Sample records for cdh1 promoter region

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at CDH1 promoter region in familial gastric cancer Polimorfismos de nucleótido único (SNPs en la región promotora CDH1 en cáncer gástrico familiar

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    A. Ramos-de la Medina


    Full Text Available Introduction: gastric cancer is the most frequent gastrointestinal malignancy in Mexico and the proportion of patients younger than 40 years is one of the highest reported in the world literature. Recently several families with familial diffuse gastric cancer have been identified at the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition. Germline mutations in the E-cadherin gene (CHD1 have been described that result in the development of diffuse hereditary gastric cancer in young patients. Methods: the complete coding sequence at exons 1 to 16 and the promoter region of CDH1 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood samples of two patients with early onset familial diffuse gastric cancer. Results: no germline inactivating mutations of CHD1 were found on either patient. Single nucleotide polymorphisms -160 C→A were detected in the promoter region of CDH1 in both patients. Conclusions: the polymorphism -160 C→A theoretically confers an increased risk of developing diffuse gastric cancer. The relatives of these patients may an increased risk of gastric cancer among other tumors. There is presently not enough evidence to consider the -160 C→A polymorphism an etiologic factor of diffuse gastric cancer in these patients since the frequency and type of genetic alterations of CDH1 are largely unknown in the Mexican population. It will be necessary to conduct epidemiologic studies in the Mexican population to determine the influence that genetic alterations have on the genesis of diffuse gastric carcinoma.Introducción: el cáncer gástrico es la neoplasia más frecuente del tracto gastrointestinal en México y la proporción de pacientes menores de 40 años es una de las más altas reportadas en la literatura mundial. Recientemente se han identificado en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición varias familias con cáncer gástrico difuso familiar. Múltiples mutaciones germinales del gene de E-cadherina (CHD1

  2. CDH1 promoter hypermethylation and E-cadherin protein expression in infiltrating breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldeira, José Roberto F; Prando, Erika C; Quevedo, Francisco C


    prognosis, and metastasis. Differential CpG island methylation in the promoter region of the CDH1 gene might be an alternative way for the loss of expression and function of E-cadherin, leading to loss of tissue integrity, an essential step in tumor progression. METHODS: The aim of our study was to assess...... was observed between CDH1 methylation and ER expression (p = 0.0301, Fisher's exact test). However, this finding was not considered significant after Bonferroni correction of p-value. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary findings suggested that abnormal CDH1 methylation occurs in high frequencies in infiltrating breast...

  3. CDH1 gene promoter hypermethylation in gastric cancer - Relationship to Goseki grading, microsatellite instability status, and EBV invasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zazula, M; Ferreira, AM; Czopek, JP; Kolodziejczyk, P; Sinczak-Kuta, A; Klimkowska, A; Wojcik, P; Okon, K; Bialas, M; Kulig, J; Stachura, J


    Hypermethylation of the CDH1 promoter region seems to be the most common epigenetic mechanism in this gene silencing in gastric cancer. In this study, CDH1 promoter hypermethylation was observed in 54.8% (46/84) of the analyzed sporadic gastric carcinomas. We introduce a new relation: clustering of

  4. Aβ Induces Excitotoxicity Mediated by APC/C-Cdh1 Depletion That Can Be Prevented by Glutaminase Inhibition Promoting Neuronal Survival. (United States)

    Fuchsberger, T; Martínez-Bellver, S; Giraldo, E; Teruel-Martí, V; Lloret, A; Viña, J


    The E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is activated by the fizzy-related protein homolog/CDC20-like protein 1 (cdh1) in post-mitotic neurons. Growing evidence suggests that dysregulation of APC/C-Cdh1 is involved in neurodegenerative diseases. Here we show in neurons that oligomers of amyloid beta (Aβ), a peptide related to Alzheimer's disease, cause proteasome-dependent degradation of cdh1. This leads to a subsequent increase in glutaminase (a degradation target of APC/C-Cdh1), which causes an elevation of glutamate levels and further intraneuronal Ca(2+) dysregulation, resulting in neuronal apoptosis. Glutaminase inhibition prevents glutamate excitotoxicity and apoptosis in Aβ treated neurons. Furthermore, glutamate also decreases cdh1 and leads to accumulation of glutaminase, suggesting that there may be a positive feedback loop of cdh1 inactivation. We confirmed the main findings in vivo using microinjection of either Aβ or glutamate in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. We show here for the first time in vivo that both Aβ and glutamate cause nuclear exclusion of cdh1 and an increase in glutaminase. These results show that maintaining normal APC/C-Cdh1 activity may be a useful target in Alzheimer's disease treatment.

  5. Disordered beta-catenin expression and E-cadherin/CDH1 promoter methylation in gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Fan Zhang; Ping-Ping Wu; Xu-Cheng Jiang; Lin Zheng; Ying-Yan Yu


    AIM: To investigate the distribution of beta-catenin in nuclei or membrane/cytoplasm of gastric carcinoma cells,the relationship between E-cadherin gene methylation and its expression, and the role of beta-catenin and E-cadherin as potential molecular markers in predicting tumor infiltration.METHODS: Twenty-nine cases of gastric carcinoma,classified as diffuse and intestinal variants, were selected for study. Nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins were purified and beta-catenin content was detected by ELISA. DNA methylation of E-cadherin/CDH1 gene promoter was studied by methylation-specific PCR and compaired with E-cadherin expression detected by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: In 27 cases of gastric carcinoma, the ratio of beta-catenin content between nuclei and membrane/cytoplasm was correlated with the T-classification (r =0.392, P = 0.043). The significance was present between T2 and T3 groups. No correlation was detected between diffuse and intestinal variants in terms of their betacatenin distribution. In 21 cases of diffuse variants of gastric carcinoma, there was a difference in E-cadherin expression between CDH1 gene-methylated group and non-methylated group (29 % vs 71%, P = 0.027).No correlation between CDH1 gene methylation and T-classification was found, neither was the significance between E-cadherin expression and tumor infiltration grade.CONCLJSION: Comparative analysis of nuclear and membrane/cytoplasmic beta-catenin can predict local tumor infiltration. E-cadherin/CDH1 gene methylation is an important cause for its gene silence in diffuse variant gastric carcinoma. Methylation of CDH1 gene in the absence of E-cadherin is an early event in gastric carcinogenesis.

  6. Promoter methylation and expression of CDH1 and susceptibility and prognosis of eyelid squamous cell carcinoma. (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Qiang; Yuan, Ye; Jiang, Shan; Jiang, Hua


    Eyelid skin tumors are the most frequent type of cancer in ophthalmology. And, eyelid squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for a large part of it. CDH1 encodes E-cadherin, a glycoprotein that plays an important part in cell-cell interaction. Loss of CDH1 function was suspected to be associated with tumorigenesis. Methylation of CDH1 promotors can alter the expression of its protein and is also considered as a contributor to various cancers. In this study, CDH1 methylation and expression profile as well as prognosis of 38 cases of eyelid SCC and the corresponding adjacent tissues were analyzed to clarify the role of CDH1 methylation in SCC carcinogenesis and prognosis. Methylation was detected by PCR, and CDH1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We observed that CDH1 methylation is significantly correlated with decreased CDH1 protein expression in eyelid SCC patients. Patients with methylation and low expression of CDH1 are significantly associated with advanced and aggressive phenotypes. Therefore, CDH1 methylation and CDH1 expression are both independent prognostic factors for prognosis of eyelid SCC patients.

  7. Mesenchymal to Epithelial Transition Mediated by CDH1 Promotes Spontaneous Reprogramming of Male Germline Stem Cells to Pluripotency

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    Junhui An


    Full Text Available Cultured spermatogonial stem cells (GSCs can spontaneously form pluripotent cells in certain culture conditions. However, GSC reprogramming is a rare event that is largely unexplained. We show GSCs have high expression of mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET suppressors resulting in a developmental barrier inhibiting GSC reprogramming. Either increasing OCT4 or repressing transforming growth factor β (TGF-β signaling promotes GSC reprogramming by upregulating CDH1 and boosting MET. Reducing ZEB1 also enhances GSC reprogramming through its direct effect on CDH1. RNA sequencing shows that rare GSCs, identified as CDH1+ after trypsin digestion, are epithelial-like cells. CDH1+ GSCs exhibit enhanced reprogramming and become more prevalent during the course of reprogramming. Our results provide a mechanistic explanation for the spontaneous emergence of pluripotent cells from GSC cultures; namely, rare GSCs upregulate CDH1 and initiate MET, processes normally kept in check by ZEB1 and TGF-β signaling, thereby ensuring germ cells are protected from aberrant acquisition of pluripotency.

  8. Absence of germline mono-allelic promoter hypermethylation of the CDH1 gene in gastric cancer patients

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    Ozawa Takachika


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germline mono-allelic promoter hypermethylation of the MLH1 or MSH2 gene in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer has recently been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if germline promoter hypermethylation of the tumor suppressor gene CDH1 (E-cadherin might cause predisposition to gastric cancer. Methods We prepared two groups of samples, a group of blood samples from 22 patients with familial gastric cancer or early-onset gastric cancer selected from among 39 patients, and a group of non-cancerous gastric tissue samples from 18 patients with sporadic gastric cancer showing loss of CDH1 expression selected from among 159 patients. We then investigated the allele-specific methylation status of the CDH1 promoter by bisulfite sequencing of multiple clones. Results Although there was a difference between the methylation level of the two alleles in some samples, there was no mono-allelic promoter hypermethylation in any of the samples. Conclusion These results suggest that germline mono-allelic hypermethylation of the CDH1 promoter is not a major predisposing factor for gastric cancer.

  9. Phosphorylation-triggered CUEDC2 degradation promotes UV-induced G1 arrest through APC/C(Cdh1) regulation. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Na; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Tao; Li, Ai-Ling; Wang, Na; Xu, Jin-Jing; Chang, Yan; Man, Jiang-Hong; Pan, Xin; Li, Tao; Li, Wei-Hua; Mu, Rui; Liang, Bing; Chen, Liang; Jin, Bao-Feng; Xia, Qing; Gong, Wei-Li; Zhang, Xue-Min; Wang, Li; Li, Hui-Yan


    DNA damage triggers cell cycle arrest to provide a time window for DNA repair. Failure of arrest could lead to genomic instability and tumorigenesis. DNA damage-induced G1 arrest is generally achieved by the accumulation of Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21). However, p21 is degraded and does not play a role in UV-induced G1 arrest. The mechanism of UV-induced G1 arrest thus remains elusive. Here, we have identified a critical role for CUE domain-containing protein 2 (CUEDC2) in this process. CUEDC2 binds to and inhibits anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-Cdh1 (APC/C(Cdh1)), a critical ubiquitin ligase in G1 phase, thereby stabilizing Cyclin A and promoting G1-S transition. In response to UV irradiation, CUEDC2 undergoes ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation and ubiquitin-dependent degradation, leading to APC/C(Cdh1)-mediated Cyclin A destruction, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inactivation, and G1 arrest. A nonphosphorylatable CUEDC2 mutant is resistant to UV-induced degradation. Expression of this stable mutant effectively overrides UV-induced G1-S block. These results establish CUEDC2 as an APC/C(Cdh1) inhibitor and indicate that regulated CUEDC2 degradation is critical for UV-induced G1 arrest.

  10. Positive feedback promotes mitotic exit via the APC/C-Cdh1-separase-Cdc14 axis in budding yeast. (United States)

    Hatano, Yuhki; Naoki, Koike; Suzuki, Asuka; Ushimaru, Takashi


    The mitotic inhibitor securin is degraded via the ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-Cdc20 after anaphase onset. This triggers activation of the mitotic protease separase and thereby sister chromatid separation. However, only a proportion of securin molecules are degraded at metaphase-anaphase transition and the remaining molecules are still present in anaphase. The roles of securin and separase in late mitosis remain elusive. Here, we show that securin still inhibits separase to repress mitotic exit in anaphase in budding yeast. APC/C-Cdh1-mediated securin degradation at telophase further liberated separase, which promotes Cdc14 release and mitotic exit. Separase executed these events via its proteolytic action and that in the Cdc14 early release (FEAR) network. Cdc14 release further activated APC/C-Cdh1 in the manner of a positive feedback loop. Thus, the positive feedback promotes mitotic exit via the APC/C-Cdh1-separase-Cdc14 axis. This study shows the importance of the two-step degradation mode of securin and the role of separase in mitotic exit.

  11. Promoter hypermethylation of CDH1, FHIT, MTAP and PLAGL1 in gastric adenocarcinoma in individuals from Northern Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariana Ferreira Leal; Eleonidas Moura Lima; Patrícia Natália Oliveira Silva; Paulo Pimentel Assumpc(a)o; Danielle Queiroz Calcagno; Spencer Luiz Marques Pay(a)o; Rommel Rodríguez Burbano; Marília de Arruda Cardoso Smith


    AIM: To evaluate the methylation status of CDH1, FHIT,MTAP and PLAGL1 promoters and the association of these findings with clinico-pathological characteristics.METHODS: Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assay was performed in 13 nonneoplastic gastric adenocarcinoma,30 intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma and 35 diffusetype gastric adenocarcinoma samples from individuals in Northern Brazil. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test to assess associations between methylation status and clinicopathological characteristics.RESULTS: Hypermethylation frequencies of CDH1, FHIT,MTAP and PLAGL1 promoter were 98.7%, 53.9%, 23.1% and 29.5%, respectively. Hypermethylation of three or four genes revealed a significant association with diffuse-type gastric cancer compared with nonneoplastic cancer. A higher hypermethylation frequency was significantly associated with H pylori infection in gastric cancers, especially with diffuse-type. Cancer samples without lymph node metastasis showed a higher FHIT hypermethylation frequency. MTAP hypermethylation was associated with H pylori in gastric cancer samples, as well as with diffuse-type compared with intestinal-type.In diffuse-type, MTAP hypermethylation was associated with female gender.CONCLUSION: Our findings show differential gene methylation in tumoral tissue, which allows us to conclude that hypermethylation is associated with gastric carcinogenesis. MTAP promoter hypermethylation can be characterized as a marker of diffuse-type gastric cancer, especially in women and may help in diagnosis,prognosis and therapies. The H pylori infectious agent was present in 44.9% of the samples. This infection may be correlated with the carcinogenic process through the gene promoter hypermethylation, especially the MTAP promoter in diffuse-type. A higher H pylori infection in diffuse-type may be due to greater genetic predisposition.

  12. Promoter Hypermethylation of CDH1 Gene and Ectopic Expression of β-catenin in Esophageal Squamous Cell Cancer%食管鳞状细胞癌中CDH1基因启动子区甲基化状态与β-catenin异质表达的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭艳丽; 郭炜; 杨植彬; 邝钢; 董稚明


    promoter methylation was 79.1% in ESCC tumor samples, significantly higher than that in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues ( P < 0.01).Hypermethylation of the CDH1 gene was correlated with clinical stage, but not with pathological grade of ESCC.Furthermore, the positive rate of CDH1 mRNA expression was 42.9% in the cancer tissues, obviously lower than that in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues (97.8%, P < 0.01).The ectopic expression rates of β-catenin protein were 89.0% and 24.2% in ESCC and the related adjacent non-cancerous tissues, respectively, with a significant difference between the two groups ( P < 0.01).Both the mRNA expression and the ectopic expression of β-catenin protein were correlated with the frequency of CDH1 gene promoter methylation ( P < 0.05).Conclusion: Methylation of the CDH1 promoter region is a frequent event in ESCC.Hypermethylation may be one of the molecular mechanisms resulting in the pathogenesis of ESCC, perhaps through an aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  13. A conserved cyclin-binding domain determines functional interplay between anaphase-promoting complex-Cdh1 and cyclin A-Cdk2 during cell cycle progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, C; Kramer, E R; Peters, J M;


    Periodic activity of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) ubiquitin ligase determines progression through multiple cell cycle transitions by targeting cell cycle regulators for destruction. At the G(1)/S transition, phosphorylation-dependent dissociation of the Cdh1-activating subunit inhibits...... the APC, allowing stabilization of proteins required for subsequent cell cycle progression. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) that initiate and maintain Cdh1 phosphorylation have been identified. However, the issue of which cyclin-CDK complexes are involved has been a matter of debate, and the mechanism...... of how cyclin-CDKs interact with APC subunits remains unresolved. Here we substantiate the evidence that mammalian cyclin A-Cdk2 prevents unscheduled APC reactivation during S phase by demonstrating its periodic interaction with Cdh1 at the level of endogenous proteins. Moreover, we identified...

  14. Promoter methylation of CDH1 genes in cervical cancer:correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics%CDH1基因启动子甲基化与宫颈癌临床病理特征的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 郑蓉; 曹桂荣; 赵昌银; 冯景; 陈双郧


    目的:检测Cadlherin 1(CDH1)基因启动子区CpG岛甲基化状态,并分析CDH1基因甲基化率与临床病理特征的关系.方法:运用甲基化特异性PCR(MSP)检测95例宫颈癌标本及对照组40例正常宫颈组织的CDH1基因启动子甲基化状态,荧光定量PCR检测高危型HPV DNA.分析CDH1基因甲基化状态与不同临床病理特征之间的联系.结果:宫颈癌组CDH1基因甲基化率明显高于正常对照组(分别为49.5%,12.5%,P0.05).结论:宫颈癌CDH1基因启动子甲基化与高危型HPV具有良好的一致性.CDH1基因启动子高甲基化为频发事件,并与不同宫颈癌病理类型相关,可作为宫颈癌诊断及分型的生物学标志物.

  15. 膀胱移行细胞癌CDH1基因启动子C/A单核苷酸多态性与其蛋白表达关系的研究%Relationship between C/A SNP of CDH1 gene promoter and expression of CDH1 protein in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮黎; 张旭; 马鑫; 李功成; 黄皓; 张军; 付斌


    目的探讨膀胱移行细胞癌(BTCC)中E-钙粘连素(CDH1)基因启动子-160处C/A单核苷酸多态性(SNP)与CDH1表达的关系.方法BTCC患者36例,男24例,女12例,分别取血液和膀胱肿瘤组织标本.对照组36例,为非肿瘤患者,男30例,女6例,取膀胱组织标本.PCR-限制性片段长度多态性分析法检测血液标本中CDH1基因启动子上游-160处C/A SNP.免疫组化方法检测组织CDH1的表达情况.比较2组组织CDH1表达情况,分析BTCC组C/A SNP与CDH1表达的关系.结果BTCC组和对照组CDH1阳性率分别为61%(22/36)和86%(31/36),P<0.05.BTCC组14例CDH1表达阴性者中,AA基因型8例、AC型3例、CC型3例,A等位基因频率为68%(19/28);22例CDH1表达阳性者中,AA型3例、AC型11例、CC型8例,A等位基因频率为39%(17/44);2组中AA基因型发生率与AC、CC基因型比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),A等位基因频率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论CDH1基因启动子-160处C/A SNP在TBCC的CDH1表达过程中可能具有重要作用,A等位基因对CDH1表达下调可能发挥主要作用.

  16. Promoter hypermethylation of CDH1 gene in epithelial ovarian carcinoma%CDH1基因异常甲基化在上皮性卵巢癌中的检测及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈文静; 郭科军; 戴冬秋; 王晓彩


    目的 探讨CDH1基因异常甲基化在上皮性卵巢癌发生发展中的作用及临床意义.方法 对中国医科大学附属第一医院妇科、辽宁省肿瘤医院妇科1999年至2006年63例上皮性卵巢癌组织原发灶、41例相应的盆腹腔转移灶、10例癌旁卵巢组织及20例正常卵巢组织,采用甲基化特异性聚合酶链式反应(MSP)法检测CDH1基因启动子区甲基化状态.结果 上皮性卵巢癌组织原发灶及相应的盆腹腔转移灶中存在CDH1基因启动子区异常甲基化,发生率分别为28.6%、39.0%,显著高于正常卵巢组织(P<0.01).10例癌旁卵巢组织中1例检测到CDH1基因启动子区甲基化,20例正常卵巢组织未检测到CDH1基因启动子区甲基化.CDH1基因启动子区甲基化的发生率在临床Ⅰ期和Ⅱ期显著低于Ⅲ期和Ⅳ期(P<0.05),在高分化癌中低于低分化癌(P<0.05).结论 CDH1基因启动子区异常甲基化与上皮性卵巢癌发生密切相关,并可能与上皮性卵巢癌转移、临床分期及分化程度有关.

  17. CDH1基因甲基化水平与肺癌的相关性研究%The Relationship between CDH1 Promoter Methylation and Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兰辉; 向莉; 苏艳丹; 詹淑芬; 王玉明; 段勇


    目的 探讨CDH1(cadherin 1)基因甲基化水平与肺癌及其病理类型之间的相关性.方法 应用半定量荧光MSP检测50例肺癌患者的癌、癌旁和远癌肺组织及5例非肺癌对照肺组织标本中的CDH1甲基化的相对比值,并用免疫组化方法对部分结果进行验证.结果 肺癌组织、癌旁组织、远癌组织以及非肺癌对照肺组织CDH1甲基化相对比值的中位数分别为0.272、0.227、0.119和0.000.癌组织和癌旁组织(P0.05).免疫组化结果与半定量荧光MSP检测结果符合.结论 CDH1基因甲基化水平与肺癌具有相关性,与肺癌的组织类型无相关性.CDH1异常甲基化和E-cad表达的减弱和缺失可能是肺癌发生和发展过程中的重要因素.

  18. 大鼠脊髓部分横切损伤后APC-Cdh1在损伤脊髓组织中的表达%Expression of Cdh1-anaphase-promoting Complex (APC-Cdh1) in the Injured Myeloid Tissue after Hemi-sected Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁月红; 钱巍; 李平; 姚文龙; 邱瑾; 张传汉


    目的 观察大鼠脊髓部分横切损伤后损伤脊髓组织中APC-Cdh1 mRNA的表达变化,探讨APC-Cdh1在脊髓损伤修复中的作用.方法 建立成年SD大鼠脊髓部分横切模型(T10~T11),将40只成年雄性SD大鼠随机分成对照组和模型组,于损伤后不同时间点按实验性脊髓损伤神经功能综合评分标准进行CBS评估,采用实时荧光定量PCR检测损伤区脊髓组织APC-Cdh1 mRNA的表达,并用免疫组化染色检测Cdh1表达的部位.结果 对照组和模型组术后不同时间点CBS评分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);与对照组比较,术后第1天Cdh1 mRNA表达减少(P<0.05),术后第7天显著升高(P<0.05),术后第14天又降低(P<0.05).免疫组化检测结果显示在脊髓前角和后角中有大量APC-Cdh1表达.结论 APC-Cdh1在损伤脊髓组织中大量表达,表明其可能参与脊髓损伤修复的病理生理过程.

  19. Role of anaphase promoting complex and its regulatory subunit Cdh1 in ischemic cerebral damage%细胞周期末期促进复合物及其调节亚基Cdh1在缺血性脑损伤中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱瑾; 钱巍; 张传汉


    Studies suggest that ubiquitin-proteasome system and cell cycle components play an important role in neuron apoptosis and gila cell proliferation after cerebral ischemia.Anaphase promoting complex (APC) and its regulatory subunit Cdh1 are intermedia to link intracellular ubiquitin-proteasome system and cell cycle components,and are the key proteins to regulate cell cycle process.This review summarizes the role of APC-Cdh1 in neuron apoptosis and glia cell proliferation after cerebral ischemia.%研究认为泛素-蛋白酶体系统与细胞周期成分在脑缺血后神经元凋亡及胶质细胞增殖活化中起着重要作用.细胞周期末期促进复合物(anaphase promoting complex,APC)及其调节亚基Cdh1是联系细胞内泛素-蛋白酶体系统与细胞周期成分的中间枢纽,是细胞周期进程调控的关键蛋白.现就APC-Cdh1在缺血性脑损伤中的作用作一综述.

  20. An APC/C-Cdh1 Biosensor Reveals the Dynamics of Cdh1 Inactivation at the G1/S Transition (United States)

    Ondracka, Andrej; Robbins, Jonathan A.; Cross, Frederick R.


    B-type cyclin-dependent kinase activity must be turned off for mitotic exit and G1 stabilization. B-type cyclin degradation is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C); during and after mitotic exit, APC/C is dependent on Cdh1. Cdh1 is in turn phosphorylated and inactivated by cyclin-CDK at the Start transition of the new cell cycle. We developed a biosensor to assess the cell cycle dynamics of APC/C-Cdh1. Nuclear exit of the G1 transcriptional repressor Whi5 is a known marker of Start; APC/C-Cdh1 is inactivated 12 min after Whi5 nuclear exit with little measurable cell-to-cell timing variability. Multiple phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 act in a redundant manner to repress its activity. Reducing the number of phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 can to some extent be tolerated for cell viability, but it increases variability in timing of APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation. Mutants with minimal subsets of phosphorylation sites required for viability exhibit striking stochasticity in multiple responses including budding, nuclear division, and APC/C-Cdh1 activity itself. Multiple cyclin-CDK complexes, as well as the stoichiometric inhibitor Acm1, contribute to APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation; this redundant control is likely to promote rapid and reliable APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation immediately following the Start transition. PMID:27410035

  1. An APC/C-Cdh1 Biosensor Reveals the Dynamics of Cdh1 Inactivation at the G1/S Transition. (United States)

    Ondracka, Andrej; Robbins, Jonathan A; Cross, Frederick R


    B-type cyclin-dependent kinase activity must be turned off for mitotic exit and G1 stabilization. B-type cyclin degradation is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C); during and after mitotic exit, APC/C is dependent on Cdh1. Cdh1 is in turn phosphorylated and inactivated by cyclin-CDK at the Start transition of the new cell cycle. We developed a biosensor to assess the cell cycle dynamics of APC/C-Cdh1. Nuclear exit of the G1 transcriptional repressor Whi5 is a known marker of Start; APC/C-Cdh1 is inactivated 12 min after Whi5 nuclear exit with little measurable cell-to-cell timing variability. Multiple phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 act in a redundant manner to repress its activity. Reducing the number of phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 can to some extent be tolerated for cell viability, but it increases variability in timing of APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation. Mutants with minimal subsets of phosphorylation sites required for viability exhibit striking stochasticity in multiple responses including budding, nuclear division, and APC/C-Cdh1 activity itself. Multiple cyclin-CDK complexes, as well as the stoichiometric inhibitor Acm1, contribute to APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation; this redundant control is likely to promote rapid and reliable APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation immediately following the Start transition.

  2. Frequent Promoter Methylation of CDH1, DAPK, RARB, and HIC1 Genes in Carcinoma of Cervix Uteri: Its Relationship to Clinical Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Achim


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer (CC, a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide, has been causally linked to genital human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Although a host of genetic alterations have been identified, molecular basis of CC development is still poorly understood. Results We examined the role of promoter hypermethylation, an epigenetic alteration that is associated with the silencing tumor suppressor genes in human cancer, by studying 16 gene promoters in 90 CC cases. We found a high frequency of promoter methylation in CDH1, DAPK, RARB, and HIC1 genes. Correlation of promoter methylation with clinical characteristics and other genetic changes revealed the following: a overall promoter methylation was higher in more advanced stage of the disease, b promoter methylation of RARB and BRCA1 predicted worse prognosis, and c the HIC1 promoter methylation was frequently seen in association with microsatellite instability. Promoter methylation was associated with gene silencing in CC cell lines. Treatment with methylation or histone deacetylation-inhibiting agents resulted in profound reactivation of gene expression. Conclusions These results may have implications in understanding the underlying epigenetic mechanisms in CC development, provide prognostic indicators, and identify important gene targets for treatment.

  3. Relationship between-160C/A polymorphism in CDH1 gene promoter and protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma%肝细胞肝癌CDH1基因启动子C/A单核苷酸多态性与蛋白表达的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈徐艰; 倪全法; 曹浩强


    目的 探讨原发性肝细胞肝癌CDH1基因启动子-160位点的C/A单核苷酸多态性(SNP)与其蛋白表达的关系.方法 以34例肝癌手术病人为对象,DNA直接测序法检测其血液标本中CDH1基因启动子-160位点C/A SNP,免疫组化法检测组织标本中CDH1的蛋白产物--上皮钙黏素(E-cadherin)的表达情况,比较分析C/A SNP与E-cadherin表达的关系.结果 E-cadherin高表达组18例(52.9%),低表达组16例(47.1%),两组的基因型出现率CC与CA,AA比较差异均有统计学意义(P0.05),A、C等位基因频率在两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 CDH1基因启动子-160位点的C/A SNP在肝癌E-cadherin表达中可能发挥重要作用,且A等位基因的出现与E-cadherin表达下调相关.%Objective To investigate the relationship between-160C/A single nucleotide poly-morphism(SNP) in the CDH1 gene promoter and protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods Samples were taken from 34 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and -160 C/A SNP of CDH1 gene promoter was detected by blood specimens adopting direct DNA sequencing. The expres-sion of E-cadherin which encoded by CDH1 gene was determined by paraffin-embedded tissue using immunohistochemistry and the association between -160 C/A SNP and protein expression was ana-lyzed. Results The high and low expression of E-cadherin was observed in 18 cases(52.9%) and 16 cases(47.1%). In these two groups, the difference of the incidence between CC genotype and CA, AA genotype was statistically significant(P<0.05) whereas there was no marked difference between CA and AA genotype. The difference of both A and C allele frequency was significant(P<0.05). Conclusion The -160 C/A SNP of the CDH1 gene promoter may play an important role in regulating the expression of E-cadherin in hepatocellular carcinoma and the incidence of A allele is associated with down-regulation of E-cadherin expression.

  4. Cdh1 regulates craniofacial development via APC-dependent ubiquitination and activation of Goosecoid. (United States)

    Shao, Rui; Liu, Jia; Yan, Guang; Zhang, Jinfang; Han, Yujiao; Guo, Jianfeng; Xu, Zhan; Yuan, Zhu; Liu, Jiankang; Malumbres, Marcos; Wan, Lixin; Wei, Wenyi; Zou, Weiguo


    Craniofacial anomalies (CFAs) characterized by birth defects of skull and facial bones are the most frequent congenital disease. Genomic analysis has identified multiple genes responsible for CFAs; however, the underlying genetic mechanisms for the majority of CFAs remain largely unclear. Our previous study revealed that the Wwp2 E3 ubiquitin ligase facilitates craniofacial development in part through inducing monoubiquitination and activation of the paired-like homeobox transcription factor, Goosecoid (Gsc). Here we report that Gsc is also ubiquitinated and activated by the APC(Cdh1) E3 ubiquitin ligase, leading to transcriptional activation of various Gsc target genes crucial for craniofacial development. Consistenly, neural crest-specific Cdh1-knockout mice display similar bone malformation as Wwp2-deficient mice in the craniofacial region, characterized by a domed skull, a short snout and a twisted nasal bone. Mechanistically, like Wwp2-deficient mice, mice with Cdh1 deficiency in neural crest cells exhibit reduced Gsc/Sox6 transcriptional activities. Simultaneous deletion of Cdh1 and Wwp2 results in a more severe craniofacial defect compared with single gene deletion, suggesting a synergistic augmentation of Gsc activity by these two E3 ubiquitin ligases. Hence, our study reveals a novel role for Cdh1 in craniofacial development through promoting APC-dependent non-proteolytic ubiquitination and activation of Gsc.

  5. 结肠癌细胞CDH1基因启动子甲基化对E-上皮钙黏素和β-连接素表达的调控作用%Regulation of CDH1 gene promoter methylation on expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin in human colon carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李臣; 董坚; 任俊宇; 洪敏; 李少避; 刘为青; 高嫦娥; 陈圣雄; 周华华; 陈明清


    Objective To observe the effects of CDH1 gene promoter methylation on the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin in human colon carcinoma cells.Methods Methylation specific PCR (MSP) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods were utilized to examine methylation status of CDH1 gene promoter and the changes of E-cadherin mRNA in colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 before and after the treatment with 5-Aza-CdR.The expression of E-cadherin and localization of β-catenin were labeled by immunofluorescence and analyzed under a laser scanning confocal microscope.Results (1) CDH1 gene promoter methylation was positive and unmethylation was negative in HT-29cells before the treatment with 5-Aza-CdR.After treatment with 5-Aza-CdR for 24 h,methylation turned negative and unmethylation was detected; (2) The E-cadherin mRNA failed to be amplified in cells,whereas it could be detected after the treatment.The mRNA expression level of E-cadherin expressed as average gray ratio was 0.491 ±0.011 and 0.568 ±0.013 respectively after treatment with 1 and 2 μmol/L 5-Aza-CdR ( P < 0.05 ; (3) Before treatment with 5-Aza-CdR,the expression of E-cadherin was not detected and β-catenin was detected in cytoplasm and nucleus,while both E-cadherin and β-catenin staining was positive on the cell membrane by immunofluorescence after the treatment.With the expression of E-cadherin induced by 5-Aza-CdR,the membranous expression of β-catenin was elevated and nuclear expression of β-catenin was reduced.Immunofuorescence double staining displayed the distribution of β-catenin was corresponded with E-cadherin on the cell membrane.Conclusion CDH1 gene promoter methylation may lead to the loss of E-cadherin expression and the altered distribution of β-catenin in colon carcinoma cells.%目的 观察结肠癌细胞中上皮钙黏素基因( CDH1)启动子甲基化对上皮钙黏素(E-cadherin)和β-连接素(β-catenin)表达的影响.方法 通过甲基化特异性PCR

  6. Nonperiodic activity of the human anaphase-promoting complex-Cdh1 ubiquitin ligase results in continuous DNA synthesis uncoupled from mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, C; Kramer, E R; Peters, J M


    , in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila spp., triggers exit from mitosis and during G(1) prevents unscheduled DNA replication. In this study we investigated the importance of periodic oscillation of the APC-Cdh1 activity for the cell cycle progression in human cells. We show that conditional interference...

  7. Cdh1 inhibits reactive astrocyte proliferation after oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion. (United States)

    Qiu, Jin; Zhang, Chuanhan; Lv, Youyou; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Chang; Wang, Xueren; Yao, Wenlong


    Anaphase-promoting complex (APC) and its co-activator Cdh1 are required for cell cycle regulation in proliferating cells. Recent studies have defined diverse functions of APC-Cdh1 in nervous system development and injury. Our previous studies have demonstrated the activity of APC-Cdh1 is down-regulated in hippocampus after global cerebral ischemia. But the detailed mechanisms of APC-Cdh1 in ischemic nervous injury are unclear. It is known that astrocyte proliferation is an important pathophysiological process following cerebral ischemia. However, the role of APC-Cdh1 in reactive astrocyte proliferation is not determined yet. In the present study, we cultured primary cerebral astrocytes and set up in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion model. Our results showed that the expression of Cdh1 was decreased while Skp2 (the downstream substrate of APC-Cdh1) was increased in astrocytes after 1h oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion. The down-regulation of APC-Cdh1 was coupled with reactive astrocyte proliferation. By constructing Cdh1 expressing lentivirus system, we also found exogenous Cdh1 can down-regulate Skp2 and inhibit reactive astrocyte proliferation induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion. Moreover, Western blot showed that other downstream proteins of APC-Cdh1, PFK-1 and SnoN, were decreased in the inhibition of reactive astrocyte proliferation with Cdh1 expressing lentivirus treatment. These results suggest that Cdh1 plays an important role in the regulation of reactive astrocyte proliferation induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion.

  8. Cdh1/Hct1-APC is essential for the survival of postmitotic neurons. (United States)

    Almeida, Angeles; Bolaños, Juan P; Moreno, Sergio


    Cell division at the end of mitosis and G1 is controlled by Cdh1/Hct1, an activator of the E3-ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC) that promotes the ubiquitylation and degradation of mitotic cyclins and other substrates. Cdh1-APC is active in postmitotic neurons, where it regulates axonal growth and patterning in the developing brain. However, it remains unknown whether Cdh1-APC is involved in preventing cell-cycle progression in terminally differentiated neurons. To address this issue, we used the small hairpin RNA strategy to deplete Cdh1 in postmitotic neurons. We observed that Cdh1 silencing rapidly triggered apoptotic neuronal death. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we focused on cyclin B1, a major Cdh1-APC substrate. Our results demonstrate that Cdh1 is required to prevent the accumulation of cyclin B1 in terminally differentiated neurons. Moreover, by keeping cyclin B1 low, Cdh1 prevented these neurons from entering an aberrant S phase that led to apoptotic cell death. These results provide an explanation for the mechanism of cyclin B1 reactivation that occurs in the brain of patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  9. CDH1基因启动子甲基化在上皮性卵巢癌转移方面的研究%Correlation of the methylation status of CDH1 gene promoter and the metastasis of human epithelial ovarian carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于月成; 辛晓燕; 李红梅; 李奇灵; 袁鹏; 滑伟; 张明



  10. 上皮性卵巢癌CDH1基因启动子甲基化和蛋白表达的关系及意义%Association between CDH1 promoter methylation and E-cadherin protein expression and its clinical significance in primary epithelial ovarian carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于月成; 辛晓燕; 汪海丹; 李红梅; 李奇灵; 黄侃


    目的:检测上皮性卵巢癌组织中上皮型钙粘附素基因(CDH1基因)启动子区甲基化分布情况,分析其与上皮性钙粘附素蛋白表达的关系,探讨启动子甲基化对于蛋白表达的影响和意义.方法:应用甲基化特异的PCR(MSP)检测38例正常卵巢上皮和80例上皮性卵巢癌组织中CDH1基因启动子区甲基化,采用免疫组织化学方法检测上述标本中E-cadherin表达的情况,并结合肿瘤的生物学行为进行分析.结果:E-cadherin在上皮性卵巢恶性肿瘤中表达明显降低(P<0.05);34例CDH1基因启动子甲基化全部出现在卵巢癌组,有淋巴结转移组中甲基化频率明显高于无淋巴结转移组(26/35vs 8/45,P<0.05);卵巢癌组织中有CDH1基因启动子甲基化者,E-cadherin表达明显低于无甲基化者(P<0.05).结论:E-cadherin表达降低与上皮性卵巢癌转移关系密切,CDH1基因启动子区甲基化可能是导致E-cadherin表达蛋白表达减低的重要原因之一.

  11. CDH1 C-160A基因多态性与中国人群胃癌易患性的Meta分析%A Meta-analysis of CDH1 C-160A Promoter Polymorphism and Genetic Susceptibility to Gastric Cancer in Chinese Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒泳翔; 吴鹏波; 郭芳; 李明; 谭诗云


    目的 探讨CDH1 C-160A基因多态性与中国人群胃癌的易患性.方法 通过检索PubMed、万方、中国知网等数据库获取有关中国人群CDH1 C-160A基因多态性与胃癌易患性的病例对照研究,纳入文献中提供的该基因位点基因型AA、AC、CC例数,按照基因模型AA vs CC、CA vsCC、AA+ AC vs CC、从vs CC+ AC的方式重新整理数据后进行Meta分析.结果 本研究共纳入文献9篇,10个研究,累积胃癌病例组2273例,对照组2607例.其OR值及95% CI分别为:AA vs CC(OR=1.16,95%CI0.74~1.80,P=0.517);CA vs CC(OR=1.10,95%CI0.99~1.24,P=0.084);AA+ AC vs CC(OR=1.10,95%CII0.99~1.22,P=0.085);AA vs CC+ AC(0R=1.08,95%CI0.71~1.62,P =0.723).结论 CDH1 C-160A基因多态性与中国人群胃癌易患性无关.

  12. O-GlcNAcylation Antagonizes Phosphorylation of CDH1 (CDC20 Homologue 1). (United States)

    Tian, Jie; Geng, Qizhi; Ding, Yuehe; Liao, Ji; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Xu, Xingzhi; Li, Jing


    The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) orchestrates various aspects of the eukaryotic cell cycle. One of its co-activators, Cdh1, is subject to myriad post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination. Herein we identify the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification that occurs on Cdh1. Cdh1 is O-GlcNAcylated in cultured cells and mouse brain extracts. Mass spectrometry identifies an O-GlcNAcylated peptide that neighbors a known phosphorylation site. Cell synchronization and mutation studies reveal that O-GlcNAcylation of Cdh1 may antagonize its phosphorylation. Our results thus reveal a pivotal role of O-GlcNAcylation in regulating APC/C activity.

  13. APC/C-Cdh1 coordinates neurogenesis and cortical size during development (United States)

    Delgado-Esteban, Maria; García-Higuera, Irene; Maestre, Carolina; Moreno, Sergio; Almeida, Angeles


    The morphology of the adult brain is the result of a delicate balance between neural progenitor proliferation and the initiation of neurogenesis in the embryonic period. Here we assessed whether the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) cofactor, Cdh1—which regulates mitosis exit and G1-phase length in dividing cells—regulates neurogenesis in vivo. We use an embryo-restricted Cdh1 knockout mouse model and show that functional APC/C-Cdh1 ubiquitin ligase activity is required for both terminal differentiation of cortical neurons in vitro and neurogenesis in vivo. Further, genetic ablation of Cdh1 impairs the ability of APC/C to promote neurogenesis by delaying the exit of the progenitor cells from the cell cycle. This causes replicative stress and p53-mediated apoptotic death resulting in decreased number of cortical neurons and cortex size. These results demonstrate that APC/C-Cdh1 coordinates cortical neurogenesis and size, thus posing Cdh1 in the molecular pathogenesis of congenital neurodevelopmental disorders, such as microcephaly.

  14. Controlling the response to DNA damage by the APC/C-Cdh1. (United States)

    de Boer, H Rudolf; Guerrero Llobet, S; van Vugt, Marcel A T M


    Proper cell cycle progression is safeguarded by the oscillating activities of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. An important player in the regulation of mitotic cyclins is the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase. Prior to entry into mitosis, the APC/C remains inactive, which allows the accumulation of mitotic regulators. APC/C activation requires binding to either the Cdc20 or Cdh1 adaptor protein, which sequentially bind the APC/C and facilitate targeting of multiple mitotic regulators for proteasomal destruction, including Securin and Cyclin B, to ensure proper chromosome segregation and mitotic exit. Emerging data have indicated that the APC/C, particularly in association with Cdh1, also functions prior to mitotic entry. Specifically, the APC/C-Cdh1 is activated in response to DNA damage in G2 phase cells. These observations are in line with in vitro and in vivo genetic studies, in which cells lacking Cdh1 expression display various defects, including impaired DNA repair and aberrant cell cycle checkpoints. In this review, we summarize the current literature on APC/C regulation in response to DNA damage, the functions of APC/C-Cdh1 activation upon DNA damage, and speculate how APC/C-Cdh1 can control cell fate in the context of persistent DNA damage.

  15. APC/C-Cdh1-dependent anaphase and telophase progression during mitotic slippage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toda Kazuhiro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC inhibits anaphase progression in the presence of insufficient kinetochore-microtubule attachments, but cells can eventually override mitotic arrest by a process known as mitotic slippage or adaptation. This is a problem for cancer chemotherapy using microtubule poisons. Results Here we describe mitotic slippage in yeast bub2Δ mutant cells that are defective in the repression of precocious telophase onset (mitotic exit. Precocious activation of anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C-Cdh1 caused mitotic slippage in the presence of nocodazole, while the SAC was still active. APC/C-Cdh1, but not APC/C-Cdc20, triggered anaphase progression (securin degradation, separase-mediated cohesin cleavage, sister-chromatid separation and chromosome missegregation, in addition to telophase onset (mitotic exit, during mitotic slippage. This demonstrates that an inhibitory system not only of APC/C-Cdc20 but also of APC/C-Cdh1 is critical for accurate chromosome segregation in the presence of insufficient kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Conclusions The sequential activation of APC/C-Cdc20 to APC/C-Cdh1 during mitosis is central to accurate mitosis. Precocious activation of APC/C-Cdh1 in metaphase (pre-anaphase causes mitotic slippage in SAC-activated cells. For the prevention of mitotic slippage, concomitant inhibition of APC/C-Cdh1 may be effective for tumor therapy with mitotic spindle poisons in humans.

  16. p250GAP is a novel player in the Cdh1-APC/Smurf1 pathway of axon growth regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuvanthi Kannan

    Full Text Available Axon growth is an essential process during brain development. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Cdh1-APC has emerged as a critical regulator of intrinsic axon growth control. Here, we identified the RhoGAP p250GAP as a novel interactor of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cdh1-APC and found that p250GAP promotes axon growth downstream of Cdh1-APC. We also report that p250GAP undergoes non-proteolytic ubiquitination and associates with the Cdh1 substrate Smurf1 to synergistically regulate axon growth. Finally, we found that in vivo knockdown of p250GAP in the developing cerebellar cortex results in impaired migration and axonal growth. Taken together, our data indicate that Cdh1-APC together with the RhoA regulators p250GAP and Smurf1 controls axon growth in the mammalian brain.

  17. 突变型Cdh1基因真核表达质粒的构建及鉴定*☆%Construction and identification of a mutated-Cdh1 eukaryotic expressing vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立; 石小云; 张登文; 张传汉; 姚文龙


      背景:细胞周期末期促进复合物调节亚基Cdh1的活性受到磷酸化调节,磷酸化的Cdh1不能与细胞周期末期促进复合物结合,从而抑制细胞周期末期促进复合物的活性。目的:构建突变型Cdh1基因真核表达质粒及鉴定。方法:采用RT-PCR方法,从大鼠海马组织扩增出Cdh1基因编码序列。通过限制性内切酶EcoRⅠ和XbaⅠ双酶切PCR回收产物和pBluescript质粒将Cdh1基因克隆到pBluescript质粒上。根据定点突变技术原理,以含Cdh1编码序列的pBluescript-Cdh1质粒为模版,针对Cdh1第40、151、163位丝氨酸(S)和第121位苏氨酸(T)设计4对突变引物,将4个氨基酸位点全部突变为丙氨酸(A)。最后通过测序鉴定。结果与结论:经电泳鉴定PCR扩增产物大小约为1500 bp,包括Cdh1基因完整的编码序列、编码序列两端引入的酶切位点以及KOZAK序列,与预期相符。重组质粒pBluescript-Cdh1经EcoRⅠ和XbaⅠ双酶切鉴定与预期结果符合。DNA测序比对发现Cdh1(BC162059.1)编码序列第930位碱基A在重组质粒pBluescript-Cdh1上突变为G,但氨基酸无变化,为同义突变,其他DNA序列无突变。经测序鉴定pBluescript-Cdh1-4A40、121、151、163示实验成功构建磷酸化位点突变型Cdh1基因真核表达质粒。突变质粒第40、121、151、163位氨基酸全部突变为丙氨酸。提%BACKGROUND:The activity of anaphase promoting complex-Cdh1 is regulated by phosphorylation. Phosphorylated Cdh1 cannot be combined with anaphase promoting complex, thereby inhibiting the activity of the anaphase promoting complex. OBJECTIVE:To construct and identify a mutated-Cdh1 eukaryotic expressing vector. METHODS:The entire coding sequence of the Cdh1 gene was amplified from rat hippocampal mRNA by reverse transcription-PCR. Then the PCR product of Cdh1 was cloned into pBluescript plasmid by double digestion with restriction endonucleases EcoR1 and Xba1, and

  18. Effects of CDH1 gene promoter methylation on expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin and its clinicopathological significance in colon carcinoma%上皮钙黏素1基因启动子甲基化对结肠癌上皮钙黏素和β-连接素表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李臣; 杨静; 董坚; 陈明清; 李文亮; 任俊宇; 陈圣雄; 李秋恬; 耿计伟; 缪延栋


    目的 探讨上皮钙黏素基因(CDH1)启动子甲基化与结肠癌上皮钙黏素(E-cadherin)及β-连接素(β-catenin)的表达及临床病理特征的关系.方法 采用甲基化特异性PCR技术检测68例结肠腺癌组织、癌旁组织及正常黏膜组织中CDH1基因启动子甲基化的状况.采用免疫组织化学法检测E-cadherin及β-catenin蛋白的表达.结果 癌旁组织及癌组织中CDH1启动子甲基化的阳性表达分别为32.4%(22/68)、57.4%(39/68),正常组织均为阴性表达(P<0.05).E-cadherin在正常组织、癌旁组织及腺癌组织中阳性表达率分别为92.6%、66.2%和44.1%.正常组织中β-catenin均表达于细胞膜上,无胞质和(或)胞核表达,而β-catenin在癌旁组织及癌组织中胞质和(或)胞核表达分别为29.4%和50.0%.CDH1基因启动子甲基化阳性率与E-cadherin表达则呈负相关(r=-0.312,P=0.01),与β-catenin胞质和(或)胞核表达呈正相关(r=0.309,P=0.018).CDH1基因启动子甲基化及E-cadherin、β-catenin的异常表达均与结肠癌分化程度及转移密切相关(P<0.05).结论 CDH1基因启动子甲基化可能是导致结肠癌E-cadherin与β-catenin异常表达及肿瘤侵袭性增强的重要原因.%Objective To investigate the relationship between methylation of the CDH1 gene promoter on the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin, and to evaluate the correlation with clinicopathological characteristics of the colonic carcinoma. Methods Methylation specific PCR (MSP) was used to detect CDH1 gene promoter methylation in the cancer tissue, adjacent tissues and normal tissues in 68 patients. The expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin was determined by immunohistochemistry staining. Results The positive rate of CDH1 gene promoter methylation was 32.4% in adjacent tissues and 57.4% in cancer tissue, while no detectable methylation was found in all the normal tissues. The difference was statistically significant. The positive rate of E-cadherin was 92.6% in the

  19. The E3 Ligase APC/C-Cdh1 Is Required for Associative Fear Memory and Long-Term Potentiation in the Amygdala of Adult Mice (United States)

    Pick, Joseph E.; Malumbres, Marcos; Klann, Eric


    The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ligase regulated by Cdh1. Beyond its role in controlling cell cycle progression, APC/C-Cdh1 has been detected in neurons and plays a role in long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. Herein, we further examined the role of Cdh1 in synaptic plasticity and memory by generating…

  20. 5-Azacytidine suppresses EC9706 cell proliferation and metastasis by upregulating the expression of SOX17 and CDH1. (United States)

    Li, Wenli; Wu, Dan; Niu, Ziyu; Jiang, Dalei; Ma, Huan; He, Heming; Zuo, Xiuli; Xie, Xiangjun; He, Yuanlong


    5-Azacytidine is a well-known anticancer drug that is clinically used in the treatment of breast cancer, melanoma and colon cancer. It has been reported that 5-azacytidine suppresses the biological behavior of esophageal cancer cells. However, corresponding mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, using Transwell invasion and cell proliferation assays, we demonstrated that 5-azacytidine significantly inhibited the metastasis and proliferation of EC9706 cells, and upregulated the expression of cadherin 1 (CDH1) and SRY-box containing gene 17 (SOX17). Moreover, the inhibition of the metastasis of the 5-azacytidine-treated EC9706 cells was impaired following transfection with siRNA targeting CDH1 (CDH1 siRNA), and the inhibition of cell proliferation was attenuated following the downregulation of SOX17 by siRNA targeting SOX17 (SOX17 siRNA). Furthermore, 5-azacytidine remarkably reduced the CDH1 and SOX17 promoter methylation levels, suggesting that 5-azacytidine upregulates the expression of SOX17 and CDH1 by inhibiting the methylation of the SOX17 and CDH1 promoter. The findings of our study confirm that 5-azacytidine suppresses the proliferation and metastasis of EC9706 esophageal cancer cells by upregulating the expression of CDH1 and SOX17. The expression levels of CDH1 and SOX17 negatively correlate with the promoter methylation levels. CDH1 and SOX17 are potential indicators of the clinical application of 5-azacytidine.

  1. Polo-like kinase-1 controls Aurora A destruction by activating APC/C-Cdh1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske van Leuken

    Full Text Available Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1 is activated before mitosis by Aurora A and its cofactor Bora. In mitosis, Bora is degraded in a manner dependent on Plk1 kinase activity and the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF-betaTrCP. Here, we show that Plk1 is also required for the timely destruction of its activator Aurora A in late anaphase. It has been shown that Aurora A destruction is controlled by the auxiliary subunit Cdh1 of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C. Remarkably, we found that Plk1-depletion prevented the efficient dephosphorylation of Cdh1 during mitotic exit. Plk1 mediated its effect on Cdh1, at least in part, through direct phosphorylation of the human phosphatase Cdc14A, controlling the phosphorylation state of Cdh1. We conclude that Plk1 facilitates efficient Aurora A degradation through APC/C-Cdh1 activation after mitosis, with a potential role for hCdc14A.

  2. Parkin Regulates Mitosis and Genomic Stability through Cdc20/Cdh1. (United States)

    Lee, Seung Baek; Kim, Jung Jin; Nam, Hyun-Ja; Gao, Bowen; Yin, Ping; Qin, Bo; Yi, Sang-Yeop; Ham, Hyoungjun; Evans, Debra; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Zhang, Jun; Deng, Min; Liu, Tongzheng; Zhang, Haoxing; Billadeau, Daniel D; Wang, Liewei; Giaime, Emilie; Shen, Jie; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Jen, Jin; van Deursen, Jan M; Lou, Zhenkun


    Mutations in the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin have been linked to familial Parkinson's disease. Parkin has also been implicated in mitosis through mechanisms that are unclear. Here we show that Parkin interacts with anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) coactivators Cdc20 and Cdh1 to mediate the degradation of several key mitotic regulators independent of APC/C. We demonstrate that ordered progression through mitosis is orchestrated by two distinct E3 ligases through the shared use of Cdc20 and Cdh1. Furthermore, Parkin is phosphorylated and activated by polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) during mitosis. Parkin deficiency results in overexpression of its substrates, mitotic defects, genomic instability, and tumorigenesis. These results suggest that the Parkin-Cdc20/Cdh1 complex is an important regulator of mitosis.

  3. Aberrant Methylation of the E-Cadherin Gene Promoter Region in the Endometrium of Women With Uterine Fibroids. (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ran, Ran; Guan, Yingxia; Zhu, Xiaoxiong; Kang, Shan


    A uterine fibroid is a leiomyoma that originates from the smooth muscle layer of the uterus. A variety of endometrial abnormalities are associated with uterine fibroids. This study aims to investigate the methylation status of the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) promoter region in the endometrium of patients with uterine fibroids. The methylation of CDH1 was studied using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction in the endometrial tissue of 102 patients with uterine fibroids and 50 control patients. The E-cadherin expression was examined by flow cytometry. The methylation rate of CDH1 promoter region was 33.3% in the endometrium of patients with uterine fibroids and 8% in the endometrium of women without fibroids. The frequency of CDH1 promoter methylation in the endometrium of patients with fibroids was significantly higher than that in the endometrium of women without fibroids (P = .001). Furthermore, the E-cadherin expression level in methylation-positive tissues was significantly lower than that in methylation-negative tissues (P = .017). These results suggest that epigenetic aberration of CDH1 may occur in the endometrium of patients with fibroids, which may be associated with E-cadherin protein expression in endometrial tissue.

  4. CDH1 mutations in gastric cancer patients from northern Brazil identified by Next- Generation Sequencing (NGS). (United States)

    El-Husny, Antonette; Raiol-Moraes, Milene; Amador, Marcos; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, André M; Montagnini, André; Barbosa, Silvanira; Silva, Artur; Assumpção, Paulo; Ishak, Geraldo; Santos, Sidney; Pinto, Pablo; Cruz, Aline; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Ândrea


    Gastric cancer is considered to be the fifth highest incident tumor worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer deaths. Developing regions report a higher number of sporadic cases, but there are only a few local studies related to hereditary cases of gastric cancer in Brazil to confirm this fact. CDH1 germline mutations have been described both in familial and sporadic cases, but there is only one recent molecular description of individuals from Brazil. In this study we performed Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) to assess CDH1 germline mutations in individuals who match the clinical criteria for Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (HDGC), or who exhibit very early diagnosis of gastric cancer. Among five probands we detected CDH1 germline mutations in two cases (40%). The mutation c.1023T > G was found in a HDGC family and the mutation c.1849G > A, which is nearly exclusive to African populations, was found in an early-onset case of gastric adenocarcinoma. The mutations described highlight the existence of gastric cancer cases caused by CDH1 germline mutations in northern Brazil, although such information is frequently ignored due to the existence of a large number of environmental factors locally. Our report represent the first CDH1 mutations in HDGC described from Brazil by an NGS platform.

  5. Cdh1 inhibits WWP2-mediated ubiquitination of PTEN to suppress tumorigenesis in an APC-independent manner. (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wan, Lixin; Liu, Jing; Yuan, Zhu; Zhang, Jinfang; Guo, Jianfeng; Malumbres, Marcos; Liu, Jiankang; Zou, Weiguo; Wei, Wenyi


    Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome/Cdh1 is a multi-subunit ubiquitin E3 ligase that drives M to G1 cell cycle progression through primarily earmarking various substrates for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. Notably, emerging evidence suggested that Cdh1 could also function in various cellular processes independent of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. To this end, we recently identified an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-independent function of Cdh1 in modulating osteoblast differentiation through activating Smurf1, one of the NEDD4 family of HECT domain-containing E3 ligases. However, it remains largely unknown whether Cdh1 could exert its tumor suppressor role through similarly modulating the E3 ligase activities of other NEDD4 family members, most of which have characterized important roles in tumorigenesis. Here we report that in various tumor cells, Cdh1, conversely, suppresses the E3 ligase activity of WWP2, another NEDD4 family protein, in an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-independent manner. As such, loss of Cdh1 activates WWP2, leading to reduced abundance of WWP2 substrates including PTEN, which subsequently activates PI3K/Akt oncogenic signaling to facilitate tumorigenesis. This study expands the non-anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome function of Cdh1 in regulating the NEDD4 family E3 ligases, and further suggested that enhancing Cdh1 to inhibit the E3 ligase activity of WWP2 could be a promising strategy for treating human cancers.

  6. Parkin Regulates Mitosis and Genomic Stability through Cdc20/Cdh1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.B.; Kim, J.J.; Nam, H.J.; Gao, B.; Yin, P.; Qin, B.; Yi, S.Y.; Ham, H.; Evans, D.; Kim, S.H.; Zhang, Jun; Deng, M.; Liu, T.; Zhang, H.; Billadeau, D.D.; Wang, L.; Giaime, E.; Shen, J.; Pang, Y.P.; Jen, J.; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Lou, Z.


    Mutations in the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin have been linked to familial Parkinson's disease. Parkin has also been implicated in mitosis through mechanisms that are unclear. Here we show that Parkin interacts with anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) coactivators Cdc20 and Cdh1 to mediate th

  7. CDH1基因甲基化与食管鳞癌的关系%Relationship between CDH1 gene methylation and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永丽; 张立玮


    目的 探对食管鳞癌组织中CDH1基因启动子区甲基化的表达状况及其与烟酒史、肿瘤家族史的关系.方法 应用甲基化特异性聚合酶链反应(MSP)法检测食管鳞癌中CDH1基因启动子区甲基化情况.结果 食管鳞癌、癌旁及正常组织CDH1基因的甲基化阳性率分别为51.6%(32/62)、22.6%(14/62)和0(0/18).癌与癌旁组织比较,甲基化阳性率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);癌和正常组织比较,甲基化阳性率差异有统计学意义(x2=15.484,P<0.01);癌旁与正常组织间差异无统计学意义(x2 =3.487,P>0.05).食管鳞癌CDH1基因甲基化情况与其性别、年龄、烟酒史和上消化道肿瘤家族史比较差异均无统计学意义(均P >0.05).结论 CDH1基因启动子区甲基化与食管鳞癌发生关系密切,在食管鳞癌中是一常见的表观遗传学事件.CDH1基因甲基化可能是一个独立的危险因素.%Objective To study CDH1 gene promoter methylation status in tissues of esophageal squamous cell' carcinomas(ESCC) and its relationship with tobacco and alcohol history, family history of cancer. Methods CDHl gene promoter methylation in ESCC Was detected by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) and was analyzed statistically. Results CDH1 gene methylation positive rates in tumor tissues, adjacent and normal tissues of ESCC were 51. 6%(32/62) ,22. 6%(14/62) and 0(0/18) .respectively,the difference between cancer and adjacent tissue was significant ( P 0. 05). Compared CDHl gene methylation in ESCC with sex,age,tobacco and alcohol history,family history of upper gastrointestinal tumors, there were no statistical significance (all P > 0. 05). Conclusion CDHl gene promoter methylation is closely related to the occurrence of ESCC, and it is a common epigenetic event in ESCC. CDHl gene methylation may be an independent risk factor.

  8. Irreversible APC(Cdh1) Inactivation Underlies the Point of No Return for Cell-Cycle Entry. (United States)

    Cappell, Steven D; Chung, Mingyu; Jaimovich, Ariel; Spencer, Sabrina L; Meyer, Tobias


    Proliferating cells must cross a point of no return before they replicate their DNA and divide. This commitment decision plays a fundamental role in cancer and degenerative diseases and has been proposed to be mediated by phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Here, we show that inactivation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC(Cdh1)) has the necessary characteristics to be the point of no return for cell-cycle entry. Our study shows that APC(Cdh1) inactivation is a rapid, bistable switch initiated shortly before the start of DNA replication by cyclin E/Cdk2 and made irreversible by Emi1. Exposure to stress between Rb phosphorylation and APC(Cdh1) inactivation, but not after APC(Cdh1) inactivation, reverted cells to a mitogen-sensitive quiescent state, from which they can later re-enter the cell cycle. Thus, APC(Cdh1) inactivation is the commitment point when cells lose the ability to return to quiescence and decide to progress through the cell cycle.

  9. Cell cycle- and cell growth-regulated proteolysis of mammalian CDC6 is dependent on APC-CDH1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B O; Wagener, C; Marinoni, F;


    CDC6 is conserved during evolution and is essential and limiting for the initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication. Human CDC6 activity is regulated by periodic transcription and CDK-regulated subcellular localization. Here, we show that, in addition to being absent from nonproliferating cells, CDC6...... is targeted for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by the anaphase promoting complex (APC)/cyclosome in G(1). A combination of point mutations in the destruction box and KEN-box motifs in CDC6 stabilizes the protein in G(1) and in quiescent cells. Furthermore, APC, in association with CDH1, ubiquitinates CDC6...... in vitro, and both APC and CDH1 are required and limiting for CDC6 proteolysis in vivo. Although a stable mutant of CDC6 is biologically active, overexpression of this mutant or wild-type CDC6 is not sufficient to induce multiple rounds of DNA replication in the same cell cycle. The APC-CDH1-dependent...

  10. CDH1 germline mutations and hereditary lobular breast cancer. (United States)

    Corso, Giovanni; Intra, Mattia; Trentin, Chiara; Veronesi, Paolo; Galimberti, Viviana


    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is an autosomal dominant inherited disease associated of CDH1 germline mutations (that encodes for the E-cadherin protein), and lobular breast cancer is the second most frequent type of neoplasia. Recently, novel E-cadherin constitutional alterations have been identified in pedigree clustering only for lobular breast carcinoma without evidence of diffuse gastric tumors and in absence of BRCA1/2 mutations. This first evidence opens novel questions about the inherited correlation between diffuse gastric and lobular breast cancers. In this brief review we revise the literature data about the CDH1 mutation frequency affecting exclusively lobular breast cancer, providing clinical recommendation for asymptomatic mutation carriers.

  11. 组织CDH1基因异常甲基化和血清HE4检测对卵巢癌和卵巢内异症囊肿的鉴别价值%Value of abnormal methylation of CDH1 gene and the detection of serum HE4 in the identification of ovarian cancer and ovarian endometriosis cyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蓓; 张熊


    Objective To investigate the abnormal methylation of CDH1 gene and the detection of serum hu-man epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in the identification of ovarian cancer and ovarian endometriosis cyst. Methods Thir-ty-eight patients with ovarian cancer (group A), 41 patients with ovarian ectopic cyst (group B) and 42 patients with be-nign uterine or ovarian lesion (the control group) were enrolled in the study. The methylation status of CDH1 gene pro-moter region was detected by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, and the levels of serum HE4 were de-tected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The changes of the above indicators were compared. Results The expression rates of CDH1 DNA methylation in group B, group A, control group were 4.8% (2/41), 39.4% (15/38), 2.3%(1/42), respectively, with no statistically significant difference between group B and the control group (χ2=0.37, P=0.542), but statistically significant difference between group A and the control group (χ2=11.24, P=0.001), as well as between group A and group B (χ2=13.79, P=0.000). The levels of serum HE4 in group B, group A and control group were 52.7 pmol/L, 537.2 pmol/L, 50.3 pmol/L, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between group B and the control group (t=0.63, P=0.532), but statistically significant difference between group A and the control group (t=54.27, P=0.000), as well as between group A and group B (t=55.33, P=0.000). In group A, the DNA expres-sion quantity of CDH1 gene methylation and levels of serum HE4 are correlated (r=0.527, P0.05). Conclusion Joint detection of CDH1 gene methylation and serum HE4 levels can be applied to the differential diagnosis between ovarian endometriosis cyst and ovarian cancer, which improves the diagnosis rate of the two kinds of diseases.%目的 探讨组织上皮-钙粘连素(CDH1)基因异常甲基化和血清人附睾分泌蛋白4 (HE4)检测对卵巢癌和卵巢内异症囊肿的鉴别价值.方法 选

  12. CDH1 germline mutation in hereditary gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Dan Wang; Jun Ren; Lian Zhang


    This paper provides a bird's-eye view both in preclinical and clinical aspects of E-cadherin germline gene (CDH1)in gastric cancer patients and their families. E-cadherin,a product of CDH1 gene, belonging to the functionally related trans-membrane glycoprotein family, is responsible for the Ca2+-dependent cell-cell adhesion mechanism and contributes to dissociation followed by acquisition of cell motility, which usually occurs in the first step of cancer invasion and metastasis. CDH1 gene germline mutation is common in many types of carcinoma,and occurs very frequent in hereditary gastric carcinoma (HGC) patients and their families. Recently, more and more researches support that E-cadherin plays an important role in the differentiation, growth and invasion of HGC. So it is of great value to clarify its mechanisms both for understanding HGC pathogenesis and for clinical therapy, especially in China, where there are a high risk population of gastric cancer and a high HGC incidence rate. In this paper, recent researches on CDH1 gene mutation, especially its role in tumor genesis and progress of HGC, are reviewed, and advances in evaluation of its mutation status for HGC diagnosis, therapy and prognosis,are also discussed briefly.

  13. Substrate Recognition by the Cdh1 Destruction Box Receptor Is a General Requirement for APC/CCdh1-mediated Proteolysis. (United States)

    Qin, Liang; Guimarães, Dimitrius Santiago P S F; Melesse, Michael; Hall, Mark C


    The anaphase-promoting complex, or cyclosome (APC/C), is a ubiquitin ligase that selectively targets proteins for degradation in mitosis and the G1 phase and is an important component of the eukaryotic cell cycle control system. How the APC/C specifically recognizes its substrates is not fully understood. Although well characterized degron motifs such as the destruction box (D-box) and KEN-box are commonly found in APC/C substrates, many substrates apparently lack these motifs. A variety of alternative APC/C degrons have been reported, suggesting either that multiple modes of substrate recognition are possible or that our definitions of degron structure are incomplete. We used an in vivo yeast assay to compare the G1 degradation rate of 15 known substrates of the APC/C co-activator Cdh1 under normal conditions and conditions that impair binding of D-box, KEN-box, and the recently identified ABBA motif degrons to Cdh1. The D-box receptor was required for efficient proteolysis of all Cdh1 substrates, despite the absence of canonical D-boxes in many. In contrast, the KEN-box receptor was only required for normal proteolysis of a subset of substrates and the ABBA motif receptor for a single substrate in our system. Our results suggest that binding to the D-box receptor may be a shared requirement for recognition and processing of all Cdh1 substrates.

  14. CDH1基因与卵巢癌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭勇川; 贾钰铭; 雷开键


    目的:卵巢癌死亡率居于女性生殖器官肿瘤之首,是严重影响妇女生命健康的重要疾病,而卵巢癌的转移则更是直接造成患者死亡的主要因素。近年来,针对肿瘤的发生和转移有较多的研究,其中 E 型钙粘蛋白(E-cadherin,CDH1)与卵巢癌的关系越来越受关注,CDH1的结构变化及异常表达可以影响卵巢癌的发生与发展,并与其转移也存在着紧密的关系。本综述在检索近年最新文献的基础上,对 CDH1基因的改变与卵巢癌的发生、发展及转移机理关系上进行了详细的阐述,为转移性卵巢癌的诊断及治疗提供新的研究思路。

  15. Detection of the Methylation in the Promoter Area of RASSF1A and CDHl in Human Breast Carcinoma Tissue and Serum%乳腺癌组织及血浆中RASSF1A,CDH1甲基化的检测及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘平; 李世荣; 王振明


    目的 研究乳腺癌组织、乳腺良性肿瘤组织及相应患者血浆中Ras相关区域家族1A(RASSF1A)、上皮型钙黏附素(CDH1)基因启动子区异常甲基化状态及其临床意义.方法 应用SYBR GreenⅠ实时荧光定量PCR方法对乳腺癌组织、乳腺良性肿瘤组织及相应血浆中RASSF1A,CDH1基因甲基化状态进行检测.结果 34例乳腺癌组织RASSF1A基因启动子甲基化率为73.53%(25/34),CDH1基因启动子甲基化率为50.00%(17/34),相应血浆中RASSF1A的甲基化检出率为55.88%(19/34);CDH1的甲基化检出率为35.29%(12/34);联合检测血浆中RASSF1A和CDH1基因启动子区甲基化的敏感性为64.71%(22/34);而25例良性肿瘤组织RASSF1A基因启动子甲基化率为12.00%(3/25),CDH1基因启动子甲基化率为4.00%(1/25),相应血浆中未检测出甲基化的RASSF1A和CDH1基因.RASSF1A,CDH1甲基化率与肿瘤病理类型、患者年龄、有无淋巴结转移的差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论 联合检测血浆中RASSF1A和CDH1基因启动子区甲基化,可用于乳腺癌的辅助诊断.

