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Sample records for cds quantum dots

  1. Optical properties of colloidal aqueous synthesized 3 mercaptopropionic acid stabilized CdS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanth Kumar, D.; Jai Kumar, B.; Mahesh H., M.

    2016-05-01

    We have explored an easiest and simplest aqueous route to synthesize bright green luminescent CdS QDs using 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a stabilizer in air ambient for solar cell applications. The CdS quantum dots showed a strong quantum confinement effect with good stability, size and excellent photoluminescence. MPA Capping on CdS QDs was confirmed through FTIR. The Optical absorption spectrum revealed the CdS quantum dots are highly transparent in the visible region with absorption peak at 380 nm, confirming the quantum confinement. Photoluminescence showed an emission peak at 525 nm wavelength. The optical band gap energy was found to be 3.19 eV and CdS quantum dots radius calculated using Brus equation is 1.5 nm. The results are presented and discussed in detail.

  2. Extracellular Synthesis of Luminescent CdS Quantum Dots Using Plant Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovaya, Mariya N; Burlaka, Olga M; Naumenko, Antonina P; Blume, Yaroslav B; Yemets, Alla I

    2016-12-01

    The present study describes a novel method for preparation of water-soluble CdS quantum dots, using bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cell suspension culture. Acting as a stabilizing and capping agent, the suspension cell culture mediates the formation of CdS nanoparticles. These semiconductor nanoparticles were determined by means of an UV-visible spectrophotometer, photoluminescence, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and XRD. Followed by the electron diffraction analysis of a selected area, transmission electron microscopy indicated the formation of spherical, crystalline CdS ranging in diameter from 3 to 7 nm and showed wurtzite CdS quantum dots. In the present work, the toxic effect of synthesized CdS quantum dots on Nicotiana tabacum protoplasts as a very sensitive model was under study. The results of this research revealed that biologically synthesized CdS nanoparticles in low concentrations did not induce any toxic effects. PMID:26909780

  3. Extracellular Synthesis of Luminescent CdS Quantum Dots Using Plant Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovaya, Mariya N.; Burlaka, Olga M.; Naumenko, Antonina P.; Blume, Yaroslav B.; Yemets, Alla I.

    2016-02-01

    The present study describes a novel method for preparation of water-soluble CdS quantum dots, using bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cell suspension culture. Acting as a stabilizing and capping agent, the suspension cell culture mediates the formation of CdS nanoparticles. These semiconductor nanoparticles were determined by means of an UV-visible spectrophotometer, photoluminescence, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and XRD. Followed by the electron diffraction analysis of a selected area, transmission electron microscopy indicated the formation of spherical, crystalline CdS ranging in diameter from 3 to 7 nm and showed wurtzite CdS quantum dots. In the present work, the toxic effect of synthesized CdS quantum dots on Nicotiana tabacum protoplasts as a very sensitive model was under study. The results of this research revealed that biologically synthesized CdS nanoparticles in low concentrations did not induce any toxic effects.

  4. An alternative route towards monodisperse CdS quantum dots for hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Fengfeng; Wang, Hao [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Xia, Zhouhui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Dai, Xiao; Cong, Shan [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Dong, Chao [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of New Mexico, ABQ 87120 (United States); Sun, Baoquan [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Lou, Yanhui, E-mail: yhlou@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Sun, Yinghui; Zhao, Jie [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zou, Guifu, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Monodisperse CdS quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized by thermal decomposition of organic complexes in the system of the cost-effective commercial 0{sup #} diesel at 200 °C. The prepared CdS QDs have a good dispersion and high crystallization. When the CdS QDs are doped into the blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6, 6)C61 (PCBM) for hybrid solar cells (HSCs), the HSCs achieve about 25% increase of power conversion efficiency in comparison to the reference device without the CdS QDs. The improvement of the cell performance mainly attributes to the increased short-circuit current density arising from the absorption enhancement in the wavelength range of 350–550 nm by introducing the synthesized CdS QDs into the P3HT: PCBM active layer. - Highlights: • Monodisperse CdS quantum dots. • A cost-effective route to synthesize crystalline CdS quantum dots. • CdS quantum dots based hybrid solar cells with power conversion efficiency enhancement.

  5. An alternative route towards monodisperse CdS quantum dots for hybrid solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monodisperse CdS quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized by thermal decomposition of organic complexes in the system of the cost-effective commercial 0# diesel at 200 °C. The prepared CdS QDs have a good dispersion and high crystallization. When the CdS QDs are doped into the blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6, 6)C61 (PCBM) for hybrid solar cells (HSCs), the HSCs achieve about 25% increase of power conversion efficiency in comparison to the reference device without the CdS QDs. The improvement of the cell performance mainly attributes to the increased short-circuit current density arising from the absorption enhancement in the wavelength range of 350–550 nm by introducing the synthesized CdS QDs into the P3HT: PCBM active layer. - Highlights: • Monodisperse CdS quantum dots. • A cost-effective route to synthesize crystalline CdS quantum dots. • CdS quantum dots based hybrid solar cells with power conversion efficiency enhancement

  6. Biphasic quantum dots of cubic and hexagonal Mn doped CdS; necessity of Rietveld analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiba, Zein K., E-mail: zein_kh@yahoo.com [Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Cairo (Egypt); Taif University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department (Saudi Arabia); Mohamed, Mohamed Bakr [Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Cairo (Egypt); Imam, N.G. [Experimental Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 13759 Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Mn{sup 2+} doped CdS quantum dots (QDs) were prepared via a simple chemical synthesis procedure. • Biphasic composite of CdS QDs was revealed with maximum magnetism at 10 at.% of Mn{sup 2+}. • Rietveld structural analysis is a necessity for dealing with nano or quantum dots chalcogenides. • Full investigation of effects of Mn doping on the structural, optical and magnetic parameters. - Abstract: Mn{sup 2+} doped CdS quantum dots (QDs) were prepared via a simple chemical synthesis method. Incorporation of Mn ions into CdS QDs was monitored by structural, magnetic and optical spectroscopy analysis. Although the diffraction patterns seemed to be single wurtzite hexagonal structure, analysis revealed biphasic composite of CdS QDs hexagonal wurtzite and cubic zinc blende. The band gap, crystal phase and the morphology of CdS QDs were found not to be greatly affected by Mn{sup 2+} doping, however there was an optimal Mn{sup 2+} doping content of 10% where the magnetism is maximum. The recorded photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra, excited at 370 nm, depict emission lines in the UV and blue-shift regions. The emission band reveals that the band gap of pure CdS QDs is around 3 eV which is greater than that of bulk CdS (2.42 eV). The band gap of Mn:CdS QDs is almost independent of Mn content (x) and the crystallite size remains almost the same for all values of x. The observed structural, magnetic and optical properties have been explained on the basis of formation of two phases of CdS doped with Mn. This work aims to highlight recent advances in the synthesis of Mn:CdS diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots and their wonderful performance.

  7. Optical absorption, photoluminescence and structural analysis of CdS quantum dots in weak confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rakesh K.; Vedeshwar, A. G.; Tandon, R. P.

    2014-02-01

    The diffusion-controlled growth of CdS quantum dots (QDs) dispersed in a silicate glass matrix was investigated. It was found that the size of CdS QDs can be controlled by either heat treatment at various temperatures for a fixed duration or varying times at a constant temperature. Pastel yellow colored glass samples were obtained due to the presence of CdS petite crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used for determining the average dot size which varied from 3.8 to 30 nm. The typical quantum confinement effect was clearly observed from the blue shift measured in the optical absorption edge with decreasing dot size in the absorption spectroscopy. The band gap of CdS QDs ranges from 2.41 to 2.82 eV. Measured photoluminescence (PL) at an excitation wavelength of 350 nm showed the red shift of emission wavelength with increasing thermal treatment time and temperature in agreement with the increasing dot sizes. The half-width of PL spectra seems to indicate qualitatively the size distribution of dots and is consistent with the treatment parameters.

  8. CdS quantum dots: growth, microstructural, optical and electrical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Tansir; Majeed Khan, M. A.; Kumar, Sushil; Ahamed, Maqusood; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Alhazaa, Abdulaziz N.

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) with cubic phase were prepared using simple precursors by chemical precipitation technique, and their thin films were grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition. The obtained quantum dots were characterized for their structural, morphological, optical, thermal and electrical properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis and low-temperature electrical transport measurements, respectively. XRD pattern reveals that the prepared CdS QDs are highly pure and crystalline in nature with cubic phase. The average particle size, estimated to be ~2 nm, is almost in agreement with the values calculated by Brusïs formula. Selected area electron diffraction also recognizes the cubic structure of CdS quantum dots. The UV-visible spectra exhibit a blueshift with respect to that of bulk sample which is attributed to the quantum size effect of electrons and holes. The band gap of CdS QDs is calculated from absorption data using Tauc plot and found to be 2.84 eV. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis reveals the presence of Cd and S in almost stoichiometric ratio in the prepared CdS QDs. Micro-Raman spectroscopic studies also yield convincing evidence for the transformation of structure. The emission spectra of CdS QDs show peak centered at 541 nm, which is attributed to the presence of cadmium vacancies in the lattice. The DC resistivity data at low temperatures are qualitatively consistent with the variable-range hopping model, and the density of states at the Fermi level is determined.

  9. Enhanced Performance of DSSCs Based on the Insertion Energy Level of CdS Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulfide (CdS quantum dots (QDs are assembled onto the TiO2 films by chemical bath deposition method (CBD. And the QDs size is controlled by the times of CBD cycles. They are characterized by UV-visible absorption. To avoid the photo corrosion and electrolyte corrosion, CdS and N719 are sequentially assembled onto the nanocrystalline TiO2 films to prepare a CdS/N719 cosensitized photo electrode for the dye-sensitized solar cells. In the structure of TiO2/CdS/N719 electrode, the reorganization of energy levels between CdS and N719 forms a stepwise structure of band-edge levels which is advantageous to the electron injection and hole recovery of CdS and N719 QDs. The open circuit voltage (Voc, short circuit current density (Jsc, and efficiency are increased.

  10. Fluorescent CdS Quantum Dots: Synthesis, Characterization, Mechanism and Interaction with Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Yang, Mei; Liu, Yu; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-05-01

    CdS quantum dot (QD) is a typical kind of II-IV nanoparticles, which plays an important role in the common type of core-shell QDs. It is of great practical significance to synthesize the water-soluble CdS QDs used in multicolor biomarkers and prepare core-shell QDs. In our case, we came up with a novel green method to manufacture CdS QDs with high quality, different size, and adopted UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, FTIR, XPS, HRTEM, SAED and STEM-EDX to discuss their growth mechanism. We successfully constructed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system between CdS QDs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), then comprehensively and systematically studied the interaction between them. PMID:26504997

  11. A new and straightforward synthesis route for preparing Cds quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, W.M. de, E-mail: wma@ufpe.br [Solid State Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Fundamental Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50970-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Menezes, F.D. [Solid State Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Fundamental Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50970-901 Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    In this work, highly stable, soluble and luminescent CdS quantum dots (QDots) with a narrow size distribution were synthesized in ethylene glycol using the polyol process and the solvothermal technique. In this case instead of using a conventional highly toxic sulfur source like H{sub 2}S, we use elemental sulfur dissolved in ethylene glycol to perform the reaction. When the solvent reaches its boiling point inside the autoclave, sulfur is reduced to S{sup -2} and reacts with Cd{sup +2} ions to form CdS nanocrystals. Analysis of the spectroscopic and TEM measurements showed that 3 nm monodispersed CdS QDots were synthesized and exhibited high photoluminescence (PL) in the blue green region of the spectra when excited with 355 nm. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New and straightforward route to synthesize stable, soluble and highly luminescent CdS (QDots). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solvothermal and the polyol technique were used to obtain highly luminescent CdS QDots. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum dots (QDots) with 3 nm of diameter and a narrow size distribution has been synthesized.

  12. Face-Centred-Cubic Artificial Opal Embedded with CdS Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岭; 李明海; 张宇; 马懿; 徐骏; 黄信凡; 陈坤基

    2002-01-01

    Highly monodispersed colloidal silica spheres in sub-micrometre size with distribution standard deviation less than 5% were synthesized by a chemical method. Using the self-crystallization of the silica spheres, we successfully obtained the three-dimensional close-packed face-centred-cubic silica matrices and artificial opals. Then,a colloidal photonic crystal embedded with CdS quantum dots (QDs) was also chemically prepared by using artificial opals as a template. A reflection spectra study reveals that both artificial opals with and without CdS QDs possess (111) directional photonic bandgap features.

  13. Dielectric and Thermal Properties of Transformer Oil Modified by Semiconductive CdS Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elhady, Amr M.; Ibrahim, Mohamed E.; Taha, T. A.; Izzularab, Mohamed A.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, modified transformer oil semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are presented. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots of radius 4.5 nm with a hexagonal crystal structure are added to transformer oil to improve its dielectric and thermal properties. CdS QDs modified oil is prepared considering different filler loading levels. Alternating current breakdown voltages of the transformer oil samples before and after the modification are measured based on American Society for Testing and Materials D1816 standard. The relative permittivity and dissipation factor are measured for all samples. Also, thermal properties of the oil samples are experimentally evaluated according to the temperature change measurement considering heating and cooling processes. The results show significant improvements in dielectric and thermal properties of the modified transformer oil, as well as an increase in the breakdown strength by about 81% in comparison to the base transformer oil.

  14. Dielectric and Thermal Properties of Transformer Oil Modified by Semiconductive CdS Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elhady, Amr M.; Ibrahim, Mohamed E.; Taha, T. A.; Izzularab, Mohamed A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, modified transformer oil semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are presented. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots of radius 4.5 nm with a hexagonal crystal structure are added to transformer oil to improve its dielectric and thermal properties. CdS QDs modified oil is prepared considering different filler loading levels. Alternating current breakdown voltages of the transformer oil samples before and after the modification are measured based on American Society for Testing and Materials D1816 standard. The relative permittivity and dissipation factor are measured for all samples. Also, thermal properties of the oil samples are experimentally evaluated according to the temperature change measurement considering heating and cooling processes. The results show significant improvements in dielectric and thermal properties of the modified transformer oil, as well as an increase in the breakdown strength by about 81% in comparison to the base transformer oil.

  15. Study on Interaction Between Chitosan and CdS Quantum Dots via Photoluminescence Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan LI; Yu Min DU; Yan WEN

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between CdS quantum dots and amino polysaccharide chitosan in aqueous solution was studied via photoluminescence(PL)spectra. The surface binding of chitosan with different molecular weight(MW)quenched the luminescence of QDs due to the elimination of radioactive anion vacancy centers.This process fits well with the Perrin model;lower MW chitosan exhibits higher quenching efficiency due to better availability to the surface.

  16. Spin-polarised carriers in CdS quasi-spherical quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprinzl, D.; Nahalkova, P.; Maly, P.; Nemec, P. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Devreese, J.T.; Gladilin, V.N. [TFVS, Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2006-03-15

    The properties of spin-polarised carriers in quasi-spherical CdS quantum dots in a strong confinement regime were investigated by photoluminescence and pump-probe experiments. The obtained results were explained in terms of time-dependent occupation probabilities for the lowest exciton states. The electron spin flip time of 3.5 ns was measured at room temperature. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Spin-polarised carriers in CdS quasi-spherical quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of spin-polarised carriers in quasi-spherical CdS quantum dots in a strong confinement regime were investigated by photoluminescence and pump-probe experiments. The obtained results were explained in terms of time-dependent occupation probabilities for the lowest exciton states. The electron spin flip time of 3.5 ns was measured at room temperature. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Spin-sensitive differential transmission experiments in quasi-spherical CdS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, P.; Sprinzl, D.; Maly, P. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Nahalkova, P. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); TFVS, Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerpen (Belgium); Gladilin, V.N.; Devreese, J.T. [TFVS, Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    The properties of spin-polarized carriers in quasi-spherical CdS quantum dots in a strong confinement regime were investigated by the polarization-resolved pump-probe experiment with the focus on the initial stages of carrier dynamics. The observed sub-ps decay of the circular polarization of the signal was attributed to interlevel exciton transitions without electron spin flip. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Spin-sensitive differential transmission experiments in quasi-spherical CdS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of spin-polarized carriers in quasi-spherical CdS quantum dots in a strong confinement regime were investigated by the polarization-resolved pump-probe experiment with the focus on the initial stages of carrier dynamics. The observed sub-ps decay of the circular polarization of the signal was attributed to interlevel exciton transitions without electron spin flip. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Photovoltaic and impedance characteristics of modified SILAR grown CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) were deposited on nanostructured TiO2 film using a modified Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. Nanostructured TiO2 on FTO glass and Platinum on FTO are used as photoelectrode and Counter electrode respectively. High resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRT EM) image revealed CdS QDs adsorbed on nanostructured TiO2. The photovoltaic characteristics and impedance spectroscopy properties of CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) were analyzed under air mass 1.5 illuminations. At the SILAR adsorption time of 2 min (10 cycles), the QDSSC measured a short circuit current density of 2 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.45 V under air mass 1.5. In a widespread frequency range, the capacitance – voltage, the conductance – voltage, the series resistance - voltage measurements were carried out for the QDSSC applications. A conduct of positive to negative capacitance was observed from the measured characteristics of capacitance - voltage which is attributed to the injection of electrons from FTO electrode into TiO2. Key words: Nanostructured TiO2, CdS QDSSC, SILAR method, photovoltaic measurements, impedance characteristic

  1. Photoacoustic Study of CdS QDs for Application in Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdallah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties and photovoltaic characterization of CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs were studied. CdS QDs were prepared by the chemical solution deposition (CD technique. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PA was employed to study the optical properties of the prepared samples. The sizes of the CdS QDs were estimated from transmission electron microscope (TEM micrographs gives radii ranged from 1.57 to 1.92 nm. The current density-voltage (J-V characteristic curves of the assembled QDSSCs were measured. Fluorine doped Tin Oxide (FTO substrates were coated with 20 nm-diameter TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs. Presynthesized colloidal CdS quantum dots of different particles size were deposited on the TiO2-coated substrates using direct adsorption (DA method. The FTO counter electrodes were coated with platinum, while the electroelectrolyte containing I-/I-3 redox species was sandwiched between the two electrodes. The short current density (Jsc and efficiency (η increases as the particle size increases. The values of Jsc increases linearly with increasing the intensities of the sun light which indicates the greater sensitivity of the assembled cells.

  2. Au Nanoparticles as Interfacial Layer for CdS Quantum Dot-sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Guang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO/Au/TiO2/CdS photoanode and polysulfide electrolyte are fabricated. Au nanoparticles (NPs as interfacial layer between FTO and TiO2 layer are dip-coated on FTO surface. The structure, morphology and impedance of the photoanodes and the photovoltaic performance of the cells are investigated. A power conversion efficiency of 1.62% has been obtained for FTO/Au/TiO2/CdS cell, which is about 88% higher than that for FTO/TiO2/CdS cell (0.86%. The easier transport of excited electron and the suppression of charge recombination in the photoanode due to the introduction of Au NP layer should be responsible for the performance enhancement of the cell.

  3. Study on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between CdS quantum dots and Eosin Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengyu; Zhang, Zhengwei; Yu, Yan; Chen, Jianqiu

    2015-03-01

    Water-soluble CdS quantum dots (QDs) were prepared using mercaptoacetic acid (TGA) as the stabilizer in an aqueous system. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system was constructed between water-soluble CdS QDs (donor) and Eosin Y (acceptor). Several factors that impacted the fluorescence spectra of the FRET system, such as pH (3.05-10.10), concentration of Eosin Y (2-80 mg/L) and concentration of CdS QDs (2-80 mg/L), were investigated and refined. Donor-to-acceptor ratios, the energy transfer efficiency (E) and the distance (r) between CdS QDs and Eosin Y were obtained. The results showed that a FRET system could be established between water-soluble CdS QDs and Eosin Y at pH 5.0; donor-to-acceptor ratios demonstrated a 1: 8 proportion of complexes; the energy transfer efficiency (E) and the distance (r) between the QDs and Eosin Y were 20.07% and 4.36 nm,respectively.

  4. Effect of Mn Doping on Properties of CdS Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs have received extensive attention in recent years due to their higher theoretical conversion efficiency and lower production costs. However, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of QDSSCs is still lower than the DSSCs because of the severe recombination of electrons of quantum dots conduction band. In order to improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency of QDSSCs, impurity element Mn2+ is doped into the precursor solution of cadmium sulfide (CdS. By optimizing the experimental parameters, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of QDSSCs can be greatly improved. For the deposition of a fixed number of six times, the photoelectric conversion efficiency shows the maximum value (1.51% at the doped ratio of 1 : 10.

  5. Meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid: from heavy metal chelation to CdS quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Sevinç, Esra; Ertaş, F. Sinem ; Ulusoy, Gülen ; Acar, Havva Yağcı; Özen, Can

    2012-01-01

    DMSA (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) a prescription drug and a heavy-metal chelating agent, is shown to act both as a sulfur source and a capping agent in the aqueous synthesis of CdS quantum dots under mild conditions. Release of sulfur from DMSA depends on the solution pH and the reaction temperature. Combination of 70 C and pH 7.5 was determined as the best reaction conditions for a well-controlled reaction. Changing the SH/Cd ratio from 2.5 to 7 provides QDs emitting from ...

  6. Atomic Layer Deposition of CdS Quantum Dots for Solid-State Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.

    2011-10-04

    Functioning quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells have been fabricated using the vacuum deposition technique atomic layer deposition (ALD). Utilizing the incubation period of CdS growth by ALD on TiO 2, we are able to grow QDs of adjustable size which act as sensitizers for solid-state QDsensitized solar cells (ssQDSSC). The size of QDs, studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), varied with the number of ALD cycles from 1-10 nm. Photovoltaic devices with the QDs were fabricated and characterized using a ssQDSSC device architecture with 2,2\\',7,7\\'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p methoxyphenylamine) 9,9\\'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as the solid-state hole conductor. The ALD approach described here can be applied to fabrication of quantum-confined structures for a variety of applications, including solar electricity and solar fuels. Because ALD provides the ability to deposit many materials in very high aspect ratio substrates, this work introduces a strategy by which material and optical properties of QD sensitizers may be adjusted not only by the size of the particles but also in the future by the composition. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Improved stoichiometry and photoanode efficiency of thermally evaporated CdS film with quantum dots as precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Libo; Wang, Peng; Guo, Qiuquan; Lei, Yan; Li, Ming; Han, Hongpei; Zhao, Haifeng; Yang, Dongluo; Zheng, Zhi; Yang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    Good stoichiometry of cadmium sulfide (CdS) film facilitates its application in photovoltaic devices; however, traditional thermal evaporation usually results in a Cd-deficient CdS film at a low-substrate temperature. In this study, Cd-rich CdS quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by a facile co-precipitation method and used as the precursor to thermally evaporate CdS film on indium tin oxide-coated glass (ITO/glass). As a consequence, the stoichiometry of CdS film was greatly improved with atomic ratio of Cd to S restored to unity. More importantly, the newly developed CdS film, with its rod-like surface microstructure, acted as an efficient photoanode in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell. Its properties, including surface morphology and roughness, crystal structure, chemical composition, film thickness, energy-level structure and photosensitivity, are studied in detail.

  8. CdS quantum dots modified CuO inverse opal electrodes for ultrasensitive electrochemical and photoelectrochemical biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Lei; Xu, Lin; Song, Jian; Xu, Ru; Liu, Dali; Dong, Biao; SONG, HONGWEI

    2015-01-01

    The CuO inverse opal photonic crystals (IOPCs) were synthesized by the sol-gel method and modified with CdS quantum dots by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). CdS QDs modified CuO IOPCs FTO electrodes of different SILAR cycles were fabricated and their electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (I–t). Structure and morphology of the samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microsc...

  9. Synthesis and application of luminescent single CdS quantum dot encapsulated silica nanoparticles directed for precision optical bioimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Veeranarayanan S; Poulose AC; Mohamed MS; Nagaoka Y; Iwai S.; Nakagame Y; Kashiwada S; Yoshida Y; Maekawa T; Kumar DS

    2012-01-01

    Srivani Veeranarayanan, Aby Cheruvathoor Poulose, M Sheikh Mohamed, Yutaka Nagaoka, Seiki Iwai, Yuya Nakagame, Shosaku Kashiwada, Yasuhiko Yoshida, Toru Maekawa, D Sakthi KumarBio Nano Electronics Research Centre, Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Kawagoe, JapanAbstract: This paper presents the synthesis of aqueous cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) and silica-encapsulated CdS QDs by reverse microemulsion method and utilized as targeted bio-optical probe...

  10. Investigation of Dynamical Parameters of Exciton Confined in CdS Spherical Quantum Dots with a B-Spline Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI Ping; SHI Ting-Yun; BAO Cheng-Guang

    2003-01-01

    Exciton energies as a function of radii of quantum dots in the range of 5-35 A are calculated based on effective mass approximation model with the B-spline technique and compared with experimental and other theoretical data for the CdS dots. This method leads to accurate and fast convergent exciton energy, which are in good agreement with experimental data in the whole confinement regime. The effect of penetration of wave function from the inside to the outside of the dots and the effect of dielectric constants are taken into account. The magnitudes of dynamical parameters are discussed. It is found that the different materials surrounding the CdS quantum dot affect not only the potential energy and Coulomb interaction energy of the system, but also the effective masses. The comparison shows that the effective mass approximation model can describe very well the quantum size effects observed experimentally on the exciton ground state energy.

  11. CdS and ZnS quantum dots embedded in hyaluronic acid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, G.; Khachatryan, K. [Department of Chemistry, Agricultural University, Balicka 122, 30-149 Krakow (Poland); Stobinski, L. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 48/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warszawa (Poland)], E-mail: lstob@ichf.edu.pl; Tomasik, P.; Fiedorowicz, M. [Department of Chemistry, Agricultural University, Balicka 122, 30-149 Krakow (Poland); Lin, H.M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei 104, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2009-07-29

    An in situ synthesis of ZnS and CdS quantum dots (QDs) in an aqueous solution of sodium hyaluronate (Hyal) produced foils emitting light on excitation with a UV light. The wavelength of emission was only slightly QDs size and more QDs concentration dependent and reached up to {approx}320 nm in the case of ZnS and {approx}400-450 nm in the case of CdS. Nanoparticles remained as non-agglomerated 10-20 nm nanoclusters. CdS/Hyal and ZnS/Hyal-QDs biocomposites were characterized using photoluminescence (PL), IR spectrometric techniques, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The absolute molecular weights, radii of gyration, R{sub g}, and thermodynamic properties of the obtained foils are given. Electric resistivity studies performed for the hyaluronic foil in the 100-1000 V range have revealed that the hyaluronate foil has very weak conducting properties and QDs only insignificantly affect those properties as QDs practically did not interact with the foil. Size exclusion chromatography showed a decrease in the molecular weight of the hyaluronate after generation of QDs in its solution, particularly in the lower molecular fraction of the hyaluronate. The generation of CdS QDs was more destructive for the polysaccharide matrix.

  12. Studies on Optical Properties of CdS/ ZnO Quantum Dots Prepared By Sol-Gel Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdS/ ZnO quantum dots (QDs) were prepared at 293 K by sol-gel technique in the presence of Triethanolamine (TEA) as a capping agent. The effect of CdS/ ZnO mixture ratio of 1:9, 1:1 and 9:1 on optical absorption and luminescence spectra were investigated by UV-Vis and Photoluminescence spectroscopies. The morphology of CdS/ ZnO QDs of each mixing ratio was obtained by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The size of the QDs were found to be in the range of 4-10 nm. (author)

  13. Synthesis, characterization, photo and physicochemical properties of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and tetraaniline capped CdS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface modification of quantum dots (QDs) for improved photo and physicochemical properties is a topic of potential technological interest. Herein, we report on the synthesis of aggregation free 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and tetraaniline (TA) capped CdS QDs with narrow size distribution (∼2.3 nm diameter), which are further characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The TA capped CdS QDs show improved photoluminescence and photostability, which is attributed to the effective grafting of TA on CdS QDs through N-atoms, changing the surface chemical environment and facilitating charge transfer.

  14. Synthesis, characterization, photo and physicochemical properties of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and tetraaniline capped CdS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wen-Yin [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Ghule, Anil Vithal, E-mail: anighule@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jia-Yaw; Chen, Bo-Jung; Liu, Jen-Yu; Tzing, Shin-Hwa [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Ling, Yong-Chien, E-mail: ycling@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-01

    Surface modification of quantum dots (QDs) for improved photo and physicochemical properties is a topic of potential technological interest. Herein, we report on the synthesis of aggregation free 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and tetraaniline (TA) capped CdS QDs with narrow size distribution ({approx}2.3 nm diameter), which are further characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The TA capped CdS QDs show improved photoluminescence and photostability, which is attributed to the effective grafting of TA on CdS QDs through N-atoms, changing the surface chemical environment and facilitating charge transfer.

  15. All spray pyrolysis deposited CdS sensitized ZnO films for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → Solar cells based on CdS quantum dot sensitized ZnO photoanode are fabricated. → Both ZnO and CdS are prepared using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. → Good contact is formed between CdS and ZnO to facilitate the electron transfer. → As-prepared cell achieves maximally a power conversion efficiency of 1.54%. - Abstract: Sensitized-type solar cells based on ZnO photoanode and CdS quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers have been fabricated. Both ZnO films and CdS QDs are prepared using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) deposition technique. This method allows a facile and rapid deposition and integration between CdS QDs and ZnO films without the need for post thermal treatment. The photovoltaic performances of the cells are investigated. The results show that the performance of the cell based on all USP deposited CdS sensitized ZnO photoanode achieves maximally a short circuit current density of 6.99 mA cm-2 and a power conversion efficiency of 1.54%.

  16. CdS Quantum Dots as Fluorescence Probes for Detection of Adriamycin Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Water-soluble CdS quantum dots (CdS-QDs) capped with thioglycolic acid were easily prepared, and a detection method of adriamycin was presented based on the fluorescence quenching of CdS-QDs. It was found that a complex could be formed between cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide(CTAB) and CdS-QDs by using electrostatic interaction in Britton-Robinson(BR) buffer at pH = 7. 00, and the strong fluorescence emission of the complex was observed at 500nm when the complex was excited at 378 nm. The presence of adriamycin, however, could strongly quench the fluorescence through hydrophobic interaction. The overall quenching percentage as a function of adriamycin concentration matches the Stern-Volmer equation very well. These properties make CdS-QDs a potential fluorescence probe for the detection of adriamycin. The detection limit(3σ) of adriamycin is approximately 10-9 mol/L.

  17. Chemical synthesis of CdS onto TiO2 nanorods for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sachin A.; Patil, Dipali S.; Lokhande, Abhishek C.; Gang, Myeng Gil; Shin, Jae Cheol; Patil, Pramod S.; Kim, Jin Hyeok

    2016-08-01

    A quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) is fabricated using hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorods and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) deposited CdS. Surface morphology of the TiO2 films coated with different SILAR cycles of CdS is examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy which revealed aggregated CdS QDs coverage grow on increasing onto the TiO2 nanorods with respect to cycle number. Under AM 1.5G illumination, we found the TiO2/CdS QDSSC photoelectrode shows a power conversion efficiency of 1.75%, in an aqueous polysulfide electrolyte with short-circuit photocurrent density of 4.04 mA/cm2 which is higher than that of a bare TiO2 nanorods array.

  18. In-situ synthesis of high stable CdS quantum dots and their application for photocatalytic degradation of dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Sadeghi-Maleki, Mohammad-Rasool

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalysis based on semiconductor quantum dots, which utilize the solar energy can be used for elimination of pollutants from aqueous media and applied for water purification. In this paper, high stable CdS quantum dots (QDs) with good optical properties were successfully synthesized in a facile in-situ method, using Na2S2O3 as precursor and thioglycolic acid (TGA) as a catalyst, as well as capping agent in aqueous media. The synthesis process was optimized with a 2IV7-3 fractional factorial design method. Then, we studied the degradation of some industrial dyes including: alizarin, acid violet, mordant red and thymol blue as a tool to check the photocatalytic activity of synthesized CdS QDs. Results specified that the synthesized CdS QDs are capable for degradation of organic dyes under visible light irradiation with good recycling stability during photocatalytic experiments. Structural and spectroscopic properties of the synthesized CdS QDs were studied by TEM, XRD and absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The synthesized TGA-capped CdS QDs have sizes in the range of 2.65-2.93 nm with cubic crystalline structures.

  19. Ultrasensitive detection of amifostine and alkaline phosphatase based on the growth of CdS quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Weidan; Liu, Siyu; Liu, Xiaotong; Su, Xingguang

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we reported a simple and sensitive fluorescence nanosensor for rapid detection of amifostine and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The novel nanosensor was based on the fluorescence "turn on-off" of CdS quantum dots (QDs). Firstly, Cd(2+) cation could react with S(2-) anion to generate fluorescent CdS QDs in the presence of amifostine. The fluorescence (FL) intensity of amifostine-capped CdS QDs (Amifostine-CdS QDs) was increased with the increasing amounts of amifostine, and could be used for amifostine detection. However, amifostine could be converted to 2-(3-aminopropylamino) ethanethiol (WR1065) in the presence of ALP based on the dephosphorylation of ALP. Under the optimum conditions, the affinity of WR1065 to CdS QDs was weaker than that of amifostine. Therefore the new generation of WR1065-CdS QDs would reduce the FL intensity with the increase of ALP concentration, and the fluorescence of CdS QDs was turn off. The metabolic process of amifostine in the presence of alkaline phosphatase could be also studied via the change of FL intensity of CdS QDs. The present method was cost-effective, convenient, and does not require any complicated synthetic procedures. PMID:26452927

  20. Photovoltaic performance enhancement of CdS quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 photoanodes with plasmonic gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CdS QD-sensitized TiO2 porous photoanode with plasmonic gold. • A prominent light absorption enhancement of hybrid was attained by gold plasmon. • The photovoltaic response of hybrid was tunable by CdS amount. • The Au/TiO2/CdS hybrid had a potential application in energy conversion devices. -- Abstract: The CdS quantum dot-sensitized TiO2 films with plasmonic gold nanoparticles were designed as photoanodes by the electrodeposition of gold combined with the “successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction” (SILAR) method for CdS deposition on porous TiO2 films. A prominent enhancement in light absorption of Au/TiO2/CdS hybrid was attained by efficient light scattering of gold plasmons as sub-wavelength antennas and concentrators. The photogenerated electron formed in the near-surface region of TiO2 and CdS were facilitated to transfer to the plasmonic gold, resulting in the enhancement of photocurrent and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of hybrid photoanode upon photoirradiation. Furthermore, the photovoltaic response of hybrid was highly tunable with respect to the number of SILAR cycles applied to deposit CdS. The thicker absorber layer with less porous structure and larger CdS crystals might limit the electrolyte diffusion into the hybrid electrode and impose a barrier for electron tunneling and transferring. The highly versatile and tunable properties of Au/TiO2/CdS photoanodes demonstrated their potential application in energy conversion devices

  1. Effects of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Solid-State CdS Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ardalan, Pendar

    2011-02-22

    Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are of interest for solar energy conversion because of their tunable band gap and promise of stable, low-cost performance. We have investigated the effects of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with phosphonic acid headgroups on the bonding and performance of cadmium sulfide (CdS) solid-state QDSSCs. CdS quantum dots ∼2 to ∼6 nm in diameter were grown on SAM-passivated planar or nanostructured TiO 2 surfaces by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), and photovoltaic devices were fabricated with spiro-OMeTAD as the solid-state hole conductor. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, water contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and electrical measurements were employed to characterize the materials and the resulting device performance. The data indicate that the nature of the SAM tailgroup does not significantly affect the uptake of CdS quantum dots on TiO2 nor their optical properties, but the presence of the SAM does have a significant effect on the photovoltaic device performance. Interestingly, we observe up to ∼3 times higher power conversion efficiencies in devices with a SAM compared to those without the SAM. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  2. Pulsed laser induced optical nonlinearities in undoped, copper doped and chromium doped CdS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum dots (QDs) of CdS, Cu doped and Cr doped CdS were synthesized through chemical co- precipitation method. The synthesized QDs have been characterized by x-ray diffraction, ultraviolet visible absorption spectroscopy. The diameters of QDs were calculated using Debye–Scherrer’s formula and Brus equation. They are found to be in 3.5–3.8 nm range. The nonlinear properties has been studied by the open and closed aperture Z-scan technique using frequency double Nd:YAG laser. The nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), third order nonlinear susceptibilities (χ3) of QDs has been calculated. It has been found that the values of nonlinear parameters are higher for doped QDs than undoped CdS QDs. Hence they can be regarded as potential material for the development of optoelectronics and photonics devices. (paper)

  3. Plasmon resonance-induced photoluminescence enhancement of CdTe/Cds quantum dots thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Xu, Ling; Wu, Yangqing; Xu, Jun; Ma, Zhongyuan; Chen, Kunji

    2016-11-01

    CdTe/CdS quantum dots/Au nano-rods nano-composite films were fabricated on planar Si substrates. The optical properties of all samples were investigated and the corresponding simulations were studied. It was found that the photoluminescence intensity of the CdTe/CdS quantum dots films was enhanced about 9-fold after the incorporation of Au nano-rods, the internal quantum efficiency increased from 24.3% to 35.2% due to the localized surface plasmon resonance. The time-resolved luminescence decay curves showed that the lifetimes of CdTe/CdS quantum dots films decreased to 2.8 ns after interaction with Au nano-rods. The results of finite-difference time-domain simulation indicated that Au nano-rods induced the localization of electric field, which enhanced the PL intensity of quantum dots films in the vicinity of Au nano-rods.

  4. Probing the fungicidal property of CdS quantum dots on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis using MALDI-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikandan, Muthu; Wu, Hui-Fen, E-mail: hwu@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw [National Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Chemistry (China)

    2013-07-15

    For the first time, we report the successful application of inhouse synthesized CdS quantum dots (QDs) with particle sizes between 1 and 7 nm exhibiting excellent fungicidal activity based on the interactions with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis. The growth curves and the growth rates of both fungi were established in the presence of three varying concentrations of CdS QDs. It was observed that the CdS QDs were highly inhibitory even at the lowest concentration of 10 mg/L used in this study, while the untreated control cells followed a normal growth pattern in the cases of both Saccharomyces and Candida. MALDI-MS was applied to substantiate the observations obtained by direct cell count method. It was observed that the trend observed in the case of Saccharomyces and Candida was well-represented in the MALDI-MS spectra. This study proposes a mechanism for the first time based on MALDI-MS results, that the CdS QDs interact with the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and remove small molecules from EPS layer; on the other hand, it was observed that CdS QDs at all concentrations lead to enrichment of protein signals in MALDI-MS. We have substantiated these results by quantifying the EPS in the control and treated cells and also using TEM to further confirm the results.

  5. Decrease of back recombination rate in CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells using reduced graphene oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Badawi

    2015-01-01

    The photovoltaic performance of CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) using the 0.2 wt%of reduced graphene oxide and TiO2 nanoparticles (RGO+TiO2 nanocomposite) photoanode is investigated. CdS QDs are adsorbed onto RGO+TiO2 nanocomposite films by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique for several cycles. The current density–voltage (J–V ) characteristic curves of the assembled QDSSCs are measured at AM1.5 sim-ulated sunlight. The optimal photovoltaic performance for CdS QDSSC was achieved for six SILAR cycles. Solar cells based on the RGO+TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode achieve a 33%increase in conversion efficiency (η) compared with those based on plain TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) photoanodes. The electron back recombination rates decrease significantly for CdS QDSSCs based on RGO+TiO2 nanocomposite photoanodes. The lifetime constant (τ) for CdS QDSSC based on the RGO+TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode is at least one order of magnitude larger than that based on the bare TiO2NPs photoanode.

  6. Au2+ ion-beam irradiation effects on optical properties of CdSe and CdS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of Au+ ion irradiation on the optical properties of CdS and CdSe quantum dots synthesized by chemical methods are studied. The ion-induced changes are studied using UV/Vis absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy experimental methods. It is observed that the size of the particle is found to increase with the ion fluence resulting in a shift of optical absorption peak to longer wavelength and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy measurements. The nonlinear optical properties are studied through Z-scan technique. These quantum dots show multiphoton absorption properties with 800 nm wavelength, 110 femtosecond laser pulse excitations. The photoluminescence studies show the emission peak shift to higher wavelength with the ion fluence

  7. Effects of the large distribution of CdS quantum dot sizes on the charge transfer interactions into TiO2 nanotubes for photocatalytic hydrogen generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moya, Johan R.; Garcia-Basabe, Yunier; Rocco, Maria Luiza M.; Pereira, Marcelo B.; Princival, Jefferson L.; Almeida, Luciano C.; Araújo, Carlos M.; David, Denis G. F.; Ferreira da Silva, Antonio; Machado, Giovanna

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogen fuels generated by water splitting using a photocatalyst and solar irradiation are currently gaining the strength to diversify the world energy matrix in a green way. CdS quantum dots have revealed a hydrogen generation improvement when added to TiO2 materials under visible-light irradiation. In the present paper, we investigated the performance of TiO2 nanotubes coupled with CdS quantum dots, by a molecular bifunctional linker, on photocatalytic hydrogen generation. TiO2 nanotubes were obtained by anodization of Ti foil, followed by annealing to crystallize the nanotubes into the anatase phase. Afterwards, the samples were sensitized with CdS quantum dots via an in situ hydrothermal route using 3-mercaptopropionic acid as the capping agent. This sensitization technique permits high loading and uniform distribution of CdS quantum dots onto TiO2 nanotubes. The XPS depth profile showed that CdS concentration remains almost unchanged (homogeneous), while the concentration relative to the sulfate anion decreases by more than 80% with respect to the initial value after ∼100 nm in depth. The presence of sulfate anions is due to the oxidation of sulfide and occurs in greater proportion in the material surface. This protection for air oxidation inside the nanotubular matrix seemingly protected the CdS for photocorrosion in sacrificial solution leading to good stability properties proved by long duration, stable photocurrent measurements. The effect of the size and the distribution of sizes of CdS quantum dots attached to TiO2 nanotubes on the photocatalytic hydrogen generation were investigated. The experimental results showed three different behaviors when the reaction time of CdS synthesis was increased in the sensitized samples, i.e. similar, deactivation and activation effects on the hydrogen production with regard to TiO2 nanotubes. The deactivation effect was related to two populations of sizes of CdS, where the population with a shorter band gap acts as a

  8. Detection of silver(I) ion based on mixed surfactant-adsorbed CdS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed cationic and anionic surfactants were adsorbed on cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs) capped with mercaptoacetic acid. The CdS QDs can be extracted into acetonitrile with 98 % efficiency in a single step. Phase separation only occurs at a molar ratio of 1:1.5 between cationic and anionic surfactants. The surfactant-adsorbed QDs in acetonitrile solution display stronger and more stable photoluminescence than in water solution. The method was applied for determination of silver(I) ion based on its luminescence enhancement of the QDs. Under the optimum conditions, the relative fluorescence intensity is linearly proportional to the concentration of silver(I) ion in the range between 50 pmol L−1and 4 μmol L−1, with a 20 pmol L−1 detection limit. The relative standard deviation was 1.93 % for 9 replicate measurements of a 0.2 μmol L−1 solution of Ag(I). (author)

  9. CdS quantum dots modified CuO inverse opal electrodes for ultrasensitive electrochemical and photoelectrochemical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lei; Xu, Lin; Song, Jian; Xu, Ru; Liu, Dali; Dong, Biao; Song, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    The CuO inverse opal photonic crystals (IOPCs) were synthesized by the sol-gel method and modified with CdS quantum dots by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). CdS QDs modified CuO IOPCs FTO electrodes of different SILAR cycles were fabricated and their electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (I-t). Structure and morphology of the samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD). The result indicated that the structure of IOPCs and loading of CdS QDs could greatly improve the electrochemical properties. Three SILAR cycles of CdS QDs sensitization was the optimum condition for preparing electrodes, it exhibited a sensitivity of 4345 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) to glucose with a 0.15 μM detection limit (S/N= 3) and a linear range from 0.15 μM to 0.5 mM under a working potential of +0.7 V. It also showed strong stability, good reproducibility, excellent selectivity and fast amperometric response. This work provides a promising approach for realizing excellent photoelectrochemical nonenzymatic glucose biosensor of similar composite structure. PMID:26042520

  10. CdS quantum dots modified CuO inverse opal electrodes for ultrasensitive electrochemical and photoelectrochemical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lei; Xu, Lin; Song, Jian; Xu, Ru; Liu, Dali; Dong, Biao; Song, Hongwei

    2015-06-04

    The CuO inverse opal photonic crystals (IOPCs) were synthesized by the sol-gel method and modified with CdS quantum dots by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). CdS QDs modified CuO IOPCs FTO electrodes of different SILAR cycles were fabricated and their electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (I-t). Structure and morphology of the samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD). The result indicated that the structure of IOPCs and loading of CdS QDs could greatly improve the electrochemical properties. Three SILAR cycles of CdS QDs sensitization was the optimum condition for preparing electrodes, it exhibited a sensitivity of 4345 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) to glucose with a 0.15 μM detection limit (S/N= 3) and a linear range from 0.15 μM to 0.5 mM under a working potential of +0.7 V. It also showed strong stability, good reproducibility, excellent selectivity and fast amperometric response. This work provides a promising approach for realizing excellent photoelectrochemical nonenzymatic glucose biosensor of similar composite structure.

  11. Application of CdS quantum dots modified carbon paste electrode for monitoring the process of acetaminophen preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasandideh-Nadamani, M; Omrani, A; Sadeghi-Maleki, M R; Samadi-Maybodi, A

    2016-06-01

    In this research article, a novel, selective, and sensitive modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) using CdS quantum dots (QDs) is presented. The highly stable CdS QDs were successfully synthesized in an in situ process using Na2S2O3 as a precursor and thioglycolic acid as a catalyst and capping agent. The synthesis of CdS QDs was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The synthesized CdS QDs were used for preparation of a modified carbon paste electrode (CdS/CPE). The electrochemical behavior of the electrode toward p-aminophenol (PAP) and acetaminophen (Ac) was studied, and the results demonstrated that the CdS/CPE exhibited good electrocatalytic performance toward PAP and Ac oxidation. The oxidation peak potential of each analyte in the mixture was well separated. As a result, a selective and reliable method was developed for the determination of PAP and Ac simultaneously without any chemical separations. Application of the fabricated electrode for monitoring the process of Ac preparation from PAP was investigated. The obtained results show that CdS/CPE has satisfactory analytical performance; it could be a kind of attractive and promising nanomaterial-based sensor for process monitoring via the electrochemical approach. PMID:26945834

  12. Highly efficient multiple-layer CdS quantum dot sensitized III-V solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Chung; Han, Hau-Vei; Chen, Hsin-Chu; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Lin, Wein-Yi; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Yu, Peichen

    2014-02-01

    In this review, the concept of utilization of solar spectrum in order to increase the solar cell efficiency is discussed. Among the three mechanisms, down-shifting effect is investigated in detail. Organic dye, rare-earth minerals and quantum dots are three most popular down-shift materials. While the enhancement of solar cell efficiency was not clearly observed in the past, the advances in quantum dot fabrication have brought strong response out of the hybrid platform of a quantum dot solar cell. A multiple layer structure, including PDMS as the isolation layer, is proposed and demonstrated. With the help of pulse spray system, precise control can be achieved and the optimized concentration can be found. PMID:24749412

  13. Effects of Surface Modification of Nanotube Arrays on the Performance of CdS Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danhong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CdS-sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays have been fabricated using the method of successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction and used as a photoanode for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells. Before being coated with CdS, the surface of TiO2 nanotube arrays was treated with TiCl4, nitric acid (HNO3, potassium hydroxide (KOH, and methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS, respectively, for the purpose of reducing the interface transfer resistance of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells. The surfaces of the modified samples represented the characteristics of superhydrophilic and hydrophobic which directly affect the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells. The results showed that surface modification resulted in the reduction of the surface tension, which played a significant role in the connectivity of CdS and TiO2 nanotube arrays. In addition, the solar cells based on CdS/TiO2 electrode treated by HNO3 achieved a maximum power conversion efficiency of 0.17%, which was 42% higher than the reference sample without any modification.

