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  1. The CDMS II data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, D.A.; /Fermilab; Burke, S.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Cooley, J.; /Southern Methodist U.; Crisler, M.; /Fermilab; Cushman, P.; /Minnesota U.; DeJongh, F.; /Fermilab; Duong, L.; /Minnesota U.; Ferril, R.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Golwala, S.R.; /Caltech; Hall, J.; /Fermilab; Holmgren, D.; /Fermilab /Texas A-M

    2011-01-01

    The Data Acquisition System for the CDMS II dark matter experiment was designed and built when the experiment moved to its new underground installation at the Soudan Lab. The combination of remote operation and increased data load necessitated a completely new design. Elements of the original LabView system remained as stand-alone diagnostic programs, but the main data processing moved to a VME-based system with custom electronics for signal conditioning, trigger formation and buffering. The data rate was increased 100-fold and the automated cryogenic system was linked to the data acquisition. A modular server framework with associated user interfaces was implemented in Java to allow control and monitoring of the entire experiment remotely.

  2. Advancing the Search for Dark Matter: from CDMS II to SuperCDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, Scott A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    An overwhelming proportion of the universe (83% by mass) is composed of particles we know next to nothing about. Detecting these dark matter particles directly, through hypothesized weak-force-mediated recoils with nuclear targets here on earth, could shed light on what these particles are, how they relate to the standard model, and how the standard model ts within a more fundamental understanding. This thesis describes two such experimental eorts: CDMS II (2007-2009) and SuperCDMS Soudan (ongoing). The general abilities and sensitivities of both experiments are laid out, placing a special emphasis on the detector technology, and how this technology has evolved from the rst to the second experiment. Some topics on which I spent signicant eorts are described here only in overview (in particular the details of the CDMS II analysis, which has been laid out many times before), and some topics which are not described elsewhere are given a somewhat deeper treatment. In particular, this thesis is hopefully a good reference for those interested in the annual modulation limits placed on the low-energy portion of the CDMS II exposure, the design of the detectors for SuperCDMS Soudan, and an overview of the extremely informative data these detectors produce. It is an exciting time. The technology I've had the honor to work on the past few years provides a wealth of information about each event, more so than any other direct detection experiment, and we are still learning how to optimally use all this information. Initial tests from the surface and now underground suggest this technology has the background rejection abilities necessary for a planned 200kg experiment or even ton-scale experiment, putting us on the threshold of probing parameter space orders of magnitude from where the eld currently stands.

  3. Search for Solar Axions with the CDMS-II Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bruch, T

    2008-01-01

    The CDMS-II experiment operates 19 germanium detectors with a mass of 250g each in a very low background environment. Originally designed for the search for Dark Matter the experiment can also detect solar axions by Primakoff conversion to photons. The Bragg condition for X-ray momentum transfer in a crystal allows for coherent amplification of the Primakoff process. Since the orientation of the crystal lattice with respect to the Sun changes with daytime an unique pattern in time and energy of solar axion conversions is expected. The low background ~1.5 counts/kg/day/keV and knowledge of the exact orientation of all three crystal axes with respect to the Sun make the CDMS-II experiment very sensitive to solar axions. In contrast to helioscopes, the high mass region < 1 keV can also be probed effectively. The alternating orientations of the individual crystals in the experimental setup provide different patterns of solar axion conversion, making a false positive result extremely unlikely. The result of an ...

  4. Maximum Likelihood Analysis of Low Energy CDMS II Germanium Data

    CERN Document Server

    Agnese, R; Balakishiyeva, D; Thakur, R Basu; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Cerdeno, D G; Chagani, H; Chen, Y; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Fritts, M; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Graham, M; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hertel, S A; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Kiveni, M; Koch, K; Leder, A; Loer, B; Asamar, E Lopez; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Martinez, C; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Moore, D C; Nelson, R H; Oser, S M; Page, K; Page, W A; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Rogers, H E; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Upadhyayula, S; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J

    2014-01-01

    We report on the results of a search for a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) signal in low-energy data of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS~II) experiment using a maximum likelihood analysis. A background model is constructed using GEANT4 to simulate the surface-event background from $^{210}$Pb decay-chain events, while using independent calibration data to model the gamma background. Fitting this background model to the data results in no statistically significant WIMP component. In addition, we perform fits using an analytic ad hoc background model proposed by Collar and Fields, who claimed to find a large excess of signal-like events in our data. We confirm the strong preference for a signal hypothesis in their analysis under these assumptions, but excesses are observed in both single- and multiple-scatter events, which implies the signal is not caused by WIMPs, but rather reflects the inadequacy of their background model.

  5. Search for lightly ionizing particles using CDMS-II data and fabrication of CDMS detectors with improved homogeneity in properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Kunj Bihari [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Fundamental particles are always observed to carry charges which are integral multiples of one-third charge of electron, e/3. While this is a well established experimental fact, the theoretical understanding for the charge quantization phenomenon is lacking. On the other hand, there exist numerous theoretical models that naturally allow for existence of particles with fractional electromagnetic charge. These particles, if existing, hint towards existence of physics beyond the standard model. Multiple high energy, optical, cosmological and astrophysical considerations restrict the allowable mass-charge parameter space for these fractional charges. Still, a huge unexplored region remains. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS-II), located at Soudan mines in northern Minnesota, employs germanium and silicon crystals to perform direct searches for a leading candidate to dark matter called Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). Alternately, the low detection threshold allows search for fractional electromagnetic-charged particles, or Lightly Ionizing Particles (LIPs), moving at relativistic speed. Background rejection is obtained by requiring that the magnitude and location of energy deposited in each detector be consistent with corresponding \\signatures" resulting from the passage of a fractionally charged particle. In this dissertation, the CDMS-II data is analyzed to search for LIPs, with an expected background of 0.078 0.078 events. No candidate events are observed, allowing exclusion of new parameter space for charges between e/6 and e/200.

  6. Global interpretation of direct Dark Matter searches after CDMS-II results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Joachim; Schwetz, Thomas; Zupan, Jure

    2009-12-01

    We perform a global fit to data from Dark Matter (DM) direct detection experiments, including the recent CDMS-II results. We discuss possible interpretations of the DAMA annual modulation signal in terms of spin-independent and spin-dependent DM-nucleus interactions, both for elastic and inelastic scattering. We find that for the spin-dependent inelastic scattering off protons a good fit to all data is obtained. We present a simple toy model realizing such a scenario. In all the remaining cases the DAMA allowed regions are disfavored by other experiments or suffer from severe fine tuning of DM parameters with respect to the galactic escape velocity. Finally, we also entertain the possibility that the two events observed in CDMS-II are an actual signal of elastic DM scattering, and we compare the resulting CDMS-II allowed regions to the exclusion limits from other experiments.

  7. Development of CDMS-II Surface Event Rejection Techniques and Their Extensions to Lower Energy Thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Thomas James [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The CDMS-II phase of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search, a dark matter direct-detection experiment, was operated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory from 2003 to 2008. The full payload consisted of 30 ZIP detectors, totaling approximately 1.1 kg of Si and 4.8 kg of Ge, operated at temperatures of 50 mK. The ZIP detectors read out both ionization and phonon pulses from scatters within the crystals; channel segmentation and analysis of pulse timing parameters allowed e ective ducialization of the crystal volumes and background rejection su cient to set world-leading limits at the times of their publications. A full re-analysis of the CDMS-II data was motivated by an improvement in the event reconstruction algorithms which improved the resolution of ionization energy and timing information. The Ge data were re-analyzed using three distinct background-rejection techniques; the Si data from runs 125 - 128 were analyzed for the rst time using the most successful of the techniques from the Ge re-analysis. The results of these analyses prompted a novel \\mid-threshold" analysis, wherein energy thresholds were lowered but background rejection using phonon timing information was still maintained. This technique proved to have signi cant discrimination power, maintaining adequate signal acceptance and minimizing background leakage. The primary background for CDMS-II analyses comes from surface events, whose poor ionization collection make them di cult to distinguish from true nuclear recoil events. The novel detector technology of SuperCDMS, the successor to CDMS-II, uses interleaved electrodes to achieve full ionization collection for events occurring at the top and bottom detector surfaces. This, along with dual-sided ionization and phonon instrumentation, allows for excellent ducialization and relegates the surface-event rejection techniques of CDMS-II to a secondary level of background discrimination. Current and future SuperCDMS results hold great promise for mid- to low

  8. Multi-Higgs portal dark matter under the CDMS-II results

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Mayumi; Seto, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    In a scenario of Higgs portal dark matter, Higgs exchange processes are essential for both dark matter annihilation in the early Universe and direct search experiments. The CDMS-II collaboration has recently released their final results on direct dark matter searches. We study a scalar dark matter model with multi-Higgs doublets under the constraint from the CDMS-II results and also from the WMAP data. We find that the possible maximal value for the branching ratio of the invisible decay of the Higgs boson can be significantly greater than that in the Higgs portal model with one Higgs doublet. Therefore, the search for the invisible decay of the Higgs boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider and future collider experiments would provide useful information not only for the nature of dark matter but also for the structure of the Higgs sector even without detecting any extra scalar boson directly.

  9. Silicon Detector Results from the First Five-Tower Run of CDMS II

    CERN Document Server

    Agnese, R; Anderson, A J; Arrenberg, S; Balakishiyeva, D; Thakur, R Basu; Bauer, D A; Borgland, A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bruch, T; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Cerdeno, D G; Chagani, H; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Dejongh, F; Di Stefano, P C F; Silva, E Do Couto E; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Filippini, J; Fox, J; Fritts, M; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, R H; Hertel, S A; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Kim, P; Kiveni, M; Koch, K; Kos, M; Leman, S W; Lopez-Asamar, E; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Martinez, C; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Moore, D C; Nadeau, P; Nelson, R H; Page, K; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Sundqvist, K M; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Yoo, J; Young, B A; Zhan, J

    2013-01-01

    We report results of a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with the Si detectors of the CDMS II experiment. This report describes a blind analysis of the first data taken with CDMS II's full complement of detectors in 2006-2007. Results from this exposure using the Ge detectors have already been presented. We observed no candidate WIMP-scattering events in an exposure of 55.9 kg-days before analysis cuts. These data set an upper limit of 1.7x10-41 cm2 on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section of a 10 GeV/c2 WIMP; this limit improves to 8.3x10-42 cm2 in combination with previous Si data from this installation. These data exclude parameter space for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering that is relevant to recent searches for low-mass WIMPs.

  10. Measurement of Nuclear Recoils in the CDMS II Dark Matter Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallows, Scott Mathew [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to directly detect elastic scatters of weakly-interacting massive dark matter particles (WIMPs), on target nuclei in semiconductor crystals composed of Si and Ge. These scatters would occur very rarely, in an overwhelming background composed primarily of electron recoils from photons and electrons, as well as a smaller but non-negligible background of WIMP-like nuclear recoils from neutrons. The CDMS II generation of detectors simultaneously measure ionization and athermal phonon signals from each scatter, allowing discrimination against virtually all electron recoils in the detector bulk. Pulse-shape timing analysis allows discrimination against nearly all remaining electron recoils taking place near detector surfaces. Along with carefully limited neutron backgrounds, this experimental program allowed for \\background- free" operation of CDMS II at Soudan, with less than one background event expected in each WIMP-search analysis. As a result, exclusionary upper-limits on WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section were placed over a wide range of candidate WIMP masses, ruling out large new regions of parameter space.

  11. Background Characterization and Discrimination in the Final Analysis of the CDMS II Phase of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritts, Matthew C. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is designed to detectWeakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) in the Milky Way halo. The phase known as CDMS II was performed in the Soudan Underground Laboratory. The final set of CDMS II data, collected in 2007-8 and referred to as Runs 125-8, represents the largest exposure to date for the experiment. We seek collisions between WIMPs and atomic nuclei in disk-shaped germanium and silicon detectors. A key design feature is to keep the rate of collisions from known particles producing WIMP-like signals very small. The largest category of such background is interactions with electrons in the detectors that occur very close to one of the faces of the detector. The next largest category is collisions between energetic neutrons that bypass the experimental shielding and nuclei in the detectors. Analytical efforts to discriminate these backgrounds and to estimate the rate at which such discrimination fails have been refined and improved throughout each phase of CDMS. Next-generation detectors for future phases of CDMS require testing at cryogenic test facilities. One such facility was developed at the University of Minnesota in 2007 and has been used continuously since then to test detectors for the next phase of the experiment, known as SuperCDMS.

  12. Collider Constraints on the Dark Matter Interpretation of the CDMS II Results

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Kingman; Tseng, Po-Yan; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2013-01-01

    The recent observation of three events by the CDMS II experiment can be interpreted as a 8.6 GeV dark matter scatters elastically with the nucleons inside the silicon detectors with a spin-independent cross section of 1.9 x 10^-41 cm^2. We employ the effective dark matter interaction approach to fit to the interpreted cross section, and make predictions for monojet and monophoton production at the LHC with the fitted parameters. We show that some of the operators are already ruled out by current data while the others can be further probed in the upcoming 14 TeV run of the LHC.

  13. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS-II) Experiment: First Results from the Soudan Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Clarence Leeder

    2004-09-01

    There is an abundance of evidence that the majority of the mass of the universe is in the form of non-baryonic non-luminous matter that was non-relativistic at the time when matter began to dominate the energy density. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, or WIMPs, are attractive cold dark matter candidates because they would have a relic abundance today of {approx}0.1 which is consistent with precision cosmological measurements. WIMPs are also well motivated theoretically. Many minimal supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model have WIMPs in the form of the lightest supersymmetric partner, typically taken to be the neutralino. The CDMS II experiment searches for WIMPs via their elastic scattering off of nuclei. The experiment uses Ge and Si ZIP detectors, operated at <50 mK, which simultaneously measure the ionization and athermal phonons produced by the scattering of an external particle. The dominant background for the experiment comes from electromagnetic interactions taking place very close to the detector surface. Analysis of the phonon signal from these interactions makes it possible to discriminate them from interactions caused by WIMPs. This thesis presents the details of an important aspect of the phonon pulse shape analysis known as the ''Lookup Table Correction''. The Lookup Table Correction is a position dependent calibration of the ZIP phonon response which improves the rejection of events scattering near the detector surface. The CDMS collaboration has recently commissioned its experimental installation at the Soudan Mine. This thesis presents an analysis of the data from the first WIMP search at the Soudan Mine. The results of this analysis set the world's lowest exclusion limit making the CDMS II experiment at Soudan the most sensitive WIMP search to this date.

  14. Task I: Dark Matter Search Experiments with Cryogenic Detectors: CDMS-I and CDMS-II Task II: Experimental Study of Neutrino Properties: EXO and KamLAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, Blas [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Gratta, Giorgio [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-08-30

    Dark Matter Search - During the period of performance, our group continued the search for dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles or WIMPs. As a key member of the CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search) collaboration, we completed the CDMS II experiment which led the field in sensitivity for more than five years. We fabricated all detectors, and participated in detector testing and verification. In addition, we participated in the construction and operation of the facility at the Soudan Underground Laboratory and played key roles in the data acquisition and analysis. Towards the end of the performance period, we began operating the SuperCDMS Soudan experiment, which consists of 15 advanced Ge (9 kg) detectors. The advanced detector design called iZIP grew out of our earlier DOE Particle Detector R&D program which demonstrated the rejection of surface electrons to levels where they are no longer the dominant source of background. Our group invented this advanced design and these larger detectors were fabricated on the Stanford campus in collaboration with the SLAC CDMS group and the Santa Clara University group. The sensitivity reach is expected to be up to 5 times better than CDMS II after two years of operation. We will check the new limits on WIMPs set by XENON100, and we expect improved sensitivity for light mass WIMPs beyond that of any other existing experiment. Our group includes the Spokesperson for SuperCDMS and continues to make important contributions to improvements in the detector technology which are enabling the very low trigger thresholds used to explore the low mass WIMP region. We are making detailed measurements of the charge transport and trapping within Ge crystals, measuring the diffusive trapping distance of the quasiparticle excitations within the Al phonon collector fins on the detector surface, and we are contributing to the development of much improved detector Monte Carlos which are essential to guide the detector

  15. Improved WIMP-search reach of the CDMS II germanium data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Rogers, H. E.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-10-31

    CDMS II data from the five-tower runs at the Soudan Underground Laboratory were reprocessed with an improved charge-pulse fitting algorithm. Two new analysis techniques to reject surface-event backgrounds were applied to the 612 kg days germanium-detector weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-search exposure. An extended analysis was also completed by decreasing the 10 keV analysis threshold to ~5 keV, to increase sensitivity near a WIMP mass of 8 GeV/c2. After unblinding, there were zero candidate events above a deposited energy of 10 keV and six events in the lower-threshold analysis. This yielded minimum WIMP-nucleon spin-independent scattering cross-section limits of 1.8×10-44 and 1.18×10-41 at 90% confidence for 60 and 8.6 GeV/c2 WIMPs, respectively. This improves the previous CDMS II result by a factor of 2.4 (2.7) for 60 (8.6) GeV/c2 WIMPs.

  16. Improved WIMP-search reach of the CDMS II germanium data

    CERN Document Server

    Agnese, R; Asai, M; Balakishiyeva, D; Barker, D; Thakur, R Basu; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Calkins, R; Cerdeño, D G; Chagani, H; Chen, Y; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hertel, S A; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jardin, D; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Kiveni, M; Koch, K; Leder, A; Loer, B; Asamar, E Lopez; Lukens, P; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Oser, S M; Page, K; Page, W A; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Rogers, H E; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Toback, D; Upadhyayula, S; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wilson, J S; Wright, D H; Yang, X; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    CDMS II data from the 5-tower runs at the Soudan Underground Laboratory were reprocessed with an improved charge-pulse fitting algorithm. Two new analysis techniques to reject surface-event backgrounds were applied to the 612 kg days germanium-detector WIMP-search exposure. An extended analysis was also completed by decreasing the 10 keV analysis threshold to $\\sim$5 keV, to increase sensitivity near a WIMP mass of 8 GeV/$c^2$. After unblinding, there were zero candidate events above a deposited energy of 10 keV and 6 events in the lower-threshold analysis. This yielded minimum WIMP-nucleon spin-independent scattering cross-section limits of $1.8 \\times 10^{-44}$ and $1.18 \\times 10 ^{-41}$ cm$^2$ at 90\\% confidence for 60 and 8.6 GeV/$c^2$ WIMPs, respectively. This improves the previous CDMS II result by a factor of 2.4 (2.7) for 60 (8.6) GeV/$c^2$ WIMPs.

  17. A dark-matter search using the final CDMS II dataset and a novel detector of surface radiocontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Substantial evidence from galaxies, galaxy clusters, and cosmological scales suggests that ~85% of the matter of our universe is invisible. The missing matter, or "dark matter" is likely composed of non-relativistic, non-baryonic particles, which have very rare interactions with baryonic matter and with one another. Among dark matter candidates, Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are particularly well motivated. In the early universe, thermally produced particles with weak-scale mass and interactions would `freeze out’ at the correct density to be dark matter today. Extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics, such as Supersymmetry, which solve gauge hierarchy and coupling unification problems, naturally provide such particles. Interactions of WIMPs with baryons are expected to be rare, but might be detectable in low-noise detectors. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment uses ionization- and phonon- sensitive germanium particle detectors to search for such interactions. CDMS detectors are operated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota, within a shielded environment to lower cosmogenic and radioactive background. The combination of phonon and ionization signatures from the detectors provides excellent residual-background rejection. This dissertation presents improved techniques for phonon calibration of CDMS II detectors and the analysis of the final CDMS II dataset with 612 kg-days of exposure. We set a limit of 3.8x10$^{-}$44 cm$^{2}$ on WIMP-nucleon spin-independent scattering cross section for a WIMP mass of 70 GeV/c$^{2}$. At the time this analysis was published, these data presented the most stringent limits on WIMP scattering for WIMP masses over 42 GeV/c$^{2}$, ruling out previously unexplored parameter space. Next-generation rare-event searches such as SuperCDMS, COUPP, and CLEAN will be limited in sensitivity, unless they achieve stringent control of the surface radioactive contamination on their detectors. Low

  18. Dark Matter Search Results Using the Silicon Detectors of CDMS II

    CERN Document Server

    Agnese, R; Anderson, A J; Arrenberg, S; Balakishiyeva, D; Thakur, R Basu; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bruch, T; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Cerdeno, D G; Chagani, H; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Dejongh, F; Silva, E Do Couto E; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Filippini, J; Fox, J; Fritts, M; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, R H; Hertel, S A; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Kim, P; Kiveni, M; Koch, K; Kos, M; Leman, S W; Loer, B; Asamar, E Lopez; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Martinez, C; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Moore, D C; Nadeau, P; Nelson, R H; Page, K; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Sundqvist, K M; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Yoo, J; Young, B A; Zhang, J

    2013-01-01

    We report results of a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with the silicon (Si) detectors of the CDMS II experiment. A blind analysis of data from eight Si detectors, with a total raw exposure of 140.2 kg-days, revealed three WIMP-candidate events with a final surface-event background estimate of 0.41 (-0.08 +0.20)(stat.) (-0.24 +0.28) (syst.). Other known backgrounds from neutrons and 206Pb are limited to < 0.13 and < 0.08 events at the 90% confidence level, respectively. These data place a 90% upper confidence limit on the WIMP-nucleon cross section of 2.4E-41 cm^2 at a WIMP mass of 10 GeV/c^2. Simulations indicate a 5.4% probability that a statistical fluctuation of the known backgrounds would produce three or more events in the signal region. A profile likelihood ratio test that includes the measured recoil energies of the three events gives a 0.19% probability for the known-background-only hypothesis when tested against the alternative WIMP+background hypothesis. The highest li...

  19. Dark matter and Higgs phenomenology predicted by left-right twin Higgs model in light of CDMS II results

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lei

    2010-01-01

    The left-right twin Higgs model predicts a light stable scalar \\hat{S}, which is a candidate for WIMP dark matter. We study its scattering on nucleon and find that the cross section is below the CDMS II upper bound but can reach the SuperCDMS sensitivity. Then we study the Higgs phenomenology by paying special attention to the decay h->\\hat{S}\\hat{S} which is strongly correlated with the dark matter scattering on nucleon. We find that such an invisible decay can be sizable, which can severely suppress the conventional decay modes like h->VV (V=W,Z) and h->b\\bar{b}. On the other hand, compared to the SM prediction, the rates of Higgs boson productions at the LHC via gluon-gluon fusion, weak boson fusion or in association with top quark pairs are all reduced significantly, e.g., the gluon-gluon fusion channel can be suppressed by about 30%.

  20. A Search for WIMP Dark Matter Using an Optimized Chi-square Technique on the Final Data from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment (CDMS II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manungu Kiveni, Joseph [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This dissertation describes the results of a WIMP search using CDMS II data sets accumulated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Results from the original analysis of these data were published in 2009; two events were observed in the signal region with an expected leakage of 0.9 events. Further investigation revealed an issue with the ionization-pulse reconstruction algorithm leading to a software upgrade and a subsequent reanalysis of the data. As part of the reanalysis, I performed an advanced discrimination technique to better distinguish (potential) signal events from backgrounds using a 5-dimensional chi-square method. This dataanalysis technique combines the event information recorded for each WIMP-search event to derive a backgrounddiscrimination parameter capable of reducing the expected background to less than one event, while maintaining high efficiency for signal events. Furthermore, optimizing the cut positions of this 5-dimensional chi-square parameter for the 14 viable germanium detectors yields an improved expected sensitivity to WIMP interactions relative to previous CDMS results. This dissertation describes my improved (and optimized) discrimination technique and the results obtained from a blind application to the reanalyzed CDMS II WIMP-search data.

  1. Fermi

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fermi is a powerful space observatory that will open a wide window on the universe. Gamma rays are the highest-energy form of light, and the gamma-ray sky is...

  2. Conceptual Design for SuperCDMS SNOLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyond the present dark matter direct detection experiment at the Soudan underground laboratory, the SuperCDMS Collaboration is engaged in R and D activities for a 100-kg scale germanium dark matter experiment nominally sited at SNOLAB (2070 m overburden of rock). The expected sensitivity after 3 years of running is 3 x 10-46 cm2 for the spin-independent cross section, an order of magnitude improvement over present exclusion limits for WIMP masses ∼80 GeV/c2. At this depth, and appropriate design of shielding and cryostat, neutron backgrounds will be negligible. The baseline design is an expanded version of CDMS II with Ge substrates (100 x 33 mm discs) instrumented with the iZIP phonon sensor layout to achieve the electron surface-event rejection power required.

  3. Unconstrained Higher Spins of Mixed Symmetry. II. Fermi Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Campoleoni, Andrea; Mourad, Jihad; Sagnotti, Augusto

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a sequel of arXiv:0810.4350 [hep-th], and is also devoted to the local "metric-like" unconstrained Lagrangians and field equations for higher-spin fields of mixed symmetry in flat space. Here we complete the previous constrained on-shell formulation of Labastida for Fermi fields, deriving the corresponding constrained Lagrangians both via the Bianchi identities and via the requirement of self-adjointness. We also describe two types of unconstrained Lagrangian formulations: a "minimal" one, containing higher derivatives of the compensator fields, and another non-minimal one, containing only one-derivative terms. We identify classes of these systems that are invariant under Weyl-like symmetry transformations.

  4. Observation of Fermi Arcs in Type-II Weyl Semimetal Candidate WTe2

    OpenAIRE

    WU, YUN; Jo, Na Hyun; Mou, Daixiang; Huang, Lunan; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Kaminski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We use ultrahigh resolution, tunable, vacuum ultraviolet laser angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the electronic properties of WTe$_2$, a material that was predicted to be a type-II Weyl semimetal. The Weyl fermion states in WTe2 were proposed to emerge at the crossing points of electron and hole pockets; and Fermi arcs connecting electron and hole pockets would be visible in the spectral function on (001) surface. Here we report the observation of such Fermi arcs in W...

  5. The Accretion Wind Model of the Fermi Bubbles (II): Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Mou, Guobin; Gan, Zhaoming; Sun, Mouyuan

    2015-01-01

    In a previous work, we have shown that the formation of the Fermi bubbles can be due to the interaction between winds launched from the hot accretion flow in Sgr A* and the interstellar medium (ISM). In that work, we focus only on the morphology. In this paper we continue our study by calculating the gamma-ray radiation. Some cosmic ray protons (CRp) and electrons must be contained in the winds, which are likely formed by physical processes such as magnetic reconnection. We have performed MHD simulations to study the spatial distribution of CRp, considering the advection and diffusion of CRp in the presence of magnetic field. We find that a permeated zone is formed just outside of the contact discontinuity between winds and ISM, where the collisions between CRp and thermal nuclei mainly occur. The decay of neutral pions generated in the collisions, combined with the inverse Compton scattering of background soft photons by the secondary leptons generated in the collisions and primary CR electrons can well expl...

  6. A search for particle dark matter using cryogenic germanium and silicon detectors in the one- and two- tower runs of CDMS-II at Soudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogburn, IV, Reuben Walter [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Images of the Bullet Cluster of galaxies in visible light, X-rays, and through gravitational lensing confirm that most of the matter in the universe is not composed of any known form of matter. The combined evidence from the dynamics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, the cosmic microwave background, big bang nucleosynthesis, and other observations indicates that 80% of the universe's matter is dark, nearly collisionless, and cold. The identify of the dar, matter remains unknown, but weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are a very good candidate. They are a natural part of many supersymmetric extensions to the standard model, and could be produced as a nonrelativistic, thermal relic in the early universe with about the right density to account for the missing mass. The dark matter of a galaxy should exist as a spherical or ellipsoidal cloud, called a 'halo' because it extends well past the edge of the visible galaxy. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) seeks to directly detect interactions between WIMPs in the Milky Way's galactic dark matter halo using crystals of germanium and silicon. Our Z-sensitive ionization and phonon ('ZIP') detectors simultaneously measure both phonons and ionization produced by particle interactions. In order to find very rare, low-energy WIMP interactions, they must identify and reject background events caused by environmental radioactivity, radioactive contaminants on the detector,s and cosmic rays. In particular, sophisticated analysis of the timing of phonon signals is needed to eliminate signals caused by beta decays at the detector surfaces. This thesis presents the firs two dark matter data sets from the deep underground experimental site at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. These are known as 'Run 118', with six detectors (1 kg Ge, 65.2 live days before cuts) and 'Run 119', with twelve detectors (1.5 kg Ge, 74.5 live days before cuts). They have

  7. SuperCDMS Cold Hardware Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the current design of the cold hardware and cold electronics to be used in the upcoming SuperCDMS Soudan deployment. Engineering challenges associated with such concerns as thermal isolation, microphonics, radiopurity, and power dissipation are discussed, along with identifying the design changes necessary for SuperCDMS SNOLAB. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) employs ultrapure 1-inch thick, 3-inch diameter germanium crystals operating below 50 mK in a dilution cryostat. These detectors give an ionization and phonon signal, which gives us rejection capabilities regarding background events versus dark matter signals.

  8. The SuperCDMS SNOLAB Detector Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramaki, Tsuguo

    2016-08-01

    The SuperCDMS collaboration is moving forward with the design and construction of SuperCDMS SNOLAB, where the initial deployment will include ˜ 30 kg of Ge and ˜ 5 kg of Si detectors. Here, we will discuss the associated cryogenic cold hardware required for the detector readout. The phonon signals will be read out with superconducting quantum interference device arrays and the ionization signals will use high electron mobility transistor amplifiers operating at 4 K. A number of design challenges exist regarding the required wiring complex impedance, noise pickup, vibration, and thermal isolation. Our progress to date will be presented.

  9. Validation of Phonon Physics in the CDMS Detector Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, K A; Anderson, A J; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Cabrera, B; Cherry, M; Silva, E Do Couto E; Cushman, P; Doughty, T; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Kim, P; Mirabolfathi, N; Novak, L; Partridge, R; Pyle, M; Reisetter, A; Resch, R; Sadoulet, B; Serfass, B; Sundqvist, K M; Tomada, A

    2011-01-01

    The SuperCDMS collaboration is a dark matter search effort aimed at detecting the scattering of WIMP dark matter from nuclei in cryogenic germanium targets. The CDMS Detector Monte Carlo (CDMS-DMC) is a simulation tool aimed at achieving a deeper understanding of the performance of the SuperCDMS detectors and aiding the dark matter search analysis. We present results from validation of the phonon physics described in the CDMS-DMC and outline work towards utilizing it in future WIMP search analyses.

  10. Fermi Arcs and Their Topological Character in the Candidate Type-II Weyl Semimetal MoTe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, A.; Wu, Q. S.; Cucchi, I.; Bruno, F. Y.; Riccò, S.; Kim, T. K.; Hoesch, M.; Barreteau, C.; Giannini, E.; Besnard, C.; Soluyanov, A. A.; Baumberger, F.

    2016-07-01

    We report a combined experimental and theoretical study of the candidate type-II Weyl semimetal MoTe2 . Using laser-based angle-resolved photoemission, we resolve multiple distinct Fermi arcs on the inequivalent top and bottom (001) surfaces. All surface states observed experimentally are reproduced by an electronic structure calculation for the experimental crystal structure that predicts a topological Weyl semimetal state with eight type-II Weyl points. We further use systematic electronic structure calculations simulating different Weyl point arrangements to discuss the robustness of the identified Weyl semimetal state and the topological character of Fermi arcs in MoTe2 .

  11. Determining the Appropriate Package and Transportation Methodology for the Detroit Edison, Fermi II Msrs and Associated Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the spring of 2005, Detroit Edison, Enrico Fermi II Nuclear Power Station (Fermi) decided to disposition two MSRs and associated components scheduled for replacement in the spring of 2006 during the MSR Replacement Outage. Of concern to Fermi was the proper packaging and transportation methodology when dis-positioning a component measuring approximately 110' in length and 13' in diameter and weighing over 300 tons. Upon removal from the Turbine Deck the retired MSRs and associated components were turned over to the Rad Waste Group for packaging and final disposition. Fermi requested quotations from vendors to package, transport, and disposition the MSRs and associated components. However, multiple Vendors informed Fermi that the size and weight of the MSRs were questionable in passing permitting requirements and would require segmentation and volume reduction on site or at a waste processor. Fermi contracted with MHF Logistical Solutions (MHF-LS) based on their ability to receive clearances for shipping the MSRs in one piece via two heavy haul rail conveyances acting as a bolstered load with professionally engineered blocking and bracing configured to support the retired MSRs. (authors)

  12. Fermi arcs and their topological character in the candidate type-II Weyl semimetal MoTe2

    OpenAIRE

    Tamai, A.; Wu, Q. S.; Cucchi, I.; Bruno, F. Y.; Ricco, S.; Kim, T K; Hoesch, M.; Barreteau, C.; Giannini, E.; Bernard, C.; Soluyanov, A. A.; Baumberger, F

    2016-01-01

    We report a combined experimental and theoretical study of the candidate type-II Weyl semimetal MoTe2. Using laser-based angle-resolved photoemission we resolve multiple distinct Fermi arcs on the inequivalent top and bottom (001) surfaces. All surface states observed experimentally are reproduced by an electronic structure calculation for the experimental crystal structure that predicts a topological Weyl semimetal state with 8 type-II Weyl points. We further use systematic electronic struct...

  13. Finite-size corrections to Fermi's Golden rule II: Quasi-stationary composite states

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Kenzo

    2016-01-01

    Many-body states described by a Schr\\"{o}dinger equation include states of overlapping waves of non-vanishing interaction energies. These peculiar states formed in many-body transitions remain in asymptotic regions, and lead a new component to the transition probability. The probability is computed rigorously following the von Neumann's fundamental principle of quantum mechanics with an S-matrix that is defined with normalized functions, instead of plane waves. That includes the intriguing correction term to the Fermi's golden rule, in which a visible energy is smaller than the initial energy, and reveals macroscopic quantum phenomena for light particles. Processes in Quantum Electrodynamics are analyzed and the sizable corrections are found in the dilute systems. The results suggest that these states play important roles in natural phenomena, and the verification in laboratory would be possible with recent advanced technology.

  14. CDMS: CAD data set system design description. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is intended to formalize the program design of the CAD Data Set Management System (CDMS) and to be the vehicle to communicate the design to the Engineering, Design Services, and Configuration Management organizations and the WHC IRM Analysts/Programmers. The SDD shows how the software system will be structured to satisfy the requirements identified in the WHC-SD-GN-CSRS-30005 CDMS Software Requirement Specification (SRS). It is a description of the software structure, software components, interfaces, and data that make up the CDMS System. The design descriptions contained within this document will describe in detail the software product that will be developed to assist the aforementioned organizations for the express purpose of managing CAD data sets associated with released drawings, replacing the existing locally developed system and laying the foundation for automating the configuration management

  15. Time Evolution of Electric Fields in CDMS Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Leman, S W; Brink, P L; Cabrera, B; Chagani, H; Cherry, M; Cushman, P; Silva, E Do Couto E; Doughty, T; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Mandic, V; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Pyle, M; Reisetter, A; Resch, R; Sadoulet, B; Serfass, B; Sundqvist, K M; Tomada, A; Young, B A; Zhang, J

    2011-01-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) utilizes large mass, 3" diameter x 1" thick target masses as particle detectors. The target is instrumented with both phonon and ionization sensors, the later providing a $\\sim$1 V cm$^{-1}$ electric field in the detector bulk. Cumulative radiation exposure which creates $\\sim 200\\times 10^6$ electron-hole pairs is sufficient to produce a comparable reverse field in the detector thereby degrading the ionization channel performance. To study this, the existing CDMS detector Monte Carlo has been modified to allow for an event by event evolution of the bulk electric field, in three spatial dimensions. Our most resent results and interpretation are discussed.

  16. Impurity dependent superconductivity, Berry phase and bulk Fermi surface of the Weyl type-II semi-metal candidate MoTe2

    OpenAIRE

    D. Rhodes; Zhou, Q.; Schönemann, R.; Zhang, Q. R.; Kampert, E.; Shimura, Y.; McCandless, G.T.; Chan, J. Y.; S. Das; Manousakis, E.; M. D. Johannes; Balicas, L.

    2016-01-01

    Orthorhombic MoTe$_2$ and its isostructural compound WTe$_2$ were recently claimed to belong to a new class (type II) of Weyl semi-metals characterized by a linear touching between hole and electron Fermi surfaces in addition to nodal lines. To validate these predictions, we synthesized high quality single-crystals of $\\beta$-MoTe$_2$, finding that its superconducting transition temperature depends on disorder as quantified by the ratio between the room- and low-temperature resistivities. Sim...

  17. Fermi and Szilard

    CERN Document Server

    Byers, N

    2002-01-01

    This talk is about Enrico Fermi and Leo Szilard, their collaboration and involvement in nuclear energy development and decisions to construct and use the atomic bomb in World War II. Fermi and Szilard worked closely together at Columbia in 1939-40 to explore feasibility of a nuclear chain reaction, and then on the physics for construction of the first pile (nuclear reactor). "On matters scientific or technical there was rarely any disagreement between Fermi and myself" Szilard said. But there were sharp differences on other matters.

  18. Prototyping an active neutron veto for SuperCDMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Robert; Loer, Ben

    2015-08-01

    Neutrons, originating cosmogenically or from radioactive decays, can produce signals in dark matter detectors that are indistinguishable from Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). To combat this background for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, we are investigating designs for an active neutron veto within the constrained space of the compact SuperCDMS passive shielding. The current design employs an organic liquid scintillator mixed with an agent to enhance thermal neutron captures, with the scintillation light collected using wavelength-shifting fibers and read out by silicon photo-multipliers. We will describe the proposed veto and its predicted efficiency in detail and give some recent results from our R&D and prototyping efforts.

  19. Prototyping an Active Neutron Veto for SuperCDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkins, Robert [Southern Methodist U.; Loer, Ben [Fermilab

    2015-08-17

    Neutrons, originating cosmogenically or from radioactive decays, can produce signals in dark matter detectors that are indistinguishable from Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). To combat this background for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, we are investigating designs for an active neutron veto within the constrained space of the compact SuperCDMS passive shielding. The current design employs an organic liquid scintillator mixed with an agent to enhance thermal neutron captures, with the scintillation light collected using wavelength-shifting fibers and read out by silicon photo-multipliers. We will describe the proposed veto and its predicted efficiency in detail and give some recent results from our R&D and prototyping efforts.

  20. Prototyping an Active Neutron Veto for SuperCDMS

    CERN Document Server

    Calkins, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Neutrons, originating cosmogenically or from radioactive decays, can produce signals in dark matter detectors that are indistinguishable from Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). To combat this background for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, we are investigating designs for an active neutron veto within the constrained space of the compact SuperCDMS passive shielding. The current design employs an organic liquid scintillator mixed with an agent to enhance thermal neutron captures, with the scintillation light collected using wavelength-shifting fibers and read out by silicon photo-multipliers. We will describe the proposed veto and its predicted efficiency in detail and give some recent results from our R&D and prototyping efforts.

  1. Command and data management system (CDMS) of the Philae lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, A.; Baksa, A.; Bitterlich, H.; Hernyes, I.; Küchemann, O.; Pálos, Z.; Rustenbach, J.; Schmidt, W.; Spányi, P.; Sulyán, J.; Szalai, S.; Várhalmi, L.

    2016-08-01

    The paper covers the principal requirements, design concepts and implementation of the hardware and software for the central on-board computer (CDMS) of the Philae lander in the context of the ESA Rosetta space mission, including some technical details. The focus is on the implementation of fault tolerance, autonomous operation and operational flexibility by means of specific linked data structures and code execution mechanisms that can be interpreted as a kind of object oriented model for mission sequencing.

  2. Inelastic Dark Matter at DAMA, CDMS and Future Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, David R.; Weiner, Neal

    2002-01-01

    The DAMA annual modulation signature, interpreted as evidence for a spin-independent WIMP coupling, seems in conflict with null results from CDMS. However, in models of ``inelastic dark matter'', the experiments are compatible. Inelastic dark matter can arise in supersymmetric theories as the real component of a sneutrino mixed with a singlet scalar. In contrast with ordinary sneutrino dark matter, such particles can satisfy all experimental constraints while giving the appropriate relic abun...

  3. Testing and Characterization of SuperCDMS Dark Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shank, Benjamin [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) relies on collection of phonons and charge carriers in semiconductors held at tens of milliKelvin as handles for detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). This thesis begins with a brief overview of the direct dark matter search (Chapter 1) and SuperCDMS detectors (Chapter 2). In Chapter 3, a 3He evaporative refrigerator facility is described. Results from experiments performed in-house at Stanford to measure carrier transport in high-purity germanium (HPGe) crystals operated at sub-Kelvin temperatures are presented in Chapter 4. Finally, in Chapter 5 a new numerical model and a time-domain optimal filtering technique are presented, both developed for use with superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TESs), that provide excellent event reconstruction for single particle interactions in detectors read out with superconducting W-TESs coupled to energy-collecting films of Al. This thesis is not intended to be read straight through. For those new to CDMS or dark matter searches, the first two chapters are meant to be a gentle introduction for experimentalists. They are by no means exhaustive. The remaining chapters each stand alone, with different audiences.

  4. Geneva University: Dark matter Search with the CDMS experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2011-01-01

    Geneva University Physics Department 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 Tel: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92   Wednesday 21 September 2011 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs – Stückelberg Auditorium “ Dark matter Search with the CDMS experiment ” Par Dr. Sebastian Arrenberg, Université de Zürich The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment (CDMS) employs a total of 30 germanium and silicon detectors at the Soudan Underground Laboratory to detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) via their scattering from the target nuclei. Previous CDMS results, released in December 2009, set the world leading limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section above WIMP masses of ~50 GeV/c2 assuming elastic scattering.  In a subsequent analysis we investigated the inelastic dark matter scenario which was proposed to reconcile the disagreement between the results of DAMA/LIBRA and other existing dark matter searc...

  5. Fermi arc electronic structure and Chern numbers in the type-II Weyl semimetal candidate MoxW1 -xTe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belopolski, Ilya; Xu, Su-Yang; Ishida, Yukiaki; Pan, Xingchen; Yu, Peng; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Zheng, Hao; Neupane, Madhab; Alidoust, Nasser; Chang, Guoqing; Chang, Tay-Rong; Wu, Yun; Bian, Guang; Huang, Shin-Ming; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Mou, Daixiang; Huang, Lunan; Song, You; Wang, Baigeng; Wang, Guanghou; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Yao, Nan; Rault, Julien E.; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Bertran, François; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Kondo, Takeshi; Kaminski, Adam; Lin, Hsin; Liu, Zheng; Song, Fengqi; Shin, Shik; Hasan, M. Zahid

    2016-08-01

    It has recently been proposed that electronic band structures in crystals can give rise to a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion, which violates Lorentz invariance and, consequently, is forbidden in particle physics. It was further predicted that MoxW1 -xTe2 may realize such a type-II Weyl fermion. Here, we first show theoretically that it is crucial to access the band structure above the Fermi level ɛF to show a Weyl semimetal in MoxW1 -xTe2 . Then, we study MoxW1 -xTe2 by pump-probe ARPES and we directly access the band structure >0.2 eV above ɛF in experiment. By comparing our results with ab initio calculations, we conclude that we directly observe the surface state containing the topological Fermi arc. We propose that a future study of MoxW1 -xTe2 by pump-probe ARPES may directly pinpoint the Fermi arc. Our work sets the stage for the experimental discovery of the first type-II Weyl semimetal in MoxW1 -xTe2 .

  6. Hidden Sector Dirac Dark Matter, Stueckelberg Z' Model and the CDMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Kingman; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2010-01-01

    We show that in some classes of hidden-sector models, in which the connection bridge to the Standard Model (SM) is via Z-Z' mixing, an effective coupling can be generated between the fermionic dark matter particle and the SM Higgs boson through a triangular loop of Z and/or Z' bosons. It therefore can contribute to the spin-independent scattering cross section of dark matter that may be measurable with direct detection experiments. We show that the result is consistent with the most recent CDMS II limits. We use the Stueckelberg Z' model for illustration, though the result we obtain is rather general and applicable to other Z-Z' portal-type hidden-sector models as well.

  7. Search for Low-Mass WIMPs with SuperCDMS

    CERN Document Server

    Agnese, R; Asai, M; Balakishiyeva, D; Thakur, R Basu; Bauer, D A; Beaty, J; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Cerdeno, D G; Chagani, H; Chen, Y; Cherry, M; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; DeVaney, D; Di Stefano, P C F; Silva, E Do Couto E; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Hansen, S; Harris, H R; Hertel, S A; Hines, B A; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kenany, S; Kennedy, A; Kiveni, M; Koch, K; Leder, A; Loer, B; Asamar, E Lopez; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Martinez, C; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Nelson, R H; Novak, L; Page, K; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Platt, M; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Resch, R W; Ricci, Y; Ruschman, M; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schmitt, R L; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Seitz, D N; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Tomada, A; Upadhyayula, S; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J

    2014-01-01

    We report a first search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) using the background rejection capabilities of SuperCDMS. An exposure of 577 kg-days was analyzed for WIMPs with mass < 30 GeV/c2, with the signal region blinded. Eleven events were observed after unblinding. We set an upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section of 1.2e-42 cm2 at 8 GeV/c2. This result is in tension with WIMP interpretations of recent experiments and probes new parameter space for WIMP-nucleon scattering for WIMP masses < 6 GeV/c2.

  8. Projected Sensitivity of the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Agnese, R; Aramaki, T; Arnquist, I; Baker, W; Barker, D; Thakur, R Basu; Bauer, D A; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Calkins, R; Cartaro, C; Cerdeño, D G; Chagani, H; Chen, Y; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Fritts, M; Gerbier, G; Ghaith, M; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hong, Z; Hoppe, E; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Iyer, V; Jardin, D; Jastram, A; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Kubik, A; Kurinsky, N A; Leder, A; Loer, B; Asamar, E Lopez; Lukens, P; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Mast, N; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Mendoza, J D Morales; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Page, K; Page, W A; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Poudel, S; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Roberts, A; Robinson, A E; Rogers, H E; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Serfass, B; Speller, D; Stein, M; Street, J; Tanaka, H A; Toback, D; Underwood, R; Villano, A N; von Krosigk, B; Welliver, B; Wilson, J S; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, X; Zhao, X

    2016-01-01

    SuperCDMS SNOLAB will be a next-generation experiment aimed at directly detecting low-mass ( 5 GeV/c$^2$). The mix of detector types (HV and iZIP), and targets (germanium and silicon), planned for the experiment, as well as flexibility in how the detectors are operated, will allow us to maximize the low-mass reach, and understand the backgrounds that the experiment will encounter. Upgrades to the experiment, perhaps with a variety of ultra-low-background cryogenic detectors, will extend dark matter sensitivity down to the "neutrino floor", where coherent scatters of solar neutrinos become a limiting background.

  9. Anisotropic Fermi Couplings due to Large Unquenched Orbital Angular Momentum: Q-band 1H, 14N and 11B ENDOR of bistrispyrazolylborate Co(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William K.; Scholes, Charles P.; Tierney, David L.

    2009-01-01

    We report Q-band ENDOR of 1H, 14N, and 11B at the g|| extreme of the EPR spectrum of bistrispyrazolylborate Co(II), Co(Tp)2 and two structural analogs. This trigonally symmetric, high-spin (hs) S = 3/2 Co(II) complex shows large unquenched ground–state orbital angular momentum, which leads to highly anisotropic electronic g-values [g|| = 8.48, g⊥ = 1.02]. The large g-anisotropy is shown to result in large dipolar couplings near g|| and uniquely anisotropic 14N Fermi couplings, which arise from spin transferred to the nitrogen 2s orbital (2.2 %) via anti-bonding interactions with singly occupied metal dx2−y2 and dz2 orbitals. Large, well-resolved 1H and 11B dipolar couplings were also observed. Taken in concert with our previous X-band ENDOR measurements at g⊥ (Myers, et al, Inorg. Chem. 2008, 47, 6701–6710), the present data allow a detailed analysis of the dipolar hyperfine tensors of two of the four symmetry distinct protons in the parent molecule. In the substituted analogs, changes in hyperfine coupling due to altered metal-proton distances give further evidence of an anisotropic Fermi contact interaction. For the pyrazolyl 3H proton, the data indicate a 0.2 MHz anisotropic contact interaction and ~ 4 % transfer of spin away from Co(II). Dipolar coupling also dominates for the axial boron atoms, consistent with their distance from the Co(II) ion, and resolved 11B quadrupolar coupling showed ~ 30 % electronic inequivalence between the B-H and B-C sp3 bonds. This is the first comprehensive ENDOR study of any hs Co(II) species and lays the foundation for future development. PMID:19591466

  10. A possible explanation of low energy γ-ray excess from galactic centre and Fermi bubble by a Dark Matter model with two real scalars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modak, Kamakshya Prasad; Majumdar, Debasish [Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Rakshit, Subhendu [Discipline of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, IET-DAVV Campus, Indore 452017 (India)

    2015-03-09

    We promote the idea of multi-component Dark Matter (DM) to explain results from both direct and indirect detection experiments. In these models as contribution of each DM candidate to relic abundance is summed up to meet WMAP/Planck measurements of Ω{sub DM}, these candidates have larger annihilation cross-sections compared to the single-component DM models. We illustrate this fact by introducing an extra scalar to the popular single real scalar DM model. We also present detailed calculations for the vacuum stability bounds, perturbative unitarity and triviality constraints on this model. As direct detection experimental results still show some conflict, we kept our options open, discussing different scenarios with different DM mass zones. In the framework of our model we make an interesting observation: the existing direct detection experiments like CDMS II, CoGeNT, CRESST II, XENON 100 or LUX together with the observation of excess low energy γ-ray from galactic centre and Fermi bubble by Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST) already have the capability to distinguish between different DM halo profiles.

  11. Results from the search for WIMPs with the CDMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment (CDMS) employs a total of 30 Germanium and Silicon Detectors at the Soudan Underground Laboratory to detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) via their elastic scattering from the target nuclei. In February 2008 the collaboration released their last results, yielding a world-leading limit for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross sections for WIMP masses above 42 GeV/c2, restricting significant parts of the parameter space favored by supersymmetric models. Currently, data from fur consecutive runs between July 2007 and October 2008 is under analysis with the prospect of increasing the sensitivity by a factor of ∼ 4. We will present the results emerging from this analysis. (author)

  12. Simulations of Noise in Phase-Separated Transition-Edge Sensors for SuperCDMS

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, A J; Pyle, M; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; McCarthy, K; Doughty, T; Cherry, M; Young, B

    2011-01-01

    We briefly review a simple model of superconducting-normal phase-separation in transition-edge sensors in the SuperCDMS experiment. After discussing some design considerations relevant to the TES in the detectors, we study noise sources in both the phase-separated and phase-uniform cases. Such simulations are valuable for optimizing the critical temperature and TES length of future SuperCDMS detectors.

  13. Supersymmetric model for dark matter and baryogenesis motivated by the recent CDMS result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Dutta, Bhaskar; Mohapatra, Rabindra N; Sinha, Kuver

    2013-08-01

    We discuss a supersymmetric model for cogenesis of dark and baryonic matter where the dark matter (DM) has mass in the 8-10 GeV range as indicated by several direct detection searches, including most recently the CDMS experiment with the desired cross section. The DM candidate is a real scalar field. Two key distinguishing features of the model are the following: (i) in contrast with the conventional weakly interacting massive particle dark matter scenarios where thermal freeze-out is responsible for the observed relic density, our model uses nonthermal production of dark matter after reheating of the Universe caused by moduli decay at temperatures below the QCD phase transition, a feature which alleviates the relic overabundance problem caused by small annihilation cross section of light DM particles and (ii) baryogenesis occurs also at similar low temperatures from the decay of TeV scale mediator particles arising from moduli decay. A possible test of this model is the existence of colored particles with TeV masses accessible at the LHC.

