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Sample records for cd80 b7-1 expression

  1. Cutaneous T cell lymphoma expresses immunosuppressive CD80 (B7-1) cell surface protein in a STAT5-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Hong Yi; Wei, Fang

    2014-01-01

    as their joint ability to transcriptionally activate the CD80 gene. In IL-2-dependent CTCL cells, CD80 expression is induced by the cytokine in a Jak1/3- and STAT5a/b-dependent manner, whereas in the CTCL cells with constitutive STAT5 activation, CD80 expression is also STAT5a/b dependent but is independent......(+) and CD8(+) populations or the CD4(+) subset alone, transfected with CD152 mRNA, inhibits proliferation of normal T cells in a CD152- and CD80-dependent manner. These data identify a new mechanism of immune evasion in CTCL and suggest that the CD80-CD152 axis may become a therapeutic target in this type...

  2. Expression of CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules are potential markers for better survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Cheng-Shyong; Chang, Julia H; Hsu, Nicholas C; Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Chung, Chih-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    B7 Costimulatory signal is essential to trigger T-cell activation upon the recognition of tumor antigens. This study examined the expression of B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) costimulatory molecules along with HLA-DR and the presence of infiltrating lymphocytes and dendritic cells to assess their significance in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Expression of CD80, CD86, HLA-DR, S-100 protein and the presence of infiltrating lymphocytes and follicular dendritic reticulum cells were immunohistochemically examined on the paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from newly diagnosed NPC patients (n = 50). The results were correlated with clinical outcome of patients. CD80 and CD86 were each expressed in 10 of 50 cases in which they co-expressed in 9 cases. Univariate analysis revealed that patients with CD80/CD86 expression had significantly better overall survival than those without it (P = 0.017), but after adjustment for stage, nodal status, and treatment, the expression of CD80/CD86 did not significantly correlate with overall survival. Expression of HLA-DR and the presence of infiltrating lymphocytes and dendritic cells did not appear to have impact on the survival of patients. Expression of CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules appears to be a marker of better survival in patient with NPC

  3. Expression of fusion IL2-B7.1(IgV+C) and effects on T lymphocytes.

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    Kong, Linghong; Li, Yaochen; Yang, Ye; Li, Kangsheng

    2007-12-01

    The search for an effective immunotherapeutic treatment for tumors is an important area of cancer research. To prepare a more effective form of the bifunctional fusion protein IL2-B7.1(IgV+C) and analyze its effect on the stimulation of T lymphocyte proliferation, we used DNAStar 5.03 software to predict the structural diversity and biochemical character of IL2-B7.1(IgV+C). We then prepared fusion protein IL2-B7.1(IgV+C) by establishing its prokaryotic expression system, and tested its effect on the stimulation of T lymphocytes in vitro. The results indicated that IL2-B7.1(IgV+C) correctly formed a secondary structure in which both IL2 and B7.1(IgV+C) maintained their original hydrophilicity and epitopes. Western blot analysis revealed that IL2-B7.1(IgV+C) was efficiently expressed. Our analysis of CTLL-2 and T-cell proliferation showed that recombinant human (rh) IL2-B7.1(IgV+C) exerted the combined stimulating effects of both rhIL2 and rh B7.1(IgV+C) on cell proliferation, and that these effects could be blocked by adding either anti-IL2 or anti-B7.1 monoclonal antibodies. A >2-fold increase in [3H]TdR incorporation compared with that of cells treated with recombinant protein IL2, or B7.1(IgV+C) alone, revealed that rhIL2-B7.1(IgV+C) had dose-dependent synergetic effects on T-cell activation in the presence of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody. We concluded that the augmented potency of rhIL2-B7.1(IgV+C) resulted in a stronger stimulation of T-cell proliferation than either rhB7.1(IgV+C) or rhIL2 alone.

  4. Low dose decitabine treatment induces CD80 expression in cancer cells and stimulates tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.

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    Li-Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Lack of immunogenicity of cancer cells has been considered a major reason for their failure in induction of a tumor specific T cell response. In this paper, we present evidence that decitabine (DAC, a DNA methylation inhibitor that is currently used for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, acute myeloid leukemia (AML and other malignant neoplasms, is capable of eliciting an anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response in mouse EL4 tumor model. C57BL/6 mice with established EL4 tumors were treated with DAC (1.0 mg/kg body weight once daily for 5 days. We found that DAC treatment resulted in infiltration of IFN-γ producing T lymphocytes into tumors and caused tumor rejection. Depletion of CD8(+, but not CD4(+ T cells resumed tumor growth. DAC-induced CTL response appeared to be elicited by the induction of CD80 expression on tumor cells. Epigenetic evidence suggests that DAC induces CD80 expression in EL4 cells via demethylation of CpG dinucleotide sites in the promoter of CD80 gene. In addition, we also showed that a transient, low-dose DAC treatment can induce CD80 gene expression in a variety of human cancer cells. This study provides the first evidence that epigenetic modulation can induce the expression of a major T cell co-stimulatory molecule on cancer cells, which can overcome immune tolerance, and induce an efficient anti-tumor CTL response. The results have important implications in designing DAC-based cancer immunotherapy.

  5. Low Dose Decitabine Treatment Induces CD80 Expression in Cancer Cells and Stimulates Tumor Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses

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    Zhou, Ji-Hao; Yao, Yu-Shi; Li, Yong-Hui; Xu, Yi-Han; Li, Jing-Xin; Gao, Xiao-Ning; Zhou, Min-Hang; Jiang, Meng-Meng; Gao, Li; Ding, Yi; Lu, Xue-Chun; Shi, Jin-Long; Luo, Xu-Feng; Wang, Jia; Wang, Li-Li; Qu, Chunfeng; Bai, Xue-Feng; Yu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Lack of immunogenicity of cancer cells has been considered a major reason for their failure in induction of a tumor specific T cell response. In this paper, we present evidence that decitabine (DAC), a DNA methylation inhibitor that is currently used for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other malignant neoplasms, is capable of eliciting an anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in mouse EL4 tumor model. C57BL/6 mice with established EL4 tumors were treated with DAC (1.0 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 5 days. We found that DAC treatment resulted in infiltration of IFN-γ producing T lymphocytes into tumors and caused tumor rejection. Depletion of CD8+, but not CD4+ T cells resumed tumor growth. DAC-induced CTL response appeared to be elicited by the induction of CD80 expression on tumor cells. Epigenetic evidence suggests that DAC induces CD80 expression in EL4 cells via demethylation of CpG dinucleotide sites in the promoter of CD80 gene. In addition, we also showed that a transient, low-dose DAC treatment can induce CD80 gene expression in a variety of human cancer cells. This study provides the first evidence that epigenetic modulation can induce the expression of a major T cell co-stimulatory molecule on cancer cells, which can overcome immune tolerance, and induce an efficient anti-tumor CTL response. The results have important implications in designing DAC-based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:23671644

  6. Low dose decitabine treatment induces CD80 expression in cancer cells and stimulates tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.

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    Wang, Li-Xin; Mei, Zhen-Yang; Zhou, Ji-Hao; Yao, Yu-Shi; Li, Yong-Hui; Xu, Yi-Han; Li, Jing-Xin; Gao, Xiao-Ning; Zhou, Min-Hang; Jiang, Meng-Meng; Gao, Li; Ding, Yi; Lu, Xue-Chun; Shi, Jin-Long; Luo, Xu-Feng; Wang, Jia; Wang, Li-Li; Qu, Chunfeng; Bai, Xue-Feng; Yu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Lack of immunogenicity of cancer cells has been considered a major reason for their failure in induction of a tumor specific T cell response. In this paper, we present evidence that decitabine (DAC), a DNA methylation inhibitor that is currently used for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other malignant neoplasms, is capable of eliciting an anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in mouse EL4 tumor model. C57BL/6 mice with established EL4 tumors were treated with DAC (1.0 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 5 days. We found that DAC treatment resulted in infiltration of IFN-γ producing T lymphocytes into tumors and caused tumor rejection. Depletion of CD8(+), but not CD4(+) T cells resumed tumor growth. DAC-induced CTL response appeared to be elicited by the induction of CD80 expression on tumor cells. Epigenetic evidence suggests that DAC induces CD80 expression in EL4 cells via demethylation of CpG dinucleotide sites in the promoter of CD80 gene. In addition, we also showed that a transient, low-dose DAC treatment can induce CD80 gene expression in a variety of human cancer cells. This study provides the first evidence that epigenetic modulation can induce the expression of a major T cell co-stimulatory molecule on cancer cells, which can overcome immune tolerance, and induce an efficient anti-tumor CTL response. The results have important implications in designing DAC-based cancer immunotherapy.

  7. Prediction of Radix Astragali Immunomodulatory Effect of CD80 Expression from Chromatograms by Quantitative Pattern-Activity Relationship

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    Michelle Chun-har Ng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current use of a single chemical component as the representative quality control marker of herbal food supplement is inadequate. In this CD80-Quantitative-Pattern-Activity-Relationship (QPAR study, we built a bioactivity predictive model that can be applicable for complex mixtures. Through integrating the chemical fingerprinting profiles of the immunomodulating herb Radix Astragali (RA extracts, and their related biological data of immunological marker CD80 expression on dendritic cells, a chemometric model using the Elastic Net Partial Least Square (EN-PLS algorithm was established. The EN-PLS algorithm increased the biological predictive capability with lower value of RMSEP (11.66 and higher values of Rp2 (0.55 when compared to the standard PLS model. This CD80-QPAR platform provides a useful predictive model for unknown RA extract’s bioactivities using the chemical fingerprint inputs. Furthermore, this bioactivity prediction platform facilitates identification of key bioactivity-related chemical components within complex mixtures for future drug discovery and understanding of the batch-to-batch consistency for quality clinical trials.

  8. Any value of podocyte B7-1 as a biomarker in human MCD and FSGS?

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    Novelli, Rubina; Gagliardini, Elena; Ruggiero, Barbara; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Minimal change disease (MCD) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) are the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome in children and in young adults. Relapsing MCD carries the risk of severe complications and prolonged immunosuppression, whereas FSGS remains largely untreatable and urgently needs more effective treatments. Recently, induction of B7-1 (CD80), an immune-related protein expressed by antigen-presenting cells, was observed in podocytes of MCD and FSGS patients, suggesting that B7-1 plays a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases, and hence that abatacept, a B7-1 inhibitor, could be a possible treatment. Since previous studies raised serious concerns regarding the reliability of immunohistochemical assays for B7-1 detection and the efficacy of B7-1 inhibitory treatment, we investigated B7-1 podocyte expression in MCD and FSGS patients. Using different primary antibodies and immunohistochemical assays, no significant upregulation of podocyte B7-1 was detected in patients' biopsies compared with controls. To further confirm our findings, we analyzed mice with adriamycin-induced nephropathy, a model of human FSGS, and mice injected with LPS as additional control. Podocyte B7-1 was not observed in mice injected with adriamycin or LPS either. In conclusion, since B7-1 is not induced in podocyte of MCD and FSGS patients, the antiproteinuric action of abatacept, if confirmed, may not be the result of an effect on podocyte B7-1. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Expression of membrane anchored cytokines and B7-1 alters tumor microenvironment and induces protective antitumor immunity in a murine breast cancer model.

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    Bozeman, Erica N; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Machiah, Deepa K; Patel, Jaina M; Krishnamoorthy, Arun; Tien, Linda; Shashidharamurthy, Rangaiah; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2013-05-07

    Many studies have shown that the systemic administration of cytokines or vaccination with cytokine-secreting tumors augments an antitumor immune response that can result in eradication of tumors. However, these approaches are hampered by the risk of systemic toxicity induced by soluble cytokines. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of 4TO7, a highly tumorigenic murine mammary tumor cell line, expressing glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored form of cytokine molecules alone or in combination with the costimulatory molecule B7-1 as a model for potential cell or membrane-based breast cancer vaccines. We observed that the GPI-anchored cytokines expressed on the surface of tumor cells greatly reduced the overall tumorigenicity of the 4TO7 tumor cells following direct live cell challenge as evidenced by transient tumor growth and complete regression within 30 days post challenge. Tumors co-expressing B7-1 and GPI-IL-12 grew the least and for the shortest duration, suggesting that this combination of immunostimulatory molecules is most potent. Protective immune responses were also observed following secondary tumor challenge. Further, the 4TO7-B7-1/GPI-IL-2 and 4TO7-B7-1/GPI-IL-12 transfectants were capable of inducing regression of a wild-type tumor growing at a distant site in a concomitant tumor challenge model, suggesting the tumor immunity elicited by the transfectants can act systemically and inhibit the tumor growth at a distant site. Additionally, when used as irradiated whole cell vaccines, 4TO7-B7-1/GPI-IL-12 led to a significant inhibition in tumor growth of day 7 established tumors. Lastly, we observed a significant decrease in the prevalence of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T-cells in the tumor microenvironment on day 7 post challenge with 4TO7-B7-1/GPI-IL-12 cells, which provides mechanistic insight into antitumor efficacy of the tumor-cell membrane expressed IL-12. These studies have implications in designing membrane

  10. B7.1 expression on tumor cells circumvents the need of professional antigen presentation for in vitro propagation of cytotoxic T cell lines.