  14. Ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescent immunoassay for morphine using a gold electrode modified with CdS quantum dots, polyamidoamine, and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) immunoassay for the ultrasensitive determination of morphine by making use of a gold electrode which was modified with a nanocomposite film containing self-assembled polyamidoamine (PAMAM) CdS quantum dots and electrodeposited gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs). The highly uniform and well-dispersed quantum dots were capped with PAMAM dendrimers. Due to the synergistic effect of the modified quantum dots and the electrodeposited Au-NPs, the ECL response is dramatically enhanced. Under optimal experimental conditions, the immunoreaction between morphine and anti-morphine antibody resulted in a decrease of the ECL signal because of steric hindrance. The calibration plot is linear in the morphine concentration range from 0.2 to 180 ng•mL−1, with a detection limit as low as 67 pg•mL−1. The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of morphine in blood plasma. This kind of assay is expected to pave new avenues in label-free drug assays. (author)

  15. Synthesis and application of luminescent single CdS quantum dot encapsulated silica nanoparticles directed for precision optical bioimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeranarayanan S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Srivani Veeranarayanan, Aby Cheruvathoor Poulose, M Sheikh Mohamed, Yutaka Nagaoka, Seiki Iwai, Yuya Nakagame, Shosaku Kashiwada, Yasuhiko Yoshida, Toru Maekawa, D Sakthi KumarBio Nano Electronics Research Centre, Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Kawagoe, JapanAbstract: This paper presents the synthesis of aqueous cadmium sulfide (CdS quantum dots (QDs and silica-encapsulated CdS QDs by reverse microemulsion method and utilized as targeted bio-optical probes. We report the role of CdS as an efficient cell tag with fluorescence on par with previously documented cadmium telluride and cadmium selenide QDs, which have been considered to impart high levels of toxicity. In this study, the toxicity of bare QDs was efficiently quenched by encapsulating them in a biocompatible coat of silica. The toxicity profile and uptake of bare CdS QDs and silica-coated QDs, along with the CD31-labeled, silica-coated CdS QDs on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and glioma cells, were investigated. The effect of size, along with the time-dependent cellular uptake of the nanomaterials, has also been emphasized. Enhanced, high-specificity imaging toward endothelial cell lines in comparison with glioma cells was achieved with CD31 antibody-conjugated nanoparticles. The silica-coated nanomaterials exhibited excellent biocompatibility and greater photostability inside live cells, in addition to possessing an extended shelf life. In vivo biocompatibility and localization study of silica-coated CdS QDs in medaka fish embryos, following direct nanoparticle exposure for 24 hours, authenticated the nanomaterials' high potential for in vivo imaging, augmented with superior biocompatibility. As expected, CdS QD-treated embryos showed 100% mortality, whereas the silica-coated QD-treated embryos stayed viable and healthy throughout and after the experiments, devoid of any deformities. We provide highly cogent and convincing evidence for such

  16. A highly efficient noble metal free photocatalytic hydrogen evolution system containing MoP and CdS quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shengming; Han, Jianyu; Zou, Yinjun; Zhou, Tianhua; Xu, Rong

    2016-08-14

    We report the construction of a highly efficient noble metal free photocatalytic hydrogen (H2) evolution system using CdS quantum dots as the light absorber and metallic MoP as the cocatalyst. MoP can be prepared by a facile temperature programmed reduction method and small clusters of MoP nanoparticles sized 10-30 nm were obtained by probe ultrasonication. The effect of synthesis conditions on the electrocatalytic and photocatalytic H2 evolution activity of MoP was investigated. The highest H2 evolution rate of 1100 μmol h(-1) can be achieved by the optimized system under visible light (λ≥ 420 nm), which is comparable to that when Pt was used as the cocatalyst. A high quantum efficiency of 45% is obtained at 460 nm irradiation. PMID:27406067

  17. Synthesis of CdS quantum dots decorated graphene nanosheets and non-enzymatic photoelectrochemical detection of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene-CdS hybrid materials were prepared via one-step hydrothermal method. • Graphene-CdS was used as non-enzymatic photoelectrochemical sensor to detect glucose. • Glucose in real sample was detected and showed good specificity and sensitivity. - ABSTRACT: Graphene-CdS quantum dots (QDs) hybrid materials were successfully prepared via one-step hydrothermal method. CdS QDs with average size of ∼6 nm were dispersed on graphene sheets with high coverage through non-covalent bonding. Photocurrent and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results suggested that the best dosage of graphene oxide for graphene-CdS hybrid materials is 0.5% (G0.5-CdS). When G0.5-CdS QDs was used as photoanode materials in non-enzymatic sensor, and the sensor was used to detect glucose and displayed satisfactory analytical performance with good linear range from 0.1∼4 mmol dm−3 with a detection limit of 7 μmol dm−3 at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The sensor also possessed high selectivity and durability in trace detection of glucose

  18. A highly efficient noble metal free photocatalytic hydrogen evolution system containing MoP and CdS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shengming; Han, Jianyu; Zou, Yinjun; Zhou, Tianhua; Xu, Rong

    2016-07-01

    We report the construction of a highly efficient noble metal free photocatalytic hydrogen (H2) evolution system using CdS quantum dots as the light absorber and metallic MoP as the cocatalyst. MoP can be prepared by a facile temperature programmed reduction method and small clusters of MoP nanoparticles sized 10-30 nm were obtained by probe ultrasonication. The effect of synthesis conditions on the electrocatalytic and photocatalytic H2 evolution activity of MoP was investigated. The highest H2 evolution rate of 1100 μmol h-1 can be achieved by the optimized system under visible light (λ >= 420 nm), which is comparable to that when Pt was used as the cocatalyst. A high quantum efficiency of 45% is obtained at 460 nm irradiation.We report the construction of a highly efficient noble metal free photocatalytic hydrogen (H2) evolution system using CdS quantum dots as the light absorber and metallic MoP as the cocatalyst. MoP can be prepared by a facile temperature programmed reduction method and small clusters of MoP nanoparticles sized 10-30 nm were obtained by probe ultrasonication. The effect of synthesis conditions on the electrocatalytic and photocatalytic H2 evolution activity of MoP was investigated. The highest H2 evolution rate of 1100 μmol h-1 can be achieved by the optimized system under visible light (λ >= 420 nm), which is comparable to that when Pt was used as the cocatalyst. A high quantum efficiency of 45% is obtained at 460 nm irradiation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM image with EDS, XPS survey spectrum, XRD and TEM images of MoP samples prepared under different conditions; XRD, TEM, UV-vis and photoluminescence spectra of CdS QDs; H2 evolution activity comparison for different MoP/CdS samples; the effect of pH value on H2 evolution activity of a MoP/CdS system; the XPS spectrum of MoP/CdS after photoreaction; table of literature studies on H2 evolution activity by different noble metal free photocatalytic systems

  19. Synthesis and characterization of CdS quantum dots stabilized with poly(vinyl alcohol): effect of molar fraction of precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) with size lower than Bohr radius present quantum confinement effect, and properties dependent on particle diameter. The use of these nanoparticles for biological applications is highly promising, however this kind of use requires biocompatible systems. In this sense, the choice of poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, as stabilizing agent has been investigated. The main goal of this work was synthesize and characterize CdS nanoparticles using PVA as capping agent varying the molar ratio of cadmium and sulfur precursors. The results revealed that absorption and emission properties, as well as nanoparticle size, were function of Cd/S ratio. (author)

  20. Cytotoxicity and cellular mechanisms involved in the toxicity of CdS quantum dots in hemocytes and gill cells of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsumiti, A. [CBET Research Group, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology and Research Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology PIE, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Basque Country (Spain); Gilliland, D. [EU Commission–Joint Research Centre, Institute of Health and Consumer Protection, NSB Unit, Ispra (Italy); Arostegui, I. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Statistics and Operations Research, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Leioa (Spain); Cajaraville, M.P., E-mail: mirenp.cajaraville@ehu.es [CBET Research Group, Dept. Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology and Research Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology PIE, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Basque Country (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • CdS QDs were cytotoxic for mussel hemocytes and gill cells in vitro. • Ionic Cd was the most toxic form, followed by CdS QDs and bulk CdS. • CdS QDs altered oxidative balance and caused DNA damage in mussel cells. • CdS QDs caused a particle-specific immunostimulation on phagocytosis of hemocytes. • Conceptual models for cellular handling and toxicity of CdS QDs are proposed. - Abstract: CdS quantum dots (QDs) show a great promise for treatment and diagnosis of cancer and for targeted drug delivery, due to their size-tunable fluorescence and ease of functionalization for tissue targeting. In spite of their advantages it is important to determine if CdS QDs can exert toxicity on biological systems. In the present work, cytotoxicity of CdS QDs (5 nm) at a wide range of concentrations (0.001–100 mg Cd/L) was screened using neutral red (NR) and thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays in isolated hemocytes and gill cells of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The mechanisms of action of CdS QDs were assessed at sublethal concentrations (0.31–5 mg Cd/L) in the same cell types through a series of functional in vitro assays: production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), catalase (CAT) activity, DNA damage, lysosomal acid phosphatase (AcP) activity, multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) transport activity, Na-K-ATPase activity (only in gill cells) and phagocytic activity and damage to actin cytoskeleton (only in hemocytes). Exposures to CdS QDs lasted for 24 h and were performed in parallel with exposures to bulk CdS and ionic Cd. Ionic Cd was the most toxic form to both cell types, followed by CdS QDs and bulk CdS. ROS production, DNA damage, AcP activity and MXR transport were significantly increased in both cell types exposed to the 3 forms of Cd. CAT activity increased in hemocytes exposed to the three forms of Cd while in gill cells only in those exposed to ionic Cd. No effects were found on hemocytes cytoskeleton integrity. Effects on

  1. Chirality Inversion of CdSe and CdS Quantum Dots without Changing the Stereochemistry of the Capping Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Kyu; Haynie, Benjamin E; Tohgha, Urice; Pap, Levente; Elliott, K Wade; Leonard, Brian M; Dzyuba, Sergei V; Varga, Krisztina; Kubelka, Jan; Balaz, Milan

    2016-03-22

    L-cysteine derivatives induce and modulate the optical activity of achiral cadmium selenide (CdSe) and cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs). Remarkably, N-acetyl-L-cysteine-CdSe and L-homocysteine-CdSe as well as N-acetyl-L-cysteine-CdS and L-cysteine-CdS showed "mirror-image" circular dichroism (CD) spectra regardless of the diameter of the QDs. This is an example of the inversion of the CD signal of QDs by alteration of the ligand's structure, rather than inversion of the ligand's absolute configuration. Non-empirical quantum chemical simulations of the CD spectra were able to reproduce the experimentally observed sign patterns and demonstrate that the inversion of chirality originated from different binding arrangements of N-acetyl-L-cysteine and L-homocysteine-CdSe to the QD surface. These efforts may allow the prediction of the ligand-induced chiroptical activity of QDs by calculating the specific binding modes of the chiral capping ligands. Combined with the large pool of available chiral ligands, our work opens a robust approach to the rational design of chiral semiconducting nanomaterials.

  2. Fluorescence detection of adenosine-5'-triphosphate and alkaline phosphatase based on the generation of CdS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Siyu; Wang, Xinyan; Pang, Shu; Na, Weidan; Yan, Xu; Su, Xingguang, E-mail: suxg@jlu.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Cd²⁺ reacts with S²⁻ to generate fluorescent CdS QDs with ATP. • ATP can be hydrolyzed by the enzymatic dephosphorylation of ALP. • Fluorescent CdS QDs could not be generated in the presence of ALP. • The analysis system was successfully applied to assay ATP and ALP. Abstract: We have developed an analytical method to detect adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) based on the generation of CdS quantum dots (QDs). We demonstrated that Cd²⁺ cation reacts with S²⁻anion to generate fluorescent CdS QDs in the presence of some certain amount of ATP. With increase in the ATP concentration, the fluorescence intensity of CdS QDs was also enhanced. ATP can be converted into adenosine by the dephosphorylation of ALP, so that the generation of CdS QDs would be inhibited in the presence of ALP. Therefore, this novel analysis system could be applied to assay ATP and ALP based on the growth of fluorescent CdS QDs.

  3. First principles DFT study of dye-sensitized CdS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Kalpna; Singh, Kh. S. [Department of Physics, D. J. College, Baraut -250611, U.P. (India); Kishor, Shyam, E-mail: shyam387@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, J. V. College, Baraut -250611, U.P. (India); Josefesson, Ida; Odelius, Michael [Fysikum, Albanova University Center, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Ramaniah, Lavanya M. [High Pressure and Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Dye-sensitized quantum dots (QDs) are considered promising candidates for dye-sensitized solar cells. In order to maximize their efficiency, detailed theoretical studies are important. Here, we report a first principles density functional theory (DFT) investigation of experimentally realized dye - sensitized QD / ligand systems, viz., Cd{sub 16}S{sub 16}, capped with acetate molecules and a coumarin dye. The hybrid B3LYP functional and a 6−311+G(d,p)/LANL2dz basis set are used to study the geometric, energetic and electronic properties of these clusters. There is significant structural rearrangement in all the clusters studied - on the surface for the bare QD, and in the positions of the acetate / dye ligands for the ligated QDs. The density of states (DOS) of the bare QD shows states in the band gap, which disappear on surface passivation with the acetate molecules. Interestingly, in the dye-sensitised QD, the HOMO is found to be localized mainly on the dye molecule, while the LUMO is on the QD, as required for photo-induced electron injection from the dye to the QD.

  4. Two-layer ZnO nanowire arrays: Fabrication and its photovoltaic property sensitized by CdSe and CdS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-layer ZnO nanowire arrays have been synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal method. The two-layer structure enables the absorption of CdSe and CdS quantum dots (QDs) on different nanostructured layers, respectively. Solar cell based on the QD sensitized ZnO nanowire arrays is fabricated. Because sequential light adsorption of different sensitizers happens in two different layers, the photoanode can reduce the interaction possibility among different QDs and extend the absorption range, and result in improved photovoltaic properties. - Highlights: • Two-layer ZnO nanowire array has been synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal. • A two-layer quantum dot sensitized ZnO nanowire array solar cell has been fabricated. • The structure can reduce interaction possibility among different quantum dots. • The structure can extend the range of light absorption

  5. Two-layer ZnO nanowire arrays: Fabrication and its photovoltaic property sensitized by CdSe and CdS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Jingzhi [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Jianxiong; Sun, Xiaowei [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-09-01

    Two-layer ZnO nanowire arrays have been synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal method. The two-layer structure enables the absorption of CdSe and CdS quantum dots (QDs) on different nanostructured layers, respectively. Solar cell based on the QD sensitized ZnO nanowire arrays is fabricated. Because sequential light adsorption of different sensitizers happens in two different layers, the photoanode can reduce the interaction possibility among different QDs and extend the absorption range, and result in improved photovoltaic properties. - Highlights: • Two-layer ZnO nanowire array has been synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal. • A two-layer quantum dot sensitized ZnO nanowire array solar cell has been fabricated. • The structure can reduce interaction possibility among different quantum dots. • The structure can extend the range of light absorption.

  6. A highly selective turn-on ATP fluorescence sensor based on unmodified cysteamine capped CdS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Used unmodified cysteamine capped CdS QDs as a selective sensor for ATP. •Turn-on fluorescence sensors in 100% aqueous solution. •Excellence discrimination of pyrophosphate from ATP detection. •Very low LOD of 17 μM can be obtained. •The sensor can be used to determine ATP in urine samples. -- Abstract: Unmodified cysteamine capped nanocrystalline cadmium sulfide quantum dots (Cys-CdS QDs) were demonstrated as a selective turn-on fluorescence sensor for sensing adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) in aqueous solution for the first time. The fluorescence intensity of the Cys-CdS QDs was significantly enhanced in the presence of ATP. In addition, the fluorescence intensity of the Cys-CdS QDs increased when increasing ATP concentrations. On the other hand, other phosphate metabolites and other tested common anions did not significantly alter the fluorescence intensity of the Cys-CdS QDs. In addition, this sensor showed excellent discrimination of pyrophosphate (PPi) from ATP detection. The proposed sensor could efficiently be used for ATP sensing at very low concentration with LOD of 17 μM with the linear working concentration range of 20–80 μM. The feasibility of the proposed sensor for determining ATP in urine samples was also studied, and satisfactory results were obtained

  7. Co-sensitization of ZnO by CdS quantum dots in natural dye-sensitized solar cells with polymeric electrolytes to improve the cell stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junhom, W.; Magaraphan, R. [Polymer Processing and Polymer Nanomaterials Research Unit, Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2015-05-22

    The CdS quantum dots (QDs) were deposited on ZnO layer by chemical bath deposition method to absorb light in the shorter wavelength region and used as photoanode in the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) with natural dye extracted from Noni leaves. Microstructures of CdS-ZnO from various dipping time were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX. The results showed that the CdS is hexagonal structure and the amount of CdS increases when the dipping time increases. The maximal conversion efficiency of 0.292% was achieved by the DSSCs based on CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film obtained from 9 min-dipping time. Furthermore, the stability of DSSCs was improved by using polymeric electrolyte. Poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) and Polyacrylamide (PAM) were introduced to CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film from 9 min-dipping time. Each polymeric electrolyte was prepared by swelling from 0.1-2.0 %w in H2O. The maximal conversion efficiency of 0.207% was achieved for DSSCs based on CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film with PAM 1.0% and the conversion efficiency was decreased 25% when it was left for1 hr.

  8. CdS quantum dots as fluorescence probes for the sensitive and selective detection of highly reactive HSe- ions in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan-Liu; Zhao, Yi-Bing

    2007-06-01

    Water-soluble cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) capped by mercaptoacetic acid were synthesized by aqueous-phase arrested precipitation, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, spectrofluorometry, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The prepared luminescent water-soluble CdS QDs were evaluated as fluorescence probes for the detection of highly reactive hydrogen selenide ions (HSe(-) ions). The quenching of the fluorescence emission of CdS QDs with the addition of HSe(-) ions is due to the elimination of the S(2-) vacancies which are luminescence centers. Quantitative analysis based on chemical interaction between HSe(-) ions and the surface of CdS QDs is very simple, easy to develop, and has demonstrated very high sensitivity and selectivity features. The effect of foreign ions (common anions and biologically relevant cations) on the fluorescence of the CdS QDs was examined to evaluate the selectivity. Only Cu(2+) and S(2-) ions exhibit significant effects on the fluorescence of CdS QDs. With the developed method, we are able to determine the concentration of HSe(-) ions in the range from 0.10 to 4.80 micromol L(-1), and the limit of detection is 0.087 micromol L(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to monitor the obtained HSe(-) ions from the reaction of glutathione with selenite. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on fluorescence analysis of HSe(-) ions in aqueous solution.

  9. Co-sensitization of ZnO by CdS quantum dots in natural dye-sensitized solar cells with polymeric electrolytes to improve the cell stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junhom, W.; Magaraphan, R.

    2015-05-01

    The CdS quantum dots (QDs) were deposited on ZnO layer by chemical bath deposition method to absorb light in the shorter wavelength region and used as photoanode in the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) with natural dye extracted from Noni leaves. Microstructures of CdS-ZnO from various dipping time were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX. The results showed that the CdS is hexagonal structure and the amount of CdS increases when the dipping time increases. The maximal conversion efficiency of 0.292% was achieved by the DSSCs based on CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film obtained from 9 min-dipping time. Furthermore, the stability of DSSCs was improved by using polymeric electrolyte. Poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) and Polyacrylamide (PAM) were introduced to CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film from 9 min-dipping time. Each polymeric electrolyte was prepared by swelling from 0.1-2.0 %w in H2O. The maximal conversion efficiency of 0.207% was achieved for DSSCs based on CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film with PAM 1.0% and the conversion efficiency was decreased 25% when it was left for1 hr.

  10. Fabrication of ZnO nanostructures sensitized with CdS quantum dots for photovoltaic application using a convenient solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huan [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Gengmin, E-mail: zgmin@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); SIP-UCLA Institute for Technology Advancement, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu Province (China); Yin, Jianbo [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liang, Jia; Sun, Wentao; Shen, Ziyong [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures sensitized with cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs) were fabricated using a simple and inexpensive solution method. ZnO nanostructures, in the form of either nanocones or nanorods, were first grown directly from fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates in aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA, C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}) under external voltages. Then, CdS QDs were attached to these ZnO nanostructures via reactions in the mixed aqueous solutions of cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and thioacetamide (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NS). Photovoltaic responses were obtained from the quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) in which these CdS QD-covered ZnO nanostructures were employed as the photoanodes. The morphologies of the ZnO nanostructures, which could be effectively modulated via the substrate location in the solutions during the fabrication, were found to have played an important role in determining the properties of the QDSSCs.

  11. Surface biofunctionalized CdS and ZnS quantum dot nanoconjugates for nanomedicine and oncology: to be or not to be nanotoxic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Alexandra AP; Mansur, Herman S; de Carvalho, Sandhra M; Lobato, Zélia IP; Guedes, Maria IMC; Leite, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Herein, for the first time, we demonstrated that novel biofunctionalized semiconductor nanomaterials made of Cd-containing fluorescent quantum dot nanoconjugates with the surface capped by an aminopolysaccharide are not biologically safe for clinical applications. Conversely, the ZnS-based nanoconjugates proved to be noncytotoxic, considering all the parameters investigated. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity were remarkably dependent on the chemical composition of quantum dot (CdS or ZnS), the nature of the cell (human cancerous and embryonic types), and the concentration and time period of exposure to these nanomaterials, caused by the effects of Cd2+ on the complex nanotoxicity pathways involved in cellular uptake. Unexpectedly, no decisive evidence of nanotoxicity of CdS and ZnS conjugates was observed in vivo using intravenous injections in BALB/c mice for 30 days, with minor localized fluorescence detected in liver tissue specimens. Therefore, these results proved that CdS nanoconjugates could pose an excessive threat for clinical applications due to unpredicted and uncorrelated in vitro and in vivo responses caused by highly toxic cadmium ions at biointerfaces. On the contrary, ZnS nanoconjugates proved that the “safe by design” concept used in this research (ie, biocompatible core–shell nanostructures) could benefit a plethora of applications in nanomedicine and oncology.

  12. Synthesis of PbS/Ni2+ doped CdS quantum dots cosensitized solar cells: Enhanced power conversion efficiency and durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •The synthetic of PbS/NCdS/TiO2 photoanode with a simple method. •The power conversion efficiency of the PbS/NCdS/TiO2 is 3.60 %. •The effects of photovoltaic performances caused by doped with Ni2+ were studied. •ZnS passivation layer enhanced electron lifetime significantly. •Ni2+ doped CdS is an effective way to enhance the energy conversion efficiency. -- Abstract: A new photoanode by employing Ni2+ doping of CdS used to fabricate PbS and Ni2+ doped CdS cosensitized quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSCs). Under AM 1.5 G (100 mW/cm2) illumination, the cell device exhibit a power conversion efficiency (η) of 3.60 %, which is higher than the value of 2.65 % obtained with CdS without dopant. The improved photoelectric performance is due to the impurities from Ni2+ doping of CdS, which have an impact on the electronic and photophysical properties, and the dopant creates electronic states in the midgap region of CdS thus altering the charge separation and recombination dynamics. Furthermore, the cell device based on the Ni2+ doped CdS photoanode shows superior stability in the sulfide/polysulfide electrolyte, resulting in a highly reproducible performance, which is a serious challenge for the Ni2+ doped solar cell. This finding can provide an effective method for the fabrication of new photoanode, which can pave the way to further improve the power conversion efficiency of the future QDSSCs

  13. Quantum dots as mediators in gas sensing: A case study of CdS sensitized WO{sub 3} sensing composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concina, Isabella, E-mail: concina@sensor.ing.unibs.it [CNR-INO SENSOR Laboratory, via Branze, 45, 25131 Brescia (Italy); SENSOR, Department of Information Engineering, Brescia University, via Valotti, 9, 25133 Brescia (Italy); Comini, Elisabetta [CNR-INO SENSOR Laboratory, via Branze, 45, 25131 Brescia (Italy); SENSOR, Department of Information Engineering, Brescia University, via Valotti, 9, 25133 Brescia (Italy); Kaciulis, Saulius [CNR-ISMN, Institute for the Study of Nanostructured Materials, Via dei Taurini, 19, 00185 Roma (Italy); Sberveglieri, Giorgio [CNR-INO SENSOR Laboratory, via Branze, 45, 25131 Brescia (Italy); SENSOR, Department of Information Engineering, Brescia University, via Valotti, 9, 25133 Brescia (Italy)

    2014-01-30

    In this study the proof of principle of the use of naked semiconductor directly generated on metal oxide surface as mediators in gas sensing is provided. Successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) technique has been applied to sensitize a WO{sub 3} thin film with CdS quantum dots. Response to gases of bare WO{sub 3} is deeply modified: quantum dots dramatically increase the metal oxide conductance, otherwise rather poor, and modify the capability of detecting environmental pollutants, such as CO and NO{sub 2}. A modified sensing mechanism is proposed to rationalize the mediation exerted by the semiconducting active layer on the interaction between gaseous species and WO{sub 3} surface.

  14. Surface biofunctionalized CdS and ZnS quantum dot nanoconjugates for nanomedicine and oncology: to be or not to be nanotoxic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur AAP

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra AP Mansur,1 Herman S Mansur,1 Sandhra M de Carvalho,1–3 Zélia IP Lobato,2 Maria IMC Guedes,2 Maria F Leite3 1Center of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, and Innovation-CeNano2I, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, 2Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary School, 3Department of Physiology and Biophysics, ICB, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil Abstract: Herein, for the first time, we demonstrated that novel biofunctionalized semiconductor nanomaterials made of Cd-containing fluorescent quantum dot nanoconjugates with the surface capped by an aminopolysaccharide are not biologically safe for clinical applications. Conversely, the ZnS-based nanoconjugates proved to be noncytotoxic, considering all the parameters investigated. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity were remarkably dependent on the chemical composition of quantum dot (CdS or ZnS, the nature of the cell (human cancerous and embryonic types, and the concentration and time period of exposure to these nanomaterials, caused by the effects of Cd2+ on the complex nanotoxicity pathways involved in cellular uptake. Unexpectedly, no decisive evidence of nanotoxicity of CdS and ZnS conjugates was observed in vivo using intravenous injections in BALB/c mice for 30 days, with minor localized fluorescence detected in liver tissue specimens. Therefore, these results proved that CdS nanoconjugates could pose an excessive threat for clinical applications due to unpredicted and uncorrelated in vitro and in vivo responses caused by highly toxic cadmium ions at biointerfaces. On the contrary, ZnS nanoconjugates proved that the “safe by design” concept used in this research (ie, biocompatible core–shell nanostructures could benefit a plethora of applications in nanomedicine and oncology. Keywords: fluorescent nanoparticles, semiconductor quantum dots, nanotoxicity, bionanoconjugates, nanoprobes

  15. Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance of Nanosized Anatase TiO2 Doped with CdS Quantum Dots for Cancer-Cell Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kangqiang Huang; Li Chen; Jieguan Deng; Jianwen Xiong

    2012-01-01

    CdS quantum-dots-(QDs-)doped TiO2 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized using the sol-gel technique and characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS, UV-Vis, and FS. They were then used as a new “photosensitizer” based on photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer-cell treatment. The photocatalytic activities of CdS-TiO2 on leukemia tumors were investigated by using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The ultrastructural morphology of treated cells was also studied by AFM. The experimental results in...

  16. Effect of CdS modification on photoelectric properties of TiO2/PbS quantum dots bulk heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xin; Xu, Jianping; Shi, Shaobo; Zhang, Xiaosong; Li, Shubin; Wang, Chang; Wang, Xueliang; Li, Linlin; Li, Lan

    2016-06-01

    TiO2/PbS(CdS) quantum dots (QDs) bulk heterojunction has been fabricated by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method via alternate deposition of PbS and CdS QDs. In comparison with TiO2/PbS heterojunction, the incident photon to current conversion efficiency was increased almost 50% in the visible region. Meantime, the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage were enhanced 200% and 35% respectively. The influence mechanism of CdS is related to reduction of trap state density at TiO2/PbS interface and PbS QDs surface by the discussion of the dark current density-voltage curves, the transient photocurrent response curves and the electrochemical impedance spectra spectroscopy (EIS).

  17. Effect of sodium acetate additive in successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction on the performance of CdS quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, I.-Ping; Chen, Liang-Yih; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2016-09-01

    Sodium acetate (NaAc) is utilized as an additive in cationic precursors of the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process to fabricate CdS quantum-dot (QD)-sensitized photoelectrodes. The effects of the NaAc concentration on the deposition rate and distribution of QDs in mesoporous TiO2 films, as well as on the performance of CdS-sensitized solar cells are studied. The experimental results show that the presence of NaAc can significantly accelerate the deposition of CdS, improve the QD distribution across photoelectrodes, and thereby, increase the performance of solar cells. These results are mainly attributed to the pH-elevation effect of NaAc to the cationic precursors which increases the electrostatic interaction of the TiO2 film to cadmium ions. The light-to-energy conversion efficiency of the CdS-sensitized solar cell increases with increasing concentration of the NaAc and approaches a maximum value (3.11%) at 0.05 M NaAc. Additionally, an ionic exchange is carried out on the photoelectrode to transform the deposited CdS into CdS1-xSex ternary QDs. The light-absorption range of the photoelectrode is extended and an exceptional power conversion efficiency of 4.51% is achieved due to this treatment.

  18. A CCD-based reader combined with CdS quantum dot-labeled lateral flow strips for ultrasensitive quantitative detection of CagA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Chen; Wang, Kan; Li, Chao; Dai, Xuan; Cui, Daxiang

    2014-02-01

    Immunochromatographic assays are widely used to detect many analytes. CagA is proved to be associated closely with initiation of gastric carcinoma. Here, we reported that a charge-coupled device (CCD)-based test strip reader combined with CdS quantum dot-labeled lateral flow strips for quantitative detection of CagA was developed, which used 365-nm ultraviolet LED as the excitation light source, and captured the test strip images through an acquisition module. Then, the captured image was transferred to the computer and was processed by a software system. A revised weighted threshold histogram equalization (WTHE) image processing algorithm was applied to analyze the result. CdS quantum dot-labeled lateral flow strips for detection of CagA were prepared. One hundred sera samples from clinical patients with gastric cancer and healthy people were prepared for detection, which demonstrated that the device could realize rapid, stable, and point-of-care detection, with a sensitivity of 20 pg/mL.

  19. Effect of photoanode surface coverage by a sensitizer on the photovoltaic performance of titania based CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra M B; Pathan, Habib M

    2016-04-01

    In spite of the promising design and architecture, quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) have a long way to go before they attain the actual projected photoconversion efficiencies. Such an inferior performance displayed by QDSSCs is primarily because of many unwanted recombination losses of charge carriers at various interfaces of the cell. Electron recombination due to back electron transfer at the photoanode/electrolyte interface is an important one that needs to be addressed, to improve the efficiency of these third generation nanostructured solar cells. The present work highlights the importance of conformal coverage of CdS quantum dots (QDs) on the surface of the nanocrystalline titania photoanode in arresting such recombinations, leading to improvement in the performance of the cells. Using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process, photoanodes are subjected to different amounts of CdS QD sensitization by varying the number of cycles of deposition. The sensitized electrodes are characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and transmission electron microscopy to evaluate the extent of surface coverage of titania electrodes by QDs. Sandwich solar cells are then fabricated using these electrodes and characterized employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and J-V characteristics. It is observed that maximum solar cell efficiency is obtained for photoanodes with conformal coating of QDs and any further deposition of sensitizer leads to QD aggregation and so reduces the performance of the solar cells.

  20. Comparison of solar cells sensitised by CdTe/CdSe and CdSe/CdTe core/shell colloidal quantum dots with and without a CdS outer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdTe/CdSe and CdSe/CdTe core/shell colloidal quantum dots, both with and without a second CdS shell, have been synthesised and characterised by absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies, scanning transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Each type of quantum dot had a zinc blende crystal structure and had an absorption edge in the near-infrared, potentially enabling the more efficient exploitation of the solar spectrum. Each was used to sensitise a photovoltaic cell of a ‘Grätzel-type’ design consisting of the dots coated onto mesoporous TiO2, a sulphur-based electrolyte and a platinum top electrode. The photovoltaic efficiency of the cells was found to be greater for Type-II dots as compared to the quasi-Type-II dots. However, the efficiency was reduced on the addition of an outer CdS shell indicating that it acts as a barrier to charge extraction. - Highlights: • CdTe/CdSe and CdSe/CdTe type-II quantum dots were synthesised and characterised. • A passivating CdS final shell was added to both orientations to improve stability. • Grätzel-type photovoltaic cells were made and performance tested for all examples. • CdTe-cored samples outperformed their CdSe-cored analogues. • The addition of a CdS passivating layer was detrimental to performance

  1. Effect of MPS concentration on ripening kinetics and structural properties of CdS quantum dots in self-assembled thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Kenan

    2015-12-01

    The colloidal CdS quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized with various molar ratios of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) molecules. The results show that the smaller size of CdS QDs was obtained at the higher molar concentration of MPS. Sol-gel spin coating method was used for deposition of the colloidal nanoparticles on a glass substrate. One pot production method was used to obtain self-assembled thin films of CdS QDs in SiO2 network and the grow kinetics of QDs were investigated. The samples were heat treated at various temperatures to observe the growth of the QDs. The sizes of the QDs were obtained in the range of 2-5 nm depending on the capping agent concentration and heat-treatment temperature. The activation energies for the Ostwald ripening process were found as 38.7, 56.4, 93,1 and 98.6 kJ/mol for the samples containing molar ratio of MPS:Cd = 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 respectively.

  2. Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance of Nanosized Anatase TiO2 Doped with CdS Quantum Dots for Cancer-Cell Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangqiang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CdS quantum-dots-(QDs-doped TiO2 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized using the sol-gel technique and characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS, UV-Vis, and FS. They were then used as a new “photosensitizer” based on photodynamic therapy (PDT for cancer-cell treatment. The photocatalytic activities of CdS-TiO2 on leukemia tumors were investigated by using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay. The ultrastructural morphology of treated cells was also studied by AFM. The experimental results indicated that an obvious inhibition of tumor growth would be observed in groups treated with CdS-TiO2 nanocomposites, and the PDT efficiency in the presence of CdS-doped TiO2 was significantly higher than that of TiO2, revealing that the photocatalytic activities of TiO2 could be effectively enhanced by the modification of CdS QDs. Additionally, CdS- TiO2 can exhibit a very high photodynamic efficiency of 80.5% at a final concentration of 200 μg/mL under visible-light irradiation. CdS-TiO2 nanocomposites in this case were regarded as a promising application for cancer-cell treatment.

  3. Synthesis of CdS nanoparticles quantum dots capped by 2,2′-dithiodibenzoic acid and study of its interaction with some transition metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, CdS quantum dots (QDs) capped by 2,2′-dithiodibenzoic acid (DDBA) were prepared at one step. The size, shape, components and spectral properties of DDBA-capped-CdS QDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectrometry and spectroflourometry. The results showed that the prepared QDs with an average diameter of 15 nm have a favorable fluorescence, which is highly affected by pH of the environment. Interaction of some heavy metal ions including Ag(I), Hg(II), Cu(II), Fe(II), Ni(II), pb(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and Co(II) with DDBA-capped-CdS QDs was investigated at different buffering pH media. Based on the fluorescence quenching of the QDs in the presence of metal ion of interest, feasibility of their determinations were examined according to the Stern–Volmer equation. The investigations showed that Ag(I) ions can be determined in the presence of many co-existence metal ions at the buffering pH of 7. This method was then applied for Ag(I) measurement in some environmental samples, satisfactorily. -- Highlights: ► A new CdS quantum dot capped with 2,2′-dithiodibenzoic acid (DDBA) was prepared. ► The prepared QDs benefit from a favorable fluorescence. ► Interaction of some metal ions with the QDs was examined according to the Stern–Volmer equation. ► The determination of Ag(I) is feasible in the presence of many co-existence metal ions. ► The method benefits from high-speed and considerable simplicity for Ag(I) determination

  4. Long-lived emission in Mn doped CdS, ZnS, and ZnSe diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshchenko, Vitaly; Dahnovsky, Yuri

    2015-11-01

    Slow luminescence is studied in Mn doped CdS, ZnS, and ZnSe quantum dots. Because of the high degeneracy of Mn d-orbitals, we employ the multi-determinant SAC-CI computational method to determine the spin-forbidden transition from the 4T1 first excited to 6A1 ground state. We find that the transition energies for each material are in the excellent agreement with the experimental data. The computations reveal that the absorption spectra are independent of the presence of Mn impurities in quantum dots. The calculations show that the Mn impurity levels are located inside the QD gaps and the slow emission energies are independent of QD sizes. These features allow us to conclude that there are two luminescence peaks in the spectrum with fast (the higher energy) and slow (the lower energy) relaxations. In experiments sometimes the fast luminescence band disappears. This effect depends on Mn concentrations and a doping method. For different QD crystal structures the Mn-S (Se) bond lengths can vary. Therefore we find that the slow luminescence energy is very sensitive to a bond length. Indeed if we change the Mn-S bond length by 0.1 Å , the energy increases by 0.2 eV within the calculated range of bond lengths.

  5. Effect of Al 2 O 3 Recombination Barrier Layers Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition in Solid-State CdS Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Roelofs, Katherine E.

    2013-03-21

    Despite the promise of quantum dots (QDs) as a light-absorbing material to replace the dye in dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) efficiencies remain low, due in part to high rates of recombination. In this article, we demonstrate that ultrathin recombination barrier layers of Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition can improve the performance of cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with spiro-OMeTAD as the solid-state hole transport material. We explored depositing the Al2O3 barrier layers either before or after the QDs, resulting in TiO2/Al2O3/QD and TiO 2/QD/Al2O3 configurations. The effects of barrier layer configuration and thickness were tracked through current-voltage measurements of device performance and transient photovoltage measurements of electron lifetimes. The Al2O3 layers were found to suppress dark current and increase electron lifetimes with increasing Al 2O3 thickness in both configurations. For thin barrier layers, gains in open-circuit voltage and concomitant increases in efficiency were observed, although at greater thicknesses, losses in photocurrent caused net decreases in efficiency. A close comparison of the electron lifetimes in TiO2 in the TiO2/Al2O3/QD and TiO2/QD/Al2O3 configurations suggests that electron transfer from TiO2 to spiro-OMeTAD is a major source of recombination in ss-QDSSCs, though recombination of TiO2 electrons with oxidized QDs can also limit electron lifetimes, particularly if the regeneration of oxidized QDs is hindered by a too-thick coating of the barrier layer. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  6. Sensitive Bioanalysis Based on in-Situ Droplet Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Detection of CdS Quantum Dots Label after Enhanced Cathodic Preconcentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaoli; Wang, Linchun; Xie, Qingji

    2016-01-01

    We report a protocol of CdS-labeled sandwich-type amperometric bioanalysis with high sensitivity, on the basis of simultaneous chemical-dissolution/cathodic-enrichment of the CdS quantum dot biolabel and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) detection of Cd directly on the bioelectrode. We added a microliter droplet of 0.1 M aqueous HNO₃ to dissolve CdS on the bioelectrode and simultaneously achieved the potentiostatic cathodic preconcentration of Cd by starting the potentiostatic operation before HNO₃ addition, which can largely increase the ASV signal. Our protocol was used for immunoanalysis and aptamer-based bioanalysis of several proteins, giving limits of detection of 4.5 fg·mL(-1) for human immunoglobulin G, 3.0 fg·mL(-1) for human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), 4.9 fg·mL(-1) for human α-fetoprotein (AFP), and 0.9 fM for thrombin, which are better than many reported results. The simultaneous and sensitive analysis of CEA and AFP at two screen-printed carbon electrodes was also conducted by our protocol. PMID:27563894

  7. Sensitive Bioanalysis Based on in-Situ Droplet Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Detection of CdS Quantum Dots Label after Enhanced Cathodic Preconcentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaoli; Wang, Linchun; Xie, Qingji

    2016-01-01

    We report a protocol of CdS-labeled sandwich-type amperometric bioanalysis with high sensitivity, on the basis of simultaneous chemical-dissolution/cathodic-enrichment of the CdS quantum dot biolabel and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) detection of Cd directly on the bioelectrode. We added a microliter droplet of 0.1 M aqueous HNO3 to dissolve CdS on the bioelectrode and simultaneously achieved the potentiostatic cathodic preconcentration of Cd by starting the potentiostatic operation before HNO3 addition, which can largely increase the ASV signal. Our protocol was used for immunoanalysis and aptamer-based bioanalysis of several proteins, giving limits of detection of 4.5 fg·mL−1 for human immunoglobulin G, 3.0 fg·mL−1 for human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), 4.9 fg·mL−1 for human α-fetoprotein (AFP), and 0.9 fM for thrombin, which are better than many reported results. The simultaneous and sensitive analysis of CEA and AFP at two screen-printed carbon electrodes was also conducted by our protocol. PMID:27563894

  8. Sensitive Bioanalysis Based on in-Situ Droplet Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Detection of CdS Quantum Dots Label after Enhanced Cathodic Preconcentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Qin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a protocol of CdS-labeled sandwich-type amperometric bioanalysis with high sensitivity, on the basis of simultaneous chemical-dissolution/cathodic-enrichment of the CdS quantum dot biolabel and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV detection of Cd directly on the bioelectrode. We added a microliter droplet of 0.1 M aqueous HNO3 to dissolve CdS on the bioelectrode and simultaneously achieved the potentiostatic cathodic preconcentration of Cd by starting the potentiostatic operation before HNO3 addition, which can largely increase the ASV signal. Our protocol was used for immunoanalysis and aptamer-based bioanalysis of several proteins, giving limits of detection of 4.5 fg·mL−1 for human immunoglobulin G, 3.0 fg·mL−1 for human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, 4.9 fg·mL−1 for human α-fetoprotein (AFP, and 0.9 fM for thrombin, which are better than many reported results. The simultaneous and sensitive analysis of CEA and AFP at two screen-printed carbon electrodes was also conducted by our protocol.

  9. Fluorescence quenching of CdS quantum dots by 4-azetidinyl-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole: a mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Kotni; Patra, Satyajit; Soumya, S; Khara, Dinesh Chandra; Samanta, Anunay

    2011-10-24

    Fluorescence quenching of CdS quantum dots (QDs) by 4-azetidinyl-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD), where the two quenching partners satisfy the spectral overlap criterion necessary for Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), is studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The fluorescence quenching of the QDs is accompanied by an enhancement of the acceptor fluorescence and a reduction of the average fluorescence lifetime of the donor. Even though these observations are suggestive of a dynamic energy transfer process, it is shown that the quenching actually proceeds through a static interaction between the quenching partners and is probably mediated by charge-transfer interactions. The bimolecular quenching rate constant estimated from the Stern-Volmer plot of the fluorescence intensities, is found to be exceptionally high and unrealistic for the dynamic quenching process. Hence, a kinetic model is employed for the estimation of actual quencher/QD ratio dependent exciton quenching rate constants of the fluorescence quenching of CdS by NBD. The present results point to the need for a deeper analysis of the experimental quenching data to avoid erroneous conclusions. PMID:22002891

  10. Great improvement of photoelectric property from co-sensitization of TiO2 electrodes with CdS quantum dots and dye N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO2 film electrodes have been successfully sensitized with CdS QDs. • DSSC based on CdS QDs-sensitized TiO2 film with 4 min has the highest efficiency. • CdS QDs can improve the electron transport and reduce the electron recombination. • Our work open up a new avenue for the development of DSSCs. - Abstract: The TiO2 film electrodes sensitized with CdS quantum dots (QDs) via chemical bath deposition method were successfully prepared as the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Microstructural characterizations by XRD, SEM, TEM and EDX show that the CdS nanocrystals with the cubic structure have intimate contact to the TiO2 films. The amount of CdS QDs can be controlled by varying the dipping time. The experiment results demonstrate that the CdS QDs-sensitized solar cells show a wider absorption in the solar spectrum and an enhanced surface photovoltage response. The maximal photoelectric conversion efficiency of 5.57% was achieved by the DSSC based on CdS QDs-sensitized TiO2 film with 4 min. The performance improvement is ascribed to the enhancement of electron transport, the reduction of electron recombination and the long electron lifetime

  11. Mn-doped CdS quantum dots sensitized hierarchical TiO{sub 2} flower-rod for solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Libo; Li, Zhen; Liu, Yingbo; Cheng, Fa; Sun, Shuqing, E-mail: sunshuqing@tju.edu.cn

    2014-06-01

    A double-layered TiO{sub 2} film which three dimensional (3D) flowers grown on highly ordered self-assembled one dimensional (1D) TiO{sub 2} nanorods was synthesized directly on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrate by a facile hydrothermal method and was applied as photoanode in Mn-doped CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The 3D TiO{sub 2} flowers with the increased surface areas can adsorb more QDs, which increased the absorption of light; meanwhile 1D TiO{sub 2} nanorods beneath the flowers offered a direct electrical pathway for photogenerated electrons, accelerating the electron transfer rate. A typical type II band alignment which can effectively separate photogenerated excitons and reduce recombination of electrons and holes was constructed by Mn-doped CdS QDs and TiO{sub 2} flower-rod. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the Mn-doped CdS/TiO{sub 2} flower-rod solar cell reached to 40% with the polysulfide electrolyte filled in the solar cell. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.09% was obtained with the Mn-doped CdS/TiO{sub 2} flower-rod solar cell under one sun illumination (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}), which is 105.7% higher than that of the CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanorod solar cell (0.53%).

  12. One-pot Synthesis of CdS Quantum Dots and Their Quantum Yields%CdS量子点的一步法合成及量子产率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 汪瑾; 陈艳; 仲洪海; 蒋阳

    2011-01-01

    以油酸为配体,十八烯为溶剂,采用一步法合成了CdS量子点,研究了反应温度、反应时间和Cd/S的摩尔比对量子点光谱性能的影响.X射线衍射(XRD)和高分辨透射电镜(HRTEM)测试结果表明,所获得的CdS量子点为立方闪锌矿结构,且尺寸分布均一,结晶度高,其较强的带边发光、尖锐的紫外吸收峰以及狭窄的荧光发射峰进一步表明量子点的单分散性及优异的光学性质.反应温度和Cd/S的摩尔比对CdS量子点的尺寸大小和荧光量子产率均有重要的影响.当n(Cd)/n(S)=3:1及生长温度为240℃时,得到的CdS量子点单分散性良好且荧光量子产率高达30%.%CdS quantum dots(QDs) were synthesized via one-pot method, with Octadecene as the solvent and oleic acid as capping ligands. The influences of reaction time, reaction temperature and Cc/S molar ratio on optical properties of CdS QDs were studied. The zinc-blende, monodisperse and high-crystalline structures of CdS QDs were characterized by XRD and HRTEM. The good monodisperse size distribution and optical properties were also confirmed by UV-Vis and PL spectra. The PL spectra are symmetrical and their full-width at half-maximum(FWHM) is samll. The first absorption peak is very sharp. The growth temperature and the initial Cd/S molar ratio have important influences on the size and photoluminescence quantum yields(PLQY) of CdS QDs. It has been demonstrated that high photoluminescence quantum yields with nearly monodisperse CdS nanocrystals can be obtained by a judicious choice of the Cd/S molar ratio(3:1 ) and the growth temperature (240 ℃ ), and the PLQY is about 30%.

  13. Quantum dot spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots ("solid state atoms") are promising candidates for quantum computers and future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Quantum dots are zero-dimensional electronic systems and therefore have discrete energy levels, similar to atoms or molecules. The size distribution...

  14. Self-Assembled Templates of Aromatic Pentapeptides for Synthesis of CdS Quantum-Dots to Detect the Trace Amounts of Hg(2+) in Aqueous Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Min; Dou, Yingying; Xu, Wenlong; Hao, Jingcheng

    2016-05-01

    Molecular self-assembly has become a popular tool to prepare nanomaterials with potential applications, such as ion-responsive detection of Hg(2+) in aqueous solutions. In this study, FFACD aromatic pentapeptides, whose N-terminuses were protected by carboxyl (Ac-FFACD) or a 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl group (Fmoc-FFACD), were chosen as building blocks to produce nanostructures in solutions. Based on the preliminary determination of the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of Ac-FFACD and Fmoc-FFACD aromatic pentapeptides in water, the order of magnitude of which is 10(-5) mol·L(-1), self-assembled spiral and networked nanowires can be easily obtained over a range of concentrations. These nanowires were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The self-assembled spiral and networked nanowires were designed to be used as templates for preparing CdS quantum dots (QDs) in-situ at room temperature. The peptide-functionalized, nanowire-encapsulated CdS QDs can be used for rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of trace amounts of mercuric ions (Hg(2+)) in aqueous solutions. This method enables rapid, linear detection (the linear correlation coefficients are 0.9972 of ΔF = 257.09 + 3.58 cHg(2+) for Ac-FFACD and 0.9994 of ΔF = 48.13 + 32.96 cHg(2+) for Fmoc-FFACD) with the Hg(2+) limit of detection at 300.85 ng·L(-1) and 32.09 ng·L(-1) for Ac-FFACD and Fmoc-FFACD, respectively. The supramolecular, self-assembled nanowires, fabricated from the two aromatic pentapeptides and having encapsulated QDs, exhibit superior properties attributable to the large loading capacity and the coordination sites of these peptides with Hg(2+). These structures can serve as novel Hg(2+) sensors and have possible applications for detection of various targets in scientific and engineering systems. PMID:27086999

  15. In situ enzymatic ascorbic acid production as electron donor for CdS quantum dots equipped TiO2 nanotubes: a general and efficient approach for new photoelectrochemical immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Wei; Ma, Zheng-Yuan; Yan, Dong-Yang; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2012-12-18

    In this work, a novel photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoanalysis format was developed for sensitive and specific detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) based on an in situ electron donor producing approach. Thioglycolic acid-capped CdS quantum dots (QDs) equipped TiO(2) nanotubes (NTs) were fabricated via a facile electrostatic adsorption method. The coupling of CdS QDs and TiO(2) NTs results in an enhanced excitation and photo-to-electric conversion efficiency. Using alkaline phosphatase catalytic chemistry to in situ generate ascorbic acid for electron donating, an exquisite immunosandwich protocol was successfully constructed for the PSA assay due to the dependence of the photocurrent signal on the concentration of electron donor. This work opens a different perspective for transducer design in PEC detection and provides a general format for future development of PEC immunoanalysis.

  16. Quantum dot spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan

    Semiconductor quantum dots ("solid-state atoms") are promising candidates for quantum computers and future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Quantum dots are zero-dimensional electronic systems and therefore have discrete energy levels, similar to atoms or molecules. The size distribution...

  17. Quantum Dots: Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2009-11-10

    This review covers the description of the methodologies typically used for the calculation of the electronic structure of self-assembled and colloidal quantum dots. These are illustrated by the results of their application to a selected set of physical effects in quantum dots.