  14. A Low-threshold Analysis of CDMS Shallow-site Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akerib, D.S.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Attisha, M.J.; /Brown U.; Baudis, L.; /Zurich-Irchel U.; Bauer, D.A.; /Fermilab; Bolozdynya, A.I.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Brink, P.L.; /SLAC; Bunker, R.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Cabrera, B.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Caldwell, D.O.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Chang, C.L.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Clarke, R.M.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Cooley, J.; /Southern Methodist U.; Crisler, M.B.; /Fermilab; Cushman, P.; /Minnesota U.; DeJongh, F.; /Fermilab; Dixon, R.; /Fermilab; Driscoll, D.D.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Filippini, J.; /Caltech; Funkhouser, S.; /UC, Berkeley; Gaitskell, R.J.; /Brown U.; Golwala, S.R.; /Caltech /Fermilab /Fermilab /Colorado U., Denver /Case Western Reserve U. /Texas A-M /Minnesota U. /UC, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Caltech /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Barbara /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Minnesota U. /Queen' s U., Kingston /Minnesota U. /St. Olaf Coll. /Florida U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Texas A-M /UC, Santa Barbara /Syracuse U. /UC, Berkeley /Princeton U. /Case Western Reserve U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Barbara /Fermilab /Santa Clara U.

    2012-06-04

    Data taken during the final shallow-site run of the first tower of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) detectors have been reanalyzed with improved sensitivity to small energy depositions. Four {approx}224 g germanium and two {approx}105 g silicon detectors were operated at the Stanford Underground Facility (SUF) between December 2001 and June 2002, yielding 118 live days of raw exposure. Three of the germanium and both silicon detectors were analyzed with a new low-threshold technique, making it possible to lower the germanium and silicon analysis thresholds down to the actual trigger thresholds of {approx}1 and {approx}2 keV, respectively. Limits on the spin-independent cross section for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) to elastically scatter from nuclei based on these data exclude interesting parameter space for WIMPs with masses below 9 GeV/c{sup 2}. Under standard halo assumptions, these data partially exclude parameter space favored by interpretations of the DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT experiments data as WIMP signals, and exclude new parameter space for WIMP masses between 3 and 4 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  15. Enrico Fermi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2006-01-01

    Enrico Fermi was born in Rome on 29th September, 1901. He attended a local grammar school, and in 1918, he won a fellowship of the Scuola Normale Superiore of Pisa, where he gained his doctor’s degree in physics in 1922, with Professor Puccianti. In 1923, he was awarded a scholarship from the Italian Government. With a Rockefeller Fellowship, in 1924, he moved to Leyden, and later that same year he returned to Italy to occupy for two

  16. MULTI-WAVELENGTH EMISSION FROM THE FERMI BUBBLE. II. SECONDARY ELECTRONS AND THE HADRONIC MODEL OF THE BUBBLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, K.-S.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Dogiel, V. A. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Ko, C.-M. [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics and Center for Complex Systems, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-20

    We analyze the origin of the gamma-ray flux from the Fermi Bubbles (FBs) in the framework of the hadronic model in which gamma-rays are produced by collisions of relativistic protons with the protons of the background plasma in the Galactic halo. It is assumed in this model that the observed radio emission from the FBs is due to synchrotron radiation of secondary electrons produced by pp collisions. However, if these electrons lose their energy through synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission, the spectrum of secondary electrons will be too soft, and an additional arbitrary component of the primary electrons will be necessary in order to reproduce the radio data. Thus, a mixture of the hadronic and leptonic models is required for the observed radio flux. It was shown that if the spectrum of primary electrons is ∝E{sub e}{sup −2}, the permitted range of the magnetic field strength is within the 2-7 μG region. The fraction of gamma-rays produced by pp collisions can reach about 80% of the total gamma-ray flux from the FBs. If the magnetic field is <2 μG or >7 μG the model is unable to reproduce the data. Alternatively, the electrons in the FBs may lose their energy through adiabatic energy losses if there is a strong plasma outflow in the GC. Then, the pure hadronic model is able to reproduce characteristics of the radio and gamma-ray flux from the FBs. However, in this case the required magnetic field strength in the FBs and the power of CR sources are much higher than those following from observations.

  17. Exothermic isospin-violating dark matter after SuperCDMS and CDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that exothermic isospin-violating dark matter (IVDM can make the results of the latest CDMS-Si experiment consistent with recent null experiments, such as XENON10, XENON100, LUX, CDEX, and SuperCDMS, whereas for the CoGeNT experiment, a strong tension still persists. For CDMS-Si, separate exothermic dark matter or isospin-violating dark matter cannot fully ameliorate the tensions among these experiments; the tension disappears only if exothermic scattering is combined with an isospin-violating effect of fn/fp=−0.7. For such exothermic IVDM to exist, at least a new vector gauge boson (dark photon or dark Z' that connects SM quarks to Majorana-type DM particles is required.

  18. Parallelizing Climate Data Management System, version 3 (CDMS3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, D.; Williams, D. N.; Painter, J.; Doutriaux, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Climate Data Management System is an object-oriented data management system, specialized for organizing multidimensional, gridded data used in climate analyses for data observation and simulation. The basic unit of computation in CDMS3 is the variable, which consist of a multidimensional array that represents climate information in four dimensions corresponding to: time, pressure levels, latitudes, and longitudes. As model become more precise in their computation, the volume of data generated becomes bigger and difficult to handle due to the limit of computational resources. Model today can produce data a time frequency of one hourly, three hourly, or six hourly for spatial footprint close to satellite data used run models. The amount of time for scientists to analyze the data and retrieve useful information is more and more unmanageable. Parallelizing libraries such as CMDS3 would ease the burden of working with such big datasets. Multiple approaches of parallelizing are possible. The most obvious one is embarrassingly parallel or pleasingly parallel programming where each computer node processes one file at a time. A more challenging approach is to send a piece of the data to each node for computation and each node will save the results at its right place in a file as a slab of data. This is possible with Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). A final approach would be the use of Open Multi-Processing API (OpenMP) where a master thread is split in multiple threads for different sections of the main code. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. This poster bring to light each benefit of these methods and seek to find an optimal solution to compute climate data analyses in a efficient fashion using one or a mixtures of these parallelized methods.

  19. Up-shot of inelastic down-scattering at CDMS-Si

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; M. Shoemaker, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We study dark matter that inelastically scatters and de-excites in direct detection experiments, as an interpretation of the CDMS-Si events in light of the recent LUX data. The constraints from LUX and XENON10 require the mass-splitting between the DM excited and de-excited states to be $|\\delta|...

  20. The Cologne Database for Molecular Spectroscopy, CDMS, in the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre, VAMDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Christian P.; Schlemmer, Stephan; Schilke, Peter; Stutzki, Jürgen; Müller, Holger S. P.

    2016-09-01

    The Cologne Database for Molecular Spectroscopy, CDMS, was founded 1998 to provide in its catalog section line lists of mostly molecular species which are or may be observed in various astronomical sources (usually) by radio astronomical means. The line lists contain transition frequencies with qualified accuracies, intensities, quantum numbers, as well as further auxiliary information. They have been generated from critically evaluated experimental line lists, mostly from laboratory experiments, employing established Hamiltonian models. Separate entries exist for different isotopic species and usually also for different vibrational states. As of December 2015, the number of entries is 792. They are available online as ascii tables with additional files documenting information on the entries. The Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre, VAMDC, was founded more than 5 years ago as a common platform for atomic and molecular data. This platform facilitates exchange not only between spectroscopic databases related to astrophysics or astrochemistry, but also with collisional and kinetic databases. A dedicated infrastructure was developed to provide a common data format in the various databases enabling queries to a large variety of databases on atomic and molecular data at once. For CDMS, the incorporation in VAMDC was combined with several modifications on the generation of CDMS catalog entries. Here we introduce related changes to the data structure and the data content in the CDMS. The new data scheme allows us to incorporate all previous data entries but in addition allows us also to include entries based on new theoretical descriptions. Moreover, the CDMS entries have been transferred into a mySQL database format. These developments within the VAMDC framework have in part been driven by the needs of the astronomical community to be able to deal efficiently with large data sets obtained with the Herschel Space Telescope or, more recently, with the Atacama Large

  1. Particle Physics Implications and Constraints on Dark Matter Interpretations of the CDMS Signal

    CERN Document Server

    Cotta, Randel C; Tait, Tim M P; Wijangco, Alexander M

    2013-01-01

    Recently the CDMS collaboration has reported an excess of events in the signal region of a search for dark matter scattering with Silicon nuclei. Three events on an expected background of 0.4 have a significance of about 2 sigma, and it is premature to conclude that this is a signal of dark matter. Nonetheless, it is important to examine the space of particle theories capable of explaining this excess, to see what theories are capable of explaining it, and how one might exclude it or find corroborating evidence in other channels. We examine a simplified model containing a scalar mediator particle, and find regions consistent with the CDMS observations. Bounds from colliders put important restrictions on the theory, but viable points, including points leading to the observed thermal relic density, survive.

  2. A modified detector concept for SuperCDMS: The HiZIP and its charge performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Kedar Mohan [Queen' s U.

    2013-01-01

    SuperCDMS (Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search) is a leading direct dark mat-ter search experiment which uses solid state detectors (Ge crystals) at milliKelvintemperatures to look for nuclear recoils caused by dark matter interactions in the de-tector. `Weakly Interacting Massive Particles' (WIMPs) are the most favoured darkmatter candidate particles. SuperCDMS, like many other direct dark matter searchexperiments, primarily looks for WIMPs. The measurement of both the ionizationand the lattice vibration (phonon) signals from an interaction in the detector allow itto discriminate against electron recoils which are the main source of background forWIMP detection.SuperCDMS currently operates about 9 kg of Ge detectors at the Soudan under-ground lab in northern Minnesota. In its next phase, SuperCDMS SNOLAB plansto use 100-200 kg of target mass (Ge) which would allow it to probe more of theinteresting and and as of yet unexplored parameter space for WIMPs predicted bytheoretical models. The SuperCDMS Queen's Test Facility is a detector test facilitywhich is intended to serve as detector testing and detector research and developmentpurposes for the SuperCDMS experiment.A modifed detector called the HiZIP (Half-iZIP), which is reduced in complex-ity in comparison to the currently used iZIP (interleaved Z-sensitive Ionization and Phonon mediated) detectors, is studied in this thesis. The HiZIP detector designalso serves to discriminate against background from multiple scatter events occurringclose to the surfaces in a single detector. Studies carried out to compare the surfaceevent leakage in the HiZIP detector using limited information from iZIP data takenat SuperCDMS test facility at UC Berkley produce a highly conservative upper limitof 5 out of 10,000 events at 90% condence level. This upper limit is the best amongmany different HiZIP congurations that were investigated and is comparable to theupper limit calculated for an HiZIP detector in the same way

  3. Thermal conductance measurements of bolted copper joints for SuperCDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.; Tatkowski, Greg; Ruschman, M.; Golwala, S. R.; Kellaris, N.; Daal, M.; Hall, Jeter C.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2015-09-01

    Joint thermal conductance testing has been undertaken for bolted copper to copper connections from 60 mK to 26 K. This testing was performed to validate an initial design basis for the SuperCDMS experiment, where a dilution refrigerator will be coupled to a cryostat via multiple bolted connections. Copper used during testing was either gold plated or passivated with citric acid to prevent surface oxidation. Results obtained are well fit by a power law regression of joint thermal conductance to temperature and match well with data collected during a literature review.

  4. Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles with SuperCDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, Alan J.; Asai, M.; balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Beaty, John; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cherry, M.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; DeVaney, D.; DeStefano, PC F.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Hansen, S.; Harris, Harold R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hines, B. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kenany, S.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, M.; Moffatt, R. A.; Nelson, R. H.; Novak, L.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Platt, M.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Resch, R. W.; Ricci, Y.; Ruschman, M.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schmitt, R.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, Richard; Scorza, A.; Seitz, D.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Tomada, A.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2014-06-01

    We report a first search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) using the background rejection capabilities of SuperCDMS. An exposure of 577 kg-days was analyzed for WIMPs with mass < 30 GeV/c2, with the signal region blinded. Eleven events were observed after unblinding. We set an upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section of 1:2 10-42cm2 at 8 GeV/c2. This result is in tension with WIMP interpretations of recent experiments and probes new parameter space for WIMP-nucleon scattering for WIMP masses < 6 GeV/c2.

  5. Thermal conductance measurements of bolted copper joints for SuperCDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R. L. [Fermilab; Tatkowski, G [Fermilab; Ruschman, M. [Fermilab; Golwala, S. [Caltech; Kellaris, N. [UC, Berkeley; Daal, M. [UC, Berkeley; Hall, J. [PNL, Richland; Hoppe, E. W. [PNL, Richland

    2015-05-22

    Joint thermal conductance testing has been undertaken for bolted copper to copper connections from 60 mK to 26 K. This testing was performed to validate an initial design basis for the SuperCDMS experiment, where a dilution refrigerator will be coupled to a cryostat via multiple bolted connections. Copper used during testing was either gold plated or passivated with citric acid to prevent surface oxidation. Results obtained are well fit by a power law regression of joint thermal conductance to temperature and match well with data collected during a literature review.

  6. Measurement of SQUID noise levels for SuperCDMS SNOLAB detectors - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Maxwell [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-27

    SuperCDMS SNOLAB is a second generation direct dark matter search. In the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, detectors are able to pick up from signals from dark matter nuclear recoil interactions which occur inside the bulk of the detectors. These interactions produce both phonon and charge signals. HEMTs read out charge signals whereas TES are used to detect phonon signals which are then read out by SQUID amplifiers. SQUID amplifiers must add negligible noise to the TES intrinsic noise which has been previously measured and is approximately 50pA/√Hz down to 100Hz for ease of signal distinguishability in dark matter nuclear interactions. The intrinsic noise level of the SQUID was tested in the SLAC 300mK fridge and determined to provide adequately low levels of noise with a floor of approximately 3pA/√Hz. Furthermore, a 10x amplifier was tested for addition of extraneous noise. This noise was investigated with and without this amplifier, and it was found that it did not add a significant amount of noise to the intrinsic SQUID noise.

  7. W. K. H. Panofsky Prize Talk: The Search for WIMP Dark Matter: CDMS Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Blas

    2013-04-01

    As described in the accompanying talk by Bernard Sadoulet, the CDMS (cryogenic dark matter search) program has succeeded in pushing down by several orders of magnitude the sensitivity in the search for dark matter in the form of weakly interacting particles or WIMPs. In this talk we describe the technology that has enabled the CDMS detectors made of Ge and Si crystals to discriminate on an event by event basis electron recoils (most backgrounds from gammas) from nuclear recoils (the expected WIMP signal and neutrons). This rejection is accomplished by simultaneously measuring the ionization (electrons and holes in the semiconductor) and the phonons (lattice heat). To achieve the phonon measurement, the crystals are cooled to 0.05 K which allows the use of ultra low noise superconducting circuits. The phonon energy is collected at the surface of the crystals using Al films which absorb athermal phonons and produce quasiparticle excitations from the dissociated Cooper pairs. These excitations diffuse until the are trapped in superconducting tungsten transition edge sensors (TESs). The major advance of voltage biased TESs which are self biased in their transition region through negative feedback has been adopted very successfully for xray spectroscopy, gamma ray spectroscopy and CMB (cosmic microwave background) instruments. The most recent advance detectors called iZIPs (interleaved z-dependent ionization and phonon) provide a large improvement in surface electron rejection and remove that background for the next 200 kg Ge experiment and even for future ton scale experiments.

  8. Fermi comes to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    NASA

    2009-01-01

    1. This view from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is the deepest and best-resolved portrait of the gamma-ray sky to date. The image shows how the sky appears at energies more than 150 million times greater than that of visible light. Among the signatures of bright pulsars and active galaxies is something familiar -- a faint path traced by the sun. (Credit: NASA/DOE/Fermi LAT Collaboration) 2. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi detects gamma-rays through matter (electrons) and antimatter (positrons) they produce after striking layers of tungsten. (Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Conceptual Image Lab)

  9. Fermi LAT GRBs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All analysis results presented here are preliminary and are not intended as an official catalog of Fermi-LAT detected GRBs. Please consult the table's caveat page...

  10. Fermi GBM Trigger Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fermi is a powerful space observatory that will open a wide window on the universe. Gamma rays are the highest-energy form of light, and the gamma-ray sky is...

  11. Fermi-Segre formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi-Segre normalization expression is rederived for arbitrary orbital angular momentum l within the context of a generalized WKB method. Results from the approximation are compared with calculations employing Hartree-Slater atomic potentials

  12. Enrico Fermi centenary exhibition seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Dr. Juan Antonio Rubio, Leader of the Education and Technology Transfer Division and CERN Director General, Prof. Luciano Maiani. Photo 03: Luciano Maiani, Welcome and Introduction Photo 09: Antonino Zichichi, The New 'Centro Enrico Fermi' at Via Panisperna Photos 10, 13: Ugo Amaldi, Fermi at Via Panisperna and the birth of Nuclear Medicine Photo 14: Jack Steinberger, Fermi in Chicago Photo 18: Valentin Telegdi, A close-up of Fermi Photo 21: Arnaldo Stefanini, Celebrating Fermi's Centenary in Documents and Pictures.

  13. Enrico Fermi exhibition at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    A touring exhibition celebrating the centenary of Enrico Fermi's birth in 1901 will be on display at CERN (Main Building, Mezzanine) from 12-27 September. You are cordially invited to the opening celebration on Thursday 12 September at 16:00 (Main Building, Council Chamber), which will include speechs from: Luciano Maiani Welcome and Introduction Arnaldo Stefanini Celebrating Fermi's Centenary in Documents and Pictures Antonino Zichichi The New 'Centro Enrico Fermi' at Via Panisperna Ugo Amaldi Fermi at Via Panisperna and the birth of Nuclear Medicine Jack Steinberger Fermi in Chicago Valentin Telegdi A Close-up of Fermi and the screening of a documentary video about Fermi: Scienziati a Pisa: Enrico Fermi (Scientists at Pisa: Enrico Fermi) created by Francesco Andreotti for La Limonaia from early film, photographs and sound recordings (In Italian, with English subtitles - c. 30 mins). This will be followed by an aperitif on the Mezz...

  14. The Cologne Database for Molecular Spectroscopy, CDMS, in the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre, VAMDC

    CERN Document Server

    Endres, Christian P; Schilke, Peter; Stutzki, Jürgen; Müller, Holger S P

    2016-01-01

    The CDMS was founded 1998 to provide in its catalog section line lists of molecular species which may be observed in various astronomical sources using radio astronomy. The line lists contain transition frequencies with qualified accuracies, intensities, quantum numbers, as well as further auxilary information. They have been generated from critically evaluated experimental line lists, mostly from laboratory experiments, employing established Hamiltonian models. Seperate entries exist for different isotopic species and usually also for different vibrational states. As of December 2015, the number of entries is 792. They are available online as ascii tables with additional files documenting information on the entries. The Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre was founded more than 5 years ago as a common platform for atomic and molecular data. This platform facilitates exchange not only between spectroscopic databases related to astrophysics or astrochemistry, but also with collisional and kinetic databases...

  15. Radon Mitigation for the SuperCDMS-SNOLAB Dark Matter Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Joseph; SuperCDMS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Experiments that seek to detect very rare processes, such as interactions of the dark matter particles thought to make up 85% of the mass of the universe, may suffer background interactions from radon daughters that have plated out onto detector surfaces. To reduce these backgrounds, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom was built at the South Dakota School of Mines & Technology. Cleanroom air is supplied by an optimized vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system that has achieved a > 300 × reduction from an input activity of 58.6 +/- 0.7 Bq/m3 to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 +/- 0.06 Bq/m3. Expected backgrounds due to radon daughters for the SuperCDMS dark matter search will be presented.

  16. Fermi comes to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    In only 10 months of scientific activity, the Fermi space observatory has already collected an unprecedented wealth of information on some of the most amazing objects in the sky. In a recent talk at CERN, Luca Latronico, a member of the Fermi collaboration, explained some of their findings and emphasized the strong links between High Energy Physics (HEP) and High Energy Astrophysics (HEA). The Fermi gamma-ray telescope was launched by NASA in June 2008. After about two months of commissioning it started sending significant data back to the Earth. Since then, it has made observations that are changing our view of the sky: from discovering a whole new set of pulsars, the greatest total energy gamma-ray burst ever, to detecting an unexplained abundance of high-energy electrons that could be a signature of dark matter, to producing a uniquely rich and high definition sky map in gamma-rays. The high performance of the instrument comes as ...

  17. The Fermi's Bayes Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostini, G

    2005-01-01

    It is curious to learn that Enrico Fermi knew how to base probabilistic inference on Bayes theorem, and that some influential notes on statistics for physicists stem from what the author calls elsewhere, but never in these notes, {\\it the Bayes Theorem of Fermi}. The fact is curious because the large majority of living physicists, educated in the second half of last century -- a kind of middle age in the statistical reasoning -- never heard of Bayes theorem during their studies, though they have been constantly using an intuitive reasoning quite Bayesian in spirit. This paper is based on recollections and notes by Jay Orear and on Gauss' ``Theoria motus corporum coelestium'', being the {\\it Princeps mathematicorum} remembered by Orear as source of Fermi's Bayesian reasoning.

  18. Fermi Bubbles with HAWC

    CERN Document Server

    Solares, H A Ayala; Hüntemeyer, P

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi Bubbles, which comprise two large and homogeneous regions of spectrally hard gamma-ray emission extending up to $55^{o}$ above and below the Galactic Center, were first noticed in GeV gamma-ray data from the Fermi Telescope in 2010. The mechanism or mechanisms which produce the observed hard spectrum are not understood. Although both hadronic and lep- tonic models can describe the spectrum of the bubbles, the leptonic model can also explain similar structures observed in microwave data from the WMAP and Planck satellites. Recent publications show that the spectrum of the Fermi Bubbles is well described by a power law with an exponential cutoff in the energy range of 100MeV to 500GeV. Observing the Fermi Bubbles at higher gamma-ray energies will help constrain the origin of the bubbles. A steeper cutoff will favor a leptonic model. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory, located 4100m above sea level in Mexico, is designed to measure high-energy gamma rays between 100GeV to 100TeV. With...

  19. Leaky Fermi accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Kushal; Rom-Kedar, Vered; Turaev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    A Fermi accelerator is a billiard with oscillating walls. A leaky accelerator interacts with an environment of an ideal gas at equilibrium by exchange of particles through a small hole on its boundary. Such interaction may heat the gas: we estimate the net energy flow through the hole under the assumption that the particles inside the billiard do not collide with each other and remain in the accelerator for sufficiently long time. The heat production is found to depend strongly on the type of the Fermi accelerator. An ergodic accelerator, i.e. one which has a single ergodic component, produces a weaker energy flow than a multi-component accelerator. Specifically, in the ergodic case the energy gain is independent of the hole size, whereas in the multi-component case the energy flow may be significantly increased by shrinking the hole size.

  20. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  1. Phonon-Based Position Determination in SuperCDMS iZIP Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, A J

    2014-01-01

    SuperCDMS is currently operating a 10-kg array of cryogenic germanium detectors in the Soudan underground laboratory to search for weakly interacting massive particles, a leading dark matter candidate. These detectors, known as iZIPs, measure ionization and athermal phonons from particle interactions with sensors on both sides of a Ge crystal. The ionization signal can be used to efficiently tag events at high radius and near the top and bottoms surfaces, where diminished charge collection can cause events to mimic WIMP-induced nuclear recoils. Using calibration data taken with a 210Pb source underground at Soudan, we demonstrate rejection of surface events of (4.5 +/- 0.9) x 10^-4 with 46% acceptance of nuclear recoils using the phonon signal only. We also show with 133Ba calibration data underground that the phonon channels can efficiently identify events near the sidewall. This phonon-based approach can also be extended to lower energies than the ionization-based position reconstruction.

  2. New Results from the Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles with the CDMS Low Ionization Threshold Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnese, R; Anderson, A J; Aramaki, T; Asai, M; Baker, W; Balakishiyeva, D; Barker, D; Basu Thakur, R; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Calkins, R; Cerdeno, D G; Chagani, H; Chen, Y; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Ghaith, M; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jardin, D; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Leder, A; Loer, B; Lopez Asamar, E; Lukens, P; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Mast, N; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Morales Mendoza, J D; Oser, S M; Page, K; Page, W A; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Roberts, A; Rogers, H E; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Toback, D; Underwood, R; Upadhyayula, S; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wilson, J S; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J

    2016-02-19

    The CDMS low ionization threshold experiment (CDMSlite) uses cryogenic germanium detectors operated at a relatively high bias voltage to amplify the phonon signal in the search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Results are presented from the second CDMSlite run with an exposure of 70 kg day, which reached an energy threshold for electron recoils as low as 56 eV. A fiducialization cut reduces backgrounds below those previously reported by CDMSlite. New parameter space for the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section is excluded for WIMP masses between 1.6 and 5.5  GeV/c^{2}. PMID:26943526

  3. FERMI multi-chip module

    CERN Multimedia

    This FERMI multi-chip module contains five million transistors. 25 000 of these modules will handle the flood of information through parts of the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the LHC. To select interesting events for recording, crucial decisions are taken before the data leaves the detector. FERMI modules are being developed at CERN in partnership with European industry.

  4. Fermi Communications and Public Outreach

    CERN Document Server

    Cominsky, L

    2015-01-01

    The Sonoma State University (SSU) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) group participates in the planning and execution of press conferences that feature noteworthy Fermi discoveries, as well as supporting social media and outreach websites. We have also created many scientific illustrations for the media, tools for amateur astronomers for use at star parties, and have given numerous public talks about Fermi discoveries.

  5. A hybrid Fermi-Ulam-bouncer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonel, Edson D; McClintock, P V E [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-28

    Some dynamical and chaotic properties are studied for a classical particle bouncing between two rigid walls, one of which is fixed and the other moves in time, in the presence of an external field. The system is a hybrid, behaving not as a purely Fermi-Ulam model, nor as a bouncer, but as a combination of the two. We consider two different kinds of motion of the moving wall: (i) periodic and (ii) random. The dynamics of the model is studied via a two-dimensional nonlinear area-preserving map. We confirm that, for periodic oscillations, our model recovers the well-known results of the Fermi-Ulam model in the limit of zero external field. For intense external fields, we establish the range of control parameters values within which invariant spanning curves are observed below the chaotic sea in the low energy domain. We characterize this chaotic low energy region in terms of Lyapunov exponents. We also show that the velocity of the particle, and hence also its kinetic energy, grow according to a power law when the wall moves randomly, yielding clear evidence of Fermi acceleration.

  6. Fermi, Heisenberg y Lawrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ynduráin, Francisco J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Los azares de las onomásticas hacen coincidir en este año el centenario del nacimiento de tres de los más grandes físicos del siglo XX. Dos de ellos, Fermi y Heisenberg, dejaron una marca fundamental en la ciencia (ambos, pero sobre todo el segundo y, el primero, también en la tecnología. Lawrence, indudablemente de un nivel inferior al de los otros dos, estuvo sin embargo en el origen de uno de los desarrollos tecnológicos que han sido básicos para la exploración del universo subnuclear en la segunda mitad del siglo que ha terminado hace poco, el de los aceleradores de partículas.

  7. Phase Separation in Bose-Fermi-Fermi Mixtures as a Probe of Fermi Superfluidity

    OpenAIRE

    Bhongale, S. G.; Pu, Han

    2008-01-01

    We study the phase diagram of a mixture of Bose-Einstein condensate and a two-component Fermi gas. In particular, we identify the regime where the homogeneous system becomes unstable against phase separation. We show that, under proper conditions, the phase separation phenomenon can be exploited as a robust probe of Fermi superfluid.

  8. The fermi paradox is neither Fermi's nor a paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Robert H

    2015-03-01

    The so-called Fermi paradox claims that if technological life existed anywhere else, we would see evidence of its visits to Earth--and since we do not, such life does not exist, or some special explanation is needed. Enrico Fermi, however, never published anything on this topic. On the one occasion he is known to have mentioned it, he asked "Where is everybody?"--apparently suggesting that we do not see extraterrestrials on Earth because interstellar travel may not be feasible, but not suggesting that intelligent extraterrestrial life does not exist or suggesting its absence is paradoxical. The claim "they are not here; therefore they do not exist" was first published by Michael Hart, claiming that interstellar travel and colonization of the Galaxy would be inevitable if intelligent extraterrestrial life existed, and taking its absence here as proof that it does not exist anywhere. The Fermi paradox appears to originate in Hart's argument, not Fermi's question. Clarifying the origin of these ideas is important, because the Fermi paradox is seen by some as an authoritative objection to searching for evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence--cited in the U.S. Congress as a reason for killing NASA's SETI program on one occasion. But evidence indicates that it misrepresents Fermi's views, misappropriates his authority, deprives the actual authors of credit, and is not a valid paradox.

  9. The fermi paradox is neither Fermi's nor a paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Robert H

    2015-03-01

    The so-called Fermi paradox claims that if technological life existed anywhere else, we would see evidence of its visits to Earth--and since we do not, such life does not exist, or some special explanation is needed. Enrico Fermi, however, never published anything on this topic. On the one occasion he is known to have mentioned it, he asked "Where is everybody?"--apparently suggesting that we do not see extraterrestrials on Earth because interstellar travel may not be feasible, but not suggesting that intelligent extraterrestrial life does not exist or suggesting its absence is paradoxical. The claim "they are not here; therefore they do not exist" was first published by Michael Hart, claiming that interstellar travel and colonization of the Galaxy would be inevitable if intelligent extraterrestrial life existed, and taking its absence here as proof that it does not exist anywhere. The Fermi paradox appears to originate in Hart's argument, not Fermi's question. Clarifying the origin of these ideas is important, because the Fermi paradox is seen by some as an authoritative objection to searching for evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence--cited in the U.S. Congress as a reason for killing NASA's SETI program on one occasion. But evidence indicates that it misrepresents Fermi's views, misappropriates his authority, deprives the actual authors of credit, and is not a valid paradox. PMID:25719510

  10. Enrico Fermi the obedient genius

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzzaniti, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    This biography explores the life and career of the Italian physicist Enrico Fermi, which is also the story of thirty years that transformed physics and forever changed our understanding of matter and the universe: nuclear physics and elementary particle physics were born, nuclear fission was discovered, the Manhattan Project was developed, the atomic bombs were dropped, and the era of “big science” began. It would be impossible to capture the full essence of this revolutionary period without first understanding Fermi, without whom it would not have been possible. Enrico Fermi: The Obedient Genius attempts to shed light on all aspects of Fermi’s life - his work, motivation, influences, achievements, and personal thoughts - beginning with the publication of his first paper in 1921 through his death in 1954. During this time, Fermi demonstrated that he was indeed following in the footsteps of Galileo, excelling in his work both theoretically and experimentally by deepening our understanding of the Pauli e...

  11. The Fermi Paradox is Neither Fermis Nor a Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    The so-called Fermi paradox claims that if technological life existed anywhere else, we would see evidence of its visits to Earth-and since we do not, such life does not exist, or some special explanation is needed. Enrico Fermi, however, never published anything on this topic. On the one occasion he is known to have mentioned it, he asked 'where is everybody?'- apparently suggesting that we don't see extraterrestrials on Earth because interstellar travel may not be feasible, but not suggesti...

  12. Gamma-ray astronomy from the ground and the space: first analyses of the HESS-II hybrid array and search for blazar candidates among the unidentified Fermi-LAT sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manuscript is about high energy gamma-ray astronomy (between 30 GeV and 300 GeV) with the Fermi-LAT satellite and very high energy gamma-ray astronomy (above ∼100 GeV) via the H.E.S.S. experiment. The second phase of the H.E.S.S. experiment began in July 2012 with the inauguration of a fifth 28 m-diameter telescope added to the initial array composed of four 12 m-diameter imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. In the first part of this thesis, we present the development of an analysis in hybrid mode based on a multivariate method dedicated to detect and study sources with different spectral shapes and the first analysis results on real data. The second part is dedicated to the research of blazar candidates among the Fermi-LAT unidentified sources of the 2FGL catalog. A first development is based on a multivariate approach using discriminant parameters built with the 2FGL catalog parameters. A second development is done with the use of the WISE satellite catalog and a non-parametric technic in order to find the blazar-like infrared counterparts of the unidentified sources of the 2FGL catalog. (author)

  13. Spin diffusion in Fermi gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Georg

    2011-01-01

    We examine spin diffusion in a two-component homogeneous Fermi gas in the normal phase. Using a variational approach, analytical results are presented for the spin diffusion coefficient and the related spin relaxation time as a function of temperature and interaction strength. For low temperatures......, strong correlation effects are included through the Landau parameters which we extract from Monte Carlo results. We show that the spin diffusion coefficient has a minimum for a temperature somewhat below the Fermi temperature with a value that approaches the quantum limit ~/m in the unitarity regime...

  14. The Fermi Paradox is Neither Fermis Nor a Paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    The so-called Fermi paradox claims that if technological life existed anywhere else, we would see evidence of its visits to Earth-and since we do not, such life does not exist, or some special explanation is needed. Enrico Fermi, however, never published anything on this topic. On the one occasion he is known to have mentioned it, he asked 'where is everybody?'- apparently suggesting that we don't see extraterrestrials on Earth because interstellar travel may not be feasible, but not suggesting that intelligent extraterrestrial life does not exist, or suggesting its absence is paradoxical. The claim 'they are not here; therefore they do not exist' was first published by Michael Hart, claiming that interstellar travel and colonization of the galaxy would be inevitable if intelligent extraterrestrial life existed, and taking its absence here as proof that it does not exist anywhere. The Fermi paradox appears to originate in Hart's argument, not Fermi's question. Clarifying the origin of these ideas is important...

  15. CCC and the Fermi paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzadyan, V. G.; Penrose, R.

    2016-01-01

    Within the scheme of conformal cyclic cosmology (CCC), information can be transmitted from aeon to aeon. Accordingly, the "Fermi paradox" and the SETI programme --of communication by remote civilizations-- may be examined from a novel perspective: such information could, in principle, be encoded in the cosmic microwave background. The current empirical status of CCC is also discussed.

  16. Extending the Fermi-LAT Data Processing Pipeline to the Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Data Handling Pipeline (“Pipeline”) has been developed for the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope (Fermi) Large Area Telescope (LAT) which launched in June 2008. Since then it has been in use to completely automate the production of data quality monitoring quantities, reconstruction and routine analysis of all data received from the satellite and to deliver science products to the collaboration and the Fermi Science Support Center. Aside from the reconstruction of raw data from the satellite (Level 1), data reprocessing and various event-level analyses are also reasonably heavy loads on the pipeline and computing resources. These other loads, unlike Level 1, can run continuously for weeks or months at a time. In addition it receives heavy use in performing production Monte Carlo tasks. In daily use it receives a new data download every 3 hours and launches about 2000 jobs to process each download, typically completing the processing of the data before the next download arrives. The need for manual intervention has been reduced to less than 0.01% of submitted jobs. The Pipeline software is written almost entirely in Java and comprises several modules. The software comprises web-services that allow online monitoring and provides charts summarizing work flow aspects and performance information. The server supports communication with several batch systems such as LSF and BQS and recently also Sun Grid Engine and Condor. This is accomplished through dedicated job control services that for Fermi are running at SLAC and the other computing site involved in this large scale framework, the Lyon computing center of IN2P3. While being different in the logic of a task, we evaluate a separate interface to the Dirac system in order to communicate with EGI sites to utilize Grid resources, using dedicated Grid optimized systems rather than developing our own. More recently the Pipeline and its associated data catalog have been generalized for use by other experiments, and are

  17. Extending the Fermi-LAT Data Processing Pipeline to the Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, S.; Arrabito, L.; Glanzman, T.; Johnson, T.; Lavalley, C.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Data Handling Pipeline (“Pipeline”) has been developed for the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope (Fermi) Large Area Telescope (LAT) which launched in June 2008. Since then it has been in use to completely automate the production of data quality monitoring quantities, reconstruction and routine analysis of all data received from the satellite and to deliver science products to the collaboration and the Fermi Science Support Center. Aside from the reconstruction of raw data from the satellite (Level 1), data reprocessing and various event-level analyses are also reasonably heavy loads on the pipeline and computing resources. These other loads, unlike Level 1, can run continuously for weeks or months at a time. In addition it receives heavy use in performing production Monte Carlo tasks. In daily use it receives a new data download every 3 hours and launches about 2000 jobs to process each download, typically completing the processing of the data before the next download arrives. The need for manual intervention has been reduced to less than 0.01% of submitted jobs. The Pipeline software is written almost entirely in Java and comprises several modules. The software comprises web-services that allow online monitoring and provides charts summarizing work flow aspects and performance information. The server supports communication with several batch systems such as LSF and BQS and recently also Sun Grid Engine and Condor. This is accomplished through dedicated job control services that for Fermi are running at SLAC and the other computing site involved in this large scale framework, the Lyon computing center of IN2P3. While being different in the logic of a task, we evaluate a separate interface to the Dirac system in order to communicate with EGI sites to utilize Grid resources, using dedicated Grid optimized systems rather than developing our own. More recently the Pipeline and its associated data catalog have been generalized for use by other experiments, and are

  18. Feneric Fermi Size Enhancement of Pairing in Mesoscopic Fermi Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Farine, M; Schuck, P; Viñas, X

    2002-01-01

    The finite size dependent enhancement of pairing in mesoscopic Fermi systems is studied under the assumption that the BCS approach is valid and that the two body force is size independent. Different systems are investigated such as superconducting metallic grains and films as well as atomic nuclei. It is shown that the finite size enhancement of pairing in these systems is a surface effect which, when properly included, accounts for the data.

  19. Thermodynamics of ultracold Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex Hamiltonians from condensed matter, such as the Fermi-Hubbard model, can be experimentally studied using ultracold gases. This thesis describes a new method for determining the equation of state of an ultracold gas, making the comparison with many-body theories straightforward. It is based on the measurement of the local pressure inside a trapped gas from the analysis of its in situ image. We first apply this method to the study of a Fermi gas with resonant interactions, a weakly-interacting 7Li gas acting as a thermometer. Surprisingly, none of the existing many-body theories of the unitary gas accounts for the equation of state deduced from our study over its full range. The virial expansion extracted from the high-temperature data agrees with the resolution of the three-body problem. At low temperature, we observe, contrary to some previous studies, that the normal phase behaves as a Fermi liquid. Finally we obtain the critical temperature for superfluidity from a clear signature on the equation of state. We also measure the pressure of the ground state as a function of spin imbalance and interaction strength - measure directly relevant to describe the crust of neutron stars. Our data validate Monte-Carlo simulations and quantify the Lee-Huang-Yang corrections to mean-field interactions in low-density fermionic or bosonic superfluids. We show that, in most cases, the partially polarized normal phase can be described as a Fermi liquid of polarons. The polaron effective mass extracted from the equation of state is in agreement with a study of collective modes. (author)

  20. Topological Non-Fermi Liquid

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Wu, Yue-Liang; Zhang, Yun-Long

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the $(2+1)$-dimensional topological non-Fermi liquid in strongly correlated electron system, which has a holographic dual description by Einstein gravity in $(3+1)$-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time. In a dyonic Reissner-Nordstrom black hole background, we consider a Dirac fermion coupled to the background $U(1)$ gauge theory and an intrinsic chiral gauge field $b_M$ induced by chiral anomaly. UV retarded Green's function of the charged fermion in the UV boundary from AdS$_4$ gravity is calculated, by imposing in-falling wave condition at the horizon. We also obtain IR correlation function of the charged fermion at the IR boundary arising from the near horizon geometry of the topological black hole with index $k=0,\\pm 1$. By using the UV retarded Green's function and IR correlation function, we analyze the low frequency behavior of the topological non-Fermi liquid at zero and finite temperatures, especially the relevant non-Fermi liquid behavior near the quantum critical...

  1. Enrico Fermi and the Dolomites

    CERN Document Server

    Battimelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Summer vacations in the Dolomites were a tradition among the professors of the Faculty of Mathematical and Physical Sciences at the University of Roma since the end of the XIX century. Beyond the academic walls, people like Tullio Levi-Civita, Federigo Enriques and Ugo Amaldi sr., together with their families, were meeting friends and colleagues in Cortina, San Vito, Dobbiaco, Vigo di Fassa and Selva, enjoying trekking together with scientific discussions. The tradition was transmitted to the next generations, in particular in the first half of the XX century, and the group of via Panisperna was directly connected: Edoardo Amaldi, the son of the mathematician Ugo sr., rented at least during two summers, in 1925 and in 1949, and in the winter of 1960, a house in San Vito di Cadore, and almost every year in the Dolomites; Enrico Fermi was a frequent guest. Many important steps in modern physics, in particular the development of the Fermi-Dirac statistics and the Fermi theory of beta decay, are related to scient...

  2. Enrico Fermi and the Dolomites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battimelli, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.battimelli@uniroma1.it; Angelis, Alessandro de, E-mail: alessandro.de.angelis@cern.ch

    2014-11-15

    Summer vacations in the Dolomites were a tradition among the professors of the Faculty of Mathematical and Physical Sciences at the University of Roma since the end of the XIX century. Beyond the academic walls, people like Tullio Levi-Civita, Federigo Enriques and Ugo Amaldi sr., together with their families, were meeting friends and colleagues in Cortina, San Vito, Dobbiaco, Vigo di Fassa and Selva, enjoying trekking together with scientific discussions. The tradition was transmitted to the next generations, in particular in the first half of the XX century, and the group of via Panisperna was directly connected: Edoardo Amaldi, the son of the mathematician Ugo sr., rented at least during two summers, in 1925 and in 1949, and in the winter of 1960, a house in San Vito di Cadore, and almost every year in the Dolomites; Enrico Fermi was a frequent guest. Many important steps in modern physics, in particular the development of the Fermi-Dirac statistics and the Fermi theory of beta decay, are related to scientific discussions held in the region of the Dolomites.

  3. Fermi acceleration of Lyman-alpha photons by shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, David A.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1988-01-01

    The repeated scattering of Ly-alpha radiation across a shock front results in a systematic blueshift which may greatly exceed the shock velocity vs and is proportional to cube root of (Nvs), where N is the column density of hydrogen atoms on either side of the shock front. The blueshifting process is similar to the Fermi acceleration of cosmic rays and may be responsible for the blue asymmetric line profiles that have been observed in high-redshift Ly-alpha galaxies. The Ly-alpha line profile in 3C 326.1 is accounted for by a model in which shocks, driven into a population of interstellar clouds by a radio lobe, trigger the formation of ionizing stars and Fermi accelerate the Ly-alpha radiation emitted by H II regions surrounding those stars. Galaxy mergers, particularly between galaxies with low dust content, should produce Ly-alpha lines with strong blue wings.

  4. Fermi acceleration of Lyman-alpha photons by shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The repeated scattering of Ly-alpha radiation across a shock front results in a systematic blueshift which may greatly exceed the shock velocity vs and is proportional to cube root of (Nvs), where N is the column density of hydrogen atoms on either side of the shock front. The blueshifting process is similar to the Fermi acceleration of cosmic rays and may be responsible for the blue asymmetric line profiles that have been observed in high-redshift Ly-alpha galaxies. The Ly-alpha line profile in 3C 326.1 is accounted for by a model in which shocks, driven into a population of interstellar clouds by a radio lobe, trigger the formation of ionizing stars and Fermi accelerate the Ly-alpha radiation emitted by H II regions surrounding those stars. Galaxy mergers, particularly between galaxies with low dust content, should produce Ly-alpha lines with strong blue wings. 14 references

  5. Landau Theory of Helical Fermi Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Rex; Maciejko, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We construct a phenomenological Landau theory for the two-dimensional helical Fermi liquid found on the surface of a three-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulator. In the presence of rotation symmetry, interactions between quasiparticles are described by ten independent Landau parameters per angular momentum channel, by contrast with the two (symmetric and antisymmetric) Landau parameters for a conventional spin-degenerate Fermi liquid. We project quasiparticle states onto the Fermi surface and obtain an effectively spinless, projected Landau theory with a single projected Landau parameter per angular momentum channel that captures the spin-momentum locking or nontrivial Berry phase of the Fermi surface. As a result of this nontrivial Berry phase, projection to the Fermi surface can increase or lower the angular momentum of the quasiparticle interactions. We derive equilibrium properties, criteria for Fermi surface instabilities, and collective mode dispersions in terms of the projected Landau parameters. We briefly discuss experimental means of measuring projected Landau parameters.

  6. Emergent physics: Fermi point scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Volovik, G E

    2008-01-01

    The Fermi-point scenario of emergent gravity has the following consequences: gravity emerges together with fermionic and bosonic matter; emergent fermionic matter consists of massless Weyl fermions; emergent bosonic matter consists of gauge fields; Lorentz symmetry persists well above the Planck energy; space-time is naturally 4-dimensional; Universe is naturally flat; cosmological constant is naturally small or zero; underlying physics is based on discrete symmetries; `quantum gravity' cannot be obtained by quantization of Einstein equations; there is no contradiction between quantum mechanics and gravity; etc.

  7. Bioterrorism and the Fermi Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Joshua

    2013-04-01

    We proffer a contemporary solution to the so-called Fermi Paradox, which is concerned with conflict between Copernicanism and the apparent paucity of evidence for intelligent alien civilizations. In particular, we argue that every community of organisms that reaches its space-faring age will (1) almost immediately use its rocket-building computers to reverse-engineer its genetic chemistry and (2) self-destruct when some individual uses said technology to design an omnicidal pathogen. We discuss some of the possible approaches to prevention with regard to Homo sapiens' vulnerability to bioterrorism, particularly on a short-term basis.

  8. Fermi liquids near Pomeranchuk instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Kelly Elizabeth

    We explore features of a Fermi liquid near generalized Pomeranchuk instabilities (PIs) starting from both ordered and disordered phases. These PIs can be viewed as quantum critical points in parameter space, and thus provide an alternate viewpoint on quantum criticality. We employ the tractable crossing symmetric equation method, which is a non-perturbative diagrammatic many-particle method used to calculate the Fermi liquid interaction functions and scattering amplitudes. We consider both repulsive and attractive underlying interactions of arbitrary strength. Starting from a ferromagnetically ordered ground state, we find that upon approach to an s-wave instability in one critical channel, the system simultaneously approaches instabilities in non-critical channels. We study origins and implications of this "quantum multicriticality". We also find that a nematic (non-s-wave) instability precedes and is driven by Pomeranchuk instabilities in both the s-wave spin and density channels. Finally, we discuss potential applications of our results to physical systems, such as ferromagnetic superconductors.

  9. Reconstructing WIMP properties through an interplay of signal measurements in direct detection, Fermi-LAT, and CTA searches for dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Roszkowski, Leszek; Trojanowski, Sebastian; Williams, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    We examine the projected ability to reconstruct the mass, scattering, and annihilation cross section of dark matter in the new generation of large underground detectors, XENON-1T, SuperCDMS, and DarkSide-G2, in combination with diffuse gamma radiation from expected 15 years of data from Fermi-LAT observation of 46 local spiral dwarf galaxies and projected CTA sensitivity to a signal from the Galactic Center. To this end we consider several benchmark points spanning a wide range of WIMP mass, different annihilation final states, and large enough event rates to warrant detection in one or more experiments. As previously shown, below some 100 GeV only direct detection experiments will in principle be able to reconstruct the WIMP mass well. This may, in case a signal at Fermi-LAT is also detected, additionally help restricting \\sigma v and the allowed decay branching rates. In the intermediate range between some 100 GeV and up a few hundred GeV, direct and indirect detection experiments can be used in complementa...

  10. Vacuum alignment and radiatively induced Fermi scale

    CERN Document Server

    Alanne, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    We extend the discussion about vacuum misalignment by quantum corrections in models with composite pseudo-Goldstone Higgs boson to renormalisable models with elementary scalars. As a concrete example, we propose a framework, where the hierarchy between the unification and the Fermi scale emerges radiatively. This scenario provides an interesting link between the unification and Fermi scale physics.

  11. Radio core dominance of Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhi-Yuan; Fan, Jun-Hui; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Yi-Hai; Cai, Wei; Xiao, Hu-Bing; Lin, Chao; Yang, Jiang-He

    2016-07-01

    During the first 4 years of mission, Fermi/LAT detected 1444 blazars (3FGL) (Ackermann et al. in Astrophys. J. 810:14, 2015). Fermi/LAT observations of blazars indicate that Fermi blazars are luminous and strongly variable with variability time scales, for some cases, as short as hours. Those observations suggest a strong beaming effect in Fermi/LAT blazars. In the present work, we will investigate the beaming effect in Fermi/LAT blazars using a core-dominance parameter, R = S_{core}/ S_{ext.}, where S_{core} is the core emission, while S_{ext.} is the extended emission. We compiled 1335 blazars with available core-dominance parameter, out of which 169 blazars have γ-ray emission (from 3FGL). We compared the core-dominance parameters, log R, between the 169 Fermi-detected blazars (FDBs) and the rest non-Fermi-detected blazars (non-FDBs), and we found that the averaged values are ext.} = 0.70 (a photon spectral index of α_{γ}^{ph}|_{ext.} = 1.70). Some discussions are also presented.

  12. Quantum chaos on a critical Fermi surface

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Aavishkar A

    2016-01-01

    We compute parameters characterizing many-body quantum chaos for a critical Fermi surface without quasiparticle excitations. We examine a theory of $N$ species of fermions at non-zero density coupled to a $U(1)$ gauge field in two spatial dimensions, and determine the Lyapunov rate and the butterfly velocity in an extended RPA approximation. The thermal diffusivity is found to be universally related to these chaos parameters, i.e. the relationship is independent of $N$, the gauge coupling constant, the Fermi velocity, the Fermi surface curvature, and high energy details.

  13. The physical properties of \\textit{Fermi} TeV BL Lac objects jets

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, N; Xiong, D R; Zhang, H J

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the physical properties of \\textit{Fermi} TeV BL Lac objects jets by modeling the quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distribution of 29 \\textit{Fermi} TeV BL Lacs in the frame of a one-zone leptonic synchrotron self-Compton model. Our main results are the following: (i) There is a negative correlation between $B$ and $\\delta$ in our sample, which suggests that $B$ and $\\delta$ are dependent on each other mainly in Thomson regime. (ii) There are negative correlations between $\

  14. Radiatively induced Fermi scale and unification

    CERN Document Server

    Alanne, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a framework, where the hierarchy between the unification and the Fermi scale emerges radiatively. This work tackles the long-standing question about the connection between the low Fermi scale and a more fundamental scale of Nature. As a concrete example, we study a Pati-Salam-type unification of Elementary-Goldstone-Higgs scenario, where the Standard Model scalar sector is replaced by an SU(4)-symmetric one, and the observed Higgs particle is an elementary pseudo-Goldstone boson. We construct a concrete model where the unification scale is fixed to a phenomenologically viable value, while the Fermi scale is generated radiatively. This scenario provides an interesting link between the unification and Fermi scale physics, and opens up prospects for exploring a wide variety of open problems in particle physics, ranging from neutrinos to cosmic inflation.

  15. Gamma-Ray Astrophysics NSSTC Fermi GBM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is not a pointed or imaging instrument. To determine fluxes for known sources, we measure the change in the count rate...

  16. Fermi breakup and the statistical multifragmentation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, B.V., E-mail: brett@ita.br [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica - CTA, 12228-900 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Donangelo, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, CP 68528, 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de la Republica, Julio Herrera y Reissig 565, 11.300 Montevideo (Uruguay); Souza, S.R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, CP 68528, 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, CP 15051, 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Lynch, W.G.; Steiner, A.W.; Tsang, M.B. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and the Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    We demonstrate the equivalence of a generalized Fermi breakup model, in which densities of excited states are taken into account, to the microcanonical statistical multifragmentation model used to describe the disintegration of highly excited fragments of nuclear reactions. We argue that such a model better fulfills the hypothesis of statistical equilibrium than the Fermi breakup model generally used to describe statistical disintegration of light mass nuclei.

  17. Effective Field Theory for Dilute Fermi Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, H. -W.; Furnstahl, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    The virtues of an effective field theory (EFT) approach to many-body problems are illustrated by deriving the expansion for the energy of an homogeneous, interacting Fermi gas at low density and zero temperature. A renormalization scheme based on dimensional regularization with minimal subtraction leads to a more transparent power-counting procedure and diagrammatic expansion than conventional many-body approaches. Coefficients of terms in the expansion with logarithms of the Fermi momentum a...

