2.13 % obtained with nitrate acetate salts. Noticeably, the CdS and PbS/CdS QDSCs based on various cationic precursors prepared by SILAR exhibited good photocurrent stability under several light on–off cycles.

  15. Effect of the nature of cationic precursors for SILAR deposition on the performance of CdS and PbS/CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yingbo; Li, Zhen; Yu, Libo; Sun, Shuqing

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the influences of cationic precursors on the quality of photoelectrode, consequently on the performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) have been studied. CdS QDSCs have been prepared using successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Three cadmium precursors including nitrate (Cd(NO 3 ) 2 ), chloride (CdCl 2 ), and acetate (Cd(Ac) 2 ) were employed for the synthesis and absorption of CdS nanoparticles on nanostructure TiO 2 film. The loading amount and nanoparticle size of the CdS on mesoporous TiO 2 film showed a significant difference while using various cadmium precursors in the same SILAR cycles. Both the light-harvesting ability and the obtained incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency values show the trend of deposition rate caused by cadmium precursors. Further, it was proposed that an effective cationic precursor could provide a good connection between QD sensitizer and TiO 2 interface by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis. Under AM 1.5 G full one sun illumination, the final power conversion efficiency of CdS QDSC based on Cd(Ac) 2 was 2.10 %, and PCE values of 1.57 and 1.20 % were obtained for solar cells sensitized by CdS QDs prepared by CdCl 2 and Cd(NO 3 ) 2 , respectively. The cationic precursor effect was further applied in PbS/CdS co-sensitized solar cells. The PbS/CdS QDSCs based on acetate cationic precursors provide a photocurrent of 19.24 mA/cm 2 and PCE of 3.23 % in comparison with 11.26 mA and 2.13 % obtained with nitrate acetate salts. Noticeably, the CdS and PbS/CdS QDSCs based on various cationic precursors prepared by SILAR exhibited good photocurrent stability under several light on–off cycles

  16. Quantum dot molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews recent advances in the exciting and rapidly growing field of quantum dot molecules (QDMs). It offers state-of-the-art coverage of novel techniques and connects fundamental physical properties with device design.

  17. Graphene quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Güçlü, Alev Devrim; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    This book reflects the current status of theoretical and experimental research of graphene based nanostructures, in particular quantum dots, at a level accessible to young researchers, graduate students, experimentalists and theorists. It presents the current state of research of graphene quantum dots, a single or few monolayer thick islands of graphene. It introduces the reader to the electronic and optical properties of graphite, intercalated graphite and graphene, including Dirac fermions, Berry's phase associated with sublattices and valley degeneracy, covers single particle properties of

  18. Quantum dot solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The third generation of solar cells includes those based on semiconductor quantum dots. This sophisticated technology applies nanotechnology and quantum mechanics theory to enhance the performance of ordinary solar cells. Although a practical application of quantum dot solar cells has yet to be achieved, a large number of theoretical calculations and experimental studies have confirmed the potential for meeting the requirement for ultra-high conversion efficiency. In this book, high-profile scientists have contributed tutorial chapters that outline the methods used in and the results of variou

  19. Quantum optics with single quantum dot devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiller, Valery; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    A single radiative transition in a single-quantum emitter results in the emission of a single photon. Single quantum dots are single-quantum emitters with all the requirements to generate single photons at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. It is also possible to generate more than single photons with single quantum dots. In this paper we show that single quantum dots can be used to generate non-classical states of light, from single photons to photon triplets. Advanced solid state structures can be fabricated with single quantum dots as their active region. We also show results obtained on devices based on single quantum dots

  20. Hexagonal graphene quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Sumit; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    We study hexagonal graphene quantum dots, using density functional theory, to obtain a quantitative description of the electronic properties and their size dependence, considering disk and ring geometries with both armchair and zigzag edges. We show that the electronic properties of quantum dots with armchair edges are more sensitive to structural details than those with zigzag edges. As functions of the inner and outer radii, we find in the case of armchair edges that the size of the band gap follows distinct branches, while in the case of zigzag edges it changes monotonically. This behaviour is further analyzed by studying the ground state wave function and explained in terms of its localisation.

  1. Hexagonal graphene quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Sumit

    2016-12-05

    We study hexagonal graphene quantum dots, using density functional theory, to obtain a quantitative description of the electronic properties and their size dependence, considering disk and ring geometries with both armchair and zigzag edges. We show that the electronic properties of quantum dots with armchair edges are more sensitive to structural details than those with zigzag edges. As functions of the inner and outer radii, we find in the case of armchair edges that the size of the band gap follows distinct branches, while in the case of zigzag edges it changes monotonically. This behaviour is further analyzed by studying the ground state wave function and explained in terms of its localisation.

  2. Nanocrystal quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Klimov, Victor I

    2010-01-01

    ""Soft"" Chemical Synthesis and Manipulation of Semiconductor Nanocrystals, J.A. Hollingsworth and V.I. Klimov Electronic Structure in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Optical Experiment, D.J. NorrisFine Structure and Polarization Properties of Band-Edge Excitons in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, A.L. EfrosIntraband Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Dots, P. Guyot-Sionnest, M. Shim, and C. WangMultiexciton Phenomena in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, V.I. KlimovOptical Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Quantum Do

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Mercaptoacetic Acid Capped Cadmium Sulphide Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wageh, S; Maize, Mai; Donia, A M; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Umar, Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the facile synthesis and detailed characterization of mercaptoacetic acid capped cadmium sulphide (CdS) quantum dots using various cadmium precursors. The mercaptoacetic acid capped CdS quantum dots were prepared by facile and simple wet chemical method and characterized by several techniques such as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis. spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM) and thremogravimetric analysis. The EDS studies revealed that the prepared quantum dots possess higher atomic percentage of sulfur compared to cadmium due to the coordination of thiolate to the quantum dots surfaces. The X-ray and absorption analyses exhibited that the size of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate is larger than the quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The increase in size can be attributed to the low stability constant of cadmium acetate in comparison with cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis showed that the nature of capping molecule on the surface of quantum dots are different depending on the cadmium precursors which affect the emission from CdS quantum dots. Photoemission spectroscopy revealed that the emission of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate has high intensity band edge emission along with low intensity trapping state emission. However the CdS quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate produced only trapping state emissions.

  4. Improving conversion efficiency of CdS quantum dots-sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays by doping with Zn{sup 2+} and decorating with ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chong, E-mail: chongchen@henu.edu.cn [Henan Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Wang, Lei; Li, Fumin; Ling, Lanyu [Henan Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-08-01

    The Zn-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNTs) decorated with ZnO nanoparticles have been prepared via electrochemical anodization and immersing method. Furthermore, the CdS quantum dots (QDs) were deposited on the prepared Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO thin films by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method to fabricate the CdS QDs-sensitized Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO photoelectrodes. The nanostructure, morphology, optical properties and electrochemical properties of the CdS/Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO photoelectrode with comparison to those of the CdS/TNTs photoelectrodes were investigated. It has been found that the Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO photoelectrodes significantly increased the UV–vis light absorption of the CdS/Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO photoelectrodes and reduced the charge recombination at the surfaces of the CdS/Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO photoelectrodes. As a consequence, when the Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO film was adopted instead of the plain TNTs film, the light-chemical energy conversion efficiency of the CdS/Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO photoelectrode was much improved compared with the CdS/TNTs photoelectrode. A maximum energy conversion efficiency achieved for the CdS/Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO photoelectrode is 3.86%, which is a 17% improvement compared with the maximum energy conversion efficiency of 3.29% achieved for the CdS/TNTs photoelectrodes. - Highlights: • The CdS/Zn-doped TNTs-ZnO photoelectrodes were synthesized. • The optical properties and photochemical properties were investigated. • The energy conversion efficiency depends on the Zn doping concentration. • The energy conversion efficiency was improved by the Zn doping.

  5. Quantum Dot Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnischtzke, Laura A.

    We report on several experiments using single excitons confined to single semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Electric and magnetic fields have previously been used as experimental knobs to understand and control individual excitons in single quantum dots. We realize new ways of electric field control by changing materials and device geometry in the first two experiments with strain-based InAs QDs. A standard Schottky diode heterostructure is demonstrated with graphene as the Schottky gate material, and its performance is bench-marked against a diode with a standard gate material, semi-transparent nickel-chromium (NiCr). This change of materials increases the photon collection rate by eliminating absorption in the metallic NiCr layer. A second set of experiments investigates the electric field response of QDs as a possible metrology source. A linear voltage potential drop in a plane near the QDs is used to describe how the spatially varying voltage profile is also imparted on the QDs. We demonstrate a procedure to map this voltage profile as a preliminary route towards a full quantum sensor array. Lastly, InAs QDs are explored as potential spin-photon interfaces. We describe how a magnetic field is used to realize a reversible exchange of information between light and matter, including a discussion of the polarization-dependence of the photoluminesence, and how that can be linked to the spin of a resident electron or hole. We present evidence of this in two wavelength regimes for InAs quantum dots, and discuss how an external magnetic field informs the spin physics of these 2-level systems. This thesis concludes with the discovery of a new class of quantum dots. As-yet unidentified defect states in single layer tungsten diselenide (WSe 2 ) are shown to host quantum light emission. We explore the spatial extent of electron confinement and tentatively identify a radiative lifetime of 1 ns for these single photon emitters.

  6. Quantum dots and nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Herman Sander

    2010-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), also known as semiconducting nanoparticles, are promising zero-dimensional advanced materials because of their nanoscale size and because they can be engineered to suit particular applications such as nonlinear optical devices (NLO), electro-optical devices, and computing applications. QDs can be joined to polymers in order to produce nanocomposites which can be considered a scientific revolution of the 21st century. One of the fastest moving and most exciting interfaces of nanotechnology is the use of QDs in medicine, cell and molecular biology. Recent advances in nanomaterials have produced a new class of markers and probes by conjugating semiconductor QDs with biomolecules that have affinities for binding with selected biological structures. The nanoscale of QDs ensures that they do not scatter light at visible or longer wavelengths, which is important in order to minimize optical losses in practical applications. Moreover, at this scale, quantum confinement and surface effects become very important and therefore manipulation of the dot diameter or modification of its surface allows the properties of the dot to be controlled. Quantum confinement affects the absorption and emission of photons from the dot. Thus, the absorption edge of a material can be tuned by control of the particle size. This paper reviews developments in the myriad of possibilities for the use of semiconductor QDs associated with molecules producing novel hybrid nanocomposite systems for nanomedicine and bioengineering applications.

  7. PREFACE: Quantum Dot 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert A.

    2010-09-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at Quantum Dot 2010 (QD2010). The conference was held in Nottingham, UK, on 26-30 April 2010. The conference addressed topics in research on: 1. Epitaxial quantum dots (including self-assembled and interface structures, dots defined by electrostatic gates etc): optical properties and electron transport quantum coherence effects spin phenomena optics of dots in cavities interaction with surface plasmons in metal/semiconductor structures opto-electronics applications 2. Novel QD structures: fabrication and physics of graphene dots, dots in nano-wires etc 3. Colloidal quantum dots: growth (shape control and hybrid nanocrystals such as metal/semiconductor, magnetic/semiconductor) assembly and surface functionalisation optical properties and spin dynamics electrical and magnetic properties applications (light emitting devices and solar cells, biological and medical applications, data storage, assemblers) The Editors Acknowledgements Conference Organising Committee: Maurice Skolnick (Chair) Alexander Tartakovskii (Programme Chair) Pavlos Lagoudakis (Programme Chair) Max Migliorato (Conference Secretary) Paola Borri (Publicity) Robert Taylor (Proceedings) Manus Hayne (Treasurer) Ray Murray (Sponsorship) Mohamed Henini (Local Organiser) International Advisory Committee: Yasuhiko Arakawa (Tokyo University, Japan) Manfred Bayer (Dortmund University, Germany) Sergey Gaponenko (Stepanov Institute of Physics, Minsk, Belarus) Pawel Hawrylak (NRC, Ottawa, Canada) Fritz Henneberger (Institute for Physics, Berlin, Germany) Atac Imamoglu (ETH, Zurich, Switzerland) Paul Koenraad (TU Eindhoven, Nethehrlands) Guglielmo Lanzani (Politecnico di Milano, Italy) Jungil Lee (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Korea) Henri Mariette (CNRS-CEA, Grenoble, France) Lu Jeu Sham (San Diego, USA) Andrew Shields (Toshiba Research Europe, Cambridge, UK) Yoshihisa Yamamoto (Stanford University, USA) Artur

  8. Ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of tumor cells based on multiple layer CdS quantum dots-functionalized polystyrene microspheres and graphene oxide - polyaniline composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jidong; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Hengshan; Gao, Zehua; He, Shengquan; Li, Jian; Han, Shumin

    2018-02-15

    In this work, a novel ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor was developed for the detection of K562 cell by a signal amplification strategy based on multiple layer CdS QDs functionalized polystyrene microspheres(PS) as bioprobe and graphene oxide(GO) -polyaniline(PANI) composite as modified materials of capture electrode. Due to electrostatic force of different charge, CdS QDs were decorated on the surface of PS by PDDA (poly(diallyldimethyl-ammonium chloride)) through a layer-by-layer(LBL) assemble technology, in which the structure of multiple layer CdS QDs increased the detection signal intensity. Moreover, GO-PANI composite not only enhanced the electron transfer rate, but also increased tumor cells load ratio. The resulting electrochemical biosensor was used to detect K562 cells with a lower detection limit of 3 cellsmL -1 (S/N = 3) and a wider linear range from 10 to 1.0 × 10 7 cellsmL -1 . This sensor was also used for mannosyl groups on HeLa cells and Hct116 cells, which showed high specificity and sensitivity. This signal amplification strategy would provide a novel approach for detection, diagnosis and treatment for tumor cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Silicon quantum dots: surface matters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnalová, K.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Kůsová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 17 (2014), 1-28 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP204/12/P235 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon quantum dots * quantum dot * surface chemistry * quantum confinement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.346, year: 2014

  10. Quantum dot solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamefula, U.C.; Sulaiman, M.Y.; Sopian, K.; Ibarahim, Z.; Ibrahim, N.; Alghoul, M.A.; Haw, L.C.; Yahya, M.; Amin, N.; Mat, S.; Ruslan, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The much awaited desire of replacing fossil fuel with photovoltaic will remain a fairy tale if the myriad of issues facing solar cell development are marginalized. Foremost in the list is the issue of cost. Silicon has reached a stage where its use on large scale can no longer be lavishly depended upon. The demand for high grade silicon from the microelectronics and solar industries has soared leading to scarcity. New approach has to be sought. Notable is the increased attention on thin films such as cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium diselenide, amorphous silicon, and the not so thin non-crystalline family of silicon. While efforts to address the issues of stability, toxicity and efficiency of these systems are ongoing, another novel approach is quietly making its appearance - quantum dots. Quantum dots seem to be promising candidates for solar cells because of the opportunity to manipulate their energy levels allowing absorption of a wider solar spectrum. Utilization of minute quantity of these nano structures is enough to bring the cost of solar cell down and to ascertain sustainable supply of useful material. The paper outlines the progress that has been made on quantum dot solar cells. (author)

  11. Quantum dots for quantum information technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the most recent developments in quantum dot spin physics and the generation of deterministic superior non-classical light states with quantum dots. In particular, it addresses single quantum dot spin manipulation, spin-photon entanglement and the generation of single-photon and entangled photon pair states with nearly ideal properties. The role of semiconductor microcavities, nanophotonic interfaces as well as quantum photonic integrated circuits is emphasized. The latest theoretical and experimental studies of phonon-dressed light matter interaction, single-dot lasing and resonance fluorescence in QD cavity systems are also provided. The book is written by the leading experts in the field.

  12. Polyaniline/carbon nanotube/CdS quantum dot composites with enhanced optical and electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, Mrinmoy [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, 713209 (India); Ghosh, Ranajit, E-mail: ghosh.ranajit@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur, 713209 (India); Maruyama, Takahiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, Meijo University, Nagoya, 4688502 (Japan); Meikap, Ajit Kumar [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, 713209 (India)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new kind of polyaniline/carbon nanotube/CdS quantum dot composites have been synthesized via in-situ polymerization of aniline monomer. • A degree of increase in conductivity. • Size-dependent optical properties of CdS quantum dots have been observed. - Abstract: A new kind of polyaniline/carbon nanotube/CdS quantum dot composites have been developed via in-situ polymerization of aniline monomer in the presence of dispersed CdS quantum dots (size: 2.7–4.8 nm) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT), which exhibits enhanced optical and electrical properties. The existences of 1st order, 2nd order, and 3rd order longitudinal optical phonon modes, strongly indicate the high quality of synthesized CdS quantum dots. The occurrence of red shift of free exciton energy in photoluminescence is due to size dependent quantum confinement effect of CdS. The conductivity of the composites (for example PANI/CNT/CdS (2 wt.% CdS)) is increased by about 7 of magnitude compared to that of pure PANI indicating a charge transfer between CNT and polymer via CdS quantum dots. This advanced material has a great potential for high-performance of electro-optical applications.

  13. Aging effect of quantum dots on solar cells sensitized with nano-crystals of CdS and PbS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Borhanifar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, solar cells sensitized with CdS and PbS Nanocrystalline metal sulfides, chemically grown by SILAR, were fabricated and characterized. PV experiments including I-V test in the presence of light and dark,Vocdecay, and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were performed on the Cells made through this method in the presence of light and dark and in the time period of 2, 3, 6 and 10 days. From these experiments, the changes in indicators including fill factor, efficiency, open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, lifetime of electrons in nanostructured anode electrode, recombination resistance and capacitance of the anode electrode-electrolyte interface were observed. Also, mechanisms for some existing evidences within photovoltaic experiments such as the increase and decrease of recombination resistance were proposed.

  14. Enhanced photovoltaic performance utilizing effective charge transfers and light scattering effects by the combination of mesoporous, hollow 3D-ZnO along with 1D-ZnO in CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetia, Tridip Ranjan; Barpuzary, Dipankar; Qureshi, Mohammad

    2014-05-28

    A combination of 3-dimensional (3D) hollow mesoporous ZnO microspheres (ZnO HMSP) and vertically grown one-dimensional ZnO nanowires (1D ZnO NWs) on a fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate has been investigated as a photoanode for a CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QSSC). A comparative study of the photovoltaic performance of the solar cell with devices fabricated with pristine ZnO HMSPs and ZnO NWs was carried out. The proposed photovoltaic device exhibits an enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) upto ∼74% and ∼35%, as compared to the 1D ZnO NW and ZnO HMSP based solar cells. The maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) for the solar cell was observed to be ∼40%, whereas for the devices fabricated with bare ZnO HMSP and ZnO NW the IPCE were only ∼32% and ∼19%, respectively. The enhanced photovoltaic performance of the solar cell is attributed to the high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, efficient light-scattering effects and facilitated diffusion of the electrolyte for better functioning of the redox couple (S(2-)/Sn(2-)) in the hybrid photoanode. Moreover, a faster electron transport through 1D ZnO NWs provides better charge collection from the photoactive layer, which leads to an increase in the short circuit current density of the device. The present study highlights the design and development of a new hybrid photoanode for solar harvesting.

  15. Phosphorene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnoi, Pratap; Mazumder, Madhulika; Barua, Manaswee; Pati, Swapan K.; Rao, C. N. R.

    2018-05-01

    Phosphorene, a two-dimensional material, has been a subject of recent investigations. In the present study, we have prepared blue fluorescent phosphorene quantum dots (PQDs) by liquid phase exfoliation of black phosphorus in two non-polar solvents, toluene and mesitylene. The average particle sizes of PQDs decrease from 5.0 to 1.0 nm on increasing the sonicator power from 150 to 225 W. The photoluminescence spectrum of the PQDs is red-shifted in the 395-470 nm range on increasing the excitation-wavelength from 300 to 480 nm. Electron donor and acceptor molecules quench the photoluminescence, with the acceptors showing more marked effects.

  16. Graphene based quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H G; Hu, H; Pan, Y; Mao, J H; Gao, M; Guo, H M; Du, S X; Greber, T; Gao, H-J

    2010-08-04

    Laterally localized electronic states are identified on a single layer of graphene on ruthenium by low temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). The individual states are separated by 3 nm and comprise regions of about 90 carbon atoms. This constitutes a highly regular quantum dot-array with molecular precision. It is evidenced by quantum well resonances (QWRs) with energies that relate to the corrugation of the graphene layer. The dI/dV conductance spectra are modeled by a layer height dependent potential-well with a delta-function potential that describes the barrier for electron penetration into graphene. The resulting QWRs are strongest and lowest in energy on the isolated 'hill' regions with a diameter of 2 nm, where the graphene is decoupled from the surface.

  17. Quadra-Quantum Dots and Related Patterns of Quantum Dot Molecules: Basic Nanostructures for Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsak Panyakeow

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called 'Droplet Epitaxy' has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390'C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7'8'10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200'C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or, which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.

  18. Silicon Quantum Dots for Quantum Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    S. Lai, C. Tahan, A. Morello and A. S. Dzurak, Electron Spin lifetimes in multi-valley sil- icon quantum dots, S3NANO Winter School Few spin solid...lifetimes in multi-valley sil- icon quantum dots, International Workshop on Silicon Quantum Electronics, Grenoble, France, February 2012 (Poster). C...typically plunger gates), PMMA A5 is spun at 5000 rpm for 30 seconds, resulting in a 280 nm resist thickness. The resists are baked for 90 seconds at 180

  19. Quantum dots: Rethinking the electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishnoi, Dimple [Department of Physics, S. S. Jain Subodh PG College, Jaipur, Rajasthan Pin-302004 (India)

    2016-05-06

    In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically that the Quantum dots are quite interesting for the electronics industry. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are nanometer-scale crystals, which have unique photo physical, quantum electrical properties, size-dependent optical properties, There small size means that electrons do not have to travel as far as with larger particles, thus electronic devices can operate faster. Cheaper than modern commercial solar cells while making use of a wider variety of photon energies, including “waste heat” from the sun’s energy. Quantum dots can be used in tandem cells, which are multi junction photovoltaic cells or in the intermediate band setup. PbSe (lead selenide) is commonly used in quantum dot solar cells.

  20. Quantum dots coupled ZnO nanowire-array panels and their photocatalytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yulong; Que, Wenxiu; Zhang, Jin; Zhong, Peng; Yuan, Yuan; Qiu, Xinku; Shen, Fengyu

    2013-02-01

    Fabrication and characterization of a heterojunction structured by CdS quantum dots@ZnO nanowire-array panels were presented. Firstly, ZnO nanowire-array panels were prepared by using a chemical bath deposition approach where wurtzite ZnO nanowires with a diameter of about 100 nm and 3 microm in length grew perpendicularly to glass substrate. Secondly, CdS quantum dots were deposited onto the surface of the ZnO nanowire-arrays by using successive ion layer absorption and reaction method, and the CdS shell/ZnO core heterojunction were thus obtained. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the morphological properties of the as-obtained CdS quantum dots@ZnO nanowire-array panels. X-ray diffraction was adopted to characterize the crystalline properties of the as-obtained CdS quantum dots@ZnO nanowire-array panels. Methyl orange was taken as a model compound to confirm the photocatalytic activities of the CdS shell/ZnO core heterojunction. Results indicate that CdS with narrow band gap not only acts as a visible-light sensitizer but also is responsible for an effective charge separation.

  1. From quantum dots to quantum circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, K.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Quantum dots, or artificial atoms, confine charge carriers in three-dimensional islands in a semiconductor environment. Detailed understanding and exquisite control of the charge and spin state of the electrically tunable charge occupancy have been demonstrated over the years. Quantum dots with best quality for transport experiments are usually realized in n-type AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures. Novel material systems, such as graphene, nanowires and p-type heterostructures offer unexplored parameter regimes in view of spin-orbit interactions, carrier-carrier interactions and hyperfine coupling between electron and nuclear spins, which might be relevant for future spin qubits realized in quantum dots. With more sophisticated nanotechnology it has become possible to fabricate coupled quantum systems where classical and quantum mechanical coupling and back action is experimentally investigated. A narrow constriction, or quantum point contact, in vicinity to a quantum dot has been shown to serve as a minimally invasive sensor of the charge state of the dot. If charge transport through the quantum dot is slow enough (kHz), the charge sensor allows the detection of time-resolved transport through quantum-confined structures. This has allowed us to measure extremely small currents not detectable with conventional electronics. In addition the full statistics of current fluctuations becomes experimentally accessible. This way correlations between electrons which influence the current flow can be analyzed by measuring the noise and higher moments of the distribution of current fluctuations. Mesoscopic conductors driven out of equilibrium can emit photons which may be detected by another nearby quantum system with suitably tuned energy levels. This way an on-chip microwave single photon detector has been realized. In a ring geometry containing a tunable double quantum dot it has been possible to measure the self-interference of individual electrons as they traverse

  2. Electron Raman scattering in a cylindrical quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Qinghu; Yi Xuehua

    2012-01-01

    Electron Raman scattering (ERS) is investigated in a CdS cylindrical quantum dot (QD). The differential cross section is calculated as a function of the scattering frequency and the size of the QD. Single parabolic conduction and valence bands are assumed, and singularities in the spectrum are found and interpreted. The selection rules for the processes are also studied. The ERS studied here can be used to provide direct information about the electron band structure of these systems. (semiconductor physics)

  3. Quadra-quantum Dots and Related Patterns of Quantum Dot Molecules:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsak Panyakeow

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called ‘‘Droplet Epitaxy” has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390°C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7–8×10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200°C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or , which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.

  4. Quantum features of semiconductor quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozada-Cassou, M.; Dong Shihai; Yu Jiang

    2004-01-01

    The exact solutions of the two-dimensional Schrodinger equation with the position-dependent mass for the square well potential in the semiconductor quantum dots system are obtained. The eigenvalues, which are closely related to the position-dependent masses μ1 and μ2, the potential well depth V0 and the radius of the quantum dots r0, can be calculated from two boundary conditions. We generalize this quantum system to three-dimensional case. The special cases for the angular momentum quantum number l=0, 1, 2 are studied in some detail. We find that the energy levels are proportional to the parameters μ2, V0 and r0 for l=0. The relations between them for l=1, 2 become very complicated. The scattering states of this quantum system are mentioned briefly

  5. Influence of the temperature on the synthesis of CdS quantum dots stabilized with poly (vinil alcohol); Influencia da temperatura na sintese de pontos quanticos de sulfeto de cadmio estabilizados por poli (alcool vinilico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (Quantum Dots, QDs) have been the subject of recent research by presenting quantum properties. This property has stimulated the study of these particles in biological applications such as bookmarks, which creates the necessity of using different synthesis routes resulting in biocompatible systems. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature on the properties of QDs cadmium sulfide, aqueous route using poly (vinyl alcohol), a biocompatible polymer, such as stabilizing agent. The characterization of particles produced was performed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra for obtaining the absorption and emission, respectively and Transmission microscopy (TEM) for analysis of the diameter of the nanocrystals. (author)

  6. Large quantum dots with small oscillator strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren; Schlereth, T.W.; Höfling, S.

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the oscillator strength and quantum efficiency of excitons confined in large InGaAs quantum dots by recording the spontaneous emission decay rate while systematically varying the distance between the quantum dots and a semiconductor-air interface. The size of the quantum dots...... is measured by in-plane transmission electron microscopy and we find average in-plane diameters of 40 nm. We have calculated the oscillator strength of excitons of that size assuming a quantum-dot confinement given by a parabolic in-plane potential and a hard-wall vertical potential and predict a very large...... intermixing inside the quantum dots....

  7. Electron correlations in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipton, Denver Leonard John

    2001-01-01

    Quantum dot structures confine electrons in a small region of space. Some properties of semiconductor quantum dots, such as the discrete energy levels and shell filling effects visible in addition spectra, have analogies to those of atoms and indeed dots are sometimes referred to as 'artificial atoms'. However, atoms and dots show some fundamental differences due to electron correlations. For real atoms, the kinetic energy of electrons dominates over their mutual Coulomb repulsion energy and for this reason the independent electron approximation works well. For quantum dots the confining potential may be shallower than that of real atoms leading to lower electron densities and a dominance of mutual Coulomb repulsion over kinetic energy. In this strongly correlated regime the independent electron picture leads to qualitatively incorrect results. This thesis concentrates on few-electron quantum dots in the strongly correlated regime both for quasi-one-dimensional and two-dimensional dots in a square confining potential. In this so-called 'Wigner' regime the ground-state electronic charge density is localised near positions of classical electrostatic minima and the interacting electronic spectrum consists of well separated spin multiplets. In the strongly correlated regime the structure of low-energy multiplets is explained by mapping onto lattice models with extended-Hubbard and Heisenberg effective Hamiltonians. The parameters for these effective models are calculated within a Hartree approximation and are shown to reproduce well the exact results obtained by numerical diagonalisation of the full interacting Hamiltonian. Comparison is made between square dots and quantum rings with full rotational symmetry. In the very low-density regime, direct diagonalisation becomes impractical due to excessive computer time for convergence. In this regime a numerical renormalisation group method is applied to one-dimensional dots, enabling effective spin-interactions to be

  8. Using quantum dot photoluminescence for load detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moebius, M.; Martin, J.; Hartwig, M.; Baumann, R. R.; Otto, T.; Gessner, T.

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel concept for an integrable and flexible sensor capable to visualize mechanical impacts on lightweight structures by quenching the photoluminescence (PL) of CdSe quantum dots. Considering the requirements such as visibility, storage time and high optical contrast of PL quenching with low power consumption, we have investigated a symmetrical and an asymmetrical layer stack consisting of semiconductor organic N,N,N',N'-Tetrakis(3-methylphenyl)-3,3'-dimethylbenzidine (HMTPD) and CdSe quantum dots with elongated CdS shell. Time-resolved series of PL spectra from layer stacks with applied voltages of different polarity and simultaneous observation of power consumption have shown that a variety of mechanisms such as photo-induced charge separation and charge injection, cause PL quenching. However, mechanisms such as screening of external field as well as Auger-assisted charge ejection is working contrary to that. Investigations regarding the influence of illumination revealed that the positive biased asymmetrical layer stack is the preferred sensor configuration, due to a charge carrier injection at voltages of 10 V without the need of coincident illumination.

  9. Using quantum dot photoluminescence for load detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moebius

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel concept for an integrable and flexible sensor capable to visualize mechanical impacts on lightweight structures by quenching the photoluminescence (PL of CdSe quantum dots. Considering the requirements such as visibility, storage time and high optical contrast of PL quenching with low power consumption, we have investigated a symmetrical and an asymmetrical layer stack consisting of semiconductor organic N,N,N′,N′-Tetrakis(3-methylphenyl-3,3′-dimethylbenzidine (HMTPD and CdSe quantum dots with elongated CdS shell. Time-resolved series of PL spectra from layer stacks with applied voltages of different polarity and simultaneous observation of power consumption have shown that a variety of mechanisms such as photo-induced charge separation and charge injection, cause PL quenching. However, mechanisms such as screening of external field as well as Auger-assisted charge ejection is working contrary to that. Investigations regarding the influence of illumination revealed that the positive biased asymmetrical layer stack is the preferred sensor configuration, due to a charge carrier injection at voltages of 10 V without the need of coincident illumination.

  10. Improvement of the luminescent properties of cadmium sulfide quantum dots by a post-synthesis modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Israel; Gómez, Idalia, E-mail: maria.gomezd@uanl.edu.mx

    2014-11-15

    Here the improvement of the luminescent properties of CdS quantum dots by a post-synthesis modification with aqueous solutions of NaOH at different concentrations is presented. The CdS quantum dots were synthesized by a microwave-assisted method using citrate ions as stabilizer. The addition of the hydroxide ions increased the intensity of the orange-red emission by about 80%. Besides, a violet-blue emission was achieved by means of this post-synthesis modification. The hydroxide ions control the precipitation equilibria of the CdS and Cd(OH){sub 2}, dissolving and precipitating the surface of the quantum dots. The NaOH treatment increases the number of traps, which produces less band-edge and more deep-trap emission, which explains the decrease and increase in the intensity of the violet-blue and orange-red emissions, respectively.

  11. Improvement of the luminescent properties of cadmium sulfide quantum dots by a post-synthesis modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, Israel; Gómez, Idalia

    2014-01-01

    Here the improvement of the luminescent properties of CdS quantum dots by a post-synthesis modification with aqueous solutions of NaOH at different concentrations is presented. The CdS quantum dots were synthesized by a microwave-assisted method using citrate ions as stabilizer. The addition of the hydroxide ions increased the intensity of the orange-red emission by about 80%. Besides, a violet-blue emission was achieved by means of this post-synthesis modification. The hydroxide ions control the precipitation equilibria of the CdS and Cd(OH) 2 , dissolving and precipitating the surface of the quantum dots. The NaOH treatment increases the number of traps, which produces less band-edge and more deep-trap emission, which explains the decrease and increase in the intensity of the violet-blue and orange-red emissions, respectively

  12. Polyaniline/carbon nanotube/CdS quantum dot composites with enhanced optical and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Mrinmoy; Ghosh, Ranajit; Maruyama, Takahiro; Meikap, Ajit Kumar

    2016-02-01

    A new kind of polyaniline/carbon nanotube/CdS quantum dot composites have been developed via in-situ polymerization of aniline monomer in the presence of dispersed CdS quantum dots (size: 2.7-4.8 nm) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT), which exhibits enhanced optical and electrical properties. The existences of 1st order, 2nd order, and 3rd order longitudinal optical phonon modes, strongly indicate the high quality of synthesized CdS quantum dots. The occurrence of red shift of free exciton energy in photoluminescence is due to size dependent quantum confinement effect of CdS. The conductivity of the composites (for example PANI/CNT/CdS (2 wt.% CdS)) is increased by about 7 of magnitude compared to that of pure PANI indicating a charge transfer between CNT and polymer via CdS quantum dots. This advanced material has a great potential for high-performance of electro-optical applications.

  13. Effect of shells on photoluminescence of aqueous CdTe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Zhimin; Yang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Size-tunable CdTe coated with several shells using an aqueous solution synthesis. CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots exhibited high PL efficiency up to 80% which implies the promising applications for biomedical labeling. - Highlights: • CdTe quantum dots were fabricated using an aqueous synthesis. • CdS, ZnS, and CdS/ZnS shells were subsequently deposited on CdTe cores. • Outer ZnS shells provide an efficient confinement of electron and hole inside the QDs. • Inside CdS shells can reduce the strain on the QDs. • Aqueous CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs exhibited high stability and photoluminescence efficiency of 80%. - Abstract: CdTe cores with various sizes were fabricated in aqueous solutions. Inorganic shells including CdS, ZnS, and CdS/ZnS were subsequently deposited on the cores through a similar aqueous procedure to investigate the effect of shells on the photoluminescence properties of the cores. In the case of CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots, the outer ZnS shell provides an efficient confinement of electron and hole wavefunctions inside the quantum dots, while the middle CdS shell sandwiched between the CdTe core and ZnS shell can be introduced to obviously reduce the strain on the quantum dots because the lattice parameters of CdS is situated at the intermediate-level between those of CdTe and ZnS. In comparison with CdTe/ZnS core–shell quantum dots, the as-prepared water-soluble CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots in our case can exhibit high photochemical stability and photoluminescence efficiency up to 80% in an aqueous solution, which implies the promising applications in the field of biomedical labeling

  14. Spin storage in quantum dot ensembles and single quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, Dominik

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the investigation of spin relaxation of electrons and holes in small ensembles of self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques. Furthermore, a method to detect the spin orientation in a single quantum dot was developed in the framework of this thesis. A spin storage device was used to optically generate oriented electron spins in small frequency selected quantum dot ensembles using circularly polarized optical excitation. The spin orientation can be determined by the polarization of the time delayed electroluminescence signal generated by the device after a continuously variable storage time. The degree of spin polarized initialization was found to be limited to 0.6 at high magnetic fields, where anisotropic effects are compensated. The spin relaxation was directly measured as a function of magnetic field, lattice temperature and s-shell transition energy of the quantum dot by varying the spin storage time up to 30 ms. Very long spin lifetimes are obtained with a lower limit of T 1 =20 ms at B=4 T and T=1 K. A strong magnetic field dependence T 1 ∝B -5 has been observed for low temperatures of T=1 K which weakens as the temperature is increased. In addition, the temperature dependence has been determined with T 1 ∝T -1 . The characteristic dependencies on magnetic field and temperature lead to the identification of the spin relaxation mechanism, which is governed by spin-orbit coupling and mediated by single phonon scattering. This finding is qualitatively supported by the energy dependent measurements. The investigations were extended to a modified device design that enabled studying the spin relaxation dynamics of heavy holes in self-assembled quantum dots. The measurements show a polarization memory effect for holes with up to 0.1 degree of polarization. Furthermore, investigations of the time dynamics of the hole spin relaxation reveal surprisingly long lifetimes T 1 h in the microsecond range, therefore, comparable with

  15. Spin storage in quantum dot ensembles and single quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, Dominik

    2009-10-15

    This thesis deals with the investigation of spin relaxation of electrons and holes in small ensembles of self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques. Furthermore, a method to detect the spin orientation in a single quantum dot was developed in the framework of this thesis. A spin storage device was used to optically generate oriented electron spins in small frequency selected quantum dot ensembles using circularly polarized optical excitation. The spin orientation can be determined by the polarization of the time delayed electroluminescence signal generated by the device after a continuously variable storage time. The degree of spin polarized initialization was found to be limited to 0.6 at high magnetic fields, where anisotropic effects are compensated. The spin relaxation was directly measured as a function of magnetic field, lattice temperature and s-shell transition energy of the quantum dot by varying the spin storage time up to 30 ms. Very long spin lifetimes are obtained with a lower limit of T{sub 1}=20 ms at B=4 T and T=1 K. A strong magnetic field dependence T{sub 1}{proportional_to}B{sup -5} has been observed for low temperatures of T=1 K which weakens as the temperature is increased. In addition, the temperature dependence has been determined with T{sub 1}{proportional_to}T{sup -1}. The characteristic dependencies on magnetic field and temperature lead to the identification of the spin relaxation mechanism, which is governed by spin-orbit coupling and mediated by single phonon scattering. This finding is qualitatively supported by the energy dependent measurements. The investigations were extended to a modified device design that enabled studying the spin relaxation dynamics of heavy holes in self-assembled quantum dots. The measurements show a polarization memory effect for holes with up to 0.1 degree of polarization. Furthermore, investigations of the time dynamics of the hole spin relaxation reveal surprisingly long lifetimes T{sub 1}{sup h

  16. Nuclear Spins in Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erlingsson, S.I.

    2003-01-01

    The main theme of this thesis is the hyperfine interaction between the many lattice nuclear spins and electron spins localized in GaAs quantum dots. This interaction is an intrinsic property of the material. Despite the fact that this interaction is rather weak, it can, as shown in this thesis,

  17. Polymer-coated quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomczak, N.; Liu, Rongrong; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with distinct photophysical properties finding applications in biology, biosensing, and optoelectronics. Polymeric coatings of QDs are used primarily to provide long-term colloidal stability to QDs dispersed in solutions and also as a source of

  18. Formation and properties of selected quantum dots in maize amylopectin matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Karen, E-mail: rrchacza@cyf-kr.edu.pl [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Agricultural University, Balicka Street 122, 30 149 Krakow (Poland); Khachatryan, Gohar; Fiedorowicz, Maciej [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Agricultural University, Balicka Street 122, 30 149 Krakow (Poland); Tomasik, Piotr [Krakow College of Health Promotion, Krowoderska Street 73, 31 158 Krakow (Poland)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of quantum dots in aqueous gel of amylopectin. • Generation of quantum dots in non-ionic polysaccharide. • Preparation of CdS, Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} and ZnS quantum dots of the size below 10 nm. • The amylopectin matrix is not suitable for generation of CaS and Cs{sub 2}S quantum dots. - Abstract: CdS, ZnS, Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}, CaS and Cs{sub 2}S quantum dots (QDs) were generated in the amylopectin (Ap) matrix. They all emitted a light between 460 (ZnS) and 475 (CdS) nm. Sizes of Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} and CdS QDs were 7–9 nm and 5–7 nm, respectively. Single ZnS QDs had 6–7 nm but they readily aggregated. The CaS and Cs{sub 2}S appeared mainly as 30–100 nm aggregates. There were no significant interactions between QDs and the Ap matrix. Presented method appeared unsuitable for the generation of CaS and Cs{sub 2}S QDs as they as well as their substrates [Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}] hydrolyzed. Calcium compounds formed complexes with Ap and alkaline solution from CsOH could produce cesium salts of Ap as well as cause oxidation of Ap.

