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Sample records for cdf-2 mediates zinc

  1. The Cation Diffusion Facilitator Gene cdf-2 Mediates Zinc Metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Diana E.; Roh, Hyun Cheol; Deshmukh, Krupa; Bruinsma, Janelle J.; Schneider, Daniel L.; Guthrie, James; Robertson, J. David; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Zinc is essential for many cellular processes. To use Caenorhabditis elegans to study zinc metabolism, we developed culture conditions allowing full control of dietary zinc and methods to measure zinc content of animals. Dietary zinc dramatically affected growth and zinc content; wild-type worms survived from 7 μm to 1.3 mm dietary zinc, and zinc content varied 27-fold. We investigated cdf-2, which encodes a predicted zinc transporter in the cation diffusion facilitator family. cdf-2 mRNA lev...

  2. Zinc Finger Nuclease-Mediated Gene Targeting in Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc finger nucleases were used to facilitate homology driven repair and site-specific transgene integration in transgenic tobacco cell cultures. A target DNA sequence containing a non-functional, partial 3' PAT gene sequence flanked by zinc finger binding sites was stably integrated into BY2 suspension cultures using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A transgenic event containing a single integrated copy of the target sequence was used for gene targeting through co-transformation with two different Agrobacterium strains containing: i) donor DNA sequences comprising the 5' partial DNA fragment necessary to correct the non-functional PAT gene flanked by sequences homologous to the pre-integrated target DNA and ii) DNA that encoded a zinc finger nuclease that specifically recognized binding sites within the pre-integrated target. Two gene targeting strategies differing with respect to the distance between the zinc finger binding site and the homologous sequences were used. Gene targeting was demonstrated for both strategies as evidenced by the re-constitution of a functional PAT gene and was confirmed via molecular and biochemical analyses. Sequencing of recombined DNA confirmed that PAT gene reconstitution resulted from homology-driven repair at the zinc finger nuclease cleavage site. However, imperfect recombination resulting from non-homologous processes was also observed. (author)

  3. Zinc-mediated fragmentation of methyl 6-deoxy-6-iodo-hexopyranosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaanderup, Philip Robert; Hyldtoft, Lene; Madsen, Robert

    2002-01-01

    An improved procedure was developed for the zinc-mediated fragmentation of protected and unprotected methyl 6-deoxy-6-iodo-hexopyranosides. The method employs sonication of the iodoglycoside with zinc dust in a THF/H2O mixture.......An improved procedure was developed for the zinc-mediated fragmentation of protected and unprotected methyl 6-deoxy-6-iodo-hexopyranosides. The method employs sonication of the iodoglycoside with zinc dust in a THF/H2O mixture....

  4. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Zinc Fact Sheet for Consumers What is zinc and what does it do? Zinc is a ... find out more about zinc? Disclaimer How much zinc do I need? The amount of zinc you ...

  5. Zinc mediated domino elimination-alkylation of methyl 5-iodopentofuranosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldtoft, Lene; Poulsen, Carina Storm; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    5-Iodopentofuranosides are converted with zinc and allyl/propargyl bromide into dienes/enynes which are further used in carbohydrate annulation reactions.......5-Iodopentofuranosides are converted with zinc and allyl/propargyl bromide into dienes/enynes which are further used in carbohydrate annulation reactions....

  6. Microbial mediated zinc removal from mine water : a microcosm study

    OpenAIRE

    Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Quigley, Sean; Coombs, Pat

    2010-01-01

    The influence of cyanobacteria mats on the removal of zinc from mine waters and the nature of zinc precipitates were assessed using thirty batch microcosms. The cyanobacteria were isolated from white precipitate mats, composed of hydrozincite (Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6), collected from the Rio Naracauli creek, a stream affected by historical Pb-Zn mining in Sardinia, Italy. The cultured bacteria were inoculated into flasks containing sterilised dead leaves, as a source of carbon, immersed in a solution ...

  7. Zinc Mediated Tandem Fragmentation-Allylation of Methyl 5-Iodopentofuranosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldtoft, Lene; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    In the presence of zinc and allyl bromide methyl 5-iodopentofuranosides undergo a tandem fragmentation alkylation to give functionalized dienes. These can undergo ring-closing olefin metathesis to produce cyclohexenes which on dihydroxylation give quercitols.......In the presence of zinc and allyl bromide methyl 5-iodopentofuranosides undergo a tandem fragmentation alkylation to give functionalized dienes. These can undergo ring-closing olefin metathesis to produce cyclohexenes which on dihydroxylation give quercitols....

  8. Zinc Chelation Mediates the Lysosomal Disruption without Intracellular ROS Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Andreza Cândido; Manieri, Tânia Maria; Cerchiaro, Giselle

    2016-01-01

    We report the molecular mechanism for zinc depletion caused by TPEN (N,N,N′,N′-Tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine) in neuroblastoma cells. The activation of p38 MAP kinase and subsequently caspase 3 is not due to or followed by redox imbalance or ROS generation, though these are commonly observed in literature. We found that TPEN is not responsible for ROS generation and the mechanism involves essentially lysosomal disruption caused by intracellular zinc depletion. We also observed a modest activation of Bax and no changes in the Bcl-2 proteins. As a result, we suggest that TPEN causes intracellular zinc depletion which can influence the breakdown of lysosomes and cell death without ROS generation. PMID:27123155

  9. Defect Mediated Ferromagnetism in Zinc Oxide Thin Film Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal, Siddhartha

    unpaired 2p electrons at the O sites surrounding the zinc vacancy with each nearest-neighbor O atom carrying a magnetic moment ranging from 0.49 to 0.74 muB and the oxygen vacancies may provide the coupling mechanism. Results of EPR study are found to be in agreement with the results of magnetization and conductivity measurements. The effect of UV Excimer laser irradiation on electrical, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO thin films has been studied. Increases in the electrical conductivity and magnetic moment have been controlled precisely with the number of laser pulses, without altering the Wurtzite crystal structure and n-type semiconducting characteristics of the films. The laser-induced ferromagnetism and concomitant conductivity enhancement can be reversed through subsequent thermal annealing. It has also been shown that heavy swift ion irradiation can also create room temperature ferromagnetism in oxygen annealed insulating ZnO films. Saturation magnetic moments increase with increasing ion dose. A systematic study of the thickness dependency of the structural, electrical and magnetic properties of undoped ZnO thin films has been presented. The role of film/substrate interface in magnetism has been discussed. It has been shown by EPR study and oxidative quenching of ferromagnetism that oxygen vacancies are the key mediating defect in ferromagnetic ZnO thin films. Finally growth of epitaxial ZnO on Si (100) substrates has been achieved using a titanium nitride (TiN)/strontium titanate (STO) template layer. It has been shown that TiN can be grown epitaxially on silicon substrates. It was observed that, crystallographic orientations of ZnO on STO can be controlled by the oxygen pressure and substrate temperature during the deposition. The detailed x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electrical and magnetic characterization results for the deposited films have been carried out. The above mentioned methods provide a controlled way to study

  10. ZINC-mediated gene expression offers protection against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of zinc to mobilize defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and H2O2-induced apoptosis was studied using a primary culture of rainbow trout gill cells. Gill cells were pretreated for 24 h with 100 μM ZnSO4 followed by 24-h exposure to 100 or 200 μM H2O2, or were subjected to 100 μM ZnSO4 together with 100 or 200 μM H2O2. Metallothionein-A (MTA) and metallothionein-B (MTB) mRNA levels were increased after treatment with zinc or H2O2, separately or in combination. Similarly, mRNA for glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) were increased in response to either zinc or H2O2, or after sequential treatments with zinc followed by H2O2. The stimulatory effects of zinc or H2O2 on MTA, MTB, GST, and G6PD mRNA levels could be blocked by addition of the membrane permeable zinc chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), suggesting that H2O2-induced upregulation of these genes is zinc-dependent. Pretreatment with zinc protected the cells from subsequent cell damage and apoptosis, as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase leakage, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity (MTT assay), caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation. In contrast, when gill cells were coincubated with zinc and H2O2 at the same time, H2O2 toxicity was higher than after treatment with H2O2 alone. It is concluded that zinc had a direct pro-oxidant effect when administered together with H2O2, but that pretreatment of zinc inhibited cytotoxicity and apoptosis through an indirect antioxidant action. We propose that the antioxidant action is manifested through zinc-dependent expression of several genes encoding antioxidant proteins (e.g., MTA, MTB, G6PD, and GST). Furthermore, the apparent zinc-dependency of H2O2-induced expression of antioxidant genes suggests that zinc might act as a physiological signal to mediate the response to oxidative stress

  11. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also appears to be effective. AIDS diarrhea-wasting syndrome. Taking zinc by mouth together with vitamins does not seem to improve ... effects. Using zinc on broken skin may cause burning, stinging, itching, and ... is POSSIBLY SAFE when taking by mouth in doses greater than 40 mg daily. There ...

  12. Magnetic field influence on Auger effect on shallow donors in CdF2:Mn+ luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct observation of the suppression of the Auger effect on shallow donors by magnetic field in the luminescence of manganese ions in semiconducting CdF2:Mn crystals is presented. The magnetic field decreases the probability of the Auger effect, which is spin-dependent energy transfer from the manganese ions to the electrons occupying shallow donors. This results in the increase in the decay times of the luminescence. (author)

  13. Identification of an Acinetobacter baumannii zinc acquisition system that facilitates resistance to calprotectin-mediated zinc sequestration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Indriati Hood

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen that accounts for up to 20 percent of infections in intensive care units worldwide. Furthermore, A. baumannii strains have emerged that are resistant to all available antimicrobials. These facts highlight the dire need for new therapeutic strategies to combat this growing public health threat. Given the critical role for transition metals at the pathogen-host interface, interrogating the role for these metals in A. baumannii physiology and pathogenesis could elucidate novel therapeutic strategies. Toward this end, the role for calprotectin- (CP-mediated chelation of manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn in defense against A. baumannii was investigated. These experiments revealed that CP inhibits A. baumannii growth in vitro through chelation of Mn and Zn. Consistent with these in vitro data, Imaging Mass Spectrometry revealed that CP accompanies neutrophil recruitment to the lung and accumulates at foci of infection in a murine model of A. baumannii pneumonia. CP contributes to host survival and control of bacterial replication in the lung and limits dissemination to secondary sites. Using CP as a probe identified an A. baumannii Zn acquisition system that contributes to Zn uptake, enabling this organism to resist CP-mediated metal chelation, which enhances pathogenesis. Moreover, evidence is provided that Zn uptake across the outer membrane is an energy-dependent process in A. baumannii. Finally, it is shown that Zn limitation reverses carbapenem resistance in multidrug resistant A. baumannii underscoring the clinical relevance of these findings. Taken together, these data establish Zn acquisition systems as viable therapeutic targets to combat multidrug resistant A. baumannii infections.

  14. Zinc-finger nickase-mediated insertion of the lysostaphin gene into the beta-casein locus in cloned cows

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xu; Wang, Yongsheng; Guo, Wenjiang; Chang, Bohao; Liu, Jun; Guo, Zekun; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Zinc-finger nickases (ZFNickases) are a type of programmable nuclease that can be engineered from zinc-finger nucleases to induce site-specific single-strand breaks or nicks in genomic DNA, which result in homology-directed repair. Although zinc-finger nuclease-mediated gene disruption has been demonstrated in pigs and cattle, they have not been used to target gene addition into an endogenous gene locus in any large domestic species. Here we show in bovine fetal fibroblasts that targeting ZFN...

  15. Could carnosine suppress zinc-mediated proteasome inhibition and neurodegeneration? Therapeutic potential of a non-toxic but non-patentable dipeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipkiss, Alan R

    2005-01-01

    Ageing and neurodegenerative conditions are often associated with proteasome dysfunction, possibly mediated by zinc and/or copper ions. Studies have shown that (i) the olfactory lobe is normally enriched in carnosine and zinc, (ii) carnosine can suppress copper and zinc toxicity in olfactory neurones, (iii) olfactory dysfunction is often associated with neurodegenerative conditions and (iv) elevated levels of zinc are found in brains of Alzheimer's patients. It is suggested that nasal administration of carnosine should be explored as a possible way of suppressing zinc/copper-mediated proteasome inhibition and consequent neurodegeneration. PMID:16034682

  16. ZntR-mediated transcription of zntA responds to nanomolar intracellular free zinc

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, DA; Hosteen, Olijahwon; Fierke, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    In E. coli, ZitB and ZntA are important metal exporters that enhance cell viability under high environmental zinc. To understand their functions in maintaining zinc homeostasis, we applied a novel genetically-encoded fluorescent zinc sensor to monitor the intracellular free zinc changes in wild type, ΔzitB and ΔzntA E. coli cells upon sudden exposure to toxic levels of zinc (“zinc shock”). The intracellular readily exchangeable zinc concentration (or “free” zinc) increases transiently from pi...

  17. Essential Role for Zinc Transporter 2 (ZnT2)-mediated Zinc Transport in Mammary Gland Development and Function during Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeon; Hennigar, Stephen R; Alam, Samina; Nishida, Keigo; Kelleher, Shannon L

    2015-05-22

    The zinc transporter ZnT2 (SLC30A2) imports zinc into vesicles in secreting mammary epithelial cells (MECs) and is critical for zinc efflux into milk during lactation. Recent studies show that ZnT2 also imports zinc into mitochondria and is expressed in the non-lactating mammary gland and non-secreting MECs, highlighting the importance of ZnT2 in general mammary gland biology. In this study we used nulliparous and lactating ZnT2-null mice and characterized the consequences on mammary gland development, function during lactation, and milk composition. We found that ZnT2 was primarily expressed in MECs and to a limited extent in macrophages in the nulliparous mammary gland and loss of ZnT2 impaired mammary expansion during development. Secondly, we found that lactating ZnT2-null mice had substantial defects in mammary gland architecture and MEC function during secretion, including fewer, condensed and disorganized alveoli, impaired Stat5 activation, and unpolarized MECs. Loss of ZnT2 led to reduced milk volume and milk containing less protein, fat, and lactose compared with wild-type littermates, implicating ZnT2 in the regulation of mammary differentiation and optimal milk production during lactation. Together, these results demonstrate that ZnT2-mediated zinc transport is critical for mammary gland function, suggesting that defects in ZnT2 not only reduce milk zinc concentration but may compromise breast health and increase the risk for lactation insufficiency in lactating women. PMID:25851903

  18. A novel mechanism for the pyruvate protection against zinc-induced cytotoxicity: mediation by the chelating effect of citrate and isocitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Jee-Won; Kim, Tae-Youn; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jean; Suh, Young-Ah; Hwang, Jung Jin; Koh, Jae-Young

    2016-08-01

    Intracellular accumulation of free zinc contributes to neuronal death in brain injuries such as ischemia and epilepsy. Pyruvate, a glucose metabolite, has been shown to block zinc neurotoxicity. However, it is largely unknown how pyruvate shows such a selective and remarkable protective effect. In this study, we sought to find a plausible mechanism of pyruvate protection against zinc toxicity. Pyruvate almost completely blocked cortical neuronal death induced by zinc, yet showed no protective effects against death induced by calcium (ionomycin, NMDA) or ferrous iron. Of the TCA cycle intermediates, citrate, isocitrate, and to a lesser extent oxaloacetate, protected against zinc toxicity. We then noted with LC-MS/MS assay that exposure to pyruvate, and to a lesser degree oxaloacetate, increased levels of citrate and isocitrate, which are known zinc chelators. While pyruvate added only during zinc exposure did not reduce zinc toxicity, citrate and isocitrate added only during zinc exposure, as did extracellular zinc chelator CaEDTA, completely blocked it. Furthermore, addition of pyruvate after zinc exposure substantially reduced intracellular zinc levels. Our results suggest that the remarkable protective effect of pyruvate against zinc cytotoxicity may be mediated indirectly by the accumulation of intracellular citrate and isocitrate, which act as intracellular zinc chelators. PMID:27515054

  19. Salmonella employs multiple mechanisms to subvert the TLR-inducible zinc-mediated antimicrobial response of human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanovic, Ronan; Bokil, Nilesh J; Achard, Maud E S; Ong, Cheryl-Lynn Y; Peters, Kate M; Stocks, Claudia J; Phan, Minh-Duy; Monteleone, Mercedes; Schroder, Kate; Irvine, Katharine M; Saunders, Bernadette M; Walker, Mark J; Stacey, Katryn J; McEwan, Alastair G; Schembri, Mark A; Sweet, Matthew J

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to characterize antimicrobial zinc trafficking within macrophages and to determine whether the professional intramacrophage pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S Typhimurium) subverts this pathway. Using both Escherichia coli and S Typhimurium, we show that TLR signaling promotes the accumulation of vesicular zinc within primary human macrophages. Vesicular zinc is delivered to E. coli to promote microbial clearance, whereas S. Typhimurium evades this response via Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1. Even in the absence of SPI-1 and the zinc exporter ZntA, S Typhimurium resists the innate immune zinc stress response, implying the existence of additional host subversion mechanisms. We also demonstrate the combinatorial antimicrobial effects of zinc and copper, a pathway that S. Typhimurium again evades. Our use of complementary tools and approaches, including confocal microscopy, direct assessment of intramacrophage bacterial zinc stress responses, specific E. coli and S Typhimurium mutants, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, has enabled carefully controlled characterization of this novel innate immune antimicrobial pathway. In summary, our study provides new insights at the cellular level into the well-documented effects of zinc in promoting host defense against infectious disease, as well as the complex host subversion strategies employed by S Typhimurium to combat this pathway.-Kapetanovic, R., Bokil, N. J., Achard, M. E. S., Ong, C.-L. Y., Peters, K. M., Stocks, C. J., Phan, M.-D., Monteleone, M., Schroder, K., Irvine, K. M., Saunders, B. M., Walker, M. J., Stacey, K. J., McEwan, A. G., Schembri, M. A., Sweet, M. J. Salmonella employs multiple mechanisms to subvert the TLR-inducible zinc-mediated antimicrobial response of human macrophages. PMID:26839376

  20. Effect of Zinc on Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity of Broilers Vaccinated Against Coccidiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Moazeni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was the comparison of humoral and cell-mediated immunity in ‎broilers fed with different levels of zinc during a coccidiosis challenge.‎Methods: One hundred and forty-‎four one-day-old broiler chicks were used with three ‎dietary zinc ‎(40, 120 and 200 mg/kg. At 14 d of age, all birds were inoculated orally with 5×103 sporulated oocysts of E. Tenella. ‎At ‎2, 22, 32, 42 ‎days of age, the blood serums were tested for ‎antibody titer against‎ Newcas­tle disease vaccine, using ‎the standard HI test. On day 42 the sum of nitrite ‎and nitrate based on the reduction of nitrate ‎to nitrite by cadmium ‎and white blood cell count (WBC using a hemocytometer were measured.Results: At 42 d, levels of ‎120 and 200 mg significantly (P< 0.05 increased the antibody titer in compare with the control. The peak response of CBH was observed at the level of 200 mg Zn/kg diet. Also both level of 120 and 200 mg Zn/kg diet increased WBC count and sum of nitrite and nitrate‎ in serum compared with the control.Conclusion: The levels of 120 and 200 mg Zn/kg diet could be considered as a non-pharmacologic booster of immunity in broilers chicks infected with E. Tenella.

  1. AAV-mediated delivery of zinc finger nucleases targeting hepatitis B virus inhibits active replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Weber

    Full Text Available Despite an existing effective vaccine, hepatitis B virus (HBV remains a major public health concern. There are effective suppressive therapies for HBV, but they remain expensive and inaccessible to many, and not all patients respond well. Furthermore, HBV can persist as genomic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA that remains in hepatocytes even during otherwise effective therapy and facilitates rebound in patients after treatment has stopped. Therefore, the need for an effective treatment that targets active and persistent HBV infections remains. As a novel approach to treat HBV, we have targeted the HBV genome for disruption to prevent viral reactivation and replication. We generated 3 zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs that target sequences within the HBV polymerase, core and X genes. Upon the formation of ZFN-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSB, imprecise repair by non-homologous end joining leads to mutations that inactivate HBV genes. We delivered HBV-specific ZFNs using self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV vectors and tested their anti-HBV activity in HepAD38 cells. HBV-ZFNs efficiently disrupted HBV target sites by inducing site-specific mutations. Cytotoxicity was seen with one of the ZFNs. scAAV-mediated delivery of a ZFN targeting HBV polymerase resulted in complete inhibition of HBV DNA replication and production of infectious HBV virions in HepAD38 cells. This effect was sustained for at least 2 weeks following only a single treatment. Furthermore, high specificity was observed for all ZFNs, as negligible off-target cleavage was seen via high-throughput sequencing of 7 closely matched potential off-target sites. These results show that HBV-targeted ZFNs can efficiently inhibit active HBV replication and suppress the cellular template for HBV persistence, making them promising candidates for eradication therapy.

  2. AAV-mediated delivery of zinc finger nucleases targeting hepatitis B virus inhibits active replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Nicholas D; Stone, Daniel; Sedlak, Ruth Hall; De Silva Feelixge, Harshana S; Roychoudhury, Pavitra; Schiffer, Joshua T; Aubert, Martine; Jerome, Keith R

    2014-01-01

    Despite an existing effective vaccine, hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a major public health concern. There are effective suppressive therapies for HBV, but they remain expensive and inaccessible to many, and not all patients respond well. Furthermore, HBV can persist as genomic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) that remains in hepatocytes even during otherwise effective therapy and facilitates rebound in patients after treatment has stopped. Therefore, the need for an effective treatment that targets active and persistent HBV infections remains. As a novel approach to treat HBV, we have targeted the HBV genome for disruption to prevent viral reactivation and replication. We generated 3 zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) that target sequences within the HBV polymerase, core and X genes. Upon the formation of ZFN-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSB), imprecise repair by non-homologous end joining leads to mutations that inactivate HBV genes. We delivered HBV-specific ZFNs using self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) vectors and tested their anti-HBV activity in HepAD38 cells. HBV-ZFNs efficiently disrupted HBV target sites by inducing site-specific mutations. Cytotoxicity was seen with one of the ZFNs. scAAV-mediated delivery of a ZFN targeting HBV polymerase resulted in complete inhibition of HBV DNA replication and production of infectious HBV virions in HepAD38 cells. This effect was sustained for at least 2 weeks following only a single treatment. Furthermore, high specificity was observed for all ZFNs, as negligible off-target cleavage was seen via high-throughput sequencing of 7 closely matched potential off-target sites. These results show that HBV-targeted ZFNs can efficiently inhibit active HBV replication and suppress the cellular template for HBV persistence, making them promising candidates for eradication therapy. PMID:24827459

  3. Zinc-mediated regulation of caspases activity: dose-dependent inhibition or activation of caspase-3 in the human Burkitt lymphoma B cells (Ramos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrantz, N; Auffredou, M T; Bourgeade, M F; Besnault, L; Leca, G; Vazquez, A

    2001-02-01

    Divalent cations, including Zinc and Manganese ions, are important modulators of cell activation. We investigated the ability of these two divalent cations to modulate apoptosis in human Burkitt lymphoma B cells line (Ramos). We found that Zinc (from 10 to 50 microM) inhibited Manganese-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis of Ramos cells. Higher concentration of Zinc (50 to 100 microM) did not prevent Manganese-mediated apoptosis but rather increased cell death among Ramos cells. This Zinc-mediated cell death was associated with apoptotic features such as cell shrinkage, the presence of phosphatidylserine residues on the outer leaflet of the cells, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and decrease of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Zinc-mediated apoptosis was associated with caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation as revealed by the appearance of active p35 fragment of caspase-9 and p19 and p17 of caspase-3 as well as in vivo cleavage of PARP and of a cell-permeable fluorogenic caspase-3 substrate (Phiphilux-G(1)D(2)). Both Zinc-mediated apoptosis and caspase-3 activation were prevented by the cell-permeable, broad-spectrum inhibitor of caspases (zVAD-fmk) or overexpression of bcl-2. In addition, we show that Zinc-induced loss of transmembrane mitochondrial potential is a caspase-independent event, since it is not modified by the presence of zVAD-fmk, which is inhibited by overexpression of bcl-2. These results indicate that depending on its concentration, Zinc can exert opposite effects on caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in human B lymphoma cells: concentrations below 50 microM inhibit caspase-3 activation and apoptosis whereas higher concentrations of Zinc activate a death pathway associated with apoptotic-like features and caspase-3 activation. PMID:11313717

  4. Synthesis of naturally occurring iminosugars from D-fructose by the use of a zinc-mediated fragmentation reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Anne; Madsen, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A short synthesis of 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (DAB) and a formal synthesis of australine are described. In both cases, D-fructose is employed as the starting material and converted into a protected methyl 6-deoxy-6-iodo-furanoside. Zinc-mediated fragmentation produces an unsaturated...... ketone which serves as a key building block for both syntheses. Ozonolysis, reductive amination with benzylamine and deprotection affordfs 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol in only 7 steps and 11% overall yield from D-fructose. Alternatively, reductive amination with homoallylamine, ring...

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of Boswellia ovalifoliolata stem bark-extract-mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supraja, N.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Krishna, T. Giridhara; David, E.

    2016-04-01

    Synthesis of metal nanoparticles using biological systems is an expanding research area in nanotechnology. Moreover, search for new nanoscale antimicrobials is been always attractive as they find numerous avenues for application in medicine. Biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles is cost effective and eco-friendly compared to those of conventional methods of nanoparticles synthesis. Herein, we present the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using the stem bark extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata, and evaluation of their antimicrobial efficacy. Stable ZnO nanoparticles were formed by treating 90 ml of 1 mM zinc nitrate aqueous solution with 10 ml of 10 % bark extract. The formation of B. ovalifoliolata bark-extract-mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles (BZnNPs) was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopic analysis and recorded the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) at 230 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) analysis revealed that primary and secondary amine groups in combination with the proteins present in the bark extract are responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the BZnNPs. The morphology and crystalline phase of the nanocrystals were determined by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hydrodynamic diameter (20.3 nm) and a positive zeta potential (4.8 mV) were measured using the dynamic light scattering technique. The antimicrobial activity of BZnNPs was evaluated (in vitro) against fungi, Gram-negative, and Gram-positive bacteria using disk diffusion method which were isolated from the scales formed in drinking water PVC pipelines.

  6. Nuclear import of high risk HPV16 E7 oncoprotein is mediated by its zinc-binding domain via hydrophobic interactions with Nup62

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously discovered that nuclear import of high risk HPV16 E7 is mediated by a cNLS located within the zinc-binding domain via a pathway that is independent of karyopherins/importins (Angeline et al., 2003; Knapp et al., 2009). In this study we continued our characterization of the cNLS and nuclear import pathway of HPV16 E7. We find that an intact zinc-binding domain is essential for the cNLS function in mediating nuclear import of HPV16 E7. Mutagenesis of cysteine residues to alanine in each of the two CysXXCys motifs involved in zinc-binding changes the nuclear localization of the EGFP-16E7 and 2xEGFP-16E7 mutants. We further discover that a patch of hydrophobic residues, 65LRLCV69, within the zinc-binding domain of HPV16 E7 mediates its nuclear import via hydrophobic interactions with the FG domain of the central channel nucleoporin Nup62. - Highlights: • An intact zinc-binding domain is essential for the nuclear localization of HPV16 E7. • Identification of a hydrophobic patch that is critical for the nuclear import of HPV16 E7. • HPV16 E7 interacts via its zinc-binding domain with the FG domain of Nup62

  7. Augmentation of NKT and NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity by peptidoglycan monomer linked with zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Mrakovcic-Šutic

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptidoglycan monomer (PGM, which was originally prepared by biosynthesis from culture fluids of penicillin-treated Brevibacterium divaricatum, is an immunostimulator, the activities of which might be improved by addition of zinc (Zn to the basic molecule.

  8. Carbohydrate carbocyclization by a zinc-mediated tandem reaction and ring-closing enyne metathesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carina Storm; Madsen, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Methyl 5-deoxy-5-iodo-pentofuranosides are reductively ring-opened and propargylated in a tandem fashion in the presence of zinc. The 1,7-enynes thus obtained are subjected to ring-closing enyne metathesis with catalyst B to produce functionalized 1-vinyl cyclohexenes. By adding BnNH2 to the tandem...

  9. Location of the Energy Levels of the Rare-Earth Ion in BaF2 and CdF2

    OpenAIRE

    Rodnyi, P.A.; Khodyuk, I. V.; Stryganyuk, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    The location of the energy levels of rare-earth (RE) elements in the energy band diagram of BaF2 and CdF2 crystals is determined. The role of RE3+ and RE2+ ions in the capture of charge carriers, luminescence, and the formation of radiation defects is evaluated. It is shown that the substantial difference in the luminescence properties of BaF2:RE and CdF2:RE is associated with the location of the excited energy levels in the band diagram of the crystals.

  10. Scalable production of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles and application to functional thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Won; Ivanov, Ilia N; Joshi, Pooran C; Armstrong, Beth L; Wang, Wei; Jung, Hyunsung; Rondinone, Adam J; Jellison, Gerald E; Meyer, Harry M; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Meisner, Roberta A; Duty, Chad E; Phelps, Tommy J

    2014-10-01

    A series of semiconducting zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles were scalably, reproducibly, controllably and economically synthesized with anaerobic metal-reducing Thermoanaerobacter species. These bacteria reduced partially oxidized sulfur sources to sulfides that extracellularly and thermodynamically incorporated with zinc ions to produce sparingly soluble ZnS nanoparticles with ∼5nm crystallites at yields of ∼5gl(-1)month(-1). A predominant sphalerite formation was facilitated by rapid precipitation kinetics, a low cation/anion ratio and a higher zinc concentration compared to background to produce a naturally occurring hexagonal form at the low temperature, and/or water adsorption in aqueous conditions. The sphalerite ZnS nanoparticles exhibited narrow size distribution, high emission intensity and few native defects. Scale-up and emission tunability using copper doping were confirmed spectroscopically. Surface characterization was determined using Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, which confirmed amino acid as proteins and bacterial fermentation end products not only maintaining a nano-dimensional average crystallite size, but also increasing aggregation. The application of ZnS nanoparticle ink to a functional thin film was successfully tested for potential future applications. PMID:24932768

  11. MATRIX METALLOPROTEINS (MMP)-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR) IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS (HAEC) EXPOSED TO ZINC (ZN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-Mediated Phosphorylation of The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) in Human Airway Epithelial Cells (HAEC) Exposed to Zinc (Zn)Weidong Wu, James M. Samet, Robert Silbajoris, Lisa A. Dailey, Lee M. Graves, and Philip A. BrombergCenter fo...

  12. Nuclear import of cutaneous beta genus HPV8 E7 oncoprotein is mediated by hydrophobic interactions between its zinc-binding domain and FG nucleoporins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously discovered and characterized the nuclear import pathways for the E7 oncoproteins of mucosal alpha genus HPVs, type 16 and 11. Here we investigated the nuclear import of cutaneous beta genus HPV8 E7 protein using confocal microscopy after transfections of HeLa cells with EGFP-8E7 and mutant plasmids and nuclear import assays in digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells. We determined that HPV8 E7 contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS) within its zinc-binding domain that mediates its nuclear import. Furthermore, we discovered that a mostly hydrophobic patch 65LRLFV69 within the zinc-binding domain is essential for the nuclear import and localization of HPV8 E7 via hydrophobic interactions with the FG nucleoporins Nup62 and Nup153. Substitution of the hydrophobic residues within the 65LRLFV69 patch to alanines, and not R66A mutation, disrupt the interactions between the 8E7 zinc-binding domain and Nup62 and Nup153 and consequently inhibit nuclear import of HPV8 E7. - Highlights: • HPV8 E7 has a cNLS within its zinc-binding domain that mediates its nuclear import. • Discovery of a hydrophobic patch that is critical for the nuclear import of HPV8 E7. • HPV8 E7 nuclear import is mediated by hydrophobic interactions with FG-Nups, Nup62 and Nup153

  13. Multiple interferon stimulated genes synergize with the zinc finger antiviral protein to mediate anti-alphavirus activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophiya Karki

    Full Text Available The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP is a host factor that mediates inhibition of viruses in the Filoviridae, Retroviridae and Togaviridae families. We previously demonstrated that ZAP blocks replication of Sindbis virus (SINV, the prototype Alphavirus in the Togaviridae family at an early step prior to translation of the incoming genome and that synergy between ZAP and one or more interferon stimulated genes (ISGs resulted in maximal inhibitory activity. The present study aimed to identify those ISGs that synergize with ZAP to mediate Alphavirus inhibition. Using a library of lentiviruses individually expressing more than 350 ISGs, we screened for inhibitory activity in interferon defective cells with or without ZAP overexpression. Confirmatory tests of the 23 ISGs demonstrating the largest infection reduction in combination with ZAP revealed that 16 were synergistic. Confirmatory tests of all potentially synergistic ISGs revealed 15 additional ISGs with a statistically significant synergistic effect in combination with ZAP. These 31 ISGs are candidates for further mechanistic studies. The number and diversity of the identified ZAP-synergistic ISGs lead us to speculate that ZAP may play an important role in priming the cell for optimal ISG function.

  14. Zinc-induced neurotoxicity mediated by transient receptor potential melastatin 7 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Koichi; Branigan, Deborah; Xiong, Zhi-Gang

    2010-03-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) channels are novel Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cation channels ubiquitously expressed. Activation of TRPM7 channels has been shown to be involved in cellular Mg(2+) homeostasis, diseases caused by abnormal magnesium absorption, and in Ca(2+)-mediated neuronal injury under ischemic conditions. Here we show strong evidence suggesting that TRPM7 channels also play an important role in cellular Zn(2+) homeostasis and in Zn(2+)-mediated neuronal injury. Using a combination of fluorescent Zn(2+) imaging, small interfering RNA, pharmacological analysis, and cell injury assays, we show that activation of TRPM7 channels augmented Zn(2+)-induced injury of cultured mouse cortical neurons. The Zn(2+)-mediated neurotoxicity was inhibited by nonspecific TRPM7 blockers Gd(3+) or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, and by knockdown of TRPM7 channels with small interfering RNA. In addition, Zn(2+)-mediated neuronal injury under oxygen-glucose deprivation conditions was also diminished by silencing TRPM7. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of TRPM7 channels in HEK293 cells increased intracellular Zn(2+) accumulation and Zn(2+)-induced cell injury, while silencing TRPM7 by small interfering RNA attenuated the Zn(2+)-mediated cell toxicity. Thus, TRPM7 channels may represent a novel target for neurological disorders where Zn(2+) toxicity plays an important role. PMID:20048154

  15. Indium Zinc Oxide Mediated Wafer Bonding for III-V/Si Tandem Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamboli, Adele C.; Essig, Stephanie; Horowitz, Kelsey A. W.; Woodhouse, Michael; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.; Norman, Andrew G.; Steiner, Myles A.; Stradins, Paul

    2015-06-14

    Silicon-based tandem solar cells are desirable as a high efficiency, economically viable approach to one sun or low concentration photovoltaics. We present an approach to wafer bonded III-V/Si solar cells using amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) as an interlayer. We investigate the impact of a heavily doped III-V contact layer on the electrical and optical properties of bonded test samples, including the predicted impact on tandem cell performance. We present economic modeling which indicates that the path to commercial viability for bonded cells includes developing low-cost III-V growth and reducing constraints on material smoothness. If these challenges can be surmounted, bonded tandems on Si can be cost-competitive with incumbent PV technologies, especially in low concentration, single axis tracking systems.

  16. KRAB-zinc finger proteins and KAP1 can mediate long-range transcriptional repression through heterochromatin spreading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Groner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Krüppel-associated box domain-zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs are tetrapod-specific transcriptional repressors encoded in the hundreds by the human genome. In order to explore their as yet ill-defined impact on gene expression, we developed an ectopic repressor assay, allowing the study of KRAB-mediated transcriptional regulation at hundreds of different transcriptional units. By targeting a drug-controllable KRAB-containing repressor to gene-trapping lentiviral vectors, we demonstrate that KRAB and its corepressor KAP1 can silence promoters located several tens of kilobases (kb away from their DNA binding sites, with an efficiency which is generally higher for promoters located within 15 kb or less. Silenced promoters exhibit a loss of histone H3-acetylation, an increase in H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3, and a drop in RNA Pol II recruitment, consistent with a block of transcriptional initiation following the establishment of silencing marks. Furthermore, we reveal that KRAB-mediated repression is established by the long-range spreading of H3K9me3 and heterochromatin protein 1 beta (HP1beta between the repressor binding site and the promoter. We confirm the biological relevance of this phenomenon by documenting KAP1-dependent transcriptional repression at an endogenous KRAB-ZFP gene cluster, where KAP1 binds to the 3' end of genes and mediates propagation of H3K9me3 and HP1beta towards their 5' end. Together, our data support a model in which KRAB/KAP1 recruitment induces long-range repression through the spread of heterochromatin. This finding not only suggests auto-regulatory mechanisms in the control of KRAB-ZFP gene clusters, but also provides important cues for interpreting future genome-wide DNA binding data of KRAB-ZFPs and KAP1.

  17. Reactive oxygen species mediated bacterial biofilm inhibition via zinc oxide nanoparticles and their statistical determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Dwivedi

    Full Text Available The formation of bacterial biofilm is a major challenge in clinical applications. The main aim of this study is to describe the synthesis, characterization and biocidal potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs against bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These nanoparticles were synthesized via soft chemical solution process in a very short time and their structural properties have been investigated in detail by using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements. In this work, the potential of synthesized ZnO-NPs (∼ 10-15 nm has been assessed in-vitro inhibition of bacteria and the formation of their biofilms was observed using the tissue culture plate assays. The crystal violet staining on biofilm formation and its optical density revealed the effect on biofilm inhibition. The NPs at a concentration of 100 µg/mL significantly inhibited the growth of bacteria and biofilm formation. The biofilm inhibition by ZnO-NPs was also confirmed via bio-transmission electron microscopy (Bio-TEM. The Bio-TEM analysis of ZnO-NPs treated bacteria confirmed the deformation and damage of cells. The bacterial growth in presence of NPs concluded the bactericidal ability of NPs in a concentration dependent manner. It has been speculated that the antibacterial activity of NPs as a surface coating material, could be a feasible approach for controlling the pathogens. Additionally, the obtained bacterial solution data is also in agreement with the results from statistical analytical methods.

  18. Zinc-finger nuclease mediated disruption of Rag1 in the LEW/Ztm rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zschemisch Nils-Holger

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN represented an innovative method for the genome manipulation in vertebrates. ZFN introduced targeted DNA double strand breaks (DSB and initiated non-homologous end joining (NHEJ after pronuclear or cytoplasmatic microinjection into zygotes. Resulting frame shift mutations led to functional gene ablations in zebra fish, mice, pigs and also in laboratory rats. Therefore, we targeted the rat Rag1 gene essential for the V(DJ recombination within the immunoglobulin production process and for the differentiation of mature B and T lymphocytes to generate an immunodeficient rat model in the LEW/Ztm strain. Results After microinjection of Rag1 specific ZFN mRNAs in 623 zygotes of inbred LEW/Ztm rats 59 offspring were born from which one carried a 4 bp deletion. This frame shift mutation led to a premature stop codon and a subsequently truncated Rag1 protein confirmed by the loss of the full-length protein in Western Blot analysis. Truncation of the Rag1 protein was characterized by the complete depletion of mature B cells. The remaining T cell population contained mature CD4+/CD3+/TCRαβ+ as well as CD8+/CD3+/TCRαβ+ positive lymphocytes accompanied by a compensatory increase of natural killer cells in the peripheral blood. Reduction of T cell development in Rag1 mutant rats was associated with a hypoplastic thymus that lacked follicular structures. Histological evaluation also revealed the near-complete absence of lymphocytes in spleen and lymph nodes in the immunodeficient Rag1 mutant rat. Conclusion The Rag1 mutant rat will serve as an important model for transplantation studies. Furthermore, it may be used as a model for reconstitution experiments related to the immune system, particularly with respect to different populations of human lymphocytes, natural killer cells and autoimmune phenomena.

  19. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J; Fitzgerald, Curtis L; Lind, Randall F; Elkins, James G; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L; Watkins, Thomas R; Ivanov, Ilia N; Graham, David E

    2016-09-01

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale (≤ 24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of pilot-plant scale experiments were performed using 100-L and 900-L reactors. Pasteurization and N2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2-nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5 g L(-1), similar to the small-scale batches. The 900-L pilot plant reactor produced ~320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width × 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic, and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98 % of the buffer chemical costs. The final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, TEM, FTIR, PL, DLS, HPLC, and C/N analyses, which confirmed that the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS. PMID:27118014

  20. Zinc-Salt-Mediated Synthesis, Growth Kinetic, and Shaped Evolution of Silver Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    E. O. Dare; O. W. Makinde; Ogundele, K. T.; Osinkolu, G. A.; Y.A. Fasasi; Sonde, I.; J. T. Bamgbose; Maaza, M; Sithole, J; Ezema, F.; Adewoye, O. O.

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis of various shaped silver nanoparticles mediated by ZnCl2 salt. It has been demonstrated that the salt, PVP/AgNO3 mole ratio, and the type of polyol (EG, DEG,and GL) significantly determined twinning probability, which is an index of silver seed growth origin. High twining probability arising from low PVP/Ag+ ratio and 50 mole% salt favours 1D grown nanowires and nanorods, whereas low twining amidst high mole% salt (150) in DEG offered 2D grown nanoflakes and nanosheets...

  1. Zinc oxide nanorod mediated visible light photoinactivation of model microbes in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Ajaya; Anceno, Alfredo J.; Baruah, Sunandan; Shipin, Oleg V.; Dutta, Joydeep

    2011-05-01

    The inactivation of model microbes in aqueous matrix by visible light photocatalysis as mediated by ZnO nanorods was investigated. ZnO nanorods were grown on glass substrate following a hydrothermal route and employed in the inactivation of gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Bacillus subtilis in MilliQ water. The concentration of Zn2 + ions in the aqueous matrix, bacterial cell membrane damage, and DNA degradation at post-exposure were also studied. The inactivation efficiencies for both organisms under light conditions were about two times higher than under dark conditions across the cell concentrations assayed. Anomalies in supernatant Zn2 + concentration were observed under both conditions as compared to control treatments, while cell membrane damage and DNA degradation were observed only under light conditions. Inactivation under dark conditions was hence attributed to the bactericidal effect of Zn2 + ions, while inactivation under light conditions was due to the combined effects of Zn2 + ions and photocatalytically mediated electron injection. The reduction of pathogenic bacterial densities by the photocatalytically active ZnO nanorods in the presence of visible light implies potential ex situ application in water decontamination at ambient conditions under sunlight.

  2. Zinc transporters that regulate vacuolar zinc storage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    MacDiarmid, Colin W; Gaither, L.Alex; Eide, David

    2000-01-01

    All cells regulate their intracellular zinc levels. In yeast, zinc uptake is mediated by Zrt1p and Zrt2p, which belong to the ZIP family of metal transporters. Under zinc limitation, ZRT1 and ZRT2 transcription is induced by the Zap1p transcriptional activator. We describe here a new component of zinc homeostasis, vacuolar zinc storage, that is also regulated by Zap1p. Zinc-replete cells accumulate zinc in the vacuole via the Zrc1p and Cot1p transporters. Our results indicate that another zin...

  3. Nitric oxide-induced changes in intracellular zinc homeostasis are mediated by metallothionein/thionein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Croix, Claudette M; Wasserloos, K J; Dineley, K E; Reynolds, I J; Levitan, E S; Pitt, B R

    2002-02-01

    We hypothesized that metallothionein (MT), a cysteine-rich protein with a strong affinity for Zn(2+), plays a role in nitric oxide (NO) signaling events via sequestration or release of Zn(2+) by the unique thiolate clusters of the protein. Exposing mouse lung fibroblasts (MLF) to the NO donor S-nitrosocysteine resulted in 20-30% increases in fluorescence of the Zn(2+)-specific fluorophore Zinquin that were rapidly reversed by the Zn(2+) chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine. The absence of a NO-mediated increase in labile Zn(2+) in MLF from MT knockouts and its restoration after MT complementation by adenoviral gene transfer inferred a critical role for MT in the regulation of Zn(2+) homeostasis by NO. Additional data obtained in sheep pulmonary artery endothelial cells suggested a role for the apo form of MT, thionein (T), as a Zn(2+)-binding protein in intact cells, as overexpression of MT caused inhibition of NO-induced changes in labile Zn(2+) that were reversed by Zn(2+) supplementation. Furthermore, fluorescence-resonance energy-transfer data showed that overexpression of green fluorescent protein-modified MT prevented NO-induced conformational changes, which are indicative of Zn(2+) release from thiolate clusters. This effect was restored by Zn(2+) supplementation. Collectively, these data show that MT mediates NO-induced changes in intracellular Zn(2+) and suggest that the ratio of MT to T can regulate Zn(2+) homeostasis in response to nitrosative stress. PMID:11792622

  4. Recruitment of mRNA-destabilizing protein TIS11 to stress granules is mediated by its zinc finger domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIS11, a member of the CCCH zinc finger protein family, was found to be distributed throughout cells with a preferential cytoplasmic localization when transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. Upon treatment with heat shock, TIS11 became localized in discrete particles in the cytoplasm of the transfectants. We showed the TIS11-positive particles to be stress granules (SGs), which are known to be formed in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells in response to environmental stresses. By deletion studies using the green fluorescent protein fusion system, we mapped a functional stress granule (SG) localization signal to a region containing two tandem repeats of the zinc finger motif of TIS11. Site-directed mutations of Tyr105/Tyr113, Gly109/Gly 114, and Phe119 in the first zinc finger motif diminished the ability of this TIS11 domain to direct SG localization. Importantly, when the zinc-chelating Cys residues in either the first or second zinc finger were mutated to Ala residues, the recruitment of the TIS11 zinc finger region to SG was significantly inhibited by the mutation and was completely abolished by the mutation in both zinc fingers. These results suggest that recruitment of TIS11 to heat shock-induced SG is governed by the tandem zinc finger domains of this protein

  5. Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein activates GATA4 transcription and mediates cardiac hypertrophic signaling from angiotensin II receptor 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pressure overload and prolonged angiotensin II (Ang II infusion elicit cardiac hypertrophy in Ang II receptor 1 (AT(1 null mouse, whereas Ang II receptor 2 (AT(2 gene deletion abolishes the hypertrophic response. The roles and signals of the cardiac AT(2 receptor still remain unsettled. Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF was shown to bind to the AT(2 receptor and transmit the hypertrophic signal. Using PLZF knockout mice we directed our studies on the function of PLZF concerning the cardiac specific transcription factor GATA4, and GATA4 targets. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PLZF knockout and age-matched wild-type (WT mice were treated with Ang II, infused at a rate of 4.2 ng·kg(-1·min(-1 for 3 weeks. Ang II elevated systolic blood pressure to comparable levels in PLZF knockout and WT mice (140 mmHg. WT mice developed prominent cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis after Ang II infusion. In contrast, there was no obvious cardiac hypertrophy or fibrosis in PLZF knockout mice. An AT(2 receptor blocker given to Ang II-infused wild type mice prevented hypertrophy, verifying the role of AT(2 receptor for cardiac hypertrophy. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that PLZF bound to the GATA4 gene regulatory region. A Luciferase assay verified that PLZF up-regulated GATA4 gene expression and the absence of PLZF expression in vivo produced a corresponding repression of GATA4 protein. CONCLUSIONS: PLZF is an important AT(2 receptor binding protein in mediating Ang II induced cardiac hypertrophy through an AT(2 receptor-dependent signal pathway. The angiotensin II-AT(2-PLZF-GATA4 signal may further augment Ang II induced pathological effects on cardiomyocytes.

  6. Synthesis and luminescence investigation of Tb3+–Yb3+ codoped CdF2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tb3+ (1%), Yb3+ (5%):CdF2 single crystals with good optical quality are grown by the standard Bridgman method. The crystal structure is checked by means of X-ray diffraction analysis. Absorption, excitation and fluorescence spectra are carried out at room temperature. The standard Judd–Ofelt (JO) model is applied to absorption intensities of Tb3+ to obtain the three phenomenological intensity parameters by the least square fit procedure. The values obtained are Ω2=2.40, Ω4=2.03 and Ω6=3.60 in 10–20 cm2 units, with root mean square of δ=0.1×10–20 cm2. These JO intensity parameters are then applied to determine the radiative transition probabilities (AJJ'), radiative lifetimes (τrad) and branching ratios (βJJ') of Tb3+ transitions. We focused on the blue and green transitions from 5D3 and 5D4 levels which occur with relatively high transition probabilities and branching ratios. The fluorescence spectrum exhibits two groups of lines well resolved from 5D3 and 5D4 manifolds (5D3, 5D4→7FJ, J=6, 5, 4, 3, 2). This spectrum is characterized by two strong lines corresponding to 5D3→7F5 (violet/blue line) and 5D4→7F5 (green line) transitions. For the main transitions, there is a good agreement between the fluorescence spectrum and the spontaneous emission probabilities given by the JO analysis. We also performed fluorescence decay spectra and measured the lifetime of 5D3 and 5D4 levels. This have led us to obtain the quantum efficiency of the two transitions 5D3, 5D4→7F5. For the green transition, the value of radiative quantum efficiency obtained is high, which reflects that multiphonon relaxation is limited. The reduced quantum efficiency of the transition from 5D3 manifold shows the happening of a cross relaxation process between Tb3+ ions as follows: 5D3+7F6→5D4+7F0, because of the closely matched energy difference between (5D3, 5D4), and (7F6, 7F0) levels. These parameters suggest that the studied host has the potential to produce intense green emission

  7. Control of zinc transfer between thionein, metallothionein, and zinc proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Claus; Maret, Wolfgang; Vallee, Bert L.

    1998-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT), despite its high metal binding constant (KZn = 3.2 × 1013 M−1 at pH 7.4), can transfer zinc to the apoforms of zinc enzymes that have inherently lower stability constants. To gain insight into this paradox, we have studied zinc transfer between zinc enzymes and MT. Zinc can be transferred in both directions—i.e., from the enzymes to thionein (the apoform of MT) and from MT to the apoenzymes. Agents that mediate or enhance zinc transfer have be...

  8. Structural basis of the zinc- and terbium-mediated inhibition of ferroxidase activity in Dps ferritin-like proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Havukainen, Heli; Haataja, Sauli; Kauko, Anni; Pulliainen, Arto T.; Salminen, Annika; Haikarainen, Teemu; Finne, Jukka; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C.

    2008-01-01

    Streptococcus suis Dpr is an iron-binding protein involved in oxidative stress resistance. It belongs to the bacterial Dps protein family whose members form dodecameric assemblies. Previous studies have shown that zinc and terbium inhibit iron incorporation in Listeria innocua Dps protein. In order to gain structural insights into the inhibitory effect of zinc and terbium, the crystal structures of Streptococcus suis Dpr complexes with these ions were determined at 1.8 Å and 2.1 Å, respective...

  9. Size-mediated cytotoxicity of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide, pure and zinc-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in human hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoparticles are highly used in biological applications including nanomedicine. In this present study, the interaction of HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC) with hydroxyapatite (HAp), zinc-doped hydroxyapatite, and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were investigated. Hydroxyapatite, zinc-doped hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by wet precipitation method. They were subjected to isochronal annealing at different temperatures. Particle morphology and size distribution were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. The nanoparticles were co-cultured with HepG2 cells. MTT assay was employed to evaluate the proliferation of tumor cells. The DNA damaging effect of HAp, Zn-doped HAp, and TiO2 nanoparticles in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were evaluated using DNA fragmentation studies. The results showed that in HepG2 cells, the anti-tumor activity strongly depend on the size of nanoparticles in HCC cells. Cell cycle arrest analysis for HAp, zinc-doped HAp, and TiO2 nanoparticles revealed the influence of HAp, zinc-doped HAp, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. The results imply that the novel nano nature effect plays an important role in the biomedicinal application of nanoparticles.

  10. Over-expressed copper/zinc superoxide dismutase localizes to mitochondria in neurons inhibiting the angiotensin II-mediated increase in mitochondrial superoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II (AngII is the main effector peptide of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS, and contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease by exerting its effects on an array of different cell types, including central neurons. AngII intra-neuronal signaling is mediated, at least in part, by reactive oxygen species, particularly superoxide (O2·−. Recently, it has been discovered that mitochondria are a major subcellular source of AngII-induced O2·−. We have previously reported that over-expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, a mitochondrial matrix-localized O2·− scavenging enzyme, inhibits AngII intra-neuronal signaling. Interestingly, over-expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, which is believed to be primarily localized to the cytoplasm, similarly inhibits AngII intra-neuronal signaling and provides protection against AngII-mediated neurogenic hypertension. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that CuZnSOD over-expression in central neurons localizes to mitochondria and inhibits AngII intra-neuronal signaling by scavenging mitochondrial O2·−. Using a neuronal cell culture model (CATH.a neurons, we demonstrate that both endogenous and adenovirus-mediated over-expressed CuZnSOD (AdCuZnSOD are present in mitochondria. Furthermore, we show that over-expression of CuZnSOD attenuates the AngII-mediated increase in mitochondrial O2·− levels and the AngII-induced inhibition of neuronal potassium current. Taken together, these data clearly show that over-expressed CuZnSOD in neurons localizes in mitochondria, scavenges AngII-induced mitochondrial O2·−, and inhibits AngII intra-neuronal signaling.