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    Iezzi, G; Protti, M P; Rugarli, C; Bellone, M

    1996-01-01

    In vitro propagation of tumor-specific CTLs, to be used for identification of tumor antigens (Ag) and/or adoptive immunotherapy, is hampered by the need of large amounts of professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) used for periodical cycles of restimulation. We evaluated whether RMA T lymphoma cells, stably transfected with the cDNA encoding for the B7.1 costimulatory molecule, provided the activation signals to CD8+ T lymphocytes in the absence of professional APC and CD4+ helper cells. We demonstrate here that long-term CD8+ cell lines can be efficiently propagated in vitro by repeated cycles of stimulation with tumor cells stably expressing B7.1. Professional APC and CD4+ helper cells are not required as far as interleukin 2 is exogenously provided. Furthermore, CD8+ blasts needed both signal 1 (Ag in the contest of the MHC molecule) and signal 2 (interaction of costimulatory molecules) for restimulation. T cell blasts in the presence of signal 1 or 2 only still retained their effector potential but did not undergo clonal expansion. These results are very promising for further applications of specific immunotherapies in humans.

  11. Comparative analysis of B7-1 and B7-2 expression in Langerhans cells: differential regulation by T helper type 1 and T helper type 2 cytokines.

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    Kawamura, T; Furue, M

    1995-07-01

    Epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) are Ia-bearing potent antigen-presenting cells (APC) of dendritic cell lineage that play a crucial role in primary and secondary T cell-dependent immune responses. LC express several costimulatory molecules such as B7, which has been implicated as one of the important determinants of professional APC. Recently, B7 antigens have been shown to include three distinct molecules termed B7-1, B7-2, and B7-3, and the expression of B7-1 and B7-2 in LC has been already confirmed. However, little is known of the regulation of B7-1 and B7-2 expression in LC. We demonstrated that LC do not express B7-1 and B7-2 in situ; however, the expression of both molecules is rapidly induced during the first 3 days of culture, and high levels of expression are maintained at least until day 6. We show that the expression of B7-2 in LC is much higher than that of B7-1 in each experiment, and that B7-1 and B7-2 expression is reproducibly augmented by interleukin (IL)-4 in a dose-dependent manner; however, IL-2 affected expression very little. Finally, B7-1 expression is significantly and dose-dependently down-regulated by interferon (IFN)-gamma or IL-10, and B7-2 expression is consistently inhibited by IL-10, but not by IFN-gamma. The effects of these cytokines are active only in the induction phase (during first 3 days of culture) of B7 expression: the modulatory effects of cytokines are hardly detected in the plateau phase (days 4 to 6 of culture) of B7 expression in LC. These findings suggest that B7-1 and B7-2 expression are indeed selectively and differentially regulated by these T cell-derived cytokines, and that the cytokines may modulate the synthesis of B7 molecules rather than the degradation of already-expressed B7 molecules.

  12. Therapeutic efficacy of PD-L1 blockade in a breast cancer model is enhanced by cellular vaccines expressing B7-1 and glycolipid-anchored IL-12.

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    Bozeman, Erica N; He, Sara; Shafizadeh, Yalda; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapeutic approaches have emerged as promising strategies to treat various cancers, including breast cancer. A single approach, however, is unlikely to effectively combat the complex, immune evasive strategies found within the tumor microenvironment, thus novel, effective combination treatments must be explored. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a combination therapy consisting of PD-L1 immune checkpoint blockade and whole cell vaccination in a HER-2 positive mouse model of breast cancer. We demonstrate that tumorigenicity is completely abrogated when adjuvanted with immune stimulatory molecules (ISMs) B7-1 and a cell-surface anchored (GPI) form of IL-12 or GM-CSF. Irradiated cellular vaccines expressing the combination of adjuvants B7-1 and GPI-IL-12 completely inhibited tumor formation which was correlative with robust HER-2 specific CTL activity. However, in a therapeutic setting, both cellular vaccination and PD-L1 blockade induced only 10-20% tumor regression when administered alone but resulted in 50% tumor regression as a combination therapy. This protection was significantly hindered following CD4 or CD8 depletion indicating the essential role played by cellular immunity. Collectively, these pre-clinical studies provide a strong rationale for further investigation into the efficacy of combination therapy with tumor cell vaccines adjuvanted with membrane-anchored ISMs along with PD-L1 blockade for the treatment of breast cancer.

  13. Selective silencing of full-length CD80 but not IgV-CD80 leads to impaired clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells and altered regulation of immune responses.

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    Bugeon, L; Hargreaves, R E; Crompton, T; Outram, S; Rahemtulla, A; Porter, A C; Dallman, M J

    2001-01-01

    Co-stimulation provided by the B7 family of proteins underpins the development of protective immunity. There are three identified members of this family: CD80, its splice variant IgV-CD80 and CD86. It has hitherto been difficult to analyze the expression and function of IgV-CD80 since there are no appropriate reagents capable of distinguishing it from CD80. We have generated mice, by gene targeting, the lack CD80 whilst maintaining expression of IgV-CD80. Mutant animals did not delete T cells bearing mammary tumor virus-reactive TCR as efficiently as wild-type animals. We also demonstrate the importance of IgV-CD80 in the responses of recently activated cells and reveal a role for CD80 in sustaining T cell responses. CD86, whilst critical to primary T cell activation, made only a minor contribution to re-activation of normal cells.

  14. Urinary CD80 as a Replacement for Renal Biopsy for Diagnosis of Pediatric Minimal Change Disease.

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    Ahmed, Heba Mostafa; Ezzat, Dina Ahmed; Doudar, Noha A; Adel, Mai

    2018-03-01

    Early diagnosis of minimal change disease (MCD) is challenging in nephrotic children. CD80 is a protein expressed on the surface of podocytes associated with nephrotic syndrome and it is implicated in the induction of proteinuria. This study aimed to investigate the use of urinary CD80 for the diagnosis of MCD. Urinary CD80 levels were evaluated in 36 children with nephrotic syndrome and normal glomerular filtration rate. They were divided into three groups of MCD (n = 21), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (n = 9), and other glomerulopathies (n = 6). The MCD group was subdivided into 2 of those with remission (n = 11) and those in the active stage (n = 10). Forty healthy children were included as controls. The urinary CD80 level was significantly higher in the MCD group (3.5 ± 2.1 ng/mg creatinine) than in the focal segmental glomerulosclerosis group (1.2 ± 0.5 ng/mg creatinine, P MCD groups. There was no significant difference between MCD in remission and MCD in relapse, either. A urinary CD80 cutoff value of 1.5 ng/gm creatinine showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 86% for diagnosis of MCD. Urinary CD80 levels were significantly higher in the children with MCD than in the controls and patients with other causes of nephrotic syndrome.

  15. TLR-mediated albuminuria needs TNFα-mediated cooperativity between TLRs present in hematopoietic tissues and CD80 present on non-hematopoietic tissues in mice

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    Nidhi Jain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transient albuminuria induced by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs in mice through engagement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs is widely studied as a partial model for some forms of human nephrotic syndrome (NS. In addition to TLRs, CD80 has been shown to be essential for PAMP-mediated albuminuria. However, the mechanistic relationships between TLRs, CD80 and albuminuria remain unclear. Here, we show that albuminuria and CD80-uria induced in mice by many TLR ligands are dependent on the expression of TLRs and their downstream signalling intermediate MyD88 exclusively in hematopoietic cells and, conversely, on CD80 expression exclusively in non-hematopoietic cells. TNFα is crucial for TLR-mediated albuminuria and CD80-uria, and induces CD80 expression in cultured renal podocytes. IL-10 from hematopoietic cells ameliorates TNFα production, albuminuria and CD80-uria but does not prevent TNFα-mediated induction of podocyte CD80 expression. Chitohexaose, a small molecule originally of parasite origin, mediates TLR4-dependent anti-inflammatory responses, and blocks TLR-mediated albuminuria and CD80-uria through IL-10. Thus, TNFα is a prominent mediator of renal CD80 induction and resultant albuminuria in this model, and small molecules modulating TLR-mediated inflammatory activation might have contributory or adjunct therapeutic potential in some contexts of NS development.

  16. Activated T cells can induce high levels of CTLA-4 expression on B cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, H. M.; Brouwer, M.; Linsley, P. S.; van Lier, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    Engagement of the TCR/CD3 complex together with ligation of CD28 by its counterstructures B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) on APC are required for mitogenic T cell activation. After activation, T cells not only express B7-1 and B7-2 molecules, but a second receptor for the B7 ligands, CTLA-4, can be

  17. CD28-CD80 interactions control regulatory T cell motility and immunological synapse formation1,2

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    Thauland, Timothy J.; Koguchi, Yoshinobu; Dustin, Michael L.; Parker, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for tolerance to self and environmental antigens, acting in part by downmodulating costimulatory molecules on the surface of dendritic cells (DCs) and altering naïve CD4 T cell-DC interactions. Here, we show that Tregs form stable conjugates with DCs before, but not after, they decrease surface expression of the costimulatory molecule CD80 on the DCs. We use supported planar bilayers to show that Tregs dramatically slow down, but maintain a highly polarized and motile phenotype after recognizing antigen in the absence of costimulation. These motile cells are characterized by distinct accumulations of LFA-1-ICAM-1 in the lamella and TCR-MHC in the uropod, consistent with a motile immunological synapse or ‘kinapse’. However, in the presence of high, but not low, concentrations of CD80, Tregs form stationary, symmetrical synapses. Using blocking antibodies, we show that, while CTLA-4 is required for CD80 downmodulation, CD28-CD80 interactions are critical for modulating Treg motility in the presence of antigen. Together, these results support the hypothesis that Tregs are tuned to alter their motility depending on costimulatory signals. PMID:25355918

  18. Evaluation of CD40 and CD80 receptors in the colonic mucosal membrane of children with inflammatory bowel disease

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    Barbara Kamińska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available [b][/b][b]Introduction. [/b]The most prevalent inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD include ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD. Immune processes play a vital role in the etiopathogenesis of these conditions, involving both cellular and humoral response mechanisms. The aim of this study was to quantify CD40- and CD80-positive cells in the biopsy specimens of large intestinal mucosa from children with IBD. [b]Materials and method. [/b]The study comprised 38 children aged between 3–17 years (mean 11.5±3.7 years – 20 boys (52.6 % and 18 girls (47.4%. Eighteen patients were diagnosed with UC on the basis of clinical manifestation, endoscopic and histopathological findings. Mean age of this subgroup was 11.55±4.07 years. A group of 10 children (mean age 12.30±2.83 diagnosed with CD was also included. The control group comprised 10 IBD-free children (mean age 10.28±4.07 years. The surface expressions of CD40 and CD80 were analyzed in large intestine mucosa biopsy specimens, fixed in formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, and cut with a microtome into 4 µm slices. [b]Results. [/b]The number of CD40- and CD80-positive cells in the large intestinal mucosa of children with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis was significantly higher than in the controls. The highest number of CD40+ and CD80+ cells was observed in the caecal mucosal membrane of Crohn’s disease patients and in the rectal mucosa of individuals with ulcerative colitis. [b]Conclusion.[/b] IBD is characterized by elevated, segment-specific, expression of CD40 and CD80.

  19. Study of B7.1 costimulatory molecule neoexpression induced by γ irradiation of different dose in various human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianghua; Su Liaoyuan; Tong Jian; Zhu Minqing; Xue Lian

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between irradiation and B7.1 co-stimulative molecule expression of human tumor cells was studied to explore the reason of enhanced tumor cells immunity. The effect of γ ray irradiation on B7.1 molecule expression in various human tumor cells which were irradiated with 30 Gy, 40 Gy, 50 Gy, 60 Gy γ ray was investigated. At 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h after irradiation the changes of B7.1 molecule was measured by flow cytometry (FCM) with immunofluorescence technique. The activation of lymphocyte toxin upon tumor target cell after exposure was determined by using radiation release method. The results showed that a few of tumor cells after γ-ray irradiation express B7.1 co-stimulative molecule. Furthermore, B7.1 molecule membrane expression after γ ray irradiation is shown to enhance the activation of lymphocyte toxin. The data could explain the enhanced immunogenicity of tumor cells after irradiation, and could lead to new immunotherapy protocols. The experiments suggested that γ ray irradiation could induce human tumor cells to express B7.1 co-stimulative molecules and enhance tumor cell immunity

  20. Differential effects of B7-1 blockade in the rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallon, L; Chandraker, A; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    1997-01-01

    that CD28-B7 blockade by systemic administration of CTLA4Ig prevents actively induced EAE. Since CTLA4Ig binds to both B7-1 and B7-2, we used a mutant form of CTLA4Ig (CTLA4IgY100F) that binds only B7-1, to study the role of B7-1 blockade in this model. Such a reagent avoids the potential of signaling...... treated with systemic CTLA4gY100F did not. More importantly, systemic administration of CTLA4IgY100F abrogated the protective effect of ex vivo treated APCs. These data suggest an important regulatory role for B7-1, perhaps through binding to CTLA4, in this model of EAE. Understanding the role......Blocking the CD28-B7 T cell costimulatory activation pathway protects animals from developing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In the mouse EAE model, selective blockade of B7-1 by specific mAbs has been shown to protect animals from EAE. In the Lewis rat model, we have shown...