  19. Semiconductor quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Borri, Paola; Ledentsov, N. N.

    2002-01-01

    -power surface emitting VCSELs. We investigated the ultrafast dynamics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. The dephasing time at room temperature of the ground-state transition in semiconductor quantum dots is around 250 fs in an unbiased amplifier, decreasing to below 50 fs when the amplifier...... is biased to positive net gain. We have further measured gain recovery times in quantum dot amplifiers that are significantly lower than in bulk and quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers. This is promising for future demonstration of quantum dot devices with high modulation bandwidth...

  20. Multi-Excitonic Quantum Dot Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, M.; Stinaff, E. A.; Doty, M. F.; Ware, M. E.; Bracker, A. S.; Gammon, D.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Reinecke, T. L.; Korenev, V. L.

    2006-03-01

    With the ability to create coupled pairs of quantum dots, the next step towards the realization of semiconductor based quantum information processing devices can be taken. However, so far little knowledge has been gained on these artificial molecules. Our photoluminescence experiments on single InAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules provide the systematics of coupled quantum dots by delineating the spectroscopic features of several key charge configurations in such quantum systems, including X, X^+,X^2+, XX, XX^+ (with X being the neutral exciton). We extract general rules which determine the formation of molecular states of coupled quantum dots. These include the fact that quantum dot molecules provide the possibility to realize various spin configurations and to switch the electron hole exchange interaction on and off by shifting charges inside the molecule. This knowledge will be valuable in developing implementations for quantum information processing.

  1. Colloidal quantum dot photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Sargent, Edward H.

    2011-01-01

    in particular on visible-, near-infrared, and short-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on size-effect-tuned semiconductor nanoparticles made using quantum-confined PbS, PbSe, Bi 2S3, and In2S3. These devices have in recent years achieved room-temperature D

  2. Doped Heterojunction Used in Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporated foreign atoms into the quantum dots (QDs used in heterojunction have always been a challenge for solar energy conversion. A foreign atom indium atom was incorporated into PbS/CdS QDs to prepare In-PbS/In-CdS heterojunction by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method which is a chemical method. Experimental results indicate that PbS or CdS has been doped with In by SILAR method; the concentration of PbS and CdS which was doped In atoms has no significantly increase or decrease. In addition, incorporating of Indium atoms has resulted in the lattice distortions or changes of PbS or CdS and improved the light harvest of heterojunction. Using this heterojunction, Pt counter electrode and polysulfide electrolyte, to fabricate quantum dot sensitized solar cells, the short circuit current density ballooned to 27.01 mA/cm2 from 13.61 mA/cm2 and the open circuit voltage was improved to 0.43 V from 0.37 V at the same time.

  3. The quantum Hall effect in quantum dot systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltukov, Y M; Greshnov, A A

    2014-01-01

    It is proposed to use quantum dots in order to increase the temperatures suitable for observation of the integer quantum Hall effect. A simple estimation using Fock-Darwin spectrum of a quantum dot shows that good part of carriers localized in quantum dots generate the intervals of plateaus robust against elevated temperatures. Numerical calculations employing local trigonometric basis and highly efficient kernel polynomial method adopted for computing the Hall conductivity reveal that quantum dots may enhance peak temperature for the effect by an order of magnitude, possibly above 77 K. Requirements to potentials, quality and arrangement of the quantum dots essential for practical realization of such enhancement are indicated. Comparison of our theoretical results with the quantum Hall measurements in InAs quantum dot systems from two experimental groups is also given

  4. Modeling of the quantum dot filling and the dark current of quantum dot infrared photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameen, Tarek A.; El-Batawy, Yasser M.; Abouelsaood, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    A generalized drift-diffusion model for the calculation of both the quantum dot filling profile and the dark current of quantum dot infrared photodetectors is proposed. The confined electrons inside the quantum dots produce a space-charge potential barrier between the two contacts, which controls the quantum dot filling and limits the dark current in the device. The results of the model reasonably agree with a published experimental work. It is found that increasing either the doping level or the temperature results in an exponential increase of the dark current. The quantum dot filling turns out to be nonuniform, with a dot near the contacts containing more electrons than one in the middle of the device where the dot occupation approximately equals the number of doping atoms per dot, which means that quantum dots away from contacts will be nearly unoccupied if the active region is undoped

  5. Quantum Logic Using Excitonic Quantum Dots in External Optical Microcavities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raymer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    An experimental project was undertaken to develop means to achieve quantum optical strong coupling between a single GaAs quantum dot and the optical mode of a microcavity for the purpose of quantum...

  6. Systematic optimization of quantum junction colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Tang, Jiang; Kramer, Illan J.; Ning, Zhijun; Sargent, Edward H.

    2012-01-01

    The recently reported quantum junction architecture represents a promising approach to building a rectifying photovoltaic device that employs colloidal quantum dot layers on each side of the p-n junction. Here, we report an optimized quantum

  7. Millimeter Wave Modulators Using Quantum Dots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prather, Dennis W

    2008-01-01

    In this effort electro-optic modulators for millimeter wave sensing and imaging were developed and demonstrated via design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of multi layer quantum dot...

  8. Optical Signatures of Coupled Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinaff, E. A.; Scheibner, M.; Bracker, A. S.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Korenev, V. L.; Ware, M. E.; Doty, M. F.; Reinecke, T. L.; Gammon, D.

    2006-02-01

    An asymmetric pair of coupled InAs quantum dots is tuned into resonance by applying an electric field so that a single hole forms a coherent molecular wave function. The optical spectrum shows a rich pattern of level anticrossings and crossings that can be understood as a superposition of charge and spin configurations of the two dots. Coulomb interactions shift the molecular resonance of the optically excited state (charged exciton) with respect to the ground state (single charge), enabling light-induced coupling of the quantum dots. This result demonstrates the possibility of optically coupling quantum dots for application in quantum information processing.

  9. Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices.......We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices....

  10. Stark shifting two-electron quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dineykhan, M.; Zhaugasheva, S.A.; Duysebaeva, K.S.

    2003-01-01

    Advances in modern technology make it possible to create semiconducting nano-structures (quantum dot) in which a finite number of electrons are 'captured' in a bounded volume. A quantum dot is associated with a quantum well formed at the interface, between two finite-size semiconductors owing to different positions of the forbidden gaps on the energy scale in these semiconductors. The possibility of monitoring and controlling the properties of quantum dots attracts considerable attention to these objects, as a new elemental basis for future generations of computers. The quantum-mechanical effects and image potential play a significant role in the description of the formation mechanism quantum dot, and determined the confinement potential in a two-electron quantum dot only for the spherical symmetric case. In the present talk, we considered the formation dynamics of two-electron quantum dot with violation of spherical symmetry. So, we have standard Stark potential. The energy spectrum two-electron quantum dot were calculated. Usually Stark interactions determined the tunneling phenomena between quantum dots

  11. Tuning band alignment by CdS layers using a SILAR method to enhance TiO2/CdS/CdSe quantum-dot solar-cell performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingkai; Zheng, Jiaxin; Li, Xiaoning; Fang, Yanyan; Wang, Lin-Wang; Lin, Yuan; Pan, Feng

    2016-04-28

    We report tuning band alignment by optimized CdS layers using a SILAR method to achieve the recorded best performance with about 6% PCE in TiO2/CdS/CdSe QDSSCs. Combining experimental and theoretical studies, we find that a better lattices match between CdS and TiO2 assists the growth of CdSe, and the combined effect of charge transfer and surface dipole moment at the TiO2/CdS/CdSe interface shifts the energy levels of TiO2 upward and increases Voc of the solar cells. More importantly, the band gap of CdS buffer layers is sensitive to the distortion induced by lattice mismatch and numbers of CdS layers. For example, the barrier for charge transfer disappears when there are more than 4 layers of CdS, facilitating the charge injection from CdSe to TiO2.

  12. Hydrogenic impurity in double quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.F.

    2007-01-01

    The ground state binding energy and the average interparticle distances for a hydrogenic impurity in double quantum dots with Gaussian confinement potential are studied by the variational method. The probability density of the electron is calculated, too. The dependence of the binding energy on the impurity position is investigated for GaAs quantum dots. The result shows that the binding energy has a minimum as a function of the distance between the two quantum dots when the impurity is located at the center of one quantum dot or at the center of the edge of one quantum dot. When the impurity is located at the center of the two dots, the binding energy decreases monotonically

  13. Colloidal quantum dot photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2011-05-01

    We review recent progress in light sensors based on solution-processed materials. Spin-coated semiconductors can readily be integrated with many substrates including as a post-process atop CMOS silicon and flexible electronics. We focus in particular on visible-, near-infrared, and short-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on size-effect-tuned semiconductor nanoparticles made using quantum-confined PbS, PbSe, Bi 2S3, and In2S3. These devices have in recent years achieved room-temperature D values above 1013 Jones, while fully-depleted photodiodes based on these same materials have achieved MHz response combined with 1012 Jones sensitivities. We discuss the nanoparticle synthesis, the materials processing, integrability, temperature stability, physical operation, and applied performance of this class of devices. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Resonance effects in Raman scattering of quantum dots formed by the Langmuir-Blodgett method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milekhin, A G; Sveshnikova, L L; Duda, T A [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrentjev av.13, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Surovtsev, N V; Adichtchev, S V [Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Koptyug av.1, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Azhniuk, Yu M [Institute of Electron Physics, Universytetska Str. 21, 88017, Uzhhorod (Ukraine); Himcinschi, C [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Str. 23, 09596, Freiberg (Germany); Kehr, M; Zahn, D R T, E-mail: milekhin@thermo.isp.nsc.r [Semiconductor Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2010-09-01

    The enhancement of Raman scattering by optical phonon modes in quantum dots was achieved in resonant and surface-enhanced Raman scattering experiments by approaching the laser energy to the energy of either the interband transitions or the localized surface plasmons in silver nanoclusters deposited onto the nanostructures. Resonant Raman scattering by TO, LO, and SO phonons as well as their overtones was observed for PbS, ZnS, and ZnO quantum dots while enhancement for LO and SO modes in CdS quantum dots with a factor of about 700 was measured in surface enhanced Raman scattering experiments. Multiple phonon Raman scattering observed up to 5th and 7th order for CdS and ZnO, respectively, confirms the high crystalline quality of the grown QDs.

  15. Exciton in type-II quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Ortega, J; Escorcia, R A [Universidad del Magdalena, A. A. 731, Santa Marta (Colombia); Mikhailov, I D, E-mail: jsierraortega@gmail.co [Universidad Industrial de Santander, A. A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    We study the quantum-size effect and the influence of the external magnetic field on the exciton ground state energy in the type-II InP quantum disk, lens and pyramid deposited on a wetting layer and embedded in a GaInP matrix. We show that the charge distribution over and below quantum dot and wetting layer induced by trapped exciton strongly depends on the quantum dot morphology and the strength of the magnetic field.

  16. Spin Switching via Quantum Dot Spin Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergs, N. M.; Bender, S. A.; Duine, R. A.; Schuricht, D.

    2018-01-01

    We develop a theory for spin transport and magnetization dynamics in a quantum dot spin valve, i.e., two magnetic reservoirs coupled to a quantum dot. Our theory is able to take into account effects of strong correlations. We demonstrate that, as a result of these strong correlations, the dot gate voltage enables control over the current-induced torques on the magnets and, in particular, enables voltage-controlled magnetic switching. The electrical resistance of the structure can be used to read out the magnetic state. Our model may be realized by a number of experimental systems, including magnetic scanning-tunneling microscope tips and artificial quantum dot systems.

  17. Detecting the chirality for coupled quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Huijuan; Hu Lian

    2008-01-01

    We propose a scheme to detect the chirality for a system consisting of three coupled quantum dots. The chirality is found to be determined by the frequency of the transition between chiral states under the chiral symmetry broken perturbation. The results are important to construct quantum gates and to demonstrate chiral entangle states in the triangle spin dots

  18. Optical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perinetti, U.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents different optical experiments performed on semiconductor quantum dots. These structures allow to confine a small number of electrons and holes to a tiny region of space, some nm across. The aim of this work was to study the basic properties of different types of quantum dots

  19. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A [Los Alamos, NM; Chen, Yongfen [Eugene, OR; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos, NM; Htoon, Han [Los Alamos, NM; Vela, Javier [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  20. Optical Spectroscopy Of Charged Quantum Dot Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, M.; Bracker, A. S.; Stinaff, E. A.; Doty, M. F.; Gammon, D.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Reinecke, T. L.; Korenev, V. L.

    2007-04-01

    Coupling between two closely spaced quantum dots is observed by means of photoluminescence spectroscopy. Hole coupling is realized by rational crystal growth and heterostructure design. We identify molecular resonances of different excitonic charge states, including the important case of a doubly charged quantum dot molecule.

  1. Capture, relaxation and recombination in quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sreenivasan, D.

    2008-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have attracted a lot of interest both from application and fundamental physics point of view. A semiconductor quantum dot features discrete atomiclike energy levels, despite the fact that it contains many atoms within its surroundings. The discrete energy levels give rise to very

  2. Spin-based quantum computation in multielectron quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xuedong; Sarma, S. Das

    2001-01-01

    In a quantum computer the hardware and software are intrinsically connected because the quantum Hamiltonian (or more precisely its time development) is the code that runs the computer. We demonstrate this subtle and crucial relationship by considering the example of electron-spin-based solid state quantum computer in semiconductor quantum dots. We show that multielectron quantum dots with one valence electron in the outermost shell do not behave simply as an effective single spin system unles...

  3. Excitonic quantum interference in a quantum dot chain with rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Suc-Kyoung; Nam, Seog Woo; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang

    2008-04-16

    We demonstrate excitonic quantum interference in a closely spaced quantum dot chain with nanorings. In the resonant dipole-dipole interaction model with direct diagonalization method, we have found a peculiar feature that the excitation of specified quantum dots in the chain is completely inhibited, depending on the orientational configuration of the transition dipole moments and specified initial preparation of the excitation. In practice, these excited states facilitating quantum interference can provide a conceptual basis for quantum interference devices of excitonic hopping.

  4. Biocompatible Quantum Dots for Biological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Sandra J.; Chang, Jerry C.; Kovtun, Oleg; McBride, James R.; Tomlinson, Ian D.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are quickly becoming a critical diagnostic tool for discerning cellular function at the molecular level. Their high brightness, long-lasting, sizetunable, and narrow luminescence set them apart from conventional fluorescence dyes. Quantum dots are being developed for a variety of biologically oriented applications, including fluorescent assays for drug discovery, disease detection, single protein tracking, and intracellular reporting. This review introduces the science behind quantum dots and describes how they are made biologically compatible. Several applications are also included, illustrating strategies toward target specificity, and are followed by a discussion on the limitations of quantum dot approaches. The article is concluded with a look at the future direction of quantum dots. PMID:21276935

  5. Magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuan; Huang, Chuankun; Liao, Tianjun; Chen, Jincan, E-mail: jcchen@xmu.edu.cn

    2015-12-18

    Highlights: • A three-terminal quantum dot refrigerator is proposed. • The effects of magnetic field, applied voltage, and polarization are considered. • The region that the system can work as a refrigerator is determined. • Two different magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators are compared. - Abstract: A new model of refrigerator consisting of a spin-splitting quantum dot coupled with two ferromagnetic reservoirs and a ferromagnetic insulator is proposed. The rate equation is used to calculate the occupation probabilities of the quantum dot. The expressions of the electron and magnon currents are obtained. The region that the system can work in as a refrigerator is determined. The cooling power and coefficient of performance (COP) of the refrigerator are derived. The influences of the magnetic field, applied voltage, and polarization of two leads on the performance are discussed. The performances of two different magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators are compared.

  6. Solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, J.M.; Gayral, B.; Moreau, E.; Robert, I.; Abram, I.

    2001-01-01

    We review the recent development of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using single self-assembled InAs quantum dots and three-dimensional semiconductor microcavities. We discuss first prospects for observing a strong coupling regime for single quantum dots. We then demonstrate that the strong Purcell effect observed for single quantum dots in the weak coupling regime allows us to prepare emitted photons in a given state (the same spatial mode, the same polarization). We present finally the first single-mode solid-state source of single photons, based on an isolated quantum dot in a pillar microcavity. This optoelectronic device, the first ever to rely on a cavity quantum electrodynamics effect, exploits both Coulomb interaction between trapped carriers in a single quantum dot and single mode photon tunneling in the microcavity. (author)

  7. Quantum dot devices for optical communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    -low threshold currents and amplifiers with record-high power levels. In this tutorial we will review the basic properties of quantum dots, emphasizing the properties which are important for laser and amplifier applications, as well as devices for all-optical signal processing. The high-speed properties....... The main property of semiconductor quantum dots compared to bulk material or even quantum well structures is the discrete nature of the allowed states, which means that inversion of the medium can be obtained for very low electron densities. This has led to the fabrication of quantum dot lasers with record...

  8. A bifacial quantum dot-sensitized solar cell with all-cadmium sulfide photoanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunqing; Tang, Qunwei; Liu, Danyang; Zhao, Zhiyuan; He, Benlin; Chen, Haiyan; Yu, Liangmin

    2015-02-01

    Pursuit of a high power conversion efficiency and reduction of electricity-generation cost has been a persistent objective for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). We present here the fabrication of a QDSSC comprising a nanoflower-structured CdS anode, a liquid electrolyte having S2-/Sn2- redox couples, and a transparent CoSe counter electrode. Nanoflower-structured CdS anodes are prepared by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and subsequently hydrothermal strategy free of any surfactant or template. The CdS nanoparticles synthesized by a SILAR method act as "seed crystal" for growth of CdS nanoflowers. The average electron lifetime is markedly elevated in nanoflower-structured CdS anode in comparison with CdS nanoparticle or nanoporous CdS microsphere anode. Herein, we study the effect of synthesis method on CdS morphology and solar cell's photovoltaic performance, showing a power conversion efficiency of 1.67% and 1.17% for nanoflower-structured CdS QDSSC under front and rear irradiations, respectively.

  9. Colloidal-Quantum-Dot Ring Lasers with Active Color Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Feber, Boris; Prins, Ferry; De Leo, Eva; Rabouw, Freddy T; Norris, David J

    2018-02-14

    To improve the photophysical performance of colloidal quantum dots for laser applications, sophisticated core/shell geometries have been developed. Typically, a wider bandgap semiconductor is added as a shell to enhance the gain from the quantum-dot core. This shell is designed to electronically isolate the core, funnel excitons to it, and reduce nonradiative Auger recombination. However, the shell could also potentially provide a secondary source of gain, leading to further versatility in these materials. Here we develop high-quality quantum-dot ring lasers that not only exhibit lasing from both the core and the shell but also the ability to switch between them. We fabricate ring resonators (with quality factors up to ∼2500) consisting only of CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots using a simple template-stripping process. We then examine lasing as a function of the optical excitation power and ring radius. In resonators with quality factors >1000, excitons in the CdSe cores lead to red lasing with thresholds at ∼25 μJ/cm 2 . With increasing power, green lasing from the CdS shell emerges (>100 μJ/cm 2 ) and then the red lasing begins to disappear (>250 μJ/cm 2 ). We present a rate-equation model that can explain this color switching as a competition between exciton localization into the core and stimulated emission from excitons in the shell. Moreover, by lowering the quality factor of the cavity we can engineer the device to exhibit only green lasing. The mechanism demonstrated here provides a potential route toward color-switchable quantum-dot lasers.

  10. Electron transport in quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    When I was contacted by Kluwer Academic Publishers in the Fall of 200 I, inviting me to edit a volume of papers on the issue of electron transport in quantum dots, I was excited by what I saw as an ideal opportunity to provide an overview of a field of research that has made significant contributions in recent years, both to our understanding of fundamental physics, and to the development of novel nanoelectronic technologies. The need for such a volume seemed to be made more pressing by the fact that few comprehensive reviews of this topic have appeared in the literature, in spite of the vast activity in this area over the course of the last decade or so. With this motivation, I set out to try to compile a volume that would fairly reflect the wide range of opinions that has emerged in the study of electron transport in quantum dots. Indeed, there has been no effort on my part to ensure any consistency between the different chapters, since I would prefer that this volume instead serve as a useful forum for the...

  11. Quantum measurement of coherent tunneling between quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiseman, H. M.; Utami, Dian Wahyu; Sun, He Bi; Milburn, G. J.; Kane, B. E.; Dzurak, A.; Clark, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the conditional and unconditional dynamics of two coupled quantum dots when one dot is subjected to a measurement of its occupation number by coupling it to a third readout dot via the Coulomb interaction. The readout dot is coupled to source and drain leads under weak bias, and a tunnel current flows through a single bound state when energetically allowed. The occupation of the quantum dot near the readout dot shifts the bound state of the readout dot from a low conducting state to a high conducting state. The measurement is made by continuously monitoring the tunnel current through the readout dot. We show that there is a difference between the time scale for the measurement-induced decoherence between the localized states of the dots, and the time scale on which the system becomes localized due to the measurement

  12. Dicke states in multiple quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Anna; Manolescu, Andrei

    2013-10-01

    We present a theoretical study of the collective optical effects which can occur in groups of three and four quantum dots. We define conditions for stable subradiant (dark) states, rapidly decaying super-radiant states, and spontaneous trapping of excitation. Each quantum dot is treated like a two-level system. The quantum dots are, however, realistic, meaning that they may have different transition energies and dipole moments. The dots interact via a short-range coupling which allows excitation transfer across the dots, but conserves the total population of the system. We calculate the time evolution of single-exciton and biexciton states using the Lindblad equation. In the steady state the individual populations of each dot may have permanent oscillations with frequencies given by the energy separation between the subradiant eigenstates.

  13. Thermoelectric transport through quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merker, Lukas Heinrich

    2016-06-30

    In this thesis the thermoelectric properties (electrical conductance, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductance)of quantum dots described by the Anderson impurity model have been investigated by using the numerical renormalization group (NRG) method. In order to make accurate calculations for thermoelectric properties of quantum impurity systems, a number of recent developments and refinements of the NRG have been implemented. These include the z-averaging and Campo discretization scheme, which enable the evaluation of physical quantities on an arbitrary temperature grid and at large discretization parameter Λ and the full density matrix (FDM) approach, which allows a more accurate calculation of spectral functions and transport coefficients. The implementation of the z-averaging and Campo discretization scheme has been tested within a new method for specific heats of quantum impurities. The accuracy of this new method was established by comparison with the numerical solution of the Bethe-ansatz equations for the Anderson model. The FDM approach was implemented and tested within a new approach to the calculation of impurity contributions to the uniform susceptibilities. Within this method a non-negligible contribution from the ''environmental'' degrees of freedom needs to be taken into account to recover the correct susceptibility, as shown by comparison with the Bethe-ansatz approach. An accurate method to calculate the conductance of a quantum dot is implemented, enabling the extraction of the Fermi liquid scaling coefficients c{sub T} and c{sub B} to high accuracy, being able to verify the results of the renormalized super perturbation theory approach (within its regime of validity). The method was generalized to higher order moments of the local level spectral function. This, as well as reduction of the SU(2) code to the U(1) symmetry, enabled the investigation of the effect of a magnetic field on the thermoelectric properties of quantum

  14. The electronic properties of semiconductor quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, J.A.

    2000-10-01

    This work is an investigation into the electronic behaviour of semiconductor quantum dots, particularly self-assembled quantum dot arrays. Processor-efficient models are developed to describe the electronic structure of dots, deriving analytic formulae for the strain tensor, piezoelectric distribution and diffusion- induced evolution of the confinement potential, for dots of arbitrary initial shape and composition profile. These models are then applied to experimental data. Transitions due to individual quantum dots have a narrow linewidth as a result of their discrete density of states. By contrast, quantum dot arrays exhibit inhomogeneous broadening which is generally attributed to size variations between the individual dots in the ensemble. Interpreting the results of double resonance spectroscopy, it is seen that variation in the indium composition of the nominally InAs dots is also present. This result also explains the otherwise confusing relationship between the spread in the ground-state and excited-state transition energies. Careful analysis shows that, in addition to the variations in size and composition, some other as yet unidentified broadening mechanism must also be present. The influence of rapid thermal annealing on dot electronic structure is also considered, finding that the experimentally observed blue-shift and narrowing of the photoluminescence linewidth may both be explained in terms of normal In/Ga interdiffusion. InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots are commonly assumed to have a pyramidal geometry, so that we would expect the energy separation of the ground-state electron and hole levels in the dot to be largest at a positive applied field. This should also be the case for any dot of uniform composition whose shape tapers inwards from base to top, counter to the results of experimental Stark-shift spectroscopy which show a peak transition energy at a negative applied field. It is demonstrated that this inversion of the ground state

  15. Circularly organized quantum dot nanostructures of Ge on Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Qijia; Chen, Peixuan; Zhong, Zhenyang; Jiang, Zuimin; Lu, Fang; An, Zhenghua

    2009-01-01

    A novel circularly arranged structure of germanium quantum dots has been fabricated by combining techniques including electron beam lithography, wet etching and molecular beam epitaxy. It was observed that both pattern and growth parameters affect the morphology of the quantum dot molecules. Meanwhile, the oxidation mask plays a vital role in the formation of circularly organized quantum dots. The experimental results demonstrate the possibilities of investigating the properties of quantum dot molecules as well as single quantum dots

  16. Chiral Responsive Liquid Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Ma, Junkai; Shi, Fangdan; Tian, Demei; Li, Haibing

    2017-08-01

    How to convert the weak chiral-interaction into the macroscopic properties of materials remains a huge challenge. Here, this study develops highly fluorescent, selectively chiral-responsive liquid quantum dots (liquid QDs) based on the hydrophobic interaction between the chiral chains and the oleic acid-stabilized QDs, which have been designated as (S)-1810-QDs. The fluorescence spectrum and liquidity of thermal control demonstrate the fluorescence properties and the fluidic behavior of (S)-1810-QDs in the solvent-free state. Especially, (S)-1810-QDs exhibit a highly chiral-selective response toward (1R, 2S)-2-amino-1,2-diphenyl ethanol. It is anticipated that this study will facilitate the construction of smart chiral fluidic sensors. More importantly, (S)-1810-QDs can become an attractive material for chiral separation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Nonadiabatic geometrical quantum gates in semiconductor quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solinas, Paolo; Zanghi, Nino; Zanardi, Paolo; Rossi, Fausto

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we study the implementation of nonadiabatic geometrical quantum gates with in semiconductor quantum dots. Different quantum information enconding (manipulation) schemes exploiting excitonic degrees of freedom are discussed. By means of the Aharanov-Anandan geometrical phase, one can avoid the limitations of adiabatic schemes relying on adiabatic Berry phase; fast geometrical quantum gates can be, in principle, implemented

  18. Entangled exciton states in quantum dot molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Manfred

    2002-03-01

    Currently there is strong interest in quantum information processing(See, for example, The Physics of Quantum Information, eds. D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert and A. Zeilinger (Springer, Berlin, 2000).) in a solid state environment. Many approaches mimic atomic physics concepts in which semiconductor quantum dots are implemented as artificial atoms. An essential building block of a quantum processor is a gate which entangles the states of two quantum bits. Recently a pair of vertically aligned quantum dots has been suggested as optically driven quantum gate(P. Hawrylak, S. Fafard, and Z. R. Wasilewski, Cond. Matter News 7, 16 (1999).)(M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z.R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, Science 291, 451 (2001).): The quantum bits are individual carriers either on dot zero or dot one. The different dot indices play the same role as a "spin", therefore we call them "isospin". Quantum mechanical tunneling between the dots rotates the isospin and leads to superposition of these states. The quantum gate is built when two different particles, an electron and a hole, are created optically. The two particles form entangled isospin states. Here we present spectrocsopic studies of single self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules that support the feasibility of this proposal. The evolution of the excitonic recombination spectrum with varying separation between the dots allows us to demonstrate coherent tunneling of carriers across the separating barrier and the formation of entangled exciton states: Due to the coupling between the dots the exciton states show a splitting that increases with decreasing barrier width. For barrier widths below 5 nm it exceeds the thermal energy at room temperature. For a given barrier width, we find only small variations of the tunneling induced splitting demonstrating a good homogeneity within a molecule ensemble. The entanglement may be controlled by application of electromagnetic field. For

  19. Ordered quantum-ring chains grown on a quantum-dot superlattice template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiang; Wang, Zhiming M.; Holmes, Kyland; Marega, Euclydes; Mazur, Yuriy I.; Salamo, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    One-dimensional ordered quantum-ring chains are fabricated on a quantum-dot superlattice template by molecular beam epitaxy. The quantum-dot superlattice template is prepared by stacking multiple quantum-dot layers and quantum-ring chains are formed by partially capping quantum dots. Partially capping InAs quantum dots with a thin layer of GaAs introduces a morphological change from quantum dots to quantum rings. The lateral ordering is introduced by engineering the strain field of a multi-layer InGaAs quantum-dot superlattice.

  20. System and method for making quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman; Pan, Jun; El-Ballouli, Ala'a O.; Knudsen, Kristian Rahbek; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of making quantum dots (QDs) (passivated or unpassivated) using a continuous flow process, systems for making QDs using a continuous flow process, and the like. In one or more embodiments

  1. Electron Transport in Coupled Quantum Dots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antoniadis, D

    1998-01-01

    In the course of the investigation funded by this proposal we fabricated, modeled, and measured a variety of quantum dot structures in order to better understand how such nanostructures might be used for computation...

  2. Synthetic Developments of Nontoxic Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Adita; Snee, Preston T

    2016-03-03

    Semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots (QDs), are candidates for biological sensing, photovoltaics, and catalysis due to their unique photophysical properties. The most studied QDs are composed of heavy metals like cadmium and lead. However, this engenders concerns over heavy metal toxicity. To address this issue, numerous studies have explored the development of nontoxic (or more accurately less toxic) quantum dots. In this Review, we select three major classes of nontoxic quantum dots composed of carbon, silicon and Group I-III-VI elements and discuss the myriad of synthetic strategies and surface modification methods to synthesize quantum dots composed of these material systems. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Optical Studies of Single Quantum Dots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gammon, Daniel; Steel, Duncan G

    2002-01-01

    ...: the atomlike entities known as quantum dots (QDs). Measuring 1-100 nm across, QDs are semiconductor structures in which the electron wavefunction is confined in all three dimensions by the potential energy barriers that form the QD's boundaries...

  4. Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics: A Path Forward

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2011-01-01

    spectrum. CQD materials' ease of processing derives from their synthesis, storage, and processing in solution. Rapid advances have brought colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic solar power conversion efficiencies of 6% in the latest reports. These achievements

  5. Quantum Dots Coupled to a Superconductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellinggaard, Anders Robert

    are tuned electrostatically. This includes tuning the odd occupation of the dot through a quantum phase transition, where it forms a singlet with excitations in the superconductor. We detail the fabrication of these bottom gated devices, which additionally feature ancillary sensor dots connected...

  6. Optical anisotropy in vertically coupled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ping; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Leosson, Kristjan

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the polarization of surface and edge-emitted photoluminescence (PL) from structures with vertically coupled In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots (QD's) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The PL polarization is found to be strongly dependent on the number of stacked layers. While single...... number due to increasing dot size....

  7. Submonolayer Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Chang, Yia-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A method has been developed for inserting submonolayer (SML) quantum dots (QDs) or SML QD stacks, instead of conventional Stranski-Krastanov (S-K) QDs, into the active region of intersubband photodetectors. A typical configuration would be InAs SML QDs embedded in thin layers of GaAs, surrounded by AlGaAs barriers. Here, the GaAs and the AlGaAs have nearly the same lattice constant, while InAs has a larger lattice constant. In QD infrared photodetector, the important quantization directions are in the plane perpendicular to the normal incidence radiation. In-plane quantization is what enables the absorption of normal incidence radiation. The height of the S-K QD controls the positions of the quantized energy levels, but is not critically important to the desired normal incidence absorption properties. The SML QD or SML QD stack configurations give more control of the structure grown, retains normal incidence absorption properties, and decreases the strain build-up to allow thicker active layers for higher quantum efficiency.

  8. Fermionic entanglement via quantum walks in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Alexey A.; Fedichkin, Leonid E.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum walks are fundamentally different from random walks due to the quantum superposition property of quantum objects. Quantum walk process was found to be very useful for quantum information and quantum computation applications. In this paper we demonstrate how to use quantum walks as a tool to generate high-dimensional two-particle fermionic entanglement. The generated entanglement can survive longer in the presence of depolorazing noise due to the periodicity of quantum walk dynamics. The possibility to create two distinguishable qudits in a system of tunnel-coupled semiconductor quantum dots is discussed.

  9. Semiconductor Quantum Dots with Photoresponsive Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansalone, Lorenzo; Tang, Sicheng; Zhang, Yang; Thapaliya, Ek Raj; Raymo, Françisco M; Garcia-Amorós, Jaume

    2016-10-01

    Photochromic or photocaged ligands can be anchored to the outer shell of semiconductor quantum dots in order to control the photophysical properties of these inorganic nanocrystals with optical stimulations. One of the two interconvertible states of the photoresponsive ligands can be designed to accept either an electron or energy from the excited quantum dots and quench their luminescence. Under these conditions, the reversible transformations of photochromic ligands or the irreversible cleavage of photocaged counterparts translates into the possibility to switch luminescence with external control. As an alternative to regulating the photophysics of a quantum dot via the photochemistry of its ligands, the photochemistry of the latter can be controlled by relying on the photophysics of the former. The transfer of excitation energy from a quantum dot to a photocaged ligand populates the excited state of the species adsorbed on the nanocrystal to induce a photochemical reaction. This mechanism, in conjunction with the large two-photon absorption cross section of quantum dots, can be exploited to release nitric oxide or to generate singlet oxygen under near-infrared irradiation. Thus, the combination of semiconductor quantum dots and photoresponsive ligands offers the opportunity to assemble nanostructured constructs with specific functions on the basis of electron or energy transfer processes. The photoswitchable luminescence and ability to photoinduce the release of reactive chemicals, associated with the resulting systems, can be particularly valuable in biomedical research and can, ultimately, lead to the realization of imaging probes for diagnostic applications as well as to therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer.

  10. Spectroscopy of Charged Quantum Dot Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinaff, E. A.; Scheibner, M.; Bracker, A. S.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Ware, M. E.; Doty, M. F.; Reinecke, T. L.; Gammon, D.; Korenev, V. L.