  18. Switchable Fermi surface sheets in greigite

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, B.; de Wijs, G. A.; de Groot, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Greigite (Fe3S4) and magnetite (Fe3O4) are isostructural and isoelectronic ferrimagnets with quite distinct properties. Electronic structure calculations reveal greigite is a normalmetal in contrast to half-metallic magnetite. Greigite shows a complex Fermi surface with a unique influence of relativistic effects: The existence of sheets of the Fermi surface depends on the direction of the magnetization. This enables spinorbitronics, spintronics on the level of a single compound rather than a ...

  19. CDMSlite: A Search for Low-Mass WIMPs using Voltage-Assisted Calorimetric Ionization Detection in the SuperCDMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Agnese, R; Asai, M; Balakishiyeva, D; Thakur, R Basu; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Cerdeno, D G; Chagani, H; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hertel, S A; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Kiveni, M; Koch, K; Loer, B; Asamar, E Lopez; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Martinez, C; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Moore, D C; Nadeau, P; Nelson, R H; Page, K; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J

    2014-01-01

    SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this paper, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage- assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for 10 live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of 170 eVee (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6 GeV/c2.

  20. A Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles Using Voltage-Assisted Calorimetric Ionization Detection in the SuperCDMS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nadeau, P.; Nelson, R. H.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redi, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, Richard; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-27

    SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this Letter, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage-assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for ten live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6 GeV/c2.

  1. W.K.H. Panofsky Prize Talk: The Search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particle Dark Matter: Science Motivation and CDMS strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoulet, Bernard

    2013-04-01

    For the last 25 years, Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) have remained one of the favored candidates to explain the ubiquitous dark matter in the universe. We will review the generic aspects of this class of models, and describe the complementarity between three observational approaches: the direct detection of terrestrial interactions of the halo WIMPs, the search for WIMP annihilation products in the cosmos and the attempt to produce these particles at the Large Hadron Collider. After a rapid review of the current status of these three searches, we will focus on the experimental strategy pursued by the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search as one of the leading direct detection effort in the world. We will conclude with the CDMS results obtained so far, in particular for low mass dark matter particles. In an accompanying talk, Blas Cabrera will describe the basic technology that we are using and the promise of our new generation of detectors.

  2. A Fast Algorithm for Finding Point Sources in the Fermi Data Stream: FermiFAST

    CERN Document Server

    Ashathaman, Asha; Heyl, Jeremy S

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new and efficient algorithm for finding point sources in the photon event data stream from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. It can rapidly construct about most significant half of the Fermi Third Point Source catalogue (3FGL) with nearly 80% purity from the four years of data used to construct the catalogue. If a higher purity sample is desirable, one can achieve a sample that includes the most significant third of the Fermi 3FGL with only five percent of the sources unassociated with Fermi sources. Outside the galaxy plane, the contamination is essentially negligible. This software allows for rapid exploration of the Fermi data, simulation of the source detection to calculate the selection function of various sources and the errors in the obtained parameters of the sources detected.

  3. Upgrading Fermi Without Traveling to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has received an upgrade that increased its sensitivity by a whopping 40% and nobody had to travel to space to make it happen! The difference instead stems from remarkable improvement to the software used to analyze Fermi-LATs data, and it has resulted in a new high-energy map of our sky.Animation (click to watch!) comparing the Pass 7 to the Pass 8 Fermi-LAT analysis, in a region in the constellation Carina. Pass 8 provides more accurate directions for incoming gamma rays, so more of them fall closer to their sources, creating taller spikes and a sharper image. [NASA/DOE/Fermi LAT Collaboration]Pass 8Fermi-LAT has been surveying the whole sky since August 2008. It detects gamma-ray photons by converting them into electron-positron pairs and tracking the paths of these charged particles. But differentiating this signal from the charged cosmic rays that also pass through the detector with a flux that can be 10,000 times larger! is a challenging process. Making this distinction and rebuilding the path of the original gamma ray relies on complex analysis software.Pass 8 is a complete reprocessing of all data collected by Fermi-LAT. The software has gone through many revisions before now, but this is the first revision that has taken into account all of the experience that the Fermi team has gained operating the LAT in its orbital environment.The improvements made in Pass 8 include better background rejection of misclassified charged particles, improvements to the point spread function and effective area of the detector, and an extension of the effective energy range from below 100 MeV to beyond a few hundred GeV. The changes made in Pass 8 have increased the sensitivity of Fermi-LAT by an astonishing 40%.Map of the High-Energy SkySky map of the sources in the 2FHL catalog, classified by their most likely association. Click for a better look! [Ackermann et al. 2016]The first result from the

  4. Extending the Fermi - Swift Joint AGN Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrader, Chris R.; Macomb, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Swift BAT and the Fermi LAT each provide excellent sky coverage and have led to impressive compilations of extragalactic source catalogs. For the most part they sample separate AGN subpopulations - Swift the lower-luminosity and relatively nearby Seyfert galaxies while the Fermi sample is dominated by blazars and does not include any radio-quiet objects. The overlap between these samples is among the radio-loud subset of the Swift sample as has been discussed elsewhere in the literature. The observable properties at these two bands - flux and spectral indices - are not expected to be well correlated as they sample different portions of the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) spectral energy distribution. In this contribution we consider an extension of the high-latitude Swift sample by relaxing the significance cut to less than 5 standard deviations and consider the overlap of that subsample with the Fermi AGN catalog. While such a threshold is generally inadvisable as it introduces the strong possibility of spurious detections, the objects of the overlapping sample which are detected at high significance in Fermi can be considered as reasonably high-confidence Swift detections. For example, there are 190 Swift sub-5-sigma Swift sources that have significance >2-sigma with Fermi counterparts, whereas we predict only ~5 due to statistical fluctuation. We also investigate any coincident INTEGRAL/IBIS observations to further bolster or diminish candidate Swift detections. We present our correlation analyses and offer interpretation in the context of the blazar sequence.

  5. Understanding and Using the Fermi Science Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asercion, Joseph; Fermi Science Support Center

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi Science Support Center (FSSC) provides information, documentation, and tools for the analysis of Fermi science data, including both the Large-Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). Source and binary versions of the Fermi Science Tools can be downloaded from the FSSC website, and are supported on multiple platforms. An overview document, the Cicerone, provides details of the Fermi mission, the science instruments and their response functions, the science data preparation and analysis process, and interpretation of the results. Analysis Threads provide the user with step-by-step instructions for many different types of data analysis: point source analysis - generating maps, spectra, and light curves, pulsar timing analysis, source identification, and the use of python for scripting customized analysis chains. The reference manual gives details of the options available for each tool. We present an overview of the structure of the Fermi science tools and documentation, and how to acquire them. We also provide information on recent updates incorporated in the Science Tools as well as upcoming changes that will be included in the upcoming release of the Science Tools in early 2015.

  6. Fermi's Paradox Is a Daunting Problem---Under Whatever Label

    CERN Document Server

    Cirkovic, Milan M

    2016-01-01

    Gray (2015) argued that the Fermi paradox (FP) is a misnomer, and it is not a valid paradox. Gray also speculated that the argument was misattributed to Fermi, whose lunchtime remarks did not pertain to the existence of extraterrestrial intelligence, but to the feasibility of interstellar travel. Instead, the paradox is ascribed to Hart and Tipler, and it is further suggested that the paradox is not a real problem or research subject and should not be used in debates about SETI projects. The arguments given are unpersuasive, ahistorical, and, in at least one instance, clearly hinge on literalistic and uncharitable reading of evidence. Instead, I argue the following three points: (i) Contrary to Gray's assertion, the historical issue of naming of ideas or concepts is completely divorced from their epistemic status. (ii) FP is easily and smoothly generalized into the Great Silence paradox, so it makes no sense either theoretically or empirically to separate the two. (iii) In sharp contrast to the main implicati...

  7. Fermi's Paradox Is a Daunting Problem, Under Whatever Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čirković, Milan M.

    2016-10-01

    Gray (2015) argued that the Fermi paradox (FP) is a misnomer, and it is not a valid paradox. Gray also speculated that the argument was misattributed to Fermi, whose lunchtime remarks did not pertain to the existence of extraterrestrial intelligence, but to the feasibility of interstellar travel. Instead, the paradox is ascribed to Hart and Tipler, and it is further suggested that the paradox is not a real problem or research subject and should not be used in debates about SETI projects. The arguments given are unpersuasive, ahistorical, and, in at least one instance, clearly hinge on literalistic and uncharitable reading of evidence. Instead, I argue the following three points: (i) Contrary to Gray's assertion, the historical issue of naming of ideas or concepts is completely divorced from their epistemic status. (ii) FP is easily and smoothly generalized into the Great Silence paradox, so it makes no sense either theoretically or empirically to separate the two. (iii) In sharp contrast to the main implication of Gray's paper, FP has become more aggravated lately due to advances in astrobiology.

  8. Relativistic Thermodynamics of Magnetized Fermi Electron Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Tsintsadze, Nodar L

    2012-01-01

    To study the relativistic thermodynamic properties of a Fermi gas in a strong magnetic field, we construct the relativistic thermodynamic potential by the relativistic Fermi distribution function taking into account that the motion of particles in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field is quantized. With this general potential at hand, we investigate all the thermodynamic quantities as a function of densities, temperatures and the magnetic field. We obtain a novel set of adiabatic equations. Having the expression of the pressure and adiabatic state equations, we determine the sound velocity for several cases revealing a new type of sound velocity. Finally, we disclose the magnetic cooling in the quantized electron Fermi gas, which is based on an adiabatic magnetization in contrast to the known adiabatic demagnetization.

  9. Renormalization group flow for noncommutative Fermi liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some recent studies of the AdS/CFT correspondence for condensed matter systems involve the Fermi liquid theory as a boundary field theory. Adding B-flux to the boundary D-branes leads in a certain limit to the noncommutative Fermi liquid, which calls for a field theory description of its critical behavior. As a preliminary step to more general consideration, the modification of the Landau's Fermi liquid theory due to noncommutativity of spatial coordinates is studied in this paper. We carry out the renormalization of interactions at tree level and one loop in a weakly coupled fermion system in two spatial dimensions. Channels ZS, ZS' and BCS are discussed in detail. It is shown that while the Gaussian fixed-point remains unchanged, the BCS instability is modified due to the space noncommutativity.

  10. Dark lump excitations in superfluid Fermi gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yan-Xia; Duan Wen-Shan

    2012-01-01

    We study the linear and nonlinear properties of two-dimensional matter-wave pulses in disk-shaped superfluid Fermi gases.A Kadomtsev Petviashvili I (KPI) solitary wave has been realized for superfluid Fermi gases in the limited cases of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) regime,Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) regime,and unitarity regime.Onelump solution as well as one-line soliton solutions for the KPI equation are obtained,and two-line soliton solutions with the same amplitude are also studied in the limited cases.The dependence of the lump propagating velocity and the sound speed of two-dimensional superfluid Fermi gases on the interaction parameter are investigated for the limited cases of BEC and unitarity.

  11. Beyond the 2nd Fermi Pulsar Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Xian; Reposeur, Thierry; Rousseau, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Over thirteen times more gamma-ray pulsars have now been studied with the Large Area Telescope on NASA's Fermi satellite than the ten seen with the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory in the nineteen-nineties. The large sample is diverse, allowing better understanding both of the pulsars themselves and of their roles in various cosmic processes. Here we explore the prospects for even more gamma-ray pulsars as Fermi enters the 2nd half of its nominal ten-year mission. New pulsars will naturally tend to be fainter than the first ones discovered. Some of them will have unusual characteristics compared to the current population, which may help discriminate between models. We illustrate a vision of the future with a sample of six pulsars discovered after the 2nd Fermi Pulsar Catalog was written.

  12. Fermi's Paradox - The Last Challenge for Copernicanism?

    CERN Document Server

    Cirkovic, Milan M

    2009-01-01

    We review Fermi's paradox (or the "Great Silence" problem), not only arguably the oldest and crucial problem for the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI), but also a conundrum of profound scientific, philosophical and cultural importance. By a simple analysis of observation selection effects, the correct resolution of Fermi's paradox is certain to tell us something about the future of humanity. Already a more than three quarters of a century old puzzle - and a quarter of century since the last major review paper in the field by G. David Brin - Fermi's paradox has generated many ingenious discussions and hypotheses. We analyze the often tacit methodological assumptions built into various answers to this puzzle and attempt a new classification of the numerous solutions proposed in an already huge literature on the subject. Finally, we consider the ramifications of various classes of hypotheses for the practical SETI projects. Somewhat paradoxically, it seems that the class of (neo)catastrophic hypoth...

  13. Dynamics and Instabilities of Nuclear Fermi Liquid

    CERN Document Server

    Kolomietz, V M

    1998-01-01

    The kinetic theory of the Fermi liquid is applied to finite nuclei. The nuclear collective motion is treated in terms of the observable variables: particle density, current density, pressure etc. The nuclear dynamics is influenced strongly by the Fermi-surface distortion (FSD) effect. The relaxation of collective motion and the width of giant multipole resonances in hot nuclei show a saturated behaviour with temperature caused by the memory effect in the collision integral. The development of the bulk and surface instabilities of the nuclear Fermi-liquid is sensitive to the dynamic effects such as the FSD and the relaxation processes. The instability growth rate is reduced due to the FSD effect and depends on the multipolarity of the particle density and surface fluctuations.

  14. Charge transport by holographic Fermi surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Faulkner, Thomas; Liu, Hong; McGreevy, John; Vegh, David

    2013-01-01

    We compute the contribution to the conductivity from holographic Fermi surfaces obtained from probe fermions in an AdS charged black hole. This requires calculating a certain part of the one-loop correction to a vector propagator on the charged black hole geometry. We find that the current dissipation is as efficient as possible and the transport lifetime coincides with the single-particle lifetime. In particular, in the case where the spectral density is that of a marginal Fermi liquid, the resistivity is linear in temperature.

  15. Chiral vortical effect in Fermi liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaidukov, Z.V.; Kirilin, V.P. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sadofyev, A.V., E-mail: sadofyev@itep.ru [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-31

    In this Letter we consider rotating Fermi liquid in the presence of Berry curvature. We argue that there appears an analogue of chiral vortical effect in the liquid if Berry curvature has a non-vanishing flux through sheets of Fermi surfaces and corresponding chemical potentials are different. We discuss correspondence between relativistic and non-relativistic dispersion type in vicinity of degeneracy points. We also claim that quantum anomalies in condensed matter context provide a theoretical and experimental testing ground for the origin of chiral effects, their carriers etc.

  16. Clustering in the nuclear Fermi liquid

    CERN Document Server

    Ebran, J -P; Niksic, T; Vretenar, D

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the emergence of various structures in nucleonic matter, such as crystal, clusters, liquid drops and haloes. The formation of clusters indicates that nuclei behave like a Fermi liquid close to the liquid to solid transition. The relevant parameter is the ratio of the dispersion of the single-nucleon wave functions in the nucleus to the inter-nucleon distance. We also discuss the relationship between cluster states in nuclei and the pasta phase in the crust of neutron stars, as a transitional state between a Fermi liquid and a crystal. Haloes and clusters exhibit opposite features with respect to nucleonic localization.

  17. Switchable Fermi surface sheets in greigite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; de Wijs, G. A.; de Groot, R. A.

    2012-07-01

    Greigite (Fe3S4) and magnetite (Fe3O4) are isostructural and isoelectronic ferrimagnets with quite distinct properties. Electronic structure calculations reveal greigite is a normal metal in contrast to half-metallic magnetite. Greigite shows a complex Fermi surface with a unique influence of relativistic effects: The existence of sheets of the Fermi surface depends on the direction of the magnetization. This enables spinorbitronics, spintronics on the level of a single compound rather than a device. Due to its relativistic origin, spin contamination is irrelevant in spinorbitronics and the entire periodic table is available for optimizations.

  18. Optical Spectrophotometric Monitoring of Fermi/LAT Bright Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Patiño-Álvarez, V; León-Tavares, J; Valdés, J R; Carramiñana, A; Carrasco, L; Torrealba, J

    2013-01-01

    We describe an ongoing optical spectrophotometric monitoring program of a sample of Fermi/LAT bright sources showing prominent and variable {\\gamma}-ray emission, with the 2.1m telescope at Observatorio Astrof\\'isico Guillermo Haro (OAGH) located in Cananea, Sonora, M\\'exico. Our sample contains 11 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) and 1 Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxy. Our spectroscopic campaign will allow us to study the spectroscopic properties (FWHM, EW, flux) of broad-emission lines in the optical (e.g. H{\\beta}) and mid-UV (e.g. Mg II {\\lambda}2800) regimes, depending on the redshift of the source. The cadence of the broad emission lines monitoring is about five nights per month which in turn will permit us to explore whether there is a correlated variability between broad emission line features and high levels of {\\gamma}-ray emission.

  19. Friedel oscillations due to Fermi arcs in Weyl semimetals

    OpenAIRE

    Hosur, Pavan

    2012-01-01

    Weyl semimetals harbor unusual surface states known as Fermi arcs, which are essentially disjoint segments of a two dimensional Fermi surface. We describe a prescription for obtaining Fermi arcs of arbitrary shape and connectivity by stacking alternate two dimensional electron and hole Fermi surfaces and adding suitable interlayer coupling. Using this prescription, we compute the local density of states -- a quantity directly relevant to scanning tunneling microscopy -- on a Weyl semimetal su...

  20. Fermi Surface and Antiferromagnetism in Europium Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O. Krogh; Loucks, T. L.

    1968-01-01

    of the nearly cubical part of the hole surface at P, and we also discuss the effects of the electron surface at H. Since it is likely that barium and europium have similar Fermi surfaces, we have presented several extremal areas and the corresponding de Haas-van Alphen frequencies in the hope that experimental...

  1. Enrico Fermi and the Old Quantum Physics

    OpenAIRE

    De Gregorio, Alberto; Sebastiani, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    We outline Fermi's early attitude towards old quantum physics. We sketch out the context from which his interest for quantum physics arose, and we deal with his work on quantum statistics. We also go through the first two courses on theoretical physics he held in Rome, and his 1928 book on atomic physics.

  2. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SECOND SOURCE CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolan, P. L.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Abdo, A. A. [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Atwood, W. B.; Belfiore, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Axelsson, M. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bignami, G. F., E-mail: digel@stanford.edu, E-mail: Gino.Tosti@pg.infn.it, E-mail: jean.ballet@cea.fr, E-mail: tburnett@u.washington.edu [Istituto Universitario di Studi Superiori (IUSS), I-27100 Pavia (Italy); and others

    2012-04-01

    We present the second catalog of high-energy {gamma}-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely {gamma}-ray-producing source classes.

  3. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SECOND SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the second catalog of high-energy γ-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely γ-ray-producing source classes.

  4. Switchable Fermi surface sheets in greigite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, B.; de Wijs, G. A.; de Groot, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Greigite (Fe3S4) and magnetite (Fe3O4) are isostructural and isoelectronic ferrimagnets with quite distinct properties. Electronic structure calculations reveal greigite is a normalmetal in contrast to half-metallic magnetite. Greigite shows a complex Fermi surface with a unique influence of relativ

  5. Fermi detected blazars seen by INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Soldi, S

    2009-01-01

    Multiwavelength observations are essential to constrain physical parameters of the blazars observed by Fermi/LAT. Among the 187 AGN significantly detected in public INTEGRAL data above 20 keV by the imager IBIS/ISGRI, 20 blazars were detected. 15 of these sources allowed significant spectral extraction. They show hard X-ray spectra with an average photon index of 2.1+-0.1 and a hard X-ray luminosity of L(20-100 keV) = 1.3e46 erg/s. 15 of the INTEGRAL blazars are also visible in the first 16 months of the Fermi/LAT data, thus allowing to constrain the inverse Compton branch in these cases. Among others, we analyse the LAT data of four blazars which were not included in the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample based on the first 3 months of the mission: QSO B0836+710, H 1426+428, RX J1924.8-2914, and PKS 2149-306. Especially for blazars during bright outbursts, as already observed simultaneously by INTEGRAL and Fermi (e.g. 3C 454.3 and Mrk 421), INTEGRAL provides unique spectral coverage up to several hundred keV. We pr...

  6. Molecular regimes in ultracold Fermi gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Petrov; C. Salomon; G.V. Shlyapnikov

    2009-01-01

    The use of Feshbach resonances for tuning the interparticle interaction in ultracold Fermi gases has led to remarkable developments, in particular to the creation and Bose-Einstein condensation of weakly bound diatomic molecules of fermionic atoms. These are the largest diatomic molecules obtained s

  7. Fermi Large Area Telescope Second Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    We present the second catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24-month period. The Second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in 5 energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we att...

  8. Fermi surface effects in terbium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work is reported which was conducted to test of the relation of the generalized susceptibility (and therefore, the ordering properties) for Tb to the Fermi energy of Tb. In order to properly analyze the data a simple theory was developed to account for the effects on band structure which accompany alloying and attendant lattice size changes. Using this simple theory, the alloys of Tb with Mg are understood as a combination of Fermi energy lowering and of lattice contraction. The tendency of Th to promote the ferromagnetic structure in Th is understood as a combination of the Fermi energy being raised and of the lattice being expanded. The theory was also useful in explaining the interesting behavior of the Tb with Yb alloys which upon preliminary analysis did not seem to follow the theoretical predictions. After consideration of the volume effect, indeed the Tb with Yb alloys showed promotion of the helical structure as predicted. The complicated behavior of the Tb with Yb alloys is a case where the volume and valence effects compete. Results show that the magnetic ordering properties of the rare earths are intimately related to the Fermi surface geometry through the generalized susceptibility

  9. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekaran, G

    2014-01-01

    The history of weak interactions starting with Fermi's creation of the beta decay theory and culminating in its modern avatar in the form of the electroweak gauge theory is described. Discoveries of parity violation, matter-antimatter asymmetry, W and Z bosons and neutrino mass are highlighted.

  10. Automatic Cloud Bursting under FermiCloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao [Fermilab; Shangping, Ren [IIT; Garzoglio, Gabriele [Fermilab; Timm, Steven [Fermilab; Bernabeu, Gerard [Fermilab; Kim, Hyun Woo; Chadwick, Keith; Jang, Haengjin [KISTI, Daejeon; Noh, Seo-Young [KISTI, Daejeon

    1900-01-01

    Cloud computing is changing the infrastructure upon which scientific computing depends from supercomputers and distributed computing clusters to a more elastic cloud-based structure. The service-oriented focus and elasticity of clouds can not only facilitate technology needs of emerging business but also shorten response time and reduce operational costs of traditional scientific applications. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) is currently in the process of building its own private cloud, FermiCloud, which allows the existing grid infrastructure to use dynamically provisioned resources on FermiCloud to accommodate increased but dynamic computation demand from scientists in the domains of High Energy Physics (HEP) and other research areas. Cloud infrastructure also allows to increase a private cloud’s resource capacity through “bursting” by borrowing or renting resources from other community or commercial clouds when needed. This paper introduces a joint project on building a cloud federation to support HEP applications between Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Korea Institution of Science and Technology Information, with technical contributions from the Illinois Institute of Technology. In particular, this paper presents two recent accomplishments of the joint project: (a) cloud bursting automation and (b) load balancer. Automatic cloud bursting allows computer resources to be dynamically reconfigured to meet users’ demands. The load balance algorithm which the cloud bursting depends on decides when and where new resources need to be allocated. Our preliminary prototyping and experiments have shown promising success, yet, they also have opened new challenges to be studied

  11. Fermi: a physicist in the upheaval; Fermi: un physicien dans la tourmente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, M. de

    2002-07-01

    This book summarizes the life, works and complex personality of the Italian physicist Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) whose myth is linked with the political upheaval of the 2. world war: the youth of an autodidact, the theorician and the quantum mechanics, his invention of a quantum statistics, the weak interaction theory, his works on artificial radioactivity, the end of the Fermi team and his exile in the USA, the secrete researches at the university of Columbia and the birth of the first atomic 'pile' (December 2, 1942), the building of Los Alamos center and the Alamogordo explosion test, the disagreements among the physicists of the Manhattan project and the position of Fermi, Fermi's contribution in the H-bomb construction, the creation of the physics school of Chicago, the Oppenheimer spying affair. (J.S.)

  12. [Effect on Fermi Resonance by Some External Fields: Investigation of Fermi Resonance According to Raman Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiu-lan; Sun, Cheng-lin; Zhou, Mi; Li, Dong-fei; Men, Zhi-wei; Li, Zuo-wei; Gao, Shu-qin

    2015-03-01

    Fermi resonance is a phenomenon of molecular vibrational coupling and energy transfer occurred between different groups of a single molecule or neighboring molecules. Many properties of Fermi resonance under different external fields, the investigation method of Raman spectroscopy as well as the application of Fermi resonance, etc need to be developed and extended further. In this article the research results and development about Fermi resonance obtained by Raman spectral technique were introduced systematically according to our work and the results by other researchers. Especially, the results of the behaviors of intramolecular and intermolecular Fermi resonance of some molecules under some external fields such as molecular field, pressure field and temperature field, etc were investigated and demonstrated in detail according to the Raman spectra obtained by high pressure DAC technique, temperature variation technique as well as the methods we planed originally in our group such as solution concentration variation method and LCOF resonance Raman spectroscopic technique, and some novel properties of Fermi resonance were found firstly. Concretely, (1) Under molecular field. a. The Raman spectra of C5H5 N in CH3 OH and H2O indicates that solvent effect can influence Fermi resonance distinctly; b. The phenomena of the asymmetric movement of the Fermi resonance doublets as well as the fundamental involved is tuned by the Fermi resonance which had not been found by other methods were found firstly by our variation solution concentration method; c. The Fermi resonance properties can be influenced distinctly by the molecular group reorganization induced by the hydrogen bond and anti-hydrogen bond in solution; d. Fermi resonance can occurred between C7 H8 and m-C8H10, and the Fermi resonance properties behave quite differently with the solution concentration; (2) Under pressure field. a. The spectral lines shift towards high wavenumber with increasing pressure, and

  13. Relativistic Beaming Effect in Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. H. Fan; D. Bastieri; J. H. Yang; Y. Liu; D. X. Wu; S. H. Li

    2014-09-01

    The most identified sources observed by Fermi/LAT are blazars, based on which we can investigate the emission mechanisms and beaming effect in the -ray bands for blazars. Here, we used the compiled around 450 Fermi blazars with the available X-ray observations to estimate their Doppler factors and compared them with the integral -ray luminosity in the range of 1–100 GeV. It is interesting that the integral -ray luminosity is closely correlated with the estimated Doppler factor, log = (2.95 ± 0.09) log + 43.59 ± 0.08 for the whole sample. When the dependence of the correlation between them and the X-ray luminosity is removed, the correlation is still strong, which suggests that the -ray emissions are strongly beamed.

  14. Study of superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Sebastien; Delehaye, Marion; Jin, Shuwei; Pierce, Matthieu; Yefsah, Tarik; Chevy, Frederic; Salomon, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Using fermionic and bosonic isotopes of lithium we produce and study ultracold Bose-Fermi mixtures. First in a low temperature counterflow experiment, we measure the critical velocity of the system in the BEC-BCS crossover. Around unitarity, we observe a remarkably high superfluid critical velocity which reaches the sound velocity of the strongly interacting Fermi gas. Second, when we increase the temperature of the system slightly above the superfluid transitions we observe an unexpected phase locking of the oscillations of the clouds induced by dissipation. Finally, as suggested in, we explore the nature of the superfluid phase when we impose a spin polarization in the situation where the mean field potential created by the bosons on the fermions tends to cancel out the trapping potential of the latter.

  15. A Probabilistic Analysis of the Fermi Paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Solomonides, Evan; Terzian, Yervant

    2016-01-01

    The fermi paradox uses an appeal to the mediocrity principle to make it seem counter-intuitive that humanity has not been contacted by extraterrestrial intelligence. A numerical, statistical analysis was conducted to determine whether this apparent loneliness is, in fact, unexpected. An inequality was derived to relate the frequency of life arising and developing technology on a suitable planet in the galaxy, the average length of time since the first broadcast of such a civilization, and a constant term. An analysis of the sphere reached thus far by human communication was also conducted, considering our local neighborhood and planets of particular interest. We clearly show that human communication has not reached a number of stars and planets adequate to expect an answer. These analyses both conclude that the Fermi paradox is not, in fact, unexpected. By the mediocrity principle and numerical modeling, it is actually unlikely that the Earth would have been reached by extraterrestrial communication at this p...

  16. Fermi and the Elucidation of Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Fermi helped establish a new framework for understanding matter, based on quantum theory. This framework refines and improves traditional atomism in two crucial respects. First, the elementary constituents of matter belong to a very small number of classes, and all objects of a given class (e.g., all electrons) are rigorously identical, indeed indistinguishable. This profound identity is demonstrated empirically through the phenomena of quantum statistics, and is explained by the principles of free quantum field theory. Second, objects of one class can mutate into objects of other classes. Such mutability can be understood as manifesting interacting quantum field theory. Fermi contributed to establishing theoretical foundations for the new viewpoint, through his work on quantum statistics and quantum field theory, and to its fruitful application and empirical validation, through his work on beta decay, nuclear transmutation, and primeval strong interaction theory.

  17. Magnetar Observations in the Fermi Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2009-01-01

    NASA s Fermi Observatory was launched June 11, 2009; the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) began normal operations on July 14, about a month after launch, when the trigger algorithms were enabled. In the first 8 months of operations we recorded emission of three magnetar sources; of these, only one was an old magnetar: SGR 1806+20. The other two detections were: SGR J0501+4516, newly discovered with Swift and extensively monitored with both Swift and GBM, and SGR J1550-5418, a source originally classified as an Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP). I report below on the current status of the analyses efforts of all these GBM data sets, combined with data from other satellites (Spitzer, RXTE, Chandra, Swift).

  18. Magnetar Observations with Fermi/GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Fermi Observatory was launched June 11, 2009; the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) began normal operations on July 14, about a month after launch, when the trigger algorithms were enabled. In the first year of operations we recorded emission from four magnetar sources; of these, only one was an old magnetar: SGR 1806+20. The other three detections were: SGR J0501+4516, newly discovered with Swift and extensively monitored with both Swift and GBM, SGR J1550-5418, a source originally classified as an Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) and a very recently discovered new source, SGR 0418+5729. I report below on the current status of the analyses efforts of the GBM data.

  19. Unconventional Fermi surface in an insulating state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tan, B. S. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hsu, Y. -T. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Zeng, B. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Hatnean, M. Ciomaga [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Zhu, Z. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hartstein, M. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kiourlappou, M. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Srivastava, A. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Johannes, M. D. [Center for Computational Materials Science, Washington, DC (United States); Murphy, T. P. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Park, J. -H. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Balicas, L. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Lonzarich, G. G. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Balakrishnan, G. [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Sebastian, Suchitra E. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-17

    Insulators occur in more than one guise; a recent finding was a class of topological insulators, which host a conducting surface juxtaposed with an insulating bulk. Here, we report the observation of an unusual insulating state with an electrically insulating bulk that simultaneously yields bulk quantum oscillations with characteristics of an unconventional Fermi liquid. We present quantum oscillation measurements of magnetic torque in high-purity single crystals of the Kondo insulator SmB6, which reveal quantum oscillation frequencies characteristic of a large three-dimensional conduction electron Fermi surface similar to the metallic rare earth hexaborides such as PrB6 and LaB6. As a result, the quantum oscillation amplitude strongly increases at low temperatures, appearing strikingly at variance with conventional metallic behavior.

  20. Pulsar Timing with the Fermi LAT

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Paul S; Parent, Damien; PSC, the Fermi

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of precise pulsar timing using data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi. We describe the analysis techniques including a maximum likelihood method for determining pulse times of arrival from unbinned photon data. In addition to determining the spindown behavior of the pulsars and detecting glitches and timing noise, such timing analyses allow the precise determination of the pulsar position, thus enabling detailed multiwavelength follow up.

  1. Fermi Large Area Telescope Second Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, P. L.; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bignami, G. F.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bonnell, J.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Campana, R.; Cañadas, B.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Ceccanti, M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Chipaux, R.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Corbet, R.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; Davis, D. S.; de Angelis, A.; DeCesar, M. E.; DeKlotz, M.; De Luca, A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Enoto, T.; Escande, L.; Fabiani, D.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Iafrate, G.; Itoh, R.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, T. E.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Katsuta, J.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Landriu, D.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lionetto, A. M.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, E.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Minuti, M.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mongelli, M.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Nymark, T.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Pinchera, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Salvetti, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sbarra, C.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Shrader, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stephens, T. E.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinebra, F.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Etten, A.; Van Klaveren, B.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wallace, E.; Wang, P.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.

    2012-04-01

    We present the second catalog of high-energy γ-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely γ-ray-producing source classes. We dedicate this paper to the memory of our colleague Patrick Nolan, who died on 2011 November 6. His career spanned much of the history of high-energy astronomy from space and his work on the Large Area Telescope (LAT) began nearly 20 years ago when it was just a concept. Pat was a central member in the operation of the LAT collaboration and he is greatly missed.

  2. "Permanence" - An Adaptationist Solution to Fermi's Paradox?

    OpenAIRE

    Cirkovic, Milan M.

    2004-01-01

    A new solution of Fermi's paradox sketched by SF writer Karl Schroeder in his 2002. novel "Permanence" is critically investigated. It is argued that this solution is tightly connected with adaptationism - a widely discussed working hypothesis in evolutionary biology. Schroeder's hypothesis has important ramifications for astrobiology, SETI projects, and future studies. Its weaknesses should be explored without succumbing to the emotional reactions often accompanying adaptationist explanations.

  3. Virial theorem for confined universal Fermi gases

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, J E

    2008-01-01

    Optically-trapped two-component Fermi gases near a broad Feshbach resonance exhibit universal thermodynamics, where the properties of the gas are independent of the details of the two-body scattering interactions. We present a global proof that such a universal gas obeys the virial theorem for {\\it any} trapping potential $U$ and any spin mixture, without assuming either the local density approximation or harmonic confinement. The total energy of the gas is given in scale invariant form by $E...

  4. Fermi liquid theory of resonant spin pumping

    OpenAIRE

    Moca, C. P.; Alex, A.; Shnirman, A.; Zarand, G.

    2013-01-01

    We study resonant all-electric adiabatic spin pumping through a quantum dot with two nearby levels by using a Fermi liquid approach in the strongly interacting regime, combined with a projective numerical renormalization group (NRG) theory. Due to spin-orbit coupling, a strong spin pumping resonance emerges at every charging transition, which allows for the transfer of a spin $~ \\hbar/2$ through the device in a single pumping cycle. Depending on the precise geometry of the device, controlled ...

  5. Fractal generalization of Thomas-Fermi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhviashvili, S. Sh.; Sokurov, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    The Thomas-Fermi model is developed for a multielectron neutral atom at an arbitrary metric dimension of the electron cloud. It has been shown that the electron cloud with the reduced dimension should be located in the close vicinity of the nucleus. At a metric dimension of the electron cloud of 2, the differential equation of the model admits an analytical solution. In this case, the screening parameter does not depend on the charge of the nucleus.

  6. Fermi/GBM Results of Magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, chryssa

    2011-01-01

    Magnetars are magnetically powered rotating neutron stars with extreme magnetic fields (over 10(exp 14) Gauss). They were discovered in the X- and gamma-rays where they predominantly emit their radiation. Very few sources (roughly 18) have been found since their discovery in 1987. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was launched June 11,2009; since then the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) recorded emission from four magnetar sources. Two of these were brand new sources, SGR J0501 +4516, discovered with Swift and extensively monitored with Swift and GBM, SGR J0418+5729, discovered with GBM and the Interplanetary Network (IPN). A third was SGR Jl550-5418, a source originally classified as an Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP IEI547.0-5408), but exhibiting a very prolific outburst with over 400 events recorded in January 2009. In my talk I will give a short history of magnetars and describe how this, once relatively esoteric field, has emerged as a link between several astrophysical areas including Gamma-Ray Bursts. Finally, I will describe the exciting new results of Fermi in this field and the current status of our knowledge of the magnetar population properties and magnetic fields.

  7. Superconducting instability in non-Fermi liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Ipsita

    2016-01-01

    We use renormalization group (RG) analysis and dimensional regularization techniques to study potential superconductivity-inducing four-fermion interactions in systems with critical Fermi surfaces of general dimensions ($m$) and co-dimensions ($d-m$), arising as a result of quasiparticle interaction with a gapless Ising-nematic order parameter. These are examples of non-Fermi liquid states in $d$ spatial dimensions. Our formalism allows us to treat the corresponding zero-temperature low-energy effective theory in a controlled approximation close to the upper critical dimension $d=d_c(m)$. The fixed points are identified from the RG flow equations, as functions of $d$ and $m$. We find that the flow towards the non-Fermi liquid fixed point is preempted by Cooper pair formation for both the physical cases of $(d=3, m=2)$ and $(d=2, m=1)$. In fact, there is a strong enhancement of superconductivity by the order parameter fluctuations at the quantum critical point.

  8. A Probabilistic Analysis of the Fermi Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonides, Evan; Terzian, Yervant

    2016-06-01

    The Fermi paradox uses an appeal to the mediocrity principle to make it seem counterintuitive that humanity has not been contacted by extraterrestrial intelligence. A numerical, statistical analysis was conducted to determine whether this apparent loneliness is, in fact, unexpected. An inequality was derived to relate the frequency of life arising and developing technology on a suitable planet in the galaxy; the average length of time since the first broadcast of such a civilization; and a constant term. An analysis of the sphere reached thus far by human communication was also conducted, considering our local neighborhood and planets of particular interest. These analyses both conclude that the Fermi paradox is not, in fact, unexpected. By the mediocrity principle and numerical modeling, it is actually unlikely that the Earth would have been reached by extraterrestrial communication at this point. We predict that under 1% of the galaxy has been reached at all thus far, and we do not anticipate to be reached until approximately 50% of stars/planets have been reached. We offer a prediction that we should not expect this until at least 1,500 years in the future. Thus the Fermi paradox is not a shocking observation- or lack thereof- and humanity may very well be contacted within our species’ lifespan (we can begin to expect to be contacted 1,500 years in the future).

  9. Frustration and time-reversal symmetry breaking for Fermi and Bose-Fermi systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Targońska, Katarzyna; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2012-05-01

    The modulation of an optical lattice potential that breaks time-reversal symmetry enables the realization of complex tunneling amplitudes in the corresponding tight-binding model. For a superfluid Fermi gas in a triangular lattice potential with complex tunnelings, the pairing function acquires a complex phase, so the frustrated magnetism of fermions can be realized. Bose-Fermi mixtures of bosonic molecules and unbound fermions in the lattice also show interesting behavior. Due to boson-fermion coupling, the fermions become enslaved by the bosons and the corresponding pairing function takes the complex phase determined by the bosons. In the presence of bosons the Fermi system can reveal both gapped and gapless superfluidity.

  10. Virial expansion for a strongly correlated Fermi system and its application to ultracold atomic Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia-Ji

    2013-03-01

    A strongly correlated Fermi system plays a fundamental role in very different areas of physics, from neutron stars, quark-gluon plasmas, to high temperature superconductors. Despite the broad applicability, it is notoriously difficult to be understood theoretically because of the absence of a small interaction parameter. Recent achievements of ultracold trapped Fermi atoms near a Feshbach resonance have ushered in enormous changes. The unprecedented control of interaction, geometry and purity in these novel systems has led to many exciting experimental results, which are to be urgently understood at both low and finite temperatures. Here we review the latest developments of virial expansion for a strongly correlated Fermi gas and their applications on ultracold trapped Fermi atoms. We show remarkable, quantitative agreements between virial predictions and various recent experimental measurements at about the Fermi degenerate temperature. For equations of state, we discuss a practical way of determining high-order virial coefficients and use it to calculate accurately the long-sought third-order virial coefficient, which is now verified firmly in experiments at ENS and MIT. We discuss also virial expansion of a new many-body parameter-Tan’s contact. We then turn to less widely discussed issues of dynamical properties. For dynamic structure factors, the virial prediction agrees well with the measurement at the Swinburne University of Technology. For single-particle spectral functions, we show that the expansion up to the second order accounts for the main feature of momentum-resolved rf-spectroscopy for a resonantly interacting Fermi gas, as recently reported by JILA. In the near future, more practical applications with virial expansion are possible, owing to the ever-growing power in computation.

  11. Induced interactions in a superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Jami; Bruun, Georg

    2015-01-01

    We analyze a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) mixed with a superfluid two-component Fermi gas in the whole BCS-BEC crossover. Using a quasiparticle random-phase approximation combined with Beliaev theory to describe the Fermi superfluid and the BEC, respectively, we show that the single-particle an......We analyze a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) mixed with a superfluid two-component Fermi gas in the whole BCS-BEC crossover. Using a quasiparticle random-phase approximation combined with Beliaev theory to describe the Fermi superfluid and the BEC, respectively, we show that the single...... shift in the excitation spectrum of the BEC. In addition, the excitation of quasiparticles in the Fermi superfluid leads to damping of the excitations in the BEC. Besides studying induced interactions themselves, we can use these prominent effects to systematically probe the strongly interacting Fermi...

  12. Transport phenomena in correlated quantum liquids: Ultracold Fermi gases and F/N junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua

    Landau Fermi-liquid theory was first introduced by L. D. Landau in the effort of understanding the normal state of Fermi systems, where the application of the concept of elementary excitations to the Fermi systems has proved very fruitful in clarifying the physics of strongly correlated quantum systems at low temperatures. In this thesis, I use Landau Fermi-liquid theory to study the transport phenomena of two different correlated quantum liquids: the strongly interacting ultracold Fermi gases and the ferromagnet/normal-metal (F/N) junctions. The detailed work is presented in chapter II and chapter III of this thesis, respectively. Chapter I holds the introductory part and the background knowledge of this thesis. In chapter II, I study the transport properties of a Fermi gas with strong attractive interactions close to the unitary limit. In particular, I compute the transport lifetimes of the Fermi gas due to superfluid fluctuations above the BCS transition temperature Tc. To calculate the transport lifetimes I need the scattering amplitudes. The scattering amplitudes are dominated by the superfluid fluctuations at temperatures just above Tc. The normal scattering amplitudes are calculated from the Landau parameters. These Landau parameters are obtained from the local version of the induced interaction model for computing Landau parameters. I also calculate the leading order finite temperature corrections to the various transport lifetimes. A calculation of the spin diffusion coefficient is presented in comparison to the experimental findings. Upon choosing a proper value of F0a, I am able to present a good match between the theoretical result and the experimental measurement, which indicates the presence of the superfluid fluctuations near Tc. Calculations of the viscosity, the viscosity/entropy ratio and the thermal conductivity are also shown in support of the appearance of the superfluid fluctuations. In chapter III, I study the spin transport in the low

  13. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FIRST SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), during the first 11 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. The First Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) contains 1451 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range. Source detection was based on the average flux over the 11 month period, and the threshold likelihood Test Statistic is 25, corresponding to a significance of just over 4σ. The 1FGL catalog includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and power-law spectral fits as well as flux measurements in five energy bands for each source. In addition, monthly light curves are provided. Using a protocol defined before launch we have tested for several populations of gamma-ray sources among the sources in the catalog. For individual LAT-detected sources we provide firm identifications or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. Identifications are based on correlated variability with counterparts at other wavelengths, or on spin or orbital periodicity. For the catalogs and association criteria that we have selected, 630 of the sources are unassociated. Care was taken to characterize the sensitivity of the results to the model of interstellar diffuse gamma-ray emission used to model the bright foreground, with the result that 161 sources at low Galactic latitudes and toward bright local interstellar clouds are flagged as having properties that are strongly dependent on the model or as potentially being due to incorrectly modeled structure in the Galactic diffuse emission.

  14. Evolution of electron Fermi surface with doping in cobaltates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xixiao; Lan, Yu; Qin, Ling; Kuang, Lülin; Feng, Shiping

    2016-08-24

    The notion of the electron Fermi surface is one of the characteristic concepts in the field of condensed matter physics, and it plays a crucial role in the understanding of the physical properties of doped Mott insulators. Based on the t-J model, we study the nature of the electron Fermi surface in the cobaltates, and qualitatively reproduce the essential feature of the evolution of the electron Fermi surface with doping. It is shown that the underlying hexagonal electron Fermi surface obeys Luttinger's theorem. The theory also predicts a Fermi-arc phenomenon at the low-doped regime, where the region of the hexagonal electron Fermi surface along the [Formula: see text]-K direction is suppressed by the electron self-energy, and then six disconnected Fermi arcs located at the region of the hexagonal electron Fermi surface along the [Formula: see text]-M direction emerge. However, this Fermi-arc phenomenon at the low-doped regime weakens with the increase of doping. PMID:27351111

  15. Evolution of electron Fermi surface with doping in cobaltates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xixiao; Lan, Yu; Qin, Ling; Kuang, Lülin; Feng, Shiping

    2016-08-01

    The notion of the electron Fermi surface is one of the characteristic concepts in the field of condensed matter physics, and it plays a crucial role in the understanding of the physical properties of doped Mott insulators. Based on the t-J model, we study the nature of the electron Fermi surface in the cobaltates, and qualitatively reproduce the essential feature of the evolution of the electron Fermi surface with doping. It is shown that the underlying hexagonal electron Fermi surface obeys Luttinger’s theorem. The theory also predicts a Fermi-arc phenomenon at the low-doped regime, where the region of the hexagonal electron Fermi surface along the Γ -K direction is suppressed by the electron self-energy, and then six disconnected Fermi arcs located at the region of the hexagonal electron Fermi surface along the Γ -M direction emerge. However, this Fermi-arc phenomenon at the low-doped regime weakens with the increase of doping.

  16. -Rays Radiation of High Redshift Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W. G. Liu; S. H. Fu; X. Zhang; L. Ma; Y. B. Li; D. R. Xiong

    2014-09-01

    Based on the 31 high redshift ( > 2) Flat Spectral Radio Quasars (FSRQs), which is from the second Fermi-LAT AGNs catalogue (2LAC), we studied the correlation between flux densities (R, K, ) in the radio, infrared and -ray wave bands. We found that there is a significant positive correlation between and R, and a weak anticorrelation between and K in the average state. For high redshift blazars, we argue that the seed photon of -ray emission mainly comes from the jet itself and partially from the dusty torus.

  17. The Mirage of the Fermi Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antipin, Oleg; Sannino, Francesco; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of a light Higgs boson at LHC may be suggesting that we need to revise our model building paradigms to understand the origin of the weak scale. We explore the possibility that the Fermi scale is not fundamental but rather a derived one, i.e. a low energy mirage. We show that this sc......\\sim 10^{10}$ GeV and the other around $M_{\\rm U} \\sim 10^{16}$ GeV, although other values are also possible....

  18. Itinerant Ferromagnetism in Ultracold Fermi Gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    . Thermodynamic functions and observables such as the compressibility and spin susceptibility and the resulting fluctuations in number and spin are calculated. For trapped gases the resulting cloud radii and kinetic energies are calculated and compared to recent experiments. Spin polarized systems are recommended......Itinerant ferromagnetism in cold Fermi gases with repulsive interactions is studied applying the Jastrow-Slater approximation generalized to finite polarization and temperature. For two components at zero temperature a second order transition is found at akF ≃ 0.90 compatible with QMC...

  19. Linac Upgrades for FERMI@ELETTRA

    CERN Document Server

    D'Auria, G; Craievich, P; De Ninno, G; Di Mitri, S; Ferianis, M; Pangon, G; Rumiz, R L; Tosi, T L; Zangrando, D

    2004-01-01

    To fulfill the stringent requirements expected from the FERMI project, the existing Linac needs some modifications in the layout and an upgrading of the present plants. Moreover, for the next two years, until the new injection system (now under construction) is fully commissioned, the Linac has to be kept in operation as injector for the ELETTRA Storage Ring. Therefore most of the planned activities have to be carried out without interfering with the normal operation of the machine. Details on the new Linac layout and related activities are discussed.

  20. Quasicondensation in Two-Dimensional Fermi Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-Te; Anderson, Brandon M; Boyack, Rufus; Levin, K

    2015-12-11

    In this paper we follow the analysis and protocols of recent experiments, combined with simple theory, to arrive at a physical understanding of quasi-condensation in two dimensional Fermi gases. A key signature of quasi-condensation, which contains aspects of Berezinskiĭ-Kosterlitz-Thouless behavior, is a strong zero momentum peak in the pair momentum distribution. Importantly, this peak emerges at a reasonably well defined onset temperature. The resulting phase diagram, pair momentum distribution, and algebraic power law decay are compatible with recent experiments throughout the continuum from BEC to BCS. PMID:26705613

  1. Atomic Fermi-Bose Mixtures in Inhomogeneous and Random Lattices: From Fermi Glass to Quantum Spin Glass and Quantum Percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpera, A.; Kantian, A.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Zakrzewski, J.; Lewenstein, M.

    2004-07-01

    We investigate strongly interacting atomic Fermi-Bose mixtures in inhomogeneous and random optical lattices. We derive an effective Hamiltonian for the system and discuss its low temperature physics. We demonstrate the possibility of controlling the interactions at local level in inhomogeneous but regular lattices. Such a control leads to the achievement of Fermi glass, quantum Fermi spin-glass, and quantum percolation regimes involving bare and/or composite fermions in random lattices.

  2. Evidence of Fermi bubbles around M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshirkov, M. S.; Vasiliev, V. V.; Postnov, K. A.

    2016-06-01

    Gamma-ray haloes can exist around galaxies due to the interaction of escaping galactic cosmic rays with the surrounding gas. We have searched for such a halo around the nearby giant spiral Andromeda galaxy M31 using almost 7 yr of Fermi LAT data at energies above 300 MeV. The presence of a diffuse gamma-ray halo with total photon flux 2.6 ± 0.6 × 10-9 cm-2 s-1, corresponding to a luminosity (0.3-100 GeV) of (3.2 ± 0.6) × 1038 erg s-1 (for a distance of 780 kpc) was found at a 5.3σ confidence level. The halo form does not correspond to the extended baryonic H I disc of M31, as would be expected in hadronic production of gamma photons from cosmic ray interaction, nor it is spherically symmetric, as could be in the case of dark matter annihilation. The best-fitting halo template corresponds to two 6-7.5 kpc bubbles symmetrically located perpendicular to the M31 galactic disc, similar to the `Fermi bubbles' found around the Milky Way centre, which suggests the past activity of the central supermassive black hole or a star formation burst in M31.

  3. Pulsar Candidates Toward Fermi Unassociated Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Frail, D A; Jagannathan, P; Intema, H T

    2016-01-01

    We report on a search for steep spectrum radio sources within the 95% confidence error ellipses of the Fermi unassociated sources from the Large Array Telescope (LAT). Using existing catalogs and the newly released GMRT all-sky survey at 150 MHz we identify compact radio sources that are bright at MHz frequencies but faint or absent at GHz frequencies. Such steep spectrum radio sources are rare and constitute a sample of pulsar candidates, selected independently of period, dispersion measure, interstellar scattering and orbital parameters. We find point-like, steep spectrum candidates toward 11 Fermi sources. Based on the gamma-ray/radio positional coincidence, the rarity of such radio sources, and the properties of the 3FGL sources themselves, we argue that many of these sources could be pulsars. They may have been missed by previous radio periodicity searches due to interstellar propagation effects or because they lie in an unusually tight binary. If this hypothesis is correct, then renewed gamma-ray and ra...