  18. Ultrasmall silicon quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwanenburg, F.A.; Van Loon, A.A.; Steele, G.A.; Rijmenam, C.E.W.M.; Balder, T.; Fang, Y.; Lieber, C.M.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2009-01-01

    We report the realization of extremely small single quantum dots in p-type silicon nanowires, defined by Schottky tunnel barriers with Ni and NiSi contacts. Despite their ultrasmall size the NiSi–Si–NiSi nanowire quantum dots readily allow spectroscopy of at least ten consecutive holes, and addition

  19. Efficient Detection of Trace Hg²⁺ in Water Based on the Fluorescence Quenching of Environment-friendly Thiol-functionalized Poly(vinyl alcohol) Capped CdS Quantum Dots Nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaolin; Fan, Hongting; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Donghai; Jia, Tianming; Lai, Shoujun; Lei, Ziqiang

    2016-01-01

    Using environment-friendly materials for sensing toxic metal ions has drawn significant attention in recent research. Herein, we present an aqueous synthesis of stable CdS quantum dots (QDs) using thiol-functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the unique capping ligand for the detection of trace Hg(2+) in environmental water samples. The CdS QDs with an average size of 3.3 nm had good water-solubility and favorable fluorescence with a quantum yield of 32.8% and a longer luminescence lifetime of 31.9 ns. The fluorescence intensity of QDs aqueous solution in the 520 nm wavelength was quenched upon the addition of Hg(2+). Under the optimal conditions, the ratio of the blank fluorescence intensity to the quenched fluorescence intensity was linearly proportional to the Hg(2+) concentration from 2 to 4000 nM with a detection limit of 1 nM. Also, many co-existing metal ions were not interfered with the detection of Hg(2+). This nanomaterial was successfully applied to the measurement of Hg(2+) in water samples. PMID:26860559

  20. Effect of the nature of cationic precursors for SILAR deposition on the performance of CdS and PbS/CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yingbo; Li, Zhen; Yu, Libo; Sun, Shuqing, E-mail: sunshuqing@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin University, Department of Chemistry (China)

    2015-03-15

    In this work, the influences of cationic precursors on the quality of photoelectrode, consequently on the performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) have been studied. CdS QDSCs have been prepared using successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Three cadmium precursors including nitrate (Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}), chloride (CdCl{sub 2}), and acetate (Cd(Ac){sub 2}) were employed for the synthesis and absorption of CdS nanoparticles on nanostructure TiO{sub 2} film. The loading amount and nanoparticle size of the CdS on mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film showed a significant difference while using various cadmium precursors in the same SILAR cycles. Both the light-harvesting ability and the obtained incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency values show the trend of deposition rate caused by cadmium precursors. Further, it was proposed that an effective cationic precursor could provide a good connection between QD sensitizer and TiO{sub 2} interface by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis. Under AM 1.5 G full one sun illumination, the final power conversion efficiency of CdS QDSC based on Cd(Ac){sub 2} was 2.10 %, and PCE values of 1.57 and 1.20 % were obtained for solar cells sensitized by CdS QDs prepared by CdCl{sub 2} and Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, respectively. The cationic precursor effect was further applied in PbS/CdS co-sensitized solar cells. The PbS/CdS QDSCs based on acetate cationic precursors provide a photocurrent of 19.24 mA/cm{sup 2} and PCE of 3.23 % in comparison with 11.26 mA and 2.13 % obtained with nitrate acetate salts. Noticeably, the CdS and PbS/CdS QDSCs based on various cationic precursors prepared by SILAR exhibited good photocurrent stability under several light on–off cycles.

  1. Graphene quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Güçlü, Alev Devrim; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    This book reflects the current status of theoretical and experimental research of graphene based nanostructures, in particular quantum dots, at a level accessible to young researchers, graduate students, experimentalists and theorists. It presents the current state of research of graphene quantum dots, a single or few monolayer thick islands of graphene. It introduces the reader to the electronic and optical properties of graphite, intercalated graphite and graphene, including Dirac fermions, Berry's phase associated with sublattices and valley degeneracy, covers single particle properties of

  2. Cysteamine capped CdS quantum dots as a fluorescence sensor for the determination of copper ion exploiting fluorescence enhancement and long-wave spectral shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonmee, Chanida; Noipa, Tuanjai; Tuntulani, Thawatchai; Ngeontae, Wittaya

    2016-12-01

    We described a turn-on fluorescence sensor for the determination of Cu(2+) ions, utilizing the quantum confinement effect of cadmium sulfide quantum dots capped with cysteamine (Cys-CdS QDs). The fluorescence intensity of the Cys-CdS QDs was both enhanced and red shifted (from blue-green to yellow) in the presence of Cu(2+). Fluorescence enhancement was linearly proportional to the concentration of Cu(2+) in the concentration range 2 to 10μM. Other cations at the same concentration level did not significantly change the intensity and spectral maxima of Cys-CdS QDs, except Ag(+). The limit of detection was 1.5μM. The sensor was applied to the determination of Cu(2+) in (spiked) real water samples and gave satisfactory results, with recoveries ranging from 96.7 to 108.2%, and with RSDs ranging from 0.3 to 2.6%. PMID:27372512

  3. Quantum dot solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The third generation of solar cells includes those based on semiconductor quantum dots. This sophisticated technology applies nanotechnology and quantum mechanics theory to enhance the performance of ordinary solar cells. Although a practical application of quantum dot solar cells has yet to be achieved, a large number of theoretical calculations and experimental studies have confirmed the potential for meeting the requirement for ultra-high conversion efficiency. In this book, high-profile scientists have contributed tutorial chapters that outline the methods used in and the results of variou

  4. Biosynthesis of CdS Quantum Dots in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and Spectroscopic Characterization%CdS量子点的酿酒酵母仿生合成及光谱表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄淮青; 何明欣; 王文星; 刘金玲; 密丛丛; 徐淑坤

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, CdS quantum dots (QDs) were successfully biosynthesized at room temperature by using saccha-romyces cerevisiae yeast as a carrier. Fluorescence emission spectra, ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) absorption spectra, and inverted fluorescence microscope images confirmed that saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used to biosynthesize CdS QDs. The as-prepared CdS QDs show the fluorescence emission peak at 443 nm and emit blue-green fluorescence under UV light (with excitation at 365 nm). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to characterize the as-prepared CdS QDs and the TEM results showed that the as-prepared CdS QDs had the structure of hexagonal wurtzite. Fluorescence emission spectrum and UV/ Vis absorption spectrum were used as the performance indicatiors to study the effects of saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast incubation times, reactant Cd2+ concentrations and reaction times on CdS QDs synthesis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast grown in early stable phase can get the highest fluorescence intensity of CdS QDs when they were co-cultured with 0. 5 mmol · L-1 of Cd2+ with 24 h incubation time. Furthermore, much more CdS QDs can be obtained by changing the culture medium during the synthesis process.%以酿酒酵母为载体,常温下利用仿生法成功合成了CdS量子点.荧光发射光谱、紫外吸收光谱以及荧光显微镜照片证明,该方法合成的CdS量子点的荧光发射峰位置在443 nm,在紫外灯下能发蓝绿色荧光.透射电子显微镜(TEM)表征结果表明,该仿生法合成的CdS量子点为六方纤锌矿结构.以荧光发射和紫外吸收光谱为性能指标,考察了酿酒酵母生长时期、Cd2+的反应浓度以及反应时间等条件对合成CdS量子点的影响.当酿酒酵母处于生长稳定期初期时,与浓度为0.5 mmol·L-1的Cd2+共培养24 h后所合成的CdS量子点荧光最强.实验中观察到,换液培养可有效提高酿酒酵母合成CdS量子点的产量.

  5. Effects of interface modification with self-assembled monolayers on the photovoltaic performance of CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We employ 3-PPA, BPA and APPA as self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), who owns the same phosphonic acid headgroup but different tail group, to modify the surface of ZnO nanorods. Their effects on the photovoltaic performance of quantum dots sensitized soar cells are systematically investigated. The results indicate that the deposition of SAMs not only passivates the surface defects of ZnO nanorods, but also tunes their surface work function to adjust the band alignment of solar cells. In particular, the 3-PPA modification exhibits the best passivation effect and makes the surface work function of ZnO decreases by 1.04 eV to realize a better band alignment due to its electron-withdrawing tailgroup, which results in an enhancement in photovoltaic conversion efficiency of solar cells

  6. Nanocrystal quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Klimov, Victor I

    2010-01-01

    ""Soft"" Chemical Synthesis and Manipulation of Semiconductor Nanocrystals, J.A. Hollingsworth and V.I. Klimov Electronic Structure in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Optical Experiment, D.J. NorrisFine Structure and Polarization Properties of Band-Edge Excitons in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, A.L. EfrosIntraband Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Dots, P. Guyot-Sionnest, M. Shim, and C. WangMultiexciton Phenomena in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, V.I. KlimovOptical Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Quantum Do

  7. Carbon nanotube quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapmaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature electron transport measurements on individual single wall carbon nanotubes are described in this thesis. Carbon nanotubes are small hollow cylinders made entirely out of carbon atoms. At low temperatures (below ~10 K) finite length nanotubes form quantum dots. Because of its small si

  8. Photoinduced Electron Transfer between CdS Quantum Dots and Gold Electrodes%CdS量子点与金电极之间的光生电子交换

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳钊; 张维; 王程; 刘国华; 牛文成

    2011-01-01

    对光照下CdS量子点与金电极之间的光生电子交换过程进行了系统研究.首先,对基于电子隧穿的多个光生电子转移过程进行了理论分析,并进行了数学模型推导.其次,利用推导的数学模型在不同参数的条件下进行了仿真研究.最后,测量了CdS量子点修饰的金电极在不同偏置电压、不同光强和不同氧化物及还原物浓度的条件下产生的光电流,并将实验、理论及仿真结果三者相结合进行了分析讨论.实验结果与仿真结果都证明了理论模型的正确性.%For a better design of quantum dots (QDs) based photoelectrochemical sensors, photoinduced electron transfer between CdS QDs and gold electrodes was studied. First, a theoretical study and mathematical model are given wherein several electron tunneling processes compete with each other to give a photocurrent under illumination. Second, simulations with different parameters were carried out. Finally, photocurrents from CdS QDs modified gold electrodes with dithiol groups were measured under different conditions. The results show that the amplitudes and directions of the photocurrents are affected by the applied potential, the light intensity, and the concentrations of oxidants and reducers. The experimental results were then compared with the simulation results and analyzed based on the model given. By comparing the simulation and experimental results the theoretical study and the mathematical model are shown to be accurate.

  9. Optical properties of charged semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Praket P.

    The effect of n-type doping on the luminescence properties of II-VI quantum dots is studied. The addition of two shells of CdS on CdSe quantum dots prevents the creation of surface traps and makes the system stable under reducing environment. The injection of electrons into films of quantum dots leads to lower photoluminescence (PL) efficiency, with the extent of quenching dependent on both the number and the quantum states of the spectator charges in the nanocrystal. It is found that a 1Pe electron is an eightfold better PL quencher than the 1Se electron. Reduced threshold for stimulated emission is also observed in doped CdSe/CdS films. Time resolved photoluminescence measurements are used to extract the recombination rates of a charged exciton, called trion. It is observed that the negative trion has a radiative rate ˜2.2 +/- 0.4x faster than a neutral exciton, while its non-radiative recombination rate is slower than the biexciton non-radiative recombination rate by a factor of 7.5 +/- 1.7. The knowledge of the recombination rates of the trion enables us to calculate the quantum yield of a negative trion to be ˜10% for the nanocrystals investigated in our work. This is larger than the off state quantum yield from a single quantum dot photoluminescence trajectory and eliminates the formation of negative trion as the possible reason for the PL blinking of single quantum dots. Single quantum dot electrochemistry has also been achieved. It is shown that by varying the Fermi level of the system electrons can be reversibly injected into and extracted out of single CdSe/CdS and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles to modulate the photoluminescence.

  10. Recent advances in graphene quantum dots for sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanjun Sun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Graphene quantum dots (GQDs are a kind of 0D material with characteristics derived from both graphene and carbon dots (CDs. Combining the structure of graphene with the quantum confinement and edge effects of CDs, GQDs possess unique properties. In this review, we focus on the application of GQDs in electronic, photoluminescence, electrochemical and electrochemiluminescence sensor fabrication, and address the advantages of GQDs on physical analysis, chemical analysis and bioanalysis. We have summarized different techniques and given future perspectives for developing smart sensing based on GQDs.

  11. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelboim, Ayelet; Meir, Noga; Kazes, Miri; Oron, Dan

    2016-05-17

    Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole-dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single photon

  12. 硫化镉量子点的合成及其光限幅效应%Synthesis of CdS Quantum Dots and Their Optical Limiting Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑立思; 冯苗; 詹红兵

    2012-01-01

    Four kinds of CdS quantum dots (Qds) with four different surface-capping organic groups were prepared by a colloidal chemical method. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of the materials were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and Z-scan measurements. The results show that the particle size, the surface morphology, and the defect concentration are the main factors that determine the nonlinear optical properties.%采用胶体化学法制备了四种表面修饰有不同有机功能团的CdS量子点(QDs),利用透射电子显微镜(TEM)、紫外-可见(UV-Vis)吸收光谱、光致发光(PL)光谱、开孔Z扫描技术分别研究了四种CdS样品的线性光学和非线性光学性能.结果表明:颗粒大小、表面形貌和缺陷浓度是影响CdS QDs非线性光学性能的主要因素.

  13. LUMINESCENCE OF CADMIUM SULFIDE QUANTUM DOTS IN FLUOROPHOSPHATE GLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. O. Lipatova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulfide quantum dots are perspective materials in optics, medicine, biology and optoelectronics. Fluorophosphate glasses, doped with cadmium sulfide quantum dots, were examined in the paper. Heat treatment led to the formation of quantum dots with diameters equal to 2.8 nm, 3.0 nm and 3.8 nm. In view of such changes in the quantum dots size the fundamental absorption edge shift and the luminescence band are being displaced to the long wavelengths. Luminescence lifetime has been found to be dependent on the registration wavelength in the range from 450 to 700 nm. Obtained fluorophosphate glasses with CdS quantum dots can find their application as fluorescent materials with intensive luminescence band and long excited-state natural lifetime.

  14. Quantum Dot Sensitized Photoelectrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Nann; Thomas J. Macdonald

    2011-01-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are promising alternatives to organic dyes as sensitisers for photocatalytic electrodes. This review article provides an overview of the current state of the art in this area. More specifically, different types of QDs with a special focus on heavy-metal free QDs and the methods for preparation and adsorption onto metal oxide electrodes (especially titania and zinc oxide) are discussed. Eventually, the key areas of necessary improvements are identified and assessed.

  15. Quantum Dot Sensitized Photoelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nann

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Dots (QDs are promising alternatives to organic dyes as sensitisers for photocatalytic electrodes. This review article provides an overview of the current state of the art in this area. More specifically, different types of QDs with a special focus on heavy-metal free QDs and the methods for preparation and adsorption onto metal oxide electrodes (especially titania and zinc oxide are discussed. Eventually, the key areas of necessary improvements are identified and assessed.

  16. Plasmonic fluorescent quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yongdong; Gao, Xiaohu

    2009-01-01

    Combining multiple discrete components into a single multifunctional nanoparticle could be useful in a variety of applications. Retaining the unique optical and electrical properties of each component after nanoscale integration is, however, a long-standing problem1,2. It is particularly difficult when trying to combine fluorophores such as semiconductor quantum dots with plasmonic materials such as gold, because gold and other metals can quench the fluorescence3,4. So far, the combination of...

  17. Quantum dot nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Henini

    2002-06-01

    These sophisticated technologies for the growth of high quality epitaxial layers of compound semiconductor materials on single crystal semiconductor substrates are becoming increasingly important for the development of the semiconductor electronics industry. This article is intended to convey the flavor of the subject by focusing on the technology and applications of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs and to give an introduction to some of the essential characteristics.

  18. Electron correlations in quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Tipton, D L J

    2001-01-01

    Quantum dot structures confine electrons in a small region of space. Some properties of semiconductor quantum dots, such as the discrete energy levels and shell filling effects visible in addition spectra, have analogies to those of atoms and indeed dots are sometimes referred to as 'artificial atoms'. However, atoms and dots show some fundamental differences due to electron correlations. For real atoms, the kinetic energy of electrons dominates over their mutual Coulomb repulsion energy and for this reason the independent electron approximation works well. For quantum dots the confining potential may be shallower than that of real atoms leading to lower electron densities and a dominance of mutual Coulomb repulsion over kinetic energy. In this strongly correlated regime the independent electron picture leads to qualitatively incorrect results. This thesis concentrates on few-electron quantum dots in the strongly correlated regime both for quasi-one-dimensional and two-dimensional dots in a square confining p...

  19. A Novel Particle Detector: Quantum Dot Doped Liquid Scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Lindley; Conrad, Janet; Jerry, Ruel

    2010-02-01

    Quantum dots are semiconducting nanocrystals. When excited by light shorter then their characteristic wavelength, they re-emit in a narrow band around this wavelength. The size of the quantum is proportional to the characteristic wavelength so they can be tuned for many applications. CdS quantum dots are made in wavelengths from 360nm to 460nm, a perfect range for the sensitivity of photo-multiplier tubes. The synthesis of quantum dots automatically leaves them in toluene, a good organic scintillator and Cd is a particularly interesting material as it has one of the highest thermal neutron cross sections and has several neutrinoless double beta decay and double electron capture isotopes. The performance of quantum dot loaded scintillator compared to standard scintillators is measured and some unique properties presented. )

  20. Quadra-Quantum Dots and Related Patterns of Quantum Dot Molecules: Basic Nanostructures for Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsak Panyakeow

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called 'Droplet Epitaxy' has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390'C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7'8'10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200'C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or, which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.

  1. Study of metallothionein-quantum dots interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tmejova, Katerina; Hynek, David; Kopel, Pavel; Krizkova, Sona; Blazkova, Iva; Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2014-05-01

    Nanoparticles have gained increasing interest in medical and in vivo applications. Metallothionein (MT) is well known as a maintainer of metal ions balance in intracellular space. This is due to high affinity of this protein to any reactive species including metals and reactive oxygen species. The purpose of this study was to determine the metallothionein-quantum dots interactions that were investigated by spectral and electrochemical techniques. CuS, CdS, PbS, and CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were analysed. The highest intensity was shown for CdTe, than for CdS measured by fluorescence. These results were supported by statistical analysis and considered as significant. Further, these interactions were analysed using gel electrophoresis, where MT aggregates forming after interactions with QDs were detected. Using differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction, QDs and MT were studied. This method allowed us to confirm spectral results and, moreover, to observe the changes in MT structure causing new voltammetric peaks called X and Y, which enhanced with the prolonged time of interaction up to 6 h.

  2. Quantum dots: Rethinking the electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishnoi, Dimple

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically that the Quantum dots are quite interesting for the electronics industry. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are nanometer-scale crystals, which have unique photo physical, quantum electrical properties, size-dependent optical properties, There small size means that electrons do not have to travel as far as with larger particles, thus electronic devices can operate faster. Cheaper than modern commercial solar cells while making use of a wider variety of photon energies, including "waste heat" from the sun's energy. Quantum dots can be used in tandem cells, which are multi junction photovoltaic cells or in the intermediate band setup. PbSe (lead selenide) is commonly used in quantum dot solar cells.

  3. Photonics of shungite quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Razbirin, Boris S.; Rozhkova, Natalia N.; Sheka, Elena F.

    2014-01-01

    Shungite quantum dots are associated with nanosize fragments of reduced graphene oxide similarly to synthetic graphene quantum dots thus forming a common class of GQDs. Colloidal dispersions of powdered shungite in water, carbon tetrachloride, and toluene form the ground for the GQD photonic peculiarities manifestation. Morphological study shows a steady trend of GQDs to form fractals and a drastic change in the colloids fractal structure caused by solvent was reliably established. Spectral s...

  4. Spin pumping through quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Rojek, Stephan; Governale, Michele; König, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We propose schemes for generating spin currents into a semiconductor by adiabatic or non-adiabatic pumping of electrons through interacting quantum dots. The appeal of such schemes lies in the possibility to tune the pumping characteristics via gate voltages that control the properties of the quantum dot. The calculations are based on a systematic perturbation expansion in the tunnel-coupling strength and the pumping frequency, expressed within a diagrammatic real-time technique. Special focu...

  5. Quadra-quantum Dots and Related Patterns of Quantum Dot Molecules:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsak Panyakeow

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called ‘‘Droplet Epitaxy” has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390°C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7–8×10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200°C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or , which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.

  6. Mesoscopic Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics with Quantum Dots

    CERN Document Server

    Childress, L I; Lukin, M D

    2003-01-01

    We describe an electrodynamic mechanism for coherent, quantum mechanical coupling between spacially separated quantum dots on a microchip. The technique is based on capacitive interactions between the electron charge and a superconducting transmission line resonator, and is closely related to atomic cavity quantum electrodynamics. We investigate several potential applications of this technique which have varying degrees of complexity. In particular, we demonstrate that this mechanism allows design and investigation of an on-chip double-dot microscopic maser. Moreover, the interaction may be extended to couple spatially separated electron spin states while only virtually populating fast-decaying superpositions of charge states. This represents an effective, controllable long-range interaction, which may facilitate implementation of quantum information processing with electron spin qubits and potentially allow coupling to other quantum systems such as atomic or superconducting qubits.

  7. Determination of Trace Copper(Ⅱ) Using CdS Quantum Dots as a Fluorescence Probe%以CdS量子点为荧光探针测定痕量铜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏中华; 王亚静; 赵环; 胡娅梅; 唐春然; 李霞飞; 李进; 曾云龙

    2011-01-01

    以羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)为稳定剂,在水相中制备了CdS量子点,基于Cu离子对量子点荧光的猝灭作用,建立了定量测定Cu离子的新方法.CdS量子点对铜离子呈现出高选择性,除CO和Hg离子外,其它常见金属离子的存在对铜的测定几乎不产生干扰.考察了不同缓冲体系及缓冲液pH值、量子点浓度、反应时间和反应温度等因素的影响,确定了Cu离子的最佳分析条件,即pH=5.6,磷酸氢二钠-磷酸二氢钾缓冲溶液的浓度为0.033 mol/L,量子点的浓度为2.0×10mol/L.在最佳条件下,量子点的相对荧光强度与Cu离子的浓度呈很好的线性关系,该方法的线性范围为5.0×10~2.0×10mol/L,线性回归方程为:F/F=1.0150+100791.6c,检出限为8.0×10mol/L.本方法简单、快速,与文献报道的其它基于量子点荧光探针Cu离子分析方法相比,此法对Cu离子呈现出更高的选择性且具有更宽的线性检测范围.将此法用于水样和人体头发等实际样品中Cu离子含量的测定,结果令人满意.%A new protocol for the determination of copper was developed based on the fluorescence quenching of carboxymethyl cellulose ( CMC) coated CdS quantum dots ( QDs ) , which were synthesized in aqueous solution using environmental benign carboxymethyl cellulose as stabilizer. The method has a relatively high selectivity, and no obvious interference on the determination of copper from other coexisting metal ions is observed except Co2+ and Hg2+ ions. Some influencing factors, including the buffer system, Ph of the solution, concentration of QDs, reacting time and the temperature of reaction have also been investigated to obtain the optimal conditions for copper determination. When the concentration of QDs was 2 × 10-4 mol/L, the concentration of KH2PO4-Na2HPO4 is 0. 033 mol/L at Ph =5. 6, the relative fluorescence intensity of QDs was linearly proportional to copper( II ) ion concentration in the range from 5 × 10 -8 to 2 × 10 -5

  8. A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopy is carried out in almost every field of science, whenever light interacts with matter. Although sophisticated instruments with impressive performance characteristics are available, much effort continues to be invested in the development of miniaturized, cheap and easy-to-use systems. Current microspectrometer designs mostly use interference filters and interferometric optics that limit their photon efficiency, resolution and spectral range. Here we show that many of these limitations can be overcome by replacing interferometric optics with a two-dimensional absorptive filter array composed of colloidal quantum dots. Instead of measuring different bands of a spectrum individually after introducing temporal or spatial separations with gratings or interference-based narrowband filters, a colloidal quantum dot spectrometer measures a light spectrum based on the wavelength multiplexing principle: multiple spectral bands are encoded and detected simultaneously with one filter and one detector, respectively, with the array format allowing the process to be efficiently repeated many times using different filters with different encoding so that sufficient information is obtained to enable computational reconstruction of the target spectrum. We illustrate the performance of such a quantum dot microspectrometer, made from 195 different types of quantum dots with absorption features that cover a spectral range of 300 nanometres, by measuring shifts in spectral peak positions as small as one nanometre. Given this performance, demonstrable avenues for further improvement, the ease with which quantum dots can be processed and integrated, and their numerous finely tuneable bandgaps that cover a broad spectral range, we expect that quantum dot microspectrometers will be useful in applications where minimizing size, weight, cost and complexity of the spectrometer are critical.

  9. Quantum-dot emitters in photonic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The spontaneous emission from self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots is strongly influenced by the environment in which they are placed. This can be used to determine fundamental optical properties of the quantum dots as well as to manipulate and control the quantum-dot emission itself....

  10. Beer's law in semiconductor quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Adamashvili, G T

    2010-01-01

    The propagation of a coherent optical linear wave in an ensemble of semiconductor quantum dots is considered. It is shown that a distribution of transition dipole moments of the quantum dots changes significantly the polarization and Beer's absorption length of the ensemble of quantum dots. Explicit analytical expressions for these quantities are presented.

  11. Using quantum dot photoluminescence for load detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moebius, M.; Martin, J.; Hartwig, M.; Baumann, R. R.; Otto, T.; Gessner, T.

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel concept for an integrable and flexible sensor capable to visualize mechanical impacts on lightweight structures by quenching the photoluminescence (PL) of CdSe quantum dots. Considering the requirements such as visibility, storage time and high optical contrast of PL quenching with low power consumption, we have investigated a symmetrical and an asymmetrical layer stack consisting of semiconductor organic N,N,N',N'-Tetrakis(3-methylphenyl)-3,3'-dimethylbenzidine (HMTPD) and CdSe quantum dots with elongated CdS shell. Time-resolved series of PL spectra from layer stacks with applied voltages of different polarity and simultaneous observation of power consumption have shown that a variety of mechanisms such as photo-induced charge separation and charge injection, cause PL quenching. However, mechanisms such as screening of external field as well as Auger-assisted charge ejection is working contrary to that. Investigations regarding the influence of illumination revealed that the positive biased asymmetrical layer stack is the preferred sensor configuration, due to a charge carrier injection at voltages of 10 V without the need of coincident illumination.

  12. Improvement of the luminescent properties of cadmium sulfide quantum dots by a post-synthesis modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here the improvement of the luminescent properties of CdS quantum dots by a post-synthesis modification with aqueous solutions of NaOH at different concentrations is presented. The CdS quantum dots were synthesized by a microwave-assisted method using citrate ions as stabilizer. The addition of the hydroxide ions increased the intensity of the orange-red emission by about 80%. Besides, a violet-blue emission was achieved by means of this post-synthesis modification. The hydroxide ions control the precipitation equilibria of the CdS and Cd(OH)2, dissolving and precipitating the surface of the quantum dots. The NaOH treatment increases the number of traps, which produces less band-edge and more deep-trap emission, which explains the decrease and increase in the intensity of the violet-blue and orange-red emissions, respectively

  13. Improvement of the luminescent properties of cadmium sulfide quantum dots by a post-synthesis modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Israel; Gómez, Idalia, E-mail: maria.gomezd@uanl.edu.mx

    2014-11-15

    Here the improvement of the luminescent properties of CdS quantum dots by a post-synthesis modification with aqueous solutions of NaOH at different concentrations is presented. The CdS quantum dots were synthesized by a microwave-assisted method using citrate ions as stabilizer. The addition of the hydroxide ions increased the intensity of the orange-red emission by about 80%. Besides, a violet-blue emission was achieved by means of this post-synthesis modification. The hydroxide ions control the precipitation equilibria of the CdS and Cd(OH){sub 2}, dissolving and precipitating the surface of the quantum dots. The NaOH treatment increases the number of traps, which produces less band-edge and more deep-trap emission, which explains the decrease and increase in the intensity of the violet-blue and orange-red emissions, respectively.

  14. Spin storage in quantum dot ensembles and single quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, Dominik

    2009-10-15

    This thesis deals with the investigation of spin relaxation of electrons and holes in small ensembles of self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques. Furthermore, a method to detect the spin orientation in a single quantum dot was developed in the framework of this thesis. A spin storage device was used to optically generate oriented electron spins in small frequency selected quantum dot ensembles using circularly polarized optical excitation. The spin orientation can be determined by the polarization of the time delayed electroluminescence signal generated by the device after a continuously variable storage time. The degree of spin polarized initialization was found to be limited to 0.6 at high magnetic fields, where anisotropic effects are compensated. The spin relaxation was directly measured as a function of magnetic field, lattice temperature and s-shell transition energy of the quantum dot by varying the spin storage time up to 30 ms. Very long spin lifetimes are obtained with a lower limit of T{sub 1}=20 ms at B=4 T and T=1 K. A strong magnetic field dependence T{sub 1}{proportional_to}B{sup -5} has been observed for low temperatures of T=1 K which weakens as the temperature is increased. In addition, the temperature dependence has been determined with T{sub 1}{proportional_to}T{sup -1}. The characteristic dependencies on magnetic field and temperature lead to the identification of the spin relaxation mechanism, which is governed by spin-orbit coupling and mediated by single phonon scattering. This finding is qualitatively supported by the energy dependent measurements. The investigations were extended to a modified device design that enabled studying the spin relaxation dynamics of heavy holes in self-assembled quantum dots. The measurements show a polarization memory effect for holes with up to 0.1 degree of polarization. Furthermore, investigations of the time dynamics of the hole spin relaxation reveal surprisingly long lifetimes T{sub 1}{sup h

  15. Spin storage in quantum dot ensembles and single quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the investigation of spin relaxation of electrons and holes in small ensembles of self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques. Furthermore, a method to detect the spin orientation in a single quantum dot was developed in the framework of this thesis. A spin storage device was used to optically generate oriented electron spins in small frequency selected quantum dot ensembles using circularly polarized optical excitation. The spin orientation can be determined by the polarization of the time delayed electroluminescence signal generated by the device after a continuously variable storage time. The degree of spin polarized initialization was found to be limited to 0.6 at high magnetic fields, where anisotropic effects are compensated. The spin relaxation was directly measured as a function of magnetic field, lattice temperature and s-shell transition energy of the quantum dot by varying the spin storage time up to 30 ms. Very long spin lifetimes are obtained with a lower limit of T1=20 ms at B=4 T and T=1 K. A strong magnetic field dependence T1∝B-5 has been observed for low temperatures of T=1 K which weakens as the temperature is increased. In addition, the temperature dependence has been determined with T1∝T-1. The characteristic dependencies on magnetic field and temperature lead to the identification of the spin relaxation mechanism, which is governed by spin-orbit coupling and mediated by single phonon scattering. This finding is qualitatively supported by the energy dependent measurements. The investigations were extended to a modified device design that enabled studying the spin relaxation dynamics of heavy holes in self-assembled quantum dots. The measurements show a polarization memory effect for holes with up to 0.1 degree of polarization. Furthermore, investigations of the time dynamics of the hole spin relaxation reveal surprisingly long lifetimes T1h in the microsecond range, therefore, comparable with electron spin

  16. Facile covalent immobilization of cadmium sulfide quantum dots on graphene oxide nanosheets : preparation, characterization, and optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, Tuan Anh; Choi, Byung Choon; Jeong, Yeon Tae

    2010-01-01

    A facile approach for the preparation of a novel hybrid material containing graphene and an inorganic semiconducting material, cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs), is demonstrated for the first time. First, amino-functionalized CdS QDs were prepared by modifications of the kinetic trapping method

  17. Effect of shells on photoluminescence of aqueous CdTe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Size-tunable CdTe coated with several shells using an aqueous solution synthesis. CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots exhibited high PL efficiency up to 80% which implies the promising applications for biomedical labeling. - Highlights: • CdTe quantum dots were fabricated using an aqueous synthesis. • CdS, ZnS, and CdS/ZnS shells were subsequently deposited on CdTe cores. • Outer ZnS shells provide an efficient confinement of electron and hole inside the QDs. • Inside CdS shells can reduce the strain on the QDs. • Aqueous CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs exhibited high stability and photoluminescence efficiency of 80%. - Abstract: CdTe cores with various sizes were fabricated in aqueous solutions. Inorganic shells including CdS, ZnS, and CdS/ZnS were subsequently deposited on the cores through a similar aqueous procedure to investigate the effect of shells on the photoluminescence properties of the cores. In the case of CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots, the outer ZnS shell provides an efficient confinement of electron and hole wavefunctions inside the quantum dots, while the middle CdS shell sandwiched between the CdTe core and ZnS shell can be introduced to obviously reduce the strain on the quantum dots because the lattice parameters of CdS is situated at the intermediate-level between those of CdTe and ZnS. In comparison with CdTe/ZnS core–shell quantum dots, the as-prepared water-soluble CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots in our case can exhibit high photochemical stability and photoluminescence efficiency up to 80% in an aqueous solution, which implies the promising applications in the field of biomedical labeling

  18. On triaxial ellipsoidal quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voon, L C Lew Yan; Willatzen, M [Mads Clausen Institute, University of Southern Denmark, Grundtvigs Alle 150, DK-6400 Soenderborg (Denmark)

    2004-02-25

    The bound-state problem for triaxial ellipsoidal infinite-barrier quantum dots has been solved. It is exactly solvable in terms of ellipsoidal coordinates and the eigenmodes are written in terms of Lame wavefunctions. The need for all eight types of functions is shown. This presents a generalization over previous work on spheres and spheroids. Splitting of degeneracy and level crossing are obtained.

  19. Vertical asymmetric double quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roßbach, R.; Reischle, M.; Beirne, G. J.; Schweizer, H.; Jetter, M.; Michler, P.

    2007-01-01

    Two layers of differently sized self-assembled InP-quantum dots (QDs) separated by a GaInP spacer layer with varying thickness were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Photoluminescence measurements of the QD ensembles and of individual asymmetric double QDS show coupling due to the tunnelling of carriers.

  20. Optical Fiber Sensing Using Quantum Dots

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarz Farahi; José Luís Santos; Tito Trindade; Manuel António Martins; Pedro Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in the application of semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots, as biochemical sensors are reviewed. Quantum dots have unique optical properties that make them promising alternatives to traditional dyes in many luminescence based bioanalytical techniques. An overview of the more relevant progresses in the application of quantum dots as biochemical probes is addressed. Special focus will be given to configurations where the sensing dots are incorporated in sol...

  1. Biomaterials supported CdS nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balu, Alina M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry ' Ilie Murgulescu' , Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Departamento de Quimica Organica, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie, Ctra Nnal IV, Km 396, Universidad de Cordoba, E-14014 Cordoba (Spain); Campelo, Juan M. [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie, Ctra Nnal IV, Km 396, Universidad de Cordoba, E-14014 Cordoba (Spain); Luque, Rafael, E-mail: q62alsor@uco.es [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie, Ctra Nnal IV, Km 396, Universidad de Cordoba, E-14014 Cordoba (Spain); Rajabi, Fatemeh [Department of Science, Payame Noor University, PO Box 878, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Romero, Antonio A. [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie, Ctra Nnal IV, Km 396, Universidad de Cordoba, E-14014 Cordoba (Spain)

    2010-11-01

    CdS quantum dot materials were prepared through a simple room temperature deposition of CdS nanocrystals on biomaterials including starch and chitosan. Materials obtained were found to contain differently distributed CdS nanocrystals on the surface of the biopolymers, making them potentially interesting for biomedical applications as contrast agents and/or in photocatalysis.

  2. Formation and properties of selected quantum dots in maize amylopectin matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Karen, E-mail: rrchacza@cyf-kr.edu.pl [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Agricultural University, Balicka Street 122, 30 149 Krakow (Poland); Khachatryan, Gohar; Fiedorowicz, Maciej [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Agricultural University, Balicka Street 122, 30 149 Krakow (Poland); Tomasik, Piotr [Krakow College of Health Promotion, Krowoderska Street 73, 31 158 Krakow (Poland)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of quantum dots in aqueous gel of amylopectin. • Generation of quantum dots in non-ionic polysaccharide. • Preparation of CdS, Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} and ZnS quantum dots of the size below 10 nm. • The amylopectin matrix is not suitable for generation of CaS and Cs{sub 2}S quantum dots. - Abstract: CdS, ZnS, Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}, CaS and Cs{sub 2}S quantum dots (QDs) were generated in the amylopectin (Ap) matrix. They all emitted a light between 460 (ZnS) and 475 (CdS) nm. Sizes of Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} and CdS QDs were 7–9 nm and 5–7 nm, respectively. Single ZnS QDs had 6–7 nm but they readily aggregated. The CaS and Cs{sub 2}S appeared mainly as 30–100 nm aggregates. There were no significant interactions between QDs and the Ap matrix. Presented method appeared unsuitable for the generation of CaS and Cs{sub 2}S QDs as they as well as their substrates [Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}] hydrolyzed. Calcium compounds formed complexes with Ap and alkaline solution from CsOH could produce cesium salts of Ap as well as cause oxidation of Ap.

  3. Quantum-dot computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantum computer would put the latest PC to shame. Not only would such a device be faster than a conventional computer, but by exploiting the quantum-mechanical principle of superposition it could change the way we think about information processing. However, two key goals need to be met before a quantum computer becomes reality. The first is to be able to control the state of a single quantum bit (or 'qubit') and the second is to build a two-qubit gate that can produce 'entanglement' between the qubit states. (U.K.)

  4. Quantum-dot computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milburn, Gerard

    2003-10-01

    A quantum computer would put the latest PC to shame. Not only would such a device be faster than a conventional computer, but by exploiting the quantum-mechanical principle of superposition it could change the way we think about information processing. However, two key goals need to be met before a quantum computer becomes reality. The first is to be able to control the state of a single quantum bit (or 'qubit') and the second is to build a two-qubit gate that can produce 'entanglement' between the qubit states. (U.K.)

  5. Quantum Computer Using Coupled Quantum Dot Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, N J; Natori, A; Yasunaga, H; Wu*, Nan-Jian

    1999-01-01

    We propose a method for implementation of a quantum computer using artificial molecules. The artificial molecule consists of two coupled quantum dots stacked along z direction and one single electron. One-qubit and two-qubit gates are constructed by one molecule and two coupled molecules, respectively.The ground state and the first excited state of the molecule are used to encode the |0> and |1> states of a qubit. The qubit is manipulated by a resonant electromagnetic wave that is applied directly to the qubit through a microstrip line. The coupling between two qubits in a quantum controlled NOT gate is switched on (off) by floating (grounding) the metal film electrodes. We study the operations of the gates by using a box-shaped quantum dot model and numerically solving a time-dependent Schridinger equation, and demonstrate that the quantum gates can perform the quantum computation. The operating speed of the gates is about one operation per 4ps. The reading operation of the output of the quantum computer can...

  6. Resonant electron transfer between quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Openov, Leonid A.

    1999-01-01

    An interaction of electromagnetic field with a nanostructure composed of two quantum dots is studied theoretically. An effect of a resonant electron transfer between the localized low-lying states of quantum dots is predicted. A necessary condition for such an effect is the existence of an excited bound state whose energy lies close to the top of the barrier separating the quantum dots. This effect may be used to realize the reversible quantum logic gate NOT if the superposition of electron s...

  7. Thermoelectric energy harvesting with quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothmann, Björn; Sánchez, Rafael; Jordan, Andrew N

    2015-01-21

    We review recent theoretical work on thermoelectric energy harvesting in multi-terminal quantum-dot setups. We first discuss several examples of nanoscale heat engines based on Coulomb-coupled conductors. In particular, we focus on quantum dots in the Coulomb-blockade regime, chaotic cavities and resonant tunneling through quantum dots and wells. We then turn toward quantum-dot heat engines that are driven by bosonic degrees of freedom such as phonons, magnons and microwave photons. These systems provide interesting connections to spin caloritronics and circuit quantum electrodynamics.

  8. Semiconductor quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Borri, Paola; Ledentsov, N. N.;

    2002-01-01

    -power surface emitting VCSELs. We investigated the ultrafast dynamics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. The dephasing time at room temperature of the ground-state transition in semiconductor quantum dots is around 250 fs in an unbiased amplifier, decreasing to below 50 fs when the amplifier...... is biased to positive net gain. We have further measured gain recovery times in quantum dot amplifiers that are significantly lower than in bulk and quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers. This is promising for future demonstration of quantum dot devices with high modulation bandwidth...

  9. Photoactivation of silicon quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, R., E-mail: rossl@ualberta.c [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada); McFarlane, S. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Rodriguez Nunez, J.R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2 (Canada); Wang, X.Y. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Veinot, J.G.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2 (Canada); Meldrum, A. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    We show that free-standing silicon quantum dots (QDs) can be photoactivated by blue or UV optical irradiation. The luminescence intensity increases by an order of magnitude for irradiation times of several minutes under moderate optical power. The cut-off energy for photoactivation is between 2.1 and 2.4 eV, not very different from the activation energy for hydrogen dissociation from bulk silicon surfaces. We propose the mechanism for this effect is associated with silicon-hydride bond breaking and the subsequent oxidation of dangling bonds. This phenomenon could be used to 'write' luminescent quantum dots into pre-determined arrays. - Research highlights: {yields}Laser light causes increased photoluminescence intensity in silicon quantum dots. {yields} The photoactivation process is effective for wavelengths of 514 nm and shorter. {yields} Hydrogen bound to the Si-QDs is replaced by oxygen in a two-step process. {yields} Patterning is possible but limited by physical dispersion of Si-QDs.

  10. Charge State Hysteresis in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, C. H.; Rossi, A; Lai, N. S.; Leon, R.; Lim, W. H.; Dzurak, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots provide a two-dimensional analogy for real atoms and show promise for the implementation of scalable quantum computers. Here, we investigate the charge configurations in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot tunnel coupled to a single reservoir of electrons. By operating the system in the few-electron regime, the stability diagram shows hysteretic tunnelling events that depend on the history of the dots charge occupancy. We present a model which acc...

  11. CDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The Centre de Donnees de Strasbourg (CDS) is a reference data centre for Astronomy. The CDS services; SIMBAD, Vizier, Aladin and X-Match, provide added value to scientific content in order to support the astronomy research community. Data and information are curated from refereed journals, major surveys, observatories and missions with a strong emphasis on maintaining a high level of quality. The current status and plans of the CDS will be presented, highlighting how the recent innovations of the HiPS (Hierarchical Progressive surveys) and MOC (Multi-Order Coverage map) systems enable the visualisation of hundreds of surveys and data sets, and brings new levels of interoperability between catalogues, surveys images and data cubes.

  12. Spin transport through quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, A.T. da Cunha; Anda, Enrique V. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Full text: We investigate the spin polarized transport properties of a nanoscopic device constituted by a quantum dot connected to two leads. The electrical current circulates with a spin polarization that is modulated via a gate potential that controls the intensity of the spin-orbit coupling, the Rashba effect. We study a polarized field-effect transistor when one of its parts is constituted by a small quantum dot, which energies are controlled by another gate potential operating inside the confined region. The high confinement and correlation suffered by the charges inside the dot gives rise to novel phenomena. We show that through the manipulation of the gate potential applied to the dot it is possible to control, in a very efficient way, the intensity and polarization of the current that goes along the system. Other crucial parameters to be varied in order to understand the behavior of this system are the intensity of the external applied electric and magnetic field. The system is represented by the Anderson Impurity Hamiltonian summed to a spin-orbit interaction, which describes the Rashba effect. To obtain the current of this out-of-equilibrium system we use the Keldysh formalism.The solution of the Green function are compatible with the Coulomb blockade regime. We show that under the effect of a external magnetic field, if the dot is small enough the device operates as a complete spin filter that can be controlled by the gate potential. The behavior of this device when it is injected into it a polarized current and modulated by the Rashba effect is as well studied. (author)

  13. Activation of silicon quantum dots for emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Wei-Qi; Miao Xin-Jian; Huang Zhong-Mei; Liu Shi-Rong; Qin Chao-Jian

    2012-01-01

    The emission of silicon quantum dots is weak when their surface is passivated well. Oxygen or nitrogen on the surface of silicon quantum dots can break the passivation to form localized electronic states in the band gap to generate active centers where stronger emission occurs.From this point of view,we can build up radiative matter for emission.Emissions of various wavelengths can be obtained by controlling the surface bonds of silicon quantum dots.Our experimental results demonstrate that annealing is important in the treatment of the activation,and stimulated emissions at about 600 and 700 nm take place on active silicon quantum dots.

  14. POLARON IN CYLINDRICAL AND SPHERICAL QUANTUM DOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.Fai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Polaron states in cylindrical and spherical quantum dots with parabolic confinement potentials are investigated applying the Feynman variational principle. It is observed that for both kinds of quantum dots the polaron energy and mass increase with the increase of Frohlich electron-phonon coupling constant and confinement frequency. In the case of a spherical quantum dot, the polaron energy for the strong coupling is found to be greater than that of a cylindrical quantum dot. The energy and mass are found to be monotonically increasing functions of the coupling constant and the confinement frequency.

  15. Quantum Optics with Quantum Dots in Photonic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gérard, J.-M.; Claudon, J.; Bleuse, J.;

    2011-01-01

    We review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices.......We review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices....

  16. Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices.......We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices....

  17. Few-electron quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review some electron transport experiments on few-electron, vertical quantum dot devices. The measurement of current versus source-drain voltage and gate voltage is used as a spectroscopic tool to investigate the energy characteristics of interacting electrons confined to a small region in a semiconducting material. Three energy scales are distinguished: the single-particle states, which are discrete due to the confinement involved; the direct Coulomb interaction between electron charges on the dot; and the exchange interaction between electrons with parallel spins. To disentangle these energies, a magnetic field is used to reorganize the occupation of electrons over the single-particle states and to induce changes in the spin states. We discuss the interactions between small numbers of electrons (between 1 and 20) using the simplest possible models. Nevertheless, these models consistently describe a large set of experiments. Some of the observations resemble similar phenomena in atomic physics, such as shell structure and periodic table characteristics, Hund's rule, and spin singlet and triplet states. The experimental control, however, is much larger than for atoms: with one device all the artificial elements can be studied by adding electrons to the quantum dot when changing the gate voltage. (author)

  18. Colloidal quantum dot photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2011-05-01

    We review recent progress in light sensors based on solution-processed materials. Spin-coated semiconductors can readily be integrated with many substrates including as a post-process atop CMOS silicon and flexible electronics. We focus in particular on visible-, near-infrared, and short-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on size-effect-tuned semiconductor nanoparticles made using quantum-confined PbS, PbSe, Bi 2S3, and In2S3. These devices have in recent years achieved room-temperature D values above 1013 Jones, while fully-depleted photodiodes based on these same materials have achieved MHz response combined with 1012 Jones sensitivities. We discuss the nanoparticle synthesis, the materials processing, integrability, temperature stability, physical operation, and applied performance of this class of devices. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantum Dot Spectrum Converters for Enhanced High Efficiency Photovoltaics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research proposes to enhance solar cell efficiency, radiation resistance and affordability. The Quantum Dot Spectrum Converter (QDSC) disperses quantum dots...

  20. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Chen, Yongfen; Klimov, Victor I.; Htoon, Han; Vela, Javier

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  1. Optical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perinetti, U.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents different optical experiments performed on semiconductor quantum dots. These structures allow to confine a small number of electrons and holes to a tiny region of space, some nm across. The aim of this work was to study the basic properties of different types of quantum dots mad

  2. Detecting the chirality for coupled quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Huijuan [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Hu Lian [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)], E-mail: huliancaohj@yahoo.com

    2008-04-21

    We propose a scheme to detect the chirality for a system consisting of three coupled quantum dots. The chirality is found to be determined by the frequency of the transition between chiral states under the chiral symmetry broken perturbation. The results are important to construct quantum gates and to demonstrate chiral entangle states in the triangle spin dots.

  3. Electron transport in quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    When I was contacted by Kluwer Academic Publishers in the Fall of 200 I, inviting me to edit a volume of papers on the issue of electron transport in quantum dots, I was excited by what I saw as an ideal opportunity to provide an overview of a field of research that has made significant contributions in recent years, both to our understanding of fundamental physics, and to the development of novel nanoelectronic technologies. The need for such a volume seemed to be made more pressing by the fact that few comprehensive reviews of this topic have appeared in the literature, in spite of the vast activity in this area over the course of the last decade or so. With this motivation, I set out to try to compile a volume that would fairly reflect the wide range of opinions that has emerged in the study of electron transport in quantum dots. Indeed, there has been no effort on my part to ensure any consistency between the different chapters, since I would prefer that this volume instead serve as a useful forum for the...

  4. Covalent attachment of Ni-2,3-pyrazine dicarboxylic acid onto gold nanoparticle gold electrode modified with penicillamine- CdS quantum dots for electrocatalytic oxidation and determination of urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the electrochemical behavior of Ni-2,3-pyrazine dicarboxylic acid (Ni-PDA) film immobilized on the surface of penicillamine (PNA)/CdS-quantum dots (CdS-QDs) gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) Au electrode and its electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of urea. The surface structure and composition of the sensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Oxidation of urea on the surface of modified electrode was investigated with cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), hydrodynamic voltammetry and chronoamperometry methods and the results showed that the PNA/CdS-QDs/PDA-Ni film displays excellent electrochemical catalytic activities towards urea oxidation. The modified electrode indicated reproducible behavior and high level of stability during the electrochemical experiments. Also it has short response time, low detection limit, high sensitivity and low operation potential. It can be used as an amperometric sensor for monitoring of urea. The proposed modified electrode was successfully used for determination of urea in real sample such human serum

  5. Tuning band alignment by CdS layers using a SILAR method to enhance TiO2/CdS/CdSe quantum-dot solar-cell performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingkai; Zheng, Jiaxin; Li, Xiaoning; Fang, Yanyan; Wang, Lin-Wang; Lin, Yuan; Pan, Feng

    2016-04-14

    We report tuning band alignment by optimized CdS layers using a SILAR method to achieve the recorded best performance with about 6% PCE in TiO2/CdS/CdSe QDSSCs. Combining experimental and theoretical studies, we find that a better lattices match between CdS and TiO2 assists the growth of CdSe, and the combined effect of charge transfer and surface dipole moment at the TiO2/CdS/CdSe interface shifts the energy levels of TiO2 upward and increases Voc of the solar cells. More importantly, the band gap of CdS buffer layers is sensitive to the distortion induced by lattice mismatch and numbers of CdS layers. For example, the barrier for charge transfer disappears when there are more than 4 layers of CdS, facilitating the charge injection from CdSe to TiO2. PMID:27040601

  6. Substitutional impurity in the graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierański, K.; Szatkowski, J.

    2015-09-01

    The process of formation of the localized defect states due to substitutional impurity in sp2-bonded graphene quantum dot is considered using a simple tight-binding-type calculation. We took into account the interaction of the quantum dot atoms surrounding the substitutional impurity from the second row of elements. To saturate the external dangling sp2 orbitals of the carbon additionally 18 hydrogen atoms were introduced. The chemical formula of the quantum dot is H18C51X, where X is the symbol of substitutional atom. The position of the localized levels is determined relative to the host-atoms (C) εp energies. We focused on the effect of substitutional doping by the B, N and O on the eigenstate energies and on the total energy change of the graphene dots including for O the effect of lattice distorsion. We conclude that B, N, and O can form stable substitutional defects in graphene quantum dot.