    2006-03-01

    Spins of single charges in quantum dots are attractive for many quantum information and spintronic proposals. Scalable quantum information applications require the ability to entangle and operate on multiple spins in coupled quantum dots (CQDs). To further the understanding of these systems, we present detailed spectroscopic studies of InAs CQDs with control of the discrete electron or hole charging of the system. The optical spectrum reveals a pattern of energy anticrossings and crossings in the photoluminescence as a function of applied electric field. These features can be understood as a superposition of charge and spin configurations of the two dots and represent clear signatures of quantum mechanical coupling. The molecular resonance leading to these anticrossings is achieved at different electric fields for the optically excited (trion) states and the ground (hole) states allowing for the possibility of using the excited states for optically induced coupling of the qubits.

  11. Metamorphic quantum dots: Quite different nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seravalli, L.; Frigeri, P.; Nasi, L.; Trevisi, G.; Bocchi, C.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present a study of InAs quantum dots deposited on InGaAs metamorphic buffers by molecular beam epitaxy. By comparing morphological, structural, and optical properties of such nanostructures with those of InAs/GaAs quantum dot ones, we were able to evidence characteristics that are typical of metamorphic InAs/InGaAs structures. The more relevant are: the cross-hatched InGaAs surface overgrown by dots, the change in critical coverages for island nucleation and ripening, the nucleation of new defects in the capping layers, and the redshift in the emission energy. The discussion on experimental results allowed us to conclude that metamorphic InAs/InGaAs quantum dots are rather different nanostructures, where attention must be put to some issues not present in InAs/GaAs structures, namely, buffer-related defects, surface morphology, different dislocation mobility, and stacking fault energies. On the other hand, we show that metamorphic quantum dot nanostructures can provide new possibilities of tailoring various properties, such as dot positioning and emission energy, that could be very useful for innovative dot-based devices.

  12. Advancements in the Field of Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha; Sinha, Swami Prasad.

    2012-08-01

    Quantum dots are defined as very small semiconductor crystals of size varying from nanometer scale to a few micron i.e. so small that they are considered dimensionless and are capable of showing many chemical properties by virtue of which they tend to be lead at one minute and gold at the second minute.Quantum dots house the electrons just the way the electrons would have been present in an atom, by applying a voltage. And therefore they are very judiciously given the name of being called as the artificial atoms. This application of voltage may also lead to the modification of the chemical nature of the material anytime it is desired, resulting in lead at one minute to gold at the other minute. But this method is quite beyond our reach. A quantum dot is basically a semiconductor of very tiny size and this special phenomenon of quantum dot, causes the band of energies to change into discrete energy levels. Band gaps and the related energy depend on the relationship between the size of the crystal and the exciton radius. The height and energy between different energy levels varies inversely with the size of the quantum dot. The smaller the quantum dot, the higher is the energy possessed by it.There are many applications of the quantum dots e.g. they are very wisely applied to:Light emitting diodes: LEDs eg. White LEDs, Photovoltaic devices: solar cells, Memory elements, Biology : =biosensors, imaging, Lasers, Quantum computation, Flat-panel displays, Photodetectors, Life sciences and so on and so forth.The nanometer sized particles are able to display any chosen colour in the entire ultraviolet visible spectrum through a small change in their size or composition.

  13. Spectroscopy characterization and quantum yield determination of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, S N Contreras; Ospino, E Mejía; Cabanzo, R

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show the characterization of two kinds of quantum dots: hydrophilic and hydrophobic, with core and core/shell respectively, using spectroscopy techniques such as UV-Vis, fluorescence and Raman. We determined the quantum yield in the quantum dots using the quinine sulphate as standard. This salt is commonly used because of its quantum yield (56%) and stability. For the CdTe excitation, we used a wavelength of 549nm and for the CdSe/ZnS excitation a wavelength of 527nm. The results show that CdSe/ZnS (49%) has better fluorescence, better quantum dots, and confirm the fluorescence result. The quantum dots have shown a good fluorescence performance, so this property will be used to replace dyes, with the advantage that quantum dots are less toxic than some dyes like the rhodamine. In addition, in this work we show different techniques to find the quantum dots emission: fluorescence spectrum, synchronous spectrum and Raman spectrum. (paper)

  14. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots stabilized by castor oil and ricinoleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyobe, Joseph William; Mubofu, Egid Beatus; Makame, Yahya M. M.; Mlowe, Sixberth; Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2016-02-01

    Castor oil and ricinoleic acid (an isolate of castor oil) are environmentally friendly bio-based organic surfactants that have been used as capping agents to prepare nearly spherical cadmium sulfide quantum dots (QDs) at 230, 250 and 280 °C. The prepared quantum dots were characterized by Ultra violet-visible (UV-vis), Photoluminescence (PL), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) giving an overall CdS QDs average size of 5.14±0.39 nm. The broad XRD pattern and crystal lattice fringes in the HRTEM images showed a hexagonal phase composition of the CdS QDs. The calculated/estimated average size of the prepared castor oil capped CdS QDs for various techniques were 4.64 nm (TEM), 4.65 nm (EMA), 5.35 nm (UV-vis) and 6.46 nm (XRD). For ricinoleic acid capped CdS QDs, the average sizes were 5.56 nm (TEM), 4.78 nm (EMA), 5.52 nm (UV-vis) and 8.21 nm (XRD). Optical properties of CdS QDs showed a change of band gap energy from its bulk band gap of 2.42-2.82 eV due to quantum size confinement effect for temperature range of 230-280 °C. Similarly, a blue shift was observed in the photoluminescence spectra. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations show that the as-synthesized CdS QDs structures are spherical in shape. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) studies confirms the formation of castor oil and ricinoleic acid capped CdS QDs.

  15. Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Zhijun; Gong, Xiwen; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Fan, Fengjia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Yassitepe, Emre; Buin, Andrei; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Heteroepitaxy - atomically aligned growth of a crystalline film atop a different crystalline substrate - is the basis of electrically driven lasers, multijunction solar cells, and blue-light-emitting diodes. Crystalline coherence is preserved even when atomic identity is modulated, a fact that is the critical enabler of quantum wells, wires, and dots. The interfacial quality achieved as a result of heteroepitaxial growth allows new combinations of materials with complementary properties, which enables the design and realization of functionalities that are not available in the single-phase constituents. Here we show that organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots, combined in the solution phase, produce epitaxially aligned 'dots-in-a-matrix' crystals. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, we reveal heterocrystals as large as about 60 nanometres and containing at least 20 mutually aligned dots that inherit the crystalline orientation of the perovskite matrix. The heterocrystals exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atom-scale crystalline coherence: photoelectrons and holes generated in the larger-bandgap perovskites are transferred with 80% efficiency to become excitons in the quantum dot nanocrystals, which exploit the excellent photocarrier diffusion of perovskites to produce bright-light emission from infrared-bandgap quantum-tuned materials. By combining the electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix with the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots, we engineer a new platform to advance solution-processed infrared optoelectronics.

  16. Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Zhijun

    2015-07-15

    © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Heteroepitaxy - atomically aligned growth of a crystalline film atop a different crystalline substrate - is the basis of electrically driven lasers, multijunction solar cells, and blue-light-emitting diodes. Crystalline coherence is preserved even when atomic identity is modulated, a fact that is the critical enabler of quantum wells, wires, and dots. The interfacial quality achieved as a result of heteroepitaxial growth allows new combinations of materials with complementary properties, which enables the design and realization of functionalities that are not available in the single-phase constituents. Here we show that organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots, combined in the solution phase, produce epitaxially aligned \\'dots-in-a-matrix\\' crystals. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, we reveal heterocrystals as large as about 60 nanometres and containing at least 20 mutually aligned dots that inherit the crystalline orientation of the perovskite matrix. The heterocrystals exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atom-scale crystalline coherence: photoelectrons and holes generated in the larger-bandgap perovskites are transferred with 80% efficiency to become excitons in the quantum dot nanocrystals, which exploit the excellent photocarrier diffusion of perovskites to produce bright-light emission from infrared-bandgap quantum-tuned materials. By combining the electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix with the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots, we engineer a new platform to advance solution-processed infrared optoelectronics.

  17. Studies of quantum dots in the quantum Hall regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Eyal

    We present two studies of quantum dots in the quantum Hall regime. In the first study, presented in Chapter 3, we investigate the edge reconstruction phenomenon believed to occur when the quantum dot filling fraction is n≲1 . Our approach involves the examination of large dots (≤40 electrons) using a partial diagonalization technique in which the occupancies of the deep interior orbitals are frozen. To interpret the results of this calculation, we evaluate the overlap between the diagonalized ground state and a set of trial wavefunctions which we call projected necklace (PN) states. A PN state is simply the angular momentum projection of a maximum density droplet surrounded by a ring of localized electrons. Our calculations reveal that PN states have up to 99% overlap with the diagonalized ground states, and are lower in energy than the states identified in Chamon and Wen's study of the edge reconstruction. In the second study, presented in Chapter 4, we investigate quantum dots in the fractional quantum Hall regime using a Hartree formulation of composite fermion theory. We find that under appropriate conditions, the chemical potential of the dots oscillates periodically with B due to the transfer of composite fermions between quasi-Landau bands. This effect is analogous the addition spectrum oscillations which occur in quantum dots in the integer quantum Hall regime. Period f0 oscillations are found in sharply confined dots with filling factors nu = 2/5 and nu = 2/3. Period 3 f0 oscillations are found in a parabolically confined nu = 2/5 dot. More generally, we argue that the oscillation period of dots with band pinning should vary continuously with B, whereas the period of dots without band pinning is f0 .

  18. Nonadiabatic corrections to a quantum dot quantum computer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 83; Issue 1. Nonadiabatic corrections to a quantum dot quantum computer working in adiabatic limit. M Ávila ... The time of operation of an adiabatic quantum computer must be less than the decoherence time, otherwise the computer would be nonoperative. So far, the ...

  19. Localized surface plasmon and exciton interaction in silver-coated cadmium sulphide quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, P.; Rustagi, K. C.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P., E-mail: bhanuprs@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai- 400076 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Localized surface plasmon and exciton coupling has been investigated on colloidal solutions of silver-coated CdS nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized by gamma irradiation. Two broad photoluminescence (PL) bands (blue/red) corresponding to band to band and defect state transitions have been observed for the bare and coated samples. In case of bare CdS NPs, the intensity of the red PL peak is about ten times higher than the blue PL peak intensity. However, on coating the CdS NPs with silver, the peak intensity of the blue PL band gets enhanced and becomes equal to that of the red PL band. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) images adequately demonstrate size distribution of these metal/semiconductor nanocomposites. UV-Vis absorption studies show quantum confinement effect in these semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) systems. Absorption spectrum of silver-coated SQDs shows signature of surface plasmon-exciton coupling which has been theoretically verified.

  20. Electron Spins in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanson, R.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes a series of experiments aimed at understanding and controlling the behavior of the spin degree of freedom of single electrons, confined in semiconductor quantum dots. This research work is motivated by the prospects of using the electron spin as a quantum bit (qubit), the basic

  1. A novel method for iodate determination using cadmium sulfide quantum dots as fluorescence probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Chunran; Su Zhonghua; Lin Baogang; Huang Haowen; Zeng Yunlong; Li Shuang; Huang He; Wang Yajing; Li Chunxiang; Shen Guoli; Yu Ruqin

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a novel method for the determination of iodate based on the carboxymethyl cellulose-capped CdS quantum dots (QDs). Factors affecting the iodate detection were investigated, and the optimum conditions were determined. Under the optimum conditions, the relative fluorescence intensity of CdS quantum dots was linearly proportional to IO 3 - over a concentration range from 1.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -5 mol L -1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9987 and a detection limit of 6.0 nmol L -1 . Iodide, being oxidized by bromine to form iodate, was detected indirectly. The method was successfully applied to the determination of iodate and total amount of iodine in table salt samples. The related mechanism was also discussed.

  2. Quantum dot optoelectronic devices: lasers, photodetectors and solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Chen, Siming; Seeds, Alwyn; Liu, Huiyun

    2015-01-01

    Nanometre-scale semiconductor devices have been envisioned as next-generation technologies with high integration and functionality. Quantum dots, or the so-called ‘artificial atoms’, exhibit unique properties due to their quantum confinement in all 3D. These unique properties have brought to light the great potential of quantum dots in optoelectronic applications. Numerous efforts worldwide have been devoted to these promising nanomaterials for next-generation optoelectronic devices, such as lasers, photodetectors, amplifiers, and solar cells, with the emphasis on improving performance and functionality. Through the development in optoelectronic devices based on quantum dots over the last two decades, quantum dot devices with exceptional performance surpassing previous devices are evidenced. This review describes recent developments in quantum dot optoelectronic devices over the last few years. The paper will highlight the major progress made in 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers, quantum dot infrared photodetectors, and quantum dot solar cells. (topical review)

  3. Preparation of nanocomposites by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization from the surface of quantum dots in miniemulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Esteves, de A.C.; Hodge, P.; Trindade, T.; Barros-Timmons, A.M.M.V.

    2009-01-01

    Herein, we report the synthesis of quantum dots (QDs)/polymer nanocomposites by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization in miniemulsions using a grafting from approach. First, the surfaces of CdS and CdSe QDs were functionalized using a chain transfer agent, a

  4. Enzyme-Polymers Conjugated to Quantum-Dots for Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Mansur

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the concept of developing a novel system based on polymer-enzyme macromolecules was tested by coupling carboxylic acid functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA-COOH to glucose oxidase (GOx followed by the bioconjugation with CdS quantum-dots (QD. The resulting organic-inorganic nanohybrids were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The spectroscopy results have clearly shown that the polymer-enzyme macromolecules (PVA-COOH/GOx were synthesized by the proposed zero-length linker route. Moreover, they have performed as successful capping agents for the nucleation and constrained growth of CdS quantum-dots via aqueous colloidal chemistry. The TEM images associated with the optical absorption results have indicated the formation of CdS nanocrystals with estimated diameters of about 3.0 nm. The “blue-shift” in the visible absorption spectra and the PL values have provided strong evidence that the fluorescent CdS nanoparticles were produced in the quantum-size confinement regime. Finally, the hybrid system was biochemically assayed by injecting the glucose substrate and detecting the formation of peroxide with the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP. Thus, the polymer-enzyme-QD hybrid has behaved as a nanostructured sensor for glucose detecting.

  5. Bound states in continuum: Quantum dots in a quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prodanović, Nikola, E-mail: elnpr@leeds.ac.uk [Institute of Microwaves and Photonics, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Milanović, Vitomir [School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Ikonić, Zoran; Indjin, Dragan; Harrison, Paul [Institute of Microwaves and Photonics, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-01

    We report on the existence of a bound state in the continuum (BIC) of quantum rods (QR). QRs are novel elongated InGaAs quantum dot nanostructures embedded in the shallower InGaAs quantum well. BIC appears as an excited confined dot state and energetically above the bottom of a well subband continuum. We prove that high height-to-diameter QR aspect ratio and the presence of a quantum well are indispensable conditions for accommodating the BIC. QRs are unique semiconductor nanostructures, exhibiting this mathematical curiosity predicted 83 years ago by Wigner and von Neumann.

  6. Scalable quantum computer architecture with coupled donor-quantum dot qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Thomas; Lo, Cheuk Chi; Weis, Christoph; Lyon, Stephen; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2014-08-26

    A quantum bit computing architecture includes a plurality of single spin memory donor atoms embedded in a semiconductor layer, a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, wherein a first voltage applied across at least one pair of the aligned quantum dot and donor atom controls a donor-quantum dot coupling. A method of performing quantum computing in a scalable architecture quantum computing apparatus includes arranging a pattern of single spin memory donor atoms in a semiconductor layer, forming a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, applying a first voltage across at least one aligned pair of a quantum dot and donor atom to control a donor-quantum dot coupling, and applying a second voltage between one or more quantum dots to control a Heisenberg exchange J coupling between quantum dots and to cause transport of a single spin polarized electron between quantum dots.

  7. Surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey; Fuke, Nobuhiro

    2015-02-03

    Provided are methods of surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition so as to exchange the native ligands of the quantum dots for exchange ligands that result in improvement in charge extraction from the nanocrystals.

  8. Inorganic passivation and doping control in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Hoogland, Sjoerd H.; Ip, Alex; Thon, Susanna; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Tang, Jiang; Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Debnath, Ratan K.; Levina, Larissa; Rollny, Lisa R.; Fischer, Armin H.; Kemp, Kyle W.; Kramer, Illan J.; Ning, Zhijun; Labelle, André J.; Chou, Kang Wei; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, E. H.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss strategies to reduce midgap trap state densities in colloidal quantum dot films and requirements to control doping type and magnitude. We demonstrate that these improvements result in colloidal quantum dot solar cells with certified 7.0% efficiency.

  9. Quantum Dot Systems: a versatile platform for quantum simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelemy, Pierre; Vandersypen, Lieven M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum mechanics often results in extremely complex phenomena, especially when the quantum system under consideration is composed of many interacting particles. The states of these many-body systems live in a space so large that classical numerical calculations cannot compute them. Quantum simulations can be used to overcome this problem: complex quantum problems can be solved by studying experimentally an artificial quantum system operated to simulate the desired hamiltonian. Quantum dot systems have shown to be widely tunable quantum systems, that can be efficiently controlled electrically. This tunability and the versatility of their design makes them very promising quantum simulators. This paper reviews the progress towards digital quantum simulations with individually controlled quantum dots, as well as the analog quantum simulations that have been performed with these systems. The possibility to use large arrays of quantum dots to simulate the low-temperature Hubbard model is also discussed. The main issues along that path are presented and new ideas to overcome them are proposed. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Distributed quantum information processing via quantum dot spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Liu; Qiong, Wang; Le-Man, Kuang; Hao-Sheng, Zeng

    2010-01-01

    We propose a scheme to engineer a non-local two-qubit phase gate between two remote quantum-dot spins. Along with one-qubit local operations, one can in principal perform various types of distributed quantum information processing. The scheme employs a photon with linearly polarisation interacting one after the other with two remote quantum-dot spins in cavities. Due to the optical spin selection rule, the photon obtains a Faraday rotation after the interaction process. By measuring the polarisation of the final output photon, a non-local two-qubit phase gate between the two remote quantum-dot spins is constituted. Our scheme may has very important applications in the distributed quantum information processing

  11. Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiltscher, Bastian

    2012-01-01

    The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in

  12. Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiltscher, Bastian

    2012-10-05

    The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in

  13. Carbon quantum dots and a method of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Washington, Aaron L.

    2017-08-22

    The present invention is directed to a method of preparing a carbon quantum dot. The carbon quantum dot can be prepared from a carbon precursor, such as a fullerene, and a complex metal hydride. The present invention also discloses a carbon quantum dot made by reacting a carbon precursor with a complex metal hydride and a polymer containing a carbon quantum dot made by reacting a carbon precursor with a complex metal hydride.

  14. Phonon impact on optical control schemes of quantum dots: Role of quantum dot geometry and symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüker, S.; Kuhn, T.; Reiter, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    Phonons strongly influence the optical control of semiconductor quantum dots. When modeling the electron-phonon interaction in several theoretical approaches, the quantum dot geometry is approximated by a spherical structure, though typical self-assembled quantum dots are strongly lens-shaped. By explicitly comparing simulations of a spherical and a lens-shaped dot using a well-established correlation expansion approach, we show that, indeed, lens-shaped dots can be exactly mapped to a spherical geometry when studying the phonon influence on the electronic system. We also give a recipe to reproduce spectral densities from more involved dots by rather simple spherical models. On the other hand, breaking the spherical symmetry has a pronounced impact on the spatiotemporal properties of the phonon dynamics. As an example we show that for a lens-shaped quantum dot, the phonon emission is strongly concentrated along the direction of the smallest axis of the dot, which is important for the use of phonons for the communication between different dots.

  15. Bright infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng; Choi, Joshua J.; Stachnik, David; Bartnik, Adam C.; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Malliaras, George G.; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, Frank W.

    2013-01-01

    Record-brightness infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots have been achieved through control of the spacing between adjacent quantum-dots. By tuning the size of quantum-dots, the emission wavelengths can be tuned between 900nm and 1650nm. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  16. Double quantum dot as a minimal thermoelectric generator

    OpenAIRE

    Donsa, S.; Andergassen, S.; Held, K.

    2014-01-01

    Based on numerical renormalization group calculations, we demonstrate that experimentally realized double quantum dots constitute a minimal thermoelectric generator. In the Kondo regime, one quantum dot acts as an n-type and the other one as a p-type thermoelectric device. Properly connected the double quantum dot provides a miniature power supply utilizing the thermal energy of the environment.

  17. Coherence and dephasing in self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Leosson, K.; Birkedal, Dan

    2003-01-01

    We measured dephasing times in InGaAl/As self-assembled quantum dots at low temperature using degenerate four-wave mixing. At 0K, the coherence time of the quantum dots is lifetime limited, whereas at finite temperatures pure dephasing by exciton-phonon interactions governs the quantum dot...

  18. Optical localization of quantum dots in tapered nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerkryger, Andreas Dyhl; Gregersen, Niels; Fons, Romain

    2017-01-01

    In this work we have measured the far-field emission patterns of In As quantum dots embedded in a GaAs tapered nanowire and used an open-geometry Fourier modal method for determining the radial position of the quantum dots by computing the far-field emission pattern for different quantum dot...

  19. Circular polarization memory in single Quantum Dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsevich, S.; Poem, E.; Benny, Y.; Marderfeld, I.; Gershoni, D.; Badolato, A.; Petroff, P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Under quasi-resonant circularly polarized optical excitation, charged quantum dots may emit polarized light. We measured various transitions with either positive, negative or no circular-polarization memory. We explain these observations and quantitatively calculate the polarization spectrum. Our model use the full configuration-interaction method, including the electron-hole exchange interaction, for calculating the quantum dot's confined many-carrier states, along with one assumption regarding the spin relaxation of photoexcited carriers: Electrons maintain their initial spin polarization, while holes do not.

  20. Bilayer graphene quantum dot defined by topgates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, André; Kaestner, Bernd; Hohls, Frank; Weimann, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W., E-mail: hans.w.schumacher@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-06-21

    We investigate the application of nanoscale topgates on exfoliated bilayer graphene to define quantum dot devices. At temperatures below 500 mK, the conductance underneath the grounded gates is suppressed, which we attribute to nearest neighbour hopping and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The gate-layout can thus be used to define resistive regions by tuning into the corresponding temperature range. We use this method to define a quantum dot structure in bilayer graphene showing Coulomb blockade oscillations consistent with the gate layout.

  1. Nonadiabatic corrections to a quantum dot quantum computer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... corrections in it. If the decoherence times of a quantum dot computer are ∼100 ns [J M Kikkawa and D D Awschalom, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4313 (1998)] then the predicted number of one qubit gate (primitive) operations of the Loss–DiVincenzo quantum computer in such an interval of time must be >1010.

  2. High resolution STEM of quantum dots and quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadkhodazadeh, Shima

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the application of high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wires (QWRs). Different imaging and analytical techniques in STEM are introduced and key examples of their application to QDs and QWRs...

  3. Evolution of excitonic states in two-phase systems with quantum dots of II-VI semiconductors near the percolation threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar, N. V.; Brodyn, M. S.

    2010-03-01

    In two-phase disordered media composed of borosilicate glass with ZnSe or CdS quantum dots, the formation of a phase percolation transition of carriers for near-threshold concentrations that are manifested in optical spectra has been observed. Microscopic fluctuations of the quantum-dot density near the percolation threshold were found that resembled the phenomenon of critical opalescence, where similar fluctuations of the density of a pure substance appear near to a phase transition. It is proposed that the dielectric mismatch between a matrix and ZnSe or CdS quantum dots plays a significant role in the carrier (exciton) delocalization, resulting in the appearance of a “dielectric Coulomb trap” beyond the QD border and the formation of surface states of excitons. The spatial overlapping of excitonic states at the critical density of quantum dots results in a tunneling of carriers and the formation of a phase percolation transition in such media.

  4. Quantum Dots in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollner, Immo Nathanael

    This Thesis is focused on the study of quantum electrodynamics in photonic crystal waveguides. We investigate the interplay between a single quantum dot and the fundamental mode of the photonic crystal waveguide. We demonstrate experimental coupling eciencies for the spontaneous emission...... into the mode exceeding 98% for emitters spectrally close to the band-edge of the waveguide mode. In addition we illustrate the broadband nature of the underlying eects, by obtaining coupling eciencies above 90% for quantum dots detuned from the band edge by as far as 20nm. These values are in good agreement...... with numerical simulations. Such a high coupling eciency implies that the system can be considered an articial 1D-atom, and we theoretically show that this system can generate strong photon-photon interaction, which is an essential functionality for deterministic optical quantum information processing. We...

  5. Dynamic localization in quantum dots: Analytical theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basko, D.M.; Skvortsov, M.A.; Kravtsov, V.E.

    2003-02-01

    We analyze the response of a complex quantum-mechanical system (e.g., a quantum dot) to a time-dependent perturbation φ(t). Assuming the dot to be described by random matrix theory for GOE we find the quantum correction to the energy absorption rate as a function of the dephasing time t φ . If φ(t) is a sum of d harmonics with incommensurate frequencies, the correction behaves similarly to that to the conductivity δσ d (t φ ) in the d-dimensional Anderson model of the orthogonal symmetry class. For a generic periodic perturbation the leading quantum correction is absent as in the systems of the unitary symmetry class, unless φ(-t+τ)=φ(t+τ) for some τ, which falls into the quasi-1d orthogonal universality class. (author)

  6. Magnetic control of dipolaritons in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Arias, J S; Vinck-Posada, H; Rodríguez, B A

    2016-01-01

    Dipolaritons are quasiparticles that arise in coupled quantum wells embedded in a microcavity, they are a superposition of a photon, a direct exciton and an indirect exciton. We propose the existence of dipolaritons in a system of two coupled quantum dots inside a microcavity in direct analogy with the quantum well case and find that, despite some similarities, dipolaritons in quantum dots have different properties and can lead to true dark polariton states. We use a finite system theory to study the effects of the magnetic field on the system, including the emission, and find that it can be used as a control parameter of the properties of excitons and dipolaritons, and the overall magnetic behaviour of the structure. (paper)

  7. Silicon based quantum dot hybrid qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohun

    2015-03-01

    The charge and spin degrees of freedom of an electron constitute natural bases for constructing quantum two level systems, or qubits, in semiconductor quantum dots. The quantum dot charge qubit offers a simple architecture and high-speed operation, but generally suffers from fast dephasing due to strong coupling of the environment to the electron's charge. On the other hand, quantum dot spin qubits have demonstrated long coherence times, but their manipulation is often slower than desired for important future applications. This talk will present experimental progress of a `hybrid' qubit, formed by three electrons in a Si/SiGe double quantum dot, which combines desirable characteristics (speed and coherence) in the past found separately in qubits based on either charge or spin degrees of freedom. Using resonant microwaves, we first discuss qubit operations near the `sweet spot' for charge qubit operation. Along with fast (>GHz) manipulation rates for any rotation axis on the Bloch sphere, we implement two independent tomographic characterization schemes in the charge qubit regime: traditional quantum process tomography (QPT) and gate set tomography (GST). We also present resonant qubit operations of the hybrid qubit performed on the same device, DC pulsed gate operations of which were recently demonstrated. We demonstrate three-axis control and the implementation of dynamic decoupling pulse sequences. Performing QPT on the hybrid qubit, we show that AC gating yields π rotation process fidelities higher than 93% for X-axis and 96% for Z-axis rotations, which demonstrates efficient quantum control of semiconductor qubits using resonant microwaves. We discuss a path forward for achieving fidelities better than the threshold for quantum error correction using surface codes. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), NSF (PHY-1104660), DOE (DE-FG02-03ER46028), and by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories

  8. Quantum dot based probing of mannitol: An implication in clinical diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debasmita; Ghosh, Srabanti [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8 Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700098 (India); Saha, Abhijit, E-mail: abhijit@alpha.iuc.res.in [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8 Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2010-08-24

    We demonstrate that mannitol, an important diuretic, can be determined with cysteine-capped CdS quantum dots (QDs) using optical spectroscopy. Unique luminescence enhancement of QDs was observed on interaction with mannitol. The binding between QDs and mannitol was monitored by UV-vis, Fourier transform infra-red and Raman spectroscopy. The binding constant was determined following the Langmuir binding isotherm. A quantitative correlation between mannitol concentration and PL enhancement of CdS QDs has been established. We also observed that possible interfering agents, such as, urea, uric acid, creatinine, some metal ions, glucose, sorbitol or sucrose had no significant effect on luminescence of CdS QDs. The proposed strategy can be a very fast, simple and potential tool for the monitoring of diuretics and assaying intestinal permeability.

  9. Imaging and Manipulating Energy Transfer Among Quantum Dots at Individual Dot Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc; Nguyen, Huy A; Lyding, Joseph W; Gruebele, Martin

    2017-06-27

    Many processes of interest in quantum dots involve charge or energy transfer from one dot to another. Energy transfer in films of quantum dots as well as between linked quantum dots has been demonstrated by luminescence shift, and the ultrafast time-dependence of energy transfer processes has been resolved. Bandgap variation among dots (energy disorder) and dot separation are known to play an important role in how energy diffuses. Thus, it would be very useful if energy transfer could be visualized directly on a dot-by-dot basis among small clusters or within films of quantum dots. To that effect, we report single molecule optical absorption detected by scanning tunneling microscopy (SMA-STM) to image energy pooling from donor into acceptor dots on a dot-by-dot basis. We show that we can manipulate groups of quantum dots by pruning away the dominant acceptor dot, and switching the energy transfer path to a different acceptor dot. Our experimental data agrees well with a simple Monte Carlo lattice model of energy transfer, similar to models in the literature, in which excitation energy is transferred preferentially from dots with a larger bandgap to dots with a smaller bandgap.

  10. Photoluminescence studies of single InGaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are considered a promising material system for future optical devices and quantum computers. We have studied the low-temperature photoluminescence properties of single InGaAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs. The high spatial resolution required for resolving single dots...... to resolve luminescence lines from individual quantum dots, revealing an atomic-like spectrum of sharp transition lines. A parameter of fundamental importance is the intrinsic linewidth of these transitions. Using high-resolution spectroscopy we have determined the linewidth and investigated its dependence...... on temperature, which gives information about how the exciton confined to the quantum dot interacts with the surrounding lattice....

  11. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Neetu, E-mail: singh.neetu1985@gmail.com; Kapoor, Avinashi [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi-110 021 (India); Kumar, Vinod [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ZA9300 (South Africa); Mehra, R. M. [School of Engineering and Technology, Sharda University, Greater Noida-201 306, U.P. (India)

    2014-04-24

    CdSe Quantum Dots (QDs) of size 0.85 nm were synthesized using chemical route. ZnO based Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cell (QDSSC) was fabricated using CdSe QDs as sensitizer. The Pre-synthesized QDs were found to be successfully adsorbed on front ZnO electrode and had potential to replace organic dyes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). The efficiency of QDSSC was obtained to be 2.06 % at AM 1.5.

  12. Coherent control of quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lodahl, Peter; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    In recent years much effort has been devoted to the use of semiconductor quantum dotsystems as building blocks for solid-state-based quantum logic devices. One importantparameter for such devices is the coherence time, which determines the number ofpossible quantum operations. From earlier...

  13. Hybrid quantum-classical modeling of quantum dot devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantner, Markus; Mittnenzweig, Markus; Koprucki, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The design of electrically driven quantum dot devices for quantum optical applications asks for modeling approaches combining classical device physics with quantum mechanics. We connect the well-established fields of semiclassical semiconductor transport theory and the theory of open quantum systems to meet this requirement. By coupling the van Roosbroeck system with a quantum master equation in Lindblad form, we introduce a new hybrid quantum-classical modeling approach, which provides a comprehensive description of quantum dot devices on multiple scales: it enables the calculation of quantum optical figures of merit and the spatially resolved simulation of the current flow in realistic semiconductor device geometries in a unified way. We construct the interface between both theories in such a way, that the resulting hybrid system obeys the fundamental axioms of (non)equilibrium thermodynamics. We show that our approach guarantees the conservation of charge, consistency with the thermodynamic equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by numerical simulations of an electrically driven single-photon source based on a single quantum dot in the stationary and transient operation regime.

  14. Quantum dots as a probe to detect uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, Pallavi; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Uranium is one of the most toxic heavy metals. A number of methods have been developed to detect uranium at lower concentrations. Here in we proposed a method which can sense the presence of uranium in nm-μM concentration range. We have synthesized CdSe and CdSe/CdS core shell quantum dots with different thickness of CdS shell and monitor their luminescence property in presence of uranium. Interestingly a quenching in QDs luminescence was observed on addition of uranium in uM concentrations. We have also carried out time resolved studies which suggests faster luminescence decay on addition of uranium. Both time resolved studies and energetic suggest that electron transfer from QDs to uranium is favourable and quenching in luminescence is due to electron transfer from QD to uranium and is found to be different with different thickness of CdS shell. The results presented reveal the promising potential of QDs for their use as chemical sensors to detect uranium. (author)

  15. Entangled photons from small quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.M.; Allaart, K.; Lenstra, D.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss level schemes of small quantum-dot turnstiles and their applicability in the production of entanglement in two-photon emission. Due to the large energy splitting of the single-electron levels, only one single-electron level and one single-hole level can be made resonant with the levels in

  16. System and method for making quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2015-05-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of making quantum dots (QDs) (passivated or unpassivated) using a continuous flow process, systems for making QDs using a continuous flow process, and the like. In one or more embodiments, the QDs produced using embodiments of the present disclosure can be used in solar photovoltaic cells, bio-imaging, IR emitters, or LEDs.

  17. Enabling biomedical research with designer quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomczak, N.; Janczewski, D.; Dorokhin, D.V.; Han, M-Y; Vancso, Gyula J.; Navarro, Melba; Planell, Josep A.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are a new class of semiconductor nanoparticulate luminophores, which are actively researched for novel applications in biology and nanomedicine. In this review, the recent progress in the design and applications of QD labels for in vitro and in vivo imaging of cells is presented.

  18. Effect of temperature on quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MAHDI AHMADI BORJI

    2017-07-12

    Jul 12, 2017 ... Effect of temperature on InxGa1−xAs/GaAs quantum dots. MAHDI AHMADI BORJI1, ALI ... Attention should be given to the effects of temperature, ... tion 2 explains the model and method of the numerical simulation. Our results ...

  19. Decoherence in Nearly-Isolated Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folk, J.; M. Marcus, C.; Harris jr, J.

    2000-01-01

    Decoherence in nearly-isolated GaAs quantum dots is investigated using the change in average Coulomb blockade peak height upon breaking time-reversal symmetry. The normalized change in average peak height approaches the predicted universal value of 1/4 at temperatures well below the single...

  20. Photoluminescence of hybrid quantum dot systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2015), 347-349 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12236; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : quantum dots * energy transfer * electron-phonon interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  1. Many electron effects in semiconductor quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) exhibit shell structures, very similar to atoms. Termed as 'artificial atoms' by some, they are much larger (1 100 nm) than real atoms. One can study a variety of manyelectron effects in them, which are otherwise difficult to observe in a real atom. We have treated these effects within the ...

  2. Integrated photonics using colloidal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vinod M.; Husaini, Saima; Okoye, Nicky; Valappil, Nikesh V.

    2009-11-01

    Integrated photonic devices were realized using colloidal quantum dot composites such as flexible microcavity laser, microdisk emitters and integrated active-passive waveguides. The microcavity laser structure was realized using spin coating and consisted of an all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector with a poly-vinyl carbazole cavity layer embedded with InGaP/ZnS colloidal quantum dots. These microcavities can be peeled off the substrate yielding a flexible structure that can conform to any shape and whose emission spectra can be mechanically tuned. Planar photonic devices consisting of vertically coupled microring resonators, microdisk emitters, active-passive integrated waveguide structures and coupled active microdisk resonators were realized using soft lithography, photo-lithography, and electron beam lithography, respectively. The gain medium in all these devices was a composite consisting of quantum dots embedded in SU8 matrix. Finally, the effect of the host matrix on the optical properties of the quantum dots using results of steady-state and time-resolved luminescence measurements was determined. In addition to their specific functionalities, these novel device demonstrations and their development present a low-cost alternative to the traditional photonic device fabrication techniques.

  3. Influence of the quantum dot geometry on p -shell transitions in differently charged quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkemper, M.; Reiter, D. E.; Kuhn, T.

    2018-02-01

    Absorption spectra of neutral, negatively, and positively charged semiconductor quantum dots are studied theoretically. We provide an overview of the main energetic structure around the p -shell transitions, including the influence of nearby nominally dark states. Based on the envelope function approximation, we treat the four-band Luttinger theory as well as the direct and short-range exchange Coulomb interactions within a configuration interaction approach. The quantum dot confinement is approximated by an anisotropic harmonic potential. We present a detailed investigation of state mixing and correlations mediated by the individual interactions. Differences and similarities between the differently charged quantum dots are highlighted. Especially large differences between negatively and positively charged quantum dots become evident. We present a visualization of energetic shifts and state mixtures due to changes in size, in-plane asymmetry, and aspect ratio. Thereby we provide a better understanding of the experimentally hard to access question of quantum dot geometry effects. Our findings show a method to determine the in-plane asymmetry from photoluminescence excitation spectra. Furthermore, we supply basic knowledge for tailoring the strength of certain state mixtures or the energetic order of particular excited states via changes of the shape of the quantum dot. Such knowledge builds the basis to find the optimal QD geometry for possible applications and experiments using excited states.