  4. Spiraling Fermi arcs in Weyl materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songci; Andreev, Anton

    In Weyl materials the valence and conduction electron bands touch at an even number of isolated points in the Brillouin zone. In the vicinity of these points the electron dispersion is linear and may be described by the massless Dirac equation. This results in nontrivial topology of Berry connection curvature. One of its consequences is the existence of peculiar surface electron states whose Fermi surfaces form arcs connecting projections of the Weyl points onto the surface plane. Band bending near the boundary of the crystal also produces surface states. We show that in Weyl materials band bending near the crystal surface gives rise to spiral structure of energy surfaces of arc states. The corresponding Fermi surface has the shape of a spiral that winds about the projection of the Weyl point onto the surface plane. The direction of the winding is determined by the helicity of the Weyl point and the sign of the band bending potential. For close valleys arc state morphology may be understood in terms of avoided crossing of oppositely winding spirals. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-FG02-07ER46452.

  5. Fermi's Paradox - The Last Challenge For Copernicanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirkovic, M. M.

    2009-06-01

    We review Fermi's paradox (or the "Great Silence" problem), not only arguably the oldest and crucial problem for the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI), but also a conundrum of profound scientific, philosophical and cultural importance. By a simple analysis of observation selection effects, the correct resolution of Fermi's paradox is certain to tell us something about the future of humanity. Already more than three quarters of century old puzzle -- and a quarter of century since the last major review paper in the field by G. David Brin -- has generated many ingenious discussions and hypotheses. We analyze the often tacit methodological assumptions built in various answers to this puzzle and attempt a new classification of the numerous solutions proposed in an already huge literature on the subject. Finally, we consider the ramifications of various classes of hypotheses for the practical SETI projects. Somewhat paradoxically, it seems that the class of (neo)catastrophic hypotheses gives, on the balance, the strongest justification to optimism regarding our current and near-future SETI efforts.

  6. FERMI/LAT OBSERVATIONS OF LS 5039

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first results from observations of the high-mass X-ray binary LS 5039 using the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope data between 2008 August and 2009 June are presented. Our results indicate variability that is consistent with the binary period, with the emission being modulated with a period of 3.903 ± 0.005 days; the first detection of this modulation at GeV energies. The light curve is characterized by a broad peak around superior conjunction in agreement with inverse Compton scattering models. The spectrum is represented by a power law with an exponential cutoff, yielding an overall flux (100 MeV-300 GeV) of 4.9 ± 0.5(stat) ± 1.8(syst) x10-7 photon cm-2 s-1, with a cutoff at 2.1 ± 0.3(stat) ± 1.1(syst) GeV and photon index Γ = 1.9 ± 0.1(stat) ± 0.3(syst). The spectrum is observed to vary with orbital phase, specifically between inferior and superior conjunction. We suggest that the presence of a cutoff in the spectrum may be indicative of magnetospheric emission similar to the emission seen in many pulsars by Fermi.

  7. Fermi LAT Observations of LS 5039

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A.A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Federal City Coll.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Blandford, R.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /Padua U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /Milan Polytechnic /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard /CSST, Baltimore /DAPNIA, Saclay /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /DAPNIA, Saclay /NASA, Goddard /CSST, Baltimore /SLAC /ASDC, Frascati /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Grenoble Observ. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U.; /more authors..

    2012-03-29

    The first results from observations of the high-mass X-ray binary LS 5039 using the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope data between 2008 August and 2009 June are presented. Our results indicate variability that is consistent with the binary period, with the emission being modulated with a period of 3.903 {+-} 0.005 days; the first detection of this modulation at GeV energies. The light curve is characterized by a broad peak around superior conjunction in agreement with inverse Compton scattering models. The spectrum is represented by a power law with an exponential cutoff, yielding an overall flux (100 MeV-300 GeV) of 4.9 {+-} 0.5(stat) {+-} 1.8(syst) x 10{sup -7} photon cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, with a cutoff at 2.1 {+-} 0.3(stat) {+-} 1.1(syst) GeV and photon index {Gamma} = 1.9 {+-} 0.1(stat) {+-} 0.3(syst). The spectrum is observed to vary with orbital phase, specifically between inferior and superior conjunction. We suggest that the presence of a cutoff in the spectrum may be indicative of magnetospheric emission similar to the emission seen in many pulsars by Fermi.

  8. Fermi LAT observations of the Geminga pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Abdo, A A

    2010-01-01

    We report on the \\textit{Fermi}-LAT observations of the Geminga pulsar, the second brightest non-variable GeV source in the $\\gamma$-ray sky and the first example of a radio-quiet $\\gamma$-ray pulsar. The observations cover one year, from the launch of the $Fermi$ satellite through 2009 June 15. A data sample of over 60,000 photons enabled us to build a timing solution based solely on $\\gamma$ rays. Timing analysis shows two prominent peaks, separated by $\\Delta \\phi$ = 0.497 $\\pm$ 0.004 in phase, which narrow with increasing energy. Pulsed $\\gamma$ rays are observed beyond 18 GeV, precluding emission below 2.7 stellar radii because of magnetic absorption. The phase-averaged spectrum was fitted with a power law with exponential cut-off of spectral index $\\Gamma$ = (1.30 $\\pm$ 0.01 $\\pm$ 0.04), cut-off energy $E_{0}$ = (2.46 $\\pm$ 0.04 $\\pm$ 0.17) GeV and an integral photon flux above 0.1 GeV of (4.14 $\\pm$ 0.02 $\\pm$ 0.32) $\\times$ 10$^{-6}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. The first uncertainties are statistical and the ...

  9. Fermi Liquid Instabilities in the Spin Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Congjun; /Santa Barbara, KITP; Sun, Kai; Fradkin, Eduardo; /Illinois U., Urbana; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-16

    We study the Fermi surface instabilities of the Pomeranchuk type in the spin triplet channel with high orbital partial waves (F{sub l}{sup a} (l > 0)). The ordered phases are classified into two classes, dubbed the {alpha} and {beta}-phases by analogy to the superfluid {sup 3}He-A and B-phases. The Fermi surfaces in the {alpha}-phases exhibit spontaneous anisotropic distortions, while those in the {beta}-phases remain circular or spherical with topologically non-trivial spin configurations in momentum space. In the {alpha}-phase, the Goldstone modes in the density channel exhibit anisotropic overdamping. The Goldstone modes in the spin channel have nearly isotropic underdamped dispersion relation at small propagating wavevectors. Due to the coupling to the Goldstone modes, the spin wave spectrum develops resonance peaks in both the {alpha} and {beta}-phases, which can be detected in inelastic neutron scattering experiments. In the p-wave channel {beta}-phase, a chiral ground state inhomogeneity is spontaneously generated due to a Lifshitz-like instability in the originally nonchiral systems. Possible experiments to detect these phases are discussed.

  10. Lasing in Bose-Fermi mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochereshko, Vladimir P.; Durnev, Mikhail V.; Besombes, Lucien; Mariette, Henri; Sapega, Victor F.; Askitopoulos, Alexis; Savenko, Ivan G.; Liew, Timothy C. H.; Shelykh, Ivan A.; Platonov, Alexey V.; Tsintzos, Simeon I.; Hatzopoulos, Z.; Savvidis, Pavlos G.; Kalevich, Vladimir K.; Afanasiev, Mikhail M.; Lukoshkin, Vladimir A.; Schneider, Christian; Amthor, Matthias; Metzger, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Hoefling, Sven; Lagoudakis, Pavlos; Kavokin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, well-known for revolutionising photonic science, has been realised primarily in fermionic systems including widely applied diode lasers. The prerequisite for fermionic lasing is the inversion of electronic population, which governs the lasing threshold. More recently, bosonic lasers have also been developed based on Bose-Einstein condensates of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. These electrically neutral bosons coexist with charged electrons and holes. In the presence of magnetic fields, the charged particles are bound to their cyclotron orbits, while the neutral exciton-polaritons move freely. We demonstrate how magnetic fields affect dramatically the phase diagram of mixed Bose-Fermi systems, switching between fermionic lasing, incoherent emission and bosonic lasing regimes in planar and pillar microcavities with optical and electrical pumping. We collected and analyzed the data taken on pillar and planar microcavity structures at continuous wave and pulsed optical excitation as well as injecting electrons and holes electronically. Our results evidence the transition from a Bose gas to a Fermi liquid mediated by magnetic fields and light-matter coupling.

  11. Lasing in Bose-Fermi mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochereshko, Vladimir P.; Durnev, Mikhail V.; Besombes, Lucien; Mariette, Henri; Sapega, Victor F.; Askitopoulos, Alexis; Savenko, Ivan G.; Liew, Timothy C. H.; Shelykh, Ivan A.; Platonov, Alexey V.; Tsintzos, Simeon I.; Hatzopoulos, Z.; Savvidis, Pavlos G.; Kalevich, Vladimir K.; Afanasiev, Mikhail M.; Lukoshkin, Vladimir A.; Schneider, Christian; Amthor, Matthias; Metzger, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Hoefling, Sven; Lagoudakis, Pavlos; Kavokin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, well-known for revolutionising photonic science, has been realised primarily in fermionic systems including widely applied diode lasers. The prerequisite for fermionic lasing is the inversion of electronic population, which governs the lasing threshold. More recently, bosonic lasers have also been developed based on Bose-Einstein condensates of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. These electrically neutral bosons coexist with charged electrons and holes. In the presence of magnetic fields, the charged particles are bound to their cyclotron orbits, while the neutral exciton-polaritons move freely. We demonstrate how magnetic fields affect dramatically the phase diagram of mixed Bose-Fermi systems, switching between fermionic lasing, incoherent emission and bosonic lasing regimes in planar and pillar microcavities with optical and electrical pumping. We collected and analyzed the data taken on pillar and planar microcavity structures at continuous wave and pulsed optical excitation as well as injecting electrons and holes electronically. Our results evidence the transition from a Bose gas to a Fermi liquid mediated by magnetic fields and light-matter coupling. PMID:26822483

  12. Parity effect in a mesoscopic Fermi gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes; Lobos, Alejandro M.; Galitski, Victor

    2016-06-01

    We develop a quantitative analytic theory that accurately describes the odd-even effect observed experimentally in a one-dimensional, trapped Fermi gas with a small number of particles [G. Zürn et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 175302 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.175302]. We find that the underlying physics is similar to the parity effect known to exist in ultrasmall mesoscopic superconducting grains and atomic nuclei. However, in contrast to superconducting nanograins, the density (Hartree) correction dominates over the superconducting pairing fluctuations and leads to a much more pronounced odd-even effect in the mesoscopic, trapped Fermi gas. We calculate the corresponding parity parameter and separation energy using both perturbation theory and a path integral framework in the mesoscopic limit, generalized to account for the effects of the trap, pairing fluctuations, and Hartree corrections. Our results are in an excellent quantitative agreement with experimental data and exact diagonalization. Finally, we discuss a few-particle to many-particle crossover between the perturbative mesoscopic regime and nonperturbative many-body physics that the system approaches in the thermodynamic limit.

  13. Fermi's Paradox - The Last Challenge For Copernicanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković, M. M.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We review Fermi's paradox (or the "Great Silence" problem, not only arguably the oldest and crucial problem for the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI, but also a conundrum of profound scientific, philosophical and cultural importance. By a simple analysis of observation selection effects, the correct resolution of Fermi's paradox is certain to tell us something about the future of humanity. Already more than three quarters of century old puzzle -- and a quarter of century since the last major review paper in the field by G. David Brin -- has generated many ingenious discussions and hypotheses. We analyze the often tacit methodological assumptions built in various answers to this puzzle and attempt a new classification of the numerous solutions proposed in an already huge literatureon the subject. Finally, we consider the ramifications of variousclasses of hypotheses for the practical SETI projects. Somewhatparadoxically, it seems that the class of (neocatastrophichypotheses gives, on the balance, the strongest justification tooptimism regarding our current and near-future SETI efforts.

  14. Fermi Large Area Telescope Third Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    We present the third Fermi Large Area Telescope source catalog (3FGL) of sources in the 100~MeV--300~GeV range. Based on the first four years of science data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission, it is the deepest yet in this energy range. Relative to the 2FGL catalog, the 3FGL catalog incorporates twice as much data as well as a number of analysis improvements, including improved calibrations at the event reconstruction level, an updated model for Galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, a refined procedure for source detection, and improved methods for associating LAT sources with potential counterparts at other wavelengths. The 3FGL catalog includes 3033 sources above 4 sigma significance, with source location regions, spectral properties, and monthly light curves for each. Of these, 78 are flagged as potentially being due to imperfections in the model for Galactic diffuse emission. Twenty-five sources are modeled explicitly as spatially extended, and overall 232 sources are considered as identifie...

  15. Evidence of Fermi bubbles around M31

    CERN Document Server

    Pshirkov, M S; Postnov, K A

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray haloes can exist around galaxies due to the interaction of escaping galactic cosmic rays with the surrounding gas. We have searched for such a halo around the nearby giant spiral Andromeda galaxy M31 using almost 7 years of Fermi LAT data at energies above 300 MeV. The presence of a diffuse gamma-ray halo with total photon flux $2.6\\pm 0.6\\times 10^{-9}$ cm$^{-2}$~s$^{-1}$, corresponding to a luminosity (0.3-100 GeV) of $(3.2\\pm 0.6)\\times 10^{38}$ erg s$^{-1}$ (for a distance of 780~kpc) was found at a 5.3$\\sigma$ confidence level. The halo form does not correspond to the extended baryonic HI disc of M31, as would be expected in hadronic production of gamma photons from cosmic ray interaction, nor it is spherically symmetric, as could be in the case of dark matter annihilation. The best-fit halo template corresponds to two 6-7.5 kpc bubbles symmetrically located perpendicular to the M31 galactic disc, similar to the 'Fermi bubbles' found around the Milky Way centre, which suggests the past activity...

  16. Orientifolding of the ABJ Fermi gas

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    The grand partition functions of ABJ theory can be factorized into even and odd parts under the reflection of fermion coordinate in the Fermi gas approach. In some cases, the even/odd part of ABJ grand partition function is equal to that of $\\mathcal{N}=5$ $O(n)\\times USp(n')$ theory, hence it is natural to think of the even/odd projection of grand partition function as an orientifolding of ABJ Fermi gas system. By a systematic WKB analysis, we determine the coefficients in the perturbative part of grand potential of such orientifold ABJ theory. We also find the exact form of the first few "half-instanton" corrections coming from the twisted sector of the reflection of fermion coordinate. For the Chern-Simons level $k=2,4,8$ we find closed form expressions of the grand partition functions of orientifold ABJ theory, and for $k=2,4$ we prove the functional relations among the grand partition functions conjectured in arXiv:1410.7658.

  17. Pole-Based Approximation of the Fermi-Dirac Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LIN; Jianfeng LU; Lexing YING; Weinan E

    2009-01-01

    Two approaches for the efficient rational approximation of the Fermi-Dirac function are discussed: one uses the contour integral representation and conformal map-ping, and the other is based on a version of the multipole representation of the Fermi-Dirac function that uses only simple poles. Both representations have logarithmic computational complexity. They are of great interest for electronic structure calculations.

  18. Tan's distributions and Fermi-Huang pseudopotential in momentum space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valiente, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    form of the Fourier-transformed pseudopotential remains very simple. Operator forms for the so-called Tan's selectors, which, together with Fermi-Huang pseudopotential, largely simplify the derivation of Tan's universal relations for the Fermi gas, are here derived and are also very simple. A momentum...

  19. Fermi-Dirac statistics and the number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kubasiak, A; Zakrzewski, J; Lewenstein, M

    2005-01-01

    We relate the Fermi-Dirac statistics of an ideal Fermi gas in a harmonic trap to partitions of given integers into distinct parts, studied in number theory. Using methods of quantum statistical physics we derive analytic expressions for cumulants of the probability distribution of the number of different partitions.

  20. Changing Horses in Midstream: Fermi LAT Computing and SCons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, J. R.; Golpayegani, N.

    2011-07-01

    (For the Fermi LAT Collaboration) Several years into GLAST (now Fermi) offline software development it became evident we would need a replacement for our original build system, the Configuration Management Tool (CMT) developed at CERN, in order to support Mac users and to keep pace with newer compilers and operating system versions on our traditional platforms, Linux and Windows. The open source product SCons emerged as the only viable alternative and development began in earnest several months before Fermi's successful launch in June of 2008. Over two years later the conversion is nearing completion. This paper describes the conversion to and our use of SCons, concentrating on the resulting environment for users and developers and how it was achieved. Topics discussed include SCons and its interaction with Fermi code, GoGui, a cross-platform gui for Fermi developers, and issues specific to Windows developer support.

  1. Holographic non-Fermi liquid fixed points

    CERN Document Server

    Faulkner, Thomas; Liu, Hong; McGreevy, John; Vegh, David

    2011-01-01

    Techniques arising from string theory can be used to study assemblies of strongly-interacting fermions. Via this `holographic duality', various strongly-coupled many body systems are solved using an auxiliary theory of gravity. Simple holographic realizations of finite density exhibit single-particle spectral functions with sharp Fermi surfaces, of a form distinct from those of the Landau theory. The self-energy is given by a correlation function in an infrared fixed point theory which is represented by an AdS_2 region in the dual gravitational description. Here we describe in detail the gravity calculation of this IR correlation function. This article is a contribution to a special issue of Phil. Trans. A on the normal state of the cuprates; as such, we also provide some review and context.

  2. Distinguishing short and long Fermi GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Tarnopolski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Two classes of GRBs, short and long, have been determined without any doubts, and are usually ascribed to different progenitors, yet these classes overlap for a variety of descriptive parameters. A subsample of 46 long and 22 short $Fermi$ GRBs with estimated Hurst Exponents (HEs), complemented by minimum variability time-scales (MVTS) and durations ($T_{90}$) is used to perform a supervised Machine Learning (ML) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. It is found that while $T_{90}$ itself performs very well in distinguishing short and long GRBs, the overall success ratio is higher when the training set is complemented by MVTS and HE. These results may allow to introduce a new (non-linear) parameter that might provide less ambiguous classification of GRBs.

  3. Fermi matrix element with isospin breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Guichon, P A M; Saito, K

    2011-01-01

    Prompted by the level of accuracy now being achieved in tests of the unitarity of the CKM matrix, we consider the possible modification of the Fermi matrix element for the $\\beta$-decay of a neutron, including possible in-medium and isospin violating corrections. While the nuclear modifications lead to very small corrections once the Behrends-Sirlin-Ademollo-Gatto theorem is respected, the effect of the $u-d$ mass difference on the conclusion concerning $V_{ud}$ is no longer insignificant. Indeed, we suggest that the correction to the value of $|V_{ud}|^2 \\, + \\, |V_{us}|^2 \\, + \\, |V_{ub}|^2$ is at the level of $10^{-4}$.

  4. Fermi matrix element with isospin breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guichon, P.A.M., E-mail: anthony.thomas@adelaide.edu.a [SPhN-IRFU, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Thomas, A.W. [CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Saito, K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641, Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan)

    2011-02-14

    Prompted by the level of accuracy now being achieved in tests of the unitarity of the CKM matrix, we consider the possible modification of the Fermi matrix element for the {beta}-decay of a neutron, including possible in-medium and isospin violating corrections. While the nuclear modifications lead to very small corrections once the Behrends-Sirlin-Ademollo-Gatto theorem is respected, the effect of the u-d mass difference on the conclusion concerning V{sub ud} is no longer insignificant. Indeed, we suggest that the correction to the value of |V{sub ud}|{sup 2}+|V{sub us}|{sup 2}+|V{sub ub}|{sup 2} is at the level of 10{sup -4}.

  5. Entanglement rules for holographic Fermi surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibakar Roychowdhury

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on the notion of Gauge/Gravity duality, we explore the laws of entanglement thermodynamics for most generic classes of Quantum Field Theories with hyperscaling violation. In our analysis, we note that for Quantum Field Theories with compressible quark like excitation, the first law of entanglement thermodynamics gets modified due to the presence of an additional term that could be identified as the entanglement chemical potential associated with hidden Fermi surfaces of the boundary theory. Most notably, we find that the so called entanglement chemical potential does not depend on the size of the entangling region and is purely determined by the quark d.o.f. encoded within the entangling region.

  6. Imaging Redshift Estimates for Fermi BL Lacs

    CERN Document Server

    Stadnik, Matt

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained WIYN and SOAR i' images of BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and used these to detect or constrain the flux of the host galaxy. Under common standard candle assumptions these data provide estimates of, or lower bounds on, the redshift. Our targets are a set of flat-spectrum radio counterparts of high flux Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) sources, with sensitive spectral observations showing them to be continuum-dominated BL Lacs. In this sample 5 of 11 BL Lacs yielded significant host detections, with standard candle redshifts z=0.13-0.58. Our estimates and lower bounds are generally in agreement with other redshifts estimates, although our z=0.374 estimate for J0543-5532 implies a significantly sub-luminous host.

  7. Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hen, O; Weinstein, L B; Piasetzky, E; Hakobyan, H; Higinbotham, D W; Braverman, M; Brooks, W K; Gilad, S; Adhikari, K P; Arrington, J; Asryan, G; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Beck, A; Beck, S May-Tal; Bedlinskiy, I; Bertozzi, W; Biselli, A; Burkert, V D; Cao, T; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Colaneri, L; Cole, P L; Crede, V; DAngelo, A; De Vita, R; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dugger, M; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; Alaoui, A El; Fassi, L El; Elouadrhiri, L; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Forest, T; Garillon, B; Garcon, M; Gevorgyan, N; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hanretty, C; Hattawy, M; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkanov, B I; Isupov, E L; Jiang, H; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Korover, I; Kuhn, S E; Kubarovsky, V; Lenisa, P; Levine, W I; Livingston, K; Lowry, M; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Mineeva, T; Mokeev, V; Movsisyan, A; Camacho, C Munoz; Mustapha, B; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Pappalardo, L L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Phelps, W; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rizzo, A; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Roy, P; Sabatie, F; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Sharabian, Y G; Smith, G D; Shneor, R; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Taiuti, M; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vlassov, A V; Voutier, E; Watts, D; Walford, N K; Wei, X; Wood, M H; Wood, S A; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Zhao, Z W; Zheng, X; Zonta, I

    2014-01-01

    The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions, protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron scattering measurements using 12C, 27Al, 56Fe and 208Pb targets show that, even in heavy neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few body systems to neutron stars and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin state, ultra-cold atomic gas systems.

  8. Entanglement rules for holographic Fermi surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychowdhury, Dibakar

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, based on the notion of Gauge/Gravity duality, we explore the laws of entanglement thermodynamics for most generic classes of Quantum Field Theories with hyperscaling violation. In our analysis, we note that for Quantum Field Theories with compressible quark like excitation, the first law of entanglement thermodynamics gets modified due to the presence of an additional term that could be identified as the entanglement chemical potential associated with hidden Fermi surfaces of the boundary theory. Most notably, we find that the so called entanglement chemical potential does not depend on the size of the entangling region and is purely determined by the quark d.o.f. encoded within the entangling region.

  9. Holographic superconductors with hidden Fermi surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, ZhongYing

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a holographic model of superconductor with hidden Fermi surfaces, which was defined by the logarithmic violation of area law of entanglement entropy. We works in fully back-reacted background using standard Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton action with additional complex scalar filed which was charged under the Maxwell field. Particularly, we analyze the behavior of entanglement entropy during the phase transition. At the critical point, the finite part of the entanglement entropy has a discontinuity of slope and tends to a lower value in the superconducting phase all the way down to the zero temperature limit, indicating the reorganization of degrees of freedom of the system across the phase transition.

  10. Klein factors and Fermi-Bose Equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Taejin

    2015-01-01

    Generalizing the kink operator of the Heisenberg spin 1/2 model, we construct a set of Klein factors explicitly such that $(1+1)$ dimensional fermion theories with arbitrary number of species are mapped onto the corresponding boson theories with the same number of species and vice versa. The actions for the resultant theories do not possess any nontrivial Klein factor. With this set of Klein factors, we are also able to map the simple boundary states such as the Neumann and the Dirichlet boundary states, of the fermion (boson) theory onto those of the boson (fermion) theory. Applications of the Fermi-Bose equivalence with the constructed Klein factors to well-known $(1+1)$ dimensional theories have been discussed.

  11. Klein factors and Fermi-Bose equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taejin

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the kink operator of the Heisenberg spin 1/2 model, we construct a set of Klein factors explicitly such that (1+1)-dimensional fermion theories with an arbitrary number of species are mapped onto the corresponding boson theories with the same number of species and vice versa. The actions for the resultant theories do not possess a nontrivial Klein factor. With this set of Klein factors, we are also able to map the simple boundary states, such as the Neumann and the Dirichlet boundary states, of the fermion (boson) theory onto those of the boson (fermion) theory. Applications of the Fermi-Bose equivalence with the constructed Klein factors to well-known (1+1)-dimensional theories have been discussed.

  12. Crossover between Fermi Liquid and non-Fermi Liquid in Orbitally Degenerate Kondo Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kusunose, Hiroaki; Kuramoto, Yoshio

    1999-01-01

    Entanglement of spin and orbital Kondo effect is investigated on the basis of a Kondo-type exchange model with twofold orbital degeneracy. By using Wilson's numerical renormalization-group method, we examine dynamical and thermal properties respecting the difference in time-reversal property of multipole operators. In the presence of particle-hole symmetry, the model has a new non-Fermi-liquid fixed point with a fractional entropy. The spectral intensity of the quadrupole susceptibility diver...

  13. Spin Texture in Type-II Weyl Semimetal WTe2

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Baojie; Chan, Yang-hao; Feng, Ya; Liu, Ro-Ya; Chou, Mei-Yin; Kuroda, Kenta; Yaji, Koichiro; Harasawa, Ayumi; Moras, Paolo; Barinov, Alexei; Malaeb, Walid G.; Bareille, Cedric; Kondo, Takeshi; Shin, Shik; Komori, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    We determine the band structure and spin texture of WTe2 by spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (SARPES). With the support of first-principles calculations, we reveal the non-trivial spin texture of both the Fermi arc surface states and bulk Fermi pockets. Our results validate WTe2 as a type-II Weyl semimetal in a direct way and provide crucial information to understand the extremely large and non-saturating magnetoresistance.

  14. Attractive and repulsive Fermi polarons in two dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschorreck, Marco; Pertot, Daniel; Vogt, Enrico; Fröhlich, Bernd; Feld, Michael; Köhl, Michael

    2012-05-31

    The dynamics of a single impurity in an environment is a fundamental problem in many-body physics. In the solid state, a well known case is an impurity coupled to a bosonic bath (such as lattice vibrations); the impurity and its accompanying lattice distortion form a new entity, a polaron. This quasiparticle plays an important role in the spectral function of high-transition-temperature superconductors, as well as in colossal magnetoresistance in manganites. For impurities in a fermionic bath, studies have considered heavy or immobile impurities which exhibit Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe and the Kondo effect. More recently, mobile impurities have moved into the focus of research, and they have been found to form new quasiparticles known as Fermi polarons. The Fermi polaron problem constitutes the extreme, but conceptually simple, limit of two important quantum many-body problems: the crossover between a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate and a superfluid with BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) pairing with spin-imbalance for attractive interactions, and Stoner's itinerant ferromagnetism for repulsive interactions. It has been proposed that such quantum phases (and other elusive exotic states) might become realizable in Fermi gases confined to two dimensions. Their stability and observability are intimately related to the theoretically debated properties of the Fermi polaron in a two-dimensional Fermi gas. Here we create and investigate Fermi polarons in a two-dimensional, spin-imbalanced Fermi gas, measuring their spectral function using momentum-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. For attractive interactions, we find evidence for a disputed pairing transition between polarons and tightly bound dimers, which provides insight into the elementary pairing mechanism of imbalanced, strongly coupled two-dimensional Fermi gases. Additionally, for repulsive interactions, we study novel quasiparticles--repulsive polarons--the lifetime of which determines the

  15. Neutron physics for nuclear reactors unpublished writings by Enrico Fermi

    CERN Document Server

    Fermi, Enrico; Pisanti, O

    2010-01-01

    This unique volume gives an accurate and very detailed description of the functioning and operation of basic nuclear reactors, as emerging from yet unpublished papers by Nobel Laureate Enrico Fermi. In the first part, the entire course of lectures on Neutron Physics delivered by Fermi at Los Alamos is reported, according to the version made by Anthony P French. Here, the fundamental physical phenomena are described very clearly and comprehensively, giving the appropriate physics grounds for the functioning of nuclear piles. In the second part, all the patents issued by Fermi (and coworkers) on

  16. Fermi LAT View of a Sample of Flaring -Ray AGNs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Buson; D. Bastieri; F. D’Ammando; G. Tosti

    2014-09-01

    In the first 3.5 years of operations, Fermi detected several sources whose flaring activity brought them to exceed daily fluxes brighter than ( > 100MeV) > 10-6 ph cm-2 s-1. These episodes were promptly reported to the scientific community by the Fermi collaboration by means of astronomer telegrams (ATels). We focus our attention on the sample composed by these flaring sources, most of which are blazars, known to be extremely variable over the whole electromagnetic spectrum, from radio to -ray energies. We study properties of the selected sample and compare them to general characteristics of the Fermi source catalogue.

  17. Physics of ultracold Fermi gases revealed by spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törmä, Päivi

    2016-04-01

    This article provides a brief review of how various spectroscopies have been used to investitage many-body quantum phenomena in the context of ultracold Fermi gases. In particular, work done with RF spectroscopy, Bragg spectroscopy and lattice modulation spectroscopy is considered. The theoretical basis of these spectroscopies, namely linear response theory in the many-body quantum physics context is briefly presented. Experiments related to the BCS-BEC crossover, imbalanced Fermi gases, polarons, possible pseudogap and Fermi liquid behaviour and measuring the contact are discussed. Remaining open problems and goals in the field are sketched from the perspective how spectroscopies could contribute.

  18. The Fermi-GBM X-ray burst monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, M.; Fermi GBM X-ray Burst Collaboration

    2010-12-01

    We discuss the first results of the Fermi-GBM all-sky search for X-ray bursts. The very large field of view and X-ray response of the Fermi-GBM make it a unique instrument to study rare, bright and short-lived X-ray bursts. We are performing a systematic search that exploits such capabilities. We present results on long/intermediate type I X-ray bursts, an unusual kind of thermonuclear bursts from accreting neutron stars, and show how Fermi-GBM is giving for the first time robust measurements of their recurrence time.

  19. X.509 Authentication/Authorization in FermiCloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunwoo [Fermilab; Timm, Steven [Fermilab

    2014-11-11

    We present a summary of how X.509 authentication and authorization are used with OpenNebula in FermiCloud. We also describe a history of why the X.509 authentication was needed in FermiCloud, and review X.509 authorization options, both internal and external to OpenNebula. We show how these options can be and have been used to successfully run scientific workflows on federated clouds, which include OpenNebula on FermiCloud and Amazon Web Services as well as other community clouds. We also outline federation options being used by other commercial and open-source clouds and cloud research projects.

  20. Revisiting the Fermi Surface in Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mukunda P.; Green, Frederick

    2016-06-01

    The Fermi surface is an abstract object in the reciprocal space of a crystal lattice, enclosing the set of all those electronic band states that are filled according to the Pauli principle. Its topology is dictated by the underlying lattice structure and its volume is the carrier density in the material. The Fermi surface is central to predictions of thermal, electrical, magnetic, optical and superconducting properties in metallic systems. Density functional theory is a first-principles method used to estimate the occupied-band energies and, in particular, the isoenergetic Fermi surface. In this review we survey several key facts about Fermi surfaces in complex systems, where a proper theoretical understanding is still lacking. We address some critical difficulties.

  1. Spin density wave order, topological order, and Fermi surface reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, Subir; Chatterjee, Shubhayu; Schattner, Yoni

    2016-01-01

    In the conventional theory of density wave ordering in metals, the onset of spin density wave (SDW) order co-incides with the reconstruction of the Fermi surfaces into small 'pockets'. We present models which display this transition, while also displaying an alternative route between these phases via an intermediate phase with topological order, no broken symmetry, and pocket Fermi surfaces. The models involve coupling emergent gauge fields to a fractionalized SDW order, but retain the canonical electron operator in the underlying Hamiltonian. We establish an intimate connection between the suppression of certain defects in the SDW order, and the presence of Fermi surface sizes distinct from the Luttinger value in Fermi liquids. We discuss the relevance of such models to the physics of the hole-doped cuprates near optimal doping.

  2. Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Fermi Theory for Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jinn-Liang

    2015-01-01

    A Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Fermi (PNPF) theory is developed for studying ionic transport through biological ion channels. Our goal is to deal with the finite size of particle using a Fermi like distribution without calculating the forces between the particles, because they are both expensive and tricky to compute. We include the steric effect of ions and water molecules with nonuniform sizes and interstitial voids, the correlation effect of crowded ions with different valences, and the screening effect of water molecules in an inhomogeneous aqueous electrolyte. Including the finite volume of water and the voids between particles is an important new part of the theory presented here. Fermi like distributions of all particle species are derived from the volume exclusion of classical particles. The classical Gibbs entropy is extended to a new entropy form --- called Gibbs-Fermi entropy --- that describes mixing configurations of all finite size particles and voids in a thermodynamic system where microstates do not ...

  3. Sobre a viagem de Enrico Fermi ao Brasil em 1934

    CERN Document Server

    Caruso, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Enrico Fermi was one of the greater physicists of the XX century. In 1934, he gave several lectures in Brazil. Invited by Theodoro Ramos to work in S\\~ao Paulo, he preferred to stay in Rome and went to the USA in 1938. However, Fermi recommended Gleb Wataghin to come in his place. Wataghin made history in Brazil, becoming one of the first Professors of the future S\\~ao Paulo University. Besides his relevance to the History of Science, Fermi eventually leaved an indelible mark on the creation and institutionalization of national scientific research due to the indication of Wataghin. Despite this fact, very little is known about Fermi's trip to Brazil. This work tries to reconstruct the fullest possible steps of the famous Italian physicist in our lands.

  4. Effective field theories for superconducting systems with multiple Fermi surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Braga, P R; Guimaraes, M S; Wotzasek, C

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigate the description of superconducting systems with multiple Fermi surfaces. For the case of one Fermi surface we re-obtain the result that the superconductor is more precisely described as a topological state of matter. Studying the case of more than one Fermi surface, we obtain the effective theory describing a time reversal symmetric topological superconductor. These results are obtained by employing a general procedure to construct effective low energy actions describing states of electromagnetic systems interacting with charges and defects. The procedure consists in taking into account the proliferation or dilution of these charges and defects and its consequences for the low energy description of the electromagnetic response of the system. We find that the main ingredient entering the low energy characterization of the system with more the one Fermi surface is a non-conservation of the canonical supercurrent triggered by particular vortex configurations.

  5. Numerical integration of Fermi-Dirac and Voigt functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhukhovskii, A.D.; Simonzhenkov, S.D.; Litvin, A.I.

    1994-11-25

    Two numerical integration methods are proposed for Fermi-Dirac functions, which play a major role in the physics of metals and semiconductors, and for Voigt functions, which describe spectral line shapes.

  6. Controlling resonant tunneling in graphene via Fermi velocity engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Jonas R. F.; Pereira, Luiz Felipe C.; Bezerra, C. G.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the resonant tunneling in a single layer graphene superlattice with modulated energy gap and Fermi velocity via an effective Dirac-like Hamiltonian. We calculate the transmission coefficient with the transfer matrix method and analyze the effect of a Fermi velocity modulation on the electronic transmission, in the case of normal and oblique incidence. We find it is possible to manipulate the electronic transmission in graphene by Fermi velocity engineering, and show that it is possible to tune the transmitivity from 0 to 1. We also analyze how a Fermi velocity modulation influences the total conductance and the Fano factor. Our results are relevant for the development of novel graphene-based electronic devices.

  7. Chandra and Swift Observations of Unidentified Fermi-LAT Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Davide; Cheung, T.; Gehrels, N.

    2010-03-01

    In the last year we targeted some of the unidentified Fermi-LAT objects (UFOs) at high Galactic latitude with Chandra and Swift in order to determine the basic properties (positions, fluxes, hardness ratios) of all X-ray sources within the Fermi-LAT localization circles. These satellites enable us to detect the X-ray conterparts with a flux limit that is at least an order of magnitude lower than achieved in extant RASS data and to further follow-up at other wavelengths, with the ultimate goal to reveal the nature of these enigmatic gamma-ray sources. Here we present the results obtained with 5 Chandra pointings of high Galactic latitude UFOs in the Fermi-LAT 3-months bright source list. The association of detected X-ray sources within the improved 11-months Fermi-LAT localization circles with available optical and radio observations is discussed.

  8. Fermi surface behavior in the ABJM M2-brane theory

    CERN Document Server

    DeWolfe, Oliver; Rosen, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    We calculate fermionic Green's functions for states of the three-dimensional ABJM M2-brane theory at large N using the gauge-gravity correspondence. We embed extremal black brane solutions in four-dimensional maximally supersymmetric gauged supergravity, obtain the linearized Dirac equations for each spin-1/2 mode that cannot mix with a gravitino, and solve these equations with infalling boundary conditions to calculate retarded Green's functions. For generic values of the chemical potentials, we find Fermi surfaces with universally non-Fermi liquid behavior, matching the situation for four-dimensional N=4 Super-Yang-Mills. Fermi surface singularities appear and disappear discontinuously at the point with all chemical potentials equal, reminiscent of a quantum critical point. One limit of parameter space has zero entropy at zero temperature, and fermionic fluctuations are perfectly stable inside an energy region around the Fermi surface. An ambiguity in the quantization of the fermions is resolved by supersym...

  9. Manipulating superconductivity in ruthenates through Fermi surface engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Ting; Cho, Weejee; Rebola, Alejandro Federico; Burganov, Bulat; Adamo, Carolina; Shen, Kyle M.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Fennie, Craig J.; Kim, Eun-Ah

    2016-07-01

    The key challenge in superconductivity research is to go beyond the historical mode of discovery-driven research. We put forth a new strategy, which is to combine theoretical developments in the weak-coupling renormalization-group approach with the experimental developments in lattice-strain-driven Fermi surface engineering. For concreteness we theoretically investigate how superconducting tendencies will be affected by strain engineering of ruthenates' Fermi surface. We first demonstrate that our approach qualitatively reproduces recent experiments under uniaxial strain. We then note that the order of a few percent strain, readily accessible to epitaxial thin films, can bring the Fermi surface close to van Hove singularity. Using the experimental observation of the change in the Fermi surface under biaxial epitaxial strain and ab initio calculations, we predict Tc for triplet pairing to be maximized by getting close to the van Hove singularities without tuning on to the singularity.

  10. Dark matter at the Fermi scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent breakthroughs in cosmology reveal that a quarter of the Universe is composed of dark matter, but the microscopic identity of dark matter remains a deep mystery. I review recent progress in resolving this puzzle, focusing on two well-motivated classes of dark matter candidates: weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) and superWIMPs. These possibilities have similar motivations: they exist in the same well-motivated particle physics models, the observed dark matter relic density emerges naturally and dark matter particles have mass around 100 GeV, the energy scale identified as interesting over 70 years ago by Fermi. At the same time, they have widely varying implications for direct and indirect dark matter searches, particle colliders, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, the cosmic microwave background, and halo profiles and structure formation. If WIMPs or superWIMPs are a significant component of dark matter, we will soon be entering a golden era in which dark matter will be studied through diverse probes at the interface of particle physics, astroparticle physics and cosmology. I outline a programme of dark matter studies for each of these scenarios and discuss the prospects for identifying dark matter in the coming years. (topical review)

  11. Thermal properties of three Fermi pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilenko, A.; Karpova, A.; Kirichenko, A.; Shibanov, Y.; Shternin, P.; Zharikov, S.; Zyuzin, D.

    2014-07-01

    We analysed thermal properties of the Fermi pulsars J0357+3205, J1741-2054, and J0633+0632 using data from the XMM-Newton and Chandra archives. The X-ray spectra of all three pulsars can be fitted by sum of thermal and power-law components. For J1741-2054, the thermal component is best described by a blackbody model whose normalization suggests that the thermal emission comes from the bulk of the neutron star surface. The effective temperature of 60 eV, which is rather large for a pulsar as old as J1741-2054, makes it similar to the well-studied pulsar B1055-52, one of ``the three musketeers''. The thermal components of PSRs J0357+3205 and J0633+0632 can be equally well described by blackbody or the hydrogen atmosphere models. In the former case the normalizations suggest hot polar cap as thermal emission origin and only upper limits on the neutron stars surface temperatures can be computed. For the hydrogen atmosphere models, the normalizations are in agreement with emission coming from a substantial part of neutron star surface. Thermal properties of the pulsars are confronted with similar data on other isolated neutron stars and predictions of the neutron star cooling theory.

  12. General physical properties of bright Fermi blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G; Foschini, L; Ghirlanda, G; Maraschi, L; Celotti, A

    2009-01-01

    We studied all blazars of known redshift detected by the Fermi satellite during its first three months survey. For the majority of them, pointed Swift observations ensures a good multiwavelength coverage, enabling us to to reliably construct their spectral energy distributions (SED). We model the SEDs using a one-zone leptonic model and study the distributions of the derived interesting physical parameters as a function of the observed gamma-ray luminosity. We confirm previous findings concerning the relation of the physical parameters with source luminosity which are at the origin of the blazar sequence. The SEDs allow to estimate the luminosity of the accretion disk for the majority of broad emitting line blazars, while for the line-less BL Lac objects in the sample upper limits can be derived. We find a positive correlation between the jet power and the luminosity of the accretion disk in broad line blazars. In these objects we argue that the jet must be proton-dominated, and that the total jet power is of...

  13. Correlation Analysis of Multi-Wavelength Luminosity of Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiongwei Bi; Wanquan He; Jiajin Tian; Zhimei Ding; Shuping Ge

    2014-09-01

    We have studied the correlations between luminosities (R, O, X, ) in radio, optical, X-ray and -ray wave bands for Fermi blazars, and found that there are significant correlations between R and , X and and O and for blazars, BL Lacs and FSRQs, but no correlation between and O for BL Lacs. These results suggest that for Fermi blazars, the high energy -ray emission can be related with radio, X-ray and optical emissions.

  14. Virial Theorem and Universality in a Unitary Fermi Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, J E; Kinast, J.; Turlapov, A.

    2005-01-01

    Unitary Fermi gases, where the scattering length is large compared to the interparticle spacing, can have universal properties, which are independent of the details of the interparticle interactions when the range of the scattering potential is negligible. We prepare an optically-trapped, unitary Fermi gas of $^6$Li, tuned just above the center of a broad Feshbach resonance. In agreement with the universal hypothesis, we observe that this strongly-interacting many-body system obeys the virial...

  15. Non-hydrodynamic transport in trapped unitary Fermi gases

    CERN Document Server

    Brewer, Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    Many strongly coupled fluids are known to share similar hydrodynamic transport properties. In this work we argue that this similarity could extend beyond hydrodynamics to transient dynamics through the presence of non-hydrodynamic modes. We review non-hydrodynamic modes in kinetic theory and gauge/gravity duality and discuss their signatures in trapped Fermi gases close to unitarity. Reanalyzing previously published experimental data, we find hints of non-hydrodynamic modes in cold Fermi gases in two and three dimensions.

  16. 2nd-order Fermi acceleration as the origin of the Fermi bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Mertsch, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-ray data from Fermi-LAT show a bi-lobular structure extending up to 50 degrees above and below the Galactic centre, coincident with a possibly related structure in the ROSAT X-ray map which presumably originated in some energy release close to the centre a few million years ago. It has been argued that the gamma-rays arise due to inverse Compton scattering of relativistic electrons accelerated at plasma shocks present in the bubbles. We explore the alternative possibility that the relativistic electrons undergo stochastic 2nd-order Fermi acceleration in the entire volume of the bubbles by plasma wave turbulence. This turbulence is generated behind the outer shock and propagates into the bubble volume, leading to a non-trivial spatial variation of the electron spectral index. Rather than a constant volume emissivity as predicted in other models we find an almost constant surface brightness in gamma-rays and also reproduce the observed sharp edges of the bubbles. We comment on possible cross-checks in oth...

  17. Radio Searches of Fermi LAT Sources and Blind Search Pulsars: The Fermi Pulsar Search Consortium

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, P S; Parent, D; Bhattacharya, D; Bhattacharyya, B; Camilo, F; Cognard, I; Theureau, G; Ferrara, E C; Harding, A K; Thompson, D J; Freire, P C C; Guillemot, L; Gupta, Y; Roy, J; Hessels, J W T; Johnston, S; Keith, M; Shannon, R; Kerr, M; Michelson, P F; Romani, R W; Kramer, M; McLaughlin, M A; Ransom, S M; Roberts, M S E; Parkinson, P M Saz; Ziegler, M; Smith, D A; Stappers, B W; Weltevrede, P; Wood, K S

    2012-01-01

    We present a summary of the Fermi Pulsar Search Consortium (PSC), an international collaboration of radio astronomers and members of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) collaboration, whose goal is to organize radio follow-up observations of Fermi pulsars and pulsar candidates among the LAT gamma-ray source population. The PSC includes pulsar observers with expertise using the world's largest radio telescopes that together cover the full sky. We have performed very deep observations of all 35 pulsars discovered in blind frequency searches of the LAT data, resulting in the discovery of radio pulsations from four of them. We have also searched over 300 LAT gamma-ray sources that do not have strong associations with known gamma-ray emitting source classes and have pulsar-like spectra and variability characteristics. These searches have led to the discovery of a total of 43 new radio millisecond pulsars (MSPs) and four normal pulsars. These discoveries greatly increase the known population of MSPs in the Galactic disk...

  18. Non-Fermi-liquid nature and exotic thermoelectric power in the heavy-fermion superconductor UBe13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yusei; Pourret, Alexandre; Knebel, Georg; Palacio-Morales, Alexandra; Aoki, Dai

    2015-12-01

    We report quite exotic thermoelectric power S in UBe13. At 0 T, the negative S /T continues to strongly enhance down to the superconducting transition temperature with no Fermi-liquid behavior. |S /T | is dramatically suppressed and becomes rather modest with increasing field. We have also obtained precise field dependencies of (i) an anomaly in S due to an exotic Kondo effect and (ii) a field-induced anomaly in S /T associated with the anomalous upward Hc 2(T ) . In contrast to the field-sensitive transport property, the normal-state specific heat is magnetically robust, indicating that the largeness of the 5 f density of states remains in high fields. This unusual behavior in UBe13 can be explained by a considerable change in the energy derivative of the conduction-electron lifetime τc(ɛ ) at the Fermi level under magnetic fields.

  19. Type-II Weyl semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluyanov, Alexey A; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, QuanSheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B Andrei

    2015-11-26

    Fermions--elementary particles such as electrons--are classified as Dirac, Majorana or Weyl. Majorana and Weyl fermions had not been observed experimentally until the recent discovery of condensed matter systems such as topological superconductors and semimetals, in which they arise as low-energy excitations. Here we propose the existence of a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new phase of matter. This particle was missed by Weyl because it breaks the stringent Lorentz symmetry in high-energy physics. Lorentz invariance, however, is not present in condensed matter physics, and by generalizing the Dirac equation, we find the new type of Weyl fermion. In particular, whereas Weyl semimetals--materials hosting Weyl fermions--were previously thought to have standard Weyl points with a point-like Fermi surface (which we refer to as type-I), we discover a type-II Weyl point, which is still a protected crossing, but appears at the contact of electron and hole pockets in type-II Weyl semimetals. We predict that WTe2 is an example of a topological semimetal hosting the new particle as a low-energy excitation around such a type-II Weyl point. The existence of type-II Weyl points in WTe2 means that many of its physical properties are very different to those of standard Weyl semimetals with point-like Fermi surfaces.

  20. The Spectral Energy Distributions of Fermi Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J. H.; Yang, J. H.; Liu, Y.; Luo, G. Y.; Lin, C.; Yuan, Y. H.; Xiao, H. B.; Zhou, A. Y.; Hua, T. X.; Pei, Z. Y.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, multiwavelength data are compiled for a sample of 1425 Fermi blazars to calculate their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). A parabolic function, {{log}}{(ν {F}ν )={P}1({{log}}ν -{P}2)}2+{P}3, is used for SED fitting. Synchrotron peak frequency ({log}{ν }{{p}}), spectral curvature (P1), peak flux ({ν }{{p}}{F}{ν {{p}}}), and integrated flux (ν {F}ν ) are successfully obtained for 1392 blazars (461 flat-spectrum radio quasars [FSRQs], 620 BL Lacs [BLs], and 311 blazars of uncertain type [BCUs]; 999 sources have known redshifts). Monochromatic luminosity at radio 1.4 GHz, optical R band, X-ray at 1 keV and γ-ray at 1 GeV, peak luminosity, integrated luminosity, and effective spectral indices of radio to optical ({α }{{RO}}) and optical to X-ray ({α }{{OX}}) are calculated. The “Bayesian classification” is employed to log {ν }{{p}} in the rest frame for 999 blazars with available redshift, and the results show that three components are enough to fit the log {ν }{{p}} distribution; there is no ultra-high peaked subclass. Based on the three components, the subclasses of blazars using the acronyms of Abdo et al. are classified, and some mutual correlations are also studied. Conclusions are finally drawn as follows: (1) SEDs are successfully obtained for 1392 blazars. The fitted peak frequencies are compared with common sources from available samples. (2) Blazars are classified as low synchrotron peak sources if log {ν }{{p}}({Hz})≤slant 14.0, intermediate synchrotron peak sources if 14.0\\lt {log} {ν }{{p}}({Hz})≤slant 15.3, and high synchrotron peak sources if {log} {ν }{{p}}({Hz})\\gt 15.3. (3) Gamma-ray emissions are strongly correlated with radio emissions. Gamma-ray luminosity is also correlated with synchrotron peak luminosity and integrated luminosity. (4) There is an anticorrelation between peak frequency and peak luminosity within the whole blazar sample. However, there is a marginally positive correlation for high

  1. Pacifying the Fermi-liquid: battling the devious fermion signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zaanen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available  The fermion sign problem is studied in the path integral formalism. The standard picture of Fermi liquids is first critically analyzed, pointing out some of its rather peculiar properties. The insightful work of Ceperley in constructing fermionic path integrals in terms of constrained world-lines is then reviewed. In this representation, the minus signs associated with Fermi-Dirac statistics are self consistently translated into a geometrical constraint structure (the nodal hypersurface acting on an effective bosonic dynamics. As an illustrative example we use this formalism to study 1+1-dimensional systems, where statistics are irrelevant, and hence the sign problem can be circumvented. In this low-dimensional example, the structure of the nodal constraints leads to a lucid picture of the entropic interaction essential to one-dimensional physics. Working with the path integral in momentum space, we then show that the Fermi gas can be understood by analogy to a Mott insulator in a harmonic trap. Going back to real space, we discuss the topological properties of the nodal cells, and suggest a new holographic conjecture relating Fermi liquids in higher dimensions to soft-core bosons in one dimension. We also discuss some possible connections between mixed Bose/Fermi systems and supersymmtery.

  2. FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF TeV-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on observations of TeV-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) made during the first 5.5 months of observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). In total, 96 AGNs were selected for study, each being either (1) a source detected at TeV energies (28 sources) or (2) an object that has been studied with TeV instruments and for which an upper limit has been reported (68 objects). The Fermi observations show clear detections of 38 of these TeV-selected objects, of which 21 are joint GeV-TeV sources, and 29 were not in the third EGRET catalog. For each of the 38 Fermi-detected sources, spectra and light curves are presented. Most can be described with a power law of spectral index harder than 2.0, with a spectral break generally required to accommodate the TeV measurements. Based on an extrapolation of the Fermi spectrum, we identify sources, not previously detected at TeV energies, which are promising targets for TeV instruments. Evidence for systematic evolution of the γ-ray spectrum with redshift is presented and discussed in the context of interaction with the extragalactic background light.

  3. The Fermi Guest Investigator program: Impactful Science and Groundbreaking Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Elizabeth C.