  1. Prolonged skin graft survival by administration of anti-CD80 monoclonal antibody with cyclosporin A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossevoort, MA; Lorre, K; Boon, L; van den Hout, Y; de Boer, M; De Waele, P; Jonker, M; VandeVoorde, A

    Costimulation via the B7/CD28 pathway is an important signal for the activation of T cells. Maximal inhibition of T-cell activation and the induction of alloantigen-specific nonresponsiveness in vitro was achieved using anti-CD80 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in combination with cyclosporin A (CsA).

  2. The B7-1 cytoplasmic tail enhances intracellular transport and mammalian cell surface display of chimeric proteins in the absence of a linear ER export motif.

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    Yi-Chieh Lin

    Full Text Available Membrane-tethered proteins (mammalian surface display are increasingly being used for novel therapeutic and biotechnology applications. Maximizing surface expression of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells is important for these applications. We show that the cytoplasmic domain from the B7-1 antigen, a commonly used element for mammalian surface display, can enhance the intracellular transport and surface display of chimeric proteins in a Sar1 and Rab1 dependent fashion. However, mutational, alanine scanning and deletion analysis demonstrate the absence of linear ER export motifs in the B7 cytoplasmic domain. Rather, efficient intracellular transport correlated with the presence of predicted secondary structure in the cytoplasmic tail. Examination of the cytoplasmic domains of 984 human and 782 mouse type I transmembrane proteins revealed that many previously identified ER export motifs are rarely found in the cytoplasmic tail of type I transmembrane proteins. Our results suggest that efficient intracellular transport of B7 chimeric proteins is associated with the structure rather than to the presence of a linear ER export motif in the cytoplasmic tail, and indicate that short (less than ~ 10-20 amino acids and unstructured cytoplasmic tails should be avoided to express high levels of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells.

  3. In IgA Nephropathy, Glomerulosclerosis Is Associated with Increased Urinary CD80 Excretion and Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor-Positive Podocyturia

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    Hernán Trimarchi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Podocyturia may determine the evolution to podocytopenia, glomerulosclerosis, and renal failure. According to the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN, the S1 lesion describes glomerulosclerosis. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR participates in podocyte attachment, while CD80 increases in glomerulosclerosis. We measured uPAR-positive urinary podocytes and urinary CD80 (uCD80 in controls and in IgAN subjects with M1E0S0T0 and M1E0S1T0 Oxford scores to assess a potential association between podocyturia, inflammation, and glomerulosclerosis. Methods: The groups were as follows: controls (G1, n = 20 and IgAN group (G2, n = 39, subdivided into M1E0S0T0 (G2A, n = 21 and M1E0S1T0 (G2B, n = 18. Among the included variables, we determined uPAR-positive podocytes/gram of urinary creatinine (gUrCr and uCD80 ng/gUrCr. Biopsies with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy <10% were included. Results: Groups were not different in age and gender; urinary protein-creatinine (uP/C ratio, Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation, uPAR-positive podocytes/gUrCr, and uCD80 were significantly increased in G2 versus G1. G2A and G2B were not different in age, gender, hypertension, and follow-up. G2B displayed significantly higher uP/C, uPAR-positive podocytes, uCD80, and lower CKD-EPI versus G2A. Strong significant correlations were encountered between uCD80 and podocyturia in G2A and G2B. However, when G1 was compared to G2A and G2B separately, the differences with respect to uP/C, uPAR-positive podocytes, and podocyturia were significantly stronger versus G2B than versus G2A. Conclusions: IgAN presents elevated uCD80 excretion and uPAR-positive podocyturia, while CD80 correlates with podocyturia. Glomerulosclerosis (S1 at the time of biopsy is associated with higher uP/C, lower renal function, increased uPAR-positive podocyturia, and CD80 excretion, and is independent of M1. In IgAN, uPAR may

  4. CD80 and CD86 IgC domains are important for quaternary structure, receptor binding and co-signaling function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Tanya; Gaucher, Denis; El-Far, Mohamed; Breton, Gaëlle; Sékaly, Rafick-Pierre

    2014-09-01

    CD86 and CD80, the ligands for the co-stimulatory molecules CD28 and CTLA-4, are members of the Ig superfamily. Their structure includes Ig variable-like (IgV) domains, Ig constant-like (IgC) domains and intracellular domains. Although crystallographic studies have clearly identified the IgV domain to be responsible for receptor interactions, earlier studies suggested that both Ig domains are required for full co-signaling function. Herein, we have used deletion and chimeric human CD80 and CD86 molecules in co-stimulation assays to study the impact of the multimeric state of IgV and IgC domains on receptor binding properties and on co-stimulatory function in a peptide-specific T cell activation model. We report for the first time the presence of CD80 dimers and CD86 monomers in living cells. Moreover, we show that the IgC domain of both molecules inhibits multimer formation and greatly affects binding to the co-receptors CD28 and CTLA-4. Finally, both IgC and intracellular domains are required for full co-signaling function. These findings reveal the distinct but complementary roles of CD80 and CD86 IgV and IgC domains in T cell activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of CD80/CD86 in generation and maintenance of functional virus-specific CD8+ T cells in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grujic, Mirjana; Bartholdy, Christina; Remy, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-specific CD8(+) T cell responses are considered to be independent of CD28-B7 costimulation. However, the LCMV-specific response has never been evaluated in B7.1/B7.2(-/-) mice. For this reason, we decided to study the T cell response in B7.1/B7.2(-/-) mice......, but no chronic infection. Taken together, these results indicate that B7 costimulation is required for induction and maintenance of LCMV-specific CD8(+) T cell memory, irrespective of the LCMV strain used for priming. However, the erosion of CD8(+) T cell memory in B7.1/B7.2(-/-) mice was more pronounced...

  6. Control of Memory CD8+ T Cell Differentiation by CD80/CD86-CD28 Costimulation and Restoration by IL-2 during the Recall Response1

    OpenAIRE

    Fuse, Shinichiro; Zhang, Weijun; Usherwood, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    Memory CD8+ T cell responses have been considered to be independent of CD80/CD86-CD28 costimulation. However, recall responses are often severely blunted in CD28−/− mice. Whether this impairment represents a requirement for CD28 costimulation for proper memory CD8+ T cell development or a requirement during the recall response is unknown. Furthermore, how CD28 costimulation affects the phenotype and function of memory CD8+ T cells has not been characterized in detail. In this study, we invest...

  7. Irradiation of genetically modified plasmacytoma vaccines results in upregulation of CD80 molecule expression, IL-2 production and higher therapeutic efficacy of the vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šímová, Jana; Reiniš, Milan; Sobota, Vesna; Čapková, Jana; Bubeník, Jan; Jandlová, Táňa

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2000), s. 11-16 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC5526; GA MZd NC4501; GA ČR GA312/98/0826; GA ČR GA312/99/0542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.351, year: 2000

  8. Prospective Preliminary In Vitro Investigation of a Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Conjugated with Ligand CD80 and VEGF Antibody As a Targeted Drug Delivery System for the Induction of Cell Death in Rodent Osteosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Kay Kovach

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Target drug deliveries using nanotechnology are a novel consideration in the treatment of cancer. We present herein an in vitro mouse model for the preliminary investigation of the efficacy of an iron oxide nanoparticle complex conjugated to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF antibody and ligand cluster of differentiation 80 (CD80 for the purpose of eventual translational applications in the treatment of human osteosarcoma (OSA. The 35 nm diameter iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles are functionalized with an n-hydroxysuccinimide biocompatible coating and are conjugated on the surface to proteins VEGF antibody and ligand CD80. Combined, these proteins have the ability to target OSA cells and induce apoptosis. The proposed system was tested on a cancerous rodent osteoblast cell line (ATCCTMNPO CRL-2836 at four different concentrations (0.1, 1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 μg/mL of ligand CD80 alone, VEGF antibody alone, and a combination thereof (CD80+VEGF. Systems were implemented every 24 h over different sequential treatment timelines: 24, 48, and 72 h, to find the optimal protein concentration required for a reduction in cell proliferation. Results demonstrated that a combination of ligand CD80 and VEGF antibody was consistently most effective at reducing aberrant osteoblastic proliferation for both the 24- and 72-h timelines. At 48 h, however, an increase in cell proliferation was documented for the 0.1 and 1 μg/mL groups. For the 24- and 72-h tests, concentrations of 1.0 μg/mL of CD80+VEGF and 0.1 μg/mL of VEGF antibody were most effective. Concentrations of 10.0 and 100.0 μg/mL of CD80+VEGF reduced cell proliferation, but not as remarkably as the 1.0 μg/mL concentration. In addition, cell proliferation data showed that multiple treatments (72-h test induced cell death in the osteoblasts better than a single treatment. Future targeted drug delivery system research includes trials in OSA cell lines from greater phylum

  9. CD80 and CD86 Costimulatory Molecules Differentially Regulate OT-II CD4+ T Lymphocyte Proliferation and Cytokine Response in Cocultures with Antigen-Presenting Cells Derived from Pregnant and Pseudopregnant Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Maj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune phenomena during the preimplantation period of pregnancy are poorly understood. The aim of our study was to assess the capacity for antigen presentation of splenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs derived from pregnant and pseudopregnant mice in in vitro conditions. Therefore, sorted CD11c+ dendritic cells and macrophages F4/80+ and CD11b+ presenting ovalbumin (OVA were cocultured with CD4+ T cells derived from OT-II mice’s (C57BL6/J-Tg(TcraTcrb1100Mjb/J spleen. After 132 hours of cell culture, proliferation of lymphocytes (ELISA-BrdU, activation of these cells (flow cytometry, cytokine profile (ELISA, and influence of costimulatory molecules blocking on these parameters were measured. We did not detect any differences in regulation of Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. CD86 seems to be the main costimulatory molecule involved in the proliferation response but CD80 is the main costimulatory molecule influencing cytokine secretion in pregnant mice. In conclusion, this study showed that CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules regulate OT-II CD4+ T lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine response in cocultures with antigen-presenting cells derived from pregnant and pseudopregnant mice. The implications of these changes still remain unclear.

  10. Expression of costimulatory molecules in the bovine corpus luteum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pate Joy L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine luteal parenchymal cells express class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules and stimulate class II MHC-dependent activation of T cells in vitro. The ability of a class II MHC-expressing cell type to elicit a response from T cells in vivo is also dependent on expression of costimulatory molecules by the antigen presenting cell and delivery of a costimulatory signal to the T cell. Whether bovine luteal parenchymal cells express costimulatory molecules and can deliver the costimulatory signal is currently unknown. Methods Bovine luteal tissue was collected during the early (day 5; day of estrus = day 0, mid (day 11–12, or late (day 18 luteal phase of the estrous cycle, and at 0, 0.5, 1, 4, 12 or 24 hours following administration of PGF2alpha to cows on day 10 of the estrous cycle. Northern analysis was used to measure CD80 or CD86 mRNA concentrations in luteal tissue samples. Mixed luteal parenchymal cell cultures and purified luteal endothelial cell cultures were prepared, and real-time RT-PCR was used to examine the presence of CD80 and CD86 mRNA in each culture type. Monoclonal antibodies to CD80 and CD86 were added to a mixed luteal parenchymal cell-T cell co-culture in vitro T cell proliferation assay to assess the functional significance of costimulatory molecules on activation of T lymphocytes by luteal parenchymal cells. Results Northern analysis revealed CD80 and CD86 mRNAs in luteal tissue, with greatest steady-state concentrations at midcycle. CD80 and CD86 mRNAs were detected in mixed luteal parenchymal cell cultures, but only slight amounts of CD80 (and not CD86 mRNA were detected in cultures of luteal endothelial cells. Luteinizing hormone, PGF2alpha and TNF-alpha were without effect on concentrations of CD80 or CD86 mRNA in mixed luteal parenchymal cells cultures. Anti-CD80 or anti-CD86 monoclonal antibodies inhibited T cell proliferation in the in vitro T cell proliferation assay

  11. Expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and costimulatory molecules in oral carcinomas in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel-Dorrego, Mariana; Speight, Paul M; Barrett, A William

    2005-01-01

    Recognition in the 1980 s that keratinocytes can express class II molecules of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) first raised the possibility that these cells might have an immunological function, and may even act as antigen presenting cells (APC). For effective T lymphocyte activation, APC require, in addition to MHC II, appropriate costimulatory signals. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 in keratinocytes derived from healthy oral mucosa and oral carcinomas. Using flow cytometry, it was confirmed that oral keratinocytes, switch on, expression of MHC class II molecules after stimulation with IFNgamma in vitro. All keratinocyte lines expressed CD40 constitutively; by contrast, CD80 and CD86 were universally absent. Loss of CD80 and CD86 may be one means whereby tumours escape immunological surveillance.

  12. B7-2 Expressed on EL4 Lymphoma Suppresses Antitumor Immunity by an Interleukin 4–dependent Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Stremmel, C.; Greenfield, E.A.; Howard, E.; Freeman, G.J.; Kuchroo, V.K.

    1999-01-01

    For T cells to become functionally activated they require at least two signals. The B7 costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 provide the “second signal” pivotal for T cell activation. In this report, we studied the relative roles of B7-1 and B7-2 molecules in the induction of antitumor immunity to the T cell thymoma, EL4. We generated EL4 tumor cells that expressed B7-1, B7-2, and B7-1+B7-2 by transfecting murine cDNAs. Our results demonstrate that EL4–B7-1 cells are completely rejected in sy...