  4. Optical properties of quantum-dot-doped liquid scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, C; Winslow, L; Li, J J; Weiss, S

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) were studied in the context of liquid scintillator development for upcoming neutrino experiments. The unique optical and chemical properties of quantum dots are particularly promising for the use in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Liquid scintillators for large scale neutrino detectors have to meet specific requirements which are reviewed, highlighting the peculiarities of quantum-dot-doping. In this paper, we report results on laboratory-scale measurements of the attenuation length and the fluorescence properties of three commercial quantum dot samples. The results include absorbance and emission stability measurements, improvement in transparency due to filtering of the quantum dot samples, precipitation tests to isolate the quantum dots from solution and energy transfer studies with quantum dots and the fluorophore PPO

  5. Using a quantum dot system to realize perfect state transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ji; Wu Shi-Hai; Zhang Wen-Wen; Xi Xiao-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    There are some disadvantages to Nikolopoulos et al.'s protocol [Nikolopoulos G M, Petrosyan D and Lambropoulos P 2004 Europhys. Lett. 65 297] where a quantum dot system is used to realize quantum communication. To overcome these disadvantages, we propose a protocol that uses a quantum dot array to construct a four-qubit spin chain to realize perfect quantum state transfer (PQST). First, we calculate the interaction relation for PQST in the spin chain. Second, we review the interaction between the quantum dots in the Heitler—London approach. Third, we present a detailed program for designing the proper parameters of a quantum dot array to realize PQST. (general)

  6. Efficient Luminescence from Perovskite Quantum Dot Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younghoon; Yassitepe, Emre; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Gong, Xiwen; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Nogueira, Ana F.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Nanocrystals of CsPbX3 perovskites are promising materials for light-emitting optoelectronics because of their colloidal stability, optically tunable bandgap, bright photoluminescence, and excellent photoluminescence quantum yield. Despite their promise, nanocrystal-only films of CsPbX3 perovskites have not yet been fabricated; instead, highly insulating polymers have been relied upon to compensate for nanocrystals' unstable surfaces. We develop solution chemistry that enables single-step casting of perovskite nanocrystal films and overcomes problems in both perovskite quantum dot purification and film fabrication. Centrifugally cast films retain bright photoluminescence and achieve dense and homogeneous morphologies. The new materials offer a platform for optoelectronic applications of perovskite quantum dot solids.

  7. Efficient Luminescence from Perovskite Quantum Dot Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younghoon

    2015-11-18

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Nanocrystals of CsPbX3 perovskites are promising materials for light-emitting optoelectronics because of their colloidal stability, optically tunable bandgap, bright photoluminescence, and excellent photoluminescence quantum yield. Despite their promise, nanocrystal-only films of CsPbX3 perovskites have not yet been fabricated; instead, highly insulating polymers have been relied upon to compensate for nanocrystals\\' unstable surfaces. We develop solution chemistry that enables single-step casting of perovskite nanocrystal films and overcomes problems in both perovskite quantum dot purification and film fabrication. Centrifugally cast films retain bright photoluminescence and achieve dense and homogeneous morphologies. The new materials offer a platform for optoelectronic applications of perovskite quantum dot solids.

  8. Quantum Dots and Their Multimodal Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Holloway

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Semiconducting quantum dots, whose particle sizes are in the nanometer range, have very unusual properties. The quantum dots have band gaps that depend in a complicated fashion upon a number of factors, described in the article. Processing-structure-properties-performance relationships are reviewed for compound semiconducting quantum dots. Various methods for synthesizing these quantum dots are discussed, as well as their resulting properties. Quantum states and confinement of their excitons may shift their optical absorption and emission energies. Such effects are important for tuning their luminescence stimulated by photons (photoluminescence or electric field (electroluminescence. In this article, decoupling of quantum effects on excitation and emission are described, along with the use of quantum dots as sensitizers in phosphors. In addition, we reviewed the multimodal applications of quantum dots, including in electroluminescence device, solar cell and biological imaging.

  9. Spin interactions in InAs quantum dots and molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doty, M.F.; Ware, M.E.; Stinaff, E.A.; Scheibner, M.; Bracker, A.S.; Ponomarev, I.V.; Badescu, S.C.; Reinecke, T.L.; Gammon, D. [Naval Research Lab, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Korenev, V.L. [A.F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2006-12-15

    Spin interactions between particles in quantum dots or quantum dot molecules appear as fine structure in the photoluminescence spectra. Using the understanding of exchange interactions that has been developed from single dot spectra, we analyze the spin signatures of coupled quantum dots separated by a wide barrier such that inter-dot interactions are negligible. We find that electron-hole exchange splitting is directly evident. In dots charged with an excess hole, an effective hole-hole interaction can be turned on through tunnel coupling. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Four-Wave Mixing Spectroscopy of Quantum Dot Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, A.; Machnikowski, P.

    2007-08-01

    We study theoretically the nonlinear four-wave mixing response of an ensemble of coupled pairs of quantum dots (quantum dot molecules). We discuss the shape of the echo signal depending on the parameters of the ensemble: the statistics of transition energies and the degree of size correlations between the dots forming the molecules.

  11. Controlling the aspect ratio of quantum dots: from columnar dots to quantum rods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.; Patriarche, G.; Chauvin, N.J.G.; Ridha, P.; Rossetti, M.; Andrzejewski, J.; Sek, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Fiore, A.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of artificial shape engineering of epitaxial semiconductor nanostructures. Novel nanostructures including InGaAs quantum rods (QRs), nanocandles, and quantum dots (QDs)-in-rods were realized on a GaAs substrate. They were formed by depositing a

  12. Theory of the Quantum Dot Hybrid Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The quantum dot hybrid qubit, formed from three electrons in two quantum dots, combines the desirable features of charge qubits (fast manipulation) and spin qubits (long coherence times). The hybridized spin and charge states yield a unique energy spectrum with several useful properties, including two different operating regimes that are relatively immune to charge noise due to the presence of optimal working points or ``sweet spots.'' In this talk, I will describe dc and ac-driven gate operations of the quantum dot hybrid qubit. I will analyze improvements in the dephasing that are enabled by the sweet spots, and I will discuss the outlook for quantum hybrid qubits in terms of scalability. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), NSF (PHY-1104660), the USDOD, and the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program. The views and conclusions contained in this presentation are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of the US government.

  13. Strongly coupled CdS/graphene quantum dots nanohybrids for highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution: unraveling the essential roles of graphene quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Yonggang

    2017-05-23

    It have been recognized that the coupling of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with semiconductor photocatalysts endow the resulting nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic performances, however, the essential roles of GQDs have not been clearly revealed yet. Herein, we report that a high efficiency of the photocatalytic H2 evolution was achieved using strongly coupled nanohybrids of CdS with GQDs (CdS/GQDs) as visible-light-driven photocatalysts. CdS/GQDs nanohybrids were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method in which the crystallization of CdS precursor and coupling of GQDs could be accomplished in one-step. GQDs are firmly decorated on the surface of CdS nanoparticles, forming “dot-on-particle” heterodimer structures. GQDs have no significant influence on the crystallite structure of CdS but render the nanohybrids with strong light absorption at the wavelength beyond the band edge of CdS. Under visible light irradiation (≥420nm), CdS/GQDs nanohybrids reach the highest H2 production rate of 95.4μmol·h−1, about 2.7 times higher than that of pure CdS nanoparticles, at GQDs content of 1.0wt %, and the apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) was determined to be 4.2% at 420nm. Incident light-wavelength dependent experiments reveal that the light absorption of CdS dominated the performance of nanohybrids, and the excess light absorption coming from GQDs hardly contributes to the observed higher activity. Photocurrent response, steady-state and time-resolved PL, and EIS measurements suggest that the high activity of CdS/GQDs is attributed predominantly to the graphene-like nature of GQDs, which can act as an efficient electron acceptor to induce an efficient charge separation. This work clearly reveals that GQDs mainly played a role of electron acceptor instead of a photosensitizer in enhancing the photocatalytic H2 evolution performances of CdS/GQDs nanohybrids, which offers a new insight to understand the essential roles of GQDs in semiconductor

  14. Quantum dot-polymer conjugates for stable luminescent displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Sushant; Sivadas, Anjaly; Yuyama, Ken-Ichi; Takano, Yuta; Francis, Raju; Biju, Vasudevanpillai

    2018-05-23

    The broad absorption of light in the UV-Vis-NIR region and the size-based tunable photoluminescence color of semiconductor quantum dots make these tiny crystals one of the most attractive antennae in solar cells and phosphors in electrooptical devices. One of the primary requirements for such real-world applications of quantum dots is their stable and uniform distribution in optically transparent matrices. In this work, we prepare transparent thin films of polymer-quantum dot conjugates, where CdSe/ZnS quantum dots are uniformly distributed at high densities in a chitosan-polystyrene copolymer (CS-g-PS) matrix. Here, quantum dots in an aqueous solution are conjugated to the copolymer by a phase transfer reaction. With the stable conjugation of quantum dots to the copolymer, we prevent undesired phase separation between the two and aggregation of quantum dots. Furthermore, the conjugate allows us to prepare transparent thin films in which quantum dots are uniformly distributed at high densities. The CS-g-PS copolymer helps us in not only preserving the photoluminescence properties of quantum dots in the film but also rendering excellent photostability to quantum dots at the ensemble and single particle levels, making the conjugate a promising material for photoluminescence-based devices.

  15. Principles of conjugating quantum dots to proteins via carbodiimide chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Fayi; Chan, Warren C W

    2011-01-01

    The covalent coupling of nanomaterials to bio-recognition molecules is a critical intermediate step in using nanomaterials for biology and medicine. Here we investigate the carbodiimide-mediated conjugation of fluorescent quantum dots to different proteins (e.g., immunoglobulin G, bovine serum albumin, and horseradish peroxidase). To enable these studies, we developed a simple method to isolate quantum dot bioconjugates from unconjugated quantum dots. The results show that the reactant concentrations and protein type will impact the overall number of proteins conjugated onto the surfaces of the quantum dots, homogeneity of the protein–quantum dot conjugate population, quantum efficiency, binding avidity, and enzymatic kinetics. We propose general principles that should be followed for the successful coupling of proteins to quantum dots.

  16. The quantum mechanical description of the dot-dot interaction in ionic colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, P.C.; Qu, Fanyao

    2007-01-01

    In this study the dot-dot interaction in ionic colloids is systematically investigated by self-consistently solving the coupled Schroedinger and Poisson equations in the frame of finite difference method (FDM). In a first approximation the interacting two-dot system (dimer) is described using the picture of two coupled quantum wells. It was found that the dot-dot interaction changes the colloid characteristic by changing the hopping coefficient (t) and consequently the nanodot surface charge density (σ). The hopping coefficient and the surface charge density were investigated as a function of the dot size and dot-dot distance

  17. Record Charge Carrier Diffusion Length in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids via Mutual Dot-To-Dot Surface Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Graham H; Levina, Larissa; Comin, Riccardo; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-06-03

    Through a combination of chemical and mutual dot-to-dot surface passivation, high-quality colloidal quantum dot solids are fabricated. The joint passivation techniques lead to a record diffusion length for colloidal quantum dots of 230 ± 20 nm. The technique is applied to create thick photovoltaic devices that exhibit high current density without losing fill factor. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots/poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylic amide) composite hydrogel synthesized by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Li, Qing; Wen, Wanxin; Hu, Liang; He, Weiwei; Liu, Hanzhou

    2018-04-01

    To improve the durability and stability of quantum dots (QDs) in the composite hydrogel, an irradiation induced reduction and polymerization-crosslinking method was reported herein where CdS QDs could be synthesized in situ and fastened to polymer chains due to the coordination forces between amino groups and CdS nanoparticles. The morphology and photoluminescence (PL) property of the composite hydrogel were studied. The result indicated that the CdS QDs with uniform size were dispersed evenly in the composite hydrogel, and the introduced CdS QDs had no obvious effect on the hydrogel structure. With the increases of reagent concentrations, PL intensity of the composite hydrogel was enhanced; however, the emission wavelength had no change.

  19. Coulomb Blockade of Tunnel-Coupled Quantum Dots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golden, John

    1997-01-01

    .... Though classical charging models can explain the Coulomb blockade of an isolated dot, they must be modified to explain the Coulomb blockade of dots coupled through the quantum mechanical tunneling of electrons...

  20. A new photoelectric ink based on nanocellulose/CdS quantum dots for screen-printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Aimin; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Qinwen; Chen, Ruisong; Liu, Wangyu; Fang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Lishi

    2016-09-05

    CdS quantum dots with excellent photoelectrical properties embedded in nanocellulose could be exploited for use in photoelectrical ink. In this work, nanocellulose/CdS quantum dot composites were fabricated by controlling the carboxylate content of the nanocellulose and the molar ratio of Cd(2+)/-COOH. New photoelectric inks were prepared based on the composites, in which the CdS quantum dots acted as the pigment and the nanocellulose as the binder. The results of the photocurrent of the composites showed that the photocurrent could be tailored by the carboxylate content and the molar ratio of Cd(2+)/-COOH. And the photocurrent could be as high as 2μA. The surface tension of the photoelectric ink was 27.80±0.03mN/m and its viscosity was 30.3mPas. The photoelectric ink was stable with excellent fluidity and rheology, it could therefore be applied to screen-printing and three-dimensional (3D) printing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantum transport in a ring of quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena Junior, Marcone I.; Macedo, Antonio M.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Quantum dots play a central role in the recent technological efforts to build efficient devices to storage, process and transmit information in the quantum regime [1]. One of the reasons for this interest is the relative simplicity with which its control parameters can be changed by experimentalists. Systems with one, two and even arrays of quantum dots have been intensively studied with respect to their efficiency in processing information carried by charge, spin and heat [1]. A particularly useful realization of a quantum dot is a ballistic electron cavity formed by electrostatic potentials in a two-dimensional electron gas. In the chaotic regime, the shape of the dot is statistically irrelevant and the ability to change its form via external gates can be used to generate members of an ensemble of identical systems. From a theoretical point of view, such quantum dots are ideal electron systems in which to study theoretical models combining phase-coherence, chaotic dynamics and Coulomb interactions. In this work, we use the Keldysh non-linear sigma model [2] with a counting field to study electron transport through a ring of four chaotic quantum dots pierced by an Aharonov-Bohm flux. This system is particularly well suited for studying ways to use the weak-localization effect to process quantum information. We derive the quantum circuit equations for this system from the saddle-point condition of the Keldysh action. The results are used to build the action of the corresponding supersymmetric (SUSY) non-linear sigma model. The connection with the random scattering matrix approach is then made via the color-flavor transformation. In the perturbative regime, where weak-localization effects appear, the Keldysh, SUSY and random scattering matrix approaches can be compared by means of independent analytical calculations. We conclude by pointing out the many advantages of our unified approach. [1] For a review, see Yu. V. Nazarov, and Ya. M. Blanter, Quantum

  2. Quantum photonics with quantum dots in photonic wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, Mathieu; Kuhlmann, Andreas; Cadeddu, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the spectroscopy of a single quantum dot in a photonic wire. The device presents a high photon extraction efficiency, and strong hybrid coupling to mechanical modes. We use resonance fluorescence to probe the emitter’s properties with the highest sensitivity. Weperform...

  3. Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, Mathieu; Cadeddu, Davide; Teissier, Jean

    2016-01-01

    We present an exploration of the spectroscopy of a single quantum dot in a photonic wire. The device presents a high photon extraction efficiency, and strong hybrid coupling to mechanical modes. We use resonance fluorescence to probe the emitter's properties with the highest sensitivity, allowing...

  4. Conductance Peaks in Open Quantum Dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, J. G. G. S.; Bazeia, D.; Hussein, M. S.; Lewenkopf, C. H.

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple measure of the conductance fluctuations in open ballistic chaotic quantum dots, extending the number of maxima method originally proposed for the statistical analysis of compound nuclear reactions. The average number of extreme points (maxima and minima) in the dimensionless conductance T as a function of an arbitrary external parameter Z is directly related to the autocorrelation function of T(Z). The parameter Z can be associated with an applied gate voltage causing shape deformation in quantum dot, an external magnetic field, the Fermi energy, etc. The average density of maxima is found to be Z >=α Z /Z c , where α Z is a universal constant and Z c is the conductance autocorrelation length, which is system specific. The analysis of Z > does not require large statistic samples, providing a quite amenable way to access information about parametric correlations, such as Z c .

  5. Theory of Charged Quantum Dot Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, I. V.; Scheibner, M.; Stinaff, E. A.; Bracker, A. S.; Doty, M. F.; Ware, M. E.; Gammon, D.; Reinecke, T. L.; Korenev, V. L.

    2006-03-01

    Recent optical spectroscopy of excitonic molecules in coupled quantum dots (CQDs) tuned by electric field reveal a richer diversity in spectral line patterns than in their single quantum dot counterparts. We developed a theoretical model that allows us to classify energies and intensities of various PL transitions. In this approach the electric field induced resonance tunneling of the electron and hole states occurs at different biases due to the inherent asymmetry of CQDs. The truncated many-body basis configurations for each molecule are constructed from antisymmetrized products of single-particle states, where the electron occupies only one ground state level in single QD and the hole can occupy two lowest levels of CQD system. The Coulomb interaction between particles is treated with perturbation theory. As a result the observed PL spectral lines can be described with a small number of parameters. The theoretical predictions account well for recent experiments.

  6. Strain-tunable quantum dot devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastelli, A.; Trotta, R.; Zallo, E.; Atkinson, P.; Magerl, E.; Ding, F.; Plumhof, J.D.; Kumar, S.; Doerr, K.; Schmidt, O.G.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new class of quantum dot-based devices, in which the semiconductor structures are integrated on top of piezoelectric actuators. This combination allows on one hand to study in detail the effects produced by variable strains (up to about 0.2%) on the excitonic emission of single quantum dots and on the other to manipulate their electronic- and optical properties to achieve specific requirements. In fact, by combining strain with electric fields we are able to obtain (i) independent control of emission energy and charge-state of a QD, (II) wavelength-tunable single-QD light-emitting diodes and (III) frequency-stabilized sources of single photons at predefined wavelengths. Possible future extensions and applications of this technology will be discussed.

  7. Quantum Dot Devices for Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui

    and the continuum. Additional to the conventional time-domain modeling scheme, a small-signal perturbation analysis has been used to assist the investigation of harmonic modulation properties. The static properties of quantum dot devices, for example high saturation power, have been quantitatively analyzed....... Additional to the static linear amplication properties, we focus on exploring the gain dynamics on the time scale ranging from sub-picosecond to nanosecond. In terms of optical signals that have been investigated, one is the simple sinusoidally modulated optical carrier with a typical modulation frequency....... We also investigate the gain dynamics in the presence of pulsed signals, in particular the steady gain response to a periodic pulse trains with various time periods. Additional to the analysis of high speed patterning free amplication up to 150-200 Gb/s in quantum dot semiconductor optical ampliers...

  8. Electric and Magnetic Interaction between Quantum Dots and Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tighineanu, Petru

    argue that there is ample room for improving the oscillator strength with prospects for approaching the ultra-strong-coupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics with optical photons. These outstanding gures of merit render interface-uctuation quantum dots excellent candidates for use in cavity...... quantum electrodynamics and quantum-information science. We investigate exciton localization in droplet-epitaxy quantum dots by conducting spectral and time-resolved measurements. We nd small excitons despite the large physical size of dropletepitaxy quantum dots, which is attributed to material inter......The present thesis reports research on the optical properties of quantum dots by developing new theories and conducting optical measurements. We demonstrate experimentally singlephoton superradiance in interface-uctuation quantum dots by recording the temporal decay dynamics in conjunction...

  9. The Silicon:Colloidal Quantum Dot Heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Masala, Silvia; Adinolfi, Valerio; Sun, Jon Paul; Del Gobbo, Silvano; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kramer, Illan J.; Hill, Ian G.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    A heterojunction between crystalline silicon and colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is realized. A special interface modification is developed to overcome an inherent energetic band mismatch between the two semiconductors, and realize the efficient collection of infrared photocarriers generated in the CQD film. This junction is used to produce a sensitive near infrared photodetector. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Biomedical application of carbon quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, Z.

    2017-01-01

    In this presentation we will summarize and discuss the possibilities of application of carbon quantum dots (CQD) as agents for PDT. Considering their biocompatibility, photostability and optical properties, CQD seem to be good candidates as a photosensitizer. This lecture critically compares and discusses current state-of the-art use of CQD in PDT. We will analyze structural, morphological and optical properties of these nanomaterials as well as the mechanisms responsible for their photosensition and ROS production. (authors)

  11. Quantum Dots for Molecular Diagnostics of Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Zdobnova, T.A.; Lebedenko, E.N.; Deyev, S.М.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are a new class of fluorophores with unique physical and chemical properties, which allow to appreciably expand the possibilities for the current methods of fluorescent imaging and optical diagnostics. Here we discuss the prospects of QD application for molecular diagnostics of tumors ranging from cancer-specific marker detection on microplates to non-invasive tumor imaging in vivo. We also point out the essential problems that require resolution in order to c...

  12. The Silicon:Colloidal Quantum Dot Heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Masala, Silvia

    2015-10-13

    A heterojunction between crystalline silicon and colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is realized. A special interface modification is developed to overcome an inherent energetic band mismatch between the two semiconductors, and realize the efficient collection of infrared photocarriers generated in the CQD film. This junction is used to produce a sensitive near infrared photodetector. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Correlation effects in superconducting quantum dot systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Vladislav; Žonda, Martin

    2018-05-01

    We study the effect of electron correlations on a system consisting of a single-level quantum dot with local Coulomb interaction attached to two superconducting leads. We use the single-impurity Anderson model with BCS superconducting baths to study the interplay between the proximity induced electron pairing and the local Coulomb interaction. We show how to solve the model using the continuous-time hybridization-expansion quantum Monte Carlo method. The results obtained for experimentally relevant parameters are compared with results of self-consistent second order perturbation theory as well as with the numerical renormalization group method.

  15. Research Progress of Photoanodes for Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Zhi-min

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development status and tendency of quantum dot sensitized solar cells. Photoanode research progress and its related technologies are analyzed in detail from the three ways of semiconductor thin films, quantum dot co-sensitization and quantum dot doping, deriving from the approach that the conversion efficiency can be improved by photoanode modification for quantum dot sensitized solar cells. According to the key factors which restrict the cell efficiency, the promising future development of quantum dot sensitized solar cells is proposed,for example,optimizing further the compositions and structures of semiconductor thin films for the photoanodes, exploring new quantum dots with broadband absorption and developing high efficient techniques of interface modification.

  16. Using of Quantum Dots in Biology and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleskova, Svetlana; Mikheeva, Elza; Gornostaeva, Ekaterina

    2018-01-01

    Quantum dots are nanoparticles, which due to their unique physical and chemical (first of all optical) properties, are promising in biology and medicine. There are many ways for quantum dots synthesis, both in the form of nanoislands self-forming on the surfaces, which can be used as single-photon emitters in electronics for storing information, and in the form of colloidal quantum dots for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in living systems. The paper describes the main methods of quantum dots synthesis and summarizes medical and biological ways of their use. The main emphasis is laid on the ways of quantum dots surface modification. Influence of the size and form of nanoparticles, charge on the surfaces of quantum dots, and cover type on the efficiency of internalization by cells and cell compartments is shown. The main mechanisms of penetration are considered.

  17. Quantum Dots for Solar Cell Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Uma

    Solar energy has been anticipated as the most important and reliable source of renewable energy to address the ever-increasing energy demand. To harvest solar energy efficiently, diverse kinds of solar cells have been studied. Among these, quantum dot sensitized solar cells have been an interesting group of solar cells mainly due to tunable, size-dependent electronic and optical properties of quantum dots. Moreover, doping these quantum dots with transition metal elements such as Mn opens avenue for improved performance of solar cells as well as for spin based technologies. In this dissertation, Mn-doped CdSe QDs (Mn-CdSe) have been synthesized by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. They are used in solar cells to study the effect of Mn doping in the performance of solar cells. Incident photon to current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) is used to record the effect of Mn-doping. Intensity modulated photovoltage and photocurrent spectroscopy (IMVS/PS) has been used to study the carrier dynamics in these solar cells. Additionally, the magnetic properties of Mn-CdSe QDs is studied and its possible origin is discussed. Moreover, CdS/CdSe QDs have been used to study the effect of liquid, gel and solid electrolyte in the performance and stability of the solar cells. Using IPCE spectra, the time decay measurements are presented and the possible reactions between the QD and the electrolytes are explained.

  18. Photoelectrochemical performance of cadmium sulfide quantum dots modified titania nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yibing, E-mail: ybxie@seu.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    The cadmium sulfide quantum dots modified titania nanotube arrays (CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs) were prepared through a sequential sonication-assisted chemical bath deposition (CBD) process. The morphology and microstructure of CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photoelectrochemical performance of CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs was investigated under solar light illumination. The affecting parameters were studied including the nanotube length of TiO{sub 2} NTAs, CBD cycles of CdS QDs and the annealing treatment of CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs. CdS QDs synthesized through 8 CBD cycles could uniformly cover on the tube walls of TiO{sub 2} NTAs to form unique CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs with an open pore mouth. The appropriate annealing treatment at 400 °C for 60 min in N{sub 2} atmosphere could improve the crystallinity of CdS QDs, and accordingly enhance the photovoltaic properties of CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs. Significantly, the nanotube length was the predominant factor affecting photoelectrochemical performance of CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs. The unannealed CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs with an optimal nanotube length of 12 μm achieved a short-circuit photocurrent density of 4.37 mA cm{sup −2}, an open circuit photovoltage of 1.10 V and a top photoconversion efficiency of 3.56%. Comparatively, the annealed CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs with an optimal nanotube length of 4 μm achieved a short-circuit photocurrent density of 6.31 mA cm{sup −2}, an open circuit photovoltage of 1.23 V and a top photoconversion efficiency of 4.18%. The suitable modification of crystalline CdS QDs could well improve the photoelectrochemical performance of TiO{sub 2} NTAs photoanode. - Highlights: • CdS QDs are uniformly loaded into short and long TiO{sub 2} NTAs to form CdS QDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs.

  19. Polarization-insensitive quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lirong; Yu Yi; Tian Peng; Huang Dexiu

    2009-01-01

    The optical gain of a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier is usually seriously dependent on polarization; we propose a quantum-dot coupled tensile-strained quantum-well structure to obtain polarization insensitivity. The tensile-strained quantum well not only serves as a carrier injection layer of quantum dots but also offers gain to the transverse-magnetic mode. Based on the polarization-dependent coupled carrier rate-equation model, we study carrier competition among quantum well and quantum dots, and study the polarization dependence of the quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier. We also analyze polarization-dependent photon-mediated carrier distribution among quantum well and quantum dots. It is shown that polarization-insensitive gain can be realized by optimal design

  20. Electronic transport through a quantum dot chain with strong dot-lead coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu; Zheng, Yisong; Gong, Weijiang; Gao, Wenzhu; Lue, Tianquan

    2007-01-01

    By means of the non-equilibrium Green function technique, the electronic transport through an N-quantum-dot chain is theoretically studied. By calculating the linear conductance spectrum and the local density of states in quantum dots, we find the resonant peaks in the spectra coincides with the eigen-energies of the N-quantum-dot chain when the dot-lead coupling is relatively weak. With the increase of the dot-lead coupling, such a correspondence becomes inaccurate. When the dot-lead coupling exceeds twice the interdot coupling, such a mapping collapses completely. The linear conductance turn to reflect the eigen-energies of the (N-2)- or (N-1)-quantum dot chain instead. The two peripheral quantum dots do not manifest themselves in the linear conductance spectrum. More interestingly, with the further increase of the dot-lead coupling, the system behaves just like an (N-2)- or (N-1)-quantum dot chain in weak dot-lead coupling limit, since the resonant peaks becomes narrower with the increase of dot-lead coupling

  1. Exceeding Conventional Photovoltaic Efficiency Limits Using Colloidal Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pach, Gregory F.

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are a widely investigated field of research due to their highly tunable nature in which the optical and electronic properties of the nanocrystal can be manipulated by merely changing the nanocrystal's size. Specifically, colloidal quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) have become a promising candidate for future generation photovoltaic technology. Quantum dots exhibit multiple exciton generation (MEG) in which multiple electron-hole pairs are generated from a single high-energy photon. This process is not observed in bulk-like semiconductors and allows for QDSCs to achieve theoretical efficiency limits above the standard single-junction Shockley-Queisser limit. However, the fast expanding field of QDSC research has lacked standardization of synthetic techniques and device design. Therefore, we sought to detail methodology for synthesizing PbS and PbSe QDs as well as photovoltaic device fabrication techniques as a fast track toward constructing high-performance solar cells. We show that these protocols lead toward consistently achieving efficiencies above 8% for PbS QDSCs. Using the same methodology for building single-junction photovoltaic devices, we incorporated PbS QDs as a bottom cell into a monolithic tandem architecture along with solution-processed CdTe nanocrystals. Modeling shows that near-peak tandem device efficiencies can be achieved across a wide range of bottom cell band gaps, and therefore the highly tunable band gap of lead-chalcogenide QDs lends well towards a bottom cell in a tandem architecture. A fully functioning monolithic tandem device is realized through the development of a ZnTe/ZnO recombination layer that appropriately combines the two subcells in series. Multiple recent reports have shown nanocrystalline heterostructures to undergo the MEG process more efficiency than several other nanostrucutres, namely lead-chalcogenide QDs. The final section of my thesis expands upon a recent publication by Zhang et. al., which

  2. Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudon, Julien; Munsch, Matthieu; Bleuse, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Besides microcavities and photonic crystals, photonic nanowires have recently emerged as a novel resource for solidstate quantum optics. We will review recent studies which demonstrate an excellent control over the spontaneous emission of InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in single-mode Ga...... quantum optoelectronic devices. Quite amazingly, this approach has for instance permitted (unlike microcavity-based approaches) to combine for the first time a record-high efficiency (72%) and a negligible g(2) in a QD single photon source....

  3. In situ electron-beam polymerization stabilized quantum dot micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travert-Branger, Nathalie; Dubois, Fabien; Renault, Jean-Philippe; Pin, Serge; Mahler, Benoit; Gravel, Edmond; Dubertret, Benoit; Doris, Eric

    2011-04-19

    A polymerizable amphiphile polymer containing PEG was synthesized and used to encapsulate quantum dots in micelles. The quantum dot micelles were then polymerized using a "clean" electron beam process that did not require any post-irradiation purification. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the polymerized micelles provided an organic coating that preserved the quantum dot fluorescence better than nonpolymerized micelles, even under harsh conditions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Spin fine structure of optically excited quantum dot molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, M.; Doty, M. F.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Bracker, A. S.; Stinaff, E. A.; Korenev, V. L.; Reinecke, T. L.; Gammon, D.

    2007-06-01

    The interaction between spins in coupled quantum dots is revealed in distinct fine structure patterns in the measured optical spectra of InAs/GaAs double quantum dot molecules containing zero, one, or two excess holes. The fine structure is explained well in terms of a uniquely molecular interplay of spin-exchange interactions, Pauli exclusion, and orbital tunneling. This knowledge is critical for converting quantum dot molecule tunneling into a means of optically coupling not just orbitals but also spins.

  5. Controllability of multi-partite quantum systems and selective excitation of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, S G; Pullen, I C H; Solomon, A I

    2005-01-01

    We consider the degrees of controllability of multi-partite quantum systems, as well as necessary and sufficient criteria for each case. The results are applied to the problem of simultaneous control of an ensemble of quantum dots with a single laser pulse. Finally, we apply optimal control techniques to demonstrate selective excitation of individual dots for a simultaneously controllable ensemble of quantum dots

  6. A 2x2 quantum dot array with controllable inter-dot tunnel couplings

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Uditendu; Dehollain, Juan Pablo; Reichl, Christian; Wegscheider, Werner; Vandersypen, Lieven M. K.

    2018-01-01

    The interaction between electrons in arrays of electrostatically defined quantum dots is naturally described by a Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonian. Moreover, the high degree of tunability of these systems make them a powerful platform to simulate different regimes of the Hubbard model. However, most quantum dot array implementations have been limited to one-dimensional linear arrays. In this letter, we present a square lattice unit cell of 2$\\times$2 quantum dots defined electrostatically in a AlGaA...

  7. Core–shell quantum dots: Properties and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, D., E-mail: vasudevand@rediffmail.com [Electrodics and electrocatalysis division, CSIR-CECRI, Karaikudi 630006 (India); Gaddam, Rohit Ranganathan [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida 201301 (India); Trinchi, Adrian; Cole, Ivan [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Clayton South MDC, 3169 (Australia)

    2015-07-05

    Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) are semiconducting nanocrystals (NCs) that find numerous applications in areas, such as bio labelling, sensors, lasers, light emitting diodes and medicine. Core–shell quantum dots were developed to improve the photoluminescence efficiency of single quantum dots. Capping their surface with organic ligands as well as their extraction into aqueous media enables their use in sensing applications. The current review highlights the importance and applications of core shell quantum dots as well as their surface modifications and applications in the field of medicine and as sensors for chemical and biochemical analysis.

  8. Core–shell quantum dots: Properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, D.; Gaddam, Rohit Ranganathan; Trinchi, Adrian; Cole, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) are semiconducting nanocrystals (NCs) that find numerous applications in areas, such as bio labelling, sensors, lasers, light emitting diodes and medicine. Core–shell quantum dots were developed to improve the photoluminescence efficiency of single quantum dots. Capping their surface with organic ligands as well as their extraction into aqueous media enables their use in sensing applications. The current review highlights the importance and applications of core shell quantum dots as well as their surface modifications and applications in the field of medicine and as sensors for chemical and biochemical analysis

  9. Polarized quantum dot emission in electrohydrodynamic jet printed photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    See, Gloria G.; Xu, Lu; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    Tailored optical output, such as color purity and efficient optical intensity, are critical considerations for displays, particularly in mobile applications. To this end, we demonstrate a replica molded photonic crystal structure with embedded quantum dots. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing is used to control the position of the quantum dots within the device structure. This results in significantly less waste of the quantum dot material than application through drop-casting or spin coating. In addition, the targeted placement of the quantum dots minimizes any emission outside of the resonant enhancement field, which enables an 8× output enhancement and highly polarized emission from the photonic crystal structure

  10. Correlation effects in side-coupled quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitko, R; Bonca, J

    2007-01-01

    Using Wilson's numerical renormalization group (NRG) technique, we compute zero-bias conductance and various correlation functions of a double quantum dot (DQD) system. We present different regimes within a phase diagram of the DQD system. By introducing a negative Hubbard U on one of the quantum dots, we simulate the effect of electron-phonon coupling and explore the properties of the coexisting spin and charge Kondo state. In a triple quantum dot (TQD) system, a multi-stage Kondo effect appears where localized moments on quantum dots are screened successively at exponentially distinct Kondo temperatures

  11. Single-charge tunneling in ambipolar silicon quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Filipp

    2015-01-01

    Spin qubits in coupled quantum dots (QDs) are promising for future quantum information processing (QIP). A quantum bit (qubit) is the quantum mechanical analogon of a classical bit. In general, each quantum mechanical two-level system can represent a qubit. For the spin of a single charge carrier

  12. Phosphine-free synthesis and characterization of type-II ZnSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Roghayyeh; Armanmehr, Mohammad Hasan; Abedi, Mohammad; Fateh, Davood Sadeghi; Bahreini, Zaker

    2018-01-01

    A phosphine-free route for synthesis of type-II ZnSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots, using green, low cost and environmentally friendly reagents and phosphine-free solvents such as 1-octadecene (ODE) and liquid paraffin has been reported. Hot-injection technique has been used for the synthesis of ZnSe core quantum dots. The CdS shell quantum dots prepared by reaction of CdO precursor and S powder in 1-octadecene (ODE). The ZnSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots were synthesized via successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The characterization of produced quantum dots were performed by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed the formation of type-II ZnSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots with FWHM 32 nm and uniform size distribution.

  13. Effect of CdS/Mg-Doped CdSe Cosensitized Photoanode on Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Guan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dots have emerged as a material platform for low-cost high-performance sensitized solar cells. And doping is an effective method to improve the performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs. Since Kwak et al. from South Korea proved the incorporation of Mg in the CdSe quantum dots (QDs in 2007, the Mg-doped CdSe QDs have been thoroughly studied. Here we report a new attempt on CdS/Mg-doped CdSe quantum dot cosensitized solar cells (QDCSSC. We analyzed the performance of CdS/Mg-doped CdSe quantum dot cosensitized solar cells via discussing the different doping concentration of Mg and the different SILAR cycles of CdS. And we studied the mechanism of CdS/Mg-doped CdSe QDs in detail for the reason why the energy conversion efficiency had been promoted. It is a significant instruction on the development of Mg-doped CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs.