  16. Rereplication in emi1-deficient zebrafish embryos occurs through a Cdh1-mediated pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara E Robu

    Full Text Available Disruption of early mitotic inhibitor 1 (Emi1 interferes with normal cell cycle progression and results in early embryonic lethality in vertebrates. During S and G2 phases the ubiquitin ligase complex APC/C is inhibited by Emi1 protein, thereby enabling the accumulation of Cyclins A and B so they can regulate replication and promote the transition from G2 phase to mitosis, respectively. Depletion of Emi1 prevents mitotic entry and causes rereplication and an increase in cell size. In this study, we show that the developmental and cell cycle defects caused by inactivation of zebrafish emi1 are due to inappropriate activation of APC/C through its cofactor Cdh1. Inhibiting/slowing progression into S-phase by depleting Cdt1, an essential replication licensing factor, partially rescued emi1 deficiency-induced rereplication and the increased cell size. The cell size effect was enhanced by co-depletion of cell survival regulator p53. These data suggest that the increased size of emi1-deficient cells is either directly or indirectly caused by the rereplication defects. Moreover, enforced expression of Cyclin A partially ablated the rereplicating population in emi1-deficient zebrafish embryos, consistent with the role of Cyclin A in origin licensing. Forced expression of Cyclin B partially restored the G1 population, in agreement with the established role of Cyclin B in mitotic progression and exit. However, expression of Cyclin B also partially inhibited rereplication in emi1-deficient embryos, suggesting a role for Cyclin B in regulating replication in this cellular context. As Cyclin A and B are substrates for APC/C-Cdh1 - mediated degradation, and Cdt1 is under control of Cyclin A, these data indicate that emi1 deficiency-induced defects in vivo are due to the dysregulation of an APC/C-Cdh1 molecular axis.

  17. Research on the Relationship between CDH1 Gene Promoter Hypermethylation and Biological Behavior of Tumor in Human Gastric Carcinoma%胃癌中钙黏附分子启动子甲基化与幽门螺杆菌感染及肿瘤生物学特性的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯宁; 高海德; 刘文志; 陈希; 伍晓汀


    目的 建立甲基化特异性聚合酶链式反应方法检测组织中钙黏附分子(CDH1)的甲基化程度;探索CDH1启动子的甲基化与幽门螺杆菌(HP)感染及与肿瘤分化、浸润、淋巴及远处转移之间的关系.方法 采用热转化甲基化特异性聚合酶链式反应法检测2008年1月-2009年12月共40例胃癌手术标本中CDH1的启动子甲基化情况,并回顾性地分析CDH1的启动子甲基化与HP感染、肿瘤分化、浸润、淋巴及远处转移等肿瘤生物学特性的统计学关联.结果 胃癌组CDH1基因甲基化阳性率高于对照组(67.5%、12.5%,P<0.05).胃癌组中低-未分化肿瘤组CDH1基因甲基化阳性率高于高-中分化肿瘤组(80.6%、22.2%,P<0.05);胃癌组中HP阳性患者的CDH1基因甲基化率高于HP阴性患者(78.1%、25.0%,P<0.05);而胃癌组中CDH1基因甲基化阳性率与患者性别、肿瘤浸润程度、淋巴转移及远处转移无明显关系(P> 0.05).结论 CDH1基因甲基化可能参与了胃癌的发展过程,并且CDH1基因甲基化可能导致了肿瘤分化程度的降低.CDH1基因甲基化与胃癌患者的HP感染之间可能存在密切关系,提示HP感染可能参与了抑癌基因甲基化失活及肿瘤演变的发展过程.

  18. Construction and identification of Cdh1 small interfering RNA eukaryotic vector%Cdh1小干扰RNA载体的构建及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳璐; 姚文龙; 祝畅; 桂伶俐; 张传汉


    目的:构建Cdh1小干扰RNA载体,并将其转染至Hela细胞进行鉴定.方法:根据pENTRTM/H1/TO中间载体要求,设计Cdh1小干扰RNA载体的干扰序列及无干扰作用的对照序列,合成相应的DNA单链,退火后连接到pENTRTM/H1/TO线性载体,形成完整载体,进行测序鉴定.分别将测序鉴定成功的Cdh1小干扰RNA载体及对照载体采用脂质体法转染Hela细胞,转染后48 h提取细胞总RNA及细胞总蛋白,采用实时定量PCR和Western Blot检测Cdh1的表达.结果:经测序鉴定成功构建Cdh1小干扰RNA载体和对照载体,分别命名为pENTR/shCdh1和pENTR/shcontrol.与未转染及转染pENTR/shcontrol的Hela细胞相比,转染pENTR/shCdh1的Hela细胞Cdh1表达降低(P《0.05).结论:成功构建Cdh1小干扰RNA载体,并能下调Hela细胞Cdh1的表达.

  19. Association of E-cadherin (CDH1) gene polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour; S; Al-Moundhri; Manal; Al-Khanbashi; Mohammed; Al-Kindi; Maryam; Al-Nabhani; Ikram; A; Burney; Abdulaziz; Al-Farsi; Bassim; Al-Bahrani


    AIM:To investigate the associations between CDH1 gene polymorphisms and gastric cancer(GC) risk predisposition.METHODS:We analyzed four CDH1 polymorphisms(+54 T>C,-160 C>A,-616 G>C,-3159 T>C) in an Omani population,by extraction of genomic DNA from the peripheral blood of 192 patients with GC and 170 control participants and performed CDH1 genotyping using DNA sequencing.RESULTS:CDH1-160-AA genotype was associated with an increased risk of GC(OR = 3.6,95% CI:1.1-11.8)(P = 0.03).There was no significant asso...

  20. Comparative Study of CDH1 Gene Methylation in Single and Double Primary Cancer of Gastric Adenocarcinoma%单发胃癌和食管/胃双原发癌中胃癌CDH1基因甲基化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永丽; 张立玮


    目的 研究单发胃癌和食管/胃双原发癌中胃癌组织CDH1基因启动子区CpG岛甲基化变化及其临床意义.方法 应用甲基化特异性PCR法,检测62例单发胃癌、30例食管/胃双原发癌中胃癌组织、癌旁组织及18例正常胃组织CDH1基因甲基化情况.结果 单发胃癌和食管/胃双原发癌中胃癌组织CDH1基因甲基化率分别为61.3%和76.7%,癌旁组织分别为22.6%和23.3%,正常胃组织为0.单发胃癌和食管/胃双原发癌患者癌组织CDH1基因甲基化率与癌旁组织、正常组织比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),癌旁组织CDH1基因甲基化率与正常组织比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).单发胃癌与食管/胃双原发癌中胃癌组织CDH1基因甲基化阳性率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).单发胃癌和食管/胃双原发癌患者CDH1基因甲基化与性别、年龄、烟酒史和上消化道肿瘤家族史均无关(P>0.05).结论 CDH1基因甲基化在单发胃癌和食管/胃双原发癌胃癌中是一常见的表观遗传学事件,可能是一个独立的危险因素.%Objective To study the changes of CDH1 gene promoter CpG island methylation and its clinical significance in patients with single gastric cancer ( SGC ) and gastric cancer ( GC ) in esophagus/stomach double primary cancers ( ES-DC ). Methods 62 patients with SGC, 30 patients with GC of ESDC and 18 healthy persons were assigned to be checked CDH1 gene Methylation of cancerous tissues, adjacent non - cancerous tissues and normal health gastric tissues by methylation specific polymerase chain reaction ( MSP). Results The rates of CDH1 gene Methylation in the cancerous tissues were 61. 3% and 76. 7% respectively, and 22. 6% and 23. 3% respectively in adjacent non - cancerous tissues in patients with SGC and GC of ESDC, and 0 in normal gastric tissues. There were significant differences between the cancerous tissues and adjacent non - cancerous tissues, normal gastric tissues

  1. 遗传性弥漫型胃癌与CDH1基因%Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer and CDH1 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春宇; 陈原稼; 李小毅


    目的 综述遗传性弥漫型胃癌(hereditary diffuse gastric cancer,HDGC)与CDH1基因关系的研究进展.方法 对近年国内、外的相关文献进行整理分析. 结果 CDH1基因异常与HDGC有重要关系: CDH1基因外显子突变是目前已知的、导致HDGC发病的最重要因素,筛查其突变情况可以用于指导HDGC的临床诊治;CDH1基因的其他改变,如内含子突变、基因甲基化及单核苷酸多态性也可能影响其表达,但这些改变与HDGC发病的确切关系尚需进一步研究.结论 CDH1基因的改变与HDGC的发生密切相关,检测CDH1基因的变化对研究HDGC的病因及指导临床诊治有重要意义.

  2. CDH1-related hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome : Clinical variations and implications for counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijt, Irma; Siemerink, Ester J. M.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; van Os, Theo A. M.; de Jong, Daphne; Simoes-Correia, Joana; van Krieken, J. Han; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.; Figueiredo, Joana; van Riel, Els; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Plukker, John T. M.; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Dekker, Evelien; Oliveira, Carla; Cats, Annemieke; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline


    CDH1 mutation carriers have a strongly increased risk of developing gastric cancer (GC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). Clinical data of GC cases and surgical and histological data of prophylactic gastrectomies and mastectomies of all 10 Dutch CDH1 mutation families were collected. In vitro functio

  3. The role of APC/C(Cdh1) in replication stress and origin of genomic instability. (United States)

    Greil, C; Krohs, J; Schnerch, D; Follo, M; Felthaus, J; Engelhardt, M; Wäsch, R


    It has been proposed that the APC/C(Cdh1) functions as a tumor suppressor by maintaining genomic stability. However, the exact nature of genomic instability following loss of Cdh1 is unclear. Using biochemistry and live cell imaging of single cells we found that Cdh1 knockdown (kd) leads to strong nuclear stabilization of the substrates cyclin A and B and deregulated kinetics of DNA replication. Restoration of the Cdh1-dependent G2 DNA damage checkpoint did not result in G2 arrest but blocked cells in prometaphase, suggesting that these cells enter mitosis despite incomplete replication. This results in DNA double-strand breaks, anaphase bridges, cytokinesis defects and tetraploidization. Tetraploid cells are the source of supernumerary centrosomes following Cdh1-kd, leading to multipolar mitosis or centrosome clustering, in turn resulting in merotelic attachment and lagging chromosomes. Whereas some of these events cause apoptosis during mitosis, surviving cells may accumulate chromosomal aberrations.

  4. Brain energy metabolism in glutamate-receptor activation and excitotoxicity: role for APC/C-Cdh1 in the balance glycolysis/pentose phosphate pathway. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Patricia; Almeida, Angeles; Bolaños, Juan P


    Recent advances in the field of brain energy metabolism strongly suggest that glutamate receptor-mediated neurotransmission is coupled with molecular signals that switch-on glucose utilization pathways to meet the high energetic requirements of neurons. Failure to adequately coordinate energy supply for neurotransmission ultimately results in a positive amplifying loop of receptor over-activation leading to neuronal death, a process known as excitotoxicity. In this review, we revisited current concepts in excitotoxic mechanisms, their involvement in energy substrate utilization, and the signaling pathways that coordinate both processes. In particular, we have focused on the novel role played by the E3 ubiquitin ligase, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-Cdh1, in cell metabolism. Our laboratory identified 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 (PFKFB3) -a key glycolytic-promoting enzyme- as an APC/C-Cdh1 substrate. Interestingly, APC/C-Cdh1 activity is inhibited by over-activation of glutamate receptors through a Ca(2+)-mediated mechanism. Furthermore, by inhibiting APC/C-Cdh1 activity, glutamate-receptors activation promotes PFKFB3 stabilization, leading to increased glycolysis and decreased pentose-phosphate pathway activity. This causes a loss in neuronal ability to regenerate glutathione, triggering oxidative stress and delayed excitotoxicity. Further investigation is critical to identify novel molecules responsible for the coupling of energy metabolism with glutamatergic neurotransmission and excitotoxicity, as well as to help developing new therapeutic strategies against neurodegeneration.

  5. E-钙黏素基因与遗传性胃癌的关系%Associations of E-cadherin gene (CDH1) and hereditary gastric cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋武; 何裕隆; 张常华; 蔡世荣; 周学付; 彭建军; 王昭; 杨东杰; 詹文华


    band. Conclusions CDH1 gene germ-line mutations are relatively rare in hereditary gastric cancer in China, and whereas CDH1 somatic mutations and promoter methylation synergistically induce CDH1 downregulation in these patients.%例先证者肿瘤标本表现为启动子甲基化,5例先证者肿瘤标本中发现了6个突变,包括两个同义突变和4个错义突变,在正常组织未发现同样的种系突变;4例先证者表现为既有体细胞突变又有启动子甲基化;1例既没有体细胞突变也没有启动子甲基化;2例患者仅表现为启动子甲基化,1例仅发现体细胞突变.结论 CDH1种系突变在我国遗传性胃癌中可能并不常见,CDH1基因的体细胞突变和启动子甲基化可能协同的导致遗传性胃癌患者CDH1基因下调.

  6. Dual control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the budding yeast APC/C ubiquitin ligase activator Cdh1. (United States)

    Höckner, Sebastian; Neumann-Arnold, Lea; Seufert, Wolfgang


    The antagonism between cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1 is central to eukaryotic cell cycle control. APC/C-Cdh1 targets cyclin B and other regulatory proteins for degradation, whereas Cdks disable APC/C-Cdh1 through phosphorylation of the Cdh1 activator protein at multiple sites. Budding yeast Cdh1 carries nine Cdk phosphorylation sites in its N-terminal regulatory domain, most or all of which contribute to inhibition. However, the precise role of individual sites has remained unclear. Here, we report that the Cdk phosphorylation sites of yeast Cdh1 are organized into autonomous subgroups and act through separate mechanisms. Cdk sites 1-3 had no direct effect on the APC/C binding of Cdh1 but inactivated a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and thereby controlled the partitioning of Cdh1 between cytoplasm and nucleus. In contrast, Cdk sites 4-9 did not influence the cell cycle-regulated localization of Cdh1 but prevented its binding to the APC/C. Cdk sites 4-9 reside near two recently identified APC/C interaction motifs in a pattern conserved with the human Cdh1 orthologue. Thus a Cdk-inhibited NLS goes along with Cdk-inhibited APC/C binding sites in yeast Cdh1 to relay the negative control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1.

  7. The polyglutamine-expanded androgen receptor responsible for spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy inhibits the APC/C(Cdh1) ubiquitin ligase complex. (United States)

    Bott, Laura C; Salomons, Florian A; Maric, Dragan; Liu, Yuhong; Merry, Diane; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Dantuma, Nico P


    Polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) causes spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), an X-linked neuromuscular disease that is fully manifest only in males. It has been suggested that proteins with expanded polyglutamine tracts impair ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis due to their propensity to aggregate, but recent studies indicate that the overall activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is preserved in SBMA models. Here we report that AR selectively interferes with the function of the ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which, together with its substrate adaptor Cdh1, is critical for cell cycle arrest and neuronal architecture. We show that both wild-type and mutant AR physically interact with the APC/C(Cdh1) complex in a ligand-dependent fashion without being targeted for proteasomal degradation. Inhibition of APC/C(Cdh1) by mutant but not wild-type AR in PC12 cells results in enhanced neurite outgrowth which is typically followed by rapid neurite retraction and mitotic entry. Our data indicate a role of AR in neuronal differentiation through regulation of APC/C(Cdh1) and suggest abnormal cell cycle reactivation as a pathogenic mechanism in SBMA.

  8. Identification and characterization of CDH1 germline variants in sporadic gastric cancer patients and in individuals at risk of gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Garziera

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To screen and characterize germline variants for E-cadherin (CDH1 in non-hereditary gastric cancer (GC patients and in subjects at risk of GC. METHODS: 59 GCs, 59 first degree relatives (FDRs of GC, 20 autoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis (AMAGs and 52 blood donors (BDs were analyzed for CDH1 by direct sequencing, structural modelling and bioinformatics. Functional impact on splicing was assessed for intronic mutations. E-cadherin/β-catenin immunohistochemical staining and E-cadherin mRNA quantification using RT-PCR were performed. RESULTS: In GCs, 4 missense variants (p.G274S; p.A298T; p.T470I; p.A592T, 1 mutation in the 5'UTR (-71C>G and 1 mutation in the intronic IVS12 (c.1937-13T>C region were found. First pathogenic effect of p.A298T mutation was predicted by protein 3D modelling. The novel p.G274S mutation showed a no clear functional significance. Moreover, first, intronic IVS12 (c.1937-13T>C mutation was demonstrated to lead to an aberrant CDH1 transcript with exon 11 deletion. This mutation was found in 2 GCs and in 1 BD. In FDRs, we identified 4 variants: the polymorphic (p.A592T and 3 mutations in untranslated regions with unidentified functional role except for the 5'UTR (-54G>C that had been found to decrease CDH1 transcription. In AMAGs, we detected 2 alterations: 1 missense (p.A592T and 1 novel variant (IVS1 (c.48+7C>T without effect on CDH1 splicing. Several silent and polymorphic substitutions were found in all the groups studied. CONCLUSIONS: Overall our study improves upon the current characterization of CDH1 mutations and their functional role in GC and in individuals at risk of GC. Mutations found in untranslated regions and data on splicing effects deserve a particular attention like associated with a reduced E-cadherin amount. The utility of CDH1 screening, in addition to the identification of other risk factors, could be useful for the early detection of GC in subjects at risk (i.e. FDRs and AMAGs, and

  9. CDH1, a Novel Surface Marker of Spermatogonial Stem Cells in Sheep Testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; WU Sachula; LUO Fen-hua; Baiyinbatu; LIU Lin-hong; HU Tian-yuan; YU Bo-yang; LI Guang-peng; WU Ying-ji


    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are unique stem cells in adult body that can transmit genetic information to the next generation. They have self-renewal potential and can continuously support spermatogenesis throughout life of a male animal. However, the SSC population is extremely small, isolation and puriifcation of the SSCs is challenging, especially for livestock animals. It has been conifrmed that CDH1 (cadherin-1, also known as E-cadherin) can be expressed in undifferentiated SSCs of mouse and rats, but it has not been veriifed in sheep. Here, CDH1 was found as a novel surface marker for sheep SSCs. In this paper, sheep anti-CDH1 polyclonal antibodies were prepared and its activity was checked. Using the obtained antibodies and immunohistochemistry analysis, we conifrmed that CDH1 can be expressed by SSCs in sheep testis.

  10. Frequent somatic CDH1 loss-of-function mutations in plasmacytoid variant bladder cancer. (United States)

    Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A; Iyer, Gopa; Lee, Byron H; Scott, Sasinya N; Mehra, Rohit; Bagrodia, Aditya; Jordan, Emmet J; Gao, Sizhi Paul; Ramirez, Ricardo; Cha, Eugene K; Desai, Neil B; Zabor, Emily C; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Gopalan, Anuradha; Chen, Ying-Bei; Fine, Samson W; Tickoo, Satish K; Gandhi, Anupama; Hreiki, Joseph; Viale, Agnès; Arcila, Maria E; Dalbagni, Guido; Rosenberg, Jonathan E; Bochner, Bernard H; Bajorin, Dean F; Berger, Michael F; Reuter, Victor E; Taylor, Barry S; Solit, David B


    Plasmacytoid bladder cancer is an aggressive histologic variant with a high risk of disease-specific mortality. Using whole-exome and targeted sequencing, we find that truncating somatic alterations in the CDH1 gene occur in 84% of plasmacytoid carcinomas and are specific to this histologic variant. Consistent with the aggressive clinical behavior of plasmacytoid carcinomas, which frequently recur locally, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of CDH1 in bladder cancer cells enhanced cell migration.

  11. Influence of IL17A polymorphisms on the aberrant methylation of DAPK and CDH1 in non-cancerous gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arisawa Tomiyasu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background CpG island aberrant methylation is shown to be an important mechanism in gene silencing. The important role of IL-17 in inflammatory response to H. pylori colonization has been indicated. We investigated the influence of IL17A polymorphisms, -197 G > A (rs2275913 and *1249 C > T (rs3748067, on the methylation of DAPK and CDH1. Methods Gastric mucosal samples were obtained from 401 subjects without malignancies. Methylation status of gene was determined by MSP. The genotyping of IL17A was performed by PCR-SSCP. Results Methylations of DAPK and CDH1 were seen in 196 and 149 of all 401 subjects, respectively. Overall, *1249 T carrier was associated with a decreased risk for DAPK methylation, whereas -197 G > A was not. In the subjects older than 60 years old, *1249 T carrier was more strongly associated with gene methylation and -197 A carrier tended to be associated with an increased risk for CDH1 methylation. When evaluating by inflammation promoting haplotype (-197 mutant carrier with *1249 homozygote, this haplotype had a more strongly increased risk for both DAPK and CDH1 methylations in comparatively older subjects. Both atrophy and metaplasia scores were significantly increased with age in -197 A carrier or *1249 CC homozygote, whereas were not in -197 GG homozygote or *1249 T carrier. PG I/II ratio was more significantly decreased in -197 A carrier than in GG homozygote under influence of H. pylori infection. Conclusions In -197 A allele carrier with *1249 CC homozygote, the methylations of both DAPK and CDH1 may be increased gradually, but more rapidly than the other genotypes, with age and altered gastric mucosal structure induced by H. pylori infection.

  12. 胃癌患者术前腹腔冲洗液中CDH1甲基化状态及其临床意义%Methylation status of CDH1 gene in preoperative abdominal lavage of patients with gastric cancer and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗君; 王实; 凌志强; 王新保; 余齐鸣; 赵挺; 方仁桂; 王建军; 郑智国; 余江流; 方铣华


    目的 探讨术前腹腔冲洗液中CDH1基因的异常甲基化与胃癌进展的关系.方法 采用实时荧光甲基化特异性聚合酶链反应技术,检测92例胃癌患者术前腹腔冲洗液中CDH1基因启动子区域5′-CpG岛的甲基化状态,并分析其与临床病理因素及预后之间的关系.结果 92例胃癌患者中,有45例(48.9%)检测到了CDH1基因异常甲基化现象,其中完全甲基化12例(13.0%),部分甲基化33例(35.9%).CDH1基因甲基化与肿瘤大小、生长方式、分化程度、淋巴管侵犯、浸润深度、淋巴结转移、远处转移及临床分期有关(均P<0.05),而与性别、年龄、肿瘤部位及幽门螺杆菌感染无关(均P>0.05).CDH1甲基化与非甲基化患者术后中位无进展生存期分别为20和38个月,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).经Cox模型分析证实,术前腹腔冲洗液DNA中的CDH1甲基化状态是影响胃癌患者术后生存的独立预后因素(P=0.000,RR=332.88, 95%CI:21.71~5105.07).结论 CDH1基因启动子区域5′-CpG岛的异常甲基化在胃癌中属于高频分子事件,术前腹腔冲洗液DNA中CDH1甲基化分析可反映胃癌进展状况.%Objective To explore the association between the progression of gastric cancer and the aberrant methylation of CDH1 gene in preoperative abdominal lavage fluid.Methods Real-time methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction(qMSP) was used to investigate the methylation status of the CDH1 gene promoter 5′-CpG islands from preoperative abdominal lavage fluid in 92 patients with gastric cancer.The associations between methylation of CDH1 genes and clinicopathologic features and prognosis were investigated.Results Among the 92 patients with gastric cancer,aberrant methylation of CDH1 gene was detected in 45 (48.9%) patients,including total aberrant methylation in 12 (13.0%) cases and partly aberrant methylation in 33 (35.9%) cases.Significant associatons were found between CDH1 methylation status

  13. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: updated clinical guidelines with an emphasis on germline CDH1 mutation carriers. (United States)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Carneiro, Fátima; Guilford, Parry; Huntsman, David; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Caldas, Carlos; Schreiber, Karen E Chelcun; Hardwick, Richard H; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Bardram, Linda; Benusiglio, Patrick R; Bisseling, Tanya M; Blair, Vanessa; Bleiker, Eveline; Boussioutas, Alex; Cats, Annemieke; Coit, Daniel; DeGregorio, Lynn; Figueiredo, Joana; Ford, James M; Heijkoop, Esther; Hermens, Rosella; Humar, Bostjan; Kaurah, Pardeep; Keller, Gisella; Lai, Jennifer; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; O'Donovan, Maria; Oliveira, Carla; Pinheiro, Hugo; Ragunath, Krish; Rasenberg, Esther; Richardson, Susan; Roviello, Franco; Schackert, Hans; Seruca, Raquel; Taylor, Amy; Ter Huurne, Anouk; Tischkowitz, Marc; Joe, Sheena Tjon A; van Dijck, Benjamin; van Grieken, Nicole C T; van Hillegersberg, Richard; van Sandick, Johanna W; Vehof, Rianne; van Krieken, J Han; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C


    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects, including diet post gastrectomy. The updated guidelines include revised CDH1 testing criteria (taking into account first-degree and second-degree relatives): (1) families with two or more patients with gastric cancer at any age, one confirmed DGC; (2) individuals with DGC before the age of 40 and (3) families with diagnoses of both DGC and LBC (one diagnosis before the age of 50). Additionally, CDH1 testing could be considered in patients with bilateral or familial LBC before the age of 50, patients with DGC and cleft lip/palate, and those with precursor lesions for signet ring cell carcinoma. Given the high mortality associated with invasive disease, prophylactic total gastrectomy at a centre of expertise is advised for individuals with pathogenic CDH1 mutations. Breast cancer surveillance with annual breast MRI starting at age 30 for women with a CDH1 mutation is recommended. Standardised endoscopic surveillance in experienced centres is recommended for those opting not to have gastrectomy at the current time, those with CDH1 variants of uncertain significance and those that fulfil hereditary DGC criteria without germline CDH1 mutations. Expert histopathological confirmation of (early) signet ring cell carcinoma is recommended. The impact of gastrectomy and mastectomy should not be underestimated; these can have severe consequences on a psychological, physiological and metabolic level. Nutritional problems should be carefully monitored.

  14. E2F-dependent accumulation of hEmi1 regulates S phase entry by inhibiting APC(Cdh1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Jerry Y; Reimann, Julie D R; Sørensen, Claus S;


    Emi1 promotes mitotic entry in Xenopus laevis embryos by inhibiting the APC(Cdc20) ubiquitination complex to allow accumulation of cyclin B. We show here that human Emi1 (hEmi1) functions to promote cyclin A accumulation and S phase entry in somatic cells by inhibiting the APC(Cdh1) complex....... At the G1-S transition, hEmi1 is transcriptionally induced by the E2F transcription factor, much like cyclin A. hEmi1 overexpression accelerates S phase entry and can override a G1 block caused by overexpression of Cdh1 or the E2F-inhibitor p105 retinoblastoma protein (pRb). Depleting cells of hEmi1...... through RNA interference prevents accumulation of cyclin A and inhibits S phase entry. These data suggest that E2F can activate both transcription of cyclin A and the hEmi1-dependent stabilization of APC(Cdh1) targets, such as cyclin A, to promote S phase entry....

  15. 大鼠局灶性脑缺血后Cdh1 mRNA水平及Cdh1蛋白分布的改变%The Changes in Cdh1 mRNA and Distribution of Cdh1 Protein in Rats after Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱巍; 邱瑾; 祁月红; 姚文龙; 张雪; 张传汉


    目的:探讨大鼠局灶性脑缺血损伤后Cdh1 mRNA水平的变化及其在不同类型神经细胞中的分布变化.方法:雄性成年SD大鼠30只,线栓法建立右侧大脑中动脉缺血模型,分别于缺血前和缺血再灌注后1、3、7 d采用实时荧光定量PCR技术检测缺血侧和非缺血侧脑组织中Cdh1 mRNA的水平;缺血再灌注后7 d免疫荧光双标法检测Cdh1在神经元和星形胶质细胞中的分布情况.结果:脑缺血前,两侧脑组织中Cdh1 mRNA的水平差异无统计学意义.缺血再灌注后1、3、7 d,缺血侧脑组织Cdh1 mRNA水平均低于非缺血侧脑组织(P<0.05);缺血再灌注后7 d,与非缺血侧相比,缺血侧神经元明显减少,星形胶质细胞增多;在非缺血侧Cdh1主要表达于神经元,星形胶质细胞中表达较少,在缺血侧Cdh1在神经元及激活的星形胶质细胞中均有表达.结论:大鼠局灶性脑缺血损伤后,缺血侧Cdh1 mRNA的水平较非缺血侧降低,且Cdh1在神经元和星形胶质细胞中分布情况发生变化.

  16. Aberrant expression of nuclear HDAC3 and cytoplasmic CDH1 predict a poor prognosis for patients with pancreatic cancer. (United States)

    Jiao, Feng; Hu, Hai; Han, Ting; Zhuo, Meng; Yuan, Cuncun; Yang, Haiyan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Liwei


    Previous studies showed that aberrant CDH1 or/and HDAC3 localization is essential for the progression of some human cancers. Here, we investigate the prognostic significance of aberrant CDH1 and HDAC3 localization in 84 pancreatic cancer patients. Our results show that increases in both membrane and cytoplasmic CDH1 correlate with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.026 and P 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that nuclear HDAC3 and cytoplasmic CDH1 (P = 0.001 and P = 0.010, respectively), as well as tumor differentiation (P = 0.009) are independent prognostic factors. Most importantly, patients with high co-expression of nuclear HDAC3 and cytoplasmic CDH1 had shorter survival times (P CDH1 have independent prognostic value in pancreatic cancer and provide novel targets for prognostic therapeutics.

  17. Construction and identification of recombinant lentivirus vector of rat Cdh1 gene%表达大鼠Cdh1基因的重组慢病毒载体的构建及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱瑾; 姚文龙; 钱巍; 张传汉


    目的 构建表达大鼠Cdh1基因的重组慢病毒载体.方法 根据大鼠Cdh1基因的核苷酸序列,合成目的基因片段并亚克隆到慢病毒表达载体pGC-FU的Age I酶切位点间,命名为pGC-FU-Cdh1.对pGC-FU-Cdh1进行PCR扩增及测序鉴定.将293T细胞按完全随机法分为实验组(每组3只)及对照组(每组3只),分别将pGC-FU-Cdh1及空质粒pGC-FU以脂质体法转染至293T细胞,倒置荧光显微镜观察后,Western blot法检测Cdh1-GFP的表达情况,慢病毒载体LV-Cdh1的包装浓缩及滴度测定. 结果 重组慢病毒表达载体pGC-FU-Cdh1经PCR扩增鉴定及测序鉴定均显示有特异性基因片断,证明大鼠Cdh1基因正向插入慢病毒表达载体pGC-FU中;转染293T细胞后,Western blot法检测到实验组有外源性融合蛋白Cdh1 -GFP的表达(每组3只),对照组无Cdh1-GFP的表达(n=0)(P=0.014);慢病毒载体LV-Cdh1包装浓缩后,Reahime PCR法测定滴度为2E+8 TU/ml. 结论 成功构建表达大鼠Cdh1基因的重组质粒pGC-FU-Cdh1,并包装为慢病毒,为进一步研究Cdh1功能及基因治疗奠定了基础.%Objective To construct recombinant lentivirus vector of rat Cdh1 gene. Methods The artificially synthesized full length DNA of rat Cdh1 gene was inserted in the pGC-FU vector,which was isolated by restriction enzyme digest with Age I.The positive recombinant was identified by PCR analysis and sequence analysis.Six culture dishes of 293T cell were randomly allocated into intervention group and control group.Expression of GFP protein was detected by fluorescence microscope and Westen blot in pGC-FU-Cdh1 transfected 293T cells.Lentivirus pacaging,concentration and titering were done. Results The PCR analysis and sequence analysis demonstrated that the size and position of Cdh1 gene insertion were consistent with the design.Westen blot analysis showed specific expression of external fusion protein of Cdh1-GFP in pGC-FU-Cdh1 transfected 293T cells (n=3),and have no expression in

  18. Expression of Cdh1 and its downstream substrates in primary neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation%原代缺氧缺糖损伤神经元模型Cdh1及其下游底物的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱巍; 邱瑾; 祁月红; 姚文龙; 张雪; 张传汉


    BACKGROUND:Cdh1 has been shown to express in rat hippocampus and cortex in a large number. Moreover, in vitro test demonstrated that Cdh1 expression was higher in neurons than in neural stem cel s, which possibly associated with the differentiation of neural stem cel s into neurons. However, the effects of anaphase promoting complex Cdh1 on ischemic neuronal damage remain unclear. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the expression of Cdh1 and its downstream substrate in primary cultured neurons with oxygen-glucose deprivation. METHODS:Primary neurons from cortex of postnatal 24-hour rat pups were cultured in vitro, and identified by immunofluorescence staining. The oxygen-and glucose-deprived models were established by three gas incubator fil ed with nitrogen in sugar-free Earle’s solution. After 1 hour of hypoxia, reoxygenation was conducted. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of Cdh1 and its downstream substrates Skp2, Cyclin B1 before hypoxia, 6 hours, 1, 3, 7 days after oxygen glucose deprivation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After oxygen glucose deprivation, the expression of Cdh1 and Cyclin B1 in primary neurons was increased (P  目的:体外构建原代缺氧缺糖损伤神经元模型,观察Cdh1及其下游底物表达变化。  方法:取出生24 h内乳鼠大脑皮质,体外培养原代神经元并通过免疫荧光染色进行鉴定。使用无糖Earle’s 液替代细胞培养液,利用三气培养箱充以氮气建立原代神经元缺氧缺糖模型,缺氧处理1h后复氧。于缺氧前、缺氧缺糖损伤后6 h、1 d,3 d,7 d采用实时荧光定量PCR检测神经元Cdh1及其下游底物Skp2、Cyclin B1的表达。  结果与结论:体外缺氧缺糖损伤后,原代神经元Cdh1及其下游底物Cyclin B1表达上调(P<0.05),Skp2表达均下调(P <0.05)。提示,体外缺氧缺糖损伤后神经元Cdh1表达升高,可能通过泛素化降解Skp2参与缺氧性神经元凋亡等病理过程。

  19. Down-regulation of CDH1 is associated with expression of SNAI1 in colorectal adenomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feride Kroepil

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Down-regulation of E-cadherin (CDH1 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT are considered critical events for invasion and metastasis of colorectal carcinoma. Here we tested whether the important regulators of E-cadherin expression SNAI1 and TWIST1 are already detectable in human colorectal adenomas. METHODS: RNA was extracted from a set of randomly selected formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE colorectal adenomas (n = 41 and normal colon mucosa (n = 10. Subsequently mRNA expression of CDH1, CDH2, SNAI1 and TWIST1 was analysed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. CDH1 as well as SNAI1 protein expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC. RESULTS: SNAI1 mRNA was expressed in 78% (n = 32/41, TWIST1 mRNA in 41% (n = 17/41 and CDH2 mRNA in 41% (n = 17/41 of the colorectal adenoma tissue, while normal colon mucosa was negative for these transcription factors. We found a significant correlation between reduced CDH1 and the presence of SNAI1 mRNA expression and for combined SNAI1 and TWIST1 mRNA expression, respectively. A correlation between CDH2 mRNA expression and reduced CDH1 expression was not observed. We confirmed the relationship between SNAI1 expression and reduced E-cadherin expression on the protein level via IHC. CONCLUSION: Our data show that SNAI1 and Twist1 are already expressed in benign precursor lesions of colorectal cancer and that SNAI1 expression was significantly correlated with lower expression of CDH1. Whether these findings reflect true EMT and/or are a sign of a more aggressive biology need to be investigated in further studies.

  20. Analysis of CDH1 gene expression in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer%遗传性弥漫型胃癌家系上皮型钙黏素基因的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春宇; 李小毅; 陈原稼; 钟定荣; 刘洪沨; 高维生


    目的 研究在遗传性弥漫型胃癌家系中是否存在上皮型钙黏素基因(CDH1)以及基因表达的异常.方法 收集符合遗传性弥漫型胃癌(HDGC)诊断标准的1个家系中15例成员的外周血和组织标本.用免疫组化和Westernblot法检测组织CDH1蛋白表达;提取基因组DNA,通过PCR扩增DNA直接测序检测CDH1基因16个外显子突变.用克隆测序法,鉴定CDH1基因启动子区CpG位点甲基化状况.结果 先证者和另一胃癌患者(家系2号成员)的癌旁胃黏膜上皮细胞CDH1蛋白表达较正常胃黏膜减弱,两者肿瘤组织的蛋白表达几乎为阴性.包括先证者在内的11例家系成员第14外显子mRNA水平2 377位点存在一个C→T的单核苷酸多态性(SNP),但未检测到16个外显子的胚系突变.相对于正常胃黏膜,先证者和家系2号成员的胃癌组织均有CDH1基因启动子的高甲基化,其瘤旁黏膜也有高甲基化.结论 此HDGC家系中,CDH1基因外显子胚系突变不是其致病原因,基因启动子区的甲基化可能是导致基因失活的原因之一.%Objective To detect the expression of CDHI, screen the germ-line mutation of CDHI exons and to e-valuate CDH1 promoter methylation status in a family with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer ( HDGC) in China. Methods Fifteen members of a family with HDGC were visited, peripheral blood samples and tumor specimens were collected. The expression of CDH1 gene was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. By PCR and direct sequencing germ-line mutation of 16 CDH1 exons were screened. PCR and clone sequencing were used to investigate the status of CDH1 promoter methylation. Results In proband and another gastric cancer patient ( number 2 member) , the protein expression of CDH1 was reduced in mucosae near the tumors, and lost in the tumors. In 11members(including proband), a single nucleotide substitution of C→T ( SNP) in exon 14(mRNA 2377 locus) was found. No germ-line mutation of 16 exons

  1. A restricted period for formation of outer subventricular zone defined by Cdh1 and Trnp1 levels. (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Maria Ángeles; De Juan Romero, Camino; Fernández, Virginia; Cárdenas, Adrián; Götz, Magdalena; Borrell, Víctor


    The outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) is a germinal layer playing key roles in the development of the neocortex, with particular relevance in gyrencephalic species such as human and ferret, where it contains abundant basal radial glia cells (bRGCs) that promote cortical expansion. Here we identify a brief period in ferret embryonic development when apical RGCs generate a burst of bRGCs that become founders of the OSVZ. After this period, bRGCs in the OSVZ proliferate and self-renew exclusively locally, thereby forming a self-sustained lineage independent from the other germinal layers. The time window for the brief period of OSVZ bRGC production is delineated by the coincident downregulation of Cdh1 and Trnp1, and their upregulation reduces bRGC production and prevents OSVZ seeding. This mechanism in cortical development may have key relevance in brain evolution and disease.

  2. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer : updated clinical guidelines with an emphasis on germline CDH1 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Post, Rachel S.; Vogelaar, Ingrid P.; Carneiro, Fatima; Guilford, Parry; Huntsman, David; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Caldas, Carlos; Schreiber, Karen E. Chelcun; Hardwick, Richard H.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Bardram, Linda; Benusiglio, Patrick R.; Bisseling, Tanya M.; Blair, Vanessa; Bleiker, Eveline; Boussioutas, Alex; Cats, Annemieke; Coit, Daniel; DeGregorio, Lynn; Figueiredo, Joana; Ford, James M.; Heijkoop, Esther; Hermens, Rosella; Humar, Bostjan; Kaurah, Pardeep; Keller, Gisella; Lai, Jennifer; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.; O'Donovan, Maria; Oliveira, Carla; Pinheiro, Hugo; Ragunath, Krish; Rasenberg, Esther; Richardson, Susan; Roviello, Franco; Schackert, Hans; Seruca, Raquel; Taylor, Amy; ter Huurne, Anouk; Tischkowitz, Marc; Joe, Sheena Tjon A.; van Dijck, Benjamin; van Grieken, Nicole C. T.; van Hillegersberg, Richard; van Sandick, Johanna W.; Vehof, Rianne; van Krieken, J. Han; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C.


    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects, inc

  3. HNF4alpha and CDH1 are associated with ulcerative colitis in a Dutch cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommeren, S. van; Visschedijk, M.C.; Festen, E.A.; Jong, D.J. de; Ponsioen, C.Y.; Wijmenga, C.; Weersma, R.K.


    BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), consisting of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), are complex disorders with multiple genes contributing to disease pathogenesis. A recent genome-wide association scan identified three novel susceptibility loci for UC: HNF4alpha, CDH1, an

  4. Prophylactic Laparoscopic Total Gastrectomy with Jejunal Pouch Reconstruction in Patients Carrying a CDH1 Germline Mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, L.; Sluis, P.C. van der; Ausems, M.G.; Horst, S. van der; Siersema, P.D.; Ruurda, J.P.; Offerhaus, G.J.; Hillegersberg, R. van


    BACKGROUND: For patients with an identified germline E-cadherin-1 (CDH1) mutation, prophylactic gastrectomy is the treatment of choice to eliminate the high risk of developing diffuse gastric cancer. Laparoscopic total gastrectomy with jejunal pouch reconstruction is a novel approach that may be esp

  5. Identification of germline mutations in the cancer predisposing gene CDH1 in patients with orofacial clefts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, I.P.; Figueiredo, J.; Rooij, I.A. van; Simoes-Correia, J.; Post, R.S. van der; Melo, S.; Seruca, R.; Carels, C.E.L.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Hoogerbrugge-van der Linden, N.


    Orofacial clefts (OFC) are among the most common birth defects worldwide. The etiology of non-syndromic OFC is still largely unknown. During embryonic development, the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin, encoded by CDH1, is highly expressed in the median edge epithelium of the palate. Furthermore, in

  6. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: updated clinical guidelines with an emphasis on germline CDH1 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, R.S. van der; Vogelaar, I.P.; Carneiro, F.; Guilford, P.; Huntsman, D.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Caldas, C.; Schreiber, K.E.; Hardwick, R.H.; Ausems, M.G.; Bardram, L.; Benusiglio, P.R.; Bisseling, T.M.; Blair, V.; Bleiker, E.; Boussioutas, A.; Cats, A.; Coit, D.; DeGregorio, L.; Figueiredo, J.; Ford, J.M.; Heijkoop, E.; Hermens, R.; Humar, B.; Kaurah, P.; Keller, G.; Lai, J.; Ligtenberg, M.J.; O'Donovan, M.; Oliveira, C.; Pinheiro, H.; Ragunath, K.; Rasenberg, E.; Richardson, S.; Roviello, F.; Schackert, H.; Seruca, R.; Taylor, A.; Huurne, A. Ter; Tischkowitz, M.; Joe, S.T.; Dijck, B. van; Grieken, N.C. van; Hillegersberg, R. van; Sandick, J.W. van; Vehof, R.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Fitzgerald, R.C.


    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects, inc

  7. HNF4 alpha and CDH1 Are Associated with Ulcerative Colitis in a Dutch Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sommeren, Suzanne; Visschedijk, Marijn C.; Festen, Eleonora A. M.; de Jong, Dirk J.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Weersma, Rinse K.


    Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), consisting of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), are complex disorders with multiple genes contributing to disease pathogenesis. A recent genome-wide association scan identified three novel susceptibility loci for UC: HNF4 alpha, CDH1, a

  8. DNA methylation and not H3K4 trimethylation dictates the expression status of miR-152 gene which inhibits migration of breast cancer cells via DNMT1/CDH1 loop. (United States)

    Sengupta, Dipta; Deb, Moonmoon; Rath, Sandip Kumar; Kar, Swayamsiddha; Parbin, Sabnam; Pradhan, Nibedita; Patra, Samir Kumar


    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs which targets most protein-coding transcripts (mRNA) and destroy them. Thus miRNA controls the abundance of those specific proteins and impact on developmental, physiological and pathological processes. Dysregulation of miRNA function thus may lead to various clinicopathological complications, including breast cancer. Silencing of miR-152 gene due to promoter DNA methylation alter the expression pattern of several other genes. E-cadherin (CDH1) forms the core of adherent junctions between surrounding epithelial cells, link with actin cytoskeleton and affects cell signaling. CDH1 gene is down regulated by promoter DNA methylation during cancer progression. In this investigation, we attempt to elucidate the correlation of miR-152 and CDH1 function, as it is well known that the loss of CDH1 function is one of the major reasons for cancer metastasis and aggressiveness of spreading. For the first time we have shown that loss of CDH1 expression is directly proportional to the loss of miR-152 function in breast cancer cells. mRNA and protein expression profile of DNMT1 implicate that miR-152 targets DNMT1 mRNA and inhibits its protein expression. Tracing the molecular marks on DNA and histone 3 for understanding the mechanism of gene regulation by ChIP analyses leads to a paradoxical result that shows DNA methylation adjacent to active histone marking (enrichment of H3K4me3) silence miR-152 gene. Further experiments revealed that DNMT1 plays crucial role for regulation of miR-152 gene. When DNMT1 protein function is blocked miR-152 expression prevails and destroys the mRNA of DNMT1; this molecular regulatory mechanism is creating a cyclic feedback loop, which is now focused as DNMT1/miR-152 switch for on/off of DNMT1 target genes. We discovered modulation of CDH1 gene expression by DNMT1/miR-152 switches. We have demonstrated further that DNMT1 down regulation mediated upregulation of CDH1 (hereafter, DNMT1/CDH1 loop) in

  9. Accuracy of Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Testing Criteria and Outcomes in Patients With a Germline Mutation in CDH1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Post, Rachel S.; Vogelaar, Ingrid P.; Manders, Peggy; van der Kolk, Lizet E.; Cats, Annemieke; van Hest, Liselotte P.; Sijmons, Rolf; Aalfs, Cora M.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; Wagner, Anja; Hes, Frederik J.; Arts, Neeltje; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; van Krieken, J. Han; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.


    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Germline mutations in the cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin gene (CDH1) cause a predisposition to gastric cancer. We evaluated the ability of the internationally accepted hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) criteria to identify individuals with pathogenic mutations in CDH1, and

  10. Accuracy of Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Testing Criteria and Outcomes in Patients With a Germline Mutation in CDH1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Post, Rachel S.; Vogelaar, Ingrid P.; Manders, Peggy; Van Der Kolk, Lizet E.; Cats, Annemieke; Van Hest, Liselotte P.; Sijmons, Rolf; Aalfs, Cora M.; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Gómez García, Encarna B.; Wagner, Anja; Hes, Frederik J.; Arts, Neeltje; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Van Krieken, J. Han; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L


    Background & Aims Germline mutations in the cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin gene (CDH1) cause a predisposition to gastric cancer. We evaluated the ability of the internationally accepted hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) criteria to identify individuals with pathogenic mutations in CDH1, and a

  11. Detection of CDH1 gene methylation of suspension cells in abdominal lavage fluid from colorectal cancer patients and its clinical significance%结直肠癌术中腹腔灌洗液悬浮细胞CDH1甲基化检测及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁发龙; 杜刚毅; 郑少康; 彭林; 陈金泉


    目的 检测结直肠癌术中腹腔灌洗液悬浮细胞中CDH1基因甲基化状态并探讨其与结直肠癌临床病理资料及预后的关系.方法 前瞻性纳入2011年10月至2013年10月间中山市中医院手术治疗的原发性结直肠癌患者.采用实时荧光甲基化特异性聚合酶链反应技术,检测术中腹腔灌洗液悬浮细胞中CDH1基因启动子区域5'-CpG岛的甲基化状态,将甲基化百分率大于20%定义为甲基化,小于或等于20%为非甲基化;分析CDH1基因甲基化状态与结直肠癌临床病理特征及预后的关系.结果 共102例患者纳入研究,其中CDH1甲基化组47例,非甲基化组55例.与非甲基化组比较,甲基化组患者肿瘤直径更大,浸润型比例更高,分化程度更低,淋巴结转移和远处转移率更高,临床分期更晚(均P<0.05).甲基化组患者中位生存期短于非甲基化组(26.0月比41.4月,P<0.05).Cox模型分析显示,CDH1甲基化状态是结直肠癌患者术后生存的独立危险因素(RR=27.5,95%CI:3.8~51.3,P<0.01].结论 术中腹腔灌洗液悬浮细胞中CDH1基因发生甲基化的结直肠癌患者恶性程度较高,易发生淋巴结转移和远处转移,预后较差.%Objective To detect the CDH1 gene methylation of suspension cells in intraoperative abdominal lavage fluid from colorectal cancer patients,and to examine its association with clinicopathology and prognosis.Methods Real-time methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (qMSP) was used to investigate the methylation status of the CDH 1 gene promoter 5'-CpG islands from intraoperative abdominal lavage fluid in 102 patients with colorectal cancer.The associations between methylation of CDH1 genes and clinicopathologic features and prognosis were investigated.Results Among the 102 colorectal cancer patients,aberrant methylation of CDH1 gene was detected in 47 patients.Significant associations were found between CDH1 methylation status and tumor size,growth pattern

  12. Cdh1介导的Sp100蛋白降解机制初探%Cdh1 Mediate D-box-dependent Degradation of Sp100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李可旼; 王然; 周彩红; 薛京伦; 季朝能; 陈金中


    Cdh1是后期促进因子APC复合物的共激活因子之一,其蛋白在有丝分裂末期和G0/G1期激活APC复合物.Cdh1通过识别特异性的序列,在特定的细胞周期时刻为APC复合物呈递需要被降解的底物.Sp100作为PML-NBs结构重要组成蛋白,参与抗病毒,转录调控,细胞凋亡等重要的细胞活动.在本课题组前期研究工作中,发现了Sp100的蛋白序列上含有一个典型的D-box序列,即RxxL,暗示着Sp100能够被Cdh1识别,可能是APC复合物的底物.在本实验中,证明了Cdh1参与Sp100蛋白泛素化降解的途径,并且这个过程依赖于Sp100蛋白完整的D-box结构.这些发现不仅提供了一种新的内源的Sp100蛋白调控方式,并且为进一步研究Sp100以及其他PML-NBs蛋白的调节打下基础.%As a co-activator of the APC/C complex, Cdhl recruit substrates at particular cycle phases and mediate their degradation. PML-NBs are nucleolar domains that present as nuclear particles in interphase and disperse during mitosis. Sp100 is a PML-NB scaffold protein that participates in viral resistance, transcriptional regulation, and apoptosis. However, its metabolism during the cell cychas not yet been clarified. We found a putative D-box in Sp100 using the eukaryotic linear motif assay. Furthermore, Cdhl mediated the degradation of Sp100 through the ubiquitination pathway, and the intact D-box of Spl00 was necessary for this process.

  13. Characteristics of APC-Cdh1 expression in central nervous system%APC-Cdh1在中枢神经系统中的表达分布特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚文龙; 张传汉; 钱巍; 邱瑾; 柳璐; 祝畅; 桂伶俐


    AIM: To investigate the characteristics of APC-Cdh1 expression in the central nervous system. METHODS: Fresh frozen sections were prepared from the brain tissue of health adult male SD rats and the expression of Cdh1 was detected by immuno-histochemistry. The subtypes of Cdh1 positive cells were determined by double immunofluorescent labeling technique with Cdhl + NeuN or Cdh1 + GFAP antibody. Primary neurons and neural stem cells from the hippocampus of postnatal 24 h rat pups were cultured. Neurons were identified by NeuN immunocyto-chemical staining, neural stem cells were examined by Nestin immunocytochemical staining and their differentiation characteris-tics were identified by GFAP and MAP2 immunocytochemical staining. The mRNA of neuron and neural stem cells was extracted by Trizol method and the expression of Cdh1 and CDC20 was examined by quantitive real-time PCR. RESULTS: The immune-staining showed that Cdh1 was highly expressed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, which was mainly located in neurons. Compared with that in neural stem cells, the expression of Cdh1 mRNA significantly increased in neurons [(1.00±0.05) vs (2.10±0.07 ), P<0.05], but CDC20 mRNA was hardly expressed (1.00±0.04, 0.02±0.01, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: APC-Cdh1 is highly expressed in the brain tissue and it is mainly located in neurons. The expression of Cdh1 in neurons is higher than that in neural stem cells in vitro.%目的:探讨细胞周期末期促进复合物(APC)-Cdh1在中枢神经系统中的表达分布特点.方法:取健康成年雄性SD大鼠脑组织制作冰冻切片,免疫组化染色检测Cdh1的表达部位;免疫荧光双标检测Cdh1表达的细胞定位情况.取出生24 h内乳鼠,原代培养神经元及神经干细胞,免疫组化检测NeuN进行神经元鉴定;Nestin染色进行神经干细胞初步鉴定;采用GFAP,MAP2免疫组化染色鉴定NSC分化特性.分别提取神经干细胞与神经元总RNA,采用实时定量PCR检测APC 2个调节亚基Cdh1

  14. ATRA对三阴性乳腺癌细胞CDH1表达的影响%Effect of ATRA on CDH1 Expression in Triple-negative Breast Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卓荣; 沈三弟; 黄湛; 赵欣; 雷睿文


    目的 探讨全反式维甲酸(ATRA)对三阴性乳腺癌(TNBC)细胞系MDA-MB-231的CDH1表达的影响及可能机制.方法 实验分空白对照组(control)、5-杂氮-2'-脱氧胞苷(5-Aza-CdR)组及ATRA组,分别用甲基化特异性PCR(MSP)、逆转录PCR(RT-PCR)方法检测MDA-MB-231细胞CDH1基因启动子区甲基化状态及mRNA表达情况.结果 空白对照组MDA-MB-231细胞CDH1基因启动子区处于甲基化状态,CDH1mRNA无表达,而5-Aza-CdR组与ATRA组CDH1基因启动子区处于非甲基化状态,CDH1 mRNA表达明显上调,且两组之间无明显差别.结论 ATRA能够通过去甲基化机制上调MDA-MB-231细胞CDH1基因的表达.

  15. CDH1/E-cadherin and solid tumors. An updated gene-disease association analysis using bioinformatics tools. (United States)

    Abascal, María Florencia; Besso, María José; Rosso, Marina; Mencucci, María Victoria; Aparicio, Evangelina; Szapiro, Gala; Furlong, Laura Inés; Vazquez-Levin, Mónica Hebe


    Cancer is a group of diseases that causes millions of deaths worldwide. Among cancers, Solid Tumors (ST) stand-out due to their high incidence and mortality rates. Disruption of cell-cell adhesion is highly relevant during tumor progression. Epithelial-cadherin (protein: E-cadherin, gene: CDH1) is a key molecule in cell-cell adhesion and an abnormal expression or/and function(s) contributes to tumor progression and is altered in ST. A systematic study was carried out to gather and summarize current knowledge on CDH1/E-cadherin and ST using bioinformatics resources. The DisGeNET database was exploited to survey CDH1-associated diseases. Reported mutations in specific ST were obtained by interrogating COSMIC and IntOGen tools. CDH1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) were retrieved from the dbSNP database. DisGeNET analysis identified 609 genes annotated to ST, among which CDH1 was listed. Using CDH1 as query term, 26 disease concepts were found, 21 of which were neoplasms-related terms. Using DisGeNET ALL Databases, 172 disease concepts were identified. Of those, 80 ST disease-related terms were subjected to manual curation and 75/80 (93.75%) associations were validated. On selected ST, 489 CDH1 somatic mutations were listed in COSMIC and IntOGen databases. Breast neoplasms had the highest CDH1-mutation rate. CDH1 was positioned among the 20 genes with highest mutation frequency and was confirmed as driver gene in breast cancer. Over 14,000 SNP for CDH1 were found in the dbSNP database. This report used DisGeNET to gather/compile current knowledge on gene-disease association for CDH1/E-cadherin and ST; data curation expanded the number of terms that relate them. An updated list of CDH1 somatic mutations was obtained with COSMIC and IntOGen databases and of SNP from dbSNP. This information can be used to further understand the role of CDH1/E-cadherin in health and disease.

  16. The correlation between CDH1 gene methylation status and clinical pathological characteristics and prognosis of colorectal cancer%CDH1基因甲基化状态与结直肠癌临床病理特征及预后的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭珊岚; 王卫


    目的:检测原发性结直肠癌患者术中腹腔灌洗液悬浮细胞中的CDH1基因启动子所在5'-CpG岛的异常甲基化,同时对其异常甲基化与临床病情发展、病理变化及术后预后的相关关系进行探讨。方法选取该院肿瘤科进行结直肠癌切除术的原发性结直肠癌患者,所有入选患者由专人进行跟踪随访。检测CDH1基因启动子所在5'-CpG岛的异常甲基化,对其异常甲基化与临床病情发展、病理变化及术后预后的相关关系进行探讨。结果该研究共纳入患者184例,其中甲基化组86例,非甲基化组98例。对两组患者临床病理结果检查可知甲基化组肿瘤直径大于非甲基化组(P<0.001),甲基化组肿瘤浸润性所占比例高于非甲基化组(P<0.001),甲基化组肿瘤分化程度低于非甲基化组(P<0.001),甲基化组淋巴转移率、远处转移率高于非甲基化组(P<0.001,P=0.026),甲基化组临床TNM分期更晚(P<0.001)。根据随访结果显示非甲基化组患者生存率高于甲基化组患者(P<0.05)。Cox比例风险模型结果显示,患者肿瘤的大体分型、分化程度、侵袭程度和病理分期是影响生存预后的变量,其中腹腔灌洗液悬浮细胞CDH1基因甲基化是影响预后最重要的独立因素,RR=28.514。结论原发性结直肠癌患者腹腔灌洗液悬浮细胞CDH1基因甲基化程度提高,恶性程度高,预后差。%Objective To detect the CDH1 gene methylation of suspension cells in intraoperative abdominal lavage fluid from colorectal cancer patients,and to examine its association with clinicopathology and prognosis.Methods Real-time methylation-specific poly-merase chain reaction(q-MSP)Was used to investigate the methylation status of the CDH1 gene promoter 5 ’-CpG islands from intra-operative abdominal lavage fluid in 184 patients with colorectal cancer.The associations

  17. Polymorphism of the E-cadherin gene CDH1 is associated with susceptibility to vitiligo. (United States)

    Tarlé, Roberto Gomes; Silva de Castro, Caio Cesar; do Nascimento, Liliane Machado; Mira, Marcelo Távora


    Vitiligo is a depigmenting disorder characterized by loss of functional melanocytes from the epidermis. Experimental data suggest that defective melanocyte adhesion may underlie the pathogenesis of the disease. In particular, association between vitiligo and genetic variants of the DDR1 gene involved in melanocyte adhesion has been recently published. A subsequent, independent study revealed lower expression of DDR1 in vitiligo lesions. Here, we expand this investigation by testing for association between vitiligo and polymorphisms of CDH1, IL1B and NOV (formerly CCN3), genes belonging to the DDR1 adhesion pathway, in two population samples of distinct design. Our results reveal that alleles of marker rs10431924 of the CDH1 gene are associated with vitiligo, especially in the presence of autoimmune comorbidities.

  18. 食管和胃双原发癌组织CDH1基因甲基化的表达及意义%The expression of CDH1 gene methylation in patients with esophagus and stomach double primary carcinoma and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永丽; 张立玮; 丁国瑾; 袁丽; 朱晓娅; 侯淑芸


    Objective To study the changes of CDH1 gene promoter CpG island methylation and its clinical significance in patients with esophagus and stomach double primary carcinoma(ESDC).Methods The expression of CDH1 gene methylation in cancerous tissues and adjacent cancerous tissues in 18 cases of ESDC were detected using methylation-specific PCR method. Results Eighteen patients were endoscopically diagnosed as ESDC between Jan. 2007 and Sep. 2009 in the 4th Hospital Affiliated to Hebei Medical University. The positive methylation of CDH1 gene in tissues of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)and adjacent cancer were 66.7% and 33. 3%, respectively, with significant difference (χ2= 4. 167, P = 0. 031). Whereas the positive methylation of CDH1 gene in tissues of gastric carcinoma (GA) and adjacent cancer were 77.8% and 44.4%, respectively, without statistical difference (χ2=1.786, P= 0. 180). There was no significant difference (P=0. 500) in positive rate of CDH1 gene methylation between ESCC tissues and GA tissues in same individual with ESDC. For 18 patients with ESDC, consistent change of CDH1 methylation in tissues of two kinds of cancers was found in 16 patients with a total agreement of 88.9 % (positive agreement of 66.7 % and negative agreement of 22. 2%). Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between two groups (P = 0. 005). Conclusion In patients with ESDC, there is a high consistency of CDH1 methylation change, between ESCC and GA,which suggests that two kinds of cancer may have similar risk factors and molecular mechanisms.%目的 研究同一个体食管和胃双原发癌组织中CDH1基因启动子区CpG岛甲基化变化及其临床意义.方法 应用甲基化特异性PCR法,检测18例食管和胃双原发癌患者癌组织及癌旁组织中CDH1基因甲基化的表达.结果 2007年1月至2009年9月河北医科大学第四医院经内镜确诊18例双原发癌患者,食管鳞状细胞癌及癌旁组织CDH1基因

  19. Promoting regional mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne

    Pricing of transport has been part of EU's common transport policy since this gained momentum in the early 1990s. Since then, it has been closely connected to the trans-European transport network (TEN-T) and to rising demands of efficient mobility systems at a local, regional and Community scale....

  20. Expression of APC-Cdh1mRNA after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion damage in rats%大鼠全脑缺血再灌注损伤后APC-Cdh1mRNA的表达变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志则; 万里; 张传汉; 祁月红; 张雪; 姚文龙; 邱谨


    目的 研究大鼠全脑缺血再灌注损伤后APC-Cdh1的表达变化.方法 雄性SD大鼠60只,体重280-350 g,随机分成假手术组(SH组)、模型组(IR组).采用改良4-VO法建立SD大鼠全脑缺血模型,在损伤后不同时间点,免疫组化染色检测Cdh1的表达部位并且采用实时荧光定量PCR检测大鼠海马组织APC-Cdh1的表达.结果 与对照组相比,术后1d Cdh1 mRNA表达减少,术后3d显著升高,术后7d又降低.免疫组化检测显示APC-Cdh1在海马区及皮质区中均有大量表达.结论 APC-Cdh1可能与中枢神经系统的发育及损伤有着密切的关系.

  1. 大鼠全脑缺血-再灌注损伤后APC-Cdh1蛋白的表达%Expression of APC-Cdh1 Protein after Cerebral Ischemia-reperfusion Damage in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志则; 万里; 祁月红; 姚文龙; 邱瑾; 张传汉


    目的 探讨大鼠全脑缺血-再灌注损伤后APC-Cdh1蛋白的表达变化.方法 雄性SD大鼠60只,体重280~350 g,随机分成假手术组和缺血-再灌注组.采用改良Pulsinelli 4-VO法建立SD大鼠全脑缺血模型,在损伤后不同时间点,免疫组化染色检测Cdh1的表达部位并且采用Western blotting检测大鼠海马组织APC-Cdh1蛋白的表达.结果 免疫组化检测显示APC-Cdh1在海马区及皮层区中均有大量表达.与假手术组相比,缺血-再灌注组术后第1天APC-Cdh1蛋白表达减少,术后第3天升高(P<0.05),术后第7天又降低.结论 APC-Cdh1可能与中枢神经系统损伤有着密切的关系.

  2. Germline promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu-Yuan Wu; Zheng Zhang; Jing-Mei Wang; Wen-Wen Guo; Nong Xiao; Qiong He; Ya-Ping Wang; Yi-Mei Fan


    AIM: To explore germline hypermethylation of the tumor suppressor genes MLH1 , CDH1 and P16INK4a in suspected cases of hereditary gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: A group of 140 Chinese GC patients in whom the primary cancer had developed before the age of 60 or who had a familial history of cancer were screened for germline hypermethylation of the MLH1 , CDH1 and P16INK4a tumor suppressor genes. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes and modified by sodium bisulfite. The treated DNA was then subjected to bisulfite DNA sequencing for a specific region of the MLH1 promoter. The methylation status of CDH1 or P16INK4a was assayed using methylation- specific PCR. Clonal bisulfite allelic sequencing in positive samples was performed to obtain a comprehensive analysis of the CpG island methylation status of these promoter regions. RESULTS: Methylation of the MLH1 gene promoter was detected in the peripheral blood DNA of only 1/140 (0.7%) of the GC patient group. However, this methylation pattern was mosaic rather than the allelic pattern which has previously been reported for MLH1 in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients. We found that 10% of the MLH1 alleles in the peripheral blood DNA of this patient were methylated, consistent with 20% of cells having one methylated allele. No germline promoter methylation of the CDH1 or P16INK4a genes was detected. CONCLUSION: Mosaic germline epimutation of the MLH1 gene is present in suspected hereditary GC patients in China but at a very low level. Germline epimutation of the CDH1 or P16INK4a gene is not a frequent event.

  3. Clinicopathological significance and potential drug target of CDH1 in breast cancer: a meta-analysis and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang R


    Full Text Available Ruixue Huang,* Ping Ding,* Fei Yang*Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China*All authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: CDH1, as a tumor suppressor gene, contributes sporadic breast cancer (BC progression. However, the association between CDH1 hypermethylation and BC, and its clinicopathological significance remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between the CDH1 methylation profile and the major clinicopathological features. A detailed literature was searched through the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science™, and EMBASE™ for related research publications. The data were extracted and assessed by two reviewers independently. Odds ratios (ORs with corresponding confidence intervals (CIs were calculated and summarized respectively. The frequency of CDH1 methylation was significantly higher in invasive ductal carcinoma than in normal breast tissues (OR =5.83, 95% CI 3.76–9.03, P<0.00001. CDH1 hypermethylation was significantly higher in estrogen receptor (ER-negative BC than in ER-positive BC (OR =0.62, 95% CI 0.43–0.87, P=0.007. In addition, we found that the CDH1 was significantly methylated in HER2-negative BC than in HER2-positive BC (OR =0.26, 95% CI 0.15–0.44, P<0.00001. However, CDH1 methylation frequency was not associated with progesterone receptor (PR status, or with grades, stages, or lymph node metastasis of BC patients. Our results indicate that CDH1 hypermethylation is a potential novel drug target for developing personalized therapy. CDH1 hypermethylation is strongly associated with ER-negative and HER2-negative BC, respectively, suggesting CDH1 methylation status could contribute to the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of ER-negative or HER2-negative BC with aggressive tumor biology.Keywords: methylation, estrogen receptor, HER2

  4. A novel mutation in the CDH1 gene in a Spanish family with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. (United States)

    López, María; Cervera-Acedo, Cristina; Santibáñez, Paula; Salazar, Raquel; Sola, Jesús-Javier; Domínguez-Garrido, Elena


    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited form of diffuse type gastric cancer. Germline CDH1 mutations have been identified in approximately 15-50 % of affected kindred that meet the clinical criteria for HDGC. If any of the criteria is met the individual is referred to genetic counseling and CDH1 testing is offered. In this report we present the case of a Spanish family with HDGC harboring a novel CDH1 mutation. A 47 year-old female with a diagnostic of gastric adenocarcinoma and some of her relatives were tested. Study of the entire CDH1 gene, including intron-exon boundaries, by PCR and sequencing and immunohistochemical determination of the expression of E-cadherin were performed. A novel heterozygous deletion in exon 9 of CDH1 gene (c.1220_1220delC, p.P407Qfs10), was found in the proband, one sister and a nephew. It generates a premature stop codon giving rise to a truncated protein that leads to a pathogenic variant. Expression of E-cadherin was absent or frankly reduced in the proband's tumor but normal in tumor cells of great-uncle. After these results, the sister underwent prophylactic total gastrectomy, and the nephew is under annual endoscopic surveillance. Personal or familial history of diffuse gastric cancer, above all at young age, should encourage CDH1 genetic testing. In this sense, the review of the criteria and the addition in the last guideline of the recommendation: "other families in which genetic testing may also be considered" broadens the number of individuals at risk detected. Since there are not reliable methods for early detection, DGC is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage and consequently associated with a poorer outcome. Thus, CDH1 mutations detection contributes to an improvement in diagnosis and therapeutic intervention.

  5. Targeting of Fzr/Cdh1 for timely activation of the APC/C at the centrosome during mitotic exit. (United States)

    Meghini, Francesco; Martins, Torcato; Tait, Xavier; Fujimitsu, Kazuyuki; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Glover, David M; Kimata, Yuu


    A multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase, the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), regulates critical cellular processes including the cell cycle. To accomplish its diverse functions, APC/C activity must be precisely regulated in time and space. The interphase APC/C activator Fizzy-related (Fzr or Cdh1) is localized at centrosomes in animal cells. However, neither the mechanism of its localization nor its importance is clear. Here we identify the centrosome component Spd2 as a major partner of Fzr in Drosophila. The localization of Fzr to the centriole during interphase depends on direct interaction with Spd2. By generating Spd2 mutants unable to bind Fzr, we show that centrosomal localization of Fzr is essential for optimal APC/C activation towards its centrosomal substrate Aurora A. Finally, we show that Spd2 is also a novel APC/C(Fzr) substrate. Our study is the first to demonstrate the critical importance of distinct subcellular pools of APC/C activators in the spatiotemporal control of APC/C activity.