  13. B7-2 Expressed on EL4 Lymphoma Suppresses Antitumor Immunity by an Interleukin 4–dependent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremmel, C.; Greenfield, E.A.; Howard, E.; Freeman, G.J.; Kuchroo, V.K.

    1999-01-01

    For T cells to become functionally activated they require at least two signals. The B7 costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 provide the “second signal” pivotal for T cell activation. In this report, we studied the relative roles of B7-1 and B7-2 molecules in the induction of antitumor immunity to the T cell thymoma, EL4. We generated EL4 tumor cells that expressed B7-1, B7-2, and B7-1+B7-2 by transfecting murine cDNAs. Our results demonstrate that EL4–B7-1 cells are completely rejected in syngeneic mice. Unlike EL4–B7-1 cells, we find that EL4–B7-2 cells are not rejected but progressively grow in the mice. A B7-1– and B7-2–EL4 double transfectant was generated by introducing B7-2 cDNA into the EL4–B7-1 tumor line that regressed in vivo. The EL4–B7-1+B7-2 double transfectant was not rejected when implanted into syngeneic mice but progressively grew to produce tumors. The double transfectant EL4 cells could costimulate T cell proliferation that could be blocked by anti–B7-1 antibodies, anti–B7-2 antibodies, or hCTLA4 immunoglobulin, showing that the B7-1 and B7-2 molecules expressed on the EL4 cells were functional. In vivo, treatment of mice implanted with double-transfected EL4 cells with anti–B7-2 monoclonal antibody resulted in tumor rejection. Furthermore, the EL4–B7-2 and EL4–B7-1+B7-2 cells, but not the wild-type EL4 cells, were rejected in interleukin 4 (IL-4) knockout mice. Our data suggests that B7-2 expressed on some T cell tumors inhibits development of antitumor immunity, and IL-4 appears to play a critical role in abrogation of the antitumor immune response. PMID:10075975

  14. B7-2 expressed on EL4 lymphoma suppresses antitumor immunity by an interleukin 4-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremmel, C; Greenfield, E A; Howard, E; Freeman, G J; Kuchroo, V K

    1999-03-15

    For T cells to become functionally activated they require at least two signals. The B7 costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 provide the "second signal" pivotal for T cell activation. In this report, we studied the relative roles of B7-1 and B7-2 molecules in the induction of antitumor immunity to the T cell thymoma, EL4. We generated EL4 tumor cells that expressed B7-1, B7-2, and B7-1+B7-2 by transfecting murine cDNAs. Our results demonstrate that EL4-B7-1 cells are completely rejected in syngeneic mice. Unlike EL4-B7-1 cells, we find that EL4-B7-2 cells are not rejected but progressively grow in the mice. A B7-1- and B7-2-EL4 double transfectant was generated by introducing B7-2 cDNA into the EL4-B7-1 tumor line that regressed in vivo. The EL4-B7-1+B7-2 double transfectant was not rejected when implanted into syngeneic mice but progressively grew to produce tumors. The double transfectant EL4 cells could costimulate T cell proliferation that could be blocked by anti-B7-1 antibodies, anti-B7-2 antibodies, or hCTLA4 immunoglobulin, showing that the B7-1 and B7-2 molecules expressed on the EL4 cells were functional. In vivo, treatment of mice implanted with double-transfected EL4 cells with anti-B7-2 monoclonal antibody resulted in tumor rejection. Furthermore, the EL4-B7-2 and EL4-B7-1+B7-2 cells, but not the wild-type EL4 cells, were rejected in interleukin 4 (IL-4) knockout mice. Our data suggests that B7-2 expressed on some T cell tumors inhibits development of antitumor immunity, and IL-4 appears to play a critical role in abrogation of the antitumor immune response.

  15. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  16. EXPRESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.; Le, P.; DeSaint-Quentin, S.; Villatte, N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents EXPRESS, an expert system developed for the automation of reliability studies. The first part consists in the description of the method for static thermohydraulic systems. In this step, the authors define the knowledge representation based on the two inference engines - ALOUETTE and LCR developed by EDF. They explain all the process to construct a fault tree from a topological and functional description of the system. Numerous examples are exhibited in illustration of the method. This is followed by the lessons derived from the studies performed on some safety systems of the PALUEL nuclear plant. The development of the same approach for electric power systems is described, insisting on the difference resulting from the sequential nature of these systems. Finally, they show the main advantages identified during the studies

  17. Tumor-Targeted Human T Cells Expressing CD28-Based Chimeric Antigen Receptors Circumvent CTLA-4 Inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Condomines

    Full Text Available Adoptive T cell therapy represents a promising treatment for cancer. Human T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR recognize and kill tumor cells in a MHC-unrestricted manner and persist in vivo when the CAR includes a CD28 costimulatory domain. However, the intensity of the CAR-mediated CD28 activation signal and its regulation by the CTLA-4 checkpoint are unknown. We investigated whether T cells expressing an anti-CD19, CD3 zeta and CD28-based CAR (19-28z displayed the same proliferation and anti-tumor abilities than T cells expressing a CD3 zeta-based CAR (19z1 costimulated through the CD80/CD28, ligand/receptor pathway. Repeated in vitro antigen-specific stimulations indicated that 19-28z+ T cells secreted higher levels of Th1 cytokines and showed enhanced proliferation compared to those of 19z1+ or 19z1-CD80+ T cells. In an aggressive pre-B cell leukemia model, mice treated with 19-28z+ T cells had 10-fold reduced tumor progression compared to those treated with 19z1+ or 19z1-CD80+ T cells. shRNA-mediated CTLA-4 down-regulation in 19z1-CD80+ T cells significantly increased their in vivo expansion and anti-tumor properties, but had no effect in 19-28z+ T cells. Our results establish that CTLA-4 down-regulation may benefit human adoptive T cell therapy and demonstrate that CAR design can elude negative checkpoints to better sustain T cell function.

  18. Expression of surface markers on the human monocytic leukaemia cell line, THP-1, as indicators for the sensitizing potential of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Susun; Kim, Seoyoung; Huh, Yong; Lee, Tae Ryong; Kim, Han-Kon; Park, Kui-Lea; Eun, Hee Chul

    2009-04-01

    Evaluation of skin sensitization potential is an important part of the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and topical drugs. Recently, evaluation of changes in surface marker expression induced in dendritic cells (DC) or DC surrogate cell lines following exposure to chemicals represents one approach for in vitro test methods. The study aimed to test the change of expression patterns of surface markers on THP-1 cells by chemicals as a predictive in vitro method for contact sensitization. We investigated the expression of CD54, CD86, CD83, CD80, and CD40 after a 1-day exposure to sensitizers (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene; 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene; benzocaine; 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one; hexyl cinnamic aldehyde; eugenol; nickel sulfate hexahydrate; potassium dichromate; cobalt sulfate; 2-mercaptobenzothiazole; and ammonium tetrachloroplatinate) and non-sensitizers (sodium lauryl sulfate, benzalkonium chloride, lactic acid, salicylic acid, isopropanol, and dimethyl sulphoxide). The test concentrations were 0.1x, 0.5x, and 1x of the 50% inhibitory concentration, and the relative fluorescence intensity was used as an expression indicator. By evaluating the expression patterns of CD54, CD86, and CD40, we could classify the chemicals as sensitizers or non-sensitizers, but CD80 and CD83 showed non-specific patterns of expression. These data suggest that the THP-1 cells are good model for screening contact sensitizers and CD40 could be a useful marker complementary to CD54 and CD86.

  19. Suppressive effects of anti-allergic agent suplatast tosilate (IPD-1151T on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on mouse splenocytes in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatsugu Kurokawa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of IPD-1151T on the expression of costimulatory molecules, CD40, CD80 and CD86, were investigated in vivo using mice with allergic disorders. BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally with two doses of dinitrophenylated ovalbumin (DNP-OVA at 1-week intervals. These mice then were treated intraperitoneally with 100μg/kg of IPD1151T once a day for 14 days, starting 7 days after the first immunization. On day 21, some mice were challenged intraperitoneally with DNP-OVA and the other mice were not challenged. All mice were autopsied on day 22 and assayed for immunoglobulin E, interleuken (IL-4 and IL-5 productions following DNP-OVA immunization. The intraperitoneal treatment with IPD-1151T strongly suppressed immunoglobulin E contents in serum, which were enhanced by DNA-OVA immunization. IPD-1151T also caused a decrease in both IL-4 and IL-5 levels in splenic lymphocytes. We next examined the influence of IPD1151T on co-stimulatory molecule expression on splenic lymphocytes. IPD-1151T caused suppression of CD40 and CD86 expression; however, the treatments did not affect CD80 expression.

  20. Observation of a γ -decaying millisecond isomeric state in 128 Cd 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungclaus, A.; Grawe, H.; Nishimura, S.; Doornenbal, P.; Lorusso, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Söderström, P. -A.; Sumikama, T.; Taprogge, J.; Xu, Z. Y.; Baba, H.; Browne, F.; Fukuda, N.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gey, G.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; Jung, H. S.; Kameda, D.; Kim, G. D.; Kim, Y. -K.; Kojouharov, I.; Kubo, T.; Kurz, N.; Kwon, Y. K.; Li, Z.; Sakurai, H.; Schaffner, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Steiger, K.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H.; Vajta, Zs.; Watanabe, H.; Wu, J.; Yagi, A.; Yoshinaga, K.; Benzoni, G.; Bönig, S.; Chae, K. Y.; Coraggio, L.; Daugas, J. -M.; Drouet, F.; Gadea, A.; Gargano, A.; Ilieva, S.; Itaco, N.; Kondev, F. G.; Kröll, T.; Lane, G. J.; Montaner-Pizá, A.; Moschner, K.; Mücher, D.; Naqvi, F.; Niikura, M.; Nishibata, H.; Odahara, A.; Orlandi, R.; Patel, Z.; Podolyák, Zs.; Wendt, A.

    2017-09-01

    A new high-spin isomer in the neutron-rich nucleus 128Cd was populated in the projectile fission of a 238U beam at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory at RIKEN. A half-life of T1/2 = 6.3(8) ms was measured for the new state which was tentatively assigned a spin/parity of (15-). The experimental results are compared to shell model calculations performed using state-of-the-art realistic effective interactions and to the neighbouring nucleus 129Cd. In the present experiment no evidence was found for the decay of a 18+ E6 spin-trap isomer, based on the complete alignment of the two-neutron and two-proton holes in the 0h11/2 and the 0g9/2 orbit, respectively, which is predicted to exist by the shell model.

  1. Observation of a γ-decaying millisecond isomeric state in 128Cd80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jungclaus

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A new high-spin isomer in the neutron-rich nucleus 128Cd was populated in the projectile fission of a 238U beam at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory at RIKEN. A half-life of T1/2=6.3(8 ms was measured for the new state which was tentatively assigned a spin/parity of (15−. The experimental results are compared to shell model calculations performed using state-of-the-art realistic effective interactions and to the neighbouring nucleus 129Cd. In the present experiment no evidence was found for the decay of a 18+ E6 spin-trap isomer, based on the complete alignment of the two-neutron and two-proton holes in the 0h11/2 and the 0g9/2 orbit, respectively, which is predicted to exist by the shell model.

  2. 17 CFR 240.15b7-1 - Compliance with qualification requirements of self-regulatory organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... broker or dealer shall effect any transaction in, or induce the purchase or sale of, any security unless... transaction is registered or approved in accordance with the standards of training, experience, competence...

  3. The IgV domain of human B7-2 (CD86) is sufficient to co-stimulate T lymphocytes and induce cytokine secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennert, P; Furlong, K; Jellis, C; Greenfield, E; Freeman, G J; Ueda, Y; Levine, B; June, C H; Gray, G S

    1997-06-01

    B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) are genetically and structurally related molecules expressed on antigen-presenting cells. Both bind CD28 to co-stimulate T lymphocytes, resulting in proliferation and cytokine production. The extracellular portions of B7-1 and B7-2 which bind to CD28 and CTLA-4 are related to Ig variable (V) and Ig constant (C) domain sequences. Recent reports have described splice variant forms of B7 proteins which occur in vivo and are of unknown function. Here we describe soluble recombinant forms of B7-1 and B7-2 containing either both of the Ig-like extracellular domains or the individual IgV or IgC domains coupled to an Ig Fc tail. Soluble B7-1 and B7-2 bind to CD28 and CTLA-4, and effectively co-stimulate T lymphocytes resulting in their proliferation and the secretion of cytokines. Furthermore, the IgV domain of B7-2 binds CD28 and CTLA-4, competes with B7-1 and B7-2 for binding to these receptors, and co-stimulates T lymphocytes. Cross-linked soluble B7-2v was the most potent co-stimulatory molecule tested and was active at a concentration approximately 100-fold lower than cross-linked soluble B7-1 or B7-2 proteins. When bound to tosyl-activated beads, B7-2v was capable of sustaining multiple rounds of T cell expansion. These data complement the description of naturally occurring variants to suggest that T cell co-stimulation in vivo may be regulated by soluble or truncated forms of B7 proteins.