  11. Clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A S

    1985-01-01

    . Thymopoeitin, a hormone needed for T-cell maturation, has also been shown to be zinc dependent. Zinc deficiency affects T-cell functions and chemotaxis adversely. Disorders of cell-mediated immune functions are commonly observed in patients with zinc deficiency. Zinc is beneficial for wound healing in zinc-deficient subjects. In certain zinc-deficient subjects, abnormal taste and abnormal dark adaptation have been noted to reverse with zinc supplementation. PMID:3896271

  12. [Luminescence properties and up-conversion mechanism of Er3+ -Yb3+ -Tm3+ co-doped CdF2: PbF2-based glass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-wen; Liu, Zheng-wei; Xiao, Si-guo

    2004-07-01

    Under 980 nm excitation, we obtained five intense up-conversion luminescence bands in Er3+ -Yb3+ -Tm3+ co-doped CdF2: PbF2-based glass as follows: infrared (800 nm), red (645 nm), green (545 nm and 525 nm), blue (480 nm ) and violet (407 nm) up-conversion luminescence. With the addition of Tm3+ , the intensity of 480 nm blue luminescence increased notably compared with that of co-doped Yb3+ -Er3+ sample, which attributed to Tm3+ special energy level structure; logI-logP plot of the luminescence intensity versus pump power shows that 480 nm luminescence emission is a two-photon excitation process induced by the cooperative up-conversion between two Yb3+ ions and the slope of logI-logP plot decreases gradually with increasing pump power and shows a tendency to bend down. The up-conversion mechanism is analyzed in detail under 980 nm semiconductor laser excitation; the dependence of 480 nm up-conversion luminescence intensity on the pump power under the steady states is discussed by using rate equation and the results agree well with the experiments. PMID:15766069

  13. Composite vibrational spectroscopy of the group 12 difluorides: ZnF2, CdF2, and HgF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonik, Victor G.; Smirnov, Alexander N.; Navarkin, Ilya S.

    2016-04-01

    The vibrational spectra of group 12 difluorides, MF2 (M = Zn, Cd, Hg), were investigated via coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples, CCSD(T), including core correlation, with a series of correlation consistent basis sets ranging in size from triple-zeta through quintuple-zeta quality, which were then extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit using a variety of extrapolation procedures. The explicitly correlated coupled cluster method, CCSD(T)-F12b, was employed as well. Although exhibiting quite different convergence behavior, the F12b method yielded the CBS limit estimates closely matching more computationally expensive conventional CBS extrapolations. The convergence with respect to basis set size was examined for the contributions entering into composite vibrational spectroscopy, including those from higher-order correlation accounted for through the CCSDT(Q) level of theory, second-order spin-orbit coupling effects assessed within four-component and two-component relativistic formalisms, and vibrational anharmonicity evaluated via a perturbative treatment. Overall, the composite results are in excellent agreement with available experimental values, except for the CdF2 bond-stretching frequencies compared to spectral assignments proposed in a matrix isolation infrared and Raman study of cadmium difluoride vapor species [Loewenschuss et al., J. Chem. Phys. 50, 2502 (1969); Givan and Loewenschuss, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 3809 (1980)]. These assignments are called into question in the light of the composite results.

  14. A family of snail-related zinc finger proteins regulates two distinct and parallel mechanisms that mediate Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y; Chia, W; Yang, X

    2001-04-01

    Three snail family genes snail, escargot and worniu, encode related zinc finger transcription factors that mediate Drosophila central nervous system (CNS) development. We show that simultaneous removal of all three genes causes defective neuroblast asymmetric divisions; inscuteable transcription/translation is delayed/suppressed in the segmented CNS. Further more, defects in localization of cell fate determinants and orientation of the mitotic spindle in dividing neuroblasts are much stronger than those associated with inscuteable loss of function. In inscuteable neuroblasts, cell fate determinants are mislocalized during prophase and metaphase, yet during anaphase and telophase the great majority of mutant neuroblasts localize these determinants as cortical crescents overlying one of the spindle poles. This phenomenon, known as 'telophase rescue', does not occur in the absence of the snail family genes; moreover, in contrast to inscuteable mutants, mitotic spindle orientation is completely randomized. Our data provide further evidence for the existence of two distinct asymmetry-controlling mechanisms in neuroblasts both of which require snail family gene function: an inscuteable-dependent mechanism that functions throughout mitosis and an inscuteable-independent mechanism that acts during anaphase/telophase. PMID:11285234

  15. PKC/ROS-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Is Attenuated by Leishmania Zinc-Metalloprotease during Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tiemi Shio

    Full Text Available Parasites of the Leishmania genus infect and survive within macrophages by inhibiting several microbicidal molecules, such as nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this context, various species of Leishmania have been reported to inhibit or reduce the production of IL-1β both in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism whereby Leishmania parasites are able to affect IL-1β production and secretion by macrophages is still not fully understood. Dependent on the stimulus at hand, the maturation of IL-1β is facilitated by different inflammasome complexes. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been shown to be of pivotal importance in the detection of danger molecules such as inorganic crystals like asbestos, silica and malarial hemozoin, (HZ as well as infectious agents. In the present work, we investigated whether Leishmania parasites modulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Using PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells, we demonstrate that Leishmania infection effectively inhibits macrophage IL-1β production upon stimulation. In this context, the expression and activity of the metalloprotease GP63 - a critical virulence factor expressed by all infectious Leishmania species - is a prerequisite for a Leishmania-mediated reduction of IL-1β secretion. Accordingly, L. mexicana, purified GP63 and GP63-containing exosomes, caused the inhibition of macrophage IL-1β production. Leishmania-dependent suppression of IL-1β secretion is accompanied by an inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS production that has previously been shown to be associated with NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The observed loss of ROS production was due to an impaired PKC-mediated protein phosphorylation. Furthermore, ROS-independent inflammasome activation was inhibited, possibly due to an observed GP63-dependent cleavage of inflammasome and inflammasome-related proteins. Collectively for the first time, we herein provide evidence that the protozoan parasite Leishmania, through its

  16. Endogenous nitric oxide in Pseudomonas fluorescens ZY2 as mediator against the combined exposure to zinc and cefradine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-Bin; Zhou, Yan; Ruan, Jing-Jing; Xu, Shi-Hui; Gu, Ji-Dong; Huang, Shao-Song; Zheng, Li; Yuan, Bao-Hong; Wen, Li-Hua

    2015-05-01

    A better understanding on the mechanism involved in bacterial resistance to combined exposure to antibiotics and heavy metals is helpful in implementing practices to mitigate their ecological risk and spread of resistance genes in microbial population. Pseudomonas fluorescens ZY2, a strain isolated from swine wastewater, was chosen to study its growth (bacterial density OD600), the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and NO synthases (NOS) under Zn, cefradine or Zn + cefradine treatments. Using Zn and cefradine as representative heavy metal and antibiotic in this investigation, respectively, the resistance of P. fluorescens ZY2 to toxic chemical exposure was investigated. Bacterial densities of treatment groups significantly increased over the time of incubation, but less than the control. ROS, NO and NOS initially increased, but then decreased after the initial 8 h of culturing, and were positively related to Zn concentrations. Moreover, the formation of ROS, NOS, and NO was activated by cefradine at Zn of up to 160 mg/L, but inhibited at Zn of 200 mg/L whether cefradine was added or not. Zn concentration affected ROS and NO concentrations between treatments and also was closely related to the variation of the relative bacterial density. For P. fluorescens ZY2, the mediation of endogenous NO to overcome ROS in response to the combined exposure of Zn and cefradine was suggested as a co-resistance mechanism, which would be beneficial to evaluate the ecological risk of heavy metals and antibiotics. PMID:25678231

  17. Zinc Carnosine Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Mediators by Suppressing NF-κb Activation in Raw 264.7 Macrophages, Independent of the MAPKs Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Theng Choon; Chan, Kok Meng; Sharif, Razinah

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway in the anti-inflammatory effects of zinc carnosine (ZnC) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Cells were pretreated with ZnC (0-100 μM) for 2 h prior to the addition of LPS (1 μg/ml). Following 24 h of treatment, ZnC was found not to be cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 cells up to the concentration of 100 μM. Our current findings showed that ZnC did not protect RAW 264.7 cells from LPS-induced "respiratory burst". Significant increment in intracellular glutathione (GSH) level and reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration can only be observed in cell pretreated with high doses of ZnC only (50 and 100 μM for GSH and 100 μM only for TBARS). On the other hand, pretreatment of cells with ZnC was able to inhibit LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression significantly. Furthermore, results from immunoblotting showed that ZnC was able to suppress nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation, and highest suppression can be observed at 100 μM of ZnC pretreatment. However, pretreatment of ZnC did not inhibit the early activation of MAPKs. In conclusion, pretreatment with ZnC was able to inhibit the expression of inflammatory mediators in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, mainly via suppression of NF-κB activation, and is independent of the MAPKs signaling pathway. PMID:26749414

  18. Examination of nanoformulated crosslinked polymers complexed with copper/zinc superoxide dismutase as a therapeutic strategy for angiotensin II-mediated hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalia, Krupa

    Excessive generation of superoxide (O2·-) has been extensively implicated as a signaling molecule in cardiovascular pathologies, including hypertension. As a major risk factor for myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure, the morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension is a worldwide epidemic. Although there are several standard therapies that effectively lower blood pressure, many hypertensive patients have uncontrolled blood pressure despite taking available medications. Thus, there is a necessity to develop new pharmacotherapies that target novel molecular effectors (e.g. O2·-) that have been implicated to be integral in the pathogenesis of hypertension. To overcome the failed therapeutic impact of currently available antioxidants in cardiovascular disease, we developed a nanomedicine-based delivery system for the O2 ·- scavenging enzyme, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), in which CuZnSOD protein is electrostatically bound to poly-L-lysine (PLL 50)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) block co-polymer to form CuZnSOD nanozyme. Different formulations of CuZnSOD nanozyme are covalently stabilized by either reducible or non-reducible crosslinked bonds between the PLL50-PEG polymers. Herein, we tested the overall hypothesis that PLL50-PEG CuZnSOD nanozyme delivers active CuZnSOD protein to neurons and decreases blood pressure in a model of Angll-dependent hypertension. As determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, nanozymes retain full SOD enzymatic activity. Furthermore, non-reducible crosslinked nanozyme delivers active CuZnSOD protein to central neurons in culture (CATH.a neurons) without inducing significant neuronal toxicity. In vivo studies conducted in Angll-mediated hypertensive adult male C57BL/6 mice demonstrate that the non-reducible crosslinked nanozyme significantly attenuates blood pressure when given directly into the brain and prevents the further increase in hypertension when intravenously (IV) administered

  19. Surfactant-mediated complex formation for determination of traces amounts of zinc, cadmium, and lead with 4-(2-thiazolylazo) resorcinol and chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Jahan B; Hashemi, Beshare

    2011-12-01

    The partial least squares modeling is a powerful multivariate statistical tool applied to the spectrophotometric simultaneous determination of the divalent ions of zinc, cadmium, and lead based on the formation of their complexes with 4-(2-thiazolylazo) resorcinol in surfactant media. The linear concentration range for zinc, cadmium, and lead were 0.10-1.31, 0.148-1.92, and 0.148-3.70 mg L( -1), respectively. The experimental calibration set was composed of 36 sample solutions using a mixture design for three component mixtures. The absorption spectra were recorded from 380 through 650 nm. The effect of pH on the sensitivity in determination of zinc, cadmium, and lead was studied in order to choose the optimum pH (pH = 8) for determination. The root-mean-square errors of predictions for zinc, cadmium, and lead were 0.0466, 0.0282, and 0.050, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of zinc, cadmium, and lead in water samples. PMID:21409367

  20. Nutritional zinc deficiency, immune capacity and malaria : a study on mediators of immunity to malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbugi, E.V.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis aimed at investigating the role of genetic and nutritional factors that affect the immune response to malaria in Tanzanian children. The introductory chapter (Chapter 1) reviews the importance of nutritional deficiencies, particularly of zinc, and presents the hypothesis that such defici

  1. Zinc'ing down RNA polymerase I

    OpenAIRE

    Chanfreau, Guillaume F.

    2013-01-01

    Most RNA polymerases contain zinc, yet the precise function of zinc and its influence of polymerases stability are unknown. A recent study provides evidence that zinc levels control the stability of RNA polymerase I in vivo and that the enzyme might serve as a zinc reservoir for other proteins.

  2. Symptomatic zinc deficiency in experimental zinc deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C M; Goode, H F; Aggett, P J; Bremner, I; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J.

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of indices of poor zinc status was undertaken in five male subjects in whom dietary zinc intake was reduced from 85 mumol d-1 in an initial phase of the study to 14 mumol d-1. One of the subjects developed features consistent with zinc deficiency after receiving the low zinc diet for 12 days. These features included retroauricular acneform macullo-papular lesions on the face, neck, and shoulders and reductions in plasma zinc, red blood cell zinc, neutrophil zinc and plasma alkal...

  3. Zinc as an appetite stimulator - the possible role of zinc in the progression of diseases such as cachexia and sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hajime; Asakawa, Akihiro; Li, Jiang B; Tsai, Minglun; Amitani, Haruka; Ohinata, Kousaku; Komai, Michio; Inui, Akio

    2011-09-01

    Zinc is required by humans and animals for many physiological functions, such as growth, immune function, and reproduction. Zinc deficiency induces a number of physiological problems, including anorexia, growth retardation, dermatitis, taste disorder, and hypogonadism. Although it is clear that zinc deficiency produces specific and profound anorexia in experimental animals, the connection between zinc deficiency and anorexia is less certain. We were the first to show that orally, but not intraperitoneally, administered zinc rapidly stimulates food intake through orexigenic peptides coupled to the afferent vagus nerve using rats during early-stage zinc deficiency without decreased zinc concentrations in plasma and tissues. We confirmed that a zinc-sufficient diet containing zinc chloride acutely stimulated food intake after short-term zinc deprivation. We also found that orally administered zinc sulfate increased the expression of NPY and orexin mRNA after administration. Using vagotomized rats, we tested whether the increase in food intake after oral administration of zinc was mediated by the vagus nerve. In sham-operated rats, the oral administration of zinc stimulated food intake, whereas zinc and saline administrations did not exhibit differing effects in vagotomized rats. We conclude that zinc stimulates food intake in short-term zinc-deficient rats through the afferent vagus nerve with subsequent effects on hypothalamic peptides associated with food intake regulation. In this review, we describe recent research investigating the roles of zinc as an appetite stimulator in food intake regulation, along with research about hypothalamus, ghrelin, leptin and zinc receptor, and clinical application about anorexia nervosa, cachexia and sarcopenia. The article also presents some promising patents on zinc. PMID:21846317

  4. DEPENDENCE OF PPAR LIGAND-INDUCED MAPK SIGNALING ON EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR TRANSACTIVATION HEPARIN-BINDING EGF CLEAVAGE MEDIATES ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR PHOSPHORYLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that function as ligand-activated transcription factors regulating lipid metabolism and homeostasis. In addition to their ability to regulate PPAR-mediated gene transcription, PPARalpha and gamma li...

  5. Zinc in growth and development and spectrum of human zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A S

    1988-10-01

    Growth retardation is seen in experimental animals as a result of severe dietary restriction of several essential trace elements. However, in humans, the effect of zinc deficiency is most pronounced. Growth failure and hypogonadism in males, related to a deficiency of zinc, have been recognized in many developing countries. A mild deficiency of zinc, affecting growth and development in children and adolescents, has been reported from developed countries as well. Zinc deficiency in humans may manifest as severe, moderate, or mild. The manifestations of severe zinc deficiency include bullous pustular dermatitis, alopecia, diarrhea, emotional disorder, weight loss, intercurrent infections due to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions, hypogonadism in males, neurosensory disorders, and problems with healing of ulcers. This condition can be fatal. A moderate level of zinc deficiency has been reported in a variety of conditions. Clinical manifestations include growth retardation and male hypogonadism in adolescence, rough skin, poor appetite, mental lethargy, delayed wound healing, cell-mediated immune dysfunctions, and abnormal neurosensory changes. A mild level of zinc deficiency may manifest with decreased serum testosterone level and oligospermia in males, decreased lean body mass, hyper-ammonemia, neurosensory changes, anergy, decreased serum thymulin activity, and decreased IL-2 activity. Although the clinical aspects of severe and moderate levels of zinc deficiency are well known, the recognition of mild levels of zinc deficiency has been difficult. Currently plasmas zinc appears to be the most widely used parameter for assessment of human zinc status, and it is known to be decreased in cases of severe and moderate deficiency of zinc.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3053862

  6. In vitro complexes of copper and zinc with chlorophyll

    OpenAIRE

    JELENA PETROVIC; GORAN NIKOLIC; DEJAN MARKOVIC

    2006-01-01

    Complexes of copper and zinc with chlorophyll, the major photosynthesis pigment, were studied by Vis, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy. Two types of complexes were recognized. While copper replaces the central magnesium atom of chlorophyll to form a “central” Cu–Chl complex, this was not proposed in the case of zinc. Instead, the zinc-mediated formation of a 6-membered chelate cycle fused at the periphery of the chlorophyll structure is proposed. The latter event could be ascribed to allome...

  7. Zinc Enhances Ethanol Modulation of the α1 Glycine Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    McCracken, Lindsay M.; Trudell, James R.; Goldstein, Beth E.; Harris, R. Adron; Mihic, S. John

    2009-01-01

    Glycine receptor function mediates most inhibitory neurotransmission in the brainstem and spinal cord and is enhanced by alcohols, volatile anesthetics, inhaled drugs of abuse, and endogenous compounds including zinc. Because zinc exists ubiquitously throughout the brain, investigations of its effects on the enhancement of GlyR function by alcohols and anesthetics are important to understanding the effects of these agents in vivo. In the present study, the effects of zinc plus ethanol, pentan...

  8. Cyclic Zinc(II) Bisporphyrin-Based Molecular Switches: Supramolecular Control of Complexation-Mediated Conformational Switching and Photoinduced Electron Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Pritam; Rath, Sankar Prasad

    2016-04-11

    A cyclic zinc(II) bisporphyrin with flexible linker was employed as a dynamic molecular switch under the regulation of π-acceptors (tetracyanoquinodimethane, trinitrofluorenone, 9-dicyanomethylenefluorene) and bidentate N-donor ligands (1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, pyrazine, 4,4'-bipyridine). The cyclic bisporphyrin host can efficiently encapsulate the π-acceptor guests through the strong π-π interaction, which can be replaced again by using a bidentate N-donor ligand, which coordinates strongly with the metal centers. The open conformation of the bisporphyrin can be efficiently recovered by removing the bidentate ligands using Cu(+) ion. During the process, two porphyrin rings also reversibly change their relative orientation between perpendicular and parallel. The behavior of the cyclic bisporphyrin was followed by using UV/Vis, (1) H NMR, fluorescence, and electrochemical analyses along with X-ray structure determination of the complexes. Moreover, control of photoinduced electron transfer (PET "ON-OFF") is also achieved by the use of guest exchange. Association constants for the host-guest binding were very high, which further explains the robust nature of such assemblies in solution. The experimental evidence is supported by DFT calculations. Such controllable dynamic features can constitute a new step towards "smart" adaptive molecular devices and the emergence of such systems is of significant interest in supramolecular chemistry. PMID:27062017

  9. Clinical Scale Zinc Finger Nuclease-mediated Gene Editing of PD-1 in Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes for the Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, Joal D; Lee, Gary; Zheng, Zhili; Mendel, Matthew; Abate-Daga, Daniel; Bharathan, Mini; Black, Mary; Gandhi, Nimisha; Yu, Zhiya; Chandran, Smita; Giedlin, Martin; Ando, Dale; Miller, Jeff; Paschon, David; Guschin, Dmitry; Rebar, Edward J; Reik, Andreas; Holmes, Michael C; Gregory, Philip D; Restifo, Nicholas P; Rosenberg, Steven A; Morgan, Richard A; Feldman, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is expressed on activated T cells and represents an attractive target for gene-editing of tumor targeted T cells prior to adoptive cell transfer (ACT). We used zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) directed against the gene encoding human PD-1 (PDCD-1) to gene-edit melanoma tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). We show that our clinical scale TIL production process yielded efficient modification of the PD-1 gene locus, with an average modification frequency of 74.8% (n = 3, range 69.9–84.1%) of the alleles in a bulk TIL population, which resulted in a 76% reduction in PD-1 surface-expression. Forty to 48% of PD-1 gene-edited cells had biallelic PD-1 modification. Importantly, the PD-1 gene-edited TIL product showed improved in vitro effector function and a significantly increased polyfunctional cytokine profile (TNFα, GM-CSF, and IFNγ) compared to unmodified TIL in two of the three donors tested. In addition, all donor cells displayed an effector memory phenotype and expanded approximately 500–2,000-fold in vitro. Thus, further study to determine the efficiency and safety of adoptive cell transfer using PD-1 gene-edited TIL for the treatment of metastatic melanoma is warranted. PMID:25939491

  10. Clinical Scale Zinc Finger Nuclease-mediated Gene Editing of PD-1 in Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes for the Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, Joal D; Lee, Gary; Zheng, Zhili; Mendel, Matthew; Abate-Daga, Daniel; Bharathan, Mini; Black, Mary; Gandhi, Nimisha; Yu, Zhiya; Chandran, Smita; Giedlin, Martin; Ando, Dale; Miller, Jeff; Paschon, David; Guschin, Dmitry; Rebar, Edward J; Reik, Andreas; Holmes, Michael C; Gregory, Philip D; Restifo, Nicholas P; Rosenberg, Steven A; Morgan, Richard A; Feldman, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is expressed on activated T cells and represents an attractive target for gene-editing of tumor targeted T cells prior to adoptive cell transfer (ACT). We used zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) directed against the gene encoding human PD-1 (PDCD-1) to gene-edit melanoma tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). We show that our clinical scale TIL production process yielded efficient modification of the PD-1 gene locus, with an average modification frequency of 74.8% (n = 3, range 69.9-84.1%) of the alleles in a bulk TIL population, which resulted in a 76% reduction in PD-1 surface-expression. Forty to 48% of PD-1 gene-edited cells had biallelic PD-1 modification. Importantly, the PD-1 gene-edited TIL product showed improved in vitro effector function and a significantly increased polyfunctional cytokine profile (TNFα, GM-CSF, and IFNγ) compared to unmodified TIL in two of the three donors tested. In addition, all donor cells displayed an effector memory phenotype and expanded approximately 500-2,000-fold in vitro. Thus, further study to determine the efficiency and safety of adoptive cell transfer using PD-1 gene-edited TIL for the treatment of metastatic melanoma is warranted. PMID:25939491

  11. Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and its control of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm and blood sucking mosquito larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Vinoj, G.; Malaikozhundan, B.; Shanthi, S.; Vaseeharan, B.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles were biologically synthesized using the leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Pam-ZnO NPs). The synthesized Pam-ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, TEM and XRD analysis. TEM analysis of Pam-ZnO NPs showed the average size of about 20-50 nm. Pam-ZnO NPs control the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms (MRSA ATCC 33591) at the concentration of 8-10 μg/ml. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) images revealed that Pam-ZnO NPs strongly inhibited the biofilm forming ability of S. aureus. In addition, Pam-ZnO NPs showed 100% mortality of fourth instar mosquito larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus at the concentration of 8 and 10 μg/ml. The histopathological studies of Pam-ZnO NPs treated A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus larvae revealed the presence of damaged cells and tissues in the mid-gut. The damaged tissues suffered major changes including rupture and disintegration of epithelial layer and cellular vacuolization. The present study conclude that Pam-ZnO NPs showed effective control of S. aureus biofilms and mosquito larvae by damaging the mid gut cells.

  12. Integrated criteria document Zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleven RFMJ; Janus JA; Annema JA; Slooff W

    1993-01-01

    This report contains information on zinc and zinc compounds concerning standards, emissions, exposure levels and effect levels. It includes a risk evaluation and presents proposals for maximum permissible concentrations of zinc in the environment. This study indicates that the concentration of zinc

  13. Impact of the discovery of human zinc deficiency on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ananda S

    2009-06-01

    The essentiality of zinc was recognized 46 years ago. Zinc deficiency resulting in growth retardation, hypogonadism, immune dysfunction and cognitive impairment affects nearly 2 billion subjects in the developing world. High phytate content of the cereal proteins consumed in the developing world, results in decreased availability of zinc for absorption. Zinc therapy has been very successful and life saving measure in patients with acrodermatitis enteropathica and Wilson's disease. Beneficial therapeutic responses of zinc supplementation have been ovserved in acute diarrhea in children, chronic hepatitis C, shigellosis, leprosy, leishmaniasis, and common cold. Zinc supplementation was effective in decreasing incidences of infection in elderly and patients with sickle cell disease. Zinc supplementation was effective in preventing blindness in 25% of the elderly with dry type of age related macular degeneration. Zinc supplementation in the elderly decreased oxidative stress and decreased generation of inflammatory cytokines. Zinc is an intracellular signaling molecule in monocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages and it plays an important role in cell-mediated immune functions and oxidative stress. Zinc is also an anti-inflammatory agent. These unique properties of zinc may have significant therapeutic benefits in several diseases in humans. In many diseases concurrent zinc deficiency may complicate the clinical features, affect adversely immunological status, increase oxidative stress and increase generation of inflammatory cytokines. Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation may play important causative roles in many chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, several malignancies, neurological disorders, and auto-immune diseases. It is therefore, important that status of zinc is assessed and zinc deficiency corrected in these chronic diseases. A controlled clinical trial of zinc supplementation in these disorders in order to document the preventive and therapeutic

  14. Color tunable green–yellow–orange–red Er3+/Eu3+-codoped PbGeO3:PbF2:CdF2 glass phosphor for application in white-LED technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Color tunable wide gamut light covering the greenish, yellow–green, yellow, orange, and reddish tone chromaticity region in Er3+/Eu3+-codoped lead–cadmium–germanate PbGeO3:PbF2:CdF2 glass phosphor is presented. The phosphors were synthesized, and their light emission properties examined under UV and blue LED excitation. Luminescence emission around 525, 550, 590, 610, and 660 nm was obtained and analyzed as a function of Eu/Er concentration, excitation wavelength, and glass host composition. The color tunability was actually obtained via proper combination of Er3+ and Eu3+ active ions concentration. The combination of the emission tone with blue LEDs in the region of 400–460 nm, yielded a mixture of light with color in the white-light region presenting a color correlated temperature in the range of 2000–4000 K. Results indicate that the color-tunable fluorolead germanate erbium/europium co-doped glass phosphor herein reported is a promising novel contender for application in LED-based solid-state illumination technology -- Highlights: • Color tunability in the red–orange–yellow–green spectral region. • White-light generation presenting a CCT in the range of 2000–4000 K. • New europium/erbium co-doped lead–cadmium–germanate glass phosphor

  15. An Investigation of the Cytotoxicity and Caspase-Mediated Apoptotic Effect of Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Eclipta prostrata on Human Liver Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ill-Min Chung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and sustained focus is on the discovery and development of newer and better tolerated anticancer drugs, especially from plants. In the present study, a simple, eco-friendly, and inexpensive approach was followed for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs using the aqueous leaf extract of Eclipta prostrata. The synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX, High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, and Selected area (electron diffraction (SAED. The HRTEM images confirmed the presence of triangle, radial, hexagonal, rod, and rectangle, shaped with an average size of 29 ± 1.3 nm. The functional groups for synthesized ZnO NPs were 3852 cm−1 for H-H weak peak, 3138 cm−1 for aromatic C-H extend, and 1648 cm−1 for Aromatic ring stretch. The 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT, caspase and DNA fragmentation assays were carried out using various concentrations of ZnO NPs ranging from 1 to 100 mg/mL. The synthesized ZnO NPs showed dose dependent cytopathic effects in the Hep-G2 cell line. At 100 mg/mL concentration, the synthesized ZnO NPs exhibited significant cytotoxic effects and the apoptotic features were confirmed through caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation assays.

  16. New Hydrophilic/Lipophilic Tetra-α-(4-carboxyphenoxy Phthalocyanine Zinc-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Bel-7402 Cells by Triggering Apoptosis and Arresting Cell Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a novel and promising antitumor treatment. Phthalocyanine-mediated PDT has shown antitumor activity in some tumor cells, but the effect of new hydrophilic/lipophilic tetra-α-(4-carboxyphenoxyphthalocyanine zinc (TαPcZn-mediated PDT (TαPcZn-PDT on human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402 cells and underlying mechanisms have not been clarified. In the present study, therefore, the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis absorption spectrum and cellular localization of TαPcZn, and effect of TαPcZn-PDT on the proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, Bcl-2 and Fas in Bel-7402 cells were investigated by spectrophotometry, inverted microscope, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, electron microscopy, annexinV-FITC/propidium iodide double staining, DNA content and immunoblot assay, respectively. We found that an intense absorption in UV-vis absorption spectrum of TαPcZn was in the red visible region at 650–680 nm, where light penetration in tissue is efficient, that green TαPcZn localized to both plasma membrane and nuclear membrane of Bel-7402 cells, signifying that there was a selective uptake of TαPcZn in Bel-7402 cells and TαPcZn-PDT would be expected to directly damage DNA, and that TαPcZn-PDT significantly resulted in the proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction, S cell cycle arrest, and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Fas. Taken together, we conclude that TαPcZn-PDT inhibits the proliferation of Bel-7402 cells by triggering apoptosis and arresting the cell cycle.

  17. Over-expressed copper/zinc superoxide dismutase localizes to mitochondria in neurons inhibiting the angiotensin II-mediated increase in mitochondrial superoxide ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Shumin Li; Adam J. Case; Rui-Fang Yang; Schultz, Harold D.; Zimmerman, Matthew C

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is the main effector peptide of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), and contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease by exerting its effects on an array of different cell types, including central neurons. AngII intra-neuronal signaling is mediated, at least in part, by reactive oxygen species, particularly superoxide (O2 •−). Recently, it has been discovered that mitochondria are a major subcellular source of AngII-induced O2 •−. We have previously reported...

  18. Bacitracin zinc overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacitracin zinc is a medicine that is used on cuts and other skin wounds to help prevent infection. Bacitracin ... medicine that kills germs. Small amounts of bacitracin zinc are dissolved in petroleum jelly to create antibiotic ...

  19. Zinc oxide overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  20. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonja; Skrovanek; Katherine; DiGuilio; Robert; Bailey; William; Huntington; Ryan; Urbas; Barani; Mayilvaganan; Giancarlo; Mercogliano; James; M; Mullin

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases.

  1. ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition, and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention, and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METH...

  2. Zinc status of vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland-Graves, J H; Bodzy, P W; Eppright, M A

    1980-12-01

    The zinc status of seventy-nine vegetarians and forty-one non-vegetarians was investigated. The subjects provided 24-hr. dietary recalls and donated samples of blood, hair, and saliva that were subsequently analyzed for zinc content. Avoidance of animal products in the diet was associated with decreased intakes of energy, protein, fat, calcium, and zinc and increased consumption of crude fiber, potassium, vitamin A, and ascorbic acid. The low dietary intake of zinc by vegetarian women was believed to result from liberal use of foods low in zinc such as fruits and vegetables, whereas vegetarian men primarily consumed zinc-rich food such as legumes and cheeses Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consumed twice the amount of crude fiber consumed by non-vegetarians and vegans four times as much. The zinc content of salivary sediment was significantly lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians; vegans had the lowest mean level. The observed decrease in salivary zinc was inversely proportional to the amount of crude fiber in the diet. Zinc levels in the hair of vegetarians were significantly lower than those in the hair of non-vegetarians, while serum levels were also lower, but not significantly so. The increased crude fiber intake of vegetarians coupled with the decreased levels of zinc found in saliva and hair seem to indicate that some vegetarians, particularly women, have less than satisfactory zinc status. PMID:7440860

  3. [Zinc and gastrointestinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimura, Yasuki; Takagi, Tomohisa; Naito, Yuji

    2016-07-01

    Zinc, an essential trace element, affects immune responses, skin metabolism, hormone composition, and some sensory function, so that the deficiency presents various symptoms such as immunodeficiency and taste obstacle. Further, the zinc deficiency also considers as a risk of various diseases. Recent reports demonstrated that -20% of the Japanese population was marginally zinc deficiency, and over 25% of the global population is at high risk of zinc deficiency. In gastrointestinal disorders, zinc plays an important role in the healing of mucosal and epithelial damage. In fact, polaprezinc, a chelate compound of zinc and L-carnosine, has been used for the treatment of gastric ulcer and gastritis. We describe here the therapeutic effect of zinc on gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27455800

  4. Nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas Lopes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required for numerous metabolic functions, and zinc deficiency results in growth retardation, cell-mediated immune dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Objective: This study evaluated nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children. Design: We performed a randomised, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into a control group (10% sorbitol, n=31 and an experimental group (10 mg Zn/day, n=31 for 3 months. Anthropometric and dietary assessments as well as bioelectrical measurements were performed in all children. Results: Our study showed (1 an increased body mass index for age and an increased phase angle in the experimental group; (2 a positive correlation between nutritional assessment parameters in both groups; (3 increased soft tissue, and mainly fat-free mass, in the body composition of the experimental group, as determined using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis; (4 increased consumption of all nutrients, including zinc, in the experimental group; and (5 an increased serum zinc concentration in both groups (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Given that a reference for body composition analysis does not exist for intervention studies, longitudinal studies are needed to investigate vector migration during zinc supplementation. These results reinforce the importance of employing multiple techniques to assess the nutritional status of populations.

  5. Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Astiazarán-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the growth performance and zinc status in response to varying levels of dietary zinc and to measure the antibody-mediated response of mice during G. lamblia infection. Male CD-1 mice were fed using 1 of 4 experimental diets: adequate-zinc (ZnA, low-zinc (ZnL, high-zinc (ZnH and supplemented-zinc (ZnS diet containing 30, 10, 223 and 1383 mg Zn/kg respectively. After a 10 days feeding period, mice were inoculated orally with 5 × 106 G. lamblia trophozoites and were maintained on the assigned diet during the course of infection (30 days. Giardia-free mice fed ZnL diets were able to attain normal growth and antibody-mediated response. Giardia-infected mice fed ZnL and ZnA diets presented a significant growth retardation compared to non-infected controls. Zinc supplementation avoided this weight loss during G. lamblia infection and up-regulated the host’s humoral immune response by improving the production of specific antibodies. Clinical outcomes of zinc supplementation during giardiasis included significant weight gain, higher anti-G. lamblia IgG antibodies and improved serum zinc levels despite the ongoing infection. A maximum growth rate and antibody-mediated response were attained in mice fed ZnH diet. No further increases in body weight, zinc status and humoral immune capacity were noted by feeding higher zinc levels (ZnS than the ZnH diet. These findings probably reflect biological effect of zinc that could be of public health importance in endemic areas of infection.

  6. Effect of short-term zinc supplementation on zinc and selenium tissue distribution and serum antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Skalny

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. A significant association between Zn and Se homeostasis exists. At the same time, data on the influence of zinc supplementation on selenium distribution in organs and tissues seem to be absent. Therefore, the primary objective of the current study is to investigate the infl uence of zinc asparaginate supplementation on zinc and selenium distribution and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity in Wistar rats. Material and methods. 36 rats were used in the experiment. The duration of the experiment was 7 and 14 days in the fi rst and second series, respectively. The rats in Group I were used as the control ones. Animals in Groups II and III daily obtained zinc asparaginate (ZnA in the doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg weight, respectively. Zinc and selenium content in liver, kidneys, heart, muscle, serum and hair was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Serum SOD and GPx activity was analysed spectrophotometrically using Randox kits. Results. Intragastric administration of zinc asparaginate signifi cantly increased liver, kidney, and serum zinc content without affecting skeletal and cardiac muscle levels. Zinc supplementation also stimulated selenium retention in the rats’ organs. Moreover, a significant positive correlation between zinc and selenium content was observed. Finally, zinc asparaginate treatment has been shown to modulate serum GPx but not SOD activity. Conclusion. The obtained data indicate that zinc-induced increase in GPx activity may be mediated through modulation of selenium status. However, future studies are required to estimate the exact mechanisms of zinc and selenium interplay.

  7. Zinc deficiency and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, L; Vivian, B; Stuart, M; McClain, C J

    1989-12-01

    Decreased food intake, a cyclic pattern of eating, and weight loss are major manifestations of zinc deficiency. In this study, zinc status was evaluated in 62 patients with bulimia and 24 patients with anorexia nervosa. Forty percent of patients with bulimia and 54% of those with anorexia nervosa had biochemical evidence of zinc deficiency. The authors suggest that for a variety of reasons, such as lower dietary intake of zinc, impaired zinc absorption, vomiting, diarrhea, and binging on low-zinc foods, patients with eating disorders may develop zinc deficiency. This acquired zinc deficiency could then add to the chronicity of altered eating behavior in those patients. PMID:2600063

  8. Ion Channels and Zinc: Mechanisms of Neurotoxicity and Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah R. Morris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionotropic glutamate receptors, such as NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors, are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate much of the excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. Not only do these receptors bind glutamate, but they are also regulated by and facilitate the postsynaptic uptake of the trace metal zinc. This paper discusses the role of the excitotoxic influx and accumulation of zinc, the mechanisms responsible for its cytotoxicity, and a number of disorders of the central nervous system that have been linked to these neuronal ion channels and zinc toxicity including ischemic brain injury, traumatic brain injury, and epilepsy.

  9. Analysis of zinc borates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for analyzing zinc borates: B2O3 determination in the presence of zinc ions and determination of zinc in the presence of borates are developed. Distributing effect of zinc in alcalometrical determination of B2O3 is removed using either its binding cationite KU-2 in H-form in hydrochloric acid medium or using complexone 3 masking. In the first case the results are underestimated, in the second one - are overestimated. When analyzing Zn the complexonometrical titration with sodium teraborate is carried out. Borate ions don't affect the accuracy of determination. Zinc borate samples of 0.1-0.15 g in dimesion are recommended according to the method suggested

  10. Differential control of Zap1-regulated genes in response to zinc deficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chang-Yi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Zap1 transcription factor is a central player in the response of yeast to changes in zinc status. We previously used transcriptome profiling with DNA microarrays to identify 46 potential Zap1 target genes in the yeast genome. In this new study, we used complementary methods to identify additional Zap1 target genes. Results With alternative growth conditions for the microarray experiments and a more sensitive motif identification algorithm, we identified 31 new potential targets of Zap1 activation. Moreover, an analysis of the response of Zap1 target genes to a range of zinc concentrations and to zinc withdrawal over time demonstrated that these genes respond differently to zinc deficiency. Some genes are induced under mild zinc deficiency and act as a first line of defense against this stress. First-line defense genes serve to maintain zinc homeostasis by increasing zinc uptake, and by mobilizing and conserving intracellular zinc pools. Other genes respond only to severe zinc limitation and act as a second line of defense. These second-line defense genes allow cells to adapt to conditions of zinc deficiency and include genes involved in maintaining secretory pathway and cell wall function, and stress responses. Conclusion We have identified several new targets of Zap1-mediated regulation. Furthermore, our results indicate that through the differential regulation of its target genes, Zap1 prioritizes mechanisms of zinc homeostasis and adaptive responses to zinc deficiency.

  11. Zinc sulphate in rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Mattingly, P. C.; Mowat, A G

    1982-01-01

    To assess the antirheumatic activity of zinc sulphate, 27 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis took part in a 6-month, randomised, double-blind, between-group trial of oral zinc sulphate versus placebo. Twelve patients on zinc and 9 on placebo completed the trial, but no significant antirheumatic activity of zinc sulphate was demonstrated.

  12. Gestational zinc deficiency impairs humoral and cellular immune responses to hepatitis B vaccination in offspring mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gestational zinc deficiency has been confirmed to impair the infant immune function. However, knowledge about effects of maternal mild zinc deficiency during pregnancy on hepatitis B vaccine responsiveness in offspring is limited. In this report, we aimed to examine how maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy influences humoral and cellular immune responses to hepatitis B vaccination in offspring of BALB/c mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From day 1 of pregnancy upon delivery, maternal mice were given a standard diet (30 mg/kg/day zinc, zinc deficient diet (8 mg/kg/day zinc, or combination of zinc deficient diet (8 mg/kg/day zinc in the first 2 weeks of gestation and zinc supplement diet (150 mg/kg/day zinc for the last week of pregnancy, respectively. Newborn pups of these maternal mice were immunized with hepatitis B vaccine at postnatal weeks 0, 2 and 4. Then, splenocytes and blood samples from the offspring mice were harvested for detection of serum zinc concentrations, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, expression of cytokines using ELISA, CCK-8 and flow cytometric analysis. Results from the present study demonstrated that gestational zinc deficiency inhibited antibody responses, and decreased the proliferative capacity of T cells in offsprings immunized with hepatitis B vaccine. Additionally, HBsAg-specific cytokines analysis revealed that gestational zinc deficiency could inhibit secretion of IFN-γ from splenocytes, and decrease IFN-γ expression of CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Gestational zinc deficiency can weaken the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to hepatitis B vaccine via decreasing B cell counts and hepatitis B virus-specific immunoglobulin G production, as well as reducing T cell proliferation, CD4(+/CD8(+ T cell ratio, and Th1-type immune responses.

  13. Zinc metabolism in thyroid disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Nishi, Y.; Kawate, R.; Usui, T

    1980-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the zinc metabolism in adults of both sexes with thyroid disease. Plasma and erythrocyte zinc concentration and urinary zinc excretion were investigated. The mean concentration of plasma zinc in hypothyroid patients and in euthyroid patients, previously either hyperthyroid or hypothyroid, was lower than that of control subjects, whereas no statistically significant differences were observed in plasma zinc values between hyperthyroid patients and control sub...

  14. Zinc bioavailability and homeostasis1234

    OpenAIRE

    Hambidge, K Michael; Miller, Leland V; Westcott, Jamie E; Sheng, Xiaoyang; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc has earned recognition recently as a micronutrient of outstanding and diverse biological, clinical, and global public health importance. Regulation of absorption by zinc transporters in the enterocyte, together with saturation kinetics of the absorption process into and across the enterocyte, are the principal means by which whole-body zinc homeostasis is maintained. Several physiologic factors, most notably the quantity of zinc ingested, determine the quantity of zinc absorbed and the e...

  15. Zinc in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of zinc deficiency include: Frequent infections Hypogonadism in males Loss of hair Poor appetite Problems with the sense of taste Problems with the sense of smell Skin sores Slow growth Trouble seeing ...

  16. 光动力作用对人结肠癌细胞转录因子激活蛋白-4表达的影响%Inhibition of AP-4 gene expression by zinc phthalocyanine-mediated photodynamic therapy in human colon cancer cell line SW480

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张通; 曹杰; 杨平; 李旺林; 孙政; 张伟健; 曾山崎

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察不同浓度光敏剂酞菁锌对结肠癌细胞株SW480的生长抑制作用及其对转录因子激活蛋白-4(AP-4)表达的影响.方法 应用CCK-8方法 评估光动力作用后SW480细胞的存活率,通过流式细胞技术、RT-PCR技术、Western blot技术检测光敏剂酞菁锌光动力作用后对SW480细胞凋亡和AP-4基因表达等生物学行为的影响.结果 酞菁锌光动力治疗对结肠癌细胞株SW480生长增殖具有明显抑制作用,其效应呈浓度和光照剂量依赖性;流式细胞仪分析显示SW480细胞呈G2/M期阻滞;SW480细胞的凋亡率随酞菁锌浓度增加逐步上升.2.0 μg/mL酞菁锌光动力作用SW480细胞48 h后其AP-4 mRNA水平下降了81%,培养液上清液AP-4蛋白浓度下降了75.6%(P<0.01).结论 应用光敏剂酞菁锌光动力作用能有效抑制SW-480细胞 AP-4的表达,进而抑制细胞的生长、增殖及诱导细胞的凋亡,为结肠癌治疗提供了新的思路和手段.%Objective To investigate the influence of zinc phthalocyanine on the proliferation and AP - 4 gene expression in SW480 cells in vitro. Methods The cell proliferation was analyzed by cell counting kit - 8 ( CCK8 ) assay, while the AP - 4 mRNA and protein expression after photodynamic therapy ( PDT ) were analyzed by RT - PCR and Western blot, respectively. Meanwhile, the flow cytometry ( FCM ) was used to detect the cell apoptosis and cycle. Results The proliferation of SW480 cells was significantly suppressed by zinc phthalocyanine - mediated PDT in concentration - and light dose - dependent manners. The cell was arrested at G2/M by PDT, while the apoptosis rate was enhanced with zinc phthalocyanine in concentration dependent manner. After 2. 0 μg/mL zinc phthalocyanine - mediated PDT, the AP - 4 mRNA and protein were significantly reduced by 81% and 75. 6% , respectively, in SW480 cells ( P <0. 01 ). Conclusion Zinc phthalocyanine - mediated PDT can effectively suppress the expression of AP - 4, and

  17. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, T; Diepen, van, F.N.J.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Livestock Research to determine the bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens. A precise estimate of the bioavailability of zinc sources is required both for fulf...

  18. Zinc and its deficiency diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G W

    1986-01-01

    The pervasive role of zinc in the metabolic function of the body results from its function as a cofactor of a multitude of enzymes. Zinc is found in every tissue in the body, and because zinc metalloenzymes are found in every known class of enzymes, the metal has a function in every conceivable type of biochemical pathway. Symptoms resulting from zinc deficiency are as diverse as the enzymes with which the metal is associated. If chronic, severe, and untreated, zinc deficiency can be fatal. Less drastic symptoms include infections, hypogonadism, weight loss, emotional disturbance, dermatitis, alopecia, impaired taste acuity, night blindness, poor appetite, delayed wound healing, and elevated blood ammonia levels. Many symptoms of zinc deficiency result from poor diet consumption, but often the most severe symptoms result from other factors including excessive alcohol use, liver diseases, malabsorption syndromes, renal disease, enteral or parenteral alimentation, administration of sulfhydryl-containing drugs, and sickle cell disease. The most severe symptoms of zinc deficiency occur in young children affected with the autosomal-recessive trait, acrodermatitis enteropathica. This disease results in decreased synthesis of picolinic acid which causes an impaired ability to utilize zinc from common food. Because simple laboratory analyses are often not reliable in determining zinc nutriture of a patient, those symptoms caused by suspected zinc deficiency are best verified by the oral administration of zinc dipicolinate. This zinc compound is efficacious and safe and would provide an accurate means of identifying symptoms that do result from zinc deficiency. PMID:3514057

  19. Zinc fingers, zinc clusters, and zinc twists in DNA-binding protein domains.

    OpenAIRE

    Vallee, B L; Coleman, J E; Auld, D S

    1991-01-01

    We now recognize three distinct motifs of DNA-binding zinc proteins: (i) zinc fingers, (ii) zinc clusters, and (iii) zinc twists. Until very recently, x-ray crystallographic or NMR three-dimensional structure analyses of DNA-binding zinc proteins have not been available to serve as standards of reference for the zinc binding sites of these families of proteins. Those of the DNA-binding domains of the fungal transcription factor GAL4 and the rat glucocorticoid receptor are the first to have be...

  20. The study and microstructure analysis of zinc and zinc oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Pešlová, F.; Kliber, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2015), s. 43-46. ISSN 0543-5846 Grant ostatní: KEGA(SK) KEGA 007 TnUAD-4/2013 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : zinc * production of zinc oxide * microstructure * chemical composition * zinc slag Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  1. Isolation of a Novel Family of C2H2 Zinc Finger Proteins Implicated in Transcriptional Repression Mediated by Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter Transcription Factor (COUP-TF) Orphan Nuclear Receptors*

    OpenAIRE

    Avram, Dorina; Fields, Andrew; Top, Karen Pretty On; Nevrivy, Daniel J.; Ishmael, Jane E.; Leid, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Two novel and related C2H2 zinc finger proteins that are highly expressed in the brain, CTIP1 and CTIP2 (COUP TF-interacting proteins 1 and 2, respectively), were isolated and shown to interact with all members of the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TF) subfamily of orphan nuclear receptors. The interaction of CTIP1 with ARP1 was studied in detail, and CTIP1 was found to harbor two independent ARP1 interaction domains, ID1 and ID2, whereas the putative AF-2 of A...

  2. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Live

  3. Zinc Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Doğan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc phosphide has been used widely as a rodenticide. Upon ingestion, it gets converted to phosphine gas in the body, which is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and the intestines and gets captured by the liver and the lungs. Phosphine gas produces various metabolic and nonmetabolic toxic effects. Clinical symptoms are circulatory collapse, hypotension, shock symptoms, myocarditis, pericarditis, acute pulmonary edema, and congestive heart failure. In this case presentation, we aim to present the intensive care process and treatment resistance of a patient who ingested zinc phosphide for suicide purposes.

  4. Zinc biofortification of cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael; Clemens, Stephan; Williams, Lorraine E.;

    2008-01-01

    The goal of biofortification is to develop plants that have an increased content of bioavailable nutrients in their edible parts. Cereals serve as the main staple food for a large proportion of the world population but have the shortcoming, from a nutrition perspective, of being low in zinc and...... other essential nutrients. Major bottlenecks in plant biofortification appear to be the root-shoot barrier and - in cereals - the process of grain filling. New findings demonstrate that the root-shoot distribution of zinc is controlled mainly by heavy metal transporting P1B-ATPases and the metal...

  5. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs refer

  6. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs ref

  7. Protection against zinc toxicity by metallothionein and zinc transporter 1

    OpenAIRE

    Palmiter, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    Cells protect themselves from zinc toxicity by inducing proteins such as metallothionein (MT) that bind it tightly, by sequestering it in organelles, or by exporting it. In this study, the interplay between zinc binding by MT and its efflux by zinc transporter 1 (ZnT1) was examined genetically. Inactivation of the Znt1 gene in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells that do not express their Mt genes results in a zinc-sensitive phenotype and a high level of “free” zinc. Restoration of Mt gene express...

  8. Zinc supplementation alters airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness to a common allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Carrie I

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc supplementation can modulate immunity through inhibition of NF-κB, a transcription factor that controls many immune response genes. Thus, we sought to examine the mechanism by which zinc supplementation tempers the response to a common allergen and determine its effect on allergic airway inflammation. Methods Mice were injected with zinc gluconate prior to German cockroach (GC feces (frass exposure and airway inflammation was assessed. Primary bone marrow-derived neutrophils and DMSO-differentiated HL-60 cells were used to assess the role of zinc gluconate on tumor necrosis factor (TNFα expression. NF-κB:DNA binding and IKK activity were assessed by EMSA and in vitro kinase assay. Protein levels of A20, RIP1 and TRAF6 were assessed by Western blot analysis. Establishment of allergic airway inflammation with GC frass was followed by administration of zinc gluconate. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum IgE levels, eosinophilia and Th2 cytokine production were assessed. Results Administration of zinc gluconate prior to allergen exposure resulted in significantly decreased neutrophil infiltration and TNFα cytokine release into the airways. This correlated with decreased NF-κB activity in the whole lung. Treatment with zinc gluconate significantly decreased GC frass-mediated TNFα production from bone-marrow derived neutrophils and HL-60 cells. We confirmed zinc-mediated decreases in NF-κB:DNA binding and IKK activity in HL-60 cells. A20, a natural inhibitor of NF-κB and a zinc-fingered protein, is a potential target of zinc. Zinc treatment did not alter A20 levels in the short term, but resulted in the degradation of RIP1, an important upstream activator of IKK. TRAF6 protein levels were unaffected. To determine the application for zinc as a therapeutic for asthma, we administered zinc following the establishment of allergic airway inflammation in a murine model. Zinc supplementation decreased airway hyperresponsiveness

  9. Zinc bioavailability in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic 65Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%

  10. Studies on nanocrystalline zinc coating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H B Muralidhara; Y Arthoba Naik

    2008-08-01

    Nano zinc coatings were deposited on mild steel by electrodeposition. The effect of additive on the morphology of crystal size on zinc deposit surface and corrosion properties were investigated. Corrosion tests were performed for dull zinc deposits and bright zinc deposits in aqueous NaCl solution (3.5 wt.%) using electrochemical measurements. The results showed that addition of additive in the deposition process of zinc significantly increased the corrosion resistance. The surface morphology of the zinc deposits was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The preferred orientation and average size of the zinc electrodeposited particles were obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis. The particles size was also characterized by TEM analysis.

  11. Leptin and zinc relation : In regulation of food intake and immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkerim Kasim Baltaci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is synthesized and released by the adipose tissue. Leptin, which carries the information about energy reserves of the body to the brain, controls food intake by acting on neuropeptide Y (NPY, which exercises a food-intake-increasing effect through relevant receptors in the hypothalamus. Zinc deficiency is claimed to result in anorexia, weight loss, poor food efficiency, and growth impairment. The fact that obese individuals have low zinc and high leptin levels suggests that there is a relation between zinc and nutrition, and consequently also between zinc and leptin. Leptin deficiency increases the predisposition to infections and this increase is associated with the impairments in the production of cytokines. Zinc has a key role in the sustenance of immune resistance against infections. Dietary zinc deficiency negatively affects CD +4 cells, Th functions, and consequently, cell-mediated immunity by causing a decrease in the production of IL-2, IF-γ, and TNF-α, which are Th1 products. The relation between zinc and the concerned cytokines in particular, and the fact that leptin has a part in the immune responses mediated by these cytokines demonstrate that an interaction among cellular immunity, leptin and zinc is inevitable. An overall evaluation of the information presented above suggests that there are complex relations among food intake, leptin and zinc on one hand and among cellular immunity, leptin and zinc on the other. The aim of the present review was to draw attention to the possible relation between zinc and leptin in dietary regulation and cellular immunity.