  7. Large quantum dots with small oscillator strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren; Schlereth, T.W.; Höfling, S.;

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the oscillator strength and quantum efficiency of excitons confined in large InGaAs quantum dots by recording the spontaneous emission decay rate while systematically varying the distance between the quantum dots and a semiconductor-air interface. The size of the quantum dots...... is measured by in-plane transmission electron microscopy and we find average in-plane diameters of 40 nm. We have calculated the oscillator strength of excitons of that size assuming a quantum-dot confinement given by a parabolic in-plane potential and a hard-wall vertical potential and predict a very large...... oscillator strength due to Coulomb effects. This is in stark contrast to the measured oscillator strength, which turns out to be so small that it can be described by excitons in the strong confinement regime. We attribute these findings to exciton localization in local potential minima arising from alloy...

  8. Fluorescent Quantum Dots for Biological Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Gene; Nadeau, Jay; Nealson, Kenneth; Storrie-Lomardi, Michael; Bhartia, Rohit

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots that can serve as "on/off" labels for bacteria and other living cells are undergoing development. The "on/off" characterization of these quantum dots refers to the fact that, when properly designed and manufactured, they do not fluoresce until and unless they come into contact with viable cells of biological species that one seeks to detect. In comparison with prior fluorescence-based means of detecting biological species, fluorescent quantum dots show promise for greater speed, less complexity, greater sensitivity, and greater selectivity for species of interest. There are numerous potential applications in medicine, environmental monitoring, and detection of bioterrorism.

  9. Time-bin Entanglement from Quantum Dots

    CERN Document Server

    Weihs, Gregor; Predojević, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The desire to have a source of single entangled photon pairs can be satisfied using single quantum dots as emitters. However, we are not bound to pursue only polarization entanglement, but can also exploit other degrees of freedom. In this chapter we focus on the time degree of freedom, to achieve so-called time-bin entanglement. This requires that we prepare the quantum dot coherently into the biexciton state and also build special interferometers for analysis. Finally this technique can be extended to achieve time-bin and polarization hyper-entanglement from a suitable quantum dot.

  10. Understanding electronic systems in semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftja, Orion

    2013-11-01

    Systems of confined electrons are found everywhere in nature in the form of atoms where the orbiting electrons are confined by the Coulomb attraction of the nucleus. Advancement of nanotechnology has, however, provided us with an alternative way to confine electrons by using artificial confining potentials. A typical structure of this nature is the quantum dot, a nanoscale system which consists of few confined electrons. There are many types of quantum dots ranging from self-assembled to miniaturized semiconductor quantum dots. In this work we are interested in electrostatically confined semiconductor quantum dot systems where the electrostatic confining potential that traps the electrons is generated by external electrodes, doping, strain or other factors. A large number of semiconductor quantum dots of this type are fabricated by applying lithographically patterned gate electrodes or by etching on two-dimensional electron gases in semiconductor heterostructures. Because of this, the whole structure can be treated as a confined two-dimensional electron system. Quantum confinement profoundly affects the way in which electrons interact with each other, and external parameters such as a magnetic field. Since a magnetic field affects both the orbital and the spin motion of the electrons, the interplay between quantum confinement, electron-electron correlation effects and the magnetic field gives rise to very interesting physical phenomena. Thus, confined systems of electrons in a semiconductor quantum dot represent a unique opportunity to study fundamental quantum theories in a controllable atomic-like setup. In this work, we describe some common theoretical models which are used to study confined systems of electrons in a two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dot. The main emphasis of the work is to draw attention to important physical phenomena that arise in confined two-dimensional electron systems under various quantum regimes.

  11. Optical Fiber Sensing Using Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Farahi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the application of semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantumdots, as biochemical sensors are reviewed. Quantum dots have unique optical properties thatmake them promising alternatives to traditional dyes in many luminescence basedbioanalytical techniques. An overview of the more relevant progresses in the application ofquantum dots as biochemical probes is addressed. Special focus will be given toconfigurations where the sensing dots are incorporated in solid membranes and immobilizedin optical fibers or planar waveguide platforms.

  12. Quantum repeaters using orbitals in quantum dot molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Toshio

    2016-09-01

    We propose quantum repeaters using quantum dot molecules, in which matter-photon entanglement is generated by Raman scatterings in lambda systems composed of various coherent exciton levels formed in the ensembles of asymmetric coupled quantum dots. In our scheme, the wavelength of Stokes and anti-Stokes photons can be chosen to fulfill the requirements of optical fiber communication. Further, the relative superposition phase in the entangled states can be stabilized by the active feedback to the gate voltage in quantum dot system. These characteristics are favorable for implementing our scheme in practice.

  13. Single to quadruple quantum dots with tunable tunnel couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, T.; Noiri, A.; Obata, T.; Yoneda, J.; Yoshida, K. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Otsuka, T.; Tarucha, S. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN, Center for Emergent Matter Science, 3-1 Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-03-17

    We prepare a gate-defined quadruple quantum dot to study the gate-tunability of single to quadruple quantum dots with finite inter-dot tunnel couplings. The measured charging energies of various double dots suggest that the dot size is governed by the gate geometry. For the triple and quadruple dots, we study the gate-tunable inter-dot tunnel couplings. For the triple dot, we find that the effective tunnel coupling between side dots significantly depends on the alignment of the center dot potential. These results imply that the present quadruple dot has a gate performance relevant for implementing spin-based four-qubits with controllable exchange couplings.

  14. Quantum Dots Investigated for Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe and CuInS2 for use in intermediate-bandgap solar cells. Using quantum dots in a solar cell to create an intermediate band will allow the harvesting of a much larger portion of the available solar spectrum. Theoretical studies predict a potential efficiency of 63.2 percent, which is approximately a factor of 2 better than any state-of-the-art devices available today. This technology is also applicable to thin-film devices--where it offers a potential four-fold increase in power-to-weight ratio over the state of the art. Intermediate-bandgap solar cells require that quantum dots be sandwiched in an intrinsic region between the photovoltaic solar cell's ordinary p- and n-type regions (see the preceding figure). The quantum dots form the intermediate band of discrete states that allow sub-bandgap energies to be absorbed. However, when the current is extracted, it is limited by the bandgap, not the individual photon energies. The energy states of the quantum dot can be controlled by controlling the size of the dot. Ironically, the ground-state energy levels are inversely proportional to the size of the quantum dots. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Ba Wendi et al., in the early 1990's. The most studied quantum dots prepared by this method have been of CdSe. To produce these dots, researchers inject a syringe of the desired organometallic precursors into heated triocytlphosphine oxide (TOPO) that has been vigorously stirred under an inert atmosphere (see the following figure). The solution immediately begins to change from colorless to yellow, then orange and red/brown, as the quantum dots increase in size. When the desired size is reached, the heat is removed from the flask. Quantum dots of different sizes can be identified by placing them under a "black light" and observing the various color differences in

  15. Double Acceptor Interaction in Semimagnetic Quantum Dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Merwyn Jasper D. Reuben

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of geometry of the semimagnetic Quantum Dot on the Interaction energy of a double acceptor is computed in the effective mass approximation using the variational principle. A peak is observed at the lower dot sizes as a magnetic field is increased which is attributed to the reduction in confinement.

  16. Submonolayer Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Chang, Yia-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A method has been developed for inserting submonolayer (SML) quantum dots (QDs) or SML QD stacks, instead of conventional Stranski-Krastanov (S-K) QDs, into the active region of intersubband photodetectors. A typical configuration would be InAs SML QDs embedded in thin layers of GaAs, surrounded by AlGaAs barriers. Here, the GaAs and the AlGaAs have nearly the same lattice constant, while InAs has a larger lattice constant. In QD infrared photodetector, the important quantization directions are in the plane perpendicular to the normal incidence radiation. In-plane quantization is what enables the absorption of normal incidence radiation. The height of the S-K QD controls the positions of the quantized energy levels, but is not critically important to the desired normal incidence absorption properties. The SML QD or SML QD stack configurations give more control of the structure grown, retains normal incidence absorption properties, and decreases the strain build-up to allow thicker active layers for higher quantum efficiency.

  17. Ge Quantum Dot Infrared Imaging Camera Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a high performance Ge quantum dots-based infrared (IR) imaging camera on Si substrate. The high sensitivity, large...

  18. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide based quantum dots for enhanced multiple exciton generation

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Robert Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have the potential to produce more than one exciton per incident photon, if the photon energy is greater than twice the band gap energy. This process of multiple exciton generation (MEG) has the potential to lead to a step change in the efficiency of solar panels, by utilising energy commonly wasted as heat in conventional solar cells. A wide range of CdSe/CdTe and CdTe/CdSe quantum dots with and without a CdS shell were synthesised with varying core sizes and shell thickne...

  19. Time dependent quantum transport through Kondo correlated quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Goker, Ali; Gedik, Elif

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review recent work about time dependent quantum transport through a quantum dot in Kondo regime. This represents a major step towards designing next generation transistors that are expected to replace current MOSFET's in a few years. We first discuss the effects of the density of states of gold contacts on the instantaneous conductance of an asymmetrically coupled quantum dot that is abruptly moved into Kondo regime via a gate voltage. Next, we investigate the effect of st...

  20. Quantum Dots in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollner, Immo Nathanael

    This Thesis is focused on the study of quantum electrodynamics in photonic crystal waveguides. We investigate the interplay between a single quantum dot and the fundamental mode of the photonic crystal waveguide. We demonstrate experimental coupling eciencies for the spontaneous emission...... into the mode exceeding 98% for emitters spectrally close to the band-edge of the waveguide mode. In addition we illustrate the broadband nature of the underlying eects, by obtaining coupling eciencies above 90% for quantum dots detuned from the band edge by as far as 20nm. These values are in good agreement...... quantum-dot-waveguide coupling. Such a structure is ideally suited for a number of applications in quantum information processing and among others we propose an on-chip spin-photon interface, a single photon transistor, and a deterministic cNOT gate....

  1. Magnetic quantum dots and magnetic edge states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with defining the magnetic edge state in a magnetic quantum dot, which becomes quite popular nowadays conjunction with a possible candidate for a high density memory device or spintronic materials, various magnetic nano-quantum structures are reviewed in detail. We study the magnetic edge states of the two dimensional electron gas in strong perpendicular magnetic fields. We find that magnetic edge states are formed along the boundary of the magnetic dot, which is formed by a nonuniform distribution of magnetic fields. These magnetic edge states circulate either clockwise or counterclockwise, depending on the number of missing flux quanta, and exhibit quite different properties, as compared to the conventional ones which are induced by electrostatic confinements in the quantum Hall system. We also find that a close relation between the quantum mechanical eigenstates and the classical trajectories in the magnetic dot. When a magnetic dot is located inside a quantum wire, the edge-channel scattering mechanism by the magnetic quantum dot is very different from that by electrostatic dots. Here, the magnetic dot is formed by two different magnetic fields inside and outside the dot. We study the ballistic edge-channel transport and magnetic edge states in this situation. When the inner field is parallel to the outer one, the two-terminal conductance is quantized and shows the features of a transmission barrier and a resonator. On the other hand, when the inner field is reversed, the conductance is not quantized and all channels can be completely reflected in some energy ranges. The difference between the above two cases results from the distinct magnetic confinements. We also describe successfully the edge states of magnetic quantum rings and others in detail

  2. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots stabilized by castor oil and ricinoleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyobe, Joseph William; Mubofu, Egid Beatus; Makame, Yahya M. M.; Mlowe, Sixberth; Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2016-02-01

    Castor oil and ricinoleic acid (an isolate of castor oil) are environmentally friendly bio-based organic surfactants that have been used as capping agents to prepare nearly spherical cadmium sulfide quantum dots (QDs) at 230, 250 and 280 °C. The prepared quantum dots were characterized by Ultra violet-visible (UV-vis), Photoluminescence (PL), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) giving an overall CdS QDs average size of 5.14±0.39 nm. The broad XRD pattern and crystal lattice fringes in the HRTEM images showed a hexagonal phase composition of the CdS QDs. The calculated/estimated average size of the prepared castor oil capped CdS QDs for various techniques were 4.64 nm (TEM), 4.65 nm (EMA), 5.35 nm (UV-vis) and 6.46 nm (XRD). For ricinoleic acid capped CdS QDs, the average sizes were 5.56 nm (TEM), 4.78 nm (EMA), 5.52 nm (UV-vis) and 8.21 nm (XRD). Optical properties of CdS QDs showed a change of band gap energy from its bulk band gap of 2.42-2.82 eV due to quantum size confinement effect for temperature range of 230-280 °C. Similarly, a blue shift was observed in the photoluminescence spectra. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations show that the as-synthesized CdS QDs structures are spherical in shape. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) studies confirms the formation of castor oil and ricinoleic acid capped CdS QDs.

  3. Core–Shell to Doped Quantum Dots: Evolution of the Local Environment Using XAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Avijit; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Shibata, Tomohiro; Viswanatha, Ranjani (JNCASR); (IIT)

    2016-09-30

    Internal structure study at an atomic level is a challenging task with far reaching consequences to its material properties, specifically in the field of transition metal doping in quantum dots. Diffusion of transition metal ions in and out of quantum dots forming magnetic clusters has been a major bottleneck in this class of materials. Diffusion of the magnetic ions from the core into the nonmagnetic shell in a core/shell heterostructure architecture to attain uniform doping has been recently introduced and yet to be understood. In this work, we have studied the local structure variation of Fe as a function of CdS matrix thickness and annealing time during the overcoating of Fe3O4 core with CdS using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The data reveals that Fe3O4 core initially forms a core/shell structure with CdS followed by alloying at the interface eventually completely diffusing all the way through the CdS matrix to form homogeneously Fe-doped CdS QDs with excellent control over size and size distribution. Study of Fe K-edge shows a complete change of Fe local environment from Fe–O to FeS.

  4. Inter-dot coupling effects on transport through correlated parallel coupled quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shyam Chand; G Rajput; K C Sharma; P K Ahluwalia

    2009-05-01

    Transport through symmetric parallel coupled quantum dot system has been studied, using non-equilibrium Green function formalism. The inter-dot tunnelling with on-dot and inter-dot Coulomb repulsion is included. The transmission coefficient and Landaur–Buttiker like current formula are shown in terms of internal states of quantum dots. The effect of inter-dot tunnelling on transport properties has been explored. Results, in intermediate inter-dot coupling regime show signatures of merger of two dots to form a single composite dot and in strong coupling regime the behaviour of the system resembles the two decoupled dots.

  5. Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Zhijun

    2015-07-15

    © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Heteroepitaxy - atomically aligned growth of a crystalline film atop a different crystalline substrate - is the basis of electrically driven lasers, multijunction solar cells, and blue-light-emitting diodes. Crystalline coherence is preserved even when atomic identity is modulated, a fact that is the critical enabler of quantum wells, wires, and dots. The interfacial quality achieved as a result of heteroepitaxial growth allows new combinations of materials with complementary properties, which enables the design and realization of functionalities that are not available in the single-phase constituents. Here we show that organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots, combined in the solution phase, produce epitaxially aligned \\'dots-in-a-matrix\\' crystals. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, we reveal heterocrystals as large as about 60 nanometres and containing at least 20 mutually aligned dots that inherit the crystalline orientation of the perovskite matrix. The heterocrystals exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atom-scale crystalline coherence: photoelectrons and holes generated in the larger-bandgap perovskites are transferred with 80% efficiency to become excitons in the quantum dot nanocrystals, which exploit the excellent photocarrier diffusion of perovskites to produce bright-light emission from infrared-bandgap quantum-tuned materials. By combining the electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix with the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots, we engineer a new platform to advance solution-processed infrared optoelectronics.

  6. Localized surface plasmon and exciton interaction in silver-coated cadmium sulphide quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, P.; Rustagi, K. C.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P., E-mail: bhanuprs@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai- 400076 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Localized surface plasmon and exciton coupling has been investigated on colloidal solutions of silver-coated CdS nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized by gamma irradiation. Two broad photoluminescence (PL) bands (blue/red) corresponding to band to band and defect state transitions have been observed for the bare and coated samples. In case of bare CdS NPs, the intensity of the red PL peak is about ten times higher than the blue PL peak intensity. However, on coating the CdS NPs with silver, the peak intensity of the blue PL band gets enhanced and becomes equal to that of the red PL band. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) images adequately demonstrate size distribution of these metal/semiconductor nanocomposites. UV-Vis absorption studies show quantum confinement effect in these semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) systems. Absorption spectrum of silver-coated SQDs shows signature of surface plasmon-exciton coupling which has been theoretically verified.

  7. Localized surface plasmon and exciton interaction in silver-coated cadmium sulphide quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.; Rustagi, K. C.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P.

    2015-05-01

    Localized surface plasmon and exciton coupling has been investigated on colloidal solutions of silver-coated CdS nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized by gamma irradiation. Two broad photoluminescence (PL) bands (blue/red) corresponding to band to band and defect state transitions have been observed for the bare and coated samples. In case of bare CdS NPs, the intensity of the red PL peak is about ten times higher than the blue PL peak intensity. However, on coating the CdS NPs with silver, the peak intensity of the blue PL band gets enhanced and becomes equal to that of the red PL band. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) images adequately demonstrate size distribution of these metal/semiconductor nanocomposites. UV-Vis absorption studies show quantum confinement effect in these semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) systems. Absorption spectrum of silver-coated SQDs shows signature of surface plasmon-exciton coupling which has been theoretically verified.

  8. Engineered Quantum Dot Single Photon Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, Sonia; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Fast, high efficiency, and low error single photon sources are required for implementation of a number of quantum information processing applications. The fastest triggered single photon sources to date have been demonstrated using epitaxially grown semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), which can be conveniently integrated with optical microcavities. Recent advances in QD technology, including demonstrations of high temperature and telecommunications wavelength single photon emission, have made QD single photon sources more practical. Here we discuss the applications of single photon sources and their various requirements, before reviewing the progress made on a quantum dot platform in meeting these requirements.

  9. Origins and optimization of entanglement in plasmonically coupled quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Matthew; Larson, Jeffrey; Min, Misun; Wild, Stefan M.; Pelton, Matthew; Gray, Stephen K.

    2016-08-01

    A system of two or more quantum dots interacting with a dissipative plasmonic nanostructure is investigated in detail by using a cavity quantum electrodynamics approach with a model Hamiltonian. We focus on determining and understanding system configurations that generate multiple bipartite quantum entanglements between the occupation states of the quantum dots. These configurations include allowing for the quantum dots to be asymmetrically coupled to the plasmonic system. Analytical solution of a simplified limit for an arbitrary number of quantum dots and numerical simulations and optimization for the two- and three-dot cases are used to develop guidelines for maximizing the bipartite entanglements. For any number of quantum dots, we show that through simple starting states and parameter guidelines, one quantum dot can be made to share a strong amount of bipartite entanglement with all other quantum dots in the system, while entangling all other pairs to a lesser degree.

  10. Enzyme-Polymers Conjugated to Quantum-Dots for Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Mansur

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the concept of developing a novel system based on polymer-enzyme macromolecules was tested by coupling carboxylic acid functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA-COOH to glucose oxidase (GOx followed by the bioconjugation with CdS quantum-dots (QD. The resulting organic-inorganic nanohybrids were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The spectroscopy results have clearly shown that the polymer-enzyme macromolecules (PVA-COOH/GOx were synthesized by the proposed zero-length linker route. Moreover, they have performed as successful capping agents for the nucleation and constrained growth of CdS quantum-dots via aqueous colloidal chemistry. The TEM images associated with the optical absorption results have indicated the formation of CdS nanocrystals with estimated diameters of about 3.0 nm. The “blue-shift” in the visible absorption spectra and the PL values have provided strong evidence that the fluorescent CdS nanoparticles were produced in the quantum-size confinement regime. Finally, the hybrid system was biochemically assayed by injecting the glucose substrate and detecting the formation of peroxide with the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP. Thus, the polymer-enzyme-QD hybrid has behaved as a nanostructured sensor for glucose detecting.

  11. Colloidal Quantum dot photovoltaics: Tuning optoelectronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Colloidal quantum dots combine processing from the solution phase with tunability of the bandgap. Via the size-effect the optical properties can be matched to the solar spectrum for a wide-range photon harvesting. To engineer photovoltaic devices, quantum dots are compressed from their colloidal form into a close-packed nanocrystal matrix, while undergoing a systematic layer-by-layer process. The resulting quantum dot solid is treated as semiconductor medium - one having electron-hole mobilites, free carrier densities and a dielectric constant. While the size-effect determined the band-gap before, it is now the nature of ligand and the treatment route, that influences mentioned electronic parameters. We took the view on the processing steps and found a concept for analysing trap states, moblility and device performance in real quantum dot solids. Our findings emphasize the interplay of mobility and trap-distribution with routes that take special care on the nanocrystal surface and hence conserve optoelectronic qualities of quantum dots for efficient photovoltaic cells. (author)

  12. Quantum computation with two-dimensional graphene quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jie-Sen; Li Zhi-Bing; Yao Dao-Xin

    2012-01-01

    We study an array of graphene nano sheets that form a two-dimensional S =1/2 Kagome spin lattice used for quantum computation.The edge states of the graphene nano sheets axe used to form quantum dots to confine electrons and perform the computation.We propose two schemes of bang-bang control to combat decoherence and realize gate operations on this array of quantum dots.It is shown that both schemes contain a great amount of information for quantum computation.The corresponding gate operations are also proposed.

  13. Inorganic passivation and doping control in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Hoogland, Sjoerd H.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss strategies to reduce midgap trap state densities in colloidal quantum dot films and requirements to control doping type and magnitude. We demonstrate that these improvements result in colloidal quantum dot solar cells with certified 7.0% efficiency.

  14. Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiltscher, Bastian

    2012-10-05

    The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in

  15. Spin current in double quantum dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Hua; Zhang Guo-Feng; Yin Wen; Liang Jiu-Qing

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the dynamical behaviours of two electrons confined in a double quantum dot driven by rotating magnetic fields in terms of the theory of Lewis-Riesenfeld Hermitian invariants for the explicitly time-dependent Hamiltonian. The coherent spin oscillations in the dot provide a generation source for spin current. Exact solutions obtained allow us to investigate the dynamical properties of the spin localization for various initial localized states.

  16. Coherent scattering in a small quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballistic transport in an open small (100 nm) three-terminal quantum dot based on the high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas of the AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction has been analyzed. It has been shown that the gate oscillations of resistance of such a dot arise due to the coherent scattering of electrons on its quasidiscrete levels being suppressed by a weak magnetic field

  17. Tunneling Processes in Optically Excited Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiu-Ping; WEI Hua-Rong; XU Li-Ping; GONG Jian-Ping; YAN Wei-Xian

    2011-01-01

    The single-electron tunneling processes in optically excited coupled quantum dots can be divided into two parts: the electron and the hole parts, which are analytically obtained in the framework of the Keldysh formalism. The tunneling process is selective tunneling, which results in dark tunneling states. The tunneling currents are co-determined by the resonance energies and probability distributions of the particular quantum channels defined by the electron-hole complex resonant states.%The single-electron tunneling processes in optically excited coupled quantum dots can be divided into two parts:the electron and the hole parts,which are analytically obtained in the framework of the Keldysh formalism.The tunneling process is selective tunneling,which results in dark tunneling states.The tunneling currents are co-determined by the resonance energies and probability distributions of the particular quantum channels defined by the electron-hole complex resonant states.Probing the fine-energy structure of the exciton complexes[1-10] in an optically excited quantum dot is an important way of exploring new mechanisms in nanostructures.Single electron tunneling (SET) devices consisting of a central quantum dot (QD) and a tunneling coupled source and drain have become important optoelectronic nano-devices.[11,12

  18. Nonvolatile Quantum Dot Gate Memory (NVQDM): Tunneling Rate from Quantum Well Channel to Quantum Dot Gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasaneen, El-Sayed; Heller, Evan; Bansal, Rajeev; Jain, Faquir

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we compute the tunneling of electrons in a nonvolatile quantum dot memory (NVQDM) cell during the WRITE operation. The transition rate of electrons from a quantum well channel to the quantum dots forming the floating gate is calculated using a recently reported method by Chuang et al.[1]. Tunneling current is computed based on transport of electrons from the channel to the floating quantum dots. The maximum number of electrons on a dot is calculated using surface electric field and break down voltage of the tunneling dielectric material. Comparison of tunneling for silicon oxide and high-k dielectric gate insulators is also described. Capacitance-Voltage characteristics of a NVQDM device are calculated by solving the Schrodinger and Poisson equations self-consistently. In addition, the READ operation of the memory has been investigated analytically. Results for 70 nm channel length Si NVQDMs are presented. Threshold voltage is calculated including the effect of the charge on nanocrystal quantum dots. Current-voltage characteristics are obtained using BSIM3v3 model [2-3]. This work is supported by Office of Navel Research (N00014210883, Dr. D. Purdy, Program Monitor), Connecticut Innovations Inc./TranSwitch (CII # 00Y17), and National Science Foundation (CCR-0210428) grants. [1] S. L. Chuang and N. Holonyak, Appl. Phys. Lett., 80, pp. 1270, 2002. [2] Y. Chen et. al., BSIM3v3 Manual, Elect. Eng. and Comp. Dept., U. California, Berkeley, CA, 1996. [3] W. Liu, MOSFET Models for SPICE Simulation, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001.

  19. Coherence and dephasing in self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Leosson, K.; Birkedal, Dan

    2003-01-01

    We measured dephasing times in InGaAl/As self-assembled quantum dots at low temperature using degenerate four-wave mixing. At 0K, the coherence time of the quantum dots is lifetime limited, whereas at finite temperatures pure dephasing by exciton-phonon interactions governs the quantum dot...... coherence. The inferred homogeneous line widths are significantly smaller than the line widths usually observed in the photoluminescence from single quantum dots indicating an additional inhomogeneours broadening mechanism in the latter....

  20. Photoluminescence studies of single InGaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are considered a promising material system for future optical devices and quantum computers. We have studied the low-temperature photoluminescence properties of single InGaAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs. The high spatial resolution required for resolving single dots...

  1. Imaging vasculature and lymphatic flow in mice using quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballou, Byron; Ernst, Lauren A.; Andreko, Susan;

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots are ideal probes for fluorescent imaging of vascular and lymphatic tissues. On injection into appropriate sites, red- and near-infrared-emitting quantum dots provide excellent definition of vasculature, lymphoid organs, and lymph nodes draining both normal tissues and tumors. We detail...... methods for use with commercially available quantum dots and discuss common difficulties....

  2. Bright infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng

    2013-01-01

    Record-brightness infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots have been achieved through control of the spacing between adjacent quantum-dots. By tuning the size of quantum-dots, the emission wavelengths can be tuned between 900nm and 1650nm. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  3. Optical studies of capped quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Wuister, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and spectroscopy of CdSe and CdTe semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). The first chapter gives an introduction into the unique size dependent properties of semiconductor quantum dots. Highly luminescent QDs of CdSe and CdTe were prepared via a high temperature method in a glovebox. These QDs are soluble in organics but can be transferred into water or ethanol after exchange of the surfactants by various thiols (HS-R). For CdTe the exchange with thiols has a be...

  4. Cadmium telluride quantum dots advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Donegan, John

    2013-01-01

    Optical Properties of Bulk and Nanocrystalline Cadmium Telluride, Núñez Fernández and M.I. VasilevskiyAqueous Synthesis of Colloidal CdTe Nanocrystals, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, and A. EychmüllerAssemblies of Thiol-Capped CdTe Nanocrystals, N. GaponikFörster Resonant Energy Transfer in CdTe Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Structures, M. Lunz and A.L. BradleyEmission of CdTe Nanocrystals Coupled to Microcavities, Y.P. Rakovich and J.F. DoneganBiological Applications of Cadmium Telluride Semiconductor Quantum Dots, A. Le Cign

  5. Resonant tunneling in graphene pseudomagnetic quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zenan; Bahamon, D A; Pereira, Vitor M; Park, Harold S; Campbell, D K; Neto, A H Castro

    2013-06-12

    Realistic relaxed configurations of triaxially strained graphene quantum dots are obtained from unbiased atomistic mechanical simulations. The local electronic structure and quantum transport characteristics of y-junctions based on such dots are studied, revealing that the quasi-uniform pseudomagnetic field induced by strain restricts transport to Landau level- and edge state-assisted resonant tunneling. Valley degeneracy is broken in the presence of an external field, allowing the selective filtering of the valley and chirality of the states assisting in the resonant tunneling. Asymmetric strain conditions can be explored to select the exit channel of the y-junction.

  6. THz quantum-confined Stark effect in semiconductor quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Monozon, Boris S.; Livshits, Daniil A.;

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate an instantaneous all-optical manipulation of optical absorption at the ground state of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) via a quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) induced by the electric field of incident THz pulses with peak electric fields reaching 200 kV/cm in the free space. As a...

  7. A Polaron in a Quantum Dot Quantum Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; XIE HongJing; CHEN ChuanYu

    2002-01-01

    The polaron effect in a quantum dot quantum well (QDQW)system is investigated by using the perturbation method. Both the bound electron states outside and inside the shell well are taken into account . Numerical calculation on the CdS/HgS QDQW shows that the phonon correction to the electron ground state energy is quite significant and cannot be neglected.

  8. High resolution STEM of quantum dots and quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadkhodazadeh, Shima

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the application of high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wires (QWRs). Different imaging and analytical techniques in STEM are introduced and key examples of their application to QDs and QWRs...

  9. Noise enhancement due to quantum coherence in coupled quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Kiesslich, G.; Schoell, E.; Brandes, T.; Hohls, F.; Haug, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    We show that the intriguing observation of noise enhancement in the charge transport through two vertically coupled quantum dots can be explained by the interplay of quantum coherence and strong Coulomb blockade. We demonstrate that this novel mechanism for super-Poissonian charge transfer is very sensitive to decoherence caused by electron-phonon scattering as inferred from the measured temperature dependence.

  10. Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudon, Julien; Munsch, Matthieu; Bleuse, Joel;

    2012-01-01

    Besides microcavities and photonic crystals, photonic nanowires have recently emerged as a novel resource for solidstate quantum optics. We will review recent studies which demonstrate an excellent control over the spontaneous emission of InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in single-mode GaAs photo...

  11. Formation and ordering of epitaxial quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Paola; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Bremner, Stephen P.; Ritchie, David A.

    2008-10-01

    Single quantum dots (QDs) have great potential as building blocks for quantum information processing devices. However, one of the major difficulties in the fabrication of such devices is the placement of a single dot at a pre-determined position in the device structure, for example, in the centre of a photonic cavity. In this article we review some recent investigations in the site-controlled growth of InAs QDs on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy. The method we use is ex-situ patterning of the GaAs substrate by electron beam lithography and conventional wet or dry etching techniques to form shallow pits in the surface which then determine the nucleation site of an InAs dot. This method is easily scalable and can be incorporated with marker structures to enable simple post-growth lithographic alignment of devices to each site-controlled dot. We demonstrate good site-control for arrays with up to 10 micron spacing between patterned sites, with no dots nucleating between the sites. We discuss the mechanism and the effect of pattern size, InAs deposition amount and growth conditions on this site-control method. Finally we discuss the photoluminescence from these dots and highlight the remaining challenges for this technique. To cite this article: P. Atkinson et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

  12. Controlled ultraviolet resonance energy transfer between bovine serum albumin donors and cadmium sulfide quantum dots acceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Mohsen; El-Kemary, Maged; Ramadan, Mahmoud

    2015-08-01

    We report on Förester resonance nergy transfer (FRET) within a bioconjugated system composed of cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) and transport protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). The optical properties of these two elements of the bioconjugate were exploited to produce FRET in the ultraviolet (UV) region with a maximum efficiency of 22% from BSA donors to QD acceptors. In contrast to previous studies, which were limited to FRET in the visible light, we used 2.6 nm CdS QDs because they emit light with a shorter wavelength (∼370 nm) that facilitates the UV-FRET process. UV-FRET was controlled by tuning the spectral overlap between BSA and CdS QDs.

  13. Quantum dot based probing of mannitol: An implication in clinical diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debasmita; Ghosh, Srabanti [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8 Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700098 (India); Saha, Abhijit, E-mail: abhijit@alpha.iuc.res.in [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8 Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2010-08-24

    We demonstrate that mannitol, an important diuretic, can be determined with cysteine-capped CdS quantum dots (QDs) using optical spectroscopy. Unique luminescence enhancement of QDs was observed on interaction with mannitol. The binding between QDs and mannitol was monitored by UV-vis, Fourier transform infra-red and Raman spectroscopy. The binding constant was determined following the Langmuir binding isotherm. A quantitative correlation between mannitol concentration and PL enhancement of CdS QDs has been established. We also observed that possible interfering agents, such as, urea, uric acid, creatinine, some metal ions, glucose, sorbitol or sucrose had no significant effect on luminescence of CdS QDs. The proposed strategy can be a very fast, simple and potential tool for the monitoring of diuretics and assaying intestinal permeability.

  14. Adiabatic description of nonspherical quantum dot models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusev, A. A., E-mail: gooseff@jinr.ru; Chuluunbaatar, O.; Vinitsky, S. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Dvoyan, K. G.; Kazaryan, E. M.; Sarkisyan, H. A. [Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University (Armenia); Derbov, V. L.; Klombotskaya, A. S.; Serov, V. V. [Saratov State University (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-15

    Within the effective mass approximation an adiabatic description of spheroidal and dumbbell quantum dot models in the regime of strong dimensional quantization is presented using the expansion of the wave function in appropriate sets of single-parameter basis functions. The comparison is given and the peculiarities are considered for spectral and optical characteristics of the models with axially symmetric confining potentials depending on their geometric size, making use of the complete sets of exact and adiabatic quantum numbers in appropriate analytic approximations.

  15. Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Biomedicial Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lijia Shao; Feng Yan; Yanfang Gao

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are nanometre-scale crystals, which have unique photophysical properties, such as size-dependent optical properties, high fluorescence quantum yields, and excellent stability against photobleaching. These properties enable QDs as the promising optical labels for the biological applications, such as multiplexed analysis of immunocomplexes or DNA hybridization processes, cell sorting and tracing, in vivo imaging and diagnostics in biomedicine. Meanwhile, QDs can...

  16. Superior Photocurrent of Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells Based on PbS : In/CdS Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongbo Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PbS : In and CdS quantum dots (QDs are sequentially assembled onto a nanocrystalline TiO2 film to prepare a PbS : In/CdS cosensitized photoelectrode for QD sensitized solar cells (QDSCs. The results show that PbS : In/CdS QDs have exhibited a significant effect in the light harvest and performance of the QDSC. In the cascade structure of the electrode, the reorganization of energy levels between PbS and TiO2 forms a stepwise structure of band-edge levels which is advantageous to the electron injection into TiO2. Energy conversion efficiency of 2.3% is achieved with the doped electrode, under the illumination of one sun (AM1.5, 100 mW cm2. Besides, a remarkable short circuit current density (up to 23 mA·cm−2 is achieved in the resulting PbS : In/CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cell, and the related mechanism is discussed.

  17. Accurate analysis of electron transfer from quantum dots to metal oxides in quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javad Fahimi, Mohammad; Fathi, Davood; Ansari-Rad, Mehdi

    2015-09-01

    Electron transfer rate from quantum dot (QD) to metal oxide (MO) in quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) has an important role in the efficiency. In this work, we analyse the electron transfer rate from CdSe, CdS and CdTe QDs to TiO2, ZnO and SnO2 MOs by extending the related equations with considering various effects, based on the Marcus theory. In this regard, the effects of QD diameter, QD-MO spacing, the crystalline defects, temperature, and the reorganizational energy, on the electron transfer rate are investigated. The results show that, the maximum electron transfer rate is achieved for CdTe QD with the mentioned three MOs. Moreover, in order to direct the designer to reach the appropriate QDs-MOs combinations for obtaining the maximum electron transfer rate, the average electron transfer rate for various combinations is calculated. For the verification of simulation method, a part of work has been compared with the previous experimental and theoretical results, which indicates the correctness of our simulation algorithm.

  18. Coherent control of quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lodahl, Peter; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    In recent years much effort has been devoted to the use of semiconductor quantum dotsystems as building blocks for solid-state-based quantum logic devices. One importantparameter for such devices is the coherence time, which determines the number ofpossible quantum operations. From earlier measur...

  19. Nonlocal quantum cloning via quantum dots trapped in distant cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Tao; Zhu Ai-Dong; Zhang Shou

    2012-01-01

    A scheme for implementing nonlocal quantum cloning via quantum dots trapped in cavities is proposed.By modulating the parameters of the system,the optimal 1 → 2 universal quantum cloning machine,1 → 2 phase-covariant cloning machine,and 1 → 3 economical phase-covariant cloning machine are constructed.The present scheme,which is attainable with current technology,saves two qubits compared with previous cloning machines.

  20. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Neetu, E-mail: singh.neetu1985@gmail.com; Kapoor, Avinashi [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi-110 021 (India); Kumar, Vinod [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ZA9300 (South Africa); Mehra, R. M. [School of Engineering and Technology, Sharda University, Greater Noida-201 306, U.P. (India)

    2014-04-24

    CdSe Quantum Dots (QDs) of size 0.85 nm were synthesized using chemical route. ZnO based Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cell (QDSSC) was fabricated using CdSe QDs as sensitizer. The Pre-synthesized QDs were found to be successfully adsorbed on front ZnO electrode and had potential to replace organic dyes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). The efficiency of QDSSC was obtained to be 2.06 % at AM 1.5.

  1. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdSe Quantum Dots (QDs) of size 0.85 nm were synthesized using chemical route. ZnO based Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cell (QDSSC) was fabricated using CdSe QDs as sensitizer. The Pre-synthesized QDs were found to be successfully adsorbed on front ZnO electrode and had potential to replace organic dyes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). The efficiency of QDSSC was obtained to be 2.06 % at AM 1.5

  2. Charged-Exciton Complexes in Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2001-01-01

    It is known experimentally that stable charged-exciton complexes can exist in low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures. Much less is known about the properties of such charged-exciton complexes since three-body problems are very difficult to be solved, even numerically. Here we introduce the correlated hyperspherical harmonics as basis functions to solve the hyperangular equation for negatively and positively charged excitons (trions) in a harmonic quantum dot. By using this method, we have calculated the energy spectra of the low-lying states of a charged exciton as a function of the radius of quantum dot. Based on symmetry analysis, the level crossover as the dot radius increases can be fully explained as the results of symmetry constraint.``

  3. Illuminating microemulsions: ionic liquid-CdS quantum dots hybrid materials as potential white light harvesting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarla, Krishnaiah; Bharmoria, Pankaj; Rao, K Srinivasa; Gehlot, Praveen Singh; Kumar, Arvind

    2016-05-01

    Microemulsions (MEs) comprising of 2-hydroxyethylammonium formate, (HO-EAF), isooctane and dioctylsulfosuccinate proliniumisopropylester ([ProC3]AOT) have been constructed and used to prepare and stabilize CdS Quantum Dots (QDs) at room temperature. Such hybrid materials exhibited tunable light emission wherein the photoluminescence chromaticity could be precisely adjusted to pure white with a quantum efficiency (QE) of ∼43%, by adjusting the droplet size of MEs. PMID:27087045

  4. Ostwald's ripening of nanostructures with quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Vengrenovich, R D; Yarema, S V

    2001-01-01

    The scenario of quantum dots shaping during ripening three-dimensional islands obtained by heteroepitaxy in a Stranski-Krastanow mode, is offered. It is shown that throughout the growth of dislocations with their subsequent separation from the island bottom, the size distribution function becomes narrower with noticeable diminishing the dispersion. The possible reasons for signal attenuation of Ostwald's ripening islands are analyzed

  5. Ostwald's ripening of nanostructures with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scenario of quantum dots shaping during ripening three-dimensional islands obtained by heteroepitaxy in a Stranski-Krastanow mode, is offered. It is shown that throughout the growth of dislocations with their subsequent separation from the island bottom, the size distribution function becomes narrower with noticeable diminishing the dispersion. The possible reasons for signal attenuation of Ostwald's ripening islands are analyzed

  6. Saturating optical resonances in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Selvakumar V.; Rustagi, K. C.

    Optical bistability in quantum dots, recently proposed by Chemla and Miller, is studied in a two-resonance model. We show that for such classical electromagnetic resonances the applicability of a two-resonance model is far more restrictive than for those in atoms.

  7. Quantum dot devices for optical communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are often described as "artificial atoms": They are small nanometre-sized structures in which electrons only are allowed to exist at certain discrete levels due to size quantization, thus allowing the engineering of fundamental properties such as the coupling to light. ...

  8. Single Molecule Applications of Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Elmelund; Jauffred, Liselotte; Brewer, Jonathan R.;

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent nanocrystals composed of semiconductor materials were first introduced for biological applications in the late 1990s. The focus of this review is to give a brief survey of biological applications of quantum dots (QDs) at the single QD sensitivity level. These are described as follows: 1...

  9. Optical anisotropy in vertically coupled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ping; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Leosson, Kristjan;

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the polarization of surface and edge-emitted photoluminescence (PL) from structures with vertically coupled In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots (QD's) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The PL polarization is found to be strongly dependent on the number of stacked layers. While single...

  10. Decoherence in Nearly-Isolated Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folk, J.; M. Marcus, C.; Harris jr, J.

    2000-01-01

    Decoherence in nearly-isolated GaAs quantum dots is investigated using the change in average Coulomb blockade peak height upon breaking time-reversal symmetry. The normalized change in average peak height approaches the predicted universal value of 1/4 at temperatures well below the single...

  11. Producing Quantum Dots by Spray Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, Kulbinder; Jin, Michael H.; Hepp, Aloysius

    2006-01-01

    An improved process for making nanocrystallites, commonly denoted quantum dots (QDs), is based on spray pyrolysis. Unlike the process used heretofore, the improved process is amenable to mass production of either passivated or non-passivated QDs, with computer control to ensure near uniformity of size.

  12. System and method for making quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2015-05-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of making quantum dots (QDs) (passivated or unpassivated) using a continuous flow process, systems for making QDs using a continuous flow process, and the like. In one or more embodiments, the QDs produced using embodiments of the present disclosure can be used in solar photovoltaic cells, bio-imaging, IR emitters, or LEDs.

  13. Quantum Dot Devices for Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui

    with other semiconductor materials. The understanding of such properties is important in order to improve the performance of existing devices and to trigger the development of new semiconductor devices for dierent optical signal processing functionalities in the future. We present a detailed quantum dot...

  14. Competing interactions in semiconductor quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van den Berg; G.P. Brandino; O. El Araby; R.M. Konik; V. Gritsev; J.S. Caux

    2014-01-01

    We introduce an integrability-based method enabling the study of semiconductor quantum dot models incorporating both the full hyperfine interaction as well as a mean-field treatment of dipole-dipole interactions in the nuclear spin bath. By performing free-induction decay and spin-echo simulations w

  15. Enabling biomedical research with designer quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomczak, N.; Janczewski, D.; Dorokhin, D.V.; Han, M-Y; Vancso, G.J.; Navarro, Melba; Planell, Josep A.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are a new class of semiconductor nanoparticulate luminophores, which are actively researched for novel applications in biology and nanomedicine. In this review, the recent progress in the design and applications of QD labels for in vitro and in vivo imaging of cells is presented.

  16. Quantum dot waveguides: ultrafast dynamics and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we analyze, based on numerical simulations, the dynamics of semiconductor devices incorporating quantum dots (QDs). In particular we emphasize the unique ultrafast carrier dynamics occurring between discrete QD bound states, and its influence on QD semiconductor optical amplifiers...

  17. Isocrystalline core/shell synthesis of high quality II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots: ligand-field spectroscopic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanovic, Pavle V.; Gamelin, Daniel R.

    2002-11-01

    Ligand field electronic absorption spectroscopy has been applied as a direct probe of Co2+ dopant ions in II-VI based diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots. Synthesis of Co2+-doped CdS (Co2+:CdS) quantum dots by simple coprecipitation in inverted micelle solutions has been found to yield predominantly surface bound dopant ions, which are unstable with respect to solvation in a coordinating solvent (pyridine). The solvation kinetics are biphasic, involving two transient intermediates. In contrast, Co2+ ions are doped much more isotropically in ZnS QDs, and this difference is attributed to the similar ionic radii of Co2+ and Zn2+ ions (0.74 Å), as opposed to Cd2+ ions (0.97 Å). We have developed an isocrystalline core/shell synthetic methodology that enables us to synthesize high quality internally doped Co2+:CdS quantum dots. The effect of Co2+ binding on the surface energies of CdS and ZnS quantum dots is discussed and related to the growth mechanism of diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots.

  18. Quantum and classical thermoelectric transport in quantum dot nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Yang, Ronggui

    2011-10-01

    Quantum dot nanocomposites are potentially high-efficiency thermoelectric materials, which could outperform superlattices and random nanocomposites in terms of manufacturing cost-effectiveness and material properties because of the reduction of thermal conductivity due to the phonon-interface scattering, the enhancement of Seebeck coefficient due to the formation of minibands, and the enhancement of electrical conductivity due to the phonon-bottleneck effect in electron-phonon scattering for quantum-confined electrons. In this paper, we investigate the thermoelectric transport properties of quantum dot nanocomposites through a two-channel transport model that includes the transport of quantum-confined electrons through the hopping mechanism and the semiclassical transport of bulk-like electrons. For the quantum-confined electrons whose wave functions are confined in the quantum dots with overlapping tail extending to the matrix, we develop a tight-binding model together with the Kubo formula and the Green's function method to describe the transport processes of these electrons. The formation of minibands due to the quantum confinement and the phonon-bottleneck effect on carrier-phonon scattering are considered. For transport of bulk-like electrons, a Boltzmann-transport-equation-based semiclassical model is used to describe the multiband transport processes of carriers. The intrinsic carrier scatterings as well as the carrier-interface scattering of these bulk-like electrons are considered. We then apply the two-channel transport model to predict thermoelectric transport properties of n-type PbSe/PbTe quantum dot nanocomposites with PbSe quantum dots uniformly embedded in the PbTe matrix. The dependence of thermoelectric transport coefficients on the size of quantum dots, interdot distance, doping concentration, and temperature are studied in detail. Due to the formation of minibands and the phonon-bottleneck effect on carrier-phonon scattering, we show that

  19. Entangling distant quantum dots using classical interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jonathan; Kyoseva, Elica S.; Trupke, Michael; Beige, Almut

    2008-10-01

    We show that it is possible to employ reservoir engineering to turn two distant and relatively bad cavities into one good cavity with a tunable spontaneous decay rate. As a result, quantum computing schemes, which would otherwise require the shuttling of atomic qubits in and out of an optical resonator, can now be applied to distant quantum dots. To illustrate this we transform a recent proposal to entangle two qubits via the observation of macroscopic fluorescence signals [J. Metz , Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 040503 (2006)] to the electron-spin states of two semiconductor quantum dots. Our scheme requires neither the coherent control of qubit-qubit interactions nor the detection of single photons. Moreover, the scheme is relatively robust against spin-bath couplings, parameter fluctuations, and the spontaneous emission of photons.

  20. Efficient Luminescence from Perovskite Quantum Dot Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younghoon

    2015-11-18

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Nanocrystals of CsPbX3 perovskites are promising materials for light-emitting optoelectronics because of their colloidal stability, optically tunable bandgap, bright photoluminescence, and excellent photoluminescence quantum yield. Despite their promise, nanocrystal-only films of CsPbX3 perovskites have not yet been fabricated; instead, highly insulating polymers have been relied upon to compensate for nanocrystals\\' unstable surfaces. We develop solution chemistry that enables single-step casting of perovskite nanocrystal films and overcomes problems in both perovskite quantum dot purification and film fabrication. Centrifugally cast films retain bright photoluminescence and achieve dense and homogeneous morphologies. The new materials offer a platform for optoelectronic applications of perovskite quantum dot solids.

  1. Light emission from Si quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe M. Fauchet

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Si quantum dots (QDs as small as ∼2 nm in diameter have been synthesized by a variety of techniques. Because of quantum confinement and the elimination of bulk or surface defects, these dots can emit light from the near infrared throughout the visible with quantum efficiencies in excess of 10%. The luminescence wavelength range has been extended to longer wavelengths by the addition of light-emitting rare earths such as erbium (Er. Light-emitting devices (LEDs have been fabricated and their performances are starting to approach those of direct band gap semiconductor or organic LEDs. A search for a Si QD-based laser is even under way. The state-of-the-art in the materials science, physics, and device development of luminescent Si QDs is reviewed and areas of future research are pointed out.

  2. Quantum Dots and Their Multimodal Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Holloway

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Semiconducting quantum dots, whose particle sizes are in the nanometer range, have very unusual properties. The quantum dots have band gaps that depend in a complicated fashion upon a number of factors, described in the article. Processing-structure-properties-performance relationships are reviewed for compound semiconducting quantum dots. Various methods for synthesizing these quantum dots are discussed, as well as their resulting properties. Quantum states and confinement of their excitons may shift their optical absorption and emission energies. Such effects are important for tuning their luminescence stimulated by photons (photoluminescence or electric field (electroluminescence. In this article, decoupling of quantum effects on excitation and emission are described, along with the use of quantum dots as sensitizers in phosphors. In addition, we reviewed the multimodal applications of quantum dots, including in electroluminescence device, solar cell and biological imaging.

  3. Comparison of quantum discord and local quantum uncertainty in a vertical quantum dot

    OpenAIRE

    Faizi, E.; Eftekhari, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider quantum correlations (quantum discord and local quantum uncertainty) in a vertical quantum dot. Their dependencies on magnetic field and temperature are presented in detail. It is noticeable that, quantum discord and local quantum uncertainty behavior is similar to a large extent. In addition, the time evolution of quantum discord and local quantum uncertainty under dephasing and amplitude damping channels is investigated. It has been found that, for some Belldiagon...

  4. Mitigation of quantum dot cytotoxicity by microencapsulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Romoser

    Full Text Available When CdSe/ZnS-polyethyleneimine (PEI quantum dots (QDs are microencapsulated in polymeric microcapsules, human fibroblasts are protected from acute cytotoxic effects. Differences in cellular morphology, uptake, and viability were assessed after treatment with either microencapsulated or unencapsulated dots. Specifically, QDs contained in microcapsules terminated with polyethylene glycol (PEG mitigate contact with and uptake by cells, thus providing a tool to retain particle luminescence for applications such as extracellular sensing and imaging. The microcapsule serves as the "first line of defense" for containing the QDs. This enables the individual QD coating to be designed primarily to enhance the function of the biosensor.