  4. Lineage Tracing and Cell Ablation Identify a Post-Aire-Expressing Thymic Epithelial Cell Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd C. Metzger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Thymic epithelial cells in the medulla (mTECs play a critical role in enforcing central tolerance through expression and presentation of tissue-specific antigens (TSAs and deletion of autoreactive thymocytes. TSA expression requires autoimmune regulator (Aire, a transcriptional activator present in a subset of mTECs characterized by high CD80 and major histocompatibility complex II expression and a lack of potential for differentiation or proliferation. Here, using an Aire-DTR transgenic line, we show that short-term ablation specifically targets Aire+ mTECs, which quickly undergo RANK-dependent recovery. Repeated ablation also affects Aire− mTECs, and using an inducible Aire-Cre fate-mapping system, we find that this results from the loss of a subset of mTECs that showed prior expression of Aire, maintains intermediate TSA expression, and preferentially migrates toward the center of the medulla. These results clearly identify a distinct stage of mTEC development and underscore the diversity of mTECs that play a key role in maintaining tolerance.

  5. Increased Expression of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4 by T Cells, Induced by B7 in Sera, Reduces Adaptive Immunity in Patients With Acute Liver Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khamri, Wafa; Abeles, Robin D; Hou, Tie Zheng

    2017-01-01

    , hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells, and biliary epithelial cells from healthy or diseased liver tissues. We also measured levels of soluble B7 serum samples from patients and controls, and mice with acetaminophen-induced liver injury using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Peripheral blood...... mice with acetaminophen-induced liver injury contained high levels of soluble B7 compared to sera from mice without liver injury. Plasma exchange reduced circulating levels of soluble B7 in patients with ALF and expression of CTLA4 on T cells. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral CD4+ T cells from patients with ALF......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with acute liver failure (ALF) have defects in innate immune responses to microbes (immune paresis) and are susceptible to sepsis. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4), which interacts with the membrane receptor B7 (also called CD80 and CD86...

  6. Reduced frequency of T lymphocytes expressing CTLA-4 in frontotemporal dementia compared to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Torres, Karen C; Lima, Giselle S; Fiamoncini, Carolina M; Mapa, Filipe C; Pereira, Patricia A; Rezende, Vitor B; Martins, Luiza C; Bicalho, Maria A; Moraes, Edgar N; Reis, Helton J; Teixeira, Antonio L; Romano-Silva, Marco A

    2014-01-03

    Studies suggest that inflammation is involved in the neurodegenerative cascade of dementias. Immunological mechanisms may be part of the pathophysiological process in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but up till now only vague evidence of such mechanisms has been presented. The B7- CD28/CTLA-4 pathway is an important immunological signaling pathway involved in modulation of T cell activation. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of molecules associated with co-stimulatory signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of FTD to Alzheimer disease (AD) and control groups. Our results confirm the previous demonstrated increased expression of CD80 in CD14+ Alzheimer patients T cells but show, for the first time, a reduction in the expression of CTLA-4 in CD4+ FTD cells. As CTLA-4 is the most potent negative regulators of T-cell activation we speculated that peripheral T lymphocytes in FTD are more activated and this could be involved in the neurodegeneration observed in this dementia. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential expression of the costimulatory molecules CD86, CD28, CD152 and PD-1 correlates with the host-parasite outcome in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Palermo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a spectral disease exhibiting two polar sides, namely, lepromatous leprosy (LL characterised by impaired T-cell responses and tuberculoid leprosy in which T-cell responses are strong. Proper T-cell activation requires signalling through costimulatory molecules expressed by antigen presenting cells and their ligands on T-cells. We studied the influence of costimulatory molecules on the immune responses of subjects along the leprosy spectrum. The expression of the costimulatory molecules was evaluated in in vitro-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of lepromatous and tuberculoid patients and healthy exposed individuals (contacts. We show that LL patients have defective monocyte CD86 expression, which likely contributes to the impairment of the antigen presentation process and to patients anergy. Accordingly, CD86 but not CD80 blockade inhibited the lymphoproliferative response to Mycobacterium leprae. Consistent with the LL anergy, there was reduced expression of the positive signalling costimulatory molecules CD28 and CD86 on the T-cells in these patients. In contrast, tuberculoid leprosy patients displayed increased expression of the negative signalling molecules CD152 and programmed death-1 (PD-1, which represents a probable means of modulating an exacerbated immune response and avoiding immunopathology. Notably, the contacts exhibited proper CD86 and CD28 expression but not exacerbated CD152 or PD-1 expression, suggesting that they tend to develop a balanced immunity without requiring immunosuppressive costimulatory signalling.

  8. Path Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    Traditionally, synchronization of concurrent processes is coded in line by operations on semaphores or similar objects. Path expressions move the...discussion about a variety of synchronization primitives . An analysis of their relative power is found in [3]. Path expressions do not introduce yet...another synchronization primitive . A path expression relates to such primitives as a for- or while-statement of an ALGOL-like language relates to a JUMP

  9. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)(7)-1 - Payments other than in cash for service not in the course of employer's trade or business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME... cash, such as lodging, food, or other goods or commodities, for service not in the course of the... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments other than in cash for service not in...

  10. Expression Profiles of Ligands for Activating Natural Killer Cell Receptors on HIV Infected and Uninfected CD4⁺ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay-McLean, Alexandra; Bruneau, Julie; Lebouché, Bertrand; Lisovsky, Irene; Song, Rujun; Bernard, Nicole F

    2017-10-12

    Natural Killer (NK) cell responses to HIV-infected CD4 T cells (iCD4) depend on the integration of signals received through inhibitory (iNKR) and activating NK receptors (aNKR). iCD4 activate NK cells to inhibit HIV replication. HIV infection-dependent changes in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligands for iNKR on iCD4 are well documented. By contrast, less is known regarding the HIV infection related changes in ligands for aNKR on iCD4. We examined the aNKR ligand profiles HIV p24⁺ HIV iCD4s that maintained cell surface CD4 (iCD4⁺), did not maintain CD4 (iCD4 - ) and uninfected CD4 (unCD4) T cells for expression of unique long (UL)-16 binding proteins-1 (ULBP-1), ULBP-2/5/6, ULBP-3, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1-related (MIC)-A, MIC-B, CD48, CD80, CD86, CD112, CD155, Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, ICAM-2, HLA-E, HLA-F, HLA-A2, HLA-C, and the ligands to NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor 3DS1 (KIR3DS1) by flow cytometry on CD4 T cells from 17 HIV-1 seronegative donors activated and infected with HIV. iCD4⁺ cells had higher expression of aNKR ligands than did unCD4. However, the expression of aNKR ligands on iCD4 where CD4 was downregulated (iCD4 - ) was similar to (ULBP-1, ULBP-2/5/6, ULBP-3, MIC-A, CD48, CD80, CD86 and CD155) or significantly lower than (MIC-B, CD112 and ICAM-2) what was observed on unCD4. Thus, HIV infection can be associated with increased expression of aNKR ligands or either baseline or lower than baseline levels of aNKR ligands, concomitantly with the HIV-mediated downregulation of cell surface CD4 on infected cells.

  11. Gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Crawford, B.D.; Walters, R.A.; Enger, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    We prepared probes for isolating functional pieces of the metallothionein locus. The probes enabled a variety of experiments, eventually revealing two mechanisms for metallothionein gene expression, the order of the DNA coding units at the locus, and the location of the gene site in its chromosome. Once the switch regulating metallothionein synthesis was located, it could be joined by recombinant DNA methods to other, unrelated genes, then reintroduced into cells by gene-transfer techniques. The expression of these recombinant genes could then be induced by exposing the cells to Zn 2+ or Cd 2+ . We would thus take advantage of the clearly defined switching properties of the metallothionein gene to manipulate the expression of other, perhaps normally constitutive, genes. Already, despite an incomplete understanding of how the regulatory switch of the metallothionein locus operates, such experiments have been performed successfully

  12. Repression of tax expression is associated both with resistance of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-infected T cells to killing by tax-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and with impaired tumorigenicity in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Machiko; Ohashi, Takashi; Nishikawa, Keiko; Nishitsuji, Hironori; Kurihara, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Furuta, Rika A; Fujisawa, Jun-ichi; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Hanabuchi, Shino; Harashima, Nanae; Masuda, Takao; Kannagi, Mari

    2004-04-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Although the viral transactivation factor, Tax, has been known to have apparent transforming ability, the exact function of Tax in ATL development is still not clear. To understand the role of Tax in ATL development, we introduced short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against Tax in a rat HTLV-1-infected T-cell line. Our results demonstrated that expression of siRNA targeting Tax successfully downregulated Tax expression. Repression of Tax expression was associated with resistance of the HTLV-1-infected T cells to Tax-specific cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte killing. This may be due to the direct effect of decreased Tax expression, because the Tax siRNA did not alter the expression of MHC-I, CD80, or CD86. Furthermore, T cells with Tax downregulation appeared to lose the ability to develop tumors in T-cell-deficient nude rats, in which the parental HTLV-1-infected cells induce ATL-like lymphoproliferative disease. These results indicated the importance of Tax both for activating host immune response against the virus and for maintaining the growth ability of infected cells in vivo. Our results provide insights into the mechanisms how the host immune system can survey and inhibit the growth of HTLV-1-infected cells during the long latent period before the onset of ATL.

  13. Antigen presentation and MHC class II expression by human esophageal epithelial cells: role in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Daniel J; Pooni, Aman; Mak, Nanette; Hurlbut, David J; Basta, Sameh; Justinich, Christopher J

    2011-02-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a crucial role in initiating immune responses. Under pathological conditions, epithelial cells at mucosal surfaces act as nonprofessional APCs, thereby regulating immune responses at the site of exposure. Epithelial cells in the esophagus may contribute to the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) by presenting antigens on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. Our goal was to demonstrate the ability of esophageal epithelial cells to process and present antigens on the MHC class II system and to investigate the contribution of epithelial cell antigen presentation to EoE. Immunohistochemistry detected HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 expression and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detected interferon-γ (IFNγ) in esophageal biopsies. Antigen presentation was studied using the human esophageal epithelial cell line HET-1A by reverse transcriptase-PCR, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. T helper cell lymphocyte proliferation was assessed by flow cytometry and IL-2 secretion. IFNγ and MHC class II were increased in mucosa of patients with EoE. IFNγ increased mRNA of HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR, and CIITA in HET-1A cells. HET-1A engulfed cell debris and processed ovalbumin. HET-1A cells expressed HLA-DR after IFNγ treatment. HET-1A stimulated T helper cell activation. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of esophageal epithelial cells to act as nonprofessional APCs in the presence of IFNγ. Esophageal epithelial cell antigen presentation may contribute to the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Upregulation of B7 molecules (CD80 and CD86) and exacerbated eosinophilic pulmonary inflammatory response in mice lacking the IFN-beta gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matheu, Victor; Treschow, Alexandra; Navikas, Vaidrius

    2003-01-01

    . OBJECTIVE: We sought to define the differential role of endogenous IFN-beta in controlling the development of allergic inflammation. METHODS: We assessed whether deletion of the gene encoding IFN-beta (IFNB) with knockout mice participated in the development of allergic response in ovalbumin (OVA......BACKGROUND: IFN-beta has been shown to be effective as therapy for multiple sclerosis. Some reports attributed its beneficial effects to the capacity to induce a T(H)2 response. However, other studies have suggested that endogenous type I IFN might downregulate the allergic response in mice...

  15. Peptide-Conjugated Nanoparticles Reduce Positive Co-stimulatory Expression and T Cell Activity to Induce Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Robert; Saito, Eiji; Miller, Stephen D; Shea, Lonnie D

    2017-07-05

    Targeted approaches to treat autoimmune diseases would improve upon current therapies that broadly suppress the immune system and lead to detrimental side effects. Antigen-specific tolerance was induced using poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles conjugated with disease-relevant antigen to treat a model of multiple sclerosis. Increasing the nanoparticle dose and amount of conjugated antigen both resulted in more durable immune tolerance. To identify active tolerance mechanisms, we investigated downstream cellular and molecular events following nanoparticle internalization by antigen-presenting cells. The initial cell response to nanoparticles indicated suppression of inflammatory signaling pathways. Direct and functional measurement of surface MHC-restricted antigen showed positive correlation with both increasing particle dose from 1 to 100 μg/mL and increasing peptide conjugation by 2-fold. Co-stimulatory analysis of cells expressing MHC-restricted antigen revealed most significant decreases in positive co-stimulatory molecules (CD86, CD80, and CD40) following high doses of nanoparticles with higher peptide conjugation, whereas expression of a negative co-stimulatory molecule (PD-L1) remained high. T cells isolated from mice immunized against myelin proteolipid protein (PLP 139-151 ) were co-cultured with antigen-presenting cells administered PLP 139-151 -conjugated nanoparticles, which resulted in reduced T cell proliferation, increased T cell apoptosis, and a stronger anti-inflammatory response. These findings indicate several potential mechanisms used by peptide-conjugated nanoparticles to induce antigen-specific tolerance. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. CD73 expression identifies a subset of IgM+ antigen-experienced cells with memory attributes that is T cell and CD40 signalling dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Lucas; Gupta, Sneh Lata; Bal, Vineeta; Rath, Satyajit; George, Anna