  6. CDH1和MLH1蛋白在甲状腺癌中的表达及临床意义%Expression and clinicopathological significances of CDH1 and MLH1 protein in thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    哈力木拉提·木尔扎提; 赛力克·马高维亚; 华天书; 杨曦; 阿不来提·买买提艾力; 夏米西努尔·伊力克


    Background and purpose: It was reported that abnormal expression of cadherin 1 (CDH1) and mut L homolog 1 (MLH1) is often associated with tumor genesis and progression. The study investigated the expression of CDH1 and MLH1, as well as their clinicopathological significance in thyroid cancer. Methods: Immunohistochemical SP method was used to determine the expression of CDH1 in 65 thyroid cancer tissues, 24 thyroid adenoma, 15 Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 7 nodular goiter and 12 peri-tumor tissues, and MLH1 in 56 thyroid cancer tissues, 17 thyroid adenoma, 13 Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 8 nodular goiter and 12 peri-tumor tissues. Results: Expression of CDH1 and MLH1 both decreased from normal tissue (83.33% and 83.33%), nodular goiter (100% and 75%), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (93.33% and 76.92%), thyroid adenoma (79.17% and 52.94%) to thyroid cancer (47.69% and 42.86%) differently. There were statistic differences in expressions of CDH1 and MLH1 between the different thyroid pathological tissues (P<0.05). Expression level of CDH1 and MLH1 decreased with the malignancy of thyroid cancer. Decreasing of expression of CDH1 correlated with PTC and FTC, also with lymph node metastasis. There was positive correlation between the CDHl and MUM expressions in thyroid cancer (r<0.4, P<0.05). Conclusion: Low expression of CDH1 and MLH1 might be related to the thyroid cancer and its metastasis; there is positive correlation between the CDH1 and MLH1 in thyroid cancer.%背景与目的:上皮型钙黏着蛋白1(cadherin 1,CDH1)和Mut L同源基因1(mut L homolog 1,MLH1)在不同肿瘤的发生、发展中起一定作用.本文旨在探讨CDH1和MLH1在甲状腺癌组织中的表达及临床意义.方法:用免疫组织化学SP法检测甲状腺癌(65例)、甲状腺腺瘤(24例)、桥本甲状腺炎(15例)、结节性甲状腺肿(7例)和癌旁正常组织(12例)中CDH1蛋白的表达,以及甲状腺癌(56例)、甲状腺腺瘤(17例)、桥本氏甲状腺炎(13

  7. Association of the Germline Mutations of E-Cadherin Gene ( CDH1 ) in Gastric Cancer%E-Cadherin(CDH1)基因胚系突变与胃癌风险的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元颖; 李金田; 朱明; 张晓梅; 吴晓柳; 王亚平


    背景与目的:检测E-Cadherin(CDH1)基因在家族性胃癌中的突变情况以探讨CDH1基因胚系突变在家族性胃癌中的作用.方法:采用聚合酶链反应(Polymerase chain reaction,PCR)、变性高效液相色谱分析(Denaturing high-performance liquidschromatography,DHPLC)和直接测序法对CDH1基因进行全基因筛查,检查80名胃癌患者的CDH1基因突变情况,其中62例有家族史.同时检测80例正常人CDH1基因,进行分析比较.结果:2.5%(2/80)的胃癌患者检出CDH1基因错义突变Thr340Ala(杂合型),在80例正常人中未检出这一突变;第13外显子上游(内含子)第13位碱基检出多态位点IVS(13)-13T→C,这一多态性存在于12.5%(10/80)的胃癌患者和15.0%(12/80)的正常对照,两组差异无统计学意义;23.8%(19/80)的胃癌患者中检出同义突变Asn751Asn,相同的突变存在于8.8%(7/80)的正常对照.统计结果表明,胃癌患者中CDH1基因Asn751Asn检出率高于正常人群(P<0.05),这种差异主要表现在高年龄组胃癌患者(P<0.01).结论:CDH1基因胚系突变在家族性胃癌中不是频发事件,但多态位点Asn751Asn的存在可使携带者胃癌发病风险增高,可能是部分癌高发家族癌症发生的原因之一.

  8. Intragenic deletion of CDH1 as the inactivating mechanism of the wild-type allele in an HDGC tumour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, C.; Bruin, J.; Nabais, S.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Moutinho, C.; Nagengast, F.M.; Seruca, R.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Carneiro, F.


    Mutations in CDH1, encoding E-cadherin, are the underlying genetic defect in approximately one-third of the hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) families described so far. Tumours arising in these families show abnormal or absence of E-cadherin expression, following the model of tumour suppresso

  9. Correlation between CDH1 gene methylation status and clinical pathological characteristics and prognosis of colorectal cancer%CDH1基因甲基化状态与结直肠癌临床病理特征及预后的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方日; 王小文


    目的:探讨CDH1基因启动子所在5'-CpG岛的异常甲基化与临床病情发展、病理变化及术后预后的相关性。方法选取2013年1~12月在我院肿瘤科进行结直肠癌切除术的原发性结直肠癌患者184例,其中甲基化组86例,非甲基化组98例,所有入选患者由专人进行跟踪随访。检测CDH1基因启动子所在5'-CpG岛的异常甲基化,通过全基因组扩增技术对修饰后的DNA进行扩增,根据GenBank基因库设计CDH1基因甲基化特异性引物及CDH1基因非甲基化特异性引物。结果甲基化组肿瘤直径为(6.5±2.1) cm,大于非甲基化组的(3.2±2.2) cm,甲基化组肿瘤浸润性所占比例54.7%,高于非甲基化组的42.9%,差异均有显著统计学意义(P<0.01);甲基化组肿瘤分化程度(高分化14.0%,中分化36.0%)低于非甲基化组(高分化40.8%,中分化45.9%%),差异有显著统计学意义(P<0.01);甲基化组淋巴转移率为67.4%、远处转移率为31.4%,高于非甲基化组的21.4%和17.3%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);甲基化组临床TNM分期更晚(甲基化组:Ⅰ期11.6%,Ⅱ期11.6%,Ⅲ期37.2%,Ⅳ期39.5%;非甲基化组:Ⅰ期27.6%,Ⅱ期32.7%,Ⅲ期20.4%,Ⅳ期19.4%),差异均有显著统计学意义(P<0.01);非甲基化组患者生存率(89.5%)高于甲基化组患者(68.7%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。Cox比例风险模型结果显示,腹腔灌洗液悬浮细胞CDH1基因甲基化是原发性结直肠癌患者术后预后生存率的独立危险因素(RR=28.5,P<0.01)。结论原发性结直肠癌患者腹腔灌洗液悬浮细胞CDH1基因甲基化程度提高,恶性程度高,预后差。%Objective To investigate the correlation between the abnormal methylation of 5'-CpG islands har-boring cadherin 1 (CDH1) gene promoter in and the development of clinical condition, pathological changes and postop-erative prognosis. Methods A total of 184 patients with colorectal

  10. The dynamics of mobile promoters: Enhanced stability in promoter regions. (United States)

    Rabbani, Mahnaz; Wahl, Lindi M


    Mobile promoters are emerging as a new class of mobile genetic elements, first identified by examining prokaryote genome sequences, and more recently confirmed by experimental observations in bacteria. Recent datasets have identified over 40,000 putative mobile promoters in sequenced prokaryote genomes, however only one-third of these are in regions of the genome directly upstream from coding sequences, that is, in promoter regions. The presence of many promoter sequences in non-promoter regions is unexplained. Here we develop a general mathematical model for the dynamics of mobile promoters, extending previous work to capture the dynamics both within and outside promoter regions. From this general model, we apply rigorous model selection techniques to identify which parameters are statistically justified in describing the available mobile promoter data, and find best-fit values of these parameters. Our results suggest that high rates of horizontal gene transfer maintain the population of mobile promoters in promoter regions, and that once established at these sites, mobile promoters are rarely lost, but are commonly copied to other genomic regions. In contrast, mobile promoter copies in non-promoter regions are more numerous and more volatile, experiencing substantially higher rates of duplication, loss and diversification.

  11. Association of CDH1 polymorphism with tumorigenesis and progression of colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma%CDH1基因多态与结直肠癌和肝癌发生、进展的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱忠政; 丛文铭; 王爱忠; 贾杭若; 金夏祥; 何向蕾; 朱冠山


    目的 探讨CDH1基因C-160A多态与结直肠癌(colorectal cancer,CRC)和肝细胞癌(hepatocellular carcinoma,HCC)发病风险和肿瘤分级分期的关系.方法 采用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)方法 检测374例CRC与324名对照以及180例HCC与209名对照的CDH1 C-160A基因型分布及差异.结果 CDH1 C-160A基因型分布在CRC-对照和HCC-对照人群间差异均无显著性(P>0.05).然而,高TNM分期(Ⅲ+Ⅳ)CRC组中A基因型(CA+AA)频率显著低于低TNM分期者(Ⅰ+Ⅱ)(P=0.008);淋巴结转移阳性CRC组中A基因型频率显著低于转移阴性者(P=0.016);远处转移阳性CRC组中A基因型频率也低于转移阴性者,但差异无统计学意义(P=0.169).高T分期(T2~T4)HCC组中A基因型频率低于T1期者,但差异未达到统计学意义(P=0.066).结论 CDH1 C-160A与CRC和HCC的发病风险无关,但-160A可能对CRC肿瘤进展具有保护作用.

  12. Study on the methylation status of CDH1 and PAX1 genes in human cervical carcinoma tissues%人宫颈癌组织CDH1和PAX1基因甲基化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐军; 王红琳; 陆杲川; 林晓


    目的:检测上皮型钙黏附素(E-cadherin,CDH1)基因和配对盒基因家族PAX1基因在宫颈癌组织及人乳头瘤病毒(human papillomavirus, HPV)感染的正常宫颈组织、宫颈炎组织、宫颈上皮内瘤样病变(cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN)Ⅰ组织、CIN Ⅱ~Ⅲ组织和宫颈癌组织中的甲基化情况,评估是否可将其作为临床诊断的分子标志物.方法:应用甲基化特异性聚合酶链反应法(methylation specific PCR, MSP)对HPV感染的正常宫颈组织、宫颈炎组织、CINⅠ组织、CIN Ⅱ~Ⅲ组织以及宫颈癌组织中的CDH1和PAX1基因进行甲基化检测.结果:HPV感染的正常宫颈组织、宫颈炎组织和CINⅠ组织中未检出CDH1基因甲基化;CINⅡ~Ⅲ组织中检出CDH1基因甲基化2例(13.3%),宫颈癌组织中检出CDH1基因甲基化9例(22.5%),与HPV感染的正常宫颈组织比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).HPV感染的正常宫颈组织和宫颈炎组织中未检出PAX1基因甲基化,CINⅠ、CINⅡ~Ⅲ和宫颈癌组织的PAX1基因甲基化阳性率分别为13.3%、46.7%和87.5%,CINⅡ~Ⅲ组织与CINⅠ和宫颈癌组织比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).CINⅠ组织、CINⅡ~Ⅲ组织和宫颈癌组织的CDH1和PAX1基因甲基化总阳性率分别为13.3%、60.0%和97.5%.结论:CDH1和PAX1基因甲基化,尤其是PAX1基因甲基化对于宫颈癌临床诊断具有潜在价值.

  13. Breast cancer risk in relation to TP53 codon 72 and CDH1 gene polymorphisms in the Bangladeshi women. (United States)

    Shabnaz, Samia; Ahmed, Maizbha Uddin; Islam, Md Siddiqul; Islam, Md Reazul; Al-Mamun, Mir Md Abdullah; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Hasnat, Abul


    Pharmacogenomic studies play a significant role in understanding the risk of breast cancer where genetic abnormalities are implicated as the etiology of cancer. Various polymorphisms of tumor suppressor gene TP53 and E-cadherin (CDH1) have been found to be associated with increased breast cancer risk worldwide. This study aimed to analyze the contribution of TP53 and CDH1 gene anomalies in breast cancer risk in the Bangladeshi breast cancer patients. For risk determination, 310 patients with breast cancer and 250 controls from Bangladeshi women were recruited who are matched up with age and use of contraceptives with patients. Genetic polymorphisms were detected by using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. A significant association was found between TP53Arg72Pro (rs1042522) and CDH1 -160 C/A (rs16260) polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. In case of P53rs1042522 polymorphism, Arg/Pro (P = 0.0053, odds ratio (OR) = 1.69) and Pro/Pro (P = 0.018, OR = 1.83) genotypes were associated with increased risk of breast cancer in comparison to the Arg/Arg genotype. Arg/Pro + Pro/Pro genotype and Pro allele also increased the risk of breast cancer (P = 0.002, OR = 1.73; P = 0.004, OR = 1.43, respectively). In case of CDH1rs16260 polymorphism, C/A heterozygote and combined C/A + A/A genotypes were found to be strongly associated (P = 0.005, OR = 1.67; P = 0.0037, OR = 1.68) with increased risk of breast cancer. The variant A allele also increased the breast cancer risk (P = 0.0058, OR = 1.52). The present study demonstrates that P53Arg72Pro and CDH1rs16260 polymorphisms are associated with elevated breast cancer risk in the Bangladeshi population.

  14. CDH1 (E-cadherin) in testicular germ cell neoplasia: suppressed translation of mRNA in pre-invasive carcinoma in situ but increased protein levels in advanced tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Nielsen, John E;


    E-cadherin (CDH1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein involved in cellular adhesion. In our recent microarray studies of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) and the common precursor carcinoma in situ (CIS), CDH1 mRNA was highly expressed in CIS and embryonal carcinoma. It has previously been reported...... that the CDH1 protein is not expressed in CIS. To resolve the discrepancy, we performed a detailed analysis of the expression of CDH1 mRNA and protein in a series of normal and neoplastic testes. High expression of CDH1 mRNA in CIS was confirmed by real-time PCR and in situ hybridisation. At the protein level......, however, CDH1 was only detected with one of three tested antibodies, but Western blotting analysis with this antibody showed additional bands, suggesting unspecific staining. The levels of a CDH1 protein fragment in serum samples from 58 patients with TGCTs were analysed by ELISA; we found significantly...

  15. Association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CDH1 with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in a northern Chinese Han population (United States)

    Song, Hongquan; Wang, Xiaotong; Yan, Jiaqun; Mi, Na; Jiao, Xiaohui; Hao, Yanru; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yuwei


    Abstract Background: Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is a common congenital malformation among live births, and depends on race and ethnic background. The CDH1 gene plays a vital role in orofacial development. Our research was conducted to examine the association between 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the CDH1 gene and NSCL/P. Methods: Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs16260, rs9929218, and rs1801552) of the CDH1 gene were genotyped using the Snapshot mini-sequencing technique in 331 patients with NSCL/P and 271 controls from the northern Chinese Han population. Results: The investigation indicated that presence of the CDH1 rs1801552 TT genotype under the assumption of a recessive model is related to the decreased risk for NSCL/P (odds ratio 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.34–0.81, P = 0.003). The results were still significant after the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. However, nonsignificant differences in rs16260 and rs9929218 were found between cases and controls. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that the CDH1 polymorphisms were significantly associated with the risk of NSCL/P in the northern Chinese Han population. We provide further evidence regarding the role of CDH1 variations in the development of NSCL/P in a northern Chinese Han population. PMID:28151848

  16. CDH1基因-160C/A基因多态性与鼻咽癌发病风险的研究%The Susceptibility of Nasopharyngeal Cancer and CDH1 Gene-160-C/A Gene Polymorphism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹小量; 朱胜华; 杨枝芳; 莫侨


    目的 本研究探讨CDH1基因-160C/A多态性在湖南汉族鼻咽癌人群中的分布及其与汉族鼻咽癌发病风险的相关性.方法 应用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)对280例湖南籍汉族鼻咽癌患者和291例湖南籍汉族非肿瘤对照组进行CDH1基因-160C/A SNP检测.比较基因型分布和发病风险的关系.结果 CDH1基因-160C/A多态的CC、CA、AA基因型在病例组中的分布频率分别为156(55.7%),103(36.8%),21(7.5%);在对照组的分布频率分别为178(61.2%),102(35.0%),11(3.8%);(χ2=0.597,P=0.440),符合Hardy-Weinberg平衡(P>0.05);两组间分布的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).AA基因型显著性地提高鼻咽癌的发病危险(OR=2.96;95%CI:1.12~4.81);携带A等位基因与鼻咽癌患者发生淋巴结转移有关联性(OR=3.07;95%CI:1.88~5.02).结论 CDH1基因-160C/A多态性可能与汉族鼻咽癌发病的遗传易感性及鼻咽癌患者发生淋巴结转移密切相关.

  17. 原发性肝癌患者CDH1基因启动子甲基化检测的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝盛; 张道广; 张铭琏; 戴显伟; 于黎黎


    目的探讨原发性肝癌(PHC)患者CDH1基因启动子甲基化的情况,观察它们与临床病理特征之间的关系.方法 100例PHC患者根据肿瘤有无包膜、肿瘤直径、HBsAg是否表达阳性、分化情况、有无肝内转移及分期情况分组.并选择20例健康成年人作正常对照组.分别检测组和健康组血液中的CDH1基因启动子甲基化的情况,并对手术病人检测肝样本中的CDH1基因启动子甲基化的情况.同时检测PHC组肝样本中的CDH1蛋白表达情况.结果 PHC组CDH1基因启动子甲基化比率高于健康组;血样和肝样中的CDH1基因启动子甲基化与有无包膜、肿瘤直径、HBsAg是否表达阳性、分化情况、有无肝内转移及分期等密切相关;CDH1基因启动子高甲基化的CDH1蛋白表达减少.结论 PHC的转移、增殖可能与CDH1基因启动子甲基化有关,对术后患者定期检测CDH1基因启动子甲基化情况可以判断预后.

  18. Rab7 Regulates CDH1 Endocytosis, Circular Dorsal Ruffles Genesis, and Thyroglobulin Internalization in a Thyroid Cell Line. (United States)

    Mascia, Anna; Gentile, Flaviana; Izzo, Antonella; Mollo, Nunzia; De Luca, Maria; Bucci, Cecilia; Nitsch, Lucio; Calì, Gaetano


    Rab7 regulates the biogenesis of late endosomes, lysosomes, and autophagosomes. It has been proposed that a functional and physical interaction exists between Rab7 and Rac1 GTPases in CDH1 endocytosis and ruffled border formation. In FRT cells over-expressing Rab7, increased expression and activity of Rac1 was observed, whereas a reduction of Rab7 expression by RNAi resulted in reduced Rac1 activity, as measured by PAK1 phosphorylation. We found that CDH1 endocytosis was extremely reduced only in Rab7 over-expressing cells but was unchanged in Rab7 silenced cells. In Rab7 under or over-expressing cells, Rab7 and LC3B-II co-localized and co-localization in large circular structures occurred only in Rab7 over-expressing cells. These large circular structures occurred in about 10% of the cell population; some of them (61%) showed co-localization of Rab7 with cortactin and f-actin and were identified as circular dorsal ruffles (CDRs), the others as mature autophagosomes. We propose that the over-expression of Rab7 is sufficient to induce CDRs. Furthermore, in FRT cells, we found that the expression of the insoluble/active form of Rab7, rather than Rab5, or Rab8, was inducible by cAMP and that cAMP-stimulated FRT cells showed increased PAK1 phosphorylation and were no longer able to endocytose CDH1. Finally, we demonstrated that Rab7 over-expressing cells are able to endocytose exogenous thyroglobulin via pinocytosis/CDRs more efficiently than control cells. We propose that the major thyroglobulin endocytosis described in thyroid autonomous adenomas due to Rab7 increased expression, occurs via CDRs. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1695-1708, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Notch3 overexpression causes arrest of cell cycle progression by inducing Cdh1 expression in human breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Fa; Dou, Xiao-Wei; Liang, Yuan-Ke; Lin, Hao-Yu; Bai, Jing-Wen; Zhang, Xi-Xun; Wei, Xiao-Long; Li, Yao-Chen; Zhang, Guo-Jun


    Uncontrolled cell proliferation, genomic instability and cancer are closely related to the abnormal activation of the cell cycle. Therefore, blocking the cell cycle of cancer cells has become one of the key goals for treating malignancies. Unfortunately, the factors affecting cell cycle progression remain largely unknown. In this study, we have explored the effects of Notch3 on the cell cycle in breast cancer cell lines by 3 methods: overexpressing the intra-cellular domain of Notch3 (N3ICD), knocking-down Notch3 by RNA interference, and using X-ray radiation exposure. The results revealed that overexpression of Notch3 arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase, and inhibited the proliferation and colony-formation rate in the breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, overexpressing N3ICD upregulated Cdh1 expression and resulted in p27(Kip) accumulation by accelerating Skp2 degradation. Conversely, silencing of Notch3 in the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, caused a decrease in expression levels of Cdh1 and p27(Kip) at both the protein and mRNA levels, while the expression of Skp2 only increased at the protein level. Correspondingly, there was an increase in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase and an elevated proliferative ability and colony-formation rate, which may be caused by alterations of the Cdh1/Skp2/p27 axis. These results were also supported by exposing MDA-MB-231 cells or MCF-7 treated with siN3 to X-irradiation at various doses. Overall, our data showed that overexpression of N3ICD upregulated the expression of Cdh1 and caused p27(Kip) accumulation by accelerating Skp2 degradation, which in turn led to cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, in the context of proliferating breast cancer cell lines. These findings help to illuminate the precision therapy targeted to cell cycle progression, required for cancer treatment.

  20. 突变型Cdh1基因真核表达质粒的构建及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立; 石小云; 张登文; 张传汉; 姚文龙



  1. 单发及双原发癌食管鳞癌CDH1基因甲基化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永丽; 张立玮; 丁国瑾


    目的:研究单发及双原发癌食管鳞癌组织CDH1基因甲基化变化特征及其与性别、年龄、烟酒史和肿瘤家族史的关系.方法:应用甲基化特异性PCR法,检测62例单发食管鳞癌(esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,ESCC)、18例双原发癌食管鳞癌患者癌及癌旁组织CDH1基因甲基化的表达.结果:单发及双原发癌食管鳞癌.CDH1基因甲基化阳性率在癌组织中为51.6%和66.7%,癌旁组织为22.6%和22.2%,正常组织为0%.癌与癌旁组织相比差异均有统计学意义(均P0.05).单发和双原发癌食管鳞癌组织CDH1基因甲基化阳性率比较无统计学差异(P>0.05).CDH1基因甲基化与性别、年龄、烟酒史及上消化道肿瘤家族史均无关.结论:CDH1基因甲基化在单发及双原发癌食管鳞癌中是一常见的表观遗传学事件;CDH1基因甲基化可能是一个独立的危险因素.

  2. Clinical Relevance of CDH1 and CDH13 DNA-Methylation in Serum of Cervical Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther K. Bonn


    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the DNA-methylation status of E-cadherin (CDH1 and H-cadherin (CDH13 in serum samples of cervical cancer patients and control patients with no malignant diseases and to evaluate the clinical utility of these markers. DNA-methylation status of CDH1 and CDH13 was analyzed by means of MethyLight-technology in serum samples from 49 cervical cancer patients and 40 patients with diseases other than cancer. To compare this methylation analysis with another technique, we analyzed the samples with a denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC PCR-method. The specificity and sensitivity of CDH1 DNA-methylation measured by MethyLight was 75% and 55%, and for CDH13 DNA-methylation 95% and 10%. We identified a specificity of 92.5% and a sensitivity of only 27% for the CDH1 DHPLC-PCR analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that serum CDH1 methylation-positive patients had a 7.8-fold risk for death (95% CI: 2.2–27.7; p = 0.001 and a 92.8-fold risk for relapse (95% CI: 3.9–2207.1; p = 0.005. We concluded that the serological detection of CDH1 and CDH13 DNA-hypermethylation is not an ideal diagnostic tool due to low diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. However, it was validated that CDH1 methylation analysis in serum samples may be of potential use as a prognostic marker for cervical cancer patients.

  3. Timely Degradation of Wip1 Phosphatase by APC/C Activator Protein Cdh1 is Necessary for Normal Mitotic Progression. (United States)

    Jeong, Ho-Chang; Gil, Na-Yeon; Lee, Ho-Soo; Cho, Seung-Ju; Kim, Kyungtae; Chun, Kwang-Hoon; Cho, Hyeseong; Cha, Hyuk-Jin


    Wip1 belongs to the protein phosphatase C (PP2C) family, of which expression is up-regulated by a number of external stresses, and serves as a stress modulator in normal physiological conditions. When overexpressed, premature dephosphorylation of stress-mediators by Wip1 results in abrogation of tumor surveillance, thus Wip1 acts as an oncogene. Previously, the functional regulation of Wip1 in cell-cycle progression by counteracting cellular G1 and G2/M checkpoint activity in response to DNA damage was reported. However, other than in stress conditions, the function and regulatory mechanism of Wip1 has not been fully determined. Herein, we demonstrated that protein regulation of Wip1 occurs in a cell cycle-dependent manner, which is directly governed by APC/C(Cdh1) at the end of mitosis. In particular, we also showed evidence that Wip1 phosphatase activity is closely associated with its own protein stability, suggesting that reduced phosphatase activity of Wip1 during mitosis could trigger its degradation. Furthermore, to verify the physiological role of its phosphatase activity during mitosis, we established doxycycline-inducible cell models, including a Wip1 wild type (WT) and phosphatase dead mutant (Wip1 DA). When ectopically expressing Wip1 WT, we observed a delay in the transition from metaphase to anaphase. In conclusion, these studies show that mitotic degradation of Wip1 by APC/C(Cdh1) is important for normal mitotic progression.

  4. Comments on a meta-analysis and systematic review of the clinicopathological significance of CDH1 in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu C


    Full Text Available Chao Tu, Lianwen Yuan, Jianping Zhou Department of Geriatric Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, People’s Republic of ChinaWith great interest, we read an article entitled “The clinicopathological significance of CDH1 in gastric cancer: a meta-analysis and systematic review” by Zeng et al,1 which was published in Drug Design, Development and Therapy in April 2015. In this meta-analysis, the investigators systematically reviewed the studies on correlation between CDH1 hypermethylation and gastric cancer (GC, and concluded that CDH1 hypermethylation levels in GC and adjacent gastric mucosa are both significantly higher when compared with normal gastric mucosa. Meanwhile, CDH1 hypermethylation is found markedly correlated with Helicobacter pylori status. Taken together, CDH1 hypermethylation is positively associated with overall GC risk and the H. pylori-positive GC risk.1 It is a valuable study. Nevertheless, there are several queries that we would like to communicate with the authors.View original article by Zeng et al.

  5. Nuclear translocation of Acinetobacter baumannii transposase induces DNA methylation of CpG regions in the promoters of E-cadherin gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chan Moon

    Full Text Available Nuclear targeting of bacterial proteins has emerged as a pathogenic mechanism whereby bacterial proteins induce host cell pathology. In this study, we examined nuclear targeting of Acinetobacter baumannii transposase (Tnp and subsequent epigenetic changes in host cells. Tnp of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 possesses nuclear localization signals (NLSs, (225RKRKRK(230. Transient expression of A. baumannii Tnp fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP resulted in the nuclear localization of these proteins in COS-7 cells, whereas the truncated Tnp without NLSs fused with GFP were exclusively localized in the cytoplasm. A. baumannii Tnp was found in outer membrane vesicles, which delivered this protein to the nucleus of host cells. Nuclear expression of A. baumannii Tnp fused with GFP in A549 cells induced DNA methylation of CpG regions in the promoters of E-cadherin (CDH1 gene, whereas the cytoplasmic localization of the truncated Tnp without NLSs fused with GFP did not induce DNA methylation. DNA methylation in the promoters of E-cadherin gene induced by nuclear targeting of A. baumannii Tnp resulted in down-regulation of gene expression. In conclusion, our data show that nuclear traffic of A. baumannii Tnp induces DNA methylation of CpG regions in the promoters of E-cadherin gene, which subsequently down-regulates gene expression. This study provides a new insight into the epigenetic control of host genes by bacterial proteins.

  6. Construction of CDH1 small interfering RNA enkaryotic vector ha rat immortalized neural progenitor cell and screening of the effective target site%大鼠永生化神经前体细胞CDH1小干扰RNA真核载体的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚文龙; 张传汉; 柳璐; 祝畅; 邱瑾; 桂伶俐; 田玉科


    Objective To construct CDHI small interfering RNA eukaryofic vector in rat immortalized neural progenitor cell (INPC) and screen the effective target site. Methods Three hands of interfering sequences and one control sequence for CDHI small hairpin RNA were designed based on CDO1 coding sequence. Following the instructions on pENTR/H1/TO vector, the oligonuclcotides were synthesized, annealed and ligated into linearized pENTR/HI/TO vector, respectively. After confirmation by DNA sequencing, positive recombinant plasmids(CDO1 siRNAt, CDH1 siRNKz , CDH1 siRNA3 and CDH1 siRNA,)were transfected into INPCs respectively by the lipesome method. The pEGFP plasmid was transfected to evaluate the efficiency of transfection. Forty eight hours after transfection, total cellular RNA was extracted and the expression of CDH1 was analyzed by BT-PCR. Results The three eukaryotic vectors for CDHI siRNA and one control vector were successfully constructed and identified with DNA sequencing. The efficiency of cell transfection was (54 :t: 5) % at 24 h after transfection, (36 + 4) % at 48 h after transfection. The expression of CDH1 mRNA in INPC trandected with CDHI siRNA2 was lower than that of CDHI mRNA in INPC transfected with CDH1 siRNA~, and both the expression was lower than that of CDHI mRNA in INPC transfected with CDH1 siRNAs at 48 h after tmnsfectlon. Conclusion The effective small interfering RNA eukaryotic vector for CDH1 in INPC was successfully constructed and screened.%目的 构建大鼠永生化神经前体细胞(INPC)CDH1小干扰RNA(siRNA)真核载体.方法 根据大鼠CDH1基因的编码序列设计3个小发夹RNA(shRNA)干扰序列及1个阴性对照序列,根据pENTR/H1/TO中间载体说明书设计并合成相应的DNA单链,退火后分别连接到pENTR/H1/TO线性载体上,形成完整载体,提取CDH1 siRNA真核载体后(分别为CDH1 siRNA1、CDH1 siRNA2、CDH1siRNA3和CDH1 siRNA对照),进行DNA测序鉴定.采用Lipofectamine 2000法,分别将成功构建的CDH

  7. Regulative mechanism of PI3K/Akt signal pathway on Skp2 via Cdh1 in non-small cell lung cancer%非小细胞肺癌中PI3K/Akt信号通路通过Cdh1调控Skp2表达的机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀华; 张洪开; 李玉; 于爱鸣


    Objective To investigate the regulative mechanism of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway on S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) via Cdc20 homolog 1 ( Cdh1 ) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods NSCLC cell lines A549, LK2 and H460 were cultured in vitro and treated with LY294002 to block the PI3K/Akt pathway. Western blot method was used to detect the expression of Skp2, Cdh1 and p-Akt proteins. Immunofluorescence (IF) analysis was used to examine the localization of Cdh1 in NSCLC. Results Compared with control cells, the protein expression of Skp2 and p-Akt decreased ( P < 0.01 ). IF result showed a redistribution of Cdh1 to the nucleus. Conclusion The inhibitor of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway LY294002 down-regulated the expression of Skp2, which might correlated with the nuclear localization of Cdh1.%目的 探讨非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)中Cdc20同源蛋白1(Cdh1)参与磷脂酰肌醇三羟基激酶(PI3K)/Akt信号通路对S期激酶相关蛋白2(Skp2)表达调控的机制.方法 体外培养NSCLC细胞系A549、LK2和H460,LY294002特异性阻断PI3K/Akt信号通路后,Western blot 检测Skp2、Cdh1及p-Akt蛋白表达的变化,免疫荧光(IF)检测Cdh1在NSCLC中的定位变化.结果 LY294002处理后,与对照组相比3种细胞中Skp2蛋白表达和Akt磷酸化水平均降低(P<0.01),Cdh1在3种细胞的核内表达均增多.结论 NSCLC中PI3K/Akt 信号通路抑制剂LY294002使Skp2蛋白表达下调与Cdh1由细胞质向细胞核转位有关.

  8. The expression and clinical significance of E-cadherin and CDH1 gene in renal cell carcinoma%E-钙黏附蛋白及CDH1 基因在肾细胞癌组织中的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白鑫; 高健刚; 侯四川; 孙小庆; 朱磊一


    目的 探讨肾细胞癌(RCC)组织及癌旁组织中E-钙黏附蛋白及E-钙粘连素(CDH1)基因的表达与RCC发病机制间的相关性.方法 RCC患者36例(RCC组),男24例,女12例;分别取血液和肾癌组织标本.对照组36例为非肿瘤患者,男30例,女6例,取血液标本.癌旁组织标本为对照组,ELISA方法测定血浆中CDH1定量,免疫组化方法检测肾癌组织及癌旁组织CDH1的表达情况.竞争性PCR方法半定量分析组织中CDH1表达.分析RCC临床特点与CDH1表达的关系.结果 RCC组血浆中CDH1(4.3±1.8)ng/ml较对照组(6.8±3.1)ng/ml低(P<0.05).免疫组化显示肾癌组织中CDH1表达阳性率为36.1%(13/36),癌旁组织中的表达阳性率为69.4%(25/36),肾癌组织与癌旁组织中CDH1表达比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).肾癌组织CDH1总RNA和mRNA水平与癌旁组织比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 CDH1基因表达下调可能在肾透明细胞癌的发生中发挥重要作用.

  9. CDH1基因在SD大鼠舌黏膜癌变过程中甲基化和突变的研究%Study on the Methylation and Mutation of CDH1 in the Process of SD Rats Tongue Carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君莲; 张绪; 毛亮; 谭红; 廖鹏程; 聂敏海


    目的:通过甲基化和外显子突变研究探索CDH1基因在舌鳞状细胞癌发生过程中的作用.方法:采用质量分数为0.004%的4-硝基喹啉-1-氧化物(4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide,4NQO)饮水饲养90只无特定病原体(specific pathogen free,SPF)SD大鼠以诱发舌黏膜癌变全过程,分别于第10、14、18、22、24周分批处死大鼠,取舌黏膜组织行病理分级,并提取基因组DNA.利用甲基化特异性PCR(methylation-specific PCR,MS-PCR)检测CDH1启动子甲基化水平;利用聚合酶链式反应(polymerase chain reaction,PCR)扩增CDH1外显子1-16,提纯后测序以检测突变.结果:病变各阶段均未检测出CDH1启动子甲基化产物,CDH1 mRNA第2106位发生碱基G→T错义突变.结论:4NQO饮水诱导SD大鼠舌黏膜癌变的发生、发展可能与CDH1外显子突变有关而与CDH1启动子甲基化无关.

  10. 肝内胆管癌中上皮-钙黏附素基因CDH1的甲基化研究%CDH1 methylation of E-cadherin gene in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas: correlation between clinicopathologic parameters and patients' survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟博; 鄢和新; 刘淑琴; 陈磊; 吴孟超; 王红阳



  11. Cloning and Analysis of Sheep cdhl Gene%绵羊cdh1基因cDNA全编码区的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡甜园; 白音巴图; 罗奋华; 吴应积



  12. CtIP is regulated by the APC/C-Cdh1 to mediate cell cycle-dependent control of DNA repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Harmen R.; Lafranchi, Lorenzo; Neugebauer, Christine; Fehrmann, Rudolf; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Sartori, Alessandro A.; van Vugt, Marcel


    Human cells have evolved elaborate mechanisms for responding to DNA damage to maintain genome stability and prevent carcinogenesis. For instance, the cell cycle can be arrested at different stages to allow time for DNA repair. The APC/C-Cdh1 ubiquitin ligase regulates mitotic exit but is also implic

  13. DNA-PKcs Negatively Regulates Cyclin B1 Protein Stability through Facilitating Its Ubiquitination Mediated by Cdh1-APC/C Pathway. (United States)

    Shang, Zeng-Fu; Tan, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Yu, Lan; Li, Bing; Li, Ming; Song, Man; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Bei-Bei; Zhong, Cai-Gao; Guan, Hua; Zhou, Ping-Kun


    The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is a critical component of the non-homologous end-joining pathway of DNA double-stranded break repair. DNA-PKcs has also been shown recently functioning in mitotic regulation. Here, we report that DNA-PKcs negatively regulates the stability of Cyclin B1 protein through facilitating its ubiquitination mediated by Cdh1 / E 3 ubiquitin ligase APC/C pathway. Loss of DNA-PKcs causes abnormal accumulation of Cyclin B1 protein. Cyclin B1 degradation is delayed in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells as result of attenuated ubiquitination. The impact of DNA-PKcs on Cyclin B1 stability relies on its kinase activity. Our study further reveals that DNA-PKcs interacts with APC/C core component APC2 and its co-activator Cdh1. The destruction of Cdh1 is accelerated in the absence of DNA-PKcs. Moreover, overexpression of exogenous Cdh1 can reverse the increase of Cyclin B1 protein in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells. Thus, DNA-PKcs, in addition to its direct role in DNA damage repair, functions in mitotic progression at least partially through regulating the stability of Cyclin B1 protein.

  14. The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome supports cell survival in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meifan Chen

    Full Text Available The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C is a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase that regulates exit from mitosis and G1 phase of the cell cycle. Although the regulation and function of APC/C(Cdh1 in the unperturbed cell cycle is well studied, little is known of its role in non-genotoxic stress responses. Here, we demonstrate the role of APC/C(Cdh1 (APC/C activated by Cdh1 protein in cellular protection from endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Activation of APC/C(Cdh1 under ER stress conditions is evidenced by Cdh1-dependent degradation of its substrates. Importantly, the activity of APC/C(Cdh1 maintains the ER stress checkpoint, as depletion of Cdh1 by RNAi impairs cell cycle arrest and accelerates cell death following ER stress. Our findings identify APC/C(Cdh1 as a regulator of cell cycle checkpoint and cell survival in response to proteotoxic insults.

  15. 原代缺氧缺糖损伤神经元模型Cdh1及其下游底物的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱巍; 邱瑾; 祁月红; 姚文龙; 张雪; 张传汉


    背景:课题组前期实验已证实Cdh1在大鼠海马、皮质均有大量表达,且体外实验发现神经元中Cdh1表达高于神经干细胞,可能与神经干细胞向神经元分化有关。但细胞周期末期促进复合物调节亚基 Cdh1在缺血性神经元损伤中的作用,尚不明确。 目的:体外构建原代缺氧缺糖损伤神经元模型,观察Cdh1及其下游底物表达变化。 方法:取出生24 h内乳鼠大脑皮质,体外培养原代神经元并通过免疫荧光染色进行鉴定。使用无糖Earle’s 液替代细胞培养液,利用三气培养箱充以氮气建立原代神经元缺氧缺糖模型,缺氧处理1h后复氧。于缺氧前、缺氧缺糖损伤后6 h、1 d,3 d,7 d采用实时荧光定量PCR检测神经元Cdh1及其下游底物Skp2、Cyclin B1的表达。 结果与结论:体外缺氧缺糖损伤后,原代神经元Cdh1及其下游底物Cyclin B1表达上调(P〈0.05),Skp2表达均下调(P 〈0.05)。提示,体外缺氧缺糖损伤后神经元Cdh1表达升高,可能通过泛素化降解Skp2参与缺氧性神经元凋亡等病理过程。

  16. Controlling the response to DNA damage by the APC/C-Cdh1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, H Rudolf; Guerrero Llobet, S; van Vugt, Marcel A T M


    Proper cell cycle progression is safeguarded by the oscillating activities of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. An important player in the regulation of mitotic cyclins is the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase. Prior to entry into mitosis, the

  17. Lack of Association between the CDH1 -160C>A Polymorphism and Risk of Gastrointestinal Cancer - a Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Sahami-Fard, Mohammad Hossein; Yazd, Ehsan Farashahi; Khazaei, Zahra; Neamatzadeh, Hossein


    E-cadherin (CDH1) genetic variations alter gene transcriptional activity of epithelial cells in vitro and may cause susceptibility to various cancers. Associations of CDH1 -160C>A polymorphism with various cancers have been widely reported. However, the results are controversial and inconsistent. To derive a more accurate estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed with regard to gastrointestinal (GI) cancer risk. Eligible studies were identified through a search of PubMed database until December 2015. Associations between the CDH1 -160C>A polymorphism and GI cancer risk was considered by odds ratios (ORs) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 31 studies including 11,606 cases and 12,655 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Overall, this meta-analysis showed no association between CDH1 -160C>A polymorphism and GI cancer risk (A vs. C: OR = 1.08, 95%CI = 0.98-1.18, P = 0.086;CA vs. CC: OR = 1.09, 95%CI = 0.97- 1.22, P = 0.118; AA vs. CC: OR = 1.10, 95%CI = 0.89-1.35, P = 0.356; AA vs. CC + CA: OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.96-1.18, P = 0.207; CA+AA vs. CC: OR = 1.01, 95%CI = 0.84-1.22, P = 0.89). In subgroup analysis, similar results were found. In conclusion, this meta-analysis has demonstrated that there is a lack of association of the CDH1-160C>A polymorphism with GI cancer susceptibility.

  18. Frequency of CDH1 germline mutations in gastric carcinoma coming from high- and low-risk areas: metanalysis and systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corso Giovanni


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequency of E-cadherin germline mutations in countries with different incidence rates for gastric carcinoma has not been well established. The goal of this study was to assess the worldwide frequency of CDH1 germline mutations in gastric cancers coming from low- and high-risk areas. Methods English articles using MEDLINE access (from 1998 to 2011. Search terms included CDH1, E-cadherin, germline mutation, gastric cancer, hereditary, familial and diffuse histotype. The study included all E-cadherin germline mutations identified in gastric cancer patients; somatic mutations and germline mutations reported in other tumors were excluded. The method of this study was scheduled in accordance with the "PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses". Countries were classified as low- or middle/high risk-areas for gastric carcinoma incidence. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate the CDH1 mutation frequency with gastric cancer incidence areas. Results A total of 122 E-cadherin germline mutations have been identified; the majority (87.5% occurred in gastric cancers coming from low-risk areas. In high-risk areas, we identified 16 mutations in which missense mutations were predominant. (68.8%. We verified a significant association between the mutation frequency and the gastric cancer risk area (p Conclusions E-cadherin genetic screenings performed in low-risk areas for gastric cancer identified a higher frequency of CDH1 germline mutations. This data could open new approaches in the gastric cancer prevention test; before proposing a proband candidate for the CDH1 genetic screening, geographic variability, alongside the family history should be considered.

  19. TGF-β activates APC through Cdh1 binding for Cks1 and Skp2 proteasomal destruction stabilizing p27kip1 for normal endometrial growth. (United States)

    Pavlides, Savvas C; Lecanda, Jon; Daubriac, Julien; Pandya, Unnati M; Gama, Patricia; Blank, Stephanie; Mittal, Khushbakhat; Shukla, Pratibha; Gold, Leslie I


    We previously reported that aberrant TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling in endometrial cancer (ECA) leads to continuous ubiquitylation of p27(kip1)(p27) by the E3 ligase SCF-Skp2/Cks1 causing its degradation, as a putative mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of this cancer. In contrast, normal intact TGF-β signaling prevents degradation of nuclear p27 by SCF-Skp2/Cks1 thereby accumulating p27 to block Cdk2 for growth arrest. Here we show that in ECA cell lines and normal primary endometrial epithelial cells, TGF-β increases Cdh1 and its binding to APC/C to form the E3 ligase complex that ubiquitylates Cks1 and Skp2 prompting their proteasomal degradation and thus, leaving p27 intact. Knocking-down Cdh1 in ECA cell lines increased Skp2/Cks1 E3 ligase activity, completely diminished nuclear and cytoplasmic p27, and obviated TGF-β-mediated inhibition of proliferation. Protein synthesis was not required for TGF-β-induced increase in nuclear p27 and decrease in Cks1 and Skp2. Moreover, half-lives of Cks1 and Skp2 were extended in the Cdh1-depleted cells. These results suggest that the levels of p27, Skp2 and Cks1 are strongly or solely regulated by proteasomal degradation. Finally, an inverse relationship of low p27 and high Cks1 in the nucleus was shown in patients in normal proliferative endometrium and grade I-III ECAs whereas differentiated secretory endometrium showed the reverse. These studies implicate Cdh1 as the master regulator of TGF-β-induced preservation of p27 tumor suppressor activity. Thus, Cdh1 is a potential therapeutic target for ECA and other human cancers showing an inverse relationship between Cks1/Skp2 and p27 and/or dysregulated TGF-β signaling.

  20. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference inhibits Cdh1 expression in recovery of spinal cord injury in rats%慢病毒介导RNA干扰Cdh1的表达对大鼠脊髓损伤的修复作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁月红; 钱巍; 李平; 姚文龙; 万里; 张传汉


    AIM: To investigate the expression of Cdh1 in the sensorimotor cortical of rats after spinal cord injury and to study the repairing effect of silencing the expression of Cdh1 by lentivirusmediated RNAi. METHODS: Fifteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group and operation group. The injury models in the operation group were made with Allen method(T10-T11) and the expression of Cdh1 in the sensorimotor cortical was examined by quantitive real-time PCR. Another 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into group A, group B and group C. At 7 d after surgery, the rats of the 3 groups received injection respectively of normal saline, lentivirus vector and recombinant lentivirus. The behavior was evaluated with BassoBeattie-Bresnahan(BBB) every week. Ten days after injection, the expression of Cdh1 was examined by quantitive real-time PCR. Six weeks after injury, the animals received injection of BDA-TR and at 8 weeks, fresh frozen sections were prepared from the spinal cord tissue. RESULTS: The expression of Cdh1 mRNA in operation group was significantly higher than that in normal group (P<0.05). The expression of Cdh1 mRNA in group C was lower than that in group A or group B 10 d after injection(P<0.05). Six weeks after injury, the BBB assessment in group C was higher than that in group A or group B (P<0.05) and more nerve fibers were observed extending past the lesion in group C. CONCLUSION: APC-Cdh1 may play an important role in inhibiting the axonal growth.%目的:观察大鼠脊髓损伤后皮层体感运动区Cdh1mRNA的表达变化,探讨慢病毒介导RNA干扰Cdh1的表达对脊髓损伤修复的作用.方法:15只雄性SD大鼠随机分成对照组和手术组,手术组采用Allen氏法建立脊髓打击损伤模型(T10~T11).荧光定量PCR检测脊髓损伤后大鼠体感运动皮层区Cdh1 mRNA表达变化.30只雄性sD大鼠随机分为A组、B组和C组,建模1 wk时分别注射生理盐水、空慢病毒和重组慢病

  1. 复发转移性乳腺癌患者外周血BRCA1、CDH1、DKK1和SFRP1甲基化检测意义的研究%Detection of BRCA1,CDH1,DKK1 and SFRP1 methylation in peripheral blood cells of patients with Metastatic breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢元丽; 梁旭; 林晓琳; 贾军; 袁艳华; 任军


    目的 探讨BRCA1、CDH1、DKK1和SFRP1基因甲基化与乳腺癌患者肿瘤激素受体状态、复发转移的关系.方法 利用甲基化特异性PCR法(MSP)检测115例复发转移乳腺癌患者外周血BRCA1、CDH1、DKK1和SFRP1的甲基化情况,与65例健康对照组进行比较.结果 BRCA1、CDH1和SFRP1的甲基化状态在复发转移乳腺癌患者与对照组之间存在差异.ER阳性患者外周血CDH1甲基化阳性率27.5%,ER阴性患者47.8%.ER阳性患者外周血SFRP1甲基化阳性率52.2%,ER阴性患者23.8%.有远处转移者CDH1甲基化阳性率为30.2%,而仅有局部复发转移者为63.2%.结论 复发转移乳腺癌患者外周血BRCA1、CDH1和SFRP1甲基化率显著增加,CDH1和SFRP1甲基化与激素受体状态明显相关,为病情评估、治疗及愈后分析提供了一定的参考.%Objective  To investigate the relationship of BRCA 1 ,CDH1 ,DKK1 and SFRP1 gene methylation with ER status ,relapse and metastasis in patients of Metastatic breast cancer.Methods  Explore the methylation status of four genes BRCA 1 ,CDH 1 ,DKK 1 and SFR P1 in 115 metastasis breast cancer patients' peripheral blood.65 patients with healthy controls with comparison.Results  Percent of BRCA 1.CD H 1 and SFRP1 methylation in patients are significantly higher compared to healthy controls.About27.5% of patients with ER positive tumor were CDH1 methylated in peripheral blood cells ,while 47.8% with ER negative tumor were methylated.In contrast ,ER positive patients had a higher rate of SFRP1 methylation compared to ER negative patients.CDH1 methylation was negatively related to distant metastasis.Conclusion  The four candidate genes methylation in PBC were strongly associated with clinical progress for breast cancer patients.CDH1 and SFRP1 methylation were significantly related with ER status.They provide certain reference for disease assessment ,treatment and prognostic analysis.

  2. 上皮性卵巢癌中CDH1基因突变/甲基化对上皮型钙黏附素表达的影响%Effects of CDH1 gene mutation/methylation on expression of E-cadherin in the epithelial ovarian carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜伶俐; 辛晓燕; 周洁晶; 李红梅; 于月成


    目的 研究上皮性卵巢癌组织中CDH1基因突变和甲基化改变情况,分析对上皮型钙黏附素(E-cadherin)表达的影响.方法 应用色谱分析-测序和甲基化特异的聚合酶链反应(methylation specific PCR,MSP)的方法分析80例七皮性卵巢癌组织和38例正常卵巢组织的CDH1基因突变和启动子区甲基化情况.采用免疫组织化学方法检测上述标本中E-cadherin表达的情况,并分析CDH1基因突变和启动子区甲基化情况对E-cadherin蛋白表达的影响.结果 80例卵巢癌组织中仅1例检测到外显子7错义突变;34例检出CDH1基因启动子区甲基化,有淋巴结转移组中甲基化频率明显高于无淋巴结转移组(74.3%vs17.8%,P<0.05);38例正常卵巢组织中未检测到CDH1突变和甲基化.卵巢癌组织中有CDH1基因启动子甲基化者E-cadherin表达明显低于无甲基化者(P<0.05).结论 CDH1基因突变在上皮性卵巢癌少见,CDH1基因启动子区甲基化可能是导致E-cadherin蛋白表达减低的主要因为.

  3. 慢病毒过表达Cdh1蛋白对星形胶质细胞反应性增殖作用的初步研究%Over expression of Cdh1 protein by lentivirus and the preliminary study of the effect on reactive astrocyte proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱瑾; 姚文龙; 张玥; 邹妲婧; 石小云; 李大佳; 张传汉


    Objective To explore the effect of Cdhl lentivirus on reactive astrocytes. Methods Rat astrocytes was cultured and purified in vitro,then randomly divided into Cdhl lentivirus group and control lentivirus group. The expression of green fluorescent protein was observed by fluorescence microscope, and Cdhl and Skp2 protein expression were detected by Western blot. Astrocytes were randomly divided into oxygen-glucose deprivation and recovery group, Cdhl lentivirus group and control lentivirus group, after 1 h of oxygen-glucose deprivation and recovery for 48h, the proliferation of cell was detected by CCK-8. Results Compared with control lentivirus group,the expression of Cdhl was increased,and Skp2 was decreased (P 0.05). Conclusion Cdhl lentivirus has inhibitory action on reactive astrocyte proliferation.%目的 探讨慢病毒过表达Cdh1蛋白对星形胶质细胞反应性增殖的影响.方法 体外纯化培养大鼠星形胶质细胞:(1)随机分为Cdh1慢病毒组及空病毒组,荧光显微镜观察绿色荧光蛋白的表达,Western blot检测Cdh1及Skp2蛋白表达的变化;(2)随机分为单纯氧糖剥夺/复氧组、Cdh1慢病毒干预组、空病毒干预组,氧糖剥夺1h复氧48h后,CCK-8法检测细胞增殖的变化.结果 与空病毒组相比,Cdh1慢病毒组Cdh1蛋白表达总量增加,Skp2蛋白表达下降(P<0.05);与单纯氧糖剥夺/复氧组相比,Cdh1慢病毒干预组细胞反应性增殖受到抑制(P<0.05),空病毒组没有变化(P>0.05).结论 慢病毒过表达Cdh1蛋白对氧糖剥夺再复氧后星形胶质细胞的反应性增殖有一定的抑制作用.

  4. APC/C(Cdh1-mediated degradation of the F-box protein NIPA is regulated by its association with Skp1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine von Klitzing

    Full Text Available NIPA (Nuclear Interaction Partner of Alk kinase is an F-box like protein that targets nuclear Cyclin B1 for degradation. Integrity and therefore activity of the SCF(NIPA E3 ligase is regulated by cell-cycle-dependent phosphorylation of NIPA, restricting substrate ubiquitination to interphase. Here we show that phosphorylated NIPA is degraded in late mitosis in an APC/C(Cdh1-dependent manner. Binding of the unphosphorylated form of NIPA to Skp1 interferes with binding to the APC/C-adaptor protein Cdh1 and therefore protects unphosphorylated NIPA from degradation in interphase. Our data thus define a novel mode of regulating APC/C-mediated ubiquitination.

  5. 5-氮杂-2'-脱氧胞苷对Hela细胞增殖及CDH1、HPV18E6mRNA表达的影响%Effect of 5-Aza-CdR on cell growth and mRNA expressions of CDH1 and HPV18E6 in Hela cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林颖; 陶光实


    目的:探讨DNA去甲基化试剂5-氮杂-2'-脱氧胞苷(5-Aza-CdR)对宫颈癌Hela细胞株增殖及抑癌基因CDH1和HPV18E6 mRNA的表达水平的影响.方法:不同浓度5-Aza-CdR干预Hela细胞株24h以后,四唑氮蓝法(MTT)检测其对Hela细胞增殖的影响,半定量RT-PCR检测CDH1及HPV18E6 mRNA表达的改变.结果:与对照组(DMSO)相比,5-Aza-CdR能显著抑制Hela细胞增值,且呈量-效性.5-Aza-CdR能显著抑制Hela细胞CDH1 mRNA的表达水平(P<0.05),而对HPV18E6 mRNA表达水平无明显影响(P>0.05).结论:5-Aza-CdR能抑制Hela细胞增殖,其作用可能是通过上调宫颈癌抑癌基因CDH1的表达实现,有望为宫颈癌的治疗提供新的治疗思路.%Objective To investigate the effect of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) on cell growth and mRNA expressions of HPV E6 and CDH1 in cervical cancer Hela cells. Methods The cell proliferative vitality of Hela cells was estimated by methabenzthiazuron (MTT) assay after Hela cells were cultured and treated by 5-Aza-CdR with 5,10,20|xmol/L concentrations for 24 hours respectively. The mRNA expression of CDH1 and HPV18E6 in Hela cells after treated by 5-Aza-CdR with different dosage were examined by Semi- quantitative PT-PCR. Results As compared with that in the control group, 5-Aza-CdR could significantly inhibit the growth, CDH1 mRNA level of Hela cells in dosage-dependent manner (P0.05). Conclusion 5-Aza-CdR could effectively inhibit the proliferation of Hela cells in dosage-dependent by up-regulating the CDHlmRNA expression, which would be a novel strategy to improve effects of cervical cancer.

  6. The Differential Expression of Cadherin 1 (CDH1) in the Growth Plate of Tibial Dyschondroplasia in Broiler Chickens at the Early Stage%肉鸡胫骨软骨发育不良早期钙黏蛋白1(CDH1)差异表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田文霞; 郭定宗; 李家奎; 王瑞; 覃平; 宁官保; 乔建钢; 李宏全; 毕丁仁; 潘思轶


    The aim of this study was to explore the differential expression of cadherin 1 (CDH1) in the growth plate of broiler chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia CTD) induced by thiram at the early stage. Chickens were dissected and growth plates were fixed in 4% paraform respectively in 4 ℃ at days 1, 2 and 6. RNA was extracted from the growth plates of control and thiram-fed chickens. Then differential expression of CDH1 was identified by real-time PCR and immunohis-tology. The results showed that expression of CDHl was up-regulated on the growth plate of thi-ram-diet fed group. CDHl protein synthesis mainly lied in cytoplasm of the prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocyte in control or TD growth plates. No expression was discovered at prolif- erative zone and low expression was detected at calcification zone. Remarkably increased CDH1 was detected in TD growth plates at days 1, 2 and 6 after feeding thiram diet, which mirrored with their mRNA differential expression, and highly increased CDH1 staining was clearly seen at days 2 and 6 respectively. It was suggested that CDH1 was associated with cell adhesion, blood vessel invasion and it also regulated Wnt/p-cat signal transmission with other regulator among en-dochondral bone formation.%为研究福美双诱发肉鸡胫骨软骨发育不良(Tibial Dyschondroplasia,TD)早期钙黏蛋白1(CDH1)的差异表达,基础日粮中添加福美双,在试验第1、2、6天,对试验鸡进行剖杀,迅速采取胫骨生长板故入4%多聚甲醛溶液于4℃固定,做CDH1免疫组化分析;提取对照组和饲喂福美双组的生长板总RNA,采用Real-time PCR对CDH1 基因进行差异表达验证.结果钙黏蛋白1 (CDH1/E-cadherin)基因在TD生长板表达上调,在对照和TD软骨生长板,其蛋白合成主要在前肥大、肥大区软骨细胞质,增殖区软骨细胞无表达,钙化区软骨细胞表达少,在饲喂福美双第1、2、6天其表达增加与定量PCR变化结果相

  7. 焦磷酸测序技术对前列腺癌GSTP1、CDH1、p16基因甲基化的检测研究%Pyrosequencing detection of aberrant methylation of GSTP1, CDH1 and p16 genes in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童强; 邱军; 姚立欣; 黄金明; 刘军; 孙嵘; 徐丹枫; 李丁


    目的 建立前列腺癌的焦磷酸测序技术为基础DNA甲基化的定量分析方法,并比较良性前列腺增生和前列腺癌组织中GSTP1、CDH1和p16基因DNA甲基化差异,为临床早期诊断前列腺癌奠定基础.方法 取前列腺癌组织和良性前列腺增生组织石蜡切片标本,使用焦磷酸测序仪定量检测GSTP1、CDH1和p16基因启动子甲基化状态.结果 前列腺癌组织与良性前列腺增生组织比较GSTP1基因超甲基化率为56%(14/25),CDH1基因超甲基化率为32% (8/25),p16基因超甲基化率为20% (5/25).其中GSTP1、CDH1基因有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 GSTP1、CDH1基因在前列腺癌组织中甲基化程度可作为前列腺癌早期诊断的标志物,焦磷酸测序实时定量检测DNA甲基化技术是快速、灵敏、高通量的检测方法.

  8. Deregulation between miR-29b/c and DNMT3A is associated with epigenetic silencing of the CDH1 gene, affecting cell migration and invasion in gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Cui

    Full Text Available The de-regulation of the miR-29 family and DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A is associated with gastric cancer (GC. While increasing evidence indicates miR-29b/c could regulate DNA methylation by targeting DNMT3A, it is currently unknown if epigenetic silencing of miR-29b/c via promoter hypermethylation in GC is caused by abnormal expression of DNMT3A. Thus, we aimed to evaluate whether cross-talk regulation exists between miR-29b/c and DNMT3A and whether it is associated with a malignant phenotype in GC. First, wound healing and Transwell assays revealed that miR-29b/c suppresses tumor metastasis in GC. A luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that DNMT3A is a direct target of miR-29b/c. We used bisulfite genomic sequencing to analyze the DNA methylation status of miR-29b/c. The percentage of methylated CpGs was significantly decreased in DNMT3A-depleted cells compared to the controls. Furthermore, the involvement of DNMT3A in promoting GC cell migration was associated with the promoter methylation-mediated repression of CDH1. In 50 paired clinical GC tissue specimens, decreased miR-29b/c was significantly correlated with the degree of differentiation and invasion of the cells and was negatively correlated with DNMT3A expression. Together, our preliminary results suggest that the following process may be involved in GC tumorigenesis. miR-29b/c suppresses the downstream gene DNMT3A, and in turn, miR-29b/c is suppressed by DNMT3A in a DNA methylation-dependent manner. The de-regulation of both of miR-29b/c and DNMT3A leads to the epigenetic silencing of CDH1 and contributes to the metastasis phenotype in GC. This finding reveals that DNA methylation-associated silencing of miR-29b/c is critical for GC development and thus may be a therapeutic target.

  9. The expression and significance of hypermethylation of p16 and CDH1 in cervical tissue%p16和CDH1基因异常甲基化在宫颈组织中的表达及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐军; 林晓; 王红琳; 王治洁; 陆杲川; 周红卫


    目的:分析宫颈癌和宫颈上皮内瘤样病变(cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,CIN)组织中p16和CDH1基因异常甲基化的变化,评价该指标在宫颈癌中的意义.方法:用甲基化特异性聚合酶链反应法(methylation-specific PCR,MSP)检测CINⅠ 40例、CINⅡ~Ⅲ 40例、宫颈癌40例组织中p16和CDH1基因的异常甲基化.取正常宫颈组织20例作为对照.结果:(1)p16和CDH1甲基化在正常组未见表达;(2)p16、CDH1甲基化阳性率:CINⅡ、Ⅲ组明显高于CINⅠ组,差异有统计学意义(22.4% vs 2.5%,P<0.05 ;35.0% vs 5.0%,P<0.05),宫颈癌组高于CINⅡ、Ⅲ组,但差异无统计学意义(40.0% vs 22.4%,P>0.05;57.5% vs 35.0%,P>0.05);宫颈癌组高于相应CINⅠ组,差异有统计学意义(40.0% vs 2.5%,P<0.05 ;57.5% vs 5.0%, P<0.05);(3)p16和CDH1甲基化总阳性率(任何一个基因出现甲基化即为阳性):CINⅡ、Ⅲ组明显高于CINⅠ组,差异有统计学意义(40.0% vs 5.0%,P<0.05),宫颈癌组高于CINⅡ、Ⅲ组,差异有统计学意义(70.0% vs 40.0%,P<0.05).结论:p16和CDH1基因启动子区异常甲基化与宫颈癌的生物学行为相关,它可能有助于宫颈癌的早期辅助诊断和治疗.

  10. CDH1基因-160C/A基因多态性与鼻咽癌发病风险的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹小量; 朱胜华; 杨枝芳; 莫侨


    目的 本研究探讨CDH1基因-160C/A多态性在湖南汉族鼻咽癌人群中的分布及其与汉族鼻咽癌发病风险的相关性.方法 应用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)对280例湖南籍汉族鼻咽癌患者和291例湖南籍汉族非肿瘤对照组进行CDH1基因-160C/A SNP检测.比较基因型分布和发病风险的关系.结果 CDH1基因-160C/A多态的CC、CA、AA基因型在病例组中的分布频率分别为156(55.7%),103(36.8%),21(7.5%);在对照组的分布频率分别为178(61.2%),102(35.0%),11(3.8%);(χ2=0.597,P=0.440),符合Hardy-Weinberg平衡(P>0.05);两组间分布的差异无统计学意义(P〉0.05).AA基因型显著性地提高鼻咽癌的发病危险(OR=2.96;95%CI:1.12~4.81);携带A等位基因与鼻咽癌患者发生淋巴结转移有关联性(OR=3.07;95%CI:1.88~5.02).结论 CDH1基因-160C/A多态性可能与汉族鼻咽癌发病的遗传易感性及鼻咽癌患者发生淋巴结转移密切相关.

  11. Effects of chloroprocaine on the methylation status and the expression of CDH1,APC and P16 genes in human cervical cancer cells in vitro%氯普鲁卡因诱导体外人宫颈癌细胞抑癌基因CDH1、APC和P16启动子去甲基化及基因表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋银宏; 何苗; 符策岗; 龙春燕; 汪磊; 王想; 吴林蓉


    Objective To investigate the effects of chloroprocaine (CP) on the methylation status and the expression of CDH1, APC and P16 genes in human cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and CaSki. Methods HeLa, CaSki and the normal human cell HUVEC cultured in vitro were exposed to different concentrations (0, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 and 4 mmol/L) CP. The growth inhibition of the three cell lines treated at 48, 72 and 96 h were studied by MTT assay. The three cell lines were all treated by the certain concentration CP which inhibited the growth of HeLa and CaSki significantly but not affect the growth of HUVEC apparently. The methylation status and the expression of CDH1, APC and P16 genes in the three cell lines were analyzed by methylated specific-PCR (MSP) and RT-PCR, respectively. Results After being treated by 1. 5 mmol/L CP for 96 h, the inhibition rates of HeLa and CaSki were 66. 17% ±5. 82% and 69. 12% ±6. 89% , which were significantly higher than that of HUVEC, 21. 78% ± 3. 12%. CDH1, APC and P16 genes were all demethylated at different levels and mRNA expression of the three genes were recovered or increased in HeLa and CaSki cells after treated by 1. 5 mmol/L CP for 96 h. Conclusions CP may inhibit the growth of HeLa and CaSki cells, meanwhile, it could demethylate CDH1, APC and P16 genes and recover or increase the genes' expression in the two cervical cancer cells.%目的 观察氯普鲁卡因(CP)对人宫颈癌细胞HeLa和CaSki的抑癌基因CDH1、APC及P16启动子甲基化水平和基因表达的影响.方法 用不同终浓度的CP(0、1、1.5、2、3和4 mmol/L)处理癌细胞系HeLa和CaSki及正常人脐静脉内皮细胞HUVEC,MTT法检测细胞生长抑制率;用甲基化特异性PCR(MSP)和RT-PCR检测1.5 mmol/LCP处理后各细胞CDH1、APC及P16启动子甲基化状态及基因表达水平.结果 1.5 mmol/L CP作用96 h后,HeLa和CaSki抑制率分别为66.17%±5.82%和69.12%±6.89%,显著高于HUVEC的21.78%±3.12%,1.5 mmol

  12. 慢病毒介导的Cdh1-siRNA在大鼠全脑缺血再灌注损伤后的表达及功能%Expression and function of lentivirus-mediated Cdh1-siRNA in global brain ischemia-reperfusion damage of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志则; 祁月红; 张雪; 姚文龙; 张传汉


    目的:探讨慢病毒介导RNA干扰Cdh1的表达对全脑缺血再灌注损伤的影响.方法:将150只雄性SD大鼠随机分成生理盐水组(A组)、空慢病毒组(B组)和重组慢病毒组(C组)各50只.分别给予3组大鼠注射生理盐水、空慢病毒和重组慢病毒,注射3d后采用改良4-VO法建立SD大鼠全脑缺血再灌注损伤模型,采用荧光定量PCR检测大鼠海马组织Cdh1 mRNA表达,Western blot检测Cyclin B的变化,TUNEL法检测海马CA1区凋亡细胞指数(AI).于全脑缺血再灌注术后第7天行Morris水迷宫测试认知功能的变化.结果:C组Cdh1 mRNA表达明显低于A、B组(P<0.05);AI值及Cyclin B表达均明显高于A、B组(P<0.05);水迷宫测试结果显示,术后第9~11天各时间点C组的寻台潜伏期明显长于A、B组(P<0.05).结论:细胞周期末期分裂促进复合物及其调节亚基Cdh1可能通过Cyclin B堆积介导缺血性神经元的凋亡.%Objective:To investigate the expression and function of Cdh1-siRNA in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury of rats.Methods:All 150 male Sprague-Dawlcy rats were randomly divided into normal saline group (group A,n=50),lentivirus vector group (group B,n 50) and recombinant lentivirus group (group C,n=50).The rats in 3 groups were injected with normal saline,lentivirus vector and recombinant lentivirus respectively.At the 3rd day after injection,cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury model of rat was established by modified four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) method.The expression of Cdh1 mRNA and Cyclin B was detected by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting.Apoptosis index (AI) was examined by using TUNEL staining method and the behavior was evaluated with Morris water maze test at the 7th day.Results:The expression of Cdh1 mRNA in group C was significantly lower than that in groups A and B (P<0.05),but that of Cyclin B and the levels of AI in group C were significantly higher than those in groups A and B (P<0.05).In addition

  13. Association of -160(C→A) polymorphism in CDH1 gene with gastric cancer risk in Fujian Chinese population%CDH1基因-160(C→A) 多态与福建地区中国人群胃癌遗传易感性的关联研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋传贵; 黄昌明; 刘星; 卢辉山; 张祥福; 黄薇


    目的上皮钙黏着蛋白(E-cadherin)的编码基因CDH1是重要的肿瘤抑制基因,本研究探讨CDH1基因-160(C→A)多态性在福建地区胃癌人群中的分布及其与福建地区胃癌发病风险的相关性. 方法采用聚合酶链反应-变性高效液相色谱分析方法对102例胃癌患者和101名正常对照者进行CDH1基因-160(C→A)多态的基因型分析,比较基因型分布和发病风险的关系;危险度OR及95%CI应用非条件Logistic回归分析计算.结果CDH1基因-160(C→A)多态的CC、CA、AA基因型在病例组中的分布频率分别为58(56.9%),38(37.3%),6(5.9%);在对照组的分布频率分别为55(54.5%),41(40.6%),5(5%);两组间分布的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).AA基因型没有显著性地提高或降低胃癌的发病危险(OR=1.12;95%CI:0.32~3.95);携带A等位基因与胃癌的临床病理特征也无关联性.结论CDH1基因-160(C→A)多态性可能与福建地区中国人群胃癌发生的遗传易感性无关.

  14. Expression Studies of Rice APC/C Co-activator CDH1 Homologue OsCCS52B during Cell Cycle%水稻APC/C辅激活子CDH1同源基因OsCCS52B的表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周维; 王军卫; 楼辰军; 赵继新; 周雷; KRISHNA Jagadish; JOHN Bennett; 李自超


    Through Blast research,OsCCS52B gene of the rice was identified as one of the CDH1 homologue.CDH1 is synonymously called the cell-cycle-switch (CCS52) in the plant.The deduced amino acid sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that OsCCS52B is the homologue of CDH1.RNA in situ hybridization showed that the expression of rice CDH1 homologue,OsCCS52B oscillates during meiosis.The oscillation of OsCCS52B matches the CDKA activity in meiosis,as CDKA is one of the targets of APC/CCDH1 an essential component in DNA replication.Therefore,we have proposed that OsCCS52B is involved in the control of chromosome replication during M-M(mitosis-mitosis) transition in rice.RNA in situ hybridization showed that OsCCS52B is highly expressed in the 2-day-old root tip.The result of this study suggests that OsCCS52B is also involved in the endoreduplication.%利用同源克隆的方法得到水稻的泛素连接酶APC/C辅助激活子CDH1的同源基因 OsCCS52B.通过蛋白质序列分析发现OsCCS52B 和苜蓿及拟南芥中的AtCCS52B(细胞周期转换开关基因)基因同源性最高;RNA原位杂交实验研究发现,OsCCS52B基因在减数分裂期间的表达存在一个高-低-高的波动变化.由于OsCCS52B表达变动的这个模式和减数分裂M-M(细胞分裂-细胞分裂)的转化过程中对受CDH1调控的细胞周期激酶CDKA活性的要求相一致,所以推测水稻的OsCCS52B基因参与了水稻减数分裂M-M转换期间对染色体复制的调控.同时,RNA原位杂交实验显示,OsCCS52B在核内复制旺盛的组织如根尖分生组织和穗下节的分生区和伸长区表达强烈,证明OsCCS52B可能参与了水稻的核内复制.

  15. Mechanosensitive promoter region in the human HB-GAM gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liedert, Astrid; Kassem, Moustapha; Claes, Lutz;


    expression through specific transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region of mechanosensitive genes. In the present study, we demonstrate that the expression of HB-GAM, which is known to have stimulating effects on osteogenic differentiation, is rapidly induced by mechanical loading in hMSC-TERT4...... cells. Analysis of the human HB-GAM gene upstream regulatory region with luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that the upregulation of HB-GAM expression occurred at the transcriptional level and was mainly dependent on the HB-GAM promoter region most upstream containing three potential AP-1 binding...