  5. Quantum Size- Dependent Third- Order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibility in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ting; XIONG Gui-guang

    2005-01-01

    The density matrix approach has been employed to investigate the optical nonlinear polarization in a single semiconductor quantum dot(QD). Electron states are considered to be confined within a quantum dot with infinite potential barriers. It is shown, by numerical calculation, that the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities for a typical Si quantum dot is dependent on the quantum size of the quantum dot and the frequency of incident light.

  6. Mode Competition in Dual-Mode Quantum Dots Semiconductor Microlaser

    CERN Document Server

    Chusseau, Laurent; Viktorovitch, P; Letartre, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the modeling of quantum dots lasers with the aim of assessing the conditions for stable cw dual-mode operation when the mode separation lies in the THz range. Several possible models suited for InAs quantum dots in InP barriers are analytically evaluated, in particular quantum dots electrically coupled through a direct exchange of excitation by the wetting layer or quantum dots optically coupled through the homogeneous broadening of their optical gain. A stable dual-mode regime is shown possible in all cases when quantum dots are used as active layer whereas a gain medium of quantum well or bulk type inevitably leads to bistable behavior. The choice of a quantum dots gain medium perfectly matched the production of dual-mode lasers devoted to THz generation by photomixing.

  7. Single quantum dots fundamentals, applications, and new concepts

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This book reviews recent advances in the exciting and rapid growing field of semiconductor quantum dots by contributions from some of the most prominent researchers in the field. Special focus is given to the optical and electronic properties of single quantum dots due to their potential applications in devices operating with single electrons and/or single photons. This includes quantum dots in electric and magnetic fields, cavity-quantum electrodynamics, nonclassical light generation, and coherent optical control of excitons. Single Quantum Dots also addresses various growth techniques as well as potential device applications such as quantum dot lasers, and new concepts like a single-photon source, and a single quantum dot laser.

  8. Barrier Li Quantum Dots in Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYi-Min; LIXiao-Zhu; YANWen-Hong; BAOCheng-Guang

    2003-01-01

    The methods for the few-body system are introduced to investigate the states of the barrier Li quantum dots (QDs) in an arbitrary strength of magnetic field. The configuration, which consists of a positive ion located on the z-axis at a distaneed from the two-dimensional QD plane (the x-y plane) and three electrons in the dot plane bound by the positive ion, is called a barrier Li center. The system, which consists of three electrons in the dot plane bound by the ion,is called a barrier Li QD. The dependence of energy of the state of the barrier Li QD on an external magnetic field B and the distance d is obtained. The angular momentum L of the ground states is found to jump not only with the variation orB but also with d.

  9. Quantum computation with nuclear spins in quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Christ, Henning

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we present protocols for the polarization of nuclear spins in a quantum dot via the hyperfine interaction with a conduction band electron and give a quantitative solution to the master equation we derive. The collective interference effects limiting the polarization are studied in detail, and ways of mitigating them are proposed. At high polarization levels the electron-nuclear interaction is approximated with simple and practical (quantum optical) models, suggesting the possib...

  10. A new photoelectric ink based on nanocellulose/CdS quantum dots for screen-printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Aimin; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Qinwen; Chen, Ruisong; Liu, Wangyu; Fang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Lishi

    2016-09-01

    CdS quantum dots with excellent photoelectrical properties embedded in nanocellulose could be exploited for use in photoelectrical ink. In this work, nanocellulose/CdS quantum dot composites were fabricated by controlling the carboxylate content of the nanocellulose and the molar ratio of Cd(2+)/-COOH. New photoelectric inks were prepared based on the composites, in which the CdS quantum dots acted as the pigment and the nanocellulose as the binder. The results of the photocurrent of the composites showed that the photocurrent could be tailored by the carboxylate content and the molar ratio of Cd(2+)/-COOH. And the photocurrent could be as high as 2μA. The surface tension of the photoelectric ink was 27.80±0.03mN/m and its viscosity was 30.3mPas. The photoelectric ink was stable with excellent fluidity and rheology, it could therefore be applied to screen-printing and three-dimensional (3D) printing. PMID:27185112

  11. Ratiometric fluorescent paper sensor utilizing hybrid carbon dots-quantum dots for the visual determination of copper ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yahui; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Xiaochun; Yang, Bo; Yang, Liang; Jiang, Changlong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-03-01

    A simple and effective ratiometric fluorescence nanosensor for the selective detection of Cu2+ has been developed by covalently connecting the carboxyl-modified red fluorescent cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) to the amino-functionalized blue fluorescent carbon nanodots (CDs). The sensor exhibits the dual-emissions peaked at 437 and 654 nm, under a single excitation wavelength of 340 nm. The red fluorescence can be selectively quenched by Cu2+, while the blue fluorescence is a internal reference, resulting in a distinguishable fluorescence color change from pink to blue under a UV lamp. The detection limit of this highly sensitive ratiometric probe is as low as 0.36 nM, which is lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined limit (20 μM). Moreover, a paper-based sensor has been prepared by printing the hybrid carbon dots-quantum dots probe on a microporous membrane, which provides a convenient and simple approach for the visual detection of Cu2+. Therefore, the as-synthesized probe shows great potential application for the determination of Cu2+ in real samples.A simple and effective ratiometric fluorescence nanosensor for the selective detection of Cu2+ has been developed by covalently connecting the carboxyl-modified red fluorescent cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) to the amino-functionalized blue fluorescent carbon nanodots (CDs). The sensor exhibits the dual-emissions peaked at 437 and 654 nm, under a single excitation wavelength of 340 nm. The red fluorescence can be selectively quenched by Cu2+, while the blue fluorescence is a internal reference, resulting in a distinguishable fluorescence color change from pink to blue under a UV lamp. The detection limit of this highly sensitive ratiometric probe is as low as 0.36 nM, which is lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined limit (20 μM). Moreover, a paper-based sensor has been prepared by printing the hybrid carbon dots-quantum dots probe on a

  12. Many electron effects in semiconductor quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Pandey; Manoj K Harbola; V Ranjan; Vijay A Singh

    2003-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) exhibit shell structures, very similar to atoms. Termed as ‘artificial atoms’ by some, they are much larger (1 100 nm) than real atoms. One can study a variety of manyelectron effects in them, which are otherwise difficult to observe in a real atom. We have treated these effects within the local density approximation (LDA) and the Harbola–Sahni (HS) scheme. HS is free of the selfinteraction error of the LDA. Our calculations have been performed in a three-dimensional quantum dot. We have carried out a study of the size and shape dependence of the level spacing. Scaling laws for the Hubbard ‘’ are established.

  13. Magnetoconductance fluctuations in open bismuth quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackens, B.; Minet, J. P.; Farhi, G.; Crahay, A.; Faniel, S.; Gustin, C.; Bayot, V.

    2002-03-01

    We investigate the low temperature (300 mK - 10 K) magnetoconductance of open circular bismuth quantum dots (diameter: 500 nm). The structures are fabricated using a combination of electron beam lithography, lift off and plasma etching techniques on bismuth thin films evaporated on heated SiO2 substrates. We observe reproducible magnetoconductance fluctuations (UCFs) up to 5T, qualitatively similar to conductance fluctuations evidenced in open quantum dots patterned in high mobility semiconductor heterostructures. In our samples, UCFs are superposed on a slowly varying negative magnetoconductance background. We also observe a sharp conductance maximum centered in B=0, which is reminescent of the spin-orbit induced anti-localisation phenomenon. The behavior of UCFs and of the conductance maximum is discussed as a function of the temperature, thickness and degree of cristallinity of the cavity.

  14. Protease-activated quantum dot probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Emmanuel; Sun, Jiantang; Miller, Jordan S.; Yu, William W.; Colvin, Vicki L.; West, Jennifer L.; Drezek, Rebekah

    2006-04-01

    We demonstrate a novel quantum dot based probe with inherent signal amplification upon interaction with a targeted proteolytic enzyme. This probe may be useful for imaging in cancer detection and diagnosis. In this system, quantum dots (QDs) are bound to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via a proteolytically-degradable peptide sequence to non-radiatively suppress luminescence. A 71% reduction in luminescence was achieved with conjugation of AuNPs to QDs. Peptide cleavage results in release of AuNPs and restores radiative QD photoluminescence. Initial studies observed a 52% rise in luminescence over 47 hours of exposure to 0.2 mg/mL collagenase. These probes can be customized for targeted degradation simply by changing the sequence of the peptide linker.

  15. Facile labeling of lipoglycans with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial endotoxins or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are among the most potent activators of the innate immune system, yet mechanisms of their action and in particular the role of glycans remain elusive. Efficient non-invasive labeling strategies are necessary for studying interactions of LPS glycans with biological systems. Here we report a new method for labeling LPS and other lipoglycans with luminescent quantum dots. The labeling is achieved by partitioning of hydrophobic quantum dots into the core of various LPS aggregates without disturbing the native LPS structure. The biofunctionality of the LPS-Qdot conjugates is demonstrated by the labeling of mouse monocytes. This simple method should find broad applicability in studies concerned with visualization of LPS biodistribution and identification of LPS binding agents.

  16. Quantum photonics with quantum dots in photonic wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, Mathieu; Kuhlmann, Andreas; Cadeddu, Davide;

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the spectroscopy of a single quantum dot in a photonic wire. The device presents a high photon extraction efficiency, and strong hybrid coupling to mechanical modes. We use resonance fluorescence to probe the emitter’s properties with the highest sensitivity. Weperform...

  17. Quantum transport in a ring of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Quantum dots play a central role in the recent technological efforts to build efficient devices to storage, process and transmit information in the quantum regime [1]. One of the reasons for this interest is the relative simplicity with which its control parameters can be changed by experimentalists. Systems with one, two and even arrays of quantum dots have been intensively studied with respect to their efficiency in processing information carried by charge, spin and heat [1]. A particularly useful realization of a quantum dot is a ballistic electron cavity formed by electrostatic potentials in a two-dimensional electron gas. In the chaotic regime, the shape of the dot is statistically irrelevant and the ability to change its form via external gates can be used to generate members of an ensemble of identical systems. From a theoretical point of view, such quantum dots are ideal electron systems in which to study theoretical models combining phase-coherence, chaotic dynamics and Coulomb interactions. In this work, we use the Keldysh non-linear sigma model [2] with a counting field to study electron transport through a ring of four chaotic quantum dots pierced by an Aharonov-Bohm flux. This system is particularly well suited for studying ways to use the weak-localization effect to process quantum information. We derive the quantum circuit equations for this system from the saddle-point condition of the Keldysh action. The results are used to build the action of the corresponding supersymmetric (SUSY) non-linear sigma model. The connection with the random scattering matrix approach is then made via the color-flavor transformation. In the perturbative regime, where weak-localization effects appear, the Keldysh, SUSY and random scattering matrix approaches can be compared by means of independent analytical calculations. We conclude by pointing out the many advantages of our unified approach. [1] For a review, see Yu. V. Nazarov, and Ya. M. Blanter, Quantum

  18. The Silicon:Colloidal Quantum Dot Heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Masala, Silvia

    2015-10-13

    A heterojunction between crystalline silicon and colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is realized. A special interface modification is developed to overcome an inherent energetic band mismatch between the two semiconductors, and realize the efficient collection of infrared photocarriers generated in the CQD film. This junction is used to produce a sensitive near infrared photodetector. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Shot noise of coupled semiconductor quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Kiesslich, G.; Wacker, A; Schoell, E.

    2003-01-01

    The low-frequency shot noise properties of two electrostatically coupled semiconductor quantum dot states which are connected to emitter/collector contacts are studied. A master equation approach is used to analyze the bias voltage dependence of the Fano factor as a measure of temporal correlations in tunneling current caused by Pauli's exclusion principle and the Coulomb interaction. In particular, the influence of the Coulomb interaction on the shot noise behavior is discussed in detail and...

  20. SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF SHUNGITE QUANTUM DOTS

    OpenAIRE

    RAZBIRIN B.S.; ROZHKOVA N.N.; Sheka, E. F.; Nelson, D. K.; Starukhin, A. N.; Goryunov, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    A low-temperature study has been performed for aqueous shungite, carbon tetrachloride, and toluene dispersions. Spectral characteristics for graphene quantum dots (GQDs) of shungite, attributed to individual fragments of reduced graphene oxide (rGO), reveal a dual character of the dispersions emitting centers: individual GQDs are responsible for the spectra position while fractal structure of GQD colloids provides large broadening of the spectra due to structural inhomogeneity of the colloida...

  1. Quantum dots: synthesis, bioapplications, and toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, Alireza; Mikaeili, Haleh; Samiei, Mohammad; Farkhani, Samad Mussa; Zarghami, Nosratalah; Kouhi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Davaran, Soodabeh

    2012-01-01

    This review introduces quantum dots (QDs) and explores their properties, synthesis, applications, delivery systems in biology, and their toxicity. QDs are one of the first nanotechnologies to be integrated with the biological sciences and are widely anticipated to eventually find application in a number of commercial consumer and clinical products. They exhibit unique luminescence characteristics and electronic properties such as wide and continuous absorption spectra, narrow emission spectra...

  2. The pinning effect in quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monisha, P. J., E-mail: pjmonisha@gmail.com [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Soma [Department of Physics, D V R College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad-502285 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The pinning effect is studied in a Gaussian quantum dot using the improved Wigner-Brillouin perturbation theory (IWBPT) in the presence of electron-phonon interaction. The electron ground state plus one phonon state is degenerate with the electron in the first excited state. The electron-phonon interaction lifts the degeneracy and the first excited states get pinned to the ground state plus one phonon state as we increase the confinement frequency.

  3. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Ultra-bright alkylated graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lan; Tang, Xing-Yan; Zhong, Yun-Xin; Liu, Yue-Wen; Song, Xue-Huan; Deng, Shun-Liu; Xie, Su-Yuan; Yan, Jia-Wei; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2014-10-01

    Highly efficient and stable photoluminescence (PL) are urgently desired for graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to facilitate their prospective applications as optical materials. Here, we report the facile and straightforward synthesis of alkylated graphene quantum dots (AGQDs) via the solvothermal reaction of propagatively alkylated graphene sheets (PAGenes). In contrast to most GQDs reported so far, the synthesized AGQDs process pH-independent and ultra-bright PL with a relative quantum yield of up to 65%. Structural and chemical composition characterization demonstrated that the synthesized AGQDs are nearly oxygen-defect-free with alkyl groups decorated on edges and basal plane, which may contribute to their greatly improved pH tolerance and high quantum efficiency. The photocatalytic performance of AGQDs-P25 nanocomposites was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light. The photocatalytic rate is ca. 5.9 times higher than that of pure P25, indicating that AGQDs could harness the visible spectrum of sunlight for energy conversion or environmental therapy.Highly efficient and stable photoluminescence (PL) are urgently desired for graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to facilitate their prospective applications as optical materials. Here, we report the facile and straightforward synthesis of alkylated graphene quantum dots (AGQDs) via the solvothermal reaction of propagatively alkylated graphene sheets (PAGenes). In contrast to most GQDs reported so far, the synthesized AGQDs process pH-independent and ultra-bright PL with a relative quantum yield of up to 65%. Structural and chemical composition characterization demonstrated that the synthesized AGQDs are nearly oxygen-defect-free with alkyl groups decorated on edges and basal plane, which may contribute to their greatly improved pH tolerance and high quantum efficiency. The photocatalytic performance of AGQDs-P25 nanocomposites was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light. The

  5. Quantum dot spectroscopy using a single phosphorus donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büch, Holger; Fuechsle, Martin; Baker, William; House, Matthew G.; Simmons, Michelle Y.

    2015-12-01

    Using a deterministic single P donor placed with atomic precision accuracy next to a nanoscale silicon quantum dot, we present a way to analyze the energy spectrum of small quantum dots in silicon by tunnel-coupled transport measurements. The energy-level structure of the quantum dot is observed as resonance features within the transport bias triangles when the donor chemical potential is aligned with states within the quantum dot as confirmed by a numeric rate equation solver SIMON. This technique allows us to independently extract the quantum dot level structure irrespective of the density of states in the leads. Such a method is useful for the investigation of silicon quantum dots in the few-electron regime where the level structure is governed by an intricate interplay between the spin- and the valley-orbit degrees of freedom.

  6. Multiple Energy Exciton Shelves in Quantum-Dot-DNA Nanobioelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Samuel M; Singh, Vivek; Ribot, Josep Casamada; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-11-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystallites with multiple size-dependent quantum-confined states that are being explored for utilizing broadband radiation. While DNA has been used for the self-assembly of nanocrystals, it has not been investigated for the formation of simultaneous conduction pathways for transporting multiple energy charges or excitons. These exciton shelves can be formed by coupling the conduction band, valence band, and hot-carrier states in QDs with different HOMO-LUMO levels of DNA nucleobases, resulting from varying degrees of conjugation in the nucleobases. Here we present studies on the electronic density of states in four naturally occurring nucleobases (guanine, thymine, cytosine, and adenine), which energetically couple to quantized states in semiconductor QDs. Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy of single nanoparticle-DNA constructs, we demonstrate composite DOS of chemically coupled DNA oligonucleotides and cadmium chalcogenide QDs (CdS, CdSe, CdTe). While perfectly aligned CdTe QD-DNA states lead to exciton shelves for multiple energy charge transport, mismatched energy levels in CdSe QD-DNA introduce intrabandgap states that can lead to charge trapping and recombination. Although further investigations are required to study the rates of charge transfer, recombination, and back-electron transfer, these results can have important implications for the development of a new class of nanobioelectronics and biological transducers. PMID:26278768

  7. Electrically addressing a single self-assembled quantum dot

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, D J P; Atkinson, P; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J

    2006-01-01

    We report on the use of an aperture in an aluminum oxide layer to restrict current injection into a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot, from an ensemble of such dots within a large mesa. The insulating aperture is formed through the wet-oxidation of a layer of AlAs. Under photoluminescence we observe that only one quantum dot in the ensemble exhibits a Stark shift, and that the same single dot is visible under electroluminescence. Autocorrelation measurements performed on the electroluminescence confirm that we are observing emission from a single quantum dot.

  8. Quantum dots fluorescence quantum yield measured by Thermal Lens Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estupiñán-López, Carlos; Dominguez, Christian Tolentino; Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Fontes, Adriana; de Araujo, Renato E

    2014-01-01

    An essential parameter to evaluate the light emission properties of fluorophores is the fluorescence quantum yield, which quantify the conversion efficiency of absorbed photons to emitted photons. We detail here an alternative nonfluorescent method to determine the absolute fluorescence quantum yield of quantum dots (QDs). The method is based in the so-called Thermal Lens Spectroscopy (TLS) technique, which consists on the evaluation of refractive index gradient thermally induced in the fluorescent material by the absorption of light. Aqueous dispersion carboxyl-coated cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs samples were used to demonstrate the Thermal Lens Spectroscopy technical procedure. PMID:25103802

  9. Electron States of Few-Electron Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴振宏; 孙金祚; 张立德; 李作宏; 黄士勇; 隋鹏飞

    2002-01-01

    We study few-electron semiconductor quantum dots using the unrestricted Hartree-Fock-Roothaan method based on the Gaussian basis. Our emphasis is on the energy level calculation for quantum dots. The confinement potential in a quantum dot is assumed to be in a form of three-dimensional spherical finite potential well. Some valuable results, such as the rearrangement of the energy level, have been obtained.

  10. Reconfigurable quadruple quantum dots in a silicon nanowire transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Betz, A. C.; Tagliaferri, M. L. V.; Vinet, M.; Broström, M.; Sanquer, M.; Ferguson, A.J.; Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel reconfigurable metal-oxide-semiconductor multi-gate transistor that can host a quadruple quantum dot in silicon. The device consist of an industrial quadruple-gate silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. Exploiting the corner effect, we study the versatility of the structure in the single quantum dot and the serial double quantum dot regimes and extract the relevant capacitance parameters. We address the fabrication variability of the quadruple-gate approach which, paired...

  11. Polarized quantum dot emission in electrohydrodynamic jet printed photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See, Gloria G. [Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 208 North Wright Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Xu, Lu; Nuzzo, Ralph G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G. [Mechanical Science and Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 154 Mechanical Engineering Building, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Cunningham, Brian T. [Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 208 North Wright Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1270 Digital Computer Laboratory, MC-278, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-08-03

    Tailored optical output, such as color purity and efficient optical intensity, are critical considerations for displays, particularly in mobile applications. To this end, we demonstrate a replica molded photonic crystal structure with embedded quantum dots. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing is used to control the position of the quantum dots within the device structure. This results in significantly less waste of the quantum dot material than application through drop-casting or spin coating. In addition, the targeted placement of the quantum dots minimizes any emission outside of the resonant enhancement field, which enables an 8× output enhancement and highly polarized emission from the photonic crystal structure.

  12. Core–shell quantum dots: Properties and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, D., E-mail: vasudevand@rediffmail.com [Electrodics and electrocatalysis division, CSIR-CECRI, Karaikudi 630006 (India); Gaddam, Rohit Ranganathan [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida 201301 (India); Trinchi, Adrian; Cole, Ivan [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Clayton South MDC, 3169 (Australia)

    2015-07-05

    Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) are semiconducting nanocrystals (NCs) that find numerous applications in areas, such as bio labelling, sensors, lasers, light emitting diodes and medicine. Core–shell quantum dots were developed to improve the photoluminescence efficiency of single quantum dots. Capping their surface with organic ligands as well as their extraction into aqueous media enables their use in sensing applications. The current review highlights the importance and applications of core shell quantum dots as well as their surface modifications and applications in the field of medicine and as sensors for chemical and biochemical analysis.

  13. Polarized quantum dot emission in electrohydrodynamic jet printed photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tailored optical output, such as color purity and efficient optical intensity, are critical considerations for displays, particularly in mobile applications. To this end, we demonstrate a replica molded photonic crystal structure with embedded quantum dots. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing is used to control the position of the quantum dots within the device structure. This results in significantly less waste of the quantum dot material than application through drop-casting or spin coating. In addition, the targeted placement of the quantum dots minimizes any emission outside of the resonant enhancement field, which enables an 8× output enhancement and highly polarized emission from the photonic crystal structure

  14. Electric and Magnetic Interaction between Quantum Dots and Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tighineanu, Petru

    a future challenge for the droplet-epitaxy technique. A multipolar theory of spontaneous emission from quantum dots is developed to explain the recent observation that In(Ga)As quantum dots break the dipole theory. The analysis yields a large mesoscopic moment, which contains magnetic-dipole and electric......-matter interaction of both electric and magnetic character. Our study demonstrates that In(Ga)As quantum dots lack parity symmetry and, as consequence, can be employed for locally probing the parity symmetry of complex photonic nanostructures. This opens the prospect for interfacing quantum dots with optical...

  15. Second-harmonic imaging of semiconductor quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Pedersen, Kjeld;

    2000-01-01

    Resonant second-harmonic generation is observed at room temperature in reflection from self-assembled InAlGaAs quantum dots grown on a GaAs (001) substrate. The detected second-harmonic signal peaks at a pump wavelength of similar to 885 nm corresponding to the quantum-dot photoluminescence maxim...... observe that second-harmonic images of the quantum-dot surface structure show wavelength-dependent spatial variations. Imaging at different wavelength is used to demonstrate second-harmonic generation from the semiconductor quantum dots. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics....

  16. Single-electron Spin Resonance in a Quadruple Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Ito, Takumi; Sugawara, Retsu; Noiri, Akito; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Tarucha, Seigo

    2016-08-01

    Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are good candidates of quantum bits for quantum information processing. Basic operations of the qubit have been realized in recent years: initialization, manipulation of single spins, two qubit entanglement operations, and readout. Now it becomes crucial to demonstrate scalability of this architecture by conducting spin operations on a scaled up system. Here, we demonstrate single-electron spin resonance in a quadruple quantum dot. A few-electron quadruple quantum dot is formed within a magnetic field gradient created by a micro-magnet. We oscillate the wave functions of the electrons in the quantum dots by applying microwave voltages and this induces electron spin resonance. The resonance energies of the four quantum dots are slightly different because of the stray field created by the micro-magnet and therefore frequency-resolved addressable control of each electron spin resonance is possible.

  17. Silicon quantum dots: fine-tuning to maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Quantum dots in semiconductor heterostructures provide one of the most flexible platforms for the study of quantum phenomena at the nanoscale. The surging interest in using quantum dots for quantum computation is forcing researchers to rethink fabrication and operation methods, to obtain highly tunable dots in spin-free host materials, such as silicon. Borselli and colleagues report in Nanotechnology the fabrication of a novel Si/SiGe double quantum dot device, which combines an ultra-low disorder Si/SiGe accumulation-mode heterostructure with a stack of overlapping control gates, ensuring tight confining potentials and exquisite tunability. This work signals the technological maturity of silicon quantum dots, and their readiness to be applied to challenging projects in quantum information science.

  18. Tandem structured quantum dot/rod sensitized solar cell based on solvothermal synthesized CdSe quantum dots and rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golobostanfard, Mohammad Reza; Abdizadeh, Hossein

    2014-06-01

    The quantum dots (QD) and quantum rods (QR) of different sizes, shapes, and crystalline phases are synthesized by modified solvothermal method spontaneously employed stirring system and controlled internal applied pressure. The tandem structure of QDs and QRs as well as tetrapods is formed on hierarchical porous titania photoanode by means of electrophoretic deposition. A tremendous enhancement in efficiency of the cell is obtained in samples synthesized at 220 °C for 24 h due to the formation of tandem structure, utilization of Cu2S/CNT composite cathode, co-sensitization of CdS and CdSe, and beneficial role of QRs in electron lifetime. Smaller size QDs with higher band gaps penetrate deeper through the macro-channels of the hierarchical porous structure, while the QRs and tetrapods with lower band gaps are placed on upper layers. Although the charge injection is improved in smaller QDs, the electron lifetime in QRs is longer mainly due to the higher absorption cross section, proper charge separation, introduction of quasi-one dimensional route for charge transport through QRs, and higher surface area available for regeneration with electrolyte. The cell shows the efficiency of 1.05% with JSC of 4.48 mA cm-2, VOC of 0.45 V, and fill factor of 0.52.

  19. Quantum dot spin cellular automata for realizing a quantum processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show how single quantum dots, each hosting a singlet–triplet qubit, can be placed in arrays to build a spin quantum cellular automaton. A fast (∼10 ns) deterministic coherent singlet–triplet filtering, as opposed to current incoherent tunneling/slow-adiabatic based quantum gates (operation time ∼300 ns), can be employed to produce a two-qubit gate through capacitive (electrostatic) couplings that can operate over significant distances. This is the coherent version of the widely discussed charge and nano-magnet cellular automata, and would increase speed, reduce dissipation, and perform quantum computation while interfacing smoothly with its classical counterpart. This combines the best of two worlds—the coherence of spin pairs known from quantum technologies, and the strength and range of electrostatic couplings from the charge-based classical cellular automata. Significantly our system has zero electric dipole moment during the whole operation process, thereby increasing its charge dephasing time. (paper)

  20. The quantum dot nanoconjugate tool box (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, I. D.; Wright, D. W.; Giorgio, T. D.; Blakely, R. D.; Pennycook, S. J.; Hercules, D.; Bentzen, L.; Smith, R. A.; McBride, J.; Vergne, M. J.; Rosenthal, S.

    2005-04-01

    The surface coating of quantum dots has been characterised using Z-stem. Quantum dots have been pegylated to increase stability in aqueous solution. The fluorescence intensity of the quantum dots was modulated pegylation. PEG was coupled using different ratios of EDC, PEG and NHS. Optimum coupling conditions were found to occur when 2000 equivalents of PEG were reacted with 1 equivalent of dot in the presence of 1500 equivalents of NHS and EDC. Angiotensin II was also conjugated to quantum dots and these conjugates were shown to be biologically active. Quantum dots have also been surface functionalised with other peptides such as NGR with subsequent demonstration of cell surface binding and can be characterized by flow cytometry.

  1. Modified magnetic quantum dot with electric confining potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic properties of a modified magnetic quantum dot are studied. The modified magnetic quantum dot is a quantum structure that is formed by spatially inhomogeneous distributions of magnetic fields. Electrons are magnetically confined to the plane where the magnetic fields inside and outside the dot are different from each other. The energy spectrum exhibits quite different features depending on the directions of the magnetic fields inside and outside the dot. In particular, the case of opposite directions of the fields is more interesting than that of the same direction. An electrostatic potential is introduced to the system to study the effects of an electric confining potential on the eigenenergy of a single electron in the modified magnetic quantum dot. The additional potential raises the whole energy spectrum and changes its shape. The ground-state angular momentum transitions occurring in a bare modified magnetic quantum dot disappear on introduction of the additional parabolic potential

  2. Zeolite Y Films as Ideal Platform for Evaluation of Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Sung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are ideal host material for generation and stabilization of regular ultrasmall quantum dots (QDs array with the size below 1.5 nm. Quantum dots (QDs with high density and extinction absorption coefficient have been expected to give high level of third-order nonlinear optical (3rd-NLO and to have great potential applications in optoelectronics. In this paper, we carried out a systematic elucidation of the third-order nonlinear optical response of various types of QDs including PbSe, PbS, CdSe, CdS, ZnSe, ZnS, Ag2Se, and Ag2S by manipulation of QDs into zeolites Y pores. In this respect, we could demonstrate that the zeolite offers an ideal platform for capability comparison 3rd-NLO response of various types of QDs with high sensitivities.

  3. Nanoscale science and engineering forum (706c) design of solid lipid particles with iron oxide quantum dots for the delivery of therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid lipid particles provide a method to encapsulate and control the release of drugs in vivo but lack the imaging capability provided by CdS quantum dots. This shortcoming was addressed by combining these two technologies into a model system that uses iron oxide as a non-toxic imaging component in...

  4. Quantum dots for next-generation photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavi E. Semonin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal quantum-confined semiconductor nanostructures are an emerging class of functional material that are being developed for novel solar energy conversion strategies. One of the largest losses in a bulk or thin film solar cell occurs within a few picoseconds after the photon is absorbed, as photons with energy larger than the semiconductor bandgap produce charge-carriers with excess kinetic energy, which is then dissipated via phonon emission. Semiconductor nanostructures, where at least one dimension is small enough to produce quantum confinement effects, provide new pathways for controlling energy flow and therefore have the potential to increase the efficiency of the primary photoconversion step. In this review, we provide the current status of research efforts towards utilizing the unique properties of colloidal quantum dots (nanocrystals confined in three dimensions in prototype solar cells and demonstrate that these unique systems have the potential to bypass the Shockley-Queisser single-junction limit for solar photon conversion.

  5. Hybrid passivated colloidal quantum dot solids

    KAUST Repository

    Ip, Alex

    2012-07-29

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films allow large-area solution processing and bandgap tuning through the quantum size effect. However, the high ratio of surface area to volume makes CQD films prone to high trap state densities if surfaces are imperfectly passivated, promoting recombination of charge carriers that is detrimental to device performance. Recent advances have replaced the long insulating ligands that enable colloidal stability following synthesis with shorter organic linkers or halide anions, leading to improved passivation and higher packing densities. Although this substitution has been performed using solid-state ligand exchange, a solution-based approach is preferable because it enables increased control over the balance of charges on the surface of the quantum dot, which is essential for eliminating midgap trap states. Furthermore, the solution-based approach leverages recent progress in metal:chalcogen chemistry in the liquid phase. Here, we quantify the density of midgap trap states in CQD solids and show that the performance of CQD-based photovoltaics is now limited by electrong-"hole recombination due to these states. Next, using density functional theory and optoelectronic device modelling, we show that to improve this performance it is essential to bind a suitable ligand to each potential trap site on the surface of the quantum dot. We then develop a robust hybrid passivation scheme that involves introducing halide anions during the end stages of the synthesis process, which can passivate trap sites that are inaccessible to much larger organic ligands. An organic crosslinking strategy is then used to form the film. Finally, we use our hybrid passivated CQD solid to fabricate a solar cell with a certified efficiency of 7.0%, which is a record for a CQD photovoltaic device. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  6. Amphoteric CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad A

    2008-06-25

    The nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) charge states strongly influence their electrical transport properties in photovoltaic and electroluminescent devices, optical gains in NQD lasers, and the stability of the dots in thin films. We report a unique electrostatic nature of CdSe NQDs, studied by electrophoretic methods. When we submerged a pair of metal electrodes, in a parallel plate capacitor configuration, into a dilute solution of CdSe NQDs in hexane, and applied a DC voltage across the pair, thin films of CdSe NQDs were deposited on both the positive and the negative electrodes. Extensive characterizations including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman studies revealed that the films on both the positive and the negative electrodes were identical in every respect, clearly indicating that: (1) a fraction (<1%) of the CdSe NQDs in free form in hexane solution are charged and, more importantly, (2) there are equal numbers of positive and negative CdSe NQDs in the hexane solution. Experiments also show that the number of deposited dots is at least an order of magnitude higher than the number of initially charged dots, indicating regeneration. We used simple thermodynamics to explain such amphoteric nature and the charging/regeneration of the CdSe NQDs.

  7. Quantum optics and cavity QED with quantum dots in photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Vuckovic, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will primarily focus on the studies of quantum optics with semiconductor, epitaxially grown quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal cavities. We will start by giving brief introductions into photonic crystals and quantum dots, then proceed with the introduction to cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects, with a particular emphasis on the demonstration of these effects on the quantum dot-photonic crystal platform. Finally, we will focus on the applications of such cavity QED effects.

  8. Quantum optics and cavity QED with quantum dots in photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Vuckovic, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will primarily focus on the studies of quantum optics with semiconductor, epitaxially grown quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal cavities. We will start by giving brief introductions into photonic crystals and quantum dots, then proceed with the introduction to cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects, with a particular emphasis on the demonstration of these effects on the quantum dot-photonic crystal platform. Finally, we will focus on the applications of such cavity QE...

  9. Mapping between quantum dot and quantum well lasers: From conventional to spin lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, JeongSu; Oszwałdowski, Rafał; Gøthgen, Christian; Žutić, Igor

    2012-01-01

    We explore similarities between the quantum wells and quantum dots used as optical gain media in semiconductor lasers. We formulate a mapping procedure which allows a simpler, often analytical, description of quantum well lasers to study more complex lasers based on quantum dots. The key observation in relating the two classes of laser is that the influence of a finite capture time on the operation of quantum dot lasers can be approximated well by a suitable choice of the gain compression fac...

  10. Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

  11. Resonance fluorescence from a telecom-wavelength quantum dot

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khuzheyri, R; Huwer, J; Santana, T S; Szymanska, J Skiba-; Felle, M; Ward, M B; Stevenson, R M; Farrer, I; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J; Gerardot, B D

    2016-01-01

    We report on resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot emitting at telecom wavelengths. We perform high-resolution spectroscopy and observe the Mollow triplet in the Rabi regime--a hallmark of resonance fluorescence. The measured resonance-fluorescence spectra allow us to rule out pure dephasing as a significant decoherence mechanism in these quantum dots. Combined with numerical simulations, the experimental results provide robust characterisation of charge noise in the environment of the quantum dot. Resonant control of the quantum dot opens up new possibilities for on-demand generation of indistinguishable single photons at telecom wavelengths as well as quantum optics experiments and direct manipulation of solid-state qubits in telecom-wavelength quantum dots.

  12. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail: msingh@sandia.gov; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  13. Highly Efficient Spontaneous Emission from Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Hvam, Jørn Märcher;

    2006-01-01

    We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency.......We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency....

  14. Direct Interband Light Absorption in Conical Quantum Dot

    OpenAIRE

    Hayrapetyan, D. B.; Chalyan, A. V.; Kazaryan, E. M.; H. A. Sarkisyan

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the adiabatic approximation, the energy states of electron as well as the direct light absorption are investigated in conical quantum dot. Analytical expressions for particle energy spectrum are obtained. The dependence of the absorption edge on geometrical parameters of conical quantum dot is obtained. Selection rules are revealed for transitions between levels with different quantum numbers. In particular, it is shown that for the radial quantum number transitions are al...

  15. Nano-laser on silicon quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Qi; Liu, Shi-Rong; Qin, Chao-Jian; Lü, Quan; Xu, Li

    2011-04-01

    A new conception of nano-laser is proposed in which depending on the size of nano-clusters (silicon quantum dots (QD)), the pumping level of laser can be tuned by the quantum confinement (QC) effect, and the population inversion can be formed between the valence band and the localized states in gap produced from the surface bonds of nano-clusters. Here we report the experimental demonstration of nano-laser on silicon quantum dots fabricated by nanosecond pulse laser. The peaks of stimulated emission are observed at 605 nm and 693 nm. Through the micro-cavity of nano-laser, a full width at half maximum of the peak at 693 nm can reach to 0.5 nm. The theoretical model and the experimental results indicate that it is a necessary condition for setting up nano-laser that the smaller size of QD (d nano-laser will be limited in the range of 1.7-2.3 eV generally due to the position of the localized states in gap, which is in good agreement between the experiments and the theory.

  16. Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics: A Path Forward

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2011-11-22

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer a path toward high-efficiency photovoltaics based on low-cost materials and processes. Spectral tunability via the quantum size effect facilitates absorption of specific wavelengths from across the sun\\'s broad spectrum. CQD materials\\' ease of processing derives from their synthesis, storage, and processing in solution. Rapid advances have brought colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic solar power conversion efficiencies of 6% in the latest reports. These achievements represent important first steps toward commercially compelling performance. Here we review advances in device architecture and materials science. We diagnose the principal phenomenon-electronic states within the CQD film band gap that limit both current and voltage in devices-that must be cured for CQD PV devices to fulfill their promise. We close with a prescription, expressed as bounds on the density and energy of electronic states within the CQD film band gap, that should allow device efficiencies to rise to those required for the future of the solar energy field. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in CdSe/CdS/ZnS Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan-xin Yao; Zai-xi Fu; Xian-yi Zhang; Xian-feng Zheng; Xue-han Ji; Zhi-feng Cui; Hong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The intra- and inter-band relaxation dynamics of CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots are investigated with the aid of time-resolved nonlinear transmission spectra which are obtained using femtosecond pump-probe technique.By selectively exciting the core and shell carrier,the dynamics are studied in detail.Carrier relaxation is found faster in the conduction band of the CdS shell (about 130 fs) than that in the conduction band of the CdSe core (about 400 fs).From the experiments it is distinctly demonstrated the existence of the defect states in the interface between the CdSe core and the CdS shell,indicating that ultrafast spectroscopy might be a suitable tool in studying interface and surface morphology properties in nanosystems.

  18. Co-sensitized quantum dot solar cell based on ZnO nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient photoelectrode is fabricated by sequentially assembled CdS and CdSe quantum dots (QDs) onto a ZnO-nanowire film. As revealed by UV-vis absorption spectrum and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), CdS and CdSe QDs can be effectively adsorbed on ZnO-nanowire array. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measured demonstrates that the electron lifetime for ZnO/CdS/CdSe (13.8 ms) is calculated longer than that of ZnO/CdS device (6.2 ms), which indicates that interface charge recombination rate is reduced by sensitizing CdSe QDs. With broader light absorption range and longer electron lifetime, a power conversion efficiency of 1.42% is achieved for ZnO based CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cell under the illumination of one Sun (AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm-2).

  19. Quantum Gates Between Two Spins in a Triple Dot System with an Empty Dot

    CERN Document Server

    Coello, Jose Garcia

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme for implementing quantum gates and entanglement between spin qubits in the outer dots of a triple-dot system with an empty central dot. The voltage applied to the central dot can be tuned to realize the gate. Our scheme exemplifies the possibility of quantum gates outside the regime where each dot has an electron, so that spin-spin exchange interaction is not the only relevant mechanism. Analytic treatment is possible by mapping the problem to a t-J model. The fidelity of the entangling quantum gate between the spins is analyzed in the presence of decoherence stemming from a bath of nuclear spins, as well as from charge fluctuations. Our scheme provides an avenue for extending the scope of two qubit gate experiments to triple-dots, while requiring minimal control, namely that of the potential of a single dot, and may enhance the qubit separation to ease differential addressability.

  20. Background charges and quantum effects in quantum dots transport spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre M.; Hofheinz M.; Jehl X.; Sanquer M.; Molas G.; Vinet M.; Deleonibus S.

    2009-01-01

    We extend a simple model of a charge trap coupled to a single-electron box to energy ranges and parameters such that it gives new insights and predictions readily observable in many experimental systems. We show that a single background charge is enough to give lines of differential conductance in the stability diagram of the quantum dot, even within undistorted Coulomb diamonds. It also suppresses the current near degeneracy of the impurity charge, and yields negative differential lines far ...

  1. Quantum Adiabatic Pumping by Modulating Tunnel Phase in Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masahiko; Nakajima, Satoshi; Kubo, Toshihiro; Tokura, Yasuhiro

    2016-08-01

    In a mesoscopic system, under zero bias voltage, a finite charge is transferred by quantum adiabatic pumping by adiabatically and periodically changing two or more control parameters. We obtained expressions for the pumped charge for a ring of three quantum dots (QDs) by choosing the magnetic flux penetrating the ring as one of the control parameters. We found that the pumped charge shows a steplike behavior with respect to the variance of the flux. The value of the step heights is not universal but depends on the trajectory of the control parameters. We discuss the physical origin of this behavior on the basis of the Fano resonant condition of the ring.

  2. Systematic optimization of quantum junction colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Huan

    2012-01-01

    The recently reported quantum junction architecture represents a promising approach to building a rectifying photovoltaic device that employs colloidal quantum dot layers on each side of the p-n junction. Here, we report an optimized quantum junction solar cell that leverages an improved aluminum zinc oxide electrode for a stable contact to the n-side of the quantum junction and silver doping of the p-layer that greatly enhances the photocurrent by expanding the depletion region in the n-side of the device. These improvements result in greater stability and a power conversion efficiency of 6.1 under AM1.5 simulated solar illumination. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Nonequilibrium Electron Transport Through a Quantum Dot from Kubo Formula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Rong; ZHANG Guang-Ming

    2005-01-01

    Based on the Kubo formula for an electron tunneling junction, we revisit the nonequilibrium transport properties through a quantum dot. Since the Fermi level of the quantum dot is set by the conduction electrons of the leads, we calculate the electron current from the left side by assuming the quantum dot coupled to the right lead as another side of the tunneling junction, and the other way round is used to calculate the current from the right side. By symmetrizing these two currents, an effective local density states on the dot can be obtained, and is discussed at high and low temperatures, respectively.

  4. Coupling of single quantum dots to a photonic crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Toke; Stobbe, Søren; Julsgaard, Brian;

    is coupled efficiently to a single enhanced mode. One popular approach has been to couple single quantum dots to a nanocavity but a limiting factor in this configuration is that in order to apply the photon it should subsequently be coupled out of the cavity, reducing the overall efficiency significantly....... An alternative approach is to couple the quantum dot directly to the propagating mode of a photonic waveguide. We demonstrate the coupling of single quantum dots to a photonic crystal waveguide using time-resolved spontaneous emission measurements. A pronounced effect is seen in the decay rates of dots coupled...

  5. An Exciton Bound to a Neutral Donor in Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解文方

    2002-01-01

    The binding energies for an exciton (X) trapped in a two-dimensional quantum dot by a neutral donor have been calculated using the method of few-body physics for the heavy hole (σ= 0.196) and the light hole (σr = 0.707).We find that the (D0, X) complex confined in a quantum dot has in general a larger binding energy than those in a two-dimensional quantum well and a three-dimensional bulk semiconductor, and the binding energy increases with the decrease of the dot radius. At dot radius R →∞, we compare our calculated result with the previous results.

  6. Controlled coupling of quantum dots to nanowire plasmons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The diameter of dielectric waveguides is limited by the wavelength of the guided light. In contrast, gold and silver nanowires can sustain propagating plasmon modes even for significantly smaller dimensions. Furthermore the strong eld localization of the nanowire plasmon modes leads to a strong interaction with nearby quantum emitters such as quantum dots. We use electron beam lithography, rst, to fabricate silver nanowires and, second, to position a few dots close to one nanowire end in a template-assisted process. Scanning a focused laser spot over the nanowire ends, we demonstrate both, the excitation of nanowire modes by quantum dots and the addressing of the same dots by plasmons. We use the fluorescence signals to quantify the quantum dots/plasmon coupling and show that part of the plasmon-induced dot fluorescence couples back to plasmonic modes. (author)

  7. Quantum dot loaded immunomicelles for tumor imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levchenko Tatyana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optical imaging is a promising method for the detection of tumors in animals, with speed and minimal invasiveness. We have previously developed a lipid coated quantum dot system that doubles the fluorescence of PEG-grafted quantum dots at half the dose. Here, we describe a tumor-targeted near infrared imaging agent composed of cancer-specific monoclonal anti-nucleosome antibody 2C5, coupled to quantum dot (QD-containing polymeric micelles, prepared from a polyethylene glycol/phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE conjugate. Its production is simple and involves no special equipment. Its imaging potential is great since the fluorescence intensity in the tumor is twofold that of non-targeted QD-loaded PEG-PE micelles at one hour after injection. Methods Para-nitrophenol-containing (5% PEG-PE quantum dot micelles were produced by the thin layer method. Following hydration, 2C5 antibody was attached to the PEG-PE micelles and the QD-micelles were purified using dialysis. 4T1 breast tumors were inoculated subcutaneously in the flank of the animals. A lung pseudometastatic B16F10 melanoma model was developed using tail vein injection. The contrast agents were injected via the tail vein and mice were depilated, anesthetized and imaged on a Kodak Image Station. Images were taken at one, two, and four hours and analyzed using a methodology that produces normalized signal-to-noise data. This allowed for the comparison between different subjects and time points. For the pseudometastatic model, lungs were removed and imaged ex vivo at one and twenty four hours. Results The contrast agent signal intensity at the tumor was double that of the passively targeted QD-micelles with equally fast and sharply contrasted images. With the side views of the animals only tumor is visible, while in the dorsal view internal organs including liver and kidney are visible. Ex vivo results demonstrated that the agent detects melanoma nodes in a lung

  8. Fano-Rashba effect in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the electronic transport through a Rashba quantum dot coupled to ferromagnetic leads. We show that the interference of localized electron states with resonant electron states leads to the appearance of the Fano-Rashba effect. This effect occurs due to the interference of bound levels of spin-polarized electrons with the continuum of electronic states with an opposite spin polarization. We investigate this Fano-Rashba effect as a function of the applied magnetic field and Rashba spin-orbit coupling

  9. High-resolution photoluminescence studies of single semiconductor quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Østergaard, John Erland; Jensen, Jacob Riis;

    2000-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots, especially those formed by self-organized growth, are considered a promising material system for future optical devices [1] and the optical properties of quantum dot ensembles have been investigated in detail over the past years. Recently, considerable interest has...

  10. Transport through Zero-Dimensional States in a Quantum Dot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenhoven, Leo P.; Wees, Bart J. van; Harmans, Kees J.P.M.; Williamson, John G.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the electron transport through zero-dimensional (0D) states. 0D states are formed when one-dimensional edge channels are confined in a quantum dot. The quantum dot is defined in a two-dimensional electron gas with a split gate technique. To allow electronic transport, connection to t

  11. Negative Trions Trapped by a Spherical Parabolic Quantum Dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a negatively charged exciton trapped by a spherical parabolic quantum dot has been investigated. The energy spectra of low-lying states are calculated by means of matrix diagonalization. The important feature of the low-lying states of the negatively charged excitons in a spherical quantum dot is obtained via an analysis of the energy spectra.

  12. Electronic properties of assemblies of zno quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Aarnoud Laurens

    2003-01-01

    Electron transport in an assembly of ZnO quantum dots has been studied using an electrochemically gated transistor. The electron mobility shows a step-wise increase as a function of the electron occupation per quantum dot. When the occupation number is below two, transport occurs by tunnelling betwe

  13. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots and Heat Transport in Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsanskas, Gediminas

    and to perform electrical transport experiments at temperatures below one Kelvin (1 K), and thus to address such question. In this thesis we are concerned with the theoretical description of one kind of such devices called quantum dots. As the name suggest a quantum dot is a system where particles are confined...

  14. Quantum computation with nuclear spins in quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, H.

    2008-01-24

    The role of nuclear spins for quantum information processing in quantum dots is theoretically investigated in this thesis. Building on the established fact that the most strongly coupled environment for the potential electron spin quantum bit are the surrounding lattice nuclear spins interacting via the hyperfine interaction, we turn this vice into a virtue by designing schemes for harnessing this strong coupling. In this perspective, the ensemble of nuclear spins can be considered an asset, suitable for an active role in quantum information processing due to its intrinsic long coherence times. We present experimentally feasible protocols for the polarization, i.e. initialization, of the nuclear spins and a quantitative solution to our derived master equation. The polarization limiting destructive interference effects, caused by the collective nature of the nuclear coupling to the electron spin, are studied in detail. Efficient ways of mitigating these constraints are presented, demonstrating that highly polarized nuclear ensembles in quantum dots are feasible. At high, but not perfect, polarization of the nuclei the evolution of an electron spin in contact with the spin bath can be efficiently studied by means of a truncation of the Hilbert space. It is shown that the electron spin can function as a mediator of universal quantum gates for collective nuclear spin qubits, yielding a promising architecture for quantum information processing. Furthermore, we show that at high polarization the hyperfine interaction of electron and nuclear spins resembles the celebrated Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics. This result opens the door for transfer of knowledge from the mature field of quantum computation with atoms and photons. Additionally, tailored specifically for the quantum dot environment, we propose a novel scheme for the generation of highly squeezed collective nuclear states. Finally we demonstrate that even an unprepared completely mixed nuclear spin

  15. Quantum computation with nuclear spins in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of nuclear spins for quantum information processing in quantum dots is theoretically investigated in this thesis. Building on the established fact that the most strongly coupled environment for the potential electron spin quantum bit are the surrounding lattice nuclear spins interacting via the hyperfine interaction, we turn this vice into a virtue by designing schemes for harnessing this strong coupling. In this perspective, the ensemble of nuclear spins can be considered an asset, suitable for an active role in quantum information processing due to its intrinsic long coherence times. We present experimentally feasible protocols for the polarization, i.e. initialization, of the nuclear spins and a quantitative solution to our derived master equation. The polarization limiting destructive interference effects, caused by the collective nature of the nuclear coupling to the electron spin, are studied in detail. Efficient ways of mitigating these constraints are presented, demonstrating that highly polarized nuclear ensembles in quantum dots are feasible. At high, but not perfect, polarization of the nuclei the evolution of an electron spin in contact with the spin bath can be efficiently studied by means of a truncation of the Hilbert space. It is shown that the electron spin can function as a mediator of universal quantum gates for collective nuclear spin qubits, yielding a promising architecture for quantum information processing. Furthermore, we show that at high polarization the hyperfine interaction of electron and nuclear spins resembles the celebrated Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics. This result opens the door for transfer of knowledge from the mature field of quantum computation with atoms and photons. Additionally, tailored specifically for the quantum dot environment, we propose a novel scheme for the generation of highly squeezed collective nuclear states. Finally we demonstrate that even an unprepared completely mixed nuclear spin

  16. Hyper-parallel photonic quantum computation with coupled quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Bao-Cang; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that a parallel quantum computer is more powerful than a classical one. So far, there are some important works about the construction of universal quantum logic gates, the key elements in quantum computation. However, they are focused on operating on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems. Here, we investigate the possibility of achieving scalable hyper-parallel quantum computation based on two DOFs of photon systems. We construct a deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gate operating on both the spatial-mode and the polarization DOFs of a two-photon system simultaneously, by exploiting the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This hyper-CNOT gate is implemented by manipulating the four qubits in the two DOFs of a two-photon system without auxiliary spatial modes or polarization modes. It reduces the operation time and the resources consumed in quantum information processing, and it is more robust against the photonic dissipation noise, compared with the integration of several cascaded CNOT gates in one DOF.