    2017-12-01

    B-cell memory was long characterized as isotype-switched, somatically mutated and germinal centre (GC)-derived. However, it is now clear that the memory pool is a complex mixture that includes unswitched and unmutated cells. Further, expression of CD73, CD80 and CD273 has allowed the categorization of B-cell memory into multiple subsets, with combinatorial expression of the markers increasing with GC progression, isotype-switching and acquisition of somatic mutations. We have extended these findings to determine whether these markers can be used to identify IgM memory phenotypically as arising from T-dependent versus T-independent responses. We report that CD73 expression identifies a subset of antigen-experienced IgM + cells that share attributes of functional B-cell memory. This subset is reduced in the spleens of T-cell-deficient and CD40-deficient mice and in mixed marrow chimeras made with mutant and wild-type marrow, the proportion of CD73 + IgM memory is restored in the T-cell-deficient donor compartment but not in the CD40-deficient donor compartment, indicating that CD40 ligation is involved in its generation. We also report that CD40 signalling supports optimal expression of CD73 on splenic T cells and age-associated B cells (ABCs), but not on other immune cells such as neutrophils, marginal zone B cells, peritoneal cavity B-1 B cells and regulatory T and B cells. Our data indicate that in addition to promoting GC-associated memory generation during B-cell differentiation, CD40-signalling can influence the composition of the unswitched memory B-cell pool. They also raise the possibility that a fraction of ABCs may represent T-cell-dependent IgM memory. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Canine Distemper Virus Infection Leads to an Inhibitory Phenotype of Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells In Vitro with Reduced Expression of Co-Stimulatory Molecules and Increased Interleukin-10 Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Vanessa; Stein, Veronika M.; Tipold, Andrea; Urhausen, Carola; Günzel-Apel, Anne-Rose; Rohn, Karl; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Beineke, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) exhibits a profound lymphotropism that causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility of affected dogs to opportunistic infections. Similar to human measles virus, CDV is supposed to inhibit terminal differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs), responsible for disturbed repopulation of lymphoid tissues and diminished antigen presenting function in dogs. In order to testify the hypothesis that CDV-infection leads to an impairment of professional antigen presenting cells, canine DCs have been generated from peripheral blood monocytes in vitro and infected with CDV. Virus infection was confirmed and quantified by transmission electron microscopy, CDV-specific immunofluorescence, and virus titration. Flow cytometric analyses revealed a significant down-regulation of the major histocompatibility complex class II and co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 in CDV-infected DCs, indicative of disturbed antigen presenting capacity. Molecular analyses revealed an increased expression of the immune inhibitory cytokine interleukin-10 in DCs following infection. Results of the present study demonstrate that CDV causes phenotypical changes and altered cytokine expression of DCs, which represent potential mechanisms to evade host immune responses and might contribute to immune dysfunction and virus persistence in canine distemper. PMID:24769532

  18. Canine distemper virus infection leads to an inhibitory phenotype of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro with reduced expression of co-stimulatory molecules and increased interleukin-10 transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visar Qeska

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV exhibits a profound lymphotropism that causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility of affected dogs to opportunistic infections. Similar to human measles virus, CDV is supposed to inhibit terminal differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs, responsible for disturbed repopulation of lymphoid tissues and diminished antigen presenting function in dogs. In order to testify the hypothesis that CDV-infection leads to an impairment of professional antigen presenting cells, canine DCs have been generated from peripheral blood monocytes in vitro and infected with CDV. Virus infection was confirmed and quantified by transmission electron microscopy, CDV-specific immunofluorescence, and virus titration. Flow cytometric analyses revealed a significant down-regulation of the major histocompatibility complex class II and co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 in CDV-infected DCs, indicative of disturbed antigen presenting capacity. Molecular analyses revealed an increased expression of the immune inhibitory cytokine interleukin-10 in DCs following infection. Results of the present study demonstrate that CDV causes phenotypical changes and altered cytokine expression of DCs, which represent potential mechanisms to evade host immune responses and might contribute to immune dysfunction and virus persistence in canine distemper.

  19. Canine distemper virus infection leads to an inhibitory phenotype of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro with reduced expression of co-stimulatory molecules and increased interleukin-10 transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qeska, Visar; Barthel, Yvonne; Herder, Vanessa; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Urhausen, Carola; Günzel-Apel, Anne-Rose; Rohn, Karl; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Beineke, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) exhibits a profound lymphotropism that causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility of affected dogs to opportunistic infections. Similar to human measles virus, CDV is supposed to inhibit terminal differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs), responsible for disturbed repopulation of lymphoid tissues and diminished antigen presenting function in dogs. In order to testify the hypothesis that CDV-infection leads to an impairment of professional antigen presenting cells, canine DCs have been generated from peripheral blood monocytes in vitro and infected with CDV. Virus infection was confirmed and quantified by transmission electron microscopy, CDV-specific immunofluorescence, and virus titration. Flow cytometric analyses revealed a significant down-regulation of the major histocompatibility complex class II and co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 in CDV-infected DCs, indicative of disturbed antigen presenting capacity. Molecular analyses revealed an increased expression of the immune inhibitory cytokine interleukin-10 in DCs following infection. Results of the present study demonstrate that CDV causes phenotypical changes and altered cytokine expression of DCs, which represent potential mechanisms to evade host immune responses and might contribute to immune dysfunction and virus persistence in canine distemper.

  20. Express web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Yaapa, Hage

    2013-01-01

    Express Web Application Development is a practical introduction to learning about Express. Each chapter introduces you to a different area of Express, using screenshots and examples to get you up and running as quickly as possible.If you are looking to use Express to build your next web application, ""Express Web Application Development"" will help you get started and take you right through to Express' advanced features. You will need to have an intermediate knowledge of JavaScript to get the most out of this book.

  1. After Effects expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Geduld, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Put the power of Expressions to work in your animations with controls and efficiencies impossible to achieve with traditional keyframing techniques. No programming skills are required. Foundation concepts and skills orient the new designer and serve as a handy reference to the experienced one. Basics of creating expressions, variables, commands, and expression helpers precede the leap into javascript and math essentials for more advanced expressions that include randomness, physical simularions and 3D. Full color illustrations display the scripts and the resulti

  2. Neuroglobin over expressing mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Zindy; Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Nyengaard, Jens R

    2013-01-01

    showed over expression to be confined to primarily the cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and only in neurons. The level and expression pattern of endogenous Neuroglobin was unaffected by insertion of the over expressing Ngb transgene. Neuroglobin over expression resulted in a significant reduction...... previous reports, Neuroglobin over expression is not global but confined to a few well-defined brain regions, and only in neurons. This study confirms previous reports showing a correlation between reduced infarct volume and elevated Neuroglobin levels, but underlines the need to study the likely...

  3. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  4. Regular expressions cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Goyvaerts, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This cookbook provides more than 100 recipes to help you crunch data and manipulate text with regular expressions. Every programmer can find uses for regular expressions, but their power doesn't come worry-free. Even seasoned users often suffer from poor performance, false positives, false negatives, or perplexing bugs. Regular Expressions Cookbook offers step-by-step instructions for some of the most common tasks involving this tool, with recipes for C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and VB.NET. With this book, you will: Understand the basics of regular expressions through a

  5. The expression analysis of ICOS-L on activated T cells and immature dendritic cells as well as malignant B cells and Grave's-disease-derived thyroid tissues by two novel mAbs against human ICOS-L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Zhu, W; Liu, T; Sun, Z; Ju, S; Ju, S; Yu, G; Xie, W; Deng, Z; Lu, B; Zhang, X

    2007-01-01

    ICOS-L, a newly identified member of B7 superfamily, plays an important role in immune responses. In this article, we report on two novel mouse anti-human ICOS-L monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) named as 11C4 and 12B11, whose specificities were verified by methods of flow cytometry, western blotting, and epitope competition assay. The two mAbs bound to distinct ICOS-L epitopes on B cells. Interestingly, mAb 11C4 could well recognize ICOS-L molecule on activated T cells and Jurkat cell lines, which is different from commercial anti-ICOS-L mAb (clone number MIH12) and the other mAb 12B11. In addition, we found that the expression of ICOS-L molecule was only detected on the surface of immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs) and was sharply decreased after induction of mature Mo-DCs activated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha or CD40. Furthermore, we showed that 11C4 could effectively suppress the maturation of Mo-DCs in vitro as evidenced by the low expression of CD80, CD86, CD83, and human leukocyte antigen-DR, which suggested that ICOS-L may be involved in the maturation of Mo-DCs. Using immunohistochemistry staining with mAb 11C4, the expression of ICOS-L was found in B lymphoma tissues and thyroid tissues from the Grave's disease but not in thyroid adenoma and normal thyroid tissues.

  6. Darwin and Emotion Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

  7. Freedom of Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents an activity which uses hypothetical situations to explore the proper boundaries of freedom of expression and the role of the U.S. Supreme Court in interpreting its limits. Appropriate for grades 4-12, the lesson includes such topics as the "clear and present danger" clause, student expression, obscenity, and defamation. (GEA)

  8. Caricaturing facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, A J; Rowland, D; Young, A W; Nimmo-Smith, I; Keane, J; Perrett, D I

    2000-08-14

    The physical differences between facial expressions (e.g. fear) and a reference norm (e.g. a neutral expression) were altered to produce photographic-quality caricatures. In Experiment 1, participants rated caricatures of fear, happiness and sadness for their intensity of these three emotions; a second group of participants rated how 'face-like' the caricatures appeared. With increasing levels of exaggeration the caricatures were rated as more emotionally intense, but less 'face-like'. Experiment 2 demonstrated a similar relationship between emotional intensity and level of caricature for six different facial expressions. Experiments 3 and 4 compared intensity ratings of facial expression caricatures prepared relative to a selection of reference norms - a neutral expression, an average expression, or a different facial expression (e.g. anger caricatured relative to fear). Each norm produced a linear relationship between caricature and rated intensity of emotion; this finding is inconsistent with two-dimensional models of the perceptual representation of facial expression. An exemplar-based multidimensional model is proposed as an alternative account.

  9. Evaluation of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals using expression of co-stimulatory molecules, CD54 and CD86, on the naive THP-1 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Y; Sakaguchi, H; Ito, Y; Okuda, M; Suzuki, H

    2003-04-01

    It has been known that dendritic cells (DCs) including Langerhans cells (LCs) play a critical role in the skin sensitization process. Many attempts have been made to develop in vitro sensitization tests that employ DCs derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC-DC) or CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD34+ HPC) purified from cord blood or bone marrow. However, the use of the DCs in in vitro methods has been difficult due to the nature of these cells such as low levels in the source and/or donor-to-donor variability. In our studies, we employed the human monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1, in order to avoid some of these difficulties. At the start, we examined whether treatment of the cells with various cytokines could produce DCs from THP-1. Treatment of THP-1 cells with cytokines such as GM-CSF, IL-4, TNF-alpha, and/or PMA did induce some phenotypic changes in THP-1 cells that were characteristic of DCs. Subsequently, responses to a known sensitizer, dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), and a non-sensitizer, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules, CD54 and CD86, were examined between the naive cells and the cytokine-treated cells. Interestingly, the naive THP-1 cells responded only to DNCB and the response to the sensitizer was more distinct than cytokine-treated THP-1 cells. Similar phenomena were also observed in the human myeloid leukemia cell line, KG-1. Furthermore, with treatment of DNCB, naive THP-1 cells showed augmented expression of HLA, CD80 and secretion of IL-1 beta. The response of THP-1 cells to a sensitizer was similar to that of LCs/DCs. Upon demonstrating the differentiation of monocyte cells in our system, we then evaluated a series of chemicals, including known sensitizers and non-sensitizers, for their potential to augment CD54 and CD86 expression on naive THP-1 cells. Indeed, known sensitizers such as PPD and 2-MBT significantly augmented CD54 and CD86 expression in a

  10. Construction of a recombinant adenovirus co-expressing truncated human prostate-specific membrane antigen and mouse 4-1BBL genes and its effect on dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Weng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to construct a recombinant adenovirus co-expressing truncated human prostate-specific membrane antigen (tPSMA and mouse 4-1BBL genes and to determine its effect on dendritic cells (DCs generated from bone marrow suspensions harvested from C57BL/6 mice for which the effect of 4-1BBL on DCs is not clear, especially during DCs processing tumor-associated antigen. Replication deficient adenovirus AdMaxTM Expression System was used to construct recombinant adenovirus Ad-tPSMA-internal ribosome entry site-mouse 4-1BBL (Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL and Ad-enhanced green fluorescent protein. Day 7 proliferating DC aggregates generated from C57BL/6 mice were collected as immature DCs and further mature DCs were obtained by lipopolysaccharide activated immature DCs. After DCs were exposed to the recombinant adenovirus with 250 multiplicity of infection, the expression of tPSMA and m4-1BBL proteins were detected by Western blot, and the apoptosis and phenotype of DCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytokines (IL-6 and IL-12 in the supernatant were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Proliferation of T cells was detected by allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions. The tPSMA and m4-1BBL proteins were expressed correctly. The apoptosis rate of DCs transfected with Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL was 14.6%, lower than that of control DCs. The expression of co-stimulatory molecules [CD80 (81.6 ± 5.4% and CD86 (80.13 ± 2.81%] up-regulated in Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL-pulsed DCs, and the level of IL-6 (3960.2 ± 50.54 pg/mL and IL-12 (249.57 ± 12.51 pg/mL production in Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL-transduced DCs were significantly higher (P < 0.05 than those in control DCs. Ad-tPSMA-IRES-m4-1BBL induced higher T-cell proliferation (OD450 = 0.614 ± 0.018, indicating that this recombinant adenovirus can effectively enhance the activity of DCs.