  14. Synthesis and formation mechanistic investigation of nitrogen-doped carbon dots with high quantum yields and yellowish-green fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juan; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Tianyu; Wang, Bo; Li, Huiyu; Ding, Lan

    2016-05-01

    Heteroatom doped carbon dots (CDs) have received increasing attention due to their unique properties and related applications. However, previously reported CDs generally show strong emission only in the blue-light region, thus restricting their further applications. And the fundamental investigation on the preparation process is always neglected. Herein, we have developed a simple and solvent-free synthetic strategy to fabricate nitrogen-doped CDs (N-CDs) from citric acid and dicyandiamide. The as-prepared N-CDs exhibited a uniform size distribution, strong yellowish-green fluorescence emission and a high quantum yield of 73.2%. The products obtained at different formation stages were detailedly characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV absorbance spectroscopy. A possible formation mechanism has thus been proposed including dehydration, polymerization and carbonization. Furthermore, the N-CDs could serve as a facile and label-free probe for the detection of iron and fluorine ions with detection limits of 50 nmol L-1 and 75 nmol L-1, respectively.Heteroatom doped carbon dots (CDs) have received increasing attention due to their unique properties and related applications. However, previously reported CDs generally show strong emission only in the blue-light region, thus restricting their further applications. And the fundamental investigation on the preparation process is always neglected. Herein, we have developed a simple and solvent-free synthetic strategy to fabricate nitrogen-doped CDs (N-CDs) from citric acid and dicyandiamide. The as-prepared N-CDs exhibited a uniform size distribution, strong yellowish-green fluorescence emission and a high quantum yield of 73.2%. The products obtained at different formation stages were detailedly characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV absorbance spectroscopy. A

  15. A strongly interacting polaritonic quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ningyuan; Schine, Nathan; Georgakopoulos, Alexandros; Ryou, Albert; Clark, Logan W.; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2018-06-01

    Polaritons are promising constituents of both synthetic quantum matter1 and quantum information processors2, whose properties emerge from their components: from light, polaritons draw fast dynamics and ease of transport; from matter, they inherit the ability to collide with one another. Cavity polaritons are particularly promising as they may be confined and subjected to synthetic magnetic fields controlled by cavity geometry3, and furthermore they benefit from increased robustness due to the cavity enhancement in light-matter coupling. Nonetheless, until now, cavity polaritons have operated only in a weakly interacting mean-field regime4,5. Here we demonstrate strong interactions between individual cavity polaritons enabled by employing highly excited Rydberg atoms as the matter component of the polaritons. We assemble a quantum dot composed of approximately 150 strongly interacting Rydberg-dressed 87Rb atoms in a cavity, and observe blockaded transport of photons through it. We further observe coherent photon tunnelling oscillations, demonstrating that the dot is zero-dimensional. This work establishes the cavity Rydberg polariton as a candidate qubit in a photonic information processor and, by employing multiple resonator modes as the spatial degrees of freedom of a photonic particle, the primary ingredient to form photonic quantum matter6.

  16. A molecularly imprinted dual-emission carbon dot-quantum dot mesoporous hybrid for ratiometric determination of anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjadi, Mohammad; Jalili, Roghayeh

    2018-02-01

    We report on a ratiometric fluorescent sensor based on dual-emission molecularly imprinted mesoporous silica embedded with carbon dots and CdTe quantum dots (mMIP@CDs/QDs) for celecoxib (CLX) as target molecule. The fluorescence of the embedded CDs is insensitive to the analyte while the green emissive QDs are selectively quenched by it. This effect is much stronger for the MIP than for the non-imprinted polymer, which indicates a good recognition ability of the mesoporous MIP. The hybrid sensor also exhibited good selectivity to CLX over other substances. The ratio of the intensity at two wavelengths (F550/F440) proportionally decreased with the increasing of CLX concentration in the range of 0.08-0.90 μM. A detection limit as low as 57 nM was achieved. Experimental results testified that this sensor was highly sensitive and selective for the detection of CLX in human serum samples.

  17. Quantum size effect and thermal stability of carbon-nanotube-based quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, N.Y.; Peng, J.; Liang, S.D.; Li, Z.B.; Xu, N.S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Based on semi-experience quantum chemical calculation, we have investigated the quantum size effect and thermal stability of open-end carbon nanotube (5, 5) quantum dots of 20 to 400 atoms. It was found that there is a gap in the energy band of all carbon nanotube (5, 5) quantum dots although a (5, 5) carbon nanotube is metallic. The energy gap of quantum dots is much dependent of the number of atoms in a dot, as a result of the quantization rules imposed by the finite scales in both radial and axial directions of a carbon nanotube quantum dot. Also, the heat of formation of carbon nanotube quantum dots is dependent of the size of a quantum dot. (author)

  18. Zeolite Y Films as Ideal Platform for Evaluation of Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Sung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are ideal host material for generation and stabilization of regular ultrasmall quantum dots (QDs array with the size below 1.5 nm. Quantum dots (QDs with high density and extinction absorption coefficient have been expected to give high level of third-order nonlinear optical (3rd-NLO and to have great potential applications in optoelectronics. In this paper, we carried out a systematic elucidation of the third-order nonlinear optical response of various types of QDs including PbSe, PbS, CdSe, CdS, ZnSe, ZnS, Ag2Se, and Ag2S by manipulation of QDs into zeolites Y pores. In this respect, we could demonstrate that the zeolite offers an ideal platform for capability comparison 3rd-NLO response of various types of QDs with high sensitivities.

  19. Nanoscale science and engineering forum (706c) design of solid lipid particles with iron oxide quantum dots for the delivery of therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid lipid particles provide a method to encapsulate and control the release of drugs in vivo but lack the imaging capability provided by CdS quantum dots. This shortcoming was addressed by combining these two technologies into a model system that uses iron oxide as a non-toxic imaging component in...

  20. Hybrid passivated colloidal quantum dot solids

    KAUST Repository

    Ip, Alex

    2012-07-29

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films allow large-area solution processing and bandgap tuning through the quantum size effect. However, the high ratio of surface area to volume makes CQD films prone to high trap state densities if surfaces are imperfectly passivated, promoting recombination of charge carriers that is detrimental to device performance. Recent advances have replaced the long insulating ligands that enable colloidal stability following synthesis with shorter organic linkers or halide anions, leading to improved passivation and higher packing densities. Although this substitution has been performed using solid-state ligand exchange, a solution-based approach is preferable because it enables increased control over the balance of charges on the surface of the quantum dot, which is essential for eliminating midgap trap states. Furthermore, the solution-based approach leverages recent progress in metal:chalcogen chemistry in the liquid phase. Here, we quantify the density of midgap trap states in CQD solids and show that the performance of CQD-based photovoltaics is now limited by electrong-"hole recombination due to these states. Next, using density functional theory and optoelectronic device modelling, we show that to improve this performance it is essential to bind a suitable ligand to each potential trap site on the surface of the quantum dot. We then develop a robust hybrid passivation scheme that involves introducing halide anions during the end stages of the synthesis process, which can passivate trap sites that are inaccessible to much larger organic ligands. An organic crosslinking strategy is then used to form the film. Finally, we use our hybrid passivated CQD solid to fabricate a solar cell with a certified efficiency of 7.0%, which is a record for a CQD photovoltaic device. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  1. Hybrid passivated colloidal quantum dot solids

    KAUST Repository

    Ip, Alex; Thon, Susanna; Hoogland, Sjoerd H.; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Zhitomirsky, David; Debnath, Ratan K.; Levina, Larissa; Rollny, Lisa R.; Carey, Graham H.; Fischer, Armin H.; Kemp, Kyle W.; Kramer, Illan J.; Ning, Zhijun; Labelle, André J.; Chou, Kang Wei; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, E. H.

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films allow large-area solution processing and bandgap tuning through the quantum size effect. However, the high ratio of surface area to volume makes CQD films prone to high trap state densities if surfaces are imperfectly passivated, promoting recombination of charge carriers that is detrimental to device performance. Recent advances have replaced the long insulating ligands that enable colloidal stability following synthesis with shorter organic linkers or halide anions, leading to improved passivation and higher packing densities. Although this substitution has been performed using solid-state ligand exchange, a solution-based approach is preferable because it enables increased control over the balance of charges on the surface of the quantum dot, which is essential for eliminating midgap trap states. Furthermore, the solution-based approach leverages recent progress in metal:chalcogen chemistry in the liquid phase. Here, we quantify the density of midgap trap states in CQD solids and show that the performance of CQD-based photovoltaics is now limited by electrong-"hole recombination due to these states. Next, using density functional theory and optoelectronic device modelling, we show that to improve this performance it is essential to bind a suitable ligand to each potential trap site on the surface of the quantum dot. We then develop a robust hybrid passivation scheme that involves introducing halide anions during the end stages of the synthesis process, which can passivate trap sites that are inaccessible to much larger organic ligands. An organic crosslinking strategy is then used to form the film. Finally, we use our hybrid passivated CQD solid to fabricate a solar cell with a certified efficiency of 7.0%, which is a record for a CQD photovoltaic device. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. Polymers in Carbon Dots: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqun Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dots (CDs have been widely studied since their discovery in 2004 as a green substitute of the traditional quantum dots due to their excellent photoluminescence (PL and high biocompatibility. Meanwhile, polymers have increasingly become an important component for both synthesis and modification of CDs to provide polymeric matrix and enhance their PL property. Furthermore, critical analysis of composites of CDs and polymers has not been available. Herein, in this review, we summarized the use of polymers in the synthesis and functionalization of CDs, and the applications of these CDs in various fields.

  3. Near-field strong coupling of single quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Heiko; Hamm, Joachim M; Tufarelli, Tommaso; Hess, Ortwin; Hecht, Bert

    2018-03-01

    Strong coupling and the resultant mixing of light and matter states is an important asset for future quantum technologies. We demonstrate deterministic room temperature strong coupling of a mesoscopic colloidal quantum dot to a plasmonic nanoresonator at the apex of a scanning probe. Enormous Rabi splittings of up to 110 meV are accomplished by nanometer-precise positioning of the quantum dot with respect to the nanoresonator probe. We find that, in addition to a small mode volume of the nanoresonator, collective coherent coupling of quantum dot band-edge states and near-field proximity interaction are vital ingredients for the realization of near-field strong coupling of mesoscopic quantum dots. The broadband nature of the interaction paves the road toward ultrafast coherent manipulation of the coupled quantum dot-plasmon system under ambient conditions.

  4. Silicon Quantum Dots with Counted Antimony Donor Implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Meenakshi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Pacheco, Jose L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Perry, Daniel Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Garratt, E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Ten Eyck, Gregory A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Wendt, Joel R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Manginell, Ronald P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Luhman, Dwight [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Bielejec, Edward S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Lilly, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Carroll, Malcolm S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies

    2015-10-01

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. A focused ion beam is used to implant close to quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of ions implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. Regular coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization, are observed in devices with counted implants.

  5. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail: msingh@sandia.gov; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  6. Trajectory phases of a quantum dot model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genway, Sam; Hickey, James M; Garrahan, Juan P; Armour, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    We present a thermodynamic formalism to study the trajectories of charge transport through a quantum dot coupled to two leads in the resonant-level model. We show that a close analogue of equilibrium phase transitions exists for the statistics of transferred charge; by tuning an appropriate ‘counting field’, crossovers to different trajectory phases are possible. Our description reveals a mapping between the statistics of a given device and current measurements over a range of devices with different dot–lead coupling strengths. Furthermore insight into features of the trajectory phases are found by studying the occupation of the dot conditioned on the transported charge between the leads; this is calculated from first principles using a trajectory biased two-point projective measurement scheme. (paper)

  7. Coupled quantum dot-ring structures by droplet epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somaschini, C; Bietti, S; Koguchi, N; Sanguinetti, S

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication, by pure self-assembly, of GaAs/AlGaAs dot-ring quantum nanostructures is presented. The growth is performed via droplet epitaxy, which allows for the fine control, through As flux and substrate temperature, of the crystallization kinetics of nanometer scale metallic Ga reservoirs deposited on the surface. Such a procedure permits the combination of quantum dots and quantum rings into a single, multi-functional, complex quantum nanostructure.

  8. Highly Efficient Spontaneous Emission from Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2006-01-01

    We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency.......We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency....

  9. Cu-Doped-CdS/In-Doped-CdS Cosensitized Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu-doped-CdS and In-doped-CdS cosensitized (Cu-doped-CdS/In-doped-CdS quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs are introduced here. Different cosensitized sequences, doping ratios, and the thickness (SILAR cycles of Cu-doped-CdS and In-doped-CdS are discussed. Compared with undoped CdS QDSCs, the short circuit current density, UV-Vis absorption spectra, IPCE (monochromatic incident photon-to-electron conversion, open circuit voltage, and so on are all improved. The photoelectric conversion efficiency has obviously improved from 0.71% to 1.28%.

  10. Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics: A Path Forward

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2011-11-22

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer a path toward high-efficiency photovoltaics based on low-cost materials and processes. Spectral tunability via the quantum size effect facilitates absorption of specific wavelengths from across the sun\\'s broad spectrum. CQD materials\\' ease of processing derives from their synthesis, storage, and processing in solution. Rapid advances have brought colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic solar power conversion efficiencies of 6% in the latest reports. These achievements represent important first steps toward commercially compelling performance. Here we review advances in device architecture and materials science. We diagnose the principal phenomenon-electronic states within the CQD film band gap that limit both current and voltage in devices-that must be cured for CQD PV devices to fulfill their promise. We close with a prescription, expressed as bounds on the density and energy of electronic states within the CQD film band gap, that should allow device efficiencies to rise to those required for the future of the solar energy field. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Tunable single quantum dot nanocavities for cavity QED experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniber, M; Laucht, A; Neumann, A; Bichler, M; Amann, M-C; Finley, J J

    2008-01-01

    We present cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments performed on single quantum dots embedded in two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavities. We begin by describing the structural and optical properties of the quantum dot sample and the photonic crystal nanocavities and compare the experimental results with three-dimensional calculations of the photonic properties. The influence of the tailored photonic environment on the quantum dot spontaneous emission dynamics is studied using spectrally and spatially dependent time-resolved spectroscopy. In ensemble and single dot measurements we show that the photonic crystals strongly enhance the photon extraction efficiency and, therefore, are a promising concept for realizing efficient single-photon sources. Furthermore, we demonstrate single-photon emission from an individual quantum dot that is spectrally detuned from the cavity mode. The need for controlling the spectral dot-cavity detuning is discussed on the basis of shifting either the quantum dot emission via temperature tuning or the cavity mode emission via a thin film deposition technique. Finally, we discuss the recently discovered non-resonant coupling mechanism between quantum dot emission and cavity mode for large detunings which drastically lowers the purity of single-photon emission from dots that are spectrally coupled to nanocavity modes.

  12. Systematic optimization of quantum junction colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Huan

    2012-01-01

    The recently reported quantum junction architecture represents a promising approach to building a rectifying photovoltaic device that employs colloidal quantum dot layers on each side of the p-n junction. Here, we report an optimized quantum junction solar cell that leverages an improved aluminum zinc oxide electrode for a stable contact to the n-side of the quantum junction and silver doping of the p-layer that greatly enhances the photocurrent by expanding the depletion region in the n-side of the device. These improvements result in greater stability and a power conversion efficiency of 6.1 under AM1.5 simulated solar illumination. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Discrete quantum Fourier transform in coupled semiconductor double quantum dot molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ping; Yang Ming; Cao Zhuoliang

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, we present a physical scheme for implementing the discrete quantum Fourier transform in a coupled semiconductor double quantum dot system. The main controlled-R gate operation can be decomposed into many simple and feasible unitary transformations. The current scheme would be a useful step towards the realization of complex quantum algorithms in the quantum dot system

  14. Determination of ethanol using permanganate-CdS quantum dot chemiluminescence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Jafar; Hassanzadeh, Javad

    2015-08-01

    A novel and highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of ethanol was developed based on the CdS quantum dots (QDs)-permanganate system. It was found that KMnO4 could directly oxidize CdS QDs in acidic media resulting in relatively high CL emission. A possible mechanism was proposed for this reaction based on UV/Vis absorption, fluorescence and the generated CL emission spectra. However, it was observed that ethanol had a remarkable inhibition effect on this system. This effect was exploited in the determination of ethanol within the concentration range 12-300 µg/L, with detection at 4.3 µg/L. In order to evaluate the capability of presented method, it was satisfactorily utilized in the determination of alcohol in real samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Nonequilibrium Electron Transport Through a Quantum Dot from Kubo Formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue Rong; Zhang Guangming

    2005-01-01

    Based on the Kubo formula for an electron tunneling junction, we revisit the nonequilibrium transport properties through a quantum dot. Since the Fermi level of the quantum dot is set by the conduction electrons of the leads, we calculate the electron current from the left side by assuming the quantum dot coupled to the right lead as another side of the tunneling junction, and the other way round is used to calculate the current from the right side. By symmetrizing these two currents, an effective local density states on the dot can be obtained, and is discussed at high and low temperatures, respectively.

  16. Quantum computation with nuclear spins in quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, H.

    2008-01-24

    The role of nuclear spins for quantum information processing in quantum dots is theoretically investigated in this thesis. Building on the established fact that the most strongly coupled environment for the potential electron spin quantum bit are the surrounding lattice nuclear spins interacting via the hyperfine interaction, we turn this vice into a virtue by designing schemes for harnessing this strong coupling. In this perspective, the ensemble of nuclear spins can be considered an asset, suitable for an active role in quantum information processing due to its intrinsic long coherence times. We present experimentally feasible protocols for the polarization, i.e. initialization, of the nuclear spins and a quantitative solution to our derived master equation. The polarization limiting destructive interference effects, caused by the collective nature of the nuclear coupling to the electron spin, are studied in detail. Efficient ways of mitigating these constraints are presented, demonstrating that highly polarized nuclear ensembles in quantum dots are feasible. At high, but not perfect, polarization of the nuclei the evolution of an electron spin in contact with the spin bath can be efficiently studied by means of a truncation of the Hilbert space. It is shown that the electron spin can function as a mediator of universal quantum gates for collective nuclear spin qubits, yielding a promising architecture for quantum information processing. Furthermore, we show that at high polarization the hyperfine interaction of electron and nuclear spins resembles the celebrated Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics. This result opens the door for transfer of knowledge from the mature field of quantum computation with atoms and photons. Additionally, tailored specifically for the quantum dot environment, we propose a novel scheme for the generation of highly squeezed collective nuclear states. Finally we demonstrate that even an unprepared completely mixed nuclear spin

  17. Quantum computation with nuclear spins in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, H.

    2008-01-01

    The role of nuclear spins for quantum information processing in quantum dots is theoretically investigated in this thesis. Building on the established fact that the most strongly coupled environment for the potential electron spin quantum bit are the surrounding lattice nuclear spins interacting via the hyperfine interaction, we turn this vice into a virtue by designing schemes for harnessing this strong coupling. In this perspective, the ensemble of nuclear spins can be considered an asset, suitable for an active role in quantum information processing due to its intrinsic long coherence times. We present experimentally feasible protocols for the polarization, i.e. initialization, of the nuclear spins and a quantitative solution to our derived master equation. The polarization limiting destructive interference effects, caused by the collective nature of the nuclear coupling to the electron spin, are studied in detail. Efficient ways of mitigating these constraints are presented, demonstrating that highly polarized nuclear ensembles in quantum dots are feasible. At high, but not perfect, polarization of the nuclei the evolution of an electron spin in contact with the spin bath can be efficiently studied by means of a truncation of the Hilbert space. It is shown that the electron spin can function as a mediator of universal quantum gates for collective nuclear spin qubits, yielding a promising architecture for quantum information processing. Furthermore, we show that at high polarization the hyperfine interaction of electron and nuclear spins resembles the celebrated Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics. This result opens the door for transfer of knowledge from the mature field of quantum computation with atoms and photons. Additionally, tailored specifically for the quantum dot environment, we propose a novel scheme for the generation of highly squeezed collective nuclear states. Finally we demonstrate that even an unprepared completely mixed nuclear spin

  18. Quantum-dot cluster-state computing with encoded qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, Yaakov S.; Hellberg, C. Stephen; Levy, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    A class of architectures is advanced for cluster-state quantum computation using quantum dots. These architectures include using single and multiple dots as logical qubits. Special attention is given to supercoherent qubits introduced by Bacon et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247902 (2001)] for which we discuss the effects of various errors and present a means of error protection

  19. Exciton binding energy in a pyramidal quantum dot

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A ANITHA

    2018-03-27

    Mar 27, 2018 ... screening function on exciton binding energy in a pyramid-shaped quantum dot of ... tures may generate unique properties and they show .... where Ee is the ground-state energy of the electron in ... Figure 1. The geometry of the pyramidal quantum dot. base and H is the height of the pyramid which is taken.

  20. Coherent Dynamics of Quantum Dots in Photonic-Crystal Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg

    deviations. Similar measurements on a quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity sow a Rabi splitting on resonance, while time-resolved measurements prove that the system is in the weak coupling regime. Whle tuning the quantum dot through resonance of the high-Q mode we observe a strong and surprisingly...

  1. Electron transport and coherence in semiconductor quantum dots and rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wiel, W.G.

    2002-01-01

    A number of experiments on electron transport and coherence in semiconductor vertical and lateral quantum dots and semiconductor rings is described. Quantum dots are often referred to as "artificial atoms", because of their similarities with real atoms. Examples of such atom-like properties that

  2. Stark effect and polarizability of graphene quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2017-01-01

    The properties of graphene quantum dots can be manipulated via lateral electric fields. Treating electrons in such structures as confined massless Dirac fermions, we derive an analytical expression for the quadratic Stark shift valid for arbitrary angular momentum and quantum dot size. Moreover, we...

  3. Laterally coupled jellium-like two-dimensional quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markvoort, Albert. J.; Hilbers, P.A.J.; Pino, R.

    2003-01-01

    Many studies have been performed to describe quantum dots using a parabolic confining potential. However, infinite potentials are unphysical and lead to problems when describing laterally coupled quantum dots. We propose the use of the parabolic potential of a homogeneous density distribution within

  4. Fast synthesize ZnO quantum dots via ultrasonic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weimin; Zhang, Bing; Ding, Nan; Ding, Wenhao; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-05-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic sol-gel method. The ZnO quantum dots were synthesized in various ultrasonic temperature and time. Photoluminescence properties of these ZnO quantum dots were measured. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay spectra were also taken to discover the change of defects amount during the reaction. Both ultrasonic temperature and time could affect the type and amount of defects in ZnO quantum dots. Total defects of ZnO quantum dots decreased with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time. The dangling bonds defects disappeared faster than the optical defects. Types of optical defects first changed from oxygen interstitial defects to oxygen vacancy and zinc interstitial defects. Then transformed back to oxygen interstitial defects again. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by both ultrasonic temperature and time as well. That is, with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased. Moreover, concentrated raw materials solution brought larger sizes and more optical defects of ZnO quantum dots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Imaging vasculature and lymphatic flow in mice using quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballou, Byron; Ernst, Lauren A.; Andreko, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots are ideal probes for fluorescent imaging of vascular and lymphatic tissues. On injection into appropriate sites, red- and near-infrared-emitting quantum dots provide excellent definition of vasculature, lymphoid organs, and lymph nodes draining both normal tissues and tumors. We detail...

  6. Fractional decay of quantum dots in photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Koenderink, Femius; Lodahl, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We define a practical measure for the degree of fractional decay and establish conditions for the effect to be observable for quantum dots in photonic crystals exhibiting absorptive losses.......We define a practical measure for the degree of fractional decay and establish conditions for the effect to be observable for quantum dots in photonic crystals exhibiting absorptive losses....

  7. High-resolution photoluminescence studies of single semiconductor quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Østergaard, John Erland; Jensen, Jacob Riis

    2000-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots, especially those formed by self-organized growth, are considered a promising material system for future optical devices [1] and the optical properties of quantum dot ensembles have been investigated in detail over the past years. Recently, considerable interest has...

  8. Polarized electrons, trions, and nuclei in charged quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracker, A. S.; Tischler, J. G.; Korenev, V. L.; Gammon, D.

    2003-07-01

    We have investigated spin polarization in GaAs quantum dots. Excitons and trions are polarized directly by optical excitation and studied through polarization of photoluminescence. Electrons and nuclei are polarized indirectly through subsequent relaxation processes. Polarized electrons are identified by the Hanle effect for exciton and trion photoluminescence, while polarized nuclei are identified through the Overhauser effect in individual charged quantum dots.

  9. Electronic properties of assemblies of zno quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Aarnoud Laurens

    2003-01-01

    Electron transport in an assembly of ZnO quantum dots has been studied using an electrochemically gated transistor. The electron mobility shows a step-wise increase as a function of the electron occupation per quantum dot. When the occupation number is below two, transport occurs by tunnelling

  10. Phonon-assisted decoherence and tunneling in quantum dot molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodecka-Grad, Anna; Foerstner, Jens

    2011-01-01

    processes with relevant acoustic phonons. We show that the relaxation is dominated by phonon-assisted electron tunneling between constituent quantum dots and occurs on a picosecond time scale. The dependence of the time evolution of the quantum dot occupation probabilities on the energy mismatch between...

  11. Optical properties of a tip-induced quantum dot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemerink, M.; Sauthoff, K.; Koenraad, P.M.; Gerritsen, J.W.; Kempen, van H.; Fomin, V.M.; Wolter, J.H.; Devreese, J.T.; Miura, N.; Ando, T.

    2001-01-01

    We have performed optical spectroscopy measurements on an STM-tip-induced quantum dot. The dominant confinement in the (hole) quantum dot is in the direction parallel to the tip axis. Electron confinement is achieved by a sub-surface AlGaAs barrier. Current dependent measurements indicate that

  12. Electroluminescence spectra of an STM-tip-induced quantum dot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croitoru, M.D.; Gladilin, V.N.; Fomin, V.; Devreese, J.T.; Kemerink, M.; Koenraad, P.M.; Sauthoff, K.; Wolter, J.H.; Long, A.R.; Davies, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    We analyse the electroluminescence measurements performed on a STM-tipImduced quantum dot in a GaAs layer. Positions of electroluminescence peaks, attributed to the electron-hole recombination in the quantum dot, are very sensitive to the electron tunnelling current even in the case when the current

  13. Quantum dot loaded immunomicelles for tumor imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levchenko Tatyana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optical imaging is a promising method for the detection of tumors in animals, with speed and minimal invasiveness. We have previously developed a lipid coated quantum dot system that doubles the fluorescence of PEG-grafted quantum dots at half the dose. Here, we describe a tumor-targeted near infrared imaging agent composed of cancer-specific monoclonal anti-nucleosome antibody 2C5, coupled to quantum dot (QD-containing polymeric micelles, prepared from a polyethylene glycol/phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE conjugate. Its production is simple and involves no special equipment. Its imaging potential is great since the fluorescence intensity in the tumor is twofold that of non-targeted QD-loaded PEG-PE micelles at one hour after injection. Methods Para-nitrophenol-containing (5% PEG-PE quantum dot micelles were produced by the thin layer method. Following hydration, 2C5 antibody was attached to the PEG-PE micelles and the QD-micelles were purified using dialysis. 4T1 breast tumors were inoculated subcutaneously in the flank of the animals. A lung pseudometastatic B16F10 melanoma model was developed using tail vein injection. The contrast agents were injected via the tail vein and mice were depilated, anesthetized and imaged on a Kodak Image Station. Images were taken at one, two, and four hours and analyzed using a methodology that produces normalized signal-to-noise data. This allowed for the comparison between different subjects and time points. For the pseudometastatic model, lungs were removed and imaged ex vivo at one and twenty four hours. Results The contrast agent signal intensity at the tumor was double that of the passively targeted QD-micelles with equally fast and sharply contrasted images. With the side views of the animals only tumor is visible, while in the dorsal view internal organs including liver and kidney are visible. Ex vivo results demonstrated that the agent detects melanoma nodes in a lung

  14. Quantum Dots for Molecular Diagnostics of Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdobnova, T.A.; Lebedenko, E.N.; Deyev, S.М.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are a new class of fluorophores with unique physical and chemical properties, which allow to appreciably expand the possibilities for the current methods of fluorescent imaging and optical diagnostics. Here we discuss the prospects of QD application for molecular diagnostics of tumors ranging from cancer-specific marker detection on microplates to non-invasive tumor imagingin vivo. We also point out the essential problems that require resolution in order to clinically promote QD, and we indicate innovative approaches to oncology which are implementable using QD. PMID:22649672

  15. Transcending binary logic by gating three coupled quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michael; Rogge, S; Remacle, F; Levine, R D

    2007-09-01

    Physical considerations supported by numerical solution of the quantum dynamics including electron repulsion show that three weakly coupled quantum dots can robustly execute a complete set of logic gates for computing using three valued inputs and outputs. Input is coded as gating (up, unchanged, or down) of the terminal dots. A nanosecond time scale switching of the gate voltage requires careful numerical propagation of the dynamics. Readout is the charge (0, 1, or 2 electrons) on the central dot.

  16. Electrical control of single hole spins in nanowire quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pribiag, V.S.; Nadj-Perge, S.; Frolov, S.M.; Berg, J.W.G.; Weperen, van I.; Plissard, S.R.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2013-01-01

    The development of viable quantum computation devices will require the ability to preserve the coherence of quantum bits (qubits)1. Single electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are a versatile platform for quantum information processing, but controlling decoherence remains a considerable

  17. Numerical simulation of optical feedback on a quantum dot lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Khursan, Amin H., E-mail: ameen_2all@yahoo.com [Thi-Qar University, Nassiriya Nanotechnology Research Laboratory (NNRL), Science College (Iraq); Ghalib, Basim Abdullattif [Babylon University, Laser Physics Department, Science College for Women (Iraq); Al-Obaidi, Sabri J. [Al-Mustansiriyah University, Physics Department, Science College (Iraq)

    2012-02-15

    We use multi-population rate equations model to study feedback oscillations in the quantum dot laser. This model takes into account all peculiar characteristics in the quantum dots such as inhomogeneous broadening of the gain spectrum, the presence of the excited states on the quantum dot and the non-confined states due to the presence of wetting layer and the barrier. The contribution of quantum dot groups, which cannot follow by other models, is simulated. The results obtained from this model show the feedback oscillations, the periodic oscillations which evolves to chaos at higher injection current of higher feedback levels. The frequency fluctuation is attributed mainly to wetting layer with a considerable contribution from excited states. The simulation shows that is must be not using simple rate equation models to express quantum dots working at excited state transition.

  18. 3D super-resolution imaging with blinking quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Fruhwirth, Gilbert; Cai, En; Ng, Tony; Selvin, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dots are promising candidates for single molecule imaging due to their exceptional photophysical properties, including their intense brightness and resistance to photobleaching. They are also notorious for their blinking. Here we report a novel way to take advantage of quantum dot blinking to develop an imaging technique in three-dimensions with nanometric resolution. We first applied this method to simulated images of quantum dots, and then to quantum dots immobilized on microspheres. We achieved imaging resolutions (FWHM) of 8–17 nm in the x-y plane and 58 nm (on coverslip) or 81 nm (deep in solution) in the z-direction, approximately 3–7 times better than what has been achieved previously with quantum dots. This approach was applied to resolve the 3D distribution of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) molecules at, and inside of, the plasma membrane of resting basal breast cancer cells. PMID:24093439

  19. Enhanced intratumoral uptake of quantum dots concealed within hydrogel nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Ashwin; Shen Jinhui; Thevenot, Paul; Zou Ling; Tang Liping; Cai Tong; Hu Zhibing

    2008-01-01

    Effective nanomedical devices for tumor imaging and drug delivery are not yet available. In an attempt to construct a more functional device for tumor imaging, we have embedded quantum dots (which have poor circulatory behavior) within hydrogel nanoparticles made of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide. We found that the hydrogel encapsulated quantum dots are more readily taken up by cultured tumor cells. Furthermore, in a melanoma model, hydrogel encapsulated quantum dots also preferentially accumulate in the tumor tissue compared with normal tissue and have ∼16-fold greater intratumoral uptake compared to non-derivatized quantum dots. Our results suggest that these derivatized quantum dots, which have greatly improved tumor localization, may enhance cancer monitoring and chemotherapy.

  20. Interaction of porphyrins with CdTe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xing; Liu Zhongxin; Ma Lun; Hossu, Marius; Chen Wei

    2011-01-01

    Porphyrins may be used as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy, photocatalysts for organic pollutant dissociation, agents for medical imaging and diagnostics, applications in luminescence and electronics. The detection of porphyrins is significantly important and here the interaction of protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) with CdTe quantum dots was studied. It was observed that the luminescence of CdTe quantum dots was quenched dramatically in the presence of PPIX. When CdTe quantum dots were embedded into silica layers, almost no quenching by PPIX was observed. This indicates that PPIX may interact and alter CdTe quantum dots and thus quench their luminescence. The oxidation of the stabilizers such as thioglycolic acid (TGA) as well as the nanoparticles by the singlet oxygen generated from PPIX is most likely responsible for the luminescence quenching. The quenching of quantum dot luminescence by porphyrins may provide a new method for photosensitizer detection.

  1. Non-blinking quantum dot with a plasmonic nanoshell resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Botao; Giovanelli, Emerson; Habert, Benjamin; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Nasilowski, Michel; Xu, Xiangzhen; Lequeux, Nicolas; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Marquier, Francois; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Dubertret, Benoit

    2015-02-01

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are fluorescent nanocrystals exhibiting exceptional optical properties, but their emission intensity strongly depends on their charging state and local environment. This leads to blinking at the single-particle level or even complete fluorescence quenching, and limits the applications of quantum dots as fluorescent particles. Here, we show that a single quantum dot encapsulated in a silica shell coated with a continuous gold nanoshell provides a system with a stable and Poissonian emission at room temperature that is preserved regardless of drastic changes in the local environment. This novel hybrid quantum dot/silica/gold structure behaves as a plasmonic resonator with a strong Purcell factor, in very good agreement with simulations. The gold nanoshell also acts as a shield that protects the quantum dot fluorescence and enhances its resistance to high-power photoexcitation or high-energy electron beams. This plasmonic fluorescent resonator opens the way to a new family of plasmonic nanoemitters with robust optical properties.

  2. Semiconductor quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-10-31

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been drawing great attention recently as a material for solar energy conversion due to their versatile optical and electrical properties. The QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) is one of the burgeoning semiconductor QD solar cells that shows promising developments for the next generation of solar cells. This article focuses on recent developments in QDSCs, including 1) the effect of quantum confinement on QDSCs, 2) the multiple exciton generation (MEG) of QDs, 3) fabrication methods of QDs, and 4) nanocrystalline photoelectrodes for solar cells. We also make suggestions for future research on QDSCs. Although the efficiency of QDSCs is still low, we think there will be major breakthroughs in developing QDSCs in the future.

  3. Electron states in semiconductor quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhayal, Suman S.; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.; Ruda, Harry E.; Nair, Selvakumar V.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the electronic structures of quantum dots (QDs) of nine direct band gap semiconductor materials belonging to the group II-VI and III-V families are investigated, within the empirical tight-binding framework, in the effective bond orbital model. This methodology is shown to accurately describe these systems, yielding, at the same time, qualitative insights into their electronic properties. Various features of the bulk band structure such as band-gaps, band curvature, and band widths around symmetry points affect the quantum confinement of electrons and holes. These effects are identified and quantified. A comparison with experimental data yields good agreement with the calculations. These theoretical results would help quantify the optical response of QDs of these materials and provide useful input for applications

  4. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Graphene based quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. G.; Hu, H.; Pan, Y.; Mao, J. H.; Gao, M.; Guo, H. M.; Du, S. X.; Greber, T.; Gao, H.-J.

    2010-08-01

    Laterally localized electronic states are identified on a single layer of graphene on ruthenium by low temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). The individual states are separated by 3 nm and comprise regions of about 90 carbon atoms. This constitutes a highly regular quantum dot-array with molecular precision. It is evidenced by quantum well resonances (QWRs) with energies that relate to the corrugation of the graphene layer. The dI/dV conductance spectra are modeled by a layer height dependent potential-well with a delta-function potential that describes the barrier for electron penetration into graphene. The resulting QWRs are strongest and lowest in energy on the isolated 'hill' regions with a diameter of 2 nm, where the graphene is decoupled from the surface.

  5. Templated self-assembly of SiGe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dais, Christian

    2009-08-19

    This PhD thesis reports on the fabrication and characterization of exact aligned SiGe quantum dot structures. In general, SiGe quantum dots which nucleate via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode exhibit broad size dispersion and nucleate randomly on the surface. However, to tap the full potential of SiGe quantum dots it is necessary to control the positioning and size of the dots on a nanometer length, e.g. for electronically addressing of individual dots. This can be realized by so-called templated self-assembly, which combines top-down lithography with bottom-up selfassembly. In this process the lithographically defined pits serve as pre-defined nucleation points for the epitaxially grown quantum dots. In this thesis, extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at a wavelength of e=13.4 nm is employed for prepatterning of the Si substrates. This technique allows the precise and fast fabrication of high-resolution templates with a high degree of reproducibility. The subsequent epitaxial deposition is either performed by molecular beam epitaxy or low-pressure chemical vapour deposition. It is shown that the dot nucleation on pre-patterned substrates depends strongly on the lithography parameters, e.g. size and periodicity of the pits, as well as on the epitaxy parameters, e.g. growth temperature or material coverage. The interrelations are carefully analyzed by means of scanning force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. Provided that correct template and overgrowth parameters are chosen, perfectly aligned and uniform SiGe quantum dot arrays of different period, size as well as symmetry are created. In particular, the quantum dot arrays with the so far smallest period (35 nm) and smallest size dispersion are fabricated in this thesis. Furthermore, the strain fields of the underlying quantum dots allow the fabrication of vertically aligned quantum dot stacks. Combining lateral and vertical dot alignment results in three

  6. Nucleo-mitochondrial interaction of yeast in response to cadmium sulfide quantum dot exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquali, Francesco; Agrimonti, Caterina; Pagano, Luca; Zappettini, Andrea; Villani, Marco; Marmiroli, Marta; White, Jason C.; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CdS QDs induce oxidative stress in yeast. • CdS QDs disrupt mitochondrial membrane potentials and morphology. • CdS QDs do not affect mtDNA content. • CdS QDs modify the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial organization and function. • Deletion of some of these genes induces either tolerant or sensitive phenotypes to CdS QDs. - Abstract: Cell sensitivity to quantum dots (QDs) has been attributed to a cascade triggered by oxidative stress leading to apoptosis. The role and function of mitochondria in animal cells are well understood but little information is available on the complex genetic networks that regulate nucleo-mitochondrial interaction. The effect of CdS QD exposure in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was assessed under conditions of limited lethality (<10%), using cell physiological and morphological endpoints. Whole-genomic array analysis and the screening of a deletion mutant library were also carried out. The results showed that QDs: increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased the level of reduced vs oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG); reduced oxygen consumption and the abundance of respiratory cytochromes; disrupted mitochondrial membrane potentials and affected mitochondrial morphology. Exposure affected the capacity of cells to grow on galactose, which requires nucleo-mitochondrial involvement. However, QDs exposure did not materially induce respiratory deficient (RD) mutants but only RD phenocopies. All of these cellular changes were correlated with several key nuclear genes, including TOM5 and FKS1, involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial organization and function. The consequences of these cellular effects are discussed in terms of dysregulation of cell function in response to these “pathological mitochondria”.