  12. Leptin and zinc relation: In regulation of food intake and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2012-12-01

    Leptin is synthesized and released by the adipose tissue. Leptin, which carries the information about energy reserves of the body to the brain, controls food intake by acting on neuropeptide Y (NPY), which exercises a food-intake-increasing effect through relevant receptors in the hypothalamus. Zinc deficiency is claimed to result in anorexia, weight loss, poor food efficiency, and growth impairment. The fact that obese individuals have low zinc and high leptin levels suggests that there is a relation between zinc and nutrition, and consequently also between zinc and leptin. Leptin deficiency increases the predisposition to infections and this increase is associated with the impairments in the production of cytokines. Zinc has a key role in the sustenance of immune resistance against infections. Dietary zinc deficiency negatively affects CD(+) 4 cells, Th functions, and consequently, cell-mediated immunity by causing a decrease in the production of IL-2, IF-γ, and TNF-α, which are Th1 products. The relation between zinc and the concerned cytokines in particular, and the fact that leptin has a part in the immune responses mediated by these cytokines demonstrate that an interaction among cellular immunity, leptin and zinc is inevitable. An overall evaluation of the information presented above suggests that there are complex relations among food intake, leptin and zinc on one hand and among cellular immunity, leptin and zinc on the other. The aim of the present review was to draw attention to the possible relation between zinc and leptin in dietary regulation and cellular immunity. PMID:23565497

  13. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  14. Pinacol Coupling Reactions Catalyzed by Active Zinc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui ZHAO; Wei DENG; Qing Xiang GUO

    2005-01-01

    Pinacol coupling reactions catalyzed by active zinc revealed high activity and extensive suitability. The efficiency of the reaction was improved apparently owing to decreasing reductive potential of zinc. In addition, the results indicated that the zinc activity has a direct relation to the coupling reactivity compared to untreated zinc or other general active zinc.

  15. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi 65ZnCl2 and a non-absorbed marker, 51CrCl3, dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing 31 mumol zinc also labelled with 65Zn and 51Cr. Measurements were made of plasma zinc concentration at hourly intervals for 5 hours, radiozinc absorption by stool counting of unabsorbed radioactivity 12-36 hours later, and radiozinc retention by whole body counting at 7 days. The mean percentage of radiozinc absorbed and retained in the body from the two test meals was found to be identical (42%). In contrast the increased area under the plasma zinc curve up to 5 hours after the turkey meal, 28 +/- 9 mumol/L (mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that for zinc chloride alone, 47 +/- 15 mumol/L, p less than 0.005. Despite this difference, a good correlation was found between the area under the plasma zinc curve and 65Zn absorption in individual subjects after each meal. The discrepancy between the results of zinc absorption derived from the plasma zinc curve and 65Zn absorption for the liquid and solid test meals was most likely explained by binding of zinc to food and delayed gastric emptying of the solid meal. With a test meal of turkey meat at least this dampened the plasma appearance of zinc but did not affect its overall absorption

  16. Metal Coupled Folding of Cys2His2 Zinc-Finger

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenfei; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Zinc-fingers, which widely exist in eukaryotic cell and play crucial roles in life processes, depend on the binding of zinc ion for their proper folding. To computationally study the zinc coupled folding of the zinc-fingers, charge transfer and metal induced protonation/deprotonation effects have to be considered. Here, by attempting to implicitly account for such effects in classical molecular dynamics and performing intensive simulations with explicit solvent for the peptides with and without zinc binding, we investigate the folding of the Cys2His2 type zinc-finger motif and the coupling between the peptide folding and zinc binding. We find that zinc ion not only stabilizes the native structure, but also participates in the whole folding process. It binds to the peptide at early stage of folding, and directs or modulates the folding and stabilizations of the component beta-hairpin and alpha-helix. Such a crucial role of zinc binding is mediated by the packing of the conserved hydrophobic residues. We also f...

  17. DMPD: Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18385818 Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells. Prasad AS. Mol Med. ...2008 May-Jun;14(5-6):353-7. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immun...e cells. PubmedID 18385818 Title Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells. Authors Prasad AS. Pu

  18. DNA extraction by zinc.

    OpenAIRE

    Kejnovský, E; Kypr, J

    1997-01-01

    A fast, very simple and efficient method of DNA extraction is described which takes advantage of DNA sedimentation induced by millimolar concentrations of ZnCl2. The zinc-induced sedimentation is furthermore strongly promoted by submillimolar phosphate anion concentrations. Within 90% of DNA irrespective of whether a plasmid DNA or short oligonucleotides are the extracted material. The method works with plasmid DNA and oligonucleotide concentrations as low as 100 ng/ml and 10 microg/ml, respe...

  19. Zinc Phosphide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal Doğan; Abdulmenap Güzel; Taner Çiftçi; İlker Aycan; Feyzi Çelik; Bedri Çetin; Gönül Ölmez Kavak

    2014-01-01

    Zinc phosphide has been used widely as a rodenticide. Upon ingestion, it gets converted to phosphine gas in the body, which is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and the intestines and gets captured by the liver and the lungs. Phosphine gas produces various metabolic and nonmetabolic toxic effects. Clinical symptoms are circulatory collapse, hypotension, shock symptoms, myocarditis, pericarditis, acute pulmonary edema, and congestive heart failure. In this case pre...

  20. Chloroquine is a zinc ionophore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xue

    Full Text Available Chloroquine is an established antimalarial agent that has been recently tested in clinical trials for its anticancer activity. The favorable effect of chloroquine appears to be due to its ability to sensitize cancerous cells to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and induce apoptosis. The present study investigated the interaction of zinc ions with chloroquine in a human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780. Chloroquine enhanced zinc uptake by A2780 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as assayed using a fluorescent zinc probe. This enhancement was attenuated by TPEN, a high affinity metal-binding compound, indicating the specificity of the zinc uptake. Furthermore, addition of copper or iron ions had no effect on chloroquine-induced zinc uptake. Fluorescent microscopic examination of intracellular zinc distribution demonstrated that free zinc ions are more concentrated in the lysosomes after addition of chloroquine, which is consistent with previous reports showing that chloroquine inhibits lysosome function. The combination of chloroquine with zinc enhanced chloroquine's cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A2780 cells. Thus chloroquine is a zinc ionophore, a property that may contribute to chloroquine's anticancer activity.

  1. Zinc In CCl4 Toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effect of zinc in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Rats were treated with zinc acetate for four days. The zinc doses were 5 mg Zn/kg and 10 mg Zn/kg body weight respectively. Two groups of the zinc acetate-treated rats were later challenged with a single dose of CCl4 (1.5 mL/kg body weight). Results Compared to control animals, the plasma of rats treated with CCl4 showed hyperbilirubinaemia, hypoglycaemia, hypercreatinaemia and hypoproteinaemia. When the animals were however supplemented with zinc in form of zinc acetate before being dosed with CCl4, the 5 mg Zn/kg body weight of zinc acetate reversed the hypoproteinaemia induced by CCl4, whereas the 10mg Zn/kg body weight of zinc acetate reversed the hypoglycaemia, hyperbilimbinaemia and hypercreatinaemia induced by CCl4. Conclusion The 10mug Zn/kg body weight of zinc acetate is more consistent in protecting against CCl4 hepatotoxicity. The possible mechanisms of protection are highlighted.

  2. Depleted zinc: Properties, application, production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The addition of ZnO, depleted in the Zn-64 isotope, to the water of boiling water nuclear reactors lessens the accumulation of Co-60 on the reactor interior surfaces, reduces radioactive wastes and increases the reactor service-life because of the inhibitory action of zinc on inter-granular stress corrosion cracking. To the same effect depleted zinc in the form of acetate dihydrate is used in pressurized water reactors. Gas centrifuge isotope separation method is applied for production of depleted zinc on the industrial scale. More than 20 years of depleted zinc application history demonstrates its benefits for reduction of NPP personnel radiation exposure and combating construction materials corrosion.

  3. Iron, folacin, vitamin B12 and zinc status and immune response in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationships of iron, folacin, vitamin B12 and zinc status to cell-mediated immune response were investigated among 125 healthy, elderly persons (60-87 years of age). Plasma ferritin, plasma and red cell folate, and plasma vitamin B12 levels were assayed immuno-radiometrically. Plasma and hair zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Immune response was determined by transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (con A), and in mixed lymphocyte reaction. Deficiencies of iron, folacin vitamin B12 and zinc were each associated (independently) with significantly lower lymphocyte responses to PHA and con A, and mixed lymphocyte reaction (P 12 or zinc. Further, they suggest that deficiencies of these nutrients may play a role in the depression of cell-mediated immunity with age, which in turn may lead to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and cancer in the elderly

  4. Reduced leucocyte zinc in liver disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Keeling, P W; Jones, R.B.; Hilton, P J; Thompson, R P

    1980-01-01

    The zinc content of peripheral blood leucocytes has been measured in normal controls and in three groups of patients with liver disease. A significant reduction in leucocyte zinc, but not erythrocyte zinc, was observed in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and active chronic hepatitis. It is suggested that the nucleated tissues of some patients with liver disease are therefore zinc deficient, and that leucocyte zinc may prove of value in the assessment of the zinc s...

  5. Zinc regulates iNOS-derived nitric oxide formation in endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam M. Cortese-Krott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant production of nitric oxide (NO by inducible NO synthase (iNOS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Mechanisms responsible for the fine-tuning of iNOS activity in inflammation are still not fully understood. Zinc is an important structural element of NOS enzymes and is known to inhibit its catalytical activity. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of zinc on iNOS activity and expression in endothelial cells. We found that zinc down-regulated the expression of iNOS (mRNA+protein and decreased cytokine-mediated activation of the iNOS promoter. Zinc-mediated regulation of iNOS expression was due to inhibition of NF-κB transactivation activity, as determined by a decrease in both NF-κB-driven luciferase reporter activity and expression of NF-κB target genes, including cyclooxygenase 2 and IL-1β. However, zinc did not affect NF-κB translocation into the nucleus, as assessed by Western blot analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Taken together our results demonstrate that zinc limits iNOS-derived high output NO production in endothelial cells by inhibiting NF-κB-dependent iNOS expression, pointing to a role of zinc as a regulator of iNOS activity in inflammation.

  6. Nanostructures of zinc oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Lin Wang

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO is a unique material that exhibits semiconducting, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric multiple properties. Using a solid-vapor phase thermal sublimation technique, nanocombs, nanorings, nanohelixes/nanosprings, nanobows, nanobelts, nanowires, and nanocages of ZnO have been synthesized under specific growth conditions. These unique nanostructures unambiguously demonstrate that ZnO is probably the richest family of nanostructures among all materials, both in structures and properties. The nanostructures could have novel applications in optoelectronics, sensors, transducers, and biomedical science because it is bio-safe.

  7. Cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium and zinc are naturally occurring trace metals that are often considered together because of their close geochemical association and similarities in chemical reactivity. The loss of two electrons from an atom of Cd or Zn imparts to each an electron configuration with completely filled d orbitals; this results in a highly stable 2/sup +/ oxidation state. But Cd and Zn differ greatly in their significance to biological systems. Whereas Zn is an essential nutrient for plants, animals, and humans, Cd is best known for its toxicity to plants and as a causative agent of several disease syndromes in animals and humans

  8. Zinc promotes proliferation and activation of myogenic cells via the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal muscle stem cells named muscle satellite cells are normally quiescent but are activated in response to various stimuli, such as injury and overload. Activated satellite cells enter the cell cycle and proliferate to produce a large number of myogenic progenitor cells, and these cells then differentiate and fuse to form myofibers. Zinc is one of the essential elements in the human body, and has multiple roles, including cell growth and DNA synthesis. However, the role of zinc in myogenic cells is not well understood, and is the focus of this study. We first examined the effects of zinc on differentiation of murine C2C12 myoblasts and found that zinc promoted proliferation, with an increased number of cells incorporating EdU, but inhibited differentiation with reduced myogenin expression and myotube formation. Furthermore, we used the C2C12 reserve cell model of myogenic quiescence to investigate the role of zinc on activation of myogenic cells. The number of reserve cells incorporating BrdU was increased by zinc in a dose dependent manner, with the number dramatically further increased using a combination of zinc and insulin. Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) are downstream of insulin signaling, and both were phosphorylated after zinc treatment. The zinc/insulin combination-induced activation involved the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and ERK cascade. We conclude that zinc promotes activation and proliferation of myogenic cells, and this activation requires phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and ERK as part of the signaling cascade. - Highlights: • Zinc has roles for promoting proliferation and inhibition differentiation of C2C12. • Zinc promotes activation of reserve cells. • Insulin and zinc synergize activation of reserve cells. • PI3K/Akt and ERK cascade affect zinc/insulin-mediated activation of reserve cells

  9. Zinc promotes proliferation and activation of myogenic cells via the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Kazuya, E-mail: asuno10k@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Nagata, Yosuke, E-mail: cynagata@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Wada, Eiji, E-mail: gacchu1@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Zammit, Peter S., E-mail: peter.zammit@kcl.ac.uk [Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King' s College London, London SE1 1UL (United Kingdom); Shiozuka, Masataka, E-mail: cmuscle@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Matsuda, Ryoichi, E-mail: cmatsuda@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells named muscle satellite cells are normally quiescent but are activated in response to various stimuli, such as injury and overload. Activated satellite cells enter the cell cycle and proliferate to produce a large number of myogenic progenitor cells, and these cells then differentiate and fuse to form myofibers. Zinc is one of the essential elements in the human body, and has multiple roles, including cell growth and DNA synthesis. However, the role of zinc in myogenic cells is not well understood, and is the focus of this study. We first examined the effects of zinc on differentiation of murine C2C12 myoblasts and found that zinc promoted proliferation, with an increased number of cells incorporating EdU, but inhibited differentiation with reduced myogenin expression and myotube formation. Furthermore, we used the C2C12 reserve cell model of myogenic quiescence to investigate the role of zinc on activation of myogenic cells. The number of reserve cells incorporating BrdU was increased by zinc in a dose dependent manner, with the number dramatically further increased using a combination of zinc and insulin. Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) are downstream of insulin signaling, and both were phosphorylated after zinc treatment. The zinc/insulin combination-induced activation involved the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and ERK cascade. We conclude that zinc promotes activation and proliferation of myogenic cells, and this activation requires phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and ERK as part of the signaling cascade. - Highlights: • Zinc has roles for promoting proliferation and inhibition differentiation of C2C12. • Zinc promotes activation of reserve cells. • Insulin and zinc synergize activation of reserve cells. • PI3K/Akt and ERK cascade affect zinc/insulin-mediated activation of reserve cells.

  10. Zinc inhibits aflatoxin B1-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human hepatocytes (HepG2 cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuan; Lv, Yangjun; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has strong carcinogenicity. Consumption of AFB1-contaminated agricultural products and the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma have received widespread attention. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether zinc supplementation could inhibit AFB1-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in HepG2 cells and the mechanism of this inhibition. Our data suggest that zinc sources can relieve a certain degree of AFB1-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity by protecting against apoptotic body formation and DNA strand breaks, affecting S phase cell cycle arrest, reducing 8-OHdG formation, inhibiting global DNA hypomethylation and regulating gene expression in antioxidation, zinc-association and apoptosis processes. Consequently, zinc stabilizes the integrity of DNA and improves cell survival. These data provides new insights into the protective role of zinc in alleviating AFB1-induced cytotoxicity and mediating epigenetic changes in hepatocytes, demonstrating that zinc sources have detoxification properties in mycotoxin-induced toxicity. PMID:27017951

  11. Solid state and dynamic solution structures of O-carbamidine amidoximes gives further insight into the mechanism of zinc(II)-mediated generation of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, Kirill I.; Novikov, Alexander S.; Tolstoy, Peter M.; Bolotin, Dmitrii S.; Bokach, Nadezhda A.; Zolotarev, Andrey A.; Kukushkin, Vadim Yu.

    2016-05-01

    Three new iminium salts [H2Ndbnd C(R)ONdbnd C(R‧)NH2](p-TolSO3)·½H2O ([1-3](p-TolSO3)·½H2O; R/R‧ = NMe2/PhCH21, NMe2/p-BrC6H42, N(CH2)5/p-BrC6H43) were synthesized via ZnII-mediated amidoxime-cyanamide coupling and their solid structures were studied by X-ray diffraction. Solution structure and conformational changes of [1-3](p-TolSO3)·½H2O were studied by dynamic NMR. The obtained quantitative data were supported by DFT calculations. All the obtained results help to understand the relative stability of the salts [H2Ndbnd C(R)ONdbnd C(R‧)NH2](X) (R = NAlk2, Alk, Ar) and give a further insight into the mechanism of ZnII-mediated generation of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles. The electron delocalization and sesquialteral bonds in the [H2Ndbnd C(NR2)ONdbnd C(R‧)NH2]+ system was recognized by estimation of values of activation energy barriers (14-18 kcal/mol by DNMR and 16-17 kcal/mol by DFT calculations) for the rotation around the CN bonds for the NR2 groups and inspection of the solid-state X-ray data along with the Wiberg bond indices (intermediate single/double bond order for the CN distances). This electron delocalization is responsible for the stabilization of the positively charged iminium cation. The moderate strength hydrogen bonding between the oxime N atom and the =NH2 group, which is verified from the X-ray, DNMR experiments, and by using quantum chemical calculations, stabilizes the iminium salt, but it is still weak to prevent the heterocyclization. Theoretical calculations of the heterocyclization of [H2Ndbnd C(R)ONdbnd C(R‧)NH2]+ to 1,2,4-oxadiazoles demonstrated that it is kinetically hindered to a greater extent for R = NAlk2 and this explains their lower reactivity as compared to the iminium salts with R = Alk, Ar.

  12. Mediation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    David P. MacKinnon; Fairchild, Amanda J.; Fritz, Matthew S.

    2007-01-01

    Mediating variables are prominent in psychological theory and research. A mediating variable transmits the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable. Differences between mediating variables and confounders, moderators, and covariates are outlined. Statistical methods to assess mediation and modern comprehensive approaches are described. Future directions for mediation analysis are discussed.

  13. The Zinc Transporter Zip14 Influences c-Met Phosphorylation and Hepatocyte Proliferation During Liver Regeneration in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    AYDEMIR, TOLUNAY BEKER; SITREN, HARRY S.; COUSINS, ROBERT J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Zinc homeostasis in cells is maintained through tight regulation of zinc influx, efflux, and distribution to intracellular organelles by zinc transporters. The Zrt-Irt-like protein (ZIP) transporters facilitate zinc influx to the cytosol. Expression of the ZIP family member Zip14 can be induced by inflammatory cytokines, which also initiate liver regeneration. Hepatocyte proliferation is required for liver regeneration. Zinc regulates cell proliferation, tissue growth, and many mitogenic signaling pathways; we investigated its role in hepatocytes. METHODS Wild-type and Zip14−/− mice that underwent partial hepatectomy (70% of liver removed) were used as models of liver regeneration. We also analyzed AML12 hepatocytes that overexpressed Zip14. Proliferation was assessed with proliferating cell nuclear antigen, CD1, and Ki67 markers and along with assays of zinc content was related to protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2 signaling. RESULTS Zip14 was up-regulated and hepatic zinc content increased during liver regeneration. Increased hepatic zinc inhibited activity of the phosphatase PTP1B and increased phosphorylation of c-Met, which promoted hepatocyte proliferation. AML12 cells that overexpressed Zip14 increased in zinc content and proliferation; PTP1B was inhibited and phosphorylation of c-Met increased. The increases in hepatic levels of zinc and hepatocyte proliferation that occurred following partial hepatectomy were not observed in Zip14−/− mice. CONCLUSIONS The transporter Zip14 mediates hepatic uptake of zinc during liver regeneration and for hepatocyte proliferation. These findings indicate that zinc transporter activity regulates liver tissue growth by sequestering zinc. Reagents that regulate ZIP14 activity might be developed as therapeutics to promote liver regeneration in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:22374166

  14. Sorbitol dehydrogenase is a zinc enzyme.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery, J; Chesters, J; C. Mills; P.J. Sadler; Jörnvall, H

    1984-01-01

    Evidence is given that tetrameric sorbitol dehydrogenase from sheep liver contains one zinc atom per subunit, most probably located at the active site, and no other specifically bound zinc or iron atom. In alcohol dehydrogenases that are structurally related to sorbitol dehydrogenase, more than one zinc atom per subunit can complicate investigations of zinc atom function. Therefore, sorbitol dehydrogenase will be particularly valuable for defining the precise roles of zinc in alcohol and poly...

  15. Zinc finger proteins in cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Jen, Jayu; Wang, Yi-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Zinc finger proteins are the largest transcription factor family in human genome. The diverse combinations and functions of zinc finger motifs make zinc finger proteins versatile in biological processes, including development, differentiation, metabolism and autophagy. Over the last few decades, increasing evidence reveals the potential roles of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression. However, the underlying mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression vary in different cancer...

  16. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Janet C. King; Carmen Marino Donangelo

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating e...

  17. Evaluation and comparison of zinc absorption level from 2-Alkyle 3-Hydroxy pyranon-zinc complexes and zinc sulfate in rat in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Badii Akbar; Nekouei Niloufar; Mostafavi Abolfazl; Saghaei Lofollah; Khodarahmi Qadam Ali; Valadian Soheyla

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although zinc sulfate has been used to improve disorders originated from zinc deficiency, its low compliance is due to gastrointestinal complications; therefore, other zinc compounds have been suggested as replacers for zinc deficient people. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the absorption of ethyl and methyl zinc-maltol with that of zinc sulfate to substitute zinc sulfate with those complexes. Materials and Methods: After five weeks of being fed by zinc...

  18. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ross G

    2008-04-01

    The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl(2) inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991

  19. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Ross

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl 2 inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection.

  20. Apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cell line SW480 induced by zinc phthalocyanine-mediated photodynamic therapy%酞菁锌介导的光动力疗法诱导结肠癌SW480细胞凋亡的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹杰; 张通; 杨平; 李旺林; 孙政; 张伟健; 曾山崎

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of light dose and concentration of zinc phthalocyanine on the proliferation and apoptosis in vitro of SW480 cells.Methods Four different light doses with six different concentrations of photosensitizer were used to kill SW480 cells,respectively.Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to test the changes in the proliferation of SW480 cells cultured with different concentrations of zinc phthalocyanine and different light doses in vitro.Cell-cycle kinetics and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM).The expression of bax and bcl-2 proteins was detected for photodynamic therapy (PDT) by using immunocytochemistry.Results Growth inhibition rate of four different light doses with six different concentrations of photosensitizer was (0.99 ±0.02) %,(1.00 ±0.02) %,(1.01 ±0.05)%,(1.01 ±0.01)%,(1.04 ±0.03)%,(1.08 ±0.05)%; (0.54 ±0.05)%,(0.65 ±0.07)%,(0.70 ±0.04)%,(0.76 ± 0.09)%,(0.86 ±0.02)%,(0.91 ±0.04)%; (0.28 ±0.01)%,(0.45 ±0.05)%,(0.60 ±0.02)%,(0.81±0.04)%,(0.91 ±0.07)%,(0.92 ±0.06)% and (0.18 ±0.01)%,(0.35 ±0.09)%,(0.43 ±0.03)%,(0.75 ±0.04)%,(0.87 ±0.05) %,(0.92 ± 0.05) %,respectively.The proliferation of SW480 cells was obviously suppressed by zinc phthalocyanine-mediated photodynamic therapy in a concentration and light dose-dependent manner.Under the conditions of light dose constant 5 J/cm2,and 10 min,the cells were arrested in G2/M phase and apoptosis was induced.When SW480 cells were treated with zinc phthalocyanine at the concentration of 0.000,0.125,0.250,0.500,1.000,and 2.000 mg/L,the apoptosis rate of SW480 cells was (0.17±0.09)%,(0.19±0.08)%,(3.25±0.29)%,(7.38±1.01)%,(14.97 ±1.03)% and (18.25 ± 1.23)% respectively.After SW480 cells were treated with 0,2.0 mg/L zinc phthalocyanine respectively,there was no significant difference in the positive expression rate of bax oncoprotein among all groups (P > 0.05).The positive

  1. Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12

    OpenAIRE

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolec...

  2. Zinc transporter expression profiles in the rat prostate following alterations in dietary zinc

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yang; Elias, Valerie; Wong, Carmen P.; Scrimgeour, Angus G.; Ho, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Zinc plays important roles in numerous cellular activities and physiological functions. Intracellular zinc levels are strictly maintained by zinc homeostatic mechanisms. Zinc concentrations in the prostate are the highest of all soft tissues and could be important for prostate health. However, the mechanisms by which the prostate maintains high zinc levels are still unclear. In addition, the response of the prostate to alterations in dietary zinc is unknown. The current study explored cellula...

  3. Chloroquine Is a Zinc Ionophore

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Xue; Amanda Moyer; Bing Peng; Jinchang Wu; Hannafon, Bethany N.; Wei-Qun Ding

    2014-01-01

    Chloroquine is an established antimalarial agent that has been recently tested in clinical trials for its anticancer activity. The favorable effect of chloroquine appears to be due to its ability to sensitize cancerous cells to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and induce apoptosis. The present study investigated the interaction of zinc ions with chloroquine in a human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780). Chloroquine enhanced zinc uptake by A2780 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as assa...

  4. Biokompatibilitas Semen Zinc Oxide Eugenol

    OpenAIRE

    Trisna Wahyudi

    2008-01-01

    Bahan kedokteran gigi hams memenuhi syarat biokompatibilitas yang dapat diterima tubuh atau dengan kata lain tidak membahayakan dalam penggunaannya. Idealnya bahan yang diletakkan dalam rongga mulut tidak membahayakan jaringan pulpa dan jaringan lunak rongga mulut, tidak mengandung bahan toksik yang mampu berdifusi dan dapat diabsorpsi ke dalam sistem sirkulasi tubuh yang akhirya menyebabkan reaksi toksik yang sistemik. Semen zinc oxide eugenol dengan kandungan utamanya zinc oxide dan e...

  5. Zinc finger recombinases with adaptable DNA sequence specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Proudfoot

    Full Text Available Site-specific recombinases have become essential tools in genetics and molecular biology for the precise excision or integration of DNA sequences. However, their utility is currently limited to circumstances where the sites recognized by the recombinase enzyme have been introduced into the DNA being manipulated, or natural 'pseudosites' are already present. Many new applications would become feasible if recombinase activity could be targeted to chosen sequences in natural genomic DNA. Here we demonstrate efficient site-specific recombination at several sequences taken from a 1.9 kilobasepair locus of biotechnological interest (in the bovine β-casein gene, mediated by zinc finger recombinases (ZFRs, chimaeric enzymes with linked zinc finger (DNA recognition and recombinase (catalytic domains. In the "Z-sites" tested here, 22 bp casein gene sequences are flanked by 9 bp motifs recognized by zinc finger domains. Asymmetric Z-sites were recombined by the concomitant action of two ZFRs with different zinc finger DNA-binding specificities, and could be recombined with a heterologous site in the presence of a third recombinase. Our results show that engineered ZFRs may be designed to promote site-specific recombination at many natural DNA sequences.

  6. Mechanistic studies of the toxicity of zinc gluconate in the olfactory neuronal cell line Odora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Heidi; Vignesh, Kavitha Subramanian; Deepe, George S; Choubey, Divaker; Shertzer, Howard G; Genter, Mary Beth

    2016-09-01

    Zinc is both an essential and potentially toxic metal. It is widely believed that oral zinc supplementation can reduce the effects of the common cold; however, there is strong clinical evidence that intranasal (IN) zinc gluconate (ZG) gel treatment for this purpose causes anosmia, or the loss of the sense of smell, in humans. Using the rat olfactory neuron cell line, Odora, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which zinc exposure exerts its toxic effects on olfactory neurons. Following treatment of Odora cells with 100 and 200μM ZG for 0-24h, RNA-seq and in silico analyses revealed up-regulation of pathways associated with zinc metal response, oxidative stress, and ATP production. We observed that Odora cells recovered from zinc-induced oxidative stress, but ATP depletion persisted with longer exposure to ZG. ZG exposure increased levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β protein levels in a time-dependent manner, suggesting that zinc exposure may cause an inflammasome-mediated cell death, pyroptosis, in olfactory neurons. PMID:27179668

  7. Zinc Absorption by Young Adults from Supplemental Zinc Citrate Is Comparable with That from Zinc Gluconate and Higher than from Zinc Oxide 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnić, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with 67Zn and 70Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate give...

  8. Determinants of zinc potentiation on the alpha4 subunit of neuronal nicotinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Bernard; Mihalak, Karla B; Repicky, Sarah E; Everhart, Drew; Mederos, Ana H; Malhotra, Arun; Luetje, Charles W

    2006-01-01

    We have shown previously that the function of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors can be modulated by zinc. This modulation varies from potentiation to inhibition, depending on receptor subunit composition and zinc concentration, with the alpha4beta2 and alpha4beta4 receptors displaying the most dramatic potentiation. In this study, we used site-directed mutagenesis to identify glutamate 59 and histidine 162 on the rat alpha4 subunit as potential mediators of zinc potentiation. By modeling the extracellular domain of the receptor pentamer, we locate these residues to two subunit-subunit interfaces that alternate with the two acetylcholine-binding interfaces. Substitution of a cysteine at either position allows additional reduction of zinc potentiation upon treatment with the methanethiosulfonate reagents N-biotinoylaminoethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSEA-biotin) and [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl] methanethiosulfonate. Mutagenesis and methanethiosulfonate treatment are most effective at position 162, and the presence of zinc hinders the reaction of MTSEA-biotin with the substituted cysteine at this position, suggesting that alpha4His162 participates in forming a coordination site for zinc. Mutagenesis and methanethiosulfonate treatment are less effective at position 59, suggesting that whereas alpha4Glu59 may be near the zinc coordination site, it may not be participating in coordination of the zinc ion. It is noteworthy that the position of alpha4Glu59 within the neuronal nAChR is identical to that of a residue that lines the benzodiazepine-binding site on GABA(A) receptors. We suggest that the zinc potentiation sites on neuronal nAChRs are structurally and functionally similar to the benzodiazepine-binding sites on GABA(A) receptors. PMID:16189299

  9. High dose zinc supplementation induces hippocampal zinc deficiency and memory impairment with inhibition of BDNF signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available Zinc ions highly concentrate in hippocampus and play a key role in modulating spatial learning and memory. At a time when dietary fortification and supplementation of zinc have increased the zinc consuming level especially in the youth, the toxicity of zinc overdose on brain function was underestimated. In the present study, weaning ICR mice were given water supplemented with 15 ppm Zn (low dose, 60 ppm Zn (high dose or normal lab water for 3 months, the behavior and brain zinc homeostasis were tested. Mice fed high dose of zinc showed hippocampus-dependent memory impairment. Unexpectedly, zinc deficiency, but not zinc overload was observed in hippocampus, especially in the mossy fiber-CA3 pyramid synapse. The expression levels of learning and memory related receptors and synaptic proteins such as NMDA-NR2A, NR2B, AMPA-GluR1, PSD-93 and PSD-95 were significantly decreased in hippocampus, with significant loss of dendritic spines. In keeping with these findings, high dose intake of zinc resulted in decreased hippocampal BDNF level and TrkB neurotrophic signaling. At last, increasing the brain zinc level directly by brain zinc injection induced BDNF expression, which was reversed by zinc chelating in vivo. These results indicate that zinc plays an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and BDNF expression, high dose supplementation of zinc induces specific zinc deficiency in hippocampus, which further impair learning and memory due to decreased availability of synaptic zinc and BDNF deficit.

  10. Zinc Plating Industry Drives Zinc Consumption by Power Grids, Railways and Highways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>On the afternoon of June 30, at the Chengdu Lead and Zinc Summit, more than 150 partici-pants voted for the product they felt drives zinc consumption the most. 48% went for zinc plat-ing products, 16% voted for zinc oxide,

  11. Impact of residual elements on zinc quality in the production of zinc oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Dymáček, Petr; Pešlová, F.; Jurkovič, Z.; Barborák, O.; Stodola, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2016), s. 407-410. ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : zinc * metallography * microstructure of zinc * zinc oxide * production of zinc oxide Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  12. Oral iron and the bioavailability of zinc.

    OpenAIRE

    Meadows, N J; Grainger, S L; Ruse, W; Keeling, P W; Thompson, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    The oral bioavailability of zinc was studied in nonpregnant adults before and 24 hours after two weeks of oral supplementation with iron and folic acid. Bioavailability was greatly reduced, and the shape of the plasma curves suggested that this was due to impairment of the intestinal absorption of zinc. The findings suggest that the reduced bioavailability of zinc occurs because of interelement competition in the bowel wall. This might induce zinc depletion.

  13. Serum zinc levels in gestational diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi Sharbaf F; Mosavy Fakhr Z; Davari Tanha F

    2008-01-01

    "nBackground: Maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy has been related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most studies in which pregnant women have been supplemented with zinc to examine its effects on the outcome of the pregnancy have been carried out in industrialized countries and the results have been inconclusive. It has been shown that women with gestational diabetes (GDM) have lower serum zinc levels than healthy pregnant women, and higher rates of macrosomia. Zinc is required for n...

  14. Zinc: an essential but elusive nutrient123

    OpenAIRE

    Janet C. King

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is essential for multiple aspects of metabolism. Physiologic signs of zinc depletion are linked with diverse biochemical functions rather than with a specific function, which makes it difficult to identify biomarkers of zinc nutrition. Nutrients, such as zinc, that are required for general metabolism are called type 2 nutrients. Protein and magnesium are examples of other type 2 nutrients. Type 1 nutrients are required for one or more specific functions: examples include iron, vitamin A,...

  15. [Improvement in zinc nutrition due to zinc transporter-targeting strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Taiho

    2016-07-01

    Adequate intake of zinc from the daily diet is indispensable to maintain health. However, the dietary zinc content often fails to fulfill the recommended daily intake, leading to zinc deficiency and also increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, particularly in elderly individuals. Therefore, increased attention is required to overcome zinc deficiency and it is important to improve zinc nutrition in daily life. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter, ZIP4, functions as a component that is essential for zinc absorption. In this manuscript, we present a brief overview regarding zinc deficiency. Moreover, we review a novel strategy, called "ZIP4-targeting", which has the potential to enable efficient zinc absorption from the diet. ZIP4-targeting strategy is possibly a major step in preventing zinc deficiency and improving human health. PMID:27455817

  16. Zinc abundances of planetary nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Christina L.; Zijlstra, Albert A.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is a useful surrogate element for measuring Fe/H as, unlike iron, it is not depleted in the gas phase media. Zn/H and O/Zn ratios have been derived using the [Zn IV] emission line at 3.625um for a sample of nine Galactic planetary nebulae, seven of which are based upon new observations using the VLT. Based on photoionization models, O/O++ is the most reliable ionisation correction factor for zinc that can readily be determined from optical emission lines, with an estimated accuracy of 10...

  17. Zinc supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to malabsorption of macro- and micronutrients. Symptomatic zinc deficiency has been reported in CF but little is known about zinc homeostasis in children with CF. Zinc supplementation (Zn suppl) is increasingly common in children with CF but it is not without theoretcial r...

  18. Acquired Zinc Deficiency in an Adult Female

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanan Saritha; Divya Gupta; Laxmisha Chandrashekar; Devinder M Thappa; Nachiappa G Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of zinc absorption. Acquired cases are reported occasionally in patients with eating disorders or Crohn′s disease. We report a 24-year-old housewife with acquired isolated severe zinc deficiency with no other comorbidities to highlight the rare occurrence of isolated nutritional zinc deficiency in an otherwise normal patient.

  19. Protein engineering with PHD zinc fingers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The plant homeodomain (PHD) is a protein domain of ∼45-100 residues that is characterised by a Cys4-His-Cys3 zinc-binding motif These domains are found widely in nuclear proteins involved in transcription and seem to have an array of functions. In some instances, PHD domains have been shown to be important in mediating protein-protein interactions. Sequence alignments indicate that while the cysteines, histidine and a few other key residues are strictly conserved, the rest of the domain can vary greatly in terms of both amino acid composition and length. Given the diversity of functions they fulfill in nature, we propose to use these PHD domains as prototype protein interaction scaffolds for drug design. We have determined the solution structure of the second PHD domain of Mi2 (Mi2-PHD2) by multi-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The structure shows that Mi2-PHD2 adopts a globular fold in solution and contains a di-metal-binding structural motif with the two zinc ions ligated in an interleaved manner. While this structure is similar to that of other PHD domains, two flexible loop regions can also be observed. These loops may be suitable target regions for protein engineering studies, where novel binding functions could be introduced. To test the stability of the Mi2-PHD2 fold, we have made a number of mutations and insertions in the two loop regions NMR spectra of these mutants show they adopt native-like conformations. We are currently determining the structures of a selection of these mutants and are using a combination of rational and combinatorial methods to introduce new functions

  20. Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency by “ Zinc Taste Test” in Pre School Children in Yazd.

    OpenAIRE

    Gh Maleki; A Mosavi; R Fallah; Z Eslami; M Sadr-Bafghi; F Mirnaseri; S Akhavan Karbasi; M Golestan

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Zinc deficiency is a health problem in many communities, especially among children because of growth spurt. Zinc deficiency can cause;growth limitation, delay in sexuel maturity, behavior disorders and abnormalities of immune system,susceptibility to respiratory and gasterointestinal infections and impairment of taste and smell perception. Material and Method: One of the methods of assessment the zinc defeciency is “ Zinc taste test” using zinc sulfate solution 0.1% , this test ...

  1. Zinc ions in the endocrine andexocrine pancreas of zinc deficient rats

    OpenAIRE

    Søndergaard, L.G.; M Stoltenberg; Doering, P.; Flyvbjerg, A.; Rungby, J

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Zinc deficiency is a problem world-wide. Zinc and insulin are intimately related, and a reduced zinc intake may affect glucose metabolism. The present study investigates how subclinical zinc deficiency in rats affects glucose metabolism and zinc distribution in the pancreas. Methods: Glucose metabolism was evaluated by blood-glucose, serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests. Immersion zincsulphid...

  2. Zinc oxide nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, Hope Wuming

    Non-lithographic, bottom-up techniques have been developed to advance the state of the art and contribute to the development of new material structures, fabrication methods, devices, and applications using the Zinc Oxide material system as a demonstration vehicle. The novel low temperature catalytic vapour-liquid-solid growth process developed is technologically simple, inexpensive, and a robust fabrication technique offering complete control over the physical dimensions of the nanorod such as its diameter and length, and over the positioning of the nanorods for site-selective growth. By controlling the distribution of the Au catalysts with the use of a self-organized anodized aluminum oxide nanopore membrane as a template, we have been able to synthesize highly ordered, hexagonally packed, array of ZnO nanorods spanning a large area. These nanorods are single crystal, hexagonally shaped, indicative of the wurtzite structure, and are vertically aligned to the substrate. By pre-patterning the template, arbitrary nanorod patterns can be formed. We have also demonstrated the assembly of the nanorods into functional devices using controlled methods that are less resource intensive, easily scalable, and adaptable to other material systems, without resorting to the manipulation of each individual nanostructures. Examples of these devices include the random network device that exploits the common attributes of the nanorods, and those formed using an external field to control the nanorod orientation. Two and three terminal device measurements show that the as-grown nanorods are n-type doped, and that by controlling the external optical excitation and its test environment, the photoconductivity can be altered dramatically. Self assemble techniques such as the spontaneous formation of nanodendrites into complex networks of interconnects were studied. Controlled formation of interconnects achieved by controlling the placement of the catalyst is demonstrated by growing the

  3. Serum thymulin in human zinc deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, A S; Meftah, S; J. Abdallah; Kaplan, J.; Brewer, G J; Bach, J F; Dardenne, M

    1988-01-01

    The activity of thymulin (a thymic hormone) is dependent on the presence of zinc in the molecule. We assayed serum thymulin activity in three models of mildly zinc-deficient (ZD) human subjects before and after zinc supplementation: (a) two human volunteers in whom a specific and mild zinc deficiency was induced by dietary means; (b) six mildly ZD adult sickle cell anemia (SCA) subjects; and (c) six mildly ZD adult non-SCA subjects. Their plasma zinc levels were normal and they showed no over...

  4. Rechargeable nickel-zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Device proves superiority in having two and one half to three times the energy content of popular lead-zinc or nickel-cadmium batteries. Application to electric utility vehicles improved acceleration rate and nearly doubled driving range between rechargings. Unit contributes substantially toward realization of practical urban electrical automobiles.

  5. Zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Emily P; Ren, Zhiyong; Mays, David C

    2012-12-01

    Because tires contain approximately 1-2% zinc by weight, zinc leaching is an environmental concern associated with civil engineering applications of tire crumb rubber. An assessment of zinc leaching data from 14 studies in the published literature indicates that increasing zinc leaching is associated with lower pH and longer leaching times, but the data display a wide range of zinc concentrations, and do not address the effect of crumb rubber size or the dynamics of zinc leaching during flow through porous crumb rubber. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of crumb rubber size using the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), the effect of exposure time using quiescent batch leaching tests, and the dynamics of zinc leaching using column tests. Results indicate that zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber increases with smaller crumb rubber and longer exposure time. Results from SPLP and quiescent batch leaching tests are interpreted with a single-parameter leaching model that predicts a constant rate of zinc leaching up to 96 h. Breakthrough curves from column tests displayed an initial pulse of elevated zinc concentration (~3 mg/L) before settling down to a steady-state value (~0.2 mg/L), and were modeled with the software package HYDRUS-1D. Washing crumb rubber reduces this initial pulse but does not change the steady-state value. No leaching experiment significantly reduced the reservoir of zinc in the crumb rubber. PMID:23145882

  6. Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts, inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea, pigmentary disorders (melasma, and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma. Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc.

  7. Zinc-The key to preventing corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2011-01-01

    Centuries before it was identified as an element, zinc was used to make brass (an alloy of zinc and copper) and for medicinal purposes. Metallic zinc and zinc oxide were produced in India sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries and in China in the 17th century, although the discovery of pure metallic zinc is credited to the German chemist Andreas Marggraf, who isolated the element in 1746. Refined zinc metal is bluish-white when freshly cast; it is hard and brittle at most temperatures and has relatively low melting and boiling points. Zinc alloys readily with other metals and is chemically active. On exposure to air, it develops a thin gray oxide film (patina), which inhibits deeper oxidation (corrosion) of the metal. The metal's resistance to corrosion is an important characteristic in its use.

  8. Separation of Zinc from High Iron-Bearing Zinc Calcines by Reductive Roasting and Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bing; Peng, Ning; Min, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Hui; Li, Yanchun; Chen, Dong; Xue, Ke

    2015-09-01

    This paper focuses on the selective leaching of zinc from high iron-bearing zinc calcines. The FactSage 6.2 program was used for the thermodynamic analysis of the selective reduction and leaching, and the samples reduced by carbon and carbon monoxide were subjected to acid leaching for the separation of zinc from iron. It is shown that the generation of ferrous oxide should be avoided by modifying V CO ( P CO/( P CO + )) in the roasting process prior to the selective leaching of zinc. Gaseous roasting-leaching has a higher efficiency in the separation of zinc from iron than carbothermic reduction-leaching. The conversion of the zinc ferrite in high iron-bearing zinc calcines to zinc oxide and magnetite has been demonstrated by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetic hysteresis loop characterization. This gaseous roast-leach process is technically feasible to separate zinc from iron without an iron precipitation process.

  9. Recovery of zinc from low-grade zinc oxide ores by solvent extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃文庆; 蓝卓越; 黎维中

    2003-01-01

    The recovery of zinc from low-grade zinc oxide ores with solvent extraction-electrowinning technique was investigated by using D2EHPA as extractant and 260# kerosene as diluent. The results show that it is possible to selectively leach zinc from the ores by heap leaching. The zinc concentration of leach solution in the first leaching cycle is 32.57 g/L, and in the sixteenth cycle the zinc concentration is 8.27g/L after solvent extraction. The leaching solution is subjected to solvent extraction, scrubbing and selective stripping for enrichment of zinc and removal of impurities. The pregnant zinc sulfate solution produced from the stripping cycle is suitable for zinc electrowinning.Extra-pure zinc metal was obtained in the electrowinning test under conventional conditions.

  10. Synthesis of zinc oxide by zinc-air system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economical and environment friendly zinc-air system route is used for the synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) on a zinc (Zn) plate in room temperature. A Zn plate and a single air-cathode are used as the anode and cathode, respectively. It is found that the growth of ZnO increases with increasing electrolyte solution concentration until an optimum concentration is reached. A synthesis profile shows that the formation of ZnO in KOH + ZnO aqueous electrolyte occurs faster (about 500 min) compared to KOH aqueous electrolyte solution (about 600 min). The values of the plateau voltages for both electrolytes are ∼1.2 V. A mixture of saturated ZnO powder in the KOH solution improves the microstructure, reduces the period of synthesis profile and decreases the degradation rate of the Zn plate. The field emission scanning electron microscopy observation shows that needle structures form. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the needle structure is ZnO.

  11. MiniZinc with Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Amadini, Roberto; Flener, Pierre; Pearson, Justin; Scott, Joseph D.; Stuckey, Peter J.; Tack, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Strings are extensively used in modern programming languages and constraints over strings of unknown length occur in a wide range of real-world applications such as software analysis and verification, testing, model checking, and web security. Nevertheless, practically no CP solver natively supports string constraints. We introduce string variables and a suitable set of string constraints as builtin features of the MiniZinc modelling language. Furthermore, we define an interpreter for convert...

  12. The Zinc Transporter Zip5 (Slc39a5) Regulates Intestinal Zinc Excretion and Protects the Pancreas against Zinc Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Geiser; Robert C De Lisle; Andrews, Glen K.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ZIP5 localizes to the baso-lateral membranes of intestinal enterocytes and pancreatic acinar cells and is internalized and degraded coordinately in these cell-types during periods of dietary zinc deficiency. These cell-types are thought to control zinc excretion from the body. The baso-lateral localization and zinc-regulation of ZIP5 in these cells are unique among the 14 members of the Slc39a family and suggest that ZIP5 plays a role in zinc excretion. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:...

  13. Zinc fortification decreases ZIP1 gene expression of some adolescent females with appropriate plasma zinc levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Rosa O; Santiago, Alejandra; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; de la Barca, Ana M Calderón; García, Hugo S

    2014-06-01

    Zinc homeostasis is achieved after intake variation by changes in the expression levels of zinc transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary intake (by 24-h recall), absorption, plasma zinc (by absorption spectrophotometry) and the expression levels (by quantitative PCR), of the transporters ZIP1 (zinc importer) and ZnT1 (zinc exporter) in peripheral white blood cells from 24 adolescent girls before and after drinking zinc-fortified milk for 27 day. Zinc intake increased (p 0.05) near 150 µg/dL, but increased by 31 µg/dL (p 0.05) the plasma level of adolescent girls but for 6/24 participants from group A in spite of the formerly appropriation, which cellular zinc uptake decreased as assessed by reduction of the expression of ZIP1. PMID:24922175

  14. BWR radiation buildup control with ionic zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983 a hypothesis was disclosed which suggested that the presence of ionic zinc in the reactor water of the BWR could reduce radiation buildup. This hypothesis was developed from correlations of plant data, and subsequently, from laboratory experiments which demonstrated clearly that ionic zinc inhibits the corrosion of stainless steel. The benefits of zinc addition have been measured at the Vallecitos Nuclear Center under and EPRI/GE project. Experimentation and analyses have been performed to evaluate the impact of intentional zinc addition on the IGSCC characteristics of primary system materials and on the performance of the nuclear fuel. It has been concluded that no negative effects are expected. The author conclude that the intentional addition of ionic zinc to the BWR reactor water at a concentration of approximately 10 ppb will provide major benefits in controlling the Co-60 buildup on primary system stainless steel surfaces. The intentional addition of zinc is now a qualified technique for use in BWRs

  15. Role of zinc in pediatric diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Chaitali Bajait; Vijay Thawani

    2011-01-01

    Zinc supplementation is a critical new intervention for treating diarrheal episodes in children. Recent studies suggest that administration of zinc along with new low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions / salts (ORS), can reduce the duration and severity of diarrheal episodes for up to three months. The World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF recommend daily 20 mg zinc supplements for 10 - 14 days for children with acute diarrhea, and 10 mg per day for infants under six months old, to cu...

  16. Automatic solver chaining in MiningZinc

    OpenAIRE

    Guns, Tias; Dries, Anton; Tack, Guido; Nijssen, Siegfried; De Raedt, Luc

    2015-01-01

    We describe the reformulation and execution mechanism of MiningZinc, a declarative framework for constraint-based data mining. The MiningZinc execution mechanism determines how to compute solutions for MiningZinc models. It is solver independent and supports both standard constraint solvers and specialized data mining systems. The high-level problem specification is first translated into a normalized constraint language. Rewrite rules are then used to add redundant constrain...

  17. Zinc and Brass in Archaeological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kharakwal, J. S.; Gurjar, L. K.

    2006-01-01

    Brass has a much longer history than zinc. There has been a bit of confusion about the early beginning of zinc as several claims are made out side of India. Both literary as well as archaeological records reveal that production of pure zinc had begun in the second half of the first millennium BC, though production on commercial scale begun in the early Medieval times. This paper attempts to examine the archaeological record and literary evidence to understand the actual beginning of bra...

  18. Complex Mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2005-01-01

    This article has its starting point in a large number of empirical findings regarding computer-mediated work. These empirical findings have challenged our understanding of the role of mediation in such work; on the one hand as an aspect of communication and cooperation at work and on the other ha...

  19. Specialized Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Carol; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Six articles discuss librarians as mediators in special circumstances. Highlights include the reference librarian and the information paraprofessional; effective reference mediation for nontraditional public library users, including mentally impaired patrons and illiterate adults; the academic librarian's role in the education process; and…

  20. Low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng, E-mail: Lin.Yu-Sheng@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Ho, Wen-Chao [Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Caffrey, James L. [Integrative Physiology and Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX (United States); Sonawane, Babasaheb [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Background: Despite animal evidence suggests that zinc modulates cadmium nephrotoxicity, limited human data are available. Objective: To test the hypothesis that low serum zinc concentrations may increase the risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction in humans. Methods: Data from 1545 subjects aged 20 or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2012 were analyzed. Renal function was defined as impaired when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) fell below 60 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} and/or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio surpassed 2.5 in men and 3.5 mg/mmol in women. Results: Within the study cohort, 117 subjects had reduced eGFR and 214 had elevated urinary albumin. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with elevated blood cadmium (>0.53 μg/L) were more likely to have a reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR]=2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–4.50) and a higher urinary albumin (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.69) than their low cadmium (<0.18 μg/L) peers. In addition, for any given cadmium exposure, low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of reduced eGFR (OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.39–8.28). A similar increase in the odds ratio was observed between declining serum zinc and albuminuria but failed to reach statistical significance. Those with lower serum zinc/blood cadmium ratios were likewise at a greater risk of renal dysfunction (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study results suggest that low serum zinc concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Elevated cadmium exposure is global public health issue and the assessment of zinc nutritional status may be an important covariate in determining its effective renal toxicity. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium was associated with increased risk of nephrotoxicity. • Low serum zinc may exacerbate risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction. • Both zinc deficiency and elevated cadmium exposure are global public health issues.

  1. Low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Despite animal evidence suggests that zinc modulates cadmium nephrotoxicity, limited human data are available. Objective: To test the hypothesis that low serum zinc concentrations may increase the risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction in humans. Methods: Data from 1545 subjects aged 20 or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2012 were analyzed. Renal function was defined as impaired when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) fell below 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and/or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio surpassed 2.5 in men and 3.5 mg/mmol in women. Results: Within the study cohort, 117 subjects had reduced eGFR and 214 had elevated urinary albumin. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with elevated blood cadmium (>0.53 μg/L) were more likely to have a reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR]=2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–4.50) and a higher urinary albumin (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.69) than their low cadmium (<0.18 μg/L) peers. In addition, for any given cadmium exposure, low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of reduced eGFR (OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.39–8.28). A similar increase in the odds ratio was observed between declining serum zinc and albuminuria but failed to reach statistical significance. Those with lower serum zinc/blood cadmium ratios were likewise at a greater risk of renal dysfunction (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study results suggest that low serum zinc concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Elevated cadmium exposure is global public health issue and the assessment of zinc nutritional status may be an important covariate in determining its effective renal toxicity. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium was associated with increased risk of nephrotoxicity. • Low serum zinc may exacerbate risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction. • Both zinc deficiency and elevated cadmium exposure are global public health issues.

  2. Consequence of irrigation with arsenic and zinc contaminated water on accumulation of zinc in radishes plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Banejad

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: It was found that zinc concentration in radish roots, tubers, and leafs is correlated with the concentration of zinc in water. Moreover, there was a competition between the absorption of zinc and arsenic in plants. With increasing arsenic in irrigation water, transition of Zn was reduced to aerial part.

  3. Status of zinc injection in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on laboratory and other studies, it was concluded that zinc addition in a PWR primary coolant should result in reduced Alloy 600 PWSCC and general corrosion rates of the materials of construction. Because of these positive results, a Westinghouse Owner's Subgroup, EPRI, and Westinghouse provided funds to continue the development and application of zinc in an operating plant. As part of the program, Southern Operating Nuclear Company agreed to operate the Farley 2 plant with zinc addition as a demonstration test of the effectiveness of zinc. Since zinc is incorporated in the corrosion oxide film on the primary system surfaces and Farley 2 is a mature plant, it was estimated that about 10 kgs of zinc would be needed to condition the plant before an equilibrium value in the coolant would be reached. The engineered aspects of a Zinc Addition and Monitoring System (ZAMS) considered such items as the constitutents, location, sizing and water supply of the ZAMS. Baseline data such as the PWSCC history of the Alloy 600 steam generator tubing, fuel oxide thickness, fuel crud deposits, radiation levels, and RCP seal leak-off rates were obtained before zinc addition is initiated. This presentation summarizes some of the work performed under the program, and the status of zinc injection in the Farley 2 plant

  4. [Zinc in patients with anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røijen, S B; Worsaae, U; Zlotnik, G

    1991-03-01

    In a multicenter study, the relation between zinc status and anorexia nervosa was studied in 18 patients (15 females and 3 males in the age range of 11 to 25 years). Analysis of plasma zinc (by atomic absorption), plasma albumin (by electro-immuno diffusion method) and sense of taste (comparing quinine, zinc sulfate and water solutions), showed no significant abnormalities. Thus, the investigation does not support the hypothesis, that zinc status plays a significant role in the symptomatology of anorexia nervosa. PMID:2008719

  5. Zinc and Brass in Archaeological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Kharakwal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Brass has a much longer history than zinc. There has been a bit of confusion about the early beginning of zinc as several claims are made out side of India. Both literary as well as archaeological records reveal that production of pure zinc had begun in the second half of the first millennium BC, though production on commercial scale begun in the early Medieval times. This paper attempts to examine the archaeological record and literary evidence to understand the actual beginning of brass and zinc in India.