  11. Prognosis Relevance of Serum Cytokines in Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandre, Maria José; Palomino-Morales, Rogelio J.; Prados, Jose; Aránega, Antonia; Delgado, Juan R.; Irigoyen, Antonio; Martínez-Galán, Joaquina; Ortuño, Francisco M.

    2015-01-01

    The overall survival of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is extremely low. Although gemcitabine is the standard used chemotherapy for this disease, clinical outcomes do not reflect significant improvements, not even when combined with adjuvant treatments. There is an urgent need for prognosis markers to be found. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential value of serum cytokines to find a profile that can predict the clinical outcome in patients with pancreatic cancer and to establish a practical prognosis index that significantly predicts patients' outcomes. We have conducted an extensive analysis of serum prognosis biomarkers using an antibody array comprising 507 human cytokines. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models were used to analyze prognosis factors. To determine the extent that survival could be predicted based on this index, we used the leave-one-out cross-validation model. The multivariate model showed a better performance and it could represent a novel panel of serum cytokines that correlates to poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. B7-1/CD80, EG-VEGF/PK1, IL-29, NRG1-beta1/HRG1-beta1, and PD-ECGF expressions portend a poor prognosis for patients with pancreatic cancer and these cytokines could represent novel therapeutic targets for this disease. PMID:26346854

  12. Prognosis Relevance of Serum Cytokines in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall survival of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is extremely low. Although gemcitabine is the standard used chemotherapy for this disease, clinical outcomes do not reflect significant improvements, not even when combined with adjuvant treatments. There is an urgent need for prognosis markers to be found. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential value of serum cytokines to find a profile that can predict the clinical outcome in patients with pancreatic cancer and to establish a practical prognosis index that significantly predicts patients’ outcomes. We have conducted an extensive analysis of serum prognosis biomarkers using an antibody array comprising 507 human cytokines. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox’s proportional hazard models were used to analyze prognosis factors. To determine the extent that survival could be predicted based on this index, we used the leave-one-out cross-validation model. The multivariate model showed a better performance and it could represent a novel panel of serum cytokines that correlates to poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. B7-1/CD80, EG-VEGF/PK1, IL-29, NRG1-beta1/HRG1-beta1, and PD-ECGF expressions portend a poor prognosis for patients with pancreatic cancer and these cytokines could represent novel therapeutic targets for this disease.

  13. Materiality for Musical Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Rikard; Tahiroğlu, Koray; Riis, Morten S.

    2016-01-01

    Nordic universities. Electronic music instrument makers participated in providing the course. In eleven days the students designed and built interfaces for musical expressions , composed a piece, and performed at the Norberg electronic music festival. The students explored the relationship between......We organised an elven day intense course in materiality for musical expressions to explore underlying principles of New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) in higher education. We grounded the course in different aspects of ma-teriality and gathered interdisciplinary student teams from three...... technology and possible musical expression with a strong connection to culture and place. The emphasis on performance provided closure and motivated teams to move forward in their design and artistic processes. On the basis of the course we discuss an interdisciplinary NIME course syllabus, and we infer...

  14. Localizing Expression of Ambiguity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bear, John; Hobbs, Sr, Jerry R

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we describe an implemented program for localizing the expression of many types of syntactic ambiguity, in the logical forms of sentences, in a manner convenient for subsequent inferential processing...

  15. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene Expression Omnibus is a public functional genomics data repository supporting MIAME-compliant submissions of array- and sequence-based data. Tools are provided...

  16. Express.js blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Augarten, Ben; Lin, Eric; Shaikh, Aidha; Soriani, Fabiano Pereira; Tisserand, Geoffrey; Zhang, Chiqing; Zhang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    This book is for beginners to Node.js and also for those who are technically advanced. By the end of this book, every competent developer will have achieved expertise in building web applications with Express.js.

  17. The formation of estrogen-like tamoxifen metabolites and their influence on enzyme activity and gene expression of ADME genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johänning, Janina; Kröner, Patrick; Thomas, Maria; Zanger, Ulrich M; Nörenberg, Astrid; Eichelbaum, Michel; Schwab, Matthias; Brauch, Hiltrud; Schroth, Werner; Mürdter, Thomas E

    2018-03-01

    Tamoxifen, a standard therapy for breast cancer, is metabolized to compounds with anti-estrogenic as well as estrogen-like action at the estrogen receptor. Little is known about the formation of estrogen-like metabolites and their biological impact. Thus, we characterized the estrogen-like metabolites tamoxifen bisphenol and metabolite E for their metabolic pathway and their influence on cytochrome P450 activity and ADME gene expression. The formation of tamoxifen bisphenol and metabolite E was studied in human liver microsomes and Supersomes™. Cellular metabolism and impact on CYP enzymes was analyzed in upcyte® hepatocytes. The influence of 5 µM of tamoxifen, anti-estrogenic and estrogen-like metabolites on CYP activity was measured by HPLC MS/MS and on ADME gene expression using RT-PCR analyses. Metabolite E was formed from tamoxifen by CYP2C19, 3A and 1A2 and from desmethyltamoxifen by CYP2D6, 1A2 and 3A. Tamoxifen bisphenol was mainly formed from (E)- and (Z)-metabolite E by CYP2B6 and CYP2C19, respectively. Regarding phase II metabolism, UGT2B7, 1A8 and 1A3 showed highest activity in glucuronidation of tamoxifen bisphenol and metabolite E. Anti-estrogenic metabolites (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen, (Z)-endoxifen and (Z)-norendoxifen inhibited the activity of CYP2C enzymes while tamoxifen bisphenol consistently induced CYPs similar to rifampicin and phenobarbital. On the transcript level, highest induction up to 5.6-fold was observed for CYP3A4 by tamoxifen, (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen, tamoxifen bisphenol and (E)-metabolite E. Estrogen-like tamoxifen metabolites are formed in CYP-dependent reactions and are further metabolized by glucuronidation. The induction of CYP activity by tamoxifen bisphenol and the inhibition of CYP2C enzymes by anti-estrogenic metabolites may lead to drug-drug-interactions.

  18. OX62+OX6+OX35+ rat dendritic cells are unable to prime CD4+ T cells for an effective immune response following acute burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    Co-stimulatory molecules expressed on Dendritic Cells (DCs) function to coordinate an efficient immune response by T cells in the peripheral lymph nodes. We hypothesized that CD4+ T cell-mediated immune suppression following burn injury may be related to dysfunctional DCs residing in gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), such as Mesenteric Lymph Nodes (MLN). Therefore, we studied co-stimulatory molecules expressed on burn rat MLN DCs as an index of functional DCs that would mount an effective normal CD4+ T cell immune response. In a rat model of 30% Total Body Surface Area (TBSA) scald burn, OX62+OX6+OX35+ DCs and CD4+ T cells were isolated from MLN of day 3 post-burn and sham control rats. DCs were tested for their expression of co-stimulatory molecules, and prime CD4+ T cell (DC:CD4+T cell co-culture assays) to determine an effector immune response such as CD4+ T cell proliferation. The surface receptor expressions of MLN DCs co-stimulatory molecules, i.e., MHC-II, CD40, CD80 (B7-1), and CD86 (B7-2) were determined by Flow cytometry (quantitatively) and confocal microscopy (qualitatively). Tritiated thymidine and CFDA-SE determined CD4+ T cell proliferation following co-incubation with DCs. Cytokine milieu of MLN (IL-12 and IL-10) was assessed by mRNA determination by RT-PCR. The results showed down-regulated expressions of co-stimulatory markers (CD80, CD86, CD40 and MHC-II) of MLN DCs obtained from burn-injured rats, as well as lack of ability of these burn-induced DCs to stimulate CD4+ T cell proliferation in co-culture assays, as compared to the sham rats. Moreover, anti-CD40 stimulation of affected burn MLN DCs did not reverse this alteration. Furthermore, a marked up-regulation of mRNA IL-10 and down-regulation of mRNA IL-12 in burn MLN as compared to sham animals was also observed. To surmise, the data indicated that dysfunctional OX62+OX6+OX35+ rat MLN DCs may contribute to CD4+ T-cell-mediated immune suppression observed following acute burn injury.

  19. OX62+OX6+OX35+ rat dendritic cells are unable to prime CD4+ T cells for an effective immune response following acute burn injury☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    Co-stimulatory molecules expressed on Dendritic Cells (DCs) function to coordinate an efficient immune response by T cells in the peripheral lymph nodes. We hypothesized that CD4+ T cell-mediated immune suppression following burn injury may be related to dysfunctional DCs residing in gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), such as Mesenteric Lymph Nodes (MLN). Therefore, we studied co-stimulatory molecules expressed on burn rat MLN DCs as an index of functional DCs that would mount an effective normal CD4+ T cell immune response. In a rat model of 30% Total Body Surface Area (TBSA) scald burn, OX62+OX6+OX35+ DCs and CD4+ T cells were isolated from MLN of day 3 post-burn and sham control rats. DCs were tested for their expression of co-stimulatory molecules, and prime CD4+ T cell (DC:CD4+T cell co-culture assays) to determine an effector immune response such as CD4+ T cell proliferation. The surface receptor expressions of MLN DCs co-stimulatory molecules, i.e., MHC-II, CD40, CD80 (B7-1), and CD86 (B7-2) were determined by Flow cytometry (quantitatively) and confocal microscopy (qualitatively). Tritiated thymidine and CFDA-SE determined CD4+ T cell proliferation following co-incubation with DCs. Cytokine milieu of MLN (IL-12 and IL-10) was assessed by mRNA determination by RT-PCR. The results showed down-regulated expressions of co-stimulatory markers (CD80, CD86, CD40 and MHC-II) of MLN DCs obtained from burn-injured rats, as well as lack of ability of these burn-induced DCs to stimulate CD4+ T cell proliferation in co-culture assays, as compared to the sham rats. Moreover, anti-CD40 stimulation of affected burn MLN DCs did not reverse this alteration. Furthermore, a marked up-regulation of mRNA IL-10 and down-regulation of mRNA IL-12 in burn MLN as compared to sham animals was also observed. To surmise, the data indicated that dysfunctional OX62+OX6+OX35+ rat MLN DCs may contribute to CD4+ T-cell-mediated immune suppression observed following acute burn injury

  20. The expressions of emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishnivetz, Berta

    Abstract On the broadness of the vast field called “Expressions of Emotions” this study focuses on the whole bodily emotional expression. The main question posed is: Whether there are movement patterns specific to each emotion?. I carried out a thorough review of the theories of emotion...... and of expressions of emotions and movement notation that provided the sources for a careful research plan for the empirical process of this study. On this basis I chose to record onto video the four previously choreographed movements that I considered to correspond each of the following emotions: joy, fear, sadness......, anger. The selection of these four emotions demanded previously to clear up the problems the above named survey ensued. When researchers want to describe a certain movement in the field of psychology and non-verbal communication, it may result in disagreements and misunderstandings which sometimes lead...

  1. Freedom of Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Canela

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The freedoms of expression and of the press are basic pillars of the western democracies. The contemporary theoretical framework which gives support to these rights was generated in the wake of the liberal revolutions which took place in Western Europe and in North America starting from the second half of the 1600s. Our purpose in this text is to present the current scene regarding this topic, focusing whenever pertinent on the Brazilian case, and seeking to question the unconditional defense of the freedoms of expression and of the press made by the thinkers who founded these principles vis-á-vis contemporary issues of the communicational universe. Going beyond theoretical-conceptual refl ections, we present and analyze the results of a content analysis showing how 53 Brazilian newspapers and 4 magazines with nationwide circulation report (or not topics relating to freedom of expression and of the press.

  2. Regular expression containment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...

  3. In Silico Expression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolívar, Julio; Hehl, Reinhard; Bülow, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Information on the specificity of cis-sequences enables the design of functional synthetic plant promoters that are responsive to specific stresses. Potential cis-sequences may be experimentally tested, however, correlation of genomic sequence with gene expression data enables an in silico expression analysis approach to bioinformatically assess the stress specificity of candidate cis-sequences prior to experimental verification. The present chapter demonstrates an example for the in silico validation of a potential cis-regulatory sequence responsive to cold stress. The described online tool can be applied for the bioinformatic assessment of cis-sequences responsive to most abiotic and biotic stresses of plants. Furthermore, a method is presented based on a reverted in silico expression analysis approach that predicts highly specific potentially functional cis-regulatory elements for a given stress.

  4. Designing Emotionally Expressive Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiourti, Christiana; Weiss, Astrid; Wac, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Socially assistive agents, be it virtual avatars or robots, need to engage in social interactions with humans and express their internal emotional states, goals, and desires. In this work, we conducted a comparative study to investigate how humans perceive emotional cues expressed by humanoid...... robots through five communication modalities (face, head, body, voice, locomotion) and examined whether the degree of a robot's human-like embodiment affects this perception. In an online survey, we asked people to identify emotions communicated by Pepper -a highly human-like robot and Hobbit – a robot...... for robots....

  5. Mining frequent binary expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.; Paredaens, J.; Kambayashi, Y.; Mohania, M.K.; Tjoa, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In data mining, searching for frequent patterns is a common basic operation. It forms the basis of many interesting decision support processes. In this paper we present a new type of patterns, binary expressions. Based on the properties of a specified binary test, such as reflexivity, transitivity

  6. Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial

  7. Sensual expressions on faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.W.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Roek, M.A.E.