  7. Nucleo-mitochondrial interaction of yeast in response to cadmium sulfide quantum dot exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquali, Francesco; Agrimonti, Caterina [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Pagano, Luca [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Stockbridge school of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT (United States); Zappettini, Andrea; Villani, Marco [IMEM-CNR - Istituto dei Materiali per l' Elettronica ed il Magnetismo, Parma (Italy); Marmiroli, Marta [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); White, Jason C. [The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT (United States); Marmiroli, Nelson, E-mail: nelson.marmiroli@unipr.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); CINSA - Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per le Scienze Ambientali, University of Parma, Parma (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • CdS QDs induce oxidative stress in yeast. • CdS QDs disrupt mitochondrial membrane potentials and morphology. • CdS QDs do not affect mtDNA content. • CdS QDs modify the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial organization and function. • Deletion of some of these genes induces either tolerant or sensitive phenotypes to CdS QDs. - Abstract: Cell sensitivity to quantum dots (QDs) has been attributed to a cascade triggered by oxidative stress leading to apoptosis. The role and function of mitochondria in animal cells are well understood but little information is available on the complex genetic networks that regulate nucleo-mitochondrial interaction. The effect of CdS QD exposure in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was assessed under conditions of limited lethality (<10%), using cell physiological and morphological endpoints. Whole-genomic array analysis and the screening of a deletion mutant library were also carried out. The results showed that QDs: increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased the level of reduced vs oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG); reduced oxygen consumption and the abundance of respiratory cytochromes; disrupted mitochondrial membrane potentials and affected mitochondrial morphology. Exposure affected the capacity of cells to grow on galactose, which requires nucleo-mitochondrial involvement. However, QDs exposure did not materially induce respiratory deficient (RD) mutants but only RD phenocopies. All of these cellular changes were correlated with several key nuclear genes, including TOM5 and FKS1, involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial organization and function. The consequences of these cellular effects are discussed in terms of dysregulation of cell function in response to these “pathological mitochondria”.

  8. Quantum dot systems: artificial atoms with tunable properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Quantum dots - also called zero-dimensional electron systems or artificial atoms - are physical objects where the constituent electrons are confined in a small spatial region, leading to discrete eigenvalues for the energies of the confined electrons. Large quantum dots offer a dense energy spectrum comparable to that of metallic grains, whereas small quantum dots more closely resemble atoms in their electronic properties. Quantum dots can be linked to leads by tunnel barriers, hence permitting electrical transport measurements: Coulomb blockade and single-electron charging effects are observed due to the repulsive electron electron interaction on the quantum dot site. Usually fabricated by conventional semiconductor growth and processing technology, the advantage is that both simple and also more complex quantum dot systems can be designed to purpose, acting as model systems with in-situ tunable parameters such as the number of confined electrons in the quantum dot and the strength of the tunnel coupling to the leads, electrostatically controlled by the applied voltages to gate electrodes. With increasing the tunnel coupling to the leads, the virtual occupation of the quantum dot from the leads becomes more and more important -- the simple description of electrical transport by single-electron tunneling events breaks down. The basic physics is described by the Kondo physics based on the Anderson impurity model. A system consisting of strongly electrostatically coupled quantum dots with separate leads to each quantum dot represent another realization of the Anderson impurity model. Experiments to verify the analogy are presented. The experimental data embedded within this tutorial have been obtained with Alexander Huebel, Matthias Keller, Joerg Schmid, David Quirion, Armin Welker, Ulf Wilhelm, and Klaus von Klitzing. (author)

  9. Andreev molecules in semiconductor nanowire double quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhaoen; Tacla, Alexandre B; Hocevar, Moïra; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Daley, Andrew J; Pekker, David; Frolov, Sergey M

    2017-09-19

    Chains of quantum dots coupled to superconductors are promising for the realization of the Kitaev model of a topological superconductor. While individual superconducting quantum dots have been explored, control of longer chains requires understanding of interdot coupling. Here, double quantum dots are defined by gate voltages in indium antimonide nanowires. High transparency superconducting niobium titanium nitride contacts are made to each of the dots in order to induce superconductivity, as well as probe electron transport. Andreev bound states induced on each of dots hybridize to define Andreev molecular states. The evolution of these states is studied as a function of charge parity on the dots, and in magnetic field. The experiments are found in agreement with a numerical model.Quantum dots in a nanowire are one possible approach to creating a solid-state quantum simulator. Here, the authors demonstrate the coupling of electronic states in a double quantum dot to form Andreev molecule states; a potential building block for longer chains suitable for quantum simulation.

  10. Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Wood

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices (QD-LEDs have generated considerable interest for applications such as thin film displays with improved color saturation and white lighting with a high color rendering index (CRI. We review the key advantages of using quantum dots (QDs in display and lighting applications, including their color purity, solution processability, and stability. After highlighting the main developments in QD-LED technology in the past 15 years, we describe the three mechanisms for exciting QDs – optical excitation, Förster energy transfer, and direct charge injection – that have been leveraged to create QD-LEDs. We outline the challenges facing QD-LED development, such as QD charging and QD luminescence quenching in QD thin films. We describe how optical downconversion schemes have enabled researchers to overcome these challenges and develop commercial lighting products that incorporate QDs to achieve desirable color temperature and a high CRI while maintaining efficiencies comparable to inorganic white LEDs (>65 lumens per Watt. We conclude by discussing some current directions in QD research that focus on achieving higher efficiency and air-stable QD-LEDs using electrical excitation of the luminescent QDs.

  11. Quantum dots for lasers, amplifiers and computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimberg, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    For InAs-GaAs based quantum dot lasers emitting at 1300 nm, digital modulation showing an open eye pattern up to 12 Gb s -1 at room temperature is demonstrated, at 10 Gb s -1 the bit error rate is below 10 -12 at -2 dB m receiver power. Cut-off frequencies up to 20 GHz are realised for lasers emitting at 1.1 μm. Passively mode-locked QD lasers generate optical pulses with repetition frequencies between 5 and 50 GHz, with a minimum Fourier limited pulse length of 3 ps. The uncorrelated jitter is below 1 ps. We use here deeply etched narrow ridge waveguide structures which show excellent performance similar to shallow mesa structures, but a circular far field at a ridge width of 1 μm, improving coupling efficiency into fibres. No beam filamentation of the fundamental mode, low a-factors and strongly reduced sensitivity to optical feedback are observed. QD lasers are thus superior to QW lasers for any system or network. Quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier (QD SOAs) demonstrate gain recovery times of 120-140 fs, 4-7 times faster than bulk/QW SOAs, and a net gain larger than 0.4 dB/(mm*QD-layer) providing us with novel types of booster amplifiers and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. These breakthroughs became possible due to systematic development of self-organized growth technologies

  12. Fourier transform spectra of quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, V.; Ardelean, I.; Armăşelu, Anca; Apostol, D.

    2010-05-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are nanometer-sized crystals with unique photochemical and photophysical properties that are not available from either isolated molecules or bulk solids. These nanocrystals absorb light over a very broad spectral range as compared to molecular fluorophores which have very narrow excitation spectra. High-quality QDs are proper to be use in different biological and medical applications (as fluorescent labels, the cancer treatment and the drug delivery). In this article, we discuss Fourier transform visible spectroscopy of commercial quantum dots. We reveal that QDs produced by Evident Technologies when are enlightened by laser or luminescent diode light provides a spectral shift of their fluorescence spectra correlated to exciting emission wavelengths, as shown by the ARCspectroNIR Fourier Transform Spectrometer. In the final part of this paper we show an important biological application of CdSe/ZnS core-shell ODs as microbial labeling both for pure cultures of cyanobacteria (Synechocystis PCC 6803) and for mixed cultures of phototrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms.

  13. Phosphonate self-assembled monolayers as organic linkers in solid-state quantum dot sensetized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ardalan, Pendar

    2010-06-01

    We have employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, water contact angle (WCA) measurements, ellipsometry, and electrical measurements to study the effects of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with phosphonic acid headgroups on the bonding and performance of cadmium sulfide (CdS) solid-state quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). ∼2 to ∼6 nm size CdS quantum dots (QDs) were grown on the SAM-passivated TiO2 surfaces by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Our results show differences in the bonding of the CdS QDs at the TiO2 surfaces with a SAM linker. Moreover, our data indicate that presence of a SAM increases the CdS uptake on TiO2 as well as the performance of the resulting devices. Importantly, we observe ∼2 times higher power conversion efficiencies in the devices with a SAM compared to those that lack a SAM. © 2010 IEEE.

  14. Charge-extraction strategies for colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Xinzheng

    2014-02-20

    The solar-power conversion efficiencies of colloidal quantum dot solar cells have advanced from sub-1% reported in 2005 to a record value of 8.5% in 2013. Much focus has deservedly been placed on densifying, passivating and crosslinking the colloidal quantum dot solid. Here we review progress in improving charge extraction, achieved by engineering the composition and structure of the electrode materials that contact the colloidal quantum dot film. New classes of structured electrodes have been developed and integrated to form bulk heterojunction devices that enhance photocharge extraction. Control over band offsets, doping and interfacial trap state densities have been essential for achieving improved electrical communication with colloidal quantum dot solids. Quantum junction devices that not only tune the optical absorption spectrum, but also provide inherently matched bands across the interface between p-and n-materials, have proven that charge separation can occur efficiently across an all-quantum-tuned rectifying junction. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  15. Ferritin-Templated Quantum-Dots for Quantum Logic Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Seon-Jeong; Elliott, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum logic gates (QLGs) or other logic systems are based on quantum-dots (QD) with a stringent requirement of size uniformity. The QD are widely known building units for QLGs. The size control of QD is a critical issue in quantum-dot fabrication. The work presented here offers a new method to develop quantum-dots using a bio-template, called ferritin, that ensures QD production in uniform size of nano-scale proportion. The bio-template for uniform yield of QD is based on a ferritin protein that allows reconstitution of core material through the reduction and chelation processes. One of the biggest challenges for developing QLG is the requirement of ordered and uniform size of QD for arrays on a substrate with nanometer precision. The QD development by bio-template includes the electrochemical/chemical reconsitution of ferritins with different core materials, such as iron, cobalt, manganese, platinum, and nickel. The other bio-template method used in our laboratory is dendrimers, precisely defined chemical structures. With ferritin-templated QD, we fabricated the heptagonshaped patterned array via direct nano manipulation of the ferritin molecules with a tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). We also designed various nanofabrication methods of QD arrays using a wide range manipulation techniques. The precise control of the ferritin-templated QD for a patterned arrangement are offered by various methods, such as a site-specific immobilization of thiolated ferritins through local oxidation using the AFM tip, ferritin arrays induced by gold nanoparticle manipulation, thiolated ferritin positioning by shaving method, etc. In the signal measurements, the current-voltage curve is obtained by measuring the current through the ferritin, between the tip and the substrate for potential sweeping or at constant potential. The measured resistance near zero bias was 1.8 teraohm for single holoferritin and 5.7 teraohm for single apoferritin, respectively.

  16. Spin-based all-optical quantum computation with quantum dots: Understanding and suppressing decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calarco, T.; Datta, A.; Fedichev, P.; Zoller, P.; Pazy, E.

    2003-01-01

    We present an all-optical implementation of quantum computation using semiconductor quantum dots. Quantum memory is represented by the spin of an excess electron stored in each dot. Two-qubit gates are realized by switching on trion-trion interactions between different dots. State selectivity is achieved via conditional laser excitation exploiting Pauli exclusion principle. Read out is performed via a quantum-jump technique. We analyze the effect on our scheme's performance of the main imperfections present in real quantum dots: exciton decay, hole mixing, and phonon decoherence. We introduce an adiabatic gate procedure that allows one to circumvent these effects and evaluate quantitatively its fidelity

  17. Quantum dot sensitized solar cell based on TiO2/CdS/Ag2S heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sachin A.; Patil, Dipali S.; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Patil, Pramod S.; Shin, Jae Cheol

    2017-04-01

    Quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) is fabricated based on a stepwise band structure of TiO2/CdS/Ag2S to improve the photoconversion efficiency of TiO2/CdS system by incorporating a low band gap Ag2S QDs. Vertically aligned TiO2 nanorods assembly is prepared by a simple hydrothermal technique. The formation of CdS and Ag2S QDs over TiO2 nanorods assembly as a photoanode is carried out by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The synthesized electrode materials are characterized by XRD, XPS, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Optical, solar cell and electrochemical performances. The results designate that the QDs of CdS and Ag2S have efficiently covered exterior surfaces of TiO2 nanorods assembly. A cautious evaluation between TiO2/CdS and TiO2/CdS/Ag2S sensitized cells tells that CdS and Ag2S synergetically helps to enhance the light harvesting ability. Under AM 1.5G illumination, the photoanodes show an improved power conversion efficiency of 1.87%, in an aqueous polysulfide electrolyte with short-circuit photocurrent density of 7.03 mA cm-2 which is four fold higher than that of a TiO2/CdS system.

  18. Transport through a vibrating quantum dot: Polaronic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, T; Alvermann, A; Fehske, H; Loos, J; Bishop, A R

    2010-01-01

    We present a Green's function based treatment of the effects of electron-phonon coupling on transport through a molecular quantum dot in the quantum limit. Thereby we combine an incomplete variational Lang-Firsov approach with a perturbative calculation of the electron-phonon self energy in the framework of generalised Matsubara Green functions and a Landauer-type transport description. Calculating the ground-state energy, the dot single-particle spectral function and the linear conductance at finite carrier density, we study the low-temperature transport properties of the vibrating quantum dot sandwiched between metallic leads in the whole electron-phonon coupling strength regime. We discuss corrections to the concept of an anti-adiabatic dot polaron and show how a deformable quantum dot can act as a molecular switch.

  19. Spin current through quantum-dot spin valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J; Xing, D Y

    2006-01-01

    We report a theoretical study of the influence of the Coulomb interaction on the equilibrium spin current in a quantum-dot spin valve, in which the quantum dot described by the Anderson impurity model is coupled to two ferromagnetic leads with noncollinear magnetizations. In the Kondo regime, electrons transmit through the quantum dot via higher-order virtual processes, in which the spin of either lead electrons or a localized electron on the quantum dot may reverse. It is found that the magnitude of the spin current decreases with increasing Coulomb interactions due to spin flip effects on the dot. However, the spatial direction of the spin current remains unchanged; it is determined only by the exchange coupling between two noncollinear magnetizations

  20. Exciton dephasing in single InGaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Østergaard, John Erland; Jensen, Jacob Riis

    2000-01-01

    The homogeneous linewidth of excitonic transitions is a parameter of fundamental physical importance. In self-assembled quantum dot systems, a strong inhomogeneous broadening due to dot size fluctuations masks the homogeneous linewidth associated with transitions between individual states....... The homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening of InGaAs quantum dot luminescence is of central importance for the potential application of this material system in optoelectronic devices. Recent measurements of MOCVD-grown InAs/InGaAs quantum dots indicate a large homogeneous broadening at room temperature due...... to fast dephasing. We present an investigation of the low-temperature homogeneous linewidth of individual PL lines from MBE-grown In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots....

  1. Photoinduced electric dipole in CuCl quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, Yasuaki; Naruse, Fumitaka; Kanno, Atsushi

    2003-01-01

    Electromodulated absorption spectra of CuCl quantum dots modulated at twice the modulation frequency of electric field, 2f, show prominent structure around persistently burned hole. It grows in proportion to square of the electric field in the same manner as the 2f component of electromodulated absorption spectra of the dots without the laser exposure. Even the f component of electromodulated signal was observed around the burned hole position. These observations are explained by considering electric dipole formed in hole burned and photoionized quantum dots. Photoionization not only produces persistent spectral hole burning but also the local built-in electric field and photoinduced dipole moment in quantum dots. The dipole moment is estimated to be about 5 debye for 3.2-nm-radius quantum dots. The dipole moments are randomly oriented but 1% anisotropy is deduced from the electromodulated signal at f

  2. Bandgap tuning with thermal residual stresses induced in a quantum dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Eui-Hyun; Joo, Soo-Hyun; Park, Hyun-Jin; Song, Seungwoo; Chang, Yong-June; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Jang, Hyun Myung

    2014-09-24

    Lattice distortion induced by residual stresses can alter electronic and mechanical properties of materials significantly. Herein, a novel way of the bandgap tuning in a quantum dot (QD) by lattice distortion is presented using 4-nm-sized CdS QDs grown on a TiO2 particle as an application example. The bandgap tuning (from 2.74 eV to 2.49 eV) of a CdS QD is achieved by suitably adjusting the degree of lattice distortion in a QD via the tensile residual stresses which arise from the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between CdS and TiO2. The idea of bandgap tuning is then applied to QD-sensitized solar cells, achieving ≈60% increase in the power conversion efficiency by controlling the degree of thermal residual stress. Since the present methodology is not limited to a specific QD system, it will potentially pave a way to unexplored quantum effects in various QD-based applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The effect of near laterally and vertically neighboring quantum dots on the composition of uncapped InxGa1−xAs/GaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donglin, Wang; Zhongyuan, Yu; Yumin, Liu; Han, Ye; Pengfei, Lu; Xiaotao, Guo; Long, Zhao; Xia, Xin

    2010-01-01

    The composition of quantum dots has a direct effect on the optical and electronic properties of quantum-dot-based devices. In this paper, we combine the method of moving asymptotes and finite element tools to compute the composition distribution by minimizing the Gibbs free energy of quantum dots, and use this method to study the effect of near laterally and vertically neighboring quantum dots on the composition distribution. The simulation results indicate that the effect from the laterally neighboring quantum dot is very small, and the vertically neighboring quantum dot can significantly influence the composition by the coupled strain field

  4. Strongly coupled CdS/graphene quantum dots nanohybrids for highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution: unraveling the essential roles of graphene quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Yonggang; Yang, Cheng; Hou, Jianhua; Wang, Fang; Min, Shixiong; Ma, Xiaohua; Jin, Zhiliang; Xu, Jing; Lu, Gongxuan; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2017-01-01

    hydrothermal method in which the crystallization of CdS precursor and coupling of GQDs could be accomplished in one-step. GQDs are firmly decorated on the surface of CdS nanoparticles, forming “dot-on-particle” heterodimer structures. GQDs have no significant

  5. Quantum phase transition of light as a control of the entanglement between interacting quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barragan, Angela; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Mondragon-Shem, Ian

    We study coupled quantum dots arranged in a photonic crystal, interacting with light which undergoes a quantum phase transition. At the mean-field level for the infinite lattice, we compute the concurrence of the quantum dots as a measure of their entanglement. We find that this quantity smoothly

  6. Quantum efficiency and oscillator strength of site-controlled InAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, F.; Stobbe, Søren; Schneider, C.

    2010-01-01

    We report on time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to determine the oscillator strength (OS) and the quantum efficiency (QE) of site-controlled InAs quantum dots nucleating on patterned nanoholes. These two quantities are determined by measurements on site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD...

  7. Quantum efficiency and oscillator strength of site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, F.; Schneider, C.; Stobbe, Søren

    2010-01-01

    We report on time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to determine the oscillator strength (OS) and the quantum efficiency (QE) of site-controlled In(Ga)As quantum dots nucleating on patterned nanoholes. These two quantities are determined by measurements on site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD...

  8. Rapid fluorometric determination of perfluorooctanoic acid by its quenching effect on the fluorescence of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qi; Huang, Aizhen; Wang, Nan; Zheng, Guan; Zhu, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) usually requires a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, which is expensive and time-consuming. In the present work, water-soluble CdS quantum dots (QDs) were employed to develop a simple and rapid fluorometric method for the determination of PFOA. Strongly fluorescent CdS QDs were prepared by using 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a stabilizer. It was observed that PFOA strongly quenched the fluorescence emission of the MPA-CdS QDs because PFOA promotes the aggregation of MPA-CdS QDs through a fluorine–fluorine affinity interaction. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensity of MPA-CdS QDs was observed to decrease linearly with an increase in the concentration of PFOA from 0.5 to 40 μmol L −1 , with a limit of detection of 0.3 μmol L −1 . This new method was successfully implemented for the analysis of PFOA-spiked textile samples, with recoveries ranging from 95% to 113%. - Highlights: • PFOA significantly quenched the fluorescence emission of quantum dots (QDs). • A rapid and simple fluorescence sensor was proposed for determining PFOA by QDs. • PFOA determination could be completed within approximately 10 min. • The developed method had a working range of 0.5 to 40 μmol L −1 and a detection limit of 0.3 μmol L −1

  9. Quantum dot nanoparticle conjugation, characterization, and applications in neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Smita

    Quantum dot are semiconducting nanoparticles that have been used for decades in a variety of applications such as solar cells, LEDs and medical imaging. Their use in the last area, however, has been extremely limited despite their potential as revolutionary new biological labeling tools. Quantum dots are much brighter and more stable than conventional fluorophores, making them optimal for high resolution imaging and long term studies. Prior work in this area involves synthesizing and chemically conjugating quantum dots to molecules of interest in-house. However this method is both time consuming and prone to human error. Additionally, non-specific binding and nanoparticle aggregation currently prevent researchers from utilizing this system to its fullest capacity. Another critical issue that has not been addressed is determining the number of ligands bound to nanoparticles, which is crucial for proper interpretation of results. In this work, methods to label fixed cells using two types of chemically modified quantum dots are studied. Reproducible non-specific artifact labeling is consistently demonstrated if antibody-quantum dot conditions are less than optimal. In order to explain this, antibodies bound to quantum dots were characterized and quantified. While other groups have qualitatively characterized antibody functionalized quantum dots using TEM, AFM, UV spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis, and in some cases have reported calculated estimates of the putative number of total antibodies bound to quantum dots, no quantitative experimental results had been reported prior to this work. The chemical functionalization and characterization of quantum dot nanocrystals achieved in this work elucidates binding mechanisms of ligands to nanoparticles and allows researchers to not only translate our tools to studies in their own areas of interest but also derive quantitative results from these studies. This research brings ease of use and increased reliability to

  10. The transfer matrix approach to circular graphene quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, H Chau; Nguyen, Nhung T T; Nguyen, V Lien

    2016-01-01

    We adapt the transfer matrix (T -matrix) method originally designed for one-dimensional quantum mechanical problems to solve the circularly symmetric two-dimensional problem of graphene quantum dots. Similar to one-dimensional problems, we show that the generalized T -matrix contains rich information about the physical properties of these quantum dots. In particular, it is shown that the spectral equations for bound states as well as quasi-bound states of a circular graphene quantum dot and related quantities such as the local density of states and the scattering coefficients are all expressed exactly in terms of the T -matrix for the radial confinement potential. As an example, we use the developed formalism to analyse physical aspects of a graphene quantum dot induced by a trapezoidal radial potential. Among the obtained results, it is in particular suggested that the thermal fluctuations and electrostatic disorders may appear as an obstacle to controlling the valley polarization of Dirac electrons. (paper)

  11. Kondo and mixed-valence regimes in multilevel quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovskiy, A. L.; Ulloa, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the dependence of the ground state of a multilevel quantum dot on the coupling to an external fermionic system and on the interactions in the dot. As the coupling to the external system increases, the rearrangement of the effective energy levels in the dot signals the transition from the Kondo regime to a mixed-valence (MV) regime. The MV regime in a two-level dot is characterized by an intrinsic mixing of the levels in the dot, resulting in nonperturbative subtunneling and supertunneling phenomena that strongly influence the Kondo effect

  12. Rabi oscillations a quantum dot exposed to quantum light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magyarov, A.; Slepyan, G.Ya.; Maksimenko, S.A.; Hoffmann, A.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of the local field on the excitonic Rabi oscillations in an isolated quantum dot driven by the coherent state of light has been theoretically investigated. Local field is predicted to entail the appearance of two oscillatory regimes in the Rabi effect separated by the bifurcation. In the first regime Rabi oscillations are periodic and do not reveal collapse-revivals phenomenon, while in the second one collapse and revivals appear, showing significant difference as compared to those predicted by the standard Jaynes-Cummings model

  13. Quantum dot doped solid polymer electrolyte for device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pramod K.; Kim, Kang Wook; Rhee, Hee-Woo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea)

    2009-06-15

    ZnS capped CdSe quantum dots embedded in PEO:KI:I{sub 2} polymer electrolyte matrix have been synthesized and characterized for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The complex impedance spectroscopy shows enhance in ionic conductivity ({sigma}) due to charges provide by quantum dots (QD) while AFM affirm the uniform distribution of QD into polymer electrolyte matrix. Cyclic voltammetry revealed the possible interaction between polymer electrolyte, QD and iodide/iodine. The photovoltaic performances of the DSSC containing quantum dots doped polymer electrolyte was also found to improve. (author)

  14. Strong-coupling polaron effect in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Kadi; Gu Shiwei

    1993-11-01

    Strong-coupling polaron in a parabolic quantum dot is investigated by the Landau-Pekar variational treatment. The polaron binding energy and the average number of virtual phonons around the electron as a function of the effective confinement length of the quantum dot are obtained in Gaussian function approximation. It is shown that both the polaron binding energy and the average number of virtual phonons around the electron decrease by increasing the effective confinement length. The results indicate that the polaronic effects are more pronounced in quantum dots than those in two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  15. Quantum Dots Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-Ray Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaven, Stan; Williams, Phillip; Burke, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Microstructured optical fibers containing quantum dots scintillation material comprised of zinc sulfide nanocrystals doped with magnesium sulfide are presented. These quantum dots are applied inside the microstructured optical fibers using capillary action. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The results of the fiber light output and associated effects of an acrylate coating and the quantum dot application technique are discussed.

  16. Study of a Quantum Dot in an Excited State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, Marlina; Sahni, Viraht

    We have studied the first excited singlet state of a quantum dot via quantal density functional theory (QDFT). The quantum dot is represented by a 2D Hooke's atom in an external magnetostatic field. The QDFT mapping is from an excited singlet state of this interacting system to one of noninteracting fermions in a singlet ground state. The results of the study will be compared to (a) the corresponding mapping from a ground state of the quantum dot and (b) to the similar mapping from an excited singlet state of the 3D Hooke's atom.

  17. Imaging GABAc Receptors with Ligand-Conjugated Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Tomlinson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a methodology for labeling the GABAc receptor on the surface membrane of intact cells. This work builds upon our earlier work with serotonin-conjugated quantum dots and our studies with PEGylated quantum dots to reduce nonspecific binding. In the current approach, a PEGylated derivative of muscimol was synthesized and attached via an amide linkage to quantum dots coated in an amphiphilic polymer derivative of a modified polyacrylamide. These conjugates were used to image GABAC receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

  18. Nuclear Spin Nanomagnet in an Optically Excited Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. L.

    2007-12-01

    Linearly polarized light tuned slightly below the optical transition of the negatively charged exciton (trion) in a single quantum dot causes the spontaneous nuclear spin polarization (self-polarization) at a level close to 100%. The effective magnetic field of spin-polarized nuclei shifts the optical transition energy close to resonance with photon energy. The resonantly enhanced Overhauser effect sustains the stability of the nuclear self-polarization even in the absence of spin polarization of the quantum dot electron. As a result the optically selected single quantum dot represents a tiny magnet with the ferromagnetic ordering of nuclear spins—the nuclear spin nanomagnet.

  19. Second-harmonic imaging of semiconductor quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2000-01-01

    Resonant second-harmonic generation is observed at room temperature in reflection from self-assembled InAlGaAs quantum dots grown on a GaAs (001) substrate. The detected second-harmonic signal peaks at a pump wavelength of similar to 885 nm corresponding to the quantum-dot photoluminescence maximum....... In addition, the second-harmonic spectrum exhibits another smaller but well-pronounced peak at 765 nm not found in the linear experiments. We attribute this peak to the generation of second-harmonic radiation in the AlGaAs spacer layer enhanced by the local symmetry at the quantum-dot interface. We further...

  20. PREFACE: Quantum dots as probes in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak, Marek

    2013-05-01

    The recent availability of nanostructured materials has resulted in an explosion of research focused on their unique optical, thermal, mechanical and magnetic properties. Optical imagining, magnetic enhancement of contrast and drug delivery capabilities make the nanoparticles of special interest in biomedical applications. These materials have been involved in the development of theranostics—a new field of medicine that is focused on personalized tests and treatment. It is likely that multimodal nanomaterials will be responsible for future diagnostic advances in medicine. Quantum dots (QD) are nanoparticles which exhibit luminescence either through the formation of three-dimensional excitons or excitations of the impurities. The excitonic luminescence can be tuned by changing the size (the smaller the size, the higher the frequency). QDs are usually made of semiconducting materials. Unlike fluorescent proteins and organic dyes, QDs resist photobleaching, allow for multi-wavelength excitations and have narrow emission spectra. The techniques to make QDs are cheap and surface modifications and functionalizations can be implemented. Importantly, QDs could be synthesized to exhibit useful optomagnetic properties and, upon functionalization with an appropriate biomolecule, directed towards a pre-selected target for diagnostic imaging and photodynamic therapy. This special issue on Quantum dots in Biology is focused on recent research in this area. It starts with a topical review by Sreenivasan et al on various physical mechanisms that lead to the QD luminescence and on using wavelength shifts for an improvement in imaging. The next paper by Szczepaniak et al discusses nanohybrids involving QDs made of CdSe coated by ZnS and combined covalently with a photosynthetic enzyme. These nanohybrids are shown to maintain the enzymatic activity, however the enzyme properties depend on the size of a QD. They are proposed as tools to study photosynthesis in isolated

  1. Single Molecule Applications of Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Elmelund; Jauffred, Liselotte; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent nanocrystals composed of semiconductor materials were first introduced for biological applications in the late 1990s. The focus of this review is to give a brief survey of biological applications of quantum dots (QDs) at the single QD sensitivity level. These are described as follows: 1......) QD blinking and bleaching statistics, 2) the use of QDs in high speed single particle tracking with a special focus on how to design the biofunctional coatings of QDs which enable specific targeting to single proteins or lipids of interest, 3) a hybrid lipid-DNA analogue binding QDs which allows...... for tracking single lipids in lipid bilayers, 4) two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of QDs and 5) optical trapping and excitation of single QDs. In all of these applications, the focus is on the single particle sensitivity level of QDs. The high applicability of QDs in live cell imaging...

  2. Terahertz wave generation in coupled quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yu-Rong; Guo Shi-Fang; Duan Su-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Based on coupled quantum dots, we present an interesting optical effect in a four-level loop coupled system. Both the two upper levels and the two lower levels are designed to be almost degenerate, which induces a considerable dipole moment. The terahertz wave is obtained from the low-frequency component of the photon emission spectrum. The frequency of the terahertz wave can be controlled by tuning the energy levels via designing the nanostructure appropriately or tuning the driving laser field. A terahertz wave with adjustable frequency and considerable intensity (100 times higher than that of the Rayleigh line) can be obtained. It provides an effective scheme for a terahertz source. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  3. Characteristics of chirped quantum dot superluminescent diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, H.C.; Park, H.L. [Department of Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea); You, Y.C. [Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 440-746 (Korea); Han, I.K. [Nano Device Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 130-650 (Korea); Kim, J.S. [Department of Image System Science and Engineering, Pukyong National University, Pusan Department of Image System Science and Engineering, Pukyong National University, Pusan 608-739 (Korea)

    2009-04-15

    We compared the superluminescent diodes (SLDs) of two types in order to see the effect of embedding another quantum dots (QDs) layer. The insertion of another QDs layer showed a new possibility for a wider spectrum. In addition, through comparing two kinds of SLD structures, the peak positions of the ground state and excited state were observed to be affected differently by band-filling, thermal effect, and the overlap of tails of excited state (ES) gain, according to the wafer structure, and the effect of the cap layer is superior to the carrier non-uniformity. We also revealed the temperature sensitivity of carriers in QDs through measuring characteristic temperature. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Building devices from colloidal quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Cherie R; Lifshitz, Efrat; Sargent, Edward H; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2016-08-26

    The continued growth of mobile and interactive computing requires devices manufactured with low-cost processes, compatible with large-area and flexible form factors, and with additional functionality. We review recent advances in the design of electronic and optoelectronic devices that use colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). The properties of materials assembled of QDs may be tailored not only by the atomic composition but also by the size, shape, and surface functionalization of the individual QDs and by the communication among these QDs. The chemical and physical properties of QD surfaces and the interfaces in QD devices are of particular importance, and these enable the solution-based fabrication of low-cost, large-area, flexible, and functional devices. We discuss challenges that must be addressed in the move to solution-processed functional optoelectronic nanomaterials. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Tellurium quantum dots: Preparation and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chaoyu; Li, Xueming; Tang, Libin; Lai, Sin Ki; Rogée, Lukas; Teng, Kar Seng; Qian, Fuli; Zhou, Liangliang; Lau, Shu Ping

    2017-08-01

    Herein, we report an effective and simple method for producing Tellurium Quantum dots (TeQDs), zero-dimensional nanomaterials with great prospects for biomedical applications. Their preparation is based on the ultrasonic exfoliation of Te powder dispersed in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Sonication causes the van der Waals forces between the structural hexagons of Te to break so that the relatively coarse powder breaks down into nanoscale particles. The TeQDs have an average size of about 4 nm. UV-Vis absorption spectra of the TeQDs showed an absorption peak at 288 nm. Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and photoluminescence (PL) are used to study the optical properties of TeQDs. Both the PLE and PL peaks revealed a linear relationship against the emission and excitation energies, respectively. TeQDs have important potential applications in biological imaging and catalysis as well as optoelectronics.

  6. Protease-activated quantum dot probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Emmanuel; Miller, Jordan S.; Sun, Jiantang; Yu, William W.; Colvin, Vicki L.; Drezek, Rebekah; West, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a novel nanoparticulate luminescent probe with inherent signal amplification upon interaction with a targeted proteolytic enzyme. This construct may be useful for imaging in cancer detection and diagnosis. In this system, quantum dots (QDs) are bound to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via a proteolytically degradable peptide sequence to non-radiatively suppress luminescence. A 71% reduction in luminescence was achieved with conjugation of AuNPs to QDs. Release of AuNPs by peptide cleavage restores radiative QD photoluminescence. Initial studies observed a 52% rise in luminescence over 47 h of exposure to 0.2 mg/mL collagenase. These probes can be customized for targeted degradation simply by changing the sequence of the peptide linker

  7. Coherence and spin effects in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumoto, S

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on experiments on coherent transport through quantum dot systems. The most important quantity obtained in coherent transport is the phase shift through the dots, which gives complementary information to the scattering amplitude (i.e. the conductance). However, two-terminal devices have a particular difficulty, called 'phase rigidity', in obtaining the phase shift. There are two representative ways to avoid this problem: one is to adopt a multi-terminal configuration and another is to use resonance in the interferometer. This review mainly reviews the latter approaches. Such resonance in the whole interferometer often joins with local resonance inside the interferometer and appears as the Fano effect, which is a powerful tool for investigating the phase shift problem with the aid of theories. In addition to such resonances of single-electron states, electron spin causes a kind of many-body resonance, that is, the Kondo effect. Combination of these resonances is the Fano-Kondo effect. Experiments on the Fano-Kondo effect, which unveil the nature of the Kondo resonance, are also reviewed. (topical review)

  8. High frequency response of open quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, R.; Meisels, R.; Kuchar, F.; Ferry, D.; Elhassan, M.; Ishibashi, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: We investigate the response of the transport through open quantum dots to millimeterwave radiation (up to 55 GHz). In the low-field region ( 11 cm -2 and a mobility of 1.2 10 6 cm 2 /Vs. By applying a sufficiently negative voltage to the gates the 2DES is split into two regions connected only by a dot-like region (about 350 nm diameter) between them. The DC data exhibit backscattering peaks at fields of a few tenth of a Tesla. Shubnikovde- Haas (SdH) oscillations appear above 0.5 T. While the SdH oscillations show the usual temperature dependence, the backscattering peaks are temperature independent up to 2.5 K. The backscattering peak shows a reduction of 10 percent due to the millimeterwave irradiation. However, due to the temperature independence of this peak, this reduction cannot simply be attributed to electron heating. This conclusion is supported by the observation of a strong frequency dependence of the reduction of the peak height. (author)

  9. Application of Quantum Dots in Biological Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Jin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs are a group of semiconducting nanomaterials with unique optical and electronic properties. They have distinct advantages over traditional fluorescent organic dyes in chemical and biological studies in terms of tunable emission spectra, signal brightness, photostability, and so forth. Currently, the major type of QDs is the heavy metal-containing II-IV, IV-VI, or III-V QDs. Silicon QDs and conjugated polymer dots have also been developed in order to lower the potential toxicity of the fluorescent probes for biological applications. Aqueous solubility is the common problem for all types of QDs when they are employed in the biological researches, such as in vitro and in vivo imaging. To circumvent this problem, ligand exchange and polymer coating are proven to be effective, besides synthesizing QDs in aqueous solutions directly. However, toxicity is another big concern especially for in vivo studies. Ligand protection and core/shell structure can partly solve this problem. With the rapid development of QDs research, new elements and new morphologies have been introduced to this area to fabricate more safe and efficient QDs for biological applications.