  17. Uniform Doping in Quantum-Dots-Based Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Avijit; Shetty, Amitha; Pavan, A R; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Shibata, Tomohiro; Viswanatha, Ranjani

    2016-07-01

    Effective manipulation of magnetic spin within a semiconductor leading to a search for ferromagnets with semiconducting properties has evolved into an important field of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). Although a lot of research is focused on understanding the still controversial origin of magnetism, efforts are also underway to develop new materials with higher magnetic temperatures for spintronics applications. However, so far, efforts toward quantum-dots(QDs)-based DMS materials are plagued with problems of phase separation, leading to nonuniform distribution of dopant ions. In this work, we have developed a strategy to synthesize highly crystalline, single-domain DMS system starting from a small magnetic core and allowing it to diffuse uniformly inside a thick CdS semiconductor matrix and achieve DMS QDs. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy-scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM-EDX) indicates the homogeneous distribution of magnetic impurities inside the semiconductor QDs leading to superior magnetic property. Further, the versatility of this technique was demonstrated by obtaining ultra large particles (∼60 nm) with uniform doping concentration as well as demonstrating the high quality magnetic response. PMID:27295453

  18. Uniform Doping in Quantum-Dots-Based Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Avijit; Shetty, Amitha; Pavan, A R; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Shibata, Tomohiro; Viswanatha, Ranjani

    2016-07-01

    Effective manipulation of magnetic spin within a semiconductor leading to a search for ferromagnets with semiconducting properties has evolved into an important field of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). Although a lot of research is focused on understanding the still controversial origin of magnetism, efforts are also underway to develop new materials with higher magnetic temperatures for spintronics applications. However, so far, efforts toward quantum-dots(QDs)-based DMS materials are plagued with problems of phase separation, leading to nonuniform distribution of dopant ions. In this work, we have developed a strategy to synthesize highly crystalline, single-domain DMS system starting from a small magnetic core and allowing it to diffuse uniformly inside a thick CdS semiconductor matrix and achieve DMS QDs. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy-scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM-EDX) indicates the homogeneous distribution of magnetic impurities inside the semiconductor QDs leading to superior magnetic property. Further, the versatility of this technique was demonstrated by obtaining ultra large particles (∼60 nm) with uniform doping concentration as well as demonstrating the high quality magnetic response.

  19. Exciton dephasing in single InGaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Østergaard, John Erland; Jensen, Jacob Riis;

    2000-01-01

    The homogeneous linewidth of excitonic transitions is a parameter of fundamental physical importance. In self-assembled quantum dot systems, a strong inhomogeneous broadening due to dot size fluctuations masks the homogeneous linewidth associated with transitions between individual states. The ho...... to fast dephasing. We present an investigation of the low-temperature homogeneous linewidth of individual PL lines from MBE-grown In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots....

  20. Nonlinear transport in coupled quantum dots: A stationary probability approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG JianPing; DUAN SuQing; YAN WeiXian; ZHAO XianGeng

    2009-01-01

    The stationary tunneling current and differential conductance of the coupled quantum dots system with split-gates are calculated by generalizing the Beenaker's linear response theory for the description of the Coulomb-blockade oscillations of the conductance in the single quantum dot. The calculation of the charging diagram in parallel through the double dot as function of the two side-gate voltages shows a remarkable agreement with the recent experimental results by Hatano et al. (Science, 2005, 309: 268-271)

  1. Polarization anisotropic luminescence of tunable single lateral quantum dot molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermannstädter, C.; Witzany, M.; Heldmaier, M.; Hafenbrak, R.; Jöns, K. D.; Beirne, G. J.; Michler, P.

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the photoluminescence polarization anisotropy of self-assembled individual lateral InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules. In contrast to similarly grown single quantum dots, the dot molecules exhibit a remarkable degree of linear polarization, which remains almost unchanged when a lateral electric field is applied to tune the exciton wave function and, thus, the luminescence spectral properties. We discuss the nature of this polarization anisotropy and suggest possible causes based on the system's symmetry and heterostructure alloy composition.

  2. Short-wave infrared colloidal quantum dot photodetectors on silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Chen; Gassenq, Alban; Justo, Yolanda; Yakunin, Sergii; Heiss, Wolfgang; Hens, Zeger; Roelkens, Gunther

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, two kinds of colloidal quantum dots, PbS and HgTe, are explored for SWIR photodetectors application. The colloidal dots are prepared by hot injection chemical synthesis, with organic ligands around the dots keeping them stable in solution. For the purpose of achieving efficient carrier transport between the dots in a film, these long organic ligands are replaced by shorter, inorganic ligands. We report uniform, ultra-smooth colloidal QD films without cracks realized by dip-coat...

  3. Interaction of porphyrins with CdTe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porphyrins may be used as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy, photocatalysts for organic pollutant dissociation, agents for medical imaging and diagnostics, applications in luminescence and electronics. The detection of porphyrins is significantly important and here the interaction of protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) with CdTe quantum dots was studied. It was observed that the luminescence of CdTe quantum dots was quenched dramatically in the presence of PPIX. When CdTe quantum dots were embedded into silica layers, almost no quenching by PPIX was observed. This indicates that PPIX may interact and alter CdTe quantum dots and thus quench their luminescence. The oxidation of the stabilizers such as thioglycolic acid (TGA) as well as the nanoparticles by the singlet oxygen generated from PPIX is most likely responsible for the luminescence quenching. The quenching of quantum dot luminescence by porphyrins may provide a new method for photosensitizer detection.

  4. Tunneling rate in double quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filikhin, Igor; Matinyan, Sergei; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2014-03-01

    We study spectral properties of electron tunneling in double quantum dots (DQDs) (and double quantum wells (DQWs)) and their relation to the geometry. In particular we compare the tunneling in DQW with chaotic and regular geometry, taking into account recent evidence about regularization of the tunneling rate when the QW geometry is chaotic. Our calculations do not support this assumption. We confirm high influence of the QW geometry boundaries on the rate fluctuation along the spectrum. The factors of the effective mass anisotropy and violation of the symmetry of DQD and DQW are also considered. Generally, we found that the small violation of the symmetry drastically affects tunneling. This work is supported by the NSF (HRD-0833184) and NASA (NNX09AV07A).

  5. In Vivo Imaging of Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texier, Isabelle; Josser, Véronique

    Noninvasive whole-body near-infrared fluorescence imaging is now acknowledged as a powerful method for the molecular mapping of biological events in live small animals such as mouse models. With outstanding optical properties such as high fluorescence quantum yields and low photobleaching rates, quantum dots (QDs) are labels of choice in the near-infrared domain. The main applications described in the literature for in vivo imaging of mice after injection of QDs encompass imaging of lymph nodes and tumors and cell tracking. Standard methods for the preparation, the purification, and the in vivo fluorescence whole-body imaging of QDs in the live mouse are described. Nanoparticles coated by PEG chains of different sizes and terminal groups are prepared using 705-nm-emitting commercial QDs. Their biodistribution after intravenous or intradermal injections in tumor-bearing mice is reported here.

  6. Selective area epitaxy of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We investigate selective-area-epitaxy (SAE) as a tool for selectively controlling the physical and optical properties of quantum-dots (QDs), aiming at integration of QD devices. MOCVD growth of InGaAs/lnAs QDs on GaAs wafers patterned with pairs of SiO2 stripes is studied. Atomic force microscopy and cathodoluminescence are used for characterisation of these QDs. We show that InGaAs QD luminescence can be tuned over a range of 100nm by varying the dimensions of and/or spacings between the SiO2 stripes. Growth of InGaAs quantum-well and QDs on different parts of the same wafer, without using etch and regrowth techniques is also demonstrated. Results for the InAs/GaAs system are also presented. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

  7. Biosensing with Luminescent Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedi Mattoussi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs are a recentlydeveloped class of nanomaterial whose unique photophysical properties are helping tocreate a new generation of robust fluorescent biosensors. QD properties of interest forbiosensing include high quantum yields, broad absorption spectra coupled to narrow sizetunablephotoluminescent emissions and exceptional resistance to both photobleaching andchemical degradation. In this review, we examine the progress in adapting QDs for severalpredominantly in vitro biosensing applications including use in immunoassays, asgeneralized probes, in nucleic acid detection and fluorescence resonance energy transfer(FRET - based sensing. We also describe several important considerations when workingwith QDs mainly centered on the choice of material(s and appropriate strategies forattaching biomolecules to the QDs.

  8. Universal Braess paradox in open quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, A. L. R.; Bazeia, D.; Ramos, J. G. G. S.

    2014-10-01

    We present analytical and numerical results that demonstrate the presence of the Braess paradox in chaotic quantum dots. The paradox that we identify, originally perceived in classical networks, shows that the addition of more capacity to the network can suppress the current flow in the universal regime. We investigate the weak localization term, showing that it presents the paradox encoded in a saturation minimum of the conductance, under the presence of hyperflow in the external leads. In addition, we demonstrate that the weak localization suffers a transition signal depending on the overcapacity lead and presents an echo on the magnetic crossover before going to zero due to the full time-reversal symmetry breaking. We also show that the quantum interference contribution can dominate the Ohm term in the presence of constrictions and that the corresponding Fano factor engenders an anomalous behavior.

  9. Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Biomedicial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijia Shao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs are nanometre-scale crystals, which have unique photophysical properties, such as size-dependent optical properties, high fluorescence quantum yields, and excellent stability against photobleaching. These properties enable QDs as the promising optical labels for the biological applications, such as multiplexed analysis of immunocomplexes or DNA hybridization processes, cell sorting and tracing, in vivo imaging and diagnostics in biomedicine. Meanwhile, QDs can be used as labels for the electrochemical detection of DNA or proteins. This article reviews the synthesis and toxicity of QDs and their optical and electrochemical bioanalytical applications. Especially the application of QDs in biomedicine such as delivering, cell targeting and imaging for cancer research, and in vivo photodynamic therapy (PDT of cancer are briefly discussed.

  10. Universal Braess paradox in open quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, A L R; Bazeia, D; Ramos, J G G S

    2014-10-01

    We present analytical and numerical results that demonstrate the presence of the Braess paradox in chaotic quantum dots. The paradox that we identify, originally perceived in classical networks, shows that the addition of more capacity to the network can suppress the current flow in the universal regime. We investigate the weak localization term, showing that it presents the paradox encoded in a saturation minimum of the conductance, under the presence of hyperflow in the external leads. In addition, we demonstrate that the weak localization suffers a transition signal depending on the overcapacity lead and presents an echo on the magnetic crossover before going to zero due to the full time-reversal symmetry breaking. We also show that the quantum interference contribution can dominate the Ohm term in the presence of constrictions and that the corresponding Fano factor engenders an anomalous behavior. PMID:25375575

  11. Toxicological impact of cadmium-based quantum dots towards aquatic biota: Effect of natural sunlight exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B F; Andreani, T; Gavina, A; Vieira, M N; Pereira, C M; Rocha-Santos, T; Pereira, R

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium-based quantum dots (QDs) are increasingly applied in existent and emerging technologies, especially in biological applications due to their exceptional photophysical and functionalization properties. However, they are very toxic compounds due to the high reactive and toxic cadmium core. The present study aimed to determine the toxicity of three different QDs (CdS 380, CdS 480 and CdSeS/ZnS) before and after the exposure of suspensions to sunlight, in order to assess the effect of environmentally relevant irradiation levels in their toxicity, which will act after their release to the environment. Therefore, a battery of ecotoxicological tests was performed with organisms that cover different functional and trophic levels, such as Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna. The results showed that core-shell type QDs showed lower toxic effects to V. fischeri in comparison to core type QDs before sunlight exposure. However, after sunlight exposure, there was a decrease of CdS 380 and CdS 480 QD toxicity to bacterium. Also, after sunlight exposure, an effective decrease of CdSeS/ZnS and CdS 480 toxicity for D. magna and R. subcapitata, and an evident increase in CdS 380 QD toxicity, at least for D. magna, were observed. The results of this study suggest that sunlight exposure has an effect in the aggregation and precipitation reactions of larger QDs, causing the degradation of functional groups and formation of larger bulks which may be less prone to photo-oxidation due to their diminished surface area. The same aggregation behaviour after sunlight exposure was observed for bare QDs. These results further emphasize that the shell of QDs seems to make them less harmful to aquatic biota, both under standard environmental conditions and after the exposure to a relevant abiotic factor like sunlight. PMID:27162069

  12. Templated self-assembly of SiGe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dais, Christian

    2009-08-19

    This PhD thesis reports on the fabrication and characterization of exact aligned SiGe quantum dot structures. In general, SiGe quantum dots which nucleate via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode exhibit broad size dispersion and nucleate randomly on the surface. However, to tap the full potential of SiGe quantum dots it is necessary to control the positioning and size of the dots on a nanometer length, e.g. for electronically addressing of individual dots. This can be realized by so-called templated self-assembly, which combines top-down lithography with bottom-up selfassembly. In this process the lithographically defined pits serve as pre-defined nucleation points for the epitaxially grown quantum dots. In this thesis, extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at a wavelength of e=13.4 nm is employed for prepatterning of the Si substrates. This technique allows the precise and fast fabrication of high-resolution templates with a high degree of reproducibility. The subsequent epitaxial deposition is either performed by molecular beam epitaxy or low-pressure chemical vapour deposition. It is shown that the dot nucleation on pre-patterned substrates depends strongly on the lithography parameters, e.g. size and periodicity of the pits, as well as on the epitaxy parameters, e.g. growth temperature or material coverage. The interrelations are carefully analyzed by means of scanning force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. Provided that correct template and overgrowth parameters are chosen, perfectly aligned and uniform SiGe quantum dot arrays of different period, size as well as symmetry are created. In particular, the quantum dot arrays with the so far smallest period (35 nm) and smallest size dispersion are fabricated in this thesis. Furthermore, the strain fields of the underlying quantum dots allow the fabrication of vertically aligned quantum dot stacks. Combining lateral and vertical dot alignment results in three

  13. The Electron-Hole Pair in a Single Quantum Dot and That in a Vertically Coupled Quantum Dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEWen-Fang; ZHUWu

    2003-01-01

    The energy spectra of low-lying states of an exciton in a single and a vertically coupled quantum dots are studied under the influence of a perpendicularly applied magnetic field. Calculations are made by using the method of numerical diagonalization of the Hamiltonian within the effective-mass approximation. We also calculated the binding energy of the ground and the excited states of an exciton in a single quantum dot and that in a vertically coupled quantum dot as a function of the dot radius for different vaJues of the distance and the magnetic field strength.

  14. Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Vanessa; Bulović, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices (QD-LEDs) have generated considerable interest for applications such as thin film displays with improved color saturation and white lighting with a high color rendering index (CRI). We review the key advantages of using quantum dots (QDs) in display and lighting applications, including their color purity, solution processability, and stability. After highlighting the main developments in QD-LED technology in the past 15 years, we describe the three mechanisms for exciting QDs - optical excitation, Förster energy transfer, and direct charge injection - that have been leveraged to create QD-LEDs. We outline the challenges facing QD-LED development, such as QD charging and QD luminescence quenching in QD thin films. We describe how optical downconversion schemes have enabled researchers to overcome these challenges and develop commercial lighting products that incorporate QDs to achieve desirable color temperature and a high CRI while maintaining efficiencies comparable to inorganic white LEDs (>65 lumens per Watt). We conclude by discussing some current directions in QD research that focus on achieving higher efficiency and air-stable QD-LEDs using electrical excitation of the luminescent QDs. PMID:22110863

  15. Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Wood

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices (QD-LEDs have generated considerable interest for applications such as thin film displays with improved color saturation and white lighting with a high color rendering index (CRI. We review the key advantages of using quantum dots (QDs in display and lighting applications, including their color purity, solution processability, and stability. After highlighting the main developments in QD-LED technology in the past 15 years, we describe the three mechanisms for exciting QDs – optical excitation, Förster energy transfer, and direct charge injection – that have been leveraged to create QD-LEDs. We outline the challenges facing QD-LED development, such as QD charging and QD luminescence quenching in QD thin films. We describe how optical downconversion schemes have enabled researchers to overcome these challenges and develop commercial lighting products that incorporate QDs to achieve desirable color temperature and a high CRI while maintaining efficiencies comparable to inorganic white LEDs (>65 lumens per Watt. We conclude by discussing some current directions in QD research that focus on achieving higher efficiency and air-stable QD-LEDs using electrical excitation of the luminescent QDs.

  16. Excitation transfer in stacked quantum dot chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacked InAs quantum dot chains (QDCs) on InGaAs/GaAs cross-hatch pattern (CHP) templates yield a rich emission spectrum with an unusual carrier transfer characteristic compared to conventional quantum dot (QD) stacks. The photoluminescent spectra of the controlled, single QDC layer comprise multiple peaks from the orthogonal QDCs, the free-standing QDs, the CHP, the wetting layers and the GaAs substrate. When the QDC layers are stacked, employing a 10 nm GaAs spacer between adjacent QDC layers, the PL spectra are dominated by the top-most stack, indicating that the QDC layers are nominally uncoupled. Under high excitation power densities when the high-energy peaks of the top stack are saturated, however, low-energy PL peaks from the bottom stacks emerge as a result of carrier transfers across the GaAs spacers. These unique PL signatures contrast with the state-filling effects in conventional, coupled QD stacks and serve as a means to quickly assess the presence of electronic coupling in stacks of dissimilar-sized nanostructures. (paper)

  17. Polymersomes containing quantum dots for cellular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camblin M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine Camblin,1 Pascal Detampel,1 Helene Kettiger,1 Dalin Wu,2 Vimalkumar Balasubramanian,1,* Jörg Huwyler1,*1Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Quantum dots (QDs are highly fluorescent and stable probes for cellular and molecular imaging. However, poor intracellular delivery, stability, and toxicity of QDs in biological compartments hamper their use in cellular imaging. To overcome these limitations, we developed a simple and effective method to load QDs into polymersomes (Ps made of poly(dimethylsiloxane-poly(2-methyloxazoline (PDMS-PMOXA diblock copolymers without compromising the characteristics of the QDs. These Ps showed no cellular toxicity and QDs were successfully incorporated into the aqueous compartment of the Ps as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Ps containing QDs showed colloidal stability over a period of 6 weeks if stored in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at physiological pH (7.4. Efficient intracellular delivery of Ps containing QDs was achieved in human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2 and was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. Ps containing QDs showed a time- and concentration-dependent uptake in HepG2 cells and exhibited better intracellular stability than liposomes. Our results suggest that Ps containing QDs can be used as nanoprobes for cellular imaging.Keywords: quantum dots, polymersomes, cellular imaging, cellular uptake

  18. Phosphonate self-assembled monolayers as organic linkers in solid-state quantum dot sensetized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ardalan, Pendar

    2010-06-01

    We have employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, water contact angle (WCA) measurements, ellipsometry, and electrical measurements to study the effects of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with phosphonic acid headgroups on the bonding and performance of cadmium sulfide (CdS) solid-state quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). ∼2 to ∼6 nm size CdS quantum dots (QDs) were grown on the SAM-passivated TiO2 surfaces by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Our results show differences in the bonding of the CdS QDs at the TiO2 surfaces with a SAM linker. Moreover, our data indicate that presence of a SAM increases the CdS uptake on TiO2 as well as the performance of the resulting devices. Importantly, we observe ∼2 times higher power conversion efficiencies in the devices with a SAM compared to those that lack a SAM. © 2010 IEEE.

  19. Direct Interband Light Absorption in Conical Quantum Dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Hayrapetyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the adiabatic approximation, the energy states of electron as well as the direct light absorption are investigated in conical quantum dot. Analytical expressions for particle energy spectrum are obtained. The dependence of the absorption edge on geometrical parameters of conical quantum dot is obtained. Selection rules are revealed for transitions between levels with different quantum numbers. In particular, it is shown that for the radial quantum number transitions are allowed between the levels with the same quantum numbers, and any transitions between different levels are allowed for the principal quantum number.

  20. Charge-extraction strategies for colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Xinzheng

    2014-02-20

    The solar-power conversion efficiencies of colloidal quantum dot solar cells have advanced from sub-1% reported in 2005 to a record value of 8.5% in 2013. Much focus has deservedly been placed on densifying, passivating and crosslinking the colloidal quantum dot solid. Here we review progress in improving charge extraction, achieved by engineering the composition and structure of the electrode materials that contact the colloidal quantum dot film. New classes of structured electrodes have been developed and integrated to form bulk heterojunction devices that enhance photocharge extraction. Control over band offsets, doping and interfacial trap state densities have been essential for achieving improved electrical communication with colloidal quantum dot solids. Quantum junction devices that not only tune the optical absorption spectrum, but also provide inherently matched bands across the interface between p-and n-materials, have proven that charge separation can occur efficiently across an all-quantum-tuned rectifying junction. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  1. Using a quantum dot system to realize perfect state transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ji; Wu Shi-Hai; Zhang Wen-Wen; Xi Xiao-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    There are some disadvantages to Nikolopoulos et al.'s protocol [Nikolopoulos G M,Petrosyan D and Lambropoulos P 2004 Europhys.Lett.65 297] where a quantum dot system is used to realize quantum communication.To overcome these disadvantages,we propose a protocol that uses a quantum dot array to construct a four-qubit spin chain to realize perfect quantum state transfer (PQST).First,we calculate the interaction relation for PQST in the spin chain.Second,we review the interaction between the quantum dots in the Heitler-London approach.Third,we present a detailed program for designing the proper parameters of a quantum dot array to realize PQST.

  2. Atomically precise, coupled quantum dots fabricated by cleaved edge overgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegscheider, W.; Schedelbeck, G.; Bichler, M.; Abstreiter, G.

    Recent progress in the fabrication of quantum dots by molecular beam epitaxy along three directions in space is reviewed. The optical properties of different sample structures consisting of individual quantum dots, pairs of coupled dots as well as of linear arrays of dots are studied by microscopic photoluminescence spectroscopy. The high degree of control over shape, composition and position of the 7×7×7 nm3 size GaAs quantum dots, which form at the intesection of three orthogonal quantum wells, allows a detailed investigation of the influence of coupling between almost identical zero-dimensional objects. In contrast to the inhomogeneously broadened quantum well and quantum wire signals originating from the complex twofold cleaved edge overgrowth structure, the photoluminescence spetrum of an individual quantum dot exhibits a single sharp line (full width at half maximum denomination "artificial atoms" for the quantum dots. It is further demonstrated that an "artifical molecule", characterized by the existence of bonding and antibonding states can be assembled from two of such "artificial atoms". The coupling strength between the "artificial atoms" is adjusted by the "interatomic" distance and is reflected in the energetic separation of the bonding and antibonding levels and the linewidths of the corresponding interband transitions.

  3. Ferritin-Templated Quantum-Dots for Quantum Logic Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Seon-Jeong; Elliott, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum logic gates (QLGs) or other logic systems are based on quantum-dots (QD) with a stringent requirement of size uniformity. The QD are widely known building units for QLGs. The size control of QD is a critical issue in quantum-dot fabrication. The work presented here offers a new method to develop quantum-dots using a bio-template, called ferritin, that ensures QD production in uniform size of nano-scale proportion. The bio-template for uniform yield of QD is based on a ferritin protein that allows reconstitution of core material through the reduction and chelation processes. One of the biggest challenges for developing QLG is the requirement of ordered and uniform size of QD for arrays on a substrate with nanometer precision. The QD development by bio-template includes the electrochemical/chemical reconsitution of ferritins with different core materials, such as iron, cobalt, manganese, platinum, and nickel. The other bio-template method used in our laboratory is dendrimers, precisely defined chemical structures. With ferritin-templated QD, we fabricated the heptagonshaped patterned array via direct nano manipulation of the ferritin molecules with a tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). We also designed various nanofabrication methods of QD arrays using a wide range manipulation techniques. The precise control of the ferritin-templated QD for a patterned arrangement are offered by various methods, such as a site-specific immobilization of thiolated ferritins through local oxidation using the AFM tip, ferritin arrays induced by gold nanoparticle manipulation, thiolated ferritin positioning by shaving method, etc. In the signal measurements, the current-voltage curve is obtained by measuring the current through the ferritin, between the tip and the substrate for potential sweeping or at constant potential. The measured resistance near zero bias was 1.8 teraohm for single holoferritin and 5.7 teraohm for single apoferritin, respectively.

  4. Quantum transport in superlattice and quantum dot structures

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, H M

    2000-01-01

    manifestation of oscillations in the current -voltage characteristics of superlattices in the Wannier-Stark transport regime when strong lateral confinement is provided due either to gaps in the folded phonon spectrum or phonon momentum meeting the condition for Bragg reflection. Current-voltage measurements are shown in this chapter for superlattice devices in the Wannier-Stark regime for a range of electric and magnetic fields (B//I). Many oscillations are clearly observed in the I(V) data presented, the possible origins of which are then fully explored. Moving away from superlattices, data involving tunnelling through quantum dots embedded in the barrier of a GaAs/AIAs/GaAs resonant tunnelling diode are presented in chapter 5. Quasi-hydrostatic pressure is used to tune tunnelling through the dots. These results lead to a new picture for the conduction band potential profile of this device, and give us important new information relating to devices incorporating self-assembled quantum dots. More importantly,...

  5. Phonon-assisted decoherence and tunneling in quantum dot molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodecka-Grad, Anna; Foerstner, Jens

    2011-01-01

    We study the influence of the phonon environment on the electron dynamics in a doped quantum dot molecule. A non-perturbative quantum kinetic theory based on correlation expansion is used in order to describe both diagonal and off-diagonal electron-phonon couplings representing real and virtual...... the quantum dots is studied in detail. (© 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)...

  6. RKKY interaction in a chirally coupled double quantum dot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, A. W.; Tutuc, D.; Haug, R. J. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstr. 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Zwicknagl, G. [Institut für Mathematische Physik, TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Schuh, D. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätstr. 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Wegscheider, W. [Laboratorium für Festkörperphysik, ETH Zürich, Schafmattstr. 16, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland and Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätstr. 31, 93053 Regens (Germany)

    2013-12-04

    The competition between the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY) interaction is investigated in a double quantum dots system, coupled via a central open conducting region. A perpendicular magnetic field induces the formation of Landau Levels which in turn give rise to the so-called Kondo chessboard pattern in the transport through the quantum dots. The two quantum dots become therefore chirally coupled via the edge channels formed in the open conducting area. In regions where both quantum dots exhibit Kondo transport the presence of the RKKY exchange interaction is probed by an analysis of the temperature dependence. The thus obtained Kondo temperature of one dot shows an abrupt increase at the onset of Kondo transport in the other, independent of the magnetic field polarity, i.e. edge state chirality in the central region.

  7. Quantum dot density studies for quantum dot intermediate band solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, Sedsel Fretheim; Zhou, Dayong; Vitelli, Stefano; Mayani, Maryam Gholami; Fimland, Bjoern-Ove; Reenaas, Turid Worren

    2010-07-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have been an active area of research for many years and have been implemented in several applications, such as lasers and detectors. During the last years, some attempts have been made to increase the absorption and efficiency of solar cells by inserting QDs into the intrinsic region of pin solar cells. So far, these attempts have been successful in increasing the absorption, but not the cell efficiency. There are probably several reasons for this lack of efficiency increase, but we believe that one important reason is the low density of the implemented QDs. In this work, samples of single layer InAs QDs on n-GaAs(001) substrates have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and we have performed a systematic study of how deposition parameters affect the QD density. The aim is to achieve densities > 1011 cm-2. The nominal substrate temperature (360 - 500 deg. C), the InAs growth rate (0.085 - 1 ML/s) and thickness (2.0 - 2.8 ML) have been varied in a systematic way for two different deposition methods of InAs, i.e. continuous deposition or deposition with interruptions. In addition, we have for the continuous growth samples also varied the As-flux (0.5 - 6 centre dot10-6 torr). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been the main characterization method to determine quantum dot sizes and densities, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used for evaluation of the quantum dot heights. We find that the QD density increases with reduced growth temperature and that it is higher for samples grown continuously than for samples grown with growth interruptions. The homogeneity is also strongly affected by temperature, InAs deposition method and the As-flux. We have observed QD densities as high as 2.5 centre dot1011 cm-2 for the samples grown at the lowest growth temperatures. (Author)

  8. Pulse train amplification and regeneration based on semiconductor quantum dots waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    We numerical analyze pulse train amplification up to 200 Gbit/s in quantum dot amplifiers and present regeneration properties with saturable absorber based on semiconductor quantum dot waveguides.......We numerical analyze pulse train amplification up to 200 Gbit/s in quantum dot amplifiers and present regeneration properties with saturable absorber based on semiconductor quantum dot waveguides....

  9. Highly efficient ZnO porous nanostructure for CdS/CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure has been prepared by simple one step oxalate route for the fabrication of CdS/CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSC). The porous ZnO photoanode is sensitized with CdS and CdS/CdSe quantum dots by simple chemical bath deposition technique by controlling the surface agglomeration of quantum dots over ZnO photoanode. The performances of the QDSSCs are examined with both platinum and copper sulfide counter electrodes. The photovoltaic properties of the cells are determined using current–voltage characterization under 1 sun illumination. The transport properties of the QDSSCs have been studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit voltage decay analysis. The combination of CdS/CdSe/ZnS successive layers over ZnO with CuS counter electrode shows an excellent performance with a maximum power to conversion efficiency of 4.09% under 1 sun illumination. - Highlights: • Porous zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by one step oxalate route. • Porous ZnO/CdS/CdSe quantum dots sensitized solar cells were fabricated. • Cell with CuS counter electrodes shows excellent performance than that of Pt counter electrodes. • ZnO/CdS/CdSe/ZnS quantum dots sensitized solar cell recorded 4.09% efficiency

  10. Carbon dots with high fluorescence quantum yield: the fluorescence originates from organic fluorophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Yang, Jian Hai; Zeng, Hai Bo; Chen, Yong Mei; Yang, Sheng Chun; Wu, Chao; Zeng, Hao; Yoshihito, Osada; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-07-01

    In this contribution, we have shown that the organic fluorophores, 5-oxo-3,5-dihydro-2H-thiazolo [3,2-a] pyridine-3,7-dicarboxylic acid (TPDCA) and 5-oxo-3,5-dihydro-2H-thiazolo [3,2-a] pyridine-7-carboxylic acid (TPCA), are the main ingredients and fluorescence origins of N,S-CDs via systematic analyses. It inspires us to deeply analyze and understand the fluorescence origins of carbon dots with high fluorescence quantum yields, which will expand their applications.In this contribution, we have shown that the organic fluorophores, 5-oxo-3,5-dihydro-2H-thiazolo [3,2-a] pyridine-3,7-dicarboxylic acid (TPDCA) and 5-oxo-3,5-dihydro-2H-thiazolo [3,2-a] pyridine-7-carboxylic acid (TPCA), are the main ingredients and fluorescence origins of N,S-CDs via systematic analyses. It inspires us to deeply analyze and understand the fluorescence origins of carbon dots with high fluorescence quantum yields, which will expand their applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00451b

  11. Lead Chalcogenide Quantum Dots and Quantum Dot Hybrids for Optoelectronic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Schornbaum, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) exhibit remarkable properties, which include a size-tunable band gap and narrow emission bands. They are also suitable for large-area and low-cost fabrication, due to their solution-processability. Consequently, QDs are very promising for future applications in printable optoelectronic devices. Near-infrared (NIR) active lead chalcogenide QDs hold an enormous potential, as they exhibit optical properties in a wavelength regime, where efficient photoactive mate...

  12. Quantum efficiency and oscillator strength of site-controlled InAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, F.; Stobbe, Søren; Schneider, C.;

    2010-01-01

    We report on time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to determine the oscillator strength (OS) and the quantum efficiency (QE) of site-controlled InAs quantum dots nucleating on patterned nanoholes. These two quantities are determined by measurements on site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD...

  13. Quantum efficiency and oscillator strength of site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, F.; Schneider, C.; Stobbe, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    We report on time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to determine the oscillator strength (OS) and the quantum efficiency (QE) of site-controlled In(Ga)As quantum dots nucleating on patterned nanoholes. These two quantities are determined by measurements on site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD...

  14. Quantum phase transition of light as a control of the entanglement between interacting quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barragan, Angela; Vera Ciro, Carlos; Mondragon-Shem, Ian

    2011-01-01

    We study coupled quantum dots arranged in a photonic crystal, interacting with light which undergoes a quantum phase transition. At the mean-field level for the infinite lattice, we compute the concurrence of the quantum dots as a measure of their entanglement. We find that this quantity smoothly ch

  15. A triple quantum dot based nano-electromechanical memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are free-standing nano-structures with chemically tunable electronic properties. This tunability offers intriguing possibilities for nano-electromechanical devices. In this work, we consider a nano-electromechanical nonvolatile memory (NVM) device incorporating a triple quantum dot (TQD) cluster. The device operation is based on a bias induced motion of a floating quantum dot (FQD) located between two bound quantum dots (BQDs). The mechanical motion is used for switching between two stable states, “ON” and “OFF” states, where ligand-mediated effective interdot forces between the BQDs and the FQD serve to hold the FQD in each stable position under zero bias. Considering realistic microscopic parameters, our quantum-classical theoretical treatment of the TQD reveals the characteristics of the NVM

  16. The transfer matrix approach to circular graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau Nguyen, H.; Nguyen, Nhung T. T.; Nguyen, V. Lien

    2016-07-01

    We adapt the transfer matrix (T-matrix) method originally designed for one-dimensional quantum mechanical problems to solve the circularly symmetric two-dimensional problem of graphene quantum dots. Similar to one-dimensional problems, we show that the generalized T-matrix contains rich information about the physical properties of these quantum dots. In particular, it is shown that the spectral equations for bound states as well as quasi-bound states of a circular graphene quantum dot and related quantities such as the local density of states and the scattering coefficients are all expressed exactly in terms of the T-matrix for the radial confinement potential. As an example, we use the developed formalism to analyse physical aspects of a graphene quantum dot induced by a trapezoidal radial potential. Among the obtained results, it is in particular suggested that the thermal fluctuations and electrostatic disorders may appear as an obstacle to controlling the valley polarization of Dirac electrons.

  17. PREFACE: Quantum dots as probes in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak, Marek

    2013-05-01

    The recent availability of nanostructured materials has resulted in an explosion of research focused on their unique optical, thermal, mechanical and magnetic properties. Optical imagining, magnetic enhancement of contrast and drug delivery capabilities make the nanoparticles of special interest in biomedical applications. These materials have been involved in the development of theranostics—a new field of medicine that is focused on personalized tests and treatment. It is likely that multimodal nanomaterials will be responsible for future diagnostic advances in medicine. Quantum dots (QD) are nanoparticles which exhibit luminescence either through the formation of three-dimensional excitons or excitations of the impurities. The excitonic luminescence can be tuned by changing the size (the smaller the size, the higher the frequency). QDs are usually made of semiconducting materials. Unlike fluorescent proteins and organic dyes, QDs resist photobleaching, allow for multi-wavelength excitations and have narrow emission spectra. The techniques to make QDs are cheap and surface modifications and functionalizations can be implemented. Importantly, QDs could be synthesized to exhibit useful optomagnetic properties and, upon functionalization with an appropriate biomolecule, directed towards a pre-selected target for diagnostic imaging and photodynamic therapy. This special issue on Quantum dots in Biology is focused on recent research in this area. It starts with a topical review by Sreenivasan et al on various physical mechanisms that lead to the QD luminescence and on using wavelength shifts for an improvement in imaging. The next paper by Szczepaniak et al discusses nanohybrids involving QDs made of CdSe coated by ZnS and combined covalently with a photosynthetic enzyme. These nanohybrids are shown to maintain the enzymatic activity, however the enzyme properties depend on the size of a QD. They are proposed as tools to study photosynthesis in isolated

  18. Quantum Dots Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-Ray Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaven, Stan; Williams, Phillip; Burke, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Microstructured optical fibers containing quantum dots scintillation material comprised of zinc sulfide nanocrystals doped with magnesium sulfide are presented. These quantum dots are applied inside the microstructured optical fibers using capillary action. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The results of the fiber light output and associated effects of an acrylate coating and the quantum dot application technique are discussed.

  19. Kondo effect in quantum dots and molecular devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Lang; LI Hongxiang; HU Wenping; ZHU Daoben

    2005-01-01

    Kondo effect is a very important many-body phenomenon in condensed matter physics,which explains why the resistance increases as the temperature is lowered (usually <10 K) in dilute magnetic alloy, and why the conductance increases as temperature is decreased in quantum dots. This paper simply introduces equilibrium and non- equilibrium Kondo effects in quantum dots together with the Kondo effect in quantum dots with even number of electrons (when the singlet and triplet states are degenerate). Furthermore, Kondo effect in single atom/molecular transistors is introduced, which indicates a new way to study Kondo effect.

  20. PL Emission and Shape of Silicon Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The calculation results show that the bonding energy and electronic states of silicon quantum dots are different on various curved surfaces, for example, a Si-0-Si bridge bond on curved surface provides the localized levels in band gap and its bonding energy is shallower than that on facet. The red-shifting of PL spectra on smaller silicon quantum dots can be explained by curved surface effect. Experiments demonstrate that silicon quantum dots are activated for emission due to the localized levels provided in curved surface effect.About The Author: Zhong-Mei Huang,Master in Guizhou University.

  1. Thermal Rectification Effect of an Interacting Quantum Dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xue-Ou; DONG Bing; LEI Xiao-Lin

    2008-01-01

    @@ We investigate the nonlinear thermal transport properties of a single interacting quantum dot with two energy levels tunnel-coupled to two electrodes using nonequilibrium Green function method and Hartree-Fock decoupling approximation. In the case of asymmetric tunnel-couplings to two electrodes, for example, when the upper level of the quantum dot is open for transport, whereas the lower level is blocked, our calculations predict a strong asymmetry for the heat (energy) current, which shows that the quantum dot system may act as a thermal rectifier in this specific situation.

  2. Second Bound State of Biexcitons in Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Eang

    2003-01-01

    The second bound state of the biexcitons in a quantum dot, with orbital angular momentum L = 1, is reported. By using the method of few-body physics, the binding energy spectra of the second bound state of a biexciton in a GaAs quantum dot with a parabolic confinement have been calculated as a function of the electron-to-hole mass ratio and the quantum dot size. The fact that the biexcitons have a second bound state may aid in the better understanding of their binding mechanism.

  3. Imaging GABAc Receptors with Ligand-Conjugated Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Tomlinson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a methodology for labeling the GABAc receptor on the surface membrane of intact cells. This work builds upon our earlier work with serotonin-conjugated quantum dots and our studies with PEGylated quantum dots to reduce nonspecific binding. In the current approach, a PEGylated derivative of muscimol was synthesized and attached via an amide linkage to quantum dots coated in an amphiphilic polymer derivative of a modified polyacrylamide. These conjugates were used to image GABAC receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

  4. Entanglement creation in semiconductor quantum dot charge qubit

    CERN Document Server

    Buscemi, Fabrizio; Bertoni, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We study theoretically the appearance of quantum correlations in two- and three-electron scattering in single and double dots. The key role played by transport resonances into entanglement formation between the single-particle states is shown. Both reflected and transmitted components of the scattered particle wavefunction are used to evaluate the quantum correlations between the incident carrier and the bound particle(s) in the dots. Our investigation provides a guideline for the analysis of decoherence effects due to the Coulomb scattering in semiconductor quantum dots structures.

  5. Optically Modulated Bistability in Quantum Dot Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qian-Chun; An, Zheng-Hua; Hou, Ying; Zhu, Zi-Qiang

    2013-04-01

    InAs quantum dots are introduced into resonant tunneling diodes to study the electronic transport behavior, and a wide bistability (ΔV ~ 0.8 V) is observed in the negative differential resistance region. Based on an analytic model, we attribute the observed distinct bistability of a resonant tunneling diodes with quantum dots to the feedback dependence of energy of the electron-storing quantum dots on the tunneling current density. Meanwhile, we find that this wide bistable region can be modulated sensitively by light illumination and becomes narrower with increasing light intensity. Our results suggest that the present devices can be potentially used as sensitive photodetectors in optoelectronic fields.

  6. Kondo effects in triangular triple quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Akira; Numata, Takahide; Nisikawa, Yunori; Hewson, A. C.

    2009-03-01

    We study the conductance through a triangular triple quantum dot, which is connected to two noninteracting leads, using the numerical renormalization group (NRG). It is found that the system shows a variety of Kondo effects depending on the filling of the triangle. The SU(4) Kondo effect occurs at half-filling, and a sharp conductance dip due to a phase lapse appears in the gate-voltage dependence. Furthermore, when four electrons occupy the three sites on average, a local S=1 moment, which is caused by the Nagaoka mechanism, is induced along the triangle. The temperature dependence of the entropy and spin susceptibility of the triangle shows that this moment is screened by the conduction electrons via two separate stages at different temperatures. The two-terminal and four-terminal conductances show a clear difference at the gate voltages, where the SU(4) or the S=1 Kondo effects occur[1]. We will also discuss effects of deformations of the triangular configuration, caused by the inhomogeneity in the inter-dot couplings and in the gate voltages. [4pt] [1] T.Numata, Y.Nisikawa, A.Oguri, and A.C.Hewson: arXiv:0808.3496.

  7. Mitochondria as target of Quantum dots toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The present work investigated the toxicity of CdTe QDs on the function of mitochondria isolated from rat livers. → These results will help us learn more about QDs toxicity at subcellular (mitochondrial) level. → QDs toxicity on mitochondria indicates that the QDs require to be further improved before they can be safely used in clinic. - Abstract: Quantum dots (QDs) hold great promise in many biological applications, with the persistence of safety concerns about the environment and human health. The present work investigated the potential toxicity of CdTe QDs on the function of mitochondria isolated from rat livers by examining mitochondrial respiration, swelling, and lipid peroxidation. We observed that QDs can significantly affect the mitochondrial membrane properties, bioenergetics and induce mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). These results will help us learn more about QDs toxicity at subcellular (mitochondrial) level.

  8. Building devices from colloidal quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Cherie R; Lifshitz, Efrat; Sargent, Edward H; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2016-08-26

    The continued growth of mobile and interactive computing requires devices manufactured with low-cost processes, compatible with large-area and flexible form factors, and with additional functionality. We review recent advances in the design of electronic and optoelectronic devices that use colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). The properties of materials assembled of QDs may be tailored not only by the atomic composition but also by the size, shape, and surface functionalization of the individual QDs and by the communication among these QDs. The chemical and physical properties of QD surfaces and the interfaces in QD devices are of particular importance, and these enable the solution-based fabrication of low-cost, large-area, flexible, and functional devices. We discuss challenges that must be addressed in the move to solution-processed functional optoelectronic nanomaterials. PMID:27563099

  9. Wet electron microscopy with quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timp, Winston; Watson, Nicki; Sabban, Alon; Zik, Ory; Matsudaira, Paul

    2006-09-01

    Wet electron microscopy (EM) is a new imaging method with the potential to allow higher spatial resolution of samples. In contrast to most EM methods, it requires little time to perform and does not require complicated equipment or difficult steps. We used this method on a common murine macrophage cell line, IC-21, in combination with various stains and preparations, to collect high resolution images of the actin cytoskeleton. Most importantly, we demonstrated the use of quantum dots in conjunction with this technique to perform light/electron correlation microscopy. We found that wet EM is a useful tool that fits into a niche between the simplicity of light microscopy and the high spatial resolution of EM.

  10. Protease-activated quantum dot probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a novel nanoparticulate luminescent probe with inherent signal amplification upon interaction with a targeted proteolytic enzyme. This construct may be useful for imaging in cancer detection and diagnosis. In this system, quantum dots (QDs) are bound to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via a proteolytically degradable peptide sequence to non-radiatively suppress luminescence. A 71% reduction in luminescence was achieved with conjugation of AuNPs to QDs. Release of AuNPs by peptide cleavage restores radiative QD photoluminescence. Initial studies observed a 52% rise in luminescence over 47 h of exposure to 0.2 mg/mL collagenase. These probes can be customized for targeted degradation simply by changing the sequence of the peptide linker

  11. Mitochondria as target of Quantum dots toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiahan; Zhang, Yue; Xiao, Qi; Tian, Fangfang; Liu, Xiaorong; Li, Ran; Zhao, Guangyuan; Jiang, Fenglei [State Key Laboratory of Virology and Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, Yi, E-mail: yiliuchem@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology and Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} The present work investigated the toxicity of CdTe QDs on the function of mitochondria isolated from rat livers. {yields} These results will help us learn more about QDs toxicity at subcellular (mitochondrial) level. {yields} QDs toxicity on mitochondria indicates that the QDs require to be further improved before they can be safely used in clinic. - Abstract: Quantum dots (QDs) hold great promise in many biological applications, with the persistence of safety concerns about the environment and human health. The present work investigated the potential toxicity of CdTe QDs on the function of mitochondria isolated from rat livers by examining mitochondrial respiration, swelling, and lipid peroxidation. We observed that QDs can significantly affect the mitochondrial membrane properties, bioenergetics and induce mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). These results will help us learn more about QDs toxicity at subcellular (mitochondrial) level.

  12. The Electron-Hole Pair in a Single Quantum Dot and That in a Vertically Coupled Quantum Dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang; ZHU Wu

    2003-01-01

    The energy spectra of low-lying states of an exciton in a single and a vertically coupled quantum dots arestudied under the influence of a perpendicularly applied magnetic field. Calculations are made by using the method ofnumerical diagonalization of the Hamiltonian within the effective-mass approximation. We also calculated the bindingenergy of the ground and the excited states of an exciton in a single quantum dot and that in a vertically coupledquantum dot as a function of the dot radius for different values of the distance and the magnetic field strength.

  13. Two-dimensional probe absorption in coupled quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ningwu; Zhang, Yan; Kang, Chengxian; Wang, Zhiping; Yu, Benli

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the two-dimensional (2D) probe absorption in coupled quantum dots. It is found that, due to the position-dependent quantum interference effect, the 2D optical absorption spectrum can be easily controlled via adjusting the system parameters. Thus, our scheme may provide some technological applications in solid-state quantum communication.

  14. Anomalous temperature dependent photoluminescence properties of CdSxSe1-x quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    CdSxSe1-x quantum dots were fabricated by a simple spin-coating heat volatilization method on InP wafer.Temperature dependent photoluminescence of CdSxSe1-x quantum dots was carried out in a range of 10-300 K.The integrated photoluminescence intensity revealed an anomalous behavior with increasing temperature in the range of 180-200 K.The band gap energy showed a redshift of 61.34 meV when the temperature increased from 10 to 300 K.The component ratio of S to Se in the CdSxSe1-x quantum dots was valued by both the X-ray diffraction data and photoluminescence peak energy at room temperature according to Vegard Law.Moreover,the parameters of the Varshni relation for CdS0.9Se0.1 materials were also obtained using photoluminescence peak energy as a function of temperature and the best-fit curve:α=(3.5 ± 0.1)10-4 eV/K,and β=210 ± 10 K (close to the Debye temperature θD of the material).

  15. Engineering of perturbation effects in onion-like heteronanocrystal quantum dot-quantum well

    Science.gov (United States)

    SalmanOgli, A.; Rostami, R.

    2013-10-01

    In this article, the perturbation influences on optical characterization of quantum dot and quantum dot-quantum well (modified quantum dot) heteronanocrystal is investigated. The original aim of this article is to investigate the quantum dot-quantum well heteronanocrystal advantages and disadvantages, when used as a functionalized particle in biomedical applications. Therefore, all of the critical features of quantum dots are fundamentally studied and their influences on optical properties are simulated. For the first time, the perturbation effects on optical characteristics are observed in the quantum dot-quantum well heteronanocrystals by 8-band K.P theory. The impact of perturbation on optical features such as photoluminescence and shifting of wavelength is studied. The photoluminescence and operation wavelength of quantum dots play a vital role in biomedical applications, where their absorption and emission in biological assays are altered by shifting of wavelength. Furthermore, in biomedical applications, by tuning the emission wavelengths of the quantum dot into far-red and near-infrared ranges, non-invasive in-vivo imaging techniques have been easily developed. In this wavelength window, tissue absorption, scattering and auto-fluorescence intensities have minimum quantities; thus fixing or minimizing of wavelength shifting can be regarded as an important goal which is investigated in this work.