    2016-04-01

    As an all-sky surveyor, the science impact from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is limited by the number of scientists performing data analysis, and not by the number of objects observed by the spacecraft. To encourage this, the Fermi guest investigator (GI) program supports a variety of scientific inquiries that benefit overall Fermi science. The GI program also provides access to radio, optical, X-ray and VHE gamma-ray data and/or observing time, encouraging and enabling relevant multi-wavelength studies. This approach has allowed for new analyses and ideas to flourish, leading to world-class groundbreaking science and a number of unexpected discoveries. The program has also supported a number of multi-year, multi-wavelength observing programs resulting in a rich variety of publicly available resources. Here we describe the most significant results from the Fermi GI program, including those resulting from both sky-survey and target of opportunity pointed observations. We discuss the public resources the program has supported, both for broad-band data acquisition and for the development of new analysis methods and techniques. Additionally, we consider the ramifications of the existence of long-term multi-wavelength datasets, such as those enabled by the Fermi GI program, for future scientific inquiry.

  4. Orders of Fermi- and Plasma-Accelerations of Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2010-01-01

    The generic acceleration model for ultra high energy cosmic rays, which has been introduced in {\\tt 1006.5708 [astro-ph.HE]}, suggests various types of electromagnetic interactions between cosmic charged particles and the different types of the plasma fields, which are assumed to have general configurations, spatially and temporally. The well-known Fermi acceleration mechanisms are also included in the model. Meanwhile Fermi mechanisms in non-relativistic limit adhere first- and second-order of $\\beta$, the ratio of particle's velocity relative to the velocity of the stellar magnetic cloud, in the plasma field sector, $\\beta$ does not play any role, i.e. zero-order. In the relativistic limit, the orders of Fermi acceleration are only possible, when applying the corresponding conditions, either elastic scatterings or shock waves. Furthermore, it is found that the coefficients of $\\beta$ are functions of the initial and final velocities and the characteristic Larmor radius.

  5. A new look at Thomas–Fermi theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solovej, Jan Philip

    2016-01-01

    In this short note, we argue that Thomas–Fermi theory, the simplest of all density functional theories, although failing to explain features such as molecular binding or stability of negative ions, is surprisingly accurate in estimating sizes of atoms. We give both numerical, experimental and rig...... and rigorous mathematical evidence for this claim. Motivated by this, we formulate two new mathematical conjectures on the exactness of Thomas–Fermi theory.......In this short note, we argue that Thomas–Fermi theory, the simplest of all density functional theories, although failing to explain features such as molecular binding or stability of negative ions, is surprisingly accurate in estimating sizes of atoms. We give both numerical, experimental...

  6. Ferromagnetism in a repulsive atomic Fermi gas with correlated disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilati, S.; Fratini, E.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the zero-temperature ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas in the presence of a correlated random field that represents an optical speckle pattern. The density is tuned so that the (noninteracting) Fermi energy is close to the mobility edge of the Anderson localization transition. We employ quantum Monte Carlo simulations to determine various ground-state properties, including the equation of state, the magnetic susceptibility, and the energy of an impurity immersed in a polarized Fermi gas (repulsive polaron). In the weakly interacting limit, the magnetic susceptibility is found to be suppressed by disorder. However, it rapidly increases with the interaction strength, and it diverges at a much weaker interaction strength compared to the clean gas. Both the transition from the paramagnetic phase to the partially ferromagnetic phase, and the one from the partially to the fully ferromagnetic phase, are strongly favored by disorder, indicating a case of order induced by disorder.

  7. Emission vs Fermi coordinates: applications to relativistic positioning systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Ruggiero, Matteo Luca; Tartaglia, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    A 4-dimensional relativistic positioning system for a general spacetime is constructed by using the so called "emission coordinates". The results apply in a small region around the world line of an accelerated observer carrying a Fermi triad, as described by the Fermi metric. In the case of a Schwarzschild spacetime modeling the gravitational field around the Earth and an observer at rest at a fixed spacetime point, these coordinates realize a relativistic positioning system alternative to the current GPS system. The latter is indeed essentially conceived as Newtonian, so that it necessarily needs taking into account at least the most important relativistic effects through Post-Newtonian corrections to work properly. Previous results concerning emission coordinates in flat spacetime are thus extended to this more general situation. Furthermore, the mapping between spacetime coordinates and emission coordinates is completely determined by means of the world function, which in the case of a Fermi metric can be ...

  8. Fermi surface and antiferromagnetism of FeRh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, K. [Department of Quantum Matter, ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakada@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Yamada, H. [Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    In order to examine the stabilization of antiferromagnetic state with the observed spin ordering wave vector Q in an ordered alloy FeRh with a CsCl-type structure, the nesting effect of the Fermi surfaces is discussed by using the electronic structures calculated by the FLAPW method. Although the nesting of Fermi surfaces cannot be seen so clearly, it is found that there exists rather wide region in the Brillouin zone where the energy at the crossing point between the energies E(k) and E(k+Q) of electron and hole is within a few mRy above or below the Fermi level. This fact is shown to stabilize the antiferromagnetic state in FeRh, together with the fact that a hole surface exists on other place in the Brillouin zone.

  9. The Extragalactic Gamma-ray Sky in the Fermi era

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, F; Ferrara, E C

    2015-01-01

    The Universe is largely transparent to $\\gamma$ rays in the GeV energy range, making these high-energy photons valuable for exploring energetic processes in the cosmos. After seven years of operation, the Fermi {\\it Gamma-ray Space Telescope} has produced a wealth of information about the high-energy sky. This review focuses on extragalactic $\\gamma$-ray sources: what has been learned about the sources themselves and about how they can be used as cosmological probes. Active galactic nuclei (blazars, radio galaxies, Seyfert galaxies) and star-forming galaxies populate the extragalactic high-energy sky. Fermi observations have demonstrated that these powerful non-thermal sources display substantial diversity in energy spectra and temporal behavior. Coupled with contemporaneous multifrequency observations, the Fermi results are enabling detailed, time-dependent modeling of the energetic particle acceleration and interaction processes that produce the $\\gamma$ rays, as well as providing indirect measurements of t...

  10. Design and simulation challenges for FERMI@elettra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mitri, S.; Allaria, E.; Badano, L.; Bontoiu, C.; Cornacchia, M.; Craievich, P.; Danailov, M.; De Ninno, G.; Diviacco, B.; Ferrando, O.; Ferry, S.; Iazzourene, F.; Milton, S. V.; Penco, G.; Spampinati, S.; Trovo', M.; Veronese, M.; Fawley, W.; Lidia, S.; Penn, G.; Qiang, J.; Sonnad, K. G.; Venturini, M.; Warnock, R.; Zholents, A. A.; Pogorelov, I. V.; Borland, M.; Bassi, G.; Ellison, J. A.; Heinemann, K.; Fiorito, R.; Shkvarunets, A.; Tobin, J. C.

    2009-09-01

    FERMI@elettra is a fourth-generation light source user facility under construction at the Elettra Laboratory in Trieste, Italy. The high-quality 1.2 GeV electron beam drives two-seeded Free Electron Lasers (FELs) in the wavelength range 100-10 nm. Wavelength tunability, variable polarization and higher electron beam energies to reach even shorter output wavelengths are also in the machine delivery plan. This paper describes the physics processes that have been modelled to simulate FERMI@elettra and the computer codes used to optimize the machine design. The paper focuses on several design challenges and how these translate into modelling and simulation challenges.

  11. Superfluidity of heated Fermi systems in the static fluctuation approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamzin, A. A., E-mail: airat.khamzin@rambler.ru [Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Institute of Physics (Russian Federation); Nikitin, A. S.; Sitdikov, A. S. [Kazan State Power Engineering University (KSPEU) (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Superfluidity properties of heated finite Fermi systems are studied in the static fluctuation approximation, which is an original method. This method relies on a single and controlled approximation, which permits taking correctly into account quasiparticle correlations and thereby going beyond the independent-quasiparticle model. A closed self-consistent set of equations for calculating correlation functions at finite temperature is obtained for a finite Fermi system described by the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer Hamiltonian. An equation for the energy gap is found with allowance for fluctuation effects. It is shown that the phase transition to the supefluid state is smeared upon the inclusion of fluctuations.

  12. Fluid-dynamics of the nuclear surface Fermi-layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the long-mean-free-path approach the fluid-dynamical model of the nuclear surface as a spherical Fermi-layer is formulated. It is shown that the model reproduces known results of Fermi-drop dynamics and permits the description of more low energy collective states in spherical nuclei. The quantum-capillary branch of low-lying surface excitations is predicted. The model gives an adequate description of both lowest and highest experimental collective energies. (author) 18 refs.; 8 figs

  13. Non-Fermi Liquid Scaling in CeRhSn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have recently shown that CeRhSn exhibits non-Fermi liquid temperature dependences in its low-temperature physical properties. Here we suggest that the non-Fermi liquid behavior observed in CeRhSn may be due to the existence of a Griffiths phase in the vicinity of a quantum critical point, based on electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility , and specific heat measurements. For CeRhSn, the low-temperature scaling of bulk properties (C/T ∝ χ ∝ T-1+λ, where λ<1) is masked by an anomaly at about 6 K, which is of magnetic origin. (author)

  14. A smooth polaron-molecule crossover in a Fermi system

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of a single down spin particle interacting with a Fermi sea of up spin particles is of current interest in the field of cold atoms. The Hubbard model, appropriate to atoms in an optical lattice potential, is considered in parallel with a gas model. As the strength of an attractive short-range interaction is increased there is a crossover from "polaron" behaviour, in which the Fermi sea is weakly perturbed, to "molecule" behaviour in which the down spin particle is bound to a singl...

  15. Role of nucleonic Fermi surface depletion in neutron star cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, J M; Zhang, H F; Zuo, W

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi surface depletion of beta-stable nuclear matter is calculated to study its effects on several physical properties which determine the neutron star thermal evolution. The neutron and proton Z factors measuring the corresponding Fermi surface depletions, are calculated within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach employing the AV18 two-body force supplemented by a microscopic three body force. Neutrino emissivity, heat capacity and, in particular, neutron 3PF2 superfluidity turn out to be reduced, especially at high baryonic density, to such an extent that the cooling rates of young neutron stars are significantly slowed

  16. The AGN Jet Model of the Fermi Bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Fulai

    2016-01-01

    The nature and origin of the Fermi bubbles detected in the inner Galaxy remain elusive. In this paper, we briefly discuss some recent theoretical and observational developments, with a focus on the AGN jet model. Analogous to radio lobes observed in massive galaxies, the Fermi bubbles could be naturally produced by a pair of opposing jets emanating nearly along the Galaxy's rotation axis from the Galactic center. Our two-fluid hydrodynamic simulations reproduce quite well the bubble location and shape, and interface instabilities at the bubble surface could be effectively suppressed by shear viscosity. We briefly comment on some potential issues related to our model, which may lead to future progress.

  17. String theory, quantum phase transitions, and the emergent Fermi liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubrović, Mihailo; Zaanen, Jan; Schalm, Koenraad

    2009-07-24

    A central problem in quantum condensed matter physics is the critical theory governing the zero-temperature quantum phase transition between strongly renormalized Fermi liquids as found in heavy fermion intermetallics and possibly in high-critical temperature superconductors. We found that the mathematics of string theory is capable of describing such fermionic quantum critical states. Using the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence to relate fermionic quantum critical fields to a gravitational problem, we computed the spectral functions of fermions in the field theory. By increasing the fermion density away from the relativistic quantum critical point, a state emerges with all the features of the Fermi liquid.

  18. Some corrections to the Thomas-Fermi theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janusz Chrzanowski

    2013-01-01

    In the presented model the wave function describing the electron is a superposition of contributions from individual components of the system,in the case of metals — lattice ions and in this sense refers not to a single electron,but rather to the system as a whole.An unconventional approach to the Schr(o)dinger equation can provide a simple analytical relationship between the total energy of the electron and the wave number.This expression can directly determine the basic parameters such as Fermi radius,the screening radius or work function and also produce a graphical interpretation of the Fermi surface.

  19. Poisson-Fermi Model of Single Ion Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jinn-Liang

    2015-01-01

    A Poisson-Fermi model is proposed for calculating activity coefficients of single ions in strong electrolyte solutions based on the experimental Born radii and hydration shells of ions in aqueous solutions. The steric effect of water molecules and interstitial voids in the first and second hydration shells play an important role in our model. The screening and polarization effects of water are also included in the model that can thus describe spatial variations of dielectric permittivity, water density, void volume, and ionic concentration. The activity coefficients obtained by the Poisson-Fermi model with only one adjustable parameter are shown to agree with experimental data, which vary nonmonotonically with salt concentrations.

  20. Fermi Surfaces of Surface States on Si(111) + Ag, Au

    OpenAIRE

    Crain, J. N.; Altmann, K. N.; Bromberger, Ch.; Himpsel, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    Metallic surface states on semiconducting substrates provide an opportunity to study low-dimensional electrons decoupled from the bulk. Angle resolved photoemission is used to determine the Fermi surface, group velocity, and effective mass for surface states on Si(111)sqrt3xsqrt3-Ag, Si(111)sqrt3x sqrt3-Au, and Si(111)sqrt21xsqrt21-(Ag+Au). For Si(111)sqrt3xsqrt3-Ag the Fermi surface consists of small electron pockets populated by electrons from a few percent excess Ag. For Si(111)sqrt21xsqrt...

  1. The Spectral Energy Distribution of Fermi bright blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Abdo, A A; Ajello, M; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chaty, S; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Colafrancesco, S; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fuhrmann, L; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Healey, S E; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Itoh, R; Jackson, M S; Johannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, W N; Kadler, M; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knodlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Max-Moerbeck, W; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broad-band spectral properties of the \\gamma-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi gamma-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical and other hard X-ray/gamma-ray data, collected within three months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous Spectral Energy Distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars.The SED of these gamma-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual Log $\

  2. ROLE OF NUCLEONIC FERMI SURFACE DEPLETION IN NEUTRON STAR COOLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, J. M.; Zuo, W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lombardo, U. [Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN), Catania I-95123 (Italy); Zhang, H. F. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-01-20

    The Fermi surface depletion of beta-stable nuclear matter is calculated to study its effects on several physical properties that determine the neutron star (NS) thermal evolution. The neutron and proton Z factors measuring the corresponding Fermi surface depletions are calculated within the Brueckner–Hartree–Fock approach, employing the AV18 two-body force supplemented by a microscopic three-body force. Neutrino emissivity, heat capacity, and in particular neutron {sup 3}PF{sub 2} superfluidity, turn out to be reduced, especially at high baryonic density, to such an extent that the cooling rates of young NSs are significantly slowed.

  3. Fermi resonance-algebraic model for molecular vibrational spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯喜文; 董世海; 谢汨; 马中骐

    1999-01-01

    A Fermi resonance-algebraic model is proposed for molecular vibrations, where a U(2) algebra is used for describing the vibrations of each bond, and Fermi resonances between stretching and bending modes are taken into account. The model for a bent molecule XY2 and a molecule XY3 is successfully applied to fitting the recently observed vibrational spectrum of the water molecule and arsine (AsH3), respectively, and the results are compared with those of other models. Calculations show that algebraic approaches can be used as an effective method to describe molecular vibrations with small standard deviations.

  4. Density Functional Theory Studies of Magnetically Confined Fermi Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇俊; 马红孺

    2001-01-01

    A theory is developed for magnetically confined Fermi gas at a low temperature based on the density functional theory. The theory is illustrated by the numerical calculation of the density distributions of Fermi atoms 40K with parameters according to DeMarco and Jin's experiment [Science, 285(1999)1703]. Our results are in close agreement with the experiment. To check the theory, we also performed calculations using our theory at a high temperature, which compared very well to the results of the classical limit.

  5. Spectrum-splitting approach for Fermi-operator expansion in all-electron Kohn-Sham DFT calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Motamarri, Phani; Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Ortiz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We present a spectrum-splitting approach to conduct all-electron Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) calculations by employing Fermi-operator expansion of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. The proposed approach splits the subspace containing the occupied eigenspace into a core-subspace, spanned by the core eigenfunctions, and its complement, the valence-subspace, and thereby enables an efficient computation of the Fermi-operator expansion by reducing the expansion to the valence-subspace projected Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. The key ideas used in our approach are: (i) employ Chebyshev filtering to compute a subspace containing the occupied states followed by a localization procedure to generate non-orthogonal localized functions spanning the Chebyshev-filtered subspace; (ii) compute the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian projected onto the valence-subspace; (iii) employ Fermi-operator expansion in terms of the valence-subspace projected Hamiltonian to compute the density matrix, electron-density and band energy. We demonstrate ...

  6. The beaming effect and $\\rm{\\gamma}$-ray emission for Fermi blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yong-Yun; Xiong, Dingrong; Wang, Si-Ju; Yu, Xiaoling

    2015-01-01

    We study the $\\rm{\\gamma}$-ray luminosity and beaming effect for Fermi blazars. Our results are as follows. (i) There are significant correlations between $\\rm{\\gamma}$-ray luminosity and radio core luminosity, and between $\\rm{\\gamma}$-ray luminosity and $\\rm{R_{v}}$, which suggests that the $\\rm{\\gamma}$-ray emissions have strong beaming effect. (ii) Using the $\\rm{L_{ext}/M_{abs}}$ as an indicator of environment effects, we find that there have no significant correlation between $\\rm{\\gamma}$-ray luminosity and $\\rm{L_{ext}/M_{abs}}$ for all sources when remove the effect of redshift. FSRQs considered alone also do not show a significant correlation, while BL Lacs still show a significant correlation when remove the effect of redshift. These results suggest that the $\\rm{\\gamma}$-ray emission may be affected by environment on the kiloparsec-scale for BL Lacs.

  7. Search for a neutrino emission from the Fermi Bubbles with the ANTARES telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    BIAGI, S

    2012-01-01

    The first search for neutrinos from the Fermi Bubbles is presented using data collected by the ANTARES telescope. No evidence of a neutrino signal from the Fermi Bubbles region was found, hence upper limits were calculated for different energy cutoffs.

  8. Fermi Solar Flare X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was launched in June 2008 to explore high-energy phenomena in the Universe. This GI program is targeted specifically at Fermi...

  9. Planck intermediate results XXVIII. Interstellar gas and dust in the Chamaeleon clouds as seen by Fermi LAT and Planck

    OpenAIRE

    Ade, P. A. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Zonca, A.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The nearby Chamaeleon clouds have been observed in Υ rays by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and in thermal dust emission by Planck and IRAS. Cosmic rays and large dust grains, if smoothly mixed with gas, can jointly serve with the Hi and 12CO radio data to (i) map the hydrogen column densities, NH, in the different gas phases, in particular at the dark neutral medium (DNM) transition between the H I-bright and CO-bright media; (ii) constrain the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, XCO; and (iii...

  10. Application of the Thomas-Fermi statistical model to the thermodynamics of high density matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Thomas-Fermi statistical model, from the N-body point of view is used in order to have systematic corrections to the T-Fermis equation. Approximate calculus methods are found from analytic study of the T-Fermis equation for non zero temperature. T-Fermis equation is solved with the code GOLEM written in FORTRAN V (UNIVAC). It also provides the thermodynamical quantities and a new method to calculate several isothermal tables. (Author) 24 refs

  11. The number of holes contained within the Fermi surface volume in underdoped high temperature superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, N.

    2016-01-01

    We bring resolution to the longstanding problem relating Fermi surface reconstruction to the number of holes contained within the Fermi surface volume in underdoped high Tc superconductors. On considering uniaxial and biaxial charge-density wave order, we show that there exists a relationship between the ordering wave vector, the hole doping and the cross-sectional area of the reconstructed Fermi surface whose precise form depends on the volume of the starting Fermi surface. We consider a `la...

  12. Fermi liquid theory: A brief survey in memory of Gerald E. Brown

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    I present a brief review of Fermi liquid theory, and discuss recent work on Fermi liquid theory in dilute neutron matter and cold atomic gases. I argue that renewed interest in transport properties of quantum fluids provides fresh support for Landau's approach to Fermi liquid theory, which is based on kinetic theory rather than effective field theory and the renormalization group. I also discuss work on non-Fermi liquids, in particular dense quark matter.

  13. Fermi surface behavior in the ABJM M2-brane theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolfe, Oliver; Henriksson, Oscar; Rosen, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    We calculate fermionic Green's functions for states of the three-dimensional Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena M2-brane theory at large N using the gauge-gravity correspondence. We embed extremal black brane solutions in four-dimensional maximally supersymmetric gauged supergravity, obtain the linearized Dirac equations for each spin-1 /2 mode that cannot mix with a gravitino, and solve these equations with infalling boundary conditions to calculate retarded Green's functions. For generic values of the chemical potentials, we find Fermi surfaces with universally non-Fermi liquid behavior, matching the situation for four-dimensional N =4 super-Yang-Mills. Fermi surface singularities appear and disappear discontinuously at the point where all chemical potentials are equal, reminiscent of a quantum critical point. One limit of parameter space has zero entropy at zero temperature, and fermionic fluctuations are perfectly stable inside an energy region around the Fermi surface. An ambiguity in the quantization of the fermions is resolved by supersymmetry.

  14. The equation of state of a model Fermi liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variational calculations are performed for the equation of state of the so-called 'Homework' neutron liquid. Adopting the familiar Jastrow ansatz for the wave function the energy per particle is computed by means of a recently developed summation technique for Fermi systems. (Auth.)

  15. Metastability in spin polarised Fermi gases and quasiparticle decays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadeghzadeh, Kayvan; Bruun, Georg; Lobo, Carlos;

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the metastability associated with the first order transition from normal to superfluid phases in the phase diagram of two-component polarised Fermi gases.We begin by detailing the dominant decay processes of single quasiparticles.Having determined the momentum thresholds of each pr...

  16. Universal properties of Fermi gases in arbitrary dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valiente, Manuel; T. Zinner, Nikolaj; Molmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    We consider spin-1/2 Fermi gases in arbitrary, integer or non-integer spatial dimensions, interacting via a Dirac delta potential. We first generalize the method of Tan's distributions and implement short-range boundary conditions to arbitrary dimension and we obtain a set of universal relations...

  17. Degenerate atom-molecule mixture in a cold Fermi gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the atom-molecule mixture formed in a degenerate atomic Fermi gas with interspecies repulsion near a Feshbach resonance constitutes a peculiar system where the atomic component is almost nondegenerate but quantum degeneracy of molecules is important. We develop a thermodynamic approach for studying this mixture, explain experimental observations, and predict optimal conditions for achieving molecular Bose-Einstein condensation

  18. Degenerate Atom-Molecule Mixture in a Cold Fermi Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Shlyapnikov, G. V.; Salomon, R.

    2004-01-01

    We show that the atom-molecule mixture formed in a degenerate atomic Fermi gas with interspecies repulsion near a Feshbach resonance, constitutes a peculiar system where the atomic component is almost non-degenerate but quantum degeneracy of molecules is important. We develop a thermodynamic approach for studying this mixture, explain experimental observations and predict optimal conditions for achieving molecular BEC.

  19. Towards a gravity dual of the unitary Fermi gas

    CERN Document Server

    Bekaert, Xavier; Moroz, Sergej

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the method of null dimensional reduction and by the holographic correspondence between Vasiliev's higher-spin gravity and the critical O(N) model, a bulk dual of the unitary and the ideal non-relativistic Fermi gases is proposed.

  20. Cold pasta phase in the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avancini, S. S.; Bertolino, B. P.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we aim to obtain more accurate values for the transition density to the homogenous phase in the nuclear pasta that occurs in the inner crust of neutron stars. To that end, we use the nonlinear Walecka model at zero temperature and an approach based on the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) approximation.

  1. Solitary waves in a nonintegrable Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truskinovsky, Lev; Vainchtein, Anna

    2014-10-01

    We present a family of exact solutions describing discrete solitary waves in a nonintegrable Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain. The family is sufficiently rich to cover the whole spectrum of known behaviors from delocalized quasicontinuum waves moving with near-sonic velocities to highly localized anticontinuum excitations with only one particle moving at a time.

  2. The Five Year Fermi/GBM Magnetar Burst Catalog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Collazzi; C. Kouveliotou; A.J. van der Horst; G.A. Younes; Y. Kaneko; E. Göğüş; L. Lin; J. Granot; M.H. Finger; V.L. Chaplin; D. Huppenkothen; A.L. Watts; A. von Kienlin; M.G. Baring; D. Gruber; P.N. Bhat; M.H. Gibby; N. Gehrels; J. Mcenery; M. van der Klis; R.A.M.J. Wijers

    2015-01-01

    Since launch in 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected many hundreds of bursts from magnetar sources. While the vast majority of these bursts have been attributed to several known magnetars, there is also a small sample of magnetar-like bursts of unknown origin. Here, we present

  3. Oscillating Casimir force between two slabs in a Fermi sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Li-Weia; Su Guo-Zhen; Chen Jin-Can; Andresen Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    The Casimir effect for two parallel slabs immersed in an ideal Fermi sea is investigated at both zero and nonzero temperatures.It is found that the Casimir effect in a Fermi gas is distinctly different from that in an electromagnetic field or a massive Bose gas.In contrast to the familiar result that the Casimir force decreases monotonically with the increase of the separation L between two slabs in an electromagnetic field and a massive Bose gas,the Casimir force in a Fermi gas oscillates as a function of L.The Casimir force can be either attractive or repulsive,depending sensitively on the magnitude of L. In addition,it is found that the amplitude of the Casimir force in a Fermi gas decreases with the increase of the temperature,which also is contrary to the case in a Bose gas,since the bosonic Casimir force increases linearly with the increase of the temperature in the region T < Tc,where Tc is the critical temperature of the Bose-Einstein condensation.

  4. On the semiclassical description of nuclear Fermi liquid drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this series of lectures we aimed at presenting a self-contained semiclassical theory entirely based on the extended Thomas-Fermi or Wigner-Kirkwood h expansion in phase space. We saw that not only the Wigner transform of the single particle density matrix can be understood and very accurately represented in this way but that also generalisations to correlation functions are straightforward. First, we demonstrated a generalisation to superfluid nuclei and to superfluid nuclei in slow rotation. The latter involves already the (static) particle-hole correlation function and we saw how e.g. the reduction of the moment of inertia by roughly a factor of two could be explained very easily in an analytic way. We very clearly pointed out the necessity to treat particles (holes) individually in Thomas Fermi approximation. A further very promising result is that the linear response function for transferred momenta q>0.6 fm-1 can be very accurately represented in our p-h-Thomas Fermi approach. In the last paragraph we give somewhat speculative arguments that say the 2+ states of quasi macroscopic Fermi Liquid Drops could be well calculated in expanding the time dependent density matrix on a set of coherent states and a simple example for nearly harmonic potentials is given

  5. Animating Fermi - A Collaboration Between Art Students and Astronomers

    CERN Document Server

    Arcadias, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate animation students at the Maryland Institute College of Art teamed up with scientists from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to produce a set of animations on several astronomy topics. We describe the process and discuss the results, including educational benefits and the cross-cultural experience. These animations are freely available online.

  6. Some aspects of singular interactions in condensed Fermi systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, P. C. E.

    1993-02-01

    This article gives a fairly detailed survey of some of the problems raised when the interaction energy f^{σ σ'}_{k k'} between 2 fermionic quasiparticles (in 2 dimensions) is singular when |k-k'|to 0. Before dealing with singular interactions, it is shown how a non-singular f^{σ σ'}_{k k'} leads to a 2-dimensional Fermi liquid theory, which is internally consistent, at least as far as its infrared properties are concerned. The quasiparticle properties are calculated in detail. The question of whether singular interactions arise for the dilute Fermi gas, with short-range repulsive interactions, is investigated perturbatively. One finds a weak singularity in f^{σ σ'}_{k k'}, when the dimensionality D = 2, but it does not destabilize the Fermi liquid. A more sophisticated analysis is then given, to all orders in the interaction, using the Lippman-Schwinger equation as well as a phase shift analysis for a finite box. The conclusion is that any breakdown of Fermi liquid theory must come from non-perturbative effects. An examination is then made of some of the consequences arising if a singular interaction is introduced — the form proposed by Anderson is used as an example. A hierarchy of singular terms arise in all quantities — this is shown for the self-energy, and also the 3 point and 4 point scattering functions. These may be summed in a perfectly consistent manner. Most attention is given to the particle-hole channel, since it appears to lead to results different from those of Anderson. Nevertheless it appears that it is possible to derive a sensible theory starting from a singular effective Hamiltonian — although Fermi Liquid theory breaks down, all fermionic quantities may be calculated consistently. Finally, the effect of a magnetic field (which cuts off the infrared divergences) is investigated, and the de Haas-van Alphen amplitude calculated, for such a singular Fermionic system.

  7. Erratum to ATel 6655: Fermi LAT Detection of a new Gamma-ray source Fermi J0507-5641

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, B.; Ojha, R.

    2014-11-01

    (The flux units have been corrected to x10^-6 photons cm^-2 s^-1.) The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed strong gamma-ray emission from a new source.

  8. The universal sound velocity formula for the strongly interacting unitary Fermi gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ke; Chen Ji-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Due to the scale invariance, the thermodynamic laws of strongly interacting limit unitary Fermi gas can be similar to those of non-interacting ideal gas. For example, the virial theorem between pressure and energy density of the ideal gas P = 2E/ZV is still satisfied by the unitary Fermi gas. This paper analyses the sound velocity of unitary Fermi gases with the quasi-linear approximation. For comparison, the sound velocities for the ideal Boltzmann, Bose and Fermi gas are also given. Quite interestingly, the sound velocity formula for the ideal non-interacting gas is found to be satisfied by the unitary Fermi gas in different temperature regions.

  9. Super-allowed Fermi beta-decay revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, D H

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of J suppi=0 sup +->0 sup + super-allowed Fermi transitions is limited with respect to the precision of its outcome in terms of the Fermi coupling constant neither by the accuracy of the experimental input data nor by the confidence with which the radiative corrections can be applied but rather by knowledge of the nuclear mismatch: the subversion of isospin symmetry along the multiplets. Theoretical estimates of this mismatch differ considerably from to their direct nuclide-by-nuclide application results in an apparent clear violation of the hypothesis of conservation of the vector current and evident inconsistency with unitary of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. This paper pursues and elaborates the earlier suggestion that, in these unsatisfactory circumstances, the best procedure is to look to the experimental data themselves to determine and eliminate the mismatch by appropriate extrapolation to Z approx 0 where the mismatch falls away. This is done: (i) without any prior correction for misma...

  10. Fermi Science Support Center Data Servers and Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reustle, Alexander; FSSC, LAT Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Fermi Science Support Center (FSSC) provides the scientific community with access to Fermi data and other products. The Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) data is stored at NASA's High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) and is accessible through their searchable Browse web interface. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) data is distributed through a custom FSSC interface where users can request all photons detected from a region on the sky over a specified time and energy range. Through its website the FSSC also provides planning and scheduling products, such as long and short term observing timelines, spacecraft position and attitude histories, and exposure maps. We present an overview of the different data products provided by the FSSC, how they can be accessed, and statistics on the archive usage since launch.

  11. Instanton effects in ABJM theory from Fermi gas approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst.; Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2012-11-19

    We study the instanton effects of the ABJM partition function using the Fermi gas formalism. We compute the exact values of the partition function at the Chern-Simons levels k=1, 2, 3, 4, 6 up to N=44, 20, 18, 16, 14 respectively, and extract non-perturbative corrections from these exact results. Fitting the resulting non-perturbative corrections by their expected forms from the Fermi gas, we determine unknown parameters in them. After separating the oscillating behavior of the grand potential, which originates in the periodicity of the grand partition function, and the worldsheet instanton contribution, which is computed from the topological string theory, we succeed in proposing an analytical expression for the leading D2-instanton correction. Just as the perturbative result, the instanton corrections to the partition function are expressed in terms of the Airy function.

  12. GRB Duration Distribution Considering the Position of the Fermi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Szécsi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fermi satellite has a particular motion during its flight which enables it to catch the gamma-ray bursts mostly well. The side-effect of this favourable feature is that the lightcurves of the GBM detectors are stressed by rapidly and extremely varying background. Before this data is processed, it needs to be separated from the background. The commonly used methods [3,7] were useless for most cases of Fermi, so we developed a new technique based on the motion and orientation of the satellite. The background-free lightcurve can be used to perform statistical surveys, hence we showed the efficiency of our background-filtering method presenting a statistical analysis known from the literature.

  13. GRB duration distribution considering the position of the Fermi

    CERN Document Server

    Szecsi, Dorottya; Horvath, Istvan; Balazs, Lajos G; Veres, Peter; Meszaros, Attila

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi satellite has a particular motion during its flight which enables it to catch the gamma-ray bursts mostly well. The side-effect of this favourable feature is that the lightcurves of the GBM detectors are stressed by rapidly and extremely varying background. Before this data is processed, it needs to be separated from the background. The commonly used methods were useless for most cases of Fermi, so we developed a new technique based on the motion and orientation of the satellite. The background-free lightcurve can be used to perform statistical surveys, hence we showed the efficiency of our background-filtering method presenting a statistical analysis known from the literature.

  14. Energy fluctuations of a finite free-electron Fermi gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekola, Jukka P.; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo; Kupiainen, Antti; Galperin, Yuri M.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the energy distribution of free-electron Fermi-gas, a problem with a textbook solution of Gaussian energy fluctuations in the limit of a large system. We find that for a small system, characterized solely by its heat capacity C , the distribution can be solved analytically, and it is both skewed and it vanishes at low energies, exhibiting a sharp drop to zero at the energy corresponding to the filled Fermi sea. The results are relevant from the experimental point of view, since the predicted non-Gaussian effects become pronounced when C /kB≲103 (kB is the Boltzmann constant), a regime that can be easily achieved for instance in mesoscopic metallic conductors at sub-kelvin temperatures.

  15. Heat capacity and sound velocities of low dimensional Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, P.; Solis, M. A.

    2014-03-01

    We report the heat capacity ratio and sound velocities for an interactionless Fermi gas immersed in periodic structures such as penetrable multilayers or multitubes created by one (planes) or two perpendicular (tubes) external Dirac comb potentials. The isobaric specific heat of the fermion gas presents the dimensional crossover previously observed in the isochoric specific heat - from 3D to 2D or to 1D -. The quotient between the two quantities has a prominent bump related to the confinement, and as the temperature increases, it goes towards the monoatomic classical gas value 5/3. We present the isothermal and the adiabatic sound velocities of the fermion gas which show anomalous behavior at temperatures below TF due to the dimensionality of the system, while at higher temperatures again we recover the behavior of a classical Fermi gas. Furthermore, as the temperature goes to zero the sound velocity has a finite value, as expected.

  16. Universal properties of Fermi gases in arbitrary dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Valiente, Manuel; Molmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    We consider spin-1/2 Fermi gases in arbitrary, integer or non-integer spatial dimensions, interacting via a Dirac delta potential. We first generalize the method of Tan's distributions and implement short-range boundary conditions to arbitrary dimension and we obtain a set of universal relations for the Fermi gas, which serve as dimensional interpolation/extrapolation formulae in between integer dimensions. We show that, under very general conditions, effective reduced-dimensional scattering lengths due to transversal confinement depend on the original three-dimensional scattering length in a universal way. As a direct consequence, we find that confinement-induced resonances occur in all dimensions different from D=2, without any need to solve the associated multichannel scattering problem. Finally, we show that reduced-dimensional contacts --- related to the tails of the momentum distributions --- are connected to the actual three-dimensional contact through a correction factor of purely geometric origin.

  17. The Five Year Fermi/GBM Magnetar Burst Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazzi, A. C.; Kouveliotou, C.; van der Horst, A. J.; Younes, G. A.; Kaneko, Y.; Göğüş, E.; Lin, L.; Granot, J.; Finger, M. H.; Chaplin, V. L.; Huppenkothen, D.; Watts, A. L.; von Kienlin, A.; Baring, M. G.; Gruber, D.; Bhat, P. N.; Gibby, M. H.; Gehrels, N.; McEnery, J.; van der Klis, M.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2015-05-01

    Since launch in 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected many hundreds of bursts from magnetar sources. While the vast majority of these bursts have been attributed to several known magnetars, there is also a small sample of magnetar-like bursts of unknown origin. Here, we present the Fermi/GBM magnetar catalog, providing the results of the temporal and spectral analyses of 440 magnetar bursts with high temporal and spectral resolution. This catalog covers the first five years of GBM magnetar observations, from 2008 July to 2013 June. We provide durations, spectral parameters for various models, fluences, and peak fluxes for all the bursts, as well as a detailed temporal analysis for SGR J1550-5418 bursts. Finally, we suggest that some of the bursts of unknown origin are associated with the newly discovered magnetar 3XMM J185246.6+0033.7.

  18. Small metal particles and the ideal Fermi gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo's theoretical model of a small metal particle consists of a number of noninteraction electrons (an ideal Fermi gas) confined to a finite volume. By 'small' it meant that the size of the particle is intermediate between that of a few atoms cluster and the bulk solid, the radius of the particle being 5 to 50 Angstroms. The model is discussed and size dependence of various energy scales is studied. For a fermi gas confined in a sphere or a cube, two size-dependent energy scales are important. The inner scale δ is the mean spacing between successive energy levels. It governs the very low temperature behaviour. The outer scale Δ is associated with the shell structure when δ ≤T<Δ, thermodynamic properties show an oscillatory fluctuations around a smooth background as the size or energy is varied. (M.G.B.) 23 refs

  19. Symmetries and currents of the ideal and unitary Fermi gases

    CERN Document Server

    Bekaert, Xavier; Moroz, Sergej

    2011-01-01

    The maximal algebra of symmetries of the free single-particle Schroedinger equation is determined and its relevance for the holographic duality in non-relativistic Fermi systems is investigated. This algebra of symmetries is an infinite dimensional extension of the Schroedinger algebra, it is isomorphic to the Weyl algebra of quantum observables, and it may be interpreted as a non-relativistic higher-spin algebra. The associated infinite collection of Noether currents bilinear in the fermions are derived from their relativistic counterparts via a light-like dimensional reduction. The minimal coupling of these currents to background sources is rewritten in a compact way by making use of Weyl quantisation. Pushing forward the similarities with the holographic correspondence between the minimal higher-spin gravity and the critical O(N) model, a putative bulk dual of the unitary and the ideal Fermi gases is discussed.

  20. Energy fluctuations of a finite free-electron Fermi gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekola, Jukka P; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo; Kupiainen, Antti; Galperin, Yuri M

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the energy distribution of free-electron Fermi-gas, a problem with a textbook solution of Gaussian energy fluctuations in the limit of a large system. We find that for a small system, characterized solely by its heat capacity C, the distribution can be solved analytically, and it is both skewed and it vanishes at low energies, exhibiting a sharp drop to zero at the energy corresponding to the filled Fermi sea. The results are relevant from the experimental point of view, since the predicted non-Gaussian effects become pronounced when C/k_{B}≲10^{3} (k_{B} is the Boltzmann constant), a regime that can be easily achieved for instance in mesoscopic metallic conductors at sub-kelvin temperatures. PMID:27627262

  1. Virial theorem and universality in a unitary fermi gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J E; Kinast, J; Turlapov, A

    2005-09-16

    Unitary Fermi gases, where the scattering length is large compared to the interparticle spacing, can have universal properties, which are independent of the details of the interparticle interactions when the range of the scattering potential is negligible. We prepare an optically trapped, unitary Fermi gas of 6Li, tuned just above the center of a broad Feshbach resonance. In agreement with the universal hypothesis, we observe that this strongly interacting many-body system obeys the virial theorem for an ideal gas over a wide range of temperatures. Based on this result, we suggest a simple volume thermometry method for unitary gases. We also show that the observed breathing mode frequency, which is close to the unitary hydrodynamic value over a wide range of temperature, is consistent with a universal hydrodynamic gas with nearly isentropic dynamics. PMID:16197054

  2. Propagation dynamics on the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Zongqiang

    2013-01-01

    The spatiotemporal propagation of a momentum excitation on the finite Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattices is investigated. The competition between the solitary wave and phonons gives rise to interesting propagation behaviors. For a moderate nonlinearity, the initially excited pulse may propagate coherently along the lattice for a long time in a solitary wave manner accompanied by phonon tails. The lifetime of the long-transient propagation state exhibits a sensitivity to the nonlinear parameter. The solitary wave decays exponentially during the final loss of stability, and the decay rate varying with the nonlinear parameter exhibits two different scaling laws. This decay is found to be related to the largest Lyapunov exponent of the corresponding Hamiltonian system, which manifests a transition from weak to strong chaos. The mean-free-path of the solitary waves is estimated in the strong chaos regime, which may be helpful to understand the origin of anomalous conductivity in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice.

  3. Virial theorem and universality in a unitary fermi gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J E; Kinast, J; Turlapov, A

    2005-09-16

    Unitary Fermi gases, where the scattering length is large compared to the interparticle spacing, can have universal properties, which are independent of the details of the interparticle interactions when the range of the scattering potential is negligible. We prepare an optically trapped, unitary Fermi gas of 6Li, tuned just above the center of a broad Feshbach resonance. In agreement with the universal hypothesis, we observe that this strongly interacting many-body system obeys the virial theorem for an ideal gas over a wide range of temperatures. Based on this result, we suggest a simple volume thermometry method for unitary gases. We also show that the observed breathing mode frequency, which is close to the unitary hydrodynamic value over a wide range of temperature, is consistent with a universal hydrodynamic gas with nearly isentropic dynamics.

  4. The Five Year Fermi/GBM Magnetar Burst Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Collazzi, A C; van der Horst, A J; Younes, G A; Kaneko, Y; Gogus, E; Lin, L; Granot, J; Finger, M H; Chaplin, V L; Huppenkothen, D; Watts, A L; von Kienlin, A; Baring, M G; Gruber, D; Bhat, P N; Gibby, M H; Gehrels, N; McEnery, J; van der Klis, M; Wijers, R A M J

    2015-01-01

    Since launch in 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected many hundreds of bursts from magnetar sources. While the vast majority of these bursts have been attributed to several known magnetars, there is also a small sample of magnetar-like bursts of unknown origin. Here we present the Fermi/GBM magnetar catalog, giving the results of the temporal and spectral analyses of 440 magnetar bursts with high temporal and spectral resolution. This catalog covers the first five years of GBM magnetar observations, from July 2008 to June 2013. We provide durations, spectral parameters for various models, fluences and peak fluxes for all the bursts, as well as a detailed temporal analysis for SGR J1550-5418 bursts. Finally, we suggest that some of the bursts of unknown origin are associated with the newly discovered magnetar 3XMM J185246.6+0033.7.

  5. THE FIVE YEAR FERMI/GBM MAGNETAR BURST CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collazzi, A. C. [SciTec, Inc., 100 Wall Street, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Kouveliotou, C.; Horst, A. J. van der; Younes, G. A. [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Kaneko, Y.; Göğüş, E. [Sabancı University, Orhanlı-Tuzla, İstanbul 34956 (Turkey); Lin, L. [François Arago Centre, APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris (France); Granot, J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Raanana 43537 (Israel); Finger, M. H. [Universities Space Research Association, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Chaplin, V. L. [School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, 1161 21st Avenue S, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Huppenkothen, D. [Center for Data Science, New York University, 726 Broadway, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Watts, A. L. [Anton Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kienlin, A. von [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Gruber, D. [Planetarium Südtirol, Gummer 5, I-39053 Karneid (Italy); Bhat, P. N. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Gibby, M. H., E-mail: acollazzi@scitec.com [Jacobs Technology, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    Since launch in 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected many hundreds of bursts from magnetar sources. While the vast majority of these bursts have been attributed to several known magnetars, there is also a small sample of magnetar-like bursts of unknown origin. Here, we present the Fermi/GBM magnetar catalog, providing the results of the temporal and spectral analyses of 440 magnetar bursts with high temporal and spectral resolution. This catalog covers the first five years of GBM magnetar observations, from 2008 July to 2013 June. We provide durations, spectral parameters for various models, fluences, and peak fluxes for all the bursts, as well as a detailed temporal analysis for SGR J1550–5418 bursts. Finally, we suggest that some of the bursts of unknown origin are associated with the newly discovered magnetar 3XMM J185246.6+0033.7.

  6. Momentum-resolved spectroscopy of a Fermi liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggen, Elmer V H; Kinnunen, Jami J

    2015-01-01

    We consider a recent momentum-resolved radio-frequency spectroscopy experiment, in which Fermi liquid properties of a strongly interacting atomic Fermi gas were studied. Here we show that by extending the Brueckner-Goldstone model, we can formulate a theory that goes beyond basic mean-field theories and that can be used for studying spectroscopies of dilute atomic gases in the strongly interacting regime. The model hosts well-defined quasiparticles and works across a wide range of temperatures and interaction strengths. The theory provides excellent qualitative agreement with the experiment. Comparing the predictions of the present theory with the mean-field Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory yields insights into the role of pair correlations, Tan's contact, and the Hartree mean-field energy shift. PMID:25941948

  7. Fermi surfaces of surface states on Si(111)-Ag, Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, J. N.; Altmann, K. N.; Bromberger, C.; Himpsel, F. J.

    2002-11-01

    Metallic surface states on semiconducting substrates provide an opportunity to study low-dimensional electrons decoupled from the bulk. Angle resolved photoemission is used to determine the Fermi surface, group velocity, and effective mass for surface states on Si(111)(3)×(3)-Ag, Si(111)(3)×(3)-Au, and Si(111)(21)×(21)-(Ag+Au). For Si(111)(3)×(3)-Ag the Fermi surface consists of small electron pockets populated by electrons from a few % excess Ag. For Si(111)(21)×(21)-(Ag+Au) the pockets increase their size corresponding to a filling by three electrons per unit cell. The (21)×(21) superlattice leads to an intricate surface umklapp pattern and to minigaps of 110 meV, giving an interaction potential of 55 meV for the (21)×(21) superlattice.

  8. Magnetar Observations in the Swift-Fermi/GBM Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Fermi Observatory was launched June 11, 2008; the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) began normal operations on July 14, about a month after launch, when the trigger algorithms were enabled. Since then, and against all odds, GBM recorded over 600 bursts from 4 SGRs. Of these four sources, only one was an old magnetar: SGR J1806+20. SGR J0501+4516, was discovered with Swift and extensively monitored with GBM. A source originally classified as AXP 1E1547.0-5408 exhibited SGR-like bursting behavior and we reclassified it as SGR J1550-5418. Finally, GBM discovered SGR J0418+5729 on 2009 June. Finally, on March 2010, a third new magnetar was discovered with Swift, SGR J1833-0832. I report below on the current status of the field and on several results combining multi-satellite and ground-based data

  9. Enhanced diphoton rates at Fermi and the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Staub, Florian [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics und Physikalisches Inst.; Winkler, Martin Wolfgang [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    We show that within MSSM singlet extensions the experimental hints beyond the standard model from the Fermi LAT telescope as well as from the LHC can be explained simultaneously while being consistent with all experimental constraints. In particular we present an example point which features a {proportional_to}130 GeV lightest neutralino with an annihilation cross section into photons consistent with the indication from the Fermi satellite with simultaneously the right relic abundance, a continuum photon spectrum consistent with observation, direct detection cross section below the experimental limits, electroweak observables consistent with experiment and a 125 GeV light Higgs boson with a slightly enhanced h{yields}{gamma}{gamma} rate.

  10. The Shear Viscosity in an Anisotropic Unitary Fermi Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Samanta, Rickmoy; Trivedi, Sandip P

    2016-01-01

    We consider a system consisting of a strongly interacting, ultracold unitary Fermi gas under harmonic confinement. Our analysis suggests the possibility of experimentally studying, in this system, an anisotropic shear viscosity tensor driven by the anisotropy in the trapping potential. In particular, we suggest that this experimental setup could mimic some features of anisotropic geometries that have recently been studied for strongly coupled field theories which have a gravitational dual. Results using the AdS/CFT correspondence in these theories show that in systems with a background linear potential, certain viscosity components can be made much smaller than the entropy density, parametrically violating the KSS bound. This intuition, along with results from a Boltzmann analysis that we perform, suggests that a violation of the KSS bound can perhaps occur in the unitary Fermi gas system when it is subjected to a suitable anisotropic trapping potential. We give a concrete proposal for an experimental setup w...

  11. Itinerant Ferromagnetism in a Polarized Two-Component Fermi Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massignan, Pietro; Yu, Zhenhua; Bruun, Georg

    2013-01-01

    We analyze when a repulsively interacting two-component Fermi gas becomes thermodynamically unstable against phase separation. We focus on the strongly polarized limit, where the free energy of the homogeneous mixture can be calculated accurately in terms of well-defined quasiparticles, the repul...... of the minority atoms, raising the prospects of detecting the transition to the elusive itinerant ferromagnetic state with ultracold atoms....

  12. Information entropy and Thomas-Fermi screening functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we apply the information entropy concept to analyze different trial electron densities in momentum and coordinate spaces, into the Thomas-Fermi density functional formalism. Furthermore, we try to assess how well-known physical properties of neutral atoms are reproduced and hence evaluate the quality of the screening functions in the light of their predictive capacity. (author). 32 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Diagnosing alternative conceptions of Fermi energy among undergraduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sapna; Ahluwalia, Pardeep Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Physics education researchers have scientifically established the fact that the understanding of new concepts and interpretation of incoming information are strongly influenced by the preexisting knowledge and beliefs of students, called epistemological beliefs. This can lead to a gap between what students actually learn and what the teacher expects them to learn. In a classroom, as a teacher, it is desirable that one tries to bridge this gap at least on the key concepts of a particular field which is being taught. One such key concept which crops up in statistical physics/solid-state physics courses, and around which the behaviour of materials is described, is Fermi energy (εF). In this paper, we present the results which emerged about misconceptions on Fermi energy in the process of administering a diagnostic tool called the Statistical Physics Concept Survey developed by the authors. It deals with eight themes of basic importance in learning undergraduate solid-state physics and statistical physics. The question items of the tool were put through well-established sequential processes: definition of themes, Delphi study, interview with students, drafting questions, administration, validity and reliability of the tool. The tool was administered to a group of undergraduate students and postgraduate students, in a pre-test and post-test design. In this paper, we have taken one of the themes i.e. Fermi energy of the diagnostic tool for our analysis and discussion. Students’ responses and reasoning comments given during interview were analysed. This analysis helped us to identify prevailing misconceptions/learning gaps among students on this topic. How spreadsheets can be effectively used to remove the identified misconceptions and help appreciate the finer nuances while visualizing the behaviour of the system around Fermi energy, normally sidestepped both by the teachers and learners, is also presented in this paper.

  14. Pulsar Polar Cap and Slot Gap Models: Confronting Fermi Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2012-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. I will review acceleration and gamma-ray emission from the pulsar polar cap and slot gap. Predictions of these models can be tested with the data set on pulsars collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope over the last four years, using both detailed light curve fitting and population synthesis.

  15. Analytic thermodynamics and thermometry of Gaudin-Yang Fermi gases

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Erhai; Guan, Xi-Wen; Liu, W. Vincent; Batchelor, M. T.; Oshikawa, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of a one-dimensional attractive Fermi gas (the Gaudin-Yang model) with spin imbalance. The exact solution has been known from the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz for decades, but it involves an infinite number of coupled nonlinear integral equations whose physics is difficult to extract. Here the solution is analytically reduced to a simple, powerful set of four algebraic equations. The simplified equations become universal and exact in the experimental regime of strong...

  16. Dynamics of atom-atom correlations in the Fermi problem

    OpenAIRE

    Borrelli, Massimo; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Plastina, Francesco; Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed perturbative study of the dynamics of several types of atom-atom correlations in the famous Fermi problem. This is an archetypal model to study micro-causality in the quantum domain, where two atoms, one initially excited and the other prepared in its ground state, interact with the vacuum electromagnetic field. The excitation can be transferred to the second atom via a flying photon, and various kinds of quantum correlations between the two are generated during this pro...

  17. Traffic modifications on Routes Rutherford, Democrite and Fermi

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The GS Department would like to inform you that until the end of December, the construction of Building 245 will result in the following traffic modifications: Traffic on Route Rutherford will be partially restricted in front of the construction site, Traffic on Route Democrite will be one-way towards Route Rutherford. Also, please note that due to construction work in front of Building 377, Route Fermi will be closed from Wednesday, 10 June until Friday, 7 August. Thank you for your understanding.