  16. Characterization of the promoter region of the mouse Xist gene. (United States)

    Pillet, N; Bonny, C; Schorderet, D F


    The mouse Xist gene is expressed exclusively from the inactive X chromosome and may be implicated in initiating X inactivation. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the control of Xist expression, we investigated the upstream regulatory region of the mouse Xist promoter. A 1.2-kb upstream region of the Xist gene was sequenced and promoter activity was studied by chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assays after transfection in murine XX and XY cell lines. The region analyzed (-1157 to +917 showed no in vitro sex-specific promoter activity. However, a minimal constitutional promoter was assigned to a region from -81 to +1, and a cis element from -41 to -15 regulates promoter activity. We showed that a nuclear factor binds to an element located at -30 to -25 (TTAAAG). A second sequence at -41 to -15 does not act as an enhancer and is unable to confer transcriptional activity to the Xist gene on its own. A third region from -82 to -41 is needed for correct expression. Deletion of the segment -441 to -231 is associated with an increase in CAT activity and may represent a silencer element. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8618932

  17. 脊髓损伤后大鼠Cdhl mRNA表达的变化%Changes of expression of Cdh1 mRNA in injured myeloid tissue after spinal cord injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平; 姚文龙; 钱巍; 张传汉


    目的:探讨大鼠脊髓损伤(SCI)后损伤区脊髓组织Cdh1 mRNA的表达变化.方法:32只雄性SD大鼠随机分成对照组(C组)、SCI组(M组),每组16只.M组采用改良Allen打击法建立SCI模型;C组行假手术,仅暴露脊髓.术后第1、3、5、7天对大鼠后肢运动功能采用Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan(BBB)评分进行评估;取损伤节段脊髓,提取组织总RNA,采用实时荧光定量PCR检测损伤区脊髓组织Cdh1 mRNA 的表达.结果:术后各时点M组BBB评分均低于C组(P<0.05).术后各时点C组Cdhl mRNA表达比较,差异无显著性意义,M组Cdhl mRNA表达逐渐降低(P<0.05).与C组相比,M组术后第1天Cdh1 mRNA的表达增加(P<0.05),术后第5、7天Cdhl mRNA的表达减少.结论:大鼠SCI后损伤区脊髓组织Cdh1 mRNA表达降低,提示APC-Cdh1可能参与SCI后的病理生理过程.

  18. Engineering of core promoter regions enables the construction of constitutive and inducible promoters in Halomonas sp. (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Li, Teng; Ji, Weiyue; Wang, Qiuyue; Zhang, Haoqian; Chen, Guo-Qiang; Lou, Chunbo; Ouyang, Qi


    Halomonas strain TD01, a newly identified halophilic bacterium, has proven to be a promising low-cost host for the production of chemicals. However, genetic manipulation in Halomonas sp. is still difficult due to the lack of well-characterized and tunable expression systems. In this study, a systematic, efficient method was exploited to construct both a constitutive promoter library and inducible promoters. Porin, a highly expressed protein in Halomonas TD01, was first identified from the Halomonas TD01 proteome. Subsequent study of the intergenic region upstream of porin led to the identification of a core promoter region, including -10 and -35 elements. By randomizing the sequence between the -35 and -10 elements, a constitutive promoter library was obtained with 310-fold variation in transcriptional activity; an inducible promoter with a >200-fold induction was built by integrating a lac operator into the core promoter region. As two complementary expression systems, the constitutive and inducible promoters were then employed to regulate the biosynthetic pathway of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in Halomonas TD01, demonstrating the usefulness of the expression systems, furthermore, they could be applied in future metabolic engineering of Halomonas TD strains, and the systematic method used in this study can be generalized to other less-characterized bacterial strains.

  19. Effect of Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation on Expression of Cdh1 in Astrocytes and Mechanism%氧糖剥夺对体外培养大鼠星形胶质细胞内Cdh1蛋白表达的影响及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱瑾; 姚文龙; 张玥; 邹姮婧; 燕琳; 张传汉


    目的 探讨氧糖剥夺对星形胶质细胞内Cdh1蛋白表达的影响及其机制.方法 ①体外纯化培养大鼠大脑皮层星形胶质细胞,随机分为对照组、氧糖剥夺1 h复氧组、氧糖剥夺6 h复氧组,Western blot检测Cdh1及Skp2蛋白的表达变化;②将体外纯化培养的星形胶质细胞随机分为对照组、氧糖剥夺6 h组、单纯缺氧6 h组,Western blot检测Cdh1蛋白的表达变化,血糖仪检测培养液中葡萄糖含量的变化.结果 ①与对照组相比,氧糖剥夺1 h复氧组、氧糖剥夺6 h复氧组Cdh1蛋白表达均下降,Skp2蛋白表达均增加(P<0.05),氧糖剥夺1 h复氧组与氧糖剥夺6 h复氧组组间Cdh1、Skp2蛋白表达差异无统计学意义;②与对照组相比,氧糖剥夺6 h组Cdh1蛋白表达明显下降,单纯缺氧6 h组没有明显变化,氧糖剥夺6 h组与单纯缺氧6 h组组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);③单纯缺氧6 h组细胞外液葡萄糖摄取率低于对照组(即常氧组)[(21.43±6.74)% vs.(26.98±9.21)%,P<0.05].结论 氧糖剥夺后星形胶质细胞内Cdh1蛋白表达减少,其变化与细胞外液中缺少葡萄糖有关.%Objective To explore the influence of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) on Cdhl protein expression in vilro cultured astrocytes and the mechanism. Methods The cerebral cortex astrocytes of rats were purified and cultured in vitro , and randomly divided into the control group, OGD 1 h and recoveryCOGD 1 h/R) group, OGD 6 h and recovery (OGD 6 h/R) group. The expression of Cdhl and Skp2 proteins was detected by using Western blot. Astrocytes were randomized into control group,OGD 6 h group and hypoxia 6 h group, and the expression of Cdhl protein was detected by using Western blot. Blood glucose meter was used to test glucose change. Results CD As compared with control group,the expression of Cdhl in OGD 1 h/R group and OGD 6 h/R group was decreased and the expression of Skp2 was increasedCP^O. 05) ,but there was no statistically

  20. Structural properties of prokaryotic promoter regions correlate with functional features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Meysman

    Full Text Available The structural properties of the DNA molecule are known to play a critical role in transcription. In this paper, the structural profiles of promoter regions were studied within the context of their diversity and their function for eleven prokaryotic species; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas auroginosa, Geobacter sulfurreducens Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Synechocystis sp., Synechoccocus elongates, Bacillus anthracis, and the archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus. The main anchor point for these promoter regions were transcription start sites identified through high-throughput experiments or collected within large curated databases. Prokaryotic promoter regions were found to be less stable and less flexible than the genomic mean across all studied species. However, direct comparison between species revealed differences in their structural profiles that can not solely be explained by the difference in genomic GC content. In addition, comparison with functional data revealed that there are patterns in the promoter structural profiles that can be linked to specific functional loci, such as sigma factor regulation or transcription factor binding. Interestingly, a novel structural element clearly visible near the transcription start site was found in genes associated with essential cellular functions and growth in several species. Our analyses reveals the great diversity in promoter structural profiles both between and within prokaryotic species. We observed relationships between structural diversity and functional features that are interesting prospects for further research to yet uncharacterized functional loci defined by DNA structural properties.

  1. CDH1 polymorphism and its association with the risk of cervical cancer%E钙黏蛋白基因多态性与子宫颈癌易感性的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周荣秒; 王娜; 孙东兰; 段亚男; 李琰


    目的 探讨E钙黏蛋白(CDH1)基因3'-非翻译区终止密码子下游54 bp处C/T单核苷酸多态性(3'-UTR+54C/T SNP)与宫颈癌的易感性.方法 构建含CDH1基因3'-UTR+54C/TSNP DNA序列的荧光素酶表达载体,利用双荧光素酶报告基因检测系统观察CDH1基因3'-UTR+54C/T SNP转染后人胚肾细胞株293T细胞的荧光素酶活性(RLA);采用PCR-限制性片段长度多态性(RFLP)方法检测280例宫颈癌患者(病例组)和330例健康妇女(对照组)的CDH1基因3'-UTR+54C/T SNP的基因型及等位基因频率分布,进一步分析其与宫颈癌易感性的关系.结果 双荧光素酶报告基因检测系统观察显示,转染CDH1基因3'-非翻译区(3'-UTR)C等位基因后293T细胞的RLA平均为1.46,转染CDHl基因3'-UTR T等位基因后293T细胞的RLA平均为3.01,两者比较,差异有统计学意义(t=2.94,P=0.042).PCR-RFLP方法检测显示,CDH1基因3'-UTR C等位基因频率病例组为80.7%,明显高于对照组的74.5%(χ2=6.59,P=0.010).病例组T/T、T/C、C/C基因型频率分别为4.3%、30.0%、65.7%,对照组分别为5.8%、39.4%、54.8%,两组间比较.差异有统计学意义(χ2=7.45,P=0.024).与T/T或T/C基因型比较,携带C/C基因型者宫颈癌的发病风险明显增加(OR=1.578,95%CI=1.136~2.191).结论 CDH1基因3'-UTR C等位基因可能降低荧光素酶报告基因的表达;C/C基因型可能是宫颈癌发病的潜在危险因素.%Objective To investigate the effect of CDH1 3'-UTR + 54C/T single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) on expression of luciferase reporter gene and its association with susceptibility to cervical cancer. Methods The luciferase gene expression vectors containing CDH1 3'-UTR +54C/T SNP C or T allelotype were constructed. The effect of CDH1 3'-UTR + 54C/T SNP on expression of luciferase reporter gene in 293 T cells were tested by daul lucfferase reporter assay system. The CDH1 3'-UTR + 54C/ T SNP was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length

  2. Analysis of germline variants in CDH1, IGFBP3, MMP1, MMP3, STK15 and VEGF in familial and sporadic renal cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ricketts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The investigation of rare familial forms of kidney cancer has provided important insights into the biology of sporadic renal cell carcinoma (RCC. In particular, the identification of the von Hippel Lindau (VHL familial cancer syndrome gene (VHL provided the basis for the discovery that VHL is somatically inactivated in most sporadic clear cell RCC. Many cases of familial RCC do not have mutations in known RCC susceptibility genes and there is evidence that genetic modifiers may influence the risk of RCC in VHL disease patients. Hence we hypothesised that low-penetrance functional genetic variants in pathways related to the VHL protein (pVHL function might (a modify the phenotypic expression of VHL disease and/or (b predispose to sporadic RCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested this hypothesis for functional polymorphisms in CDH1 (rs16260, IGFBP3 (rs2854744, MMP1 (rs1799750, MMP3 (rs679620, STK15 (rs2273535 and VEGF (rs1570360. We observed that variants of MMP1 and MMP3 were significant modifiers of RCC risk (and risks of retinal angioma and cerebellar haemangioblastoma in VHL disease patients. In addition, higher frequencies of the MMP1 rs1799750 2G allele (p = 0.017, OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.06-2.08 and the MMP1/MMP3 rs1799750/rs679620 2G/G haplotype (OR 1.45, 95%CI 1.01-2.10 were detected in sporadic RCC patients than in controls (n = 295. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings (a represent the first example of genetic modifiers of RCC risk in VHL disease, (b replicate a previous report of an association between MMP1/MMP3 variants and sporadic RCC and (c further implicate MMP1/MMP3-related pathways in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic RCC.

  3. Identification of chromatin marks at TERRA promoter and encoding region. (United States)

    Negishi, Yutaka; Kawaji, Hideya; Minoda, Aki; Usui, Kengo


    TERRA is a long non-coding RNA that is essential for telomere integrity. Although it is transcribed from subtelomeres and telomeres, how it is expressed in heterochromatic region is currently unknown. In this study, we focused our analysis on TERRA-encoding region TelBam3.4 and TelBam3.4-like sequences, and determined their transcription start sites, as well as enrichment of RNA polymerase II and histone modifications. We found that H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 are present at TERRA promoters, whereas H3K27ac and H3K9me3 are present at telomeric repeats. Consistently, we show that presence of active histone modifications H3K4me3 and H3K27ac are correlated to TERRA expression. These results mark an important step towards understanding telomere maintenance and transcription.

  4. Deregulation of ARID1A, CDH1, cMET and PIK3CA and target-related microRNA expression in gastric cancer (United States)

    Ibarrola-Villava, Maider; Llorca-Cardeñosa, Marta J.; Tarazona, Noelia; Mongort, Cristina; Fleitas, Tania; Perez-Fidalgo, José Alejandro; Roselló, Susana; Navarro, Samuel; Ribas, Gloria; Cervantes, Andrés


    Genetic and epigenetic alterations play an important role in gastric cancer (GC) pathogenesis. Aberrations of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling pathway are well described. However, emerging genes have been described such as, the chromatin remodeling gene ARID1A. Our aim was to determine the expression levels of four GC-related genes, ARID1A, CDH1, cMET and PIK3CA, and 14 target-related microRNAs (miRNAs). We compared mRNA and miRNA expression levels among 66 gastric tumor and normal adjacent mucosa samples using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. Moreover, ARID1A, cMET and PIK3CA protein levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Finally, gene and miRNAs associations with clinical characteristics and outcome were also evaluated. An increased cMET and PIK3CA mRNA expression was found in 78.0% (P = 2.20 × 10−5) and 73.8% (P = 1.00 × 10−3) of the tumors, respectively. Moreover, IHC revealed that cMET and PIK3CA expression was positive in 63.6% and 87.8% of the tumors, respectively. Six miRNAs had significantly different expression between paired-samples, finding five up-regulated [miR-223-3p (P = 1.65 × 10−6), miR-19a-3p (P = 1.23 × 10−4), miR-128-3p (P = 3.49 × 10−4), miR-130b-3p (P = 1.00 × 10−3) and miR-34a-5p (P = 4.00 × 10−3)] and one down-regulated [miR-124-3p (P = 0.03)]. Our data suggest that cMET, PIK3CA and target-related miRNAs play an important role in GC and may serve as potential targets for therapy. PMID:26334097

  5. Promotion and regional development. Implementation of regional productive development agencies. The case of Maule region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Yamil Alul González


    Full Text Available The Regional Productive Development Agencies implemented in Chile in 2006, were developed as a way to answer the longing desire to territorially decentralize, and that the own Regions be whom define their future. The Agencies have the responsibility to develop innovation and productive development Agendas in participative processes, which means with public, academic and private actors. Also, the Agencies have the mission to implement Competitive Improvement Plans-PMC (clusters in prioritized economic sectors by the own region. These PMC are leaded by private actors in each sector.

  6. Hypermethylation of E-Cadherin and Estrogen Receptor-a Gene Promoter and Its Association with Clinicopathological Features of Breast Cancer in Iranian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rasti


    Full Text Available Background: Aberrant methylation of cytosine-guanine dinucleotideislands leads to inactivation of tumor suppressorgenes in breast cancer. Tumor suppressor genes are unmethylatedin normal tissue and often become hypermethylatedduring tumor formation, leading to gene silencing. We investigatedthe association between E-cadherin (CDH1 and estrogenreceptor-α (ESRα gene promoter methylation andmajor clinical and pathological features of breast cancer inIranian women.Methods: DNA was extracted from 67 primary breast tumorsand gene promoter methylation was analyzed by methylationspecificpolymerase chain reaction method.Results: Fifty percent of the samples showed aberrant methylationin at least one of the two tested loci. We detectedCDH1 hypermethylation in 41% of invasive tumors and receptor-α gene hypermethylation in 18% of invasive tumorsamples. We found no association between CDH1 and receptor-α gene hypermethylation (P=0.45. There was a correlationbetween hypermethylation of CDH1 locus and tumorsize ≥5 cm (P=0.019.Conclusion: Our data suggest that the malignant progressionof human ductal and lobular breast carcinoma in Iranianwomen involves a heterogeneous pattern of cytosine-guaninedinucleotide island hypermethylation of the CDH1 gene.

  7. 上皮型钙黏蛋白1及MutL同源基因1在甲状腺癌中的表达及意义%The Clinical Significance of CDH1 and MLH1 Expression in Thyroid Carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉涛; 王五俊; 张鹏


    目的:探讨上皮型钙黏蛋白1(CDH1)及MutL同源基因1(MLH1)在甲状腺癌中的表达及与临床病理特征的关系。方法:分析手术治疗且资料完整的61例甲状腺癌患者的临床资料,采用免疫组化法检测甲状腺癌组织及癌旁组织中CDH1及MLH1蛋白的表达情况,并与其临床病理学资料进行比较。结果:CDH1和MLH1在甲状腺癌组织、癌旁组织中的阳性率分别为40.98%(25/61),81.97(50/61)和54.10(33/61),86.89%(53/61),CDH1及MLH1在癌组织中的表达率均显著低于癌旁组织(P<0.05);甲状腺癌组织中CDH1的阳性表达与淋巴结转移及肿瘤分期有关(P<0.05),而MLH1的表达与淋巴结转移有关(P<0.05)。结论:CDH1和MLH1蛋白可能与甲状腺癌的发生发展有关,并可作为甲状腺癌淋巴结转移的标志物。%Objective To investigate the CDH1 and MLH1 expression in thyroid carcinoma and their asso⁃ciation with the clincial pathological characteristics. Methods Sixty-one thyroid carcinomas that received sur⁃ger with complete clinical data were included in this study. The cancer tissue (n=61) and para-cancer tissue were examined for CDH1 and MLH1 expression by immunohistochemical method. The correlation between CDH1 and MLH1 expression in thyroid carcinomas and clincial pathology characteristics were evaluated. Results The positive rate of CDH1 in cancer tissue and para-cancer tissue were 40.98%(25/61) and 81.97%(50/61). But for MLH1, 54.10%(33/61) in cancer tissues and 86.89%(53/61) in para-cancer tissues. CDH1 posi⁃tive expression in cancer tissue was correlated with lymph node metastasis (P0.05). Conclusion CDH1 and MLH1 protein may be related to the occurrence and development of thyroid carcinoma, which can be used as a marker of lymph node metastasis of thyroid carcinoma.

  8. 缺氧诱导因子-1α与上皮型钙黏蛋白在膀胱癌中的表达及相关性研究%Study of expression of HIF-1α and CDH1 in bladder transitional cell carcinoma and their correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保军; 张旭; 马金; 李宏召; 郑涛; 叶章群


    目的探讨缺氧诱导因子-1α(HIF-1α)、上皮型钙黏蛋白(CDH1)与膀胱移行细胞癌的发生、病理分级和临床分期之间的关系及两者在膀胱移行细胞癌表达的相关性.方法应用免疫组织化学(SP)的方法测定50例膀胱移行细胞癌和12例正常膀胱组织中的HIF-1α与CDH1的表达.结果HIF-1 α与膀胱移行细胞癌的发生、病理分化程度和临床分期之间之间明显相关(分别P<0.05、P<0.05、P<0.05),CDH1与膀胱移行细胞癌的发生、病理分化程度和浸润性之间明显相关(分别P<0.01、P<0.05、P<0.01),HIF-1 α与CDH1在膀胱移行细胞癌中的表达呈负相关(r=-0.600,P<0.01).结论HIF-1α与CDH1联合检测可能有助于判断预后,HIF-1α与膀胱移行细胞癌中CDH1的表达下降有关.

  9. Identification and annotation of promoter regions in microbial genome sequences on the basis of DNA stability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vetriselvi Rangannan; Manju Bansal


    Analysis of various predicted structural properties of promoter regions in prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic genomes had earlier indicated that they have several common features, such as lower stability, higher curvature and less bendability, when compared with their neighboring regions. Based on the difference in stability between neighboring upstream and downstream regions in the vicinity of experimentally determined transcription start sites, a promoter prediction algorithm has been developed to identify prokaryotic promoter sequences in whole genomes. The average free energy (E) over known promoter sequences and the difference (D) between E and the average free energy over the entire genome (G) are used to search for promoters in the genomic sequences. Using these cutoff values to predict promoter regions across entire Escherichia coli genome, we achieved a reliability of 70% when the predicted promoters were cross verified against the 960 transcription start sites (TSSs) listed in the Ecocyc database. Annotation of the whole E. coli genome for promoter region could be carried out with 49% accuracy. The method is quite general and it can be used to annotate the promoter regions of other prokaryotic genomes.

  10. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the porcine antiviral MX1 and MX2 genes. (United States)

    Tungtrakoolsub, P; Noda, T; Morozumi, T; Hamasima, N; Kobayashi, E; Ueda, J; Watanabe, T


    The porcine MX1 and MX2 promoters were characterized in this study. Sequencing of the 332-bp MX1 promoter region identified 15 substitutions and insertions at three positions in 21 pigs from 15 breeds, in which nine genotypes were classified. Among the nine genotypes, no statistically significant differences in the promoter activities were observed after interferon (IFN-alpha 2b) treatment of transiently transfected cells containing constructs with luciferase reporter plasmids. The 341-bp MX2 promoter region contained regulatory sequences for ISRE, GC box, Sp1 and AP-1, as well as a TATA box. Nucleotide sequences of the MX2 promoter region revealed four substitutions and one deletion, in which six genotypes were classified. Among the six genotypes, a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) in MX2 promoter activities after IFN-alpha 2b treatment was detected in transiently transfected cells.

  11. Isolation and functional characterization of a novel seed-specific promoter region from peanut. (United States)

    Sunkara, Sowmini; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Sharma, Kiran Kumar


    The importance of using tissue-specific promoters in the genetic transformation of plants has been emphasized increasingly. Here, we report the isolation of a novel seed-specific promoter region from peanut and its validation in Arabidopsis and tobacco seeds. The reported promoter region referred to as groundnut seed promoter (GSP) confers seed-specific expression in heterologous systems, which include putative promoter regions of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) gene 8A4R19G1. This region was isolated, sequenced, and characterized using gel shift assays. Tobacco transgenics obtained using binary vectors carrying uidA reporter gene driven by GSP and/or cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoters were confirmed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR), RT-PCR, and computational analysis of motifs which revealed the presence of TATA, CAAT boxes, and ATG signals. This seed-specific promoter region successfully targeted the reporter uidA gene to seed tissues in both Arabidopsis and tobacco model systems, where its expression was confirmed by histochemical analysis of the transgenic seeds. This promoter region is routinely being used in the genetic engineering studies in legumes aimed at targeting novel transgenes to the seeds, especially those involved in micronutrient enhancement, fungal resistance, and molecular pharming.

  12. Rb and FZR1/Cdh1 determine CDK4/6-cyclin D requirement in C. elegans and human cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    The, Inge; Ruijtenberg, Suzan; Bouchet, Benjamin P; Cristobal Gonzalez de Durana, Alba; Prinsen, Martine B W; van Mourik, Tim; Koreth, John; Xu, Huihong; Heck, Albert J R; Akhmanova, Anna; Cuppen, Edwin; Boxem, Mike; Munoz Murillo, Ara; van den Heuvel, Sander


    Cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) in complex with D-type cyclins promote cell cycle entry. Most human cancers contain overactive CDK4/6-cyclin D, and CDK4/6-specific inhibitors are promising anti-cancer therapeutics. Here, we investigate the critical functions of CDK4/6-cyclin D kinases, sta

  13. Identification of the transcriptional promoters in the proximal regions of human microRNA genes. (United States)

    Long, Yue-Sheng; Deng, Guang-Fei; Sun, Xun-Sha; Yi, Yong-Hong; Su, Tao; Zhao, Qi-Hua; Liao, Wei-Ping


    To identify the transcriptional promoters in the proximal regions of human microRNA (miRNA) genes, we analyzed the 5' flanking regions of intergenic miRNAs and intronic miRNAs. With the TSSG program prediction, we found that the ratio of intronic-s miRNA genes with a least one promoter was significantly lower than those of intergenic miRNA genes and intronic-a miRNA genes. More than half of the miRNA genes have only one promoter and less than 20% of the miRNA genes have more than three promoters in the 5-kb upstream regions. All potential promoters are randomly distributed within these regions. Approximately 60% of the miRNA promoters have a TATA-like box, being significantly higher than that of all human promoters. Luciferase reporter assays showed that 22 of the 30 promoters drove gene expression in HEK-293 cells, indicating a high accuracy of the promoter prediction. This study lays a foundation for future investigation into the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of human miRNA genes.

  14. Potential transcriptional regulatory regions exist upstream of the human ezrin gene promoter in esophageal carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuying Gao; Yanpeng Dai; Meijun Yin; Jing Ye; Gang Li; Jie Yu


    We previously demonstrated that the region -87/+ 134 of the human ezrin gene (VIL2) exhibited promoter activity in human esophageal carcinoma EC109 cells, and a further upstream region -1324/-890 positively regulated transcription.In this study, to identify the transcriptional regulatory regions upstream of the VIL2 promoter, we cloned VIL2 - 1541/- 706 segment containing the -1324/-890, and investigated its transcriptional regulatory properties via luciferase assays in transiently transfected cells.In EC109 cells, it was found that VIL2 -1541/-706 possessed promoter and enhancer activities.We also localized transcriptional regulatory regions by fusing 5′- or 3′-deletion segments of VIL2 -1541/-706 to a luciferase reporter.We found that there were three positive and one negative transcriptional regulatory regions ithin VIL2 -1541/-706 in EC109 cells.When these regions were separately located upstream of the luciferase gene without promoter, or located upstream of the VIL2 promoter or SV40 promoter directing the luciferase gene, only VIL2 -1297/-1186 exhibited considerable promoter and enhancer activities, which were lower than those of -1541/-706.In addition, transient expression of Sp1 increased ezrin expression and the transcriptional activation of VIL2 -1297/-1186.Other three regions,although exhibiting significantly positive or negative transcriptional regulation in deletion experiments, showed a weaker or absent regulation.These data suggested that more than one region upstream of the VIL2 promoter participated in VIL2 transcription, and the VIL2 -1297/-1186, probably as a key transcriptional regulatory region, regulated VIL2 transcription in company with other potential regulatory regions.

  15. The Digital North Denmark Programme -Promoting Regional Change?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter


    -offers within four themes. The participants - meant to be project consortia of ideally private firms, public or private organisations as well as regional and municipal government bodies - could get a maximum national government support of one third of the total project sum.This chapter investigates how...... (Dybkjær and Lindegaard, 1999, p.96-100). The declared approach was to build on the existing competencies in industry as well as at universities. The national government chose two regions – Ørestaden, a new concentration of knowledge-based institutions near Copenhagen Airport, and North Jutland....... The Copenhagen programme was basically concentrated on, literally, construction of a new IT University, a new neighbouring science park and a new media centre for the public broadcaster, Danmarks Radio. The North Denmark programme was, on the other hand, organised as a large-scale experiment based on project...

  16. Promoter regions of Plasmodium vivax are poorly or not recognized by Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Portillo Hernando A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterologous promoter analysis in Plasmodium has revealed the existence of conserved cis regulatory elements as promoters from different species can drive expression of reporter genes in heterologous transfection assays. Here, the functional characterization of different Plasmodium vivax promoters in Plasmodium falciparum using luciferase as the reporter gene is presented. Methods Luciferase reporter plasmids harboring the upstream regions of the msp1, dhfr, and vir3 genes as well as the full-length intergenic regions of the vir23/24 and ef-1α genes of P. vivax were constructed and transiently transfected in P. falciparum. Results Only the constructs with the full-length intergenic regions of the vir23/24 and ef-1α genes were recognized by the P. falciparum transcription machinery albeit to values approximately two orders of magnitude lower than those reported by luc plasmids harbouring promoter regions from P. falciparum and Plasmodium berghei. A bioinformatics approach allowed the identification of a motif (GCATAT in the ef-1α intergenic region that is conserved in five Plasmodium species but is degenerate (GCANAN in P. vivax. Mutations of this motif in the P. berghei ef-1α promoter region decreased reporter expression indicating it is active in gene expression in Plasmodium. Conclusion Together, this data indicates that promoter regions of P. vivax are poorly or not recognized by the P. falciparum transcription machinery suggesting the existence of P. vivax-specific transcription regulatory elements.

  17. Detección del estado de metilación de los genes dapk, cdh13, cdh1 y rassf1 en ADN de plasma de pacientes con cáncer de cuello uterino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristizábal Fabio


    Full Text Available El estudio de las características epigenéticas en ADN proveniente de plasma de pacientes con cáncer de cuello uterino (CCU tiene un futuro promisorio;  se han encontrado previamente genes supresores de tumor (GST metilados, correlacionados con estadios avanzados del CCU, siendo
    posibles indicadores de peor pronóstico y marcadores moleculares de respuesta a tratamiento. Sin embargo, no existe ningún estudio para Colombia, en el que se haya buscado detectar estados de metilación para ADN de plasma en ningún tipo de cáncer. En este trabajo se reporta el estudio
    de 23 pacientes colombianas con estadios avanzados (III y IV de CCU (Banco de Muestras del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, a los cuales les fue detectado el estado de mutilación (conversión por bisulfito de sodio posterior MSP de los GST dapk, cdh13, cdh1 y rassf1, en ADN de plasma,
    y se comparó contra el estado de metilación en ADN de plasma, arrojando los siguientes porcentajes de pacientes que presentaron el mismo estado de metilación (presente/ausente rassf1, 44%; cdh13, 33%; cdh1, 44%; dapk, 78%; para un total de los cuatro genes en conjunto de 47%. Adicionalmente, se detectó la presencia en el 100% de las muestras de tumor de HPV tipo 16. Se demostró igualdad entre las poblaciones de tumor y plasma para el panel de los cuatro genes (p=0,635, Test de McNemar a=0,05, en particular para el estadio III (p=0,85. El gen dapk presentó un estado de metilación positivo para plasma del 68,4% y para tumor del 94% en estadios avanzados. De esta manera, se consiguió la detección de los estados de metilación en ADN de plasma y se encontró correlación estadística con los encontrados en ADN tumoral, en particular para el estadio III. Este trabajo constituye un aporte importante para el uso de características epigenéticas de ADN de plasma, como marcadores moleculares de progresión, respuesta a tratamiento, y suprevivencia, en pacientes colombianas con CCU.

  18. Social Media Marketing as a tool for promoting the regional investment portals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Yu. Fadeyeva


    Full Text Available Objective to investigate the potential of Social Media Marketing as a tool for promoting regional investment portals in the information environment to identify the most effective ways of its implementation and to determine the level of mastering of this tool by the Russian regions. Methods general scientific methods observation comparison analysis induction deduction analogy classification. Results the analysis showed that today Social Media Marketing is an essential tool for interaction with the investment community and one of the most effective ways to promote the regional portal which allows to increase the knowledge of and loyalty to the brand to increase the targeted website traffic to increase the awareness of investors about the specific features of the portal and the regional development agenciesrsquo functioning to promptly receive information about the investment environment and to establish contacts with investors. At the same time the study of SMMactivity in the Russian regions revealed a very low level of quality of communication with investors through social networks. Scientific novelty for the first time the article investigates the significance and makes the comparative analysis of the Social Media Marketing channels with regard to investment promotion agencies as well as the results of the regional structures functioning for effective communication through social networks. Practical significance the main results of the research can be used by the regional investment agencies in order to promote their websites increase the quality of communication with investors and promote the investment attractiveness of the region as a whole. nbsp

  19. Genome-wide analysis of regions similar to promoters of histone genes

    KAUST Repository

    Chowdhary, Rajesh


    Background: The purpose of this study is to: i) develop a computational model of promoters of human histone-encoding genes (shortly histone genes), an important class of genes that participate in various critical cellular processes, ii) use the model so developed to identify regions across the human genome that have similar structure as promoters of histone genes; such regions could represent potential genomic regulatory regions, e.g. promoters, of genes that may be coregulated with histone genes, and iii/ identify in this way genes that have high likelihood of being coregulated with the histone genes.Results: We successfully developed a histone promoter model using a comprehensive collection of histone genes. Based on leave-one-out cross-validation test, the model produced good prediction accuracy (94.1% sensitivity, 92.6% specificity, and 92.8% positive predictive value). We used this model to predict across the genome a number of genes that shared similar promoter structures with the histone gene promoters. We thus hypothesize that these predicted genes could be coregulated with histone genes. This hypothesis matches well with the available gene expression, gene ontology, and pathways data. Jointly with promoters of the above-mentioned genes, we found a large number of intergenic regions with similar structure as histone promoters.Conclusions: This study represents one of the most comprehensive computational analyses conducted thus far on a genome-wide scale of promoters of human histone genes. Our analysis suggests a number of other human genes that share a high similarity of promoter structure with the histone genes and thus are highly likely to be coregulated, and consequently coexpressed, with the histone genes. We also found that there are a large number of intergenic regions across the genome with their structures similar to promoters of histone genes. These regions may be promoters of yet unidentified genes, or may represent remote control regions that

  20. How to promote the regional cooperation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Masayuki [International Affairs and Safeguards Division, Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)


    The Tenth International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia was held in Tokyo on March 10, 1999. Representatives participated from Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam as well as IAEA as an observer. The countries reflected on the positive achievements of the past ten years and affirmed the major goals for the future, the major theme of the meeting being the evolution of the framework. Some typical cooperative activities have result in: (a) new varieties of plants with greater productivity under a range of environmental conditions (b) development and adoptions of improved analytical procedures to track air pollution in major cities where the identification of the major sources will facilitate remediation measures (c) coordinated trials for radiation therapy of cervical cancer and the development of rigorous protocols (d) training of staff in research reactor operation and in the use of research reactors for the study of new materials. The participating countries have committed to reviewing the six existing sub-categories, namely (1) utilization of research reactors, (2,3) application of radiation and radioisotope in the agriculture and the medical fields, (4) public acceptance of nuclear energy, (5) radioactive waste management, and (6) nuclear safety culture. To share knowledge on human resources development within the region and to consider measures for the further development of human resources in relevant fields, a seminar for human resources development, sponsored by Japan, will be held in Japan. The conference will be renamed as (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) beginning with the next conference. The Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia will be held in Japan and in a participating country other than Japan in alternating years. To enhance the regional nuclear cooperation activities under this framework, each participating country will register a Coordinator and Project Leaders to facilitate

  1. Hypermethylation of Syk gene in promoter region associated with oncogenesis and metastasis of gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shui Wang; Yong-Bin Ding; Guo-Yu Chen; Jian-Guo Xia; Zhen-Yan Wu


    AIM: To investigate the rrelationship between methylation of Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) gene in promoter region and oncogenesis, metastasis of gastric carcinoma. The relation between silencing of the Syk gene and methylation of Syk promoter region was also studied.METHODS: By using methylation-specific PCR (MSP)technique, the methylation of Syk promoter region in specimens from 61 gastric cancer patients (tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues) was detected. Meanwhile, RTPCR was used to analyse syk expression exclusively.RESULTS: The expression of the Syk gene was detected in all normal gastric tissues. Syk expression in gastric carcinoma was lower in 14 out of 61 gastric cancer samples than in adjacent normal tissues (x2=72.3, P<0.05). No methylation of Syk promoter was found in adjacent normal tissues, hypermethylation of Syk gene in promoter was detected 21 cases in 61 gastric carcinoma patients. The rate of methylation of Syk promoter in gastric carcinoma was higher than that in adjacent normal tissues (x2=25.1,P<0.05). In 31 patients with lymph node metastasis, 17 were found with Syk promoter methylation. A significant difference was noted between two groups (x2=11.4, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Hypermethylation leads to silencing of the Syk gene in human gastric carcinoma. Methylation of Syk promoter is correlated to oncogenesis and metastasis of gastric carcinoma. Syk is considered to be a potential tumor suppressor and anti-metastasis gene in human gastric cancer.

  2. Cloning and characterizing of the ovine MX1 gene promoter/enhancer region. (United States)

    Assiri, A M; Ott, T L


    Ovine MX1 (MX1) is expressed in the uterus during the estrous cycle and is strongly up-regulated during early pregnancy in the uterus and peripheral blood leukocytes. In this study we cloned the MX1 gene promoter/enhancer, and tested its response to interferon tau (IFN-tau). To address the role of IFN tau in regulating MX1 expression, serial deletion mutants were prepared along with a clone that contained a full-length promoter including the two proximal ISREs but lacking an intronic ISRE site. Promoter deletions showed the two proximal ISRE sites, but not the intronic ISRE site, were required for maximal response to IFN tau. Interestingly, MX1 promoter deletion mutants revealed the presence of distal positive (-920 to -715) and negative (-715 to -437) regulatory regions. Identifying positive and negative regulatory regions in MX1 promoter will help define the complex regulation of MX1 during early pregnancy in ruminants.

  3. 7 CFR 1150.153 - Qualified State or regional dairy product promotion, research or nutrition education programs. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Qualified State or regional dairy product promotion... § 1150.153 Qualified State or regional dairy product promotion, research or nutrition education programs. (a) Any organization which conducts a State or regional dairy product promotion, research...

  4. Promoting ICT Entrepreneurship in the Campania Region of Italy: A Network of Academic Incubators (United States)

    Corti, Eugenio; Torello, Rita Ilenia


    The government of the Campania region in southern Italy has established a technology transfer centre for the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. The Regional Centre for ICT Competencies (RCICT) promotes the transfer of ICT to local small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and encourages the creation of new knowledge-based…

  5. Cloning and characterizing of the murine IRF-3 gene promoter region. (United States)

    Xu, Hua-Guo; Liu, Lifei; Gao, Shan; Jin, Rui; Ren, Wei; Zhou, Guo-Ping


    The interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) plays essential roles in inflammation and immune response. Here, we cloned the nucleotide sequence of the 5'-flanking region of the murine IRF-3 gene (mIRF-3) and characterized the molecular mechanisms controlling the mIRF-3 transcriptional activity in NIH3T3 cells. Analyses of a series of 5' deletion constructs demonstrated that a 301 bp region (-255/+46) of the mIRF-3 gene is sufficient for full promoter activity. This region contains IK1, Egr2, Cmyb, E2F1 and YY1 putative transcription factor binding sites. Mutation of Egr2 or YY1 site led to 52-68 % decrease of the mIRF-3 promoter activity, and double Egr2 and YY1 mutation reduced the promoter activity to 20 % of the wild-type promoter activity. Furthermore, knockingdown of endogenous Egr2 or YY1 by a siRNA strategy markedly inhibited the mIRF-3 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that Egr2 and YY1 interact with the mIRF-3 promoter in vivo. These results suggested that the basal promoter activity of the mIRF-3 gene is regulated by transcription factors Egr2 and YY1 in NIH3T3 cells.

  6. Identification of Conserved Regulatory Elements in Mammalian Promoter Regions: A Case Study Using the PCK1 Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George E. Liu; Matthew T. Weirauch; Curtis P. Van Tassell; Robert W. Li; Tad S. Sonstegard; Lakshmi K. Matukumalli; Erin E. Connor; Richard W. Hanson; Jianqi Yang


    A systematic phylogenetic footprinting approach was performed to identify conserved transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in mammalian promoter regions using human, mouse and rat sequence alignments. We found that the score distributions of most binding site models did not follow the Gaussian distribution required by many statistical methods. Therefore, we performed an empirical test to establish the optimal threshold for each model. We gauged our computational predictions by comparing with previously known TFBSs in the PCK1 gene promoter of the cytosolic isoform of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and achieved a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of approximately 32%. Almost all known sites overlapped with predicted sites, and several new putative TFBSs were also identified. We validated a predicted SP1 binding site in the control of PCK1 transcription using gel shift and reporter assays. Finally, we applied our computational approach to the prediction of putative TFBSs within the promoter regions of all available RefSeq genes. Our full set of TFBS predictions is freely available at

  7. Cloning and Analysis of the Promoter Region of Rat uPA Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan LIU; Jin-wen XIONG; Li-gang CHEN; Yong-hong TIAN; Cheng-liang XIONG


    Objective To clone and analyze the promoter sequence of rat urokinase plasminogen activator protein gene.Methods The genomic DNA was extracted from rat testicular tissue. According to urokinase plasminogen activator, the gene sense primer and antisense primer of uPA gene were designed and synthesized, then Touch-Down PCR were performed. After proper purification, the PCR product was sequenced, analyzed with the promoter prediction software and compared with the DNA sequence of rattuas urokinase plasminogen activator.Results The cloned uPA gene was about 1 572 bp in length, which contained a full open-reading frame with 21 bp in length exons, and the upper region of transcriptional start was 1 551 bp in length which was eucaryon transcriptional control area.The 5' UTR had a promoter region including a non-responsive TATA-box. Not only the GC-box binding region was found in this gene, but also active protein 1 (AP1) and SP1 were seen in other regions.Conclusion A 1 572 bp uPA gene fragment (GenBank accession No. X65651) was obtained from rat genomic DNA library, containing eucaryon transcriptional control area with a promoter region, non-conspicuous TATA-box, GC-box and an extron. A non-responsive TATA-box is located at the upper -30 region.

  8. Quantitative promoter methylation analysis of multiple cancer-related genes in renal cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Jorge


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant promoter hypermethylation of cancer-associated genes occurs frequently during carcinogenesis and may serve as a cancer biomarker. In this study we aimed at defining a quantitative gene promoter methylation panel that might identify the most prevalent types of renal cell tumors. Methods A panel of 18 gene promoters was assessed by quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QMSP in 85 primarily resected renal tumors representing the four major histologic subtypes (52 clear cell (ccRCC, 13 papillary (pRCC, 10 chromophobe (chRCC, and 10 oncocytomas and 62 paired normal tissue samples. After genomic DNA isolation and sodium bisulfite modification, methylation levels were determined and correlated with standard clinicopathological parameters. Results Significant differences in methylation levels among the four subtypes of renal tumors were found for CDH1 (p = 0.0007, PTGS2 (p = 0.002, and RASSF1A (p = 0.0001. CDH1 hypermethylation levels were significantly higher in ccRCC compared to chRCC and oncocytoma (p = 0.00016 and p = 0.0034, respectively, whereas PTGS2 methylation levels were significantly higher in ccRCC compared to pRCC (p = 0.004. RASSF1A methylation levels were significantly higher in pRCC than in normal tissue (p = 0.035. In pRCC, CDH1 and RASSF1A methylation levels were inversely correlated with tumor stage (p = 0.031 and nuclear grade (p = 0.022, respectively. Conclusion The major subtypes of renal epithelial neoplasms display differential aberrant CDH1, PTGS2, and RASSF1A promoter methylation levels. This gene panel might contribute to a more accurate discrimination among common renal tumors, improving preoperative assessment and therapeutic decision-making in patients harboring suspicious renal masses.

  9. Does FDI promote regional development? Evidence from local and regional productivity spillovers in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Studies on the productivity spillovers of FDI have concentrated on the nationalsectoral level. As a result, little is known about the impact of FDI on absolute and relative regional economic performance. In this paper we examine this issue by relying on a unique dataset of over 20,000 Greek firms for the period 2002-2006 covering all sectors of economic activity. We examine the spatial distribution of foreign-owned firms in the country and analyse the effect that their presence – at the local, regional and national levels – has on the productivity of domestic firms. We find strong evidence suggesting that foreignowned firms self-select into regions and sectors of high productivity. Net of this selection effect, the impact of foreign presence on domestic productivity is negative – although at the very local level some positive spillover effects are identifiable. The bulk of the effects concentrate in non-manufacturing activities, high-tech sectors, and medium-sized high-productivity firms. Importantly, this effect is not constant across space however. Productivity spillovers tend to be negative in the regions hosting the main urban areas in the country but positive in smaller and more peripheral regions. In this way, despite the tendency of FDI to concentrate in a limited number of areas within the country – those of the highest level of development – the externalities that FDI activity generates to the local economies appear to be of a rather equilibrating character.

  10. miR-92a-3p Exerts Various Effects in Glioma and Glioma Stem-Like Cells Specifically Targeting CDH1/β-Catenin and Notch-1/Akt Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Song


    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are implicated in the regulation of tumor progression and stemness of cancer stem-like cells. Recently, miR-92a-3p was reported to be up-regulated in human glioma samples. Nevertheless, the precise role of miR-92a-3p in glioma cells and glioma stem-like cells (GSCs has not been fully elucidated. It is necessary to clarify the function of miR-92a-3p in glioma and GSCs to develop novel therapeutic approaches for glioma patients. In the present study, we applied methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT assay and Transwell assay to measure the proliferation rate and metastatic potential of glioma cells. Meanwhile, the self-renewal ability of GSCs was detected by tumor sphere formation assay. The results revealed that down-regulation of miR-92a-3p suppressed the glioma cell malignancy in vitro. Moreover, knockdown of miR-92a-3p led to a reduction of tumorgenesis in vivo. Interestingly, we also observed that up-regulation of miR-92a-3p could inhibit the stemness of GSCs. Subsequent mechanistic investigation indicated that cadherin 1 (CDH1/β-catenin signaling and Notch-1/Akt signaling were the downstream pathways of miR-92a-3p in glioma cells and GSCs, respectively. These results suggest that miR-92a-3p plays different roles in glioma cells and GSCs through regulating different signaling pathways.

  11. Integrating Regional Development, Promoting Local Cooperation Reflections on the China-UK Regional Leaders Exchange Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Chang


    The first China-UK Regional Leaders Meeting was held March21-24 in the United Kingdom,both in London and the industrial city of Sheffield.The event was jointly organized by the CPAFFC and the British Department for Communities and Local Government.The Chinese delegation,comprising government

  12. A hybrid neural network system for prediction and recognition of promoter regions in human genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chuan-bo; LI Tao


    This paper proposes a high specificity and sensitivity algorithm called PromPredictor for recognizing promoter regions in the human genome. PromPredictor extracts compositional features and CpG islands information from genomic sequence,feeding these features as input for a hybrid neural network system (HNN) and then applies the HNN for prediction. It combines a novel promoter recognition model, coding theory, feature selection and dimensionality reduction with machine learning algorithm.Evaluation on Human chromosome 22 was ~66% in sensitivity and ~48% in specificity. Comparison with two other systems revealed that our method had superior sensitivity and specificity in predicting promoter regions. PromPredictor is written in MATLAB and requires Matlab to run. PromPredictor is freely available at

  13. Identification and characterization of a liver stage-specific promoter region of the malaria parasite Plasmodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Helm

    Full Text Available During the blood meal of a Plasmodium-infected mosquito, 10 to 100 parasites are inoculated into the skin and a proportion of these migrate via the bloodstream to the liver where they infect hepatocytes. The Plasmodium liver stage, despite its clinical silence, represents a highly promising target for antimalarial drug and vaccine approaches. Successfully invaded parasites undergo a massive proliferation in hepatocytes, producing thousands of merozoites that are transported into a blood vessel to infect red blood cells. To successfully develop from the liver stage into infective merozoites, a tight regulation of gene expression is needed. Although this is a very interesting aspect in the biology of Plasmodium, little is known about gene regulation in Plasmodium parasites in general and in the liver stage in particular. We have functionally analyzed a novel promoter region of the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei that is exclusively active during the liver stage of the parasite. To prove stage-specific activity of the promoter, GFP and luciferase reporter assays have been successfully established, allowing both qualitative and accurate quantitative analysis. To further characterize the promoter region, the transcription start site was mapped by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'-RACE. Using promoter truncation experiments and site-directed mutagenesis within potential transcription factor binding sites, we suggest that the minimal promoter contains more than one binding site for the recently identified parasite-specific ApiAP2 transcription factors. The identification of a liver stage-specific promoter in P. berghei confirms that the parasite is able to tightly regulate gene expression during its life cycle. The identified promoter region might now be used to study the biology of the Plasmodium liver stage, which has thus far proven problematic on a molecular level. Stage-specific expression of dominant-negative mutant proteins and

  14. Cloning and functional analysis of SEL1L promoter region, a pancreas-specific gene. (United States)

    Cattaneo, M; Sorio, C; Malferrari, G; Rogozin, I B; Bernard, L; Scarpa, A; Zollo, M; Biunno, I


    We examined the promoter activity of SEL1L, the human ortholog of the C. elegans gene sel-1, a negative regulator of LIN-12/NOTCH receptor proteins. To understand the relation in SEL1L transcription pattern observed in different epithelial cells, we determined the transcription start site and sequenced the 5' flanking region. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of consensus promoter elements--GC boxes and a CAAT box--but the absence of a TATA motif. Potential binding sites for transcription factors that are involved in tissue-specific gene expression were identified, including: activator protein-2 (AP-2), hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 (HNF3 beta), homeobox Nkx2-5 and GATA-1. Transcription activity of the TATA-less SEL1L promoter was analyzed by transient transfection using luciferase reporter gene constructs. A core basal promoter of 302 bp was sufficient for constitutive promoter activity in all the cell types studied. This genomic fragment contains a CAAT and several GC boxes. The activity of the SEL1L promoter was considerably higher in mouse pancreatic beta cells (beta TC3) than in several human pancreatic neoplastic cell lines; an even greater reduction of its activity was observed in cells of nonpancreatic origin. These results suggest that SEL1L promoter may be a useful tool in gene therapy applications for pancreatic pathologies.

  15. The system of Regional Contact Offices for promoting GMES services and the use of Space Technologies in European Regions. (United States)

    Carrara, Paola; Antoninetti, Massimo; Bacai, Hina; Basoni, Anna; Bosc, Christelle; Clave, Magali; Cornacchia, Carmela; L'Astorina, Alba; Monbet, Philippe; Mueller, Bastian; Nicolau, Sonia; Pergola, Nicola; Rampini, Anna; Tramutoli, Valerio; Schumacher, Volker; Wells, Alan; Zepeda Juarez, Jesus; Zolotikova, Svetlana


    which have significant impact on the economy, environment and the quality of life of the citizens To this aim since 2011 the system of Regional Contact Offices (RCOs) was promoted by the EU FP7 DORIS_Net (Downsteam Observatory organized by Regions Active in Space - Network, project as the regional link to the services provided by the European GMES programme. Since then a first nucleus of 12 pilot European Regions were working together establishing 6 first RCOs around Europe. This paper will present RCOs network goals, achievements and perspectives as well as its planned actions devoted to improve quality of Space Technology products from one side, to promote awareness and use of them by potential end-users (and particularly LRAs), from the other side.

  16. Correlation between Calcium Adhesion Molecules Promoter Methylation and Helicobacter pylori Infection in Gastric Cancer%胃癌中钙黏附分子启动子甲基化与幽门螺旋杆菌感染的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉; 穆敬平; 孟忠吉; 刘国华


    目的:探讨胃癌中钙黏附分子启动子甲基化与幽门螺旋杆菌(Hp)感染的相关性,为临床诊断治疗提供依据。方法:纳入86例胃癌患者,获取肿瘤组织,与正常黏膜组织对照,采用甲基化特异性聚合酶链反应法检测胃癌中CDH1基因启动子甲基化。两组患者一般资料比较无显著性差异,具有可比性(P>0.05)。结果:胃癌组患者CDH1基因甲基化阳性61例,阳性率为70.9%。对照组患者CDH1基因甲基化阳性11例,阳性率12.8%,两组比较具有显著性差异(P<0.01)。胃癌组CDH1基因甲基化阳性率与肿瘤分化程度、幽门螺旋杆菌感染密切相关,而与性别、浸润程度相关性小。结论:钙黏附分子基因启动子甲基化与胃癌发生密切相关。胃癌中钙黏附分子启动子甲基化与Hp感染密切相关,由此可见,Hp感染可能参与了抑癌基因甲基化失活及肿瘤演变的发展过程。%Objective: To investigate the expression of cadherin promoter methylation and H.pylori Infection,provide the basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.Methods:A total of 86 cases of gastric cancer patients,access to tumor tissue and normal tissue control,using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assay Gastric CDH1 gene promoter methylation.Resμlts:Patients with gastric cancer CDH1 gene methylation positive in 61 cases,the positive rate was 70.9 percent.Control patients CDH1 gene methylation positive in 11 cases,the positive rate of 12.8%,the two groups have significant difference (P<0.01).The positive rate of gene methylation in gastric cancer with tumor differentiation group CDH1,H.pylori infection is closely correlated with gender,infiltration associated small. Conclusion:CDH1 gene promoter methylation and gastric cancer is closely related,CDH1 gene methylation may be an independent risk factor.There may be a close relationship between infection CDH1 gene methylation and gastric cancer

  17. Transcriptional inhibition of the bacteriophage T7 early promoter region by oligonucleotide triple helix formation. (United States)

    Ross, C; Samuel, M; Broitman, S L


    We have identified a purine-rich triplex binding sequence overlapping a -35 transcriptional early promoter region of the bacteriophage T7. Triplex-forming oligonucleotide designed to bind this target was annealed to T7 templates and introduced into in vitro transcription systems under conditions favoring specific initiation from this promoter. These templates demonstrated significant transcriptional inhibition relative to naked genomic templates and templates mixed with non-triplex-forming oligonucleotide. It is suggested that triplex formation along this target interferes with transcriptional initiation, and this mechanism may hold potential to disrupt bacteriophage T7 early transcription in vivo.

  18. Regional Cooperation Efforts in the Mekong River Basin: Mitigating river-related security threats and promoting regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schmeier


    Full Text Available The development of international rivers is often perceived as leading to conflicts or even water wars. However, as the development of the Mekong River shows, cooperation has not only prevailed in the last decades, but River Basin Organizations (RBOs, established to mitigate river-related conflicts and/or develop the river basin, have also contributed to the emergence of more general cooperation structures, mainly by creating spill-over effects in other issue-areas, bringing cooperation to policy fields beyond the river itself. This article assesses the contribution of the Mekong River Commission (MRC and the Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS to the sustainable development of the Mekong Region as well as to the promotion of regional cooperation in mainland South-East Asia in general. --- Die Entwicklung grenzüberschreitender Flüsse wird oft mit Konflikten oder gar Kriegen um Wasser assoziiert. Wie jedoch die Entwicklung im Mekong-Becken zeigt, waren die vergangenen Jahrzehnte nicht nur von Kooperation gezeichnet, sondern Flussbeckenorganisationen konnten außerdem dazu beitragen, weitreichendere Kooperationsstrukturen zu entwickeln, die sich auf andere Politikfelder ausdehnen. Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich mit dem Beitrag der Mekong River Commission (MRC und der Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung in der Mekong Region sowie zur Förderung allgemeiner regionaler Kooperation im Festländischen Südostasien.

  19. Rarity of DNA sequence alterations in the promoter region of the human androgen receptor gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Cabral


    Full Text Available The human androgen receptor (AR gene promoter lies in a GC-rich region containing two principal sites of transcription initiation and a putative Sp1 protein-binding site, without typical "TATA" and "CAAT" boxes. It has been suggested that mutations within the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR may contribute to the development of prostate cancer by changing the rates of gene transcription and/or translation. In order to investigate this question, the aim of the present study was to search for the presence of mutations or polymorphisms at the AR-5'UTR in 92 prostate cancer patients, where histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was established in specimens obtained from transurethral resection or after prostatectomy. The AR-5'UTR was amplified by PCR from genomic DNA samples of the patients and of 100 healthy male blood donors, included as controls. Conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis was used for DNA sequence alteration screening. Only one band shift was detected in one individual from the blood donor group. Sequencing revealed a new single nucleotide deletion (T in the most conserved portion of the promoter region at position +36 downstream from the transcription initiation site I. Although the effect of this specific mutation remains unknown, its rarity reveals the high degree of sequence conservation of the human androgen promoter region. Moreover, the absence of detectable variation within the critical 5'UTR in prostate cancer patients indicates a low probability of its involvement in prostate cancer etiology.

  20. Regional differences in gene expression and promoter usage in aged human brains

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, Luba M.


    To characterize the promoterome of caudate and putamen regions (striatum), frontal and temporal cortices, and hippocampi from aged human brains, we used high-throughput cap analysis of gene expression to profile the transcription start sites and to quantify the differences in gene expression across the 5 brain regions. We also analyzed the extent to which methylation influenced the observed expression profiles. We sequenced more than 71 million cap analysis of gene expression tags corresponding to 70,202 promoter regions and 16,888 genes. More than 7000 transcripts were differentially expressed, mainly because of differential alternative promoter usage. Unexpectedly, 7% of differentially expressed genes were neurodevelopmental transcription factors. Functional pathway analysis on the differentially expressed genes revealed an overrepresentation of several signaling pathways (e.g., fibroblast growth factor and wnt signaling) in hippocampus and striatum. We also found that although 73% of methylation signals mapped within genes, the influence of methylation on the expression profile was small. Our study underscores alternative promoter usage as an important mechanism for determining the regional differences in gene expression at old age.

  1. Brand Products of Regional Cuisine in the Promotion of Tourism in Roztocze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekier-Jaworska Ewa


    Full Text Available Introduction. There has been a trend over the last few years of using specialties of regional cuisine as an independent tourist attraction. The creation of local brands is an important element in the promotion of a given region and it also influences the development of culinary tourism. The aim of the studies conducted was to identify regional dishes - a choice of dishes that could be described as 'brand dishes' and the use of those dishes as tourist attractions in Roztocze. Material and methods. Studies were conducted on a group of students studying tourism and recreation at State Higher School of Vocational Education (PWSZ in Zamość using a questionnaire. Results. The questionnaire provided an assessment of the levels of knowledge of regional cuisine among Polish and Ukrainian students, identified the most characteristic dishes and selected brand products, and helped to arrive at a suitable method of promotion. Conclusions. Nationality, family customs and selection of local restaurants highly influence knowledge of regional cuisine. Interviewees decided that the most outstanding products from Roztocze were Zwierzyniec beer, and Biłgoraj pie. Regional products should be used as a tourist attraction in Roztocze.

  2. Structure, variation and expression analysis of glutenin gene promoters from Triticum aestivum cultivar Chinese Spring shows the distal region of promoter 1Bx7 is key regulatory sequence. (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Ying; Chen, Fanguo; Xia, Guangmin


    In this study, ten glutenin gene promoters were isolated from model wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring) using a genomic PCR strategy with gene-specific primers. Six belonged to high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) gene promoters, and four to low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS). Sequence lengths varied from 1361 to 2,554 bp. We show that the glutenin gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse sequences in this study, with HMW-GS and LMW-GS gene promoters characterized by distinct conserved motif combinations. Our findings show that HMW-GS promoters contain more functional motifs in the distal region of the glutenin gene promoter (> -700 bp) compared with LMW-GS. The y-type HMW-GS gene promoters possess unique motifs including RY repeat and as-2 box compared to the x-type. We also identified important motifs in the distal region of HMW-GS gene promoters including the 5'-UTR Py-rich stretch motif and the as-2 box motif. We found that cis-acting elements in the distal region of promoter 1Bx7 enhanced the expression of HMW-GS gene 1Bx7. Taken together, these data support efforts in designing molecular breeding strategies aiming to improve wheat quality. Our results offer insight into the regulatory mechanisms of glutenin gene expression.

  3. Characterization of the promoter region of biosynthetic enzyme genes involved in berberine biosynthesis in Coptis japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Yamada


    Full Text Available The presence of alkaloids is rather specific to certain plant species. However, berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, is relatively broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. Thus, berberine biosynthesis has been intensively investigated, especially using Coptis japonica cell cultures. Almost all biosynthetic enzyme genes have already been characterized at the molecular level. Particularly, two transcription factors (TFs, a plant-specific WRKY-type transcription factor, CjWRKY1, and a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factor, CjbHLH1, were shown to comprehensively regulate berberine biosynthesis in C. japonica cells. In this study, we characterized the promoter region of some biosynthetic enzyme genes and associated cis-acting elements involved in the transcriptional regulation via two TFs. The promoter regions of three berberine biosynthetic enzyme genes (CYP80B2, 4’OMT and CYP719A1 were isolated, and their promoter activities were dissected by a transient assay involving the sequentially truncated promoter::luciferase (LUC reporter constructs. Furthermore, transactivation activities of CjWRKY1 were determined using the truncated promoter::LUC reporter constructs or constructs with mutated cis-elements. These results suggest the involvement of a putative W-box in the regulation of biosynthetic enzyme genes. Direct binding of CjWRKY1 to the W-box DNA sequence was also confirmed by an electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA and by a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay. In addition, CjbHLH1 also activated transcription from truncated 4’OMT and CYP719A1 promoters independently of CjWRKY1, suggesting the involvement of a putative E-box. Unexpected transcriptional activation of biosynthetic enzyme genes via a non-W-box sequence and by CjWRKY1 as well as the possible involvement of a GCC-box in berberine biosynthesis in C. japonica are discussed.

  4. [Nucleotide sequence of HLA-DQA1 promoter region (QAP) in a lung cancer patient]. (United States)

    Qiu, C; Zhou, W; Song, C


    The HLA-DQA1 allele and nucleotide sequence of HLA-DQA1 promoter region (QAP) in a patient with IDDM complicated lung cancer have been identified by PCR/SSCP, PCR/SSCP and PCR/sequencing. The results showed that: (1) All of the lung cancer patient and his family members carried HLA-DQA1* 0301/0501 alleles. (2) a single base substitution G-->A at position -155 and deletion CAA at position -161 to -163 occurred in the patient. These results suggest that the mutation of HLA-DQA1 promoter region may modulate HLA-DQA1 gene expression by trans-acting factors binding to variant cis-acting elements and may be responsible for pathogenesis of lung cancer.

  5. Genome-wide function of H2B ubiquitylation in promoter and genic regions. (United States)

    Batta, Kiran; Zhang, Zhenhai; Yen, Kuangyu; Goffman, David B; Pugh, B Franklin


    Nucleosomal organization in and around genes may contribute substantially to transcriptional regulation. The contribution of histone modifications to genome-wide nucleosomal organization has not been systematically evaluated. In the present study, we examine the role of H2BK123 ubiquitylation, a key regulator of several histone modifications, on nucleosomal organization at promoter, genic, and transcription termination regions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using high-resolution MNase chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq), we map nucleosome positioning and occupancy in mutants of the H2BK123 ubiquitylation pathway. We found that H2B ubiquitylation-mediated nucleosome formation and/or stability inhibits the assembly of the transcription machinery at normally quiescent promoters, whereas ubiquitylation within highly active gene bodies promotes transcription elongation. This regulation does not proceed through ubiquitylation-regulated histone marks at H3K4, K36, and K79. Our findings suggest that mechanistically similar functions of H2B ubiquitylation (nucleosome assembly) elicit different functional outcomes on genes depending on its positional context in promoters (repressive) versus transcribed regions (activating).

  6. Determination of the promoter region of an early vaccinia virus gene encoding thymidine kinase. (United States)

    Weir, J P; Moss, B


    Nine recombinant vaccinia viruses that contain overlapping segments of the putative promoter region of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase (TK) gene linked to DNA coding for the prokaryotic enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) were constructed. In each case, the RNA start site and 5 bp of DNA downstream were retained. No significant difference in CAT expression occurred as the deletion was extended from 352 to 32 bp before the RNA start site. Deletion of a further 10 bp, however, led to complete cessation of early promoter activity. Primer extension analysis of the 5' ends of the transcripts verified that the natural TK RNA start site was still used when only 32 bp of upstream DNA remained. Loss of early promoter activity was previously found when deletions were extended from 31 to 24 bp before the RNA start site of another vaccinia gene that is expressed constitutively throughout infection (M.A. Cochran, C. Puckett, and B. Moss, 1985, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 19-23). Sequence similarities in the promoter regions of these two genes were noted.

  7. Association of polymorphisms in the promoter region of turkey prolactin with egg performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Mehrangiz


    Full Text Available The induction and regulation of broodiness is of the most important role of prolactin in avian species. In this study, the association between prolactin promoter region alleles and reproductive traits in Fars native turkey was investigated. These traits consisted of mean egg weight (MEW, number of egg (EN and egg mass, during the first laying period. In total, 115 laying turkeys, randomly selected from the flock of the Breeding Center for Fars Native turkey, and DNA was purificated from blood samples, 231 bp of prolactin promoter region was amplified and Genotype of Samples was determinate by PCR-SSCP technique were genotyped. Two alleles D and I were identified. Based on the results obtained, the frequency of D and I alleles were 0.67 and 0.33, respectively. Frequencies of DD, II and ID genotypes were 0.385, 0.044 and 0.571, respectively. The association analysis between the polymorphism PRL gene promoter region and egg performance was carried out. Significant relationship was found between genotypes with egg production (P<0.01. Individuals with II genotype produced higher egg production than DD and ID genotype. The results of current study showed that using information of genes related to egg production could be used to improve the performance of native turkey of East Azerbaijan province.

  8. Governmental promotion of the Information Society in the Spanish Region of Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Feliu-García, Ph.D.


    Full Text Available Regional spheres are considered essential in the governmental promotion of the Information Society at the international level. The regional initiatives in Spain aim to strengthen and complement the initiatives promoted at the national level. This article analyses ICT penetration in the Valencian Community from 1996 to 2008. The objective is to identify which of the actions carried out by the Valencian Regional Government have had a positive effect on its society.The methodology employed in this study is benchmarking. The selection of indicators is based on the policies evaluation model proposed in the Plan Avanza (Spain’s national Information Society strategy. Data were collected from official statistical sources (like Spain’s National Statistics Institute, INE. Three statistical tests were applied to verify the hypotheses (Pearson’s r2, Chi-square and Student’s t.The results indicate that it is not possible to affirm that the actions implemented by the Valencian Regional Government have had a more positive effect on its society than those implemented by the Spanish Central Government. A reason for this may lie in the specific objectives of the political strategy implemented by the Valencian Government, which has focused primarily on e-Government and does not include enough projects centred on the implementation of new technologies in the private sector. Moreover, the integration of new technologies in everyday life is placed in a second level of importance despite citizens are central actors in the international agenda.

  9. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Is Essential for Entry into Meiotic M-Phase. (United States)

    Malhotra, Saurav; Vinod, Palakkad Krishnanunni; Mansfeld, Jörg; Stemmann, Olaf; Mayer, Thomas U


    Vertebrate immature oocytes are arrested at prophase of meiosis I (MI). Hormonal stimulation breaks this prophase-I arrest and induces re-entry into MI. The mechanism underlying meiotic resumption remains largely elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) in complex with Cdh1 has an unexpected function in meiosis in that it is essential for meiotic resumption. We identify the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 6 (PP6c) as the critical substrate whose APC/C(Cdh1)-mediated destruction is a prerequisite for the re-entry of immature Xenopus laevis oocytes into MI. Preventing PP6c destruction impairs activating autophosphorylation of Aurora A, a cell-cycle kinase critical for meiotic translation. Restoring meiotic translation rescues the meiotic resumption defect of Cdh1-depleted oocytes. Thus, our studies discover that the essential function of the APC/C in triggering cell-cycle transitions is not limited to M-phase exit but also applies to entry into meiotic M-phase, and identify a crucial APC/C-PP6c-Aurora A axis in the resumption of female meiosis.

  10. ATRX promotes gene expression by facilitating transcriptional elongation through guanine-rich coding regions. (United States)

    Levy, Michael A; Kernohan, Kristin D; Jiang, Yan; Bérubé, Nathalie G


    ATRX is a chromatin remodeling protein involved in deposition of the histone variant H3.3 at telomeres and pericentromeric heterochromatin. It also influences the expression level of specific genes; however, deposition of H3.3 at transcribed genes is currently thought to occur independently of ATRX. We focused on a set of genes, including the autism susceptibility gene Neuroligin 4 (Nlgn4), that exhibit decreased expression in ATRX-null cells to investigate the mechanisms used by ATRX to promote gene transcription. Overall TERRA levels, as well as DNA methylation and histone modifications at ATRX target genes are not altered and thus cannot explain transcriptional dysregulation. We found that ATRX does not associate with the promoter of these genes, but rather binds within regions of the gene body corresponding to high H3.3 occupancy. These intragenic regions consist of guanine-rich DNA sequences predicted to form non-B DNA structures called G-quadruplexes during transcriptional elongation. We demonstrate that ATRX deficiency corresponds to reduced H3.3 incorporation and stalling of RNA polymerase II at these G-rich intragenic sites. These findings suggest that ATRX promotes the incorporation of histone H3.3 at particular transcribed genes and facilitates transcriptional elongation through G-rich sequences. The inability to transcribe genes such as Nlgn4 could cause deficits in neuronal connectivity and cognition associated with ATRX mutations in humans.

  11. ECRbase: Database of Evolutionary Conserved Regions, Promoters, and Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Vertebrate Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loots, G; Ovcharenko, I


    Evolutionary conservation of DNA sequences provides a tool for the identification of functional elements in genomes. We have created a database of evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) in vertebrate genomes entitled ECRbase that is constructed from a collection of pairwise vertebrate genome alignments produced by the ECR Browser database. ECRbase features a database of syntenic blocks that recapitulate the evolution of rearrangements in vertebrates and a collection of promoters in all vertebrate genomes presented in the database. The database also contains a collection of annotated transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in all ECRs and promoter elements. ECRbase currently includes human, rhesus macaque, dog, opossum, rat, mouse, chicken, frog, zebrafish, and two pufferfish genomes. It is freely accessible at

  12. Influence of an educational strategy to promote the use of regional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cavalcante Martins


    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of family members of preschool children about regional food, through a survey before and after an educational intervention. Methods: this is a pre-experimental one-group pretest–posttest study, with 62 family members of preschool children. One month before and after the conduction of an educational activity using the flipchart “regional food promoting food security”, one applied the survey. Results: it was found that after the educational strategy, there was an increase in the classification “appropriate” in each survey area about regional food, and the variation of knowledge (17.7%-77.4%, attitude (21%-72.6% and practice (14.5%-64.5%, consequently, an improvement of 59.7% in knowledge, 51.6% in attitude and 50% in practice. Conclusion: the use of educational technology had a positive influence on the knowledge, attitudes and practice of family members, contributing thus to the health promotion of children and their family members.

  13. Quantitative global and gene-specific promoter methylation in relation to biological properties of neuroblastomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Nimrod B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we aimed to quantify tumor suppressor gene (TSG promoter methylation densities levels in primary neuroblastoma tumors and cell lines. A subset of these TSGs is associated with a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP in other tumor types. Methods The study panel consisted of 38 primary tumors, 7 established cell lines and 4 healthy references. Promoter methylation was determined by bisulphate Pyrosequencing for 14 TSGs; and LINE-1 repeat element methylation was used as an indicator of global methylation levels. Results Overall mean TSG Z-scores were significantly increased in cases with adverse outcome, but were unrelated to global LINE-1 methylation. CIMP with hypermethylation of three or more gene promoters was observed in 6/38 tumors and 7/7 cell lines. Hypermethylation of one or more TSG (comprising TSGs BLU, CASP8, DCR2, CDH1, RASSF1A and RASSF2 was evident in 30/38 tumors. By contrast only very low levels of promoter methylation were recorded for APC, DAPK1, NORE1A, P14, P16, TP73, PTEN and RARB. Similar involvements of methylation instability were revealed between cell line models and neuroblastoma tumors. Separate analysis of two proposed CASP8 regulatory regions revealed frequent and significant involvement of CpG sites between exon 4 and 5, but modest involvement of the exon 1 region. Conclusions/significance The results highlight the involvement of TSG methylation instability in neuroblastoma tumors and cell lines using quantitative methods, support the use of DNA methylation analyses as a prognostic tool for this tumor type, and underscore the relevance of developing demethylating therapies for its treatment.