  6. Evolution of zinc morphology during continuous electrodeposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The morphology evolution of zinc continuous electrodeposits with nano-sized crystals on the ferrite substrate has been studied by in-situ scanning tunnel spectroscopy (STM). It is found that the morphology of zinc electrodeposits varies from initial granules with a size of about 30 nm to layered platelets with increasing deposition time. Meanwhile, the crystal structure of the zinc electrodeposits is identified to be hexagonal η-phase by X-ray diffraction. The orientation relationship between zinc crystals and the substrate surface can be interpreted in terms of the misfit and the atomic correspondence of the interphase boundary between the η-phase deposits and α-Fe substrate.

  7. Zinc and methanol production using HTR process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc making methods are reviewed and the advantages of zinc oxide reduction by methane pointed out. The synthesis and applications of methanol are discussed. A combined process of zinc making and methanol production using HTGR process heat is proposed. (Auth.)

  8. Zinc transporter expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) during development☆

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Emily; Dukovcic, Stephanie; Hobson, Brad; Wong, Carmen P.; Miller, Galen; Hardin, Karin; TRABER, MARET G.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is a micronutrient important in several biological processes including growth and development. We have limited knowledge on the impact of maternal zinc deficiency on zinc and zinc regulatory mechanisms in the developing embryo due to a lack of in vivo experimental models that allow us to directly study the effects of maternal zinc on embryonic development following implantation. To overcome this barrier, we have proposed to use zebrafish as a model organism to study the impact of zinc du...

  9. Histidine Protects Against Zinc and Nickel Toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, John T; Bruinsma, Janelle J.; Schneider, Daniel L.; Sara Collier; James Guthrie; Asif Chinwalla; J David Robertson; Elaine R Mardis; Kerry Kornfeld

    2011-01-01

    Author Summary Zinc is an essential nutrient that is critical for human health. However, excess zinc can cause toxicity, indicating that regulatory mechanisms are necessary to maintain homeostasis. The analysis of mechanisms that promote zinc homeostasis can elucidate fundamental regulatory processes and suggest new approaches for treating disorders of zinc metabolism. To discover genes that modulate zinc tolerance, we screened for C. elegans mutants that were resistant to zinc toxicity. Here...

  10. The contribution of zinc biofortified wheat to meeting zinc requirements among women in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc deficiency is widespread in different populations in the world. In Mexico about 25% of children and 30% of women have deficient plasma concentration of zinc; similar values are found in other countries in Latin America. Zinc deficiency contributes with growth stunting; about 24% of children in Mexico are stunted. Zinc deficiency also contributes with delayed neurocognitive development and an increase in morbidity due to gastrointestinal infections in Mexican children. Several alternatives are available to treat zinc deficiency. Among them supplementation, food fortification and more recently biofortification have been applied in Mexico. The paper discusses the effectiveness of these different strategies to meet zinc requirements and alleviate zinc deficiency. Biofortification refers to the process of breeding food crops with the purpose to increase its content of bioavailable specific nutrients. In a recent study in Mexican women biofortification of wheat with zinc increased zinc intake by 69 and 72% in 80 and 95% extraction flours respectively, zinc absorption increased about 33 % and 50% respectively. These results are compared with results of food fortification and supplementation. Staple food in Mexico is maize rather than wheat, maize in is consumed about 5 times higher than wheat (30 vs 6 millon tons respectively); information is given on maize and other cereals consumption by region, age and SES which demonstrates that in order to have a better impact of zinc biofortification, maize will be the crop of choice in Mexico. Studies are needed to evaluate zinc bioavailability of zinc biofortified maize. Other aspects of zinc biofortification of staple crops that demonstrate its feasibility as a strategy to treat zinc deficiency are discussed. (author)

  11. Development of zinc oxide nanoparticle by sonochemical method and study of their physical and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Samreen Heena; Suriyaprabha, R.; Pathak, Bhawana; Fulekar, M. H.

    2016-04-01

    With the miniaturization of crystal size, the fraction of under-coordinated surface atoms becomes dominant, and hence, materials in the nano-regime behave very differently from the similar material in a bulk. Zinc oxide (ZnO), particularly, exhibits extraordinary properties such as a wide direct band gap (3.37 eV), large excitation binding energy (60 meV), low refractive index (1.9), stability to intense ultraviolet (UV) illumination, resistance to high-energy irradiation, and lower toxicity as compared to other semiconductors. This very property makes Zinc Oxide a potential candidate in many application fields, particularly as a prominent semiconductor. Zinc Oxide plays a significant role in many technological advances with its application in semiconductor mediated photocatalytic processes and sensor, solar cells and others. In present study, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) has been synthesized using three different precursors by sonochemical method. Zinc Acetate Dihydrate, Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate and Zinc Sulphate Heptahydrate used as a precursor for the synthesis process. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticle has been found under the range of ˜50 nm. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were characterized using different characterizing tools. The as-synthesized ZnO was characterized by Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) for the determination of functional group; Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for Morphology and elemental detection respectively, Transmission Electron Microscopy for Particle size distribution and morphology and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for the confirmation of crystal structure of the nanomaterial. The optical properties of the ZnO were examined by UV-VIS spectroscopy equipped with Diffuse Reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) confirmed the optical band gap of ZnO-3 around 3.23 eV resembles with the band gap of bulk ZnO (3.37eV). The TEM micrograph of the as-synthesized material showed perfectly spherical shaped

  12. Analysis of cellular responses of macrophages to zinc ions and zinc oxide nanoparticles: a combined targeted and proteomic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Triboulet, Sarah,; Aude-Garcia, Catherine; Armand, Lucie; Gerdil, Adèle; Diemer, Hélène; Proamer, Fabienne; Collin-Faure, Véronique; Habert, Aurélie; Strub, Jean-Marc; Hanau, Daniel; Herlin, Nathalie; Carrière, Marie; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rabilloud, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Two different zinc oxide nanoparticles, as well as zinc ions, are used to study the cellular responses of the RAW 264 macrophage cell line. A proteomic screen is used to provide a wide view of the molecular effects of zinc, and the most prominent results are cross-validated by targeted studies. Furthermore, the alteration of important macrophage functions (e.g. phagocytosis) by zinc is also investigated. The intracellular dissolution/uptake of zinc is also studied to further characterize zinc...

  13. The potential for zinc stable isotope techniques and modelling to determine optimal zinc supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cuong D; Gopalsamy, Geetha L; Mortimer, Elissa K; Young, Graeme P

    2015-06-01

    It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248

  14. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuong D. Tran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease.

  15. Solubilization and Transformation of Insoluble Zinc Compounds by Fungi Isolated from a Zinc Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanawat Sutjaritvorakul

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fungi were isolated from zinc-containing rocks and mining soil. They were screened for the ability to solubilize and transform three insoluble zinc compounds: ZnO, Zn3(PO4, and ZnCO3. Fungi were plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA medium which was supplemented with 0.5% (w/v of insoluble zinc compounds. Of the strains tested, four fungal isolates showed the highest efficiency for solubilizing all the insoluble zinc compounds, producing clearing zone diameters > 40 mm. These were identified as a Phomopsis spp., Aspergillus sp.1, Aspergillus sp.2, and Aspergillus niger. Zinc oxide was the most easily solubilized compound and it was found that 87%, 52%, and 61% of the tested fungi (23 isolates were able to solubilize zinc oxide, zinc phosphate, and zinc carbonate, respectively. Precipitation of zinc-containing crystals was observed in zinc oxide-containing agar medium underneath colonies of Aspergillus sp.1, and these were identified as zinc oxalate. It is suggested that these kinds of fungi have the potential application in bioremediation practices for heavy metal contaminated soils.

  16. Molybdate based passivation of zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Møller, Per

    1997-01-01

    In order to reduce corrosion rates, zinc plated parts are usually chromated. Recently chromates have caused increasingly environmental concern, for both allergic effects among workers touching chro-mated parts and toxic effects on fish, plants and bacteria. A molybdate based alternative has been...... developed to replace chromates in several passivation applica-tions. Depending on the environment in which the passivated parts are to be exposed, the protection that this alternative treatment provides range from less efficient to more efficient as compared to chromate. These aspects as well as issues such...

  17. On positron annihilation in zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to understand Mogensen's and Petersen's positron annihilation curves for zinc. Mijnarends approach is used as an auxiliary method of localizing inhomogeneities of the electronic density in momentum space, as defined in the paper. Evidence is found for a new effect consisting of a strong enhancement of the annihilation probability in the lenses obtained by the intersection of the Fermi surface with HMC surfaces. This effect, not the anisotropy of the Fermi surface, is the main reason for the anisotropy of the annihilation curves. (orig.)

  18. Effect of consuming zinc-fortified bread on serum zinc and iron status of zinc-deficient women: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Badii; Niloufar Nekouei; Mohammad Fazilati; Mohammad Shahedi; Sajad Badiei

    2012-01-01

    After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fort...

  19. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... citations affecting § 558.78, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles...

  20. Electron transfer in magnesium and zinc orthovanadate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrophysical properties of magnesium and zinc orthovanadates were studied in wide range of temperatures and partial oxygen pressures. It is shown that these compounds represent mainly ionic conductors. Zn2+ ions are the carriers of ion current in zinc orthovanadate. Boundaries of electrolytic regions were determined

  1. Malnutrition and a rash: think zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C M L; Martin-Clavijo, A; Winston, A P; Dharmagunawardena, B; Gach, J E

    2007-11-01

    Endemic zinc deficiency is recognised to be a common and serious problem in developing countries. However, it may be seen in routine practice in the UK, and can be easily overlooked. Malnutrition from any cause in conjunction with an undiagnosed cutaneous problem should alert the clinician to the diagnosis. Investigations may be unreliable, and if in doubt, a therapeutic trial of zinc supplementation is indicated. We present three cases of malnourished patients, in whom zinc deficiency was diagnosed after the development of cutaneous features. The malnutrition resulted from alcoholism in two cases and anorexia nervosa in the third. The heterogeneity of underlying causes of zinc deficiency is discussed, along with its effects, treatment and zinc homeostasis. PMID:17953634

  2. Role of zinc in pediatric diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitali Bajait

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc supplementation is a critical new intervention for treating diarrheal episodes in children. Recent studies suggest that administration of zinc along with new low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions / salts (ORS, can reduce the duration and severity of diarrheal episodes for up to three months. The World Health Organization (WHO and UNICEF recommend daily 20 mg zinc supplements for 10 - 14 days for children with acute diarrhea, and 10 mg per day for infants under six months old, to curtail the severity of the episode and prevent further occurrences in the ensuing -two to three months, thereby decreasing the morbidity considerably. This article reviews the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of zinc supplementation in pediatric diarrhea and convincingly concludes that zinc supplementation has a beneficial impact on the disease outcome.

  3. Abundance of zinc ions in synaptic terminals of mocha mutant mice: zinc transporter 3 immunohistochemistry and zinc sulphide autometallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenberg, Meredin; Nejsum, Lene N; Larsen, Agnete; Danscher, Gorm

    2004-02-01

    The mocha mouse is an autosomal recessive pigment mutant on mouse chromosome 10 caused by a deletion in the gene for the delta subunit of the adaptor-like complex AP-3. Based on zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) immunohistochemistry, zinc TSQ fluorescence and a modified Timm method, previous studies found a lack of histochemically-detectable zinc and a substantial reduction in the ZnT3 immunoreactivity. It has, therefore, been suggested that the mocha mouse could serve as a model for studies of the significance of zinc ions in zinc-enriched (ZEN) neurons. We have chosen the mocha-zinc-model in a study of the significance of ZEN neurons in hypoxia-caused damage in mouse brain. In order to establish that the model was either void of zinc ions or had a significantly decreased level of zinc ions in their ZEN terminals, we repeated the studies that had lead to the above assumption, the only methodology difference being that we used the zinc specific Neo-Timm method instead of the Timm method applied in the original study. We found that, although the ZnS autometallography (AMG) technique revealed a reduction in staining intensity as compared to the littermate controls, there were still plenty of zinc ions in the ZEN terminals, in particular visible in telencephalic structures like neocortex and hippocampus. At ultrastructural levels the zinc ions were found in a pool of vesicles of the ZEN terminals as in the control animals, but additionally zinc ions could be traced in ZEN neuronal somata in the neocortex and hippocampus. The mossy fibres in the hippocampus of mocha mice also bind with TSQ, though less than in the controls. We found ZnS AMG grains in ZEN neuronal somata, which were also immunoreactive for ZnT3. Our study confirmed the decreased ZnT3 immunoreactivity in ZEN terminals of the mocha mouse found in the original study. Based on these findings, we suggest that the mocha mouse may not be an ideal model for studies of the histochemically-detectable zinc ion pool of the

  4. Primary chemistry response to initial zinc injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of June 2009, fifty-seven pressurized water reactor (PWR) units were adding zinc to their primary coolant systems. This represents about 22% of the world's PWR units. Zinc injection is used in at least six different countries and in essentially all major Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) designs. Plant-specific strategies for injection of zinc are now tailored with respect to concentrations, injection location, injection timing, and monitoring protocols. At least 14 additional plants are expected to begin zinc injection within the next two years and many more plants are investigating options for injecting zinc. A principal concern regarding the plant response to initial injection is that dissolved zinc will interact with ex-core oxide films in a manner that causes a release of nickel to the primary coolant system. It is possible that nickel released by this mechanism could deposit in the core and challenge fuel performance. In this work primary system chemistry data (principally nickel concentrations and radiocobalt activities) were evaluated for the cycles in which zinc was first injected. Assessments included comparisons of concentrations and activities before and after zinc injection as well as comparison of these periods to similar times in previous cycles. The mass of nickel released during shutdown, an imperfect indicator of the mass deposited on the fuel during the cycle, was also assessed. While the analyses presented in this work are not a complete analysis of plant response to zinc injection (for example, direct observations of surface film modification were not included) they represent a significant addition to the understanding of the way in which zinc interacts with the PWR primary system. (author)

  5. Zinc abundances of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Christina L; Dinerstein, Harriet L

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is a useful surrogate element for measuring Fe/H as, unlike iron, it is not depleted in the gas phase media. Zn/H and O/Zn ratios have been derived using the [Zn IV] emission line at 3.625um for a sample of nine Galactic planetary nebulae, seven of which are based upon new observations using the VLT. Based on photoionization models, O/O++ is the most reliable ionisation correction factor for zinc that can readily be determined from optical emission lines, with an estimated accuracy of 10% or better for all targets in our sample. The majority of the sample is found to be sub-solar in [Zn/H]. [O/Zn] in half of the sample is found to be consistent with Solar within uncertainties, whereas the remaining half are enhanced in [O/Zn]. [Zn/H] and [O/Zn] as functions of Galactocentric distance have been investigated and there is little evidence to support a trend in either case.

  6. Half-metallic ferromagnetism in Cu-doped zinc-blende ZnO from first principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.F. [School of Mathematics and Information Science, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, ZhengZhou 450011 (China); Zhang, J., E-mail: zhangjing369@gmail.com [School of Mathematics and Information Science, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, ZhengZhou 450011 (China); Xu, B. [School of Mathematics and Information Science, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, ZhengZhou 450011 (China); Yao, K.L. [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Electronic structures and magnetism of Cu-doped zinc-blende ZnO have been investigated by the first-principle method based on density functional theory (DFT). The results show that Cu can induce stable ferromagnetic ground state. The magnetic moment of supercell including single Cu atom is 1.0 {mu}{sub B}. Electronic structure shows that Cu-doped zinc-blende ZnO is a p-type half-metallic ferromagnet. The half-metal property is mainly attribute to the crystal field splitting of Cu 3d orbital, and the ferromagnetism is dominated by the hole-mediated double exchange mechanism. Therefore, Cu-doped zinc-blende ZnO should be useful in semiconductor spintronics and other applications. - Highlights: > Magnetism of Cu-doped zinc-blende ZnO. > Cu-doped zinc-blende ZnO shows interesting half-metal character. > Total energies calculations reveal that Cu can induce ferromagnetic ground state. > Ferromagnetism dominated by the hole-mediated double exchange mechanism.

  7. Serum zinc levels in gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Sharbaf F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy has been related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most studies in which pregnant women have been supplemented with zinc to examine its effects on the outcome of the pregnancy have been carried out in industrialized countries and the results have been inconclusive. It has been shown that women with gestational diabetes (GDM have lower serum zinc levels than healthy pregnant women, and higher rates of macrosomia. Zinc is required for normal glucose metabolism, and strengthens the insulin-induced transportation of glucose into cells by its effect on the insulin signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to assess the serum zinc levels of GDM patients and evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation. "nMethods: In the first stage of this prospective controlled study, we enrolled 70 women who were 24-28 weeks pregnant at the Prenatal Care Center of Mirza Kochak Khan Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The serum zinc level of each subject was determined. In the second stage, among these 70 subjects, the diabetics receiving insulin were divided into two groups, only one of which received a zinc supplement and the other group was the control group. Birth weight of neonates and insulin dosages were recorded. "nResults: The mean serum zinc level in the GDM group was lower than that of the control group (94.83 vs. 103.49mg/dl, respectively and the mean birth weight of neonates from the GDM women who received the zinc supplement was lower than that of the control group (3849g vs. 4136g. The rate of macrosomia was lower in the zinc supplemented group (20% vs. 53%. The mean of increase of insulin after receiving the zinc supplement was lower (8.4u vs. 13.53. "nConclusion: Maternal insulin resistance is associated with the accumulation of maternal fat tissue during early stages of pregnancy and greater fetoplacental nutrient availability in later stages, when 70% of fetal growth occurs, resulting in macrosomia. In

  8. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition in which the blood cannot carry enough oxygen. Some signs of copper deficiency have also occurred ... t significant unless lots of dairy products are consumed along with calcium supplements. However, the body adapts ...

  9. Crucial role of Toll-like receptors in the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsou, Tsui-Chun, E-mail: tctsou@nhri.org.tw [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Liou, Saou-Hsing; Yeh, Szu-Ching; Tsai, Feng-Yuan [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Chao, How-Ran [Emerging Compounds Research Center, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University and Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Our previous studies indicated that zinc induced inflammatory response in both vascular endothelial cells and promonocytes. Here, we asked if other metals could cause the similar effect on vascular endothelial cells and tried to determine its underlying mechanism. Following screening of fifteen metals, zinc and nickel were identified with a marked proinflammatory effect, as determined by ICAM-1 and IL-8 induction, on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Inhibiting protein expression of myeloid differentiation primary response protein-88 (MyD88), a Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor acting as a TLR-signaling transducer, significantly attenuated the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response, suggesting the critical roles of TLRs in the inflammatory response. Blockage of TLR-4 signaling by CLI-095, a TLR-4 inhibitor, completely inhibited the nickel-induced ICAM-1 and IL-8 expression and NFκB activation. The same CLI-095 treatment significantly blocked the zinc-induced IL-8 expression, however with no significant effect on the ICAM-1 expression and a minor inhibitory effect on the NFκB activation. The finding demonstrated the differential role of TLR-4 in regulation of the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response, where TLR-4 played a dominant role in NFκB activation by nickel, but not by zinc. Moreover, inhibition of NFκB by adenovirus-mediated IκBα expression and Bay 11-7025, an inhibitor of cytokine-induced IκB-α phosphorylation, significantly attenuated the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory responses, indicating the critical of NFκB in the process. The study demonstrates the crucial role of TLRs in the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells and herein deciphers a potential important difference in NFκB activation via TLRs. The study provides a molecular basis for linkage between zinc/nickel exposure and pathogenesis of the metal-related inflammatory vascular disease. - Highlights: • Both zinc and nickel cause

  10. An effective zinc phthalocyanine derivative for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhuo, E-mail: zchen@fjirsm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li, Linsen [Department of Biochemistry, Shenyang Medical College, Shenyang, Liaoning 110034 (China); Hu, Ping; Chen, Song [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Huang, Mingdong, E-mail: mhuang@fjirsm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial infection is a common clinical problem. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria posts a severe challenge to medical practice worldwide. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) uses laser light at specific wavelength to activate oxygen molecule in the human tissue into reactive oxygen species as antimicrobial agent. This activation of oxygen by laser light is mediated through a photosensitizer. Two key properties for potent photosensitizer are its absorbance of light in the infrared region (630–700 nm), which promotes tissue penetration depth, and the selective accumulation on bacteria instead of human tissue. We herein report a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5}) and its antimicrobial effects in vitro and in an animal infection model. This photosensitizer has strong capability to kill bacteria at 670 nm. Chemically, it is a water-soluble and cationic photosensitizer carrying positive charge under physiological pH, and can specifically target to bacteria which usually bears negative charges on its surface. Compared with anionic ZnPc counterparts, ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} shows a higher phototoxicity toward bacteria. PACT studies of ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} in experimental infection animal model showed a significant bacteria inhibition compared to controls, and high selectivity of ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} toward bacteria. These findings suggest ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} is a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases. - Highlights: • Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with water-soluble zinc phthalocyanine derivative offers a promising measure to deal with antibiotic resistance of bacteria. • The use of portable LED light sources that are battery-powered and with low cost may make possible the deployment of systems that can be used for wound decontamination. • ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} is a potent photosensitizer for treatment of infectious diseases.

  11. An effective zinc phthalocyanine derivative for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial infection is a common clinical problem. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria posts a severe challenge to medical practice worldwide. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) uses laser light at specific wavelength to activate oxygen molecule in the human tissue into reactive oxygen species as antimicrobial agent. This activation of oxygen by laser light is mediated through a photosensitizer. Two key properties for potent photosensitizer are its absorbance of light in the infrared region (630–700 nm), which promotes tissue penetration depth, and the selective accumulation on bacteria instead of human tissue. We herein report a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys)5) and its antimicrobial effects in vitro and in an animal infection model. This photosensitizer has strong capability to kill bacteria at 670 nm. Chemically, it is a water-soluble and cationic photosensitizer carrying positive charge under physiological pH, and can specifically target to bacteria which usually bears negative charges on its surface. Compared with anionic ZnPc counterparts, ZnPc-(Lys)5 shows a higher phototoxicity toward bacteria. PACT studies of ZnPc-(Lys)5 in experimental infection animal model showed a significant bacteria inhibition compared to controls, and high selectivity of ZnPc-(Lys)5 toward bacteria. These findings suggest ZnPc-(Lys)5 is a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases. - Highlights: • Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with water-soluble zinc phthalocyanine derivative offers a promising measure to deal with antibiotic resistance of bacteria. • The use of portable LED light sources that are battery-powered and with low cost may make possible the deployment of systems that can be used for wound decontamination. • ZnPc-(Lys)5 is a potent photosensitizer for treatment of infectious diseases

  12. Overview of Inherited Zinc Deficiency in Infants and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Taiho; Fukue, Kazuhisa; Ishida, Riko; Miyazaki, Shiho

    2015-01-01

    Zinc nutrition is of special practical importance in infants and children. Poor zinc absorption causes zinc deficiency, which leads to a broad range of consequences such as alopecia, diarrhea, skin lesions, taste disorders, loss of appetite, impaired immune function and neuropsychiatric changes and growth retardation, thus potentially threatening life in infants and children. In addition to dietary zinc deficiency, inherited zinc deficiency, which rarely occurs, is found during the infant stage and early childhood. Recent molecular genetic studies have identified responsible genes for two inherited zinc deficiency disorders, acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE) and transient neonatal zinc deficiency (TNZD), clarifying the pathological mechanisms. Both of these zinc deficiencies are caused by mutations of zinc transporters, although the mechanisms are completely different. AE is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations of the ZIP4 gene, consequently resulting in defective absorption of zinc in the small intestine. In contrast, TNZD is a disorder caused by mutations of the ZnT2 gene, which results in low zinc breast milk in the mother, consequently causing zinc deficiency in the breast-fed infant. In both cases, zinc deficiency symptoms are ameliorated by a daily oral zinc supplementation for the patients. Zinc is definitely one of the key factors for the healthy growth of infants and children, and thus zinc nutrition should receive much attention. PMID:26598882

  13. Mediatized Humanitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The article investigates the implications of mediatization for the legitimation strategies of humanitarian organizations. Based on a (full population) corpus of ~400 pages of brochure material from 1970 to 2007, the micro-textual processes involved in humanitarian organizations' efforts to...... legitimate themselves and their moral claim were examined. A time trend analysis of the prioritization of actors in the material indicates that marked shifts in legitimation loci have taken place during the past 40 years. A discourse analysis unfolds the three dominant discourses behind these shifts, namely...... legitimation by accountancy, legitimation by institutionalization, and legitimation by compensation. The analysis relates these changes to a problem of trust associated with mediatization through processes of mediation....

  14. Oral zinc supplementation in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safai-Kutti, S

    1990-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency may be involved in the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa (AN). In an open study of 20 females, aged 14-26 years, afflicted with AN the effect of oral zinc supplementation was investigated. In each case the diagnosis of AN was based on the criteria of DSM-III-R. After a careful history, complete physical examination and laboratory screening the subjects were started on 45-90 mg of Zn2+, as zinc sulfate, (SolvezinkR, Tika, Sweden) per day. During a follow-up period of 8-56 months 17 patients increased their body weight by more than 15%. The maximum gradual weight gain of 57% was encountered in one patient after 24 months of zinc therapy. The most rapid weight gain was recorded in a patient who increased her body weight by 24% over a period of 3 months. After the institution of zinc, weight loss was not registered in any of our patients. In 13 subjects the menstruation returned 1-17 months after the initiation of zinc therapy. None of our patients developed bulimia. The design of an ongoing multicenter placebo-controlled clinical trial of zinc supplementation to patients with AN is described. PMID:2291418

  15. The role of zinc in liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüngreiff, Kurt; Reinhold, Dirk; Wedemeyer, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element playing fundamental roles in cellular metabolism. It acts mostly by binding a wide range of proteins, thus affecting a broad spectrum of biological processes, which include cell division, growth and differentiation. Zinc is critical to a large number of structural proteins, enzymatic processes, and transcription factors. Zinc deficiency can result in a spectrum of clinical manifestations, such as poor of appetite, loss of body hair, altered taste and smell, testicular atrophy, cerebral and immune dysfunction, and diminished drug elimination capacity. These are common symptoms in patients with chronic liver diseases, especially liver cirrhosis. The liver is the main organ responsible for the zinc metabolism which can be affected by liver diseases. On the other hand, zinc deficiency may alter hepatocyte functions and also immune responses in inflammatory liver diseases. Liver cirrhosis represents the most advanced stage of chronic liver diseases and is the common outcome of chronic liver injury. It is associated with energy malnutrition, with numerous metabolic disorders, such as hypoalbuminemia, with imbalance between branched-chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids, and with reduced zinc serum concentrations. All these processes can influence the clinical outcome of patients, such ascites, hepatic encephalopathy and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the present review, we summarize the emerging evidence on the pitoval role of zinc in the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis. PMID:26626635

  16. ZINC MITIGATION INTERIM REPORT - THERMODYNAMIC STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.

    2010-12-17

    An experimental program was initiated in order to develop and validate conditions that will effectively trap Zn vapors that are released during extraction. The proposed work is broken down into three tasks. The first task is to determine the effectiveness of various pore sizes of filter elements. The second task is to determine the effect of filter temperature on zinc vapor deposition. The final task is to determine whether the zinc vapors can be chemically bound. The approach for chemically binding the zinc vapors has two subtasks, the first is a review of literature and thermodynamic calculations and the second is an experimental approach using the best candidates. This report details the results of the thermodynamic calculations to determine feasibility of chemically binding the zinc vapors within the furnace module, specifically the lithium trap (1). A review of phase diagrams, literature, and thermodynamic calculations was conducted to determine if there are suitable materials to capture zinc vapor within the lithium trap of the extraction basket. While numerous elements exist that form compounds with zinc, many of these also form compounds with hydrogen or the water that is present in the TPBARs. This relatively comprehensive review of available data indicates that elemental cobalt and copper and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) may have the requisite properties to capture zinc and yet not be adversely affected by the extraction gases and should be considered for testing.

  17. Revisiting zinc passivation in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Zinc passive films were characterised by electrochemical tests coupled with cross sectional FIB-SEM. • Passive layers at pH > 12 comprised of an outer precipitated layer and inner compact oxide. • The electrolyte pH influences the nature/stability of the outer precipitated layer and this impacts the passive state on zinc. • The precipitated layers on zinc at pH 12 support cathode reactions and catalyse oxide growth. -- Abstract: Passive films nominally consist of an inner compact oxide and the outer precipitated layer. In the case of zinc (Zn), the outer layer is mainly precipitated ZnO/Zn(OH)2. Electrolyte pH controls the stability of the outer precipitated layer. In a pH 13 solution, formation of soluble Zn(OH)3− and Zn(OH)42− phases render the precipitated layer unstable increasing zinc corrosion, whereas at pH 12, the precipitated layer (ZnO/Zn(OH)2) is more stable making it an effective anodic barrier upon zinc. These precipitated oxides formed at pH 12 support cathodic reactions on their surface which in turn catalyse further oxide growth by a cathodically driven process. Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) was used to support some of the electrochemical assertions, revealing the form and morphology of the passive layers that grow upon zinc exposed to alkaline solutions

  18. Mediatized play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts........ In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....

  19. Mediating Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    "Mediating Business" is a study of the expansion of business journalism. Building on evidence from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, "Mediating Business" is a comparative and multidisciplinary study of one of the major transformations of the mass media and the realm of business - nationally and...... globally. The book explores the history of key innovations and innovators in the business press. It analyzes changes in the discourse of business journalism associated with the growth in business news and the development of new ways of framing business issues and events. Finally, it examines the...... organizational implications of the increased media visibility of business and, in particular, the development of corporate governance and media relations....

  20. Transient partial growth hormone deficiency due to zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Y; Hatano, S; Aihara, K; Fujie, A; Kihara, M

    1989-04-01

    We present here a 13-year-old boy with partial growth hormone deficiency due to chronic mild zinc deficiency. When zinc administration was started, his growth rate, growth hormone levels, and plasma zinc concentrations increased significantly. His poor dietary intake resulted in chronic mild zinc deficiency, which in turn could be the cause of a further loss of appetite and growth retardation. There was also a possibility of renal zinc wasting which may have contributed to zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency should be carefully ruled out in patients with growth retardation. PMID:2708733

  1. Decomposition of zinc ferrite from waste streams of steelmaking

    OpenAIRE

    Tauriainen, M. (Miia)

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare different methods to decompose the zinc ferrite from the waste streams of steel making. The samples were acquired from SSAB Raahe blast furnace and converter flue gas scrubbers and Outokumpu Tornio Works bag filters EAF1, EAF3, AOD and CRK. Sludges and dusts contain significant amounts of zinc in form of zinc oxide and zinc ferrite. Zinc ferrite is highly stable compound which makes recovery of the zinc difficult. The zinc could be recovered and recycled ...

  2. Transcriptional Response of Escherichia coli to External Zinc

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ishihama, Akira

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional response of Escherichia coli to extracellular zinc was studied using DNA microarray and S1 mapping assays. Addition of external zinc induced the expression of zinc exporter ZntA and inhibited the expression of zinc importer ZnuC. In the continuous presence of zinc, ZnuC repression took place at lower zinc concentrations than ZntA induction. The microarray assay indicated that the addition of excess external zinc induces the expression of many genes that are organized in the re...

  3. Nitric oxide decreases the sensitivity of pulmonary endothelial cells to LPS-induced apoptosis in a zinc-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zi-Lue; Wasserloos, Karla J; Liu, Xianghong; Stitt, Molly S; Reynolds, Ian J; Pitt, Bruce R; St Croix, Claudette M

    2002-01-01

    We hypothesized that: (a) S-nitrosylation of metallothionein (MT) is a component of pulmonary endothelial cell nitric oxide (NO) signaling that is associated with an increase in labile zinc; and (b) NO mediated increases in labile zinc in turn reduce the sensitivity of pulmonary endothelium to LPS-induced apoptosis. We used microspectrofluorometric techniques to show that exposing mouse lung endothelial cells (MLEC) to the NO-donor, S-nitrosocysteine, resulted in a 45% increase in fluorescence of the Zn2+-specific fluorophore, Zinquin, that was rapidly reversed by exposure to the Zn2+ chelator, NNN'N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine; TPEN). The absence of a NO-mediated increase in labile Zn2+ in MLEC from MT-I and -II knockout mice inferred a critical role for MT in the regulation of Zn2+ homeostasis by NO. Furthermore, we found that prior exposure of cultured endothelial cells from sheep pulmonary artery (SPAEC), to the NO-donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) reduced their sensitivity to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic effects of NO were significantly inhibited by Zn2+ chelation with low doses of TPEN (10 microM). Collectively, these data suggest that S-nitrosylation of MT is associated with an increase in labile (TPEN chelatable) zinc and NO-mediated MT dependent zinc release is associated with reduced sensitivity to LPS-induced apoptosis in pulmonary endothelium. PMID:12162436

  4. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in ...

  5. Effect of Prenatal Zinc Supplementation on Birthweight

    OpenAIRE

    Saaka, Mahama; Oosthuizen, Jacques; Beatty, Shelley

    2009-01-01

    Although iron and zinc deficiencies are known to occur together and also appear to be high in Ghana, a few supplementation studies addressed this concurrently in pregnancy. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 600 pregnant women in Ghana were randomly assigned to receive either a combined supplement of 40 mg of zinc as zinc gluconate and 40 mg of iron as ferrous sulphate or 40 mg of elemental iron as ferrous sulphate. Overall, there was no detectable difference in the mean birthwei...

  6. BIOLEACHING OF ZINC: ECO FRIENDLY MINING

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Mishra

    2016-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper is on a Biomining The estimated annual demand for zinc in India is approximately 2.41 lakh tones; against this, the present installed capacity in the country for zinc ingots is 1.49 lakh tonnes only. There is, thus still a wide gap in the demand and supply of this metal in the country. Leaching zinc from the waste and low grade ore is required to meet the demand, but is not being explored because of the expensive measures and pollution hazards. Biolea...

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of zinc in impure solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dithizone colorimetric method is described for determining zinc concentrations of 0.001 to 5 g/l in aqueous solutions from Rio Tinto Mines, containing copper, iron and other impurities. Citrate, cyanide and bis-2hydroxyethyl)-dithiocarbamate are added to the aqueous sample of masking several metals, and zinc is extracted at pH 5 with a solution of dithizone in carbon tetrachloride. Excess of dithizone is removed with sodium sulphide, and optical density of zinc dithionate in organic solution is measured at 5.35 nm. Calibration curves obey Beer's law up to 0.5 micro Zn/ml. (Author) 5 refs

  8. Cadmium zinc telluride spectral modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors are the highest resolution room temperature gamma-ray detectors available for isotopic analysis. As with germanium detectors, accurate isotopic analysis using spectra requires peak deconvolution. The CZT peak shapes are asymmetric, with a long low energy tail. The asymmetry is a result of the physics of the electron/hole transport in the semiconductor. An accurate model of the physics of the electron/hole transport through an electric field will allow the parameterization of the peak shapes as a function of energy. In turn this leads to the ability to perform accurate spectral deconvolution and therefore accurate isotopic analysis. The model and the peak-shape parameterization as a function of energy will be presented

  9. Supplemental levels of iron and calcium interfere with repletion of zinc status in zinc-deficient animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, S; Platel, Kalpana

    2016-05-18

    Negative interactions between minerals interfering with each other's absorption are of concern when iron and calcium supplements are given to pregnant women and children. We have previously reported that supplemental levels of iron and calcium inhibit the bioaccessibility of zinc, and compromise zinc status in rats fed diets with high levels of these two minerals. The present study examined the effect of supplemental levels of iron and calcium on the recovery of zinc status during a zinc repletion period in rats rendered zinc-deficient. Iron and calcium, both individually and in combination, significantly interfered with the recovery of zinc status in zinc deficient rats during repletion with normal levels of zinc in the diet. Rats maintained on diets containing supplemental levels of these two minerals had significantly lower body weight, and the concentration of zinc in serum and organs was significantly lower than in zinc-deficient rats not receiving the supplements. Iron and calcium supplementation also significantly inhibited the activity of zinc-containing enzymes in the serum as well as liver. Both iron and calcium independently exerted this negative effect on zinc status, while their combination seemed to have a more prominent effect, especially on the activities of zinc containing enzymes. This investigation is probably the first systematic study on the effect of these two minerals on the zinc status of zinc deficient animals and their recovery during repletion with normal amounts of zinc. PMID:27101872

  10. Study of Serum Zinc in Low Birth Weight Neonates and Its Relation with Maternal Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Agrawal; Kumar, Aravind

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Assessment of serum Zinc in LBW (Low Birth Weight) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates in relation to their maternal zinc level. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital of central India between August 2011 to July 2012. Serum samples were collected from the eligible LBW (preterm & term IUGR) and term AGA healthy neonates and their mothers for zinc level estimation. Serum zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Newborn of mothers having any medical illness, on any medication, with anaemia (Hb 2.5kg) were categorized as control group. Mean serum zinc level was significantly low in LBW neonates (83.45±16.74 μg/dl) in comparison to term AGA newborns (93.74±19.95 μg/dl), (p-value <0.05). Similarly, zinc level was also low in mothers of LBW babies (67.02±15.99 μg/dl) in comparison to mothers of term AGA newborns (83.59±18.46 μg/dl), (p-value < 0.05). Low maternal zinc levels were significant correlated with lower serum zinc in LBW neonates (Pearson correlation value - 0.938). However, maternal zinc levels have shown no significant correlation with neonatal serum zinc levels in term AGA (0.029). Conclusion: LBW neonates and their mothers have significant zinc deficiency as compared to term AGA neonates and their mothers and this deficiency is correlated with zinc deficiency in mothers of these LBW neonates. PMID:25738050

  11. Distribution of zinc in vineyard areas treated with zinc containing phytopharmaceuticals:

    OpenAIRE

    Kerin, Danimir; Weingerl, Vesna

    2000-01-01

    Zinc concentration in vineyard soil is, in general, increased markedly by the long term application of zinc containing fungicides. The most significant source of Zn are nowadays dithiocarbamate based fungicides, e.g. Antracol. The concentration of total zinc and EDTA and ammonium lactate (AL) extractable Zn in soils are evaluated together with the concentration of Zn in different inorganic fertilizers and in fungicides. the results of the study indicate in the observed vineyard areas a long t...

  12. Zinc supplementation reduced DNA breaks in Ethiopian women

    OpenAIRE

    Joray, Maya L.; Yu, Tian-Wei; Ho, Emily; Clarke, Stephen L.; Stanga, Zeno; Gebreegziabher, Tafere; Hambidge, K. Michael; Stoecker, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of zinc status remains a challenge largely because serum/plasma zinc may not accurately reflect an individual’s zinc status. The comet assay, a sensitive method capable of detecting intracellular DNA strand breaks, may serve as a functional biomarker of zinc status. We hypothesized that effects of zinc supplementation on intracellular DNA damage could be assessed from samples collected in field studies in Ethiopia using the comet assay. Forty women, from villages where reported con...

  13. Dietary Zinc and Prostate Cancer in the TRAMP Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Ananda S; Mukhtar, Hasan; Beck, Frances W.J.; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; Din, Maria; Hafeez, Bilal B.; KUCUK, Omer

    2010-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence indicates that zinc may have an important role in the prostate. Total zinc levels in the prostate are 10 times higher than in other soft tissues. Zinc concentrations in prostate epithethial cancer cells are decreased significantly. Zinc supplementation for prevention and treatment of prostate cancer in humans has yielded controversial results. No studies have been reported in animal models to show the effect of zinc supplementation on prevention of prostate cancer, thu...

  14. Comparison of effect of zinc-enriched pod of Phaseolus vulgaris and inner rice husk composts with zinc sulphate and zinc 14% chelate on zinc availability in maize plant in a calcareous soil

    OpenAIRE

    Rasouli, Mrs. Shabnam; Azizi, Prof. Pirouz; Forghani, Dr. Akbar; Asghar Zade, Dr. Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Mixtures of Zn salts and organic matter have been used successfully in controlling zinc deficiency in various crops. The aim of the present study was to optimize the effectiveness, on zinc availability in maize, of natural organic substances by enriching them with zinc sulfate. For this purpose pod of Phaseolus vulgaris and inner rice husk, as abundant organic wastes in the north of Iran, were incubated with increasing quantities of zinc sulphate. The effect of these zinc-enriched composts, z...

  15. Intracellular zinc distribution in mitochondria, ER and the Golgi apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Qiping; Haragopal, Hariprakash; Slepchenko, Kira G.; Stork, Christian; Li, Yang V

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn2+) is required for numerous cellular functions. As such, the homeostasis and distribution of intracellular zinc can influence cellular metabolism and signaling. However, the exact distribution of free zinc within live cells remains elusive. Previously we showed the release of zinc from thapsigargin/IP3-sensitive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) storage in cortical neurons. In the present study, we investigated if other cellular organelles also contain free chelatable zinc and function as o...

  16. Zinc Blotting Assay for Detection of Zinc-Binding Prolamin in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Langkilde, Ane; Vincze, Éva

    2014-01-01

    -binding protein. However, to our knowledge so far this zinc blotting assay has never been applied to detect a prolamin fraction in barley grains. A radioactive zinc (65ZnCl2) blotting technique was optimized to detect zinc-binding prolamins, followed by development of an easy-to-follow nonradioactive colorimetric......In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc...... zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  17. Suppressing the dendritic growth of zinc in an ionic liquid containing cationic and anionic zinc complexes for battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Pulletikurthi, Giridhar; Lahiri, Abhishek; Cui, Tong; Endres, Frank

    2016-05-10

    Metallic zinc is a promising negative electrode for high energy rechargeable batteries due to its abundance, low-cost and non-toxic nature. However, the formation of dendritic zinc and low Columbic efficiency in aqueous alkaline solutions during charge/discharge processes remain a great challenge. Here we demonstrate that the dendritic growth of zinc can be effectively suppressed in an ionic liquid electrolyte containing highly concentrated cationic and anionic zinc complexes obtained by dissolving zinc oxide and zinc trifluoromethylsulfonate in a protic ionic liquid, 1-ethylimidazolium trifluoromethylsulfonate. The presence of both cationic and anionic zinc complexes alters the interfacial structure at the electrode/electrolyte interface and influences the nucleation and growth of zinc, leading to compact, homogeneous and dendrite-free zinc coatings. This study also provides insights into the development of highly concentrated metal salts in ionic liquids as electrolytes to deposit dendrite-free zinc as an anode material for energy storage applications. PMID:27080261

  18. Effects of zinc supplementation and zinc chelation on in vitro β-cell function in INS-1E cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne Bjørn; Larsen, Agnete; Knuhtsen, Astrid;

    2014-01-01

    )-ethylenediamine. The changes in intracellular insulin content following exposure to various concentrations of zinc were reflected by changes in the expression patterns of MT-1A, ZnT-8, ZnT-5, and ZnT-3. Furthermore, high zinc concentrations induced cell necrosis while zinc chelation induced apoptosis. Finally, cell......BACKGROUND: Zinc is essential for the activities of pancreatic β-cells, especially insulin storage and secretion. Insulin secretion leads to co-release of zinc which contributes to the paracrine communication in the pancreatic islets. Zinc-transporting proteins (zinc-regulated transporter, iron......-regulated transporter-like proteins [ZIPs] and zinc transporters [ZnTs]) and metal-buffering proteins (metallothioneins, MTs) tightly regulate intracellular zinc homeostasis. The present study investigated how modulation of cellular zinc availability affects β-cell function using INS-1E cells. RESULTS: Using INS-1E...

  19. Associations between Dietary Iron and Zinc Intakes, and between Biochemical Iron and Zinc Status in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1 describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2 investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3 investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18–50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379. Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection, and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326. Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5 mg/day and 9.3 (3.8 mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range serum ferritin was 22 (12–38 μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD were 12.6 (1.7 μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0 μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340. Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort.

  20. Influence of increasing doses of zinc on applied zinc uptake in wheat and residual rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted in IARI, New Delhi to understand the effect of increasing doses of zinc where nine levels of zinc -0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 25, 50 and 75 mg Zn Kg-1 soil (i.e. dosage of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20 and 30 years equivalent) were used as 65Zn labeled zinc chloride. The soil was equilibrated with applied zinc for two months, after which two varieties of wheat were grown. The residual effect on rice was also studied after harvest of wheat crop. The total applied zinc was significantly affected by treatment, variety and by the interaction between these. The normal dose of zinc fertilizer, 2.5 kg kg-1 soil, resulted in use efficiency of 0.45 percent while the higher levels of 50 and 75 mg kg-1 soil were having a use efficiency of only 0.07 and 0.05 percent, respectively. At lower doses most of the applied zinc was in grain while at higher doses it remained in straw portion. The results showed that in a year's time, there is no important role played by applied fertilizer zinc and it is the native zinc that has effect on plant nutrition. (author)

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vacuole in Zinc Storage and Intracellular Zinc Distribution▿ ‡

    OpenAIRE

    Simm, Claudia; Lahner, Brett; Salt, David; LeFurgey, Ann; Ingram, Peter; Yandell, Brian; Eide, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that the vacuole is a major site of zinc storage in the cell. However, these studies did not address the absolute level of zinc that was stored in the vacuole nor did they examine the abundances of stored zinc in other compartments of the cell. In this report, we describe an analysis of the cellular distribution of zinc by use of both an organellar fractionation method and an electron probe X-ray microanalysis. With these method...

  2. Zinc and its importance for human health: An integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Roohani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its first discovery in an Iranian male in 1961, zinc deficiency in humans is now known to be an important malnutrition problem world-wide. It is more prevalent in areas of high cereal and low animal food consumption. The diet may not necessarily be low in zinc, but its bio-availability plays a major role in its absorption. Phytic acid is the main known inhibitor of zinc. Compared to adults, infants, children, adolescents, pregnant, and lactating women have increased requirements for zinc and thus, are at increased risk of zinc depletion. Zinc deficiency during growth periods results in growth failure. Epidermal, gastrointestinal, central nervous, immune, skeletal, and reproductive systems are the organs most affected clinically by zinc deficiency. Clinical diagnosis of marginal Zn deficiency in humans remains problematic. So far, blood plasma/serum zinc concentration, dietary intake, and stunting prevalence are the best known indicators of zinc deficiency. Four main intervention strategies for combating zinc deficiency include dietary modification/diversification, supplementation, fortification, and bio-fortification. The choice of each method depends on the availability of resources, technical feasibility, target group, and social acceptance. In this paper, we provide a review on zinc biochemical and physiological functions, metabolism including, absorption, excretion, and homeostasis, zinc bio-availability (inhibitors and enhancers, human requirement, groups at high-risk, consequences and causes of zinc deficiency, evaluation of zinc status, and prevention strategies of zinc deficiency.

  3. Effectiveness of zinc fortified drinking water on zinc intake, status and morbidity of rural Kenyan pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Kujinga-Chopera, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Zinc deficiency is considered a significant public health problem in preschool children in Africa together with infections such as diarrhea, which further deplete the body of zinc. Young children are more vulnerable to zinc deficiency due to increased requirements and frequent infections. Zinc fortified water is one way of improving zinc intake and reducing diarrheal infections in such vulnerable groups. Vestergaard Frandsen has developed a point-of-use device capable of purifying...

  4. Chronic treatment with zinc and antidepressants induces enhancement of presynaptic/extracellular zinc concentration in the rat prefrontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Kowalska, Magdalena; Szlósarczyk, Marek; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Opoka, Włodzimierz; Baś, Bogusław; Pilc, Andrzej; Nowak, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Zinc exhibits antidepressant-like activity in preclinical tests/models. Moreover, zinc homeostasis is implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of chronic zinc, citalopram and imipramine intraperitoneal administration on the presynaptic and extracellular zinc concentration in the rat prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. We used two methods: zinc–selenium histochemistry (which images the pool of presynaptic-vesicle zinc) and ...

  5. Zinc involvement in opioid addiction and analgesia – should zinc supplementation be recommended for opioid-treated persons?

    OpenAIRE

    Ciubotariu, Diana; Ghiciuc, Cristina Mihaela; Lupușoru, Cătălina Elena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Zinc chelators were shown to facilitate some opioid-withdrawal signs in animals. Zinc deficiency, which affects more than 15 % the world’s population, is also common among opioid consumers and opioid-treated animals exhibit misbalances of zinc distribution. Aim The present study focuses on how zinc ions interfere with opioid dependence/addiction and analgesia, trying to preliminary discuss if zinc supplementation in opioid-users should be recommended in order to reduce the risk o...

  6. A dual role for zinc fingers in both DNA binding and zinc sensing by the Zap1 transcriptional activator

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Amanda J.; Zhao, Hui; Luo, Huan; Jensen, Laran T.; Srinivasan, Chandra; Evans-Galea, Marguerite; Winge, Dennis R.; Eide, David J.

    2000-01-01

    The Zap1 transcriptional activator of Saccharomyces cerevisiae controls zinc homeostasis. Zap1 induces target gene expression in zinc-limited cells and is repressed by high zinc. One such target gene is ZAP1 itself. In this report, we examine how zinc regulates Zap1 function. First, we show that transcriptional autoregulation of Zap1 is a minor component of zinc responsiveness; most regulation of Zap1 activity occurs post-translationally. Secondly, nuclear localization of Zap1 does not change...

  7. Determination of activable isotopic tracers of zinc by neutron activation analysis for study of bioavailability of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure of pre-irradiation concentration of zinc in fecal samples using anion exchanger was developed for the study of the bioavailability of zinc by neutron activation analysis. The mass ratios between 70Zn and 68Zn, or 64Zn and their contents between natural zinc and enriched zinc are used to calculate the bioavailability of zinc when the abundance of the isotope 70Zn is not high enough. (author) 9 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  8. Operating experience with a zinc oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayburn, Nathan; Brunkow, Evan; Gay, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    A zinc oven has been constructed and tested. Atomic zinc emitted from this resistively heated oven is subsequently excited by a polarized electron beam in crossed-beam geometry. Light emitted in the decay of the (4s5s)3 S1 state to the (4s4p)3 PJ final state, where J = 0, 1, 2, is then detected by a photomultiplier tube for polarization analysis. The zinc oven apparatus and operating experience with the oven are described in detail. Measures to assure that the oven produces a stable, localized beam which does not adhere to essential components of the apparatus are addressed. Estimates of the zinc density are made. The importance of magnetic field control in the apparatus will be discussed. Funded by NSF PHY-1505794.

  9. Sealed Cylindrical Silver/Zinc Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RBC Technologies has significanly improved the cycle life and wet life of silver/zinc battery technology through novel separator and anode formulations. This...

  10. Sorption of zinc on human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc containing dental amalgams are sometimes used as fillings by dentists. The freshly mixed mass of the amalgam alloy and liquid mercury packed or condensed into a prepared tooth cavity. Zinc has been included in amalgams alloys up to 2% as an aid in manufacturing by helping to produce clean sound castings of the ingots. Although such restorations have a relatively long service life, they are subject to corrosion and galvanic action, thus releasing metallic products into the oral environment. The aim of this paper is to investigate the uptake (sorption) of Zinc ionic species on human teeth using the radioactive tracer technique. For this purpose the isotope Zn-65 produced from pile-irradiation of zinc metal was used. The various liquids studied were drinking water (tap water), tea, coffee, red tea and chicken soup. Sorption was studied through immersion of a single human tooth (extracted) in each of these liquids

  11. Oscillations in Electrochemical Deposition of Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Xu, Qing-Yu; Wang, Mu; Peng, Ru-Wen; Zhang, Ze; Ming, Nai-ben

    2003-06-01

    In this article we report the systematic studies on the oscillation of contrast in front of a growing zinc dendrite in electrochemical deposition observed with interference contrast microscopy. The dependence of the oscillation frequency on the experimental conditions, such as the electric current, the resistance of ion transfer, pH of the electrolyte and the tilting of the electrodeposition cell, etc., has been investigated. The microstructures of the electrodeposits are analyzed with transmission electron microscopy. We conclude that the contrast oscillation in front of the zinc deposit is indeed associated with the concentration oscillation, and is synchronized with the electric voltage/current signals. Although the oscillation can be affected by mass transport in the system, we suggest that it roots from the alternating deposition of zinc and zinc hydroxide on the deposit-electrolyte interface.

  12. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  13. Magnesium removal in the electrolytic zinc industry

    OpenAIRE

    Booster, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Electrolytic zinc plants need to take measures to control the magnesium content in their process liquors, because the natural magnesium bleed does not balance the input from concentrates. Presently used methods are environmentally unfriendly (due to the production of large amounts of waste gypsum) or expensive. Therefore, an alternative process route is explored in which magnesium is removed from zinc electrolyte by selective precipitation of magnesium fluoride (sellaite). As standard applica...

  14. Green Synthesis and Regioselective Control of Sn/I2 Mediated Allylation of Carbonyl Compounds with Crotyl Halide in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Yan; ZHA,Zhang-Gen; ZHOU,Yu-Qing; WANG,Zhi-Yong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Barbier-type carbonyl allylation is particularly useful due to ease of operation and the availability and tractability of allylic substrates,[1] Metals such as indium, zinc and tin are often used as the mediator. Here we present a green approach toward the synthesis, that is, Sn/I2 mediated allylation of carbonyl compounds with crotyl halide in water.