  18. First order Fermi acceleration driven by magnetic reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Drury, Luke O'C

    2012-01-01

    A box model is used to study first order Fermi acceleration driven by magnetic reconnection. It is shown, at least in this simple model, that the spectral index of the accelerated particles is related to the total compression in the same way as in diffusive shock acceleration and is not, as has been suggested, a universal $E^{-5/2}$ spectrum. The acceleration time-scale is estimated and some comments made about the applicability of the process.

  19. High Energy Astrophysics with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the findings of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Observatory. It includes information about the LAT, and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), detection of the quiet sun and the moon in gamma rays, Pulsars observed by the observatory, Globular Star Clusters, Active Galactic Nucleus, and Gamma-Ray Bursts, with specific information about GRB 080916C.

  20. The isospin mixing and the superallowed Fermi beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A E Çalik; M Gerçekliğlu; D I Salamov

    2012-09-01

    In the present work, the isospin admixtures in the nuclear ground states of the parent nuclei and isospin structure of the isobar analog resonance (IAR) states have been investigated by studying the 0+ → 0+ superallowed Fermi decays using Pyatov’s restoration method. Within the random phase approximation (RPA), in this method, the effect of isospin breaking due to the Coulomb forces has been evaluated, taking into account the effect of pairing correlations between nucleons.

  1. Warm pasta phase in the Thomas-Fermi approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Avancini, S. S.; Chiacchiera, S.; Menezes, D. P.; Providência, C.

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, the pasta phase is studied at finite temperatures within a Thomas-Fermi (TF) approach. Relativistic mean field models, both with constant and density-dependent couplings, are used to describe this frustrated system. We compare the present results with previous ones obtained within a phase-coexistence description and conclude that the TF approximation gives rise to a richer inner pasta phase structure and the homogeneous matter appears at higher densities. Finally, the tr...

  2. Diboson Signals via Fermi Scale Spin-One States

    CERN Document Server

    Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS observe deviations from the expected background in diboson invariant mass searches of new resonances around 2 TeV. We provide a general analysis of the results in terms of spin-one resonances and find that Fermi scale composite dynamics can be the culprit. The analysis and methodology can be employed for future searches at run two of the Large Hadron Collider.

  3. Meson spectra governed by the Fermi-Breit potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jirimutu; WANG Hai-Jun; ZHANG Wei-Ning; Cheuk-Yin Wong

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the meson mass spectra in a quark potential model by using the complete Fermi-Breit potential including the terms of orbit-orbit interaction, spin-orbit coupling, and tensor force interaction. We find that these terms give nontrivial contributions to the calculated meson spectra. The orbit-orbit coupling term may lead to an instability of the solution of the Schrodinger equation and should be regularized.

  4. Inhomogeneous atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in cubic lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, M.; Eisert, J.; Illuminati, F.

    2003-01-01

    We determine the ground state properties of inhomogeneous mixtures of bosons and fermions in cubic lattices by studying the Bose-Fermi Hubbard model including parabolic confining potentials. We present the exact solution in the limit of vanishing hopping (ultradeep lattices) and study the resulting domain structure of composite particles. For finite hopping we determine the domain boundaries between Mott-insulator plateaux and hopping-dominated regions for lattices of arbitrary dimensionality...

  5. Relativistic Thomas-Fermi Model at Finite Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    G. Bertone(GRAPPA Center of Excellence, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam, The Netherlands); Ruffini, R.

    2001-01-01

    We briefly review the Thomas-Fermi statistical model of atoms in the classical non-relativistic formulation and in the generalised finite-nucleus relativistic formulation. We then discuss the classical generalisation of the model to finite temperatures in the non-relativistic approximation and present a new relativistic model at finite temperatures, investigating how to recover the existing theory in the limit of low temperatures. This work is intended to be a propedeutical study for the eval...

  6. Diagnosing alternative conceptions of Fermi energy among undergraduate students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physics education researchers have scientifically established the fact that the understanding of new concepts and interpretation of incoming information are strongly influenced by the preexisting knowledge and beliefs of students, called epistemological beliefs. This can lead to a gap between what students actually learn and what the teacher expects them to learn. In a classroom, as a teacher, it is desirable that one tries to bridge this gap at least on the key concepts of a particular field which is being taught. One such key concept which crops up in statistical physics/solid-state physics courses, and around which the behaviour of materials is described, is Fermi energy (εF). In this paper, we present the results which emerged about misconceptions on Fermi energy in the process of administering a diagnostic tool called the Statistical Physics Concept Survey developed by the authors. It deals with eight themes of basic importance in learning undergraduate solid-state physics and statistical physics. The question items of the tool were put through well-established sequential processes: definition of themes, Delphi study, interview with students, drafting questions, administration, validity and reliability of the tool. The tool was administered to a group of undergraduate students and postgraduate students, in a pre-test and post-test design. In this paper, we have taken one of the themes i.e. Fermi energy of the diagnostic tool for our analysis and discussion. Students’ responses and reasoning comments given during interview were analysed. This analysis helped us to identify prevailing misconceptions/learning gaps among students on this topic. How spreadsheets can be effectively used to remove the identified misconceptions and help appreciate the finer nuances while visualizing the behaviour of the system around Fermi energy, normally sidestepped both by the teachers and learners, is also presented in this paper. (paper)

  7. Processing GPS Receiver Data for Improved Fermi GLAST Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Fermi GLAST s 5-year mission objectives: a) Explore the most extreme environments in the Universe. b) Search for signs of new laws of physics and what composes the mysterious Dark Matter. c) Explain how black holes accelerate immense jets of material to nearly light speed. d) Help crack the mysteries of gamma-ray bursts. e) Answer long-standing questions across a broad range of topics, including solar flares, pulsars and the origin of cosmic rays.

  8. Diboson Signals via Fermi Scale Spin-One States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Frandsen, Mads T.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS observe deviations from the expected background in diboson invariant mass searches of new resonances around 2 TeV. We provide a general analysis of the results in terms of spin-one resonances and find that Fermi scale composite dynamics can be the culprit. The analysis and methodolo...... can be employed for future searches at run two of the Large Hadron Collider....

  9. Are the surface Fermi arcs in Dirac semimetals topologically protected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarian, Mehdi; Randeria, Mohit; Lu, Yuan-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by recent experiments probing anomalous surface states of Dirac semimetals (DSMs) Na3Bi and Cd3As2, we raise the question posed in the title. We find that, in marked contrast to Weyl semimetals, the gapless surface states of DSMs are not topologically protected in general, except on time-reversal-invariant planes of surface Brillouin zone. We first demonstrate this finding in a minimal four-band model with a pair of Dirac nodes at k=(0,0,±Q),k=(0,0,±Q), where gapless states on the side surfaces are protected only near kz=0.kz=0. We then validate our conclusions about the absence of a topological invariant protecting double Fermi arcs in DSMs, using a K-theory analysis for space groups of Na3Bi and Cd3As2. Generically, the arcs deform into a Fermi pocket, similar to the surface states of a topological insulator, and this pocket can merge into the projection of bulk Dirac Fermi surfaces as the chemical potential is varied. We make sharp predictions for the doping dependence of the surface states of a DSM that can be tested by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and quantum oscillation experiments.

  10. Fermi Reveals New Light on Novae in Gamma rays

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, C C; Shore, S N; Grove, J E; Leising, M

    2016-01-01

    Novae are now firmly established as a high-energy (>100 MeV) gamma-ray source class by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). In symbiotic binary systems such as V407 Cyg 2010, there is a firm theoretical framework for the production of shock-accelerated particles in the nova ejecta from interactions with the dense wind of the red giant companion. Yet, the high-energy gamma-ray emission detected in classical novae involving less evolved stellar companions cannot be explained in the same way and could instead be produced in internal shocks in the ejecta. We summarize the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray observations of novae, highlighting the main properties that will guide further studies. Additionally, we report on the soft gamma-ray (~0.1 MeV) continuum detection of the oxygen-neon type classical nova V382 Vel 1999 with the OSSE detector aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory in light of its Fermi-era analog, V959 Mon 2012.

  11. The Fermi Large Area Telescope as a Galactic Supernovae Axionscope

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Manuel; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Conrad, Jan; Sanchez-Conde, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    In a Galactic core-collapse supernova (SN), axionlike particles (ALPs) could be emitted via the Primakoff process and eventually convert into $\\gamma$ rays in the magnetic field of the Milky Way. From a data-driven sensitivity estimate, we find that, for a SN exploding in our Galaxy, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) would be able to explore the photon-ALP coupling down to $g_{a\\gamma} \\simeq 2 \\times 10^{-13}\\,$GeV$^{-1}$ for an ALP mass $m_a \\lesssim 10^{-9}\\,$eV. These values are out of reach of next generation laboratory experiments. In this event, the Fermi LAT would probe large regions of the ALP parameter space invoked to explain the anomalous transparency of the Universe to $\\gamma$ rays, stellar cooling anomalies, and cold dark matter. If no $\\gamma$-ray emission were to be detected, Fermi-LAT observations would improve current bounds derived from SN1987A by more than one order of magnitude.

  12. Quadratic Fermi node in a 3D strongly correlated semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Nakayama, M.; Chen, R.; Ishikawa, J. J.; Moon, E.-G.; Yamamoto, T.; Ota, Y.; Malaeb, W.; Kanai, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Ishida, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Matsunami, M.; Kimura, S.; Inami, N.; Ono, K.; Kumigashira, H.; Nakatsuji, S.; Balents, L.; Shin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Strong spin-orbit coupling fosters exotic electronic states such as topological insulators and superconductors, but the combination of strong spin-orbit and strong electron-electron interactions is just beginning to be understood. Central to this emerging area are the 5d transition metal iridium oxides. Here, in the pyrochlore iridate Pr2Ir2O7, we identify a non-trivial state with a single-point Fermi node protected by cubic and time-reversal symmetries, using a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. Owing to its quadratic dispersion, the unique coincidence of four degenerate states at the Fermi energy, and strong Coulomb interactions, non-Fermi liquid behaviour is predicted, for which we observe some evidence. Our discovery implies that Pr2Ir2O7 is a parent state that can be manipulated to produce other strongly correlated topological phases, such as topological Mott insulator, Weyl semimetal, and quantum spin and anomalous Hall states.

  13. THE FIRST FERMI-LAT GAMMA-RAY BURST CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Asano, K. [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro City, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Axelsson, M. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bechtol, K.; Bloom, E. D. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhat, P. N. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Bissaldi, E. [Institut für Astro- und Teilchenphysik and Institut für Theoretische Physik, Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Bonnell, J.; Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bouvier, A., E-mail: nicola.omodei@stanford.edu, E-mail: giacomov@slac.stanford.edu [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); and others

    2013-11-01

    In three years of observations since the beginning of nominal science operations in 2008 August, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has observed high-energy (∼> 20 MeV) γ-ray emission from 35 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Among these, 28 GRBs have been detected above 100 MeV and 7 GRBs above ∼20 MeV. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of GRBs is a compilation of these detections and provides a systematic study of high-energy emission from GRBs for the first time. To generate the catalog, we examined 733 GRBs detected by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on Fermi and processed each of them using the same analysis sequence. Details of the methodology followed by the LAT collaboration for the GRB analysis are provided. We summarize the temporal and spectral properties of the LAT-detected GRBs. We also discuss characteristics of LAT-detected emission such as its delayed onset and longer duration compared with emission detected by the GBM, its power-law temporal decay at late times, and the fact that it is dominated by a power-law spectral component that appears in addition to the usual Band model.

  14. THE FIRST FERMI-LAT GAMMA-RAY BURST CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In three years of observations since the beginning of nominal science operations in 2008 August, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has observed high-energy (∼> 20 MeV) γ-ray emission from 35 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Among these, 28 GRBs have been detected above 100 MeV and 7 GRBs above ∼20 MeV. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of GRBs is a compilation of these detections and provides a systematic study of high-energy emission from GRBs for the first time. To generate the catalog, we examined 733 GRBs detected by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on Fermi and processed each of them using the same analysis sequence. Details of the methodology followed by the LAT collaboration for the GRB analysis are provided. We summarize the temporal and spectral properties of the LAT-detected GRBs. We also discuss characteristics of LAT-detected emission such as its delayed onset and longer duration compared with emission detected by the GBM, its power-law temporal decay at late times, and the fact that it is dominated by a power-law spectral component that appears in addition to the usual Band model

  15. The First Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bonnell, J.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burgess, J. Michael; Buson, S.; Byrne, D.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Dingus, B. L.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Goldstein, A.; Granot, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Gruber, D.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Inoue, Y.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kawano, T.; Kippen, R. M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Massaro, F.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McBreen, S.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Murgia, S.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Nymark, T.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Paciesas, W. S.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Pelassa, V.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Preece, R.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Rau, A.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Romoli, C.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Schalk, T. L.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Sonbas, E.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tierney, D.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Tronconi, V.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van der Horst, A. J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; von Kienlin, A.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Xiong, S.; Yang, Z.

    2013-11-01

    In three years of observations since the beginning of nominal science operations in 2008 August, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has observed high-energy (gsim 20 MeV) γ-ray emission from 35 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Among these, 28 GRBs have been detected above 100 MeV and 7 GRBs above ~20 MeV. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of GRBs is a compilation of these detections and provides a systematic study of high-energy emission from GRBs for the first time. To generate the catalog, we examined 733 GRBs detected by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on Fermi and processed each of them using the same analysis sequence. Details of the methodology followed by the LAT collaboration for the GRB analysis are provided. We summarize the temporal and spectral properties of the LAT-detected GRBs. We also discuss characteristics of LAT-detected emission such as its delayed onset and longer duration compared with emission detected by the GBM, its power-law temporal decay at late times, and the fact that it is dominated by a power-law spectral component that appears in addition to the usual Band model.

  16. Observation of Weyl nodes and Fermi arcs in tantalum phosphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, N; Weng, H M; Lv, B Q; Matt, C E; Park, J; Bisti, F; Strocov, V N; Gawryluk, D; Pomjakushina, E; Conder, K; Plumb, N C; Radovic, M; Autès, G; Yazyev, O V; Fang, Z; Dai, X; Qian, T; Mesot, J; Ding, H; Shi, M

    2016-01-01

    A Weyl semimetal possesses spin-polarized band-crossings, called Weyl nodes, connected by topological surface arcs. The low-energy excitations near the crossing points behave the same as massless Weyl fermions, leading to exotic properties like chiral anomaly. To have the transport properties dominated by Weyl fermions, Weyl nodes need to locate nearly at the chemical potential and enclosed by pairs of individual Fermi surfaces with non-zero Fermi Chern numbers. Combining angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles calculation, here we show that TaP is a Weyl semimetal with only a single type of Weyl fermions, topologically distinguished from TaAs where two types of Weyl fermions contribute to the low-energy physical properties. The simple Weyl fermions in TaP are not only of fundamental interests but also of great potential for future applications. Fermi arcs on the Ta-terminated surface are observed, which appear in a different pattern from that on the As-termination in TaAs and NbAs. PMID:26983910

  17. Criteria for Directly Detecting Topological Fermi Arcs in Weyl Semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belopolski, Ilya; Xu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, Daniel S; Chang, Guoqing; Guo, Cheng; Neupane, Madhab; Zheng, Hao; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Bian, Guang; Alidoust, Nasser; Chang, Tay-Rong; Wang, BaoKai; Zhang, Xiao; Bansil, Arun; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Jia, Shuang; Hasan, M Zahid

    2016-02-12

    The recent discovery of the first Weyl semimetal in TaAs provides the first observation of a Weyl fermion in nature and demonstrates a novel type of anomalous surface state, the Fermi arc. Like topological insulators, the bulk topological invariants of a Weyl semimetal are uniquely fixed by the surface states of a bulk sample. Here we present a set of distinct conditions, accessible by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), each of which demonstrates topological Fermi arcs in a surface state band structure, with minimal reliance on calculation. We apply these results to TaAs and NbP. For the first time, we rigorously demonstrate a nonzero Chern number in TaAs by counting chiral edge modes on a closed loop. We further show that it is unreasonable to directly observe Fermi arcs in NbP by ARPES within available experimental resolution and spectral linewidth. Our results are general and apply to any new material to demonstrate a Weyl semimetal. PMID:26919005

  18. Are the surface Fermi arcs in Dirac semimetals topologically protected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan Ming; Kargarian, Mehdi; Randeria, Mohit

    Motivated by recent experiments probing double Fermi arcs on the surface of Dirac semimetals (DSMs) Na3Bi and Cd3As2, we raise the question posed in the title. We find that, in marked contrast to Weyl semimetals, the Fermi arcs of DSMs are not topologically protected in general, except at certain time-reversal invariant momenta. For a simple 4-band model with a pair of Dirac nodes at k = (0, 0, +/-Q) gapless surface states are protected only at kz = 0. We identify symmetry allowed bulk perturbations that destroy Fermi arcs, but show that they are necessarily ``small'', i.e., higher order than terms kept in usual k . p theory. We validate our conclusions about the absence of a topological invariant protecting the surface states in DSMs using a K-theory analysis for the space groups of Na3Bi and Cd3As2 The authors acknowledge the support of the CEM, an NSF MRSEC, under Grant DMR-1420451.

  19. The Spectrum and Morphology of the Fermi Bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The Fermi bubbles are two large structures in the gamma-ray sky extending to $55^\\circ$ above and below the Galactic center. We analyze 50 months of Fermi Large Area Telescope data between 100 MeV and 500 GeV above $10^\\circ$ in Galactic latitude to derive the spectrum and morphology of the Fermi bubbles. We thoroughly explore the systematic uncertainties that arise when modeling the Galactic diffuse emission through two separate approaches. The gamma-ray spectrum is well described by either a log parabola or a power law with an exponential cutoff. We exclude a simple power law with more than 7$\\sigma$ significance. The power law with an exponential cutoff has an index of $1.9 \\pm 0.2$ and a cutoff energy of $110\\pm 50$ GeV. We find that the gamma-ray luminosity of the bubbles is $4.4^{+2.4}_{-0.9} \\times 10^{37}$ erg s$^{-1}$. We confirm a significant enhancement of gamma-ray emission in the south-eastern part of the bubbles, but we do not find significant evidence for a jet. No significant variation of the ...

  20. A Mobile Data Application for the Fermi Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas E.; Science Support Center, Fermi

    2014-01-01

    With the ever increasing use of smartphones and tablets among scientists and the world at large, it becomes increasingly important for projects and missions to have mobile friendly access to their data. This access could come in the form of mobile friendly websites and/or native mobile applications that allow the users to explore or access the data. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission has begun work along the latter path. In this poster I present the current version of the Fermi Data Portal, a native mobile application for both Android and iOS devices that allows access to various high level public data products from the Fermi Science Support Center (FSSC), the Gamma-ray Coordinate Network (GCN), and other sources. While network access is required to download data, most of the data served by the app are stored locally and are available even when a network connection is not available. This poster discusses the application's features as well as the development experience and lessons learned so far along the way.

  1. Numerical methods for the Poisson-Fermi equation in electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinn-Liang

    2013-08-01

    The Poisson-Fermi equation proposed by Bazant, Storey, and Kornyshev [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 (2011) 046102] for ionic liquids is applied to and numerically studied for electrolytes and biological ion channels in three-dimensional space. This is a fourth-order nonlinear PDE that deals with both steric and correlation effects of all ions and solvent molecules involved in a model system. The Fermi distribution follows from classical lattice models of configurational entropy of finite size ions and solvent molecules and hence prevents the long and outstanding problem of unphysical divergence predicted by the Gouy-Chapman model at large potentials due to the Boltzmann distribution of point charges. The equation reduces to Poisson-Boltzmann if the correlation length vanishes. A simplified matched interface and boundary method exhibiting optimal convergence is first developed for this equation by using a gramicidin A channel model that illustrates challenging issues associated with the geometric singularities of molecular surfaces of channel proteins in realistic 3D simulations. Various numerical methods then follow to tackle a range of numerical problems concerning the fourth-order term, nonlinearity, stability, efficiency, and effectiveness. The most significant feature of the Poisson-Fermi equation, namely, its inclusion of steric and correlation effects, is demonstrated by showing good agreement with Monte Carlo simulation data for a charged wall model and an L type calcium channel model.

  2. The physical properties of Fermi TeV BL Lac objects jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, N.; Zhang, X.; Xiong, D. R.; Zhang, H. J.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the physical properties of Fermi TeV BL Lac objects jets by modeling the quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distribution of 29 Fermi TeV BL Lacs in the frame of a one-zone leptonic synchrotron self-Compton model. Our main results are the following: (i) There is a negative correlation between B and δ in our sample, which suggests that B and δ are dependent on each other mainly in Thomson regime. (ii) There are negative correlations between νsy and r, the νIC and r, which is a signature of the energy-dependence statistical acceleration or the stochastic acceleration. There is a significant correlation between r and s, which suggests that the curvature of the electron energy distribution is attributed to the energy-dependence statistical acceleration mechanism. (iii) By assuming one proton per relativistic electron, we estimate the jet power and radiative power. A size relation Pe ˜ Pp > Pr ≳ PB is found in our sample. The Pe > PB suggests that the jets are particle dominated, and the Pe ˜ Pp means that the mean energy of relativistic electrons approaches mp/me. There are not significant correlations between Pjet and black hole mass in high or low state with a sub-sample of 18 sources, which suggests that the jet power weakly depends on the black hole mass. (iv) There is a correlation between the changes in the flux density at 1 TeV and the changes in the γpeak, which suggests the change/evolution of electron energy distribution may be mainly responsible for the flux variation.

  3. Where is everybody? -- Wait a moment ... New approach to the Fermi paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Bezsudnov, I.; Snarskii, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Fermi Paradox is the apparent contradiction between the high probability extraterrestrial civilizations' existence and the lack of contact with such civilizations. In general, solutions to Fermi's paradox come down to either estimation of Drake equation parameters i.e. our guesses about the potential number of extraterrestrial civilizations or simulation of civilizations development in the universe. We consider a new type of cellular automata, that allows to analyze Fermi paradox. We intr...

  4. Virial Expansion for a Strongly Correlated Fermi Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui

    2011-03-01

    Few-body physics can give considerable insight into the challenging many-body problem. A concrete example is the exact Tan relations linking the ``hard'' (few-body) physics at short distance, large-momentum and high frequency to the ``soft'' physics of the equation of state via a contact parameter. This has been demonstrated clearly using the operator product expansion (OPE) method which separates in a natural way few-body from many-body physics. In this talk, we present another example: the quantum virial expansion that bridges few-body and many-body physics. At large temperatures, the properties of a strongly correlated Fermi gas, either static or dynamic, can be expanded in terms of virial coefficients or expansion functions, calculable from the few-fermion solutions. For the equation of state in the resonant unitarity limit, we obtain for the first time an accurate third order virial coefficient. This has been experimentally verified in a measurement at ENS (Paris). For the single-particle spectral function, we demonstrate that an expansion up to second order is able to explain the main features of momentum-resolved RF spectroscopy in a resonantly interacting Fermi gas, as recently reported by JILA. We also obtain a virial expansion of the dynamic structure function, as measured at Swinburne University (Melbourne), and check that the second order expansion functions give the correct OPE coefficients in the limit of large momentum and frequency. The important feature of this expansion is the existence of a small parameter, the fugacity, even for strong interactions. In the future, we anticipate that higher-order virial expansions of dynamic properties such as the single-particle spectral function may provide useful insights into clarifying the debate on the pseudo-gap issue in resonantly interacting Fermi gases.

  5. The spectrum and morphology of the Fermi bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Albert, A.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, and Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier (France); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Caragiulo, M., E-mail: afrancko@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: malyshev@stanford.edu, E-mail: vahep@stanford.edu [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); and others

    2014-09-20

    The Fermi bubbles are two large structures in the gamma-ray sky extending to 55° above and below the Galactic center. We analyze 50 months of Fermi Large Area Telescope data between 100 MeV and 500 GeV above 10° in Galactic latitude to derive the spectrum and morphology of the Fermi bubbles. We thoroughly explore the systematic uncertainties that arise when modeling the Galactic diffuse emission through two separate approaches. The gamma-ray spectrum is well described by either a log parabola or a power law with an exponential cutoff. We exclude a simple power law with more than 7σ significance. The power law with an exponential cutoff has an index of 1.9 ± 0.2 and a cutoff energy of 110 ± 50 GeV. We find that the gamma-ray luminosity of the bubbles is 4.4{sub −0.9}{sup +2.4}×10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}. We confirm a significant enhancement of gamma-ray emission in the southeastern part of the bubbles, but we do not find significant evidence for a jet. No significant variation of the spectrum across the bubbles is detected. The width of the boundary of the bubbles is estimated to be 3.4{sub −2.6}{sup +3.7} deg. Both inverse Compton (IC) models and hadronic models including IC emission from secondary leptons fit the gamma-ray data well. In the IC scenario, synchrotron emission from the same population of electrons can also explain the WMAP and Planck microwave haze with a magnetic field between 5 and 20 μG.

  6. Modified Fermi energy of electrons in a superhigh magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cui; Gao, Zhi Fu; Li, Xiang Dong; Wang, Na; Yuan, Jian Ping; Peng, Qiu He

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the electron Landau level stability and its influence on the electron Fermi energy, EF(e), in the circumstance of magnetars, which are powered by magnetic field energy. In a magnetar, the Landau levels of degenerate and relativistic electrons are strongly quantized. A new quantity gn, the electron Landau level stability coefficient is introduced. According to the requirement that gn decreases with increasing the magnetic field intensity B, the magnetic field index β in the expression of EF(e) must be positive. By introducing the Dirac-δ function, we deduce a general formulae for the Fermi energy of degenerate and relativistic electrons, and obtain a particular solution to EF(e) in a superhigh magnetic field (SMF). This solution has a low magnetic field index of β = 1/6, compared with the previous one, and works when ρ ≥ 107g cm-3 and Bcr ≪ B ≤ 1017 Gauss. By modifying the phase space of relativistic electrons, a SMF can enhance the electron number density ne, and decrease the maximum of electron Landau level number, which results in a redistribution of electrons. According to Pauli exclusion principle, the degenerate electrons will fill quantum states from the lowest Landau level to the highest Landau level. As B increases, more and more electrons will occupy higher Landau levels, though gn decreases with the Landau level number n. The enhanced ne in a SMF means an increase in the electron Fermi energy and an increase in the electron degeneracy pressure. The results are expected to facilitate the study of the weak-interaction processes inside neutron stars and the magnetic-thermal evolution mechanism for magnetars.

  7. The Spectrum and Morphology of the Fermi Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Guiriec, S.; Harding, A. K.; Hayes, E.; Kocevski, D.; McEnery, J. E.; Nemmen, R.; Perkins, J. S.; Troja, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Fermi bubbles are two large structures in the gamma-ray sky extending to 55 deg above and below the Galactic center. We analyze 50 months of Fermi Large Area Telescope data between 100 MeV and 500 GeV above 10 deg in Galactic latitude to derive the spectrum and morphology of the Fermi bubbles. We thoroughly explore the systematic uncertainties that arise when modeling the Galactic diffuse emission through two separate approaches. The gamma-ray spectrum is well described by either a log parabola or a power law with an exponential cutoff. We exclude a simple power law with more than 7 sigma significance. The power law with an exponential cutoff has an index of 1.90+/-0.2 and a cutoff energy of 110+/- 50 GeV. We find that the gamma-ray luminosity of the bubbles is 4.4(+)2.4(-0.9 ) 10(exp 37) erg s-1. We confirm a significant enhancement of gamma-ray emission in the south-eastern part of the bubbles, but we do not find significant evidence for a jet. No significant variation of the spectrum across the bubbles is detected. The width of the boundary of the bubbles is estimated to be 3.4(+)3.7(-)2.6 deg. Both inverse Compton (IC) models and hadronic models including IC emission from secondary leptons t the gamma-ray data well. In the IC scenario, the synchrotron emission from the same population of electrons can also explain the WMAP and Planck microwave haze with a magnetic field between 5 and 20 micro-G.

  8. The core dominance parameter and Fermi detection of extragalactic radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Kuo; Wu, Zhong-Zu; Gu, Min-Feng

    2016-08-01

    By cross-correlating an archive sample of 542 extragalactic radio sources with the Fermi-LAT Third Source Catalog (3FGL), we have compiled a sample of 80 γ-ray sources and 462 non-Fermi sources with available core dominance parameter (R CD), and core and extended radio luminosity; all the parameters are directly measured or derived from available data in the literature. We found that R CD has significant correlations with radio core luminosity, γ-ray luminosity and γ-ray flux; the Fermi sources have on average higher R CD than non-Fermi sources. These results indicate that the Fermi sources should be more compact, and the beaming effect should play a crucial role in the detection of γ-ray emission. Moreover, our results also show Fermi sources have systematically larger radio flux than non-Fermi sources at fixed R CD, indicating larger intrinsic radio flux in Fermi sources. These results show a strong connection between radio and γ-ray flux for the present sample and indicate that the non-Fermi sources are likely due to the low beaming effect, and/or the low intrinsic γ-ray flux. This supports a scenario that has been published in the literature: a co-spatial origin of the activity for the radio and γ-ray emission, suggesting that the origin of the seed photons for the high-energy γ-ray emission is within the jet.

  9. Shortcut to a Fermi-Degenerate Gas of Molecules via Cooperative Association

    CERN Document Server

    Dannenberg, O; Suominen, K A; Dannenberg, Olavi; Mackie, Matt; Suominen, Kalle-Antti; 10.1103/.91.210404

    2003-01-01

    The creation of a Fermi-degenerate gas molecules using either photoassociation or the Feshbach resonance is theoretically examined. This problem raises an interest because, unlike bosons, fermions in general do not behave cooperatively, so that the collective association of, say, two million atoms into one million molecules is not to be expected. Nevertheless, we find that the coupled Fermi system displays collective Rabi-like oscillations and adiabatic passage between atoms and molecules, thereby mimicking Bose-Einstein statistics. Cooperative association of a degenerate mixture of Bose and Fermi gases could therefore serve as a shortcut to a degenerate gas of Fermi molecules.

  10. In-medium effects around the Fermi energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study nuclear stopping in central collisions for heavy-ion induced reactions in the Fermi energy domain (15-100 AMeV. Using the large dataset provided by the 4π array INDRA, we determine that stopping can be directly related to the transport properties in the nuclear medium. By looking specifically at protons, we present a comprehensive body of experimental results concerning the mean free path, the nucleon-nucleon cross-section and in-medium effects in nuclear matter.

  11. Minimax rational approximation of the Fermi-Dirac distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Moussa, Jonathan E

    2016-01-01

    Accurate rational approximations of the Fermi-Dirac distribution are a useful component in many numerical algorithms for electronic structure calculations. The best known approximations use $O( \\log (\\beta \\Delta) \\log (\\epsilon^{-1}))$ poles to achieve an error tolerance $\\epsilon$ at temperature $\\beta^{-1}$ over an energy interval $\\Delta$. We apply minimax approximation to reduce the number of poles by a factor of four and replace $\\Delta$ with $\\Delta_{\\mathrm{occ}}$, the occupied energy interval. This is particularly beneficial when $\\Delta \\gg \\Delta_{\\mathrm{occ}}$, such as in electronic structure calculations that use a large basis set.

  12. Dynamical description of heavy-ion collisions at Fermi energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napolitani P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions of heavy-ion collisions at Fermi energies require to take into account in-medium dissipation and phase-space fluctuations. The interplay of these correlations with the one-body collective behaviour determines the properties (kinematics and fragment production and the variety of mechanisms (from fusion to neck formation and multifragmentation of the exit channel. Starting from fundamental concepts tested on nuclear matter, we build up a microscopic description which addresses finite systems and applies to experimental observables.

  13. Fano Resonance in Landau Fermi and Luttinger Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yue-Wu; LIU Yu-Liang; CAI Shao-Hong

    2007-01-01

    With a two-channel model,we study the influence of temperature,external voltage and magnetic flux on the line shape of the Fano resonance,and show that in the Luttinger liquid cace,the background transmittance and the asymmetric parameter depend strongly on the temperature and external voltage,while for the Landav Fermi liquid case they are nearly independent of these parameters in the low energy region.Moreover,we demonstrate that the asymmetric parameter changes periodically with an external magnetic flux,which is consictont with the recent experimental data.

  14. Fermi hypernetted chain calculations in a periodic box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi hypernetted chain theory is reformulated to perform calculations with a finite number of fermions in a periodic box. The proposed method is expected to be useful to estimate the finite size effects in Quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, it can deal with anisotropic correlations as well as with different shaped boxes. Results are given for the neutron matter Bethe homework Hamiltonian and for nuclear matter with spin-isospin dependent central interactions. It is found that finite size effects come from both the kinetic and the potential energy expectation values

  15. Fermi Paradox and C.E.T.I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T. B.

    1982-05-01

    Extraterrestrial civilisations are expected to be abundant and yet no real evidence of any visit to our Solar System exists. An explanation of this so-called Fermi Paradox is put forward here. It is argued that most of them have attempted communication before extrasolar exploration and there is therefore a galactic network of inter-communicating cultures which undertake space travel only infrequently. First-time contacts with them should be achievable via radio. Interstellar interaction may lead to convergent mental evolution as the influence of boundary conditions for individual societies is reduced.

  16. The Fermi paradox: an approach based on percolation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, G. A.

    1998-05-01

    If even a very small fraction of the hundred billion stars on the galaxy are home to technological civilisations which colonise over interstellar distances, the entire galaxy could be completely colonised in a few million years. The absence of such extraterrestrial civilisations visiting Earth is the Fermi paradox. A model for interstellar colonisation is proposed using the assumption that there is a maximum distance over which direct interstellar colonisation is feasible. Due to the time lag involved in interstellar communications, it is assumed that an interstellar colony will rapidly develop a culture independent of the civilisation that originally settled it.

  17. The Planetarium Hypothesis - A Resolution of the Fermi Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, S.

    A possible resolution to the Fermi Paradox is that we are living in an artificial universe, perhaps a form of virtual- reality `planetarium', designed to give us the illusion that the universe is empty. Quantum-physical and thermo- dynamic considerations inform estimates of the energy required to generate such simulations of varying sizes and quality. The perfect simulation of a world containing our present civilisation is within the scope of a Type K3 extraterrestrial culture. However the containment of a coherent human culture spanning ~100 light years within a perfect simulation would exceed the capacities of any conceivable virtual-reality generator.

  18. Non-interacting Fermi gas in a magnetic quadrupole trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, To Chun Johnathan; Goulko, Olga; Chevy, Frédéric; Lobo, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    A non-interacting gas of spin polarised 6Li Fermi gas in a magnetic quadrupole trap which is not in thermal equilibrium can nevertheless show thermal signatures in some cases. This puzzling behaviour can be seen by measuring the doubly integrated momentum distribution along a particular axis. This distribution can be extremely close to a Gaussian from which we can extract a temperature. However, we show, using molecular dynamics simulations that the temperature thus measured is generally different along different axes. We provide a general explanation of this phenomenon based on ergodicity and check it with further simulations.

  19. Seiberg-Witten theory as a Fermi gas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonelli, Giulio; Tanzini, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We explore a new connection between Seiberg-Witten theory and quantum statistical systems by relating the dual partition function of SU(2) Super Yang-Mills theory in a self-dual Omega-background to the spectral determinant of an ideal Fermi gas. We show that the spectrum of this gas is encoded in the zeroes of the Painleve III tau function. Our construction arises as a four-dimensional limit of a recently proposed conjecture relating topological strings and spectral theory. In this limit, we provide a mathematical proof of the conjecture for the local P1xP1 geometry.

  20. The 1st Fermi Lat Supernova Remnant Catalog

    OpenAIRE

    Acero, Fabio; Ackermann, Markus; Ajello, Marco; Baldini, Luca; Ballet, Jean; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, Roger; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, Raffaella; Bottacini, Eugenio; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    To uniformly determine the properties of supernova remnants (SNRs) at high energies, we have developed the first systematic survey at energies from 1 to 100 GeV using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Based on the spatial overlap of sources detected at GeV energies with SNRs known from radio surveys, we classify 30 sources as likely GeV SNRs. We also report 14 marginal associations and 245 flux upper limits. A mock catalog in which the positions of known remnants are scrambled in Gala...

  1. Quantum phase transition in Bose-Fermi mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, D; Moroz, S; Wetterich, C

    2011-01-01

    We study a quantum Bose-Fermi mixture near a broad Feshbach resonance at zero temperature. Within a quantum field theoretical model, a two-step Gaussian approximation allows us to capture the main features of the quantum phase diagram. We show that a repulsive boson-boson interaction is necessary for thermodynamic stability. The quantum phase diagram is mapped in chemical-potential and density space, and both first- and second-order quantum phase transitions are found. We discuss typical characteristics of the first-order transition, such as hysteresis or a droplet formation of the condensate, which may be searched for experimentally.

  2. Quantum phase transition in Bose-Fermi mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, D.; Moroz, S.; Wetterich, C. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Floerchinger, S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2011-09-15

    We study a quantum Bose-Fermi mixture near a broad Feshbach resonance at zero temperature. Within a quantum field theoretical model, a two-step Gaussian approximation allows us to capture the main features of the quantum phase diagram. We show that a repulsive boson-boson interaction is necessary for thermodynamic stability. The quantum phase diagram is mapped in chemical-potential and density space, and both first- and second-order quantum phase transitions are found. We discuss typical characteristics of the first-order transition, such as hysteresis or a droplet formation of the condensate, which may be searched for experimentally.

  3. Relativistic description of the Fermi motion effects on deuterium targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusno, D.

    1979-12-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the inconsistencies of the conventional, non-relativistic approach, which has been used so far in the extraction of neutron data from deuterium targets, is given. A new approach dealing with the smearing effects, due to the nucleon's Fermi motion inside the deuteron, is developed as an alternative to the conventional one. This new approach is a spin-less, relativistic, simple and consistent approach. A new covariant model of the elastic electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron in the impulse approximation is also presented. The treatment includes spin and allows for a possibility of determining completely the two elastic structure functions.

  4. Spinor Boltzmann Equation with Two Momenta at the Fermi Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正川

    2012-01-01

    Based on the formalism of Keldysh's nonequilibrium Green function, we establish a two momenta spinor Boltzmann equation for longitudinal scalar distribution function and transverse vector distribution function. The lon- gitudinal charge currents, transverse spin currents and the continuity equations satisfied by them are then studied, it indicates that both the charge currents and spin currents decay oscillately along with position, which is due to the momenta integral over the Fermi surface. We also compare our charge currents and spin currents with the corresponding results of one momentum spinor Boltzmann equation, the differences are obvious.

  5. Topological invariants in Fermi systems with time-reversal invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avron, J. E.; Sadun, L.; Segert, J.; Simon, B.

    1988-09-01

    We discuss topological invariants for Fermi systems that have time-reversal invariance. The TKN2 integers (first Chern numbers) are replaced by second Chern numbers, and Berry's phase becomes a unit quaternion, or equivalently an element of SU(2). The canonical example playing much the same role as spin (1/2 in a magnetic field is spin (3/2 in a quadrupole electric field. In particular, the associated bundles are nontrivial and have +/-1 second Chern number. The connection that governs the adiabatic evolution coincides with the symmetric SU(2) Yang-Mills instanton.

  6. Relativistic description of the Fermi motion effects on deuterium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive analysis of the inconsistencies of the conventional, non-relativistic approach, which has been used so far in the extraction of neutron data from deuterium targets, is given. A new approach dealing with the smearing effects, due to the nucleon's Fermi motion inside the deuteron, is developed as an alternative to the conventional one. This new approach is a spin-less, relativistic, simple and consistent approach. A new covariant model of the elastic electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron in the impulse approximation is also presented. The treatment includes spin and allows for a possibility of determining completely the two elastic structure functions

  7. Dependence of Kambersky damping on Fermi level and spin orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Victora, R. H., E-mail: victora@umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); MINT Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Kambersky damping represents the loss of magnetic energy from the electrons to the lattice through the spin orbit interaction. It is demonstrated that, for bcc Fe-based transition metal alloys, the logarithm of the energy loss is proportional to the density of states at the Fermi level. Both inter and intraband damping are calculated for spins at arbitrary angle to the previously examined [001] direction. Although the easy axis 〈100〉 shows isotropic relaxation and achieves the minimum damping value of 0.002, other directions, such as 〈110〉, show substantial anisotropic damping.

  8. Inhomogeneous atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in cubic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determine the ground state properties of inhomogeneous mixtures of bosons and fermions in cubic lattices and parabolic confining potentials. For finite hopping we determine the domain boundaries between Mott-insulator plateaux and hopping-dominated regions for lattices of arbitrary dimension within mean-field and perturbation theory. The results are compared with a new numerical method that is based on a Gutzwiller variational approach for the bosons and an exact treatment for the fermions. The findings can be applied as a guideline for future experiments with trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices

  9. Traffic modifications on Routes Rutherford, Democrite and Fermi

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The GS Department would like to inform you that, until the end of December, the construction of Building 245 will result in the following traffic modifications: Traffic on Route Rutherford will be partially restricted in front of the construction site, Traffic on Route Democrite will be one-way towards Route Rutherford. Also, please note that due to construction work in front of Building 377, Route Fermi will be closed from Wednesday, 10 June until Friday, 7 August. Thank you for your understanding.

  10. Global topology of Weyl semimetals and Fermi arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Mathai, Varghese

    2016-01-01

    We provide a manifestly topological classification scheme for generalised Weyl semimetals which naturally extends that of Chern insulators. Our analysis refines some well-known constructions to account for some subtle but important aspects of the global topology of semimetals. It may be applied in any spatial dimension, and for arbitrary Weyl surfaces which may be non-trivially linked. Using a locality principle, we derive a general constraint that the generalised charges of the Weyl surface components sum to zero. The bulk-boundary correspondence is analysed under a duality transformation, revealing explicitly the topological nature of the resulting surface Fermi arcs.

  11. Inhomogeneous atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in cubic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, M; Eisert, J; Illuminati, F

    2004-11-01

    We determine the ground state properties of inhomogeneous mixtures of bosons and fermions in cubic lattices and parabolic confining potentials. For finite hopping we determine the domain boundaries between Mott-insulator plateaux and hopping-dominated regions for lattices of arbitrary dimension within mean-field and perturbation theory. The results are compared with a new numerical method that is based on a Gutzwiller variational approach for the bosons and an exact treatment for the fermions. The findings can be applied as a guideline for future experiments with trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices. PMID:15600816

  12. Relativistic Thomas-Fermi Model at Finite Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Bertone, Gianfranco

    2002-01-01

    We briefly review the Thomas-Fermi statistical model of atoms in the classical non-relativistic formulation and in the generalised finite-nucleus relativistic formulation. We then discuss the classical generalisation of the model to finite temperatures in the non-relativistic approximation and present a new relativistic model at finite temperatures, investigating how to recover the existing theory in the limit of low temperatures. This work is intended to be a propedeutical study for the evaluation of equilibrium configurations of relativistic ``hot'' white dwarfs.

  13. Strongly correlated Fermi-Bose mixtures in disordered optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Palencia, L [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, CNRS and Universite Paris-Sud XI, Bat 503, Centre scientifique, F-91403 Orsay Cedex (France); Ahufinger, V [ICREA and Grup d' optica, Departament de FIsica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Belaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Kantian, A [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Zakrzewski, J [Instytut Fizyki imienia Mariana Smoluchowskiego i Centrum Badan Ukladow Zlozonych imienia Marka Kaca, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland); Sanpera, A [ICREA and Grup de FIsica Teorica, Departament de FIsica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Belaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Lewenstein, M [ICREA and ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Parc Mediterrani de la TecnologIa, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2006-05-28

    We investigate theoretically the low-temperature physics of a two-component ultracold mixture of bosons and fermions in disordered optical lattices. We focus on the strongly correlated regime. We show that, under specific conditions, composite fermions, made of one fermion plus one bosonic hole, form. The composite picture is used to derive an effective Hamiltonian whose parameters can be controlled via the boson-boson and the boson-fermion interactions, the tunnelling terms and the inhomogeneities. We finally investigate the quantum phase diagram of the composite fermions and show that it corresponds to the formation of Fermi glasses, spin glasses and quantum percolation regimes.

  14. Strongly correlated Fermi Bose mixtures in disordered optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Ahufinger, V.; Kantian, A.; Zakrzewski, J.; Sanpera, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    2006-05-01

    We investigate theoretically the low-temperature physics of a two-component ultracold mixture of bosons and fermions in disordered optical lattices. We focus on the strongly correlated regime. We show that, under specific conditions, composite fermions, made of one fermion plus one bosonic hole, form. The composite picture is used to derive an effective Hamiltonian whose parameters can be controlled via the boson-boson and the boson-fermion interactions, the tunnelling terms and the inhomogeneities. We finally investigate the quantum phase diagram of the composite fermions and show that it corresponds to the formation of Fermi glasses, spin glasses and quantum percolation regimes.

  15. Locating the gamma-ray emission site in Fermi/LAT blazars. II Multifrequency correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Ramakrishnan, V; Tornikoski, M; Nilsson, K; Lindfors, E; Baloković, M; Lähteenmäki, A; Reinthal, R; Takalo, L

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to constrain and understand the emission mechanism of gamma rays, we perform a cross-correlation analysis of 15 blazars using light curves in millimetre, optical and gamma rays. We use discrete correlation function and consider only correlations significant at 99 per cent level. A strong correlation was found between 37 and 95 GHz with a near-zero time delay in most of the sources, and ~1 month or longer in the rest. A similar result was obtained between the optical and gamma-ray bands. Of the 15 sources, less than 50 per cent showed a strong correlation between the millimetre and gamma-ray or millimetre and optical bands. The primary reason for the lack of statistically significant correlation is the absence of a major outburst in the millimetre bands of most of the sources during the 2.5 yr time period investigated in our study. This may indicate that only the long-term variations or large flares are correlated between these bands. The variability of the sources at every waveband was also insp...

  16. Fermi resonance in the phonon spectra of quaternary chalcogenides of the type Cu2ZnGeS4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valakh, M Ya; Litvinchuk, A P; Dzhagan, V M; Yukhymchuk, V O; Yaremko, A M; Romanyuk, Yu A; Guc, M; Bodnar, I V; Pérez-Rodríguez, A; Zahn, D R T

    2016-02-17

    The experimental resonant and non-resonant Raman scattering spectra of the kesterite structural modification of Cu2ZnGeS4 single crystals are reported. The results are compared with those calculated theoretically within the density functional perturbation theory. For the majority of lines a good agreement (within 2-5 cm(-1)) is established between experimental and calculated mode frequencies. However, several dominant spectral lines, in particular the two intense fully symmetric modes, are found to deviate from the calculated values by as much as 20 cm(-1). A possible reason for this discrepancy is found to be associated with the Fermi resonant interaction between one and two-phonon vibrational excitations. The modelling of spectra, which takes into account the symmetry of interacting states, allows a qualitative description of the observed experimental findings. Due to the similarity of the vibrational spectra of Cu2A (II) B (IV) S4 (A  =  Zn, Mn, Cd; B  =  Sn, Ge, Si) chalcogenides, Fermi resonance is argued to be a general phenomenon for this class of compounds. PMID:26795711

  17. A search for VHE counterparts of galactic Fermi sources

    CERN Document Server

    Tam, P H Thomas; Tibolla, Omar; Chaves, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Very high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-rays have been detected from a wide range of astronomical objects, such as SNRs, pulsars and pulsar wind nebulae, AGN, gamma-ray binaries, molecular clouds, and possibly star-forming regions as well. At lower energies, sources detected using Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard Fermi provide a rich set of data which can be used to study the behavior of cosmic accelerators in the GeV to TeV energy bands. In particular, the improved angular resolution in both bands compared to previous instruments significantly reduces source confusion and facilitates the identification of associated counterparts at lower energies. In this talk, a comprehensive search for VHE gamma-ray sources which are spatially coincident with Galactic Fermi/LAT bright sources is performed, and the GeV to TeV spectra of selected coincident sources are shown. It is found that LAT bright GeV sources are correlated to TeV sources, in contrast with previous studies using EGRET data.

  18. Advanced Electron Beam Diagnostics for the FERMI FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Ferianis, M; D'Auria, G; Di Mitri, S

    2005-01-01

    Fermi is the fourth generation light source currently under design at ELETTRA: based on the Harmonic Generation (HG) scheme it will generate FEL radiation in the 100-10nm range. The successful implementation of the HG scheme calls also for precise knowledge of electron beam emittances and energy spread as well as for very accurate control on the photon to electron interaction, in the Undulator sections. In this paper we present our design for two fundamental Diagnostics foreseen for the new FERMI LINAC: the Beam Position Monitors (BPM) and the Transverse Deflecting cavity set-up. Sensitivity studies on transverse beam displacement effects on global stability of FEL output radiation dictate the ultimate performance to be provided by the BPM system. Due to non negligible longitudinal occupancy of a cavity type BPM, some efforts have been put to study compact cavity BPM configuration. A proper set-up of RF deflecting cavity combined with the vertical ramp foreseen at the end of the LINAC provide a powerful tool ...

  19. Detecting superlight dark matter with Fermi-degenerate materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Pyle, Matt; Zhao, Yue; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2016-08-01

    We examine in greater detail the recent proposal of using superconductors for detecting dark matter as light as the warm dark matter limit of O (keV). Detection of suc light dark matter is possible if the entire kinetic energy of the dark matter is extracted in the scattering, and if the experiment is sensitive to O (meV) energy depositions. This is the case for Fermi-degenerate materials in which the Fermi velocity exceeds the dark matter velocity dispersion in the Milky Way of ˜ 10-3. We focus on a concrete experimental proposal using a superconducting target with a transition edge sensor in order to detect the small energy deposits from the dark matter scatterings. Considering a wide variety of constraints, from dark matter self-interactions to the cosmic microwave background, we show that models consistent with cosmological/astrophysical and terrestrial constraints are observable with such detectors. A wider range of viable models with dark matter mass below an MeV is available if dark matter or mediator properties (such as couplings or masses) differ at BBN epoch or in stellar interiors from those in superconductors. We also show that metal targets pay a strong in-medium suppression for kinetically mixed mediators; this suppression is alleviated with insulating targets.

  20. Shortcut to adiabaticity for an anisotropic unitary Fermi gas

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Shujin; Yu, Qianli; Wu, Haibin

    2016-01-01

    Coherent control of complex quantum systems is a fundamental requirement in quantum information processing and engineering. Recently developed notion of shortcut to adiabaticity (STA) has spawned intriguing prospects. So far, the most experimental investigations of STA are implemented in the ideal thermal gas or the weakly interacting ultracold Bose gases. Here we report the first demonstration of a many-body STA in a 3D anisotropically trapped unitary Fermi gas. A new dynamical scaling law is demonstrated on such a strongly interacting quantum gas. By simply engineering the frequency aspect ratio of a harmonic trap, the dynamics of the gas can be manipulated and the many-body state can be transferred adiabatically from one stationary state to another one in short time scale without the excitation. The universal scaling both for non-interacting and unitary Fermi gas is also verified. This could be very important for future many-body quantum engineering and the exploration of the fundamental law of the thermod...

  1. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE VELA PULSAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vela pulsar is the brightest persistent source in the GeV sky and thus is the traditional first target for new γ-ray observatories. We report here on initial Fermi Large Area Telescope observations during verification phase pointed exposure and early sky survey scanning. We have used the Vela signal to verify Fermi timing and angular resolution. The high-quality pulse profile, with some 32,400 pulsed photons at E ≥ 0.03 GeV, shows new features, including pulse structure as fine as 0.3 ms and a distinct third peak, which shifts in phase with energy. We examine the high-energy behavior of the pulsed emission; initial spectra suggest a phase-averaged power-law index of Γ = 1.51+0.05-0.04 with an exponential cutoff at Ec = 2.9 ± 0.1 GeV. Spectral fits with generalized cutoffs of the form e-(E/Ec)b require b ≤ 1, which is inconsistent with magnetic pair attenuation, and thus favor outer-magnetosphere emission models. Finally, we report on upper limits to any unpulsed component, as might be associated with a surrounding pulsar wind nebula.