  10. First principles study of edge carboxylated graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Hazem; Elhaes, Hanan; Ibrahim, Medhat A.

    2018-05-01

    The structure stability and electronic properties of edge carboxylated hexagonal and triangular graphene quantum dots are investigated using density functional theory. The calculated binding energies show that the hexagonal clusters with armchair edges have the highest stability among all the quantum dots. The binding energy of carboxylated graphene quantum dots increases by increasing the number of carboxyl groups. Our study shows that the total dipole moment significantly increases by adding COOH with the highest value observed in triangular clusters. The edge states in triangular graphene quantum dots with zigzag edges produce completely different energy spectrum from other dots: (a) the energy gap in triangular zigzag is very small as compared to other clusters and (b) the highest occupied molecular orbital is localized at the edges which is in contrast to other clusters where it is distributed over the cluster surface. The enhanced reactivity and the controllable energy gap by shape and edge termination make graphene quantum dots ideal for various nanodevice applications such as sensors. The infrared spectra are presented to confirm the stability of the quantum dots.

  11. Optimal tunneling enhances the quantum photovoltaic effect in double quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chen; Cao, Jianshu; Ren, Jie

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the quantum photovoltaic effect in double quantum dots by applying the nonequilibrium quantum master equation. A drastic suppression of the photovoltaic current is observed near the open circuit voltage, which leads to a large filling factor. We find that there always exists an optimal inter-dot tunneling that significantly enhances the photovoltaic current. Maximal output power will also be obtained around the optimal inter-dot tunneling. Moreover, the open circuit voltage behaves approximately as the product of the eigen-level gap and the Carnot efficiency. These results suggest a great potential for double quantum dots as efficient photovoltaic devices

  12. Decoherence and Entanglement Simulation in a Model of Quantum Neural Network Based on Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaisky Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the simulation of a quantum neural network based on quantum dots using numerical method of path integral calculation. In the proposed implementation of the quantum neural network using an array of single-electron quantum dots with dipole-dipole interaction, the coherence is shown to survive up to 0.1 nanosecond in time and up to the liquid nitrogen temperature of 77K.We study the quantum correlations between the quantum dots by means of calculation of the entanglement of formation in a pair of quantum dots on the GaAs based substrate with dot size of 100 ÷ 101 nanometer and interdot distance of 101 ÷ 102 nanometers order.

  13. Toxicological impact of cadmium-based quantum dots towards aquatic biota: Effect of natural sunlight exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, B.F. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Andreani, T. [Centro de Investigação em Química da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CITAB − Centre for Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, Vila Real (Portugal); Gavina, A., E-mail: anacsgavina@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Vieira, M.N. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Pereira, C.M. [Centro de Investigação em Química da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Rocha-Santos, T. [Department of Chemistry and Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); and others

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Under sunlight exposure, all QDs form particle aggregates in the different media. • CdSeS/ZnS QDs showed lower toxic effects to V. fischeri before sunlight exposure. • Sunlight exposure decreased the toxicity of CdS 480 in all organisms. • Sunlight exposure increased the toxicity of CdS 380 QDs for D. magna. • Shell of QDs seemed to make them less harmful to aquatic organisms. - Abstract: Cadmium-based quantum dots (QDs) are increasingly applied in existent and emerging technologies, especially in biological applications due to their exceptional photophysical and functionalization properties. However, they are very toxic compounds due to the high reactive and toxic cadmium core. The present study aimed to determine the toxicity of three different QDs (CdS 380, CdS 480 and CdSeS/ZnS) before and after the exposure of suspensions to sunlight, in order to assess the effect of environmentally relevant irradiation levels in their toxicity, which will act after their release to the environment. Therefore, a battery of ecotoxicological tests was performed with organisms that cover different functional and trophic levels, such as Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna. The results showed that core-shell type QDs showed lower toxic effects to V. fischeri in comparison to core type QDs before sunlight exposure. However, after sunlight exposure, there was a decrease of CdS 380 and CdS 480 QD toxicity to bacterium. Also, after sunlight exposure, an effective decrease of CdSeS/ZnS and CdS 480 toxicity for D. magna and R. subcapitata, and an evident increase in CdS 380 QD toxicity, at least for D. magna, were observed. The results of this study suggest that sunlight exposure has an effect in the aggregation and precipitation reactions of larger QDs, causing the degradation of functional groups and formation of larger bulks which may be less prone to photo-oxidation due to their diminished surface area. The same

  14. Quantum dynamics of spin qubits in optically active quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The control of solid-state qubits for quantum information processing requires a detailed understanding of the mechanisms responsible for decoherence. During the past decade a considerable progress has been achieved for describing the qubit dynamics in relatively strong external magnetic fields. However, until now it has been impossible to experimentally test many theoretical predictions at very low magnetic fields and uncover mechanisms associated with reduced coherence times of spin qubits in solids. In particular, the role of the quadrupolar coupling of nuclear spins in this process is to date poorly understood. In the framework of this thesis, a spin memory device is utilized to optically prepare individual electron spin qubits in a single InGaAs quantum dot. After storages over timescales extending into the microsecond range the qubit��s state is read out to monitor the impact of the environment on it the spin dynamics. By performing such pump-probe experiments, the dominant electron spin decoherence mechanisms are identified in a wide range of external magnetic fields (0-5 T) and lattice temperatures of ∝10 K. The results presented in this thesis show that, without application of external magnetic fields the initially orientated electron spin rapidly loses its polarization due to precession around the fluctuating Overhauser field with a dispersion of 10.5 mT. The inhomogeneous dephasing time associated with these hyperfine mediated dynamics is of the order of T * 2 =2 ns. Over longer timescales, an unexpected stage of central spin relaxation is observed, namely the appearance of a second feature in the relaxation curve around T Q =750 ns. By comparison with theoretical simulations, this additional decoherence channel is shown to arise from coherent dynamics in the nuclear spin bath itself. Such coherent dynamics are induced by a quadrupolar coupling of the nuclear spins to the strain induced electric field gradients in the quantum dot. These processes

  15. Spin interactions in InAs quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, M. F.; Ware, M. E.; Stinaff, E. A.; Scheibner, M.; Bracker, A. S.; Gammon, D.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Reinecke, T. L.; Korenev, V. L.

    2006-03-01

    Fine structure splittings in optical spectra of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) generally arise from spin interactions between particles confined in the dots. We present experimental studies of the fine structure that arises from multiple charges confined in a single dot [1] or in molecular orbitals of coupled pairs of dots. To probe the underlying spin interactions we inject particles with a known spin orientation (by using polarized light to perform photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy experiments) or use a magnetic field to orient and/or mix the spin states. We develop a model of the spin interactions that aids in the development of quantum information processing applications based on controllable interactions between spins confined to QDs. [1] Polarized Fine Structure in the Photoluminescence Excitation Spectrum of a Negatively Charged Quantum Dot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 177403 (2005)

  16. Aptamer-Modified Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Biosensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lin; Qiu, Liping; Wu, Yongxiang; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2017-07-28

    Semiconductor quantum dots have attracted extensive interest in the biosensing area because of their properties, such as narrow and symmetric emission with tunable colors, high quantum yield, high stability and controllable morphology. The introduction of various reactive functional groups on the surface of semiconductor quantum dots allows one to conjugate a spectrum of ligands, antibodies, peptides, or nucleic acids for broader and smarter applications. Among these ligands, aptamers exhibit many advantages including small size, high chemical stability, simple synthesis with high batch-to-batch consistency and convenient modification. More importantly, it is easy to introduce nucleic acid amplification strategies and/or nanomaterials to improve the sensitivity of aptamer-based sensing systems. Therefore, the combination of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers brings more opportunities in bioanalysis. Here we summarize recent advances on aptamer-functionalized semiconductor quantum dots in biosensing applications. Firstly, we discuss the properties and structure of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers. Then, the applications of biosensors based on aptamer-modified semiconductor quantum dots by different signal transducing mechanisms, including optical, electrochemical and electrogenerated chemiluminescence approaches, is discussed. Finally, our perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this promising field are provided.

  17. Aptamer-Modified Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor quantum dots have attracted extensive interest in the biosensing area because of their properties, such as narrow and symmetric emission with tunable colors, high quantum yield, high stability and controllable morphology. The introduction of various reactive functional groups on the surface of semiconductor quantum dots allows one to conjugate a spectrum of ligands, antibodies, peptides, or nucleic acids for broader and smarter applications. Among these ligands, aptamers exhibit many advantages including small size, high chemical stability, simple synthesis with high batch-to-batch consistency and convenient modification. More importantly, it is easy to introduce nucleic acid amplification strategies and/or nanomaterials to improve the sensitivity of aptamer-based sensing systems. Therefore, the combination of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers brings more opportunities in bioanalysis. Here we summarize recent advances on aptamer-functionalized semiconductor quantum dots in biosensing applications. Firstly, we discuss the properties and structure of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers. Then, the applications of biosensors based on aptamer-modified semiconductor quantum dots by different signal transducing mechanisms, including optical, electrochemical and electrogenerated chemiluminescence approaches, is discussed. Finally, our perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this promising field are provided.

  18. All-Quantum-Dot Infrared Light-Emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Liu, Mengxia; Yuan, Mingjian; Ip, Alexander H.; Ahmed, Osman S.; Levina, Larissa; Kinge, Sachin; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising candidates for infrared electroluminescent devices. To date, CQD-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have employed a CQD emission layer sandwiched between carrier transport

  19. Colloidal quantum dot solids for solution-processed solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Mingjian; Liu, Mengxia; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed photovoltaic technologies represent a promising way to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of solar energy harvesting. Among these, colloidal semiconductor quantum dot photovoltaics have the advantage of a spectrally

  20. Colloidal Quantum-Dot Photodetectors Exploiting Multiexciton Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Sukhovatkin, V.; Hinds, S.; Brzozowski, L.; Sargent, E. H.

    2009-01-01

    Multiexciton generation (MEG) has been indirectly observed in colloidal quantum dots, both in solution and the solid state, but has not yet been shown to enhance photocurrent in an optoelectronic device. Here, we report a class of solution

  1. Quantum dot conjugates in a sub-micrometer fluidic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavis, Samuel M.; Edel, Joshua B.; Samiee, Kevan T.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2010-04-13

    A nanofluidic channel fabricated in fused silica with an approximately 500 nm square cross section was used to isolate, detect and identify individual quantum dot conjugates. The channel enables the rapid detection of every fluorescent entity in solution. A laser of selected wavelength was used to excite multiple species of quantum dots and organic molecules, and the emission spectra were resolved without significant signal rejection. Quantum dots were then conjugated with organic molecules and detected to demonstrate efficient multicolor detection. PCH was used to analyze coincident detection and to characterize the degree of binding. The use of a small fluidic channel to detect quantum dots as fluorescent labels was shown to be an efficient technique for multiplexed single molecule studies. Detection of single molecule binding events has a variety of applications including high throughput immunoassays.

  2. Coal as an abundant source of graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ruquan; Xiang, Changsheng; Lin, Jian; Peng, Zhiwei; Huang, Kewei; Yan, Zheng; Cook, Nathan P.; Samuel, Errol L. G.; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Ruan, Gedeng; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O.; Martí, Angel A.; Tour, James M.

    2013-12-01

    Coal is the most abundant and readily combustible energy resource being used worldwide. However, its structural characteristic creates a perception that coal is only useful for producing energy via burning. Here we report a facile approach to synthesize tunable graphene quantum dots from various types of coal, and establish that the unique coal structure has an advantage over pure sp2-carbon allotropes for producing quantum dots. The crystalline carbon within the coal structure is easier to oxidatively displace than when pure sp2-carbon structures are used, resulting in nanometre-sized graphene quantum dots with amorphous carbon addends on the edges. The synthesized graphene quantum dots, produced in up to 20% isolated yield from coal, are soluble and fluorescent in aqueous solution, providing promise for applications in areas such as bioimaging, biomedicine, photovoltaics and optoelectronics, in addition to being inexpensive additives for structural composites.

  3. Nonequilibrium electron transport through quantum dots in the Kondo regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölfle, Peter; Paaske, Jens; Rosch, Achim

    2005-01-01

    Electron transport at large bias voltage through quantum dots in the Kondo regime is described within the perturbative renormalization group extended to nonequilibrium. The conductance, local magnetization, dynamical spin susceptibility and local spectral function are calculated. We show how...

  4. Quantum Dots in the Therapy: Current Trends and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Quantum dots are an emerging nanomaterial with broad use in technical disciplines; however, their application in the field of biomedicine becomes also relevant and significant possibilities have appeared since the discovery in 1980s. The current review is focused on the therapeutic applications of quantum dots which become an emerging use of the particles. They are introduced as potent carriers of drugs and as a material well suited for the diagnosis of disparate pathologies like visualization of cancer cells or pathogenic microorganisms. Quantum dots toxicity and modifications for the toxicity reduction are discussed here as well. Survey of actual papers and patents in the field of quantum dots use in the biomedicine is provided. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Ge Quantum Dot Infrared Imaging Camera, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a high performance Ge quantum dots-based infrared (IR) imaging camera on Si substrate. The high sensitivity, large...

  6. A fabrication guide for planar silicon quantum dot heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijtenburg, Paul C.; Amitonov, Sergey V.; van der Wiel, Wilfred G.; Zwanenburg, Floris A.

    2018-04-01

    We describe important considerations to create top-down fabricated planar quantum dots in silicon, often not discussed in detail in literature. The subtle interplay between intrinsic material properties, interfaces and fabrication processes plays a crucial role in the formation of electrostatically defined quantum dots. Processes such as oxidation, physical vapor deposition and atomic-layer deposition must be tailored in order to prevent unwanted side effects such as defects, disorder and dewetting. In two directly related manuscripts written in parallel we use techniques described in this work to create depletion-mode quantum dots in intrinsic silicon, and low-disorder silicon quantum dots defined with palladium gates. While we discuss three different planar gate structures, the general principles also apply to 0D and 1D systems, such as self-assembled islands and nanowires.

  7. Colloidal quantum dot solar cells exploiting hierarchical structuring

    KAUST Repository

    Labelle, André J.; Thon, Susanna; Masala, Silvia; Adachi, Michael M.; Dong, Haopeng; Farahani, Maryam; Ip, Alexander H.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Sargent, E. H.

    2015-01-01

    Extremely thin-absorber solar cells offer low materials utilization and simplified manufacture but require improved means to enhance photon absorption in the active layer. Here, we report enhanced-absorption colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells

  8. Nodal ground states and orbital textures in semiconductor quantum dots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lee, J.; Výborný, Karel; Han, J.E.; Žutič, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2014), "045315-1"-"045315-17" ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum dots * electronic structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  9. Quantum dot conjugates in a sub-micrometer fluidic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavis, Samuel M [Ithaca, NY; Edel, Joshua B [Brookline, MA; Samiee, Kevan T [Ithaca, NY; Craighead, Harold G [Ithaca, NY

    2008-07-29

    A nanofluidic channel fabricated in fused silica with an approximately 500 nm square cross section was used to isolate, detect and identify individual quantum dot conjugates. The channel enables the rapid detection of every fluorescent entity in solution. A laser of selected wavelength was used to excite multiple species of quantum dots and organic molecules, and the emission spectra were resolved without significant signal rejection. Quantum dots were then conjugated with organic molecules and detected to demonstrate efficient multicolor detection. PCH was used to analyze coincident detection and to characterize the degree of binding. The use of a small fluidic channel to detect quantum dots as fluorescent labels was shown to be an efficient technique for multiplexed single molecule studies. Detection of single molecule binding events has a variety of applications including high throughput immunoassays.

  10. The impact of doped silicon quantum dots on human osteoblasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostrovská, L.; Brož, Antonín; Fučíková, A.; Bělinová, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Kanno, T.; Fujii, M.; Valenta, J.; Kalbáčová, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 68 (2016), s. 63403-63413 ISSN 2046-2069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : silicon quantum dots * osteoblasts * cytotoxicity * photoluminiscence bioimaging Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  11. Light Scattering Spectroscopies of Semiconductor Nanocrystals (Quantum Dots)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Peter Y; Gardner, Grat; Nozaki, Shinji; Berbezier, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    We review the study of nanocrystals or quantum dots using inelastic light scattering spectroscopies. In particular recent calculations of the phonon density of states and low frequency Raman spectra in Ge nanocrystals are presented for comparison with experimental results

  12. Electron Energy Level Statistics in Graphene Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H.; Katsnellson, M. I.; Katsnelson, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental observations of size quantization of electron energy levels in graphene quantum dots [7] we investigate the level statistics in the simplest tight-binding model for different dot shapes by computer simulation. The results are in a reasonable agreement with the

  13. X-ray scattering from periodic arrays of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, V; Stangl, J; Lechner, R T; Springholz, G

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional periodic arrays of self-organized quantum dots in semiconductor multilayers are investigated by high-resolution x-ray scattering. We demonstrate that the statistical parameters of the dot array can be determined directly from the scattering data without performing a numerical simulation of the scattered intensity.

  14. Two path transport measurements on a triple quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Maximilian C.; Haug, Rolf J. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstr. 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    We present a novel triple quantum dot device made with local anodic oxidation on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The geometry provides two path transport via a three lead setup with each lead connected to one of the three quantum dots. In addition charge detection is implemented via a quantum point contact. One lead is used as a common source contact, the other two are used as two separate drain contacts with independent current measurement. Thus two paths are formed with two dots in each path. Along both paths serial transport is observed at the triple points of the two corresponding dots. With four side gates a wide tunability is given. Thus the system can be tuned in and out of triple dot resonances. When all three dots come into resonance, quadruple points are formed with simultaneous transport along both paths. The data are analysed in combined two colour plots and compared to the charge detection showing sets of three different lines, one for each dot. This way the two path setup allows to investigate the transition from double dot physics to triple dot physics.

  15. Cyto-molecular Tuning of Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bong; Suresh, Sindhuja; Ekpenyong, Andrew

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanoparticles composed of groups II-VI or III-V elements, with physical dimensions smaller than the exciton Bohr radius, and between 1-10 nm. Their applications and promising myriad applications in photovoltaic cells, biomedical imaging, targeted drug delivery, quantum computing, etc, have led to much research on their interactions with other systems. For biological systems, research has focused on biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of QDs in the context of imaging/therapy. However, there is a paucity of work on how biological systems might be used to tune QDs. Here, we hypothesize that the photo-electronic properties of QDs can be tuned by biological macromolecules following controlled changes in cellular activities. Using CdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs, we perform spectroscopic analysis of optically excited colloidal QDs with and without promyelocytic HL60 cells. Preliminary results show shifts in the emission spectra of the colloidal dispersions with and without cells. We will present results for activated HL60-derived cells where specific macromolecules produced by these cells perturb the electric dipole moments of the excited QDs and the associated electric fields, in ways that constitute what we describe as cyto-molecular tuning. Startup funds from the College of Arts and Sciences, Creighton University (to AEE).

  16. Spin-flip tunneling in quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, Lars; Braakman, Floris; Meunier, Tristan; Calado, Victor; Vandersypen, Lieven [Kavli Institute of NanoScience, Delft (Netherlands); Wegscheider, Werner [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Regensburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Electron spins in a gate-defined double quantum dot formed in a GaAs/(Al,Ga)As 2DEG are promising candidates for quantum information processing as coherent single spin rotation and spin swap has been demonstrated recently. In this system we investigate the two-electron spin dynamics in the presence of microwaves (5.20 GHz) applied to one side gate. During microwave excitation we observe characteristic photon assisted tunneling (PAT) peaks at the (1,1) to (0,2) charge transition. Some of the PAT peaks are attributed to photon tunneling events between the singlet S(0,2) and the singlet S(1,1) states, a spin-conserving transition. Surprisingly, other PAT peaks stand out by their different external magnetic field dependence. They correspond to tunneling involving a spin-flip, from the (0,2) singlet to a (1,1) triplet. The full spectrum of the observed PAT lines is captured by simulations. This process offers novel possibilities for 2-electron spin manipulation and read-out.

  17. Fluorescent quantum dot hydrophilization with PAMAM dendrimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapkin, Dmitry V.; Geißler, Daniel; Resch-Genger, Ute; Goryacheva, Irina Yu.

    2016-05-01

    Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers were used to produce CdSe core/multi-shell fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) which are colloidally stable in aqueous solutions. The size, charge, and optical properties of QDs functionalized with the 4th (G4) and 5th (G5) generation of PAMAM were compared with amphiphilic polymer-covered QDs and used as criteria for the evaluation of the suitability of both water solubilization methods. As revealed by dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering (DLS and ELS), the hydrodynamic sizes of the QDs varied from 30 to 65 nm depending on QD type and dendrimer generation, with all QDs displaying highly positive surface charges, i.e., zeta potentials of around +50 mV in water. PAMAM functionalization yielded stable core/multi-shell QDs with photoluminescence quantum yields ( Φ) of up to 45 %. These dendrimer-covered QDs showed a smaller decrease in their Φ upon phase transfer compared with QDs made water soluble via encapsulation with amphiphilic brush polymer bearing polyoxyethylene/polyoxypropylene chains.

  18. Fluorescent quantum dot hydrophilization with PAMAM dendrimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potapkin, Dmitry V., E-mail: potapkindv@gmail.com [Saratov State University, Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Chemistry Institute (Russian Federation); Geißler, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.geissler@bam.de; Resch-Genger, Ute, E-mail: ute.resch@bam.de [BAM - Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany); Goryacheva, Irina Yu., E-mail: goryachevaiy@mail.ru [Saratov State University, Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Chemistry Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers were used to produce CdSe core/multi-shell fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) which are colloidally stable in aqueous solutions. The size, charge, and optical properties of QDs functionalized with the 4th (G4) and 5th (G5) generation of PAMAM were compared with amphiphilic polymer-covered QDs and used as criteria for the evaluation of the suitability of both water solubilization methods. As revealed by dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering (DLS and ELS), the hydrodynamic sizes of the QDs varied from 30 to 65 nm depending on QD type and dendrimer generation, with all QDs displaying highly positive surface charges, i.e., zeta potentials of around +50 mV in water. PAMAM functionalization yielded stable core/multi-shell QDs with photoluminescence quantum yields (Φ) of up to 45 %. These dendrimer-covered QDs showed a smaller decrease in their Φ upon phase transfer compared with QDs made water soluble via encapsulation with amphiphilic brush polymer bearing polyoxyethylene/polyoxypropylene chains.

  19. Lead selenide quantum dot polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Dennis L.; Preske, Amanda; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Krauss, Todd D.; Gupta, Mool C.

    2015-02-01

    Optical absorption and fluorescence properties of PbSe quantum dots (QDs) in an Angstrom Bond AB9093 epoxy polymer matrix to form a nanocomposite were investigated. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported use of AB9093 as a QD matrix material and it was shown to out-perform the more common poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix in terms of preserving the optical properties of the QD, resulting in the first reported quantum yield (QY) for PbSe QDs in a polymer matrix, 26%. The 1-s first excitonic absorption peak of the QDs in a polymer matrix red shifted 65 nm in wavelength compared to QDs in a hexane solution, while the emission peak in the polymer matrix red shifted by 38 nm. The fluorescence QY dropped from 55% in hexane to 26% in the polymer matrix. A time resolved fluorescence study of the QDs showed single exponential lifetimes of 2.34 and 1.34 μs in toluene solution and the polymer matrix respectively.

  20. Excitons in semiconducting quantum filaments of CdS and CdSe with dielectric barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Dneprovskij, V S; Shalygina, O A; Lyaskovskij, V L; Mulyarov, E A; Gavrilov, S A; Masumoto, I

    2002-01-01

    The peculiarities of the luminescence spectra obtained by different polarization and intensity of the pumping excitation and luminescence kinetics of the CdS and CdSe nanocrystals are explained by the exciton transitions in the semiconducting quantum threads with dielectric barriers. The exciton transition energies correspond to the calculated ones with an account of both their dimensional quantization and the effect of the excitons dielectric intensification. It is shown that the excitons transition energies do not change by the change in the quantum threads diameter within the wide range, while the increase in the one-dimensional forbidden zone width of quantum thread by the decrease in its diameter is compensated through the decrease in the excitons binding energy

  1. Controlled Photon Switch Assisted by Coupled Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Ma, Song-Ya; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Quantum switch is a primitive element in quantum network communication. In contrast to previous switch schemes on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems, we consider controlled switches of photon system with two DOFs. These controlled photon switches are constructed by exploring the optical selection rules derived from the quantum-dot spins in one-sided optical microcavities. Several double controlled-NOT gate on different joint systems are greatly simplified with an auxiliary DOF of the controlling photon. The photon switches show that two DOFs of photons can be independently transmitted in quantum networks. This result reduces the quantum resources for quantum network communication. PMID:26095049

  2. Coherent radiation by quantum dots and magnetic nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.

    2014-01-01

    The assemblies of either quantum dots or magnetic nanoclusters are studied. It is shown that such assemblies can produce coherent radiation. A method is developed for solving the systems of nonlinear equations describing the dynamics of such assemblies. The method is shown to be general and applicable to systems of different physical nature. Despite mathematical similarities of dynamical equations, the physics of the processes for quantum dots and magnetic nanoclusters is rather different. In a quantum dot assembly, coherence develops due to the Dicke effect of dot interactions through the common radiation field. For a system of magnetic clusters, coherence in the spin motion appears due to the Purcell effect caused by the feedback action of a resonator. Self-organized coherent spin radiation cannot arise without a resonator. This principal difference is connected with the different physical nature of dipole forces between the objects. Effective dipole interactions between the radiating quantum dots, appearing due to photon exchange, collectivize the dot radiation. While the dipolar spin interactions exist from the beginning, yet before radiation, and on the contrary, they dephase spin motion, thus destroying the coherence of moving spins. In addition, quantum dot radiation exhibits turbulent photon filamentation that is absent for radiating spins

  3. Quantum computation: algorithms and implementation in quantum dot devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John King

    In this thesis, we explore several aspects of both the software and hardware of quantum computation. First, we examine the computational power of multi-particle quantum random walks in terms of distinguishing mathematical graphs. We study both interacting and non-interacting multi-particle walks on strongly regular graphs, proving some limitations on distinguishing powers and presenting extensive numerical evidence indicative of interactions providing more distinguishing power. We then study the recently proposed adiabatic quantum algorithm for Google PageRank, and show that it exhibits power-law scaling for realistic WWW-like graphs. Turning to hardware, we next analyze the thermal physics of two nearby 2D electron gas (2DEG), and show that an analogue of the Coulomb drag effect exists for heat transfer. In some distance and temperature, this heat transfer is more significant than phonon dissipation channels. After that, we study the dephasing of two-electron states in a single silicon quantum dot. Specifically, we consider dephasing due to the electron-phonon coupling and charge noise, separately treating orbital and valley excitations. In an ideal system, dephasing due to charge noise is strongly suppressed due to a vanishing dipole moment. However, introduction of disorder or anharmonicity leads to large effective dipole moments, and hence possibly strong dephasing. Building on this work, we next consider more realistic systems, including structural disorder systems. We present experiment and theory, which demonstrate energy levels that vary with quantum dot translation, implying a structurally disordered system. Finally, we turn to the issues of valley mixing and valley-orbit hybridization, which occurs due to atomic-scale disorder at quantum well interfaces. We develop a new theoretical approach to study these effects, which we name the disorder-expansion technique. We demonstrate that this method successfully reproduces atomistic tight-binding techniques

  4. Solution-Processed Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Tandem Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.; Wenger, Whitney N.; Hoffman, Rachel S.; Lim, Yee-Fun; Luria, Justin; Jasieniak, Jacek; Marohn, John A.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Solution-processed tandem solar cells created from nanocrystal quantum dots with size-tuned energy levels are demonstrated. Prototype devices featuring interconnected quantum dot layers of cascaded energy gaps exhibit IR sensitivity and an open circuit voltage, V oc, approaching 1 V. The tandem solar cell performance depends critically on the optical and electrical properties of the interlayer. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Non-Markovian spontaneous emission from a single quantum dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Ates, Serkan; Lund-Hansen, Toke

    2011-01-01

    We observe non-Markovian dynamics of a single quantum dot when tuned into resonance with a cavity mode. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is observed providing the first quantitative description of such a system.......We observe non-Markovian dynamics of a single quantum dot when tuned into resonance with a cavity mode. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is observed providing the first quantitative description of such a system....

  6. Local Gate Control of a Carbon Nanotube Double Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    describ- ing the levitation . Quantitative comparisons are made difficult by the complicated aniso- tropy of the nematic’s viscoelasticity (21). However...director fields. For example, as a straightforward extension of the levitation , a liquid crystal that twists through many periods (such as a cholesteric...Nanotube Double Quantum Dot N. Mason,*† M. J. Biercuk,* C. M. Marcus† We have measured carbon nanotube quantum dots with multiple electro- static gates and

  7. Double Tunneling Injection Quantum Dot Lasers for High Speed Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-23

    Double Tunneling-Injection Quantum Dot Lasers for High -Speed Operation The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6...State University Title: Double Tunneling-Injection Quantum Dot Lasers for High -Speed Operation Report Term: 0-Other Email: asryan@vt.edu Distribution

  8. Spin-orbit-enhanced Wigner localization in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Malet, F.; Cremon, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate quantum dots with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the strongly-correlated regime. We show that the presence of the Rashba interaction enhances the Wigner localization in these systems, making it achievable for higher densities than those at which it is observed in Rashba-free quantum...... dots. Recurring shapes in the pair distribution functions of the yrast spectrum, which might be associated with rotational and vibrational modes, are also reported....

  9. Theory of Spin States of Quantum Dot Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, I. V.; Reinecke, T. L.; Scheibner, M.; Stinaff, E. A.; Bracker, A. S.; Doty, M. F.; Gammon, D.; Korenev, V. L.

    2007-04-01

    The photoluminescence spectrum of an asymmetric pair of coupled InAs quantum dots in an applied electric field shows a rich pattern of level anticrossings, crossings and fine structure that can be understood as a superposition of charge and spin configurations. We present a theoretical model that provides a description of the energy positions and intensities of the optical transitions in exciton, biexciton and charged exciton states of coupled quantum dots molecules.

  10. Ultrafast optical signal processing using semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear properties of quantum dot amplifiers are discussed on the basis of an extensive theoretical model. These devices show great potential for linear amplification as well as ultrafast signal processing.......The linear and nonlinear properties of quantum dot amplifiers are discussed on the basis of an extensive theoretical model. These devices show great potential for linear amplification as well as ultrafast signal processing....

  11. Noise and saturation properties of semiconductor quantum dot optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of quantum dot optical amplifiers. Due to the presence of a reservoir of wetting layer states, the saturation and noise properties differ markedly from bulk or QW amplifiers and may be significantly improved.......We present a detailed theoretical analysis of quantum dot optical amplifiers. Due to the presence of a reservoir of wetting layer states, the saturation and noise properties differ markedly from bulk or QW amplifiers and may be significantly improved....

  12. Whispering-gallery mode microcavity quantum-dot lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryzhanovskaya, N V; Maximov, M V; Zhukov, A E

    2014-01-01

    This review examines axisymmetric-cavity quantum-dot microlasers whose emission spectrum is determined by whisperinggallery modes. We describe the possible designs, fabrication processes and basic characteristics of the microlasers and demonstrate the possibility of lasing at temperatures above 100 °C. The feasibility of creating multichannel optical sources based on a combination of a broadband quantum-dot laser and silicon microring modulators is discussed. (review)

  13. Self-Sustaining Dynamical Nuclear Polarization Oscillations in Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudner, Mark Spencer; Levitov, Leonid

    2013-01-01

    Early experiments on spin-blockaded double quantum dots revealed robust, large-amplitude current oscillations in the presence of a static (dc) source-drain bias. Despite experimental evidence implicating dynamical nuclear polarization, the mechanism has remained a mystery. Here we introduce......) and nuclear spin diffusion, which governs dynamics of the spatial profile of nuclear polarization. The proposed framework naturally explains the differences in phenomenology between vertical and lateral quantum dot structures as well as the extremely long oscillation periods....

  14. Solution-Processed Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Tandem Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2011-06-03

    Solution-processed tandem solar cells created from nanocrystal quantum dots with size-tuned energy levels are demonstrated. Prototype devices featuring interconnected quantum dot layers of cascaded energy gaps exhibit IR sensitivity and an open circuit voltage, V oc, approaching 1 V. The tandem solar cell performance depends critically on the optical and electrical properties of the interlayer. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Interaction of solitons with a string of coupled quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vijendra, E-mail: vsmedphysics@gmail.com; Swami, O. P., E-mail: omg1789@gmail.com; Nagar, A. K., E-mail: ajaya.nagar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner, Rajasthan 334001 (India); Taneja, S., E-mail: sachintaneja9@gmail.com [Department of Radiotherapy, CHAF Bangalore, Karnataka 560007 (India)

    2016-05-06

    In this paper, we develop a theory for discrete solitons interaction with a string of coupled quantum dots in view of the local field effects. Discrete nonlinear Schrodinger (DNLS) equations are used to describe the dynamics of the string. Numerical calculations are carried out and results are analyzed with the help of matlab software. With the help of numerical solutions we demonstrate that in the quantum dots string, Rabi oscillations (RO) are self trapped into stable bright Rabi solitons. The Rabi oscillations in different types of nanostructures have potential applications to the elements of quantum logic and quantum memory.

  16. Si quantum dot structures and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbyna, L.; Torchynska, T.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents briefly the history of emission study in Si quantum dots (QDs) in the last two decades. Stable light emission of Si QDs and NCs was observed in the spectral ranges: blue, green, orange, red and infrared. These PL bands were attributed to the exciton recombination in Si QDs, to the carrier recombination through defects inside of Si NCs or via oxide related defects at the Si/SiOx interface. The analysis of recombination transitions and the different ways of the emission stimulation in Si QD structures, related to the element variation for the passivation of surface dangling bonds, as well as the plasmon induced emission and rare earth impurity activation, have been presented. The different applications of Si QD structures in quantum electronics, such as: Si QD light emitting diodes, Si QD single union and tandem solar cells, Si QD memory structures, Si QD based one electron devices and double QD structures for spintronics, have been discussed as well. Note the significant worldwide interest directed toward the silicon-based light emission for integrated optoelectronics is related to the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatibility and the possibility to be monolithically integrated with very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. The different features of poly-, micro- and nanocrystalline silicon for solar cells, that is a mixture of both amorphous and crystalline phases, such as the silicon NCs or QDs embedded in a α-Si:H matrix, as well as the thin film 2-cell or 3-cell tandem solar cells based on Si QD structures have been discussed as well. Silicon NC based structures for non-volatile memory purposes, the recent studies of Si QD base single electron devices and the single electron occupation of QDs as an important component to the measurement and manipulation of spins in quantum information processing have been analyzed as well.

  17. Fluorescence from a quantum dot and metallic nanosphere hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindel, Daniel G. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Winnipeg, 515 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, R3B 2E9 (Canada); Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-03-31

    We present energy absorption and interference in a quantum dot-metallic nanosphere system embedded on a dielectric substrate. A control field is applied to induce dipole moments in the nanosphere and the quantum dot, and a probe field is applied to monitor absorption. Dipole moments in the quantum dot or the metal nanosphere are induced, both by the external fields and by each other's dipole fields. Thus, in addition to direct polarization, the metal nanosphere and the quantum dot will sense one another via the dipole-dipole interaction. The density matrix method was used to show that the absorption spectrum can be split from one peak to two peaks by the control field, and this can also be done by placing the metal sphere close to the quantum dot. When the two are extremely close together, a self-interaction in the quantum dot produces an asymmetry in the absorption peaks. In addition, the fluorescence efficiency can be quenched by the addition of a metal nanosphere. This hybrid system could be used to create ultra-fast switching and sensing nanodevices.