  15. An autopsy case of zinc chloride poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Takahashi, Motonori; Watanabe, Seiya; Ebina, Masatomo; Mizu, Daisuke; Ariyoshi, Koichi; Asano, Migiwa; Nagasaki, Yasushi; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Ingestion of large amounts of zinc chloride causes corrosive gastroenteritis with vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Some individuals experience shock after ingesting large amounts of zinc chloride, resulting in fatality. Here, we present the results of an administrative autopsy performed on a 70-year-old man who ingested zinc chloride solution and died. After drinking the solution, he developed vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, and called for an ambulance. Except for tachycardia, his vital signs were stable at presentation. However, he developed hypotension and severe metabolic acidosis and died. The patient's blood zinc concentration on arrival was high at 3030μg/dL. Liver cirrhosis with cloudy yellow ascites was observed, however, there were no clear findings of gastrointestinal perforation. The gastric mucosa was gray-brown, with sclerosis present in all gastric wall layers. Zinc staining was strongly positive in all layers. There was almost no postmortem degeneration of the gastric mucosal epithelium, and hypercontracture of the smooth muscle layer was observed. Measurement of the zinc concentration in the organs revealed the highest concentration in the gastric mucosa, followed by the pancreas and spleen. Clinically, corrosive gastroenteritis was the cause of death. However, although autopsy revealed solidification in the esophagus and gastric mucosa, there were no findings in the small or large intestine. Therefore, metabolic acidosis resulting from organ damage was the direct cause of death. PMID:27497327

  16. Serum zinc level in children with malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum zinc level amongst children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) was evaluated in a control study conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Allama Iqbal Medical College and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. Twenty-five children with PEM and 25 healthy children as control from the community were screened. Mean serum zinc level was found to be 54.48 -+ 18.91 mg/dl in children with PEM while it was 72.72 -+ 8.21 mg/dl in control group (P < 0.001). No significant difference in zinc level was noted between both sexes in each group. Marasmic 16 children revealed mean serum zinc level of 57.55 -+ 18.16 mg/dl while in Kwashiorkor it was 44.57 -+ 13.66 mg/dl. Serum zinc was significantly low in Kwashiorkor than in marasmus (P < 0.001). It was also significantly low in children with acute or chronic diarrhea associated with malnutrition (44.66 -+ 16.0 mg/dl). Acute respiratory infections in these children were not associated with low serum zinc level (71.66 -+ 16.51 mg/dl). (author)

  17. An experimental study of the retention of zinc, zinc-cadmium mixture and zinc-65 in the presence of cadmium in Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc uptake was studied in eels in fresh water, using stable zinc, a zinc-cadmium mixture, and zinc 65 in the presence of small amounts of cadmium. The zinc content in the eel began to increase after 45 days only, and reached approximately 85 ppm after 76 days in water initially containing 5ppm of zinc. At the conclusion of the experiment (76 days), the body organs could be classified in decreasing order in zinc content (in ppm): kidneys (152), skeleton (133), skin (129), muscles (89), head (80), gills (78), digestive tract (77), liver (63) spleen-heart-air bladder (32), and mucus (15). A comparison of experimental results obtained with the zinc-cadmium mixture and cadmium alone showed that zinc decreased the cadmium content of all organs except the gills. The presence of cadmium in water did not inhibit zinc uptake. As cadmium content in water increased, then zinc content in the digestive tract and the kidneys decreased and in all cases remained lower than when zinc alone was present. In the presence of cadmium the percentage of zinc in the kidneys was always lower than the value obtained for zinc alone, and that of the digestive tract did not increase. Contamination of eels treated with 18 and 50ppb of cadmium for 29 days, then contaminated by zinc-65 (5μCi/l) while maintaining the same low cadmium content, showed no significant difference in zinc 65 uptake in the two groups. The same applied to the body organs, and particularly the digestive tract and kidneys, where the highest activity levels were observed. By weight, muscles represented approximately 30% of the total contamination after 45 days

  18. Zinc Addition and its Challenge in Chinese NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For primary water stress corrosion cracking mitigation and plant dose rates reduction, soluble zinc acetate will be added to reactor coolant in some new Chinese nuclear power plants in the next several years. In the nuclear power plant with zinc addition to reactor coolant, the effects of zinc on fuel cladding corrosion, fuel with sub-cooled nucleate boiling and corrosion product transport must be taken into account, and zinc implementation risk must be assessed. In order to deal with the challenge caused by zinc addition, some research, such as effect of zinc concentration on primary water stress corrosion cracking in reactor coolant system materials and analysis of corrosion product ion in reactor coolant, are being performed in China. Additionally, a zinc implementation risk assessment procedure will be developed for nuclear power plants. In the paper, the background and benefit/challenge of zinc addition are briefly described, and the work in hand for zinc addition is also summarized. (author)

  19. Serum and semen zinc levels in normozoospermic and oligozoospermic men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madding, C.I.; Jacob, M.; Ramsay, V.P.; Sokol, R.Z.

    1986-01-01

    We studied 11 unselected men who presented to a Reproductive Endocrinology Clinic with histories of infertility and low sperm counts. Reproductive hormones and semen und serum zinc levels were measured. All men had semen analyses performed on at least three separate occasions. A similar set of laboratory evaluations were performed on 11 other men who had normal semen analyses and no history of infertility. No abnormalities of reproductive hormones were found in either group. Mean serum zinc levels were significantly lower in the infertile men. Mean semen zinc levels were not significantly different. There was no correlation between serum and semen zinc levels in either group. A significant correlation was found between sperm count and semen zinc in the volunteers with normal counts, but not in the oligozoospermic men. The results obtained in this study suggest that lowered serum zinc is more common than formerly appreciated in unselected patients with infertility. The high level of zinc found in semen is due primarily to the secretions of the prostate gland and reflects prostatic stores. Serum zinc is thought to be a reasonable indicator of zinc status. The lack of correlation between serum zinc and semen zinc found in our study suggests that mild zinc deficiency may lower serum zinc while the larger prostatic zinc stores remain unaffected.

  20. Zinc deficiency among a healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the current zinc status among a sample selected from the healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq. We carried out a community-based study in Baghdad City, Iraq from November through June 2002. We selected a sample of 2090 healthy subjects (aged 1 month to 85 years). We used a pre-tested questionnaire, designed to obtain information on gender, birth dates, height, weight, residence, habitual food consumption patterns, and social status. We performed laboratory assessment of serum zinc level, dietary assessment of food frequency and usual zinc intake. We considered subjects with serum zinc concentration of /-7.7 to 12.3 umol/l mild to moderately zinc deficient. The prevalence of zinc deficiency among the studied sample was 2.7%. We found mild to moderate zinc deficiency among 55.7% of the study sample. Dietary zinc intake assessment showed that 74.8% of the studied sample consumed less than the recommended intake, and in 62.3%, the intakes were deficient and grossly deficient. Mean daily zinc ranged from 5.2 mg in children to 8.5 mg in adults. We observed a high prevalence of mild to moderate zinc deficiency, with inadequate dietary zinc intake among a considerable proportion of the studied sample. Zinc supplementation may be an effective public health intervention means to improve the zinc status of the population. (author)

  1. Age-based differences in hair zinc of Vancouver preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghri, Ziba; Barr, Susan; Wong, Hubert; Chapman, Gwen; Hertzman, Clyde

    2008-12-01

    Marginal zinc deficiency (MZD), the subclinical stage of zinc deficiency, is common in industrialized societies. Serum zinc, the most common biomarker of zinc status, lacks sensitivity and specificity to diagnose this deficiency. Hair zinc, however, is sensitive and specific enough to detect MZD in children. Differences in hair zinc associated with age and sex have been reported. These differences have not been investigated thoroughly; therefore, interpretation of the results of hair analyses is difficult. This cross-sectional study was designed to examine the hair zinc status of a group of Vancouver preschoolers (24-71 months) and assess the age- and sex-based differences in their hair zinc. Hair samples were obtained (n = 719) and analyzed for zinc using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Our results indicated a mean hair zinc of 115 +/- 43 microg/g with 17% below the low hair zinc cutoff (70 microg/g). Boys and girls had comparable mean hair zinc, while girls had a significantly higher occurrence of low hair zinc than boys (21% vs. 12%). Children or =4. Our study provides important reference values for the hair zinc of healthy North American preschoolers. PMID:18806933

  2. Bioavailability of Zinc in Wistar Rats Fed with Rice Fortified with Zinc Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres Mattos Della Lucia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice® is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3, supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p < 0.05. However, no differences were observed (p > 0.05 for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification.

  3. Effect of zinc from zinc sulfate on trace mineral concentrations of milk in Varamini ewes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zali, A.; Ganjkhanlou, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding supplemental zinc (zinc sulfate) in different levels (15, 30, or 45 mg/kg) on trace mineral concentrations in milk of ewes. Thirty lactating Varaminni ewes were assigned to three experimental groups according to their live body weights, milk

  4. Microwave Synthesis of Zinc Hydroxy Sulfate Nanoplates and Zinc Oxide Nanorods in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Rafal M.; Gillian-Daniel, Anne Lynn; Peterson, Greta M.; Martínez-Herna´ndez, Kermin J.

    2014-01-01

    In this hands-on, inquiry-based lab, high school and undergraduate students learn about nanotechnology by synthesizing their own nanoparticles in a single class period. This simple synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods and zinc hydroxy sulfate nanoplates can be done in 15 min using a household microwave oven. Reagent concentration, reaction…

  5. The effects of Zinc supplementation on serum zinc, alkaline phosphatase activity and fracture healing of bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on callus information, serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase activity in humans. This randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients with traumatic bone fracture referred to Shohada Hospital of Tabriz, Iran from August to December 2007. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: cases (n=30), receiving one capsule of zinc sulfate consists of 50 mg zinc each day and the controls (n=30), receiving placebo for 60 days. Individual and clinical information was determined by a questionnaire: nutritional intake by 3 days food records at the beginning and the end of trial. Serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and by enzymatic method. Callus information during fracture healing was evaluated by radiography of the bone. There was no significant difference in physical activity, gender, age, type of fractures and nutrient intake, between the 2 groups. The administration of zinc caused a significant elevation of serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase activity. Assessment of bone x-rays showed a significant progress in callus formation in cases compared to the controls. This study shows that zinc supplementation can stimulate fracture healing, however, it needs further study. (author)

  6. The relative efficiency of zinc carriers on growth and zinc nutrition of corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of different zinc carriers showed that application of Zn-DTPA, Zn-EDTA, Zn-fulvate and ZnSO4 significantly increased the dry matter yield and zinc uptake by corn over the control treatment where no zinc was applied. The chelates in particular enhanced to a greater extent the uptake of both native and applied sources than that observed with ZnSO4 as the zinc carrier. Both the dry matter yield and zinc uptake by corn showed a positive and significant relationship with self-diffusion coefficient of zinc showing thereby that diffusion contributed mainly the supply of Zn from the ambient soil matrix to plant roots. The effectiveness of the chelates varied depending on their capacity to retain Zn in a soluble form in the soil solution. It is evident that zinc nutrition of plants in alkaline and calcareous soils can be more effectively regulated by both synthetic and natural chelates or organic manures which contain substantial amount of complexed zinc. (orig.)

  7. Growth of zinc oxide nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Sreenivas; Sanjeev Kumar; Jaya Choudhury; Vinay Gupta

    2005-11-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowhiskers have been prepared using a multilayer ZnO(50 nm)/Zn(20 nm)/ZnO(2 m) structure on a polished stainless steel (SS) substrate by high rate magnetron sputtering. The formation of uniformly distributed ZnO nanowhiskers with about 20 nm dia. and 2 to 5 m length was observed after a post-deposition annealing of the prepared structure at 300–400 ° C. An array of highly -axis oriented ZnO columns (70–300 nm in dia. and up to 10 m long) were grown on Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at a high pressure (1 Torr), and Raman studies showed the activation of surface phonon modes. The nanosized powder (15–20 nm) and nanoparticle ZnO films on glass substrate were also prepared by a chemical route. Nanowhiskers showed enhanced UV light detection characteristics, and the chemically prepared ZnO nanoparticle films exhibited good sensing properties for alcohol.

  8. Selective removal of iron contaminations from zinc-chloride melts by cementation with zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devilee, R. A.; van Sandwijk, A.; Reuter, M. A.

    1999-08-01

    An investigation into the cementation of iron chloride from a zinc-chloride melt at 400 °C has been carried out with zinc powder. The variables studied include preparation of the chloride melt and the amount of zinc added. The effect of lead, copper, and cadmium on cementation of iron has also been investigated. According to the results, it is possible to reduce the iron concentration in zinc-chloride melts to 20 ppm with a small excess of zinc. The preparation of the melt proved to be very important. Insufficient purification of the melt with respect to oxides, hydroxides, and water resulted in a low reaction rate and high residual iron concentration.

  9. Selective Acidic Leaching of Spent Zinc-Carbon Batteries Followed by Zinc Electrowinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalchian, Hossein; Rafsanjani-Abbasi, Ali; Vahdati-Khaki, Jalil; Babakhani, Abolfazl

    2015-02-01

    In this work, a selective acidic leaching procedure was employed for recycling zinc from spent zinc-carbon batteries. Leaching experiments were carried out in order to maximize zinc recovery and minimize manganese recovery in diluted sulfuric acid media. Response surface methodology and analysis of variance were employed for experimental design, data analysis, and leaching optimization. The experimental design has 28 experiments that include 24 main runs and four replicate in center point. The optimal conditions obtained from the selective acidic leaching experiments, were sulfuric acid concentration of 1 pct v/v, leaching temperature of 343 K (70 °C), pulp density of 8 pct w/v, and stirring speed of 300 rpm. The results show that the zinc and manganese recoveries after staged selective leaching are about 92 and 15 pct, respectively. Finally, metallic zinc with purity of 99.9 pct and electrolytic manganese dioxide were obtained by electrowinning.

  10. Durability of doped zinc oxide/silver/doped zinc oxide low emissivity coatings in humid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, E. [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama 221-8755 (Japan)], E-mail: eiichi-ando@agc.co.jp; Miyazaki, M. [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama 221-8755 (Japan)

    2008-05-30

    The relationship between internal stress of doped zinc oxide films and durability of doped zinc oxide/silver/doped zinc oxide low emissivity (low-e) coatings in humid environment was investigated. Aluminum, titanium, tin, chromium, silicon, gallium, magnesium, boron, barium, and calcium were chosen as a doping element in sputtering targets. Ratios of dopant/zinc in the oxide targets were 4/96-5/95 at.%. Films were formed by radio frequency sputtering. Doping of barium and calcium to the zinc oxide film led to a large increase in the internal stress. Doping of the other elements resulted in decreasing the internal stress. It was concluded that durability of the low-e coatings in humid environment closely correlated with the internal stress of the oxide layers.

  11. Zinc enrichment of whole potato tuber by vacuum impregnation

    OpenAIRE

    Erihemu; Hironaka, Kazunori; Koaze, Hiroshi; Oda, Yuji; SHIMADA, Kenichiro

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is a nutritionally essential truce element, and thus zinc deficiency (ZD) severely affects human health. More than 25% of the world’s population is at risk of ZD. This study was initiated to examine the use of the vacuum impregnation (VI) technique for enriching zinc content of whole potatoes; the effect of vacuum time, restoration time, steam-cooking and storage at 4 °C on the zinc content of VI whole potatoes was evaluated. Whole potato tubers were immersed in a 9 g/100 g zinc (zinc gl...

  12. Zinc Regulation of Aminopeptidase B Involved in Neuropeptide Production

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Shin-Rong; Hook, Vivian

    2008-01-01

    Aminopeptidase B (AP-B) is a metallopeptidase that removes basic residues from the N-termini of neuropeptide substrates in secretory vesicles. This study assessed zinc regulation of AP-B activity, since secretory vesicles contain endogenous zinc. AP-B was inhibited by zinc at concentrations typically present in secretory vesicles. Zinc effects were dependent on concentration, incubation time, and the molar ratio of zinc to enzyme. AP-B activity was recovered upon removal of zinc. AP-B with zi...

  13. Dosage Effect of Zinc Glycine Chelate on Zinc Metabolism and Gene Expression of Zinc Transporter in Intestinal Segments on Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Danping; Hu, Qiaoling; Fang, Shenglin; Feng, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Zinc plays an essential role in various fundamental biological processes. The focus of this research was to investigate the dosage effect of zinc glycine chelate (Zn-Gly) on zinc metabolism and the gene expression of zinc transporters in intestinal segments. A total of 30 4-week-old SD rats were randomized into five treatment groups. The basal diets for each group were supplemented with gradient levels of Zn (0, 30, 60, 90, and 180 mg/kg) from Zn-Gly. After 1-week experiment, the results showed that serum and hepatic zinc concentration were elevated linearly with supplemental Zn levels from 0 to 180 mg Zn/kg. Serum Cu-Zn SOD activities resulted in a significant (P liver. In the duodenum, MT1 mRNA was upregulated with the increasing dietary Zn-Gly levels and reached the peak of 180 mg Zn/kg (P rats. Dietary Zn-Gly has a certain effect on MT1, Zip4, Zip5, and ZnT1 expression, which expressed differently in intestinal segments with different levels of Zn-Gly load. Besides, Zn-Gly also could regulate PepT1 expression in intestinal segments. PMID:26507438

  14. Aspergillus fumigatus survival in alkaline and extreme zinc-limiting environments relies on the induction of a zinc homeostasis system encoded by the zrfC and aspf2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amich, Jorge; Vicentefranqueira, Rocío; Leal, Fernando; Calera, José Antonio

    2010-03-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus has three zinc transporter-encoding genes whose expression is regulated by both pH and the environmental concentration of zinc. We have previously reported that the zrfA and zrfB genes of A. fumigatus are transcribed at higher levels and are required for fungal growth under acidic zinc-limiting conditions whereas they are dispensable for growth in neutral or alkaline zinc-limiting media. Here we report that the transporter of the zinc uptake system that functions in A. fumigatus growing in neutral or alkaline environments is encoded by zrfC. The transcription of zrfC occurs divergently with respect to the adjacent aspf2 gene, which encodes an immunodominant antigen secreted by A. fumigatus. The two genes-zrfC and aspf2-are required to different extents for fungal growth in alkaline and extreme zinc-limiting media. Indeed, these environmental conditions induce the simultaneous transcription of both genes mediated by the transcriptional regulators ZafA and PacC. ZafA upregulates the expression of zrfC and aspf2 under zinc-limiting conditions regardless of the ambient pH, whereas PacC represses the expression of these genes under acidic growth conditions. Interestingly, the mode of action of PacC for zrfC-aspf2 transcription contrasts with the more widely accepted model for PacC function, according to which under alkaline growth conditions PacC would activate the transcription of alkaline-expressed genes but would repress the transcription of acid-expressed genes. In sum, this report provides a good framework for investigating several important aspects of the biology of species of Aspergillus, including the repression of alkaline genes by PacC at acidic pH and the interrelationship that must exist between tissue pH, metal availability in the host tissue, and fungal virulence. PMID:20038606

  15. Design, construction, and analysis of specific zinc finger nucleases for microphthalmia - associate transcription factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the design, construction, and cleavage analysis of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs that could cut the specific sequences within microphthalmia - associate transcription factor (mitfa of zebra fish. The target site and ZFPs were selected and designed with zinc finger tools, while the ZFPs were synthesized using DNAWorks and two-step PCR. The ZFNs were constructed, expressed, purified, and analyzed in vitro. As expected, the designed ZFNs could create a double-stand break (DSB at the target site in vitro. The DNAWorks, two-step PCR, and an optimized process of protein expression were firstly induced in the construction of ZFNs successfully, which was an effective and simplified protocol. These results could be useful for further application of ZFNs - mediated gene targeting.

  16. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  17. Relative Penetration of Zinc Oxide and Zinc Ions into Human Skin after Application of Different Zinc Oxide Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Amy M; Song, Zhen; Moghimi, Hamid R; Roberts, Michael S

    2016-02-23

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is frequently used in commercial sunscreen formulations to deliver their broad range of UV protection properties. Concern has been raised about the extent to which these ZnO particles (both micronized and nanoparticulate) penetrate the skin and their resultant toxicity. This work has explored the human epidermal skin penetration of zinc oxide and its labile zinc ion dissolution product that may potentially be formed after application of ZnO nanoparticles to human epidermis. Three ZnO nanoparticle formulations were used: a suspension in the oil, capric caprylic triglycerides (CCT), the base formulation commonly used in commercially available sunscreen products; an aqueous ZnO suspension at pH 6, similar to the natural skin surface pH; and an aqueous ZnO suspension at pH 9, a pH at which ZnO is stable and there is minimal pH-induced impairment of epidermal integrity. In each case, the ZnO in the formulations did not penetrate into the intact viable epidermis for any of the formulations but was associated with an enhanced increase in zinc ion fluorescence signal in both the stratum corneum and the viable epidermis. The highest labile zinc fluorescence was found for the ZnO suspension at pH 6. It is concluded that, while topically applied ZnO does not penetrate into the viable epidermis, these applications are associated with hydrolysis of ZnO on the skin surface, leading to an increase in zinc ion levels in the stratum corneum, thence in the viable epidermis and subsequently in the systemic circulation and the urine. PMID:26741484

  18. High doses of dietary zinc induce cytokines, chemokines, and apoptosis in reproductive tissues during regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, N R; Anish, D; Sastry, K V H; Saxena, V K; Nagarajan, K; Subramani, J; Leo, M D M; Shit, N; Mohan, J; Saxena, M; Ahmed, K A

    2008-06-01

    In chickens, high levels of dietary zinc cause molting, and the reproductive system undergoes complete remodeling concomitant to feather replacement. In the present study, the expression profiles of cytokines and chemokines were investigated in the ovary and oviduct of control hens and of hens induced to molt by zinc feeding. The zinc-induced feed-intake suppression, the changes in corticosterone levels, the immune cell populations in the reproductive tract, and the apoptosis of reproductive tissues were analyzed. The expression of mRNAs for interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), the avian ortholog of mammalian IL-8 (chCXCLi2), and a chicken MIP-1beta-like chemokine (chCCLi2) in the ovary and of mRNAs for IL-1beta, IL-6, IFN-gamma, transforming growth factor-beta2, chCXCLi2, and chCCLi2 in the oviduct were upregulated significantly during zinc-induced molting. A simultaneous feed-intake reduction was observed with higher expression of cytokines and chemokines. The results of the present investigation also suggested that the upregulation of corticosterone was closely associated with the increased expression of cytokines and chemokines. An increase in apoptosis within reproductive tissue during tissue regression was also noted. We had previously observed the upregulation of these cytokines expression in an earlier study (molting by feed withdrawal). However, the pattern and the level of expression were different among these two methods. These findings indicate that cytokines might be a common mediator of tissue regression during molting induced by diverse methods, although the pattern of induction is different. Thus, a high dose of dietary zinc seems to induce reproductive regression via the upregulation of cytokines and chemokines, the suppression of feed intake, and the increase in serum corticosterone, resulting finally in the apoptosis of reproductive tissues. PMID:18351392

  19. Seasonal influence on sulfate reduction and zinc sequestration in subsurface treatment wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Otto R; Borden-Stewart, Deborah J; Hook, Paul B; Jones, Warren L

    2007-08-01

    To characterize the effects of season, temperature, plant species, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading on sulfate reduction and metals removal in treatment wetlands we measured pore water redox potentials and concentrations of sulfate, sulfide, zinc and COD in subsurface wetland microcosms. Two batch incubations of 20 day duration were conducted in each of four seasons defined by temperature and daylight duration. Four treatments were compared: unplanted controls, Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail), and Schoenoplectus acutus (hardstem bulrush), all at low COD loading (267 mg/L), plus bulrush at high COD loading (534 mg/L). Initial SO4-S and zinc concentrations were 67 and 24 mg/L, respectively. For all treatments, sulfate removal was least in winter (4 degrees C, plant dormancy) greatest in summer (24 degrees C, active plant growth) and intermediate in spring and fall (14 degrees C), but seasonal variation was greater in cattail, and especially, bulrush treatments. Redox measurements indicated that, in winter, plant-mediated oxygen transfer inhibited activity of sulfate reducing bacteria, exacerbating the reduction in sulfate removal due to temperature. Doubling the COD load in bulrush treatments increased sulfate removal by only 20-30% when averaged over all seasons and did not alter the basic pattern of seasonal variation, despite tempering the wintertime increase in redox potential. Seasonal and treatment effects on zinc removal were broadly consistent with sulfate removal and presumably reflected zinc-sulfide precipitation. Results strongly suggest that interactive effects of COD loading rate, temperature, season, and plant species control not only sulfate reduction and zinc sequestration, but also the balance of competition between various microbial consortia responsible for water treatment in constructed wetlands. PMID:17599383

  20. Properties of Zip4 accumulation during zinc deficiency and its usefulness to evaluate zinc status: a study of the effects of zinc deficiency during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Nakagawa, Miki; Tsujimura, Natsuki; Miyazaki, Shiho; Kizu, Kumiko; Goto, Tomoko; Komatsu, Yusuke; Matsunaga, Ayu; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Komai, Michio

    2016-03-01

    Systemic and cellular zinc homeostasis is elaborately controlled by ZIP and ZnT zinc transporters. Therefore, detailed characterization of their expression properties is of importance. Of these transporter proteins, Zip4 functions as the primarily important transporter to control systemic zinc homeostasis because of its indispensable function of zinc absorption in the small intestine. In this study, we closely investigated Zip4 protein accumulation in the rat small intestine in response to zinc status using an anti-Zip4 monoclonal antibody that we generated and contrasted this with the zinc-responsive activity of the membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP). We found that Zip4 accumulation is more rapid in response to zinc deficiency than previously thought. Accumulation increased in the jejunum as early as 1 day following a zinc-deficient diet. In the small intestine, Zip4 protein expression was higher in the jejunum than in the duodenum and was accompanied by reduction of ALP activity, suggesting that the jejunum can become zinc deficient more easily. Furthermore, by monitoring Zip4 accumulation levels and ALP activity in the duodenum and jejunum, we reasserted that zinc deficiency during lactation may transiently alter plasma glucose levels in the offspring in a sex-specific manner, without affecting homeostatic control of zinc metabolism. This confirms that zinc nutrition during lactation is extremely important for the health of the offspring. These results reveal that rapid Zip4 accumulation provides a significant conceptual advance in understanding the molecular basis of systemic zinc homeostatic control, and that properties of Zip4 protein accumulation are useful to evaluate zinc status closely. PMID:26702153

  1. The immune system and the impact of zinc during aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haase Hajo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The trace element zinc is essential for the immune system, and zinc deficiency affects multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. There are remarkable parallels in the immunological changes during aging and zinc deficiency, including a reduction in the activity of the thymus and thymic hormones, a shift of the T helper cell balance toward T helper type 2 cells, decreased response to vaccination, and impaired functions of innate immune cells. Many studies confirm a decline of zinc levels with age. Most of these studies do not classify the majority of elderly as zinc deficient, but even marginal zinc deprivation can affect immune function. Consequently, oral zinc supplementation demonstrates the potential to improve immunity and efficiently downregulates chronic inflammatory responses in the elderly. These data indicate that a wide prevalence of marginal zinc deficiency in elderly people may contribute to immunosenescence.

  2. Oral zinc and common childhood infections--An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Sudha; Mathisen, Maria; Strand, Tor A

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient important for growth and for normal function of the immune system. Many children in developing countries have inadequate zinc nutrition. Routine zinc supplementation reduces the risk of respiratory infections and diarrhea, the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in young children worldwide. In childhood diarrhea oral zinc also reduces illness duration and risk of persistent episodes. Oral zinc is therefore recommended for the treatment of acute diarrhea in young children. The results from the studies that have measured the therapeutic effect of zinc on acute respiratory infections, however, are conflicting. Moreover, the results of therapeutic zinc for childhood malaria also are so far not promising.This paper gives a brief outline of the current evidence from clinical trials on therapeutic effect of oral zinc on childhood respiratory infections, pneumonia and malaria and also of new evidence of the effect on serious bacterial illness in young infants. PMID:24906347

  3. Zinc Extraction from Zinc Plants Residue Using Selective Alkaline Leaching and Electrowinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtari, Pedram; Pourghahramani, Parviz

    2015-10-01

    Annually, a great amount of zinc plants residue is produced in Iran. One of them is hot filter cake (known as HFC) which can be used as a secondary resource of zinc, cobalt and manganese. Unfortunately, despite its heavy metal content, the HFC is not treated. For the first time, zinc was selectively leached from HFC employing alkaline leaching. Secondly, leaching was optimized to achieve maximum recovery using this method. Effects of factors like NaOH concentration (C = 3, 5, 7 and 9 M), temperature (T = 50, 70, 90 and 105 °C), solid/liquid ratio (weight/volume, S/L = 1/10 and 1/5 W/V) and stirring speed (R = 500 and 800 rpm) were studied on HFC leaching. L16 orthogonal array (OA, two factors in four levels and two factors in two levels) was applied to determine the optimum condition and the most significant factor affecting the overall zinc extraction. As a result, maximum zinc extraction was 83.4 %. Afterwards, a rough test was conducted for zinc electrowinning from alkaline solution according to the common condition available in literature by which pure zinc powder (99.96 %) was successfully obtained.

  4. Fabrications of zinc-releasing biocement combining zinc calcium phosphate to calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Shinya; Hiasa, Masahiro; Yasue, Akihiro; Sekine, Kazumitsu; Hamada, Kenichi; Asaoka, Kenzo; Tanaka, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Recently, zinc-releasing bioceramics have been the focus of much attention owing to their bone-forming ability. Thus, some types of zinc-containing calcium phosphate (e.g., zinc-doped tricalcium phosphate and zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite) are examined and their osteoblastic cell responses determined. In this investigation, we studied the effects of zinc calcium phosphate (ZCP) derived from zinc phosphate incorporated into calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in terms of its setting reaction and MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cell responses. Compositional analysis by powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that HAP crystals were precipitated in the CPC containing 10 or 30wt% ZCP after successfully hardening. However, the crystal growth observed by scanning electron microscopy was delayed in the presence of additional ZCP. These findings indicate that the additional zinc inhibits crystal growth and the conversion of CPC to the HAP crystals. The proliferation of the cells and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were enhanced when 10wt% ZCP was added to CPC. Taken together, ZCP added CPC at an appropriate fraction has a potent promotional effect on bone substitute biomaterials. PMID:24090874

  5. Selective extraction of zinc from sulfate leach solution of zinc ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃文庆; 蓝卓越; 黎维中; 邱冠周

    2003-01-01

    Selective extraction of zinc from sulfate leach solution of zinc ore was studied.D2EHPA dissolved in260# kerosene was used as extractant.The pH-extraction isotherms show the extraction order of D2EHPA for metals is Fe3+>Zn2+>Ca2+>Al3+>Mn2+>Cu2+>Cd2+>Co2+>Ni2+>Mg2+(pH0.5).This confirms that Fe3+ ispreferentially extracted before the extraction of zinc.Extraction experiments were carried out with varying the extractant content,equilibration time,aqueous pH and phase ratio,and the solvent extraction of zinc with sodium saltof D2EHPA were also investigated.Some impurity co-extracted into the zinc loaded organic phase was efficiently removed by scrub,and the Fe3+ was hardly stripped from organic phase by sulfuric acid,hence zinc was separatedfrom Fe3+ by selective stripping.A pregnant zinc sulfate solution with low contaminants was obtained by selectivesolvent extraction.

  6. Book review: Current perspectives on zinc deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Karen Duttweiler

    2016-01-01

    This book, published in 2015 by the Irish Association for Economic Geology (IAEG), is a compilation of papers and abstracts written by selected authors who attended the ZINC 2010 Conference in Cork, Ireland. Unlike most books produced each decade by the IAEG, which are focused primarily on achievements of the Irish and European mineral sectors, this book has a global perspective of a single commodity—zinc. As stated in the Preface, the theme of the conference and book was quite relevant for the IAEG because Ireland has the highest concentration of zinc per square kilometer on the planet. The book contains 7 full papers and 5 extended abstracts by keynote speakers, followed by 17 extended abstracts by other presenters, plus an Appendix (reprint) of a previously published paper.

  7. Model of how plants sense zinc deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assuncao, Ana G.L.; Persson, Daniel Olof; Husted, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    Plants are capable of inducing a range of physico-chemical and microbial modifications of the rhizosphere which can mobilize mineral nutrients or prevent toxic elements from entering the roots. Understanding how plants sense and adapt to variations in nutrient availability is essential in order to...... develop plant-based solutions addressing nutrient-use-efficiency and adaptation to nutrient-limited or -toxic soils. Recently two transcription factors of the bZIP family (basic-region leucine zipper) have been identified in Arabidopsis and shown to be pivotal in the adaptation response to zinc deficiency....... They represent not only the first regulators of zinc homeostasis identified in plants, but also a very promising starting-point that can provide new insights into the molecular basis of how plants sense and adapt to the stress of zinc deficiency. Considering the available information thus far we...

  8. Metal-Mediated Affinity and Orientation Specificity in a Computationally Designed Protein Homodimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Der, Bryan S.; Machius, Mischa; Miley, Michael J.; Mills, Jeffrey L.; Szyperski, Thomas; Kuhlman, Brian (UNC); (Buffalo)

    2015-10-15

    Computationally designing protein-protein interactions with high affinity and desired orientation is a challenging task. Incorporating metal-binding sites at the target interface may be one approach for increasing affinity and specifying the binding mode, thereby improving robustness of designed interactions for use as tools in basic research as well as in applications from biotechnology to medicine. Here we describe a Rosetta-based approach for the rational design of a protein monomer to form a zinc-mediated, symmetric homodimer. Our metal interface design, named MID1 (NESG target ID OR37), forms a tight dimer in the presence of zinc (MID1-zinc) with a dissociation constant <30 nM. Without zinc the dissociation constant is 4 {micro}M. The crystal structure of MID1-zinc shows good overall agreement with the computational model, but only three out of four designed histidines coordinate zinc. However, a histidine-to-glutamate point mutation resulted in four-coordination of zinc, and the resulting metal binding site and dimer orientation closely matches the computational model (C{alpha} rmsd = 1.4 {angstrom}).

  9. Study on indium leaching from mechanically activated hard zinc residue

    OpenAIRE

    Yao J.H.; Li X.H.; Li Y.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, changes in physicochemical properties and leachability of indium from mechanically activated hard zinc residue by planetary mill were investigated. The results showed that mechanical activation increased specific surface area, reaction activity of hard zinc residue, and decreased its particle size, which had a positive effect on indium extraction from hard zinc residue in hydrochloric acid solution. Kinetics of indium leaching from unmilled and activated hard zinc residue...

  10. Zinc supplementation, production and quality of coffee beans

    OpenAIRE

    Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez; Yonara Poltronieri; Adriana Farah; Daniel Perrone

    2013-01-01

    Besides its importance in the coffee tree nutrition, there is almost no information relating zinc nutrition and bean quality. This work evaluated the effect of zinc on the coffee yield and bean quality. The experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica L. in "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Twelve plots were established at random with 4 competitive plants each. Treatments included plants supplemented with zinc (eight plots) and control without zinc supplementation (four plots). Pla...

  11. Zinc concentration and survival in rats infected with Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Tocco-Bradley, R; Kluger, M J

    1984-01-01

    Percent survival was measured in male rats injected intravenously with live Salmonella typhimurium when plasma and tissue zinc levels were manipulated. Alzet pumps implanted intraperitoneally infused zinc gluconate or sodium gluconate (controls) from the onset of infection to 72 h postinfection. Plasma and tissue zinc levels were manipulated by infusing (i) 180 micrograms of Zn per h to achieve supranormal plasma and tissue zinc concentrations, (ii) 120 micrograms of Zn per h to prevent the i...

  12. Laser droplet welding of zinc coated steel sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Jerič, Anže; Grabec, Igor; Govekar, Edvard

    2015-01-01

    The weldability of zinc coated steel sheets is often compromised by weld seam defects caused by rapid zinc vaporisation and burned-off zinc. Owing to this, welded seams usually remain unprotected from corrosion and are accompanied by undesirable porosity. In this paper, the laser droplet generation process and its application to laser droplet welding of zinc coated steel sheets are described. The influences of laser droplet generation and welding process control parameters on the properties o...

  13. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF MEDIATION

    OpenAIRE

    IULIA FLOCA

    2011-01-01

    Today the Romanian state gives some advantages to those who use mediation. If the Romanian state would take further steps, mediation would work as in the countries with old tradition. The article refers to success and failure got in the two years of practice. The mediation can be seen in two aspects: The first aspect regarding the mediation itself can lead to a mediation agreement. The mediation agreement gives both winnings to the conflict parts and professional satisfactions to the mediator...

  14. Zinc Biofortification of Rice in China: A Simulation of Zinc Intake with Different Dietary Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Zumin Shi; Rita Wegmueller; Jinkou Zhao; Kok, Frans J.; Minghao Zhou; Baojun Yuan; Xiaoqun Pan; Yue Dai; Alida Melse-Boonstra; Yu Qin

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 2819 adults aged 20 years and above was undertaken in 2002 in Jiangsu Province. Zinc intake was assessed using a consecutive 3-day 24-h dietary recall method. Insufficient and excess intake was determined according to the Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes. Four distinct dietary patterns were identified namely “traditional”, “macho”, “sweet tooth”, and “healthy”. Intake of zinc from biofortified rice was simulated at an intermediate zinc concentration (2.7 mg/100 ...

  15. Zinc Biofortification of Rice in China: A stimulation of zinc intake with different dietary patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Y.; Boonstra, A.; B. Yuan; Pan, X; Dai, Yue

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 2819 adults aged 20 years and above was undertaken in 2002 in Jiangsu Province. Zinc intake was assessed using a consecutive 3-day 24-h dietary recall method. Insufficient and excess intake was determined according to the Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes. Four distinct dietary patterns were identified namely “traditional”, “macho”, “sweet tooth”, and “healthy”. Intake of zinc from biofortified rice was simulated at an intermediate zinc concentration (2.7 mg/100 ...

  16. Zinc-rich clays in supergene non-sulfide zinc deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Choulet, Flavien; Buatier, M.; Barbanson, Luc; Guégan, Régis; Ennaciri, A.

    2015-01-01

    The nature and the origin of zinc clays are poorly understood. With the example of the Bou Arhous Zn-Pb ore deposit in the Moroccan High Atlas, this study presents new data for the mineralogical and chemical characterization of barren and zinc clays associated with non-sulfide zinc ores. In the field, white to ocher granular clays are associated with willemite (Zn2SiO4), while red clays fill karst-related cavities cutting across the non-sulfide ore bodies. Red clays (kaolinite, chlorite, illi...

  17. hZIP1 zinc uptake transporter down regulation and zinc depletion in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajdacsy-Balla André

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic and molecular mechanisms responsible for and associated with the development and progression of prostate malignancy are largely unidentified. The peripheral zone is the major region of the human prostate gland where malignancy develops. The normal peripheral zone glandular epithelium has the unique function of accumulating high levels of zinc. In contrast, the ability to accumulate zinc is lost in the malignant cells. The lost ability of the neoplastic epithelial cells to accumulate zinc is a consistent factor in their development of malignancy. Recent studies identified ZIP1 (SLC39A1 as an important zinc transporter involved in zinc accumulation in prostate cells. Therefore, we investigated the possibility that down-regulation of hZIP1 gene expression might be involved in the inability of malignant prostate cells to accumulate zinc. To address this issue, the expression of hZIP1 and the depletion of zinc in malignant versus non-malignant prostate glands of prostate cancer tissue sections were analyzed. hZIP1 expression was also determined in malignant prostate cell lines. Results hZIP1 gene expression, ZIP1 transporter protein, and cellular zinc were prominent in normal peripheral zone glandular epithelium and in benign hyperplastic glands (also zinc accumulating glands. In contrast, hZIP1 gene expression and transporter protein were markedly down-regulated and zinc was depleted in adenocarcinomatous glands and in prostate intra-epithelial neoplastic foci (PIN. These changes occur early in malignancy and are sustained during its progression in the peripheral zone. hZIP1 is also expressed in the malignant cell lines LNCaP, PC-3, DU-145; and in the nonmalignant cell lines HPr-1 and BPH-1. Conclusion The studies clearly establish that hZIP1 gene expression is down regulated and zinc is depleted in adenocarcinomatous glands. The fact that all the malignant cell lines express hZIP1 indicates that the down

  18. Historical variations in the isotopic composition of atmospheric zinc deposition from a zinc smelter

    OpenAIRE

    Sonke, J. E.; Sivry, Y.; Viers, J.; Freydier, R.; Dejonghe, L; André, L.; Aggarwal, J. K.; Fontan, F.; Dupré, Bernard (collab.)

    2008-01-01

    In order to test the usefulness of stable zinc isotopes as an atmospheric source tracer, we analyzed the zinc isotopic composition of two sediment cores, taken at 1 km distance of the former zinc smelter in Lommel, Belgium. The peat bog lake sediments accumulate mainly atmospheric particles, have high organic matter contents (12-60 wt.%), are anoxic and highly contaminated with heavy metals (up to 4.7 wt.% Zn, and 1.1 wt.% Pb) with a sulfide mineralogical control on mobility. Down core variat...

  19. Trichomes of tobacco excrete zinc as zinc-substituted calciumcarbonate and other zinc-containing compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarret, G.; Harada, E.; Choi, Y-E.; Isaure, M.-P.; Geoffroy, N.; Fakra, S.; Marcus, M.A.; Birschwilks, M.; Clemens, S.; Manceau, A.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) plants were exposed to toxic levels of zinc (Zn). Zn exposure resulted in toxicity signs in plants, and these damages were partly reduced by a calcium (Ca) supplement. Confocal imaging of intracellular Zn using Zinquin showed that Zn was preferentially accumulated in trichomes. Exposure to Zn and Zn + Ca increased the trichome density and induced the production of Ca/Zn mineral grains on the head cells of trichomes. These grains were aggregates of submicrometer-sized crystals and poorly crystalline material and contained Ca as major element, along with subordinate amounts of Zn, manganese, potassium, chlorine, phosphorus, silicon, and magnesium. Micro x-ray diffraction revealed that the large majority of the grains were composed essentially of metal-substituted calcite (CaCO3). CaCO3 polymorphs (aragonite and vaterite) and CaC2O4 (Ca oxalate) mono- and dihydrate also were identified, either as an admixture to calcite or in separate grains. Some grains did not diffract, although they contained Ca, suggesting the presence of amorphous form of Ca. The presence of Zn-substituted calcite was confirmed by Zn K-edge micro-extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Zn bound to organic compounds and Zn-containing silica and phosphate were also identified by this technique. The proportion of Zn-substituted calcite relative to the other species increased with Ca exposure. The production of Zn-containing biogenic calcite and other Zn compounds through the trichomes is a novel mechanism involved in Zn detoxification. This study illustrates the potential of laterally resolved x-ray synchrotron radiation techniques to study biomineralization and metal homeostasis processes in plants.

  20. Luminescence investigation of zinc molybdate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc molybdate is considered as an alternative to the sheelite-type molybdate crystals for cryogenic scintillating bolometers. We report the results of the first investigation of the luminescent properties of bulk ZnMoO4 single crystals grown by Czochralski method. The temperature dependence of the luminescence intensity under different excitation energies was studied, optical characteristics of zinc molybdate are presented. The potential of ZnMoO4 single crystal as a scintillating material at low temperature is demonstrated. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Determination of zinc contents in vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc content of three groups of vegetables (roots and tuber, leaves and fruits) collected from local markets was determined and are reported here. The determination was made by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results obtained show that the zinc content of different vegetables ranged from 6.26-36.80 ppm, 8.80-70-70 ppm and 7.20-35.10 ppm for roots and tubers, fruits of vegetables respectively on dry weight basis. Generally, the values obtained in majority are not above, the maximum permissible limits. (author)

  2. Luminescence investigation of zinc molybdate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' ev, Andrey [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Kamenskikh, Irina; Kolobanov, Vitaly; Savon, Alexander [Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Physics Faculty, Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Mikhailin, Vitaly [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Physics Faculty, Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Ivleva, Ludmila; Voronina, Irina; Berezovskaya, Ludmila [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Spassky, Dmitry

    2009-07-15

    Zinc molybdate is considered as an alternative to the sheelite-type molybdate crystals for cryogenic scintillating bolometers. We report the results of the first investigation of the luminescent properties of bulk ZnMoO{sub 4} single crystals grown by Czochralski method. The temperature dependence of the luminescence intensity under different excitation energies was studied, optical characteristics of zinc molybdate are presented. The potential of ZnMoO{sub 4} single crystal as a scintillating material at low temperature is demonstrated. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Diffusion zinc plating of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with the research on diffusion zinc plating of structural steels when replacing their cyanide cadmium plating. The results of the experiments in the open air, in vacuum, in the inert atmosphere, under various temperatures (300 - 500 deg.C) for different steel brands are presented. It is shown that diffusion zinc plating in argon or nitrogen atmosphere ensures obtaining the qualitative anticorrosion coating with insignificant change of mechanical properties of steels. The process is simple, reliable, ecology pure and cost-effective. (authors)

  4. Zinc oxide's hierarchical nanostructure and its photocatalytic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Sheikh, Faheem A.; Barakat, Nasser A. M.;

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a new hierarchical nanostructure that consists of zinc oxide (ZnO) was produced by the electrospinning process followed by a hydrothermal technique. First, electrospinning of a colloidal solution that consisted of zinc nanoparticles, zinc acetate dihydrate and poly(vinyl alcohol) was...

  5. Crosstalk between Zinc Status and Giardia Infection: A New Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astiazarán-García, Humberto; Iñigo-Figueroa, Gemma; Quihui-Cota, Luis; Anduro-Corona, Iván

    2015-06-01

    Zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce the incidence and prevalence of diarrhea; however, its anti-diarrheal effect remains only partially understood. There is now growing evidence that zinc can have pathogen-specific protective effects. Giardiasis is a common yet neglected cause of acute-chronic diarrheal illness worldwide which causes disturbances in zinc metabolism of infected children, representing a risk factor for zinc deficiency. How zinc metabolism is compromised by Giardia is not well understood; zinc status could be altered by intestinal malabsorption, organ redistribution or host-pathogen competition. The potential metal-binding properties of Giardia suggest unusual ways that the parasite may interact with its host. Zinc supplementation was recently found to reduce the rate of diarrhea caused by Giardia in children and to upregulate humoral immune response in Giardia-infected mice; in vitro and in vivo, zinc-salts enhanced the activity of bacitracin in a zinc-dose-dependent way, and this was not due to zinc toxicity. These findings reflect biological effect of zinc that may impact significantly public health in endemic areas of infection. In this paper, we shall explore one direction of this complex interaction, discussing recent information regarding zinc status and its possible contribution to the outcome of the encounter between the host and Giardia. PMID:26046395

  6. Efficacy of highly bioavailable zinc from fortified water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetti, Valeria; Kujinga, Prosper; Mitchikpè, C.E.S.; Zeder, Christophe; Tay, Fabian; Tossou, Félicien; Hounhouigan, Joseph D.; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Moretti, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zinc deficiency and contaminated water are major contributors to diarrhea in developing countries. Food fortification with zinc has not shown clear benefits, possibly because of low zinc absorption from inhibitory food matrices. We used a novel pointof-use water ultrafiltration device

  7. Decrease of non-point zinc runoff using porous concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shigeki; Komuro, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    The use of porous concrete columns to decrease the amount of zinc in stormwater runoff is examined. The concentration of zinc in a simulated stormwater fluid (zinc acetate solution), fed through concrete columns (slashed circle10x10cm) decreased by 50-81%, suggesting physical adsorption of zinc by the porous concrete. We propose the use of porous concrete columns (slashed circle50x10cm) as the base of sewage traps. Longer-term, high-zinc concentration monitoring revealed that porous concrete blocks adsorb 38.6mgcm(-3) of zinc. A period of no significant zinc runoff (with an acceptable concentration of zinc in runoff of 0.03mgL(-1), a zinc concentration equal to the Japanese Environmental Standard) is estimated for 41years using a 1-ha catchment area with 20 porous concrete sewage traps. Scanning electron microscopy of the porous concrete used in this study indicates that the needle-like particles formed by hydration action significantly increase zinc adsorption. Evidence suggests that the hydrant is ettringite and has an important role in zinc adsorption, the resulting immobilization of zinc and the subsequent effects on groundwater quality. PMID:19892386

  8. Serum zinc and pneumonia in nursing home elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc plays an important role in immune function. The association between serum zinc and pneumonia in the elderly has not been studied. The study aim is to determine if serum zinc concentrations in nursing home elderly are associated with incidence and duration of pneumonia, total and duration of ant...

  9. Crosstalk between Zinc Status and Giardia Infection: A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Astiazarán-García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce the incidence and prevalence of diarrhea; however, its anti-diarrheal effect remains only partially understood. There is now growing evidence that zinc can have pathogen-specific protective effects. Giardiasis is a common yet neglected cause of acute-chronic diarrheal illness worldwide which causes disturbances in zinc metabolism of infected children, representing a risk factor for zinc deficiency. How zinc metabolism is compromised by Giardia is not well understood; zinc status could be altered by intestinal malabsorption, organ redistribution or host-pathogen competition. The potential metal-binding properties of Giardia suggest unusual ways that the parasite may interact with its host. Zinc supplementation was recently found to reduce the rate of diarrhea caused by Giardia in children and to upregulate humoral immune response in Giardia-infected mice; in vitro and in vivo, zinc-salts enhanced the activity of bacitracin in a zinc-dose-dependent way, and this was not due to zinc toxicity. These findings reflect biological effect of zinc that may impact significantly public health in endemic areas of infection. In this paper, we shall explore one direction of this complex interaction, discussing recent information regarding zinc status and its possible contribution to the outcome of the encounter between the host and Giardia.

  10. Fine structure study on low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fine structure of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite was studied using experimental analysis and first-principles calculations. The synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles containing low Zn concentration show rod-like morphology. The crystallite sizes and unit-cell volumes tended to decrease with the increased Zn concentration according to X-ray diffraction patterns. The Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra and fitting results suggest that the hydroxyapatite doped with 0.1 mole% zinc is different in the zinc coordination environments compared with that containing more zinc. The density function theory calculations were performed on zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Two mechanisms included replacing calcium by zinc and inserting zinc along the hydroxyl column and were investigated, and the related substitution energies were calculated separately. It is found that the substitution energies are negative and lowest for inserting zinc between the two oxygen atoms along the hydroxyl column (c-axis). Combined with the spectral analysis, it is suggested that the inserting mechanism is favored for low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Highlights: ► We investigate the fine structure of hydroxyapatite with low content of Zn. ► XANES spectra are similar but a little different at low zinc content. ► Zinc ions influence hydroxyapatite crystal formation and lattice parameters. ► Formation energies are calculated according to plane-wave density function theory. ► Low content of zinc prefers to locate at hydroxyl column in hydroxyapatite lattice.

  11. Inhibitory zinc-enriched terminals in mouse spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, G; Jo, S M; Varea, E;

    2001-01-01

    zinc selenium autometallographic silver grains, and zinc transporter-3 and glutamate decarboxylase immunohistochemical puncta in both ventral and dorsal horns as seen in the light microscope corresponded to their presence in the synaptic vesicles of zinc-enriched terminals at ultrastructural levels...

  12. Fine structure study on low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wei [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ma, Jun, E-mail: caltary@gmail.com [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Jianglin [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Shengmin, E-mail: smzhang@mail.hust.edu.cn [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); China-Korea Center for Biomaterials and Nano-biotechnology, Life Science Building, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-12-01

    The fine structure of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite was studied using experimental analysis and first-principles calculations. The synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles containing low Zn concentration show rod-like morphology. The crystallite sizes and unit-cell volumes tended to decrease with the increased Zn concentration according to X-ray diffraction patterns. The Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra and fitting results suggest that the hydroxyapatite doped with 0.1 mole% zinc is different in the zinc coordination environments compared with that containing more zinc. The density function theory calculations were performed on zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Two mechanisms included replacing calcium by zinc and inserting zinc along the hydroxyl column and were investigated, and the related substitution energies were calculated separately. It is found that the substitution energies are negative and lowest for inserting zinc between the two oxygen atoms along the hydroxyl column (c-axis). Combined with the spectral analysis, it is suggested that the inserting mechanism is favored for low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the fine structure of hydroxyapatite with low content of Zn. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XANES spectra are similar but a little different at low zinc content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc ions influence hydroxyapatite crystal formation and lattice parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation energies are calculated according to plane-wave density function theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low content of zinc prefers to locate at hydroxyl column in hydroxyapatite lattice.

  13. SN2-type ring opening of substituted--tosylaziridines with zinc (II) halides: Control of racemization by quaternary ammonium salt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manas K Ghorai; Deo Prakash Tiwari; Amit Kumar; Kalpataru Das

    2011-11-01

    Quaternary ammonium salt mediated highly regioselective ring opening of aziridines with zinc(II) halides to racemic and non-racemic -halo amines in excellent yield and selectivity is described. The reaction proceeds via an SN2-type pathway and the partial racemization of the starting substrate and the product was effectively controlled by using quaternary ammonium salts to afford the enantioenriched products (er up to 95:5).