  14. PARP1 Differentially Interacts with Promoter region of DUX4 Gene in FSHD Myoblasts (United States)

    Sharma, Vishakha; Pandey, Sachchida Nand; Khawaja, Hunain; Brown, Kristy J; Hathout, Yetrib; Chen, Yi-Wen


    Objective The goal of the study is to identity proteins, which interact with the promoter region of double homeobox protein 4 (DUX4) gene known to be causative for the autosomal dominant disorder Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD). Methods We performed a DNA pull down assay coupled with mass spectrometry analysis to identify proteins that interact with a DUX4 promoter probe in Rhabdomyosarcomca (RD) cells. We selected the top ranked protein poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) from our mass spectrometry data for further ChIP-qPCR validation using patients' myoblasts. We then treated FSHD myoblasts with PARP1 inhibitors to investigate the role of PARP1 in the FSHD myoblasts. Results In our mass spectrometry analysis, PARP1 was found to be the top ranked protein interacting preferentially with the DUX4 promoter probe in RD cells. We further validated this interaction by immunoblotting in RD cells (2-fold enrichment compared to proteins pulled down by a control probe, pfisetin (0.5 mM), a polyphenol compound with PARP1 inhibitory property, for 24 h also suppressed the expression of DUX4 (44.8 fold, p<0.01) and ZSCAN4 (2.2 fold, p<0.05) in the FSHD myoblasts. We further showed that DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), a gene regulated by PARP1 was also enriched at the DUX4 promoter in RD cells through immunoblotting (2-fold, p<0.01) and immortalized FSHD myoblasts (42-fold, p<0.01) but not control myoblasts through ChIP qPCR. Conclusion Our results showed that PARP1 and DNMT1 interacted with DUX4 promoter and may be involved in modulating DUX4 expression in FSHD. PMID:27722032

  15. Study on the Polymorphisms of Porcine Myostatin Gene in Promoter Region by PCR-RFLPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiu-qin; LIU Di


    In order to further study functions of the porcine myostatin gene, we analyzed the polymorphisms of porcine myostatin gene in promoter region among different breeds including Yorkshire, Landrace, Duroc, Junmu, Min pig and Sanjiang white pig by PCR-RFLPs. The allele T dominated in the imported lean-type pig breeds such as Yorkshire, Landrace and Duroc. No allele A was detected in Junmu and Sanjiang white pig, and the frequencies of three genotypes were about equal in Min pig. The result using X2 analysis showed that the distribution of three genotypes was related to pig breeds.

  16. Interferon gamma response region in the promoter of the human DPA gene.



    The interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) response region of the human class II major histocompatibility complex gene, DPA, has been localized to a 52-base-pair (bp) DNA fragment in the proximal promotor at -107 to -55 bp after transfection into HeLa cells of a series of 5', 3', and gap deletion mutants linked to a reporter gene, human growth hormone, as well as of synthetic oligonucleotides fused to the heterologous promoter thymidine kinase. The 52-mer sequence contains the X and Y box elements cons...

  17. Statistically Significant Strings are Related to Regulatory Elements in the Promoter Regions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, R; Hu, Rui; Wang, Bin


    Finding out statistically significant words in DNA and protein sequences forms the basis for many genetic studies. By applying the maximal entropy principle, we give one systematic way to study the nonrandom occurrence of words in DNA or protein sequences. Through comparison with experimental results, it was shown that patterns of regulatory binding sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae(yeast) genomes tend to occur significantly in the promoter regions. We studied two correlated gene family of yeast. The method successfully extracts the binding sites varified by experiments in each family. Many putative regulatory sites in the upstream regions are proposed. The study also suggested that some regulatory sites are a ctive in both directions, while others show directional preference.

  18. E-cadherin gene C-160A promoter polymorphism and risk of non-cardia gastric cancer in a Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Lu; Yao-Chu Xu; Jing Shen; Rong-Bin Yu; Ju-Yin Niu; Jian-Tao Guo; Xu Hu; Hong-Bing Shen


    AIM: To test the hypothesis that E-cadherin gene (CDH1)C-160A promoter variant genotype is associated with an increased risk for developing gastric cancer.METHODS: In this population-based case-control study of gastric cancer in Jiangsu Province, China, we performed polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) to genotype the C-160A polymorphism of CDH1 promoter in 206 non-cardia gastriccancer patients and 261 age- and sex-matched but unrelated cancer-free controls.RESULTS: The frequencies of genotypes CC, CA and AA were 57.8%, 36.4% and 5.8% in gasfric cancer cases,respectively, and 58.2%, 34.9% and 6.9% in controls respectively. The distributions of CDH1 genotypes were not significantly different between gastric cancer cases and controls (P = 0.87 for genotype frequency and P = 0.92for allele frequency). Compared with the CC genotype, the CA and AA genotypes were not associated with an increased risk for non-cardia gastric cancer (adjusted odds ratios (OR)= 1.15, and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.78-1.72for CA genotype, and OR = 0.90 and 95% CI = 0.42-2.01for AA genotype).CONCLUSION: E-cadherin gene C-160A promoter polymorphism may not play a major role in the etiology of non-cardia gastric cancer in Chinese population.

  19. Mutations in the promoter region of the aldolase B gene that cause hereditary fructose intolerance. (United States)

    Coffee, Erin M; Tolan, Dean R


    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a potentially fatal inherited metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of aldolase B activity in the liver and kidney. Over 40 disease-causing mutations are known in the protein-coding region of ALDOB. Mutations upstream of the protein-coding portion of ALDOB are reported here for the first time. DNA sequence analysis of 61 HFI patients revealed single base mutations in the promoter, intronic enhancer, and the first exon, which is entirely untranslated. One mutation, g.-132G>A, is located within the promoter at an evolutionarily conserved nucleotide within a transcription factor-binding site. A second mutation, IVS1+1G>C, is at the donor splice site of the first exon. In vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays show a decrease in nuclear extract-protein binding at the g.-132G>A mutant site. The promoter mutation results in decreased transcription using luciferase reporter plasmids. Analysis of cDNA from cells transfected with plasmids harboring the IVS1+1G>C mutation results in aberrant splicing leading to complete retention of the first intron (~5 kb). The IVS1+1G>C splicing mutation results in loss of luciferase activity from a reporter plasmid. These novel mutations in ALDOB represent 2% of alleles in American HFI patients, with IVS1+1G>C representing a significantly higher allele frequency (6%) among HFI patients of Hispanic and African-American ethnicity.

  20. Promotion of Social Entrepreneurship Through Public Services in the Madrid Region: Succesful Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa Fernández Fernández


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the promotion of social entrepreneurship through the delivery of services in public business incubators in the Madrid region. The research is innovative since the implication of the public sector in boosting social entrepreneurship is quite new in Spain. Methodology starts with a literature revision of the factors conforming social entrepreneurship and focuses on networking. Then, social entrepreneurship presence and its promotion is analyzed both in the practices and services provided by the Madrid Development Agency in its “Madrid Emprende” incubation program and also through a survey addressed to the 113 firms hosted in its network of business incubators. Results of the survey show that social entrepreneurship is present as the main purpose of their activity in a majority of the firms, in their social products and services, in their social legal form supported by the public network and in some forms of public-private partnership promoted by the Madrid Business Incubators Network. Services provided by the public network show the quality, the added value and the know-how of the practices of the public program and have an impact in the efficient performance of the firms regarding social entrepreneurship and in the public-private alliances established for some social purposes.

  1. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion



    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant pr...

  2. The role of COMESA in promoting intra-regional agricultural trade: Case study of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azharia Abdelbagi Elbushra


    Full Text Available African countries have created many regional trade agreements with the economic objectives of reducing trade barriers and encouraging economic growth. The COMESA is an example of regional integration singed on 1993 by 19 African countries including Sudan. COMESA represents a chance for member countries to enhance their economic and social relations through increasing intra-trade. The objective of this paper is to assess the role of COMESA in promoting intra-regional agricultural trade between Sudan and COMESA countries. A multi-market model with Armington non-linear specification was applied. The paper results showed that there is a great potential for Sudan to increase its agricultural exports to other COMESA countries. The domestic agricultural markets are expected to be hampered by imports surge and increase in competition, while the producers of agricultural export commodities will be better off. In order to compete and benefit from potential in the COMESA markets, the paper recommended improving efficiency in the Sudanese agricultural sector through increasing productivity, lowering cost of production, enhancing marketing services, attaining economies of scale and attracting foreign investment.

  3. Characterisation of the promoter region of the zebrafish six7 gene. (United States)

    Drivenes, O; Seo, H C; Fjose, A


    The Drosophila homeobox gene sine oculis and its murine homologue Six3 have both been shown to have regulatory functions in eye and brain development. In zebrafish, three Six3-related genes with conserved expression during early eye and head formation have been identified. One of these, six7, is first expressed at the gastrula stage in the involuting axial mesoderm, and later in the overlying neuroectoderm from which the forebrain and optic primordium develop. To elucidate the mechanisms regulating six7 expression, we isolated a 2.7-kb fragment of the 5'-flanking region. Three sequentially deleted fragments of this upstream region were used to produce GFP reporter constructs for analysis of tissue-specific expression in zebrafish embryos. The results show that a 625-bp upstream fragment is sufficient to direct strong expression of the reporter during gastrulation and early neurulation. The proximal part of the promoter contains binding sites for various constitutive transcription factors and an additional upstream element that was shown to be critical in directing expression to the anterior region of the zebrafish brain.

  4. Helicobacter pylori cagA Promoter Region Sequences Influence CagA Expression and Interleukin 8 Secretion. (United States)

    Ferreira, Rui M; Pinto-Ribeiro, Ines; Wen, Xiaogang; Marcos-Pinto, Ricardo; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Carneiro, Fátima; Figueiredo, Ceu


    Heterogeneity at the Helicobacter pylori cagA gene promoter region has been linked to variation in CagA expression and gastric histopathology. Here, we characterized the cagA promoter and expression in 46 H. pylori strains from Portugal. Our results confirm the relationship between cagA promoter region variation and protein expression originally observed in strains from Colombia. We observed that individuals with intestinal metaplasia were all infected with H. pylori strains containing a specific cagA motif. Additionally, we provided novel functional evidence that strain-specific sequences in the cagA promoter region and CagA expression levels influence interleukin 8 secretion by the host gastric epithelial cells.

  5. Genotype and allele frequencies of heme oxygenase-1 promoter region in a Greek cohort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eleni P. Katana; Lemonia G. Skoura; Zacharias G Scouras; Michail A. Daniilidis


    Background Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an enzyme,which catabolizes heme into carbon monoxide,biliverdin and free iron.The induction of this enzyme is an important cytoprotective mechanism,which occurs as an adaptive and beneficial response to a wide variety of oxidant stimuli.HO-1 inducibility is mainly modulated by a (GT)n polymorphism in the promoter region,and has been shown that short (S) repeats are associated with greater up-regulation of HO-1,compared with long (L) repeats.Methods In the present study,250 healthy Greek individuals have been screened in order to estimate the frequencies of (GT)n alleles in the HO-1 gene.Results Nineteen different alleles,ranging from 17 to 39 repeats,with (GT)23 and (GT)30 being the most common ones,were identified.Conclusion The possible role of this polymorphism in disease states is discussed.

  6. [Social participation and health promotion: a case study in the region of Paranapiacaba and Parque Andreense]. (United States)

    Silva, Elaine Cristina da; Pelicioni, Maria Cecília Focesi


    Community participation is considered a key condition for communities to assume control of their health within the scope of health promotion. This study sought to identify and analyze the perceptions of residents of the watershed areas of Santo André/São Paulo with respect to the actions of health education and environmental education developed by the public authorities of the city, and how the local community participates in these processes. Data collection was conducted via structured and semi-structured interviews with civil servants and local residents. The methodology of content analysis proposed by Bardin was used for data interpretation. The main results showed that the health measures developed in the region studied are still predominantly viewed from the standpoint of prevention and not as an educational process able to support and achieve some of the goals of health promotion, such as the development of personal skills and support for community action. Data analysis showed the importance of intersectorial activity and conducting emancipatory educational measures as a key factor for participative procedures and the empowerment of the population.

  7. Nucleoporin translocated promoter region (Tpr) associates with dynein complex, preventing chromosome lagging formation during mitosis. (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Funasaka, Tatsuyoshi; Hashizume, Chieko; Wong, Richard W


    Gain or loss of whole chromosomes is often observed in cancer cells and is thought to be due to aberrant chromosome segregation during mitosis. Proper chromosome segregation depends on a faithful interaction between spindle microtubules and kinetochores. Several components of the nuclear pore complex/nucleoporins play critical roles in orchestrating the rapid remodeling events that occur during mitosis. Our recent studies revealed that the nucleoporin, Rae1, plays critical roles in maintaining spindle bipolarity. Here, we show association of another nucleoporin, termed Tpr (translocated promoter region), with the molecular motors dynein and dynactin, which both orchestrate with the spindle checkpoints Mad1 and Mad2 during cell division. Overexpression of Tpr enhanced multinucleated cell formation. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Tpr caused a severe lagging chromosome phenotype and disrupted spindle checkpoint proteins expression and localization. Next, we performed a series of rescue and dominant negative experiments to confirm that Tpr orchestrates proper chromosome segregation through interaction with dynein light chain. Our data indicate that Tpr functions as a spatial and temporal regulator of spindle checkpoints, ensuring the efficient recruitment of checkpoint proteins to the molecular motor dynein to promote proper anaphase formation.

  8. Absence of mutation at the 5'-upstream promoter region of the TPM4 gene from cardiac mutant axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). (United States)

    Denz, Christopher R; Zhang, Chi; Jia, Pingping; Du, Jianfeng; Huang, Xupei; Dube, Syamalima; Thomas, Anish; Poiesz, Bernard J; Dube, Dipak K


    Tropomyosins are a family of actin-binding proteins that show cell-specific diversity by a combination of multiple genes and alternative RNA splicing. Of the 4 different tropomyosin genes, TPM4 plays a pivotal role in myofibrillogenesis as well as cardiac contractility in amphibians. In this study, we amplified and sequenced the upstream regulatory region of the TPM4 gene from both normal and mutant axolotl hearts. To identify the cis-elements that are essential for the expression of the TPM4, we created various deletion mutants of the TPM4 promoter DNA, inserted the deleted segments into PGL3 vector, and performed promoter-reporter assay using luciferase as the reporter gene. Comparison of sequences of the promoter region of the TPM4 gene from normal and mutant axolotl revealed no mutations in the promoter sequence of the mutant TPM4 gene. CArG box elements that are generally involved in controlling the expression of several other muscle-specific gene promoters were not found in the upstream regulatory region of the TPM4 gene. In deletion experiments, loss of activity of the reporter gene was noted upon deletion which was then restored upon further deletion suggesting the presence of both positive and negative cis-elements in the upstream regulatory region of the TPM4 gene. We believe that this is the first axolotl promoter that has ever been cloned and studied with clear evidence that it functions in mammalian cell lines. Although striated muscle-specific cis-acting elements are absent from the promoter region of TPM4 gene, our results suggest the presence of positive and negative cis-elements in the promoter region, which in conjunction with positive and negative trans-elements may be involved in regulating the expression of TPM4 gene in a tissue-specific manner.

  9. Allelic polymorphisms in the repeat and promoter regions of the interleukin-4 gene and malaria severity in Ghanaian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyan, B A; Goka, B; Cvetkovic, J T;


    Immunoglobulin E has been associated with severe malaria suggesting a regulatory role for interleukin (IL)-4 and/or IgE in the pathogenesis of severe malaria. We have investigated possible associations between polymorphisms in the IL-4 repeat region (intron 3) and promoter regions (IL-4 +33CT and...

  10. Promoter region sequence differences in the A and G gamma globin genes of Brazilian sickle cell anemia patients

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    C.G. Barbosa


    Full Text Available Fetal hemoglobin (HbF, encoded by the HBG2 and HBG1 genes, is the best-known genetic modulator of sickle cell anemia, varying dramatically in concentration in the blood of these patients. This variation is partially associated with polymorphisms located in the promoter region of the HBG2 and HBG1 genes. In order to explore known and unknown polymorphisms in these genes, the sequences of their promoter regions were screened in sickle cell anemia patients and correlated with both their HbF levels and their βS-globin haplotypes. Additionally, the sequences were compared with genes from 2 healthy groups, a reference one (N = 104 and an Afro-descendant one (N = 98, to identify polymorphisms linked to the ethnic background.The reference group was composed by healthy individuals from the general population. Four polymorphisms were identified in the promoter region of HBG2 and 8 in the promoter region of HBG1 among the studied groups. Four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP located at positions -324, -317, -309 and -307 were identified in the reference group. A deletion located between -396 and -391 in the HBG2 promoter region and the SNP -271 C→T in the HBG1 promoter region were associated with the Central African Republic βS-globin haplotype. In contrast, the -369 C→G and 309 A→G SNPs in the HBG2 promoter region were correlated to the Benin haplotype. The polymorphisms -396_-391 del HBG2, -369 SNP HBG2 and -271 SNP HBG1 correlated with HbF levels. Hence, we suggest an important role of HBG2 and HBG1 gene polymorphisms on the HbF synthesis.

  11. Promoter region sequence differences in the A and G gamma globin genes of Brazilian sickle cell anemia patients. (United States)

    Barbosa, C G; Goncalves-Santos, N J; Souza-Ribeiro, S B; Moura-Neto, J P; Takahashi, D; Silva, D O; Hurtado-Guerrero, A F; Reis, M G; Goncalves, M S


    Fetal hemoglobin (HbF), encoded by the HBG2 and HBG1 genes, is the best-known genetic modulator of sickle cell anemia, varying dramatically in concentration in the blood of these patients. This variation is partially associated with polymorphisms located in the promoter region of the HBG2 and HBG1 genes. In order to explore known and unknown polymorphisms in these genes, the sequences of their promoter regions were screened in sickle cell anemia patients and correlated with both their HbF levels and their betaS-globin haplotypes. Additionally, the sequences were compared with genes from 2 healthy groups, a reference one (N = 104) and an Afro-descendant one (N = 98), to identify polymorphisms linked to the ethnic background.The reference group was composed by healthy individuals from the general population. Four polymorphisms were identified in the promoter region of HBG2 and 8 in the promoter region of HBG1 among the studied groups. Four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located at positions -324, -317, -309 and -307 were identified in the reference group. A deletion located between -396 and -391 in the HBG2 promoter region and the SNP -271 C-->T in the HBG1 promoter region were associated with the Central African Republic betaS-globin haplotype. In contrast, the -369 C-->G and 309 A-->G SNPs in the HBG2 promoter region were correlated to the Benin haplotype. The polymorphisms -396_-391 del HBG2, -369 SNP HBG2 and -271 SNP HBG1 correlated with HbF levels. Hence, we suggest an important role of HBG2 and HBG1 gene polymorphisms on the HbF synthesis.

  12. Identification of a single-nucleotide insertion in the promoter region affecting the sodC promoter activity in Brucella neotomae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina A Moustafa

    Full Text Available Brucella neotomae is not known to be associated with clinical disease in any host species. Previous research suggested that B. neotomae might not express detectable levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD, a periplasmic enzyme known to be involved in protecting Brucella from oxidative bactericidal effects of host phagocytes. This study was undertaken to investigate the genetic basis for the disparity in SOD expression in B. neotomae. Our Western blot and SOD enzyme assay analyses indicated that B. neotomae does express SOD, but at a substantially reduced level. Nucleotide sequence analysis of region upstream to the sodC gene identified a single-nucleotide insertion in the potential promoter region. The same single-nucleotide insertion was also detected in the sodC promoter of B. suis strain Thomsen, belonging to biovar 2 in which SOD expression was undetectable previously. Examination of the sodC promoter activities using translational fusion constructs with E. coli β-galactosidase demonstrated that the B. neotomae and B. suis biovar 2 promoters were very weak in driving gene expression. Site-directed mutation studies indicated that the insertion of A in the B. neotomae sodC promoter reduced the promoter activity. Increasing the level of SOD expression in B. neotomae through complementation with B. abortus sodC gene did not alter the bacterial survival in J774A.1 macrophage-like cells and in tissues of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. These results for the first time demonstrate the occurrence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism affecting promoter function and gene expression in Brucella.

  13. Molecular cloning of rhamnose-binding lectin gene and its promoter region from snakehead Channa argus. (United States)

    Jia, W Z; Shang, N; Guo, Q L


    Lectins are sugar-binding proteins that mediate pathogen recognition and cell-cell interactions. A rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) gene and its promoter region have been cloned and characterized from snakehead Channa argus. From the transcription initiation site, snakehead rhamnose-binding lectin (SHL) gene extends 2,382 bp to the end of the 3' untranslated region (UTR), and contains nine exons and eight introns. The open reading frame (ORF) of the SHL transcript has 675 bp which encodes 224 amino acids. The molecular structure of SHL is composed of two tandem repeat carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD) with 35% internal identity. Analysis of the gene organization of SHL indicates that the ancestral gene of RBL may diverge and evolve by exon shuffling and gene duplication, producing new forms to play their own roles in various organisms. The characteristics of SHL gene 5' flanking region are the presence of consensus nuclear factor of interleukin 6 (NF-IL6) and IFN-gamma activation (GAS) sites. The results provide indirect evidence that up-regulation of SHL expression may be induced in response to inflammatory stimuli, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). The transcript of SHL mRNA was expressed in the head kidney, posterior kidney, spleen, liver, intestine, heart, muscle, and ovary. No tissue-specific expressive pattern is different from reported STLs, WCLs, and PFLs, suggesting that different types of RBLs exist in species-specific fish that have evolved and adapted to their surroundings.

  14. Mutational analysis of the promoter and the coding region of the 5-HT1A gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, J.; Noethen, M.M.; Shimron-Abarbanell, D. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)] [and others


    Disturbances of serotonergic pathways have been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Serotonin (5HT) receptors can be subdivided into at least three major families (5HT1, 5HT2, and 5HT3). Five human 5HT1 receptor subtypes have been cloned, namely 1A, 1D{alpha}, 1D{beta}, 1E, and 1F. Of these, the 5HT1A receptor is the best characterized subtype. In the present study we sought to identify genetic variation in the 5HT1A receptor gene which through alteration of protein function or level of expression might contribute to the genetics of neuropsychiatric diseases. The coding region and the 5{prime} promoter region of the 5HT1A gene from 159 unrelated subjects (45 schizophrenic, 46 bipolar affective, and 43 patients with Tourette`s syndrome, as well as 25 controls) were analyzed using SSCA. SSCA revealed the presence of two mutations both located in the coding region of the 5HT1A receptor gene. The first mutation is a rare silent C{r_arrow}T substitution at nucleotide position 549. The second mutation is characterized by a base pair substitution (A{r_arrow}G) at the first position of codon 28 and results in an amino acid exchange (Ile{r_arrow}Val). Since Val28 was found only in a single schizophrenic patient and in none of the other patients or controls, we decided to extend our samples and to use a restriction assay for screening a further 74 schizophrenic, 95 bipolar affective, and 49 patients with Tourette`s syndrome, as well as 185 controls, for the presence of the mutation. In total, the mutation was found in 2 schizophrenic patients, in 3 bipolars, in 1 Tourette patient, and in 5 controls. To our knowledge the Ile-28-Val substitution reported here is the first natural occuring molecular variant which has been identified for a serotonin receptor so far.

  15. Public health and health promotion capacity at national and regional level: a review of conceptual frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Aluttis


    Full Text Available The concept of capacity building for public health has gained much attention during the last decade. National as well as international organizations increasingly focus their efforts on capacity building to improve performance in the health sector. During the past two decades, a variety of conceptual frameworks have been developed which describe relevant dimensions for public health capacity. Notably, these frameworks differ in design and conceptualization. This paper therefore reviews the existing conceptual frameworks and integrates them into one framework, which contains the most relevant dimensions for public health capacity at the country or regional level. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify frameworks addressing public health capacity building at the national or regional level. We content-analysed these frameworks to identify the core dimensions of public health capacity. The dimensions were subsequently synthesized into a set of thematic areas to construct a conceptual framework which describes the most relevant dimensions for capacities at the national or regional level. The systematic review resulted in the identification of seven core domains for public health capacity: resources, organizational structures, workforce, partnerships, leadership and governance, knowledge development and country specific context. Accordingly, these dimensions were used to construct a framework, which describes these core domains more in detail. Our research shows that although there is no generally agreed upon model of public health capacity, a number of key domains for public health and health promotion capacity are consistently recurring in existing frameworks, regardless of their geographical location or thematic area. As only little work on the core concepts of public health capacities has yet taken place, this study adds value to the discourse by identifying these consistencies across existing frameworks and by synthesising

  16. Selection for Unequal Densities of Sigma70 Promoter-like Signalsin Different Regions of Large Bacterial Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, Araceli M.; Francino, M. Pilar; Morett, Enrique; Collado-Vides, Julio


    The evolutionary processes operating in the DNA regions that participate in the regulation of gene expression are poorly understood. In Escherichia coli, we have established a sequence pattern that distinguishes regulatory from nonregulatory regions. The density of promoter-like sequences, that are recognizable by RNA polymerase and may function as potential promoters, is high within regulatory regions, in contrast to coding regions and regions located between convergently-transcribed genes. Moreover, functional promoter sites identified experimentally are often found in the subregions of highest density of promoter-like signals, even when individual sites with higher binding affinity for RNA polymerase exist elsewhere within the regulatory region. In order to investigate the generality of this pattern, we have used position weight matrices describing the -35 and -10 promoter boxes of E. coli to search for these motifs in 43 additional genomes belonging to most established bacterial phyla, after specific calibration of the matrices according to the base composition of the noncoding regions of each genome. We have found that all bacterial species analyzed contain similar promoter-like motifs, and that, in most cases, these motifs follow the same genomic distribution observed in E. coli. Differential densities between regulatory and nonregulatory regions are detectable in most bacterial genomes, with the exception of those that have experienced evolutionary extreme genome reduction. Thus, the phylogenetic distribution of this pattern mirrors that of genes and other genomic features that require weak selection to be effective in order to persist. On this basis, we suggest that the loss of differential densities in the reduced genomes of host-restricted pathogens and symbionts is the outcome of a process of genome degradation resulting from the decreased efficiency of purifying selection in highly structured small populations. This implies that the differential

  17. High-throughput identification of promoters and screening of highly active promoter-5'-UTR DNA region with different characteristics from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieping Wang

    Full Text Available In bacteria, both promoters and 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTRs of mRNAs play vital regulatory roles in gene expression. In this study, we identified 1203 active promoter candidates in Bacillus thuringiensis through analysis of the genome-wide TSSs based on the transcriptome data. There were 11 types of σ-factor and 34 types of transcription factor binding sites found in 723 and 1097 active promoter candidates, respectively. Moreover, within the 1203 transcriptional units (TUs, most (52% of the 5'-UTRs were 10-50 nucleotides in length, 12.8% of the TUs had a long 5'-UTR greater than 100 nucleotides in length, and 16.3% of the TUs were leaderless. We then selected 20 active promoter candidates combined with the corresponding 5'-UTR DNA regions to screen the highly active promoter-5'-UTR DNA region complexes with different characteristics. Our results demonstrate that among the 20 selected complexes, six were able to exert their functions throughout the life cycle, six were specifically induced during the early-stationary phase, and four were specifically activated during the mid-stationary phase. We found a direct corresponding relationship between σ-factor-recognized consensus sequences and complex activity features: the great majority of complexes acting throughout the life cycle possess σ(A-like consensus sequences; the maximum activities of the σ(F-, σ(E-, σ(G-, and σ(K-dependent complexes appeared at 10, 14, 16, and 22 h under our experimental conditions, respectively. In particular, complex Phj3 exhibited the strongest activity. Several lines of evidence showed that complex Phj3 possessed three independent promoter regions located at -251∼-98, -113∼-31, and -54∼+14, and that the 5'-UTR +1∼+118 DNA region might be particularly beneficial to both the stability and translation of its downstream mRNA. Moreover, Phj3 successfully overexpressed the active β-galactosidase and turbo-RFP, indicating that Phj3 could be a proper

  18. Analysis of the essential DNA region for OsEBP-89 promoter in response to methyl jasmonic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In rice, the characterization of OsEBP-89 is inducible by various stress- or hormone-stimuli, including ethylene, abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonate acid (JA), drought and cold. Here, we report the investigation of essential DNA region within OsEBP-89 promoter for methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) induction. PLACE analysis indicates that this promoter sequence contains multiple potential elements in response to various stimuli. First, we fused this promoter with GUS gene and analyzed its expression under MeJA treatment through Agrobacterium infiltration mediating transient expression in tobacco leaves. Our results revealed that this chimeric gene could be inducible by MeJA in tobacco leaves. To further de- termine the crucial sequences responsible for MeJA induction, we generated a series of deletion pro- moters which were fused with GUS reporter gene respectively. The results of transient expression of GUS gene driven by these mutant promoters show that the essential region for MeJA induction is po- sitioned in the region between -1200 and -800 in OsEBP-89 promoter containing a G-box (?1127), which is distinct from the essential region containing ERE (?562) for ACC induction. In all, our finding is helpful in understanding the molecular mechanism of OsEBP-89 expression under different stimuli.

  19. Genetic Variants in the STMN1 Transcriptional Regulatory Region Affect Promoter Activity and Fear Behavior in English Springer Spaniels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Ding

    Full Text Available Stathmin 1 (STMN1 is a neuronal growth-associated protein that is involved in microtubule dynamics and plays an important role in synaptic outgrowth and plasticity. Given that STMN1 affects fear behavior, we hypothesized that genetic variations in the STMN1 transcriptional regulatory region affect gene transcription activity and control fear behavior. In this study, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, g. -327 A>G and g. -125 C>T, were identified in 317 English Springer Spaniels. A bioinformatics analysis revealed that both were loci located in the canine STMN1 putative promoter region and affected transcription factor binding. A statistical analysis revealed that the TT genotype at g.-125 C>T produced a significantly greater fear level than that of the CC genotype (P < 0.05. Furthermore, the H4H4 (GTGT haplotype combination was significantly associated with canine fear behavior (P < 0.01. Using serially truncated constructs of the STMN1 promoters and the luciferase reporter, we found that a 395 bp (-312 nt to +83 nt fragment constituted the core promoter region. The luciferase assay also revealed that the H4 (GT haplotype promoter had higher activity than that of other haplotypes. Overall, our results suggest that the two SNPs in the canine STMN1 promoter region could affect canine fear behavior by altering STMN1 transcriptional activity.

  20. Geoheritage promotion of Thonon-les-Bains (Fr) region by the development of a geotourism product (United States)

    Fanguin, Pauline


    Since 2012, the Chablais region (only in France) has acquired the Geopark label. This Geopark contributes to sustainable economic development of the region through geotourism. Moreover, the three Chablais (figure 1) are concerned by an Interreg IV program since 2009 (program of cooperation between European countries). The main objective of this program is to enhance the heritage resources (nature, culture and lifestyle of the region) ( Therefore, the geotourism offer in this area just waiting to expand. The geodidactics models like the simplification of the scientific content are essential for geoheritage promotion, because this content must be available to a wide audience, allowing thereby the geoheritage recognition. The geotourism permits to apply different models (Cayla et al. 2010, Sellier, 2009) through a wide range of geotourism products, like guide, educational panels, thematic hikes and recently developed, new medias (website, smartphone applications). A geotourism product is based on four areas of questioning and was developed by Martin et al. (2010): (1) site (choice of sites to be valued), (2) public (a family public, good example of heterogeneous public), (3) contents (reasoning on geodidactics models) and (4) support (smartphone application). These four areas are very fundamental before the creation of any geotourism product. These reflexions aim to obtain a mediation product that integrates into geotourism offer of a region and contributes to its development and meets public expectations. New media, such as digital media - smartphone, tablets, website - become geotourism products more and more attractive. In addition, the necessary technologies to develop new media help to integrate a high interactivity potential with the public and thus get their attention. The architecture of this geotourism product is based on the new application developed by the Institute of Geography and sustainability, and the Bureau Relief. One

  1. Gel shift analysis of the empA promoter region in Vibrio anguillarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denkin Steven M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The induction of metalloprotease encoded by empA in Vibrio anguillarum occurs at high cell density in salmon intestinal mucus. Previously we have shown that there are significant differences in empA expression in two strains of V. anguillarum, M93Sm and NB10. It is hypothesized that differences in empA regulation are due to differences in binding of regulatory elements. Results Two strains of V. anguillarum, M93Sm and NB10, were examined and compared for the presence of DNA regulatory proteins that bind to and control the empA promoter region. Gel mobility shift assays, using a digoxigenin (DIG-labeled oligomer containing a lux box-like element and the promoter for empA, were done to demonstrate the presence of a DNA-binding protein. Protein extracts from NB10 cells incubated in Luria Bertani broth + 2% NaCl (LB20, nine salts solution + 200 μg/ml mucus (NSSM, 3M (marine minimal medium, or NSS resulted in a gel mobility shift. No gel mobility shift was seen when protein extracts from either LB20- or NSSM-grown M93Sm cells were mixed with the DIG-labeled empA oligomer. The azocasein assay detected protease activity in all incubation conditions for NB10 culture supernatants. In contrast, protease activity was detected in M93Sm culture supernatants only when incubated in NSSM. Since the luxR homologue in V. anguillarum, vanT, has been cloned, sequenced, and shown to be required for protease activity, we wanted to determine if vanT mutants of NB10 exhibit the same gel shift observed in the wild-type. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to create vanT mutants in V. anguillarum M93Sm and NB10 to test whether VanT is involved with the gel mobility shift. Both vanT mutants, M02 and NB02, did not produce protease activity in any conditions. However, protein extracts from NB02 incubated in each condition still exhibited a gel shift when mixed with the DIG-labeled empA oligomer. Conclusions The data demonstrate that protein extracts of V

  2. Heterologous expression of Translocated promoter region protein, Tpr, identified as a transcription factor from Rattus norvegicus. (United States)

    Agarwal, Shivani; Yadav, Sunita Kumari; Dixit, Aparna


    Our earlier studies have demonstrated that the 35 kDa isoform of Translocated promoter region protein (Tpr) of Rattus norvegicus was able to augment c-jun transcription efficiently. Identification of direct targets that may in part downregulate c-jun transcription might prove to be an ideal target to curtail the proliferation of normal cells under pathophysiological conditions. In order to evaluate its potential as a pharmaceutical target, the protein must be produced and purified in sufficiently high yields. In the present study, we report the high level expression of Tpr protein of R. norvegicus employing heterologous host, Escherichia coli, to permit its structural characterization in great detail. We here demonstrate that the Tpr protein was expressed in soluble form and approximately 90 mg/L of the purified protein at the shake flask level could be achieved to near homogeneity using single step-metal chelate affinity chromatography. The amino acid sequence of the protein was confirmed by mass spectroscopic analysis. The highly unstable and disordered Tpr protein was imparted structural and functional stability by the addition of glycerol and it has been shown that the natively unfolded Tpr protein retains DNA binding ability under these conditions only. Thus, the present study emphasizes the significance of an efficient prokaryotic system, which results in a high level soluble expression of a DNA binding protein of eukaryotic origin. Thus, the present strategy employed for purification of the R. norvegicus Tpr protein bypasses the need for the tedious expression strategies associated with the eukaryotic expression systems.

  3. “Fear or Love Thy Neighbour”? The EU Framework for Promoting Regional Cooperation in the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Babayan


    Full Text Available Building on the model of the enlargement policy, the European Union (EU designed the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Eastern Partnership to further promote its norms and principles. One of the goals of its new policies has been to foster regional cooperation among partner countries and their neighbours. This article specifies the EU’s framework for promoting regional cooperation through the aforementioned policies and discusses its potential impact on the example of the South Caucasus republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The South Caucasus has not only been an arena of intraregional conflicts, but has also often been troubled by disputes between its neighbours. This article argues that, due to a lack of proactive and consistent engagement, the EU’s framework risks leaving regional conflicts in the current state of stagnation and without advancement in regional cooperation.

  4. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion. (United States)

    Dollman, James; Hull, Melissa; Lewis, Nicole; Carroll, Suzanne; Zarnowiecki, Dorota


    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant primary industries. Participants were recruited through print and electronic media, primary care settings and community organisations. Pedometers were worn by 153 adults for at least four days, including a weekend day. A questionnaire identified potential intra-personal, social and environmental correlates of physical activity, according to a social ecological framework. Regression modelling identified independent correlates of daily walking separately in the two study regions. In one region, there were independent correlates of walking from all levels of the social ecological framework. In the other region, significant correlates of daily walking were almost all demographic (age, education and marital status). Participants living alone were less likely to be physically active regardless of region. This study highlights the importance of considering region-specific factors when designing strategies for promoting regular walking among rural adults.

  5. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dollman


    Full Text Available Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant primary industries. Participants were recruited through print and electronic media, primary care settings and community organisations. Pedometers were worn by 153 adults for at least four days, including a weekend day. A questionnaire identified potential intra-personal, social and environmental correlates of physical activity, according to a social ecological framework. Regression modelling identified independent correlates of daily walking separately in the two study regions. In one region, there were independent correlates of walking from all levels of the social ecological framework. In the other region, significant correlates of daily walking were almost all demographic (age, education and marital status. Participants living alone were less likely to be physically active regardless of region. This study highlights the importance of considering region-specific factors when designing strategies for promoting regular walking among rural adults.

  6. Deletional analysis of functional regions of complementary sense promoter from cotton leaf curl virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Complementary sense promoter from cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a novel plant promoter for genetic engineering that could drive high-level foreign gene expression in plant. To determine the optimal promoter sequence for gene expression, CLCuV promoter was deleted from its 5' end to form promoter fragments with five different lengths, and chimeric gus genes were constructed using the promoter deletion. These vectors were delivered into Agrobacterium and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) plants which were transformed by leaf discs method. GUS activity of transgenic plants was measured. The results showed that GUS activities with the promoter deleted to -287 and -271 from the translation initiation site were respectively about five and three times that of full-length promoter. There exists a cis-element which is important for the expressing activity in phloem from -271 to -176. Deletion from -176 to -141 resulted in a 20-30-fold reduction in GUS activity in leaves with weak activity in leaves and stems and losing GUS activity in roots. The functional domains of complementary sense gene promoter of CLCuV were firstly analyzed and compared. It was found that the promoter activity with the deletion of negative cis-elements was much stronger than that of full-length promoter and was about twelve times on average that of CaMV 35S promoter, suggesting that the promoter has great application potential. Results also provide novel clues for understanding the mechanisms of geminivirus gene regulation and interaction between virus and plant.

  7. A Proximal Promoter Region of Arabidopsis DREB2C Confers Tissue-specific Expression under Heat Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Chen; Jihyun Je; Chieun Song; Jung Eun Hwang; Chae Oh Lim


    The dehydration-responsive element-binding factor 2C (DREB2C) is a member of the CBF/DREB subfamily of proteins,which contains a single APETALA2/Ethylene responsive element-binding factor (AP2/ERF)domain.To identify the expression pattern of the DREB2C gene,which contains multiple transcription cis-regulatory elements in its promoter,an approximately 1.4 kb upstream DREB2C sequence was fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene (GUS) and the recombinant p1244 construct was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.The promoter of the gene directed prominent GUS activity in the vasculature in diverse young dividing tissues.Upon applying heat stress (HS),GUS staining was also enhanced in the vasculature of the growing tissues.Analysis of a series of 5'-deletions of the DREB2C promoter revealed that a proximal upstream sequence sufficient for the tissue-specific spatial and temporal induction of GUS expression by HS is localized in the promoter region between -204 and -34 bps relative to the transcriptional start site.Furthermore,electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that nuclear protein binding activities specific to a -120 to -32 bp promoter fragment increased after HS.These results indicate that the TATA-proximal region and some latent trans-acting factors may cooperate in HS-induced activation of the Arabidopsis DREB2C promoter.

  8. TdaA Regulates Tropodithietic Acid Synthesis by Binding to the tdaC Promoter Region ▿ †


    Geng, Haifeng; Belas, Robert


    Silicibacter sp. TM1040, a member of the marine Roseobacter clade, produces the antibiotic and quorum signaling molecule tropodithietic acid (TDA), encoded by tdaABCDEF. Here, we showed that an LysR-type transcriptional regulator, TdaA, is a positive regulator of tdaCDE gene expression and binds to the tdaC promoter region.

  9. Gene Expression in Archaea: Studies of Transcriptional Promoters, Messenger RNA Processing, and Five Prime Untranslated Regions in "Methanocaldococcus Jannashchii" (United States)

    Zhang, Jian


    Gene expression in Archaea is less understood than those in Bacteria and Eucarya. In general, three steps are involved in gene expression--transcription, RNA processing, and translation. To expand our knowledge of these processes in Archaea, I have studied transcriptional promoters, messenger RNA processing, and 5'-untranslated regions in…

  10. Public Health and Health Promotion Capacity at National and Regional Level: A Review of Conceptual Frameworks (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; den Broucke, Stephan Van; Chiotan, Cristina; Costongs, Caroline; Michelsen, Kai; Brand, Helmut


    The concept of capacity building for public health has gained much attention during the last decade. National as well as international organizations increasingly focus their efforts on capacity building to improve performance in the health sector. During the past two decades, a variety of conceptual frameworks have been developed which describe relevant dimensions for public health capacity. Notably, these frameworks differ in design and conceptualization. This paper therefore reviews the existing conceptual frameworks and integrates them into one framework, which contains the most relevant dimensions for public health capacity at the country- or regional level. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify frameworks addressing public health capacity building at the national or regional level. We content-analysed these frameworks to identify the core dimensions of public health capacity. The dimensions were subsequently synthesized into a set of thematic areas to construct a conceptual framework which describes the most relevant dimensions for capacities at the national- or regional level. The systematic review resulted in the identification of seven core domains for public health capacity: resources, organizational structures, workforce, partnerships, leadership and governance, knowledge development and country specific context. Accordingly, these dimensions were used to construct a framework, which describes these core domains more in detail. Our research shows that although there is no generally agreedupon model of public health capacity, a number of key domains for public health and health promotion capacity are consistently recurring in existing frameworks, regardless of their geographical location or thematic area. As only little work on the core concepts of public health capacities has yet taken place, this study adds value to the discourse by identifying these consistencies across existing frameworks and by synthesising them into a new

  11. Public health and health promotion capacity at national and regional level: a review of conceptual frameworks. (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; den Broucke, Stephan Van; Chiotan, Cristina; Costongs, Caroline; Michelsen, Kai; Brand, Helmut


    The concept of capacity building for public health has gained much attention during the last decade. National as well as international organizations increasingly focus their efforts on capacity building to improve performance in the health sector. During the past two decades, a variety of conceptual frameworks have been developed which describe relevant dimensions for public health capacity. Notably, these frameworks differ in design and conceptualization. This paper therefore reviews the existing conceptual frameworks and integrates them into one framework, which contains the most relevant dimensions for public health capacity at the country- or regional level. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify frameworks addressing public health capacity building at the national or regional level. We content-analysed these frameworks to identify the core dimensions of public health capacity. The dimensions were subsequently synthesized into a set of thematic areas to construct a conceptual framework which describes the most relevant dimensions for capacities at the national- or regional level. The systematic review resulted in the identification of seven core domains for public health capacity: resources, organizational structures, workforce, partnerships, leadership and governance, knowledge development and country specific context. Accordingly, these dimensions were used to construct a framework, which describes these core domains more in detail. Our research shows that although there is no generally agreedupon model of public health capacity, a number of key domains for public health and health promotion capacity are consistently recurring in existing frameworks, regardless of their geographical location or thematic area. As only little work on the core concepts of public health capacities has yet taken place, this study adds value to the discourse by identifying these consistencies across existing frameworks and by synthesising them into a new

  12. Interleukin 10.G microsatellite in the promoter region of the interleukin-10 gene in severe sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Background The highly polymorphic interleukin 10.G (IL10.G) microsatellite located in the promoter region of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene exerts a positive transcriptional regulatory effect on IL-10 gene expression and correlates with the in vitro IL-10 secretion. This study was conducted to investigate whether IL10.G microsatellite is associated with the incidence and /or the outcome of severe sepsis.Methods One hundred and fifteen patients with severe sepsis who had been treated at the intensive care unit of the university hospital were studied. One hundred and forty-one healthy individuals served as controls. IL10.G microsatellite genotyping was performed with the following two methods: fluorescent based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques and silver staining of the amplified DNA fragment in polyacrylamide gel. Alleles were defined according to the size of the amplified DNA product.Results Ten alleles and 36 genotypes were detected both in the patients with severe sepsis and in the healthy controls. Allele IL10.G9 and allele IL10.G13 were the commonest alleles with the frequencies of 32.6% and 21.3% respectively in the patients with severe sepsis, and 34% and 27% respectively in the healthy controls. The allele frequencies of IL10.G microsatellite were neither different between the patients with severe sepsis and the healthy controls (P > 0.05), nor between survivors and non-survivors (P > 0.05). However, the frequency of one common allele IL10.G13 was slightly lower in the patients with severe sepsis than in the healthy controls (21.3% vs 27%, P > 0.05), and the frequency of allele IL10.G9 was slightly higher in the non-survivors than in the survivors (37.1% vs 28.1%, P > 0.05).Conclusion IL10.G microsatellite may neither contribute to the susceptibility to severe sepsis nor to the fatal outcome of severe sepsis.

  13. Expression pattern and core region analysis of AtMPK3 promoter in response to environmental stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The protein kinase AtMPK3,a component of the MAP kinase cascade,plays an important role in stress signal transduction in plant cells. To clarify how AtMPK3 is regulated at the transcriptional level in response to various environmental factors, the 1016-bp promoter sequence upstream of the transcription start site of the AtMPK3 gene was isolated. Analyses of the promoter sequence using plant promoter databases revealed that the AtMPK3 promoter contains many potential cis-acting elements involved in environmental stress responses. We constructed four deletion mutants of the AtMPK3 promoter, and introduced the intact and truncated promoter sequences fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene into Arabidopsis. GUS histochemical staining and quantitative fluorometric GUS assays were performed to visualize and compare the expression patterns in response to different environmental stimuli. The region between-188 and-62 upstream of the transcription start site was identified as the essential DNA sequence of the AtMPK3 promoter for responses to drought, high salinity, low temperature, and wounding. These results advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling AtMPK3 expression in response to different environmental stimuli.

  14. Construction of chimeric antibodies: cloning of immunoglobulin genes including their promoter regions by PCR. (United States)

    Mocikat, R; Kütemeier, G; Harloff, C


    In the production of recombinant antibodies, it is necessary to have an immunoglobulin gene promoter for driving the expression of the antibody genes. Here we describe a simple PCR method that allows cloning of the immunoglobulin genes together with their own promoters despite the fact that the sequence of the upstream part of the gene is unknown.

  15. Deletional analysis of functional regions of complementary sense promoter from cotton leaf curl virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢迎秋; 刘玉乐; 朱祯


    Complementary sense promoter from cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a novel plant promoter for genetic engineering that could drive high-level foreign gene expression in plant. To determine the optimal promoter sequence for gene expression, CLCuV promoter was deleted from its 5’ end to form promoter fragments with five different lengths, and chimeric gus genes were constructed using the promoterdeletion. These vectors were delivered into Agrobacterium and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L cv. Xanthi) plants which were transformed by leaf discs method. GUS activity of transgenic plants was measured. The results showed that GUS activities with the promoter deleted to -287 and -271 from the translation initiation site were respectively about five and three times that of full-length promoter. There exists a c/s-element which is important for the expressing activity in phloem from -271 to -176. Deletion from -176 to -141 resulted in a 20-30-fold reduction in GUS activity in leaves with weak activity in leaves and

  16. Methylated Host Cell Gene Promoters and Human Papillomavirus Type 16 and 18 Predicting Cervical Lesions and Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Milutin Gašperov

    Full Text Available Change in the host and/or human papillomavirus (HPV DNA methylation profile is probably one of the main factors responsible for the malignant progression of cervical lesions to cancer. To investigate those changes we studied 173 cervical samples with different grades of cervical lesion, from normal to cervical cancer. The methylation status of nine cellular gene promoters, CCNA1, CDH1, C13ORF18, DAPK1, HIC1, RARβ2, hTERT1, hTERT2 and TWIST1, was investigated by Methylation Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSP. The methylation of HPV18 L1-gene was also investigated by MSP, while the methylated cytosines within four regions, L1, 5'LCR, enhancer, and promoter of the HPV16 genome covering 19 CpG sites were evaluated by bisulfite sequencing. Statistically significant methylation biomarkers distinguishing between cervical precursor lesions from normal cervix were primarily C13ORF18 and secondly CCNA1, and those distinguishing cervical cancer from normal or cervical precursor lesions were CCNA1, C13ORF18, hTERT1, hTERT2 and TWIST1. In addition, the methylation analysis of individual CpG sites of the HPV16 genome in different sample groups, notably the 7455 and 7694 sites, proved to be more important than the overall methylation frequency. The majority of HPV18 positive samples contained both methylated and unmethylated L1 gene, and samples with L1-gene methylated forms alone had better prognosis when correlated with the host cell gene promoters' methylation profiles. In conclusion, both cellular and viral methylation biomarkers should be used for monitoring cervical lesion progression to prevent invasive cervical cancer.

  17. Binding of the Lactococcal Drug Dependent Transcriptional Regulator LmrR to Its Ligands and Responsive Promoter Regions.

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    Jan Pieter van der Berg

    Full Text Available The heterodimeric ABC transporter LmrCD from Lactococcus lactis is able to extrude several different toxic compounds from the cell, fulfilling a role in the intrinsic and induced drug resistance. The expression of the lmrCD genes is regulated by the multi-drug binding repressor LmrR, which also binds to its own promoter to autoregulate its own expression. Previously, we reported the crystal structure of LmrR in the presence and absence of the drugs Hoechst 33342 and daunomycin. Analysis of the mechanism how drugs control the repressor activity of LmrR is impeded by the fact that these drugs also bind to DNA. Here we identified, using X-ray crystallography and fluorescence, that riboflavin binds into the drug binding cavity of LmrR, adopting a similar binding mode as Hoechst 33342 and daunomycin. Microscale thermophoresis was employed to quantify the binding affinity of LmrR to its responsive promoter regions and to evaluate the cognate site of LmrR in the lmrCD promoter region. Riboflavin reduces the binding affinity of LmrR for the promoter regions. Our results support a model wherein drug binding to LmrR relieves the LmrR dependent repression of the lmrCD genes.

  18. The brand of regional products as a tool to promote rural development (on the basis of opolskie voivodeship

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    Sabina Kauf


    Full Text Available In recent years a growing interest in regional products could be observed. Products which names point to the place of their origin are bought willingly. Regional products are frequently rediscovered, often found by accident to be finally found with a great efforts in the shops. The specific qualities of the regional products, and especially those of traditional food products, decide about their originality and authenticity. It also proves the fact that they are bought more willingly than mass products. The research on the behaviour of the consumers on the regional products market in Opole area shows that these products are bought willingly. They also create a chance to show and promote the region they are from.

  19. A promoter melting region in the primary sigma factor of Bacillus subtilis. Identification of functionally important aromatic amino acids. (United States)

    Juang, Y L; Helmann, J D


    Sigma factor (sigma) is a dissociable subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase that determines promoter recognition. It has been proposed that a cluster of highly conserved aromatic amino acids in bacterial sigma factors (region 2.3) defines a melting motif that functions in strand-separation during open complex formation. We demonstrate that many alterations in region 2.3 of the Bacillus subtilis sigma A protein specifically impair open complex formation. The region 2.3 mutations can be grouped in three classes: (1) mutations that do not significantly affect promoter recognition or melting; (2) mutations that lead to cold-sensitive transcription of linear templates; and (3) mutations that lead to little activity on linear templates but retain activity at high temperatures on supercoiled templates. RNA polymerase holoenzymes containing sigma factor melting mutants (classes 2 and 3) form predominantly closed complexes at 40 degrees C and are defective for RNA synthesis when initiation is rate-limiting. The melting defect of these mutant sigma factors is suppressed by template supercoiling, but further enhanced by inclusion of the auxiliary RNA polymerase subunit delta. Consequently, in the presence of the delta polypeptide, the mutant holoenzymes display cold-sensitive transcription on supercoiled templates: conditions which mimic the in vivo situation. A subset of these mutations also affects promoter selectivity, suggesting that region 2.3 may participate in both -10 recognition and DNA melting.

  20. New PAH gene promoter KLF1 and 3'-region C/EBPalpha motifs influence transcription in vitro. (United States)

    Klaassen, Kristel; Stankovic, Biljana; Kotur, Nikola; Djordjevic, Maja; Zukic, Branka; Nikcevic, Gordana; Ugrin, Milena; Spasovski, Vesna; Srzentic, Sanja; Pavlovic, Sonja; Stojiljkovic, Maja


    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disease caused by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Although the PAH genotype remains the main determinant of PKU phenotype severity, genotype-phenotype inconsistencies have been reported. In this study, we focused on unanalysed sequences in non-coding PAH gene regions to assess their possible influence on the PKU phenotype. We transiently transfected HepG2 cells with various chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter constructs which included PAH gene non-coding regions. Selected non-coding regions were indicated by in silico prediction to contain transcription factor binding sites. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and supershift assays were performed to identify which transcriptional factors were engaged in the interaction. We found novel KLF1 motif in the PAH promoter, which decreases CAT activity by 50 % in comparison to basal transcription in vitro. The cytosine at the c.-170 promoter position creates an additional binding site for the protein complex involving KLF1 transcription factor. Moreover, we assessed for the first time the role of a multivariant variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) region located in the 3'-region of the PAH gene. We found that the VNTR3, VNTR7 and VNTR8 constructs had approximately 60 % of CAT activity. The regulation is mediated by the C/EBPalpha transcription factor, present in protein complex binding to VNTR3. Our study highlighted two novel promoter KLF1 and 3'-region C/EBPalpha motifs in the PAH gene which decrease transcription in vitro and, thus, could be considered as PAH expression modifiers. New transcription motifs in non-coding regions will contribute to better understanding of the PKU phenotype complexity and may become important for the optimisation of PKU treatment.

  1. Characterization of promoter region and genomic structure of the murine and human genes encoding Src like adapter protein. (United States)

    Kratchmarova, I; Sosinowski, T; Weiss, A; Witter, K; Vincenz, C; Pandey, A


    Src-like adapter protein (SLAP) was identified as a signaling molecule in a yeast two-hybrid system using the cytoplasmic domain of EphA2, a receptor protein tyrosine kinase (Pandey et al., 1995. Characterization of a novel Src-like adapter protein that associates with the Eck receptor tyrosine kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 19201-19204). It is very similar to members of the Src family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases in that it contains very homologous SH3 and SH2 domains (Abram and Courtneidge, 2000. Src family tyrosine kinases and growth factor signaling. Exp. Cell. Res. 254, 1-13.). However, instead of a kinase domain at the C-terminus, it contains a unique C-terminal region. In order to exclude the possibility that an alternative form exists, we have isolated genomic clones containing the murine Slap gene as well as the human SLA gene. The coding regions of murine Slap and human SLA genes contain seven exons and six introns. Absence of any kinase domain in the genomic region confirm its designation as an adapter protein. Additionally, we have cloned and sequenced approximately 2.6 kb of the region 5' to the initiator methionine of the murine Slap gene. When subcloned upstream of a luciferase gene, this fragment increased the transcriptional activity about 6-fold in a human Jurkat T cell line and approximately 52-fold in a murine T cell line indicating that this region contains promoter elements that dictate SLAP expression. We have also cloned the promoter region of the human SLA gene. Since SLAP is transcriptionally regulated by retinoic acid and by activation of B cells, the cloning of its promoter region will permit a detailed analysis of the elements required for its transcriptional regulation.

  2. Hypermethylation of the DPYD promoter region is not a major predictor of severe toxicity in 5-fluorouracil based chemotherapy

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    Aebi Stefan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The activity of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD, the key enzyme of pyrimidine catabolism, is thought to be an important determinant for the occurrence of severe toxic reactions to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, which is one of the most commonly prescribed chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of solid cancers. Genetic variation in the DPD gene (DPYD has been proposed as a main factor for variation in DPD activity in the population. However, only a small proportion of severe toxicities in 5-FU based chemotherapy can be explained with such rare deleterious DPYD mutations resulting in severe enzyme deficiencies. Recently, hypermethylation of the DPYD promoter region has been proposed as an alternative mechanism for DPD deficiency and thus as a major cause of severe 5-FU toxicity. Methods Here, the prognostic significance of this epigenetic marker with respect to severe 5-FU toxicity was assessed in 27 cancer patients receiving 5-FU based chemotherapy, including 17 patients experiencing severe toxic side effects following drug administration, none of which were carriers of a known deleterious DPYD mutation, and ten control patients. The methylation status of the DPYD promoter region in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was evaluated by analysing for each patient between 19 and 30 different clones of a PCR-amplified 209 base pair fragment of the bisulfite-modified DPYD promoter region. The fragments were sequenced to detect bisulfite-induced, methylation-dependent sequence differences. Results No evidence of DPYD promoter methylation was observed in any of the investigated patient samples, whereas in a control experiment, as little as 10% methylated genomic DNA could be detected. Conclusion Our results indicate that DYPD promoter hypermethylation is not of major importance as a prognostic factor for severe toxicity in 5-FU based chemotherapy.

  3. Characterization of the Promoter Regions of Two Sheep Keratin-Associated Protein Genes for Hair Cortex-Specific Expression. (United States)

    Zhao, Zhichao; Liu, Guangbin; Li, Xinyun; Huang, Ji; Xiao, Yujing; Du, Xiaoyong; Yu, Mei


    The keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are the structural proteins of hair fibers and are thought to play an important role in determining the physical properties of hair fibers. These proteins are activated in a striking sequential and spatial pattern in the keratinocytes of hair fibers. Thus, it is important to elucidate the mechanism that underlies the specific transcriptional activity of these genes. In this study, sheep KRTAP 3-3 and KRTAP11-1 genes were found to be highly expressed in wool follicles in a tissue-specific manner. Subsequently, the promoter regions of the two genes that contained the 5' flanking/5' untranslated regions and the coding regions were cloned. Using an in vivo transgenic approach, we found that the promoter regions from the two genes exhibited transcriptional activity in hair fibers. A much stronger and more uniformly expressed green fluorescent signal was observed in the KRTAP11-1-ZsGreen1 transgenic mice. In situ hybridization revealed the symmetrical expression of sheep KRTAP11-1 in the entire wool cortex. Consistently, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the pattern of ZsGreen1 expression in the hair cortex of transgenic mice matches that of the endogenous KRTAP11-1 gene, indicating that the cloned promoter region contains elements that are sufficient to govern the wool cortex-specific transcription of KRTAP11-1. Furthermore, regulatory regions in the 5' upstream sequence of the sheep KRTAP11-1 gene that may regulate the observed hair keratinocyte specificity were identified using in vivo reporter assays.

  4. Induced Pib Expression and Resistance to Magnaporthe grisea are Compromised by Cytosine Demethylation at Critical Promoter Regions in Rice. (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Xia, Qiong; Kou, Hongping; Wang, Dan; Lin, Xiuyun; Wu, Ying; Xu, Chunming; Xing, Shaochen; Liu, Bao


    Pib is a well-characterized rice blast-resistance gene belonging to the nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) superfamily. Expression of Pib was low under non-challenged conditions, but strongly induced by the blast-causing fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea, thereby conferring resistance to the pathogen. It is generally established that cytosine methylation of the promoter-region often plays a repressive role in modulating expression of the gene in question. We report here that two critical regions of the Pib promoter were heavily CG cytosine-methylated in both cultivars studied. Surprisingly, induced expression of Pib by M. grisea infection did not entail its promoter demethylation, and partial demethylation by 5-azacytidine-treatment actually reduced Pib expression relative to wild-type plants. Accordingly, the blast disease-resistance was compromised in the 5'-azaC-treated plants relative to wild-type. In contrast, the disease susceptibility was not affected by the 5'-azaC treatment in another two rice cultivars that did not contain the Pib gene, ruling out effects of other R genes and non-specific genotoxic effects by the drug-treatment as a cause for the compromised Pib-conditioned blast-resistance. Taken together, our results suggest that promoter DNA methylation plays a novel enhancing role in conditioning high-level of induced expression of the Pib gene in times of M. grisea infection, and its conferred resistance to the pathogen.

  5. Association between DNA Methylation of the BDNF Promoter Region and Clinical Presentation in Alzheimer's Disease

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    Tomoyuki Nagata


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In the present study, we examined whether DNA methylation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF promoter is associated with the manifestation and clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: Of 20 patients with AD and 20 age-matched normal controls (NCs, the DNA methylation of the BDNF promoter (measured using peripheral blood samples was completely analyzed in 12 patients with AD and 6 NCs. The resulting methylation levels were compared statistically. Next, we investigated the correlation between the DNA methylation levels and the clinical presentation of AD. Results: The total methylation ratio (in % of the 20 CpG sites was significantly higher in the AD patients (5.08 ± 5.52% than in the NCs (2.09 ± 0.81%; p Conclusion: These results suggest that the DNA methylation of the BDNF promoter may significantly influence the manifestation of AD and might be associated with its neurocognitive presentation.

  6. Genetic Dissection of the Light-Inducible carQRS Promoter Region of Myxococcus xanthus


    Whitworth, David E.; Bryan, Samantha J.; Berry, Andrew E.; McGowan, Simon J.; Hodgson, David A


    In Myxococcus xanthus photoprotective carotenoids are produced in response to illumination due to regulated expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes at two loci. Induction of the carotenogenesis regulon is dependent on expression of the carQRS operon. The first gene product of the operon, CarQ, is a sigma factor belonging to the ECF family and is responsible for light-dependent initiation of transcription at the carQRS promoter. We defined the minimal carQRS promoter as a 145-bp fragment o...

  7. Expressing activity of promoter elements of large intergenic region from cotton leaf curl virus in host plant*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a type of single-stranded DNAvirus, belonging to geminivirus of subgroup III. In order to determine the function of CLCuV large intergenic region (LIR), total DNA of CLCuV-infected cotton leaves was used as template, and fragment of LIR was obtained by PCR and inserted into clone vector. The fragment of LIR was fused with gus reporter gene and nos terminator in the orientation of transcription of virion sense and complementary sense respectively, and the plant expression vectors were constructed. GUS activity of Agrobacterium-mediated transgenic tobacco was measured. The result indicated that LIR showed strong promoter activity in complementary sense gene orientation. Average GUS activity of the complementary sense promoter was 5-6 times that of CaMV 35S promoter, and the highest GUS activity of individual plant was ten times of that of CaMV 35S promoter. Histochemical localization confirmed its activity in both mesophyll and vascular tissues. Activity of virion sense of LIR was rather low. Thus LIR isolated from CLCuV could be used as a novel strong promoter in plant genetic manipulation.

  8. Improved heterologous protein expression in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii through promoter and 5' untranslated region optimization. (United States)

    Rasala, Beth A; Muto, Machiko; Sullivan, Joseph; Mayfield, Stephen P


    Microalgae have the potential to be a valuable biotechnological platform for the production of recombinant proteins. However, because of the complex regulatory network that tightly controls chloroplast gene expression, heterologous protein accumulation in a wild-type, photosynthetic-competent algal chloroplast remains low. High levels of heterologous protein accumulation have been achieved using the psbA promoter/5' untranslated region (UTR), but only in a psbA-deficient genetic background, because of psbA/D1-dependent auto-attenuation. Here, we examine the effect of fusing the strong 16S rRNA promoter to the 5' UTR of the psbA and atpA genes on transgene expression in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We show that fusion of the 16S promoter had little impact on protein accumulation from the psbA 5' UTR in a psbA-deficient genetic background. Furthermore, the 16S/psbA promoter/UTR fusion was silenced in the presence of wild-type levels of D1 protein, confirming that the psbA 5' UTR is the primary target for D1-dependent auto-repression. However, fusion of the 16S promoter to the atpA 5' UTR significantly boosts mRNA levels and supports high levels of heterologous protein accumulation in photosynthetic-competent cells. The 16S/atpA promoter/UTR drove LUXCT protein accumulation to levels close to that of psbA in a psbA- background, and drove expression of a human therapeutic protein to levels only twofold lower than the psbA 5' UTR. The 16S/atpA promoter/UTR combination should have utility for heterologous protein production when expression from a photosynthetic-competent microalgal strain is required.

  9. Methylation of BRCA1 promoter region is associated with unfavorable prognosis in women with early-stage breast cancer. (United States)

    Hsu, Nicholas C; Huang, Ya-Fang; Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Chu, Pei-Yi; Chen, Fang-Ming; Hou, Ming-Feng


    BRCA1-associated breast cancers are associated with particular features such as early onset, poor histological differentiation, and hormone receptor negativity. Previous studies conducted in Taiwanese population showed that the mutation of BRCA1 gene does not play a significant role in the occurrence of breast cancer. The present study explored methylation of BRCA1 promoter and its relationship to clinical features and outcome in Taiwanese breast cancer patients. Tumor specimens from a cohort of 139 early-stage breast cancer patients were obtained during surgery before adjuvant treatment for DNA extraction. Methylation of BRCA1 promoter region was determined by methylation-specific PCR and the results were related to clinical features and outcome of patients using statistical analysis. Methylation of the BRCA1 promoter was detected in 78 (56%) of the 139 tumors. Chi-square analysis indicated that BRCA1 promoter methylation correlated significantly with triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-) status of breast cancer patients (p = 0.041). The Kaplan-Meier method showed that BRCA1 promoter methylation was significantly associated with poor overall survival (p = 0.026) and disease-free survival (p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis which incorporated variables of patients' age, tumor size, grade, and lymph node metastasis revealed that BRCA1 promoter methylation was associated with overall survival (p = 0.027; hazard ratio, 16.38) and disease-free survival (p = 0.003; hazard ratio, 12.19) [corrected].Our findings underscore the clinical relevance of the methylation of BRCA1 promoter in Taiwanese patients with early-stage breast cancer.

  10. [Methylation of FHIT gene promoter region in DNA from plasma of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and demethylating effect of decitabine]. (United States)

    Deng, Yin-Fen; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xiu-Qun; Hu, Ming-Qiu; Dai, Dan; Zhang, Xue-Zhong; Xu, Yan-Li


    This study was aimed to detect the methylation status of FHIT gene promoter region in the DNA from plasma of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and to investigate the demethylating effect of decitabine. Methylation-specific PCR method was used to detect the methylation status of FHIT gene promoter region in the DNA from plasma of 4 patients with MDS before and after treatment with decitabine plus semis CAG therapy (among them, 1 case of newly diagnosed MDS, 3 cases progressed into acute leukemia). The results indicated that 3 cases were found to have an increased methylation in the promoter region. After treatment with decitabine plus semis CAG, increased methylation was reversed in 2 cases. In 4 cases, 2 cases displayed clinical response. It is concluded that FHIT gene hypermethylation is associated with MDS pathogenesis. Decitabine has demethylating effect on the FHIT gene hypermethylation of plasma from MDS patients. Detecting the methylation status of FHIT gene in DNA from plasma may play a role in MDS auxiliary diagnosis or prognosis.

  11. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region - Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela CV


    We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care. PMID:26560976

  12. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region--Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal. (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela C V


    We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care.

  13. Induced somatic sector analysis of cellulose synthase (CesA) promoter regions in woody stem tissues. (United States)

    Creux, Nicky M; Bossinger, Gerd; Myburg, Alexander A; Spokevicius, Antanas V


    The increasing focus on plantation forestry as a renewable source of cellulosic biomass has emphasized the need for tools to study the unique biology of woody genera such as Eucalyptus, Populus and Pinus. The domestication of these woody crops is hampered by long generation times, and breeders are now looking to molecular approaches such as marker-assisted breeding and genetic modification to accelerate tree improvement. Much of what is known about genes involved in the growth and development of plants has come from studies of herbaceous models such as Arabidopsis and rice. However, transferring this information to woody plants often proves difficult, especially for genes expressed in woody stems. Here we report the use of induced somatic sector analysis (ISSA) for characterization of promoter expression patterns directly in the stems of Populus and Eucalyptus trees. As a case study, we used previously characterized primary and secondary cell wall-related cellulose synthase (CesA) promoters cloned from Eucalyptus grandis. We show that ISSA can be used to elucidate the phloem and xylem expression patterns of the CesA genes in Eucalyptus and Populus stems and also show that the staining patterns differ in Eucalyptus and Populus stems. These findings show that ISSA is an efficient approach to investigate promoter function in the developmental context of woody plant tissues and raise questions about the suitability of heterologous promoters for genetic manipulation in plant species.

  14. Promotion of physical activity in the European region: content analysis of 27 national policy documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Signe B; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Racioppi, Francesca;


    search methods, 49 national policy documents on physical activity promotion were identified. An analysis grid covering key features was developed for the analysis of the 27 documents published in English. RESULTS: Analysis showed that many general recommendations for policy developments are being...

  15. Association of polymorphisms of interleukin-18 gene promoter region with polycystic ovary syndrome in chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mei-zhi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research shows that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS may have an association with low-grade chronic inflammation, and that PCOS may induce an increase in serum interleukin-18 (IL-18 levels. Methods To investigate the polymorphisms of the IL-18 gene promoters with PCOS, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the promoter of the IL-18 gene (at positions -607C/A and -137G/C in 118 Chinese women with PCOS and 79 controls were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results No significant differences were found in the genotype distribution, allele frequency and haplotype frequency between the PCOS and control groups. Further analysis demonstrated a relationship between IL-18 gene promoter polymorphisms and PCOS insulin resistance (IR. Regarding the -137 allele frequency, G and C allele frequencies were 93.5% and 6.5%, respectively, in the PCOS with IR patients; G and C allele frequencies were 85.4% and 14.6%, respectively, in PCOS patients without IR (chi2 = 3.601, P = 0.048. Conclusions The presence of a polymorphism in the IL-18 gene was found to have no correlation with the occurrence of PCOS. Carriage of the C allele at position -137 in the promoter of the IL-18 gene may play a protective role from the development of PCOS IR.