  2. An improved Thomas--Fermi treatment of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I want to tell you about an improved Thomas-Fermi method for calculating shell-averaged nuclear properties, such as density distributions, binding energies, etc. A shell-averaged statistical theory is useful as the macroscopic component of microscopic-macroscopic theories of nuclei, such as the Strutinsky method, as well as in theories of nuclear matter in the bulk, relevant in astrophysical applications. In nuclear physics, as well as in atomic and molecular problems, the following question often has to be answered: you are given a potential well, say a deformed Woods-Saxon potential, into which you put N quantized fermions into the lowest N eigenstates, up to a ''Fermi energy'' To. You square the wave functions of the particles and add them up to get the total density ρ(r→) = ΣiN|ψi|2. Is there some simple way of estimating ρ(r→) without going through the misery of numerically solving N partial differential Schroedinger equations for the N particles?

  3. Pulsar Results with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Paul S

    2010-01-01

    The launch of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has heralded a new era in the study of gamma-ray pulsars. The population of confirmed gamma-ray pulsars has gone from 6-7 to more than 60, and the superb sensitivity of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi has allowed the detailed study of their spectra and light curves. Twenty-four of these pulsars were discovered in blind searches of the gamma-ray data, and twenty-one of these are, at present, radio quiet, despite deep radio follow-up observations. In addition, millisecond pulsars have been confirmed as a class of gamma-ray emitters, both individually and collectively in globular clusters. Recently, radio searches in the direction of LAT sources with no likely counterparts have been highly productive, leading to the discovery of a large number of new millisecond pulsars. Taken together, these discoveries promise a great improvement in the understanding of the gamma-ray emission properties and Galactic population of pulsars. We summarize some of the result...

  4. Three Millisecond Pulsars in FERMI LAT Unassociated Bright Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Ransom, S M; Camilo, F; Roberts, M S E; Celik, O; Wolff, M T; Cheung, C C; Kerr, M; Pennucci, T; DeCesar, M E; Cognard, I; Lyne, A G; Stappers, B W; Freire, P C C; Grove, J E; Abdo, A A; Desvignes, G; Donato, D; Ferrara, E C; Gehrels, N; Guillemot, L; Gwon, C; Harding, A K; Johnston, S; Keith, M; Kramer, M; Michelson, P F; Parent, D; Parkinson, P M Saz; Romani, R W; Smith, D A; Theureau, G; Thompson, D J; Weltevrede, P; Wood, K S; Ziegler, M

    2010-01-01

    We searched for radio pulsars in 25 of the non-variable, unassociated sources in the Fermi LAT Bright Source List with the Green Bank Telescope at 820 MHz. We report the discovery of three radio and gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) from a high Galactic latitude subset of these sources. All of the pulsars are in binary systems, which would have made them virtually impossible to detect in blind gamma-ray pulsation searches. They seem to be relatively normal, nearby (<=2 kpc) millisecond pulsars. These observations, in combination with the Fermi detection of gamma-rays from other known radio MSPs, imply that most, if not all, radio MSPs are efficient gamma-ray producers. The gamma-ray spectra of the pulsars are power-law in nature with exponential cutoffs at a few GeV, as has been found with most other pulsars. The MSPs have all been detected as X-ray point sources. Their soft X-ray luminosities of ~10^{30-31} erg/s are typical of the rare radio MSPs seen in X-rays.

  5. Transdimensional equivalence of universal constants for Fermi gases at unitarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Michael G

    2012-12-21

    I present lattice Monte Carlo calculations for a universal four-component Fermi gas confined to a finite box and to a harmonic trap in one spatial dimension. I obtain the values ξ(1D) = 0.370(4) and ξ(1D) = 0.372(1), respectively, for the Bertsch parameter, a nonperturbative universal constant defined as the (square of the) energy of the untrapped (trapped) system measured in units of the free gas energy. The Bertsch parameter obtained for the one-dimensional system is consistent to within ~1% uncertainties with the most recent numerical and experimental estimates of the analogous Bertsch parameter for a three-dimensional spin-1/2 Fermi gas at unitarity. The finding suggests the intriguing possibility that there exists a universality between two conformal theories in different dimensions. To lend support to this study, I also compute ground state energies for four and five fermions confined to a harmonic trap and demonstrate the restoration of a virial theorem in the continuum limit. The continuum few-body energies obtained are consistent with exact analytical calculations to within ~1.0% and ~0.3% statistical uncertainties, respectively. PMID:23368437

  6. Signature of Fermi surface jumps in positron spectroscopy data

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, G

    1999-01-01

    A subtractionless method for solving Fermi surface sheets ({\\tt FSS}), from measured $n$-axis-projected momentum distribution histograms by two-dimensional angular correlation of the positron-electron annihilation radiation ({\\tt 2D-ACAR}) technique, is discussed. The window least squares statistical noise smoothing filter described in Adam {\\sl et al.}, NIM A, {\\bf 337} (1993) 188, is first refined such that the window free radial parameters ({\\tt WRP}) are optimally adapted to the data. In an ideal single crystal, the specific jumps induced in the {\\tt WRP} distribution by the existing Fermi surface jumps yield straightforward information on the resolved {\\tt FSS}. In a real crystal, the smearing of the derived {\\tt WRP} optimal values, which originates from positron annihilations with electrons at crystal imperfections, is ruled out by median smoothing of the obtained distribution, over symmetry defined stars of bins. The analysis of a gigacount {\\tt 2D-ACAR} spectrum, measured on the archetypal high-$T_c$...

  7. LaBaNiO{sub 4}: a Fermi glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, A; Dell' Amore, R; Mueller, K A [Physics Institute of the Universitaet of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Karpinski, J; Bukowski, Z [Laboratory for Solid-State Physics, ETH Zuerich HPF F-7, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Medarde, M; Pomjakushina, E [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETHZ and PSI, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)], E-mail: schilling@physik.uzh.ch

    2009-01-07

    Polycrystalline samples of LaSr{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}NiO{sub 4} show a crossover from a state with metallic transport properties for x = 0 to an insulating state as x{yields}1. The end member LaBaNiO{sub 4} with a nominal nickel Ni 3d{sup 7} configuration might therefore be regarded as a candidate for an antiferromagnetic insulator. However, we do not observe any magnetic ordering in LaBaNiO{sub 4} down to 1.5 K, and despite its insulating transport properties several other physical properties of LaBaNiO{sub 4} resemble those of metallic LaSrNiO{sub 4}. Based on an analysis of electrical and thermal-conductivity data as well as magnetic-susceptibility and low-temperature specific-heat measurements, we suggest that LaBaNiO{sub 4} is a Fermi glass with a finite electron density of states at the Fermi level but these states are localized.

  8. Transdimensional equivalence of universal constants for Fermi gases at unitarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Michael G

    2012-12-21

    I present lattice Monte Carlo calculations for a universal four-component Fermi gas confined to a finite box and to a harmonic trap in one spatial dimension. I obtain the values ξ(1D) = 0.370(4) and ξ(1D) = 0.372(1), respectively, for the Bertsch parameter, a nonperturbative universal constant defined as the (square of the) energy of the untrapped (trapped) system measured in units of the free gas energy. The Bertsch parameter obtained for the one-dimensional system is consistent to within ~1% uncertainties with the most recent numerical and experimental estimates of the analogous Bertsch parameter for a three-dimensional spin-1/2 Fermi gas at unitarity. The finding suggests the intriguing possibility that there exists a universality between two conformal theories in different dimensions. To lend support to this study, I also compute ground state energies for four and five fermions confined to a harmonic trap and demonstrate the restoration of a virial theorem in the continuum limit. The continuum few-body energies obtained are consistent with exact analytical calculations to within ~1.0% and ~0.3% statistical uncertainties, respectively.

  9. Transdimensional equivalence of universal constants from universal Fermi gases

    CERN Document Server

    Endres, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    I present lattice Monte Carlo calculations for a universal four-component Fermi gas confined to a finite box and to a harmonic trap in one spatial dimension. I obtain the continuum and thermodynamic limit extrapolated values xi_1d = 0.370(4) and xi_1d = 0.372(1), respectively, for the Bertsch parameter, a nonperturbative universal constant defined as the (square of the) energy of the untrapped (trapped) system measured in units of the free gas energy. The Bertsch parameter for the one-dimensional system is consistent to within ~1% uncertainties with the most recent numerical and experimental estimates of the analogous Bertsch parameter for a three-dimensional spin-1/2 Fermi gas at unitarity. The finding suggests the intriguing possibility that there exists a universality between two conformal theories in different dimensions. To lend support to this study, I also compute continuum extrapolated ground state energies for four and five fermions confined to a harmonic trap and demonstrate the restoration of a Vir...

  10. Untriggered Swift-GRBs in Fermi/GBM data

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, David

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) onboard the Fermi spacecraft currently operates on several trigger algorithms on various time scales and energy ranges. Motivated by the pursuit of faint Gamma-Ray Bursts (e.g. the elusive class of postulated low-luminosity GRBs), here we present the search for untriggered GRBs in the GBM data stream. To this end, I will demonstrate the methods and algorithms which have been developed by the GBM team. As a preliminary result, I am going to highlight the spectral analysis of GRBs which triggered the Swift satellite, but not GBM, and came from positions above the horizon, with a favorable orientation to at least one GBM detector. The properties of these GRBs are then compared to the full sample of GBM GRBs published in the GBM spectral catalogue. We estimate that the lower limit for untriggered GRBs in the GBM data is about 1.6 GRBs per month which corresponds to about 7% of the triggered GRBs

  11. Tunable Fermi level and hedgehog spin texture in gapped graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varykhalov, A.; Sánchez-Barriga, J.; Marchenko, D.; Hlawenka, P.; Mandal, P. S.; Rader, O.

    2015-07-01

    Spin and pseudospin in graphene are known to interact under enhanced spin-orbit interaction giving rise to an in-plane Rashba spin texture. Here we show that Au-intercalated graphene on Fe(110) displays a large (~230 meV) bandgap with out-of-plane hedgehog-type spin reorientation around the gapped Dirac point. We identify two causes responsible. First, a giant Rashba effect (~70 meV splitting) away from the Dirac point and, second, the breaking of the six-fold graphene symmetry at the interface. This is demonstrated by a strong one-dimensional anisotropy of the graphene dispersion imposed by the two-fold-symmetric (110) substrate. Surprisingly, the graphene Fermi level is systematically tuned by the Au concentration and can be moved into the bandgap. We conclude that the out-of-plane spin texture is not only of fundamental interest but can be tuned at the Fermi level as a model for electrical gating of spin in a spintronic device.

  12. Modified Fermi Energy of Electrons in a Superhigh Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, C; Li, X D; Wang, N; Yuan, J P; Peng, Q H

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the electron Landau-level stability and its influence on the electron Fermi energy, $E_{\\rm F}(e)$, in the circumstance of magnetars, which are powered by magnetic field energy. In a magnetar, the Landau levels of degenerate and relativistic electrons are strongly quantized. A new quantity $g_{n}$, the electron Landau-level stability coefficient is introduced. According to the requirement that $g_{n}$ decreases with increasing the magnetic field intensity $B$, the magnetic-field index $\\beta$ in the expression of $E_{\\rm F}(e)$ must be positive. By introducing the Dirac$-\\delta$ function, we deduce a general formulae for the Fermi energy of degenerate and relativistic electrons, and obtain a particular solution to $E_{\\rm F}(e)$ in a superhigh magnetic field. This solution has a low magnetic-field index of $\\beta=1/6$, compared with the previous one, and works when $\\rho\\geq 10^{7}$~g cm$^{-3}$ and $B_{\\rm cr}\\ll B\\leq 10^{17}$~Gauss. By modifying the phase space of relativistic ...

  13. Non-Fermi liquid phase in metallic Skyrmion crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Haruki; Parameswaran, Siddharth; Raghu, Srinivas; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2014-03-01

    Motivated by reports of a non-Fermi liquid state in MnSi, we examine the effect of coupling phonons of an incommensurate skyrmion crystal (SkX) to conduction electrons. We find that non-Fermi liquid behavior emerges in both two and three dimensions over the entire phase, due to an anomalous electron-phonon coupling that is linked to the net skyrmion density. A small parameter, the spiral wave vector in lattice units, allows us to exercise analytic control and ignore Landau damping of phonons over a wide energy range. At the lowest energy scales the problem is similar to electrons coupled to a gauge field. The best prospects for realizing these effects is in short period skyrmion lattice systems such as MnGe or epitaxial MnSi films. We also compare our results with the unusual T 3 / 2 scaling of temperature dependent resistivity seen in high pressure experiments on MnSi. We acknowledge support from the NSF via Grant DMR-0645691, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences via contract DE-AC02-76SF00515, and the Simons, Templeton, and Alfred P. Sloan Foundations.

  14. The 1st Fermi Lat Supernova Remnant Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Acero, Fabio; Ajello, Marco; Baldini, Luca; Ballet, Jean; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, Roger; Bloom, E D; Bonino, Raffaella; Bottacini, Eugenio; Bregeon, J; Bruel, Philippe; Buehler, Rolf; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, Rob A; Caputo, R; Caragiulo, Micaela; Caraveo, Patrizia A; Casandjian, Jean Marc; Cavazzuti, Elisabetta; Cecchi, Claudia; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, Stefano; Claus, R; Cohen, J M; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Cominsky, L R; Condon, B; Conrad, Jan; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; Angelis, A; Palma, F; Desiante, Rachele; Digel, S W; Venere, L; Drell, Persis S; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Favuzzi, C; Ferrara, E C; Franckowiak, Anna; Fukazawa, Prof Yasushi; Funk, Prof Stefan; Fusco, P; Gargano, Fabio; Gasparrini, Dario; Giglietto, Nicola; Giommi, Paolo; Giordano, Francesco; Giroletti, Marcello; Glanzman, Tom; Godfrey, Gary; Gomez-Vargas, G A; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M -H; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, Sylvain; Gustafsson, M; Hadasch, D; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, Elizabeth; Hewitt, J W; Hill, A B; Horan, Deirdre; Hou, X; Iafrate, Giulia; Jogler, Tobias; J'ohannesson, G; Johnson, Anthony S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, Hideaki; Kataoka, Prof Jun; Katsuta, Junichiro; Kerr, Matthew; Knodlseder, J; Kocevski, Prof Dale; Kuss, M; Laffon, Helene; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, Luca; Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne; Li, J; Li, L; Longo, Francesco; Loparco, Francesco; Lovellette, Michael N; Lubrano, Pasquale; Magill, J; Maldera, S; Marelli, Martino; Mayer, Michael; Mazziotta, M N; Michelson, Peter F; Mitthumsiri, Warit; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Moiseev, Alexander A; Monzani, Maria Elena; Moretti, E; Morselli, Aldo; Moskalenko, Igor V; Murgia, Prof Simona; Nemmen, Prof Rodrigo; Nuss, Eric; Ohsugi, Takashi; Omodei, Nicola; Orienti, Monica; Orlando, Elena; Ormes, Jonathan F; Paneque, David; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Petrosian, Prof Vahe'; Piron, Frederic; Pivato, Giovanna; Porter, Troy; Rain`o, S; Rando, Riccardo; Razzano, Massimiliano; Razzaque, Soebur; Reimer, Anita; Reimer, Prof Olaf; Renaud, Matthieu; Reposeur, Thierry; Rousseau, Mr Romain; Parkinson, P M; Schmid, J; Schulz, A; Sgr`o, C; Siskind, Eric J; Spada, Francesca; Spandre, Gloria; Spinelli, Paolo; Strong, Andrew W; Suson, Daniel; Tajima, Hiro; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Tanaka, T; Thayer, Jana B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tibolla, Omar; Torres, Prof Diego F; Tosti, Gino; Troja, Eleonora; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Vianello, G; Wells, B; Wood, Kent; Wood, M; Yassine, Manal; Zimmer, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    To uniformly determine the properties of supernova remnants (SNRs) at high energies, we have developed the first systematic survey at energies from 1 to 100 GeV using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Based on the spatial overlap of sources detected at GeV energies with SNRs known from radio surveys, we classify 30 sources as likely GeV SNRs. We also report 14 marginal associations and 245 flux upper limits. A mock catalog in which the positions of known remnants are scrambled in Galactic longitude, allows us to determine an upper limit of 22% on the number of GeV candidates falsely identified as SNRs. We have also developed a method to estimate spectral and spatial systematic errors arising from the diffuse interstellar emission model, a key component of all Galactic Fermi LAT analyses. By studying remnants uniformly in aggregate, we measure the GeV properties common to these objects and provide a crucial context for the detailed modeling of individual SNRs. Combining our GeV results with multiwavele...

  15. Transport and magnetic resonance in normal and superfluid Fermi liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis provides a framework for a series of 19 papers published by the author in a study of transport and magnetic resonance in normal and superfluid Fermi liquids. The Boltzmann equation and methods for its solution are discussed. Electron-electron scattering in metals, with particular emphasis on alkali metals, is considered. Transport in a normal uncharged Fermi liquid such as pure 3He at temperatures well below its degeneracy temperature of approximately 1 K or mixtures of 3He in 4He with degeneracy temperatures ranging typically from 100 to 200 mk is discussed with emphasis on comparison with experiments with the aim of testing models of the particle-particle scattering amplitude. Transport and magnetic resonance in superfluid 3He is considered. The phenomenological treatment of relaxation is reviewed and the magnitude of the phenomenlogical relaxation time close to Tsub(c) is derived for the case of longitudinal resonance. Comments are made on non-linear magnetic resonance and textures and spin waves. (B.R.H.)

  16. Detecting Superlight Dark Matter with Fermi-Degenerate Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Hochberg, Yonit; Zhao, Yue; Zurek, Kathryn M

    2015-01-01

    We examine in greater detail the recent proposal of using superconductors for detecting dark matter as light as the warm dark matter limit of O(keV). Detection of such light dark matter is possible if the entire kinetic energy of the dark matter is extracted in the scattering, and if the experiment is sensitive to O(meV) energy depositions. This is the case for Fermi-degenerate materials in which the Fermi velocity exceeds the dark matter velocity dispersion in the Milky Way of ~10^-3. We focus on a concrete experimental proposal using a superconducting target with a transition edge sensor in order to detect the small energy deposits from the dark matter scatterings. Considering a wide variety of constraints, from dark matter self-interactions to the cosmic microwave background, we show that models consistent with cosmological/astrophysical and terrestrial constraints are observable with such detectors. We also show that metal targets pay a strong in-medium suppression for kinetically mixed mediators; this su...

  17. Low-lying excitations in a strongly interacting Fermi gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Christopher; Hoinka, Sascha; Dyke, Paul; Lingham, Marcus

    2016-05-01

    We present measurements of the low-lying excitation spectrum of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover using Bragg spectroscopy. By focussing the Bragg lasers onto the central volume of the cloud we can probe atoms at near-uniform density allowing measurement of the homogeneous density-density response function. The Bragg wavevector is set to be approximately half of the Fermi wavevector to probe the collective response. Below the superfluid transition temperature the Bragg spectra dominated by the Bogoliubov-Anderson phonon mode. Single particle excitations become visible at energies greater than twice the pairing gap. As interactions are tuned from the BCS to BEC regime the phonon and single particle modes separate apart and both the pairing gap and speed of sound can be directly read off in certain regions of the crossover. Single particle pair-breaking excitations become heavily suppressed as interactions are tuned from the BCS to BEC regimes.

  18. Three Millisecond Pulsars in Fermi LAT Unassociated Bright Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Camilo, F.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Celik, O.; Wolff, M. T.; Cheung, C. C.; Kerr, M.; Pennucci, T.; DeCesar, M. E.; Cognard, I.; Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W.; Freire, P. C. C.; Grove, J. E.; Abdo, A. A.; Desvignes, G.; Donato, D.; Ferrara, E. C.; Gehrels, N.; Guillemot, L.; Gwon, C.; Johnston, S.; Harding, A. K.; Thompson, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    We searched for radio pulsars in 25 of the non-variable, unassociated sources in the Fermi LAT Bright Source List with the Green Bank Telescope at 820 MHz. We report the discovery of three radio and gamma-ray millisecond pulsar (MSPs) from a high Galactic latitude subset of these sources. All of the pulsars are in binary systems, which would have made them virtually impossible to detect in blind gamma-ray pulsation searches. They seem to be relatively normal, nearby (<= 2 kpc) MSPs. These observations, in combination with the Fermi detection of gamma-rays from other known radio MSPs, imply that most, if not all, radio MSPs are efficient gamma-ray producers. The gamma-ray spectra of the pulsars are power law in nature with exponential cutoffs at a few Ge V, as has been found with most other pulsars. The MSPs have all been detected as X-ray point sources. Their soft X-ray luminosities of approx 10(exp 30) - 10(exp 31) erg/s are typical of the rare radio MSPs seen in X-rays.

  19. A possible origin of gamma rays from the Fermi Bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Thoudam, Satyendra

    2014-01-01

    One of the most exciting discoveries of recent years is a pair of gigantic gamma-ray emission regions, the so-called Fermi bubbles, above and below the Galactic center. The bubbles, discovered by the Fermi space telescope, extend up to $\\sim 50^\\circ$ in Galactic latitude and are $\\sim 40^\\circ$ wide in Galactic longitude. The gamma-ray emission is also found to correlate with radio, microwave and X-rays emission. The origin of the bubbles and the associated non-thermal emissions are still not clearly understood. Possible explanations for the non-thermal emission include cosmic-ray injection from the Galactic center by high speed Galactic winds/jets, acceleration by multiple shocks or plasma turbulence present inside the bubbles, and acceleration by strong shock waves associated with the expansion of the bubbles. In this paper, I will discuss the possibility that the gamma-ray emission is produced by the injection of Galactic cosmic-rays mainly protons during their diffusive propagation through the Galaxy. Th...

  20. FCI-QMC approach to the Fermi polaron

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodrubetz, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    Finding the ground state of a fermionic Hamiltonian using quantum Monte Carlo is a very difficult problem, due to the Fermi sign problem. While still scaling exponentially, full configuration-interaction Monte Carlo (FCI-QMC) mitigates some of the exponential variance by allowing annihilation of noise -- whenever two walkers arrive at the same configuration with opposite signs, they are removed from the simulation. While FCI-QMC has been quite successful for quantum chemistry problems, its application to problems in condensed systems has been limited. In this paper, we apply FCI-QMC to the Fermi polaron problem, which provides an ideal test-bed for improving the algorithm. In its simplest form, FCI-QMC is unstable for even a fairly small system sizes. However, with a series of algorithmic improvements, we are able to significantly increase its effectiveness. We modify fixed node QMC to work in these systems, introduce a well chosen importance sampled trial wave function, a partial node approximation, and a va...

  1. Fermi GBM Observations of LIGO Gravitational Wave event GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    Connaughton, V; Goldstein, A; Briggs, M S; Zhang, B -B; Hui, C M; Jenke, P; Racusin, J; Wilson-Hodge, C A; Bhat, P N; Cleveland, W; Fitzpatrick, G; Giles, M M; Gibby, M H; Greiner, J; von Kienlin, A; Kippen, R M; McBreen, S; Mailyan, B; Meegan, C A; Paciesas, W S; Preece, R D; Roberts, O; Sparke, L; Stanbro, M; Toelge, K; Veres, P; Yu, H -F; authors, other

    2016-01-01

    With an instantaneous view of 70% of the sky, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is an excellent partner in the search for electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave (GW) events. GBM observations at the time of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)event GW150914 reveal the presence of a weak transient source above 50 keV, 0.4 s after the GW event was detected, with a false alarm probability of 0.0022. This weak transient lasting 1 s does not appear connected with other previously known astrophysical, solar, terrestrial, or magnetospheric activity. Its localization is ill-constrained but consistent with the direction of GW150914. The duration and spectrum of the transient event suggest it is a weak short Gamma-Ray Burst arriving at a large angle to the direction in which Fermi was pointing, where the GBM detector response is not optimal. If the GBM transient is associated with GW150914, this electromagnetic signal from a stellar mass black hole binary merger is unexpected....

  2. Beyond Gaussian pair fluctuation theory for strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkerin, Brendan C.; Liu, Xia-Ji; Hu, Hui

    2016-07-01

    Interacting Fermi systems in the strongly correlated regime play a fundamental role in many areas of physics and are of particular interest to the condensed matter community. Though weakly interacting fermions are understood, strongly correlated fermions are difficult to describe theoretically as there is no small interaction parameter to expand about. Existing strong-coupling theories rely heavily on the so-called many-body T -matrix approximation that sums ladder-type Feynman diagrams. Here, by acknowledging the fact that the effective interparticle interaction (i.e., the vertex function) becomes smaller above three dimensions, we propose an alternative way to reorganize Feynman diagrams and develop a theoretical framework for interacting Fermi gases beyond the ladder approximation. As an application, we solve the equation of state for three- and two-dimensional strongly interacting fermions and find excellent agreement with experimental [M. J. H. Ku et al., Science 335, 563 (2012), 10.1126/science.1214987] and other theoretical results above temperatures of 0.5 TF .

  3. The Istituto Fisico on Via Panisperna the new Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche "Enrico Fermi" di Roma

    CERN Document Server

    Carbonari, Luca

    2003-01-01

    We trace Fermi's working years in Rome at the Istituto Fisico ("Physics Institute") on Via Panisperna and describe the new Centro Studi e Ricerche 'Enrico Fermi' (Enrico Fermi Centre for Study and Research) established to honour his memory and achievements.

  4. de Haas-van Alphen Effect, LMTO Bandstructure and Fermi Surface of beta-AgMg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunsworth, A. E.; Jan, J. - P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1978-01-01

    The de Haas-van Alphen effect has been measured in the ordered alloy beta '-AgMg. The relativistic LMTO bandstructure has been calculated, and predicts a Fermi surface in good agreement with experiment. Both bandstructure and Fermi surface are similar to those of other beta brasses with the same ...

  5. The core dominance parameter and \\emph{Fermi} detection of extragalactic radio sources

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zhenkuo; Gu, Minfeng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, by cross-correlating an archive sample of 542 extragalactic radio sources with the \\emph{Fermi}-LAT Third Source Catalog(3FGL), we have compiled a sample of 80 $\\gamma$-ray sources and 462 non-\\emph{Fermi} sources with available core dominance parameter($R_{CD}$), core and extended radio luminosity; all the parameters are directly measured or derived from available data in the literature. We found that $R_{CD}$ have significant correlations with radio core luminosities, $\\gamma$-ray luminosity and $\\gamma$-ray flux respectively; the \\emph{Fermi} sources have on average higher $R_{CD}$ than non-\\emph{Fermi} sources. These results indicate that the \\emph{Fermi} sources should be more compact, and beaming effect should play a crucial role for the detection of $\\gamma$-ray emission. Moreover, our results also show \\emph{Fermi} sources have systematically larger radio flux than non-\\emph{Fermi} sources at fixed $R_{CD}$, indicating larger intrinsic radio flux in \\emph{Fermi} sources. These results s...

  6. Numerical Models of Cosmological Evolution of the Degenerated Fermi-system of Scalar Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatyev, Yu G

    2014-01-01

    Based on mathematical model of the statistical Fermi system with the interparticle interaction which was constructed in the previous articles, this work offers the construction and analysis of the numerical models of cosmological evolution of the single-component degenerated Fermi system of the scalar particles. The applied mathematics package Mathematica 9 is used for the numerical model construction.

  7. On the interrelation between bulk and thin-film Fermi surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2010-12-01

    A general scheme for inferring the Fermi surface of a finite slab from ab initio electronic-structure calculations for the parent bulk system is introduced. The simple cubic ReO 3 oxide is studied as an example system. We show that our scheme provides an accurate approximation of the Fermi surface even for very thin slabs. © 2010 Europhysics Letters Association.

  8. The Fermi Paradox in the light of the Inflationary and Brane World Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    2006-01-01

    The Fermi Paradox is discussed in the light of the inflationary and brane world cosmologies. We conclude that some brane world cosmologies may be of relevance for the problem of civilizations spreading across our galaxy, strengthening the Fermi Paradox, but not the inflationary cosmologies, as has been proposed.

  9. FermiQCD A tool kit for parallel lattice QCD applications

    CERN Document Server

    Di Pierro, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    We present here the most recent version of FermiQCD, a collection of C++ classes, functions and parallel algorithms for lattice QCD, based on Matrix Distributed Processing. FermiQCD allows fast development of parallel lattice applications and includes some SSE2 optimizations for clusters of Pentium 4 PCs.

  10. Smoothing Effects for the Classical Solutions to the Landau-Fermi-Dirac Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangqian LIU

    2012-01-01

    The smoothness of the solutions to the full Landau equation for Fermi-Dirac particles is investigated.It is shown that the classical solutions near equilibrium to the Landau-Fermi-Dirac equation have a regularizing effects in all variables (time,space and velocity),that is,they become immediately smooth with respect to all variables.

  11. FERMI LAT DISCOVERY OF EXTENDED GAMMA-RAY EMISSIONS IN THE VICINITY OF THE HB 3 SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, H.; Yoshida, K. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Grondin, M.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Hanabata, Y. [Institute for Cosmic-Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8582 (Japan); Hewitt, J. W. [Department of Physics and Center for Space Sciences and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Kubo, H., E-mail: hideaki.katagiri.sci@vc.ibaraki.ac.jp, E-mail: 13nm169s@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-02-20

    We report the discovery of extended gamma-ray emission measured by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) HB 3 (G132.7+1.3) and the W3 II complex adjacent to the southeast of the remnant. W3 is spatially associated with bright {sup 12}CO (J = 1–0) emission. The gamma-ray emission is spatially correlated with this gas and the SNR. We discuss the possibility that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon–nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray emission. The emission from W3 is consistent with irradiation of the CO clouds by the cosmic rays accelerated in HB 3.

  12. Application of the Thomas-Fermi statistical model to the thermodynamics of high density matter; Aplicacion del modelo estadistico de Thomas-Fermi a la termodinamica de medios ultradensos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.

    1977-07-01

    The Thomas-Fermi statistical model, from the N-body point of view is used in order to have systematic corrections to the T-Fermis equation. Approximate calculus methods are found from analytic study of the T-Fermis equation for non zero temperature. T-Fermis equation is solved with the code GOLEM written in FORTRAN V (UNIVAC). It also provides the thermodynamical quantities and a new method to calculate several isothermal tables. (Author) 24 refs.

  13. Bose-Fermi mixtures near an interspecies Feshbach resonance: testing a non-equilibrium approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortolotti, Daniele C E [JILA and Department of Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, and INFM, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Avdeenkov, Alexandr V [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Ticknor, Christopher [JILA and Department of Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); Bohn, John L [JILA and Department of Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

    2006-01-14

    We test a non-equilibrium approach to study the behaviour of a Bose-Fermi mixture of alkali atoms in the presence of a Feshbach resonance between bosons and fermions. To this end we derive the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) equations of motion for the interacting system. This approach has proven very successful in the study of resonant systems composed of Bose particles and Fermi particles. However, when applied to a Bose-Fermi mixture, the HFB theory fails to identify even the correct binding energy of molecules in the appropriate limit. Through a more rigorous analysis we are able to ascribe this difference to the peculiar role that noncondensed bosons play in the Bose-Fermi pair correlation, which is the mechanism through which molecules are formed. We therefore conclude that molecular formation in Bose-Fermi mixtures is driven by three-point and higher-order correlations in the gas.

  14. Bose-Fermi mixtures near an interspecies Feshbach resonance: testing a non-equilibrium approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We test a non-equilibrium approach to study the behaviour of a Bose-Fermi mixture of alkali atoms in the presence of a Feshbach resonance between bosons and fermions. To this end we derive the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) equations of motion for the interacting system. This approach has proven very successful in the study of resonant systems composed of Bose particles and Fermi particles. However, when applied to a Bose-Fermi mixture, the HFB theory fails to identify even the correct binding energy of molecules in the appropriate limit. Through a more rigorous analysis we are able to ascribe this difference to the peculiar role that noncondensed bosons play in the Bose-Fermi pair correlation, which is the mechanism through which molecules are formed. We therefore conclude that molecular formation in Bose-Fermi mixtures is driven by three-point and higher-order correlations in the gas

  15. A search for neutrino emission from the Fermi bubbles with the ANTARES telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the Fermi-LAT data has revealed two extended structures above and below the Galactic Centre emitting gamma rays with a hard spectrum, the so-called Fermi bubbles. Hadronic models attempting to explain the origin of the Fermi bubbles predict the emission of high-energy neutrinos and gamma rays with similar fluxes. The ANTARES detector, a neutrino telescope located in the Mediterranean Sea, has a good visibility to the Fermi bubble regions. Using data collected from 2008 to 2011 no statistically significant excess of events is observed and therefore upper limits on the neutrino flux in TeV range from the Fermi bubbles are derived for various assumed energy cutoffs of the source. (orig.)

  16. A Search for Neutrino Emission from the Fermi Bubbles with the ANTARES Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Adrián-Martínez, S; Samarai, I Al; André, M; Anghinolfi, M; Anton, G; Anvar, S; Ardid, M; Astraatmadja, T; Aubert, J-J; Baret, B; Barrios-Martí, J; Basa, S; Bertin, V; Biagi, S; Bigongiari, C; Bogazzi, C; Bouhou, B; Bouwhuis, M C; Brunner, J; Busto, J; Capone, A; Caramete, L; Cârloganu, C; Carr, J; Cecchini, S; Charif, Z; Charvis, Ph; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Classen, F; Coniglione, R; Core, L; Costantini, H; Coyle, P; Creusot, A; Curtil, C; De Bonis, G; Dekeyser, I; Deschamps, A; Decowski, M P; Distefano, C; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Dorosti, Q; Drouhin, D; Dumas, A; Eberl, T; Emanuele, U; Enzenhöfer, A; Ernenwein, J-P; Escoffier, S; Fehn, K; Fermani, P; Ferry, S; Flaminio, V; Folger, F; Fritsch, U; Fuda, J-L; Fusco, L A; Galatà, S; Gay, P; Geißelsöder, S; Geyer, K; Giacomelli, G; Giordano, V; Gleixner, A; Gómez-González, J P; Graf, K; Guillard, G; Hallewell, G; Hamal, M; van Haren, H; Heijboer, A J; Hello, Y; Hernández-Rey, J J; Herold, B; Hößl, J; Hsu, C C; James, C W; de Jong, M; Kadler, M; Kalekin, O; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Kooijman, P; Kopper, C; Kouchner, A; Kreykenbohm, I; Kulikovskiy, V; Lahmann, R; Lambard, E; Lambard, G; Larosa, G; Lattuada, D; Lefèvre, D; Leonora, E; Presti, D Lo; Loehner, H; Loucatos, S; Louis, F; Mangano, S; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Martínez-Mora, J A; Martini, S; Michael, T; Montaruli, T; Morganti, M; Motz, H; Müller, C; Neff, M; Nezri, E; Palioselitis, D; Păvălaş, G E; Perrina, C; Petrovic, J; Piattelli, P; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Racca, C; Reed, C; Riccobene, G; Richter, R; Rivière, C; Robert, A; Roensch, K; Rostovtsev, A; Rujoiu, M; Samtleben, D F E; Sanguineti, M; Sapienza, P; Schmid, J; Schnabel, J; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Seitz, T; Shanidze, R; Sieger, C; Simeone, F; Spies, A; Spurio, M; Steijger, J J M; Stolarczyk, Th; Sánchez-Losa, A; Taiuti, M; Tamburini, C; Tayalati, Y; Trovato, A; Vallage, B; Vallée, C; Van Elewyck, V; Vecchi, M; Vernin, P; Visser, E; Wagner, S; Wijnker, G; Wilms, J; de Wolf, E; Yatkin, K; Yepes, H; Zaborov, D; Zornoza, J D; Zúñiga, J

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the Fermi-LAT data has revealed two extended structures above and below the Galactic Centre emitting gamma rays with a hard spectrum, the so-called Fermi bubbles. Hadronic models attempting to explain the origin of the Fermi bubbles predict the emission of high-energy neutrinos and gamma rays with similar fluxes. The ANTARES detector, a neutrino telescope located in the Mediterranean Sea, has a good visibility to the Fermi bubble regions. Using data collected from 2008 to 2011 no statistically significant excess of events is observed and therefore upper limits on the neutrino flux in TeV range from the Fermi bubbles are derived for various assumed energy cutoffs of the source.

  17. Composite-fermionization of the mixture composed of Tonks gas and Fermi gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Ya-Jiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the ground-state properties of the mixture composed of the strongly interacting TonksGirardeau gas and spin polarized Fermi gas confined in one-dimensional harmonic traps, where the interaction between the Bose atoms and Fermi atoms is tunable. With a generalized Bose-Fermi transformation the mixture is mapped into a two-component Fermi gas. The homogeneous Fermi gas is exactly solvable by the Bethe-ansatz method and the ground state energy density can be obtained. Combining the ground-state energy function of the homogeneous system with local density approximation it obtains the ground-state density distributions of inhomogeneous mixture. It is shown that with the increase in boson-fermion interaction, the system exhibits composite-fermionization crossover.

  18. A search for neutrino emission from the Fermi bubbles with the ANTARES telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Larosa, G.; Martinez-Mora, J.A. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Gandia (Spain); Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C. [GRPHE, Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit, BP 50568, Colmar (France); Al Samarai, I.; Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Charif, Z.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Dornic, D.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Escoffier, S.; Lambard, E.; Riviere, C.; Vallee, C.; Vecchi, M.; Yatkin, K. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Andre, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Anton, G.; Classen, F.; Eberl, T.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Fehn, K.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Geisselsoeder, S.; Geyer, K.; Gleixner, A.; Graf, K.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Lahmann, R.; Neff, M.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Sieger, C.; Spies, A.; Wagner, S. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S.; Louis, F.; Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T.; Vallage, B.; Vernin, P. [Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers, Service d' Electronique des Detecteurs et d' Informatique, CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Astraatmadja, T.; Bogazzi, C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Jong, M. de; Michael, T.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulte, S.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Visser, E. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baret, B.; Bouhou, B.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Kouchner, A.; Elewyck, V. van [APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Barrios-Marti, J.; Bigongiari, C.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Emanuele, U.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.P.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Lambard, G.; Mangano, S.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Yepes, H.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J. [Universitat de Valencia, IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E. [Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, LAM, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Biagi, S.; Fusco, L.A.; Giacomelli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Spurio, M. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Bologna (Italy); Capone, A.; De Bonis, G.; Fermani, P.; Perrina, C.; Simeone, F. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V. [Institute for Space Sciences, Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Carloganu, C.; Dumas, A.; Gay, P.; Guillard, G. [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Cecchini, S.; Chiarusi, T. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Charvis, P.; Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y. [Geoazur, Universite Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS/INSU, IRD, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Sophia Antipolis (France); Circella, M. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Coniglione, R.; Lattuada, D.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Catania (Italy); Dekeyser, I.; Lefevre, D.; Martini, S.; Robert, A.; Tamburini, C. [Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), Aix-Marseille University, Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Universit du Sud Toulon-Var, CNRS-INSU/IRD UM 110, La Garde Cedex (France); Donzaud, C. [APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay Cedex (France); Dorosti, Q.; Loehner, H. [University of Groningen, Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI), Groningen (Netherlands); Flaminio, V. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Pisa (Italy); Giordano, V. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Haren, H. van [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), ' t Horntje (Texel) (Netherlands); Hugon, C.; Sanguineti, M. [INFN, Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Kadler, M. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kooijman, P. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit Utrecht, Faculteit Betawetenschappen, Utrecht (Netherlands); Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Hoge-Energie Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kreykenbohm, I.; Mueller, C.; Wilms, J. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Bamberg (Germany); Kulikovskiy, V. [INFN, Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Universita, Catania (Italy); Loucatos, S. [Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers, Service d' Electronique des Detecteurs et d' Informatique, CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Montaruli, T. [Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), Aix-Marseille University, Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Universite de Geneve, Departement de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire, Geneva (Switzerland); Morganti, M. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Pradier, T. [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS/IN2P3, IPHC-Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23 rue du Loess, BP 28, Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Rostovtsev, A. [ITEP, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Samtleben, D.F.E. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit Leiden, Leids Instituut voor Onderzoek in Natuurkunde, Leiden (Netherlands); Taiuti, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Genoa (IT); Tayalati, Y. [University Mohammed I, Laboratory of Physics of Matter and Radiations, B.P.717, Oujda (MA); Wolf, E. de [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (NL); Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Hoge-Energie Fysica, Amsterdam (NL); Collaboration: The ANTARES Collaboration

    2014-02-15

    Analysis of the Fermi-LAT data has revealed two extended structures above and below the Galactic Centre emitting gamma rays with a hard spectrum, the so-called Fermi bubbles. Hadronic models attempting to explain the origin of the Fermi bubbles predict the emission of high-energy neutrinos and gamma rays with similar fluxes. The ANTARES detector, a neutrino telescope located in the Mediterranean Sea, has a good visibility to the Fermi bubble regions. Using data collected from 2008 to 2011 no statistically significant excess of events is observed and therefore upper limits on the neutrino flux in TeV range from the Fermi bubbles are derived for various assumed energy cutoffs of the source. (orig.)

  19. Fermi Normal Coordinates and Fermion Curvature Couplings in General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Anshuman; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2014-01-01

    We study gravitational curvature effects in circular and radial geodesics in static, spherically symmetric space-times, using Fermi normal coordinates. We first set up these coordinates in the general case, and then use this to study effective magnetic fields due to gravitational curvature in the exterior and interior Schwarzschild, Janis-Newman-Winicour, and Bertrand space-times. We show that these fields can be large for specific parameter values in the theories, and thus might have observational significance. We discuss the qualitative differences of the magnetic field for vacuum space-times and for those seeded by matter. We estimate the magnitude of these fields in realistic galactic scenarios and discuss their possible experimental relevance. Gravitational curvature corrections to the Hydrogen atom spectrum for these space-times are also discussed briefly.

  20. Universal quantum viscosity in a unitary Fermi gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, C; Elliott, E; Joseph, J; Wu, H; Petricka, J; Schäfer, T; Thomas, J E

    2011-01-01

    A Fermi gas of atoms with resonant interactions is predicted to obey universal hydrodynamics, in which the shear viscosity and other transport coefficients are universal functions of the density and temperature. At low temperatures, the viscosity has a universal quantum scale ħ n, where n is the density and ħ is Planck's constant h divided by 2π, whereas at high temperatures the natural scale is p(T)(3)/ħ(2), where p(T) is the thermal momentum. We used breathing mode damping to measure the shear viscosity at low temperature. At high temperature T, we used anisotropic expansion of the cloud to find the viscosity, which exhibits precise T(3/2) scaling. In both experiments, universal hydrodynamic equations including friction and heating were used to extract the viscosity. We estimate the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density and compare it with that of a perfect fluid. PMID:21148347

  1. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), conducted September 14 through 25, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual participants for the Survey team are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Fermilab. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at Fermilab, and interviews with site personnel. 110 refs., 26 figs., 41 tabs.

  2. Gamma Rays from Radio Galaxies: FERMI/LAT Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Paola

    We review the high energy properties of Misaligned AGNs associated with γ-ray sources detected by Fermi in 24 months of survey. Most of them are nearby emission low power radio galaxies (i.e FRIs) which probably have structured jets. On the contrary, high power radio sources (i.e FRIIs) with GeV emission are rare. The small number of FRIIs does not seem to be related to their higher redshifts. Assuming proportionality between the radio core flux and the γ-ray flux, several of them are expected to be bright enough to be detected above 100 MeV in spite of their distance. We suggest that beaming/jet structural differences are responsible for the detection rate discrepancy observed between FRIs and FRIIs.

  3. IceCube Neutrino Events from Fermi Bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Lunardini, Cecilia; Yang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory announced thirty-seven candidate events observed with deposited energies above $\\sim$ 30 TeV with three-year dataset, more than expected from atmospheric backgrounds. We discuss the detectability of the Fermi Bubbles (FB) by IceCube and show that up to 6 -- 7 of the 37 events could originate from the FB. If the observed gamma rays from the FB are created due to baryonic mechanism, high-energy ($>$ GeV) neutrinos should be emitted as a counterpart. These neutrinos should be detectable as shower- or track-like events at a Km$^3$ neutrino detector. For a hard primary cosmic-ray proton spectrum, $E^{-2.1}$, and cutoff energy at or above 10 PeV, the FB flux substantially exceeds the atmospheric backgrounds. For a steeper spectrum, $E^{-2.3}$, and/or lower cutoff energy, detection with high significance will require a longer running time.

  4. Thomas-Fermi Model in the Presence of Natural Cutoffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Nozari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been revealed, in the context of quantum gravity candidates, that measurement of position cannot be done with arbitrary precision and there is a finite resolution of space-time points. This leads naturally to a minimal measurable length of the order of Planck length. Also, in the context of newly proposed doubly special relativity theories, a test particle’s momentum cannot be arbitrarily imprecise leading nontrivially to a maximal momentum for a test particle. These two natural cutoffs affects most of quantum field theoretic arguments in the spirit of condensed matter physics. Here we focus on the role of these natural cutoffs on Thomas-Fermi theory in condensed matter physics. We show how quantum gravity effects can play important role phenomenologically in many-body interactions of solids.

  5. Violent heavy ion collisions around the Fermi energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results on central collisions will be presented and it will be shown that a fusion process still occurs; deexcitation of the hot fused systems formed will be discussed. Then, from the qualitative evolution of central collision products from different reactions studied in the E/A range 20-84 MeV, the vanishing of fusion processes will be inferred; it will be discussed in terms of critical energy deposit and maximum excitation energy per nucleon that nuclei can carry. Finally results concerning the large production of light fragments (3 < approximately Z < approximately 12) experimentally observed in the Fermi energy domain will be presented and discussed in terms of a multifragmentation of the whole nuclear system or of part of it for intermediate impact parameter collisions (109 refs, 49 fig)

  6. Observations of Gamma-ray Bursts in the Fermi era

    CERN Document Server

    Vianello, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    The Fermi observatory, with its Gamma-Ray Bursts monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT), is observing Gamma-ray Bursts with unprecedented spectral coverage and sensitivity, from ~10 keV to > 300 GeV. In the first 3 years of the mission it observed emission above 100 MeV from 35 GRBs, an order of magnitude gain with respect to previous observations in this energy range. In this paper we review the main results obtained on such sample, highlighting also the relationships with the low-energy features (as measured by the GBM), and with measurements from observatories at other wavelengths. We also briefly discuss prospects for detection of GRBs by future Very-High Energy observatories such as HAWC and CTA, and by Gravitational Wave experiments.

  7. High-Energy Neutrinos in Light of Fermi-LAT

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlers, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The production of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos is tightly linked to the emission of hadronic gamma-rays. I will discuss the recent observation of TeV to PeV neutrinos by the IceCube Cherenkov telescope in the context of gamma-ray astronomy. The corresponding energy range of hadronic gamma-rays is not directly accessible by extragalactic gamma-ray astronomy due to interactions with cosmic radiation backgrounds. Nevertheless, the isotropic sub-TeV gamma-ray background observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) contains indirect information from secondary emission produced in electromagnetic cascades and constrains hadronic emission scenarios. On the other hand, observation of PeV gamma-rays would provide a smoking-gun signal for Galactic emission. In general, the cross-correlation of neutrino emission with (extended) Galactic and extragalactic gamma-ray sources will serve as the most sensitive probe for a future identification of neutrino sources.

  8. Finite-size Energy of Non-interacting Fermi Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebert, Martin, E-mail: gebert@math.lmu.de [ETH Zürich , Theoretische Physik (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    We study the asymptotics of the difference of the ground-state energies of two non-interacting N-particle Fermi gases in a finite volume of length L in the thermodynamic limit up to order 1/L. We are particularly interested in subdominant terms proportional to 1/L, called finite-size energy. In the nineties (Affleck, Nuc. Phys. B 58, 35–41 1997; Zagoskin and Affleck, J. Phys. A 30, 5743–5765 1997) claimed that the finite-size energy is related to the decay exponent occurring in Anderson’s orthogonality. We prove that the finite-size energy depends on the details of the thermodynamic limit and is therefore non-universal. Typically, it includes an additional linear term in the scattering phase shift.

  9. Finite-size Energy of Non-interacting Fermi Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Martin

    2015-12-01

    We study the asymptotics of the difference of the ground-state energies of two non-interacting N-particle Fermi gases in a finite volume of length L in the thermodynamic limit up to order 1/ L. We are particularly interested in subdominant terms proportional to 1/ L, called finite-size energy. In the nineties (Affleck, Nuc. Phys. B 58, 35-41 1997; Zagoskin and Affleck, J. Phys. A 30, 5743-5765 1997) claimed that the finite-size energy is related to the decay exponent occurring in Anderson's orthogonality. We prove that the finite-size energy depends on the details of the thermodynamic limit and is therefore non-universal. Typically, it includes an additional linear term in the scattering phase shift.

  10. Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of GRB 110625A

    CERN Document Server

    Tam, P H Thomas; Fan, Yi-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that emit photons at GeV energies form a small but significant population of GRBs. However, the number of GRBs whose GeV-emitting period is simultaneously observed in X-rays remains small. We report gamma-ray observations of GRB 110625A using Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the energy range 100 MeV to 20 GeV. Gamma-ray emission at these energies was clearly detected using data taken between 180s and 580s after the burst, an epoch after the prompt emission phase. The GeV light curve differs from a simple power-law decay, and probably consists of two emission periods. Simultaneous Swift/XRT observations did not show flaring behaviors as in the case of GRB 100728A. We discuss the possibility that the GeV emission is the synchrotron self-Compton radiation of underlying ultraviolet flares.

  11. Kolmogorov Complexity, String Information, Panspermia and the Fermi Paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Gurzadyan, V G

    2005-01-01

    Bit strings rather than byte files can be a mode of transmission both for intelligent signals and for travels of extraterrestrial life. Kolmogorov complexity, i.e. the minimal length of a binary coded string completely defining a system, can then, due to its universality, become a key concept in the strategy of the search of extraterrestrials. Evaluating, for illustration, the Kolmogorov complexity of the human genome, one comes to an unexpected conclusion that a low complexity compressed string - analog of Noah's ark - will enable the recovery of the totality of terrestrial life. The recognition of bit strings of various complexity up to incompressible Martin-L\\"{o}f random sequences, will require a different strategy for the analysis of the cosmic signals. The Fermi paradox "Where is Everybody?" can be viewed under in the light of such information panspermia, i.e. a Universe full of traveling life streams.

  12. Fermi LAT Observations of Supernova Remnants Interacting with Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of gamma-ray emission coincident with four supernova remnants (SNRs) using data from the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. G349.7+0.2, CTB 37A, 3C 391 and G8.7-0.1 are supernova remnants known to be interacting with molecular clouds, as evidenced by observations of hydroxyl (OH) maser emission at 1720 MHz in their directions. SNR shocks are expected to be sites of cosmic rays acceleration, and clouds of dense material can provide effective targets for production of gamma-rays from pion-decay. The observations reveal unresolved sources in the direction of G349.7+0.2, CTB 37A and 3C 391, and a possibly extended source coincident with G8.7-0.1, all with significance levels greater than 10 sigma.

  13. International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" : Summer Courses 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Betev, L; Grigoras, A; Course 192 : Grid and Cloud Computing : Concepts and Practical Applications

    2016-01-01

    The distributed computing infrastructure known as ‘the Grid’ has undoubtedly been one of the most successful science-oriented large- scale IT projects of the past 20 years. It is now a fully operational international entity, encompassing several hundred computing sites on all continents and giving access to hundreds of thousands of CPU (central processing unit) cores and hundreds of petabytes of storage, all connected by robust national and international scientific networks. It has evolved to become the main computational platform many scientific communities. This book presents lectures from the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics summer school Grid and Cloud computing: Concepts and Practical Applications, held in Varenna, Italy, in July 2014. The school aimed to cover the conceptual and practical aspects of both the Grid and Cloud computing. The proceedings included here are divided into eight chapters, with chapters 1, 2, 3 and 8 covering general applications of Grid and Cloud computing in var...