  16. Modeling the band gap of CdS quantum well structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. A.; Terblans, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    Within the framework of the effective mass approximation, an excited electron is studied in a cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum well with varying well widths. The envelope function approximation is employed involving a three parameter variational calculation wherein one of these parameters is the distance between the electron and the hole. The relative change in the electron's energy (relative to its energy when it is in the valence band; in the hole) is investigated as a function of the electron-hole distance. Results from numerical calculations are presented and the non-linear behavior of different sized CdS quantum wells are discussed. Comparisons between experimentally measured CdS band gap energies (as a function of well-width) and the simulation data are made. A good agreement between the current model and experimental data exists. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are done on crystallites of extremely small sizes to compare the current model's bandgap energies to DFT-predicted bandgap values at these extremes.

  17. Excitons in quantum-dot quantum-well nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史俊杰

    2002-01-01

    A variational calculation is presented for the ground-state properties of excitons confined in spherical core-shell quantum-dot quantum-well (QDQW) nanoparticles. The relationship between the exciton states and structure parameters of QDQW nanoparticles is investigated, in which both the heavy-hole and the light-hole exciton states are considered. The results show that the confinement energies of the electron and hole states and the exciton binding energies depend sensitively on the well width and core radius of the QDQW structure. A detailed comparison between the heavy-hole and light-hole exciton states is given. Excellent agreement is found between experimental results and our calculated 1se-1sh transition energies.

  18. Theoretical study of quantum confined Stark shift in InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Ru-Hai; Shi Hong-Yan; Sun Xiu-Dong

    2004-01-01

    The quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) of the self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots has been investigated theoretically. The ground-state transition energies for quantum dots in the shape of a cube, pyramid or "truncated pyramid" are calculated and analysed. We use a method based on the Green function technique for calculating the strain in quantum dots and an efficient plane-wave envelope-function technique to determine the ground-state electronic structure of them with different shapes. The symmetry of quantum dots is broken by the effect of strain. So the properties of carriers show different behaviours from the traditional quantum device. Based on these results, we also calculate permanent built-in dipole moments and compare them with recent experimental data. Our results demonstrate that the measured Stark effect in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures can be explained by including linear grading.

  19. Decoherence and Entanglement Simulation in a Model of Quantum Neural Network Based on Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaisky Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the simulation of a quantum neural network based on quantum dots using numerical method of path integral calculation. In the proposed implementation of the quantum neural network using an array of single-electron quantum dots with dipole-dipole interaction, the coherence is shown to survive up to 0.1 nanosecond in time and up to the liquid nitrogen temperature of 77K.We study the quantum correlations between the quantum dots by means of calculation of the entanglement of formation in a pair of quantum dots on the GaAs based substrate with dot size of 100 ÷ 101 nanometer and interdot distance of 101 ÷ 102 nanometers order.

  20. Downconversion quantum interface for a single quantum dot spin and 1550-nm single-photon channel

    CERN Document Server

    Pelc, Jason S; De Greve, Kristiaan; McMahon, Peter L; Natarajan, Chandra M; Esfandyarpour, Vahid; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Hadfield, Robert H; Forchel, Alfred; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Fejer, M M

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance quantum communication networks require appropriate interfaces between matter qubit-based nodes and low-loss photonic quantum channels. We implement a downconversion quantum interface, where the single photons emitted from a semiconductor quantum dot at 910 nm are downconverted to 1560 nm using a fiber-coupled periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide and a 2.2-$\\mu$m pulsed pump laser. The single-photon character of the quantum dot emission is preserved during the downconversion process: we measure a cross-correlation $g^{(2)}(\\tau = 0) = 0.17$ using resonant excitation of the quantum dot. We show that the downconversion interface is fully compatible with coherent optical control of the quantum dot electron spin through the observation of Rabi oscillations in the downconverted photon counts. These results represent a critical step towards a long-distance hybrid quantum network in which subsystems operating at different wavelengths are connected through quantum frequency conversion devices and...

  1. Exciton lifetime measurements on single silicon quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangghaleh, Fatemeh; Bruhn, Benjamin; Schmidt, Torsten; Linnros, Jan

    2013-06-01

    We measured the exciton lifetime of single silicon quantum dots, fabricated by electron beam lithography, reactive ion etching and oxidation. The observed photoluminescence decays are of mono-exponential character with a large variation (5-45 μs) from dot to dot, even for the same emission energy. We show that this lifetime variation may be the origin of the heavily debated non-exponential (stretched) decays typically observed for ensemble measurements.

  2. Photonic Quantum Computation with Waveguide-Linked Optical Cavities and Quantum Dots

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Makoto; Sato, Yoshiya; Noda, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new scheme for solid-state photonic quantum computation in which trapped photons in optical cavities are taken as a quantum bit. Quantum gates can be realized by coupling the cavities with quantum dots through waveguides. The proposed scheme allows programmable and deterministic gate operations and the system can be scaled up to many quantum bits.

  3. Cotunneling effects in GaAs vertical double quantum dot

    OpenAIRE

    Badrutdinov, A. O.; Huang, S. M.; Kono, K; Ono, K.; Tayurskii, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    We observed lifting of Coulomb blockade in GaAs vertical double quantum dot with low potential barriers, induced by cotunneling mechanisms at dilution fridge temperature of 10 mK. Several distinct features were observed, compared to single dot case, and appropriate explanation for them was given

  4. Ultrafast gain and index dynamics in quantum dot amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang; Mørk, Jesper;

    1999-01-01

    The ultrafast dynamics of gain and refractive index in an InAs/GaAs quantum dot amplifier are investigated at room temperature. The gain is observed to recover with a 90 fs time constant, ruling out problems of slow carrier capture into the dots, and making this component promising for high...

  5. Optical nuclear spin polarization in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Xian; Duan, Su-Qing; Zhang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Hyperfine interaction between electron spin and randomly oriented nuclear spins is a key issue of electron coherence for quantum information/computation. We propose an efficient way to establish high polarization of nuclear spins and reduce the intrinsic nuclear spin fluctuations. Here, we polarize the nuclear spins in semiconductor quantum dot (QD) by the coherent population trapping (CPT) and the electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR) induced by optical fields and ac electric fields. By tuning the optical fields, we can obtain a powerful cooling background based on CPT for nuclear spin polarization. The EDSR can enhance the spin flip-flop rate which may increase the cooling efficiency. With the help of CPT and EDSR, an enhancement of 1300 times of the electron coherence time can be obtained after a 10-ns preparation time. Project partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundations of China (Grant Nos. 11374039 and 11174042) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB922204 and 2013CB632805).

  6. Realistic model of a vertical pillar quantum dot: Analysis of individual dot data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maksym, P.A.; Nishi, Y.; Austing, D.G.; Hatano, T.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Aoki, H.; Tarucha, S.

    2009-01-01

    An accurate model of a vertical pillar quantum dot is described. The full three-dimensional structure of the device containing the dot is taken into account and this leads to an effective two-dimensional model in which electrons move in the two lateral dimensions, the confinement is parabolic, and t

  7. Advanced Epitaxial Lift-Off Quantum Dot Photovoltaic Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a high-efficiency, triple-junction, epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell by incorporating quantum dots (QDs) within the current-limiting...

  8. Type 2 quantum dots in Ge/Si system

    CERN Document Server

    Dvurechenskij, A V

    2001-01-01

    The results on the electronic structure of spatially indirect excitons, multiparticle excitonic complexes, and negative interband photoconductivity in arrays of Ge/Si type 2 quantum dots are presented. These data have been compared with the well known results for type 2 A sup I sup I sup I B sup V and A sup I sup I B sup V sup I -based heterostructures with quantum dots. Fundamental physical phenomena are found to be the result of an increase in the binding energy of excitons in quantum dots as compared with that of free excitons in bulk homogeneous materials; the shortwave shift of exciton transition energy at multiparticle complexes production (charges excitons, biexcitons), as well as the trapping of equilibrium carrier by localized states induced by the charged quantum dot electric field

  9. Quantum dot conjugates in a sub-micrometer fluidic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavis, Samuel M.; Edel, Joshua B.; Samiee, Kevan T.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2010-04-13

    A nanofluidic channel fabricated in fused silica with an approximately 500 nm square cross section was used to isolate, detect and identify individual quantum dot conjugates. The channel enables the rapid detection of every fluorescent entity in solution. A laser of selected wavelength was used to excite multiple species of quantum dots and organic molecules, and the emission spectra were resolved without significant signal rejection. Quantum dots were then conjugated with organic molecules and detected to demonstrate efficient multicolor detection. PCH was used to analyze coincident detection and to characterize the degree of binding. The use of a small fluidic channel to detect quantum dots as fluorescent labels was shown to be an efficient technique for multiplexed single molecule studies. Detection of single molecule binding events has a variety of applications including high throughput immunoassays.

  10. Non-Markovian spontaneous emission from a single quantum dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Ates, Serkan; Lund-Hansen, Toke;

    2011-01-01

    We observe non-Markovian dynamics of a single quantum dot when tuned into resonance with a cavity mode. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is observed providing the first quantitative description of such a system....

  11. A fast "hybrid" silicon double quantum dot qubit

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Zhan; Prance, J R; Gamble, John King; Koh, Teck Seng; Shim, Yun-Pil; Hu, Xuedong; Savage, D E; Lagally, M G; Eriksson, M A; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S N

    2011-01-01

    We propose a quantum dot qubit architecture that has an attractive combination of speed and fabrication simplicity. It consists of a double quantum dot with one electron in one dot and two electrons in the other. The qubit itself is a set of two states with total spin quantum numbers $S^2=3/4$ ($S=\\half$) and $S_z = -\\half$, with the two different states being singlet and triplet in the doubly occupied dot. The architecture is relatively simple to fabricate, a universal set of fast operations can be implemented electrically, and the system has potentially long decoherence times. These are all extremely attractive properties for use in quantum information processing devices.

  12. Energy levels of hybrid monolayer-bilayer graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzakhani, M.; Zarenia, M.; Ketabi, S. A.; da Costa, D. R.; Peeters, F. M.

    2016-04-01

    Often real samples of graphene consist of islands of both monolayer and bilayer graphene. Bound states in such hybrid quantum dots are investigated for (i) a circular single-layer graphene quantum dot surrounded by an infinite bilayer graphene sheet and (ii) a circular bilayer graphene quantum dot surrounded by an infinite single-layer graphene. Using the continuum model and applying zigzag boundary conditions at the single-layer-bilayer graphene interface, we obtain analytical results for the energy levels and the corresponding wave spinors. Their dependence on perpendicular magnetic and electric fields are studied for both types of quantum dots. The energy levels exhibit characteristics of interface states, and we find anticrossings and closing of the energy gap in the presence of a bias potential.

  13. Electro-absorption of silicene and bilayer graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Hazem; Talaat, Mohamed H.; Lukyanchuk, Igor; Portnoi, M. E.; Saroka, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    We study numerically the optical properties of low-buckled silicene and AB-stacked bilayer graphene quantum dots subjected to an external electric field, which is normal to their surface. Within the tight-binding model, the optical absorption is calculated for quantum dots, of triangular and hexagonal shapes, with zigzag and armchair edge terminations. We show that in triangular silicene clusters with zigzag edges a rich and widely tunable infrared absorption peak structure originates from transitions involving zero energy states. The edge of absorption in silicene quantum dots undergoes red shift in the external electric field for triangular clusters, whereas blue shift takes place for hexagonal ones. In small clusters of bilayer graphene with zigzag edges the edge of absorption undergoes blue/red shift for triangular/hexagonal geometry. In armchair clusters of silicene blue shift of the absorption edge takes place for both cluster shapes, while red shift is inherent for both shapes of the bilayer graphene quantum dots.

  14. Inhomogeneous charging and screening effects in semiconductor quantum dot arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzler, R [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Kunert, R [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Wacker, A [Fysiska Institutionen, Lunds Universitet, Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Schoell, E [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The electronic properties of quantum dot (QD) arrays are strongly influenced by the Coulomb interaction of electrons within the dot as well as with those in neighbouring dots. In this paper, we investigate this behaviour taking into account screening by a free electron gas in the vicinity of the QDs. We find pronounced effects for standard capacitance[ndash]voltage (CV) measurements of QD structures embedded in a pn-diode. In particular, we show that the three-dimensional nature of the problem is crucial for devices with low dot-density, whereas the self-consistency between electron depletion in the bulk layer and dot occupation is important for high dot-densities. The Coulomb interaction between the dots induces a broadening of the peaks in the CV characteristic which is comparable with the effect of disordered QD arrays, where we considered realistic size and position fluctuations obtained by a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation.

  15. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Dots for "green" Quantum Dot Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Sun, Pengfei; Cong, Shan; Wu, Jiang; Gao, Lijun; Wang, Yun; Dai, Xiao; Yi, Qinghua; Zou, Guifu

    2016-12-01

    Considering the environment protection, "green" materials are increasingly explored for photovoltaics. Here, we developed a kind of quantum dots solar cell based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots. The nitrogen-doped carbon dots were prepared by direct pyrolysis of citric acid and ammonia. The nitrogen-doped carbon dots' excitonic absorption depends on the N-doping content in the carbon dots. The N-doping can be readily modified by the mass ratio of reactants. The constructed "green" nitrogen-doped carbon dots solar cell achieves the best power conversion efficiency of 0.79 % under AM 1.5 G one full sun illumination, which is the highest efficiency for carbon dot-based solar cells. PMID:26781285

  16. Influence of the Shell Thickness and Ratio Between Core Elements on Photostability of the CdTe/CdS Core/Shell Quantum Dots Embedded in a Polymer Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskaliuk, Nataliia; Khalavka, Yuriy; Fochuk, Petro

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports a study of photooxidation and photomodification processes of the CdTe/CdS quantum dots embedded in a polymer matrix under ambient condition. During the first few minutes of irradiation, the quasi-inverse increase in photoluminescence intensity has been observed indicating the passivation of the nanocrystal surface traps by water molecules. A prolonged irradiation of the polymer film containing CdTe/CdS quantum dots leads to a significant decrease in the photoluminescence intensity together with the "blue shift" of the photoluminescence peak energy associated with quantum dot photooxidation. The mechanisms of the CdTe/CdS core/shell quantum dot photooxidation and photomodification in a polymer matrix are discussed. We have found a correlation between the photostability of the quantum dots and the CdS shell thickness as well as the ratio of core elements. PMID:27102905

  17. Influence of the Shell Thickness and Ratio Between Core Elements on Photostability of the CdTe/CdS Core/Shell Quantum Dots Embedded in a Polymer Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskaliuk, Nataliia; Khalavka, Yuriy; Fochuk, Petro

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports a study of photooxidation and photomodification processes of the CdTe/CdS quantum dots embedded in a polymer matrix under ambient condition. During the first few minutes of irradiation, the quasi-inverse increase in photoluminescence intensity has been observed indicating the passivation of the nanocrystal surface traps by water molecules. A prolonged irradiation of the polymer film containing CdTe/CdS quantum dots leads to a significant decrease in the photoluminescence intensity together with the "blue shift" of the photoluminescence peak energy associated with quantum dot photooxidation. The mechanisms of the CdTe/CdS core/shell quantum dot photooxidation and photomodification in a polymer matrix are discussed. We have found a correlation between the photostability of the quantum dots and the CdS shell thickness as well as the ratio of core elements.

  18. Electric properties of Ge quantum dot embedded in Si matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xi-ying; SHI Wei-lin

    2005-01-01

    The electric characteristics of Ge quantum dot grown by molecular beam epitaxy in Si matrix were investigated by admittance spectroscopy and deep level transient spectroscopy. The admittance spectroscopy measurements show that the activation energy of 0.341 eV can be considered as the emitting energy of hole from the ground state of the quantum dot. And the capacitance variation with temperature of the sample shows a platform at various frequencies with reverse bias 0.5 V, which indicates that the boundary of space charge region is located at the quantum dot layer where the large confined hole concentration blocks the further extension of space charge region. When the temperature increases from 120 K to 200 K, the holes in the dot emit out completely. The position of the platform shifting with the increase of the applied frequency shows the frequency effects of the charges in the quantum dot. The deep level transient spectroscopy results show that the charge concentration in the Ge quantum dot is a function of the pulse duration and the reverse bias voltage, the activation energy and capture cross-section of hole decrease with the increase of pulse duration due to the Coulomb charging effect. The valence-band offsets of hole in Ge dot obtained by admittance spectroscopy and deep level transient spectroscopy are 0.341 and 0.338 eV, respectively.

  19. Intraband Relaxation and Its Influences on Quantum Dot Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Sheng-Ling; HUANG Yong-Zhen; YU Li-Juan

    2005-01-01

    @@ A comprehensive two-level numerical model is developed to describe carrier distribution in a quantum-dot laser. Light-emission spectra with different intraband relaxation rates (2ps, 7.5ps and 20ps) are calculated and analysed to investigate the influence of relaxation rates on performance of the quantum-dot laser. The results indicate that fast intraband relaxation favours not only the ground state single mode operation but also the higher injection efficiency.

  20. THz Electro-absorption Effect in Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Monozon, Boris S.; Livshits, Daniil A.;

    2011-01-01

    Instantaneous electro-absorption effect in quantum dots, induced by electric field of THz pulse with 3 THz bandwidth is demonstrated in THz pump - optical probe experiment. This effect may be promising for Tbit/s wireless transmission systems.......Instantaneous electro-absorption effect in quantum dots, induced by electric field of THz pulse with 3 THz bandwidth is demonstrated in THz pump - optical probe experiment. This effect may be promising for Tbit/s wireless transmission systems....

  1. Solution-processed nanocrystal quantum dot tandem solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joshua J.; Lim, Yee-Fun [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Wenger, Whitney N.; Hoffman, Rachel S.; Hanrath, Tobias [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Luria, Justin; Marohn, John A. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Jasieniak, Jacek [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Bayview Ave, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2011-07-26

    Solution-processed tandem solar cells created from nanocrystal quantum dots with size-tuned energy levels are demonstrated. Prototype devices featuring interconnected quantum dot layers of cascaded energy gaps exhibit IR sensitivity and an open circuit voltage, V{sub oc}, approaching 1 V. The tandem solar cell performance depends critically on the optical and electrical properties of the interlayer. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Spin and edge channel dependent transport through quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the influence of spin polarized currents and non-equilibrated edge channels on the transport properties of a single quantum dot. Polarized currents are realized by the manual depletion of edge channels in high magnetic fields via a metallic top gate covering the source contact in the system. We observe a suppression and enhancement in the conductance of the quantum dot dependent on the edge channel configuration in the leads.

  3. Spin and edge channel dependent transport through quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridder, T; Rogge, M C; Haug, R J [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)], E-mail: ridder@nano.uni-hannover.de

    2008-11-12

    We investigate the influence of spin polarized currents and non-equilibrated edge channels on the transport properties of a single quantum dot. Polarized currents are realized by the manual depletion of edge channels in high magnetic fields via a metallic top gate covering the source contact in the system. We observe a suppression and enhancement in the conductance of the quantum dot dependent on the edge channel configuration in the leads.

  4. Ultrafast optical signal processing using semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear properties of quantum dot amplifiers are discussed on the basis of an extensive theoretical model. These devices show great potential for linear amplification as well as ultrafast signal processing.......The linear and nonlinear properties of quantum dot amplifiers are discussed on the basis of an extensive theoretical model. These devices show great potential for linear amplification as well as ultrafast signal processing....

  5. Dynamical symmetries in Kondo tunneling through complex quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, T; Kikoin, K; Avishai, Y

    2002-10-01

    Kondo tunneling reveals hidden SO(n) dynamical symmetries of evenly occupied quantum dots. As is exemplified for an experimentally realizable triple quantum dot in parallel geometry, the possible values n=3,4,5,7 can be easily tuned by gate voltages. Following construction of the corresponding o(n) algebras, scaling equations are derived and Kondo temperatures are calculated. The symmetry group for a magnetic field induced anisotropic Kondo tunneling is SU(2) or SO(4).

  6. Resonance fluorescence from quantum dots: beyond the Mollow triplet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders Mølbjerg; Nielsen, Per Kær; Lorke, Michael;

    2011-01-01

    We show that the resonance fluorescence spectrum of a quantum dot excited by a strong pulse contains multiple peaks. An analytical model shows how the peak positions depend on pulse width and amplitude.......We show that the resonance fluorescence spectrum of a quantum dot excited by a strong pulse contains multiple peaks. An analytical model shows how the peak positions depend on pulse width and amplitude....

  7. Coulomb effects in tunneling through a quantum dot stack

    OpenAIRE

    Sprekeler, H.; Kiesslich, G.; Wacker, A; Schoell, E.

    2003-01-01

    Tunneling through two vertically coupled quantum dots is studied by means of a Pauli master equation model. The observation of double peaks in the current-voltage characteristic in a recent experiment is analyzed in terms of the tunnel coupling between the quantum dots and the coupling to the contacts. Different regimes for the emitter chemical potential indicating different peak scenarios in the tunneling current are discussed in detail. We show by comparison with a density matrix approach t...

  8. Shot Noise in Tunneling through a Quantum Dot Array

    OpenAIRE

    Kiesslich, G.; Wacker, A; Schoell, E.; Nauen, A.; Hohls, F.; Haug, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    The shot noise suppression in a sample containing a layer of self-assembled InAs quantum dots has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The observation of a non-monotonic dependence of the Fano factor on the bias voltage in a regime where only few quantum dot ground states contribute to the tunneling current is analyzed by a master equation model. Under the assumption of tunneling through states without Coulomb interaction this behaviour can be qualitatively reproduced by an ana...

  9. Tip-enhanced fluorescence imaging of quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, F.M.; Festy, F; Richards, D. R.

    2005-01-01

    We have imaged the fluorescence from a single quantum dot cluster using an apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope. When a sharp gold tip is brought within a few nanometers from the sample surface, the resulting enhancement in quantum dot fluorescence in the vicinity of the tip leads to a resolution of about 60 nm. We determine this enhancement of the fluorescence to be about fourfold in magnitude, which is consistent with the value expected as a result of competition between fluo...

  10. Noise and saturation properties of semiconductor quantum dot optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of quantum dot optical amplifiers. Due to the presence of a reservoir of wetting layer states, the saturation and noise properties differ markedly from bulk or QW amplifiers and may be significantly improved.......We present a detailed theoretical analysis of quantum dot optical amplifiers. Due to the presence of a reservoir of wetting layer states, the saturation and noise properties differ markedly from bulk or QW amplifiers and may be significantly improved....

  11. Solution-Processed Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Tandem Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2011-06-03

    Solution-processed tandem solar cells created from nanocrystal quantum dots with size-tuned energy levels are demonstrated. Prototype devices featuring interconnected quantum dot layers of cascaded energy gaps exhibit IR sensitivity and an open circuit voltage, V oc, approaching 1 V. The tandem solar cell performance depends critically on the optical and electrical properties of the interlayer. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Progress in the toxicological researches for quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HongCheng; ZHOU QunFang; LIU Wei; YAN Bing; ZHAO Yibing; JIANG GuiBin

    2008-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have Received more and more attention as a novel example of nanomaterials. Due to their unique fluorescent characteristics, quantum dots have been successfully applied in biotech-nology and medicine applications. Recently, the toxicity and the potential environmental effects of QDs have become a research hotspot. In this paper, toxicological effects of QDs are reviewed, and the prospects and research directions are given based on the analysis of this research field.

  13. Progress in the toxicological researches for quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have received more and more attention as a novel example of nanomaterials. Due to their unique fluorescent characteristics,quantum dots have been successfully applied in biotech-nology and medicine applications. Recently,the toxicity and the potential environmental effects of QDs have become a research hotspot. In this paper,toxicological effects of QDs are reviewed,and the prospects and research directions are given based on the analysis of this research field.

  14. Interaction of solitons with a string of coupled quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijendra; Swami, O. P.; Taneja, S.; Nagar, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we develop a theory for discrete solitons interaction with a string of coupled quantum dots in view of the local field effects. Discrete nonlinear Schrodinger (DNLS) equations are used to describe the dynamics of the string. Numerical calculations are carried out and results are analyzed with the help of matlab software. With the help of numerical solutions we demonstrate that in the quantum dots string, Rabi oscillations (RO) are self trapped into stable bright Rabi solitons. The Rabi oscillations in different types of nanostructures have potential applications to the elements of quantum logic and quantum memory.

  15. Quantum computation: algorithms and implementation in quantum dot devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John King

    In this thesis, we explore several aspects of both the software and hardware of quantum computation. First, we examine the computational power of multi-particle quantum random walks in terms of distinguishing mathematical graphs. We study both interacting and non-interacting multi-particle walks on strongly regular graphs, proving some limitations on distinguishing powers and presenting extensive numerical evidence indicative of interactions providing more distinguishing power. We then study the recently proposed adiabatic quantum algorithm for Google PageRank, and show that it exhibits power-law scaling for realistic WWW-like graphs. Turning to hardware, we next analyze the thermal physics of two nearby 2D electron gas (2DEG), and show that an analogue of the Coulomb drag effect exists for heat transfer. In some distance and temperature, this heat transfer is more significant than phonon dissipation channels. After that, we study the dephasing of two-electron states in a single silicon quantum dot. Specifically, we consider dephasing due to the electron-phonon coupling and charge noise, separately treating orbital and valley excitations. In an ideal system, dephasing due to charge noise is strongly suppressed due to a vanishing dipole moment. However, introduction of disorder or anharmonicity leads to large effective dipole moments, and hence possibly strong dephasing. Building on this work, we next consider more realistic systems, including structural disorder systems. We present experiment and theory, which demonstrate energy levels that vary with quantum dot translation, implying a structurally disordered system. Finally, we turn to the issues of valley mixing and valley-orbit hybridization, which occurs due to atomic-scale disorder at quantum well interfaces. We develop a new theoretical approach to study these effects, which we name the disorder-expansion technique. We demonstrate that this method successfully reproduces atomistic tight-binding techniques

  16. Si quantum dot structures and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbyna, L.; Torchynska, T.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents briefly the history of emission study in Si quantum dots (QDs) in the last two decades. Stable light emission of Si QDs and NCs was observed in the spectral ranges: blue, green, orange, red and infrared. These PL bands were attributed to the exciton recombination in Si QDs, to the carrier recombination through defects inside of Si NCs or via oxide related defects at the Si/SiOx interface. The analysis of recombination transitions and the different ways of the emission stimulation in Si QD structures, related to the element variation for the passivation of surface dangling bonds, as well as the plasmon induced emission and rare earth impurity activation, have been presented. The different applications of Si QD structures in quantum electronics, such as: Si QD light emitting diodes, Si QD single union and tandem solar cells, Si QD memory structures, Si QD based one electron devices and double QD structures for spintronics, have been discussed as well. Note the significant worldwide interest directed toward the silicon-based light emission for integrated optoelectronics is related to the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatibility and the possibility to be monolithically integrated with very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. The different features of poly-, micro- and nanocrystalline silicon for solar cells, that is a mixture of both amorphous and crystalline phases, such as the silicon NCs or QDs embedded in a α-Si:H matrix, as well as the thin film 2-cell or 3-cell tandem solar cells based on Si QD structures have been discussed as well. Silicon NC based structures for non-volatile memory purposes, the recent studies of Si QD base single electron devices and the single electron occupation of QDs as an important component to the measurement and manipulation of spins in quantum information processing have been analyzed as well.

  17. Fluorescence from a quantum dot and metallic nanosphere hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindel, Daniel G. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Winnipeg, 515 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, R3B 2E9 (Canada); Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-03-31

    We present energy absorption and interference in a quantum dot-metallic nanosphere system embedded on a dielectric substrate. A control field is applied to induce dipole moments in the nanosphere and the quantum dot, and a probe field is applied to monitor absorption. Dipole moments in the quantum dot or the metal nanosphere are induced, both by the external fields and by each other's dipole fields. Thus, in addition to direct polarization, the metal nanosphere and the quantum dot will sense one another via the dipole-dipole interaction. The density matrix method was used to show that the absorption spectrum can be split from one peak to two peaks by the control field, and this can also be done by placing the metal sphere close to the quantum dot. When the two are extremely close together, a self-interaction in the quantum dot produces an asymmetry in the absorption peaks. In addition, the fluorescence efficiency can be quenched by the addition of a metal nanosphere. This hybrid system could be used to create ultra-fast switching and sensing nanodevices.

  18. Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics: The effect of polydispersity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhitomirsky, David

    2012-02-08

    The size-effect tunability of colloidal quantum dots enables facile engineering of the bandgap at the time of nanoparticle synthesis. The dependence of effective bandgap on nanoparticle size also presents a challenge if the size dispersion, hence bandgap variability, is not well-controlled within a given quantum dot solid. The impact of this polydispersity is well-studied in luminescent devices as well as in unipolar electronic transport; however, the requirements on monodispersity have yet to be quantified in photovoltaics. Here we carry out a series of combined experimental and model-based studies aimed at clarifying, and quantifying, the importance of quantum dot monodispersity in photovoltaics. We successfully predict, using a simple model, the dependence of both open-circuit voltage and photoluminescence behavior on the density of small-bandgap (large-diameter) quantum dot inclusions. The model requires inclusion of trap states to explain the experimental data quantitatively. We then explore using this same experimentally tested model the implications of a broadened quantum dot population on device performance. We report that present-day colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic devices with typical inhomogeneous linewidths of 100-150 meV are dominated by surface traps, and it is for this reason that they see marginal benefit from reduction in polydispersity. Upon eliminating surface traps, achieving inhomogeneous broadening of 50 meV or less will lead to device performance that sees very little deleterious impact from polydispersity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. Quantum gates by coupled quantum dots and measurement procedure in Si MOSFET

    CERN Document Server

    Tanamoto, T

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the quantum gates of coupled quantum dots, theoretically, when charging effects can be observed. We have shown that the charged states in the qubits can be observed by the channel current of the MOSFET structure.

  20. Self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots and quantum dot laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占国; 刘峰奇; 梁基本; 徐波

    2000-01-01

    Systematic study of molecular beam epitaxy-grown self-assembled ln(Ga)As/GaAs, In-AlAs/AlGaAs/GaAs, and InAs/InAIAs/lnP quantum dots (QDs) is demonstrated. By adjusting growth conditions, surprising alignment, preferential elongation, and pronounced sequential coalescence of dots under the specific condition are realized. Room-temperature (RT) continuous-wave (CW) lasing at the wavelength of 960 nm with output power of 1 W is achieved from vertical coupled InAs/GaAs QDs ensemble. The RT threshold current density is 218 A/cm2. An RT CW output power of 0.53 W ensures at least 3 000 h lasing (only drops 0.83 db). This is one of the best results ever reported.

  1. Electrical control over single hole spins in nanowire quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Pribiag, V. S.; Nadj-Perge, S.; S.M. Frolov; van den Berg, J. W. G.; van Weperen, I.; Plissard, S.R. (Sebastien) (Postdoc); Bakkers, E.P.A.M. (Erik) (Professor); Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2013-01-01

    The development of viable quantum computation devices will require the ability to preserve the coherence of quantum bits (qubits). Single electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are a versatile platform for quantum information processing, but controlling decoherence remains a considerable challenge. Hole spins in III–V semiconductors have unique properties, such as a strong spin–orbit interaction and weak coupling to nuclear spins, and therefore, have the potential for enhanced spin cont...

  2. Optically induced phase transition of excitons in coupled quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zi-Dong

    2008-01-01

    The weak classical light excitations in many semiconductor quantum dots have been chosen as important solidstate quantum systems for processing quantum information and implementing quantum computing. For strong classical light we predict theoretically a novel phase transition as a function of magnitude of this classical light from the deformed to the normal phases in resonance case, and the essential features of criticality such as the scaling behaviour, critical exponent and universality are also present in this paper.

  3. On-chip generation and guiding of quantum light from a site-controlled quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Ayesha; Farrer, Ian; Griffiths, Jonathan P.; Jones, Geb A. C.; Ritchie, David A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Skiba-Szymanska, Joanna; Kalliakos, Sokratis; Ward, Martin B.; Ellis, David J. P.; Shields, Andrew J., E-mail: andrew.shields@crl.toshiba.co.uk [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge, CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Schwagmann, Andre; Brody, Yarden [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge, CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-10

    We demonstrate the emission and routing of single photons along a semiconductor chip originating from carrier recombination in an actively positioned InAs quantum dot. Device–scale arrays of quantum dots are formed by a two–step regrowth process. We precisely locate the propagating region of a unidirectional photonic crystal waveguide with respect to the quantum dot nucleation site. Under pulsed optical excitation, the multiphoton emission probability from the waveguide's exit is 12% ± 5% before any background correction. Our results are a major step towards the deterministic integration of a quantum emitter with the waveguiding components of photonic quantum circuits.

  4. Direct electrochemical stripping detection of cystic-fibrosis-related DNA linked through cadmium sulfide quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical detection of a cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs)-DNA complex connected to paramagnetic microbeads (MB) was performed without the need for chemical dissolving. The method is based on dropping 20 μl of CdS QD-DNA-MB suspension on the surface of a screen-printed electrode. It is followed by magnetic collection on the surface of the working electrode and electrochemical detection using square-wave voltammetry (SWV), giving a well-shaped and sensitive analytical signal. A cystic-fibrosis-related DNA sequence was sandwiched between the two DNA probes. One DNA probe is linked via biotin-streptavidin bonding with MB and the other one via thiol groups with the CdS QD used as tags. Nonspecific signals of DNA were minimized using a blocking agent and the results obtained were successfully employed in a model DNA sensor with an interest in future applications in the clinical field. The developed nanoparticle biosensing system may offer numerous opportunities in other fields where fast, low cost and efficient detection of small volume samples is required.

  5. Unconventional application of conventional enzymatic substrate: first fluorogenic immunoassay based on enzymatic formation of quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malashikhina, Natalia; Garai-Ibabe, Gaizka; Pavlov, Valeri

    2013-07-16

    In this study, a simple fluorogenic immunoassay based on in situ formation of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is described. We discovered that alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the enzyme broadly used in enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA), is able to trigger formation of fluorescent CdS QDs. ALP-catalyzed hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) leads to the formation of p-nitrophenol and inorganic phosphate. The latter stabilizes CdS QDs produced in situ through interaction of Cd(2+) with S(2-) ions. So, the specific interaction of analyte (antibody) with ALP-labeled antibody can be detected through formation of CdS QDs, monitored by recording emission spectra at λex = 290 nm. The fluorescence intensity showed to be dependent on the concentration of target antibody. This method allowed us to detect as low as 0.4 ng mL(-1) of analyte antibody with a linear range up to 10 ng mL(-1). The sensitivity of this novel assay showed to be 1 order of magnitude better than that of the standard method based on colorimetric p-nitrophenyl phosphate assay.

  6. Electron charging in epitaxial germanium quantum dots on silicon (100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketharanathan, Sutharsan

    The electron charging behavior of self assembled epitaxial Ge quantum dots on Si(100) grown using molecular beam epitaxy has been studied. Ge quantum dots encapsulated in n-type Si matrix were incorporated into Schottky diodes to investigate their charging behavior using capacitance-voltage measurements. These experimental results were interpreted in the context of theoretical models to assess the degree of charge localization to the dot. Experiments involving Ge quantum dot growth, growth of Sb-doped Si and morphological evolution during encapsulation of the Ge dots during Si overgrowth were performed in order to optimize the conditions for obtaining distinct Ge quantum dot morphologies. This investigation included finding a suitable method to minimize Sb segregation while maintaining good dot epitaxy and overall crystal quality. Holes are confined to the Ge dots for which the valence band offsets are large (˜650 meV). Electrons are confined to the strained Si regions adjacent to the Ge quantum dots which have relatively smaller confinement potentials (˜100--150 meV). Experimentally, it was found that but and pyramid clusters in the range from 20--40 nm in diameter confine ˜1electron per dot while dome clusters in the range from 60--80 nm diameter confine ˜6--8 electrons per dot. Theoretical simulations predict that similar pyramid structures confine ˜0.4 electrons per dot and dome structures confine ˜2.2--3 electrons per dot. Even though the theory and the experimental results disagree due to various uncertainties and approximations, the ratio between theory and experiment agree remarkably well for both island types. We also investigated constructive three-dimensional nanolithography. Nanoscale Au rich dots and pure Ge dots were deposited on SiO2 and Si3N4 substrates by decomposing adsorbed precursors using a focused electron beam in an environmental transmission electron microscope. Dimethyl acetylacetonate gold was used for Au and digermane was used to

  7. Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundiff, Steven T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-05-03

    This final report describes the activities undertaken under grant "Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots". The goal of this program was to implement optical 2-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy and apply it to electronic excitations, including excitons, in semiconductors. Specifically of interest are quantum wells that exhibit disorder due to well width fluctuations and quantum dots. In both cases, 2-D spectroscopy will provide information regarding coupling among excitonic localization sites.

  8. Single-Photon Superradiance from a Quantum Dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighineanu, Petru; Daveau, Raphaël S; Lehmann, Tau B; Beere, Harvey E; Ritchie, David A; Lodahl, Peter; Stobbe, Søren

    2016-04-22

    We report on the observation of single-photon superradiance from an exciton in a semiconductor quantum dot. The confinement by the quantum dot is strong enough for it to mimic a two-level atom, yet sufficiently weak to ensure superradiance. The electrostatic interaction between the electron and the hole comprising the exciton gives rise to an anharmonic spectrum, which we exploit to prepare the superradiant quantum state deterministically with a laser pulse. We observe a fivefold enhancement of the oscillator strength compared to conventional quantum dots. The enhancement is limited by the base temperature of our cryostat and may lead to oscillator strengths above 1000 from a single quantum emitter at optical frequencies. PMID:27152804

  9. Universal parametric correlations of conductance peaks in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the parametric correlation function of the conductance peaks in chaotic and weakly disordered quantum dots in the Coulomb blockade regime and demonstrate its universality upon an appropriate scaling of the parameter. For a symmetric dot we show that this correlation function is affected by breaking time-reversal symmetry but is independent of the details of the channels in the external leads. We derive a new scaling which depends on the eigenfunctions alone and can be extracted directly from the conductance peak heights. Our results are in excellent agreement with model simulations of a disordered quantum dot. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  10. Annealing-induced change in quantum dot chain formation mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tyler D.; Colton, John S.; Farrer, Jeffrey K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo UT 84602 (United States); Yang, Haeyeon [Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD 57701 (United States); Kim, Dong Jun [IPG Photonics Corporation, Oxford, MA 01540 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot chains were grown using a modified Stranski-Krastanov method in which the InGaAs layer is deposited under a low growth temperature and high arsenic overpressure, which suppresses the formation of dots until a later annealing process. The dots are capped with a 100 nm GaAs layer. Three samples, having three different annealing temperatures of 460°C, 480°C, and 500°C, were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Results indicate two distinct types of dot formation processes: dots in the 460°C and 480°C samples form from platelet precursors in a one-to-one ratio whereas the dots in the sample annealed at 500°C form through the strain-driven self-assembly process, and then grow larger via an additional Ostwald ripening process whereby dots grow into larger dots at the expense of smaller seed islands. There are consequently significant morphological differences between the two types of dots, which explain many of the previously-reported differences in optical properties. Moreover, we also report evidence of indium segregation within the dots, with little or no indium intermixing between the dots and the surrounding GaAs barrier.

  11. Annealing-induced change in quantum dot chain formation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tyler D.; Colton, John S.; Farrer, Jeffrey K.; Yang, Haeyeon; Kim, Dong Jun

    2014-12-01

    Self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot chains were grown using a modified Stranski-Krastanov method in which the InGaAs layer is deposited under a low growth temperature and high arsenic overpressure, which suppresses the formation of dots until a later annealing process. The dots are capped with a 100 nm GaAs layer. Three samples, having three different annealing temperatures of 460°C, 480°C, and 500°C, were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Results indicate two distinct types of dot formation processes: dots in the 460°C and 480°C samples form from platelet precursors in a one-to-one ratio whereas the dots in the sample annealed at 500°C form through the strain-driven self-assembly process, and then grow larger via an additional Ostwald ripening process whereby dots grow into larger dots at the expense of smaller seed islands. There are consequently significant morphological differences between the two types of dots, which explain many of the previously-reported differences in optical properties. Moreover, we also report evidence of indium segregation within the dots, with little or no indium intermixing between the dots and the surrounding GaAs barrier.

  12. Annealing-induced change in quantum dot chain formation mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler D. Park

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot chains were grown using a modified Stranski-Krastanov method in which the InGaAs layer is deposited under a low growth temperature and high arsenic overpressure, which suppresses the formation of dots until a later annealing process. The dots are capped with a 100 nm GaAs layer. Three samples, having three different annealing temperatures of 460°C, 480°C, and 500°C, were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Results indicate two distinct types of dot formation processes: dots in the 460°C and 480°C samples form from platelet precursors in a one-to-one ratio whereas the dots in the sample annealed at 500°C form through the strain-driven self-assembly process, and then grow larger via an additional Ostwald ripening process whereby dots grow into larger dots at the expense of smaller seed islands. There are consequently significant morphological differences between the two types of dots, which explain many of the previously-reported differences in optical properties. Moreover, we also report evidence of indium segregation within the dots, with little or no indium intermixing between the dots and the surrounding GaAs barrier.

  13. Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Architectures that would exploit the distinct characteristics of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) have been proposed for digital communication networks that connect advanced digital computing circuits. In comparison with networks of wires in conventional very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry, the networks according to the proposed architectures would be more compact. The proposed architectures would make it possible to implement complex interconnection schemes that are required for some advanced parallel-computing algorithms and that are difficult (and in many cases impractical) to implement in VLSI circuitry. The difficulty of implementation in VLSI and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA were described previously in Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42. To recapitulate: Wherever two wires in a conventional VLSI circuit cross each other and are required not to be in electrical contact with each other, there must be a layer of electrical insulation between them. This, in turn, makes it necessary to resort to a noncoplanar and possibly a multilayer design, which can be complex, expensive, and even impractical. As a result, much of the cost of designing VLSI circuits is associated with minimization of data routing and assignment of layers to minimize crossing of wires. Heretofore, these considerations have impeded the development of VLSI circuitry to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. On the other hand, with suitable design and under suitable operating conditions, QCA-based signal paths can be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. The proposed architectures require two advances in QCA-based circuitry beyond basic QCA-based binary

  14. Spin qubits in quantum dots - beyond nearest-neighbour exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersypen, Lieven

    The spin of a single electron is the canonical two-level quantum system. When isolated in a semiconductor quantum dot, a single electron spin provides a well-controlled and long-lived quantum bit. So far, two-qubit gates in this system have relied on the spin exchange interaction that arises when the wave functions of neighbouring electrons overlap. Furthermore, experimental demonstrations of controlled spin-exchange have been limited to 1D quantum dot arrays only. Here we explore several avenues for scaling beyond 1D arrays with nearest-neighbour coupling. First, we show that second-order tunnel processes allow for coherent spin-exchange between non-nearest neighbour quantum dots. The detuning of the intermediate quantum dot controls the frequency of the exchange-driven oscillations of the spins. Second, we demonstrate shuttling of electrons in quantum dot arrays preserving the spin projection for more than 500 hops. We use this technique to read out multiple spins in a way analogous to the operation of a CCD. Finally, we develop superconducting resonators that are resilient to magnetic field and with a predicted tenfold increase in vacuum electric field amplitudes. This makes coupling spin qubits via superconducting resonators in a circuit-QED approach a realistic possibility. Supported by ERC, FOM, NWO, IARPA, ARO, EU.

  15. High quantum yield ZnO quantum dots synthesizing via an ultrasonication microreactor method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weimin; Yang, Huafang; Ding, Wenhao; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Le; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-11-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic microreactor. Ultrasonic radiation brought bubbles through ultrasonic cavitation. These bubbles built microreactor inside the microreactor. The photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots synthesized with different flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature were discussed. Flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature would influence the type and quantity of defects in ZnO quantum dots. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by those conditions as well. Flow rate affected the reaction time. With the increasing of flow rate, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots decreased and the quantum yields first increased then decreased. Ultrasonic power changed the ultrasonic cavitation intensity, which affected the reaction energy and the separation of the solution. With the increasing of ultrasonic power, sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased, while the quantum yields kept increasing. The effect of ultrasonic temperature on the photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots was influenced by the flow rate. Different flow rate related to opposite changing trend. Moreover, the quantum yields of ZnO QDs synthesized by ultrasonic microreactor could reach 64.7%, which is higher than those synthesized only under ultrasonic radiation or only by microreactor. PMID:27245962

  16. Highly tuneable hole quantum dots in Ge-Si core-shell nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauns, Matthias; Ridderbos, Joost; Li, Ang; van der Wiel, Wilfred G.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Zwanenburg, Floris A.

    2016-10-01

    We define single quantum dots of lengths varying from 60 nm up to nearly half a micron in Ge-Si core-shell nanowires. The charging energies scale inversely with the quantum dot length between 18 and 4 meV. Subsequently, we split up a long dot into a double quantum dot with a separate control over the tunnel couplings and the electrochemical potential of each dot. Both single and double quantum dot configurations prove to be very stable and show excellent control over the electrostatic environment of the dots, making this system a highly versatile platform for spin-based quantum computing.

  17. Kondo effect for electron transport through an artificial quantum dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ke-Wei; Xiong Shi-Jie

    2006-01-01

    We have calculated the transport properties of electron through an artificial quantum dot by using the numerical renormalization group technique in this paper.We obtain the conductance for the system of a quantum dot which is embedded in a one-dimensional chain in zero and finite temperature cases.The external magnetic field gives rise to a negative magnetoconductance in the zero temperature case.It increases as the external magnetic field increases.We obtain the relation between the coupling coefficient and conductance.If the interaction is big enough to prevent conduction electrons from tunnelling through the dot,the dispersion effect is dominant in this case.In the Kondo temperature regime,we obtain the conductivity of a quantum dot system with Kondo correlation.

  18. Fabrication of quantum-dot devices in graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Moriyama, Yoshifumi Morita, Eiichiro Watanabe, Daiju Tsuya, Shinya Uji, Maki Shimizu and Koji Ishibashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe our recent experimental results on the fabrication of quantum-dot devices in a graphene-based two-dimensional system. Graphene samples were prepared by micromechanical cleavage of graphite crystals on a SiO2/Si substrate. We performed micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements to determine the number of layers of graphene flakes during the device fabrication process. By applying a nanofabrication process to the identified graphene flakes, we prepared a double-quantum-dot device structure comprising two lateral quantum dots coupled in series. Measurements of low-temperature electrical transport show the device to be a series-coupled double-dot system with varied interdot tunnel coupling, the strength of which changes continuously and non-monotonically as a function of gate voltage.

  19. Emission redistribution from a quantum dot-bowtie nanoantenna

    CERN Document Server

    Regler, A; Lyamkina, A; Spiegl, M; Müller, K; Vuckovic, J; Finley, J J; Kaniber, M

    2016-01-01

    We present a combined experimental and simulation study of a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot coupled to a nearby ($\\sim 25nm$) plasmonic antenna. Micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy shows a $\\sim 2.4\\times$ increase of intensity, which is attributed to spatial far-field redistribution of the emission from the quantum dot-antenna system. Power-dependent studies show similar saturation powers of $2.5\\mu W$ for both coupled and uncoupled quantum dot emission in polarization-resolved measurements. Moreover, time-resolved spectroscopy reveals the absence of Purcell-enhancement of the quantum dot coupled to the antenna as compared to an uncoupled dot, yielding comparable exciton lifetimes of $\\tau\\sim0.5ns$. This observation is supported by numerical simulations, suggesting only minor Purcell-effects of $25nm$. The observed increased emission from a coupled quantum dot-plasmonic antenna system is found to be in good qualitative agreement with numerical simulations and will lead to a better understanding o...

  20. Inelastic laser light scattering spectroscopy and functionalization of semiconductor quantum dots with peptides and integrins of cancer cells for biophotonic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bairamov, B [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Toporov, V [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Bayramov, F [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Lanzov, V [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RAS, Gatchina, 188300 (Russian Federation); Dutta, M [Deparment of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Stroscio, M A [Deparment of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Irmer, G [Institute of Theoretical Physics, D-09596, Freiberg (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Results of our study of structural properties of the nanoscale integrated semiconductor quantum dots such as CdS and ZnS-capped CdSe, conjugated with biomolecules such as short peptides and cells are presented. Nanoscale functionalization of semiconductor quantum dots with biomedical structures is promising for many applications and novel studies of intrinsic properties of both constituent systems. We study CdS semiconductor quantum dots functionalized with peptides composed of the following amino acid chains: CGGGRGDS, CGGGRVDS, CGGIKVAV, and CGGGLDV, where R is arginine, D is aspartic acid, S is serine, V is valine, K is lysine and L is Levine. As will be seen the cysteine (C) amino acid links to CdS semiconductor quantum dots via the thiol link. Furthermore, the GGG sequences of glycine (G) amino acids provide a spacer in the amino acid chain. At the same time the RGDS, RVDS, IKAV, and LDV sequences have selective bonding affinities to specialized transmembrane cellular structures known as integrins of neurons and MDA-MB-435 cancer cells, respectively. Since protein hydration is known to be a key factor affecting protein energy balance, we also studied a role that water and other bioenvironments may play in stability, surface properties, dynamical and structural characteristics of these systems. We found also the roles that the quantum confinement and functionalizing in the biomedical environments play in altering and determining the electronic, optical, and vibrational properties of these nanostructures as well as demonstrated the effectiveness to use the semiconductor quantum dots as integrin sensitive biotags.

  1. Scaling of the Coulomb Energy Due to Quantum Fluctuations in the Charge on a Quantum Dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molenkamp, L. W; Flensberg, Karsten; Kemerink, M.

    1995-01-01

    The charging energy of a quantum dot is measured through the effect of its potential on the conductance of a second dot. This technique allows a measurement of the scaling of the dot's charging energy with the conductance of the tunnel barriers leading to the dot. We find that the charging energy...... scales quadratically with the reflection probability of the barriers. The observed power law agrees with a recent theory....

  2. Ac response of a coupled double quantum dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Jie; W.Z. Shangguan; Zhan Shi-Chang

    2005-01-01

    The effect of phase-breaking process on the ac response of a coupled double quantum dot is studied in this paper based on the nonequilibrium Green function formalism. A general expression is derived for the ac current in the presence of electron-phonon interaction. The ac conductance is numerically computed and the results are compared with those in [Anatram M P and Datts S 1995 Phys. Rev. B 51 7632]. Our results reveal that the inter-dot electron tunnelling interplays with that between dots and electron reservoirs, and contributes prominently to the ac current when inter-dot tunnelling coupling is much larger than the tunnelling coupling between dots and electron reservoirs. In addition, the phase-breaking process is found to have a significant effect on the ac transport through the coupled double dot.