  14. Analysis of cellular responses of macrophages to zinc ions and zinc oxide nanoparticles: a combined targeted and proteomic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triboulet, Sarah; Aude-Garcia, Catherine; Armand, Lucie; Gerdil, Adèle; Diemer, Hélène; Proamer, Fabienne; Collin-Faure, Véronique; Habert, Aurélie; Strub, Jean-Marc; Hanau, Daniel; Herlin, Nathalie; Carrière, Marie; van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rabilloud, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Two different zinc oxide nanoparticles, as well as zinc ions, are used to study the cellular responses of the RAW 264 macrophage cell line. A proteomic screen is used to provide a wide view of the molecular effects of zinc, and the most prominent results are cross-validated by targeted studies. Furthermore, the alteration of important macrophage functions (e.g. phagocytosis) by zinc is also investigated. The intracellular dissolution/uptake of zinc is also studied to further characterize zinc toxicity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles dissolve readily in the cells, leading to high intracellular zinc concentrations, mostly as protein-bound zinc. The proteomic screen reveals a rather weak response in the oxidative stress response pathway, but a strong response both in the central metabolism and in the proteasomal protein degradation pathway. Targeted experiments confirm that carbohydrate catabolism and proteasome are critical determinants of sensitivity to zinc, which also induces DNA damage. Conversely, glutathione levels and phagocytosis appear unaffected at moderately toxic zinc concentrations.Two different zinc oxide nanoparticles, as well as zinc ions, are used to study the cellular responses of the RAW 264 macrophage cell line. A proteomic screen is used to provide a wide view of the molecular effects of zinc, and the most prominent results are cross-validated by targeted studies. Furthermore, the alteration of important macrophage functions (e.g. phagocytosis) by zinc is also investigated. The intracellular dissolution/uptake of zinc is also studied to further characterize zinc toxicity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles dissolve readily in the cells, leading to high intracellular zinc concentrations, mostly as protein-bound zinc. The proteomic screen reveals a rather weak response in the oxidative stress response pathway, but a strong response both in the central metabolism and in the proteasomal protein degradation pathway. Targeted experiments confirm that carbohydrate

  15. Metallothionein as an Anti-Inflammatory Mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichiro Inoue

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of knowledge concerning the regulation of MT, a highly conserved, low molecular weight, cystein-rich metalloprotein, on its proposed functions is necessary to clarify how MT affects cellular processes. MT expression is induced/enhanced in various tissues by a number of physiological mediators. The cellular accumulation of MT depends on the availability of cellular zinc derived from the diet. MT modulates the binding and exchange/transport of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium, or copper under physiological conditions and cytoprotection from their toxicities, and the release of gaseous mediators such as hydroxyl radicals or nitric oxide. In addition, MT reportedly affects a number of cellular processes, such as gene expression, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. Given the genetic approach, the apparently healthy status of MT-deficient mice argues against an essential biological role for MT; however, this molecule may be critical in cells/tissues/organs in times of stress, since MT expression is also evoked/enhanced by various stresses. In particular, because metallothionein (MT is induced by inflammatory stress, its roles in inflammation are implied. Also, MT expression in various organs/tissues can be enhanced by inflammatory stimuli, implicating in inflammatory diseases. In this paper, we review the role of MT of various inflammatory conditions.

  16. Construction and application of a zinc-specific biosensor for assessing the immobilization and bioavailability of zinc in different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inducibility and specificity of different czcRS operons in Pseudomonas putida X4 were studied by lacZ gene fusions. The data of β-glycosidase activity confirmed that the czcR3 promoter responded quantitatively to zinc. A zinc-specific biosensor, P. putida X4 (pczcR3GFP), was constructed by fusing a promoterless enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene with the czcR3 promoter in the chromosome of P. putida X4. In water extracts of four different soils amended with zinc, the reporter strain detected about 90% of the zinc content of the samples. Both the bioavailability assessment and the sequential extraction analysis demonstrated that the immobilization of zinc was highly dependent on the physico-chemical properties of soils. The results also showed that the lability of zinc decreased over time. It is concluded that the biosensor constitutes an alternative system for the convenient evaluation of zinc toxicity in the environment. - Highlights: ► A zinc-specific bacterial biosensor was developed. ► Four spiked soils were used to test the application of this biosensor. ► The bioavailable zinc in soil-water extracts decreased due to aging. ► The immobilization and speciation of zinc were highly dependent on the soil type. - The immobilization and bioavailability of zinc in soil were investigated as a function of soil type and aging by a newly constructed zinc-specific biosensor coupled with chemical analysis.

  17. Effectiveness of zinc fortified drinking water on zinc intake, status and morbidity of rural Kenyan pre-school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujinga-Chopera, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Zinc deficiency is considered a significant public health problem in preschool children in Africa together with infections such as diarrhea, which further deplete the body of zinc. Young children are more vulnerable to zinc deficiency due to increased requirements and fr

  18. Characterization of a zinc blotting technique: evidence that a retroviral gag protein binds zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have characterized a simple method that uses 65ZnCl2 to detect zinc-binding proteins that have been immobilized on nitrocellulose. Conditions have been identified that permit the detection of as little as 1 microgram of some zinc-binding proteins. The specificity of the binding is indicated by the ability of other divalent metal ions to compete with 65Zn(II) in this assay. We have used this technique to provide evidence that the nucleic acid-binding gag protein of retroviruses also binds zinc. This technique can be applied to biological mixtures of proteins and may be used in proteolytic mapping studies to identify protein fragments that have zinc-binding activity

  19. Electrochemical assessing corrosion inhibiting effects of zinc aluminum polyphosphate (ZAPP) as a modified zinc phosphate pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naderi, R. [Polymer Engineering Department, AmirKabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Attar, M.M. [Polymer Engineering Department, AmirKabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: attar@cic.aut.ac.ir

    2008-07-20

    Undesirable anti-corrosion performance of zinc phosphate pigment, the classical chromate replacement, has led researchers to take modification into account. Polyphosphate-based anti-corrosion pigments as a result of modification of zinc orthophosphate have been found to function much more efficiently. This study aimed to evaluate performance of steel samples immersed in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution-containing zinc aluminum polyphosphate (ZAPP) pigment extract compared to those involving conventional zinc phosphate (ZP) pigment extract and also no pigment (blank) using electrochemical tests such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and linear polarization (LP) as well as surface analysis. Impedance spectra and polarization curves revealed two different trends, showing the superiority of ZAPP pigment. Based on the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), presence of a precipitated layer on the surface was confirmed when steel sample was immersed into the solution-containing ZAPP.

  20. Influence of concentration of zinc ions on electrocrystallization process of zinc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhao

    2005-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and scanning electron microscopy were employed to study the influence of Zn2+ ion concentration in electrolyte solutions on zinc electroplating process. The results show that, at high overpotentials, the nucleation of zinc is instantaneous, and nuclear density increases with the overpotentials increasing. While at low overpotentials, the zinc may be preferentially electrodeposited on surface inhomogeneities such as emergence points of edge, screw dislocations, atomic disorder, kink sites, or monoatomic steps, and no distinguished nucleation current can be observed. The major dissolution peak in cyclic voltammogram drifts positively due to the change of the rate-determining step of zinc electroplating processes from diffusion to the electrochemical reaction with the increase of Zn2+ ion concentration.

  1. Zinc supplementation of young men alters metallothionein, zinc transporter, and cytokine gene expression in leukocyte populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Tolunay Beker; Blanchard, Raymond K.; Cousins, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    An effective measure to assess zinc status of humans has remained elusive, in contrast to iron, where a number of indicators of metabolism/function are available. Using monocytes, T lymphocytes, and granulocytes isolated by magnetic sorting and dried blood spots (DBS) derived from 50 μl of peripheral blood, we evaluated the response of metallothionein (MT), zinc transporter, and cytokine genes to a modest (15 mg of Zn per day) dietary zinc supplement in human subjects. Transcript abundance was measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (QRT-PCR). Zinc supplementation increased MT mRNA abundance by up to 2-fold in RNA from leukocyte subsets, and 4-fold in RNA from DBS. Transcript levels for the zinc transporter genes ZnT1 and Zip3 were increased and decreased, respectively, by zinc supplementation. Expression of the ZnT and Zip genes among leukocyte subsets differ by up to 270-fold. Monocytes and granulocytes from supplemented subjects were activated by LPS, whereas T lymphocytes were activated by mimicking antigen presentation. With zinc consumption, TNF-α and IL-1β expression was greater in activated monocytes and granulocytes, and IFN-γ mRNA levels were higher in activated T lymphocytes. These studies show that QRT-PCR is a tool to reliably measure transcript abundance for nutritionally responsive genes in human subjects, and that a small sample of whole dried blood, when appropriately collected, can be used as the source of total RNA for QRT-PCR analysis. The results obtained also show that zinc supplementation of human subjects programs specific leukocytic subsets to show enhanced cytokine expression upon activation by stimulators of immunity. PMID:16434472

  2. Bioavailability of zinc from different Pakistani cereals grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The zinc has been determined by neutron activation analysis while phytate by spectrophotometric method in some Pakistani cereals grains. The zinc:phytate ratio is more than 40:1 in all cereal grains which is for more than the suggested binding ratio of 4:1. Therefore, bio-availability of zinc from Pakistan cereal grains is more than sufficient and no deficiency can be encountered due to bioavailability of zinc. The only deficiency of zinc which could happen, will be due to the pathological conditions. (author)

  3. The role of zinc in gastrointestinal and liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A S

    1983-09-01

    Zinc is essential for many metabolic and enzymatic functions in man. Deficiency of zinc in man has now been recognized to occur not only as a result of nutritional factors, but also in various disease states, including malabsorption syndromes, acrodermatitis enteropathica, Crohn's disease, alcoholism and cirrhosis of the liver. The deficiency state in human subjects exists as a spectrum extending from mild to severe degree. The clinical manifestations of mild zinc deficiency include oligospermia, weight loss and hyperammonaemia. Moderate zinc deficiency is characterized clinically by growth retardation, hypogonadism in males, skin changes, poor appetite, mental lethargy, delayed wound healing, taste abnormalities and abnormal dark adaptation. In severe zinc deficiency states, bullous-pustular dermatitis, alopecia, diarrhoea, emotional disorders, weight loss, intercurrent infections, hypogonadism in males and, if unrecognized, death have been observed. Zinc is needed for the functions of over 100 enzymes. It is essential for DNA, RNA and protein synthesis and, as such, is important for cell division. Zinc is an inducer of mRNA of metallothionein, a protein which may have an important role in the regulation of intestinal zinc absorption. Zinc has a specific effect on testes in animals and man. Recent reports indicate that in human subjects thymopoietin may be zinc dependent and in animal studies somatomedin may be affected adversely due to dietary zinc restriction. Zinc plays an important role in the protection of cell membrane integrity and may be protective against free radical injury. Zinc is known to compete with cadmium, lead, copper, iron and calcium for similar binding sites. In the future, a potential use of zinc may be to alleviate toxic effects of cadmium and lead in human subjects. Recent evidence suggests that thymic-dependent lymphocytes (T cells are zinc dependent. T-helper and suppressor cells, T-effector cells and T-natural killer cells appear to be

  4. West Mining Expanding Into Lead Zinc Smelting Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>West Mining,China’s 2nd largest lead zinc miner(only next to Yunnan Jinding Zinc with an annual lead and zinc output of approx. 180,000 tons in metal content),has been put- ting efforts on the control of resources for years.Additionally,it has recently increased its investment on smelting business by holding shares of Bayanzhuoer Zijin for more zinc smelting asset.West Mining has just com- pleted the construction of its 60,000-ton zinc

  5. Zinc absorption study using an enriched stable isotope (70Zn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A weaning food from fermented soybean was prepared for increasing the bioavailability of zinc. The zinc absorption was compared with that of a weaning food from non-fermented soybean and normal staple food. A stable isotope tracer technique (70Zn) and neutron activation were used for determining the absorption of zinc. Nine children aged 7 to 18 months were tested. Zinc bioavailability of weaning food from fermented soybean is higher than that of normal weaning food. The weight increment and zinc nutrition of children having weaning food from fermented soybean are improved by this diet. 5 tabs

  6. CHANGES OF ZINC CONTAMINATION IN HIPPOCAMPUS CELLS OF ADRENALECTOMIZED RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondaruyk О.А.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Adrenalectomy causes the decline of zinc maintenance in the neurons of hippocampus and B cells of pancreas that has been observed in experiments on rats. The loss of zinc of these cells has been partly compensated by the injection of adrenalin and prednizolon to the adrenalectomized animals. The increase of zinc maintenance in these cells has been caused by the sharp-stress process due to the simultaneous physical activity and immobilization. The given data prove the participation of adrenal glands in the mechanism of zinc exchanges regulation in central (hippocampus and peripheral (cells B of pancreas zinc-containing organs of animals.

  7. Zinc Finger 280B Regulates sGCα1 and p53 in Prostate Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Shuai; Hsieh, Chen-Lin; Zhou, Jun; Shemshedini, Lirim

    2013-01-01

    The Zinc Finger (ZNF) 280B protein was identified as an unexpected target of an shRNA designed for sGCα1. Further analysis showed that these two proteins are connected in another way, with 280B up-regulation of sGCα1 expression. Knock-down and over-expression experiments showed that 280B serves pro-growth and pro-survival functions in prostate cancer. Surprisingly however, these pro-cancer functions of 280B are not mediated by sGCα1, which itself has similar functions in prostate cancer, but ...

  8. Biosorption of zinc ion: a deep comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vishal

    2014-12-01

    Massive industrialization and urbanization of civilization during the last few decades have made a thrust in heavy metal pollution in various water bodies. In past, various kinds of conventional metal ion remediation technologies, such as cementation, osmosis, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, etc., have been practised. However, most of these technologies are quite expensive, and lead to the generation of secondary chemical sludge. However, biosorption of heavy metal ions is significantly inexpensive and an eco-friendly technology. Among the series of heavy metals, zinc has gained the significant interest due to its toxicity and easy availability in water bodies. Biosorption of zinc in liquid phase by living, nonliving, conventional and non-conventional biosorbents has been practised extensively in the past. This literature review focuses on the recent trends practised in the field of biosorption of zinc from liquid phase. The present work provides deep insight into various aspects of biosorption of zinc by different mechanisms of biosorption, bioaccumulation, isotherm, kinetic and mechanistic modeling. An exhaustive comparison among different sorts of biomasses has also been given in the present work to enlist all the milestones of biosorption.

  9. Zinc and selenium nutritional status in vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bortoli, Maritsa Carla; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato

    2009-03-01

    A vegetarian diet may have beneficial effects on human health, however when it is not well-balanced may be deficient in some nutrients, as minerals for example. The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of zinc and selenium in vegetarians in the city of São Paulo. A cross-sectional study was performed, and the inclusion criteria were age > or = 18 years, both gender, no use of food or pharmaceutical supplements. Thirty vegetarian, of both genders, mean age of 27 years and 4.5 years of vegetarianism had performed the study, and their mean BMI was 21.5. Zinc plasma concentration was 71 and 62.5 microg/dL for men and women and erythrocyte concentration was 37 microg/gHb for both genders. Selenium concentration was 73.5 and 77.3 microg/L in plasma and 51.4 and 66.9 microg/L in erythrocytes for men and women, respectively. These biochemical values show that, according to the references, selenium blood levels are adequate and zinc concentration in erythrocytes is deficient in the studied population. For this reason, vegetarians should be constantly assessed and receive nutritional support to reduce the effects of inadequate zinc status. PMID:18953504

  10. Zinc finger structure-function in Ikaros

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marvin; A; Payne

    2011-01-01

    The zinc finger motif was used as a vehicle for the initial discovery of Ikaros in the context of T-cell differentiation and has been central to all subsequent analyses of Ikaros function.The Ikaros gene is alternately spliced to produce several isoforms that confer diversity of function and consequently have complicated analysis of the function of Ikaros in vivo.Key features of Ikaros in vivo function are associated with six C2H2 zinc fingers;four of which are alternately incorporated in the production of the various Ikaros isoforms.Although no complete structures are available for the Ikaros protein or any of its family members,considerable evidence has accumulated about the structure of zinc fingers and the role that this structure plays in the functions of the Ikaros family of proteins.This review summarizes the structural aspects of Ikaros zinc fingers,individually,and in tandem to provide a structural context for Ikaros function and to provide a structural basis to inform the design of future experiments with Ikaros and its family members.

  11. Photoluminescent properties of nanocrystallized zinc borosilicate glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, G.; Nikl, Martin; Solovieva, Natalia; Beitlerová, Alena; Rao, J.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Jiang, X.; Zhu, C.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 38, - (2004), s. 771-774. ISSN 1350-4487 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04ME716 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : zinc borosilicate glass * scintillating material * luminescence * nanosized crystals Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.664, year: 2004

  12. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline zinc ferrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, J.S.; Yang, X.L.; Gao, L.;

    1999-01-01

    Nanocrystalline zinc ferrite powders with a partially inverted spinel structure were synthesized by high-energy ball milling in a closed container at ambient temperature from a mixture of alpha-Fe2O3 and ZnO crystalline powders in equimolar ratio. From low-temperature and in-field Mossbauer...

  13. Trace Elements Excluding Iron - Chromium and Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    The percentage of middle-aged US adults who are participating in leisure-time physical activities is growing. These adults also seek credible information about specific supplements that the public press routinely describes as necessary to enable increases in physical performance. Chromium and zinc a...

  14. Non-Chromate Passivation of Zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Bech-Nielsen, G.

    1993-01-01

    treatments are within the same concentration region, and they have a mutual pat-ent pending. Although some tests still need to be conducted, the following aspects are clear at the present time: The general appearance of the passivated zinc surface is very similar to a standard yellow chromate treatment...

  15. Polymer concrete cell applications in zinc electrowinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of polymer concrete cells in zinc electrowinning plants is discussed and the properties of these cells are described. These include, improved corrosion resistance, modularization, maintenance reduction and integrated designs and attachments for bus bars and walkways and for solution handling. Use of UNICELL polymer concrete cells in different cell houses is reviewed. (author)

  16. Calcium And Zinc Deficiency In Preeclamptic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Ferdousi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pre-eclampsia is the most common medical complication of pregnancy associated withincreased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Reduced serum calcium and zinc levels arefound associated with elevated blood pressure in preeclampsia. Objective: To observe serum calciumand zinc levels in preeclamptic women. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in theDepartment of Physiology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Shahbag, Dhaka betweenJuly 2009 to June 2010. In this study, 60 pregnant women of preeclampsia, aged 18-39 years withgestational period more than 20th weeks were included as the study (group B. For comparison ageand gestational period matched 30 normotensive pregnant women control (group A were also studied.All the subjects were selected from Obstetric and Gynae In and Out patient Department of BSMMUand Dhaka Medical College Hospital. Serum calcium was measured by Colorimetric method and serumzinc was measured by Spectrophotometric method. Data were analysed by independent sample t testand Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Results: Mean serum calcium and zinc levels weresignificantly (p<0.001 lower in study group than those of control group. Again, serum calcium andzinc showed significant negative correlation with SBP and DBP in preeclamptic women. Conclusion:This study concludes that serum calcium and zinc deficiency may be one of the risk factor ofpreeclampsia. Therefore, early detection and supplementation to treat this deficiency may reduce theincidence of preeclampsia.

  17. Magnesium removal in the electrolytic zinc industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booster, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Electrolytic zinc plants need to take measures to control the magnesium content in their process liquors, because the natural magnesium bleed does not balance the input from concentrates. Presently used methods are environmentally unfriendly (due to the production of large amounts of waste gypsum) o

  18. Zinc in soybeans. Chemical nature and bioavilability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soybeans were grown hydroponically and intrinsically labeled with 65Zn through root absorption, stem injection and foliar application. Stem injection resulted in the greatest accumulation of 65Zn. Regardless of the labeling technique, approximately 40-45% of the seed 65Zn was associated with the subcellular organelles. The pattern of 65Zn incorporation into soybeans did not change appreciably as a result of the labelling technique. The major portion of the soluble 65Zn was either free or associated with very low molecular weight proteins, peptides, or their complexes with phytic acid rather than the major proteins of soybeans. Zinc in soybeans is ionically bound to proteins, peptides and phytic acid. Autoclaving did not affect the chemical association of zinc with soy proteins. Solubility of protein, zinc and phytic acid was studied over the pH range of 3.5-12.0. Bioavailability of zinc to rats from soybeans was lower than from casein and rats adapted to a casein basal diet absorbed more 65Zn from both casein and soy than rats adapted to a soy basal diet

  19. Behavioral Abnormality Induced by Enhanced Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Activity under Dietary Zinc Deficiency and Its Usefulness as a Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Nishio, Ryusuke; Murakami, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Dietary zinc deficiency increases glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex via enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity and induces neuropsychological symptoms, i.e., behavioral abnormality. Behavioral abnormality is due to the increase in glucocorticoid secretion rather than disturbance of brain zinc homeostasis, which occurs after the increase in glucocorticoid secretion. A major target of glucocorticoids is the hippocampus and their actions are often associated with disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission, which may be linked to behavioral abnormality, such as depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior under zinc deficiency. Glucocorticoid-mediated disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus is also involved in the pathophysiology of, not only psychiatric disorders, such as depression, but also neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease. The evidence suggests that zinc-deficient animals are models for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), as well as depression. To understand validity to apply zinc-deficient animals as a behavioral abnormality model, this paper deals with the effect of antidepressive drugs and herbal medicines on hippocampal dysfunctions and behavioral abnormality, which are induced by enhanced HPA axis activity under dietary zinc deficiency. PMID:27438830

  20. Titanium(III) chloride mediated synthesis of furan derivatives: Synthesis of (±)-evodone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Mandal; M Paira; S C Roy

    2010-05-01

    Titanocene(III) chloride (Cp2TiCl) mediated one-pot synthesis of furan derivatives has been accomplished. This radical method has been applied for the synthesis of a furanomonoterpene, evodone. Ti(III) species was prepared in situ from commercially available titanocene dichloride (Cp2TiCl2) and zinc dust in THF.

  1. Zinc-rich clays in supergene non-sulfide zinc deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choulet, F.; Buatier, M.; Barbanson, L.; Guégan, R.; Ennaciri, A.

    2016-04-01

    The nature and the origin of zinc clays are poorly understood. With the example of the Bou Arhous Zn-Pb ore deposit in the Moroccan High Atlas, this study presents new data for the mineralogical and chemical characterization of barren and zinc clays associated with non-sulfide zinc ores. In the field, white to ocher granular clays are associated with willemite (Zn2SiO4), while red clays fill karst-related cavities cutting across the non-sulfide ore bodies. Red clays (kaolinite, chlorite, illite, and smectite) present evidence of stratification that reflects internal sedimentation processes during the karst evolution. White clays contain 7-Å clay mineral/smectite irregular interstratified minerals with less than 20 % of smectite layers. Willemite is partially dissolved and is surrounded by authigenic zinc clay minerals. Together with XRD results, WDS analyses on newly formed clay aggregates suggest that this interstratified mineral is composed of fraipontite and sauconite. CEC measurements support that zinc is only located within the octahedral sheets. These new results support the following process: (i) dissolution of willemite, leading to release of Si and Zn, (ii) interaction between Zn-Si-rich solutions and residual-detrital clays, and (iii) dissolution of kaolinite and formation of interstratified zinc clay minerals that grew over detrital micas.

  2. Effect of modifying agents on the hydrophobicity and yield of zinc borate synthesized by zinc oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acarali, Nil Baran; Bardakci, Melek; Tugrul, Nurcan; Derun, Emek Moroydor; Piskin, Sabriye

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize zinc borate using zinc oxide, reference boric acid, and reference zinc borate (reference ZB) as the seed, and to investigate the effects of modifying agents and reaction parameters on the hydrophobicity and yield, respectively. The reaction parameters include reaction time (1-5 h), reactant ratio (H3BO3/ZnO by mass: 2-5), seed ratio (seed crystal/(H3BO3+ZnO) by mass: 0-2wt%), reaction temperature (50-120°C), cooling temperature (10-80°C), and stirring rate (400-700 r/min); the modifying agents involve propylene glycol (PG, 0-6wt%), kerosene (1wt%-6wt%), and oleic acid (OA, 1wt%-6wt%) with solvents (isopropyl alcohol (IPA), ethanol, and methanol). The results of reaction yield obtained from either magnetically or mechanically stirred systems were compared. Zinc borate produced was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and contact angle tests to identify the hydrophobicity. In conclusion, zinc borate is synthesized successfully under the optimized reaction conditions, and the different modifying agents with various solvents affect the hydrophobicity of zinc borate.

  3. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m2 year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m2 year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The emission from safety fence corrosion does not enter the

  4. Prediction of DNA-binding specificity in zinc finger proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumedha Roy; Shayoni Dutta; Kanika Khanna; Shruti Singla; Durai Sundar

    2012-07-01

    Zinc finger proteins interact via their individual fingers to three base pair subsites on the target DNA. The four key residue positions −1, 2, 3 and 6 on the alpha-helix of the zinc fingers have hydrogen bond interactions with the DNA. Mutating these key residues enables generation of a plethora of combinatorial possibilities that can bind to any DNA stretch of interest. Exploiting the binding specificity and affinity of the interaction between the zinc fingers and the respective DNA can help to generate engineered zinc fingers for therapeutic purposes involving genome targeting. Exploring the structure–function relationships of the existing zinc finger–DNA complexes can aid in predicting the probable zinc fingers that could bind to any target DNA. Computational tools ease the prediction of such engineered zinc fingers by effectively utilizing information from the available experimental data. A study of literature reveals many approaches for predicting DNA-binding specificity in zinc finger proteins. However, an alternative approach that looks into the physico-chemical properties of these complexes would do away with the difficulties of designing unbiased zinc fingers with the desired affinity and specificity. We present a physico-chemical approach that exploits the relative strengths of hydrogen bonding between the target DNA and all combinatorially possible zinc fingers to select the most optimum zinc finger protein candidate.

  5. The Essential Toxin: Impact of Zinc on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Plum

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Compared to several other metal ions with similar chemical properties, zinc is relatively harmless. Only exposure to high doses has toxic effects, making acute zinc intoxication a rare event. In addition to acute intoxication, long-term, high-dose zinc supplementation interferes with the uptake of copper. Hence, many of its toxic effects are in fact due to copper deficiency. While systemic homeostasis and efficient regulatory mechanisms on the cellular level generally prevent the uptake of cytotoxic doses of exogenous zinc, endogenous zinc plays a significant role in cytotoxic events in single cells. Here, zinc influences apoptosis by acting on several molecular regulators of programmed cell death, including caspases and proteins from the Bcl and Bax families. One organ where zinc is prominently involved in cell death is the brain, and cytotoxicity in consequence of ischemia or trauma involves the accumulation of free zinc. Rather than being a toxic metal ion, zinc is an essential trace element. Whereas intoxication by excessive exposure is rare, zinc deficiency is widespread and has a detrimental impact on growth, neuronal development, and immunity, and in severe cases its consequences are lethal. Zinc deficiency caused by malnutrition and foods with low bioavailability, aging, certain diseases, or deregulated homeostasis is a far more common risk to human health than intoxication.

  6. Anorexia nervosa responding to zinc supplementation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, H; Arita, Y; Hara, Y; Kimura, T; Nawata, H

    1992-08-01

    An emaciated 16-year-old female with anorexia nervosa was hospitalized for treatment of vomiting, epigastralgia and diarrhea. The finding of a taste disorder, low serum alkaline phosphatase activity and relatively low serum zinc level strongly suggested a zinc deficiency. Zinc was initially administered intravenously (40 mumol/day) for 7 days, then orally (15 mg elemental zinc/day) for about 60 days. Her digestive symptoms disappeared after the second day of intravenous treatment and she began to gain weight. She rapidly regained her normal weight after one month of receiving the oral zinc supplementation. Both exocrine pancreatic function and intestinal absorption were improved by the prolonged oral administration of zinc. In such cases zinc supplementation may be a therapeutic option in addition to psychologic and other approaches to management. PMID:1526438

  7. Mass transport in aqueous zinc chloride-potassium chloride electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaist, D.G.

    1986-09-01

    Conductimetric and diaphragm cell techniques have been used to measure ternary diffusion coefficients for aqueous zinc chloride-potassium chloride solutions at 25/sup 0/C. At low concentrations where Zn/sup 2 +/ is the major zinc-transporting species, the diffusion-induced electric field along zinc chloride concentration gradients drives large co-current flows of potassium chloride. In concentrated solutions where a large proportion of zinc diffusses as anionic ZnCl/sub 3//sup -/ and ZnCl/sub 4//sup 2 -/ complexes, flow of zinc chloride generates counterflow of potassium chloride. If a sharp zinc chloride is formed in an otherwise uniform solution of potassium chloride, coupled diffusion can concentrate potassium ions within the diffusion boundary. Equations are developed to predict multicomponent transport coefficients for zinc chloride in supporting electrolytes.

  8. Effect of Phosphate on Zinc Transport in Lou Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUJIALONG; DONGLINGIAO; 等

    1998-01-01

    A study on the transport characteristics of zinc in lou soil with phosphate at different concentrations was carried out by the method of step input.The effects of phosphate and temperature on zinc transport were studied through analysing the diffusion-dipsersion coefficients(D) and the retardation factor(R) obtained by the program CXTFIT.The results showed that D decreased and R increased with increasig concentration of phosphate so that iv was difficult for zinc to break through the soil column,and zinc stopped to break through the column at high temperature.One order equation,double constant equation and the Elovich equation were all suitable for the escription of zinc dynamics.Effects of phosphate and temperature on zinc transport were further confirmed by the analysis on pseudo-thermodynamic parameters of zinc transport.

  9. Accelerating degradation rate of pure iron by zinc ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yufeng; Han, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Pure iron has been considered as a promising candidate for biodegradable implant applications. However, a faster degradation rate of pure iron is needed to meet the clinical requirement. In this work, metal vapor vacuum arc technology was adopted to implant zinc ions into the surface of pure iron. Results showed that the implantation depth of zinc ions was about 60 nm. The degradation rate of pure iron was found to be accelerated after zinc ion implantation. The cytotoxicity tests revealed that the implanted zinc ions brought a slight increase on cytotoxicity of the tested cells. In terms of hemocompatibility, the hemolysis of zinc ion implanted pure iron was lower than 2%. However, zinc ions might induce more adhered and activated platelets on the surface of pure iron. Overall, zinc ion implantation can be a feasible way to accelerate the degradation rate of pure iron for biodegradable applications. PMID:27482462

  10. Zinc therapy for different causes of diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafaz Zakky Abdillah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence of diarrhea in Indonesia has declined in the past five years. In spite of the increasing number of studies on the treatment for acute diarrhea, especially the use of zinc, it is not known if bacterial vs. non-bacterial etiology makes a difference in the reduction of severity of acute diarrhea in children on zinc therapy. Objective To assess the effect of zinc therapy in reducing the severity of acute bacterial and non-bacterial diarrhea. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in the Secanggang District, Langkat Regency of North Sumatera, from August to November 2009 in children aged 2 months to 14 years. Microscopic stool examinations were undertaken to separate subjects into the acute bacterial or non-bacterial diarrhea groups. Both groups received 10 mg/day of zinc sulphate for subjects aged <6 months or 20 mg/day for those aged ≥6 months for 10 days. Measurement of disease severity was based on the frequency of diarrhea (times/day and the duration of diarrhea (hours after initial drug consumption. We performed independent T-test for statistical analysis. Results Sixty-two children participated in this study, with 31 children in the acute bacterial group, and the remainder in the non-bacterial group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in frequency of diarrhea (2.61 vs 2.70 times/day, respectively, P=0.27 or in duration of diarrhea (63.39 vs 66.68 hours, respectively, P=0.06. Conclusion Zinc is not more effective in reducing the severity of acute bacterial diarrhea compared to non-bacterial diarrhea in children. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:334-8.].

  11. Directed evolution of improved zinc finger methyltransferases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Chaikind

    Full Text Available The ability to target DNA methylation toward a single, user-designated CpG site in vivo may have wide applicability for basic biological and biomedical research. A tool for targeting methylation toward single sites could be used to study the effects of individual methylation events on transcription, protein recruitment to DNA, and the dynamics of such epigenetic alterations. Although various tools for directing methylation to promoters exist, none offers the ability to localize methylation solely to a single CpG site. In our ongoing research to create such a tool, we have pursued a strategy employing artificially bifurcated DNA methyltransferases; each methyltransferase fragment is fused to zinc finger proteins with affinity for sequences flanking a targeted CpG site for methylation. We sought to improve the targeting of these enzymes by reducing the methyltransferase activity at non-targeted sites while maintaining high levels of activity at a targeted site. Here we demonstrate an in vitro directed evolution selection strategy to improve methyltransferase specificity and use it to optimize an engineered zinc finger methyltransferase derived from M.SssI. The unusual restriction enzyme McrBC is a key component of this strategy and is used to select against methyltransferases that methylate multiple sites on a plasmid. This strategy allowed us to quickly identify mutants with high levels of methylation at the target site (up to ∼80% and nearly unobservable levels of methylation at a off-target sites (<1%, as assessed in E. coli. We also demonstrate that replacing the zinc finger domains with new zinc fingers redirects the methylation to a new target CpG site flanked by the corresponding zinc finger binding sequences.

  12. Micro dynamics in mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Boserup, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The author has identified a number of styles in mediation, which lead to different processes and different outcomes. Through discourse and conversation analysis he examines the micro dynamics in three of these, the postmodern styles: systemic, transformative and narrative mediation. The differences between the three mediation ideologies and practice is illustrated through role play scripts enacted in each style. Mediator and providers of mediation and trainers in mediation are encouraged to a...

  13. Stunting prevalence, plasma zinc concentrations, and dietary zinc intakes in a nationally representative sample suggest a high risk of zinc deficiency among women and young children in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle-Stone, Reina; Ndjebayi, Alex O; Nankap, Martin; Killilea, David W; Brown, Kenneth H

    2014-03-01

    Before initiating a mass zinc fortification program, this study assessed the prevalence of and risk factors for low zinc status among Cameroonian women and children. In a nationally representative survey, we randomly selected 30 clusters in each of 3 strata (North, South, and Yaoundé/Douala) and 10 households per cluster, each with a woman aged 15-49 y and a child aged 12-59 mo (n = 1002 households). Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls (with duplicates in a subset) and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and non-fasting blood was collected to measure plasma zinc concentration (PZC) and markers of inflammation. PZC was adjusted for methodologic factors (time of collection and processing, and presence of inflammation). The prevalence of stunting was 33% (32% South; 46% North; 13% Yaoundé/Douala). Among women, 82% had low adjusted PZC (socioeconomic status. Using estimated average requirement values from the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG), 29 and 41% of women had inadequate zinc intakes, assuming moderate and low bioavailability, respectively, but only 8% of children had inadequate zinc intake. Depending on the estimated physiologic zinc requirement applied, 17% (IZiNCG) and 92% (Institute of Medicine) of women had inadequate absorbable zinc intakes. Total zinc intakes were greatest in the North region, possibly because of different dietary patterns in this area. Zinc deficiency is a public health problem among women and children in Cameroon, although PZC and dietary zinc yield different estimates of the prevalence of deficiency. Large-scale programs to improve zinc nutrition, including food fortification, are needed. PMID:24453129

  14. Effects fo Zinc Chemistry on Phytoextraction in Thlaspi caerulescens - Vermiculite System

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Xu Dong; Eguchi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Zinc phytoextration capability of the hyperaccumulator is usually limited by zinc content in the soil. To investigate the effects of different zinc fractions (water-soluble, exchangeble, and non-exchangeble) on phytoextration of Thlaspi caerulescens from medium of vermculite, pot experiments were performed for various zinc application treatments (0~2000 mg kg[-1]). Relationships between zinc quantity accumulated in the plants and zinc content in the medium were investigated. Zinc content accu...

  15. Interaction of zinc and vitamin A in rats receiving a regional diet of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Effect of supplementation with vitamin A, zinc and zinc and vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, L K; Cozzolino, S M

    1996-09-01

    The interaction of zinc and vitamin A in rats receiving a regional diet of Manaus, supplemented with vitamin A, zinc and zinc and vitamin A was studied. The regional diet was elaborated according to data of Shrimpton and Giugliano (6), for families receiving less than two minimum salaries. The biological test to study the interaction was based on the depletion of zinc and vitamin A in rats in the period of lactation, and a period of repletion where supplements of zinc (0.82 mg%) and vitamin A (94.2 micrograms %) were given, either separately or together, according to the recommendations of the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets (7). From the results, it was concluded that there was an interaction of these nutrients in terms of mobilization of hepatic vitamin A. Although the regional diet of Manaus did not meet the zinc RDA, the amount present was enough to utilize the available vitamin A. Although the amount of zinc present in the diet, as determined by parameters of bioavilability, such as growth, concentration in organs and zinc-dependent enzymes, was adequately used by the animals, probably due to promoting factors in the diet. The Manaus regional diet needs to be supplemented with vitamin A in order to maintain the hepatic reserves, and with zinc, to maintain the normal levels of vitamin A in plasma. PMID:9429624

  16. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiong, Jingwen; Mcdonald, Glenn K.; Genc, Yusuf;

    2014-01-01

    were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs in...... dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays...

  17. Screening of zinc oxide nanoparticles for cell proliferation synthesized through Adhatoda vasica nees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bhumi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nano science is the basic Study of systems and materials at the nanoscale. The objective of the present study focuses on the Phytoconstituent mediated biological synthesis of ZnO-NPs by Zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide by utilizing the biocomponents of leaves of Adhatoda vasica .The samples are characterized by UV-Vis Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Energy Dispersive Xray (EDAX, X-ray diffraction (XRD and FT-Raman Spectroscopy. The Synthesized ZnO-NPs were found to be discoid in Shape with an average size of 19 - 60 nm .The diffraction pattern also confirmed that the higher percentage of ZnO with fine particle size. Phytochemicals present in the plant were responsible for the quick reduction of Zn+ ion to metallic Zinc Oxide nanoparticles. The synthesized ZnO-NPs had the potential to mitigate the bacterial cell proliferation particularly Escherichia coli, Bacillus thuringiensis, Pseudomonas aeurogonisa and Staphylococcus aureus. Adhatoda vasica is a good source for rapid reduction of metallic Zinc oxide in to nanoparticles with antibacterial activity. These green synthesized ZnO-NPs are possess therapeutic values.

  18. Classification of the treble clef zinc finger: noteworthy lessons for structure and function evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Treble clef (TC) zinc fingers constitute a large fold-group of structural zinc-binding protein domains that mediate numerous cellular functions. We have analysed the sequence, structure, and function relationships among all TCs in the Protein Data Bank. This led to the identification of novel TCs, such as lsr2, YggX and TFIIIC τ 60 kDa subunit, and prediction of a nuclease-like function for the DUF1364 family. The structural malleability of TCs is evident from the many examples with variations to the core structural elements of the fold. We observe domains wherein the structural core of the TC fold is circularly permuted, and also some examples where the overall fold resembles both the TC motif and another unrelated fold. All extant TC families do not share a monophyletic origin, as several TC proteins are known to have been present in the last universal common ancestor and the last eukaryotic common ancestor. We identify several TCs where the zinc-chelating site and residues are not merely responsible for structure stabilization but also perform other functions, such as being redox active in C1B domain of protein kinase C, a nucleophilic acceptor in Ada and catalytic in organomercurial lyase, MerB. PMID:27562564

  19. Analysis of cellular responses of macrophages to zinc ions and zinc oxide nanoparticles: a combined targeted and proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triboulet, Sarah; Aude-Garcia, Catherine; Armand, Lucie; Gerdil, Adèle; Diemer, Hélène; Proamer, Fabienne; Collin-Faure, Véronique; Habert, Aurélie; Strub, Jean-Marc; Hanau, Daniel; Herlin, Nathalie; Carrière, Marie; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rabilloud, Thierry

    2014-06-01

    Two different zinc oxide nanoparticles, as well as zinc ions, are used to study the cellular responses of the RAW 264 macrophage cell line. A proteomic screen is used to provide a wide view of the molecular effects of zinc, and the most prominent results are cross-validated by targeted studies. Furthermore, the alteration of important macrophage functions (e.g. phagocytosis) by zinc is also investigated. The intracellular dissolution/uptake of zinc is also studied to further characterize zinc toxicity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles dissolve readily in the cells, leading to high intracellular zinc concentrations, mostly as protein-bound zinc. The proteomic screen reveals a rather weak response in the oxidative stress response pathway, but a strong response both in the central metabolism and in the proteasomal protein degradation pathway. Targeted experiments confirm that carbohydrate catabolism and proteasome are critical determinants of sensitivity to zinc, which also induces DNA damage. Conversely, glutathione levels and phagocytosis appear unaffected at moderately toxic zinc concentrations. PMID:24788578

  20. Dietary intake of Zinc, serum levels of Zinc and risk of gastric cancer: A review of studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayyatzadeh, Sayyed Saeid; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Foroughi, Mahdi; Askari, Gholamreza; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is considered as most fourth common cancer in the world. Findings from animal, experimental and epidemiologic studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of stomach cancer. Among dietary factors, Zinc status has received great attention in recent years. The purpose of the present study was to review the association of serum levels of Zinc, dietary intake of Zinc and GC risk. A complete search was performed about the association of Zinc status and risk of GC was in databases electronic through such as ISI web of science, PubMed, Scopus, IrMedx and SID. Our results of current review suggest that dietary intake of Zinc and serum levels of Zinc are lower in GC patient. In other word, high serum levels of Zinc may be protective in GC risk. However, it seems further studies in particular epidemiological studies with large scale setting are required to reach a definite conclusion. PMID:26261820

  1. Effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shazly AN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Nabih El-Shazly,1 Soha Abd El-Hady Ibrahim,1 Ghada Mohamed El-Mashad,2 Jehan H Sabry,3 Nashwa Said Sherbini11Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shibin Al Kawm, 3Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, Egypt Introduction: Zinc is an essential trace element for human nutrition, and its deficiency is associated with anorexia, poor food efficiency, growth retardation, and impaired neurological and immune systems. The zinc-deficiency rate is particularly high in many disease states, such as with end-stage renal disease patients undertaking hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index (BMI and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients. Patients and methods: This was a prospective clinical trial study in which 60 hemodialysis patients were randomly divided into two groups: group I received 50–100 mg zinc sulfate (equivalent to 11–22 mg elemental zinc according to age, sex, and nutritional status of the child; and group II received placebo (cornstarch twice daily for 90 days. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum zinc and leptin levels were determined by colorimetric test with 5-Br-3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, at days 0 and 90 of the study. Results: Zinc supplementation resulted in a significant increase in mean serum zinc level and BMI. Serum leptin decreased significantly after supplementation in children under hemodialysis. A significant negative correlation was observed between serum zinc and leptin levels as a result of zinc supplementation. Conclusion: There was an increase in serum zinc level and BMI and decreased serum leptin after zinc supplementation in children under hemodialysis. Keywords: serum zinc, serum leptin

  2. Structures and dielectric properties of pyrochlore bismuth zinc niobate thin films with zinc compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► BZN thin films were characterized as a function of zinc amount. ► All thin films show a cubic pyrochlore phase and a strong preferential orientation. ► BZN thin films show a low temperature dielectric relaxation. ► Tm shifts towards higher temperature with increasing Zn amount. -- Abstract: Pyrochlore Bi1.5Zn1.0Nb1.5O7 (BZN) thin films deposited at 650 °C under an oxygen pressure of 10 Pa by pulsed laser deposition were characterized as a function of zinc amount. The zinc concentration in the thin films was varied using ceramic targets having 0–40 mol% excess zinc contents. The X-ray diffraction measurement shows that thin films have a cubic pyrochlore phase structure and a strong preferential orientation of (1 1 1) plane. The dielectric properties are investigated as functions of temperature and frequency. Dielectric constant and loss tangent of the thin films both slightly increase with the increase of Zn amount. The thin film with 40 mol% zinc exhibits a dielectric constant of 198 and a loss tangent of 0.004 at 10 kHz. The dielectric relaxation behavior has been studied by measuring the temperature dependence of dielectric properties. The characteristic temperatures (Tm) move to the high temperature with the increase of Zn and gradually approach that of BZN ceramic. Meanwhile, in a wide frequency and temperature range (1 kHz–1 MHz, −100–150 °C), the dielectric constant of the thin films almost keeps unchanged and shows a negative temperature coefficient. Leakage current density of the thin films with 20 mol% zinc is approximately three order magnitude lower than that of films with 0 mol% zinc at 400 kV/cm. The conduction of BZN thin films is controlled by the Schottky emission mechanism and the space-charge-limited current mechanism

  3. Clinical, endocrinologic, and biochemical effects of zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A S

    1985-01-01

    The requirement of zinc for humans was recognized in the early 1960s. The causes of zinc deficiency include malnutrition, alcoholism, malabsorption, extensive burns, chronic debilitating disorders, and chronic renal diseases; use of certain drugs such as penicillamine and, in some cases, diuretics; and genetic disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica and sickle cell disease. The requirement of zinc is increased in pregnancy and during growth. The clinical manifestations of severe zinc deficiency include bullous-pustular dermatitis, alopecia, diarrhea, emotional disorder, weight loss, intercurrent infections, and hypogonadism in males; zinc deficiency can be fatal if unrecognized and untreated. A moderate deficiency of zinc is characterized by growth retardation and delayed puberty in adolescents, hypogonadism in males, rough skin, poor appetite, mental lethargy, delayed wound healing, taste abnormalities, and abnormal dark adaptation. In mild cases of zinc deficiency in human subjects, we have observed oligospermia, slight weight loss, and hyperammonemia. Zinc is a growth factor. As a result of its deficiency, growth is affected adversely in many animal species and humans, probably because zinc is needed for protein and DNA synthesis and cell division. The effects of zinc and growth hormone on growth appear to be independent of each other in experimental animals. Whether zinc is required for the metabolism of somatomedin needs further investigation. Thyroid and adrenal functions do not appear to change as a result of zinc deficiency. Glucocorticoids may have an effect on zinc metabolism, although the clinical relevance of this effect is not known at present. In contrast, testicular function is affected adversely as a result of zinc deficiency in both humans and experimental animals. The effect appears to be a direct one since the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is intact, and may relate to the reduction in testicular size as a result of the need for zinc in cell

  4. Zinc vanadate nanorods and their visible light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, L.Z., E-mail: lzpei@ahut.edu.cn; Lin, N.; Wei, T.; Liu, H.D.; Yu, H.Y.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Zinc vanadate nanorods have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process. • The size of zinc vanadate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. • Zinc vanadate nanorods show good photocatalytic activities of methylene blue under solar light. - Abstract: Zinc vanadate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process using zinc acetate and sodium vanadate as the raw materials. The zinc vanadate nanorods have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and solid UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum. XRD pattern and HRTEM image show that the zinc vanadate nanorods are composed of single crystalline monoclinic Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} phase. SEM and TEM observations show that the diameter and length of the zinc vanadate nanorods are 50–100 nm and about 5 μm, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) has an essential role in the formation of zinc vanadate nanorods. The SDS-assisted nucleation and growth process have been proposed to explain the formation and growth of the zinc vanadate nanorods. Solid UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum shows that the zinc vanadate nanorods have a band gap of 2.76 eV. The photocatalytic activities of the zinc vanadate nanorods have been evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under solar light irradiation. The MB with the concentration of 10 mg L{sup −1} can be degraded totally under the solar light irradiation for 4 h. It is suggested that the zinc vanadate nanorods exhibit promising application potential for the degradation of organic pollutants under solar light irradiation.

  5. General Gaugino Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Sudano, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The spectrum of a class of gaugino mediation models with arbitrary hidden sector is considered. These models are defined by a diagonal breaking of the mediating gauge group, which places them outside the realm of General Gauge Mediation. While gauginos get masses as in ordinary gauge mediation, the scalar masses are screened.

  6. Morphology dependent dye-sensitized solar cell properties of nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films were electrosynthesized from an aqueous zinc acetate [Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O] solution onto FTO coated conducting glass substrates using two different electrochemical routes, namely (i) without an organic surfactant and (ii) with an organic surfactant, viz. PVA (poly-vinyl alcohol) or SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). → The reproducibility of the catalytic activity of the SDS and PVA surfactants in the modification of the morphologies was observed. → Vertically aligned nest-like and compact structures were observed from the SDS and PVA mediated films, respectively, while the grain size in the ZnO thin films without an organic surfactant was observed to be ∼150 nm. → The dye sensitized ZnO electrodes displayed excellent properties in the conversion process from light to electricity. The efficiencies of the surfactant mediated nanocrystalline ZnO thin films, viz. ZnO:SDS and ZnO:PVA, sensitized with ruthenium-II (N3) dye were observed to be 0.49% and 0.27%, respectively. - Abstract: Nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films were electrosynthesized with an aqueous zinc acetate [Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O] solution on to FTO coated glass substrates. Two different electrochemical baths were used, namely (i) without an organic surfactant and (ii) with an organic surfactant, viz. PVA (poly-vinyl alcohol) and SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). The organic surfactants played an important role in modifying the surface morphology, which influenced the size of the crystallites and dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) properties. The vertically aligned thin and compact hexagonal crystallites were observed with SDS mediated films, while the grain size in the films without an organic surfactant was observed to be ∼150 nm. The conversion efficiencies of the ZnO:SDS:Dye and ZnO:PVA:Dye thin films were observed to be 0.49% and 0.27%, respectively.

  7. From zinc selenate to zinc selenide nano structures synthesized by reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-dimensional nano structure materials are very attractive because of their electronic and optical properties depending on their size. It is well known that properties of material can be tuned by reducing size to nano scale because at the small sizes, that they behave differently with its bulk materials and the band gap will control by the size. The tunability of the band gap makes nano structured materials useful for many applications. As one of the wide band gaps semiconductor compounds, zinc selenide (ZnSe) nano structures (nanoparticles, nano wires, nano rods) have received much attention for the application in optoelectronic devices, such as blue laser diode, light emitting diodes, solar cells and IR optical windows. In this study, ZnSe nano structures have been synthesized by reduction process of zinc selenate using hydrazine hydrate (N2H4.2H2O). The reductive agent of hydrazine hydrate was added to the starting materials of zinc selenate were heat treated at 500 degree Celsius for 1 hour under argon flow to form one-dimensional nano structures. The SEM and TEM images show the formation of nano composite-like structure, which some small nano bar and nano pellets stick to the rod. The x-ray diffraction and elemental composition analysis confirm the formation of mixture zinc oxide and zinc selenide phases. (author)

  8. Oriented nanometric aggregates of partially inverted zinc ferrite: One-step processing and tunable high-frequency magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sai, Ranajit, E-mail: ranajit@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Centre for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Endo, Yasushi; Shimada, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Masahiro [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Shivashankar, S. A. [Centre for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)

    2015-05-07

    In this work, it is demonstrated that the in situ growth of oriented nanometric aggregates of partially inverted zinc ferrite can potentially pave a way to alter and tune magnetocrystalline anisotropy that, in turn, dictates ferromagnetic resonance frequency (f{sub FMR}) by inducing strain due to aggregation. Furthermore, the influence of interparticle interaction on magnetic properties of the aggregates is investigated. Mono-dispersed zinc ferrite nanoparticles (<5 nm) with various degrees of aggregation were prepared through decomposition of metal-organic compounds of zinc (II) and iron (III) in an alcoholic solution under controlled microwave irradiation, below 200 °C. The nanocrystallites were found to possess high degree of inversion (>0.5). With increasing order of aggregation in the samples, saturation magnetization (at 5 K) is found to decrease from 38 emu/g to 24 emu/g, while coercivity is found to increase gradually by up to 100% (525 Oe to 1040 Oe). Anisotropy-mediated shift of f{sub FMR} has also been measured and discussed. In essence, the result exhibits an easy way to control the magnetic characteristics of nanocrystalline zinc ferrite, boosted with significant degree of inversion, at GHz frequencies.

  9. Oriented nanometric aggregates of partially inverted zinc ferrite: One-step processing and tunable high-frequency magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, it is demonstrated that the in situ growth of oriented nanometric aggregates of partially inverted zinc ferrite can potentially pave a way to alter and tune magnetocrystalline anisotropy that, in turn, dictates ferromagnetic resonance frequency (fFMR) by inducing strain due to aggregation. Furthermore, the influence of interparticle interaction on magnetic properties of the aggregates is investigated. Mono-dispersed zinc ferrite nanoparticles (<5 nm) with various degrees of aggregation were prepared through decomposition of metal-organic compounds of zinc (II) and iron (III) in an alcoholic solution under controlled microwave irradiation, below 200 °C. The nanocrystallites were found to possess high degree of inversion (>0.5). With increasing order of aggregation in the samples, saturation magnetization (at 5 K) is found to decrease from 38 emu/g to 24 emu/g, while coercivity is found to increase gradually by up to 100% (525 Oe to 1040 Oe). Anisotropy-mediated shift of fFMR has also been measured and discussed. In essence, the result exhibits an easy way to control the magnetic characteristics of nanocrystalline zinc ferrite, boosted with significant degree of inversion, at GHz frequencies

  10. Tissue-specific metallothionein gene expression in liver and intestine by dexamethasone, interleukin-1α and elevated zinc status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intestinal metallothionein has been implicated in the regulation of zinc absorption. Glucocorticoids and cytokines mediate hepatic metallothionein gene expression but the effects of these hormones in the small intestine are unclear. In this experiment, rats were injected ip with dexamethasone (DEX), recombinant human interleukin-1α (ILK-1), or ZnSO4. Data collected 0. 3, 6,9, or 12 hour post-injection showed tissue specific regulation of metallothionein gene expression. Liver metallothionein mRNA (determined by hybridization analysis) were increased by DEX, IL-1 and ZnSO4. In contrast, the intestine was completely refractory to IL-1. DEX did not affect intestinal metallothionein but did enhance mucosal accumulation of 65Zn by ligated duodenal loops. Absorption of 65Zn was not affected by IL-1 or DEX but was inversely related to elevated intestinal metallothionein protein induced in response to ZnSO. Plasma zinc was depressed by DEX and IL-1 and elevated in rats injected with ZnSO4 but was not related to 54Zn absorption. Tissue-specific induction of metallothionein may constitute a mechanism for independently regulating both tissue zinc distribution and zinc absorption

  11. HUBUNGAN KANDUNGAN ZINC DALAM AIR SUSU IBU DENGAN ZINC DARAh BAYI DI DAERAH PERKOTAAN, PEDESAAN DAN PANTAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Pambudi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Association Between Zinc Level ol Breastmilk and Infant Blood in Three Different Areas.Zinc is an essential micro nutrient in many body metabolism. Breast feeding mothers should suffice their zinc consumption as their infants need zinc for maximum growth and development. The study aimed to look for a correlation between zinc level of breastmilk and of infant blood in three different areas. The sampels were 90 breast feeding mothers with their infants aged 4-6 months from three different areas: (i urban, (ii rural, and (iii coastal. Information was gathered including food pattern and consumption, social economic, anthropometry, zinc level of breastmilk and infant blood. Breastmilk sample was collected in day time from the two nipples of mother, while blood sample was taken from arm vein of infant. This study found that zinc level in breastmilk differed in the three different areas. In urban area, zinc level of breastmilk was 0.91 ± 0.16 µg/ml, while in rural area was 0.75 ± 0.13 µg/ml, and in coastal area was 1.07 ± 0.40 µg/ml. Zinc level of breastmilk in urban area was siginificantly different to that in rural area (p<0.01, and zinc level of breastmilk for coastal area was significantly different to that in rural area (p<0.01. In respect to the level of infant blood, there were also differences. In urban area, zinc level of infant blood was 0.88 ± 0.17 µg/ml, while that in rural area was 0.66 ± 0.07 µg/ml, and in coastal area was 0. 73 ± 0.17 µg/ml. Infant blood zinc level in urban area was significantly different (p<0.05 compared to coastal area. However zinc level of infant blood for coastal area was not significantly different (p>0.05 from that in rural area. The study concluded zinc level of breastmilk in coastal area showed the highest, and zinc level in infant blood in urban area showed the highest. There was a strong correlation (r=0.5165, p<0.05 between breastmilk zinc level and infant blood zinc level only in

  12. Lichens of abandoned zinc-lead mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Bielczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A list of lichens from areas of zinc-lead ores in Southern Poland and a review of the characteristic lichen biota of these sites is provided. In spite of the devastated and heavy metal contaminated environment, a highly diverse epigeic and epilithic lichen biota was found, including species characteristic of various anthropogenic habitats, particularly zinc and lead enriched substrates (Diploschistes muscorum, Steinia geophana, Sarcosagium campestre, Vezdaea aestivalis and V. leprosa. Also, the high-mountain species Leucocarpia biatorella, as well as very rare in Europe Thelocarpon imperceptum, and several species categorized as very rare, endangered and protected in Poland were recorded. Crustose lichens are the most abundant; among fruticose forms Cladonia spp. predominate and Stereocaulon incrustatum is common.