  16. A distal region of the human TGM1 promoter is required for expression in transgenic mice and cultured keratinocytes

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    Lu Ying


    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGM1(transglutaminase 1 is an enzyme that crosslinks the cornified envelope of mature keratinocytes. Appropriate expression of the TGM1 gene is crucial for proper keratinocyte function as inactivating mutations lead to the debilitating skin disease, lamellar ichthyosis. TGM1 is also expressed in squamous metaplasia, a consequence in some epithelia of vitamin A deficiency or toxic insult that can lead to neoplasia. An understanding of the regulation of this gene in normal and abnormal differentiation states may contribute to better disease diagnosis and treatment. Methods In vivo requirements for expression of the TGM1 gene were studied by fusing various lengths of promoter DNA to a reporter and injecting the DNA into mouse embryos to generate transgenic animals. Expression of the reporter was ascertained by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Further delineation of a transcriptionally important distal region was determined by transfections of progressively shortened or mutated promoter DNA into cultured keratinocytes. Results In vivo analysis of a reporter transgene driven by the TGM1 promoter revealed that 1.6 kilobases, but not 1.1 kilobases, of DNA was sufficient to confer tissue-specific and cell layer-specific expression. This same region was responsible for reporter expression in tissues undergoing squamous metaplasia as a response to vitamin A deprivation. Mutation of a distal promoter AP1 site or proximal promoter CRE site, both identified as important transcriptional elements in transfection assays, did not prevent appropriate expression. Further searching for transcriptional elements using electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA and transfection assays in cultured keratinocytes identified two Sp1 elements in a transcriptionally active region between -1.6 and -1.4 kilobases. While mutation of either Sp1 site or the AP1 site singly had only a small effect, mutation of all three sites eliminated nearly all the

  17. Vitamin D Responsive Elements within the HLA-DRB1 Promoter Region in Sardinian Multiple Sclerosis Associated Alleles (United States)

    Murru, Maria Rita; Corongiu, Daniela; Tranquilli, Stefania; Fadda, Elisabetta; Murru, Raffaele; Schirru, Lucia; Secci, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Gianna; Asunis, Isadora; Cuccu, Stefania; Fenu, Giuseppe; Lorefice, Lorena; Carboni, Nicola; Mura, Gioia; Rosatelli, Maria Cristina; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna


    Vitamin D response elements (VDREs) have been found in the promoter region of the MS-associated allele HLA-DRB1*15∶01, suggesting that with low vitamin D availability VDREs are incapable of inducing *15∶01 expression allowing in early life autoreactive T-cells to escape central thymic deletion. The Italian island of Sardinia exhibits a very high frequency of MS and high solar radiation exposure. We test the contribution of VDREs analysing the promoter region of the MS-associated DRB1 *04∶05, *03∶01, *13∶01 and *15∶01 and non-MS-associated *16∶01, *01, *11, *07∶01 alleles in a cohort of Sardinians (44 MS patients and 112 healthy subjects). Sequencing of the DRB1 promoter region revealed a homozygous canonical VDRE in all *15∶01, *16∶01, *11 and in 45/73 *03∶01 and in heterozygous state in 28/73 *03∶01 and all *01 alleles. A new mutated homozygous VDRE was found in all *13∶03, *04∶05 and *07∶01 alleles. Functionality of mutated and canonical VDREs was assessed for its potential to modulate levels of DRB1 gene expression using an in vitro transactivation assay after stimulation with active vitamin D metabolite. Vitamin D failed to increase promoter activity of the *04∶05 and *03∶01 alleles carrying the new mutated VDRE, while the *16∶01 and *03∶01 alleles carrying the canonical VDRE sequence showed significantly increased transcriptional activity. The ability of VDR to bind the mutant VDRE in the DRB1 promoter was evaluated by EMSA. Efficient binding of VDR to the VDRE sequence found in the *16∶01 and in the *15∶01 allele reduced electrophoretic mobility when either an anti-VDR or an anti-RXR monoclonal antibody was added. Conversely, the Sardinian mutated VDRE sample showed very low affinity for the RXR/VDR heterodimer. These data seem to exclude a role of VDREs in the promoter region of the DRB1 gene in susceptibility to MS carried by DRB1* alleles in Sardinian patients. PMID:22848563

  18. The TAF9 C-terminal conserved region domain is required for SAGA and TFIID promoter occupancy to promote transcriptional activation. (United States)

    Saint, Malika; Sawhney, Sonal; Sinha, Ishani; Singh, Rana Pratap; Dahiya, Rashmi; Thakur, Anushikha; Siddharthan, Rahul; Natarajan, Krishnamurthy


    A common function of the TFIID and SAGA complexes, which are recruited by transcriptional activators, is to deliver TBP to promoters to stimulate transcription. Neither the relative contributions of the five shared TBP-associated factor (TAF) subunits in TFIID and SAGA nor the requirement for different domains in shared TAFs for transcriptional activation is well understood. In this study, we uncovered the essential requirement for the highly conserved C-terminal region (CRD) of Taf9, a shared TAF, for transcriptional activation in yeast. Transcriptome profiling performed under Gcn4-activating conditions showed that the Taf9 CRD is required for induced expression of ∼9% of the yeast genome. The CRD was not essential for the Taf9-Taf6 interaction, TFIID or SAGA integrity, or Gcn4 interaction with SAGA in cell extracts. Microarray profiling of a SAGA mutant (spt20Δ) yielded a common set of genes induced by Spt20 and the Taf9 CRD. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that, although the Taf9 CRD mutation did not impair Gcn4 occupancy, the occupancies of TFIID, SAGA, and the preinitiation complex were severely impaired at several promoters. These results suggest a crucial role for the Taf9 CRD in genome-wide transcription and highlight the importance of conserved domains, other than histone fold domains, as a common determinant for TFIID and SAGA functions.

  19. Promoting survival: A grounded theory study of consequences of modern health practices in Ouramanat region of Iranian Kurdistan. (United States)

    Mohammadpur, Ahmad; Rezaei, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Rasoul


    The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the way people using modern health care perceive its consequences in Ouraman-e-Takht region of Iranian Kurdistan. Ouraman-e-Takht is a rural, highly mountainous and dry region located in the southwest Kurdistan province of Iran. Recently, modern health practices have been introduced to the region. The purpose of this study was to investigate, from the Ouramains' point of view, the impact that modern health services and practices have had on the Ouraman traditional way of life. Interview data from respondents were analyzed by using grounded theory. Promoting survival was the core category that explained the impact that modern health practices have had on the Ouraman region. The people of Ouraman interpreted modern health practices as increasing their quality of life and promoting their survival. Results are organized around this core category in a paradigm model consisting of conditions, interactions, and consequences. This model can be used to understand the impact of change from the introduction of modern health on a traditional society.

  20. Analysis of the Impact of the Flow of Migrant Workers on Regional Economy: Based on the Thought about the Promotion of Jiangxi Regional Economic Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yuping


    Full Text Available Labor resource is the necessary productive factor in regional economic development, and one of important indexes to evaluate regional economic competitiveness. The great economic achievement brought by the 30-year reform and opening up of China is due to the fact that China brought the backward advantage of “demographic dividend” into play, promoted the fast development of industrialization and urbanization, and became the second largest economy in the world. The entity of “demographic dividend” is the non-agricultural migrant population, i.e., migrant workers. The transfer employment of migrant workers has typical regional liquidity, and the imbalance of regional economy causes the flow of many migrant workers. In order to achieve harmonious development and coordinated development, underdeveloped areas must understand the character and regulation, adopt positive industrial policy and supportive policy, guide the reasonable flow of migrant workers, and realize the transfer of local employment and citizenization of migrant workers, which can enhance regional economic competitiveness

  1. Association of a Human FABP1 Gene Promoter Region Polymorphism with Altered Serum Triglyceride Levels.

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    Xian-E Peng

    Full Text Available Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, also known as fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP1, is a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. Elevated FABP1 levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and metabolic syndromes. In this study, we examine the association of FABP1 gene promoter variants with serum FABP1 and lipid levels in a Chinese population. Four promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of FABP1 gene were genotyped in a cross-sectional survey of healthy volunteers (n = 1,182 from Fuzhou city of China. Results showed that only the rs2919872 G>A variant was significantly associated with serum TG concentration(P = 0.032.Compared with the rs2919872 G allele, rs2919872 A allele contributed significantly to reduced serum TG concentration, and this allele dramatically decreased the FABP1 promoter activity(P < 0.05. The rs2919872 A allele carriers had considerably lower serum FABP1 levels than G allele carriers (P < 0.01. In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the rs2919872 A allele was negatively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = -0.320, P = 0.003, while serum TG levels were positively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = 0.487, P = 0.014. Our data suggest that compared with the rs2919872 G allele, the rs2919872 A allele reduces the transcriptional activity of FABP1 promoter, and thereby may link FABP1 gene variation to TG level in humans.

  2. Finding Combination of Features from Promoter Regions for Ovarian Cancer-related Gene Group Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Olayan, Rawan S.


    In classification problems, it is always important to use the suitable combination of features that will be employed by classifiers. Generating the right combination of features usually results in good classifiers. In the situation when the problem is not well understood, data items are usually described by many features in the hope that some of these may be the relevant or most relevant ones. In this study, we focus on one such problem related to genes implicated in ovarian cancer (OC). We try to recognize two important OC-related gene groups: oncogenes, which support the development and progression of OC, and oncosuppressors, which oppose such tendencies. For this, we use the properties of promoters of these genes. We identified potential “regulatory features” that characterize OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors promoters. In our study, we used 211 oncogenes and 39 oncosuppressors. For these, we identified 538 characteristic sequence motifs from their promoters. Promoters are annotated by these motifs and derived feature vectors used to develop classification models. We made a comparison of a number of classification models in their ability to distinguish oncogenes from oncosuppressors. Based on 10-fold cross-validation, the resultant model was able to separate the two classes with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% with the complete set of features. Moreover, we developed another recognition model where we attempted to distinguish oncogenes and oncosuppressors as one group from other OC-related genes. That model achieved accuracy of 82%. We believe that the results of this study will help in discovering other OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors not identified as yet.

  3. Association of the Resistin Gene Promoter Region Polymorphism with Kawasaki Disease in Chinese Children

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    Ruixi Liu


    Full Text Available Objectives. The −420C>G polymorphism located in the resistin gene (RETN promoter has recently been suggested to play a potential role in proinflammatory conditions and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the association of the RETN promoter polymorphism with Kawasaki disease (KD and its clinical parameters in Chinese children. Methods. We compared patients with complete KD to incomplete KD children. Genotyping of the RETN promoter polymorphism was performed using MassARRAY system, and serum resistin levels were estimated using the sandwich enzyme immunoassay method. Results. There was no significant difference in RETN (−420C>G genotypes between KD and control groups. However, the frequency of the G allele was higher in iKD patients than in cKD children due to a significantly increased frequency of the GG genotypes. Serum levels of resistin were significantly higher in KD patients than in controls regardless of the presence of coronary artery lesions (CALs. Conclusion. The present findings suggest that while resistin may play a role in the pathogenesis of KD, there is no apparent association between CAL and the RETN (−420C>G gene polymorphism in KD children. However, the diagnosis of iKD is challenging but can be supported by the presence of the G allele and the GG genotypes.

  4. Analysis of regional banks' efforts to promote energy conservation among commercial customers. Task II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The study approach explored the hypothesis that regional banks can play an important role in disseminating energy conservation information to their commercial/industrial customers. The four phases of the study are described in detail. (MCW)

  5. CBF mediates adenovirus Ela trans-activation by interaction at the C-terminal promoter targeting domain of conserved region 3. (United States)

    Agoff, S N; Wu, B


    Genetic and biochemical evidence suggest that conserved region 3 (CR3) of the adenovirus Ela polypeptide can provide two distinct and separable functions: an N-terminal transcriptional activation region and a C-terminal promoter targeting region. It is thought that the promoter targeting region of Ela CR3 interacts with promoter-specific transcription factors, thereby bringing the activation region of Ela CR3 in proximity of the promoter. Here we report that CBF, a CCAAT-box-binding factor that regulates hsp70 gene expression and mediates Ela trans-activation in vivo, interacts with the promoter targeting region of Ela CR3 in vitro. Point mutations in Ela CR3 that are defective in stimulating transcription from the hsp70 promoter are also defective in stimulating transcription directed by a synthetic activator, GAL-CBF, composed of the DNA-binding domain of yeast GAL4 fused to CBF. These mutations fall into two classes with respect to their abilities to interact with CBF in vitro. Mutations in the transcriptional activation region of Ela CR3 do not affect binding to CBF, but mutation of the promoter targeting region of Ela CR3 prevents association with CBF in vitro.

  6. Regional initiatives to promote economic development in North-east Asia.


    Nijkamp, P.; Wiegmans, B.W.


    This paper addresses the economic development potential of the Asian Pacific Rim, with a particular view on north East Asia. It is argued that growth triangles are likely to be a proper way of organizing regional development forces. Next, the attention is focused on the Tumen River Area Development Programme as a potentially interesting region for joint transnational development initiatives. The opportunities and threats of this area are explored by means of scenario analysis. It is conc1uded...

  7. Loss of the anaphase-promoting complex in quiescent cells causes unscheduled hepatocyte proliferation (United States)

    Wirth, Karin G.; Ricci, Romeo; Giménez-Abián, Juan F.; Taghybeeglu, Shahryar; Kudo, Nobuaki R.; Jochum, Wolfram; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille; Nasmyth, Kim


    The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) is an ubiquitin protein ligase that together with Cdc20 and Cdh1 targets mitotic proteins for degradation by the proteosome. APC–Cdc20 activity during mitosis triggers anaphase by destroying securin and cyclins. APC–Cdh1 promotes degradation of cyclins and other proteins during G1. We show that loss of APC/C during embryogenesis is early lethal before embryonic day E6.5 (E6.5). To investigate the role of APC/C in quiescent cells, we conditionally inactivated the subunit Apc2 in mice. Deletion of Apc2 in quiescent hepatocytes caused re-entry into the cell cycle and arrest in metaphase, resulting in liver failure. Re-entry into the cell cycle either occurred without any proliferative stimulus or could be easily induced. We demonstrate that the APC has an additional function to prevent hepatocytes from unscheduled re-entry into the cell cycle. PMID:14724179

  8. Perceptions of health promoters about health promotion programmes for families with adolescents orphaned as a result of AIDS in the rural Hammanskraal region in South Africa

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    Maseapo P. Mthobeni


    Full Text Available South African communities are still greatly affected by the high rate of infection with HIV or who are living with AIDS, mirrored in the 2008 overall national HIV prevalence of 29.3%(UNAIDS 2010:10. In addressing the challenge, the health system is dependent on community care level workers such as caregivers to render health promotion and education in the homes and communities. The caregivers based in the communities are the ones with first-hand information on what is needed for the success of health promotion programmes. This study, aimed at exploring the challenges faced by the health promoters, described their perceptions regarding a health promotion programme for families with adolescents orphaned as a result of AIDS. Data were collected on the purposively selected participants at the rural Hammanskraal region in South Africa and the research question: ‘What is your perception regarding health promotion programmes for families with adolescents orphaned as a result of AIDS’ was asked and discussed by participants in a focus group interview. Data were analysed using the adapted Tesch method to organize and isolate the main categories, sub-categories and themes. The following main categories were isolated: attitudes of adolescents, effectiveness of home visits, need for health education and limited resources. Based on the findings, it was therefore recommended that health care planners assist in the improvement of health promotion and education by using the community and national media, providing information material and providing access to the internet in order to allow more people, including young people, to access the information.Suid-Afrikaanse gemeenskappe word steeds grootliks beïnvloed deur die hoë vlak van MIV en vigs, soos weerspieël in die algehele nasionale MIV-syfer in 2008 van 29.3% (UNAIDS 2010:10. In die aanspreek van hierdie uitdaging is die gesondheidstelsel afhanklik van gemeenskapsorgwerkers om gesondheidsbevordering

  9. Regulatory elements in the promoter region of the rat gene encoding the acyl-CoA-binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, M; Bjerking, G; Knudsen, J


    Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is an ubiquitously expressed 10-kDa protein which is present in high amounts in cells involved in solute transport or secretion. Rat ACBP is encoded by a gene containing the typical hallmarks of a housekeeping gene. Analysis of the promoter region of the rat ACBP...... gene by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed specific binding of proteins from rat liver nuclear extracts to potential recognition sequences of NF-1/CTF, Sp1, AP-1, C/EBP and HNF-3. In addition, specific binding to a DR-1 type element was observed. By using in vitro translated...... for the ACBP DR-1 element. Addition of peroxisome proliferators (PP) to H4IIEC3 rat hepatoma cells led to an increase in the ACBP mRNA level, indicating that the DR-1 element could be a functional peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE). Analysis of the ACBP promoter by transient transfection showed...

  10. Identification of anthranilate and benzoate metabolic operons of Pseudomonas fluorescens and functional characterization of their promoter regions

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    Lee Vincent D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to identify alternate recombinant gene expression systems in Pseudomonas fluorescens, we identified genes encoding two native metabolic pathways that were inducible with inexpensive compounds: the anthranilate operon (antABC and the benzoate operon (benABCD. Results The antABC and benABCD operons were identified by homology to the Acinetobacter sp. anthranilate operon and Pseudomonas putida benzoate operon, and were confirmed to be regulated by anthranilate or benzoate, respectively. Fusions of the putative promoter regions to the E. coli lacZ gene were constructed to confirm inducible gene expression. Each operon was found to be controlled by an AraC family transcriptional activator, located immediately upstream of the first structural gene in each respective operon (antR or benR. Conclusion We have found the anthranilate and benzoate promoters to be useful for tightly controlling recombinant gene expression at both small (

  11. Contrast features of CpG islands in the promoter and other regions in the dog genome. (United States)

    Han, Leng; Zhao, Zhongming


    The recent release of the domestic dog genome provides us with an ideal opportunity to investigate dog-specific genomic features. In this study, we performed a systematic analysis of CpG islands (CGIs), which are often considered gene markers, in the dog genome. Relative to the human and mouse genomes, the dog genome has a remarkably large number of CGIs and high CGI density, which is contributed by its noncoding sequences. Surprisingly, the dog genome has fewer CGIs associated with the promoter regions of genes than the human or the mouse. Further examination of functional features of dog-human-mouse homologous genes suggests that the dog might have undergone a faster erosion rate of promoter-associated CGIs than the human or mouse. Some genetic or genomic factors such as local recombination rate and karyotype may be related to the unique dog CGI features.

  12. Direct sale as a means for promoting the sustainable use of plant genetic resources: the case of the Tuscany Region

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    Diego Naziri


    Full Text Available Similarly to other Northern countries, Italy has witnessed a growth in recent years of forms of direct sale of agri-food products. These so-called short supply chains often open new opportunities for the development and conservation of rural areas which are not merely economic in nature. The case study described here presents the results of a survey conducted in the Tuscany Region the purpose of which was to understand if and how direct sale has a part to play in promoting more diversified agricultural systems and in increasing or maintaining agrobiodiversity. The support that the institutions provide for direct sale in this context can be considered as a form of implementation of the FAO International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA that Italy has ratified and which obliges its contracting parties to promote a sustainable use of plant genetic resources.

  13. Factors predicting the capacity of Los Angeles city-region recreation programs to promote energy expenditure. (United States)

    Reynolds, Kim D; Dahmann, Nicholas; Wolch, Jennifer; Joassart-Marcelli, Pascale; Dunton, Genevieve; Rudulph, Diana; Newell, Joshua; Thayer, Jennifer; Jerrett, Michael


    An audit of recreation programs with moderate or higher levels of physical activity (PA) in Los Angeles area cities (N=82) was conducted using internet, telephone, and survey methods. Metabolic Equivalents (METs) were used to code programs׳ physical activity intensity. MET-hours per recreation program was associated with required age for enrollment, percent of residents >64 years of age, and fiscal capacity of cities. Capacity to promote energy expenditure may depend on targeted age groups, age of population, and municipal fiscal capacity. Cities with lower fiscal capacity might offer those higher MET-hour activities which require less specialized equipment and seek outside funding to offer higher MET programs.

  14. Induced Pib Expression and Resistance to Magnaporthe grisea are Compromised by Cytosine Demethylation at Critical Promoter Regions in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Li; Qiong Xia; Hongping Kou; Dan Wang; Xiuyun Lin; Ying Wu; Chunming Xu; Shaochen Xing


    Pib is a well-characterized rice blast-resistance gene belonging to the nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) superfamily.Expression of Pib was low under non-challenged conditions,but strongly induced by the blast-causing fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea,thereby conferring resistance to the pathogen.It is generally established that cytosine methylation of the promoter-region often plays a repressive role in modulating expression of the gene in question.We report here that two critical regions of the Pib promoter were heavily CG cytosine-methylated in both cultivars studied.Surprisingly,induced expression of Pib by M.grisea infection did not entail its promoter demethylation,and partial demethylation by 5-azacytidine-treatment actually reduced Pib expression relative to wildtype plants.Accordingly,the blast disease-resistance was compromised in the 5’-azaC-treated plants relative to wild-type.In contrast,the disease susceptibility was not affected by the 5’-azaC treatment in another two rice cultivars that did not contain the Pib gene,ruling out effects of other R genes and non-specific genotoxic effects by the drug-treatment as a cause for the compromised Pib-conditioned blast-resistance.Taken together,our results suggest that promoter DNA methylation plays a novel enhancing role in conditioning high-level of induced expression of the Pib gene in times of M.grisea infection,and its conferred resistance to the pathogen.

  15. A new PKLR gene mutation in the R-type promoter region affects the gene transcription causing pyruvate kinase deficiency. (United States)

    Manco, L; Ribeiro, M L; Máximo, V; Almeida, H; Costa, A; Freitas, O; Barbot, J; Abade, A; Tamagnini, G


    Mutations in the PKLR gene responsible for pyruvate kinase (PK)-deficient anaemia are mainly located in the coding regions: 11 are in the splicing sites and, recently, three mutations have been described in the promoter region. We now report a novel point mutation A-->G on nucleotide 72, upstream from the initiation codon of the PKLR gene, in four Portuguese PK-deficient patients. This new regulatory mutation occurs within the most proximal of the four GATA motifs (GATA-A element) in the R-type promoter region. In two patients who were homozygous for this mutation, a semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure was used to evaluate the amount of R-PK mRNA transcript in the reticulocytes. The mRNA level was about five times lower than in normal controls, demonstrating that the PKLR gene transcription is severely affected, most probably because the -72A-->G point mutation disables the binding of the erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 to the GATA-A element. Supporting these data, the two patients homozygous for the -72A-->G mutation had severe haemolytic anaemia and were transfusion dependent until splenectomy. Two other patients who were compound heterozygous for this mutation and the previously described missense mutation 1456C-->T had a mild condition.

  16. Polymorphism in the oxytocin promoter region in patients with lactase non-persistence is not related to symptoms

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    Simrén Magnus


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxytocin and the oxytocin receptor have been demonstrated in the gastrointestinal (GI tract and have been shown to exert physiological effects on gut motility. The role for oxytocin in the pathophysiology of GI complaints is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine genetic variations or polymorphism of oxytocin (OXT and its receptor (OXTR genes in patients with GI complaints without visible organic abnormalities. Methods Genetic variants in the OXT promoter region, and in the OXTR gene in DNA samples from 131 rigorously evaluated patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS, 408 homozygous subjects referred for lactase (LCT-13910 C>T, rs4988235 genotyping, and 299 asymptomatic blood donors were compared. One polymorphism related to the OXT gene (rs6133010 A>G and 4 related to the OXTR gene (rs1465386 G>T, rs3806675 G>A, rs968389 A>G, rs1042778 G>T were selected for genotyping using Applied Biosystems 7900 HT allele discrimination assays. Results There were no statistically significant differences in the genotype or allele frequencies in any of the SNPs when IBS patients were compared to healthy controls. Among subjects referred for lactase genotyping, the rs6133010 A>G OXT promoter A/G genotype tended to be more common in the 154 non-persistent (27.3% subjects than in the 254 lactase persistant (18.1% subjects and in the healthy controls (19.4% (p = 0.08. When direct comparing, the A/G genotype was less common in the OXT promoter region in controls (p = 0.09 and in subjects with lactase persistence (p = 0.03 compared to subjects with lactase non-persistence. When healthy controls were viewed according to their own LCT-13910 genotypes, the C/C lactase non-persistent controls had a higher frequency for the OXT promoter A/G genotype than LCT-13910 T/T lactase persistent controls (41.2% vs 13.1%. No significant differences in frequencies of the investigated OXTR SNPs were noted in this study. Conclusion The results suggest

  17. The bovine Mx1 gene: characterization of the gene structure, alternative splicing, and promoter region. (United States)

    Kojima, Takatoshi; Oshima, Kazunaga; Watanabe, Hiroko; Komatsu, Masanori


    The Mx gene encodes an antiviral protein and is induced by type 1 interferons (IFNs). In this study, a new bovine Mx gene (designated Mx1B) was isolated from the endometrial cDNA library of the early pregnant cow. Although the Mx1B cDNA contained a single open reading frame (ORF) the same as the known Mx1, the 5' untranslated region (UTR) and 5' coding region of Mx1B were rather different from the corresponding regions of Mx1. Genomic structure analysis revealed that bovine Mx1B was an alternative splicing variant of Mx1 and had transcription regulatory sequences in the upstream region. RT-PCR and its sequencing identified another Mx1 splicing variant and demonstrated that these bovine Mx1 splicing variants were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues. Furthermore, it was found that all the bovine breeds investigated had identical splice sites of Mx1 and Mx1B. It is speculated that cattle have at least two functional Mx isoforms that might provide strong natural resistance to specific viruses.

  18. Role of E-cadherin gene promoter methylation in bladder carcinogenesis:a Meta-analysis%E-钙黏蛋白基因启动子区甲基化与膀胱癌关联性的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张书卿; 张绪亮; 张博; 洪亮


    Objective To assess the role of E-cadherin (CDH1) promoter methylation in bladder carcinogenesis by meta-analysis. Methods The relevant database were searched by the retrieval strategy of Cochrane network. All included studies were collected following data:the first author’s surname, publication year of article, country, language of publication, design of study, sample size, ethnicity, histological subtypes, methylation detection method and genotype frequencies etc. This meta-analysis was performed using the STATA 12.0 software. The crude odds ratio (OR) with 95%confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Results Ten case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. The methylation frequency of CDH1 was detected in 620 bladder cancer tissues and 341 normal or cancerous tissues. Results showed that the methylation frequency of CDH1 was significantly higher in bladder cancer tissue than that of normal or cancerous tissue (OR=3.09, 95%CI:1.13~8.50, P=0.029). Furthermore, the ethnicity-stratified analysis revealed that the methylation frequency of CDH1 was significantly higher in bladder cancer tissue of Asian populations than that of normal or cancerous tissue (OR=3.85, 95%CI:1.46~10.14, P=0.006), but no such association was found in Caucasian populations(OR=2.22, 95%CI:0.38-12.91, P=0.375). The subgroup analysis based on the detection methods revealed that there was a statistically significant difference in the methylation frequency of CDH1 between bladder cancer tissue and adjacent tissues and normal tissues under the MSP subgroup (P<0.001), while such association was not observed under the Q-MSP subgroup (P=0.818). Conclusion Pro⁃moter methylation of CDH1 gene may be involved in the occurrence and development of bladder cancer, which may serve as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of bladder cancer.%目的:将既往有关E-钙黏蛋白(CDH1)基因启动子区甲基化与膀胱癌关系的研究进行Meta分析,评估CDH1基因启动子区甲

  19. Meeting in the MIDDLE:BUILDING off Regional Policies to Promote Climate Education Partnerships on and off Campus (United States)

    Griswold, M.; Stylinski, C.; Shea, N.; Veron, D. E.; Merrill, J.


    Both the impacts of climate change and the choices available to adapt and mitigate climate change largely function at the regional scale. Understanding and addressing climate change will require a concerted campaign involving a diverse array of educations from small to large organizations. By focusing on a specific region's climate impacts, adaptation and mitigation options, and existing policies, climate education networks will likely have a higher likelihood of sustainability. Building on this concept, we have developed a climate education partnership, Maryland Delaware Climate Change Education, Assessment and Research (MADE CLEAR), to better understand effective ways to support formal-, informal- and higher-education practitioners in climate change education in this Mid-Atlantic region. We do so largely through face-to-face and web based professional development for each education practitioner group to improve their capacity to incorporate rigorous regionally-based climate science and solutions into their education strategies. We are promoting communities-of-practice within and across these groups as they share their successes and challenges and consider common messages and approaches. Our training and resources focus on impacts and solutions most relevant to our region including sea level rise, extreme events, and urban heat impacts. Our professional development approach aligns directly with existing education and natural resource, including the region's environmental literacy initiatives, the Next Generation Science Standards, and state climate adaptation and mitigation plans. We anticipate that by building off of existing policy, we will build the success of the network into the future. Our project includes design-based research of all three education groups, and thus we will identify effective climate change education strategies, in and out of schools, that are applicable in other regions.

  20. Sequence change in the HS2-LCR and Gg-globin gene promoter region of sickle cell anemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Adorno


    Full Text Available The fetal hemoglobin (HbF levels and ßS-globin gene haplotypes of 125 sickle cell anemia patients from Brazil were investigated. We sequenced the Gg- and Ag-globin gene promoters and the DNase I-2 hypersensitive sites in the locus control regions (HS2-LCR of patients with HbF level disparities as compared to their ßS haplotypes. Sixty-four (51.2% patients had CAR/Ben genotype; 36 (28.8% Ben/Ben; 18 (14.4% CAR/CAR; 2 (1.6% CAR/Atypical; 2 (1.6% Ben/Cam; 1 (0.8% CAR/Cam; 1 (0.8% CAR/Arab-Indian, and 1 (0.8% Sen/Atypical. The HS2-LCR sequence analyses demonstrated a c.-10.677G>A change in patients with the Ben haplotype and high HbF levels. The Gg gene promoter sequence analyses showed a c.-157T>C substitution shared by all patients, and a c.-222_-225del related to the Cam haplotype. These results identify new polymorphisms in the HS2-LCR and Gg-globin gene promoter. Further studies are required to determine the correlation between HbF synthesis and the clinical profile of sickle cell anemia patients.

  1. Genetic variants in SIRT3 transcriptional regulatory region affect promoter activity and fat deposition in three cattle breeds. (United States)

    Gui, Linsheng; Hong, Jieyun; Raza, Sayed Haidar Abbas; Zan, Linsen


    Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase. It has crucial roles in regulating the respiratory chain, in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, and in both the citric acid and urea cycles. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SIRT3 could be used as a candidate gene in the breeding of cattle. Expression analysis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) indicated that expression levels of SIRT3 were highest in the kidney, rumen, liver, omasum and muscle. Using sequencing technology on a total of 913 cattle representing three indigenous Chinese beef cattle breeds, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the promoter region of SIRT3, and five haplotypes representing five potential transcription factor compositions of polymorphic potential cis-acting elements. Association analysis indicated that the Hap3/8 diplotype performed better than other combinations in intramuscular fat content. In addition, the promoter activity with Hap1 haplotype was higher than the Hap8 haplotype, consistent with the association analysis. The results indicate that the polymorphisms in transcription factor binding sites of SIRT3 promoter may affect the transcriptional activity of SIRT3, and thus alter intramuscular fat content in beef cattle.

  2. Cbln family proteins promote synapse formation by regulating distinct neurexin signaling pathways in various brain regions. (United States)

    Matsuda, Keiko; Yuzaki, Michisuke


    Cbln1 (a.k.a. precerebellin) is a unique bidirectional synaptic organizer that plays an essential role in the formation and maintenance of excitatory synapses between granule cells and Purkinje cells in the mouse cerebellum. Cbln1 secreted from cerebellar granule cells directly induces presynaptic differentiation and indirectly serves as a postsynaptic organizer by binding to its receptor, the δ2 glutamate receptor. However, it remains unclear how Cbln1 binds to the presynaptic sites and interacts with other synaptic organizers. Furthermore, although Cbln1 and its family members Cbln2 and Cbln4 are expressed in brain regions other than the cerebellum, it is unknown whether they regulate synapse formation in these brain regions. In this study, we showed that Cbln1 and Cbln2, but not Cbln4, specifically bound to its presynaptic receptor -α and β isoforms of neurexin carrying the splice site 4 insert [NRXs(S4+)] - and induced synaptogenesis in cerebellar, hippocampal and cortical neurons in vitro. Cbln1 competed with synaptogenesis mediated by neuroligin 1, which lacks the splice sites A and B, but not leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein 2, possibly by sharing the presynaptic receptor NRXs(S4+). However, unlike neurexins/neuroligins or neurexins/leucine-rich repeat transmembrane proteins, the interaction between NRX1β(S4+) and Cbln1 was insensitive to extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. These findings revealed the unique and general roles of Cbln family proteins in mediating the formation and maintenance of synapses not only in the cerebellum but also in various other brain regions.

  3. Inter-organizational relations for regional development: an expansion policy promoted by the federal network of professional education, science & technology

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    Cleidson Nogueira Dias


    Full Text Available This research paper examines the importance of inter-organizational network management as a government policy tool to promote regional development. This pattern requires Federal Government intervention so as to compensate for the imbalance that this causes and to guarantee that economic growth resulting from government actions leads to development in all regions of the country, thereby avoiding the traditional mechanisms of wealth concentration. For this, a methodology of content analysis was used based on a relevant public policy aimed at promoting development within Brazil and by analyzing the data collected in relation to the current theory related to strategy, local development and inter-organizational networks in general.  The analysis results show that, when the policy studied in this work, applied in the federal network of professional education, science & technology, was implemented the networks had a positive influence on the outcome of the policy objectives and represented an extremely powerful support tool, being one of the most important factors to boost development.

  4. CAGE-defined promoter regions of the genes implicated in Rett Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitezic, Morana; Bertin, Nicolas; Andersson, Robin;


    BACKGROUND: Mutations in three functionally diverse genes cause Rett Syndrome. Although the functions of Forkhead box G1 (FOXG1), Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) and Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) have been studied individually, not much is known about their relation to each other...... for each gene and the common transcription factors likely to regulate the three genes. Our data imply Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) mediated silencing of Foxg1 in cerebellum CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses provide a comprehensive picture of the regulatory regions of the three genes involved in Rett...... Syndrome....

  5. Nucleotide sequence of the promoter region of the gene encoding chicken Calbindin D28K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, S.; Drusiani, E.; Battini, R.; Fregni, M.


    Calbindin D28K (formerly Vitamin D-Dependent Calcium Binding Protein) is a protein induced by 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in several chicken tissues. A chicken genomic DNA library was screened with a synthetic oligonucleotide representing the sequence of Calbindin D18K cDNA from nt 146 to nt 176. The positive clone CBAl extends the 5'-end of the first exon by 451 bp. The sequence of a BamHI-SacII restriction fragment with coordinates -451 + 50 is shown. The BamHI-SacII fragment was subcloned 5' to the CAT gene of pUCCAT. The result is shown of a CAT assay on mouse fibroblasts 3T6 transiently transfected with pUCCAT, pUCCAT containing the BamHI-SacII fragment in the correct or opposite orientation or the SV40 promoter. /sup 14/C-chloramphenicol and its acetyl derivatives generated by purified CAT are also shown. The expression of CAT appears to be constitutive since the enzyme activity is not influenced by the presence (+) or absence (-) of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in the culture medium.

  6. Methylation of Promoter Regions of Genes of the Human Intrauterine Renin Angiotensin System and Their Expression

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    Shane D. Sykes


    Full Text Available The intrauterine renin angiotensin system (RAS is implicated in placentation and labour onset. Here we investigate whether promoter methylation of RAS genes changes with gestation or labour and if it affects gene expression. Early gestation amnion and placenta were studied, as were term amnion, decidua, and placenta collected before labour (at elective caesarean section or after spontaneous labour and delivery. The expression and degree of methylation of the prorenin receptor (ATP6AP2, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1, and two proteases that can activate prorenin (kallikrein, KLK1, and cathepsin D, CTSD were measured by qPCR and a DNA methylation array. There was no effect of gestation or labour on the methylation of RAS genes and CTSD. Amnion and decidua displayed strong correlations between the percent hypermethylation of RAS genes and CTSD, suggestive of global methylation. There were no correlations between the degree of methylation and mRNA abundance of any genes studied. KLK1 was the most methylated gene and the proportion of hypermethylated KLK1 alleles was lower in placenta than decidua. The presence of intermediate methylated alleles of KLK1 in early gestation placenta and in amnion after labour suggests that KLK1 methylation is uniquely dynamic in these tissues.

  7. Possible association between serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphism and extremely violent crime in Chinese males. (United States)

    Liao, Ding-Lieh; Hong, Chen-Jee; Shih, Hao-Ling; Tsai, Shih-Jen


    The neurotransmitter, serotonin, has been implicated in aggressive behavior. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT), which reuptakes serotonin into the nerve terminal, plays a critical role in the regulation of serotonergic function. Previous western reports have demonstrated that the low-activity short (S) allele of the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic-region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism is associated with aggressive behavior and associated personality traits. In the present study, we investigated this 5-HTTLPR genetic polymorphism in a group of Chinese males who had been convicted for extremely violent crime (n = 135) and a normal control group (n = 111). The proportion of S-allele carriers was significantly higher in the criminal group than in the controls (p = 0.006). A significant association was not demonstrated for the relationship between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse or alcohol abuse in the criminal group. Our findings demonstrate that carriage of the low-activity S allele is associated with extremely violent criminal behavior in Chinese males, and suggests that the 5-HTT may be implicated in the mechanisms underlying violent behaviors.

  8. The signal sequence coding region promotes nuclear export of mRNA. (United States)

    Palazzo, Alexander F; Springer, Michael; Shibata, Yoko; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Dias, Anusha P; Rapoport, Tom A


    In eukaryotic cells, most mRNAs are exported from the nucleus by the transcription export (TREX) complex, which is loaded onto mRNAs after their splicing and capping. We have studied in mammalian cells the nuclear export of mRNAs that code for secretory proteins, which are targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane by hydrophobic signal sequences. The mRNAs were injected into the nucleus or synthesized from injected or transfected DNA, and their export was followed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. We made the surprising observation that the signal sequence coding region (SSCR) can serve as a nuclear export signal of an mRNA that lacks an intron or functional cap. Even the export of an intron-containing natural mRNA was enhanced by its SSCR. Like conventional export, the SSCR-dependent pathway required the factor TAP, but depletion of the TREX components had only moderate effects. The SSCR export signal appears to be characterized in vertebrates by a low content of adenines, as demonstrated by genome-wide sequence analysis and by the inhibitory effect of silent adenine mutations in SSCRs. The discovery of an SSCR-mediated pathway explains the previously noted amino acid bias in signal sequences and suggests a link between nuclear export and membrane targeting of mRNAs.

  9. Revolutionising engineering education in the Middle East region to promote earthquake-disaster mitigation (United States)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda; Naja, Mohamad K.


    Due to the high market demands for professional engineers in the Arab oil-producing countries, the appetite of Middle Eastern students for high-paying jobs and challenging careers in engineering has sharply increased. As a result, engineering programmes are providing opportunities for more students to enrol on engineering courses through lenient admission policies that do not compromise academic standards. This strategy has generated an influx of students who must be carefully educated to enhance their professional knowledge and social capital to assist in future earthquake-disaster risk-reduction efforts. However, the majority of Middle Eastern engineering students are unaware of the valuable acquired engineering skills and knowledge in building the resilience of their communities to earthquake disasters. As the majority of the countries in the Middle East are exposed to seismic hazards and are vulnerable to destructive earthquakes, engineers have become indispensable assets and the first line of defence against earthquake threats. This article highlights the contributions of some of the engineering innovations in advancing technologies and techniques for effective disaster mitigation and it calls for the incorporation of earthquake-disaster-mitigation education into academic engineering programmes in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  10. Analysis of upstream promoter region and corresponding 5’ UTR of glucokinase (GCK gene in horse breeds

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    L. Minieri


    Full Text Available A region of glucokinase (GCK gene was sequenced in 14 horses of 14 different breeds. The resulting GCK nucleotide sequence (GenBank number EF136885 showed 77% homology with human GCK gene portion containing the upstream promoter region and the corresponding 5’ UTR of the exon 1. Conserved regulatory sequences near the putative transcriptional start site were identified. The obtained sequences were aligned to detect polymorphism. A new C>T transition within the 5’ UTR of exon 1 was found. Allele frequencies of this polymorphism were studied by PCR-RFLP in 193 horses of 14 breeds (Bardigiano, 21; Esperia Pony, 5; Haflinger, 10; Italian Heavy Draught Horse, 28; Italian Saddle, 25; Italian Trotter, 16; Lipizzan, 12; Maremmano, 15; Murgese, 14; Norico, 10; Salernitano, 12; Thoroughbred, 10; Tolfetano, 7 and Ventasso Horse, 8. The polymorphism was found in all breeds and differences in allelic frequencies among the breeds were observed. The new SNP identified within a regulative region of GCK gene, which plays an important role in insulin secretion and feeding behaviour, could be used for association studies with performance traits of the horses.

  11. Analysis of aberrant methylation on promoter sequences of tumor suppressor genes and total DNA in sputum samples: a promising tool for early detection of COPD and lung cancer in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán Leda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a disorder associated to cigarette smoke and lung cancer (LC. Since epigenetic changes in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs are clearly important in the development of LC. In this study, we hypothesize that tobacco smokers are susceptible for methylation in the promoter region of TSGs in airway epithelial cells when compared with non-smoker subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of detection of genes promoter methylation in sputum specimens, as a complementary tool to identify LC biomarkers among smokers with early COPD. Methods We determined the amount of DNA in induced sputum from patients with COPD (n = 23, LC (n = 26, as well as in healthy subjects (CTR (n = 33, using a commercial kit for DNA purification, followed by absorbance measurement at 260 nm. The frequency of CDKN2A, CDH1 and MGMT promoter methylation in the same groups was determined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP. The Fisher’s exact test was employed to compare frequency of results between different groups. Results DNA concentration was 7.4 and 5.8 times higher in LC and COPD compared to the (CTR (p  Conclusions We provide evidence that aberrant methylation of TSGs in samples of induced sputum is a useful tool for early diagnostic of lung diseases (LC and COPD in smoker subjects. Virtual slides The abstract MUST finish with the following text: Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here:

  12. Nonrandom community assembly and high temporal turnover promote regional coexistence in tropics but not temperate zone. (United States)

    Freestone, Amy L; Inouye, Brian D


    A persistent challenge for ecologists is understanding the ecological mechanisms that maintain global patterns of biodiversity, particularly the latitudinal diversity gradient of peak species richness in the tropics. Spatial and temporal variation in community composition contribute to these patterns of biodiversity, but how this variation and its underlying processes change across latitude remains unresolved. Using a model system of sessile marine invertebrates across 25 degrees of latitude, from the temperate zone to the tropics, we tested the prediction that spatial and temporal patterns of taxonomic richness and composition, and the community assembly processes underlying these patterns, will differ across latitude. Specifically, we predicted that high beta diversity (spatial variation in composition) and high temporal turnover contribute to the high species richness of the tropics. Using a standardized experimental approach that controls for several confounding factors that hinder interpretation of prior studies, we present results that support our predictions. In the temperate zone, communities were more similar across spatial scales from centimeters to tens of kilometers and temporal scales up to one year than at lower latitudes. Since the patterns at northern latitudes were congruent with a null model, stochastic assembly processes are implicated. In contrast, the communities in the tropics were a dynamic spatial and temporal mosaic, with low similarity even across small spatial scales and high temporal turnover at both local and regional scales. Unlike the temperate zone, deterministic community assembly processes such as predation likely contributed to the high beta diversity in the tropics. Our results suggest that community assembly processes and temporal dynamics vary across latitude and help structure and maintain latitudinal patterns of diversity.

  13. Scattered regulatory regions of the chicken immunoglobulin-β gene and two adjacent promoters of ubiquitously expressed genes interact with the immunoglobulin-β promoter in DT40 cells. (United States)

    Minbuta, Tomohiro; Ono, Masao


    Recent studies indicate that several transcription units assemble to form a 'transcription factory' where active transcription occurs in the nuclei. Previously, we generated chicken B-lymphocyte-derived DT40 cells lacking six transcriptional regulatory regions scattered in and around the immunoglobulin (Ig)-β gene. The deletions caused a complete shut down of transcription and epigenetic regulation of the Ig-β gene, demonstrating that the scattered regulatory regions cooperated in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the gene. However, the in vivo 3-dimensional spatial relationships between the Ig-β promoter and these six regulatory regions were not investigated. In this study, we used chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology and demonstrated that the Ig-β promoter physically interacted with the scattered regulatory regions. We found that the Ig-β promoter also interacted with two downstream promoters of ubiquitously expressed genes, rad motif 1 (RDM1) and Plekhm1, to form a transcription factory, but not with three ubiquitously expressed genes, BAF60b, p45/SUG, and RRMJ3, located upstream of the Ig-β gene. In this factory, the chromatin from the three promoters and the scattered regulatory regions of the Ig-β gene formed a complex structure with many chromatin loops.

  14. Climate harzard management to promote sustainable land management in dry region of Gokwe, Zimbabwe

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    Ephraim Chifamba


    Full Text Available The major aim of the study was to assess the risk affecting sustainable land management and its implications on sustainable development in Gokwe. The dry region of Gokwe suffers from unsustainable land uses that have been experienced over the last decade. The spiral of environmental degradation facing the study area is both anthropogenic and natural in nature and origin. These factors include demographic failure, climatic variability, information failure, market failure, institutional crisis and educational failure. Land degradation owing to both human and natural factors is usually not in tandem with the regenerative capacities of the land. Land use activities are degrading the local environment in a way that ultimately undermines local ecosystem services, human welfare, and the long term sustainability of human societies. The study utilized both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. The research noted that changes in climatic patterns have the potential to change current land management practices. With additional increasing commercialisation and expansion of agriculture and its integration into international markets and supply chains, the new risk management approaches are required that are adapted to the agricultural and rural sectors, and to the pervasive risk affecting those sectors (Murhpree, 2004; Snapp et al., 2003. The research further noted that farming and land management activities in the study area are exposed to seasonal climatic risks arising from inter-annual climatic variability and anthropogenic perturbations of the climatic system, which have resulted in more frequent extreme weather events. The major element of agricultural and risk management in Gokwe should include efficient use of inherently variable natural resources (for example, run off, and measures to increase the resilience of land and crop management systems against seasonal climate threats (for example, droughts and floods. There is need to develop


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru NEDELEA


    Full Text Available In order to establish an adequate balance between tourists' welfare, the needs of the natural and cultural environment, as well as to develop tourist destinations and organizations' competitiveness, it is necessary to carry out a global and integrated approach, where all interested parties share the same goals regarding the durability of tourism and the approached challenges. The purpose of this work is to identify the factors of reduced risk having a major impact over the sustainability of the tourist region under analysis and to highlight the risk factors' connections and impact in order to minimize and eliminate them, with direct effects over the awareness of tourist industry's values. The identification of lasting development's indicators will take into account all these three aspects of the durable development of tourism, namely ecological, economical and social factors, that play a part in highlighting the real performance of a tourist destination. All these aspects are absolutely necessary for the promotion of the Danube's tourist potential, achievable through the emphasis of the relevant values from the tourist patrimony of the county of Galati. The promotion of the Danube' tourist potential presupposes a series of objectives that are subordinated to the general direction that is marked at the national level, respectively Romania's transformation into a qualitative tourist destination based on its natural and cultural patrimony, in order to correspond to the European Union standards. The new policy regarding tourism proposed by the European Commission aims at offering constant support for this industry to be able to face different challenges, by promoting also competitiveness in general.

  16. Effects of genetic variants in the promoter region of the bovine adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene on marbling of Hanwoo beef cattle. (United States)

    Choi, Yoonjeong; Davis, Michael E; Chung, Hoyoung


    This study aimed to verify genetic effects of the bovine adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene on carcass traits of Hanwoo cattle. The measured carcass traits were marbling score (MAR), backfat thickness (BFT), loineye area (LEA), and carcass weight (CAW). Selection of primers was based on the bovine ADIPOQ sequence, and the analysis amplified approximately 267 and 333 bp genomic segments, including 67 bp of insertions in the promoter region. Sequencing analysis confirmed genetic variants (g.81966235C>T, g.81966377T>C, and g.81966364D>I) that showed significant effects on MAR. The present results suggest that the identified SNPs are useful genetic markers for the improvement of carcass traits in Hanwoo cattle.

  17. Green Tourism in Mountain Regions - Reducing Vulnerability and Promoting People and Place Centric Development in the Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. B. Singh; D. K. Mishra


    In recent years, mountain regions are attracting great attention to Indian tourists in general and foreign tourists in particular. The potential mountain resources for promoting green tourism are enormous in the form of natural and cultural heritage such as biosphere reserves, flora and fauna, lakes and rivers and traditional rural resources. In order to utilise tourism industry market, uncontrolled numbers of tourists and related haphazard infrastructural facilities in the vulnerable mountain regions pose serious environmental implications. The ecological pressures are threatening land, water and wild life resources through direct and indirect environmental impacts together with generation of solid and liquid wastes, so green tourism is emerging as an important task in order to develop new relationship between communities, government agencies and private sectors. The strategy focuses on ecological understanding, environmental protection and ecodevelopment. The major attributes of the green tourism include environmental conservation and education and distribution of income to local people based on strong partnership. Various knowledge systems go a long way for achieving the goals of the green tourism, which creates awareness about the value of environmental resources.Mountains have ecological, recreational, educational and scientific values, which need to be utilised in sustainable way. Various tourist activities and facilities need to be diversified in order to achieve multiple benefits including scientific field excursion,recreation in natural and cultural areas, community festivals and sport tourisms. Green tourism considers tourism development as an integral part of a national and regional development. The paper discusses the social, economic and environmental dimensions of the green tourism with particular reference to village tourism development programme taking empirical evidences from the Himalaya. Such programme also minimises biophysical and human

  18. Insertion/deletion polymorphisms in the promoter region of BRM contribute to risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in Chinese populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueren Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: BRM (Brahma homologue is well known for its critical role in tumor suppression and cancer development. Genetic variations in the promoter region of BRM have been suggested to be associated with loss of BRM expression and lung cancer risk. To the authors' knowledge, no study on the role of BRM genetic polymorphisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC risk has been performed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In two independent case-control studies containing 796 HCC cases and 806 cancer-free individuals, we genotyped two putative functional insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms [BRM-1321 (rs3832613 and BRM-741 (rs34480940] within promoter region of BRM in Chinese populations using a PCR-based method. Real-time RT-PCR analysis was used to explore the genotype-phenotype correlation between these polymorphisms and BRM expression in both tissue samples and HCC cell lines. Logistic regression analysis showed that compared to BRM-1321del/del genotype, the ins/del and ins/ins variant genotypes had an increased HCC risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR = 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.19-1.82; adjusted OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.75-3.72, respectively]. No significant association between BRM-741 and HCC incidence was observed. However, stratification analysis revealed a significant association between ins/ins genotype of BRM-741 and increased HCC susceptibility in smokers (adjusted OR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.33-3.22. Quantitative PCR analyses demonstrated that the genotypes of BRM-1321 and the corresponding haplotypes were significantly correlated with BRM expression in vivo. Compared with ins/ins genotype, subjects carrying ins/del and del/del genotype had 2.30 and 4.99 fold higher BRM expression in HCC tissue samples, respectively. Similar trends were observed in western blot analysis at protein level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that BRM promoter polymorphism (BRM-1321 could regulate BRM expression and may serve as a potential marker

  19. Genetic variants in promoters and coding regions of the muscle glycogen synthase and the insulin-responsive GLUT4 genes in NIDDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørbaek, C; Echwald, Søren Morgenthaler; Hubricht, P


    regions and regions of importance for translation, as well as coding sequences of the two genes, were studied using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA sequencing. The genetic analyses were performed in subgroups of 52 Caucasian NIDDM patients and 25 age-matched healthy......'-untranslated region, and the coding region of the GLUT4 gene showed four polymorphisms, all single nucleotide substitutions, positioned at -581, 1, 30, and 582. None of the three changes in the regulatory region of the gene had any major influence on expression of the GLUT4 gene in muscle. The variant at 582...... volunteers. By applying inverse polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing, 532 base pairs (bp) of the GS promoter were identified and the transcriptional start site determined by primer extension. SSCP scanning of the promoter region detected five single nucleotide substitutions, positioned at 42...

  20. Correlation between ECT2 gene expression and methylation change of ECT2 promoter region in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mang-Li Zhang; Sen Lu; Lin Zhou; Shu-Sen Zheng


    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is closely related to epigenetic abnormality. The epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 gene (ECT2) plays a critical role in Rho activation during cytokinesis, and thus may play a role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we investigated the relationships between aberrant expression and epigenetic changes of the ECT2 gene in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Four cell lines (PANC-1, Colo357, T3M-4 and PancTuⅠ) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues were used for mRNA detection. After restriction isoschizomer endonucleases (MspⅠ/HpaⅡ) were used to digest the DNA sequence (5'-CCGG-3'), PCR was made to amplify the product. And RT-PCR was applied to determine the expression of the gene. RESULTS: The mRNA expression of the ECT2 gene was higher in pancreatic tumor tissue than in normal tissue. The gene was also expressed in the 4 PDAC cell lines. The methylation states of the upstream regions of the ECT2 gene were almost identical in normal, tumor pancreatic tissues, and the 4 PDAC cell lines. Some of the 5'-CCGG-3' areas in the upstream region of ECT2 were methylated, while others were unmethylated. CONCLUSIONS: The oncogene ECT2 is overexpressed in pancreatic tumor tissues as veriifed by RT-PCR detection. The methylation status of DNA in promoter areas is involved in the gene expression, along with other factors, in pancreatic cancer.

  1. Developing Integrated Object-Oriented Conception of Geomarketing as a Tool for Promotion of Regional Sustainable Development: The Case Study of Ukraine



    In the paper we propose and discuss new vision of geomarketing as a tool for promotion of regional sustainable development. Integrated object-oriented conception of geomarketing was designed by adoption and elaboration of some new ideas and approaches, such as “place marketing”, “non-profit marketing”, “counter-marketing”, “collaborative spatial decision-making”, “endogenous regional development”, “regional sustainable development”, “public-private partnership”. We explore how geomarketing in...

  2. Dysfunction of endothelial NO system originated from homocysteine-induced aberrant methylation pattern in promoter region of DDAH2 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-ge; LIU Jun-xu; LI Zhu-hua; WANG Li-zhen; JIANG Yi-deng; WANG Shu-ren


    Background Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-mediated dysfunction of endothelial NO system is an important mechanism for atherosclerotic pathogenesis.Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) is the key enzyme for degrading asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA),which is an endogenous inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS).This study was designed to investigate whether the dysfunction of endothelial NO system originates from HHcy-mediated aberrant methylation modification in promotor region of DDAH2 gene.Methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured to the third generation and treated with homocysteine (Hcy) at different concentrations (0,10,30,100,and 300 μmol/L) for 72 hours.The methylation pattern in promoter region CpG island of DDAH2 gene was analyzed by nested methylation-specific PCR (nMSP).The mRNA expression of eNOS gene and DDAH2 gene was detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.The activity of DDAH2 and eNOS in cells,and the concentrations of ADMA and NO in culture medium were assayed respectively.Results Mild increased concentration of Hcy (10 and 30 μmol/L) induced hypomethylation,while high concentration of Hcy (100 and 300 μmol/L) induced hypermethylation in the promoter CpG island of DDAH2 gene.The mRNA expression of DDAH2 increased in mild enhanced concentration of Hcy,and decreased in high concentration of Hcy correspondingly.The inhibition of DDAH2 activity,the increase of ADMA concentration,the reduction of eNOS activity and the decrease of NO production were all consistently relevant to the alteration of Hcy concentration Conclusion The increased concentration of Hcy induced aberrant methylation pattern in promotor region of DDAH2 gene and the successive alterations in DDAH/ADMA/NOS/NO pathway,which showed highly relevant and dose-effect relationship.The results suggested that the dysfunction of endothelial NO system induced by HHcy could be partially originated from Hcy-mediated aberrant methylation in

  3. The promotion of geotourism in protected areas: a proposal of itinerary through the Matese Massif (Campania and Molise regions, Italy). (United States)

    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Filocamo, Francesca; Amato, Vincenzo; Cesarano, Massimo


    The Matese Massif is a ca. 1000 km2 wide and NW-SE elongated carbonate relief, located in the inner sector of the Southern Apennine chain. It has a tabular setting with steep structural slopes bordering the central high mountain sector including its major peaks and is crossed from approximately west to east by the border between Campania and Molise regions. The Matese Mountains represent a key area for the comprehension of the geological and tectonic evolution of the Southern Apennines since Mesozoic times. Its long-term geomorphological evolution has been controlled by Quaternary tectonics and climate variations that have allowed the temporary or permanent establishment of various environments and morphodynamics. Deposits and landforms originated by glacial, periglacial, karst and fluvial processes, along with a rich assemblage of tectonic-structural features and landforms of complex origin have given origin to a geological heritage of exceptional value. The geosites actually censured within the Campanian sector of Matese are reported in the Geosites Map of Campania, available at the website of Campania Region and partly included in the Italian Geosites Inventory of ISPRA. The geosites of the Molise sector have been recently assessed within the geosite inventory carried out by Molise University. They are reported in the Geosites Map of Molise, available at the website of Molise Region, and partly included in the ISPRA's National Inventory of Geosites. The Matese area is largely included in protected areas: the Campania portion falls within the Matese Regional Park, established in 2002, while most of the Molise sector falls in the extensive ZPS/SIC IT72222287. To better protect and exploit the unique natural and geological heritage of the Matese Massif, numerous initiatives aimed at the establishment of the National Park of Matese have continued for several years and very recent attempts to promote the Matese Geopark have been made, but unfortunately without any

  4. Agrobacterium tumefaciens pTAR parA promoter region involved in autoregulation, incompatibility and plasmid partitioning. (United States)

    Gallie, D R; Kado, C I


    The locus responsible for directing proper plasmid partitioning of Agrobacterium tumefaciens pTAR is contained within a 1259 base-pair region. Insertions or deletions within this locus can result in the loss of the plasmid's ability to partition properly. One protein product (parA), approximately 25,000 Mr, is expressed from the par locus in Escherichia coli and A. tumefaciens protein analysis systems in vitro. DNA sequence analysis of the locus revealed a single 23,500 Mr open reading frame, confirming the protein data. A 248 base-pair region immediately upstream from the 23,500 Mr open reading frame, containing an array of 12 seven-base-pair palindromic repeats each of which are separated by exactly ten base-pairs of A + T-rich (75%) sequence, not only serves to provide the promoter but is also involved in parA autoregulation. In addition, this region containing a set of 12 seven-base-pair palindromic repeats, is responsible for plasmid-associated incompatibility within Inc Ag-1 and also functions as the cis-acting recognition site at which parA interacts to bring about partitioning. Transcriptional analysis indicated that only the DNA strand responsible for parA is actively transcribed, and that active transcription of the opposite strand of par can inhibit the production of parA, resulting in plasmid destabilization. The presence of the par locus in a plasmid results in stable inheritance within a wide range of members of Rhizobiaceae. Segregation rates of par-defective derivatives can be influenced by the host.

  5. Systematic screening for mutations in the promoter and the coding region of the 5-HT{sub 1A} gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, J.; Shimron-Abarbanell, D.; Cichon, S. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)] [and others


    In the present study we sought to identify genetic variation in the 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor gene which through alteration of protein function or level of expression might contribute to the genetic predisposition to neuropsychiatric diseases. Genomic DNA samples from 159 unrelated subjects (including 45 schizophrenic, 46 bipolar affective, and 43 patients with Tourette`s syndrome, as well as 25 healthy controls) were investigated by single-strand conformation analysis. Overlapping PCR (polymerase chain reaction) fragments covered the whole coding sequence as well as the 5{prime} untranslated region of the 5-HT{sub 1A} gene. The region upstream to the coding sequence we investigated contains a functional promoter. We found two rare nucleotide sequence variants. Both mutations are located in the coding region of the gene: a coding mutation (A{yields}G) in nucleotide position 82 which leads to an amino acid exchange (Ile{yields}Val) in position 28 of the receptor protein and a silent mutation (C{yields}T) in nucleotide position 549. The occurrence of the Ile-28-Val substitution was studied in an extended sample of patients (n = 352) and controls (n = 210) but was found in similar frequencies in all groups. Thus, this mutation is unlikely to play a significant role in the genetic predisposition to the diseases investigated. In conclusion, our study does not provide evidence that the 5-HT{sub 1A} gene plays either a major or a minor role in the genetic predisposition to schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, or Tourette`s syndrome. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Prevention of liver fibrosis by triple helix-forming oligodeoxyribonucleotides targeted to the promoter region of type I collagen gene. (United States)

    Koilan, Subramaniyan; Hamilton, David; Baburyan, Narina; Padala, Mythili K; Weber, Karl T; Guntaka, Ramareddy V


    Hepatic fibrosis leading to cirrhosis remains a global health problem. The most common etiologies are alcoholism and viral infections. Liver fibrosis is associated with major changes in both quantity and composition of extracellular matix and leads to disorganization of the liver architecture and irreversible damage to the liver function. As of now there is no effective therapy to control fibrosis. The end product of fibrosis is abnormal synthesis and accumulation of type I collagen in the extracellular matrix, which is produced by activated stellate or Ito cells in the damaged liver. Therefore, inhibition of transcription of type I collagen should in principle inhibit its production and accumulation in liver. Normally, DNA exists in a duplex form. However, under some circumstances, DNA can assume triple helical (triplex) structures. Intermolecular triplexes, formed by the addition of a sequence-specific third strand to the major groove of the duplex DNA, have the potential to serve as selective gene regulators. Earlier, we demonstrated efficient triplex formation between the exogenously added triplex-forming oligodeoxyribonucleotides (TFOs) and a specific sequence in the promoter region of the COL1A1 gene. In this study we used a rat model of liver fibrosis, induced by dimethylnitrosamine, to test whether these TFOs prevent liver fibrosis. Our results indicate that both the 25-mer and 18-mer TFOs, specific for the upstream nucleotide sequence from -141 to -165 (relative to the transcription start site) in the 5' end of collagen gene promoter, effectively prevented accumulation of liver collagen and fibrosis. We also observed improvement in liver function tests. However, mutations in the TFO that eliminated formation of triplexes are ineffective in preventing fibrosis. We believe that these TFOs can be used as potential antifibrotic therapeutic molecules.

  7. Employment effects of regional climate policy. The case of renewable energy promotion by feed-in tariffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heindl, Peter; Voigt, Sebastian


    This paper examines the local impacts of renewable energy carrier promotion by the German feed-in tariffs scheme ''Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz'' for the German State of Baden-Wuerttemberg by using an input-output approach. The local impacts are of particular interest as in Baden-Wuerttemberg the manufacturing industries are highly important compared to the rest of Germany. We analyze the effects of the policy actions on the production as well as the employment of several sectors. We construct a regional input-output table of Baden- Wuerttemberg and introduce the construction and the operation of installations for seven renewable energy types in order to examine different paths to achieve the state government's targets. We consider two scenarios with different sources funding the investments in the construction and operation of renewable energy installations. In the first scenario, all the necessary investments are funded completely by internal sources. Hence, the scenario is driven by the assumption that these investments either crowd out investments in other industries of the regional economy or the investments are paid by the government, i.e. by taxes which are borne by all other industries and by the households. Therefore, the final demand of all other sectors decreases. In this scenario, we have a slightly positive total turnover effect, although in many sectors the turnover effect is negative. In addition, the total employment effect is negative since the more labour-intensive industries are affected more heavily from the policy than the less labour-intensive industries. The second scenario considers the case of a partly external funding by taking into account that the installations may be demanded from ''abroad'', i.e. the rest of Germany and the rest of the world. Therefore, investments in other industries are not completely crowded out in this scenario. We find positive production and employment effects also for

  8. A negative element in the downstream region of the Rice tungro bacilliform virus promoter is orientation- and position-independent and is active with heterologous promoters. (United States)

    Purkayastha, Arunima; Sharma, Shweta; Dasgupta, Indranil


    The promoter of an Indian isolate of the pararetrovirus Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV-WB) contains a negative element downstream of the transcription start site (TSS), between nucleotide residues +58 and +195 (Mathur and Dasgupta, 2007). To further characterize the element, we show, by using transient gus reporter gene assays in the cells of onion peel, rice calli and Arabidopsis leaves, that it down-regulates heterologous promoters CaMV35S and Maize ubiquitin. Quantitative measurements of transient GUS activity indicated more than 90% inhibition of reporter gene expression by the negative element. We also show, by reversing the orientation of the element downstream and by placing it in a position upstream to a constitutively expressing RTBV promoter, that the negative element is orientation- and position-independent, pointing towards its activity at the transcriptional and not post-transcriptional level.

  9. A stage—specific protein factor binding to a CACCC motif in both human β—globin gene promoter and 5‘—HS2 region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The DNaseI hypersensitive site 2 (HS2) of human β-globin locus control region(LCR) is required for the high level expression of human β-globin genes.In the present study,a stage-specific protein factor (LPF-β) was identified in the nuclear extract prepared from mouse fetal liver at d 18 of gestation,which could bind to the HS2 region of human β-globin LCR.We also found that the shift band of LPF-β factor could be competed by human β-globin promoter.However,it couldn't be competed by human ε-globin promoter or by human Aγ-globin promoter.Furthermore,our data demonstrated that the binding-sequence of LPF-β factor is 5'CACACCCTA 3',which is located at the HS2 region of β-LCR(from-10845 to-10853 bp)and human β-globin promoter(from-92 to -84 bp).We speculated that these regions containing the CACCC box in both the human β-globin promoter and HS2 might function as stage selector elements in the regulation of human β-globin switching and the LPF-β factor might be a stage-specific protein factor involved in the regulation of human β-globin gene expression.

  10. An infant with cartilage-hair hypoplasia due to a novel homozygous mutation in the promoter region of the RMRP gene associated with chondrodysplasia and severe immunodeficiency. (United States)

    Vatanavicharn, N; Visitsunthorn, N; Pho-iam, T; Jirapongsananuruk, O; Pacharn, P; Chokephaibulkit, K; Limwongse, C; Wasant, P


    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by short-limbed dwarfism, sparse hair, and immune deficiency. It is caused by mutations in the RMRP gene, which encodes the RNA component of the mitochondrial RNA-processing ribonuclease (RNase MRP). Several mutations have been identified in its promoter region or transcribed sequence. However, homozygous mutations in the promoter region have been only reported in a patient with primary immunodeficiency without other features of CHH. We report on a Thai girl who first presented with chronic diarrhea, recurrent pneumonia, and severe failure to thrive, without apparently disproportionate dwarfism. The diagnosis of CHH was made after the severe wasting was corrected, and disproportionate growth became noticeable. The patient had the typical features of CHH, including sparse hair and metaphyseal abnormalities. The immunologic profiles were consistent with combined immune deficiency. Mutation analysis identified a novel homozygous mutation, g.-19_-25 dupACTACTC, in the promoter region of the RMRP gene. Identification of the mutation enabled us to provide a prenatal diagnosis in the subsequent pregnancy. This patient is the first CHH case with the characteristic features due to the homozygous mutation in the promoter region of the RMRP gene. The finding of severe immunodeficiency supports that promoter mutations markedly disrupt mRNA cleavage function, which causes cell-cycle impairment.

  11. Contribution of individual promoters in the ddlB-ftsZ region to the transcription of the essential cell-division gene ftsZ in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Flärdh, K; Garrido, T; Vicente, M


    The essential cell-division gene ftsZ is transcribed in Escherichia coli from at least six promoters found within the coding regions of the upstream ddlB, ftsQ, and ftsA genes. The contribution of each one to the final yield of ftsZ transcription has been estimated using transcriptional lacZ fusions. The most proximal promoter, ftsZ2p, contributes less than 5% of the total transcription from the region that reaches ftsZ. The ftsZ4p and ftsZ3p promoters, both located inside ftsA, produce almost 37% of the transcription. An ftsAp promoter within the ftsQ gene yields nearly 12% of total transcription from the region. A large proportion of transcription (approximately 46%) derives from promoters ftsQ2p and ftsQ1p, which are located inside the upstream ddlB gene. Thus, the ftsQAZ genes are to a large extent transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA. However, we find that the ftsZ proximal region is necessary for full expression, which is in agreement with a recent report that mRNA cleavage by RNase E at the end of the ftsA cistron has a significant role in the contol of ftsZ expression.

  12. [Effectiveness of expression of tdh gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus depends on two point mutations in promoter region]. (United States)

    Shalu, O A; Pisanov, R V; Monakhova, E V


    A molecular-biological study of the clinical strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that contain genes of thermostable direct hemolysin Tdh) and Tdh-related hemolysin (Trh). Using Southern blot hybridization, it is shown that genomes of strains that carry determinants of both hemolysins (tdh(+)-trh+) represent a single copy, whereas in tdh2+RH+ strains, there are two copies (tdh1 and tdh2). All of the examined tdh+trh+ and some of the tdh+trh strains either did not express the tdh gene or did not express the tdh gene (Kanagawa negative or KP-) or expressed it weakly and not often (Kanagawa intermediate, KP+), unlike several Kanagawa positive tdh+trh- strains. To establish the reasons for KP -/+ phenotypes, tdh, tdh11, and tdh2 genes of 13 strains isolated in Russia and neighboring foreign countries were sequenced, followed by the biotransformation analysis of the obtained sequences, as well as a comparison with those of a number of strains presented in GenBank. The results revealed that the weak expression of the tdh gene depends, not only on one point mutation in the promoter region (substitution of A for G in the -35 region), as was thought previously, but also on the second substitution (G for A in the -3 position relative to the -10 sequence), which is quite sufficient when the former is absent. Therefore, the reversion of KP -/+ strains that contain one of these substitutions can take place as a result of a single reverse point mutation, and they should be considered potentially dangerous. Strains that contain both substitutions may revert with lesser probability because, in this case, both mutations are necessary.