  3. Advancing colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs are attractive materials for solar cells due to their low cost, ease of fabrication and spectral tunability. Progress in CQD photovoltaic technology over the past decade has resulted in power conversion efficiencies approaching 10%. In this review, we give an overview of this progress, and discuss limiting mechanisms and paths for future improvement in CQD solar cell technology.We briefly summarize nanoparticle synthesis and film processing methods and evaluate the optoelectronic properties of CQD films, including the crucial role that surface ligands play in materials performance. We give an overview of device architecture engineering in CQD solar cells. The compromise between carrier extraction and photon absorption in CQD photovoltaics is analyzed along with different strategies for overcoming this trade-off. We then focus on recent advances in absorption enhancement through innovative device design and the use of nanophotonics. Several light-trapping schemes, which have resulted in large increases in cell photocurrent, are described in detail. In particular, integrating plasmonic elements into CQD devices has emerged as a promising approach to enhance photon absorption through both near-field coupling and far-field scattering effects. We also discuss strategies for overcoming the single junction efficiency limits in CQD solar cells, including tandem architectures, multiple exciton generation and hybrid materials schemes. Finally, we offer a perspective on future directions for the field and the most promising paths for achieving higher device efficiencies.

  4. Colloidal quantum dot photodetectors (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinolfi, Valerio; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-08-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are emerging solution processed materials combining low cost, easy deposition on large and flexible substrates, and bandgap tunability. The latter feature, which allows spectral tuning of the absorption profile of the semiconductor, makes these materials particularly attractive for light detection applications. Lead sulfide (PbS) CQDs, in particular, have shown astonishing performance as a light sensitive material operating at visible and infrared (IR) wavelengths. Early studies of PbS CQDs used as a photosensitive resistor (photoconductor) showed an impressive responsivity - exceeding 1000 A/W - and a detectivity (D*) higher then 10^13 Jones. This impressive D* was preserved in the successive development of the first PbS CQD photodiode, showing the possibility to realize fast - f_3db > 1Mhz - and sensitive IR detectors. Currently, the field is moving toward the development of hybrid devices and phototransitors. PbS CQDs have been combined in field effect transistors (FETs) with graphene and MoS2 channels, showing ultra-high gain (exceeding 10^8 electrons/photons) and high D*. Recently a photo-junction FET (photo-JFET) has been reported that breaks the inherent dark current/gain/bandwidth compromise affecting photoconductive light detectors. With this presentation we offer a broad overview on CQD photodetection highlighting the past achievements, the benefits, the challenges and the prospects for the future research on this field.

  5. Doping silicon nanocrystals and quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Chatelain, Brittany L.; Ticich, Thomas M.; Barron, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to incorporate a dopant element into silicon nanocrystals (NC) and quantum dots (QD) is one of the key technical challenges for the use of these materials in a number of optoelectronic applications. Unlike doping of traditional bulk semiconductor materials, the location of the doping element can be either within the crystal lattice (c-doping), on the surface (s-doping) or within the surrounding matrix (m-doping). A review of the various synthetic strategies for doping silicon NCs and QDs is presented, concentrating on the efficacy of the synthetic routes, both in situ and post synthesis, with regard to the structural location of the dopant and the doping level. Methods that have been applied to the characterization of doped NCs and QDs are summarized with regard to the information that is obtained, in particular to provide researchers with a guide to the suitable techniques for determining dopant concentration and location, as well as electronic and photonic effectiveness of the dopant.

  6. Photodynamic antibacterial effect of graphene quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, Biljana Z; Milenkovic, Marina M; Dakic, Ivana R; Todorovic-Markovic, Biljana M; Milosavljevic, Momir S; Budimir, Milica D; Paunovic, Verica G; Dramicanin, Miroslav D; Markovic, Zoran M; Trajkovic, Vladimir S

    2014-05-01

    Synthesis of new antibacterial agents is becoming increasingly important in light of the emerging antibiotic resistance. In the present study we report that electrochemically produced graphene quantum dots (GQD), a new class of carbon nanoparticles, generate reactive oxygen species when photoexcited (470 nm, 1 W), and kill two strains of pathogenic bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Bacterial killing was demonstrated by the reduction in number of bacterial colonies in a standard plate count method, the increase in propidium iodide uptake confirming the cell membrane damage, as well as by morphological defects visualized by atomic force microscopy. The induction of oxidative stress in bacteria exposed to photoexcited GQD was confirmed by staining with a redox-sensitive fluorochrome dihydrorhodamine 123. Neither GQD nor light exposure alone were able to cause oxidative stress and reduce the viability of bacteria. Importantly, mouse spleen cells were markedly less sensitive in the same experimental conditions, thus indicating a fairly selective antibacterial photodynamic action of GQD. PMID:24612819

  7. Photodynamic antibacterial effect of graphene quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, Biljana Z; Milenkovic, Marina M; Dakic, Ivana R; Todorovic-Markovic, Biljana M; Milosavljevic, Momir S; Budimir, Milica D; Paunovic, Verica G; Dramicanin, Miroslav D; Markovic, Zoran M; Trajkovic, Vladimir S

    2014-05-01

    Synthesis of new antibacterial agents is becoming increasingly important in light of the emerging antibiotic resistance. In the present study we report that electrochemically produced graphene quantum dots (GQD), a new class of carbon nanoparticles, generate reactive oxygen species when photoexcited (470 nm, 1 W), and kill two strains of pathogenic bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Bacterial killing was demonstrated by the reduction in number of bacterial colonies in a standard plate count method, the increase in propidium iodide uptake confirming the cell membrane damage, as well as by morphological defects visualized by atomic force microscopy. The induction of oxidative stress in bacteria exposed to photoexcited GQD was confirmed by staining with a redox-sensitive fluorochrome dihydrorhodamine 123. Neither GQD nor light exposure alone were able to cause oxidative stress and reduce the viability of bacteria. Importantly, mouse spleen cells were markedly less sensitive in the same experimental conditions, thus indicating a fairly selective antibacterial photodynamic action of GQD.

  8. Advancing colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yan; Arinze, Ebuka S.; Palmquist, Nathan; Thon, Susanna M.

    2016-06-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are attractive materials for solar cells due to their low cost, ease of fabrication and spectral tunability. Progress in CQD photovoltaic technology over the past decade has resulted in power conversion efficiencies approaching 10%. In this review, we give an overview of this progress, and discuss limiting mechanisms and paths for future improvement in CQD solar cell technology.We briefly summarize nanoparticle synthesis and film processing methods and evaluate the optoelectronic properties of CQD films, including the crucial role that surface ligands play in materials performance. We give an overview of device architecture engineering in CQD solar cells. The compromise between carrier extraction and photon absorption in CQD photovoltaics is analyzed along with different strategies for overcoming this trade-off. We then focus on recent advances in absorption enhancement through innovative device design and the use of nanophotonics. Several light-trapping schemes, which have resulted in large increases in cell photocurrent, are described in detail. In particular, integrating plasmonic elements into CQD devices has emerged as a promising approach to enhance photon absorption through both near-field coupling and far-field scattering effects. We also discuss strategies for overcoming the single junction efficiency limits in CQD solar cells, including tandem architectures, multiple exciton generation and hybrid materials schemes. Finally, we offer a perspective on future directions for the field and the most promising paths for achieving higher device efficiencies.

  9. Spin-orbit-enhanced Wigner localization in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Malet, F.; Cremon, J. C.;

    2011-01-01

    We investigate quantum dots with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the strongly-correlated regime. We show that the presence of the Rashba interaction enhances the Wigner localization in these systems, making it achievable for higher densities than those at which it is observed in Rashba-free quantum...

  10. Highly luminescent water-soluble CdTe quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuister, SF; Swart, A.N.; van Driel, F; Hickey, SG; Donega, CD; Swart, Ingmar

    2003-01-01

    Colloidal CdTe quantum dots prepared in TOP/DDA (trioctylphosphine/dodecylamine) are transferred into water by the use of aminoethanethiol.HCl (AET) or mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). This results in an increase in the photoluminescence quantum efficiency and a longer exciton lifetime. For the first t

  11. Saturation and noise properties of quantum-dot optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Based on extensive numerical calculations, quantum-dot (QD) amplifiers are predicted to offer higher output power and lower noise figure compared to bulk as well as quantum well amplifiers. The underlying physical mechanisms are analyzed in detail, leading to the identification of a few key requi...

  12. Sunlight assisted photodegradation by tin oxide quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajira, P. S.; Prabhu, V. Ganeshchandra; Bushiri, M. Junaid

    2015-12-01

    Rutile phase of SnO2 quantum dots of average size of 2.5 nm were synthesized at a growth temperature of 70 °C and characterized with XRD, TEM, FTIR and Raman analysis. The effective strain within the lattice of SnO2 quantum dots was calculated by Williamson-Hall method. The broad peaks in XRD as well as Raman spectra and the presence of Raman bands at 569 and 432 cm-1 are due to lower crystallinity of nanoparticles. The optical band gap of SnO2 quantum dots was increased to 3.75 eV attributed to the quantum size effect. SnO2 quantum dots were annealed in air atmosphere and the crystallite size of the particles increased with annealing temperature. Sunlight assisted photodegration property of SnO2 quantum dots was investigated with vanillin as a model system and it shows the photodegradation efficiency of 87%. The photoluminescence and photodegradation efficiency of nanocrystallite SnO2 decreases with increase of crystallite size contributed to the reduction in population of defects and surface area.

  13. Modelling exciton–phonon interactions in optically driven quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazir, Ahsan; McCutcheon, Dara

    2016-01-01

    We provide a self-contained review of master equation approaches to modelling phonon effects in optically driven self-assembled quantum dots. Coupling of the (quasi) two-level excitonic system to phonons leads to dissipation and dephasing, the rates of which depend on the excitation conditions...... additionally consider the role of phonons in altering the optical emission characteristics of quantum dot devices, outlining how we must modify standard quantum optics treatments to account for the presence of the solid-state environment....

  14. Pulse-Gated Quantum-Dot Hybrid Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Teck Seng; Gamble, John King; Friesen, Mark; Eriksson, M. A.; Coppersmith, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    A quantum-dot hybrid qubit formed from three electrons in a double quantum dot has the potential for great speed, due to the presence of level crossings where the qubit becomes chargelike. Here, we show how to exploit the level crossings to implement fast pulsed gating. We develop one- and two-qubit dc quantum gates that are simpler than the previously proposed ac gates. We obtain closed-form solutions for the control sequences and show that the gates are fast (subnanosecond) and can achieve high fidelities.

  15. Folded-light-path colloidal quantum dot solar cells.

    KAUST Repository

    Koleilat, Ghada I

    2013-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics combine low-cost solution processing with quantum size-effect tuning to match absorption to the solar spectrum. Rapid advances have led to certified solar power conversion efficiencies of over 7%. Nevertheless, these devices remain held back by a compromise in the choice of quantum dot film thickness, balancing on the one hand the need to maximize photon absorption, mandating a thicker film, and, on the other, the need for efficient carrier extraction, a consideration that limits film thickness. Here we report an architecture that breaks this compromise by folding the path of light propagating in the colloidal quantum dot solid. Using this method, we achieve a substantial increase in short-circuit current, ultimately leading to improved power conversion efficiency.

  16. Simulating electron spin entanglement in a double quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Moreno, M. A.; Hernandez de La Luz, A. D.; Meza-Montes, Lilia

    2011-03-01

    One of the biggest advantages of having a working quantum-computing device when compared with a classical one, is the exponential speedup of calculations. This exponential increase is based on the ability of a quantum system to create and operate on entangled states. In order to study theoretically the entanglement between two electron spins, we simulate the dynamics of two electron spins in an electrostatically-defined double quantum dot with a finite barrier height between the dots. Electrons are initially confined to separated quantum dots. Barrier height is varied and the spin entanglement as a function of this variation is investigated. The evolution of the system is simulated by using a numerical approach for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for two particles. Partially supported by VIEP-BUAP.

  17. Evolution of Luminescence with Shell's Thickness in Colloidal CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Da-Shun; SHEN Li; WANG Zhi-Bing; CUI Yi-Ping; ZHANG Jia-Yu; YE Yong-Hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ We synthesize colloidal CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum clots with different shell thicknesses, and there are five samples including CdSe core dots, and CdSe/CdS core/shell dots with 1-4 CdS layers.X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements indicate that the stress in CdSe core becomes stronger with the increasing shell thickness, and the optical measurements show that when the shell becomes thicker, the photoluminescence quantum yield is enhanced, and the radiative decay is also expedited.The temperature-dependent optical spectra are measured.The relation between the microstructure and the optical properties is discussed.

  18. Facile synthesis of N-rich carbon quantum dots by spontaneous polymerization and incision of solvents as efficient bioimaging probes and advanced electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhouyue; Xu, Shengjie; Wan, Jiaxun; Wu, Peiyi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, uniform nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CDs) were synthesized through a one-step solvothermal process of cyclic and nitrogen-rich solvents, such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethyl-imidazolidinone (DMEU), under mild conditions. The products exhibited strong light blue fluorescence, good cell permeability and low cytotoxicity. Moreover, after a facile post-thermal treatment, it developed a lotus seedpod surface-like structure of seed-like N-CDs decorating on the surface of carbon layers with a high proportion of quaternary nitrogen moieties that exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity and long-term durability towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The peak potential was -160 mV, which was comparable to or even lower than commercial Pt/C catalysts. Therefore, this study provides an alternative facile approach to the synthesis of versatile carbon quantum dots (CDs) with widespread commercial application prospects, not only as bioimaging probes but also as promising electrocatalysts for the metal-free ORR.In this study, uniform nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CDs) were synthesized through a one-step solvothermal process of cyclic and nitrogen-rich solvents, such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethyl-imidazolidinone (DMEU), under mild conditions. The products exhibited strong light blue fluorescence, good cell permeability and low cytotoxicity. Moreover, after a facile post-thermal treatment, it developed a lotus seedpod surface-like structure of seed-like N-CDs decorating on the surface of carbon layers with a high proportion of quaternary nitrogen moieties that exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity and long-term durability towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The peak potential was -160 mV, which was comparable to or even lower than commercial Pt/C catalysts. Therefore, this study provides an alternative facile approach to the synthesis of versatile carbon quantum dots (CDs) with widespread

  19. Detection of CdSe quantum dot photoluminescence for security label on paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isnaeni,, E-mail: isnaeni@lipi.go.id; Sugiarto, Iyon Titok [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Science, Building 442 Puspiptek Serpong, South Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia 15314 (Indonesia); Bilqis, Ratu; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro [Department of Physics, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia 50275 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    CdSe quantum dot has great potential in various applications especially for emitting devices. One example potential application of CdSe quantum dot is security label for anti-counterfeiting. In this work, we present a practical approach of security label on paper using one and two colors of colloidal CdSe quantum dot, which is used as stamping ink on various types of paper. Under ambient condition, quantum dot is almost invisible. The quantum dot security label can be revealed by detecting emission of quantum dot using photoluminescence and cnc machine. The recorded quantum dot emission intensity is then analyzed using home-made program to reveal quantum dot pattern stamp having the word ’RAHASIA’. We found that security label using quantum dot works well on several types of paper. The quantum dot patterns can survive several days and further treatment is required to protect the quantum dot. Oxidation of quantum dot that occurred during this experiment reduced the emission intensity of quantum dot patterns.

  20. Detection of CdSe quantum dot photoluminescence for security label on paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdSe quantum dot has great potential in various applications especially for emitting devices. One example potential application of CdSe quantum dot is security label for anti-counterfeiting. In this work, we present a practical approach of security label on paper using one and two colors of colloidal CdSe quantum dot, which is used as stamping ink on various types of paper. Under ambient condition, quantum dot is almost invisible. The quantum dot security label can be revealed by detecting emission of quantum dot using photoluminescence and cnc machine. The recorded quantum dot emission intensity is then analyzed using home-made program to reveal quantum dot pattern stamp having the word ’RAHASIA’. We found that security label using quantum dot works well on several types of paper. The quantum dot patterns can survive several days and further treatment is required to protect the quantum dot. Oxidation of quantum dot that occurred during this experiment reduced the emission intensity of quantum dot patterns

  1. Photo-physical properties enhancement of bare and core-shell quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumin, Md Abdul, E-mail: pcharpentier@eng.uwo.ca; Akhter, Kazi Farida, E-mail: pcharpentier@eng.uwo.ca; Charpentier, Paul A., E-mail: pcharpentier@eng.uwo.ca [Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Western University, London Ontario (Canada)

    2014-03-31

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) (also known as quantum dots, QDs) have attracted immense attention for their size-tunable optical properties that makes them impressive candidates for solar cells, light emitting devices, lasers, as well as biomedical imaging. However monodispersity, high and consistent photoluminescence, photostability, and biocompatibility are still major challenges. This work focuses on optimizing the photophysical properties and biocompatibility of QDs by forming core-shell nanostructures and their encapsulation by a carrier. Highly luminescent CdS and CdS-ZnS core-shell QDs with 5 nm sizes were synthesized using a facile approach based on pyrolysis of the single molecule precursors. After capping the CdS QDs with a thin layer of ZnS to reduce toxicity, the photoluminescence and photostability of the core-shell QDs was significantly enhanced. To make both the bare and core/shell structure QDs more resistant against photochemical reactions, a mesoporous silica layer was grown on the QDs through a reverse microemulsion technique based on hydrophobic interaction. This encapsulation enhanced the quantum yield and photostability compared to the bare QDs by providing much stronger resistance to oxidation and Oswald ripening of QDs. Encapsulation also improved biocompatibility of QDs that was evaluated with human umbilical vein endothelial cell lines (HUVEC)

  2. Fast gain and phase recovery of semiconductor optical amplifiers based on submonolayer quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Bastian, E-mail: BHerzog@physik.tu-berlin.de; Owschimikow, Nina; Kaptan, Yücel; Kolarczik, Mirco; Switaiski, Thomas; Woggon, Ulrike [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Rosales, Ricardo; Strittmatter, André; Bimberg, Dieter; Pohl, Udo W. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-16

    Submonolayer quantum dots as active medium in opto-electronic devices promise to combine the high density of states of quantum wells with the fast recovery dynamics of self-assembled quantum dots. We investigate the gain and phase recovery dynamics of a semiconductor optical amplifier based on InAs submonolayer quantum dots in the regime of linear operation by one- and two-color heterodyne pump-probe spectroscopy. We find an as fast recovery dynamics as for quantum dot-in-a-well structures, reaching 2 ps at moderate injection currents. The effective quantum well embedding the submonolayer quantum dots acts as a fast and efficient carrier reservoir.

  3. Highly luminescent water-soluble CdTe quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Wuister, SF; Swart, A.N.; van Driel, F; Hickey, SG; Donega, CD; Swart, Ingmar

    2003-01-01

    Colloidal CdTe quantum dots prepared in TOP/DDA (trioctylphosphine/dodecylamine) are transferred into water by the use of aminoethanethiol.HCl (AET) or mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). This results in an increase in the photoluminescence quantum efficiency and a longer exciton lifetime. For the first time, water-soluble semiconductor nanocrystals presenting simultaneously high band-edge photoluminescence quantum efficiencies (as high as 60% at room temperature), monoexponential exciton decays, a...

  4. Pulse Designed Coherent Dynamics of a Quantum Dot Charge Qubit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Gang; WANG Li; TU Tao; LI Hai-Ou; XIAO Ming; GUO Guo-Ping

    2012-01-01

    We propose an effective method to design the working parameters of a pulse-driven charge qubit implemented with double quantum dot.It is shown that intrinsic qubit population leakage to undesired states in the control and measurement process can be determined by the simulation of coherent dynamics of the qubit and minimized by choosing proper working parameters such as pulse shape.The result demonstrated here bodes well for future quantum gate operations and quantum computing applications.

  5. Quantum Dot- and Aptamer-Based Nanostructures for Biological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshik, Xenia

    Quantum dots are semiconductor nanoparticles that have gained popularity in optical and electronic applications in recent years. Aptamers are short man-made oligonucleotides with high binding affinity for a specific target. One part of this work presents an optical FRET-based sensor for K+ and Pb2+ consisting of a fluorescent quantum dot, an aptamer, and a gold nanoparticle quencher. Additionally, an electrochemical sensor for K+ and Pb2+ is also presented, which consists of an aptamer with an electron donor bound to graphene. Both sensors are shown to detect K+ and Pb2+ at concentrations critical for human health. The emission spectrum of the optical sensor is also shown to shift in response to strong electric fields. UV-excited TiO 2 quantum dots are also investigated for their ability to influence the dynamics of voltage gated ion channels in cells. It was found that the activation voltage is shifted in the presence of UV-excited TiO2 quantum dots. Electrostatic force measurements and theoretical calculations confirm that electric fields in TiO2 can in fact be optically induced. ZnO quantum dots are also synthesized and their optical and electrical properties are similarly investigated. Additionally, Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is used in this work to find previously-unknown spectra of the aptamer Apt-alphavbeta3 and the peptide thymosin-beta4.

  6. Non-blinking quantum dot with a plasmonic nanoshell resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Botao; Giovanelli, Emerson; Habert, Benjamin; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Nasilowski, Michel; Xu, Xiangzhen; Lequeux, Nicolas; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Marquier, Francois; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Dubertret, Benoit

    2015-02-01

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are fluorescent nanocrystals exhibiting exceptional optical properties, but their emission intensity strongly depends on their charging state and local environment. This leads to blinking at the single-particle level or even complete fluorescence quenching, and limits the applications of quantum dots as fluorescent particles. Here, we show that a single quantum dot encapsulated in a silica shell coated with a continuous gold nanoshell provides a system with a stable and Poissonian emission at room temperature that is preserved regardless of drastic changes in the local environment. This novel hybrid quantum dot/silica/gold structure behaves as a plasmonic resonator with a strong Purcell factor, in very good agreement with simulations. The gold nanoshell also acts as a shield that protects the quantum dot fluorescence and enhances its resistance to high-power photoexcitation or high-energy electron beams. This plasmonic fluorescent resonator opens the way to a new family of plasmonic nanoemitters with robust optical properties. PMID:25581887

  7. MULTIPLE EXCITON GENERATIONSOLAR CELLS USING CdSe QUANTUM DOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAFTOM MESFIN GEBRESLASSIE,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and Simulation works of Nano structured Solar Cells Using CdSe Quantum Dots have been analyzed and investigated. CdSe quantum dots have been synthesized from non coordinating and highboiling solvent Octadecene and a series of increasing CdSe particle sizes are produced. The synthesized CdSe quantum dots are highly examined under a Transmission Electron Microscope and four images ofdifferent sizes of CdSe quantum dots (5.8 nm, 6.4 nm, 7.0 nm and 7.7 nm have been obtained. A 1.1x1.1cm2 TiO2 electrode is prepared using indium tin oxide conducting glass and TiO2 nanoparticles. The CdSe quantum dot (5.8nm was adsorbed on TiO2 photoelectrode and used as sensitizer. In this paper work, a sandwich type cell configuration which is made up of TiO2 photoelectrode, graphite coated counter electrode, an electrolyte of iodine and potassium iodide have been used. This sandwich type cell has been exposed to sun light and we have achieved 0.32 V and 0.2 mA

  8. Universal quantum gates for hybrid systems assisted by quantum dots inside double-sided optical microcavities

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2013-01-01

    We present some deterministic schemes to construct universal quantum gates, that is, controlled- NOT, three-qubit Toffoli, and Fredkin gates, between flying photon qubits and stationary electron-spin qubits assisted by quantum dots inside double-sided optical microcavities. The control qubit of our gates is encoded on the polarization of the moving single photon and the target qubits are encoded on the confined electron spins in quantum dots inside optical microcavities. Our schemes for these...

  9. Periodic Scarred States in Open Quantum Dots as Evidence of Quantum Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. M.; Akis, R.; Day, T. E.; Speyer, Gil; Ferry, D. K.; Bennett, B. R.

    2010-04-01

    Scanning gate microscopy (SGM) is used to image scar structures in an open quantum dot, which is created in an InAs quantum well by electron-beam lithography and wet etching. The scanned images demonstrate periodicities in magnetic field that correlate to those found in the conductance fluctuations. Simulations have shown that these magnetic transform images bear a strong resemblance to actual scars found in the dot that replicate through the modes in direct agreement with quantum Darwinism.

  10. Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng

    2012-05-06

    Infrared light-emitting diodes are currently fabricated from direct-gap semiconductors using epitaxy, which makes them expensive and difficult to integrate with other materials. Light-emitting diodes based on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots, on the other hand, can be solution-processed at low cost, and can be directly integrated with silicon. However, so far, exciton dissociation and recombination have not been well controlled in these devices, and this has limited their performance. Here, by tuning the distance between adjacent PbS quantum dots, we fabricate thin-film quantum-dot light-emitting diodes that operate at infrared wavelengths with radiances (6.4 W sr \\'1 m \\'2) eight times higher and external quantum efficiencies (2.0%) two times higher than the highest values previously reported. The distance between adjacent dots is tuned over a range of 1.3 nm by varying the lengths of the linker molecules from three to eight CH 2 groups, which allows us to achieve the optimum balance between charge injection and radiative exciton recombination. The electroluminescent powers of the best devices are comparable to those produced by commercial InGaAsP light-emitting diodes. By varying the size of the quantum dots, we can tune the emission wavelengths between 800 and 1,850 nm.© 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  11. One-Pot Synthesis of Biocompatible CdSe/CdS Quantum Dots and Their Applications as Fluorescent Biological Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Hai; Wu Yulian; Zhai Chuanxin; Zhang Hui; Du Ning; Chen Bingdi; Yang Deren

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We developed a novel one-pot polyol approach for the synthesis of biocompatible CdSe quantum dots (QDs) using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a capping ligand at 240°C. The morphological and structural characterization confirmed the formation of biocompatible and monodisperse CdSe QDs with several nanometers in size. The encapsulation of CdS thin layers on the surface of CdSe QDs (CdSe/CdS core–shell QDs) was used for passivating the defect emission (650 nm) and enhancing the ...

  12. Carrier-phonon interaction in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebeck, Jan

    2009-03-10

    In recent years semiconductor quantum dots have been studied extensively due to their wide range of possible applications, predominantly for light sources. For successful applications, efficient carrier scattering processes as well as a detailed understanding of the optical properties are of central importance. The aims of this thesis are theoretical investigations of carrier scattering processes in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots on a quantum-kinetic basis. A consistent treatment of quasi-particle renormalizations and carrier kinetics for non-equilibrium conditions is presented, using the framework of non-equilibrium Green's functions. The focus of our investigations is the interaction of carriers with LO phonons. Important for the understanding of the scattering mechanism are the corresponding quasi-particle properties. Starting from a detailed study of quantum-dot polarons, scattering and dephasing processes are discussed for different temperature regimes. The inclusion of polaron and memory effects turns out to be essential for the description of the carrier kinetics in quantum-dot systems. They give rise to efficient scattering channels and the obtained results are in agreement with recent experiments. Furthermore, a consistent treatment of the carrier-LO-phonon and the carrier-carrier interaction is presented for the optical response of semiconductor quantum dots, both giving rise to equally important contributions to the dephasing. Beside the conventional GaAs material system, currently GaN based light sources are of high topical interest due to their wide range of possible emission frequencies. In this material additionally intrinsic properties like piezoelectric fields and strong band-mixing effects have to be considered. For the description of the optical properties of InN/GaN quantum dots a procedure is presented, where the material properties obtained from an atomistic tight-binding approach are combined with a many-body theory for non

  13. Silicon quantum dots for optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jeslin J.

    Luminescent silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) are emerging as attractive materials for optoelectronic devices, third generation photovoltaics, and bioimaging. Their applicability in the real world is contingent on their optical properties and long-term environmental stability; and in biological applications, factors such as water solubility and toxicity must also be taken into consideration. The aforementioned properties are highly dependent on the QDs' surface chemistry. In this work, SiQDs were engineered for the respective applications using liquid-phase and gas-phase functionalization techniques. Preliminary work in luminescent downshifting for photovoltaic systems are also reported. Highly luminescent SiQDs were fabricated by grafting unsaturated hydrocarbons onto the surface of hydrogen-terminated SiQDs via thermal and photochemical hydrosilylation. An industrially attractive, all gas-phase, nonthermal plasma synthesis, passivation (aided by photochemical reactions), and deposition process was also developed to reduce solvent waste. With photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) nearing 60 %, the alkyl-terminated QDs are attractive materials for optical applications. The functionalized SiQDs also exhibited enhanced thermal stability as compared to their unfunctionalized counterparts, and the photochemically-hydrosilylated QDs further displayed photostability under UV irradiation. These environmentally-stable SiQDs were used as luminescent downshifting layers in photovoltaic systems, which led to enhancements in the blue photoresponse of heterojunction solar cells. Furthermore, the QD films demonstrated antireflective properties, improving the coupling efficiency of sunlight into the cell. For biological applications, oxide, amine, or hydroxyl groups were grafted onto the surface to create water-soluble SiQDs. Luminescent, water-soluble SiQDs were produced in by microplasma treating the QDs in water. Stable QYs exceeding 50 % were obtained. Radical-based and

  14. Ultrashort Dynamics in Quantum Dot Waveguides: Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehrig, E.; Poel, Mike van der; Birkedal, Dan;

    2004-01-01

    Experimental pump-probe measurements and computational modeling on the basis of spatially resolved Quantum Dot Maxwell-Bloch equations allow identification of the processes underlying the ultrafast dot dynamics.......Experimental pump-probe measurements and computational modeling on the basis of spatially resolved Quantum Dot Maxwell-Bloch equations allow identification of the processes underlying the ultrafast dot dynamics....

  15. A Quantum Dot with Spin-Orbit Interaction--Analytical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, B.; Roy, B.

    2009-01-01

    The practical applicability of a semiconductor quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction gives an impetus to study analytical solutions to one- and two-electron quantum dots with or without a magnetic field.

  16. Universal Parametric Correlations of Conductance Peaks in Quantum Dots

    OpenAIRE

    Alhassid, Y.; Attias, H.

    1996-01-01

    We compute the parametric correlation function of the conductance peaks in chaotic and weakly disordered quantum dots in the Coulomb blockade regime and demonstrate its universality upon an appropriate scaling of the parameter. For a symmetric dot we show that this correlation function is affected by breaking time-reversal symmetry but is independent of the details of the channels in the external leads. We derive a new scaling which depends on the eigenfunctions alone and can be extracted dir...

  17. Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectroscopy Evaluation of CdTe and CdTe/CdS Quantum Dots

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zhimin; Yang, Ping; Cao, Yongqiang

    2012-01-01

    CdTe and CdTe/CdS quantum dots (QDs) were prepared in aqueous solutions using thioglycolic acid as a stabilizing agent. The photoluminescence (PL) wavelength of the QDs depended strongly on the size of CdTe cores and the thickness of CdS shells. Being kept at room temperature for 130 days, the PL wavelength of CdTe and CdTe/CdS QDs was red-shifted. However the red-shifted degree of CdTe QDs is larger than that of CdTe/CdS QDs. The size of CdTe QDs and the thickness of CdS play important roles...

  18. Double Rashba Quantum Dots Ring as a Spin Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Feng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe theoretically propose a double quantum dots (QDs ring to filter the electron spin that works due to the Rashba spin–orbit interaction (RSOI existing inside the QDs, the spin-dependent inter-dot tunneling coupling and the magnetic flux penetrating through the ring. By varying the RSOI-induced phase factor, the magnetic flux and the strength of the spin-dependent inter-dot tunneling coupling, which arises from a constant magnetic field applied on the tunneling junction between the QDs, a 100% spin-polarized conductance can be obtained. We show that both the spin orientations and the magnitude of it can be controlled by adjusting the above-mentioned parameters. The spin filtering effect is robust even in the presence of strong intra-dot Coulomb interactions and arbitrary dot-lead coupling configurations.

  19. Plasmon-enhanced second harmonic generation in semiconductor quantum dots close to metal nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea V. Bragas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the enhancement of the optical second harmonic signal in non-centrosymmetric semiconductor CdS quantum dots, when they are placed in close contact with isolated silver nanoparticles. The intensity enhancement is about 1000. We also show that the enhancement increases when the incoming laser frequency $omega$ is tuned toward the spectral position of the silver plasmon at $2omega$, proving that the silver nanoparticle modifies the nonlinear emission.Received: 8 March 2011, Accepted: 30 May 2011; Edited by: L. Viña; Reviewed by: R. Gordon, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada; DOI: 10.4279/PIP.030002Cite as: P. M. Jais, C. von Bilderling, A. V. Bragas, Papers in Physics 3, 030002 (2011

  20. Correlated Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum-dot structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    We study theoretically Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum dots (CQDs) -- a biasdriven dot coupled to an unbiased dot where transport is due to Coulomb mediated energy transfer drag. To this end, we introduce a master-equation approach which accounts for higher-order tunneling (cotunneling....... Interestingly, the direction of the drag current is not determined by the drive current, but by an interplay between the energy-dependent lead couplings. Studying the drag mechanism in a graphene-based CQD heterostructure, we show that the predictions of our theory are consistent with recent experiments...

  1. Realization of electrically tunable single quantum dot nanocavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofbauer, Felix Florian Georg

    2009-03-15

    We investigated the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dot-photonic crystal defect nanocavities operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light matter interaction. We demonstrate that the quantum confined Stark effect can be employed to quickly and reversibly switch the dot-cavity coupling, simply by varying a gate voltage. Our results show that exciton transitions from individual dots can be tuned by up to {proportional_to}4 meV relative to the nanocavity mode, before the emission quenches due to carrier tunneling escape from the dots. We directly probe spontaneous emission, irreversible polariton decay and the statistics of the emitted photons from a single-dot nanocavity in the weak and strong coupling regimes. New information is obtained on the nature of the dot-cavity coupling in the weak coupling regime and electrical control of zero dimensional polaritons is demonstrated for the first time. The structures investigated are p-i-n photodiodes consisting of an 180nm thick free-standing GaAs membrane into which a two dimensional photonic crystal is formed by etching a triangular lattice of air holes. Low mode volume nanocavities (V{sub mode}<1.6 ({lambda}/n){sup 3}) are realized by omitting 3 holes in a line to form L3 cavities and a single layer of InGaAs self-assembled quantum dots is embedded into the midpoint of the membrane. The nanocavities are electrically contacted via 35 nm thick p- and n-doped contact layers in the GaAs membrane. In the weak coupling regime, time resolved spectroscopy reveals a {proportional_to}7 x shortening of the spontaneous emission lifetime as the dot is tuned through the nanocavity mode, due to the Purcell effect. Upon strongly detuning the same quantum dot transition from the nanocavity mode we observe an additional {proportional_to}8 x lengthening of the spontaneous emission lifetime. These observations unequivocally highlight two regimes of dot

  2. Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics Enhanced by Perovskite Shelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Janmohamed, Alyf; Lan, Xinzheng; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Yassitepe, Emre; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Ning, Zhijun; Gong, Xiwen; Comin, Riccardo; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-11-11

    Solution-processed quantum dots are a promising material for large-scale, low-cost solar cell applications. New device architectures and improved passivation have been instrumental in increasing the performance of quantum dot photovoltaic devices. Here we report photovoltaic devices based on inks of quantum dot on which we grow thin perovskite shells in solid-state films. Passivation using the perovskite was achieved using a facile solution ligand exchange followed by postannealing. The resulting hybrid nanostructure created a more intrinsic CQD film, which, when incorporated into a photovoltaic device with graded bandstructure, achieved a record solar cell performance for single-step-deposited CQD films, exhibiting an AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiency of 8.95%.

  3. A tunable colloidal quantum dot photo field-effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Subir

    2011-01-01

    We fabricate and investigate field-effect transistors in which a light-absorbing photogate modulates the flow of current along the channel. The photogate consists of colloidal quantum dots that efficiently transfer photoelectrons to the channel across a charge-separating (type-II) heterointerface, producing a primary and sustained secondary flow that is terminated via electron back-recombination across the interface. We explore colloidal quantum dot sizes corresponding to bandgaps ranging from 730 to 1475 nm and also investigate various stoichiometries of aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) channel materials. We investigate the role of trap state energies in both the colloidal quantum dot energy film and the AZO channel. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Peptide linkers for the assembly of semiconductor quantum dot bioconjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeneman, Kelly; Mei, Bing C.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Delehanty, James B.; Mattoussi, Hedi; Medintz, Igor

    2009-02-01

    The use of semiconductor luminescent quantum dots for the labeling of biomolecules is rapidly expanding, however it still requires facile methods to attach functional globular proteins to biologically optimized quantum dots. Here we discuss the development of controlled variable length peptidyl linkers to attach biomolecules to poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) coated quantum dots for both in vitro and in vivo applications. The peptides chosen, β-sheets and alpha helices are appended to polyhistidine sequences and this allows for control of the ratio of peptide bioconjugated to QD and the distance from QD to the biomolecule. Recombinant DNA engineering, bacterial peptide expression and Ni-NTA purification of histidine labeled peptides are utilized to create the linkers. Peptide length is confirmed by in vitro fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET).

  5. Colloidal quantum dot solids for solution-processed solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mingjian; Liu, Mengxia; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-03-01

    Solution-processed photovoltaic technologies represent a promising way to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of solar energy harvesting. Among these, colloidal semiconductor quantum dot photovoltaics have the advantage of a spectrally tuneable infrared bandgap, which enables use in multi-junction cells, as well as the benefit of generating and harvesting multiple charge carrier pairs per absorbed photon. Here we review recent progress in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics, focusing on three fronts. First, we examine strategies to manage the abundant surfaces of quantum dots, strategies that have led to progress in the removal of electronic trap states. Second, we consider new device architectures that have improved device performance to certified efficiencies of 10.6%. Third, we focus on progress in solution-phase chemical processing, such as spray-coating and centrifugal casting, which has led to the demonstration of manufacturing-ready process technologies.

  6. Valley-orbit hybrid states in Si quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.

    2013-03-01

    The conduction band for electrons in layered Si nanostructures oriented along (001) has two low-lying valleys. Most theoretical treatments assume that these valleys are decoupled from the long-wavelength physics of electron confinement. In this work, we show that even a minimal amount of disorder (a single atomic step at the quantum well interface) is sufficient to mix valley states and electron orbitals, causing a significant distortion of the long-wavelength electron envelope. For physically realistic electric fields and dot sizes, this valley-orbit coupling impacts all electronic states in Si quantum dots, implying that one must always consider valley-orbit hybrid states, rather than distinct valley and orbital degrees of freedom. We discuss the ramifications of our results on silicon quantum dot qubits. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-08-1-0482) and NSF (DMR-0805045).

  7. Coherent Dynamics of Quantum Dots in Photonic-Crystal Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg

    -matter interaction in the micropiller caivty is so strong that we measure non-Markovian dynamics of the quantum dot, and we compare to the Jaynes-Cummings model with all parameters independently determined. We find an excellent agreement when comparing the dynamics, but the emission spectra show significant...... Successfully model the decay rates with a microscopic model that allows us to for the first time extract the effective phonon density of states, which we can model with bulk phonons. Studies on a quantum dot detuned from a low-Q mode of a photonic-crystal cavity show a high collection efficiency at the first...... lens of (44.3±2.1)%, while emission exhibits a very strong anti-bunching. We demonstrate how the quantum dot can be efficiently and selectively excited through longitudinal optical and acoustic phonon-mediated excitation. Indistinguishability measurements of the emitted photons under these two...

  8. Coupling of self-assembled InAs quantum dots to surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Lykke; Stobbe, Søren; Johansen, Jeppe;

    2008-01-01

    InAs quantum dots have been placed at different distances to a silver mirror. We extract the coupling of quantum dots to surface plasmon polaritons as a function of the distance by time-resolved spontaneous emission measurements.......InAs quantum dots have been placed at different distances to a silver mirror. We extract the coupling of quantum dots to surface plasmon polaritons as a function of the distance by time-resolved spontaneous emission measurements....

  9. Strain-controlled correlation effects in self-assembled quantum dot stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Kunert, R; Schoell, E.

    2006-01-01

    We show that elastic interactions of an array of self-assembled quantum dots in a parent material matrix are markedly distinct from the elastic field created by a single point defect, and can explain the observed abrupt correlation--anticorrelation transition in semiconductor quantum dot stacks. Finite volume effects of the quantum dots are shown to lead to sharper transitions. Our analysis also predicts the inclination angle under which the alignment in successive quantum dot layers occurs i...

  10. Quantum Dots in H1 Photonic Crystal Microcavities for Quantum Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier, Jenna; Bonato, Cristian; Truong, Tuan-Anh; Kim, Hyochul; Bakker, Morten; Beirne, Gareth J.; van Exter, Martin P.; Petroff, Pierre; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2013-03-01

    Coupling semiconductor quantum dots to optical microcavities is a promising technique for implementing quantum information processing protocols in the solid-state. By placing one or more emitters in a cavity, it is possible to create an efficient source of single photons or to explore collective interactions of few-emitter systems. Our devices consist of two layers of quantum dots, embedded in the cavity region of H1 photonic crystal microcavities. One of the quantum dot layers can be frequency-tuned deterministically, allowing two resonant quantum dots to be coupled to a single cavity mode. Because good mode-matching between the cavity mode and the input/output channel is necessary for many applications, we optimize the far-field profiles of our H1 cavities and demonstrate strong enhancement of the external mode matching properties. We will discuss our far-field optimization results as well as our ongoing work to study interactions of multiple emitters in a cavity.

  11. QCAD simulation and optimization of semiconductor double quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Erik; Gao, Xujiao; Kalashnikova, Irina; Muller, Richard Partain; Salinger, Andrew Gerhard; Young, Ralph Watson

    2013-12-01

    We present the Quantum Computer Aided Design (QCAD) simulator that targets modeling quantum devices, particularly silicon double quantum dots (DQDs) developed for quantum qubits. The simulator has three di erentiating features: (i) its core contains nonlinear Poisson, e ective mass Schrodinger, and Con guration Interaction solvers that have massively parallel capability for high simulation throughput, and can be run individually or combined self-consistently for 1D/2D/3D quantum devices; (ii) the core solvers show superior convergence even at near-zero-Kelvin temperatures, which is critical for modeling quantum computing devices; (iii) it couples with an optimization engine Dakota that enables optimization of gate voltages in DQDs for multiple desired targets. The Poisson solver includes Maxwell- Boltzmann and Fermi-Dirac statistics, supports Dirichlet, Neumann, interface charge, and Robin boundary conditions, and includes the e ect of dopant incomplete ionization. The solver has shown robust nonlinear convergence even in the milli-Kelvin temperature range, and has been extensively used to quickly obtain the semiclassical electrostatic potential in DQD devices. The self-consistent Schrodinger-Poisson solver has achieved robust and monotonic convergence behavior for 1D/2D/3D quantum devices at very low temperatures by using a predictor-correct iteration scheme. The QCAD simulator enables the calculation of dot-to-gate capacitances, and comparison with experiment and between solvers. It is observed that computed capacitances are in the right ballpark when compared to experiment, and quantum con nement increases capacitance when the number of electrons is xed in a quantum dot. In addition, the coupling of QCAD with Dakota allows to rapidly identify which device layouts are more likely leading to few-electron quantum dots. Very efficient QCAD simulations on a large number of fabricated and proposed Si DQDs have made it possible to provide fast feedback for design

  12. Quantum Effects in Higher-Order Correlators of a Quantum-Dot Spin Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, A.; Li, F.; Müller, K.; Simmet, T.; Ardelt, P.-L.; Finley, J. J.; Sinitsyn, N. A.

    2016-07-01

    We measure time correlators of a spin qubit in an optically active quantum dot beyond the second order. Such higher-order correlators are shown to be directly sensitive to pure quantum effects that cannot be explained within the classical framework. They allow direct determination of ensemble and quantum dephasing times, T2* and T2, using only repeated projective measurements and without the need for coherent spin control. Our method enables studies of purely quantum behavior in solid state systems, including tests of the Leggett-Garg type of inequalities that rule out local hidden variable interpretation of the quantum-dot spin dynamics.

  13. Rapid fluorometric determination of perfluorooctanoic acid by its quenching effect on the fluorescence of quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi; Huang, Aizhen; Wang, Nan, E-mail: nwang@hust.edu.cn; Zheng, Guan; Zhu, Lihua

    2015-05-15

    Analysis of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) usually requires a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, which is expensive and time-consuming. In the present work, water-soluble CdS quantum dots (QDs) were employed to develop a simple and rapid fluorometric method for the determination of PFOA. Strongly fluorescent CdS QDs were prepared by using 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a stabilizer. It was observed that PFOA strongly quenched the fluorescence emission of the MPA-CdS QDs because PFOA promotes the aggregation of MPA-CdS QDs through a fluorine–fluorine affinity interaction. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensity of MPA-CdS QDs was observed to decrease linearly with an increase in the concentration of PFOA from 0.5 to 40 μmol L{sup −1}, with a limit of detection of 0.3 μmol L{sup −1}. This new method was successfully implemented for the analysis of PFOA-spiked textile samples, with recoveries ranging from 95% to 113%. - Highlights: • PFOA significantly quenched the fluorescence emission of quantum dots (QDs). • A rapid and simple fluorescence sensor was proposed for determining PFOA by QDs. • PFOA determination could be completed within approximately 10 min. • The developed method had a working range of 0.5 to 40 μmol L{sup −1} and a detection limit of 0.3 μmol L{sup −1}.

  14. Carbon and Metal Quantum Dots toxicity on the microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, An; Wang, Chao; Chen, Jiao; Guo, Ruixin; Yan, Zhengyu; Chen, Jianqiu

    2016-11-01

    In this report, we investigated the cytotoxicity of two types of quantum dots(QDs) (carbon quantum dots(CQDs): N, S doped CQDs, N doped CQDs, no doped CQDs; metal QDs(MQDs): CdTe QDs, CdS QDs, CuInS2/ZnS QDs) on Chlorella pyrenoidosa(C. Pyrenoidosa) at different concentrations. We compared the toxicity of different QDs on C. Pyrenoidosa through determination of the algal growth inhibition, acute toxicity tests (EC50), Chlorophyll a(Chla) contents, protein contents, the activity of enzymatic and metabolites contents. When C. Pyrenoidosa was treated by various concentrations of QDs, the Chla contents were consistent to the number of algae cells, showing a good dose-response relationship. At the 96h, the EC50 of N, S doped CQDs, N doped CQDs, no doped CQDs and CdTe QDs, CdS QDs, CuInS2/ZnS QDs were 38.56, 185.83, 232.47, 0.015, 4.88, 459.5mg/l, respectively. The toxicity order of them was: CuInS2/ZnS QDs

  15. Signatures of single quantum dots in graphene nanoribbons within the quantum Hall regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóvári, Endre; Makk, Péter; Rickhaus, Peter; Schönenberger, Christian; Csonka, Szabolcs

    2016-06-01

    We report on the observation of periodic conductance oscillations near quantum Hall plateaus in suspended graphene nanoribbons. They are attributed to single quantum dots that are formed in the narrowest part of the ribbon, in the valleys and hills of a disorder potential. In a wide flake with two gates, a double-dot system's signature has been observed. Electrostatic confinement is enabled in single-layer graphene due to the gaps that are formed between the Landau levels, suggesting a way to create gate-defined quantum dots that can be accessed with quantum Hall edge states.We report on the observation of periodic conductance oscillations near quantum Hall plateaus in suspended graphene nanoribbons. They are attributed to single quantum dots that are formed in the narrowest part of the ribbon, in the valleys and hills of a disorder potential. In a wide flake with two gates, a double-dot system's signature has been observed. Electrostatic confinement is enabled in single-layer graphene due to the gaps that are formed between the Landau levels, suggesting a way to create gate-defined quantum dots that can be accessed with quantum Hall edge states. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C6NR00187D

  16. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer between Quantum Dot Donors and Quantum Dot Acceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny F. Chou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Förster (or fluorescence resonance energy transfer amongst semiconductor quantum dots (QDs is reviewed, with particular interest in biosensing applications. The unique optical properties of QDs provide certain advantages and also specific challenges with regards to sensor design, compared to other FRET systems. The brightness and photostability of QDs make them attractive for highly sensitive sensing and long-term, repetitive imaging applications, respectively, but the overlapping donor and acceptor excitation signals that arise when QDs serve as both the donor and acceptor lead to high background signals from direct excitation of the acceptor. The fundamentals of FRET within a nominally homogeneous QD population as well as energy transfer between two distinct colors of QDs are discussed. Examples of successful sensors are highlighted, as is cascading FRET, which can be used for solar harvesting.

  17. Sub-diffraction positioning of a two-photon excited and optically trapped quantum dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Liselotte Jauffred; Kyrsting, Anders Højbo; Christensen, Eva Arnspang;

    2014-01-01

    to blueshift. A quantum dot is much smaller than a diffraction limited laser focus and by mapping out the intensity of the focal volume and overlaying this with the positions visited by a quantum dot, a quantum dot is shown often to explore regions of the focal volume where the intensity is too low to render...

  18. Research progress of self-organized Ge quantum dots on Si substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Changjun; YU Jinzhong; WANG Qiming

    2004-01-01

    A review is presented on recent research development of self-organized Ge/Si quantum dots (QDs).Emphasis is put on the morphological evolution of the Ge quantum dots grown on Si (001) substrate,the structure analysis of multilayer Ge QDs,the optical and electronic properties of these nanostructures,and the approaches to fabricating ordered Ge quantum dots.

  19. Room-temperature dephasing in InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Märcher;

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are receiving increasing attention for fundamental studies on zero-dimensional confinement and for device applications. Quantum-dot lasers are expected to show superior performances, like high material gain, low and temperature...... stacked layers of InAs-InGaAs-GaAs quantum dots....

  20. Quantum Dots in a Polymer Composite: A Convenient Particle-in-a-Box Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Charles V.; Giffin, Guinevere A.

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are at the forefront of materials science chemistry with applications in biological imaging and photovoltaic technologies. We have developed a simple laboratory experiment to measure the quantum-dot size from fluorescence spectra. A major roadblock of quantum-dot based exercises is the particle synthesis and handling;…