  13. Zinc Status of Vegetarians during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies and Meta-Analysis of Zinc Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meika Foster

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women are vulnerable to a low zinc status due to the additional zinc demands associated with pregnancy and foetal development. The present systematic review explores the relationship between habitual vegetarian diets and dietary zinc intake/status during pregnancy. The association between vegetarian diets and functional pregnancy outcome also is considered. A literature search was conducted of MEDLINE; PubMed; Embase; the Cochrane Library; Web of Science; and Scopus electronic databases up to September 2014. Six English-language observational studies qualified for inclusion in the systematic review. A meta-analysis was conducted that compared the dietary zinc intake of pregnant vegetarian and non-vegetarian (NV groups; the zinc intake of vegetarians was found to be lower than that of NV (−1.38 ± 0.35 mg/day; p < 0.001; and the exclusion of low meat eaters from the analysis revealed a greater difference (−1.53 ± 0.44 mg/day; p = 0.001. Neither vegetarian nor NV groups met the recommended dietary allowance (RDA for zinc. In a qualitative synthesis; no differences were found between groups in serum/plasma zinc or in functional outcomes associated with pregnancy. In conclusion; pregnant vegetarian women have lower zinc intakes than NV control populations and both groups consume lower than recommended amounts. Further information is needed to determine whether physiologic adaptations in zinc metabolism are sufficient to meet maternal and foetal requirements during pregnancy on a low zinc diet.

  14. Zinc Status of Vegetarians during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies and Meta-Analysis of Zinc Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Meika; Herulah, Ursula Nirmala; Prasad, Ashlini; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2015-06-01

    Pregnant women are vulnerable to a low zinc status due to the additional zinc demands associated with pregnancy and foetal development. The present systematic review explores the relationship between habitual vegetarian diets and dietary zinc intake/status during pregnancy. The association between vegetarian diets and functional pregnancy outcome also is considered. A literature search was conducted of MEDLINE; PubMed; Embase; the Cochrane Library; Web of Science; and Scopus electronic databases up to September 2014. Six English-language observational studies qualified for inclusion in the systematic review. A meta-analysis was conducted that compared the dietary zinc intake of pregnant vegetarian and non-vegetarian (NV) groups; the zinc intake of vegetarians was found to be lower than that of NV (-1.38 ± 0.35 mg/day; p vegetarian nor NV groups met the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for zinc. In a qualitative synthesis; no differences were found between groups in serum/plasma zinc or in functional outcomes associated with pregnancy. In conclusion; pregnant vegetarian women have lower zinc intakes than NV control populations and both groups consume lower than recommended amounts. Further information is needed to determine whether physiologic adaptations in zinc metabolism are sufficient to meet maternal and foetal requirements during pregnancy on a low zinc diet. PMID:26056918

  15. Role of zinc in chronic gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanović, Ksenija; Dovhanj, Jasna; Kljaić, Ksenija; Šakić, Katarina; Kondža, Goran; Tadžić, Refmir; Včev, Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress occurs in inflammation of gastric mucosa. The role of zinc in modulating oxidative stress has recently been recognized. Zn deficiency results in an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and have a higher risk of musoca damage in inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine wheather chronic inflammation affects on the concentration of Zn2+ ions in gastric mucosa of patients with chronic gastritis. Forthy-three patients with chronic gastitis were enrolled. Patients ...

  16. Organic Zinc as Feed Additive for Ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Suprijati

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micro mineral required by ruminants and is a component of over 300 enzymes which play important role in the metabolisms of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Recently, the chemical and biotechnology processes have been developed for synthesizing organic Zn. Organic Zn is the product of a chelating process of dissolved Zn anorganic salts with amino acids or hydrolyzed protein. The utilization of organic Zn as feed additive in ruminants diets tends to increase, due to the ab...

  17. Zinc Oxide Nanostructured Biosensor for Glucose Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X. W.Sun; J.X. Wang; A. Wei

    2008-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocombs were fabricated by vapor phase transport, and nanorods and hierarchical nanodisk structures by aqueous thermal decomposition. Glucose biosensors were constructed using these ZnO nanostructures as supporting materials for glucose oxidase (GOx) loading. These ZnO glucose biosensors showed a high sensitivity for glucose detection and high affinity of GOx to glucose as well as the low detection limit. The results demonstrate that ZnO nanostructures have potential applications in biosensors.

  18. Electrodeposition of Zinc from Chloride Solution

    OpenAIRE

    NAIK, Yanjerappa Arthoba; VENKATESHA, Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah

    2002-01-01

    The electroplating of zinc is carried out in the presence of 3,4,5-Trimethoxy benzaldehyde from a chloride bath. The bath constituents are optimized through Hull cell experiments. Operating parameters such as pH, temperature, and current density are also optimized. The current efficiency and throwing power are measured at different current densities. Polarization study is carried out under galvanostatic conditions. Corrosion resistance test indicated good protection of steel by the ...

  19. Zinc electrode with reduced dendritic propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martirosyan, S. [Department of Chemical Technologies, State Engineering University of Armenia, Teryan Str. 105, Yerevan (Armenia)

    2007-10-25

    Microporous separators conventionally used in lead-acid accumulators are proposed to substitute rayon-type separator during discharge of zinc anode alkaline accumulators, while the same accumulator is charged mainly through rayon-type separator. Thus the positive qualities of rayon-type and microporous-type separators are amalgamated. This is achieved by new cell design and charging method. Enhanced characteristics are obtained versus the conventional setups. (author)

  20. Genome Engineering With Zinc-Finger Nucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Dana

    2011-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are targetable DNA cleavage reagents that have been adopted as gene-targeting tools. ZFN-induced double-strand breaks are subject to cellular DNA repair processes that lead to both targeted mutagenesis and targeted gene replacement at remarkably high frequencies. This article briefly reviews the history of ZFN development and summarizes applications that have been made to genome editing in many different organisms and situations. Considerable progress has been mad...

  1. Zinc accumulation and utilization by wine yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    Raffaele De Nicola1,3, Nichola Hall2,3, Tatiana Bollag3, Georgios Thermogiannis3, Graeme M Walker31DSM Nutritional Products, Dept. NRD/CX, Basel, Switzerland; 2Vinquiry, Inc. Windsor, CA, USA; 3School of Contemporary Sciences, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee, UK Abstract: The present study has focused on the accumulation of zinc by wine yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation of both grape juice and chemically defined medium with different carbohydrates and...

  2. Clinical, endocrinological and biochemical effects of zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A S

    1985-08-01

    The essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized in the early 1960s. The causes of zinc deficiency include malnutrition, alcoholism, malabsorption, extensive burns, chronic debilitating disorders, chronic renal disease, certain diuretics, the use of chelating agents such as penicillamine for Wilson's disease, and genetic disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica and sickle cell disease. The requirement of zinc is increased in pregnancy and during the growing age period. The clinical manifestations in severe cases of zinc deficiency included bullous-pustular dermatitis, alopecia, diarrhoea, emotional disorder, weight loss, intercurrent infections, hypogonadism in males and it is fatal if untreated. A moderate deficiency of zinc is characterized by growth retardation and delayed puberty in adolescents, hypogonadism in males, rough skin, poor appetite, mental lethargy, delayed wound healing, taste abnormalities and abnormal dark adaptation. In mild cases of zinc deficiency in human subjects, we have observed oligospermia, slight weight loss and hyperammonaemia. Zinc is a growth factor. As a result of its deficiency, growth is affected adversely in many animal species and in man. Inasmuch as zinc is needed for protein and DNA synthesis and cell division, it is believed that the growth effect of zinc is related to its effect on protein synthesis. Testicular functions are affected adversely as a result of zinc deficiency in both humans and experimental animals. This effect of zinc is at the end organ level and the hypothalamic--pituitary axis is intact in zinc-deficient subjects. Inasmuch as zinc is intimately involved in a cell division, its deficiency may adversely affect testicular size and thus its function. In mice, the incidence of degenerate oocytes, and hypohaploidy and hyperhaploidy in metaphase II oocytes were increased due to zinc deficiency. Zinc at physiological concentrations reduced prolactin secretion from the pituitary in vitro and it has been

  3. Structure and reactivity of zinc sulfide precipitates formed in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Biogenic zinc sulfides exhibit short-range structural order. → This structural order increases resistance to re-oxidation. → Dissolved Fe and Zn formed distinct sulfide phases. - Abstract: The biologically mediated formation of metal sulfide precipitates in anoxic sediments represents a potentially important mechanism for the sequestration of toxic metals. Current knowledge of the structure and reactivity of these biogenic metal sulfides is scarce, limiting the ability to effectively assess contaminant sequestration in, and remobilization from, these solids. In this study, SO4-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio sp.) were grown for 5 days in a high-SO4, minimal metal media amended with Zn at either 30 or 300 micromolar. Zinc speciation in the reactor solids was determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and the results compared to spectra of known metal sulfide mineral phases and freshly formed metal sulfides synthesized through purely chemical processes. Biogenically mediated Zn sulfides showed significantly more short range crystallographic order than the abiotically prepared amorphous precipitates. The presence of dissolved Fe2+ at similar concentrations did not affect the nature of the Zn precipitates formed. The biogenic ZnS solids were also more resistant to re-oxidation than the chemical precipitates but more soluble than sphalerite mineral samples. These results suggest that Zn sulfides formed in anaerobic sediments are likely to be more resistant to re-oxidation than would be expected based on dissolution of Fe sulfides and/or sediment acid volatile sulfides.

  4. Antioxidant role of zinc in diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyria Jayanne Clímaco Cruz; Ana Raquel Soares de Oliveira; Dilina do Nascimento Marreiro

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia statue noticed in diabetes mellitus favors the manifestation of oxidative stress by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species and/or by reducing the antioxidant defense system activity. Zinc plays an important role in antioxidant defense in type 2 diabetic patients by notably acting as a cofactor of the superoxide dismutase enzyme, by modulating the glutathione metabolism and metallothionein expression, by competing with iron and copper in the cell membrane and by inhibiting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotidephosphate-oxidase enzyme. Zinc also improves theoxidative stress in these patients by reducing chronichyperglycemia. It indeed promotes phosphorylation ofinsulin receptors by enhancing transport of glucose intocells. However, several studies reveal changes in zincmetabolism in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitusand controversies remain regarding the effect of zincsupplementation in the improvement of oxidative stressin these patients. Faced with the serious challengeof the metabolic disorders related to oxidative stressin diabetes along with the importance of antioxidantnutrients in the control of this disease, new studies maycontribute to improve our understanding of the roleplayed by zinc against oxidative stress and its connectionwith type 2 diabetes mellitus prognosis. This could serveas a prelude to the development of prevention strategiesand treatment of disorders associated with this chronicdisease.

  5. Zinc metabolism in genetically obese mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent reports indicate that the concentrations and total amounts of several essential trace metals in various tissues of genetically obese rodents differ markedly from lean controls. In the present studies the absorption, retention and tissue distribution of zinc was compared in obese (ob/ob) and lean (+/?) C57BL/6J mice. When administered 0.1 and 1 umole 65Zn by stomach tube and killed after 4 h, fasted 10 week old obese mice had 2.7 and 2.2 times more radioactivity in their carcasses, respectively, than age-matched lean mice. Higher levels of 65Zn were also present in the intestinal mucosa of obese mice. To eliminate possible differences in the effects of fasting and gastric emptying rates between the phenotypes, zinc absorption and retention were determined according to the method of Heth and Hoekstra. Analysis of data revealed that obese and lean mice absorbed 43 and 18% of the oral dose, respectively. Also, the rate of 65Zn excretion between 2 and 6 days post-treatment was similar for obese and lean mice. After 6 days obese mice had significantly lower levels of radioisotope in skin, muscle plus bone, spleen and testes and higher levels of 65Zn in liver, small intestine and adipose tissue compared to tissues from lean mice. These results demonstrate increased absorption, altered tissue distribution and similar excretion of zinc in ob/ob mice

  6. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  7. Chemical treatment of zinc surface and its corrosion inhibition studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Rajappa; T V Venkatesha; B M Praveen

    2008-02-01

    The surface treatment of zinc and its corrosion inhibition was studied using a product (BTSC) formed in the reaction between benzaldehyde and thiosemicarbozide. The corrosion behaviour of chemically treated zinc surface was investigated in aqueous chloride–sulphate medium using galvanostatic polarization technique. Zinc samples treated in BTSC solution exhibited good corrosion resistance. The measured electrochemical data indicated a basic modification of the cathode reaction during corrosion of treated zinc. The corrosion protection may be explained on the basis of adsorption and formation of BTSC film on zinc surface. The film was binding strongly to the metal surface through nitrogen and sulphur atoms of the product. The formation of film on the zinc surface was established by surface analysis techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM–EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  8. Functionalized manganese-doped zinc sulfide quantum dot-based fluorescent probe for zinc ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a simple strategy for the determination of zinc ion by using surface-modified quantum dots. The probe consists of manganese-doped quantum dots made from zinc sulfide and capped N-acetyl-L-cysteine. The particles exhibit bright yellow-orange emission with a peak at 598 nm which can be attributed to the 4T1→6A1 transition of Mn(II). This bright fluorescence is effectively quenched by modifying the sulfur anion which suppresses the radiative recombination process. The emission of the probe can then be restored by adding Zn(II) which causes the formation of a ZnS passivation layer around the QDs. The fluorescence enhancement caused is linear in the 1. 25 to 30 μM zinc concentration range, and the limit of detection is 0. 67 μM. (author)

  9. Large zinc cation occupancy of octahedral sites in mechanically activated zinc ferrite powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cation site occupancy of a mechanically activated nanocrystalline zinc ferrite powder was determined as (Zn0.552+Fe0.183+)tet[Zr0.452+Fe1.823+]octO4 through analysis of extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements, showing a large redistribution of cations between sites compared to normal zinc ferrite samples. The overpopulation of cations in the octahedral sites was attributed to the ascendance in importance of the ionic radii over the crystal energy and bonding coordination in determining which interstitial sites are occupied in this structurally disordered powder. Slight changes are observed in the local atomic environment about the zinc cations, but not the iron cations, with respect to the spinel structure. The presence of Fe3+ on both sites is consistent with the measured room temperature magnetic properties. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  10. First Principles Investigation of Zinc-anode Dissolution in Zinc-air Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahrostami, Samira; Tripkovic, Vladimir; Lundgård, Keld Troen;

    2013-01-01

    fundamental mechanisms still remain to be fully understood. Here, we present a density functional theory investigation of the zinc dissolution (oxidation) on the anode side in the zinc-air battery. Two models are envisaged, the most stable (0001) surface and a kink surface. The kink model proves to be more...... accurate as it brings about some important features of bulk dissolution and yields results in good agreement with experiments. From the adsorption energies of hydroxyl species and experimental values, we construct a free energy diagram and confirm there is a small overpotential associated with the reaction......With surging interest in high energy density batteries, much attention has recently been devoted to metal-air batteries. The zinc-air battery has been known for more than hundred years and is commercially available as a primary battery, but recharging has remained elusive; in part because the...

  11. Deficiencia de zinc y sus implicaciones funcionales Zinc deficiency and its functional implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE L ROSADO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objeto revisar los aspectos teóricos y los estudios realizados en México que sugieren la existencia de la deficiencia moderada de zinc en niños de población rural, así como algunas de las consecuencias de dicha deficiencia en la salud. El zinc es un nutrimento indispensable para el organismo de los humanos y juega un papel importante en una serie de procesos metabólicos: participa en el sitio catalítico de varios sistemas enzimáticos; participa como ion estructural en membranas biológicas, y guarda una estrecha relación con la síntesis de proteínas, entre otras cosas. Es por esto que la deficiencia de zinc está asociada con consecuencias importantes en la salud y la funcionalidad de los individuos, especialmente durante las primeras etapas de la vida. De relevancia para México es la existencia de una deficiencia moderada de zinc en los niños y las consecuencias que ésta pueda tener en la salud de los mismos. Los estudios realizados sugieren que la deficiencia moderada de zinc se presenta asociada con la ingestión de dietas basadas en alimentos de origen vegetal, las cuales contienen cantidades importantes de inhibidores de la absorción de zinc. Este tipo de dietas se consume habitualmente en las zonas rurales y en la población marginal de las ciudades en el país. Entre las consecuencias más importantes de esta deficiencia se encontró un aumento en la presencia de enfermedades infecciosas, especialmente de diarrea, y posibles alteraciones en el desarrollo de la capacidad cognoscitiva.The purpose of this article is to review theoretical aspects and research performed in Mexico suggesting the existence of marginal zinc deficiency in rural children and its consequences on health. Zinc is an indispensable nutrient for humans since it plays an important role in several metabolic pathways: it participates in the catalytic site of several enzymes, as a structural ion of biological membranes and is

  12. Plasma in-liquid method for reduction of zinc oxide in zinc nanoparticle synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal air-batteries with high-energy density are expected to be increasingly applied in electric vehicles. This will require a method of recycling air batteries, and reduction of metal oxide by generating plasma in liquid has been proposed as a possible method. Microwave-induced plasma is generated in ethanol as a reducing agent in which zinc oxide is dispersed. Analysis by energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals the reduction of zinc oxide. According to images by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cubic and hexagonal metallic zinc particles are formed in sizes of 30 to 200 nm. Additionally, spherical fiber flocculates approximately 180 nm in diameter are present. (paper)

  13. Zinc self-diffusion, electrical properties, and defect structure of undoped, single crystal zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc self-diffusion was measured in single crystal zinc oxide using nonradioactive 70Zn as the tracer isotope and secondary ion mass spectrometry for data collection. Crystal mass was closely monitored to measure ZnO evaporation. Diffusion coefficients were isotropic with an activation energy of 372 kJ/mol. Zinc self-diffusion is most likely controlled by a vacancy mechanism. Electrical property measurements exhibit a plateau in conductivity at intermediate pO2 with an increase in reducing atmospheres. An analysis of the defect structure is presented that indicates that oxygen vacancies are probably the intrinsic ionic defects responsible for n-type conductivity in reducing atmospheres. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  14. Cracking in Zinc Layers on Continuous Galvanized Sheets: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lazik, S.; ESLING, C.; Wegria, J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey the different investigations about cracking behaviour in zinc coatings, due to deformation. Different forming tests have been carried out on electrodeposited and hot-dipped zinc coatings. Generally, agreement in the results has been found. The texture gives a good indication about the cracking behaviour of zinc coatings. Thus, texture determination should be performed systematically in examinations relating to the cracking behaviour.

  15. Role of Zinc in Plant Nutrition- A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hafeez, B.; Khanif, Y. M.; Saleem, M.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is plant micronutrient which is involved in many physiological functions its inadequate supply will reduce crop yields. Zinc deficiency is the most wide spread micronutrient deficiency problem, almost all crops and calcareous, sandy soils, peat soils, and soils with high phosphorus and silicon are expected to be deficient. Zinc deficiencies can affect plant by stunting its growth, decreasing number of tillers, chlorosis and smaller leaves, increasing crop maturity period, spikelet steril...

  16. Jiangxi Copper Marching into Lead-zinc Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On November 13,Jiangxi Copper officially signed transfer agreement on the share rights of lead-zinc mines with Jiangxi Provincial Geol- ogy & Mineral Resources Bureau,marking the beginning of full-strategic cooperation between the two parties for the common exploitation of lead-zinc industry in the province. The Jiangxi Province is rich in lead-zinc re- sources,but most of them are in scattered lay-

  17. Runoff rates and ecotoxicity of zinc induced by atmospheric corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlén, C; Wallinde, I O; Heijerick, D; Leygraf, C; Janssen, C R

    2001-09-28

    Initiated by regulatory restrictions on the use of zinc for various building and construction applications, together with a lack of knowledge related to the release of zinc induced by atmospheric corrosion, a major interdisciplinary research project was implemented to generate data to be used in future risk assessment. Runoff rates from a large number of commercially available zinc-based materials have been determined on panels inclined 45 degrees from the horizon, facing south, during a 1-year atmospheric exposure in an urban environment in Sweden. Possible environmental effects of runoff water immediately after leaving the surface of the various materials have been evaluated during two different sampling periods of varying season and zinc concentration, using the standard growth inhibition test with algae. Raphidocelis subcapitata (formerly Selenastrum capricornutum). Zinc-specific biosensors with the bacterial strain of Alcaligenes eutrophus, and computer modeling using the water-ligand model MINTEQA2 and the humic aquatic model WHAM, have been used to assess the bioavailability and chemical speciation of zinc in the runoff water. An excellent consistency between the different methods was observed. The results show considerably lower runoff rates of zinc (0.07-3.5 g m(-2) year(-1)) than previously being used for regulatory restrictions, and the concentration of zinc to be predominantly responsible for the observed toxicity of the runoff water towards the green algae. The majority of the released zinc quantity was found to be present as free hydrated zinc ions and, hence, bioavailable. The data do not consider changes in bioavailability and chemical speciation or dilution effects during entry into the environment, and should therefore only be used as an initial assessment of the potential environmental effect of zinc runoff from building applications. This interdisciplinary approach has the potential for studies on the environmental fate of zinc in soil or

  18. Extraction of Zinc from Industrial Waste by a Penicillium sp

    OpenAIRE

    Schinner, Franz; Burgstaller, Wolfgang

    1989-01-01

    Zinc was extracted from a filter residue of a copper works (58.6% zinc) by a Penicillium sp. isolated from a metal-containing location. By isotachophoresis citric acid was identified as the leaching agent. Citrate was only formed when the leaching substrate was present. This production of citrate was different in several ways from that achieved by Aspergillus niger: glucose was utilized before fructose; the initial concentration of zinc was 50 to 500 times higher than usual in citrate ferment...

  19. Alkaline Leaching of Low Zinc Content Iron-Bearing Sludges

    OpenAIRE

    Gargul K.; Jarosz P.; Małecki S.

    2016-01-01

    Various types of waste materials containing zinc (e.g. dusts and sludges from gas dedusting process) are obtained in steel industry. The contents of Zn in these materials may vary considerably. Even a low concentration of zinc in recirculated products precludes their recycling in ferrous metallurgy aggregates. Long storage of this type of material can lead to contamination of soil and water by zinc compounds which can be leached out by acid rain, for example. This paper focuses on research in...

  20. Effects of Zinc Chelators on Aflatoxin Production in Aspergillus parasiticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Josephine; Day, Devin M.; Linz, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc concentrations strongly influence aflatoxin accumulation in laboratory media and in food and feed crops. The presence of zinc stimulates aflatoxin production, and the absence of zinc impedes toxin production. Initial studies that suggested a link between zinc and aflatoxin biosynthesis were presented in the 1970s. In the present study, we utilized two zinc chelators, N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethane-1,2-diamine (TPEN) and 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) to explore the effect of zinc limitation on aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. TPEN but not DMPS decreased aflatoxin biosynthesis up to six-fold depending on whether A. parasiticus was grown on rich or minimal medium. Although we observed significant inhibition of aflatoxin production by TPEN, no detectable changes were observed in expression levels of the aflatoxin pathway gene ver-1 and the zinc binuclear cluster transcription factor, AflR. Treatment of growing A. parasiticus solid culture with a fluorescent zinc probe demonstrated an increase in intracellular zinc levels assessed by increases in fluorescent intensity of cultures treated with TPEN compared to controls. These data suggest that TPEN binds to cytoplasmic zinc therefore limiting fungal access to zinc. To investigate the efficacy of TPEN on food and feed crops, we found that TPEN effectively decreases aflatoxin accumulation on peanut medium but not in a sunflower seeds-derived medium. From an application perspective, these data provide the basis for biological differences that exist in the efficacy of different zinc chelators in various food and feed crops frequently contaminated by aflatoxin. PMID:27271668

  1. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Cognitive Performance in Schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Ezzat Khodashenas; Ashraf Mohammadzadeh; Mehdi Sohrabi; Azra Izanloo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Zinc is a vital micronutrient in humans and its deficiency in children can thwart their growth and development, compromise their immunity and cognitive function. However, there is a paucity of studies about the effect of zinc supplementation on cognitive functions. This study is an attempt to quantify the impact of zinc supplementation on cognitive performance of schoolchildren. Materials and Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled field trial was carried out in...

  2. Classification of mononuclear zinc metal sites in protein structures

    OpenAIRE

    Karlin, Samuel; Zhu, Zhan-Yang

    1997-01-01

    Our study of the extended metal environment, particularly of the second shell, focuses in this paper on zinc sites. Key findings include: (i) The second shell of mononuclear zinc centers is generally more polar than hydrophobic and prominently features charged residues engaged in an abundance of hydrogen bonding with histidine ligands. Histidine–acidic or histidine–tyrosine clusters commonly overlap the environment of zinc ions. (ii) Histidine tautomeric metal bonding patterns in ligating zin...

  3. Chemical and biological rhizosphere interactions in low zinc soils

    OpenAIRE

    Duffner, A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract of the PhD thesis entitled “Chemical and biological rhizosphere interactions in low zinc soils” by Andreas Duffner Soil provides ecosystem services critical for life. The availability of micronutrients, such as zinc (Zn), in soils is an essential factor for normal healthy growth and reproduction of plants. Zinc deficiency is, however, a global problem in crop production due to low Zn bioavailability in soils to plants. The bioavailable Zn fraction in soils is controlled ...

  4. Effects of Zinc Chelators on Aflatoxin Production in Aspergillus parasiticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Josephine; Day, Devin M; Linz, John E

    2016-01-01

    Zinc concentrations strongly influence aflatoxin accumulation in laboratory media and in food and feed crops. The presence of zinc stimulates aflatoxin production, and the absence of zinc impedes toxin production. Initial studies that suggested a link between zinc and aflatoxin biosynthesis were presented in the 1970s. In the present study, we utilized two zinc chelators, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethane-1,2-diamine (TPEN) and 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) to explore the effect of zinc limitation on aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. TPEN but not DMPS decreased aflatoxin biosynthesis up to six-fold depending on whether A. parasiticus was grown on rich or minimal medium. Although we observed significant inhibition of aflatoxin production by TPEN, no detectable changes were observed in expression levels of the aflatoxin pathway gene ver-1 and the zinc binuclear cluster transcription factor, AflR. Treatment of growing A. parasiticus solid culture with a fluorescent zinc probe demonstrated an increase in intracellular zinc levels assessed by increases in fluorescent intensity of cultures treated with TPEN compared to controls. These data suggest that TPEN binds to cytoplasmic zinc therefore limiting fungal access to zinc. To investigate the efficacy of TPEN on food and feed crops, we found that TPEN effectively decreases aflatoxin accumulation on peanut medium but not in a sunflower seeds-derived medium. From an application perspective, these data provide the basis for biological differences that exist in the efficacy of different zinc chelators in various food and feed crops frequently contaminated by aflatoxin. PMID:27271668

  5. Alternating current electroluminescent properties of zinc sulfide powders

    OpenAIRE

    Salimian, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the alternating current electroluminescent properties of zinc sulfide powders the following experiments were conducted: synthesis of zinc sulfide phosphors (comprised of zinc, sulfur and copper dopant); thermal shocking of phosphor materials (sudden cooling, using liquid nitrogen, of phosphor particles heated up to 500oC) and analysis of their alternating current electroluminescent properties as well as studies of particle crystal structures by synchrotron and conventi...

  6. Production of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite using various precipitation routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substituted hydroxyapatites have been investigated for use as bone grafts and have been investigated for many years. Zinc is of interest due to its potential to reduce bone resorption and antibacterial properties. However, it has proven problematic to substitute biologically significant levels of zinc into the crystal structure through wet chemical routes, whilst retaining the high temperature phase stability required for processing. The aim of this study is to investigate two different precipitation routes used to synthesize zinc substituted hydroxyapatite and to explore the effects of ammonia used in the reactions on the levels of zinc substituted into the crystal lattice. It was found that considerable amounts of ammonia are required to maintain a pH sufficiently high for the production of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite using a reaction between calcium nitrate, zinc nitrate and ammonium phosphate. X-ray fluorescence analysis showed that a significant proportion of the zinc added did not substitute into the hydroxyapatite lattice. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the existence of a zinc-ammonia complex that, it is proposed, inhibits zinc substitution for calcium. It was found that by reacting orthophosphoric acid with calcium nitrate and zinc nitrate, the volume of ammonia required in the reaction was reduced and higher levels of zinc substitution were achieved, with up to 0.58 wt% incorporated into the hydroxyapatite lattice. The resulting products were found to be stoichiometric hydroxyapatite and did not appear to contain any extraneous calcium phosphate phases after heat treatment up to 1100 °C. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis revealed that the effect of substituting zinc into the HA lattice was to decrease the a-lattice parameter whilst increasing the c-lattice. Transmission electron microscopy also showed that the incorporation of zinc reduced both the length and width of the precipitated crystals. (paper)

  7. Oral Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Sh Gheibi; Z Kousehlou; Z Sahebazzamani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Diarrheal diseases are a serious health problem and important causes of growth retardation and death in the developing world, especially those of prolonged duration. Since diarrhea is constantly found in children with zinc deficiency, very studies supported zinc supplements beneficial on the duration and severity of diarrhea among children. We review the impact of zinc effects on diarrhea in South-West Asia to update the evidences and to assess its effect on the global burden of...

  8. Vitamin A, iron and zinc deficiency in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkhuizen, M. A.; Wieringa, F.T.

    2001-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was concerned with vitamin A, iron and zinc deficiency in pregnant and lactating women and in infants. The effects of supplementation withβ-carotene, iron and zinc on micronutrient status, growth, pregnancy outcome and immune function, and interactions between micronutrients were investigated.Deficiencies of vitamin A, iron and zinc are prevalent worldwide. Vitamin A deficiency leads to increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and vitamin A supplementat...

  9. The benefits of zinc addition to primary side coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The addition of soluble zinc to simulated CANDU PHWR primary coolant substantially reduced corrosion rates and corrosion product release rates for carbon steel and stainless steel. Soluble zinc addition reduced the affinity of carbon steel for Co-60 by a factor of 3 to 5, and reduced the affinity of 410 SS for Co-60 by a factor of 60. Decontamination benefits were seen for 410 SS exposed to zinc. (authors). 9 figs., 6 refs

  10. Plasma Zinc But Not the Exchangeable Zinc Pool Size Differs Between Young and Older Korean Women

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, JIHYE; Paik, Hee Young; Joung, Hyojee; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Janet C. King

    2010-01-01

    This study was done to determine the effect of age on zinc metabolism and status among healthy Korean women. Measures of zinc metabolism and status were measured in eight young women (22–24 years) and seven elderly women (66–75 years) consuming a typical Korean diet. Oral and intravenous tracers highly enriched in 67Zn and 70Zn were administered simultaneously. Multiple plasma, 24-h urines, and fecal samples were collected after isotope administration. In the young women, additional plasma we...

  11. Horizontal gene transfer of zinc and non-zinc forms of bacterial ribosomal protein S4

    OpenAIRE

    Luthey-Schulten Zaida; Roberts Elijah; Chen Ke

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The universal ribosomal protein S4 is essential for the initiation of small subunit ribosomal assembly and translational accuracy. Being part of the information processing machinery of the cell, the gene for S4 is generally thought of as being inherited vertically and has been used in concatenated gene phylogenies. Here we report the evolution of ribosomal protein S4 in relation to a broad sharing of zinc/non-zinc forms of the gene and study the scope of horizontal gene tr...

  12. Evaluation of atmospheric corrosion on electroplated zinc and zinc nickel coatings by Electrical Resistance (ER) Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per

    2013-01-01

    cars for the automotive industry, off-shore construction or component and devices used in harsh industrial environments. The ER monitoring makes it possible to study the corrosion rate on-line in remote locations as a function of temperature, relative humidity and changes in the composition of the...... and magnetic fields. With this technique very important information about the durability of a new conversion coatings for aluminum, zinc and zinc alloys exposed to unknown atmospheric conditions can be gathered. This is expected to have a major impact on a number of industrial segments, such as test...

  13. Dietary polyphenols display zinc ionophore activity and modulate zinc signaling in hepatocarcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dabbagh Bazarbachi, Husam

    2015-01-01

    El zinc és el metall de transició més abundant després del ferro a totes les cèl·lules, i un micronutrient essencial, presentant diverses funcions en sistemes biològics. D'altra banda, els polifenols de la dieta són micronutrients bioactius que mostren nombrosos beneficis per a la salut, com ara activitat antitumoral i neuroprotectora. Anteriors treballs del nostre grup d'investigació han demostrat que els polifenols interaccionen amb cations de zinc i tenen la capacitat de modular l'expressi...

  14. Fractionation of stable zinc isotopes in the field-grown zinc hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens and the zinc-tolerant plant Silene vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ye-Tao; Cloquet, Christophe; Sterckeman, Thibault; Echevarria, Guillaume; Carignan, Jean; Qiu, Rong-Liang; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2012-09-18

    Stable Zn isotope signatures offer a potential tool for tracing Zn uptake and transfer mechanisms within plant-soil systems. Zinc isotopic compositions were determined in the Zn hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens collected at a Zn-contaminated site (Viviez), a serpentine site (Vosges), and a noncontaminated site (Sainte Eulalie) in France. Meanwhile, a Zn-tolerant plant ( Silene vulgaris ) was also collected at Viviez for comparison. While δ(66)Zn was substantially differentiated among N. caerulescens from the three localities, they all exhibited an enrichment in heavy Zn isotopes of 0.40-0.72‰ from soil to root, followed by a depletion in heavy Zn from root to shoot (-0.10 to -0.50‰). The enrichment of heavy Zn in roots is ascribed to the transport systems responsible for Zn absorption into root symplast and root-to-shoot translocation, while the depletion in heavy Zn in shoots is likely to be mediated by a diffusive process and an efficient translocation driven by energy-required transporters (e.g., NcHMA4). The mass balance yielded a bulk Zn isotopic composition between plant and soil (Δ(66)Zn(plant-soil)) of -0.01‰ to 0.63‰ in N. caerulescens , indicative of high- and/or low-affinity transport systems operating in the three ecotypes. In S. vulgaris , however, there was no significant isotope fractionation between whole plant and rhizosphere soil and between root and shoot, suggesting that this species appears to have a particular Zn homeostasis. We confirm that quantifying stable Zn isotopes is useful for understanding Zn accumulation mechanisms in plants. PMID:22891730

  15. [The role of zinc in chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Tatsuo

    2016-07-01

    Renal anemia is one of the most important complication as a cause of cardiovascular event in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The status of renal anemia has been ameliorated by using recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO), however, the EPO resistant anemia is sometimes seen in high stage CKD patients. Heavy metal deficiency including zinc deficiency is one of the cause of EPO resistant anemia. Recently, it is reported that zinc deficiency is seen in patients with CKD. In this article, we describe zinc deficiency in patients with CKD. The ability that zinc supplementation improves their anemia in CKD patients is also described. PMID:27455803

  16. Synthesis and characterization of nanohybrid of montmorillonite and zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc oxide-aluminosilicate nanohybrids through a hydrothermal reaction of a colloidal suspension of exfoliated montmorillonite nanosheets and zinc oxide in acid solution, performed in three different routes, were synthesized. The products were characterized by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). In all routes, it was found that the intercalation of zinc oxide into the host montmorillonite gallery was successfully performed so that the crystalline peaks of the montmorillonite and zinc oxide were suppressed from the X-ray patterns. The use of ultrasound decreased the reaction time.(author)

  17. Behavior of arsenic in hydrometallurgical zinc production and environmental impact

    OpenAIRE

    Peltekov A.B.; Boyanov B.S.; Markova T.S.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of arsenic in zinc sulphide concentrates is particularly harmful, because it creates problems in zinc electrolysis. The main source of arsenic in non-ferrous metallurgy is arsenopyrite (FeAsS). In oxidative roasting of zinc concentrates, FeAsS oxidizes to arsenic oxides (As2O3, As2O5). In this connection a natural FeAsS was examined, and also the distribution of arsenic in the products of the roasting process, the cycle of sulphuric acid obtaining and the leaching of zinc calcine...

  18. Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum copper and zinc concentrations of 506 (414 males and 92 females) apparently healthy Greek blood donors aged 18-60 years old were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 115.46 ± 23.56 μg/dl and 77.11 ± 17.67 μg/dl, respectively. The mean value for copper and zinc in females was higher than in males, although the difference for zinc was smaller than the one observed for copper. When the subjects were divided into various age groups there appeared to be some increase in copper concentration as a function of age, whereas zinc concentration did not change. There were no significant variations in serum copper and zinc concentrations due to place of residence, occupation and socioeconomic status. This study is the first one evaluating the serum status of copper and zinc in healthy Greeks and it has shown that they are at the highest concentration range for copper and the lowest for zinc compared to literature data on copper and zinc levels for various countries

  19. Zinc as Allosteric Ion Channel Modulator: Ionotropic Receptors as Metalloproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Francisco Andrés; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential metal to life. This transition metal is a structural component of many proteins and is actively involved in the catalytic activity of cell enzymes. In either case, these zinc-containing proteins are metalloproteins. However, the amino acid residues that serve as ligands for metal coordination are not necessarily the same in structural proteins compared to enzymes. While crystals of structural proteins that bind zinc reveal a higher preference for cysteine sulfhydryls rather than histidine imidazole rings, catalytic enzymes reveal the opposite, i.e., a greater preference for the histidines over cysteines for catalysis, plus the influence of carboxylic acids. Based on this paradigm, we reviewed the putative ligands of zinc in ionotropic receptors, where zinc has been described as an allosteric modulator of channel receptors. Although these receptors do not strictly qualify as metalloproteins since they do not normally bind zinc in structural domains, they do transitorily bind zinc at allosteric sites, modifying transiently the receptor channel's ion permeability. The present contribution summarizes current information showing that zinc allosteric modulation of receptor channels occurs by the preferential metal coordination to imidazole rings as well as to the sulfhydryl groups of cysteine in addition to the carboxyl group of acid residues, as with enzymes and catalysis. It is remarkable that most channels, either voltage-sensitive or transmitter-gated receptor channels, are susceptible to zinc modulation either as positive or negative regulators. PMID:27384555

  20. Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouremenou-Dona, Eleni [A' Hospital of IKA, Athens (Greece); Dona, Artemis [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: artedona@med.uoa.gr; Papoutsis, John [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece); Spiliopoulou, Chara [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece)

    2006-04-15

    Serum copper and zinc concentrations of 506 (414 males and 92 females) apparently healthy Greek blood donors aged 18-60 years old were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 115.46 {+-} 23.56 {mu}g/dl and 77.11 {+-} 17.67 {mu}g/dl, respectively. The mean value for copper and zinc in females was higher than in males, although the difference for zinc was smaller than the one observed for copper. When the subjects were divided into various age groups there appeared to be some increase in copper concentration as a function of age, whereas zinc concentration did not change. There were no significant variations in serum copper and zinc concentrations due to place of residence, occupation and socioeconomic status. This study is the first one evaluating the serum status of copper and zinc in healthy Greeks and it has shown that they are at the highest concentration range for copper and the lowest for zinc compared to literature data on copper and zinc levels for various countries.

  1. Zinc as Allosteric Ion Channel Modulator: Ionotropic Receptors as Metalloproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Francisco Andrés; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential metal to life. This transition metal is a structural component of many proteins and is actively involved in the catalytic activity of cell enzymes. In either case, these zinc-containing proteins are metalloproteins. However, the amino acid residues that serve as ligands for metal coordination are not necessarily the same in structural proteins compared to enzymes. While crystals of structural proteins that bind zinc reveal a higher preference for cysteine sulfhydryls rather than histidine imidazole rings, catalytic enzymes reveal the opposite, i.e., a greater preference for the histidines over cysteines for catalysis, plus the influence of carboxylic acids. Based on this paradigm, we reviewed the putative ligands of zinc in ionotropic receptors, where zinc has been described as an allosteric modulator of channel receptors. Although these receptors do not strictly qualify as metalloproteins since they do not normally bind zinc in structural domains, they do transitorily bind zinc at allosteric sites, modifying transiently the receptor channel’s ion permeability. The present contribution summarizes current information showing that zinc allosteric modulation of receptor channels occurs by the preferential metal coordination to imidazole rings as well as to the sulfhydryl groups of cysteine in addition to the carboxyl group of acid residues, as with enzymes and catalysis. It is remarkable that most channels, either voltage-sensitive or transmitter-gated receptor channels, are susceptible to zinc modulation either as positive or negative regulators. PMID:27384555

  2. Cadmium and zinc relationships in kidney cortex, liver, and pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G.; Piscator, M.; Linnman, L.

    1977-06-01

    Zinc and cadmium have been determined in kidney cortex, liver, and pancreas from 292 subjects autopsied in Stockholm, Sweden. In the liver and pancreas zinc was found to have a normal frequency distribution, average 45.3 ..mu..g/g and 26.9 ..mu..g/g wet wt, respectively. The concentrations of zinc in these two organs were constant regardless of age at death. Zinc was shown to accumulate with age in the kidney cortex in a way similar to cadmium, and had a log-normal distribution. The calculation of the regression line between individual cadmium concentrations below 60 ..mu..g/g and zinc concentrations gave a slope constant of 0.61 (Y/sub Zn/ = 0.61 X/sub Cd/ + 24.4), which corresponds to a nearly equimolar increase of zinc. The concentrations of ''physiological zinc,'' i.e., total zinc minus the zinc related to cadmium, were normally distributed (anti x = 24.6 ..mu..g Zn/g) and did not change with age. Furthermore, data on dry weight/wet weight ratios and ash weight/dry weight ratios in relation to age are presented.

  3. Effect of Zinc Toxicity on Lymphoid Organs in Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Heng-min; ZHAO Cui-yan; LI De-bing; PENG Xi; DENG Jun-liang

    2004-01-01

    The experiment was conducted with the objective of studies on effects of zinc toxicity on lymphoid organs by the methods of experimental pathology and flow cytometry (FCM). 200one-day-old Avian broilers were divided into four groups randomly, and fed on diets as follows: controls (Zn 100mg kg-1)and zinc toxic (Zn 1 500mg kg-1, zinc toxic group Ⅰ; Zn 2 000 mg kg-1, zinc toxic group Ⅱ; Zn 2 500 mg kg-1, zinc toxic group Ⅲ) for seven weeks. The weight and growth index of the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius were reduced in both zinc toxic group Ⅱ and zinc toxic group Ⅲ when compared with those of control group. The G0/G1 phase of the cell cycles of the lymphoid organs was higher, and S, G2+M phases lower in zinc toxic groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ than in control group. Lymphocytes were depleted and degenerate in the lymphoid organs. The reticular cells of the bursa of Fabricius proliferated and the reticular cells of the thymus were also degenerate and necrotic,particularly in zinc toxic groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ. The results demonstrated that more than 1 500 mg kg-1 impaired the progression of lymphocytes from the G0/G1 phase to S phase obviously, inhibited the development of lymphoid organs and caused marked pathological changes in the lymphoid organs. Potential mechanisms underlying these observations are also discussed.

  4. Proton microprobe analysis of zinc in skeletal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proton microprobe with windowless exit port was used to study zinc distributions in various types of skeletal tissues. The use of an external beam facilitated positioning of the targets for examination of particular points of interest. The proton microprobe is uniquely suited to this work since it combines high sensitivity for zinc determinations in thick samples with good spatial resolution. Measurements on rat and rabbit Achilles tendon showed a significant increase in zinc concentrations as the beam moved from the unmineralized collagen into the mineralized attachment site. Cartilage gave a similar result, with calcified cartilage having a greater zinc level than the articular surface on unmineralized epiphyseal cartilage

  5. Zinc-enriched boutons in rat spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Danscher, G; Jo, S M;

    2000-01-01

    The rat spinal cord reveals a complex pattern of zinc-enriched (ZEN) boutons. As a result of in vivo exposure to selenide ions, nanosized clusters of zinc selenide are created in places where zinc ions are present, including the zinc-containing synaptic vesicles of ZEN boutons. The clusters can be...... silver enhanced by autometallographic (AMG) development. A description of the ZEN bouton patterns is presented and discussed. The distribution of ZEN boutons could indicate that these terminal systems have a differentiated influence on sensory and motor systems....

  6. Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouremenou-Dona, Eleni; Dona, Artemis; Papoutsis, John; Spiliopoulou, Chara

    2006-04-15

    Serum copper and zinc concentrations of 506 (414 males and 92 females) apparently healthy Greek blood donors aged 18-60 years old were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 115.46+/-23.56 microg/dl and 77.11+/-17.67 microg/dl, respectively. The mean value for copper and zinc in females was higher than in males, although the difference for zinc was smaller than the one observed for copper. When the subjects were divided into various age groups there appeared to be some increase in copper concentration as a function of age, whereas zinc concentration did not change. There were no significant variations in serum copper and zinc concentrations due to place of residence, occupation and socioeconomic status. This study is the first one evaluating the serum status of copper and zinc in healthy Greeks and it has shown that they are at the highest concentration range for copper and the lowest for zinc compared to literature data on copper and zinc levels for various countries. PMID:15955548

  7. Photocatalysis application of zinc oxide fibers obtained by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the electrospinning technique, composite fibers of polyvinylbutyral and zinc nitrate were obtained. After a heat treatment at 600 deg C, nanostructured zinc oxide fibers were obtained. The fibers were characterized using X ray diffraction. The photocatalytic activity of the nanostructured fibers was determined using the photodegradation of a methyl orange solution. The increase in the heat treatment temperature decreases the photoactivity of the zinc oxide. The heat treatment, the phases and the surface area, affect the physical, chemical and photocatalytic activity of the zinc oxide. (author)

  8. Behavioral impairments in animal models for zinc deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eHagmeyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from teratogenic and pathological effects of zinc deficiency such as the occurrence of skin lesions, anorexia, growth retardation, depressed wound healing, altered immune function, impaired night vision, and alterations in taste and smell acuity, characteristic behavioral changes in animal models and human patients suffering from zinc deficiency have been observed. Given that it is estimated that about 17% of the worldwide population are at risk for zinc deficiency and that zinc deficiency is associated with a variety of brain disorders and disease states in humans, it is of major interest to investigate, how these behavioral changes will affect the individual and a putative course of a disease. Thus, here, we provide a state of the art overview about the behavioral phenotypes observed in various models of zinc deficiency, among them environmentally produced zinc deficient animals as well as animal models based on a genetic alteration of a particular zinc homeostasis gene. Finally, we compare the behavioral phenotypes to the human condition of mild to severe zinc deficiency and provide a model, how zinc deficiency that is associated with many neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders might modify the disease pathologies.

  9. A Zinc injection test at Hamaoka Unit-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Zinc injection test was carried out from 1997 to 1999 during the 16th and l7th operating cycles of Hamaoka Unit-1, the first nuclear power plant of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., to suppress the dose rate at the primary loop recirculation and keep the radiation exposure low. Zinc ion obtained by dissolution of Depleted Zinc Oxide (DZO) was injected into the feedwater. During the test, we confirmed the decrease of the radionuclide concentration in the reactor water and the dose rate of the piping surface. From these results, we concluded that Zinc injection is effective for the dose rate suppression in the primary loop recirculation piping. (author)

  10. Effect of zinc supplementation on serum zinc concentration and T cell proliferation in nursing home elderly:A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Zinc is essential for the regulation of immune response. T cell function declines with age. Zinc supplementation has the potential to improve serum zinc concentrations and immunity of nursing home elderly with low serum zinc concentration. Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of ...

  11. Identification of the human zinc transcriptional regulatory element (ZTRE): a palindromic protein-binding DNA sequence responsible for zinc-induced transcriptional repression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coneyworth, L.J.; Jackson, K.A.; Tyson, J.; Bosomworth, H.J.; Hagen, E.A.E. van der; Hann, G.M.; Ogo, O.A.; Swann, D.C.; Mathers, J.C.; Valentine, R.A.; Ford, D.

    2012-01-01

    Many genes with crucial roles in zinc homeostasis in mammals respond to fluctuating zinc supply through unknown mechanisms, and uncovering these mechanisms is essential to understanding the process at cellular and systemic levels. We detected zinc-dependent binding of a zinc-induced protein to a spe

  12. The Limiting Phenomena at the Anode of the Electrowinning of Zinc from Zinc Chloride in a Molten Chloride Electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Lans, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the possibilities and technological viability for the electrowinning of zinc from zinc chloride. This research contributes to development of an alternative process, because it provides: ⢠A clear understanding and overview of the present zinc industry and future developments. ⢠A thorough literature investigation, leading to: o Understanding the reasons to abandon the proposed process route previously used (molten salt electrowinning in parti...

  13. Zinc bioavailability in rats fed a plant-based diet: a study of fermentation and zinc supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E. Lazarte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc deficiency is a significant problem, in developing countries and in vegetarians, which can be caused by plant-based diets. Thus, dietary strategies, such as fermentation, to improve zinc bioavailability of diets should be investigated. Objective: To improve zinc bioavailability in a plant-based diet by the inclusion of fermented food. Design: Cassava tubers were fermented and made to replace the unfermented cassava in a basal plant-based diet, and compared with plant-based diets with and without zinc supplement. The zinc bioavailability of the diets was evaluated in Wistar rats that were fed these diets for 28 days. The evaluation was for zinc apparent absorption (ZnAA, serum zinc levels, and zinc deposits in liver and femur; in addition, the feed efficiency ratio (FER of the diets and femur weight (FW of the rats were evaluated. Results: During the cassava fermentation, lactic acid increased and pH decreased (from 6.8 to 3.9, which is favorable for native phytase activity, resulting in a 90.2% reduction of phytate content in cassava. The diet containing fermented cassava showed significantly higher levels of ZnAA, FER, and FW (p<0.001. Moreover, the zinc levels in serum and femur were significantly higher (p<0.001 compared with the results of the diet with unfermented cassava. The results clearly show a higher zinc bioavailability in the diet containing fermented cassava and are comparable with the results obtained with the plant-based diet with zinc supplement. Conclusions: In conclusion, the fermentation of cassava reduces the phytate content. The diet containing the fermented cassava represents a better nutritional alternative than the diet with unfermented cassava and is comparable with the zinc-supplemented diets.

  14. Isotope aided micronutrient studies in rice production with special reference to zinc deficiency pt.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment has been carried out to evaluate the residual effect of zinc fertilizers by rice plant grown under flooded conditions in the field. The results obtained are summarized as follows: Residual effect of zinc fertilizers on yields of rough and hulled grains showed slight increases. Effect of zinc application methods on yields of the grains were shown that zinc mixed treatment could be more effectively utilized than treatment of zinc on the soil surface. In case of levels of zinc application, 5kg zinc per hectare represented high yields of the grains than those obtained from 10 kg and 20 kg zinc placement per hectare respectively. Regarding the form of zinc fertilizers, the urea-zinc complex showed less effective on yields of the grains than did the zinc sulfate. This phenomenon was consistent with the previous result. Yields of total zinc in rice plant grown on the rice straw added soils (Treatment No. 2 and 8) and the urea-zinc complex treated soil were increased markedly as compared to those data obtained from the previous year. The percentage of zinc derived from fertilizer decreased largely as compared to that of the first year crop. The yield of fertilizer zinc in rice plant decreased slightly in the most zinc treatments but in the case of treatments of zinc mixed with the straw added soil and the urea-zinc complex increased reversely as compared to the previous results. The mixed application of zinc with soil showed higher yield of fertilizer zinc than the soil surface placement. Approximately from 4.6 to 24.3 per cent of zinc taken up by rice plants were derived from the fertilizer zinc. Zinc fertilizer use efficiency ranged from 0.213 to 0.584 per cent when 5 kg zinc per hectare applied. (author)

  15. Bacillithiol is a major buffer of the labile zinc pool in Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Zhen; Chandrangsu, Pete; Helmann, Tyler C.; Romsang, Adisak; Gaballa, Ahmed; Helmann, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular zinc levels are tightly regulated since zinc is an essential cofactor for numerous enzymes, yet can be toxic when present in excess. The majority of intracellular zinc is tightly associated with proteins and is incorporated during synthesis from a poorly defined pool of kinetically labile zinc. In Bacillus subtilis, this labile pool is sensed by equilibration with the metalloregulator Zur, as an indication of zinc sufficiency, and by CzrA, as an indication of zinc excess. Here, ...