  14. Imaging redshift estimates for Fermi BL Lac objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadnik, Matt; Romani, Roger W., E-mail: mstadnik@stanford.edu, E-mail: rwr@astro.stanford.edu [Dept. of Physics/KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We have obtained WIYN and SOAR i' images of BL Lacertae objects and used these to detect or constrain the flux of the host galaxy. Under common standard candle assumptions, these data provide estimates of, or lower bounds on, the redshift. Our targets are a set of flat-spectrum radio counterparts of high flux Fermi Large Area Telescope sources, with sensitive spectral observations showing them to be continuum-dominated BL Lac objects. In this sample, 5 of 11 BL Lac objects yielded significant host detections, with standard candle redshifts z = 0.13-0.58. Our estimates and lower bounds are generally in agreement with other redshifts estimates, although our z = 0.374 estimate for J0543–5532 implies a significantly sub-luminous host.

  15. The Fermi Bubbles as Starburst Wind Termination Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Lacki, Brian C

    2013-01-01

    The enhanced star formation in the inner 100 pc of the Galaxy launches a superwind, reaching ~1600 km/s for M82-like parameters. The ram pressure of the wind is very low compared to more powerful starburst winds. I show that halo gas stops the wind a few kpc from the Galactic Center. I argue that the termination shock accelerates cosmic rays, and that the resulting Inverse Compton gamma-rays are visible as the Fermi Bubbles. The Bubbles are thus wind bubbles, which the starburst can inflate within 10 Myr. They remain in steady state as long as the starburst lasts. The shock may accelerate PeV electrons and ultra-high energy protons. The Bubbles may be analogs of galactic wind termination shocks in the intergalactic medium. I discuss the advantages and problems of this model.

  16. Fermi -y-Ray Pulsars: Spectral and Generation Order Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yan; A. Taani; WANG Wei; ZHAO Yong-Heng; ZHANG Cheng-Min

    2011-01-01

    @@ We examine the theory of generation order parameters.Three kinds of generation order parameters are introduced, which describe the production of high-energy y photons in a cascade process scenario.We find acorrelation between the average power-law photon index Г and spin-down rate P in 38 common FERMI -γ-raypulsars, and find that the third generation order parameter, which implies that the magnetic field may have themost significant effect on the higy-energy γ photon absorption in the cascade processes, is the best one.Thestatistical work shows that the theory of generation order parameters can be applied to describe the the -y-raypulsar radiation mechanisms in the cascade processes.

  17. Time-Dependent Stochastic Acceleration Model for the Fermi Bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Kento; Terasawa, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    We study stochastic acceleration models for the Fermi bubbles. Turbulence is excited just behind the shock front via Kelvin-Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Taylor or Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities, and plasma particles are continuously accelerated by the interaction with the turbulence. The turbulence gradually decays as it goes away from the shock fronts. Adopting a phenomenological model for the stochastic acceleration, we explicitly solve the temporal evolution of the particle energy distribution in the turbulence. Our results show that the spatial distribution of high-energy particles is different from those for a steady solution. We also show that the contribution of electrons escaped from the acceleration regions significantly softens the photon spectrum. The photon spectrum and surface brightness profile are reproduced by our models. If the escape efficiency is very high, the radio flux from the escaped low-energy electrons can be comparable to that of the WMAP haze. We also demonstrate hadronic models with the s...

  18. Progress towards a rapidly rotating ultracold Fermi gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming-Guang; van de Graaff, Michael; Cornell, Eric; Jin, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    We are designing an experiment with the goal of creating a rapidly rotating ultracold Fermi gas, which is promising system in which to study quantum Hall physics. We propose to use selective evaporation of a gas that has been initialized with a modest rotation rate to increase the angular momentum per particle in order to reach rapid rotation. We have performed simulations of this evaporation process for a model optical trap potential. Achieving rapid rotation will require a very smooth, very harmonic, and dynamically variable optical trap. We plan to use a setup consisting of two acousto-optical modulators to ``paint'' an optical dipole trapping potential that can be made smooth, radially symmetric, and harmonic. This project is supported by NSF, NIST, NASA.

  19. Quantum critical scattering in uranium non-Fermi liquid compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our recent observation of universal scaling in ω/T of the magnetic response of the non-Fermi liquid compound UCu5-xPdx provides evidence of single-impurity quantum critical fluctuations of the uranium 5f-electrons. The scaling is observed over a wide range of frequencies from ∝1 to 25 meV, and a wide range of temperatures from ∝10 to 300 K, with evidence of a cross-over to more conventional moment fluctuations above 25 meV. We now have evidence from measurements with full polarization analysis of the development of antiferromagnetic correlations below 10 K in UCu4Pd, but not in UCu3.5Pd1.5, indicating the cross-over from the quantum critical regime to a low-temperature quantum-disordered regime as predicted by phenomenological theories of quantum phase transitions. (orig.)

  20. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), conducted September 14 through 25, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual participants for the Survey team are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Fermilab. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at Fermilab, and interviews with site personnel. 110 refs., 26 figs., 41 tabs

  1. Fermi-surface reconstruction by stripe order in cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, F.; Chang, J.; Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Hassinger, E.; Daou, R.; Rondeau, M.; Ramshaw, B.J.; Liang, R.; Bonn, D.A.; Hardy, W.N.; Pyon, S.; Takayama, T.; Takagi, H.; Sheikin, I.; Malone, L.; Proust, C.; Behnia, K.; Taillefer, Louis

    2011-01-01

    The origin of pairing in a superconductor resides in the underlying normal state. In the cuprate high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO), application of a magnetic field to suppress superconductivity reveals a ground state that appears to break the translational symmetry of the lattice, pointing to some density-wave order. Here we use a comparative study of thermoelectric transport in the cuprates YBCO and La1.8−xEu0.2SrxCuO4 (Eu-LSCO) to show that the two materials exhibit the same process of Fermi-surface reconstruction as a function of temperature and doping. The fact that in Eu-LSCO this reconstruction coexists with spin and charge modulations that break translational symmetry shows that stripe order is the generic non-superconducting ground state of hole-doped cuprates. PMID:21847106

  2. Results from PAMELA, ATIC and FERMI: Pulsars or dark matter?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debtosh Chowdhury; Sudhir K Vempati; Chanda J Jog

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that dark matter dominates the dynamics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Its constituents remain a mystery despite an assiduous search for them over the past three decades. Recent results from the satellite-based PAMELA experiment show an excess in the positron fraction at energies between 10 and 100 GeV in the secondary cosmic ray spectrum. Other experiments, namely ATIC, HESS and FERMI, show an excess in the total electron (+ + −) spectrum for energies greater than 100 GeV. These excesses in the positron fraction as well as the electron spectrum can arise in local astrophysical processes like pulsars, or can be attributed to the annihilation of the dark matter particles. The latter possibility gives clues to the possible candidates for the dark matter in galaxies and other astrophysical systems. In this article, we give a report of these exciting developments.

  3. Sampling the Fermi statistics and other conditional product measures

    CERN Document Server

    Gaudilliere, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Through a Metropolis-like algorithm with single step computational cost of order one, we build a Markov chain that relaxes to the canonical Fermi statistics for k non-interacting particles among m energy levels. Uniformly over the temperature as well as the energy values and degeneracies of the energy levels we give an explicit upper bound with leading term km(ln k) for the mixing time of the dynamics. We obtain such construction and upper bound as a special case of a general result on (non-homogeneous) products of ultra log-concave measures (like binomial or Poisson laws) with a global constraint. As a consequence of this general result we also obtain a disorder-independent upper bound on the mixing time of a simple exclusion process on the complete graph with site disorder. This general result is based on an elementary coupling argument and extended to (non-homogeneous) products of log-concave measures.

  4. On GRB Physics Revealed by FERMI/LAT

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the implications of Fermi/LAT observations on several aspects of gamma-ray burst (GRB) physics, including the radiation process, the emission sites, the bulk Lorentz factor, and the pre-shock magnetic field: (1) MeV-range emission favors synchrotron process but the highest energy (>10GeV) emission may not be synchrotron origin, more likely inverse Compton origin; (2) GRB should have multi-zone emission region, with MeV emission produced at smaller radii while optical and >100MeV emission at larger radii; (3) the bulk Lorentz factor can be a few 100's, much lower than 10^3, in multi-zone model; (4) the upstream magnetic field of afterglow shock is strongly amplified to be at least in mG scale.

  5. Decaying Asymmetric Dark Matter Relaxes the AMS-Fermi Tension

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The first result of AMS-02 confirms the positron fraction excess observed by PAMELA, but in the dark matter (DM) interpretation, its softer spectrum brings a tension between AMS-02 and Fermi-LAT, which reported an excess of the electron plus positron flux. In this work we point out that the asymmetric cosmic ray from asymmetric dark matter (ADM) decay relaxes the tension, and find that at the two-body decay level a bosonic ADM around 2.4 TeV and decaying to\\mu^-\\tau^+ can significantly improve the fits. Based on the R-parity-violating supersymmetry with operators LLE^c, we propose a minimal model to realize that ADM scenario: Introducing a pair of singlets (X,\\bar X) and coupling them to the visible sector via LH_uX, we then obtain a leptonic decaying ADM with TeV-scale mass.

  6. Probing gravitino dark matter with PAMELA and Fermi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyse the cosmic-ray signatures of decaying gravitino dark matter in a model-independent way based on an operator analysis. Thermal leptogenesis and universal boundary conditions at the GUT scale restrict the gravitino mass to be below 600 GeV. Electron and positron fluxes from gravitino decays, together with the standard GALPROP background, cannot explain both the PAMELA positron fraction and the electron + positron flux recently measured by Fermi LAT. For gravitino dark matter, the observed fluxes require astrophysical sources. The measured antiproton flux allows for a sizable contribution of decaying gravitinos to the gamma-ray spectrum, in particular a line at an energy below 300 GeV. Future measurements of the gamma-ray flux will provide important constraints on possible signatures of decaying gravitino dark matter at the LHC

  7. Influence of nucleonic motion in Relativistic Fermi Gas inclusive responses

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, L; Donnelly, T W; Molinari, A

    2001-01-01

    Impulsive hadronic descriptions of electroweak processes in nuclei involve two distinctly different elements: one stems from the nuclear many-body physics --- the medium --- which is rather similar for the various inclusive response functions, and the other embodies the responses of the hadrons themselves to the electroweak probe and varies with the channel selected. In this letter we investigate within the context of the relativistic Fermi gas in both the quasi-elastic and $N\\to\\Delta$ regimes the interplay between these two elements. Specifically, we focus on expansions in the one small parameter in the problem, namely, the momentum of a nucleon in the initial wave function compared with the hadronic scale, the nucleon mass. Both parity-conserving and -violating inclusive responses are studied and the interplay between longitudinal ($L$) and transverse ($T$ and $T'$) contributions is highlighted.

  8. FERMI-LAT OBSERVATIONS OF THE GEMINGA PULSAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the Fermi-LAT observations of the Geminga pulsar, the second brightest non-variable GeV source in the γ-ray sky and the first example of a radio-quiet γ-ray pulsar. The observations cover one year, from the launch of the Fermi satellite through 2009 June 15. A data sample of over 60,000 photons enabled us to build a timing solution based solely on γ-rays. Timing analysis shows two prominent peaks, separated by Δφ = 0.497 ± 0.004 in phase, which narrow with increasing energy. Pulsed γ-rays are observed beyond 18 GeV, precluding emission below 2.7 stellar radii because of magnetic absorption. The phase-averaged spectrum was fitted with a power law with exponential cutoff of spectral index Γ = (1.30 ± 0.01 ± 0.04), cutoff energy E 0 = (2.46 ± 0.04 ± 0.17) GeV, and an integral photon flux above 0.1 GeV of (4.14 ± 0.02 ± 0.32) x 10-6 cm-2 s-1. The first uncertainties are statistical and the second ones are systematic. The phase-resolved spectroscopy shows a clear evolution of the spectral parameters, with the spectral index reaching a minimum value just before the leading peak and the cutoff energy having maxima around the peaks. The phase-resolved spectroscopy reveals that pulsar emission is present at all rotational phases. The spectral shape, broad pulse profile, and maximum photon energy favor the outer magnetospheric emission scenarios.

  9. FERMI Observations of Gamma -Ray Emission From the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Atwoo, W. B.; Baldini, I.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Gehrels, N.; Hays, E.; Thompson, D. J.; McEnery, J. E.; Troja, E.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the detection of high-energy ? -ray emission from the Moon during the first 24 months of observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). This emission comes from particle cascades produced by cosmicray (CR) nuclei and electrons interacting with the lunar surface. The differential spectrum of the Moon is soft and can be described as a log-parabolic function with an effective cutoff at 2-3 GeV, while the average integral flux measured with the LAT from the beginning of observations in 2008 August to the end of 2010 August is F(greater than100 MeV) = (1.04 plus or minus 0.01 [statistical error] plus or minus 0.1 [systematic error]) × 10(sup -6) cm(sup -2) s(sup -1). This flux is about a factor 2-3 higher than that observed between 1991 and 1994 by the EGRET experiment on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, F(greater than100 MeV)˜5×10(sup -7) cm(sup -2) s(sup -1), when solar activity was relatively high. The higher gamma -ray flux measured by Fermi is consistent with the deep solar minimum conditions during the first 24 months of the mission, which reduced effects of heliospheric modulation, and thus increased the heliospheric flux of Galactic CRs. A detailed comparison of the light curve with McMurdo Neutron Monitor rates suggests a correlation of the trends. The Moon and the Sun are so far the only known bright emitters of gamma-rays with fast celestial motion. Their paths across the sky are projected onto the Galactic center and high Galactic latitudes as well as onto other areas crowded with high-energy gamma-ray sources. Analysis of the lunar and solar emission may thus be important for studies of weak and transient sources near the ecliptic.

  10. Comparing Galactic Center MSSM dark matter solutions to the Reticulum II gamma-ray data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Achterberg; M. van Beekveld; W. Beenakker; S. Caron; L. Hendriks

    2015-01-01

    Observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) indicate a possible small photon signal originating from the dwarf galaxy Reticulum II that exceeds the expected background between 2 GeV and 10 GeV . We have investigated two specific scenarios for annihilating WIMP dark matter within the pheno

  11. Numerical Investigation and Experimental Reproduction of Fermi Acceleration in Laboratory Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M.; Zhai, C.

    2015-12-01

    Fermi acceleration is widely accepted as the mechanism to explain power law of cosmic ray spectrum. Now this mechanism has been developed to first order Fermi acceleration and second order Fermi acceleration. In first order Fermi acceleration, also known as diffusive shock acceleration, particles are confined around the shock through scattering and accelerated by repeatedly crossing shock front. In second order Fermi acceleration, particles gain energy through statistical collisions with interstellar clouds. In this proposed work, we plan to carefully study these two kinds of acceleration numerically and experimentally. We first consider a single relativistic particle and investigate how it gains energy in Fermi-Ulam model and shock wave acceleration model respectively. We investigate collective behavior of particles with different kinds of wall-oscillation functions and try to find an optimal one in terms of efficiency of acceleration. Then, we plan to go further and consider a group of particles statistically, during which we borrow the correct generalization of Maxwell's velocity distribution in special relativity and compare the results with those in cases where we simply use Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. To this end, we try to provide a scheme to build an accelerator applying both laser technology and mirror effect in Laboratory to reproduce Fermi acceleration, which might be a promising source to obtain high energy particles and further study the mechanism of cosmic rays acceleration.

  12. New LUX and PandaX-II Results Illuminating the Simplest Higgs-Portal Dark Matter Models

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiao-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Direct searches for dark matter (DM) by the LUX and PandaX-II Collaborations employing xenon-based detectors have recently come up with the most stringent limits to date on the elastic scattering of DM off nucleons. For Higgs-portal scalar DM models, the new results have precluded any possibility of accommodating low-mass DM as suggested by the DAMA and CDMS II Si experiments utilizing other target materials, even after invoking isospin-violating DM interactions with nucleons. In the simplest model, SM+D, which is the standard model plus a real scalar singlet named darkon acting as the DM candidate, the LUX and PandaX-II limits rule out DM masses from 5 GeV to about 330 GeV, except a small range around the resonant point at half of the Higgs mass where the interaction cross-section is near the neutrino-background floor. In the THDMII+D, which extends the SM+D by the addition of another Higgs doublet, the region excluded in the SM+D by the direct searches can be recovered due to suppression of the DM effective...

  13. Study and modeling of the most energetic Active Galactic Nuclei with the Fermi satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi satellite was launched in June 2008. The onboard LAT detector is dedicated to the study of galactic and extra-galactic gamma sources with an energy comprised between 200 MeV and 300 GeV. 1451 sources have been detected in less than 11 months. This document is divided into 6 chapters: 1) gamma astronomy, 2) the Fermi satellite, 3) the active galactic nuclei (NAG), 4) the observation of several blazars (PKS-2155-304 and PG-1553+113) and its simulation, 5) the observation of PKS-2155-304 with both RXTE and Fermi, and 6) conclusion

  14. Accurate Evaluation of Fermi-Dirac Integrals and Their Derivatives for Arbitrary Degeneracy and Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Miralles, Juan Antonio; Van Riper, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    The equation of state of an ideal Fermi gas is expressed in terms of Fermi-Dirac integrals. We give formulae for evaluation the Fermi-Dirac integrals of orders 1/2, 3/2, and 5/2 and their derivatives in various limits of non- and extreme degeneracy and relativity. We provide tables and a Fortran subroutine for numerical evaluation of the integrals and derivatives when a limit does not apply. The functions can be evaluated to better than 1% accuracy for any temperature and density using these ...

  15. Prediction of Fermi-Surface Pressure Dependence in Rb and Cs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jan, J. P.; MacDonald, A. H.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1980-01-01

    used to achieve optimum agreement with experimental results. Volume derivatives were then obtained by varying the lattice parameter with the band shifts held constant. The significance of this procedure has been discussed in the light of recent theoretical work. The results obtained for the Fermi......The linear muffin-tin orbitals method of band-structure calculation, combined with a Gaussian integration technique using special directions in the Brillouin zone, has been used to calculate Fermi radii and extremal cross-sectional areas of the Fermi surface in rubidium and cesium. Band shifts were...

  16. Fermi surfaces in YBa2Cu3O/sub x/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report 2-D ACAR measurements in both c- and a-axis projections on single crystal YBa2Cu3O/sub x/, with oxygen concentrations x /approximately/ 7 (T/sub c/ = 93.6 K) and x /approximately/ 6.7 (T/sub c/ = 61 K), and a set of Fermi surfaces is proposed for both compositions. We discuss how Fermi-surface signatures may be distinguished from certain prominent features in the 2-D ACAR data unrelated to the Fermi surfaces. 6 refs., 4 figs

  17. Search for Spatially Extended Fermi-LAT Sources Using Two Years of Data

    CERN Document Server

    Lande, Joshua; Allafort, Alice; Ballet, Jean; Bechtol, Keith; Burnett, Toby; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Funk, Stefan; Giordano, Francesco; Grondin, Marie-Helene; Kerr, Matthew; Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Spatial extension is an important characteristic for correctly associating gamma-ray-emitting sources with their counterparts at other wavelengths and for obtaining an unbiased model of their spectra. We present a new method for quantifying the spatial extension of sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). We perform a series of Monte Carlo simulations to validate this tool and calculate the LAT threshold for detecting the spatial extension of sources. We then test all sources in the second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) for extension. We report the detection of seven new spatially extended sources.

  18. FERMI/LARGE AREA TELESCOPE BRIGHT GAMMA-RAY SOURCE LIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following its launch in 2008 June, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in three months produced a deeper and better resolved map of the γ-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than ∼10σ) γ-ray sources in these data. These are the best characterized and best localized point-like (i.e., spatially unresolved) γ-ray sources in the early mission data.

  19. THE FERMI GBM GAMMA-RAY BURST CATALOG: THE FIRST TWO YEARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paciesas, William S.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, Michael S.; Burgess, J. Michael; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Goldstein, Adam; Guiriec, Sylvain [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Meegan, Charles A.; Van der Horst, Alexander J. [Universities Space Research Association, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Von Kienlin, Andreas; Diehl, Roland; Foley, Suzanne; Greiner, Jochen; Gruber, David [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bissaldi, Elisabetta [Institute of Astro and Particle Physics, University Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, 6176 Innsbruck (Austria); Fishman, Gerald J. [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Fitzpatrick, Gerard [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Stillorgan Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Gibby, Melissa; Giles, Misty [Jacobs Technology, Inc., 1525 Perimeter Pkwy NW, Huntsville, AL 35806 (United States); and others

    2012-03-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is designed to enhance the scientific return from Fermi in studying gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In its first two years of operation GBM triggered on 491 GRBs. We summarize the criteria used for triggering and quantify the general characteristics of the triggered GRBs, including their locations, durations, peak flux, and fluence. This catalog is an official product of the Fermi GBM science team, and the data files containing the complete results are available from the High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center.

  20. String-theory-based predictions for nonhydrodynamic collective modes in strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantilan, H.; Brewer, J. T.; Ishii, T.; Lewis, W. E.; Romatschke, P.

    2016-09-01

    Very different strongly interacting quantum systems such as Fermi gases, quark-gluon plasmas formed in high-energy ion collisions, and black holes studied theoretically in string theory are known to exhibit quantitatively similar damping of hydrodynamic modes. It is not known if such similarities extend beyond the hydrodynamic limit. Do nonhydrodynamic collective modes in Fermi gases with strong interactions also match those from string theory calculations? In order to answer this question, we use calculations based on string theory to make predictions for modes outside the hydrodynamic regime in trapped Fermi gases. These predictions are amenable to direct testing with current state-of-the-art cold atom experiments.

  1. Search for Spatially Extended Fermi-LAT Sources Using Two Years of Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lande, Joshua; Ackermann, Markus; Allafort, Alice; Ballet, Jean; Bechtol, Keith; Burnett, Toby; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Funk, Stefan; Giordano, Francesco; Grondin, Marie-Helene; Kerr, Matthew; Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne

    2012-07-13

    Spatial extension is an important characteristic for correctly associating {gamma}-ray-emitting sources with their counterparts at other wavelengths and for obtaining an unbiased model of their spectra. We present a new method for quantifying the spatial extension of sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). We perform a series of Monte Carlo simulations to validate this tool and calculate the LAT threshold for detecting the spatial extension of sources. We then test all sources in the second Fermi -LAT catalog (2FGL) for extension. We report the detection of seven new spatially extended sources.

  2. The Search for Type 1 X-ray Bursts with Fermi/GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Peter; Linares, M.; Connaughton, V.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Finger, M. H.; WIlson-Hodge, C. A.; Van Der Horst, A.; Fermi GBM X-ray Burst Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the first results of the Fermi-GBM all-sky search for X-ray bursts. The very large field of view and X-ray response of the Fermi-GBM make it a unique instrument to study rare, bright and short-lived X-ray bursts. We are performing a systematic search that exploits such capabilities. We present results on long/intermediate type I X-ray bursts, an unusual kind of thermonuclear bursts from accreting neutron stars, and show how Fermi-GBM is giving, for the first time, robust measurements of their recurrence time.

  3. Decay of Polarons and Molecules in a Strongly Polarized Fermi Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Georg; Massignan, P.

    2010-01-01

    The ground state of an impurity immersed in a Fermi sea changes from a polaron to a molecule as the interaction strength is increased. We show here that the coupling between these two states is strongly suppressed due to a combination of phase-space effects and Fermi statistics, and that it...... vanishes much faster than the energy difference between the two states, thereby confirming the first order nature of the polaron-molecule transition. In the regime where each state is metastable, we find quasiparticle lifetimes which are much longer than what is expected for a usual Fermi liquid. Our...

  4. The Fermi GBM Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog: The First Two Years

    CERN Document Server

    Paciesas, William S; von Kienlin, Andreas; Bhat, P N; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Briggs, Michael S; Burgess, J Michael; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Diehl, Roland; Fishman, Gerald J; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; Foley, Suzanne; Gibby, Melissa; Giles, Misty; Goldstein, Adam; Greiner, Jochen; Gruber, David; Guiriec, Sylvain; van der Horst, Alexander J; Kippen, R Marc; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Lichti, Giselher; Lin, Lin; McBreen, Sheila; Preece, Robert D; Rau, Arne; Tierney, Dave; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is designed to enhance the scientific return from Fermi in studying gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In its first two years of operation GBM triggered on 491 GRBs. We summarize the criteria used for triggering and quantify the general characteristics of the triggered GRBs, including their locations, durations, peak flux, and fluence. This catalog is an official product of the Fermi GBM science team, and the data files containing the complete results are available from the High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC).

  5. Critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation in trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the shift in the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation for a dilute Bose-Fermi mixture confined by a harmonic potential, to lowest order in both the Bose-Bose and Bose-Fermi coupling constants. The relative importance of the effect on the critical temperature of the boson-boson and boson-fermion interactions is investigated as a function of the parameters of the mixture. The possible relevance of the shift of the transition temperature in current experiments on trapped Bose-Fermi mixtures is discussed. (letter to the editor)

  6. Critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation in trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albus, A P [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, D-14469 Potsdam (Germany); Giorgini, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, I-38050 Povo (Italy); Illuminati, F [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, I-84081 Baronissi (Italy); Viverit, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, I-38050 Povo (Italy)

    2002-12-14

    We calculate the shift in the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation for a dilute Bose-Fermi mixture confined by a harmonic potential, to lowest order in both the Bose-Bose and Bose-Fermi coupling constants. The relative importance of the effect on the critical temperature of the boson-boson and boson-fermion interactions is investigated as a function of the parameters of the mixture. The possible relevance of the shift of the transition temperature in current experiments on trapped Bose-Fermi mixtures is discussed. (letter to the editor)

  7. Sound Modes of a Bose-Fermi Mixture Superfluid at Finite Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yosuke; Sakamoto, Ryohei; Mori, Hiroyuki; Arahata, Emiko

    2016-06-01

    We study the sound modes of a Bose-Fermi mixture superfluid at finite temperatures in the collisional hydrodynamic regime. We extend Landau's hydrodynamic theory to deal with a Bose-Fermi mixture superfluid and show the existence of three sound modes. We calculate the hydrodynamic sound velocities numerically using the Nozières and Schmitt-Rink theory at unitarity. The three-sound-modes hybrid in Bose-Fermi mixture superfluids contrasts with the two sound modes exhibited by 3He and 4He superfluids.

  8. Unconventional Fermi surface spin patterns in the (Bi/Pb/Sb)/Ag(111) surface alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Fabian; Dil, Hugo [Physik Institut Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Swiss Light Source PSI (Switzerland); Petrov, Vladimir [Physics Institute St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Patthey, Luc [Swiss Light Source PSI (Switzerland); Osterwalder, Juerg [Physik Institut Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    By a controllable change in the stoichiometry of the long range ordered mixed surface alloy (Bi/Pb/Sb)/Ag(111) the Rashba and Fermi energy can be tuned over a wide range. We show by spin and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy that the spin structure of the individual surface state bands remain unaffected despite the random intermixing of the adatoms. We further report on the observation of unconventional Fermi surface spin textures. These spin textures are found when the Fermi energy lies between the crossing point and the apex of the Rashba type Kramer's pair. The results will be discussed in the context of spin transport.

  9. Analytical formulas for carrier density and Fermi energy in semiconductors with a tight-binding band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical formulas for evaluating the relation of carrier density and Fermi energy for semiconductors with a tight-binding band have been proposed. The series expansions for a carrier density with fast convergency have been obtained by means of a Bessel function. A simple and analytical formula for Fermi energy has been derived with the help of the Gauss integration method. The results of the proposed formulas are in good agreement with accurate numerical solutions. The formulas have been successfully used in the calculation of carrier density and Fermi energy in a miniband superlattice system. Their accuracy is in the order of 10−5. (paper)

  10. Monte Carlo study of thermal fluctuations and Fermi-arc formation in d-wave superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yong-Wei; Li, Tao; Han, Qiang

    2011-07-01

    From the perspective of thermal fluctuations, we investigate the pseudogap phenomena in underdoped high-temperature curpate superconductors. We present a local update Monte Carlo procedure based on the Green’s function method to sample the fluctuating pairing field. The Chebyshev polynomial method is applied to calculate the single-particle spectral function directly and efficiently. The evolution of Fermi arcs as a function of temperature is studied by examining the spectral function at Fermi energy as well as the loss of spectral weight. Our results signify the importance of the vortexlike phase fluctuations on the formation of Fermi arcs.

  11. Direct Measurement of the Fermi Energy in Graphene Using a Double Layer Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seyoung; Jo, Insun; Dillen, D. C.; Ferrer, D. A.; Fallahazad, B.; Z. Yao; Banerjee, S K; Tutuc, E.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a technique which allows a direct measurement of the relative Fermi energy in an electron system using a double layer structure, where graphene is one of the two layers. We illustrate this method by probing the Fermi energy as a function of density in a graphene monolayer, at zero and in high magnetic fields. This technique allows us to determine the Fermi velocity, Landau level spacing, and Landau level broadening in graphene. We find that the N=0 Landau level broadening is large...

  12. Radio Variability of First 3-Month Fermi Blazars at 5 GHz: Affected by Interstellar Scintillation?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X. Liu; Z. Ding; J. Liu; N. Marchili; T. P. Krichbaum

    2011-03-01

    Blazars from the first-three-months Fermi-AGN list were observed with the Urumqi 25-m radio telescope at 5 GHz in IDV (Intra-Day Variability) mode and inter-month observation mode. A significant correlation between the flux density at 5 GHz and the -ray intensity for the Fermi-LAT detected blazars is seen. There is a higher IDV detection rate in Fermi detected blazars than those reported for other samples. Stronger variability appears at lower galactic latitudes; IDV appears to be stronger in weaker sources, indicating that the variability is affected by interstellar scintillation.

  13. Chemical potential and internal energy of the noninteracting Fermi gas in fractional-dimensional space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Panda; B K Panda

    2010-09-01

    Chemical potential and internal energy of a noninteracting Fermi gas at low temperature are evaluated using the Sommerfeld method in the fractional-dimensional space. When temperature increases, the chemical potential decreases below the Fermi energy for any dimension equal to 2 and above due to the small entropy, while it increases above the Fermi energy for dimensions below 2 as a result of high entropy. The ranges of validity of the truncated series expansions of these quantities are extended from low to intermediate temperature regime as well as from high to relatively low density regime by using the Pad ́e approximant technique.

  14. Equal variations of the Fermi level and work function in graphene at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaddar, Sayanti; Coraux, Johann; Martin, Sylvain C; Grévin, Benjamin; Courtois, Hervé; Winkelmann, Clemens B

    2016-08-18

    If surface effects are neglected, any change of the Fermi level in a semiconductor is expected to result in an equal and opposite change of the work function. However, this is in general not observed in three-dimensional semiconductors, because of Fermi level pinning at the surface. By combining Kelvin probe force microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy on single layer graphene, we measure both the local work function and the charge carrier density. The one-to-one equivalence of changes in the Fermi level and the work function is demonstrated to accurately hold in single layer graphene down to the nanometer scale.

  15. High-energy transients with Fermi/GBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For most of mankind's history, astronomy was performed on-ground in the optical energy range. It was only when space-based missions, built more than 50 years ago, detected photons with mind-boggling energies that the exploration of the violent Universe really began. These γ-ray photons still provide us with an unprecedented wealth of information for the most energetic processes taking place in the cosmos. Faithful to the olympic slogan ''higher, faster, further'', an increasing armada of γ-ray satellites was built and launched over the last couple of decades with Fermi being the youngest of its kind. In this thesis, I use data from the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) onboard the Fermi satellite. The focus of this work lies on three very different classes of high-energy astrophysical transients: Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), solar flares and Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGRs). In Chapter 2, I present GRB 091024A, a burst of very long duration in γ-rays where optical data could be acquired well during its active phase. The optical light curve shows very intriguing features which I subsequently interpret as the so called ''optical flash'', a fundamental property of the ''fireball'' model. Although predicted by the latter model, only a handful of GRBs show such a behavior, making them interesting transients to study. Furthermore, I present the fundamental temporal and spectral properties of 47 GBM-detected GRBs with known redshifts. As GRBs explode at cosmological distances it is of uttermost importance to study them in their restframe to get a better understanding of their emission mechanisms. I confirm several correlations already found in the past together with an intriguing connection between redshift and the peak energy (Epeak) of GRBs. Although this correlation is heavily influenced by instrumental effects, it is not unexpected from other experimental results, giving it more credibility. Finally, I present the results of the search for untriggered GRBs in GBM data. This

  16. Background model systematics for the Fermi GeV excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calore, Francesca; Cholis, Ilias; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    The possible gamma-ray excess in the inner Galaxy and the Galactic center (GC) suggested by Fermi-LAT observations has triggered a large number of studies. It has been interpreted as a variety of different phenomena such as a signal from WIMP dark matter annihilation, gamma-ray emission from a population of millisecond pulsars, or emission from cosmic rays injected in a sequence of burst-like events or continuously at the GC. We present the first comprehensive study of model systematics coming from the Galactic diffuse emission in the inner part of our Galaxy and their impact on the inferred properties of the excess emission at Galactic latitudes 2° < |b| < 20° and 300 MeV to 500 GeV. We study both theoretical and empirical model systematics, which we deduce from a large range of Galactic diffuse emission models and a principal component analysis of residuals in numerous test regions along the Galactic plane. We show that the hypothesis of an extended spherical excess emission with a uniform energy spectrum is compatible with the Fermi-LAT data in our region of interest at 95% CL. Assuming that this excess is the extended counterpart of the one seen in the inner few degrees of the Galaxy, we derive a lower limit of 10.0° (95% CL) on its extension away from the GC. We show that, in light of the large correlated uncertainties that affect the subtraction of the Galactic diffuse emission in the relevant regions, the energy spectrum of the excess is equally compatible with both a simple broken power-law of break energy E(break) = 2.1 ± 0.2 GeV, and with spectra predicted by the self-annihilation of dark matter, implying in the case of bar bb final states a dark matter mass of m(χ)=49(+6.4)(-)(5.4)  GeV.

  17. Cyclotron resonance of figure-of-eight orbits in a type-II Weyl semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshino, Mikito

    2016-07-01

    We study the cyclotron resonance in the electron-hole joint Fermi surface of a type-II Weyl semimetal. In magnetic field, the electron and hole pockets touching at the Weyl node are hybridized to form quantized Landau levels corresponding to semiclassical 8-shaped orbits. We calculate the dynamical conductivities for the electric fields oscillating in x and y directions and find that the resonant frequencies in x and y differ by a factor of two, reflecting the figure-of-eight electron motion in real space. The peculiar anisotropy in the cyclotron resonance serves as a unique characteristic of the dumbbell-like Fermi surface.

  18. Asphericity in the Fermi Surface and Fermi Energy of Na-K, Na-Rb and Na-Cs Binary Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minal H. Patel; A.M. Vora; P.N. Gajjar; A.R. Jani

    2002-01-01

    Detailed theoretical investigations into asphericity in the Fermi surface (FS) and Fermi energy (FE) ofNa1_xKx, Na1_xRbx, and Na1_xCsx binary solid solutions are carried out for the first time. The alloying behavior ofthe K, Rb, and Cs with the Na generates the Fermi surface distortion (FSD) of bce simple metals. The FS of Na-K,Na-Rb, and Na-Cs solid solution is a distorted sphere with the largest deviation along [110]. We have found that theimpact of local-field correction function on FSD is maximun at [100] point and minimum at [111] point. The exchangeand correlation effect is found to suppress the value of FE.

  19. Chicago-area poll finds support for bigger Fermi National Accelerator lab.

    CERN Document Server

    Grady, W

    2001-01-01

    A survey among residents living near the Fermi National Accelerator laboratory suggests that there would be some support for the facility to expand beyond the current boundaries of its nearly 7000 acre site.

  20. Theoretical reconsideration of antiferromagnetic Fermi surfaces in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, Hiroshi, E-mail: yamagami@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    In an itinerant 5f-band model, the antiferromagnetic (AFM) Fermi surfaces of URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} are reconsidered using a relativistic LAPW method within a local spin-density approximation, especially taking into account the lattice parameters dependent on pressures. The reduction of the z-coordinate of the Si sites results in the effect of flattening the Ru-Si layers of URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} crystal structure, thus weakening a hybridization/mixing between the U-5f and Ru-4d states in the band structure. Consequently the 5f bands around the Fermi level are more flat in the dispersion with decreasing the z-coordinate, thus producing three closed Fermi surfaces like 'curing-stone', 'rugby-ball' and 'ball'. The origins of de Haas-van Alphen branches can be qualitatively interpreted from the obtained AFM Fermi surfaces.

  1. Introduction to the quantum trajectory method and to Fermi molecular dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lagattuta, K J

    2003-01-01

    The quantum trajectory method (QTM) will be introduced, and an approximation to the QTM known as Fermi molecular dynamics (FMD) will be described. Results of simulations based on FMD will be mentioned for specific nonequilibrium systems dominated by Coulomb interactions.

  2. Emergence of a Metallic Quantum Solid Phase in a Rydberg-Dressed Fermi Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Han; Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Mou, Chung-Yu; Wang, Daw-Wei

    2016-07-15

    We examine possible low-temperature phases of a repulsively Rydberg-dressed Fermi gas in a three-dimensional free space. It is shown that the collective density excitations develop a roton minimum, which is softened at a wave vector smaller than the Fermi wave vector when the particle density is above a critical value. The mean field calculation shows that, unlike the insulating density wave states often observed in conventional condensed matters, a self-assembled metallic density wave state emerges at low temperatures. In particular, the density wave state supports a Fermi surface and a body-centered-cubic crystal order at the same time with the estimated critical temperature being about one tenth of the noninteracting Fermi energy. Our results suggest the emergence of a fermionic quantum solid that should be observable in the current experimental setup. PMID:27472121

  3. FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM GRB 080825C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has opened a new high-energy window in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Here we present a thorough analysis of GRB 080825C, which triggered the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), and was the first firm detection of a GRB by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We discuss the LAT event selections, background estimation, significance calculations, and localization for Fermi GRBs in general and GRB 080825C in particular. We show the results of temporal and time-resolved spectral analysis of the GBM and LAT data. We also present some theoretical interpretation of GRB 080825C observations as well as some common features observed in other LAT GRBs.

  4. On detection of the Fermi edge in in situ grown thin films of high- Tc oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrecht, M.; Ariosa, D.; Saleh, S. A.; Rast, S.; Margaritondo, G.; Onellion, M.; Pavuna, D.

    2001-11-01

    We discuss our systematic series of experiments on the photoelectric detection of the Fermi edge using a cylindrical mirror analyser on films of high- Tc oxides, grown in situ by pulsed laser ablation. The Fermi edge (comparable to the edge of the reference Ag) is very easily observed even in the two-phase BSCCO-2212 film that exhibits onsets of superconducting transitions, at 85 and 45 K. In contrast, the Fermi edge is weaker and more difficult to observe even in the state-of-the-art, highly epitaxial, monophase YBa 2Cu 3O 7- y (YBCO) and NdBa 2Cu 3O 7- y (NBCO-123) films (both with Tc=92 K). So far we could not detect the Fermi edge in the films of the double-`chain' YBCO-124.

  5. Stability of Quantum Motion: Beyond Fermi-golden-rule and Lyapunov decay

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, W; Li, B; Wang, Wen-ge; Li, Baowen

    2004-01-01

    We study, analytically and numerically, the stability of quantum motion for a classically chaotic system. We show the existence of different regimes of fidelity decay which deviate from Fermi Golden rule and Lyapunov decay.

  6. Fermi-Surface Reconstruction and Complex Phase Equilibria in CaFe2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofryk, K.; Saparov, B.; Durakiewicz, T.; Chikina, A.; Danzenbächer, S.; Vyalikh, D. V.; Graf, M. J.; Sefat, A. S.

    2014-05-01

    Fermi-surface topology governs the relationship between magnetism and superconductivity in iron-based materials. Using low-temperature transport, angle-resolved photoemission, and x-ray diffraction, we show unambiguous evidence of large Fermi-surface reconstruction in CaFe2As2 at magnetic spin-density-wave and nonmagnetic collapsed-tetragonal (cT) transitions. For the cT transition, the change in the Fermi-surface topology has a different character with no contribution from the hole part of the Fermi surface. In addition, the results suggest that the pressure effect in CaFe2As2 is mainly leading to a rigid-band-like change of the valence electronic structure. We discuss these results and their implications for magnetism and superconductivity in this material.

  7. Studies of the Fermi surface of tantalum by 2D ACAR measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation measurements for two crystallographic orientations of a tantalum single crystal are presented. An analysis by reciprocal lattice convolution gives a surprisingly good fit to a calculation based on Fermi surface dimensions. (Auth.)

  8. SIMILARITY REDUCTIONS FOR THE NONLINEAR EVOLUTION EQUATION ARISING IN THE FERMI-PASTA-ULAM PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢福鼎; 闫振亚; 张鸿庆

    2002-01-01

    Four families of similarity reductions are obtained for the nonlinear evolution equation arising in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem via using both the direct method due to Clarkson and Kruskal and the improved direct method due to Lou.

  9. Fermi-Decay Law of Bose—Einstein Condensate Trapped in an Anharmonic Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi-decay law of Bose—Einstein condensate, which is trapped by a cigar-shaped anharmonic trap and subjected to a weak random perturbation, is investigated by numerically calculating quantum fidelity (Loschmidt echo), to reveal the coherence loss of the condensate. We find that there are three indispensable factors, anharmonic trap, weak random perturbation and nonlinear interaction, in charging of the Fermi-decay law. The anharmonic trap creates anharmonic oscillations, and the weak random perturbation causes coherence loss by disturbing their coherent oscillations, while the nonlinear interaction enhances the loss to the Fermi-decay law. Based on the Fermi-decay law, some suggestions are presented to prolong the coherent time during coherently manipulating condensates. (general)

  10. Estimating Magic Numbers Larger Than 126 by Fermi-Yang Liming Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xian-Hui; ZHOU Zhi-Ning; ZHONG Yu-Shu; YANG Ze-Sen

    2001-01-01

    The Fermi Yang Liming method is followed and developed to estimate new magic numbers in nuclei with a Woods Saxon density function. The calculated results predict that the magic number next to 126 should be around 184 and 258.

  11. Twelve Years of Education and Public Outreach with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Cominsky, Lynn; Simonnet, Aurore; Education, the Fermi

    2013-01-01

    During the past twelve years, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has supported a wide range of Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities, targeting K-14 students and the general public. The purpose of the Fermi E/PO program is to increase student and public understanding of the science of the high-energy Universe, through inspiring, engaging and educational activities linked to the mission's science objectives. The E/PO program has additional more general goals, including increasing the diversity of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) pipeline, and increasing public awareness and understanding of Fermi science and technology. Fermi's multi-faceted E/PO program includes elements in each major outcome category: Higher Education; Elementary and Secondary Education; Informal Education and Public Outreach.

  12. Emergence of a Metallic Quantum Solid Phase in a Rydberg-Dressed Fermi Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Han; Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Mou, Chung-Yu; Wang, Daw-Wei

    2016-07-01

    We examine possible low-temperature phases of a repulsively Rydberg-dressed Fermi gas in a three-dimensional free space. It is shown that the collective density excitations develop a roton minimum, which is softened at a wave vector smaller than the Fermi wave vector when the particle density is above a critical value. The mean field calculation shows that, unlike the insulating density wave states often observed in conventional condensed matters, a self-assembled metallic density wave state emerges at low temperatures. In particular, the density wave state supports a Fermi surface and a body-centered-cubic crystal order at the same time with the estimated critical temperature being about one tenth of the noninteracting Fermi energy. Our results suggest the emergence of a fermionic quantum solid that should be observable in the current experimental setup.

  13. The First Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Michael; Connaughton, Valerie; Stanbro, Matthew; Zhang, Binbin; Bhat, Narayana; Fishman, Gerald; Roberts, Oliver; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; McBreen, Shelia; Grove, Eric; Chekhtman, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    We present summary results from the first catalog of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) detected with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Space Telescope. The catalog reports parameters for over 2700 TGFs. Since the launch of Fermi in 2008 the TGF detection sensitivity of GBM has been improved several times, both in the flight software and in ground analysis. Starting in 2010 July individual photons were downloaded for portions of the orbits, enabling an off-line search that found weaker and shorter TGFs. Since 2012 November 26 this telemetry mode has been extended to continuous coverage. The TGF sample is reliable, with cosmic rays rejected using data both from Fermi GBM and from the Large Area Telescope on Fermi. The online catalog include times (UTC and solar), spacecraft geographic positions, durations, count intensities and Bayesian Block durations. The catalog includes separate tables for bright TGFs detected by the flight software and for Terrestrial Electron Beams (TEBs).

  14. Background model systematics for the Fermi GeV excess

    CERN Document Server

    Calore, Francesca; Weniger, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The possible gamma-ray excess in the inner Galaxy and the Galactic center (GC) suggested by Fermi-LAT observations has triggered a large number of studies. It has been interpreted as a variety of different phenomena such as a signal from WIMP dark matter annihilation, gamma-ray emission from a population of millisecond pulsars, or emission from cosmic rays injected in a sequence of burst-like events or continuously at the GC. We present the first comprehensive study of model systematics coming from the Galactic diffuse emission in the inner part of our Galaxy and their impact on the inferred properties of the excess emission at Galactic latitudes $2^\\circ<|b|<20^\\circ$ and 300 MeV to 500 GeV. We study both theoretical and empirical model systematics, which we deduce from a large range of Galactic diffuse emission models and a principal component analysis of residuals in numerous test regions along the Galactic plane. We show that the hypothesis of an extended spherical excess emission with a uniform ene...

  15. Kaluza-Klein Contamination in Fermi Accelerated Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Cong-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Astrophysical constraints of new physics are often limited to weakly interacting light particles, such as axions, Kaluza-Klein (KK) gravitons from ADD model, sterile neutrinos and unparticles. We discuss the possibility for an astrophysical scenario to (dis)confirm new physics for heavy particles beyond TeV energy scale. In our scenario, KK protons (protons within KK excited quarks/gluons) within the framework of universal extra dimensions (UEDs), are produced by high energy p + p collisions in Fermi accelerated environments with isotropic spectrum dN/dE \\propto E^-2 up to at least 10^18 eV. Thus, because they are also electrically charged, they should be accelerated by the same mechanism similar to normal protons. KK states should contaminate 10^-5 to 10^-2 of cosmic-ray events for some fixed energy E (if assuming the optical depth \\tau_pp = 1). Hence, if we have techniques to identify them from air shower data, we can constrain UEDs scenario. Our method may or may not give stronger bounds than colliders, be...

  16. Optimization Studies of the FERMI at ELETTRA FEL Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ninno, Giovanni; Fawley, William M.; Penn, Gregory E.; Graves,William

    2005-08-25

    The FERMI at ELETTRA project at Sincotrone Trieste involves two FEL's, each based upon the principle of seeded harmonic generation and using the existing ELETTRA injection linac at 1.2 GeV beam energy. Scheduled to be completed in 2008, FEL-1 will operate in 40-100 nm wavelength range and will involve one stage of harmonic up-conversion. The second undulator line, FEL-2, will begin operation two years later in the 10-40 nm wavelength range and use two harmonic stages operating as a cascade. The FEL design assumes continuous wavelength tunability over the full wavelength range, and polarization tunability of the output radiation including vertical or horizontal linear as well as helical polarization. The design considers focusing properties and segmentation of realizable undulators and available input seed lasers. We review the studies that have led to our current design. We present results of simulations using GENESIS and GINGER simulation codes including studies of various shot-to-shot fluctuations and undulator errors. Findings for the expected output radiation in terms of the power, transverse and longitudinal coherence are reported.

  17. Identification of candidate millisecond pulsars from Fermi LAT observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xue-Jie; Wang, Zhong-Xiang; Vadakkumthani, Jithesh; Xing, Yi

    2016-06-01

    We report our detailed data analysis of 39 γ-ray sources selected from the 992 unassociated sources in the third Fermi Large Area Telescope Third Source Catalog. The selection criteria, which were set for finding candidate millisecond pulsars (MSPs), are non-variables with curved spectra and >5° Galactic latitudes. From our analysis, 24 sources were found to be point-like sources not contaminated by background or nearby unknown sources. Three of them, J1544.6–1125, J1625.1–0021 and J1653.6–0158, have been previously studied, indicating that they are likely MSPs. The spectra of J0318.1+0252 and J2053.9+2922 do not have properties similar to known γ-ray MSPs, and we thus suggest that they are not MSPs. Analysis of archival X-ray data for most of the 24 sources was also conducted. Four sources were found with X-ray objects in their error circles, and 16 with no detection. The ratios between the γ-ray fluxes and X-ray fluxes or flux upper limits are generally lower than those of known γ-ray MSPs, suggesting that if the γ-ray sources are MSPs, none of the X-ray objects are their counterparts. Deep X-ray or radio observations of these sources are needed in order to identify their MSP nature.

  18. H I spin temperature in the Fermi-LAT era

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Gudlaugur; Digel, Seth

    2010-01-01

    The diffuse high-energy gamma-ray emission of the Milky Way arises from interactions of cosmic-rays (CRs) with interstellar gas and radiation field in the Galaxy. The neutral hydrogen (H I) gas component is by far the most massive and broadly distributed component of the interstellar medium. Using the 21-cm emission line from the hyperfine structure transition of atomic hydrogen it is possible to determine the column density of H I if the spin temperature (Ts) of the emitting gas is known. Studies of diffuse gamma-ray emission have generally relied on the assumption of a fixed, constant spin temperature for all H I in the Milky Way. Unfortunately, observations of H I in absorption against bright background sources has shown it to vary greatly with location in the Milky Way. We will discuss methods for better handling of spin temperatures for Galactic diffuse emission modeling using the Fermi-LAT data and direct observation of the spin temperature using H I absorption.

  19. Tiger Team Assessment of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This draft report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) located in Batavia, Illinois. Fermilab is a program-dedicated national laboratory managed by the Universities Research Association, Inc. (URA) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Tiger Team Assessment was conducted from May 11 to June 8, 1992, under the auspices of DOE's Office of Special Projects (OSP) under the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environmental, safety and health (ES ampersand H), and quality assurance (QA) disciplines; site remediation; facilities management; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable Federal , State of Illinois, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal Fermilab requirements was addressed. In addition, an evaluation of the effectiveness of DOE and Fermilab management of the ES ampersand H/QA and self-assessment programs was conducted. The Fermilab Tiger Team Assessment is part a larger, comprehensive DOE Tiger Team Independent Assessment Program planned for DOE facilities. The objective of the initiative is to provide the Secretary of Energy with information on the compliance status of DOE facilities with regard to ES ampersand H requirements, root causes for noncompliance, adequacy of DOE and contractor ES ampersand H management programs, response actions to address the identified problem areas, and DOE-wide ES ampersand H compliance trends and root causes

  20. Fermi Discovery of Gamma-Ray Emission from NGC 1275

    CERN Document Server

    Abdo, A A; Aller, M F; Kellermann, K I; Kovalev, Y Y; Kovalev, Y A; Lister, M L; Pushkarev, A B

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of high-energy (E>100 MeV) gamma-ray emission from NGC 1275, a giant elliptical galaxy lying at the center of the Perseus cluster of galaxies, based on observations made with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) of the Fermi Gamma ray Space Telescope. The positional center of the gamma-ray source is only ~3' away from the NGC 1275 nucleus, well within the 95% LAT error circle of ~5'.The spatial distribution of gamma-ray photons is consistent with a point source. The average flux and power-law photon index measured with the LAT from 2008 August 4 to 2008 December 5 are F_gamma = (2.10+-0.23)x 10^{-7} ph (>100 MeV) cm^{-2} s^{-1} and Gamma = 2.17+-0.05, respectively. The measurements are statistically consistent with constant flux during the four-month LAT observing period.Previous EGRET observations gave an upper limit of F_gamma 100 MeV) cm^{-2} s^{-1} to the gamma-ray flux from NGC 1275. This indicates that the source is variable on timescales of years to decades, and therefore restricts th...