  13. Variations in the core promoter/pre-core region in HBV genotype C in Japanese and Northern Vietnamese patients. (United States)

    Truong, Bui Xuan; Yano, Yoshihiko; Seo, Yasushi; Phuong, Tran Minh; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Kato, Hirotaka; Miki, Akira; Utsumi, Takako; Azuma, Takeshi; Trach, Nguyen Khanh; Mizokami, Masashi; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Kasuga, Masato


    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) subgenotypes Cs (C1) and Ce (C2) are common in East Asia. To investigate the genomic difference of HBV genotype C between two separated regions, 50 subgenotype Cs-infected Vietnamese and 70 subgenotype Ce-infected Japanese patients were enrolled for analysis. The patients were categorized to either a hepatocellular carcinoma group (HCC) or a non-HCC group including liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, and asymptomatic carriers. HBV serology, HBV-DNA level, and variations in core promoter/pre-core region were examined. Phylogenetic analysis based on the full genome sequences and nucleotide sequences partly in the S gene and in the P gene revealed that all Japanese strains (70/70) were subgenotype Ce, and nearly all of the Vietnamese strains (50/51) were subgenotype Cs, excluding one subgenotype C5. C1858 and G1775 were common in the Vietnamese (64% and 40%) but not in the Japanese (0%). The prevalence of C/A1753 in Vietnamese was higher than that in the Japanese (32% vs. 17.1%), however the frequency of A1896 in the Japanese was significantly higher (32.9% vs. 12%, P HBV-DNA, the Japanese HCC had a relatively low level. In the Vietnamese, C/A1753 and C1858 were associated closely with T1762A1764, higher HBV-DNA levels and higher HCC incidence. The multivariate analysis revealed that male, T1653 and C/A1753 were independent risk factors for HCC. The subgenotypes and unique mutations of HBV genotype C in the Vietnamese and Japanese differed, and C/A1753 and C1858 variants might play a role in the pathogenesis of liver disease in Vietnamese patients.

  14. Polymorphism of the promoter region and exon 1 of the CTLA4 gene in endemic pemphigus foliaceus (fogo selvagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Pavoni


    Full Text Available Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF is an autoimmune bullous skin disease characterized by acantholysis and antibodies against a desmosomal protein, desmoglein 1. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to development of this multifactorial disease. HLA class II and some cytokine gene polymorphisms are the only genetic markers thus far known to be associated with susceptibility to or protection from EPF. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 gene (CTLA4 encodes a key immunoreceptor molecule that regulates and inhibits T-cell proliferation. It participates in the regulatory process controlling autoreactivity and therefore has been considered a strong candidate gene in autoimmune diseases. In the search for genes that might influence EPF pathogenesis, we analyzed variants of the CTLA4 gene in a sample of 118 patients and 291 controls from a Brazilian population. This is the first study investigating the possible role of polymorphisms of the 2q33 chromosomal region in differential susceptibility to pemphigus foliaceus. Promoter region and exon 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms -318 (C,T and 49 (A,G were genotyped using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes after amplification by the polymerase chain reaction. The allelic and genotypic frequencies did not differ significantly between the patient and the control groups (-318T: 9.8 and 10.9%, 49G: 33.0 and 35.2% were the allelic frequencies in patients and controls, respectively. In addition, no significant difference was found when the patient and control population samples were stratified by the presence of HLA-DRB1 alleles. We conclude that the CTLA4 -318 (C,T and 49 (A,G polymorphisms do not play a major role in EPF development.

  15. Restoration of the methylation status of hypermethylated gene promoters by microRNA-29b in human breast cancer: A novel epigenetic therapeutic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Starlard-Davenport


    Full Text Available It is well established that transcriptional silencing of critical tumor-suppressor genes by DNA methylation is a fundamental component in the initiation of breast cancer. However, the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs in restoring abnormal DNA methylation patterns in breast cancer is not well understood. Therefore, we investigated whether miRNA-29b, due to its complimentarity to the 3′- untranslated region of DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A and DNMT3B, could restore normal DNA methylation patterns in human breast cancers and breast cancer cell lines. We demonstrated that transfection of pre-miRNA-29b into less aggressive MCF-7 cells, but not MDA-MB-231 mesenchymal cells, inhibited cell proliferation, decreased DNMT3A and DNMT3B messenger RNA (mRNA, and decreased promoter methylation status of ADAM23 , CCNA1, CCND2, CDH1, CDKN1C, CDKN2A, HIC1, RASSF1, SLIT2, TNFRSF10D, and TP73 tumor-suppressor genes. Using methylation polymerase chain reaction (PCR arrays and real-time PCR, we also demonstrated that the methylation status of several critical tumor-suppressor genes increased as stage of breast disease increased, while miRNA-29b mRNA levels were significantly decreased in breast cancers versus normal breast. This increase in methylation status was accompanied by an increase in DNMT1 and DNMT3B mRNA in advanced stage of human breast cancers and in MCF-7, MDA-MB-361, HCC70, Hs-578T, and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells as compared to normal breast specimens and MCF-10-2A, a non-tumorigenic breast cell line, respectively. Our findings highlight the potential for a new epigenetic approach in improving breast cancer therapy by targeting DNMT3A and DNMT3B through miRNA-29b in non-invasive epithelial breast cancer cells.

  16. Methylation profiling of twenty promoter-CpG islands of genes which may contribute to hepatocellular carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lisheng


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC presents one of the major health threats in China today. A better understanding of the molecular genetics underlying malignant transformation of hepatocytes is critical to success in the battle against this disease. The methylation state of C5 of the cytosine in the CpG di-nucleotide that is enriched within or near the promoter region of over 50 % of the polymerase II genes has a drastic effect on transcription of these genes. Changes in the methylation profile of the promoters represent an alternative to genetic lesions as causative factors for the tumor-specific aberrant expression of the genes. Methods We have used the methylation specific PCR method in conjunction with DNA sequencing to assess the methylation state of the promoter CpG islands of twenty genes. Aberrant expression of these genes have been attributed to the abnormal methylation profile of the corresponding promoter CpG islands in human tumors. Results While the following sixteen genes remained the unmethylated in all tumor and normal tissues: CDH1, APAF1, hMLH1, BRCA1, hTERC, VHL, RARβ, TIMP3, DAPK1, SURVIVIN, p14ARF, RB1, p15INK4b, APC, RASSF1c and PTEN, varying degrees of tumor specific hypermethylation were associated with the p16INK4a , RASSF1a, CASP8 and CDH13 genes. For instance, the p16INK4a was highly methylated in HCC (17/29, 58.6% and less significantly methylated in non-cancerous tissue (4/29. 13.79%. The RASSF1a was fully methylated in all tumor tissues (29/29, 100%, and less frequently methylated in corresponding non-cancerous tissue (24/29, 82.75%. Conclusions Furthermore, co-existence of methylated with unmethylated DNA in some cases suggested that both genetic and epigenetic (CpG methylation mechanisms may act in concert to inactivate the p16INK4a and RASSF1a in HCC. Finally, we found a significant association of cirrhosis with hypermethylation of the p16INK4a and hypomethylation of the CDH13 genes. For the

  17. Effect of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene polymorphism in the promoter region on dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetic subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉明; 芳野原; 前田英一; 曾淑范


    Objective To explore the relationship between microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) gene variation and diabetic dyslipidemia among Chinese. Methods Using PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and gene sequencing, we studied the influence of a common MTP gene polymorphism in the p romoter region on the apoB-containing lipoproteins in 44 Chinese type 2 diabeti c subjects and 32 non-diabetic volunteers. Results A common functional G/T polymorphism in 493 bp upstream from the transcriptional start point was detected among native Chinese. There were 41 carriers (53.9%) of the MTP-493 G/G genotype, 28 (36.8%) of the MTP-493 G/T genotype and 7 (9.3%) of the MTP-493 T/T genotype. The allele frequency of M TP-493 T in the diabetic group was 0.30. The MTP-493 T/T diabetic group had significantly higher TG (P<0.05), VLDL-CH (P<0.05) and smaller LDL pa rticle size (P<0.001) than the MTP-493 common genotype group. Conclusion Genetic variation in the MTP promoter is likely to be highly involved in the production of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  18. Alcohol and nicotine codependence-associated DNA methylation changes in promoter regions of addiction-related genes (United States)

    Xu, Hongqin; Wang, Fan; Kranzler, Henry R.; Gelernter, Joel; Zhang, Huiping


    Altered DNA methylation in addiction-related genes may modify the susceptibility to alcohol or drug dependence (AD or ND). We profiled peripheral blood DNA methylation levels of 384 CpGs in promoter regions of 82 addiction-related genes in 256 African Americans (AAs) (117 cases with AD-ND codependence and 139 controls) and 196 European Americans (103 cases with AD-ND codependence and 93 controls) using Illumina’s GoldenGate DNA methylation array assays. AD-ND codependence-associated DNA methylation changes were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models with consideration of batch effects and covariates age, sex, and ancestry proportions. Seventy CpGs (in 41 genes) showed nominally significant associations (P genes (including HTR2B cg27531267) were hypermethylated in EA cases (5.6 × 10−9 ≤ P ≤ 9.5 × 10−5). Nevertheless, 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) nearby HTR2B cg27531267 and the interaction of these SNPs and cg27531267 did not show significant effects on AD-ND codependence in either AAs or EAs. Our study demonstrated that DNA methylation changes in addiction-related genes could be potential biomarkers for AD-ND co-dependence. Future studies need to explore whether DNA methylation alterations influence the risk of AD-ND codependence or the other way around. PMID:28165486

  19. Identification of laticifer-specific genes and their promoter regions from a natural rubber producing plant Hevea brasiliensis. (United States)

    Aoki, Yuichi; Takahashi, Seiji; Takayama, Daisuke; Ogata, Yoshiyuki; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Asawatreratanakul, Kasem; Wititsuwannakul, Dhirayos; Wititsuwannakul, Rapepun; Shibata, Daisuke; Koyama, Tanetoshi; Nakayama, Toru


    Latex, the milky cytoplasm of highly differentiated cells called laticifers, from Hevea brasiliensis is a key source of commercial natural rubber production. One way to enhance natural rubber production would be to express genes involved in natural rubber biosynthesis by a laticifer-specific overexpression system. As a first step to identify promoters which could regulate the laticifer-specific expression, we identified random clones from a cDNA library of H. brasiliensis latex, resulting in 4325 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) assembled into 1308 unigenes (692 contigs and 617 singletons). Quantitative analyses of the transcription levels of high redundancy clones in the ESTs revealed genes highly and predominantly expressed in laticifers, such as Rubber Elongation Factor (REF), Small Rubber Particle Protein and putative protease inhibitor proteins. HRT1 and HRT2, cis-prenyltransferases involved in rubber biosynthesis, was also expressed predominantly in laticifers, although these transcript levels were 80-fold lower than that of REF. The 5'-upstream regions of these laticifer-specific genes were cloned and analyzed in silico, revealing seven common motifs consisting of eight bases. Furthermore, transcription factors specifically expressed in laticifers were also identified. The common motifs in the laticifer-specific genes and the laticifer-specific transcription factors are potentially involved in the regulation of gene expression in laticifers.

  20. Diversity of CTX-M beta-lactamases and their promoter regions from Enterobacteriaceae isolated in three Parisian hospitals. (United States)

    Saladin, Michèle; Cao, Van Thi Bao; Lambert, Thierry; Donay, Jean-Luc; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Ould-Hocine, Zahia; Verdet, Charlotte; Delisle, Françoise; Philippon, Alain; Arlet, Guillaume


    Nine clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (six Escherichia coli and three Proteus mirabilis) isolated in three Parisian hospitals between 1989 and 2000 showed a particular extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistance profile characterized by resistance to cefotaxime and aztreonam but not to ceftazidime. CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-14 and two novel plasmid-mediated CTX-M beta-lactamases (CTX-M-20, and CTX-M-21) were identified by polymerase chain reaction and isoelectric focusing (pI>8) and were associated in eight cases with TEM-1 (pI=5.4) or TEM-2 (pI=5.6) beta-lactamases. We used internal ISEcp1 and IS26 forward primers and the CTX-M consensus reverse primer to characterize the CTX-M beta-lactamase promoter regions and showed their high degree of structure diversity. We found upstream of some bla(CTX-M) genes, a 266-bp sequence 100% identical to the sequence upstream of the Kluyvera ascorbata beta-lactamase gene, suggesting that this chromosomal enzyme is the progenitor of the CTX-M-2/5 cluster.

  1. Different Effects of Homocysteine and Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein on Methylation Status in the Promoter Region of the Estrogen Receptor α Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yushan HUANG; Kejun PENG; Juan SU; Yuping HUANG; Yizhou XU; Shuren WANG


    We investigated the effects of homocysteine (Hcy) and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) on DNA methylation in the promoter region of the estrogen receptor α (ERα) gene, and its potential mechanism in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Cultured smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of humans were treated by Hcy and ox-LDL with different concentrations for different periods of time. The DNA methylation status was assayed by nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, the lipids that accumulated in the SMCs and foam cell formations were examined with Oil red O staining. The proliferation of SMCs was assayed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. The results showed that ox-LDL in moderate concentrations (10-40 mg/L) induced de novo methylation in the promoter region of the ERα gene of SMCs. However, high concentrations (50 mg/L) of ox-LDL, resulted in demethylation of ERα. The Hcy treatment resulted in de novo methylation in the promoter region of the ERα gene with a concentration- and treating time-dependent manner, and a dose-dependent promoting effect on SMC proliferation. These data indicated that the two risk factors for atherosclerosis had the function of inducing de novo methylation in the promoter region of the ERα gene of SMCs. However, high concentrations (50mg/L) of ox-LDL induced demethylation, indicating that different risk factors of atherosclerosis with different potency might cause different aberrant methylation patterns in the promoter region of the ERα gene. The atherogenic mechanism of Hcy might involve the hypermethylation of the ERα gene, leading to the proliferation of SMCs in atherosclerotic lesions.

  2. An Impact Analysis of Fiscal Measures to Promote Self-Sustained Economic Development in Okinawa using a Multi-regional CGE Model (Japanese)


    OKIYAMA Mitsuru; IKEGAWA Maria; Tokunaga, Suminori


    This paper analyzes the effective allocation of a comprehensive package of grants to the production activity sectors for the purpose of promoting self-sustained economic development in Okinawa prefecture. We find the following results by using a regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model comprised of six regions including Okinawa. First, the economic welfare of Okinawa increased by 123.2 billion yen due to a public fiscal transfer of 98.7 billion yen based on the comprehensive packag...

  3. DNA methylation of the GC box in the promoter region mediates isolation rearing-induced suppression of srd5a1 transcription in the prefrontal cortex. (United States)

    Araki, Ryota; Nishida, Shoji; Hiraki, Yosuke; Matsumoto, Kinzo; Yabe, Takeshi


    The levels of allopregnanolone (ALLO), a neurosteroid, in brain and serum are related to severity of depression and anxiety. Steroid 5α-reductase type I is the rate-limiting enzyme in ALLO biosynthesis and plays an important role in control of the ALLO level in mammalian brain. In this study, we examined an epigenetic mechanism for transcriptional regulation of srd5a1, which codes for steroid 5α-reductase type I, using isolation-reared mice. The mRNA level of srd5a1 was decreased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in isolation-reared mice. Rearing in social isolation increased methylation of cytosines at -82 and -12 bp downstream of the transcription start site, which are located in a GC box element in the promoter region of srd5a1. Binding of Sp1, a ubiquitous transcription factor, to the GC box was decreased in the promoter region of srd5a1 in the PFC in isolation-reared mice. Site-specific methylation at cytosine -12 of a srd5a1 promoter-luciferase reporter construct, but not that of cytosine -82, downregulated the promoter activity of srd5a1. These findings suggest that transcription of srd5a1 in brain is regulated by environmental factor-induced cytosine methylation in the promoter region. This finding could contribute to development of antidepressant and anxiolytic agents.

  4. Human transcription factor genes involved in neuronal development tend to have high GC content and CpG elements in the proximal promoter region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Sheng Long; Jia-Ming Qin; Tao Su; Qi-Hua Zhao; Yong-Hong Yi; Wei-Ping Liao


    Transcription factors (TFs) play critical roles in the development of the nervous system, but the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of these genes are poorly understood. Here we analyzed 5-kb of the 5' flanking genomic DNA sequences of 41 TF genes involved in neuronal development. The results showed that the TF genes tend to have higher GC contents in the proximal region and most of the TF genes have at least one proximal GC-rich (GC content > 60%) promoter with a CpG island. The promoter distribution analysis showed that the GC-poor promoters were sporadically distributed within the 5-kb flanking genomic sequence (FGS); however, more than half (37 of 70) of the GC-rich promoters were located in the proximal region between nucleotides -1 and -500. Luciferase assays showed that partial GC-rich promoters increased gene expression in SH-SY5Y cells and that CpG methylation repressed the promoter activity. This study suggests a potential general mechanism for regulation of TF expression.

  5. Quantitative analysis of promoter methylation in exfoliated epithelial cells isolated from breast milk of healthy women. (United States)

    Wong, Chung M; Anderton, Douglas L; Smith-Schneider, Sallie; Wing, Megan A; Greven, Melissa C; Arcaro, Kathleen F


    Promoter methylation analysis of genes frequently silenced in breast cancer is a promising indicator of breast cancer risk, as these methylation events are thought to occur long before presentation of disease. The numerous exfoliated epithelial cells present in breast milk may provide the breast epithelial DNA needed for detailed methylation analysis and assessment of breast cancer risk. Fresh breast milk samples and health, lifestyle, and reproductive history questionnaires were collected from 111 women. Pyrosequencing analysis was conducted on DNA isolated from the exfoliated epithelial cells immunomagnetically separated from the total cell population in the breast milk of 102 women. A total of 65 CpG sites were examined in six tumor suppressor genes: PYCARD (also known as ASC or TMS1), CDH1, GSTP1, RBP1 (also known as CRBP1), SFRP1, and RASSF1. A sufficient quantity of DNA was obtained for meaningful analysis of promoter methylation; women donated an average of 86 ml of milk with a mean yield of 32,700 epithelial cells per ml. Methylation scores were in general low as expected of benign tissue, but analysis of outlier methylation scores revealed a significant relationship between breast cancer risk, as indicated by previous biopsy, and methylation score for several CpG sites in CDH1, GSTP1, SFRP1, and RBP1. Methylation of RASSF1 was positively correlated with women's age irrespective of her reproductive history. Promoter methylation patterns in DNA from breast milk epithelial cells can likely be used to assess breast cancer risk. Additional studies of women at high breast cancer risk are warranted.

  6. Transcription factor AP1 binds the functional region of the promoter and regulates gene expression of human PPARdelta in LoVo cell. (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaogang; Yang, Xudong; Han, Yan; Lu, Shemin


    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ gene (PPARδ) is correlated with carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer, but the regulation of its gene transcription remains unclear. We herein report that AP1 binds the promoter and regulates PPARδ gene expression. With a luciferase reporter system, we identified a functional promoter region of 30 bp of PPARδ gene by deletion and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Using site-directed mutagenesis and decoy analyses, we demonstrated that AP1 bound the functional transcriptional factor binding site in a region extending from -176 to -73 of the PPARδ promoter, which was confirmed using EMSA and supershift assays. Consequently, inhibition of the AP1 binding site led to decreased PPARδ mRNA. Our study demonstrated that AP1 is the transcriptional factor that contributes to PPARδ expression in LoVo cells.

  7. Serotonin Transporter Promoter Region (5-HTTLPR) Polymorphism Is Not Associated With Paroxetine-Induced Ejaculation Delay in Dutch Men With Lifelong Premature Ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Paddy K C; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D


    PURPOSE: To investigate the association between the 5-HT-transporter-gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism and 20-mg paroxetine-induced ejaculation delay in men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study of 10 weeks of paroxetine trea

  8. Detection of a 640-bp deletion in the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin promoter region in isolates from an adolescent of Ethiopian origin

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    Rolf Claesson


    Full Text Available The expression of the leukotoxin of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is regulated by the leukotoxin promoter. A 530-bp deletion or an 886-bp insertion sequence (IS element in this region has earlier been described in highly leukotoxic isolates. Here, we report on highly leukotoxic isolate with a 640-bp deletion, which was detected in an adolescent of Ethiopian origin.

  9. Frequency of SNP -336A/G in the promoter region of CD209 in a population from northeastern Brazil. (United States)

    Costa, P N; Ferreira-Fernandes, H; de Oliveira, J S; Pereira, A C T C; Pinto, G R; Ferreira, G P


    Dendritic cells (DCs) mediate the initiation of the immune response against a variety of pathogens. The DC-SIGN receptor is encoded by the gene CD209 and is expressed on the surface of DCs. It binds to mannose-rich carbohydrates and enables the recognition of bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. SNP -336A/G in the promoter region of CD209 influences the expression of the DC-SIGN receptor. Several studies have associated this SNP with an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and the development of more severe forms of disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of SNP -336A/G in a population from northeastern Brazil. We analyzed 181 individuals from the general population of Parnaíba, Piauí, Brazil, of which 37% were men and 63% were women. SNP -336A/G was detected by polymerase chain reaction and treatment with the restriction enzyme MscI and visualized by electrophoresis on an 8% polyacrylamide gel stained with silver nitrate. Of the individuals analyzed, 116 (64.1%) were homozygous AA, 57 (31.5%) were heterozygous (AG), and 8 (4.4%) were homozygous GG. The allele frequency of -336G was 20.2%. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the frequency of the CD209 SNP -336A/G in a population in the State of Piauí. Further studies are needed to determine the relationship between this SNP and the vulnerability of this population to major infectious diseases.

  10. The ChrA response regulator in Corynebacterium diphtheriae controls hemin-regulated gene expression through binding to the hmuO and hrtAB promoter regions. (United States)

    Burgos, Jonathan M; Schmitt, Michael P


    Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the etiologic agent of diphtheria, utilizes heme and hemoglobin (Hb) as iron sources for growth. Heme-iron utilization involves HmuO, a heme oxygenase that degrades cytosolic heme, resulting in the release of heme-associated iron. Expression of the hmuO promoter is under dual regulation, in which transcription is repressed by DtxR and iron and activated by a heme source, such as hemin or Hb. Hemin-dependent activation is mediated primarily by the ChrAS two-component system, in which ChrS is a putative heme-responsive sensor kinase while ChrA is proposed to serve as a response regulator that activates transcription. It was recently shown that the ChrAS system similarly regulates the hrtAB genes, which encode an ABC transporter involved in the protection of C. diphtheriae from hemin toxicity. In this study, we characterized the phosphorelay mechanism in the ChrAS system and provide evidence for the direct regulation of the hmuO and hrtAB promoters by ChrA. A fluorescence staining method was used to show that ChrS undergoes autophosphorylation and that the phosphate moiety is subsequently transferred to ChrA. Promoter fusion studies identified regions upstream of the hmuO and hrtAB promoters that are critical for the heme-dependent regulation by ChrA. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that ChrA specifically binds at the hmuO and hrtAB promoter regions and that binding is phosphorylation dependent. A phosphorylation-defective mutant of ChrA [ChrA(D50A)] exhibited significantly diminished binding to the hmuO promoter region relative to that of wild-type ChrA. DNase I footprint analysis further defined the sequences in the hmuO and hrtAB promoters that are involved in ChrA binding, and this analysis revealed that the DtxR binding site at the hmuO promoter partially overlaps the binding site for ChrA. DNase I protection studies as well as promoter fusion analysis suggest that ChrA and DtxR compete for binding at the hmuO promoter

  11. The splicing regulator PTBP2 interacts with the cytidine deaminase AID and promotes binding of AID to switch-region DNA. (United States)

    Nowak, Urszula; Matthews, Allysia J; Zheng, Simin; Chaudhuri, Jayanta


    During immunoglobulin class-switch recombination (CSR), the cytidine deaminase AID induces double-strand breaks into transcribed, repetitive DNA elements called switch sequences. The mechanism that promotes the binding of AID specifically to switch regions remains to be elucidated. Here we used a proteomic screen with in vivo biotinylation of AID to identify the splicing regulator PTBP2 as a protein that interacts with AID. Knockdown of PTBP2 mediated by short hairpin RNA in B cells led to a decrease in binding of AID to transcribed switch regions, which resulted in considerable impairment of CSR. PTBP2 is thus an effector of CSR that promotes the binding of AID to switch-region DNA.

  12. Promoter Escape with Bacterial Two-component σ Factor Suggests Retention of σ Region Two in the Elongation Complex. (United States)

    Sengupta, Shreya; Prajapati, Ranjit Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta


    The transition from the formation of the RNA polymerase (RNAP)-promoter open complex step to the productive elongation complex step involves "promoter escape" of RNAP. From the structure of RNAP, a promoter escape model has been proposed that suggests that the interactions between σR4 and RNAP and σR4 and DNA are destabilized upon transition to elongation. This accounts for the reduced affinity of σ to RNAP and stochastic release of σ. However, as the loss of interaction of σR4 with RNAP results in the release of intact σ, assessing this interaction remains challenging to be experimentally verified. Here we study the promoter escape model using a two-component σ factor YvrI and YvrHa from Bacillus subtilis that independently contributes to the functions of σR4 and σR2 in a RNAP-promoter complex. Our results show that YvrI, which mimics σR4, is released gradually as transcription elongation proceeds, whereas YvrHa, which mimics σR2 is retained throughout the elongation complexes. Thus our result validates the proposed model for promoter escape and also suggests that promoter escape involves little or no change in the interaction of σR2 with RNAP.

  13. Primate segmental duplication creates novel promoters for the LRRC37 gene family within the 17q21.31 inversion polymorphism region (United States)

    Bekpen, Cemalettin; Tastekin, Ibrahim; Siswara, Priscillia; Akdis, Cezmi A.; Eichler, Evan E.


    The LRRC37 gene family maps to a complex region of the human genome and has been subjected to multiple rounds of segmental duplication. We investigate the expression and regulation of this gene family in multiple tissues and organisms and show a testis-specific expression of this gene family in mouse but a more ubiquitous pattern of expression among primates. Evolutionary and phylogenetic analyses support a model in which new alternative promoters have been acquired during primate evolution. We identify two promoters, Cl8 and particularly Cl3, both of which are highly active in the cerebellum and fetal brain in human and have been duplicated from a promoter region of two unrelated genes, BPTF and DND1, respectively. Two of these more broadly expressed gene family members, LRRC37A1 and A4, define the boundary of a common human inversion polymorphism mapping to chromosome 17q21.31 (the MAPT locus)—a region associated with risk for frontal temporal dementia, Parkinsonism, and intellectual disability. We propose that the regulation of the LRRC37 family occurred in a stepwise manner, acquiring foreign promoters from BPTF and DND1 via segmental duplication. This unusual evolutionary trajectory altered the regulation of the LRRC37 family, leading to increased expression in the fetal brain and cerebellum. PMID:22419166

  14. Characterization of the regulatory region of the zebrafish Prep1.1 gene: analogies to the promoter of the human PREP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bernardi

    Full Text Available Prep1 is a developmentally essential TALE class homeodomain transcription factor. In zebrafish and mouse, Prep1 is already ubiquitously expressed at the earliest stages of development, with important tissue-specific peculiarities. The Prep1 gene in mouse is developmentally essential and has haploinsufficient tumor suppressor activity [1]. We have determined the human Prep1 transcription start site (TSS by primer extension analysis and identified, within 20 bp, the transcription start region (TSR of the zebrafish Prep1.1 promoter. The functions of the zebrafish 5' upstream sequences were analyzed both by transient transfections in Hela Cells and by injection in zebrafish embryos. This analysis revealed a complex promoter with regulatory sequences extending up to -1.8, possibly -5.0 Kb, responsible for tissue specific expression. Moreover, the first intron contains a conserved tissue-specific enhancer both in zebrafish and in human cells. Finally, a two nucleotides mutation of an EGR-1 site, conserved in all species including human and zebrafish and located at a short distance from the TSS, destroyed the promoter activity of the -5.0 Kb promoter. A transgenic fish expressing GFP under the -1.8 Kb zebrafish promoter/enhancer co-expressed GFP and endogenous Prep1.1 during embryonic development. In the adult fish, GFP was expressed in hematopoietic regions like the kidney, in agreement with the essential function of Prep1 in mouse hematopoiesis. Sequence comparison showed conservation from man to fish of the sequences around the TSS, within the first intron enhancer. Moreover, about 40% of the sequences spread throughout the 5 Kbof the zebrafish promoter are concentrated in the -3 to -5 Kb of the human upstream region.

  15. Rhodobacter capsulatus nifA1 Promoter: High-GC −10 Regions in High-GC Bacteria and the Basis for Their Transcription


    Richard, Cynthia L.; Tandon, Animesh; Kranz, Robert G.


    It was previously shown that the Rhodobacter capsulatus NtrC enhancer-binding protein activates the R. capsulatus housekeeping RNA polymerase but not the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase at the nifA1 promoter. We have tested the hypothesis that this activity is due to the high G+C content of the −10 sequence. A comparative analysis of R. capsulatus and other α-proteobacterial promoters with known transcription start sites suggests that the G+C content of the −10 region is higher than that for ...

  16. IκBα polymorphism at promoter region (rs2233408 influences the susceptibility of gastric cancer in Chinese

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    Sung Joseph JY


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear factor of kappa B inhibitor alpha (IκBα protein is implicated in regulating a variety of cellular process from inflammation to tumorigenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of rs2233408 T/C genotype in the promoter region of IκBα to gastric cancer and the association of this polymorphism with clinicopathologic variables in gastric cancer patients. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted between 1999 and 2006 in Guangdong Province, China. A total of 564 gastric cancer patients and 566 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. rs2233408 genotypes in IκBα were analyzed by TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Results Both rs2233408 T homozygote (TT and T heterozygotes (TC and TT had significantly reduced gastric cancer risk (TT: OR = 0.250, 95% CI = 0.069-0.909, P = 0.035; TC and TT: OR = 0.721, 95% CI = 0.530-0.981, P = 0.037, compared with rs2233408 C homozygote (CC. rs2233408 T heterozygotes were significantly associated with reduced risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer with ORs of 0.648 (95% CI = 0.459-0.916, P = 0.014, but not with the diffuse or mix type of gastric cancer. The association between rs2233408 T heterozygotes and gastric cancer appeared more apparent in the older patients (age>40 (OR = 0.674, 95% CI = 0.484-0.939, P = 0.02. rs2233408 T heterozygotes was associated with non-cardiac gastric cancer (OR = 0.594, 95% CI = 0.411-0.859, P = 0.006, but not with cardiac gastric cancer. However, rs2233408 polymorphism was not associated with the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Conclusions IκBα rs2233408 T heterozygotes were associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer, especially for the development of certain subtypes of gastric cancer in Chinese population.

  17. Variability in the precore and core promoter regions of HBV strains in Morocco: characterization and impact on liver disease progression.

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    Bouchra Kitab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV is one of the most common human pathogens that cause aggressive hepatitis and advanced liver disease (AdLD, including liver cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. The persistence of active HBV replication and liver damage after the loss of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg has been frequently associated with mutations in the pre-core (pre-C and core promoter (CP regions of HBV genome that abolish or reduce HBeAg expression. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of pre-C and CP mutations and their impact on the subsequent course of liver disease in Morocco. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cohort of 186 patients with HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infection was studied (81 inactive carriers, 69 with active chronic hepatitis, 36 with AdLD. Pre-C and CP mutations were analyzed by PCR-direct sequencing method. The pre-C stop codon G1896A mutation was the most frequent (83.9% and was associated with a lower risk of AdLD development (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.15-1.04; p = 0.04. HBV-DNA levels in patients with G1896A were not significantly different from the other patients carrying wild-type strains (p = 0.84. CP mutations C1653T, T1753V, A1762T/G1764A, and C1766T/T1768A were associated with higher HBV-DNA level and increased liver disease severity. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that older age (≥ 40 years, male sex, high viral load (>4.3 log(10 IU/mL and CP mutations C1653T, T1753V, A1762T/G1764A, and C1766T/T1768A were independent risk factors for AdLD development. Combination of these mutations was significantly associated with AdLD (OR, 7.52; 95% CI, 4.8-8; p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time the association of HBV viral load and CP mutations with the severity of liver disease in Moroccan HBV chronic carriers. The examination of CP mutations alone or in combination could be helpful for prediction of the clinical outcome.

  18. The 5'-flanking region of the RP58 coding sequence shows prominent promoter activity in multipolar cells in the subventricular zone during corticogenesis. (United States)

    Ohtaka-Maruyama, C; Hirai, S; Miwa, A; Takahashi, A; Okado, H


    Pyramidal neurons of the neocortex are produced from progenitor cells located in the neocortical ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) during embryogenesis. RP58 is a transcriptional repressor that is strongly expressed in the developing brain and plays an essential role in corticogenesis. The expression of RP58 is strictly regulated in a time-dependent and spatially restricted manner. It is maximally expressed in E15-16 embryonic cerebral cortex, localized specifically to the cortical plate and SVZ of the neocortex, hippocampus, and parts of amygdala during brain development, and found in glutamatergic but not GABAergic neurons. Identification of the promoter activity underlying specific expression patterns provides important clues to their mechanisms of action. Here, we show that the RP58 gene promoter is activated prominently in multipolar migrating cells, the first in vivo analysis of RP58 promoter activity in the brain. The 5.3 kb 5'-flanking genomic DNA of the RP58 coding region demonstrates promoter activity in neurons both in vitro and in vivo. This promoter is highly responsive to the transcription factor neurogenin2 (Ngn2), which is a direct upstream activator of RP58 expression. Using in utero electroporation, we demonstrate that RP58 gene promoter activity is first detected in a subpopulation of pin-like VZ cells, then prominently activated in migrating multipolar cells in the multipolar cell accumulation zone (MAZ) located just above the VZ. In dissociated primary cultured cortical neurons, RP58 promoter activity mimics in vivo expression patterns from a molecular standpoint that RP58 is expressed in a fraction of Sox2-positive progenitor cells, Ngn2-positive neuronal committed cells, and Tuj1-positive young neurons, but not in Dlx2-positive GABAergic neurons. Finally, we show that Cre recombinase expression under the control of the RP58 gene promoter is a feasible tool for conditional gene switching in post-mitotic multipolar migrating

  19. Promoter-region hypermethylation and expression downregulation of Yy1 (Yin yang 1) in preneoplastic liver lesions in a thioacetamide rat hepatocarcinogenesis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hajime [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Ogawa, Takashi; Wang, Liyun [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Kimura, Masayuki; Tanaka, Takeshi; Morita, Reiko [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshinori [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)


    Thioacetamide (TAA) has been used to develop a rodent model for hepatocarcinogenesis. To determine the genes with epigenetic modifications in early hepatocarcinogenesis, we did a genome-wide scan for hypermethylated promoter regions using CpG island microarrays in TAA-promoted rat liver tissue. Eight genes were selected based on the microarray profile; of these, Yy1 and Wdr45b were confirmed to be hypermethylated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing and downregulated by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Non-neoplastic liver cells had nuclear Yy1 immunoreactivity, while preneoplastic foci with glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) immunoreactivity had decreased Yy1 immunoreactivity. The incidence of these foci was proportional to the dose of TAA administered. Co-expression analysis of gene products downstream of Yy1 revealed increased nuclear phospho-c-Myc{sup +} foci as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic p21{sup Cip1+} foci in Yy1{sup −} or GST-P{sup +} foci in response to TAA-promotion dose. Although the absolute number of cells was low, the incidence of death receptor 5{sup −} foci was increased in Yy1{sup −} foci in proportion to the TAA dose. Yy1{sup −}/GST-P{sup +} foci revealed a higher number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunoreactive cells than Yy1{sup +}/GST-P{sup +} foci, while cleaved caspase-3{sup +} cells were unchanged between Yy1{sup –}/GST-P{sup +} and Yy1{sup +}/GST-P{sup +} foci. In the case of Wdr45b, most GST-P{sup +} foci were Wdr45b{sup –} and were not increased by TAA promotion. These results suggest involvement of Yy1 in the epigenetic gene regulation at the early stages of TAA promoted cell proliferation and concomitant cell cycle arrest in preneoplastic lesions. - Highlights: • Epigenetically downregulated genes were searched in TAA-promnoted rat livers. • Yy1 and Wdr45b showed promoter-region hypermethylation and mRNA downregulation. • TAA promoted

  20. Promoter region polymorphism & expression profile of toll like receptor-3 (TLR-3) gene in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients from India


    Medhi, Subhash; Deka, Manab; Deka, Purabi; Swargiary, Shyam S.; Hazam, Rajib K.; Sharma, Manash P.; Gumma, Phani K.; Asim, Mohammad; Kar, P.


    Background & objectives: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces an immune response of the host, manifested by the formation of anti-HCV antibodies mediated by adaptive and innate immunity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in innate immunity system. This study was aimed to investigate the promoter region polymorphism and expression of TLR3 gene in patients with chronic HCV infection. Methods: Patients with chronic HCV infection (N=180) and an equal number of age-sex matched controls wer...

  1. Isolation and functional analysis of the human glioblastoma-specific promoter region of the human GD3 synthase (hST8Sia I) gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun-Mi Dae; Haw-Young Kwon; Nam-Young Kang; Na-Ree Song; Kyoung-Sook Kim; Cheorl-Ho Kim; Jai-Heon Lee; Young-Choon Lee


    We identified the promoter region of the human GD3 synthase (hST8Sia I) gene to elucidate the mechanism underlying the regulation of hST8Sia I expression in human glioblastoma cells. The 5-rapid amplification of cDNA end using mRNA prepared from U-87MG cells revealed the presence of transcription start site of hST8Sia I gene, and the 5'-terminal analysis of its product showed that transcription started from 648 nucleotides upstream of the translational initiation site. Functional analysis of the 5'-flanking region of the hST8Sia I gene by transient expression method revealed that the region from 638 to 498 is important for transcriptional activity of the hST8Sia I gene in U-87MG and T98G cells. This region lacks apparent TATA and CAAT boxes, but contains putative binding sites for transcription factors AREB6 and Elk-1. Site-directed mutagenesis and transient transfection assays demonstrated that both AREB6 and Elk-1 elements in this region were required for the promoter activity in U-87MG and T98G cells. These results indicated that both AREB6 and Elk-1 might play an essential role in the transcriptional activity of hST8Sia I gene essential for GD3 synthesis in human glioblastoma cells.

  2. Interaction of the transcription start site core region and transcription factor YY1 determine ascorbate transporter SVCT2 exon 1a promoter activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Qiao

    Full Text Available Transcription of the ascorbate transporter, SVCT2, is driven by two distinct promoters in exon 1 of the transporter sequence. The exon 1a promoter lacks a classical transcription start site and little is known about regulation of promoter activity in the transcription start site core (TSSC region. Here we present evidence that the TSSC binds the multifunctional initiator-binding protein YY1. Electrophoresis shift assays using YY1 antibody showed that YY1 is present as one of two major complexes that specifically bind to the TSSC. The other complex contains the transcription factor NF-Y. Mutations in the TSSC that decreased YY1 binding also impaired the exon 1a promoter activity despite the presence of an upstream activating NF-Y/USF complex, suggesting that YY1 is involved in the regulation of the exon 1a transcription. Furthermore, YY1 interaction with NF-Y and/or USF synergistically enhanced the exon 1a promoter activity in transient transfections and co-activator p300 enhanced their synergistic activation. We propose that the TSSC plays a vital role in the exon 1a transcription and that this function is partially carried out by the transcription factor YY1. Moreover, co-activator p300 might be able to synergistically enhance the TSSC function via a "bridge" mechanism with upstream sequences.

  3. The Bacillus subtilis transition state regulator AbrB binds to the-35 promoter region of comK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamoen, LW; Kausche, D; Marahiel, MA; van Sinderen, D; Venema, G; Serror, P


    Genetic competence is a differentiation process initiated by Bacillus subtilis as a result of nutritional deprivation, and is controlled by a complex signal transduction cascade. The promoter of comK, encoding the competence transcription factor, is regulated by at least four different transcription

  4. DNA methylation of specific CpG sites in the promoter region regulates the transcription of the mouse oxytocin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimrat Mamrut

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a peptide hormone, well known for its role in labor and suckling, and most recently for its involvement in mammalian social behavior. All central and peripheral actions of oxytocin are mediated through the oxytocin receptor, which is the product of a single gene. Transcription of the oxytocin receptor is subject to regulation by gonadal steroid hormones, and is profoundly elevated in the uterus and mammary glands during parturition. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism that regulates gene transcription, and has been linked to reduced expression of the oxytocin receptor in individuals with autism. Here, we hypothesized that transcription of the mouse oxytocin receptor is regulated by DNA methylation of specific sites in its promoter, in a tissue-specific manner. Hypothalamus-derived GT1-7, and mammary-derived 4T1 murine cell lines displayed negative correlations between oxytocin receptor transcription and methylation of the gene promoter, and demethylation caused a significant enhancement of oxytocin receptor transcription in 4T1 cells. Using a reporter gene assay, we showed that methylation of specific sites in the gene promoter, including an estrogen response element, significantly inhibits transcription. Furthermore, methylation of the oxytocin receptor promoter was found to be differentially correlated with oxytocin receptor expression in mammary glands and the uterus of virgin and post-partum mice, suggesting that it plays a distinct role in oxytocin receptor transcription among tissues and under different physiological conditions. Together, these results support the hypothesis that the expression of the mouse oxytocin receptor gene is epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation of its promoter.

  5. Relationship between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in -174G/C and-634C/G Promoter Region of Interleukin-6 and Prostate Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixin BAO; Weimin YANG; Siwei ZHOU; Zhangqun YE


    The association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in -174G/C and -634C/G of interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter region and prostate cancer was examined in the population of Han people in Hubei region. TaqMan PCR was employed for the gene-typing of -174G/C and -634C/G in promoter region of IL-6 gene to compare the prostate cancer patients and normal controls in terms of genotype frequency, allele frequency and risk of prostate cancer. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the detection of IL-6 concentration in peripheral blood of the patients with prostate cancer and the relationship between the IL-6 level and the genotype was studied.Our results showed that in all the subjects, the genotype of genetic locus -174G/C was found to be GG and no CG and CC were observed. There was a significant difference in gene frequency of GG,CG and CC of-634C/G and allele frequency of G and C between prostate cancer patients and normal controls (P<0.05) and the gene frequency of GG+CG increased with the clinical stages and pathological grades of prostate cancer. The IL-6 level in GG+CG group was significantly higher than that in CC group. It was.concluded that no SNP in-174G/C IL-6 promoter region was found in the population of Han people in Hubei region. The SNP in -634C/G was, to some extent, associated with the development and progression of prostate cancer. The population with GG+CG genetype has higher risk for prostate cancer.

  6. Building an Entrepreneurial University in Brazil: The Role and Potential of University-Industry Linkages in Promoting Regional Economic Development (United States)

    Amaral, Marcelo; Ferreira, Andre; Teodoro, Pitias


    This study is part of a broader research project, conducted by the Triple Helix Research Group--Brazil, focusing on university-industry-government linkages in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The case study reported here is that of the Regional University of Volta Redonda: the aim was to develop an understanding of how a regional university can be…

  7. Allelic variation of the inducible costimulator (ICOS) gene: detection of polymorphisms, analysis of the promoter region, and extended haplotype estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A.D.H.; Lange, Marianne; Lillevang, S.T.


    , consistent with the [T](n) and the [GT](n) regions reported in a Japanese study. Putative haplotypes for the established SNP and repeat polymorphisms have been estimated by computational analysis. Sequencing of similar to3500 by of the upstream region of ICOS revealed an additional eight SNP of which two...

  8. Specific mutations in the enhancer II/core promoter/precore regions of hepatitis B virus subgenotype C2 in Korean patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. (United States)

    Kim, Ja Kyung; Chang, Hye Young; Lee, Jung Min; Baatarkhuu, Oidov; Yoon, Young Joon; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Chon, Chae Yoon; Ahn, Sang Hoon


    Recently, hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes and mutations have been reported to be related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This cross-sectional case-control study examined the relationship between HCC and mutations in the enhancer II/core promoter and precore regions of HBV by comparing 135 Korean HCC patients infected with HBV genotype C2 (HBV/C2; HCC group) with 135 age-, sex-, and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status-matched patients without HCC (non- HCC group). Age and sex were also matched between HBeAg-positive and -negative patients. The prevalence of T1653, A1689, V1753, T1762/A1764, T1846, A1850, C1858, and A1896 mutations was evaluated in this population. The prevalence of the T1653 mutation in the box alpha region, the T1689 [corrected] mutation in between the box alpha and beta regions, and the T1762/A1764 mutations in the basal core promoter region was significantly higher in the HCC group compared to the non-HCC group (8.9% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.017; 19.3% vs. 4.4%, P HBV/C2.

  9. Promoting biogas production and using it as transport fuel in the Helsinki region; Suunnitelma liikennebiokaasun tuotannon ja kaeytoen edistaemiseksi Helsingin seudulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasi, S.; Havukainen, J.; Uusitalo, V.; Andersson, R.; Manninen, K.; Aro-Heinilae, E.; Rintala, J.


    The main objective of the project was to promote biogas production and its use as transport fuel. The aims in the four Finnish and two Estonian case areas were to reduce the amount and improve the sustainable use of waste and sludge, to promote biogas production, to start biogas use as transport fuel and to provide tools for implementing the aims. The total biomethane potential in the Helsinki region corresponds to approximately 450 GWh/a. The most potential user for biomethane is public transport. The total amount of biomethane would suffice for 80% of the busses operating in the Helsinki region. Using biogas as a transport fuel instead of energy production in the Helsinki region would result in emission reductions (13 000 t{sub CO2,eq}/a). However if the fuel replacing biogas in energy production would be renewable, the emission reductions would be significantly greater. The economical assessment indicates that the production of biogas is economically feasible if all the produced gas can be sold. Biogas produced near the natural gas grid can also be transported to the Helsinki region where there are better possibilities to find uses for it. In this way, for example, gas that is produced in Kymenlaakso but is not consumed there can be transported via the natural gas grid, assuming that the production plant is reasonably close to the grid. (orig.)

  10. Isolation and Screening of Rhizosphere Bacteria from Grasses in East Kavango Region of Namibia for Plant Growth Promoting Characteristics. (United States)

    Haiyambo, D H; Chimwamurombe, P M; Reinhold-Hurek, B


    A diverse group of soil bacteria known as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is able to inhabit the area close to plant roots and exert beneficial effects on plant growth. Beneficial interactions between rhizospheric bacteria and plants provide prospects for isolating culturable PGPR that can be used as bio-fertilizers for sustainable crop production in communities that cannot easily afford chemical fertilizers. This study was conducted with the aim of isolating rhizospheric bacteria from grasses along the Kavango River and screening the bacterial isolates for plant growth promoting characteristics. The bacteria were isolated from rhizospheres of Phragmites australis, Sporobolus sp., Vetiveria nigritana, Pennisetum glaucum and Sorghum bicolor. The isolates were screened for inorganic phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. The nitrogen-fixing capability of the bacteria was determined by screening for the presence of the nifH gene. Up to 21 isolates were obtained from P. australis, Sporobolus sp., S. bicolor, P. glaucum and V. nigritana. The genera Bacillus, Enterobacter, Kocuria, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, identified via 16S rDNA were represented in the 13 PGPR strains isolated. The isolates exhibited more than one plant growth promoting trait and they were profiled as follows: three phosphate solubilizers, four siderophore producers, eight IAA producing isolates and five nitrogen-fixers. These bacteria can be used to develop bio-fertilizer inoculants for improved soil fertility management and sustainable production of local cereals.

  11. Identification and characterization of the promoter region of the Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium channel gene (SCN9A). (United States)

    Diss, James K J; Calissano, Mattia; Gascoyne, Duncan; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A; Latchman, David S


    The Nav1.7 sodium channel plays an important role in pain and is also upregulated in prostate cancer. To investigate the mechanisms regulating physiological and pathophysiological Nav1.7 expression we identified the core promoter of this gene (SCN9A) in the human genome. In silico genomic analysis revealed a putative SCN9A 5' non-coding exon approximately 64,000 nucleotides from the translation start site, expression of which commenced at three very closely-positioned transcription initiation sites (TISs), as determined by 5' RACE experiments. The genomic region around these TISs possesses numerous core elements of a TATA-less promoter within a well-defined CpG island. Importantly, it acted as a promoter when inserted upstream of luciferase in a fusion construct. Moreover, the activity of the promoter-luciferase construct ostensibly paralleled endogenous Nav1.7 mRNA levels in vitro, with both increased in a quantitatively and qualitatively similar manner by numerous factors (including NGF, phorbol esters, retinoic acid, and Brn-3a transcription factor over-expression).

  12. Association of-238G/A polymorphism of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene promoter region with outcomes of hepatitis B virus infection in Chinese Han population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-Ping Lu; Xing-Wang Li; Ying Liu; Guo-Chang Sun; Xue-Ping Wang; Xi-Lin Zhu; Quan-You Hu; Hui Li


    AIM: To clarify whether -238G/A polymorphism of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) gene promoter region was associated with outcomes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Han population of northem China, and to analyze the geneenvironment interaction between -238G/A polymorphism and cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption.METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to analyze the association of TNF-α gene promoter polymorphism with HBV infection outcomes. A total of 207 patients with chronic hepatitis B (HB) and 148 cases of self-limited HBV infection from Ditan Hospital and Shunyi District Hospital in Beijing,respectively were recruited. History of smoking and alcohol drinking was inquired by a questionnaire. The -238G/A polymorphism of TNF-α gene promoter was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).RESULTS: The frequencies of GG and GA genotypes were 98.07% and 1.93% in chronic HB patients and 93.24% and 6.76% in self-limited HBV infection individuals, respectively (x2=5.30, P=0.02). The frequency of G allele was significantly higher in patients with chronic HB that in individuals with self-limited HBV infection (99.03% vs 96.62%, x2=5.20,P=0.02). Only modestly increased risk of onset of chronic HB was found in smokers (OR=1.40, 95% CI: 0.87-2.28,P=0.14) and drinkers (OR=1.26, 95%CI: 0.78-2.05, P=0.32).There was a positive interaction between genotype GG and cigarette smoking with an interaction index (Ⅱ) of 2.95, or alcohol consumption with an Ⅱ of 1.64.CONCLUSION: The -238G/A polymorphism of TNF-α gene promoter region is independently associated with different outcomes of HBV infection.

  13. Identification of two glucocorticoid response elements in the promoter region of the ubiquitous isoform of glutamine synthetase in gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta. (United States)

    Esbaugh, Andrew J; Walsh, Patrick J


    Unlike most teleosts, gulf toadfish have the capacity to switch from ammoniotely to ureotely as the predominate means of nitrogen excretion during periods of stress. The switch to ureotely is a result of increased glutamine synthetase (GS) mRNA expression/enzyme activity in the liver and muscle, which is initiated by cortisol. Cortisol typically affects gene expression through the action of cortisol-activated transcription factors, such as glucocorticoid receptors, which bind to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) in the upstream regulatory region of genes. The purpose of the present study was to identify the GRE responsible for increased GS gene expression during crowding/confinement in gulf toadfish using an in vivo luciferase reporter assay. Upstream promoter regions for both the ubiquitous and gill GS isoforms were amplified by PCR. Additionally, an intron was amplified from the ubiquitous GS isoform that suggested the possibility of two discreet transcripts for the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic proteins. When tested via in vivo reporter assays, both the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial ubiquitous GS promoters showed increased luciferase activity during crowding vs. noncrowded controls; the gill GS promoter showed no effects in response to crowding. In silico analysis of the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic ubiquitous GS promoter constructs showed an overlapping section of 565 bp containing two potential GREs. Mutation of either site alone had no effect on luciferase activity vs. wild-type controls. However, when both sites were mutated a significant decrease in luciferase activity was observed. We conclude that two functional GREs combine to confer cortisol-inducible GS expression in the liver of gulf toadfish.

  14. [Drug registries: post-marketing evaluation of the benefit-risk profile and promotion of appropriateness. The regional point of view]. (United States)

    Martelli, Luisa; Venegoni, Mauro


    Italian Regions and the Italian regulatory agency share a common interest in promoting the appropriateness of drug use, containing drug expenditure and acquiring additional evidence on the effectiveness and safety of drugs. Drug registries can help attaining these objectives. Specifically, the registries implemented in Italy were able to cover the first two objectives, whereas some critical issues were raised on the third one. For instance, the data recorded in the registries are not available at regional level to conduct safety and effectiveness investigations. This is a paradox, when considering that drugs included in the registries have a risk-benefit profile that is only partially defined at the moment of marketing. Currently, researchers and regions can conduct epidemiological research (cohort and case control studies), on the basis of record-linkage procedures, on all drugs prescribed in general practice (which are older drugs with a better defined risk-benefit profile). The expected outcomes of registries should be more clearly defined: when the main aim is to promote appropriateness, the recording of only a very limited amount of data should be required (to avoid a bureaucratic burden on clinicians).The Italian centers of the ENCePP network might play an important role in planning and conducting drug registries: through the presence in the steering committees of the registries, and in conducting epidemiological studies that make the most of this powerful instrument.

  15. Chelerythrine down regulates expression of VEGFA, BCL2 and KRAS by arresting G-Quadruplex structures at their promoter regions (United States)

    Jana, Jagannath; Mondal, Soma; Bhattacharjee, Payel; Sengupta, Pallabi; Roychowdhury, Tanaya; Saha, Pranay; Kundu, Pallob; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu


    A putative anticancer plant alkaloid, Chelerythrine binds to G-quadruplexes at promoters of VEGFA, BCL2 and KRAS genes and down regulates their expression. The association of Chelerythrine to G-quadruplex at the promoters of these oncogenes were monitored using UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence anisotropy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, CD melting, isothermal titration calorimetry, molecular dynamics simulation and quantitative RT-PCR technique. The pronounced hypochromism accompanied by red shifts in UV absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ethidium bromide displacement assay indicates end stacking mode of interaction of Chelerythrine with the corresponding G-quadruplex structures. An increase in fluorescence anisotropy and CD melting temperature of Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex revealed the formation of stable Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex. Isothermal titration calorimetry data confirmed that Chelerythrine-quadruplex complex formation is thermodynamically favourable. Results of quantative RT-PCR experiment in combination with luciferase assay showed that Chelerythrine treatment to MCF7 breast cancer cells effectively down regulated transcript level of all three genes, suggesting that Chelerythrine efficiently binds to in cellulo quadruplex motifs. MD simulation provides the molecular picture showing interaction between Chelerythrine and G-quadruplex. Binding of Chelerythrine with BCL2, VEGFA and KRAS genes involved in evasion, angiogenesis and self sufficiency of cancer cells provides a new insight for the development of future therapeutics against cancer.

  16. Isolation and identification of indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from Himalayan region of Kashmir and their effect on improving growth and nutrient contents of maize (Zea mays L.). (United States)

    Zahid, Mahwish; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hameed, Sohail; Rahim, Nasir


    Introduction and exploitation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agro-ecosystems enhance plant-microbes interactions that may affect ecosystems sustainability, agricultural productivity, and environmental quality. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify PGPRs associated with maize (Zea mays L.) from twenty sites of Himalayan region of Hajira-Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. A total of 100 isolates were isolated from these sites, out of which eight (HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, HJR4, HJR5, MR6, HJR7, HJR8) were selected in vitro for their plant growth promoting ability (PGPA) including phosphorus solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and N2 fixation. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique was used for molecular identity and authentication. Isolates were then further tested for their effects on growth and nutrient contents of maize (Z. mays L.) under pouch and pot conditions. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified these isolates belong to Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera. The isolates promoted plant growth by solubilizing soil P which ranged between 19.2 and 35.6 μg mL(-1). The isolates HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, and HJR5 showed positive activity in acetylene reduction assay showing their N2-fixation potential. All eight isolates showed the potential to produce IAA in the range of 0.9-5.39 μg mL(-1) and promote plant growth. Results from a subsequent pot experiment indicated PGPRs distinctly increased maize shoot and root length, shoot and root dry weight, root surface area, leaf surface area, shoot and root N and P contents. Among the eight isolates, HR3 showed a marked P-solubilizing activity, plant growth-promoting attributes, and the potential to be developed as a biofertilizers for integrated nutrient management strategies.

  17. Isolation and Identification of Indigenous Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria from Himalayan Region of Kashmir and their Effect on Improving Growth and Nutrient Contents of Maize (Zea Mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahwish eZahid


    Full Text Available IIntroduction and exploitation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR in agro-ecosystems enhance plant-microbes interactions that may affect ecosystems sustainability, agricultural productivity and environmental quality. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify PGPRs associated with maize (Zea mays L. from twenty sites of Himalayan region of Hajira-Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK, Pakistan. A total of one hundred isolates were isolated from these sites, out of which eight (HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, HJR4, HJR5, MR6, HJR7, HJR8 were selected in vitro for their plant growth promoting ability (PGPA including phosphorus solubilization, indole acetic acid (IAA production and N2 fixation. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique was used for molecular identity and authentication. Isolates were then further tested for their effects on growth and nutrient contents of maize (Zea mays L. under pouch and pot conditions. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified these isolates belong to Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera. The isolates promoted plant growth by solubilizing soil P which ranged between 19.2 and 35.6 µgmL−1. The isolates HJR1, HJR2, HJR3 and HJR5 showed positive activity in acetylene reduction assay showing their N2-fixation potential. All eight isolates showed the potential to produce IAA in the range of 0.9−5.39 µgmL−1 and promote plant growth. Results from a subsequent pot experiment indicated PGPRs distinctly increased maize shoot and root length, shoot and root dry weight, root surface area, leaf surface area, shoot and root N and P contents. Among the eight isolates, HR3 showed a marked P-solubilizing activity, plant growth-promoting attributes, and the potential to be developed as a biofertilizers for integrated nutrient management strategies

  18. Low frequency of mutations in the core promoter and precore regions of hepatitis B virus in anti-HBe positive Brazilian carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niel Christian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the core promoter and precore regions of the hepatitis B virus (HBV genome, notably the double substitution (AGG to TGA at nt positions 1762-1764 in the core promoter, and the precore stop codon mutation G to A at nt 1896, can often explain the anti-HBe phenotype in chronic carriers. However, the A1896 mutation is restricted to HBV isolates that have T at nt 1858. The double substitution at positions 1762-1764 has been described to occur preferentially in patients infected with strains showing C instead of T at nt 1858. Results HBV DNAs from 29 anti-HBe Brazilian samples were characterized by nucleotide sequencing of PCR products from precore region. Among them, 18 isolates presented C at nt 1858 (mostly genotype A strains. The 11 remaining isolates (genotypes D and F had T1858. The stop codon mutation at nt 1896 was found in seven isolates (24% of the total and 63% of the isolates that had T1858. The frequency of the double substitution at positions 1762-1764 was surprisingly low (20% among C1858 isolates. An association between A1896 and TGA 1762-1764 mutations was observed among genotype D isolates: these showed either none of the two mutations or both. Furthermore, strains mutated at positions 1896 and/or 1762-1764 also presented an elevated number of other, less common substitutions in the core promoter and precore regions. Conclusions The data reported here are not in accordance with some reports from other parts of the world. In half of the isolates, none of the mutations previously described could explain the anti-HBe phenotype.

  19. hSmad5 gene, a human hSmad family member: its full length cDNA, genomic structure, promoter region and mutation analysis in human tumors. (United States)

    Gemma, A; Hagiwara, K; Vincent, F; Ke, Y; Hancock, A R; Nagashima, M; Bennett, W P; Harris, C C


    hSmad (mothers against decapentaplegic)-related proteins are important messengers within the Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) superfamily signal transduction pathways. To further characterize a member of this family, we obtained a full length cDNA of the human hSmad5 (hSmad5) gene by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and then determined the genomic structure of the gene. There are eight exons and two alternative transcripts; the shorter transcript lacks exon 2. We identified the hSmad5 promoter region from a human genomic YAC clone by obtaining the nucleotide sequence extending 1235 base pairs upstream of the 5' end of the cDNA. We found a CpG island consistent with a promoter region, and we demonstrated promoter activity in a 1232 bp fragment located upstream of the transcription initiation site. To investigate the frequency of somatic hSmad5 mutations in human cancers, we designed intron-based primers to examine coding regions by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. Neither homozygous deletions or point mutations were found in 40 primary gastric tumors and 51 cell lines derived from diverse types of human cancer including 20 cell lines resistant to the growth inhibitory effects of TGF-beta1. These results suggest that the hSmad5 gene is not commonly mutated and that other genetic alterations mediate the loss of TGF-beta1 responsiveness in human cancers.

  20. The regulation of gene expression in transformed maize aleurone and endosperm protoplasts. Analysis of promoter activity, intron enhancement, and mRNA untranslated regions on expression. (United States)

    Gallie, D R; Young, T E


    Gene expression in the aleurone and endosperm is highly regulated during both seed development and germination. Studies of alpha-amylase expression in the aleurone of barley (Hordeum vulgare) have generated the current paradigm for hormonal control of gene expression in germinating cereal grain. Gene expression studies in both the aleurone and endosperm tissues of maize (Zea mays) seed have been hampered because of a lack of an efficient transformation system. We report here the rapid isolation of protoplasts from maize aleurone and endosperm tissue, their transformation using polyethylene glycol or electroporation, and the regulation of gene expression in these cells. Adh1 promoter activity was reduced relative to the 35S promoter in aleurone and endosperm protoplasts compared to Black Mexican Sweet suspension cells in which it was nearly as strong as the 35S promoter. Intron-mediated stimulation of expression was substantially higher in transformed aleurone or endosperm protoplasts than in cell-suspension culture protoplasts, and the data suggest that the effect of an intron may be affected by cell type. To examine cytoplasmic regulation, the 5' and 3' untranslated regions from a barley alpha-amylase were fused to the firefly luciferase-coding region, and their effect on translation and mRNA stability was examined following the delivery of in vitro synthesized mRNA to aleurone and endosperm protoplasts. The alpha-amylase untranslated regions regulated translational efficiency in a tissue-specific manner, increasing translation in aleurone or endosperm protoplasts but not in maize or carrot cell-suspension protoplasts, in animal cells, or in in vitro translation lysates.

  1. Analysis of the downstream region of nodD3 P1 promoter by deletion and complementation tests in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈迪; 刘彦杰; 朱家璧; 沈善炯; 俞冠翘


    In Sinorhizobium meliloti, the nodD3 gene is transcriptionally controlled by two promoters, P1 and P2. Under P1, there is a 660 bp sequence including a small open reading frame, ORF2, followed by the nodD3 coding region. Genetic analysis using the different deletions on the 3′ends of P1 downstream sequence showed that the downstream sequence +1-+125nt is essential for P1 expression. Complementation, mutations and nodulation tests demonstrated that the ORF2 auto-represses P1 expression, while the P1 downstream sequence +1-+125nt counteracts it.

  2. The promoter region (G-800A and C-509T) polymorphisms of transforming growth factor-β1 gene among young women with recurrent urinary tract infection



    Background: Recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) is common among young women and one of its risk factors is genetic. Polymorphisms in promoter region (G-800A (rs1800468) and C-509T (rs1800469)) of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) gene play pivotal roles in several infection diseases but the association of these polymorphisms with recurrent UTI remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation of TGF-β1 G-800A and C-509T polymorphisms with recurrent UTI in young wom...

  3. Cloning and computer analysis of the promoter region of the legumin-like storage protein gene from buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Mira


    Full Text Available Using the modified 5’-RACE approach, a fragment containing the 955 bp long 5’- regulatory region of the buckwheat storage globulin gene (FeLEG1 has been amplified from the genomic DNA of buckwheat. The entire fragment was sequenced and the sequence analyzed by computer prediction of cis-regulatory elements possibly involved in tissue specific and developmentally controlled seed storage protein gene expression. The promoter obtained might be interesting not only for fundamental research, but also as a useful tool for biotechnological application.

  4. Novel region within the V kappa gene promoter is responsible for tissue and stage-specific expression of immunoglobulin genes in human lymphoid neoplasms. (United States)

    Kossakowska, A E; Urbanski, S J


    Immunoglobulin gene-specific transacting factors have been shown to play a role in lymphoid tissue-specific expression of immunoglobulin genes. The role of these factors in B-cell differentiation and stage-specific expression of these genes is, however, not fully understood. We have used a model of human lymphoid neoplasia to address this question. Different fragments of unrearranged human variable region of immunoglobulin kappa gene (V kappa) were used for cell-free in vitro transcription and DNA mobility shift assays. Previously described enhancement of in vitro transcription that was only seen with nuclear extracts derived from B-cell neoplasms corresponding to the late stages of B-cell differentiation was shown to be dependent on the actions of these factor(s) on the DNA region within the V kappa gene promoter. This region is located within the 920 bp fragment located 210 bp upstream from the coding region and this fragment represents a possible novel DNA region, which plays a role in the stage- and tissue-specific expression of immunoglobulin genes.

  5. Association of polymorphism of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene promoter region with outcome of hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Quan Li; Zhuo Li; Ying Liu; Jun-Hong Li; Jian-Qun Dong; Ji-Rong Gao; Chun-Yan Gou; Hui Li


    AIM: To determine whether -238G/A and -857C/T polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), gene promoter and hepatitis B (HB) viral genotypes were associated with outcomes of HBV infection.METHODS: A total of 244 HBV self-limited infected subjects, 208 asymptomatic carriers, and 443 chronic HB patients were recruited to conduct a case-control study.TNF-α -238G/A and -857C/T gene promoter polymorphisms were examined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and HBV genotypes were examined by nested PCR.RESULTS: The positive rate of HBV DNA in asymptomatic carrier group and chronic HB group was 46.6% and 49.9%,respectively. HBV genotype proportion among the asymptomatic carriers was 2.1% for genotype A, 25.8% for genotype B, 68.0% for genotype C, and 4.1% for genotype B+C mixed infection, and 0.9% for genotype A,21.7% for genotype B, 71.5% for genotype C, 5.9% for genotype B+C mixed infection in chronic HB group. There was no significant difference in genotype distribution between the asymptomatic carrier group and chronic HB group (x2 = 1.66, P = 0.647). The frequency of -238GG genotype in self-limited group was 95.1%, significantly higher than 90.7% in chronic HB group and 89.0% in asymptomatic carrier group (P = 0.041 and P = 0.016,respectively).The frequency of TNF-α-857 CC in chronic HB group was 79.7%, significantly higher than 64.4% in asymptomatic carrier group and 70.9% in self-limited group (P<0.001 and P = 0.023, respectively). A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that TNF-α-238GA and -857CC were independently associated with chronic HB after gender and age were adjusted.CONCLUSION: TNF-α promoter variants are likely to play a substantial role in the outcome of HBV infection.

  6. Association of copy number polymorphisms at the promoter and translated region of COMT with Japanese patients with schizophrenia. (United States)

    Higashiyama, Ryoko; Ohnuma, Tohru; Takebayashi, Yuto; Hanzawa, Ryo; Shibata, Nobuto; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Kushima, Itaru; Aleksic, Branko; Kondo, Kenji; Ikeda, Masashi; Hashimoto, Ryota; Iwata, Nakao; Ozaki, Norio; Arai, Heii


    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and genetic variations including single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number variation (CNV) in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) situated at 22q11.2 remains controversial. Here, the genetic relationship between COMT and Japanese patients with schizophrenia was investigated by examining whether the SNPs correlated with schizophrenia based on a common disease-common variant hypothesis. Additionally, 22q11.2DS were screened based on a common disease-rare variant hypothesis; low-frequency CNVs situated at two COMT promoters and exons were investigated based on the low-frequency variants with an intermediate effect; and positive findings from the first stage were reconfirmed using a second-stage replication study including a larger sample size. Eight SNPs and 10 CNVs were investigated using Taqman SNP and CNV quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method. For the first-stage analysis, 513 unrelated Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 705 healthy controls were examined. For the second-stage replication study, positive findings from the first stage were further investigated using a larger sample size, namely 1,854 patients with schizophrenia and 2,137 controls. The first-stage analysis showed significant associations among schizophrenia, intronic SNP rs165774, CNV6 situated at promoter 1, CNV8 at exon 6, and CNV9 at exon 7. The second-stage study showed that intronic SNP rs165774 (χ(2)  = 8.327, P = 0.0039), CNV6 (χ(2)  = 19.66, P = 0.00005), and CNV8 (χ(2)  = 16.57, P = 0.00025) were significantly associated with schizophrenia. Large and rare CNVs as well as low-frequency CNVs and relatively small CNVs, namely schizophrenia.

  7. Homology between nucleotide sequences of promoter regions of nah and sal operons of NAH7 plasmid of Pseudomonas putida.



    The in vivo transcription start sites of the nah and sal operons of the NAH7 plasmid were determined by S1 nuclease mapping and the nucleotide sequence surrounding these transcription start sites was determined. Since expression of both of these operons is coordinately controlled by the product of the transcriptional activator gene nahR, the sequences were compared to locate potential sites involved in common regulation. In the 100-base-pair region preceding transcription start sites of both ...

  8. Immediate-early gene region of human cytomegalovirus trans-activates the promoter of human immunodeficiency virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Kenney, S.C.; Kamine, J.; Pagano, J.S.; Huang, E.S.


    Almost all homosexual patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are also actively infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The authors have hypothesized that an interaction between HCMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, may exist at a molecular level and contribute to the manifestations of HIV infection. In this report, they demonstrate that the immediate-early gene region of HCMV, in particular immediate-early region 2, trans-activates the expression of the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase that is fused to the HIV long terminal repeat and carried by plasmid pHIV-CAT. The HCMV immediate-early trans-activator increases the level of mRNA from the plamid pHIV-CAT. The sequences of HIV that are responsive to trans-activation by the HDMV immediate-early region are distinct from HIV sequences that are required for response to the HIV tat. The stimulation of HIV gene expression by HDMV gene functions could enhance the consequences of HIV infection in persons with previous or concurrent HCMV infection.