  16. Oral plasma zinc tolerance test in patients with protein energy malnutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    ATALAY, Y.; Arcasoy, A; Kürkçüoğlu, M

    1989-01-01

    Zinc absorption was measured in 37 children with malnutrition using the oral zinc tolerance test (22.5 mg elementary zinc) and the results compared with those of a group of healthy control subjects. The increase in plasma zinc was significantly lower in patients with marasmic kwashiorkor than in the control group. The zinc tolerance test was, however, normal in marasmic patients. We conclude that zinc deficiency occurs in some types of protein energy malnutrition, and that malabsorption may a...

  17. Causal mediation analysis with a latent mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Jeffrey M; Geng, Cuiyu; Nelson, Suchitra

    2016-05-01

    Health researchers are often interested in assessing the direct effect of a treatment or exposure on an outcome variable, as well as its indirect (or mediation) effect through an intermediate variable (or mediator). For an outcome following a nonlinear model, the mediation formula may be used to estimate causally interpretable mediation effects. This method, like others, assumes that the mediator is observed. However, as is common in structural equations modeling, we may wish to consider a latent (unobserved) mediator. We follow a potential outcomes framework and assume a generalized structural equations model (GSEM). We provide maximum-likelihood estimation of GSEM parameters using an approximate Monte Carlo EM algorithm, coupled with a mediation formula approach to estimate natural direct and indirect effects. The method relies on an untestable sequential ignorability assumption; we assess robustness to this assumption by adapting a recently proposed method for sensitivity analysis. Simulation studies show good properties of the proposed estimators in plausible scenarios. Our method is applied to a study of the effect of mother education on occurrence of adolescent dental caries, in which we examine possible mediation through latent oral health behavior. PMID:26363769

  18. Etapas iniciales del zinc runoff en clima tropical Etapas iniciales del zinc runoff en clima tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meraz, E.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Frecuently used metals in building application are Zinc and hot dip galvanized steel. The zinc has a relativelly good atmospheric resitance, due to its oxidation in air and formation of protective layer. However, some of the zinc corrosion products can be dissolved by pluvial precipitations and water condensed on the metal surface. This process is called metal runof. In order to estimate el zinc runoff in humid tropical climate, since its firs stages, samples of pure zinc and hot dip galvanized steel have been exposed during 2 years in outdorr atmosphere (rural and urban. The data reveal high annual values of zinc runoff (8,20–12,40 ±0.30 g/m2año, being this process 80% of total mass loss of corroded zinc. The runoff and corrosion processes are more accelerated for zinc, than that of galvanized steel. The principal factors that control the runoff process are discussed.

    El zinc y acero galvanizado (hot dip se utilizan frecuentemente como materiales de construcción. El zinc tiene relativamente buena resistencia en la atmósfera debido a su oxidación en el aire, formando una capa protectora. Sin embargo, algunos productos de corrosión de zinc pueden ser disueltos por las lluvias y agua condensada sobre la superficie del metal. Este proceso es conocido como runoff del metal. Con el objetivo de estimar el proceso de runoff de zinc desde sus primeras etapas en clima tropical húmedo, muestras de zinc puro y acero galvanizado han sido expuestas en atmósfera abierta (rural y urbana durante 2 años. Los resultados revelan altos valores de runoff de zinc (8,20–12,40 ±0,30 g/m2año, siendo este, hasta 80 % de la masa total perdida por corrosión del zinc. El proceso runoff y de corrosión es más acelerado en el zinc, que en el acero galvanizado. Se discuten los principales factores que controlan el proceso runoff.

  19. ZINC-INDUCED HYPERLEPTINEMIA IN RATS RELATED TO THE AMELIORATION OF SUCROSE-INDUCED OBESITY WITH ZINC REPLETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty adult albino rats (Rattus rattus) at 6 weeks of age were divided into three groups (ten for each). The first group was fed a standard laboratory diet for 8 weeks (control). The second group was made obese by giving them 32% sucrose solution in addition to the standard laboratory diet .The third group was received zinc supplementation (50 mg zinc acetate/ litre) with their sucrose solution. Body weight of all rats was measured weekly for 8 weeks. At 14 weeks of age, rats were killed and fasting blood samples were obtained. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α and zinc were measured.Results showed remarkable changes in body weights in sucrose fed rats only when compared to control and supplemented zinc rats group. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased in sucrose fed rats than both control and sucrose with zinc group. Serum leptin showed significant increase in sucrose fed rats than control and also showed higher significant value in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc comparing with sucrose fed rats and control ones. Tumour necrosis factor-? did not show any significant difference between all groups. Serum zinc concentration was decreased significantly in sucrose fed rats as compared to control. On the other hand, it was increased significantly in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc than other both groups. It could be concluded that zinc supplementation induced hyperleptinemia caused ameliorating effects in obese rats

  20. Zinc enrichment of whole potato tuber by vacuum impregnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erihemu; Hironaka, Kazunori; Koaze, Hiroshi; Oda, Yuji; Shimada, Kenichiro

    2015-04-01

    Zinc is a nutritionally essential truce element, and thus zinc deficiency (ZD) severely affects human health. More than 25% of the world's population is at risk of ZD. This study was initiated to examine the use of the vacuum impregnation (VI) technique for enriching zinc content of whole potatoes; the effect of vacuum time, restoration time, steam-cooking and storage at 4 °C on the zinc content of VI whole potatoes was evaluated. Whole potato tubers were immersed in a 9 g/100 g zinc (zinc gluconate) solution. Vacuum pressure of 1,000 Pa was applied for 0-120 min, and atmospheric pressure restoration for 0-4 h. Experimental results showed that the zinc content of VI potatoes increased with vacuum and restoration time. Moreover, VI-cooked unpeeled or peeled potatoes had 63-94 times and 47-75 times higher zinc contents than un-VI-cooked unpeeled or peeled potatoes, respectively. The world daily potato consumption (86 g) of the VI-cooked unpeeled and peeled potatoes provided adult men with 130-148% and 100-135% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of zinc, respectively. Also, the daily potato consumption of the unpeeled and peeled potatoes supplied adult women with 178-203% and 137-185% of the RDA level, respectively. In addition, the VI potatoes had 40 times higher zinc contents through 30 days of storage at 4 °C, compared with un-VI-treated potatoes. This study indicated that VI treatment of whole potatoes was useful for enriching the zinc content. PMID:25829619

  1. Zinc deficiency is common in several psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Grønli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests a link between low zinc levels and depression. There is, however, little knowledge about zinc levels in older persons with other psychiatric diagnoses. Therefore, we explore the zinc status of elderly patients suffering from a wide range of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Clinical data and blood samples for zinc analyzes were collected from 100 psychogeriatric patients over 64 of age. Psychiatric and cognitive symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery and Aasberg Depression Rating Scale, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Clockdrawing Test, clinical interviews and a review of medical records. In addition, a diagnostic interview was conducted using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview instrument. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in patients with depression was compared with the prevalence in patients without depression, and the prevalence in a control group of 882 older persons sampled from a population study. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in zinc deficiency prevalence between the control group (14.4% and the patient group (41.0% (χ(2 = 44.81, df = 1, p<0.001. In a logistic model with relevant predictors, zinc deficiency was positively associated with gender and with serum albumin level. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in the patient group was significantly higher in patients without depression (i.e. with other diagnoses than in patients with depression as a main diagnosis or comorbid depression (χ(2 = 4.36, df = 1, p = 0.037. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc deficiency is quite common among psychogeriatric patients and appears to be even more prominent in patients suffering from other psychiatric disorders than depression. LIMITATIONS: This study does not provide a clear answer as to whether the observed differences represent a causal relationship between zinc deficiency and psychiatric symptoms. The blood sample collection time points

  2. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  3. Myocardial ischemic preconditioning upregulated protein 1(Mipu1):zinc finger protein 667 - a multifunctional KRAB/C2H2 zinc finger protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myocardial ischemic preconditioning upregulated protein 1 (Mipu1) is a newly discovered upregulated gene produced in rats during the myocardial ischemic preconditioning process. Mipu1 cDNA contains a 1824-base pair open reading frame and encodes a 608 amino acid protein with an N-terminal Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) domain and classical zinc finger C2H2 motifs in the C-terminus. Mipu1 protein is located in the cell nucleus. Recent studies found that Mipu1 has a protective effect on the ischemia-reperfusion injury of heart, brain, and other organs. As a nuclear factor, Mipu1 may perform its protective function through directly transcribing and repressing the expression of proapoptotic genes to repress cell apoptosis. In addition, Mipu1 also plays an important role in regulating the gene expression of downstream inflammatory mediators by inhibiting the activation of activator protein-1 and serum response element

  4. Myocardial ischemic preconditioning upregulated protein 1(Mipu1):zinc finger protein 667 - a multifunctional KRAB/C{sub 2}H{sub 2} zinc finger protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D.; Zhang, C. [Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Key Lab for Arteriosclerology of Hunan Province, Post-doctoral Mobile Stations for Basic Medicine, University of South China, Hengyang City, Hunan Province (China); Fan, W.J. [Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Key Lab for Arteriosclerology of Hunan Province, Post-doctoral Mobile Stations for Basic Medicine, University of South China, Hengyang City, Hunan Province (China); The Second Affiliated Hospital, University of South China, Hengyang City, Hunan Province (China); Pan, W.J.; Feng, D.M.; Qu, S.L.; Jiang, Z.S. [Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Key Lab for Arteriosclerology of Hunan Province, Post-doctoral Mobile Stations for Basic Medicine, University of South China, Hengyang City, Hunan Province (China)

    2014-10-31

    Myocardial ischemic preconditioning upregulated protein 1 (Mipu1) is a newly discovered upregulated gene produced in rats during the myocardial ischemic preconditioning process. Mipu1 cDNA contains a 1824-base pair open reading frame and encodes a 608 amino acid protein with an N-terminal Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) domain and classical zinc finger C{sub 2}H{sub 2} motifs in the C-terminus. Mipu1 protein is located in the cell nucleus. Recent studies found that Mipu1 has a protective effect on the ischemia-reperfusion injury of heart, brain, and other organs. As a nuclear factor, Mipu1 may perform its protective function through directly transcribing and repressing the expression of proapoptotic genes to repress cell apoptosis. In addition, Mipu1 also plays an important role in regulating the gene expression of downstream inflammatory mediators by inhibiting the activation of activator protein-1 and serum response element.

  5. Micronutrient research in India - the identification and understanding of the problem with particular reference to zinc deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies are in progress using isotopes of zinc and other nutrient elements to investigate such problems as the retention and movement of zinc in soils, zinc uptake, its distribution and metabolism in plants, zinc-organic matter, zinc-lime and zinc-phosphorus interaction in soils and plants

  6. Green synthesis of nano zinc oxide and evaluation of its impact on germination and metabolic activity of Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajey; Singh, N B; Hussain, Imtiyaz; Singh, Himani; Yadav, Vijaya; Singh, S C

    2016-09-10

    In the present study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were rapidly synthesized at room temperature by treating zinc acetate dihydrate with the flower extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive). The formation of ZnO NPs was primarily confirmed by UV-visible absorption spectrum in the range of 250-700nm. XRD analysis and DLS particle size analyzer revealed the size of ZnO NPs. The FTIR spectrum revealed the presence of phytochemicals in the flower extract mediated ZnO NPs. Moreover, the morphology of the ZnO NPs was determined using SEM. Seeds of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) were separately treated with different concentrations of synthesized ZnO NPs and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) salt suspensions (common zinc supplement). The effect of these treatments on seed germination, seedling vigor, chlorophyll, protein and sugar contents as well as on the activities of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme were studied. Leaves of plants treated with 6.1mM concentration of ZnO NPs recorded maximum reflectance while it was minimum in plants treated with 1.2mM concentration of NPs. The effect of synthesized ZnO NPs on seedling vigor, pigment, protein and sugar content was found affirmative at lower concentrations contrary to control and ZnSO4 salt. The inhibitory effect at higher concentration of NPs indicated importance in the precise application of NPs, in Zn deficient system, where plant response varies with concentration. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on Elaeagnus angustifolia mediated synthesis of ZnO NPs and their effects on germination and physiological activity of tomato. PMID:27422354

  7. Zinc Biofortification of Rice in China: A stimulation of zinc intake with different dietary patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Y.; Boonstra, A.; Yuan, B.; Pan, X.; Dai, Yue

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 2819 adults aged 20 years and above was undertaken in 2002 in Jiangsu Province. Zinc intake was assessed using a consecutive 3-day 24-h dietary recall method. Insufficient and excess intake was determined according to the Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes. Four distinct

  8. Corrosion Performance of Zinc and Zinc-cobalt Alloy Compositionally Modulated Multilayer (CMM) Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Jingyin; LIANG Guozheng; XIN Wenli; LIU Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    Varieties of zinc and Zn-Co alloy compositionally modulated multilayer (CMM) coatings were electrodeposited onto steel substrates using dual bath technique. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of coated samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ). The existence of internal stress in ZnCo alloy deposits was corfirmed by the cross-sectional morphologies for the occurrence of micro-cracks in the thick Zn-Co alloy deposit alone. The corrosion performance was evaluated using neutral salt spray testing, corrosion potential measurement and anodic polarization methods. The experimental results show that the zinc and Zn- Co alloy CMM coatings were more corrosion-resistant than the monolithic coatings of zinc or Zn-Co alloy alone with a similar thickness. The analysis on the micrographic features of zinc and Zn- Co alloy CMM coatings, using field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) after corrosion testing, explains the probable reasons why the Zn-Co/ Zn CMM coating system has a better protective performance.

  9. Zinc Electrode Morphology Evolution in High Energy Density Nickel-Zinc Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Payer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prismatic Nickel-Zinc (NiZn batteries with energy densities higher than 100 Wh kg−1 were prepared using Zn electrodes with different initial morphologies. The effect of initial morphology of zinc electrode on battery capacity was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD reveal that initial morphology of zinc electrode changes drastically after a few charge/discharge cycles regardless of initial ZnO powder used. ZnO electrodes prepared using ZnO powders synthesized from ZnCl2 and Zn(NO32 lead to average battery energy densities ranging between 92 Wh kg−1 and 109 Wh kg−1 while using conventional ZnO powder leads to a higher energy density, 118 Wh kg−1. Average discharge capacities of zinc electrodes vary between 270 and 345 mA g−1, much lower than reported values for nano ZnO powders in literature. Higher electrode surface area or higher electrode discharge capacity does not necessarily translate to higher battery energy density.

  10. Sulfidation and reduction of zinc titanate and zinc oxide sorbents for injection in gasifier exit ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Akashi, Hyogo (Japan). Technical Inst.; Krueger, C.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Jl, W.; Higgins, R.J.; Bishop, B.A.; Goldsmith, R.L. [CeraMem Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The sulfidation reaction kinetics of fine particles of zinc titanate and zinc oxide with H{sub 2}S were studied in order to test the potential of the sorbent injection hot-gas desulfurization process. Fine sorbent particles with diameter between 0.3 and 60 {mu}m were sulfided with H{sub 2}S and/or reduced with H{sub 2} in a laminar flow reactor over the temperature range of 500-900{degrees}C. Sulfidation/reduction conversion was compared for different particle sizes and sorbents with various porosities and atomic ratios of Zn and Ti. In reduction of ZnO with H{sub 2} and without H{sub 2}S, significant amount of Zn was formed and vaporized, while the presence of H{sub 2}S suppressed elemental Zn formation. This suggests that H{sub 2}S may suppress the surface reduction of ZnO and/or gaseous Zn may react with H{sub 2}S homogeneously and form fine particles of ZnS. Formation and vaporization of elemental Zn from zinc titanate sorbents was slower than from zinc oxide with and without H{sub 2}S.

  11. Zinc Supplementation to Pregnant Rats with Adequate Zinc Nutriture Suppresses Immune Functions in their Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Pronounced zinc (Zn) deficiency during pregnancy is associated with thymic and splenic atrophy and immunosuppression. However, our knowledge about consequences of marginal Zn deficiency and Zn supplementation during pregnancy on immune function in the offspring is limited. Aim: To study ...

  12. Does increased zinc uptake enhance grain zinc mass concentration in rice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.; Keulen, van H.; Zhao, M.; Jin, L.N.; Stomph, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the worlds' most important cereal and potentially an important source of zinc (Zn) for people who eat mainly rice. To improve Zn delivery by rice, plant Zn uptake and internal allocation need to be better understood. This study reports on within-plant allocation and potential

  13. Preferential spin canting in nanosize zinc ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Brajesh, E-mail: bpandey@gmail.com [Department of Applied Science, Symbiosis Institute of Technology, SIU, Lavale, Pune 411112 (India); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Litterst, F.J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Institut für Physik der Kondensierten Materie,Technische Universität Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Baggio-Saitovitch, E.M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Zinc ferrite nanoparticles powder with average size of 10.0±0.5 nm was synthesized by the citrate precursor route. We studied the structural and magnetic properties using X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the synthesized zinc ferrite possesses good spinel structure. Both Mössbauer and magnetization data indicate superparamagnetic ferrimagnetic particles at room temperature. The magnetic behavior is determined by a considerable degree of cation inversion with Fe{sup III} in tetrahedral A-sites. Mössbauer spectroscopy at low temperature and in high applied magnetic field reveals that A-site spins are aligned antiparallel to the applied field with some possible angular scatter whereas practically all octahedral B-site spins are canted contrasting some earlier reported partial B-site spin canting in nanosize zinc ferrite. Deviations from the antiferromagnetic arrangement of B-site spins are supposed to be caused by magnetic frustration effects. - Highlights: • Spinel structure ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the uniform size range of 10.0±0.5 nm have been synthesized using the citrate precursor route. • Canting of the spins of A- and B-sublattice sites has been studied by low temperature and high magnetic field Mössbauer spectroscopy. • A-site spins are aligned antiparallel to the applied field with only small angular scatter. • B-site spins are strongly canted in contrast to earlier quoted only partial canting. • B site spin structure deviates significantly from a collinear antiferromagnetic arrangement.

  14. Zinc and multi-mineral supplementation should mitigate the pathogenic impact of cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2012-11-01

    High-level cadmium (Cd) exposure has long been known to induce nephropathy, severe osteoporosis, and fractures in humans. More recent epidemiology, however, reveals that, in populations not known to have important industrial exposure to this heavy metal, high-normal blood or urine Cd levels correlate with increased risk for vascular disorders, cancers, diabetes, and total mortality, as well as osteoporosis and nephropathy. Since these disorders appear unlikely to expedite Cd absorption, and since Cd has promoted these pathologies in rodent studies, it seems reasonable to conclude that Cd is an important mediating risk factor for these disorders in humans. Avoiding tobacco smoke or frequent ingestion of shellfish or organ meats can lessen humans exposure to Cd, but the chief dietary sources of Cd are plant-derived foods - green leafy vegetables, whole grains, tubers, and root vegetables - typically recommended for their health-supportive properties; indeed, among non-smokers, vegans tend to have the highest Cd body burden. Fortunately, iron sufficiency and ample dietary intakes of calcium, magnesium, and zinc can impede absorption of dietary Cd, both by down-regulating intestinal expression of mineral transporters, and by directly competing with Cd for access to these transporters. Correction of iron deficiency appears to be of particular importance for controlling Cd absorption. Moreover, zinc supplementation can counteract the toxicity of Cd already in the body via induction of metallothionein, which binds Cd avidly via its sulfhydryl groups; so long as it remains sequestered in this form, Cd is innocuous. Zinc supplementation may in any case be recommendable, as optimal zinc status exerts protective anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunosupportive effects. Inasmuch as the toxicity of Cd appears to be mediated in large part by oxidative stress, ingestion of spirulina, lipoic acid, melatonin, and N-acetylcysteine may also have potential for mitigating the risk

  15. Shared mediated workspaces

    OpenAIRE

    Greef, Tjerk de; Gullström, Charlie; Handberg, Leif; Nefs, H.T.; Parnes, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Shared mediated spaces provide viable alternatives for meetings and interactions. The development of collaborative mediated workspaces and shared negotiation spaces will have a fundamental impact on all human practices. Previous design-led research, has identified spatial design concepts, such as mediated gaze, and spatial montage, which, if unaddressed, may be said to impose friction, and thus impact negatively on the experience of mediated presence. The current paper discusses a set of conc...

  16. Mediation and Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Eisenkopf

    2009-01-01

    Mediation is a popular process to manage conflicts, but there is little systematic insight into its mechanisms. This paper discusses the results from an experiment in which a mediator can induce two conflict parties to behave cooperatively. If the mediator recommends cooperative behavior and threatens to punish deviations, she achieves the efficient solution. Similar results even obtain if the mediator is biased towards one party or has no incentive to prevent the conflict. Communication betw...

  17. Confidentiality of mediation communications

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, AKC

    2011-01-01

    Discusses the common law protection afforded to mediation negotiations by the without prejudice rule, legal professional privilege and the mediation agreement signed by all parties prior to the commencement of the mediation process. Examines the inclusion of admissions within the without prejudice rule, and the exceptions to the rule. Notes two pieces of legislation offering protection, namely the US Uniform Mediation Act 2001 and Directive 2008/52. Argues that the limited protection in the U...

  18. Bayesian Mediation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes Bayesian analysis of mediation effects. Compared to conventional frequentist mediation analysis, the Bayesian approach has several advantages. First, it allows researchers to incorporate prior information into the mediation analysis, thus potentially improving the efficiency of estimates. Second, under the Bayesian mediation analysis, inference is straightforward and exact, which makes it appealing for studies with small samples. Third, the Bayesian approach is conceptua...

  19. Mediation as Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Holler, M.J.; Lindner, I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes mediation as a signal. Starting from a stylized case, a game theoretical model of one-sided incomplete information, taken from Cho and Kreps (1987), is applied to discuss strategic effects of mediation. It turns out that to reject mediation can be interpreted as a ”negative signal” while the interpretation of accepting or proposing mediation is ambiguous and does not necessarily change the prior beliefs of the uninformed party. This asymmetry suggests that, in equilibrium,...

  20. Solidification of supercooled molten zinc chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodová, Miroslava; Cihlář, Antonín; Nitsch, Karel

    Bratislava: x, 2005 - (Koman, M.; Mikloš, D.), s. 5-9 ISBN 80-89088-42-2. [Development of Materials Science in Research and Education - DMS -RE 2005 /15./. Kežmarské Žĺaby (SK), 05.09.2005-09.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : molten zinc chloride * thermal analysis * crystallization * glass formation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  1. Severe Zinc Depletion of Escherichia coli: ROLES FOR HIGH AFFINITY ZINC BINDING BY ZinT, ZINC TRANSPORT AND ZINC-INDEPENDENT PROTEINS*

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, A.I.; Hunt, S.; Stokes, S.L.; Bramall, N.; Bunch, J.; Cox, A.G.; McLeod, C.W.; Poole, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc ions play indispensable roles in biological chemistry. However, bacteria have an impressive ability to acquire Zn2+ from the environment, making it exceptionally difficult to achieve Zn2+ deficiency, and so a comprehensive understanding of the importance of Zn2+ has not been attained. Reduction of the Zn2+ content of Escherichia coli growth medium to 60 nM or less is reported here for the first time, without recourse to chelators of poor specificity. Cells grown in Zn2+-deficient medium ...

  2. Mechanical characterization of microwave sintered zinc oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Mukhopadhyay; M Ray Chaudhuri; A Seal; S K Dalui; M Banerjee; K K Phani

    2001-04-01

    The mechanical characterization of microwave sintered zinc oxide disks is reported. The microwave sintering was done with a specially designed applicator placed in a domestic microwave oven operating at a frequency of 2.45 GHz to a maximum power output of 800 Watt. These samples with a wide variation of density and hence, of open pore volume percentage, were characterized in terms of its elastic modulus determination by ultrasonic time of flight measurement using a 15 MHz transducer. In addition, the load dependence of the microhardness was examined for the range of loads 0.1–20 N. Finally, the fracture toughness data (IC) was obtained using the indentation technique.

  3. Antimicrobial property of zinc based nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, V.; Stratulat, D. N.; Calin, G.; Nichitus, S.; Burlui, V.; Stadoleanu, C.; Popa, M.; Popa, I. M.

    2016-06-01

    Pathogen bacteria strains with wide spectrum can cause serious infections with drastic damages on humans. There are studies reflecting antibacterial effect of nanoparticles type metal or metal oxides as an alternative or concurrent treatment to the diseases caused by infectious agents. Synthesised nanoparticles using different methods like sol-gel, hydrothermal or plant extraction were tested following well-established protocols with the regard to their antimicrobial activity. It was found that zinc based nanoparticles possess strong synergistic effect with commonly used antibiotics on infection tratment.

  4. Iron and zinc availability in maize lines

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz; Paulo Evaristo de Oliveira Guimarães; Luciano Rodrigues Queiroz; Estefânia de Oliveira Guedes; Vanessa Diniz Barcelos Vasconcelos; Lauro José Guimarães; Paulo Eduardo de Aquino Ribeiro; Robert Eugene Schaffert

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the Zn and Fe availability by phytic acid/Zn and phytic acid/Fe molar ratios, in 22 tropical maize inbred lines with different genetic backgrounds. The Zn and Fe levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the P through colorimetry method. Three screening methods for phytic acid (Phy) analysis were tested and one, based on the 2,2'-bipyridine reaction, was select. There was significant variability in the contents of zinc (17.5 to...

  5. Magnetic resonance in superparamagnetic zinc ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jitendra Pal Singh; Gagan Dixit; R C Srivastava; Hemant Kumar; H M Agrawal; Prem Chand

    2013-08-01

    In the present work, we have synthesized zinc ferrite nanoparticles by nitrate method. Presence of almost zero value of coercivity and remanence in the hysteresis of these samples shows the superparamagnetic nature at room temperature. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy performed on these samples in the temperature range 120–300 K indicates the systematic variation of the line-shapes of the spectra with temperature. Both gvalue and peak-to-peak linewidth decrease with increase in temperature. The variation of g-values and peak-topeak linewidth with temperature has been fitted with existing models and we observed different values of activation energies of the spins for both the samples.

  6. Recent developments in Zinc oxide target chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc oxide targets irradiated with high energy protons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) contain a number of radioactive spallation products in quantities large enough to warrant recovery. This paper describes methods for recovering 7Be, 46 Sc, and 48V from such targets and offers suggestions on possible ways to recover additional isotopes. The proposed methods are based on traditional precipitation and ion exchange techniques, are readily adaptable to hot cell use, and produce no hazardous waste components. The products are obtained in moderate to high yields and have excellent radionuclidic purity. (author). 14 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. The creep Kinetics of sand cat zinc-based alloys no. 2, ACuZinc5, and ACuzinc10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compressive creep tests have been carried out on three sand cast zinc-rich alloys No. 2 (Zn-4% Al-2.8% Cu 0.03% Mg), ACuZinc5 (Zn-3% Al-5.2% Cu-0.04% Mg) and ACuZinc10 (Zn-3.5% Al-9.3% Cu-0.03% Mg) in the stress range 20 to 100 MPa, and at temperatures from 70 to 160 deg. centigrade. The tests were performed on a standard weight lever arm compressive creep machine. Alloy No. 2 is a conventional zinc alloy, whereas ACuZinc5 and ACuZinc10 belong to a family of new, GM-patented, high performance ternary zin-copper-aluminium alloys which are suitable for manufacturing net shape die castings. Along with creep, other properties of ACuZinc alloys are claimed to be better than conventional zinc alloys No. 3 and No. 5 and ZA alloys, i.e. ZA.8, ZA.12 and ZA.27. A parametric relationship was obeyed, of the form:In t=C-n(In sigma)+Q/RTm where C is a constant, sigma the applied stress, t time of test, n the stress exponent, Q the activation energy, R the gas constant, and T is the absolute temperature. The primary creep contraction was generally found to increase with increasing copper content, but in a non-linear fashion. The secondary creep rates of alloy No. 2 were slightly lower than those of ACuZinc5 and ACuZinc10. Based on the above equation, continuous design stresses were calculated under different testing conditions which showed that both ACuZinc alloys were inferior in creep strength to alloy No.2 due to its lower secondary creep rates. The results and microstructure of alloys also showed that in all three alloys, the creep-controlling mechanism is the dislocation climb over second-phase (Epsilon) particles. (author)

  8. Concurrent repletion of iron and zinc reduces intestinal oxidative damage in iron-and zinc-deficient rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To understand the interactions between iron and zinc during absorption in iron- and zinc-deficient rats,and their consequences on intestinal oxidant-antioxidant balance.METHODS: Twenty-four weanling Wistar-Kyoto rats fed an iron- and zinc-deficient diet (< 6.5 mg Fe and 4.0 mg Zn/kg diet) for 4 wk were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8, each) and orally gavaged with 4 mg iron, 3.3 mg zinc, or 4 mg iron + 3.3 mg zinc for 2wk. At the last day of repletion, 3 h before the animals were sacrificed, they received either 37 mBq of 55Fe or 65Zn, to study their localization in the intestine, using microautoradiography. Hemoglobin, iron and zinc content in plasma and liver were measured as indicators of iron and zinc status. Duodenal sections were used for immunochemical staining of ferritin and metallothionein.Duodenal homogenates (mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions), were used to assess aconitase activity,oxidative stress, functional integrity and the response of antioxidant enzymes.RESULTS: Concurrent repletion of iron- and zinc-deficient rats showed reduced localization of these minerals compared to rats that were teated with iron or zinc alone;these data provide evidence for antagonistic interactions.This resulted in reduced formation of lipid and protein oxidation products and better functional integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Further, combined repletion lowered iron-associated aconitase activity and ferritin expression,but significantly elevated metallothionein and glutathione levels in the intestinal mucosa. The mechanism of interactions during combined supplementation and its subsequent effects appeared to be due to through modulation of cytosolic aconitase, which in turn influenced the labile iron pool and metallothionein levels, and hence reduced intestinal oxidative damage.CONCLUSION: Concurrent administration of iron and zinc corrects iron and zinc deficiency, and also reduces the intestinal oxidative damage associated with iron

  9. Mediators as Walrasian Auctioneers

    OpenAIRE

    Dickenson, David L.

    2004-01-01

    This article opens up mediation to systematic economic analysis by considering mediators as analogous.to the Walrasian auctioneers of exchange theory. By altering trade-off rates among bargaining issues, mediators facilitate a process leading towards Pareto efficient voluntary settlements.

  10. Hybrid Gauge Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    McGarrie, Moritz

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by four dimensional (de)constructions, we use the framework of "General gauge mediation in five dimensions" to interpolate between gaugino and ordinary gauge mediation. In particular we emphasise that an intermediate hybrid regime of mediation may be obtained in these higher dimensional models as has been obtained in the quiver gauge models.

  11. Bayesian Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we propose Bayesian analysis of mediation effects. Compared with conventional frequentist mediation analysis, the Bayesian approach has several advantages. First, it allows researchers to incorporate prior information into the mediation analysis, thus potentially improving the efficiency of estimates. Second, under the Bayesian…

  12. mediation: R Package for Causal Mediation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Tingley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the R package mediation for conducting causal mediation analysis in applied empirical research. In many scientific disciplines, the goal of researchers is not only estimating causal effects of a treatment but also understanding the process in which the treatment causally affects the outcome. Causal mediation analysis is frequently used to assess potential causal mechanisms. The mediation package implements a comprehensive suite of statistical tools for conducting such an analysis. The package is organized into two distinct approaches. Using the model-based approach, researchers can estimate causal mediation effects and conduct sensitivity analysis under the standard research design. Furthermore, the design-based approach provides several analysis tools that are applicable under different experimental designs. This approach requires weaker assumptions than the model-based approach. We also implement a statistical method for dealing with multiple (causally dependent mediators, which are often encountered in practice. Finally, the package also offers a methodology for assessing causal mediation in the presence of treatment noncompliance, a common problem in randomized trials.

  13. 21 CFR 73.2995 - Luminescent zinc sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... coloring externally applied facial makeup preparations and nail polish included under § 720.4(c)(7)(ix) and... zinc sulfide in facial makeup preparations shall not exceed 10 percent by weight of the final product. (2) Facial makeup preparations containing luminescent zinc sulfide are intended for use only...

  14. Analysis of slag material in the production of zinc oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Pešlová, F.

    Brno : University of Defence, 2014 - (Stodola, J.; Šťastný, J.; Vališ, D.; Neumann, V.), s. 237-242 ISBN 978-80-7231-969-5. [Deterioration, Dependability, Diagnostics. Brno (CZ), 07.10.2014-08.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : zinc slag * production of zinc oxide * analysis of slag * phases Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  15. Da Xinganling Lead Zinc Smelting Base Commencing the Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The construction of the first phase of 150,000- ton lead zinc smelting base project,the largest lead zinc smelting project in Heilongjiang Province,of Da Xinganling Yunye Mining Ltd. officially started on May 24 in Jiagedaqi Indus- trial Park in Da Xinganling Region.

  16. Lattice dynamical investigations on Zn diffusion in zinc oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Vinotha Boorana Lakshmi; K Ramachandran

    2011-04-01

    Zinc self diffusion in bulk zinc oxide is studied by lattice dynamical approach here to get more insight into the diffusion in nano ZnO. The results reveal that only cationic self diffusion is dominant over anionic self diffusion and that too by single vacancy mechanism. The results are compared with the available experiments and discussed.

  17. Zinc supplementation, production and quality of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides its importance in the coffee tree nutrition, there is almost no information relating zinc nutrition and bean quality. This work evaluated the effect of zinc on the coffee yield and bean quality. The experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica L. in "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Twelve plots were established at random with 4 competitive plants each. Treatments included plants supplemented with zinc (eight plots and control without zinc supplementation (four plots. Plants were subjected to two treatments: zinc supplementation and control. Yield, number of defective beans, beans attacked by berry borers, bean size, cup quality, beans zinc concentration, potassium leaching, electrical conductivity, color index, total tritable acidity, pH, chlorogenic acids contents and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity of beans were evaluated. Zinc positively affected quality of coffee beans, which presented lower percentage of medium and small beans, lower berry borer incidence, lower potassium leaching and electrical conductivity, higher contents of zinc and chlorogenic acids and higher antioxidant activity in comparison with control beans.

  18. Redox and zinc signalling pathways converging on protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Elisa; Hogstrand, Christer; Maret, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    Zinc ions, though redox-inert, have either pro-antioxidant or pro-oxidant functions at critical junctures in redox metabolism and redox signalling. They are released from cells and in cells, e.g. from metallothionein, a protein that transduces redox signals into zinc signals (1). The released zinc ions inhibit enzymes such as protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), key regulatory enzymes of cellular phosphorylation signalling. The Ki(Zn) value for inhibition of receptor PTPB is 21pM (2). The binding is about as tight as the binding of zinc to zinc metalloenzymes and suggests tonic zinc inhibition. PTP1-B (PTPN1), an enzyme regulating the insulin and leptin receptors and involved in cancer and diabetes pathobiochemistry, has a Ki(Zn) value of about 5nM (3). Zinc ions bind to the enzyme in the closed conformation when additional metal-binding ligands are brought into the vicinity of the active site. In contrast, redox reactions target cysteines in the active sites of PTPs in the open conformation. This work provides a molecular basis how hydrogen peroxide and free zinc ions generated by growth factor signalling stimulate phosphorylation signalling differentially. (Supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council UK, grant BB/K001442/1.). PMID:26461422

  19. Zinc corrosion runoff process induced by humid tropical climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veleva, L. [Center for Investigation and Advanced Study (CINVESTAV-Merida), Applied Physics Department, Carr. Ant. a Progreso, Km.6, C.P. 97310, Merida, Yuc. (Mexico); Meraz, E. [Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, Division Academica de Ingenieria y Arquitectura, Km 1 Carretera Cunduacan-Jalpa de M., A.P. 24, C.P. 86690, Cunduacan, Tabasco (Mexico); Acosta, M. [Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, Division Academica de Ciencias Basicas, Km 1 Carretera Cunduacan-Jalpa de M., A.P. 24, C.P. 86690, Cunduacan, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2007-05-15

    Zinc and hot dip galvanized steel are frequently used metals in building application. They have relatively good atmospheric resistance to corrosion, due to its oxidation in air and formation of protective rust on its surface, which acts as barrier between the metal and environment. However, some part of the rust can be dissolved by pluvial precipitations and water condensed on the metal surface. This process, called metal runoff, contributes for zinc dispersion in soils and waters. In order to make accurate estimation of zinc runoff induced by atmosphere in humid tropical climate, samples of pure Zn and hot dip galvanized steel have been exposed in the Gulf of Mexico. The data reveal that this process is strongly influenced by factors which determine the aggressivity of the environment (pluvial precipitations, cycles of dry and rainy periods, atmospheric pollutants, air humidity). High annual rates of zinc runoff (6.5 - 8.5 {+-} 0.30 g Zn m{sup -2}yr{sup -1}) were released, being the runoff 63 - 87% of the zinc corrosion rust. The zinc mass loss has been related to several independent parameters, presenting linear equation, which indicates the air contaminant SO{sub 2} as the major factor controlling the runoff of zinc. The reported results show higher runoff of zinc samples, compared to that of hot dip galvanized steel. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Zinc nanoparticles in solution by laser ablation technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Singh; R Gopal

    2007-06-01

    Colloidal zinc metallic nanoparticles are synthesized using pulsed laser ablation of metal plate in an aqueous solution of suitable surfactant to prevent aggregation. UV-visible absorption, TEM, small angle X-ray diffraction and wide-angle X-ray diffraction are used for the characterization of colloidal zinc metallic nanoparticles. Colloidal nanoparticles are found highly stable for a long time.

  1. Erythrocyte metallothionein as an index of zinc status in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallothionein concentrations in erythrocyte lysates derived from human subjects were measured by an ELISA procedure. IgG obtained from serum of sheep injected with human metallothionein 1 was used in this competitive assay. Subjects were fed a semipurified zinc-deficient diet for an 8-day depletion period after 3 days of acclimation. Fasting plasma zinc concentrations were reduced ∼7%. Metallothionein in the erythrocyte lysates was significantly decreased to 59% of the initial level by the end of the depletion period. Supplementation of these depleted subjects with zinc did not increase erythrocyte metallothionein levels within 24 hr. Daily supplementation of control subjects with zinc increased erythrocyte metallothionein to a 7-fold maximum within 7 days. These levels were reduced by 61% within 14 days after zinc supplementation was terminated. Incubation of rat [35S]metallothionein with human erythrocyte lysate showed a time-dependent increase in 35S soluble in 20% trichloroacetic acid, indicating degradation of the labeled protein, presumably via protease activity in the lysate. It is proposed that zinc supplementation induces erythrocyte metallothionein during erythropoiesis and that low zinc intake decreases synthesis and/or accelerates degradation of the protein in reticulocytes/erythrocytes. Metallothionein levels in erythrocytes may provide a useful index upon which to assess zinc status in humans

  2. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim;

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on he...

  3. Chemical and biological rhizosphere interactions in low zinc soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffner, A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract of the PhD thesis entitled “Chemical and biological rhizosphere interactions in low zinc soils” by Andreas Duffner Soil provides ecosystem services critical for life. The availability of micronutrients, such as zinc (Zn), in soils is an essenti

  4. Electrophoretic deposition of zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized by the co-precipitation method were used to coat stainless steel plates by electrophoretic deposition in n-butanol with triethanolamine as a dispersant. The effect of zinc concentration in the synthesis on the morphology and microstructure of coatings was investigated. It is found that the deposition current densities significantly increase with the increasing zinc concentration. The zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It is inferred that hydroxyapatite and triethanolamine predominate in the chemical composition of coatings. With the increasing Zn/Ca ratios, the contents of triethanolamine decrease in the final products. The triethanolamine can be burnt out by heat treatment. The tests of adhesive strength have confirmed good adhesion between the coatings and substrates. The formation of new apatite layer on the coatings has been observed after 7 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid. In summary, the results show that dense, uniform zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings are obtained by electrophoretic deposition when the Zn/Ca ratio reaches 5%. - Highlights: • We investigate the Zn/Ca ratios for the synthesis of zinc-substituted HA. • Zinc-substituted HA nanoparticles are used for electrophoretic deposition. • Adding triethanolamine and HCl may aid electrophoretic deposition. • Uniform dense coatings of zinc-substituted HA are obtained when Zn/Ca = 5%

  5. Determination of the density of zinc powders for alkaline battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beatriz Ares Tejero; David Guede Carnero

    2007-01-01

    The density of zinc powder for alkaline battery was determined using a pyknometer.The results showed that powders made before the end of 2003 could reach relative densities above 99% of the theoretical density.Investigating the relative volume swelling of electrolysed gels of zinc powders,no evident relation between swelling and pyknometer density was found.

  6. Simple thermochromatographic separation of 67Ga from metallic zinc targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental realization of the vacuum thermochromatographic separation of 67Ga from metallic zinc targets is described. High yields of the radionuclide 67Ga with low zinc contaminations are demonstrated. Results are discussed with respect to expected data from theoretical considerations. (author)

  7. Serum zinc level in patients with liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the serum zinc level in patients with liver cirrhosis. Methodology: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted at Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad Sindh, Pakistan. All patients above 12 years of age, of either gender and known (diagnosed) cases of liver cirrhosis were further evaluated for their serum zinc level. The data was analyzed in statistical software (SPSS) and the p value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result: One hundred twenty seven cirrhotic patients with means age 42.7559 +- 15.8894 were evaluated and assessed. The serum zinc was low in 69% patients. According to Child-Pugh classification 72% zinc deficient cirrhotic subjects were in class C, 16% in class B and 12% in class A. 94% subjects had hepatitis C virus infection, 4% had hepatitis B virus infection and 2% had history of alcoholism. Conclusion: The serum zinc level was low in patients with liver cirrhosis. (author)

  8. Synthesis and characterization of fly ash-zinc oxide nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Yeole

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, generated in thermal power plants, is recognized as an environmental pollutant. Thus, measures are required to be undertaken to dispose it in an environmentally friendly method. In this paper an attempt is made to coat zinc oxide nano-particles on the surface of fly ash by a simple and environmentally friendly facile chemical method, at room temperature. Zinc oxide may serve as effective corrosion inhibitor by providing sacrificial protection. Concentration of fly ash was varied as 5, 10 and 15 (w/w % of zinc oxide. It was found that crystallinity increased, whereas particle size, specific gravity and oil absorption value decreased with increased concentration of fly ash in zinc oxide, which is attributed to the uniform distribution of zinc oxide on the surface of fly ash. These nanocomposites can potentially be used in commercial applications as additive for anticorrosion coatings.

  9. Analysis of reaction and transport processes in zinc air batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a novel combination of experimental and model-based investigations, elucidating the complex processes inside zinc air batteries. The work presented helps to answer which battery composition and which air-composition should be adjusted to maintain stable and efficient charge/discharge cycling. In detail, electrochemical investigations and X-ray transmission tomography are applied on button cell zinc air batteries and in-house set-ups. Moreover, model-based investigations of the battery anode and the impact of relative humidity, active operation, carbon dioxide and oxygen on zinc air battery operation are presented. The techniques used in this work complement each other well and yield an unprecedented understanding of zinc air batteries. The methods applied are adaptable and can potentially be applied to gain further understanding of other metal air batteries. Contents Introduction on Zinc Air Batteries Characterizing Reaction and Transport Processes Identifying Factors for Long-Term Stable O...

  10. Efficacy of zinc sulfate in reducing unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Hashemian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbilirubinemia is a common disease and unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia has been seen mainly in neonates. Severe form of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia may cause kernicterus and even death. Conventional treatment for severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia consists of phototherapy and exchange transfusion that have several known disadvantages; specially exchange transfusion is associated with a significant morbidity and even mortality. These harmful effects indicate the need to develop alternative pharmacological treatment strategies for unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. One of these pharmacological agents is zinc salts. Zinc has been shown to lower the bilirubin levels by inhibition of the enterohepatic cycling of unconjugated bilirubin. Oral zinc has been shown to reduce serum unconjugated bilirubin in animals, adolescents and low birth weight neonates. However, studies in healthy term neonates given oral zinc showed no reduction in hyperbilirubinemia based on daily measurement. In order to improve the accuracy, hyperbilirubinemia may be determined based on measurements every hour. More studies are needed to know the effect of zinc in neonatal jaundice.

  11. Behavior of arsenic in hydrometallurgical zinc production and environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltekov A.B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of arsenic in zinc sulphide concentrates is particularly harmful, because it creates problems in zinc electrolysis. The main source of arsenic in non-ferrous metallurgy is arsenopyrite (FeAsS. In oxidative roasting of zinc concentrates, FeAsS oxidizes to arsenic oxides (As2O3, As2O5. In this connection a natural FeAsS was examined, and also the distribution of arsenic in the products of the roasting process, the cycle of sulphuric acid obtaining and the leaching of zinc calcine were studied. The arsenic contamination of soils in the vicinity of nonferrous metals smelter KCM SA, Plovdiv, Bulgaria as a result of zinc and lead productions has been studied.

  12. Leaching and recycling of zinc from liquid waste sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Bing; GAO Hui-mei; CHAI Li-yuan; SHU Yu-de

    2008-01-01

    The selective leaching and recovery of zinc in a zinciferous sediment from a synthetic wastewater treatment was investigated. The main composition of the sediment includes 6% zinc and other metal elements such as Ca, Fe, Cu, Mg. The effects of sulfuric acid concentration, temperature, leaching time and the liquid-to-solid ratio on the leaching rate of zinc were studied by single factor and orthogonal experiments. The maximum difference of leaching rate between zinc and iron, 89.85%, was obtained by leaching under 170 g/L H2SO4 in liquid-to-solid ratio 4.2 mL/g at 65 "C for 1 h, and the leaching rates of zinc and iron were 91.20% and 1.35%, respectively.

  13. Interfacial chemistry of zinc anodes for reinforced concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covino, B.S. Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Cramer, S.D.; Holcomb, G.R. [Dept. of Energy, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center; McGill, G.E.; Cryer, C.B. [Oregon Dept. of Transportation, Salem, OR (United States); Stoneman, A. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Carter, R.R. [California Dept. of Transportation, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Thermally-sprayed zinc anodes are used in both galvanic and impressed current cathodic protection systems for reinforced concrete structures. The Albany Research Center, in collaboration with the Oregon Department of Transportation, has been studying the effect of electrochemical aging on the bond strength of zinc anodes for bridge cathodic protection systems. Changes in anode bond strength and other anode properties can be explained by the chemistry of the zinc-concrete interface. The chemistry of the zinc-concrete interface in laboratory electrochemical aging studies is compared with that of several bridges with thermal-sprayed zinc anodes and which have been in service for 5 to 10 years using both galvanic and impressed current cathodic protection systems. The bridges are the Cape Creek Bridge on the Oregon coast and the East Camino Undercrossing near Placerville, CA. Also reported are interfacial chemistry results for galvanized steel rebar from the 48 year old Longbird Bridge in Bermuda.

  14. Rescue of Impaired Fear Extinction and Normalization of Cortico-Amygdala Circuit Dysfunction in a Genetic Mouse Model by Dietary Zinc Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Whittle, Nigel; Hauschild, Markus; Lubec, Gert; Holmes, Andrew; Singewald, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Fear extinction is impaired in neuropsychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder. Identifying drugs that facilitate fear extinction in animal models provides leads for novel pharmacological treatments for these disorders. Zinc (Zn) is expressed in neurons in a cortico-amygdala circuit mediating fear extinction, and modulates neurotransmitter systems regulating extinction. We previously found that the 129S1/SvImJ mouse strain (S1) exhibited a profound impairment in fear extin...

  15. iguana encodes a novel zinc-finger protein with coiled-coil domains essential for Hedgehog signal transduction in the zebrafish embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Christian; Roy, Sudipto; Lewis, Katharine E.; Schauerte, Heike; Joerg-Rauch, Gerd; Kirn, Annette; Weiler, Christian; Geisler, Robert; Haffter, Pascal; Ingham, Philip W

    2004-01-01

    Signaling by lipid-modified secreted glycoproteins of the Hedgehog family play fundamental roles during pattern formation in animal development and in humans; dysfunction of Hedgehog pathway components is frequently associated with a variety of congenital abnormalities and cancer. Transcriptional regulation of Hedgehog target genes is mediated by members of the Gli zinc-finger transcription factors. The relative nuclear concentrations of Gli activator (Gliact) and repressor (Glirep) forms, to...

  16. Synthetic, spectral and solution studies on imidazolate-bridged copper(II)-copper(II) and copper(II)-zinc(II) complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subodh Kumar; R N Patel; P V Khadikar; K B Pandeya

    2001-02-01

    Synthesis, spectral and solution studies on 2-ethyl imidazolate-bridged (2-EtIm) homo-binuclear copper(II)-copper(II) and hetero-binuclear copper(II)-zinc(II) homologue are described. Magnetic moment values of homo-binuclear complexes indicate that the imidazolate group can mediate antiferromagnetic interactions. Optical spectra of hetero-binuclear complex at varying H values suggest that the imidazolate-bridged complex is stable over the H-range 7 15-10 0.

  17. Phenomenological Implications of Deflected Mirage Mediation: Comparison with Mirage Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Altunkaynak, Baris; Everett, Lisa L.; Kim, Ian-Woo; Nelson, Brent D.; Rao, Yongyan

    2010-01-01

    We compare the collider phenomenology of mirage mediation and deflected mirage mediation, which are two recently proposed "mixed" supersymmetry breaking scenarios motivated from string compactifications. The scenarios differ in that deflected mirage mediation includes contributions from gauge mediation in addition to the contributions from gravity mediation and anomaly mediation also present in mirage mediation. The threshold effects from gauge mediation can drastically alter the low energy s...

  18. REVIEW ON THE PROBLEM OF ZINC DEFFICIENCY, PROGRAM PREVENTION AND ITS PROSPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilowati Herman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Among of the micronutrient defficiency, zinc deficiency do not get proper priorities yet or neglegted. This situation is due to the relatively limited availability of data related to zinc defficiency, and broader of functional consequencies of zinc defficiency. In developed countries, studies on zinc defficiency has started almost since half century ago, however in Indonesia this study started since 20-30 years ago. This paper review the problem of zinc defficiency, effort to prevent and its prospect. Zinc has many functions in the body, involves in more than 300 enzyme, so the manifestation of zinc defficiency also varied and sometimes not specific. The parameter for determination of zinc status of the body also varied, so comparing the prevalence of zinc defficiency from different study should be more careful, because there is no consecus on the parameter yet. The prevalence of zinc defficiency ranges from 10% - 90%: the different parameter used in each study affecting the prevalence. Diet of middle low community usually plant based diet, which poor zinc content and high content of inhibitor for zinc absorbtion. On the other hand high prevalence of diarrhea also affect the losses of zinc. Consumption of red meat which rich in zinc usually also low in the middle low community. The possible and feasible program for preventing zinc defficiency are: food supplementation, fortification, biofortification, zinc firtilization in the agronomic, and nutrition education. Key words: stunting, micronutrient, zinc defficiency, growth retardation   Kata kunci: Stunting, Zat Gizi Mikrn, Defisiensi Seng, Pendek, Retardasi Pertumbuhan,

  19. Trace elements in human physiology and pathology: zinc and metallothioneins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiero, Haim; Tew, Kenneth D

    2003-11-01

    Zinc is one of the most abundant nutritionally essential elements in the human body. It is found in all body tissues with 85% of the whole body zinc in muscle and bone, 11% in the skin and the liver and the remaining in all the other tissues. In multicellular organisms, virtually all zinc is intracellular, 30-40% is located in the nucleus, 50% in the cytoplasm, organelles and specialized vesicles (for digestive enzymes or hormone storage) and the remainder in the cell membrane. Zinc intake ranges from 107 to 231 micromol/d depending on the source, and human zinc requirement is estimated at 15 mg/d. Zinc has been shown to be essential to the structure and function of a large number of macromolecules and for over 300 enzymic reactions. It has both catalytic and structural roles in enzymes, while in zinc finger motifs, it provides a scaffold that organizes protein sub-domains for the interaction with either DNA or other proteins. It is critical for the function of a number of metalloproteins, inducing members of oxido-reductase, hydrolase ligase, lyase family and has co-activating functions with copper in superoxide dismutase or phospholipase C. The zinc ion (Zn(++)) does not participate in redox reactions, which makes it a stable ion in a biological medium whose potential is in constant flux. Zinc ions are hydrophilic and do not cross cell membranes by passive diffusion. In general, transport has been described as having both saturable and non-saturable components, depending on the Zn(II) concentrations involved. Zinc ions exist primarily in the form of complexes with proteins and nucleic acids and participate in all aspects of intermediary metabolism, transmission and regulation of the expression of genetic information, storage, synthesis and action of peptide hormones and structural maintenance of chromatin and biomembranes. PMID:14652165

  20. Oral Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Gheibi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diarrheal diseases are a serious health problem and important causes of growth retardation and death in the developing world, especially those of prolonged duration. Since diarrhea is constantly found in children with zinc deficiency, very studies supported zinc supplements beneficial on the duration and severity of diarrhea among children. We review the impact of zinc effects on diarrhea in South-West Asia to update the evidences and to assess its effect on the global burden of diarrhea.   Materials and Methods: We conduct a systematic review through January 2014, for randomized controlled trials relevant to effect of zinc on diarrhea in children. We searched the MeSH terms zinc, acute gastroenteritis and children from various databases of Cochrane Library and PubMed, then clinical trials done in South-West Asia, selected for making written. Results: In recent years, several studies have reported the therapeutic effect of zinc supplementation on diarrheal diseases that was beneficial on decreased episode duration, stool output, stool frequency, hospitalization duration. In some countries in West Asia such as Lebanon, Israel, Saudi Arabia and Iran in clinical trials showed a faster improvement in acute gastroenteritis in children less than five years. But in some countries, such as Turkey, this effect was not significant.   Conclusions: Oral zinc supplementation significantly decreases diarrhea duration and has a greater effect on malnourished children. Zinc supplementation seems to be an appropriate public health strategy, mainly in areas of endemic deficiencies. Global attempts should is increased to support recommended regimen of therapeutic zinc by WHO in all areas. Keywords: Acute Gastroenteritis, Children, Zinc, South-West Asia.