  18. Graphene quantum dots probed by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenstern, Markus; Freitag, Nils; Nent, Alexander; Nemes-Incze, Peter; Liebmann, Marcus [II. Institute of Physics B and JARA-FIT, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Scanning tunneling spectroscopy results probing the electronic properties of graphene quantum dots are reviewed. After a short summary of the study of squared wave functions of graphene quantum dots on metal substrates, we firstly present data where the Landau level gaps caused by a perpendicular magnetic field are used to electrostatically confine electrons in monolayer graphene, which are probed by the Coulomb staircase revealing the consecutive charging of a quantum dot. It turns out that these quantum dots exhibit much more regular charging sequences than lithographically confined ones. Namely, the consistent grouping of charging peaks into quadruplets, both, in the electron and hole branch, portrays a regular orbital splitting of about 10meV. At low hole occupation numbers, the charging peaks are, partly, additionally grouped into doublets. The spatially varying energy separation of the doublets indicates a modulation of the valley splitting by the underlying BN substrate. We outline that this property might be used to eventually tune the valley splitting coherently. Afterwards, we describe graphene quantum dots with multiple contacts produced without lithographic resist, namely by local anodic oxidation. Such quantum dots target the goal to probe magnetotransport properties during the imaging of the corresponding wave functions by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Heparin conjugated quantum dots for in vitro imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Ciaran Manus; Mahfoud, Omar Kazem; Rakovich, Tatsiana; Gerard, Valerie Anne; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Gun'ko, Yurii; Volkov, Yuri

    2014-11-01

    In this work heparin-gelatine multi-layered cadmium telluride quantum dots (QDgel/hep) were synthesised using a novel 'one-pot' method. The QDs produced were characterised using various spectroscopic and physiochemical techniques. Suitable QDs were then selected and compared to thioglycolic acid stabilised quantum dots (QDTGA) and gelatine coated quantum dots (QDgel) for utilisation in in vitro imaging experiments on live and fixed permeabilised THP-1, A549 and Caco-2 cell lines. Exposure of live THP-1 cells to QDgel/hep resulted in localisation of the QDs to the nucleus of the cells. QDgel/hep show affinity for the nuclear compartment of fixed permeabilised THP-1 and A549 cells but remain confined to cytoplasm of fixed permeabilised Caco-2 cells. It is postulated that heparin binding to the CD11b receptor facilitates the internalisation of the QDs into the nucleus of THP-1 cells. In addition, the heparin layer may reduce the unfavourable thrombogenic nature of quantum dots observed in vivo. In this study, heparin conjugated quantum dots were found to have superior imaging properties compared to its native counterparts. The authors postulate that heparin binding to the CD11b receptor facilitates QD internalization to the nucleus, and the heparin layer may reduce the in vivo thrombogenic properties of quantum dots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics: The effect of polydispersity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhitomirsky, David

    2012-02-08

    The size-effect tunability of colloidal quantum dots enables facile engineering of the bandgap at the time of nanoparticle synthesis. The dependence of effective bandgap on nanoparticle size also presents a challenge if the size dispersion, hence bandgap variability, is not well-controlled within a given quantum dot solid. The impact of this polydispersity is well-studied in luminescent devices as well as in unipolar electronic transport; however, the requirements on monodispersity have yet to be quantified in photovoltaics. Here we carry out a series of combined experimental and model-based studies aimed at clarifying, and quantifying, the importance of quantum dot monodispersity in photovoltaics. We successfully predict, using a simple model, the dependence of both open-circuit voltage and photoluminescence behavior on the density of small-bandgap (large-diameter) quantum dot inclusions. The model requires inclusion of trap states to explain the experimental data quantitatively. We then explore using this same experimentally tested model the implications of a broadened quantum dot population on device performance. We report that present-day colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic devices with typical inhomogeneous linewidths of 100-150 meV are dominated by surface traps, and it is for this reason that they see marginal benefit from reduction in polydispersity. Upon eliminating surface traps, achieving inhomogeneous broadening of 50 meV or less will lead to device performance that sees very little deleterious impact from polydispersity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundiff, Steven T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-05-03

    This final report describes the activities undertaken under grant "Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots". The goal of this program was to implement optical 2-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy and apply it to electronic excitations, including excitons, in semiconductors. Specifically of interest are quantum wells that exhibit disorder due to well width fluctuations and quantum dots. In both cases, 2-D spectroscopy will provide information regarding coupling among excitonic localization sites.

  2. Design of quaternary logic circuit using quantum dot gate-quantum dot channel FET (QDG-QDCFET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Supriya

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the implementation of quaternary logic circuits based on quantum dot gate-quantum dot channel field effect transistor (QDG-QDCFET). The super lattice structure in the quantum dot channel region of QDG-QDCFET and the electron tunnelling from inversion channel to the quantum dot layer in the gate region of a QDG-QDCFET change the threshold voltage of this device which produces two intermediate states between its ON and OFF states. This property of QDG-QDCFET is used to implement multi-valued logic for future multi-valued logic circuit. This paper presents the design of basic quaternary logic operation such as inverter, AND and OR operation based on QDG-QDCFET.

  3. Magnetism at the Interface of Magnetic Oxide and Nonmagnetic Semiconductor Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Avijit; Viswanatha, Ranjani

    2017-03-28

    Engineering interfaces specifically in quantum dot (QD) heterostructures provide several prospects for developing multifunctional building block materials. Precise control over internal structure by chemical synthesis offers a combination of different properties in QDs and allows us to study their fundamental properties, depending on their structure. Herein, we studied the interface of magnetic/nonmagnetic Fe 3 O 4 /CdS QD heterostructures. In this work, we demonstrate the decrease in the size of the magnetic core due to annealing at high temperature by the decrease in saturation magnetization and blocking temperature. Furthermore, surprisingly, in a prominently optically active and magnetically inactive material such as CdS, we observe the presence of substantial exchange bias in spite of the nonmagnetic nature of CdS QDs. The presence of exchange bias was proven by the increase in magnetic anisotropy as well as the presence of exchange bias field (H E ) during the field-cooled magnetic measurements. This exchange coupling was eventually traced to the in situ formation of a thin antiferromagnetic FeS layer at the interface. This is verified by the study of Fe local structure using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, demonstrating the importance of interface engineering in QDs.

  4. Rainbow Emission from an Atomic Transition in Doped Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Abhijit; Pandey, Anshu; Sarma, D D

    2014-07-03

    Although semiconductor quantum dots are promising materials for displays and lighting due to their tunable emissions, these materials also suffer from the serious disadvantage of self-absorption of emitted light. The reabsorption of emitted light is a serious loss mechanism in practical situations because most phosphors exhibit subunity quantum yields. Manganese-based phosphors that also exhibit high stability and quantum efficiency do not suffer from this problem but in turn lack emission tunability, seriously affecting their practical utility. Here, we present a class of manganese-doped quantum dot materials, where strain is used to tune the wavelength of the dopant emission, extending the otherwise limited emission tunability over the yellow-orange range for manganese ions to almost the entire visible spectrum covering all colors from blue to red. These new materials thus combine the advantages of both quantum dots and conventional doped phosphors, thereby opening new possibilities for a wide range of applications in the future.

  5. Incorporation of Mn2+ into CdSe quantum dots by chemical bath co-deposition method for photovoltaic enhancement of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenguang; Liu, Shaowen; Liu, Xingwei; Deng, Fei; Xiong, Yan; Tsai, Fang-Chang

    2018-03-01

    A photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.9% was obtained under 100 mW cm -2 illumination by quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) using a CdS/Mn : CdSe sensitizer. CdS quantum dots (QDs) were deposited on a TiO 2 mesoporous oxide film by successive ionic layer absorption and reaction. Mn 2+ doping into CdSe QDs is an innovative and simple method-chemical bath co-deposition, that is, mixing the Mn ion source with CdSe precursor solution for Mn : CdSe QD deposition. Compared with the CdS/CdSe sensitizer without Mn 2+ incorporation, the PCE was increased from 3.4% to 4.9%. The effects of Mn 2+ doping on the chemical, physical and photovoltaic properties of the QDSSCs were investigated by energy dispersive spectrometry, absorption spectroscopy, photocurrent density-voltage characteristics and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Mn-doped CdSe QDs in QDSSCs can obtain superior light absorption, faster electron transport and slower charge recombination than CdSe QDs.

  6. Detection of trace tetracycline in fish via synchronous fluorescence quenching with carbon quantum dots coated with molecularly imprinted silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji; Lin, Zheng-Zhong; Nur, A.-Zha; Lu, Yan; Wu, Ming-Hui; Zeng, Jun; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Huang, Zhi-Yong

    2018-02-01

    A novel fluorescence-based sensor combining synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was fabricated with reverse microemulsion method. Tetracycline (TC), (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES), tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and carbon quantum dots (CDs) were used as template, functional monomer, cross-linker and signal sources respectively in the probe preparation. A synchronous fluorescence emission (λem) at 355 nm was observed for the prepared MIP-coated CDs (MIP@CDs) particles when the wavelength interval (Δλ) was set as 70 nm, and the synchronous fluorescence intensity could be rapidly and efficiently quenched by TC based on inner filter effect (IFE). The quenching efficiencies of synchronous fluorescence intensity was linearly fitted with tetracycline (TC) concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 50 μmol L- 1 with a detection limit (DL) of 9 nmol L- 1 (3σ, n = 9). The MIP@CDs was used as a probe to detect TC in fish samples with the recoveries ranging from 98.4% to 103.1% and the relative standard deviation less than 6.0%. The results illustrated that the as-prepared MIP@CDs could be applied to the detection of trace TC in fish samples with rapidity, high sensitivity and accuracy.

  7. Facile synthetic method for pristine graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide quantum dots: origin of blue and green luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Jang, Min-Ho; Ha, Hyun Dong; Kim, Je-Hyung; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Seo, Tae Seok

    2013-07-19

    Pristine graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide quantum dots are synthesized by chemical exfoliation from the graphite nanoparticles with high uniformity in terms of shape (circle), size (less than 4 nm), and thickness (monolayer). The origin of the blue and green photoluminescence of GQDs and GOQDs is attributed to intrinsic and extrinsic energy states, respectively. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. High quantum yield ZnO quantum dots synthesizing via an ultrasonication microreactor method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weimin; Yang, Huafang; Ding, Wenhao; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Le; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-11-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic microreactor. Ultrasonic radiation brought bubbles through ultrasonic cavitation. These bubbles built microreactor inside the microreactor. The photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots synthesized with different flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature were discussed. Flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature would influence the type and quantity of defects in ZnO quantum dots. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by those conditions as well. Flow rate affected the reaction time. With the increasing of flow rate, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots decreased and the quantum yields first increased then decreased. Ultrasonic power changed the ultrasonic cavitation intensity, which affected the reaction energy and the separation of the solution. With the increasing of ultrasonic power, sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased, while the quantum yields kept increasing. The effect of ultrasonic temperature on the photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots was influenced by the flow rate. Different flow rate related to opposite changing trend. Moreover, the quantum yields of ZnO QDs synthesized by ultrasonic microreactor could reach 64.7%, which is higher than those synthesized only under ultrasonic radiation or only by microreactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Local field effects and metamaterials based on colloidal quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porvatkina, O V; Tishchenko, A A; Strikhanov, M N

    2015-01-01

    Metamaterials are composite structures that exhibit interesting and unusual properties, e.g. negative refractive index. In this article we consider metamaterials based on colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). We investigate these structures taking into account the local field effects and theoretically analyze expressions for permittivity and permeability of metamaterials based on CdSe CQDs. We obtain inequality describing the conditions when material with definite concentration of CQDs is metamaterial. Also we investigate how the values of dielectric polarizability and magnetic polarizability of CQDs depend on the dots radius and properties the material the quantum dots are made of. (paper)

  10. Electrically Tunable g Factors in Quantum Dot Molecular Spin States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, M. F.; Scheibner, M.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Stinaff, E. A.; Bracker, A. S.; Korenev, V. L.; Reinecke, T. L.; Gammon, D.

    2006-11-01

    We present a magnetophotoluminescence study of individual vertically stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dot pairs separated by thin tunnel barriers. As an applied electric field tunes the relative energies of the two dots, we observe a strong resonant increase or decrease in the g factors of different spin states that have molecular wave functions distributed over both quantum dots. We propose a phenomenological model for the change in g factor based on resonant changes in the amplitude of the wave function in the barrier due to the formation of bonding and antibonding orbitals.

  11. Universal parametric correlations of conductance peaks in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassid, Y.; Attias, H.

    1996-01-01

    We compute the parametric correlation function of the conductance peaks in chaotic and weakly disordered quantum dots in the Coulomb blockade regime and demonstrate its universality upon an appropriate scaling of the parameter. For a symmetric dot we show that this correlation function is affected by breaking time-reversal symmetry but is independent of the details of the channels in the external leads. We derive a new scaling which depends on the eigenfunctions alone and can be extracted directly from the conductance peak heights. Our results are in excellent agreement with model simulations of a disordered quantum dot. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Architectures that would exploit the distinct characteristics of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) have been proposed for digital communication networks that connect advanced digital computing circuits. In comparison with networks of wires in conventional very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry, the networks according to the proposed architectures would be more compact. The proposed architectures would make it possible to implement complex interconnection schemes that are required for some advanced parallel-computing algorithms and that are difficult (and in many cases impractical) to implement in VLSI circuitry. The difficulty of implementation in VLSI and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA were described previously in Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42. To recapitulate: Wherever two wires in a conventional VLSI circuit cross each other and are required not to be in electrical contact with each other, there must be a layer of electrical insulation between them. This, in turn, makes it necessary to resort to a noncoplanar and possibly a multilayer design, which can be complex, expensive, and even impractical. As a result, much of the cost of designing VLSI circuits is associated with minimization of data routing and assignment of layers to minimize crossing of wires. Heretofore, these considerations have impeded the development of VLSI circuitry to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. On the other hand, with suitable design and under suitable operating conditions, QCA-based signal paths can be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. The proposed architectures require two advances in QCA-based circuitry beyond basic QCA-based binary

  13. Transport properties of a Kondo dot with a larger side-coupled noninteracting quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y S; Fan, X H; Xia, Y J; Yang, X F

    2008-01-01

    We investigate theoretically linear and nonlinear quantum transport through a smaller quantum dot in a Kondo regime connected to two leads in the presence of a larger side-coupled noninteracting quantum dot, without tunneling coupling to the leads. To do this we employ the slave boson mean field theory with the help of the Keldysh Green's function at zero temperature. The numerical results show that the Kondo conductance peak may develop multiple resonance peaks and multiple zero points in the conductance spectrum owing to constructive and destructive quantum interference effects when the energy levels of the large side-coupled noninteracting dot are located in the vicinity of the Fermi level in the leads. As the coupling strength between two quantum dots increases, the tunneling current through the quantum device as a function of gate voltage applied across the two leads is suppressed. The spin-dependent transport properties of two parallel coupled quantum dots connected to two ferromagnetic leads are also investigated. The numerical results show that, for the parallel configuration, the spin current or linear spin differential conductance are enhanced when the polarization strength in the two leads is increased

  14. Electronic transient processes and optical spectra in quantum dots for quantum computing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Karel; Zdeněk, Petr; Khás, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2004), s. 17-25 ISSN 1536-125X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : depopulation * electronic relaxation * optical spectra * quantum dots * self-assembled quantum dots * upconversion Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.176, year: 2004

  15. Quantitative analysis of quantum dot dynamics and emission spectra in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    -resolved measurements reveal that the actual coupling strength is significantly smaller than anticipated from the spectral measurements and that the quantum dot is rather weakly coupled to the cavity. We suggest that the observed Rabi splitting is due to cavity feeding by other quantum dots and/or multi...

  16. Structural Investigations of GaAs/AIAs quantum wires and quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darhuber, A.A.; Bauer, G.; Wang, P.D.; Song, Y.P.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Holland, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated periodic arrays of dry etched 150 nm and 175 nm wide, (110) oriented GaAs/AlAs quantum wires and quantum dots by means of reciprocal-space mapping using triple-axis X-ray diffractometry. From the X-ray data the lateral periodicity of wires and dots, the etch depth and the angle

  17. A theoretical study of exciton energy levels in laterally coupled quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barticevic, Z; Pacheco, M; Duque, C A; Oliveira, L E

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical study of the electronic and optical properties of laterally coupled quantum dots, under applied magnetic fields perpendicular to the plane of the dots, is presented. The exciton energy levels of such laterally coupled quantum-dot systems, together with the corresponding wavefunctions and eigenvalues, are obtained in the effective-mass approximation by using an extended variational approach in which the magnetoexciton states are simultaneously obtained. One achieves the expected limits of one single quantum dot, when the distance between the dots is zero, and of two uncoupled quantum dots, when the distance between the dots is large enough. Moreover, present calculations-with appropriate structural dimensions of the two-dot system-are shown to be in agreement with measurements in self-assembled laterally aligned GaAs quantum-dot pairs and naturally/accidentally occurring coupled quantum dots in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells.

  18. Fabrication of quantum-dot devices in graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Moriyama, Yoshifumi Morita, Eiichiro Watanabe, Daiju Tsuya, Shinya Uji, Maki Shimizu and Koji Ishibashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe our recent experimental results on the fabrication of quantum-dot devices in a graphene-based two-dimensional system. Graphene samples were prepared by micromechanical cleavage of graphite crystals on a SiO2/Si substrate. We performed micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements to determine the number of layers of graphene flakes during the device fabrication process. By applying a nanofabrication process to the identified graphene flakes, we prepared a double-quantum-dot device structure comprising two lateral quantum dots coupled in series. Measurements of low-temperature electrical transport show the device to be a series-coupled double-dot system with varied interdot tunnel coupling, the strength of which changes continuously and non-monotonically as a function of gate voltage.

  19. Scaling of the Coulomb Energy Due to Quantum Fluctuations in the Charge on a Quantum Dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molenkamp, L. W; Flensberg, Karsten; Kemerink, M.

    1995-01-01

    The charging energy of a quantum dot is measured through the effect of its potential on the conductance of a second dot. This technique allows a measurement of the scaling of the dot's charging energy with the conductance of the tunnel barriers leading to the dot. We find that the charging energy...... scales quadratically with the reflection probability of the barriers. The observed power law agrees with a recent theory....

  20. Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantatos, G.; Howard, I.; Fischer, A.; Hoogland, S.; Clifford, J.; Klem, E.; Levina, L.; Sargent, E.H.

    2007-01-01

    Solution-processed electronic and optoelectronic devices offer low cost, large device area, physical flexibility and convenient materials integration compared to conventional epitaxially grown, lattice-matched, crystalline semiconductor devices. Although the electronic or optoelectronic performance of these solution-processed devices is typically inferior to that of those fabricated by conventional routes, this can be tolerated for some applications in view of the other benefits. Here we report the fabrication of solution-processed infrared photodetectors that are superior in their normalized detectivity (D * , the figure of merit for detector sensitivity) to the best epitaxially grown devices operating at room temperature. We produced the devices in a single solution-processing step, overcoating a prefabricated planar electrode array with an unpatterned layer of Pbs colloidal quantum dot nanocrystals. The devices showed large photoconductive gains with responsivities greater than 10 3 AW -1 . The best devices exhibited a normalized detectivity D * of 1.8 x 10 13 jones (1 jones= 1 cm Hz 1/2 W -1 ) at 1.3μm at room temperature: today's highest performance infrared photodetectors are photovoltaic devices made from epitaxially grown InGaAs that exhibit peak D * in the 10 12 ) jones range at room temperature, whereas the previous record for D * from a photoconductive detector lies at 10 11 jones. The tailored selection of absorption onset energy through the quantum size effect, combined with deliberate engineering of the sequence of nanoparticle fusing and surface trap functionalization, underlie the superior performance achieved in this readily fabricated family of devices. (author)

  1. Computer-automated tuning of semiconductor double quantum dots into the single-electron regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baart, T. A.; Vandersypen, L. M. K. [QuTech, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Eendebak, P. T. [QuTech, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), P.O. Box 155, 2600 AD Delft (Netherlands); Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-05-23

    We report the computer-automated tuning of gate-defined semiconductor double quantum dots in GaAs heterostructures. We benchmark the algorithm by creating three double quantum dots inside a linear array of four quantum dots. The algorithm sets the correct gate voltages for all the gates to tune the double quantum dots into the single-electron regime. The algorithm only requires (1) prior knowledge of the gate design and (2) the pinch-off value of the single gate T that is shared by all the quantum dots. This work significantly alleviates the user effort required to tune multiple quantum dot devices.

  2. Effect of carrier dynamics and temperature on two-state lasing in semiconductor quantum dot lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, V. V., E-mail: korenev@spbau.ru; Savelyev, A. V.; Zhukov, A. E.; Omelchenko, A. V.; Maximov, M. V. [Saint Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15

    It is analytically shown that the both the charge carrier dynamics in quantum dots and their capture into the quantum dots from the matrix material have a significant effect on two-state lasing phenomenon in quantum dot lasers. In particular, the consideration of desynchronization in electron and hole capture into quantum dots allows one to describe the quenching of ground-state lasing observed at high injection currents both qualitatevely and quantitatively. At the same time, an analysis of the charge carrier dynamics in a single quantum dot allowed us to describe the temperature dependences of the emission power via the ground- and excited-state optical transitions of quantum dots.

  3. Effect of carrier dynamics and temperature on two-state lasing in semiconductor quantum dot lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, V. V.; Savelyev, A. V.; Zhukov, A. E.; Omelchenko, A. V.; Maximov, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    It is analytically shown that the both the charge carrier dynamics in quantum dots and their capture into the quantum dots from the matrix material have a significant effect on two-state lasing phenomenon in quantum dot lasers. In particular, the consideration of desynchronization in electron and hole capture into quantum dots allows one to describe the quenching of ground-state lasing observed at high injection currents both qualitatevely and quantitatively. At the same time, an analysis of the charge carrier dynamics in a single quantum dot allowed us to describe the temperature dependences of the emission power via the ground- and excited-state optical transitions of quantum dots

  4. Transient Dynamics of Double Quantum Dots Coupled to Two Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukadai, Takahisa; Sasamoto, Tomohiro

    2018-05-01

    We study the time-dependent properties of double quantum dots coupled to two reservoirs using the nonequilibrium Green function method. For an arbitrary time-dependent bias, we derive an expression for the time-dependent electron density of a dot and several currents, including the current between the dots in the wide-band-limit approximation. For the special case of a constant bias, we calculate the electron density and the currents numerically. As a result, we find that these quantities oscillate and that the number of crests in a single period of the current from a dot changes with the bias voltage. We also obtain an analytical expression for the relaxation time, which expresses how fast the system converges to its steady state. From the expression, we find that the relaxation time becomes constant when the coupling strength between the dots is sufficiently large in comparison with the difference of coupling strength between the dots and the reservoirs.

  5. Electrical control of single hole spins in nanowire quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribiag, V S; Nadj-Perge, S; Frolov, S M; van den Berg, J W G; van Weperen, I; Plissard, S R; Bakkers, E P A M; Kouwenhoven, L P

    2013-03-01

    The development of viable quantum computation devices will require the ability to preserve the coherence of quantum bits (qubits). Single electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are a versatile platform for quantum information processing, but controlling decoherence remains a considerable challenge. Hole spins in III-V semiconductors have unique properties, such as a strong spin-orbit interaction and weak coupling to nuclear spins, and therefore, have the potential for enhanced spin control and longer coherence times. A weaker hyperfine interaction has previously been reported in self-assembled quantum dots using quantum optics techniques, but the development of hole-spin-based electronic devices in conventional III-V heterostructures has been limited by fabrication challenges. Here, we show that gate-tunable hole quantum dots can be formed in InSb nanowires and used to demonstrate Pauli spin blockade and electrical control of single hole spins. The devices are fully tunable between hole and electron quantum dots, which allows the hyperfine interaction strengths, g-factors and spin blockade anisotropies to be compared directly in the two regimes.

  6. Magnetic Polarons in Anisotropic Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszwaldowski, Rafal; Petukhov, Andre; Zutic, Igor

    2010-03-01

    Tunability of confinement in magnetically-doped quantum dots (QDs) allows to tailor magnetism to an extent not available in bulk semiconductors. Versatile control of magnetic ordering, along with piezomagnetism, has been predicted even at a fixed number of carriers [1]. Recent experiments on colloidal QDs revealed strongly bound magnetic polarons (MPs) [2]. Previous studies of MPs in bulk semiconductors showed that the mean-field theory predicts a spurious magnetic phase transition, which is removed by taking into account spin fluctuations [3]. Here we present our theoretical results for MPs forming in QDs with pronounced magnetic anisotropy, which influences the spin fluctuations. We apply our findings to explain some peculiarities of the magnetic behavior of type-II ZnSe/(Zn,Mn)Te QDs, where magnetic polarons are found to persist to at least 200K [4]. Supported by ONR, AFOSR, and NSF-ECCS CAREER. [4pt] [1] R. M. Abolfath, A. G. Petukhov, and I. Zutic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 207202 (2008); I. Zutic and A. G. Petukhov, Nature Mater.4, 623 (2009). [0pt] [2] R. Beaulac et al., Science 325, 973 (2009). [0pt] [3] T. Dietl and J. Spalek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 355 (1982). [0pt] [4] I. R. Sellers, R. Oszwaldowski, et al., preprint; I. R. Sellers et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 136405 (2008).

  7. Counted Sb donors in Si quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Bielejec, Edward; Perry, Daniel; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Bishop, Nathaniel; Wendt, Joel; Luhman, Dwight; Carroll, Malcolm; Lilly, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is critical for donor spin qubits in semiconductor based quantum computing. We have developed techniques using a focused ion beam and a diode detector integrated next to a silicon MOS single electron transistor to gain such control. With the diode detector operating in linear mode, the numbers of ions implanted have been counted and single ion implants have been detected. Poisson statistics in the number of ions implanted have been observed. Transport measurements performed on samples with counted number of implants have been performed and regular coulomb blockade and charge offsets observed. The capacitances to various gates are found to be in agreement with QCAD simulations for an electrostatically defined dot. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Quantum dot laser optimization: selectively doped layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Vladimir V.; Konoplev, Sergey S.; Savelyev, Artem V.; Shernyakov, Yurii M.; Maximov, Mikhail V.; Zhukov, Alexey E.

    2016-08-01

    Edge emitting quantum dot (QD) lasers are discussed. It has been recently proposed to use modulation p-doping of the layers that are adjacent to QD layers in order to control QD's charge state. Experimentally it has been proven useful to enhance ground state lasing and suppress the onset of excited state lasing at high injection. These results have been also confirmed with numerical calculations involving solution of drift-diffusion equations. However, deep understanding of physical reasons for such behavior and laser optimization requires analytical approaches to the problem. In this paper, under a set of assumptions we provide an analytical model that explains major effects of selective p-doping. Capture rates of elections and holes can be calculated by solving Poisson equations for electrons and holes around the charged QD layer. The charge itself is ruled by capture rates and selective doping concentration. We analyzed this self-consistent set of equations and showed that it can be used to optimize QD laser performance and to explain underlying physics.

  9. Quantum dot laser optimization: selectively doped layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, Vladimir V; Konoplev, Sergey S; Savelyev, Artem V; Shernyakov, Yurii M; Maximov, Mikhail V; Zhukov, Alexey E

    2016-01-01

    Edge emitting quantum dot (QD) lasers are discussed. It has been recently proposed to use modulation p-doping of the layers that are adjacent to QD layers in order to control QD's charge state. Experimentally it has been proven useful to enhance ground state lasing and suppress the onset of excited state lasing at high injection. These results have been also confirmed with numerical calculations involving solution of drift-diffusion equations. However, deep understanding of physical reasons for such behavior and laser optimization requires analytical approaches to the problem. In this paper, under a set of assumptions we provide an analytical model that explains major effects of selective p-doping. Capture rates of elections and holes can be calculated by solving Poisson equations for electrons and holes around the charged QD layer. The charge itself is ruled by capture rates and selective doping concentration. We analyzed this self-consistent set of equations and showed that it can be used to optimize QD laser performance and to explain underlying physics. (paper)

  10. Insight on quantum dot infrared photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogalski, A

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents possible future developments of quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs). At the beginning the fundamental properties of QDIPs are summarized. Next, investigations of the performance of QDIPs, as compared to other types of infrared photodetectors, are presented. Theoretical predictions indicate that only type II superlattice photodiodes and QDIPs are expected to compete with HgCdTe photodiodes. QDIPs theoretically have several advantages compared with QWIPs including the normal incidence response, lower dark current, higher operating temperature, higher responsivity and detectivity. The operating temperature for HgCdTe detectors is higher than for other types of photon detectors. Comparison of QDIP performance with HgCdTe detectors gives evidence that the QDIP is suitable for high operation temperature. It can be expected that an improvement in technology and design of QDIP detectors will make it possible to achieve both high sensitivity and fast response useful for practical application at room temperature focal plane arrays. However, so far the QDIP devices have not fully demonstrated their potential advantages.

  11. Exciton coherence in semiconductor quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Sasaki, Masahide; Kujiraoka, Mamiko; Ema, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The coherent dynamics of excitons in InAs quantum dots (QDs) was investigated in the telecommunication wavelength range using a transient four-wave mixing technique. The sample was fabricated on an InP(311)B substrate using strain compensation to control the emission wavelength. This technique also enabled us to fabricate a 150-layer stacked QD structure for obtaining a high S/N in the four-wave mixing measurements, although no high-sensitive heterodyne detection was carried out. The dephasing time and transition dipole moment were precisely estimated from the polarization dependence of signals, taking into account their anisotropic properties. The population lifetimes of the excitons were also measured by using a polarization-dependent pumpprobe technique. A quantitative comparison of these anisotropies demonstrates that in our QDs, non-radiative population relaxation, polarization relaxation and pure dephasing are considerably smaller than the radiative relaxation. A comparison of the results of the four-wave mixing and pump-probe measurements revealed that the pure dephasing could be directly estimated with an accuracy of greater than 0.1 meV by comparing the results of four-wave mixing and pump-probe measurements. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Quantum dot lasers: From promise to high-performance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, P.; Mi, Z.; Yang, J.; Basu, D.; Saha, D.

    2009-03-01

    Ever since self-organized In(Ga)As/Ga(AI)As quantum dots were realized by molecular beam epitaxy, it became evident that these coherently strained nanostructures could be used as the active media in devices. While the expected advantages stemming from three-dimensional quantum confinement were clearly outlined, these were not borne out by the early experiments. It took a very detailed understanding of the unique carrier dynamics in the quantum dots to exploit their full potential. As a result, we now have lasers with emission wavelengths ranging from 0.7 to 1.54 μm, on GaAs, which demonstrate ultra-low threshold currents, near-zero chip and α-factor and large modulation bandwidth. State-of-the-art performance characteristics of these lasers are briefly reviewed. The growth, fabrication and characteristics of quantum dot lasers on silicon substrates are also described. With the incorporation of multiple quantum dot layers as a dislocation filter, we demonstrate lasers with Jth=900 A/cm 2. The monolithic integration of the lasers with guided wave modulators on silicon is also described. Finally, the properties of spin-polarized lasers with quantum dot active regions are described. Spin injection of electrons is done with a MnAs/GaAs tunnel barrier. Laser operation at 200 K is demonstrated, with the possibility of room temperature operation in the near future.

  13. Entanglement and Zeeman interaction in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hichri, A.; Jaziri, S.

    2004-01-01

    We present theoretically the Zeeman coupling and exchange-induced swap action in spin-based quantum dot quantum computer models in the presence of magnetic field. We study the valence and conduction band states in a double quantum dots made in diluted magnetic semiconductor. The latter have been proven to be very useful in building an all-semiconductor platform for spintronics. Due to a strong p-d exchange interaction in diluted magnetic semiconductor (Cd 0.57 Mn 0.43 Te), the relative contribution of this component is strongly affected by an external magnetic field, a feature that is absent in nonmagnetic double quantum dots. We determine the energy spectrum as a function of magnetic field within the Hund-Mulliken molecular-orbit approach and by including the Coulomb interaction. Since we show that the ground state of the two carriers confined in a vertically coupled quantum dots provide a possible realization for a gate of a quantum computer, the crossing between the lowest states, caused by the giant spin splitting, can be observed as a pronounced jump in the magnetization of small magnetic field amplitude. Finally, we determine the swap time as a function of magnetic field and the inter dot distance. We estimate quantitatively swap errors caused by the field, establishing that error correction would, in principle, be possible in the presence of nonuniform magnetic field in realistic structures

  14. Electrically protected resonant exchange qubits in triple quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J M; Srinivasa, V; Medford, J

    2013-08-02

    We present a modulated microwave approach for quantum computing with qubits comprising three spins in a triple quantum dot. This approach includes single- and two-qubit gates that are protected against low-frequency electrical noise, due to an operating point with a narrowband response to high frequency electric fields. Furthermore, existing double quantum dot advances, including robust preparation and measurement via spin-to-charge conversion, are immediately applicable to the new qubit. Finally, the electric dipole terms implicit in the high frequency coupling enable strong coupling with superconducting microwave resonators, leading to more robust two-qubit gates.

  15. Folded-light-path colloidal quantum dot solar cells.

    KAUST Repository

    Koleilat, Ghada I; Kramer, Illan J; Wong, Chris T O; Thon, Susanna M; Labelle, André J; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2013-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics combine low-cost solution processing with quantum size-effect tuning to match absorption to the solar spectrum. Rapid advances have led to certified solar power conversion efficiencies of over 7%. Nevertheless, these devices remain held back by a compromise in the choice of quantum dot film thickness, balancing on the one hand the need to maximize photon absorption, mandating a thicker film, and, on the other, the need for efficient carrier extraction, a consideration that limits film thickness. Here we report an architecture that breaks this compromise by folding the path of light propagating in the colloidal quantum dot solid. Using this method, we achieve a substantial increase in short-circuit current, ultimately leading to improved power conversion efficiency.

  16. Dynamical thermalization in isolated quantum dots and black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovsky, Andrey R.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2017-01-01

    We study numerically a model of quantum dot with interacting fermions. At strong interactions with small conductance the model is reduced to the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev black-hole model while at weak interactions and large conductance it describes a Landau-Fermi liquid in a regime of quantum chaos. We show that above the Åberg threshold for interactions there is an onset of dynamical themalization with the Fermi-Dirac distribution describing the eigenstates of an isolated dot. At strong interactions in the isolated black-hole regime there is also the onset of dynamical thermalization with the entropy described by the quantum Gibbs distribution. This dynamical thermalization takes place in an isolated system without any contact with a thermostat. We discuss the possible realization of these regimes with quantum dots of 2D electrons and cold ions in optical lattices.

  17. Slow Auger Relaxation in HgTe Colloidal Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnychuk, Christopher; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2018-05-03

    The biexciton lifetimes in HgTe colloidal quantum dots are measured as a function of particle size. Samples produced by two synthetic methods, leading to partially aggregated or well-dispersed particles, exhibit markedly different dynamics. The relaxation characteristics of partially aggregated HgTe inhibit reliable determinations of the Auger lifetime. In well-dispersed HgTe quantum dots, the biexciton lifetime increases approximately linearly with particle volume, confirming trends observed in other systems. The extracted Auger coefficient is three orders of magnitude smaller than that for bulk HgCdTe materials with similar energy gaps. We discuss these findings in the context of understanding Auger relaxation in quantum-confined systems and their relevance to mid-infrared optoelectronic devices based on HgTe colloidal quantum dots.

  18. Quantum computation in semiconductor quantum dots of electron-spin asymmetric anisotropic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Xiang; Zhu Shiqun

    2007-01-01

    The universal quantum computation is obtained when there exists asymmetric anisotropic exchange between electron spins in coupled semiconductor quantum dots. The asymmetric Heisenberg model can be transformed into the isotropic model through the control of two local unitary rotations for the realization of essential quantum gates. The rotations on each qubit are symmetrical and depend on the strength and orientation of asymmetric exchange. The implementation of the axially symmetric local magnetic fields can assist the construction of quantum logic gates in anisotropic coupled quantum dots. This proposal can efficiently use each physical electron spin as a logical qubit in the universal quantum computation

  19. Detection of CdSe quantum dot photoluminescence for security label on paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isnaeni,, E-mail: isnaeni@lipi.go.id; Sugiarto, Iyon Titok [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Science, Building 442 Puspiptek Serpong, South Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia 15314 (Indonesia); Bilqis, Ratu; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro [Department of Physics, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia 50275 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    CdSe quantum dot has great potential in various applications especially for emitting devices. One example potential application of CdSe quantum dot is security label for anti-counterfeiting. In this work, we present a practical approach of security label on paper using one and two colors of colloidal CdSe quantum dot, which is used as stamping ink on various types of paper. Under ambient condition, quantum dot is almost invisible. The quantum dot security label can be revealed by detecting emission of quantum dot using photoluminescence and cnc machine. The recorded quantum dot emission intensity is then analyzed using home-made program to reveal quantum dot pattern stamp having the word ’RAHASIA’. We found that security label using quantum dot works well on several types of paper. The quantum dot patterns can survive several days and further treatment is required to protect the quantum dot. Oxidation of quantum dot that occurred during this experiment reduced the emission intensity of quantum dot patterns.

  20. Ultrafast optical control of individual quantum dot spin qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greve, Kristiaan; Press, David; McMahon, Peter L; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2013-09-01

    Single spins in semiconductor quantum dots form a promising platform for solid-state quantum information processing. The spin-up and spin-down states of a single electron or hole, trapped inside a quantum dot, can represent a single qubit with a reasonably long decoherence time. The spin qubit can be optically coupled to excited (charged exciton) states that are also trapped in the quantum dot, which provides a mechanism to quickly initialize, manipulate and measure the spin state with optical pulses, and to interface between a stationary matter qubit and a 'flying' photonic qubit for quantum communication and distributed quantum information processing. The interaction of the spin qubit with light may be enhanced by placing the quantum dot inside a monolithic microcavity. An entire system, consisting of a two-dimensional array of quantum dots and a planar microcavity, may plausibly be constructed by modern semiconductor nano-fabrication technology and could offer a path toward chip-sized scalable quantum repeaters and quantum computers. This article reviews the recent experimental developments in optical control of single quantum dot spins for quantum information processing. We highlight demonstrations of a complete set of all-optical single-qubit operations on a single quantum dot spin: initialization, an arbitrary SU(2) gate, and measurement. We review the decoherence and dephasing mechanisms due to hyperfine interaction with the nuclear-spin bath, and show how the single-qubit operations can be combined to perform spin echo sequences that extend the qubit decoherence from a few nanoseconds to several microseconds, more than 5 orders of magnitude longer than the single-qubit gate time. Two-qubit coupling is discussed, both within a single chip by means of exchange coupling of nearby spins and optically induced geometric phases, as well as over longer-distances. Long-distance spin-spin entanglement can be generated if each spin can emit a photon that is entangled