  9. Association of TNF-α gene promoter region polymorphisms in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cattle with different proviral loads. (United States)

    Lendez, Pamela Anahi; Passucci, Juan Antonio; Poli, Mario Andres; Gutierrez, Silvina Elena; Dolcini, Guillermina Laura; Ceriani, Maria Carolina


    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in the immune response against viral and other infections. Its expression levels are affected by a polymorphism in the promoter region of the gene. Bovine leukemia virus is a retrovirus that infects cattle and develops two different infection profiles in the host. One profile is characterized by a high number of proviral copies integrated into the host genome and a strong immune response against the virus, while the most relevant property of the other profile is that the number of copies integrated into the host genome is almost undetectable and the immune response is very weak. We selected a population of cattle sufficiently large for statistical analysis and classified them according to whether they had a high or low proviral load (HPL or LPL). Polymorphisms in the promoter region were identified by PCR-RFLP. The results indicated that, in the HPL group, the three possible genotypes were normally distributed and that, in the LPL group, there was a significant association between the proviral load and a low frequency of the G/G genotype at position -824.

  10. Identification of a Novel Rat NR2B Subunit Gene Promoter Region Variant and Its Association with Microwave-Induced Neuron Impairment. (United States)

    Wang, Li-Feng; Tian, Da-Wei; Li, Hai-Juan; Gao, Ya-Bing; Wang, Chang-Zhen; Zhao, Li; Zuo, Hong-Yan; Dong, Ji; Qiao, Si-Mo; Zou, Yong; Xiong, Lu; Zhou, Hong-Mei; Yang, Yue-Feng; Peng, Rui-Yun; Hu, Xiang-Jun


    Microwave radiation has been implicated in cognitive dysfunction and neuronal injury in animal models and in human investigations; however, the mechanism of these effects is unclear. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the rat GRIN2B promoter region were screened. The associations of these SNPs with microwave-induced rat brain dysfunction and with rat pheochromocytoma-12 (PC12) cell function were investigated. Wistar rats (n = 160) were exposed to microwave radiation (30 mW/cm(2) for 5 min/day, 5 days/week, over a period of 2 months). Screening of the GRIN2B promoter region revealed a stable C-to-T variant at nucleotide position -217 that was not induced by microwave exposure. The learning and memory ability, amino acid contents in the hippocampus and cerebrospinal fluid, and NR2B expression were then investigated in the different genotypes. Following microwave exposure, NR2B protein expression decreased, while the Glu contents in the hippocampus and CSF increased, and memory impairment was observed in the TT genotype but not the CC and CT genotypes. In PC12 cells, the effects of the T allele were more pronounced than those of the C allele on transcription factor binding ability, transcriptional activity, NR2B mRNA, and protein expression. These effects may be related to the detrimental role of the T allele and the protective role of the C allele in rat brain function and PC12 cells exposed to microwave radiation.

  11. Temporal transcription of the lactococcal temperate phage TP901-1 and DNA sequence of the early promoter region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Hans Peter Lynge; Hammer, Karin


    , of which at least two (the integrase gene and putative repressor) are needed for lysogeny, and the divergent and longer transcriptional unit from PL, presumably encoding functions required for the lytic life cycle. ORFs with homology to proteins involved in DNA replication were identified on the latter...... to a phage repressor, a single-stranded DNA-binding protein, a topoisomerase, a Cro-like protein and two other phage proteins of unknown function were detected. The gene arrangement in the early transcribed region of TP901-1 thus consists of two transcriptional units: one from PR containing four genes...

  12. FGFR1 Analyses in Four Patients with Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism with Split-Hand/Foot Malformation: Implications for the Promoter Region. (United States)

    Ohtaka, Kohnosuke; Fujisawa, Yasuko; Takada, Fumio; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Miyoshi, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Kameda, Hiraku; Kurokawa-Seo, Misuzu; Fukami, Maki; Ogata, Tsutomu


    Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations of FGFR1 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1) cause various disorders including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with split-hand/foot malformation (HH-SHFM). We examined FGFR1 in four Japanese patients with HH-SHFM (cases 1-4) and the mother of case 4 with HH only. Cases 1 and 2 had heterozygous loss-of-function mutations with no dominant negative effect (c.289G>A, p.[G97S]; and c.2231G>C, p.[R744T]), and case 3 had a splice donor site mutation (c.1663+1G>T). Notably, case 4 had a maternally inherited 8,312 bp microdeletion that involved noncoding exon 1U and impaired FGFR1 expression. Furthermore, consistent with the presence of transcription-related histone marks (e.g., H3K4Me3, H3K4Me1, and H3K27Ac) and multiple transcription factor-binding sites around exon 1U, functional studies demonstrated a marked transactivation function of a 414-bp segment harboring the transcription start site. These results support the relevance of FGFR1 mutations to HH-SHFM, and argue for the presence of the FGFR1 core-promoter elements around exon 1U.

  13. Functional analysis of the durum wheat gene TdPIP2;1 and its promoter region in response to abiotic stress in rice. (United States)

    Ayadi, Malika; Mieulet, Delphine; Fabre, Denis; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Vernet, Aurore; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Masmoudi, Khaled


    In a previous work, we demonstrated that expression of TdPIP2;1 in Xenopus oocytes resulted in an increase in Pf compared to water injected oocytes. Phenotypic analyses of transgenic tobacco plants expressing TdPIP2;1 generated a tolerance phenotype towards drought and salinity stresses. To elucidate its stress tolerance mechanism at the transcriptional level, we isolated and characterized the promoter region of the TdPIP2;1 gene. A 1060-bp genomic fragment upstream of the TdPIP2;1 translated sequence has been isolated, cloned, and designated as the proTdPIP2;1 promoter. Sequence analysis of proTdPIP2;1 revealed the presence of cis regulatory elements which could be required for abiotic stress responsiveness, for tissue-specific and vascular expression. The proTdPIP2;1 promoter was fused to the β-glucuronidase (gusA) gene and the resulting construct was transferred into rice (cv. Nipponbare). Histochemical analysis of proTdPIP2;1::Gus in rice plants revealed that the GUS activity was observed in leaves, stems and roots of stably transformed rice T3 plants. Histological sections prepared revealed accumulation of GUS products in phloem, xylem and in some cells adjacent to xylem. The transcripts were up-regulated by dehydration. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing proTdPIP2;1 in fusion with TdPIP2;1, showed enhanced drought tolerance, while wild type plants were more sensitive and exhibited symptoms of wilting and chlorosis. These findings suggest that expression of the TdPIP2;1 gene regulated by its own promoter achieves enhanced drought tolerance in rice.

  14. Workshop to promote the ratification of the protocol on heavy metals across the entire UN ECE region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Within the workshop of the German Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) at 14th to 16th May, 2008 in Yerevan (Armenia), the following lectures were held: (1) The convention and its protocols - framework and requirements (Tea Aulavuo); (2) Development of the heavy metals protocol up to now (D. Jost); (3) Experiences in transposing the obligations of the HM protocol into national law (Ivan Angelov); (4) Evaluation of concentrations of air pollutants and depositions of HM over the EECCA region (Ilia Ilyin); (5) The effectiveness of the HM protocol - emission reductions and costs (TNO-study) (M. van het Bolscher); (6) Technologies and techniques and their emission reduction potential and costs (Andre Peeters Weem); (7) Synergies of reduction of HM and particulate matter (Katja Kraus); (8) Critical loads / critical levels and effects of HM - integrated assessment (Jean-Paul Hettelingh); (9) Additional technical measures / options and their reduction potential (M. van het Bolscher); (10) Overview of the situation in the EECCA region - evaluation of a questionnaire of the Secretariat of the LRTAP Convention and ideas on revising the protocol and its annexes (Johan Sliggers); (11) Future aims of the TF (Katja Kraus).

  15. Interaction of a rhizobial DNA-binding protein with the promoter region of a plant leghemoglobin gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welters, P.; Metz, B.; Felix, G.; Palme, K. (Max Planck Insitut fur Zuchtungsforschung, Koeln (Germany)); Szczyglowski, K. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)); Bruijn, F.J. de (Max Planck Institut fur Zuchtungsforschung, Koeln (Germany) Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States))


    A nucleotide sequence was identified approximately 650 bp upstream of the Sesbania rostrata leghemoglobin gene Srglb3 start codon, which interacts specifically with a proteinaceous DNA-binding factor found in nodule extracts but not in extracts from leaves or root. The binding site for this factor was delimited using footprinting techniques. The DNA-binding activity of this factor was found to be heat stable, dependent on divalent cations, and derived from the (infecting) Azorhizobium caulinodans bacteria or bacteroids (A. caulinodans bacterial binding factor 1, AcBBF1). A 9- to 10-kD protein was isolated from a free-living culture of A. caulinodans that co-purifies with the DNA-binding activity (A. caulinodans bacterial binding protein 1, AcBBP1) and interacts specifically with its target (S. rostrata bacterial binding site 1, SrBBS1). The amino acid sequence of the N-terminal 27 residues of AcBBP1 was determined and was found to share significant similarity (46% identity; 68% similarity) with a domain of the herpes simplex virus major DNA-binding protein infected cell protein 8(ICP8). An insertion mutation in the SrBBS1 was found to result in a substantial reduction of the expression of a Srglb3-gus reporter gene fusion in nodules of transgenic Lotus corniculatus plants, suggesting a role for this element in Srglb3 promoter activity. Based on these results, the authors propose that (a) bacterial transacting factor(s) may play a role in infected cell-specific expression of the symbiotically induced plant lb genes. 70 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Differential protein-DNA interactions at the promoter and enhancer regions of developmentally regulated U4 snRNA genes. (United States)

    Miyake, J H; Botros, I W; Stumph, W E


    In the chicken genome there are two closely-linked genes, U4B and U4X, that code for different sequence variants of U4 small nuclear RNA (snRNA). Both genes are expressed with nearly equal efficiency in the early embryo, but U4X gene expression is specifically down-regulated relative to U4B as development proceeds. At the present time, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate differential expression of snRNA genes. We have now identified a novel chicken factor, PPBF, that binds sequence-specifically in vitro to the proximal regulatory region of the U4X gene, but not to the proximal region of the U4B gene. PPBF is itself regulated during development and may therefore be a key factor involved in differentially regulating U4X gene transcription relative to U4B. The U4X and U4B enhancers contain distinct sequence variants of two essential motifs (octamer and SPH). The Oct-1 transcription factor binds with similar affinities to both the U4X and U4B octamer motifs. However, a second essential snRNA enhancer-binding protein, SBF, has a 20- to 30-fold lower affinity for the SPH motif in the U4X enhancer than for the homologous SPH motif in the U4B enhancer. A potential role therefore exists for SBF, as well as PPBF, in the preferential down-regulation of the U4X RNA gene during chicken development.

  17. Despite WT1 binding sites in the promoter region of human and mouse nucleoporin glycoprotein 210, WT1 does not influence expression of GP210

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licht Jonathan D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycoprotein 210 (GP210 is a transmembrane component of the nuclear pore complex of metazoans, with a short carboxyterminus protruding towards the cytoplasm. Its function is unknown, but it is considered to be a major structural component of metazoan nuclear pores. Yet, our previous findings showed pronounced differences in expression levels in embryonic mouse tissues and cell lines. In order to identify factors regulating GP210, the genomic organization of human GP210 was analyzed in silico. Results The human gene was mapped to chromosome 3 and consists of 40 exons spread over 102 kb. The deduced 1887 amino acid showed a high degree of alignment homology to previously reported orthologues. Experimentally we defined two transcription initiation sites, 18 and 29 bp upstream of the ATG start codon. The promoter region is characterized by a CpG island and several consensus binding motifs for gene regulatory transcription factors, including clustered sites associated with Sp1 and the Wilms' tumor suppressor gene zinc finger protein (WT1. In addition, distal to the translation start we found a (GTn repetitive sequence, an element known for its ability to bind WT1. Homologies for these motifs could be identified in the corresponding mouse genomic region. However, experimental tetracycline dependent induction of WT1 in SAOS osteosarcoma cells did not influence GP210 transcription. Conclusion Although mouse GP210 was identified as an early response gene during induced metanephric kidney development, and WT1 binding sites were identified in the promoter region of the human GP210 gene, experimental modulation of WT1 expression did not influence expression of GP210. Therefore, WT1 is probably not regulating GP210 expression. Instead, we suggest that the identified Sp binding sites are involved.

  18. Anthropogenic landscape change promotes asymmetric dispersal and limits regional patch occupancy in a spatially structured bird population. (United States)

    Pavlacky, David C; Possingham, Hugh P; Lowe, Andrew J; Prentis, Peter J; Green, David J; Goldizen, Anne W


    synergistic effects of landscape change on species occurrence and asymmetric dispersal have important implications for conservation. Conservation measures that maintain large patch sizes in the landscape may promote asymmetric dispersal from intact to fragmented landscapes and allow rainforest bird populations to persist in fragmented and degraded landscapes. These sink populations could form the kernel of source populations given sufficient habitat restoration. However, the success of this rescue effect will depend on the quality of the between-population landscapes.

  19. Disulphide bond restrains the C-terminal region of thermostable direct hemolysin during folding to promote oligomerization. (United States)

    Kundu, Nidhi; Tichkule, Swapnil; Pandit, Shashi Bhushan; Chattopadhyay, Kausik


    Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are typically produced as water-soluble monomers, which upon interacting with target cells assemble into transmembrane oligomeric pores. Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) is an atypical PFT that exists as a tetramer in solution, prior to membrane binding. The TDH structure highlights a core β-sandwich domain similar to those found in the eukaryotic actinoporin family of PFTs. However, the TDH structure harbors an extended C-terminal region (CTR) that is not documented in the actinoporins. This CTR remains tethered to the β-sandwich domain through an intra-molecular disulphide bond. Part of the CTR is positioned at the inter-protomer interface in the TDH tetramer. Here we show that the truncation, as well as mutation, of the CTR compromise tetrameric assembly, and the membrane-damaging activity of TDH. Our study also reveals that intra-protomer disulphide bond formation during the folding/assembly process of TDH restrains the CTR to mediate its participation in the formation of inter-protomer contact, thus facilitating TDH oligomerization. However, once tetramerization is achieved, disruption of the disulphide bond does not affect oligomeric assembly. Our study provides critical insights regarding the regulation of the oligomerization mechanism of TDH, which has not been previously documented in the PFT family.

  20. Variation in hyaluronan-binding protein 2 (HABP2) promoter region is associated with unexplained female infertility. (United States)

    Altmäe, Signe; Kallak, Theodora Kunovac; Fridén, Barbo; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli


    We set up to analyze polymorphisms in hyaluronan-binding protein 2 (HABP2) gene in healthy fertile women (n = 158) and in women with unexplained infertility (n = 116) and to investigate the potential role of HABP2 in receptive endometrium. Minor rs1157916 A and the major rs2240879 A alleles together with AA genotypes were significantly less frequent in infertile women than in controls. Immunohistochemistry analysis of endometrial HABP2 expression at the time of implantation identified significantly lower HABP2 protein level in infertile women in stroma and vessels than in fertile women. Migration assay analysis of cultured trophoblast and endothelial cells toward HABP2 protein referred to the function of HABP2 in endometrial endothelial cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that polymorphisms in the regulatory region of HABP2 gene could influence gene expression levels in the receptive endometrium and could thereby be one reason for infertility complications in women with unexplained infertility. Additionally, HABP2 protein involvement in endometrial angiogenesis is proposed.

  1. dbQSNP: a database of SNPs in human promoter regions with allele frequency information determined by single-strand conformation polymorphism-based methods. (United States)

    Tahira, Tomoko; Baba, Shingo; Higasa, Koichiro; Kukita, Yoji; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Hayashi, Kenshi


    We present a database, dbQSNP (, that provides sequence and allele frequency information for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the promoter regions of human genes, which were defined by the 5' ends of full-length cDNA clones. We searched for the SNPs in these regions by sequencing or single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The allele frequencies of the identified SNPs in two ethnic groups were quantified by SSCP analyses of pooled DNA samples. The accuracy of our estimation is supported by strong correlations between the frequencies in our data and those in other databases for the same ethnic groups. The frequencies vary considerably between the two ethnic groups studied, suggesting the need for population-based collections and allele frequency determination of SNPs, in, e.g., association studies of diseases. We show profiles of SNP densities that are characteristic of transcription start site regions. A fraction of the SNPs revealed a significantly different allele frequency between the groups, suggesting differential selection of the genes involved.

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene promoter region alter the risk of psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been confirmed that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα, a macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokine, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis (PsV&PsA. In contrast, the reported association of TNFα gene promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and PsV&PsA has remained controversial. Accordingly, we performed a meta-analysis to provide new evidence that SNPs in the TNFα gene promoter region alter not only the risk of psoriasis vulgaris (PsV or psoriatic arthritis (PsA but also of PsV&PsA. METHODS: Interrelated literature dated to October 2012 was acquired from the PubMed, ScienceDirect, and SpringerLink databases. The number of the genotypes and/or alleles for the TNFα promoter in the PsV and PsA and control subjects was obtained. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to calculate the risk of PsV and/or PsA with TNFα promoter SNPs. RESULTS: A total of 26 papers of 2159 for PsV (2129 normal controls and 2360 for PsA (2997 normal controls were included in our meta-analysis. The results showed that the variant genotype and allele of TNFα -308A/G was protective in pooled groups of patients with PsV&PsA (OR = 0.682, 0.750; 95% CI, 0.596-0.779, 0.653-0.861. However, the variant genotypes and alleles of TNFα -238A/G and -857T/C had an increased risk of PsV&PsA (OR = 2.493, 2.228, 1.536, 1.486, 95% CI, 1.777-3.498, 1.628-3.049, 1.336-1.767, 1.309-1.685. Moreover, the meta-analysis revealed a significant association between TNFα -238A/G and -857T/C polymorphism and PsA susceptibility (OR = 2.242, 2.052, 1.419, 1.465; 95% CI, 1.710-2.941, 1.614-2.610, 1.214-1.658, 1.277-1.681. In contrast, the variant genotypes and alleles of TNFα -308A/G proved to be protective against PsV (OR = 0.574, 0.650, 95% CI, 0.478-0.690, 0.556-0.759, whereas TNFα -238A/G was found to have a risk association (OR = 2.636, 2.223, 95% CI, 1.523-4.561, 1

  3. Abnormal Segregation of Alleles and Haplotypes at the Polymorphic Site of the PRNP Gene Within Promoter and Intron 1 Regions in Polish Holstein–Friesian Cattle


    STRYCHALSKI, Janusz; Czarnik, Urszula; Zabolewicz, Tadeusz


    Allele and haplotype segregation at the polymorphic sites within the promoter (23indel) and intron 1 (12indel) regions of the PRNP gene was analyzed in Polish Holstein–Friesian cattle. More 23del/del homozygotes and fewer 23ins/ins homozygotes than expected were observed in the offspring of ♂ 23ins/del × ♀ 23ins/del parents. In the offspring of ♂ 23ins/del × ♀ 23del/del parents and ♂ 23del/del × ♀ 23ins/del parents, a trend toward more 23del/del animals and fewer 23ins/del animals than expect...

  4. The LTR promoter of the rat oncomodulin gene is regulated by cell-line specific accessibility in the LTR U3 region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rentsch, J. M.; Hergersberg, M.; Banville, D.;


    By germline insertion, a long terminal repeat (LTR) of an intracisternal A-particle type IAP retrovirus has overtaken the transcriptional control of the rat oncomodulin (OM) gene, which codes for a high affinity Ca2+-binding protein with modulatory capacity. In order to get insights into regulatory...... to the one of the OM gene. Genomic sequencing showed a good correlation between CpG hypomethylation in the OM LTR and OM transcription among various cell lines and tissues. DNase I mapping of a 18 kb fragment containing the OM gene and 5' flanking sequences revealed cell-line specific hypersensitivity sites...... located within the U3 region of the LTR element. Several cis-elements in the OM LTR promoter exhibiting cell-line specific occupancy were identified by in vivo DMS-footprinting. Detailed analysis of protein interactions with two such sequence elements in vitro revealed binding of ubiquitously expressed...

  5. Inlfuence of DNA methyltransferase 3b on FHIT expression and DNA methylation of the FHIT promoter region in hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Xiang Wang; Yong-Gan Zhang; Long-Shuan Zhao


    BACKGROUND: Alterations in DNA methylation occur during the pathogenesis of human tumors. In this study, we investigated the inlfuence of DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) on fragile histidine trial (FHIT) expression and on DNA methylation of the FHIT promoter region in the hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721. METHODS: DNMT3b siRNA was used to down-regulate DNMT3b expression. DNMT3b and FHIT proteins were determined by Western blotting. Methylation-speciifc PCR was used to analyze the methylation status of the FHIT gene. RESULTS: After DNMT3b siRNA transfection, the expression of DNMT3b was inhibited in SMMC-7721 cells, and the expression of FHIT was signiifcantly higher than that in the control group. There was no signiifcant difference in methylation status between the DNMT3b siRNA transfected cells and control cells. CONCLUSION: DNMT3b may play an important role in regulation of FHIT expression in hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells, but not through methylation of the FHIT promoter.

  6. Preliminary effects of bupropion and the promoter region (HTTLPR) serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) polymorphism on smoking behavior in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Bloch, Boaz; Reshef, Alon; Cohen, Tamara; Tafla, Amos; Gathas, Samich; Israel, Salomon; Gritsenko, Inga; Kremer, Ilana; Ebstein, Richard P


    In the current study, we investigated how individual variants in the serotonin promoter gene, previously associated with smoking cessation and linked to anxiety-related personality traits, were associated with individual differences in responsiveness to bupropion and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in a clinical population. We hypothesize that subjects with the long allele may be less responsive to treatment. Altogether 61 schizophrenic patients (46 M, 15 F) on stable neuroleptic medication were initially enrolled in a smoking reduction program (prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled) including cognitive behavioral therapy plus placebo or CBT plus bupropion. Additionally, subjects were genotyped for a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4). Thirty-two subjects (23 M, 9 F) completed a 14-week course of treatment. While both groups of subjects demonstrated significant reductions in smoking behavior due to CBT, subjects receiving bupropion did not show significant differences in smoking behavior when compared to placebo. In addition, analysis by SPSS repeated measures multivariate showed a significant sex by SLC6A4 genotype interaction on the number of cigarettes smoked. Only male subjects with at least one short promoter region allele (short/short and short/long combined) showed a reduction in cigarette consumption as a result of treatment. This study provides preliminary evidence of how polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter can be informative in predicting individual responses to smoking reduction therapy.

  7. A g.-1256 A>C in the promoter region of CAPN1 is associated with semen quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls. (United States)

    Cui, Xiaohui; Sun, Yan; Wang, Xiuge; Yang, Chunhong; Ju, Zhihua; Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Jinming; Zhong, Jifeng; Yin, Miao; Wang, Changfa


    The micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease gene (CAPN1) is a physiological candidate gene for sperm motility. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the expression of the CAPN1 gene in bulls remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of CAPN1 in testis, epididymis, and sperm at the RNA and protein levels by qRT-PCR, western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence assay. Results revealed that the expression of CAPN1 levels was higher in the sperm head compared with that in other tissues. Moreover, we identified a novel single-nucleotide polymorphism (g.-1256 A>C, ss 1917715340) in the noncanonical core promoter of the CAPN1 gene between base g.-1306 and g.-1012. Additionally, we observed greater sperm motility in bulls with the genotype CC than in those with the genotype AA (PC was revealed by transient transfection in MLTC-1 cells and luciferase report assay. Finally, CAPN1 was highly expressed in the spermatozoa with the CC genotype compared with that with the AA genotype by qRT-PCR. This study is the first report on genetic variant g.-1256 A>C in the promoter region of CAPN1 gene association with the semen quality of Chinese Holstein bulls by influencing its expression. g.-1256 A>C can be a functional molecular marker in cattle breeding.

  8. Characterization of the bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein gene family – analysis of gene sequences, regulatory regions within the promoter and expression of selected genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Angela M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs belong to a large family of aspartic peptidases expressed exclusively in the placenta of species in the Artiodactyla order. In cattle, the PAG gene family is comprised of at least 22 transcribed genes, as well as some variants. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that the PAG family segregates into 'ancient' and 'modern' groupings. Along with sequence differences between family members, there are clear distinctions in their spatio-temporal distribution and in their relative level of expression. In this report, 1 we performed an in silico analysis of the bovine genome to further characterize the PAG gene family, 2 we scrutinized proximal promoter sequences of the PAG genes to evaluate the evolution pressures operating on them and to identify putative regulatory regions, 3 we determined relative transcript abundance of selected PAGs during pregnancy and, 4 we performed preliminary characterization of the putative regulatory elements for one of the candidate PAGs, bovine (bo PAG-2. Results From our analysis of the bovine genome, we identified 18 distinct PAG genes and 14 pseudogenes. We observed that the first 500 base pairs upstream of the translational start site contained multiple regions that are conserved among all boPAGs. However, a preponderance of conserved regions, that harbor recognition sites for putative transcriptional factors (TFs, were found to be unique to the modern boPAG grouping, but not the ancient boPAGs. We gathered evidence by means of Q-PCR and screening of EST databases to show that boPAG-2 is the most abundant of all boPAG transcripts. Finally, we provided preliminary evidence for the role of ETS- and DDVL-related TFs in the regulation of the boPAG-2 gene. Conclusion PAGs represent a relatively large gene family in the bovine genome. The proximal promoter regions of these genes display differences in putative TF binding sites, likely contributing to observed

  9. Characterization of the proximal region of the goat NANOG promoter that is used for monitoring cell reprogramming and early embryo development. (United States)

    Guo, Yanjie; Lei, Lei; Ma, Xiaoling; Wang, Huayan


    Nanog is a key transcription regulatory molecule that plays an important role in maintaining stem cell pluripotency. However, the molecular features and transcription regulation of the NANOG gene in domestic animals are not well investigated. In this study, the 751-base pairs (bp) fragment of the proximal region of the goat NANOG promoter (GNP), which has a 572-bp promoter sequence retaining multiple transcription binding sites and a 179-bp 5' untranslated region of the goat NANOG gene, was cloned and characterized. The recombinant construct of pGNP-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) was solely activated in pluripotent cells and could be upregulated by the Oct4/Sox2 complex. The construct was stably transfected into goat fetal fibroblast (GFF) cells that were then used as the recipient cells to generate the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. GNP-directed EGFP expression could be used to monitor the progression of cell reprogramming and the formation of iPS cells. The pGNP-EGFP construct was also delivered into goat oocytes cultured in vitro by microinjection. Interestingly, NANOG expression pattern in early stage goat embryos matured in vitro was asymmetrical. In two-cell embryos, the expression level of NANOG was uneven with one blastomere expressing EGFP and the next blastomere with no expression of EGFP. This was also observed in four-cell embryos. This asymmetrical expression may be due to the heterozygous expression of NANOG because of the quality of embryos and the culture environment. In conclusion, the GNP-EGFP reporter system represents a useful tool to monitor endogenous NANOG activation and for research with goat pluripotent stem cells.

  10. G-395A polymorphism in the promoter region of the KLOTHO gene associates with reduced cognitive impairment among the oldest old. (United States)

    Hao, Qiukui; Ding, Xiang; Gao, Langli; Yang, Ming; Dong, Birong


    This study aimed to examine the possible association between G-395A polymorphism in the promoter region of the KLOTHO gene and cognitive impairment among Chinese nonagenarians and centenarians. This study is a secondary analysis of the Project of Longevity and Aging in Dujiangyan (PLAD) study. Community-dwelling Chinese people aged 90 years or older were included. G-395A (rs1207568) genotyping in the promoter region of the KLOTHO gene was performed using the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Cognitive function was assessed with the mini-mental status examination (MMSE). A total of 706 participants (68.0 % female; mean age 93.5 ± 3.6 years) were included. The KLOTHO G-395A polymorphism genotype frequencies for the whole sample were 2.0 % AA, 30.3 % GA, and 67.7 % GG. The GG genotype frequencies for the cognitive impairment and control groups were 70.2 and 62.7 %, respectively. Cognitive impairment prevalence was significantly lower in the GA+AA group than in the GG genotype group (61.4 vs. 69.0 %, p = 0.044). GA+AA genotype subjects had a significantly lower risk of cognitive impairment (odds ratio 0.66; 95 % confidence interval 0.44 to 0.98) than GG genotype individuals after adjusting for age, gender, and other relevant risk factors. KLOTHO G-395A polymorphism associates with reduced cognitive impairment in a sample of Chinese nonagenarians and centenarians.

  11. A polymorphism in the promoter region of the survivin gene is related to hemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute ischemic stroke. (United States)

    Mallolas, Judith; Rodríguez, Rocío; Gubern, Carme; Camós, Susanna; Serena, Joaquín; Castellanos, Mar


    Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) of cerebral infarction is a common and serious occurrence following acute ischemic stroke. The expression of survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, has been shown to increase after cerebral ischemia. This protein has been mainly located at the microvasculature within the infarcted and peri-infarcted area, so we aimed to investigate whether survivin gene polymorphisms, also known as BIRC5 gene, were associated with HT of cerebral infarction. Polymorphism screening of the BIRC5 gene was performed in 107 patients with a hemispheric ischemic stroke and 93 controls by polymerase chain reaction, single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing analysis. Genotype-phenotype correlation was performed in patients. MRI was carried out within 12 h of symptoms onset and at 72 ± 12 h. The presence of HT was determined on the second DWI sequence and classified according to ECASS II criteria. MMP-9 levels were analyzed at admission. Forty-nine patients (45.8%) had HT. The -241 C/T (rs17878467) polymorphism was identified in the promoter region of the survivin gene. The prevalence of the mutant allele (T) was similar in patients and controls (14 vs. 16%, respectively; P = 0.37). However, 9 (29%) patients with allele T had HT compared to 40 (52.6%) of wild-type (P = 0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that the polymorphism was associated with a lower risk of HT (OR 0.16; 95% CI 0.04-0.65; P = 0.01). The -241 C/T polymorphism in the promoter region of the survivin gene is associated with a lower risk of HT in patients with ischemic stroke. It has recently been reported that the -241 C/T polymorphism increases survivin promoter activity, reinforcing the hypothesis that patients with the mutant allele may have increased survivin expression in the brain. Different mechanisms, including BBB protection by the inhibition or activation of different angiogenic growth factors and the inhibition of apoptosis during

  12. Efficient production of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AMod toxins under regulation of cry3Aa promoter and single cysteine mutations in the protoxin region. (United States)

    García-Gómez, Blanca I; Sánchez, Jorge; Martínez de Castro, Diana L; Ibarra, Jorge E; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario


    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AbMod toxins are engineered versions of Cry1Ab that lack the amino-terminal end, including domain I helix α-1 and part of helix α-2. This deletion improves oligomerization of these toxins in solution in the absence of cadherin receptor and counters resistance to Cry1A toxins in different lepidopteran insects, suggesting that oligomerization plays a major role in their toxicity. However, Cry1AbMod toxins are toxic to Escherichia coli cells, since the cry1A promoter that drives its expression in B. thuringiensis has readthrough expression activity in E. coli, making difficult the construction of these CryMod toxins. In this work, we show that Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod toxins can be cloned efficiently under regulation of the cry3A promoter region to drive its expression in B. thuringiensis without expression in E. coli cells. However, p3A-Cry1Ab(c)Mod construction promotes the formation of Cry1AMod crystals in B. thuringiensis cells that were not soluble at pH 10.5 and showed no toxicity to Plutella xylostella larvae. Cysteine residues in the protoxin carboxyl-terminal end of Cry1A toxins have been shown to be involved in disulfide bond formation, which is important for crystallization. Six individual cysteine substitutions for serine residues were constructed in the carboxyl-terminal protoxin end of the p3A-Cry1AbMod construct and one in the carboxyl-terminal protoxin end of p3A-Cry1AcMod. Interestingly, p3A-Cry1AbMod C654S and C729S and p3A-Cry1AcMod C730S recover crystal solubility at pH 10.5 and toxicity to P. xylostella. These results show that combining the cry3A promoter expression system with single cysteine mutations is a useful system for efficient expression of Cry1AMod toxins in B. thuringiensis.

  13. Sequencing and G-Quadruplex Folding of the Canine Proto-Oncogene KIT Promoter Region: Might Dog Be Used as a Model for Human Disease? (United States)

    Da Ros, Silvia; Zorzan, Eleonora; Giantin, Mery; Zorro Shahidian, Lara; Palumbo, Manlio; Dacasto, Mauro; Sissi, Claudia


    Downregulation of gene expression by induction of non-canonical DNA structures at promotorial level is a novel attractive anticancer strategy. In human, two guanine-rich sequences (h_kit1 and h_kit2) were identified in the promotorial region of oncogene KIT. Their stabilization into G-quadruplex structures can find applications in the treatment of leukemias, mastocytosis, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and lung carcinomas which are often associated to c-kit mis-regulation. Also the most common skin cancer in domestic dog, mast cell tumor, is linked to a mutation and/or to an over-expression of c-kit, thus supporting dog as an excellent animal model. In order to assess if the G-quadruplex mediated mechanism of regulation of c-kit expression is conserved among the two species, herein we cloned and sequenced the canine KIT promoter region and we compared it with the human one in terms of sequence and conformational equilibria in physiologically relevant conditions. Our results evidenced a general conserved promotorial sequence between the two species. As experimentally confirmed, this grants that the conformational features of the canine kit1 sequence are substantially shared with the human one. Conversely, two isoforms of the kit2 sequences were identified in the analyzed dog population. In comparison with the human counterpart, both of them showed an altered distribution among several folded conformations. PMID:25084283

  14. Sequencing and G-quadruplex folding of the canine proto-oncogene KIT promoter region: might dog be used as a model for human disease?

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    Silvia Da Ros

    Full Text Available Downregulation of gene expression by induction of non-canonical DNA structures at promotorial level is a novel attractive anticancer strategy. In human, two guanine-rich sequences (h_kit1 and h_kit2 were identified in the promotorial region of oncogene KIT. Their stabilization into G-quadruplex structures can find applications in the treatment of leukemias, mastocytosis, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and lung carcinomas which are often associated to c-kit mis-regulation. Also the most common skin cancer in domestic dog, mast cell tumor, is linked to a mutation and/or to an over-expression of c-kit, thus supporting dog as an excellent animal model. In order to assess if the G-quadruplex mediated mechanism of regulation of c-kit expression is conserved among the two species, herein we cloned and sequenced the canine KIT promoter region and we compared it with the human one in terms of sequence and conformational equilibria in physiologically relevant conditions. Our results evidenced a general conserved promotorial sequence between the two species. As experimentally confirmed, this grants that the conformational features of the canine kit1 sequence are substantially shared with the human one. Conversely, two isoforms of the kit2 sequences were identified in the analyzed dog population. In comparison with the human counterpart, both of them showed an altered distribution among several folded conformations.

  15. A LysM and SH3-domain containing region of the Listeria monocytogenes p60 protein stimulates accessory cells to promote activation of host NK cells.

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    Rebecca L Schmidt


    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes (Lm infection induces rapid and robust activation of host natural killer (NK cells. Here we define a region of the abundantly secreted Lm endopeptidase, p60, that potently but indirectly stimulates NK cell activation in vitro and in vivo. Lm expression of p60 resulted in increased IFNγ production by naïve NK cells co-cultured with treated dendritic cells (DCs. Moreover, recombinant p60 protein stimulated activation of naive NK cells when co-cultured with TLR or cytokine primed DCs in the absence of Lm. Intact p60 protein weakly digested bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN, but neither muropeptide recognition by RIP2 nor the catalytic activity of p60 was required for NK cell activation. Rather, the immune stimulating activity mapped to an N-terminal region of p60, termed L1S. Treatment of DCs with a recombinant L1S polypeptide stimulated them to activate naïve NK cells in a cell culture model. Further, L1S treatment activated NK cells in vivo and increased host resistance to infection with Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS. These studies demonstrate an immune stimulating function for a bacterial LysM domain-containing polypeptide and suggest that recombinant versions of L1S or other p60 derivatives can be used to promote NK cell activation in therapeutic contexts.

  16. Methylation at the CpG island shore region upregulates Nr3c1 promoter activity after early-life stress. (United States)

    Bockmühl, Yvonne; Patchev, Alexandre V; Madejska, Arleta; Hoffmann, Anke; Sousa, Joao C; Sousa, Nuno; Holsboer, Florian; Almeida, Osborne F X; Spengler, Dietmar


    Early-life stress (ELS) induces long-lasting changes in gene expression conferring an increased risk for the development of stress-related mental disorders. Glucocorticoid receptors (GR) mediate the negative feedback actions of glucocorticoids (GC) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary and therefore play a key role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the endocrine response to stress. We here show that ELS programs the expression of the GR gene (Nr3c1) by site-specific hypermethylation at the CpG island (CGI) shore in hypothalamic neurons that produce corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh), thus preventing Crh upregulation under conditions of chronic stress. CpGs mapping to the Nr3c1 CGI shore region are dynamically regulated by ELS and underpin methylation-sensitive control of this region's insulation-like function via Ying Yang 1 (YY1) binding. Our results provide new insight into how a genomic element integrates experience-dependent epigenetic programming of the composite proximal Nr3c1 promoter, and assigns an insulating role to the CGI shore.

  17. Exploring the 5'-UTR DNA region as a target for optimizing recombinant gene expression from the strong and inducible Pm promoter in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Berg, Laila; Kucharova, Veronika; Bakke, Ingrid; Valla, Svein; Brautaset, Trygve


    By using the strong and inducible Pm promoter as a model, we recently reported that the β-lactamase production (encoded by bla) can be stimulated up to 20-fold in Escherichia coli by mutating the DNA region corresponding to the 5'-untranslated region of mRNA (UTR). One striking observation was the unexpected large stimulatory effect some of these UTR variants had on the bla transcript production level. We here demonstrate that such UTR variants can also be used to improve the expression level of the alternative genes celB (encoding phosphoglucomutase) and inf-α2b (encoding human cytokine interferon α2b), which both can be expressed to high levels even with the wild-type Pm UTR DNA sequence. Our data indicated some degree of context dependency between the UTR DNA and concomitant recombinant gene sequences. By constructing and using a synthetic operon, we demonstrated that UTR variants optimized for high-level expression of probably any recombinant gene can be efficiently selected from large UTR mutant libraries. The stimulation affected both the transcript production and translational level, and such modified UTR sequences therefore clearly have a significant applied potential for improvement of recombinant gene expression processes.

  18. Comparative analysis of the ATRX promoter and 5' regulatory region reveals conserved regulatory elements which are linked to roles in neurodevelopment, alpha-globin regulation and testicular function

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    Argentaro Anthony


    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATRX is a tightly-regulated multifunctional protein with crucial roles in mammalian development. Mutations in the ATRX gene cause ATR-X syndrome, an X-linked recessive developmental disorder resulting in severe mental retardation and mild alpha-thalassemia with facial, skeletal and genital abnormalities. Although ubiquitously expressed the clinical features of the syndrome indicate that ATRX is not likely to be a global regulator of gene expression but involved in regulating specific target genes. The regulation of ATRX expression is not well understood and this is reflected by the current lack of identified upstream regulators. The availability of genomic data from a range of species and the very highly conserved 5' regulatory regions of the ATRX gene has allowed us to investigate putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs in evolutionarily conserved regions of the mammalian ATRX promoter. Results We identified 12 highly conserved TFBSs of key gene regulators involved in biologically relevant processes such as neural and testis development and alpha-globin regulation. Conclusions Our results reveal potentially important regulatory elements in the ATRX gene which may lead to the identification of upstream regulators of ATRX and aid in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie ATR-X syndrome.

  19. Genetic variation in the promoter region of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in perinatal HIV transmission from Mumbai, India. (United States)

    Ahir, Swati; Mania-Pramanik, Jayanti; Chavan, Vijay; Kerkar, Shilpa; Samant-Mavani, Padmaja; Nanavati, Ruchi; Mehta, Preeti


    Various host factors such as cytokines and HLA, regulate the immune system and influence HIV transmission to infants exposed to HIV-1 through their mothers. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) is a strong pro-inflammatory mediator and thought to influence vulnerability to HIV infection (and/or) transmission. Polymorphisms in regulatory regions are known to govern the production of this cytokine. However, the association of these variations in perinatal HIV transmission is yet to be established. Present study aimed to evaluate if polymorphisms in promoter region of TNF-α gene is associated with perinatal HIV transmission. With informed consent from parents, infants' blood was collected for HIV screening and SNPs analysis at 2 loci: TNF (rs1800629) and TNF (rs361525) using PCR-SSP method. HIV positive (n = 27) and negative (n = 54) children at the end of 18th month follow up were considered for this study. GG genotype, responsible for low expression of TNF (rs1800629) was significantly (p = 0.005) higher in uninfected children, while higher GA genotype frequency was observed in infected children. The 'G' allele frequency was significantly higher in negative children (p = 0.016). We conclude that genotypic variants of TNF (rs1800629) are a likely contributor to perinatal HIV transmission. This provides new insights in markers of differential susceptibility to perinatal HIV transmission.

  20. Integration Host Factor (IHF binds to the promoter region of the phtD operon involved in phaseolotoxin synthesis in P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121

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    Álvarez-Morales Ariel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, the causal agent of halo blight disease in beans, produces a toxin known as phaseolotoxin, in whose synthesis participate a group of genes organized within the genome in a region known as the "Pht cluster". This region, which is thought to have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer, includes 5 transcriptional units, two monocistronic (argK, phtL and three polycistronic (phtA, phtD, phtM, whose expression is temperature dependent. So far, the regulatory mechanisms involved in phaseolotoxin synthesis have not been elucidated and the only well-established fact is the requirement of low temperatures for its synthesis. In this work, we searched for regulatory proteins that could be involved in phaseolotoxin synthesis, focusing on the regulation of the phtD operon. Results In this study we identified the global regulator IHF (Integration Host Factor, which binds to the promoter region of the phtD operon, exerting a negative effect on the expression of this operon. This is the first regulatory protein identified as part of the phaseolotoxin synthesis system. Our findings suggest that the Pht cluster was similarly regulated in the ancestral cluster by IHF or similar protein, and integrated into the global regulatory mechanism of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola, after the horizontal gene transfer event by using the host IHF protein. Conclusion This study identifies the IHF protein as one element involved in the regulation of phaseolotoxin synthesis in P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 and provides new insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in phaseolotoxin production.

  1. Promotion Bamboo Industry at Xian'ning and its Development Regional Economy%提升咸宁竹业与发展区域经济

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Jizhou


    咸宁是全国主要竹产区之一,竹业是咸宁经济发展的一个主导产业.从栽培技术、基地规模、加 工效益、经济份额等方面看,提升咸宁的竹业具有可行性;从农业、工业、旅游等区域经济发展全局看,提升咸宁竹业具有必要性.因此,必须抓住国家高度重视林业和生态建设的机遇,进一步巩固竹业的支柱地位、加快资源培育、开展精深加工、激活发展机制,将传统的资源优势转变为明显的经济优势,为建设咸宁新型生态园林城市作出更大贡献.%Xian'ning is one of the main bamboo producing areas in our country. Bamboo industry is one of the leading industries for the economic development in Xianning. Viewing on cultivation techniques, base scope, processing benefits, economic shares, it is feasible to promote Xian'ning bamboo industry; viewing on the overall situation of regional economic development of agriculture,industry and tourism and so on, it is necessary to promote Xian'ning bamboo industry. Therefore, we must grasp the opportunity that our country attach great importance to the forestry and ecologic construction, to further strengthen the pillar position of bamboo industry, to speed up resource cultivation, to carry out profound processing, to activate developing mechanism. We would transform the traditional resources superiority to the clear economic superiority; make more contribution for building new ecologic garden city of Xian'ning.

  2. The optional long 5'-untranslated region of human ACAT1 mRNAs impairs the production of ACAT1 protein by promoting its mRNA decay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaonan Zhao; Baoliang Song; Tayuan Chang; Boliang Li; Jia Chen; Lei Lei; Guangjing Hu; Ying Xiong; Jiajia Xu; Qin Li; Xinying Yang; Catherine C.Y.Chang


    We have previously reported that human ACAT1 mRNAs produce the 50 kDa protein using the AUG1397-1399 initiation codon,and also a minor 56 kDa isoform using the upstream in-frame GGC1274-1276initiation codon.The GGC1274-1276 codon is located at the optional long 5'-untranslated region(5'-UTR,nt 1-1396)of the mRNAs.The DNA sequences corresponding to this 5'-UTR are located in two different chromosomes,7 and 1.In the current work,we report that the optional long 5'-UTR significantly impairs the production of human ACAT1 protein initiated from the AUG1397-1399 codon,mainly by promoting its mRNA decay.The western blot analyses indicated that the optional long 5'-UTR potently impaired the production of different proteins initiated from the AUG1397-1399codon,meaning that this impairing effect was not influenced by the 3'-UTR or the coding sequence of ACAT1 mRNA.The results of reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that this 5'-UTR dramatically reduced the contents of its linked mRNAs.Analyses of the protein to mRNA ratios showed that this 5'-UTR mainly decreased its mRNA stability rather than altering its translational efficiency.We next performed the plasmid transfection experiments and used actinomycin D to inhibit transcription.The results showed that this 5'-UTR promoted its mRNA decay.Additional transfection and nucleofection experiments using RNAs prepared in vitro illustrated that,in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of cells,the optional long 5'-UTR-linked mRNAs decayed faster than those without the link.Overall,our study brings new insight to the regulation of the human ACAT1 gene expression at the post-transcription level.

  3. A common polymorphism in the promoter region of the TNFSF4 gene is associated with lower allele-specific expression and risk of myocardial infarction.

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    Massimiliano Ria

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The TNFSF4/TNFRSF4 system, along with several other receptor-ligand pairs, is involved in the recruitment and activation of T-cells and is therefore tentatively implicated in atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes. We have previously shown that genetic variants in TNFSF4 are associated with myocardial infarction (MI in women. This prompted functional studies of TNFSF4 expression. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on a screening of the TNFSF4 genomic region, a promoter polymorphism (rs45454293 and a haplotype were identified, conceivably involved in gene regulation. The rs45454293T-allele, in agreement with the linked rs3850641G-allele, proved to be associated with increased risk of MI in women. Haplotype-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation of activated polymerase II, as a measure of transcriptional activity in vivo, suggested that the haplotype including the rs45454293 and rs3850641 polymorphisms is functionally important, the rs45454293T- and rs3850641G-alleles being associated with lower transcriptional activity in cells heterozygous for both polymorphisms. The functional role of rs45454293 on transcriptional levels of TNFSF4 was clarified by luciferase reporter assays, where the rs45454293T-allele decreased gene expression when compared with the rs45454293C-allele, while the rs3850641 SNP did not have any effect on TNFSF4 promoter activity. Electromobility shift assay showed that the rs45454293 polymorphism, but not rs3850641, affects the binding of nuclear factors, thus suggesting that the lower transcriptional activity is attributed to binding of one or more transcriptional repressor(s to the T-allele. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the TNFSF4 rs45454293T-allele is associated with lower TNFSF4 expression and increased risk of MI.

  4. The anaphase-promoting complex works together with the SCF complex for proteolysis of the S-phase cyclin Clb6 during the transition from G1 to S phase. (United States)

    Wu, Shiao-Yii; Kuan, Vivian Jen-Wei; Tzeng, Yao-Wei; Schuyler, Scott C; Juang, Yue-Li


    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the S-phase cyclin Clb6 is expressed shortly before the G1/S transition. It has been shown that in S phase the SCF(Cdc4) ubiquitin ligase controls Clb6 proteolysis, which requires cyclin-dependent kinases activity. A Clb6-3A mutant, bearing non-phosphorylatable mutations at S6A, T39A, and S147A, was observed to be hyperstabilized in S-phase but was unstable in mitosis. In this study, we found that the APC(Cdh1) form of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC) was required for Clb6 proteolysis in both early and late G1. An in vitro ubiquitination assay confirmed that Clb6 is a substrate for APC(Cdh1). A KEN box and a destruction box in the Clb6N-terminus were identified. Mutations in the KEN box (mkb) and/or the destruction box (mdb) enhanced Clb6 stability in G1. Expression of Clb6mkd, bearing both mutations in the mkb and mdb, allowed cells to bypass the late G1 arrest caused by cdc4-1. This bypass phenotype was observed to depend upon CDK phosphorylation at residues S6, T39 and S147. Compared to Clb6, overexpression of Clb6ST, bearing all five mutations of S6A, T39A, S147A, mkb and mdb in combination, had a greater effect on promoting expression of Clb2 and S-phase entry, caused a greater G2 delay and a greater defect in cell division. Swe1 was also required for bud emergence when Clb6ST was overexpressed. Our observations suggest that both APC(Cdh1) and SCF(Cdc4)-dependent proteolysis of Clb6 at the G1/S border are crucial for multiple cell cycle regulated events including proper expression of Clb2, the G1/S and G2/M cell cycle transitions and for proper completion of cell division at mitotic exit.

  5. An intergenic region shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana is a tissue specific and stress inducible bidirectional promoter analyzed in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco plants.

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    Joydeep Banerjee

    Full Text Available On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985 are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85 showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87. The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications.

  6. Analysis of ultra-deep pyrosequencing and cloning based sequencing of the basic core promoter/precore/core region of hepatitis B virus using newly developed bioinformatics tools.

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    Mukhlid Yousif

    Full Text Available AIMS: The aims of this study were to develop bioinformatics tools to explore ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS data, to test these tools, and to use them to determine the optimum error threshold, and to compare results from UDPS and cloning based sequencing (CBS. METHODS: Four serum samples, infected with either genotype D or E, from HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative patients were randomly selected. UDPS and CBS were used to sequence the basic core promoter/precore region of HBV. Two online bioinformatics tools, the "Deep Threshold Tool" and the "Rosetta Tool" (, were built to test and analyze the generated data. RESULTS: A total of 10952 reads were generated by UDPS on the 454 GS Junior platform. In the four samples, substitutions, detected at 0.5% threshold or above, were identified at 39 unique positions, 25 of which were non-synonymous mutations. Sample #2 (HBeAg-negative, genotype D had substitutions in 26 positions, followed by sample #1 (HBeAg-negative, genotype E in 12 positions, sample #3 (HBeAg-positive, genotype D in 7 positions and sample #4 (HBeAg-positive, genotype E in only four positions. The ratio of nucleotide substitutions between isolates from HBeAg-negative and HBeAg-positive patients was 3.5 ∶ 1. Compared to genotype E isolates, genotype D isolates showed greater variation in the X, basic core promoter/precore and core regions. Only 18 of the 39 positions identified by UDPS were detected by CBS, which detected 14 of the 25 non-synonymous mutations detected by UDPS. CONCLUSION: UDPS data should be approached with caution. Appropriate curation of read data is required prior to analysis, in order to clean the data and eliminate artefacts. CBS detected fewer than 50% of the substitutions detected by UDPS. Furthermore it is important that the appropriate consensus (reference sequence is used in order to identify variants correctly.

  7. The effect of metallothionein 2A core promoter region single-nucleotide polymorphism on accumulation of toxic metals in sinonasal inverted papilloma tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starska, Katarzyna, E-mail: [I Department of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology, Medical University of Łódź, Kopcinskiego 22, 90-153 Łódź (Poland); Bryś, Magdalena; Forma, Ewa [Department of Cytobiochemistry, University of Łódź, Pomorska 142/143, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Olszewski, Jurek; Pietkiewicz, Piotr [II Department of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology, Medical University of Łódź, Żeromskiego 113, 90-549 Łódź (Poland); Lewy-Trenda, Iwona; Danilewicz, Marian [Department of Pathology, Medical University of Łódź, Pomorska 251, 92-213 Łódź (Poland); Krześlak, Anna [Department of Cytobiochemistry, University of Łódź, Pomorska 142/143, 90-236 Łódź (Poland)


    Metallothioneins (MTs) are intracellular thiol-rich heavy metal-binding proteins which join trace metal ions protecting cells against heavy metal toxicity and regulate metal distribution and donation to various enzymes and transcription factors. The goal of this study was to identify the − 5 A/G (rs28366003) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the core promoter region of the MT2A gene, and to investigate its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni content in sinonasal inverted papilloma tissue (IP), with non-cancerous sinonasal mucosa (NCM) as a control. The MT2A promoter region − 5 A/G SNP was identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism using 117 IP and 132 NCM. MT2A gene analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR. Metal levels were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The frequency of A allele carriage was 99.2% and 100% in IP and NCM, respectively. The G allele carriage was detected in 23.9% of IP and in 12.1% of the NCM samples. As a result, a significant association of − 5 A/G SNP in MT2A gene with mRNA expression in both groups was determined. A significant association was identified between the − 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene with mRNA expression in both groups. A highly significant association was detected between the rs28366003 genotype and Cd and Zn content in IP. Furthermore, significant differences were identified between A/A and A/G genotype with regard to the type of metal contaminant. The Spearman rank correlation results showed the MT2A gene expression and both Cd and Cu levels were negatively correlated. The results obtained in this study suggest that the − 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene may have an effect on allele-specific gene expression and toxic metal accumulation in sinonasal inverted papilloma. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in sinonasal inverted papilloma tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant

  8. Molecular cloning, expression and identification of the promoter regulatory region for the neuropeptide trissin in the nervous system of the silkmoth Bombyx mori. (United States)

    Roller, Ladislav; Čižmár, Daniel; Gáliková, Zuzana; Bednár, Branislav; Daubnerová, Ivana; Žitňan, Dušan


    Trissin has recently been identified as a conserved insect neuropeptide, but its cellular expression and function is unknown. We detected the presence of this neuropeptide in the silkworm Bombyx mori using in silico search and molecular cloning. In situ hybridisation was used to examine trissin expression in the entire central nervous system (CNS) and gut of larvae, pupae and adults. Surprisingly, its expression is restricted to only two pairs of small protocerebral interneurons and four to five large neurons in the frontal ganglion (FG). These neurons were further characterised by subsequent multiple staining with selected antibodies against insect neuropeptides. The brain interneurons innervate edges of the mushroom bodies and co-express trissin with myoinhibitory peptides (MIP) and CRF-like diuretic hormones (CRF-DH). In the FG, one pair of neurons co-express trissin with calcitonin-like diuretic hormone (CT-DH), short neuropeptide F (sNPF) and MIP. These neurons innervate the brain tritocerebrum and musculature of the anterior midgut. The other pair of trissin neurons in the FG co-express sNPF and project axons to the tritocerebrum and midgut. We also used the baculovirus expression system to identify the promoter regulatory region of the trissin gene for targeted expression of various molecular markers in these neurons. Dominant expression of trissin in the FG indicates its possible role in the regulation of foregut-midgut contractions and food intake.

  9. Variants in the promoter region of CYP7A1 are associated with neuromyelitis optica but not with multiple sclerosis in the Han Chinese population. (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Xian; Liu, Ying; Li, Zhen-Xin; Lv, Chuan-Zhen; Traboulsee, Anthony; Sadovnick, A Dessa; Wu, Zhi-Ying


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are common autoimmune demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system. The exact etiology of each remains unclear. CYP7A1 was reported to be associated with NMO in Korean patients, but this is yet to be confirmed in other populations. In this study, we used Sanger sequencing to detect SNPs in the promoter region of CYP7A1 in a population consisting of unrelated patients and controls from the Han Chinese population (129 MS; 89 NMO; 325 controls). Two known SNPs, -204A>C (rs3808607) and -469T>C (rs3824260), and a novel SNP (-208G>C) were identified in the 5'-UTR of CYP7A1. The -204A>C was in complete linkage with -469T>C and both were associated with NMO but not with MS. Results suggest that the CYP7A1 allele was associated with NMO. NMO and MS have different genetic risk factors. This further supports the emerging evidence that MS and NMO are distinct disorders.

  10. High expression of human se-rum albumin in milk of trans-genic mice directed by the goat b-casein gene promoter region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We have constructed a mammary gland expression vector that contained the goat b-casein gene promoter, 5′upstream regulatory region, exons 1, 2, intron 1 as well as the human serum albumin (hALB) mini-gene (including the full-long sequences of hALB cDNA and its intron 1). Injec-tion of the vector into mouse tail veins showed that the re-combinant construct was expressed only in mammary glands. The vector was microinjected into the mouse fertilized eggs, followed by transferring the eggs into the foster mice. 33 F0 mice were obtained. Of the 33, 8 mice (5♀, 3♂) were trans-genic with hALB gene integration identified by PCR as well as Southern blot hybridization. The integration rate was 24.2% (8/33). Western blot analysis showed that 3 female transgenic mice had hALB expression in their milk. The hALB contents in milk reached 3.54, 0.21 and 3.03 g/L, re-spectively.

  11. Development of Biomarkers Based on DNA Methylation in the NCAPH2/LMF2 Promoter Region for Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease and Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

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    Nobuyuki Kobayashi

    Full Text Available From the standpoint of early interventions for dementia, a convenient method of diagnosis using biomarkers is required for Alzheimer's disease (AD in the early stage as well as amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Focusing on differences in DNA methylation due to AD and aMCI, in the present study, we first conducted genome-wide screening, measuring blood DNA methylation levels by the Illumina Infinium HD Methylation Assay in 3 small age-and gender-matched groups consisting of 4 subjects each: normal controls (NC, aMCI and AD. The genome-wide analysis produced 11 DNA methylation loci that distinguished the 3 groups. For confirmation, we increased group sizes and examined samples by pyrosequencing which revealed that DNA methylation in the NCAPH2/LMF2 promoter region was significantly decreased in the AD (n = 30 and aMCI (n = 28 groups as compared to the NC group (n = 30 (P < 0.0001, ANCOVA. No association was found between methylation levels and APOE genotype. NCAPH2/LMF2 methylation levels were considered to potentially be a convenient and useful biomarker for diagnosis of AD and aMCI.

  12. Understanding, promoting and protecting geodiversity and geoheritage of the Piemonte region (Italy) through innovative techniques and public engagement in Earth Science studies (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Lozar, Francesca; Perotti, Luigi; Palomba, Mauro; Groppo, Chiara; Natalicchio, Marcello; Ghiraldi, Luca; Beltramo, Riccardo; Lombardo, Vincenzo


    The onset of Antropocene demonstrates the importance of considering both 1) geodiversity and 2) geoheritage as parts of the landscape "interfaces" where relationships between natural and socio-economic systems can be studied and interpreted. By definition: 1) is the variety, recognizable in nature ("diversity"), of geological features (rocks, minerals, fossils…), of geomorphological environments (and related forms and processes) and of soil characteristics; 2) is an integral part of the global natural heritage focusing on unique, special and representative sites of geological interests (geosites l.s.). In the Antropocene, both 1) and 2) hold a dynamic character, as the result of actions and interactions of natural and/or human factors. Therefore, geodiversity and geoheritage studies are essential for breaking down geological environments and human territories into their main parts and to understand the variables and mechanisms that control their changes. In this perspective, results of the multidisciplinary project PROGEO-Piemonte ("PROactive management of GEOlogical heritage in the Piemonte Region") are presented here: an innovative approach for assessing geodiversity in order to select areas of high potential value of geoheritage to be enhanced by targeted management actions. Since the geodiversity of Piemonte is materialized by elements of high scientific, educational, tourism, etc. value, the geosites where this geoheritage is preserved have been comprehensively analysed and characterized for encompassing both public and private interests. 9 strategic geothematic areas have been selected in the Piemonte Region to test this approach, and to improve social engagement aimed at protecting and promoting geodiversity ad geoheritage. The investigated areas represent the multifaceted geodiversity of Piemonte; each area is characterized by high potential for scientific studies, enhancement of public understanding of science, recreation activities and for economic

  13. Promoting the health of Europeans in a rapidly changing world: a historical study of the implementation of World Health Organisation policies by the Nursing and Midwifery Unit, European Regional Office, 1970-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Christine; Wagner, Lis


    HALLETT C and WAGNER L. Nursing Inquiry 2011; 18: 359-368 Promoting the health of Europeans in a rapidly changing world: a historical study of the implementation of World Health Organisation policies by the Nursing and Midwifery Unit, European Regional Office, 1970-2003 The World Health...... Organisation (WHO) was inaugurated in 1948. Formed in a period of post-war devastation, WHO aimed to develop and meet goals that would rebuild the health of shattered populations. The historical study reported here examined the work of the Nursing and Midwifery Unit (NMU) of WHO's European Regional Office...... in the work of the NMU of the European Regional Office of WHO. One of the strongest of these was a drive to develop and promote the nursing profession within the countries of the European Region. The second was the promulgation and implementation of the positive public health strategies of WHO, particularly...

  14. A novel tumor-promoting function residing in the 5' non-coding region of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA.

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    Kiyoshi Masuda


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF is one of the key regulators of tumor development, hence it is considered to be an important therapeutic target for cancer treatment. However, clinical trials have suggested that anti-VEGF monotherapy was less effective than standard chemotherapy. On the basis of the evidence, we hypothesized that vegf mRNA may have unrecognized function(s in cancer cells. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Knockdown of VEGF with vegf-targeting small-interfering (si RNAs increased susceptibility of human colon cancer cell line (HCT116 to apoptosis caused with 5-fluorouracil, etoposide, or doxorubicin. Recombinant human VEGF165 did not completely inhibit this apoptosis. Conversely, overexpression of VEGF165 increased resistance to anti-cancer drug-induced apoptosis, while an anti-VEGF165-neutralizing antibody did not completely block the resistance. We prepared plasmids encoding full-length vegf mRNA with mutation of signal sequence, vegf mRNAs lacking untranslated regions (UTRs, or mutated 5'UTRs. Using these plasmids, we revealed that the 5'UTR of vegf mRNA possessed anti-apoptotic activity. The 5'UTR-mediated activity was not affected by a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. We established HCT116 clones stably expressing either the vegf 5'UTR or the mutated 5'UTR. The clones expressing the 5'UTR, but not the mutated one, showed increased anchorage-independent growth in vitro and formed progressive tumors when implanted in athymic nude mice. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analyses indicated that the vegf 5'UTR-expressing tumors had up-regulated anti-apoptotic genes, multidrug-resistant genes, and growth-promoting genes, while pro-apoptotic genes were down-regulated. Notably, expression of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1 was markedly repressed in the 5'UTR-expressing tumors, resulting in down-regulation of a STAT1-responsive cluster of genes (43 genes. As a result, the

  15. Qualitative analysis of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli promoter: Hypermethylation, engagement and effects on survival of patients with esophageal cancer in a high risk region of the world, a potential molecular marker

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    Nasseri Negin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus (SCCE occurs at a high incidence rate in certain parts of the world. This feature necessitates that different aspects of the disease and in particular genetic characteristics be investigated in such regions. In addition, such investigations might lead to achievement of molecular markers helpful for early detection, successful treatment and follow up of the disease. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC promoter hypermethylation has been shown to be a suitable marker for both serum and solid tumors of adenocarcinoma of esophagus. We investigated the status of APC promoter hypermethylation in Iranian patients, compared the results with the former studies, and evaluated its applicability as a candidate molecular marker by examining association between survival of SCCE patients and APC promoter methylation. Methods For evaluating the status of APC promoter hypermethylation and its association with SCCE, a qualitative methylation specific PCR (MSP was used. DNA was extracted and digested with an appropriate restriction enzyme, treated with sodium bisulfite in agarose beads and amplified in two-step PCR reaction by applying either methylated or unmethylated promoter specific primers. Universally methylated DNA and methylase treated blood DNA of healthy donors were used as positive controls as well. Survival of patients was followed up for two years after treatment and survival rate of patients with methylated APC promoter was compared with that of unmethylated patients. Results Assessment of APC promoter methylation revealed that normal tissues were unmethylated, while twenty out of forty five (44.4% tumor tissues were hypermethylated either in one or both alleles of APC. Among the tissues in which methylation was detected, seven were hypermethylated in both alleles while the other thirteen were hypermethylated in one of the two alleles of APC. Analyzing two-year survival rate of patients with respect

  16. Neural Cell Adhesion Protein CNTN1 Promotes the Metastatic Progression of Prostate Cancer. (United States)

    Yan, Judy; Ojo, Diane; Kapoor, Anil; Lin, Xiaozeng; Pinthus, Jehonathan H; Aziz, Tariq; Bismar, Tarek A; Wei, Fengxiang; Wong, Nicholas; De Melo, Jason; Cutz, Jean-Claude; Major, Pierre; Wood, Geoffrey; Peng, Hao; Tang, Damu


    Prostate cancer metastasis is the main cause of disease-related mortality. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying prostate cancer metastasis is critical for effective therapeutic intervention. In this study, we performed gene-expression profiling of prostate cancer stem-like cells (PCSC) derived from DU145 human prostate cancer cells to identify factors involved in metastatic progression. Our studies revealed contactin 1 (CNTN1), a neural cell adhesion protein, to be a prostate cancer-promoting factor. CNTN1 knockdown reduced PCSC-mediated tumor initiation, whereas CNTN1 overexpression enhanced prostate cancer cell invasion in vitro and promoted xenograft tumor formation and lung metastasis in vivo. In addition, CNTN1 overexpression in DU145 cells and corresponding xenograft tumors resulted in elevated AKT activation and reduced E-cadherin (CDH1) expression. CNTN1 expression was not readily detected in normal prostate glands, but was clearly evident on prostate cancer cells in primary tumors and lymph node and bone metastases. Tumors from 637 patients expressing CNTN1 were associated with prostate cancer progression and worse biochemical recurrence-free survival following radical prostatectomy (P prostate cancer progression and metastasis, prompting further investigation into the mechanisms that enable neural proteins to become aberrantly expressed in non-neural malignancies.

  17. Expression of the p16(INK4a) gene product, methylation of the p16(INK4a) promoter region and expression of the polycomb-group gene BMI-1 in squamous cell lung carcinoma and premalignant endobronchial lesions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuer, R.H.J.; Snijders, P.J.F.; Sutedja, T.G.; Sewalt, R.G.A.B.; Otte, A.P.; Postmus, P.E.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Raaphorst, F.M.; Smit, E.F.


    It is generally assumed that squamous cell carcinoma develops in a stepwise manner from normal bronchial epithelium towards cancer by the accumulation of (epi)genetic alterations. Several mechanisms including mutations and homozygous deletions or hypermethylation of the p16(INK4a) promoter region ca

  18. 高尔基体驻膜糖蛋白GP73启动子克隆%Cloning of the Promoter Regions of Golgi Membrane Glycoprotein GP73

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢红彬; 宫钰; 彭涛


    [Objective] The aim of this study is to clone the active promoter of golgi membrane glycoprotein GP73. [Method] The sequence within the range of upstream 1 000 bp and downstream 400 bp of transcription initiation site was analyzed, the genomic DNA of hepatoma cell line Huh-7 was regarded as template for PCR amplification. The amplified fragment was cloned into recombinant construct with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) report gene. The expression of EGFP in recombinants were observed under fluorescence microscope after transfection, with the assistant of flow cytometry. [Result] The 1 310 bp ranging between upstream 980 bp and downstream 330 bp of transcription initiation site assumed promoter function. The region contains two core promoters and several conserved sequences including TATA box and many DNA binding sites such as NF-κB, AP1, GC-SP1. [Conclusion] The cloning of the promoter provides a reference for the study of the transcription mechanism of GP73.

  19. TAGLN expression is upregulated in NF1-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors by hypomethylation in its promoter and subpromoter regions. (United States)

    Park, Gun-Hoo; Lee, Su-Jin; Yim, Hyunee; Han, Jae-Ho; Kim, Hyon J; Sohn, Young-Bae; Ko, Jung Min; Jeong, Seon-Yong


    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) caused by NF1 gene mutation is a commonly inherited autosomal dominant disorder. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), a type of aggressive sarcoma, are a major cause of mortality in NF1 patients. The malignant transformation of benign plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) to MPNSTs is a marked peculiarity in NF1 patients, yet the pathogenesis remains poorly understood. We found that an actin-associated protein transgelin (SM22) was highly expressed in NF1-deficient MPNST tissues compared to NF1-deficient PN tissues using immunohistological staining and primary cultured MPNST cells in western blot analysis. We further found that this transgelin upregulation was caused by increased transcriptional expression of the TAGLN gene encoding transgelin. Comparison of DNA methylation values in the promoter and subpromoter regions of the TAGLN gene in three types of NF1-deficient primary-cultured cells, derived from an NF1 patient's normal phenotype, a benign PN and MPNST tissues, revealed that the TAGLN gene was hypomethylated in the MPNST cells. Next, to determine the functional role of transgelin in MPNST pathogenesis, we manipulated the TAGLN gene expression and investigated the alteration of the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in the normal-phenotypic and malignant tumor cells. The downregulation of TAGLN expression in NF1-deficient MPNST tumor cells through the treatment of the small interfering RNA resulted in a decrease in the RAS activation (GTP-RAS) and the downstream ERK1/2 activation (phosphorylated ERK1/2), while the overexpression of TAGLN in normal-phenotypic NF1-deficient cells caused an increase in RAS and ERK1/2 activation. These results indicate that upregulation of transgelin caused by hypomethylation of the TAGLN gene is closely involved in tumor progression in NF1.

  20. Serotonin Transporter Promoter Region (5-HTTLPR) Polymorphism Is Not Associated With Paroxetine-Induced Ejaculation Delay in Dutch Men With Lifelong Premature Ejaculation (United States)

    Janssen, Paddy K.C.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Olivier, Berend


    Purpose To investigate the association between the 5-HT-transporter-gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism and 20-mg paroxetine-induced ejaculation delay in men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). Materials and Methods This was a prospective study of 10 weeks of paroxetine treatment in 54 men with LPE. Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) was measured by stopwatch. Controls consisted of 92 Caucasian men. All men with LPE were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of short (S) and long (L) variants of the polymorphism were compared between patients and controls. Associations between the LL, SL, and SS genotypes and fold increase of mean IELT were investigated. Results Of the 54 patients, 43 (79.6%) responded to 20-mg paroxetine treatment with an ejaculation delay, whereas 11 patients (20.4%) did not respond; 44%, 18%, and 18% of the patients showed a fold increase in mean IELT of 2-10, 10-20, and more than 20, respectively. Of the 54 men, 14 (25.9%) had the LL genotype, 29 (53.7%) had the SL genotype, and 11 (20.4%) had the SS genotype. In the 92 controls, the LL, SL, and SS genotypes were present in 27 (29.3%), 41 (44.6%), and 24 (26.1%), respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in 5-HTTLPR allelic variations or in 5-HTTLPR g