    2009-01-01

    We explored the possibility that an emotional facial expression exists specifically for signalling sexual interest. We selected photographs of twenty-eight fashion models (male and female) with large portfolios (range 81 - 1593), choosing only face photographs in which the model was looking into the

  8. Experience and Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Jay Michael; Weisman, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Two artist-educators analyzed their creative process informed by John Dewey's concepts regarding the act of expression. The essay interweaves a description of their performance piece with a discussion of conceptual processes, including intermediality and collaboration as crucial in art making, learning, and pedagogical efficacy. Both the creation…

  9. Facial expressions recognition with an emotion expressive robotic head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroftei, I.; Adascalitei, F.; Lefeber, D.; Vanderborght, B.; Doroftei, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the preliminary steps in facial expressions recognition with a new version of an expressive social robotic head. So, in a first phase, our main goal was to reach a minimum level of emotional expressiveness in order to obtain nonverbal communication between the robot and human by building six basic facial expressions. To evaluate the facial expressions, the robot was used in some preliminary user studies, among children and adults.

  10. Low-dose gamma-rays and simulated solar particle event protons modify splenocyte gene and cytokine expression patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, A.; Pecaut, M.J.; Gridley, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The goal was to investigate the T helper (Th) response in splenocytes of mice exposed to low-dose/low-dose-rate (LDR) γ-rays, simulated solar particle event protons (sSPE), or combination of both. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to LDR γ-radiation ( 57 Co) to a total dose of 0.05 Gray (Gy) at 0.024 cGy/h, either with or without subsequent exposure to 2 Gy sSPE protons. Expression of genes related to Th cells was evaluated immediately after exposure (day 0). On day 21, intra- and extracellular cytokine production was assessed after activation with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionophore (PMA/I). Five genes were significantly modulated on day 0 in one or more of the irradiated groups compared to controls (p<0.05): Ccl11, Ccr5, Cd80, Inha, and Il9. On day 21, numbers of cells positive for interferon-γ were high in the LDR + sSPE group versus 0 Gy and LDR γ-rays (p<0.05), but there was no difference in interleukin (IL)-2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Levels of secreted cytokines after anti-CD3 mAb activation were high for 5 (maximum intensity projection (MIP)-1α, GM-CSF, interferon (IFN)-γ, TNF-α, IL-13) and low for 2 (IL-7, IL-9) in all irradiated groups. Priming with LDR photons had a significant effect on IFN-γ and IL-17 compared to sSPE protons alone; IL-2 was low only in the LDR + sSPE group. The cytokine patterns after anti-phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/ionomycin (I) activation were different compared to anti-CD3 mAb and with fewer differences among groups. The data show that total-body exposure to space-relevant radiation has profound effects on Th cell status and that priming with LDR γ-rays can in some cases modulate the response to sSPE. (author)

  11. ERG protein expression over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Brasso, Klaus; Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: We evaluated the consistency in ERG protein expression from diagnostic specimens through rebiopsies to radical prostatectomies in patients with clinically localised prostate cancer to investigate the validity of ERG status in biopsies. METHODS: ERG expression was assessed by immunohistochem......AIMS: We evaluated the consistency in ERG protein expression from diagnostic specimens through rebiopsies to radical prostatectomies in patients with clinically localised prostate cancer to investigate the validity of ERG status in biopsies. METHODS: ERG expression was assessed...

  12. Matching faces with emotional expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng eChen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available There is some evidence that faces with a happy expression are recognized better than faces with other expressions. However, little is known about whether this happy face advantage also applies to perceptual face matching, and whether similar differences exist among other expressions. Using a sequential matching paradigm, we systematically compared the effects of seven basic facial expressions on identity recognition. Identity matching was quickest when a pair of faces had an identical happy/sad/neutral expression, poorer when they had a fearful/surprise/angry expression, and poorest when they had a disgust expression. Faces with a happy/sad/fear/surprise expression were matched faster than those with an anger/disgust expression when the second face in a pair had a neutral expression. These results demonstrate that effects of facial expression on identity recognition are not limited to happy faces when a learned face is immediately tested. The results suggest different influences of expression in perceptual matching and long-term recognition memory.

  13. Expressing emotions in blogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Carmina Rodriguez-Hidalgo; Tan, Ed S.; Verlegh, Peeter

    2017-01-01

    Textual paralanguage cues (TPC) have been signaled as effective emotion transmitters online. Though several studies have investigated their properties and occurrence, there remains a gap concerning their communicative impact within specific psychological processes, such as the social sharing...... of emotion (SSE, Rimé, 2009). This study content-analyzed Live Journal blogposts for the occurrence of TPC in three phases of online SSE: initiation, feedback and repost. We compared these to TPC on a second type of emotional expression, emotional venting. Based on Social Information processing theory (SIP......, Walther, 1992), and on the Emotional Mimicry in Context (EMC, Hess & Fischer, 2013) framework, we study predictive relationships in TPC usage in our phased model of online SSE. Results showed that TPC prevailed in SSE blogposts and strongly dominated in emotional venting posts. TPC was more common...

  14. Natural Art, False Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Hernando Nossa García

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the documentary My Kid Could Paint That, directed by Bar-Lev, which deals with Marla Olmstead, the child prodigy of painting, several interviews with persons in the art world are conducted, among them an artist who uses a magnifying glass and the thinnest brushes to do his work. This man, although happy for the success of the child’s abstract paintings, saw in the whole spectacle a mockery of art, and stood firmly by her work. The girl’s father, also an artist, was accused of plagiarism. Cameras entered the child’s studio in order to prove that Marla was the real artist. Why should such relevance be given to authorship? What is the cause of the dispute between the expressive and the rational?

  15. The Expressive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate br...... students of management, business strategy, accounting, marketing, and communication studies; MBA students; Managers and consultants.......This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate...... branding on organizational structures and processes? How do organizations discover their identities? These are some of the vexing problems addressed in this book by a diverse international team of contributors. According to the authors, the future lies with "the expressive organization". Such organizations...

  16. Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko; Harushima, Yoshiaki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Mochizuki, Takako; Fujita, Masahiro; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Kurata, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue

  17. Facial Expressivity at 4 Months: A Context by Expression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David S; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The specificity predicted by differential emotions theory (DET) for early facial expressions in response to 5 different eliciting situations was studied in a sample of 4-month-old infants (n = 150). Infants were videotaped during tickle, sour taste, jack-in-the-box, arm restraint, and masked-stranger situations and their expressions were coded second by second. Infants showed a variety of facial expressions in each situation; however, more infants exhibited positive (joy and surprise) than negative expressions (anger, disgust, fear, and sadness) across all situations except sour taste. Consistent with DET-predicted specificity, joy expressions were the most common in response to tickling, and were less common in response to other situations. Surprise expressions were the most common in response to the jack-in-the-box, as predicted, but also were the most common in response to the arm restraint and masked-stranger situations, indicating a lack of specificity. No evidence of predicted specificity was found for anger, disgust, fear, and sadness expressions. Evidence of individual differences in expressivity within situations, as well as stability in the pattern across situations, underscores the need to examine both child and contextual factors in studying emotional development. The results provide little support for the DET postulate of situational specificity and suggest that a synthesis of differential emotions and dynamic systems theories of emotional expression should be considered.

  18. What emotion does the "facial expression of disgust" express?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochedly, Joseph T; Widen, Sherri C; Russell, James A

    2012-12-01

    The emotion attributed to the prototypical "facial expression of disgust" (a nose scrunch) depended on what facial expressions preceded it. In two studies, the majority of 120 children (5-14 years) and 135 adults (16-58 years) judged the nose scrunch as expressing disgust when the preceding set included an anger scowl, but as angry when the anger scowl was omitted. An even greater proportion of observers judged the nose scrunch as angry when the preceding set also included a facial expression of someone about to be sick. The emotion attributed to the nose scrunch therefore varies with experimental context. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Generational Differences of Emotional Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学勇

    2014-01-01

    As a kind of subjective psychological activity, emotion can only be known and perceived by a certain expressive form. Varies as the different main bodies, difference of emotional expression can be reflected not only among individuals but between generations. The old conceals their emotions inside, the young express their emotions boldly, and the middle-aged are rational and deep in their expressions. Facing and understanding such differences is the premise and foundation of the con-struction of a harmonious relationship between different generations.

  20. Precise Analysis of String Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2003-01-01

    We perform static analysis of Java programs to answer a simple question: which values may occur as results of string expressions? The answers are summarized for each expression by a regular language that is guaranteed to contain all possible values. We present several applications of this analysis...... are automatically produced. We present extensive benchmarks demonstrating that the analysis is efficient and produces results of useful precision......., including statically checking the syntax of dynamically generated expressions, such as SQL queries. Our analysis constructs flow graphs from class files and generates a context-free grammar with a nonterminal for each string expression. The language of this grammar is then widened into a regular language...

  1. Oracle Application Express 4 Recipes

    CERN Document Server

    Zehoo, Edmund

    2011-01-01

    Oracle Application Express 4 Recipes provides an example-based approach to learning Application Express - the ground-breaking, rapid application development platform included with every Oracle Database license. The recipes format is ideal for the quick-study who just wants a good example or two to kick start their thinking and get pointed in the right direction. The recipes cover the gamut of Application Express development. Author and Application Express expert Edmund Zehoo shows how to create data entry screens, visualize data in the form of reports and charts, implement validation and back-

  2. Expression modeling for expression-invariant face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, F.B. Ter; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Morphable face models have proven to be an effective tool for 3D face modeling and face recognition, but the extension to 3D face scans with expressions is still a challenge. The two main difficulties are (1) how to build a new morphable face model that deals with expressions, and (2) how to fit

  3. Human papillomavirus gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.T.; Hirochika, H.; Nasseri, M.; Stoler, M.H.; Wolinsky, S.M.; Chin, M.T.; Hirochika, R.; Arvan, D.S.; Broker, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the role of tissue differentiation on expression of each of the papillomavirus mRNA species identified by electron microscopy, the authors prepared exon-specific RNA probes that could distinguish the alternatively spliced mRNA species. Radioactively labeled single-stranded RNA probes were generated from a dual promoter vector system and individually hybridized to adjacent serial sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies of condylomata. Autoradiography showed that each of the message species had a characteristic tissue distribution and relative abundance. The authors have characterized a portion of the regulatory network of the HPVs by showing that the E2 ORF encodes a trans-acting enhancer-stimulating protein, as it does in BPV-1 (Spalholz et al. 1985). The HPV-11 enhancer was mapped to a 150-bp tract near the 3' end of the URR. Portions of this region are duplicated in some aggressive strains of HPV-6 (Boshart and zur Hausen 1986; Rando et al. 1986). To test the possible biological relevance of these duplications, they cloned tandem arrays of the enhancer and demonstrated, using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assay, that they led to dramatically increased transcription proportional to copy number. Using the CAT assays, the authors found that the E2 proteins of several papillomavirus types can cross-stimulate the enhancers of most other types. This suggests that prior infection of a tissue with one papillomavirus type may provide a helper effect for superinfection and might account fo the HPV-6/HPV-16 coinfections in condylomata that they have observed

  4. Immunodomination during peripheral vaccinia virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon C W Lin

    Full Text Available Immunodominance is a fundamental property of CD8(+ T cell responses to viruses and vaccines. It had been observed that route of administration alters immunodominance after vaccinia virus (VACV infection, but only a few epitopes were examined and no mechanism was provided. We re-visited this issue, examining a panel of 15 VACV epitopes and four routes, namely intradermal (i.d., subcutaneous (s.c., intraperitoneal (i.p. and intravenous (i.v. injection. We found that immunodominance is sharpened following peripheral routes of infection (i.d. and s.c. compared with those that allow systemic virus dissemination (i.p. and i.v.. This increased immunodominance was demonstrated with native epitopes of VACV and with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B when expressed from VACV. Responses to some subdominant epitopes were altered by as much as fourfold. Tracking of virus, examination of priming sites, and experiments restricting virus spread showed that priming of CD8(+ T cells in the spleen was necessary, but not sufficient to broaden responses. Further, we directly demonstrated that immunodomination occurs more readily when priming is mainly in lymph nodes. Finally, we were able to reduce immunodominance after i.d., but not i.p. infection, using a VACV expressing the costimulators CD80 (B7-1 and CD86 (B7-2, which is notable because VACV-based vaccines incorporating these molecules are in clinical trials. Taken together, our data indicate that resources for CD8(+ T cell priming are limiting in local draining lymph nodes, leading to greater immunodomination. Further, we provide evidence that costimulation can be a limiting factor that contributes to immunodomination. These results shed light on a possible mechanism of immunodomination and highlight the need to consider multiple epitopes across the spectrum of immunogenicities in studies aimed at understanding CD8(+ T cell immunity to viruses.

  5. Differential Gene Expression and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Seroude

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that an intricate program of gene expression controls progression through the different stages in development. The equally complex biological phenomenon known as aging is genetically determined and environmentally modulated. This review focuses on the genetic component of aging, with a special emphasis on differential gene expression. At least two genetic pathways regulating organism longevity act by modifying gene expression. Many genes are also subjected to age-dependent transcriptional regulation. Some age-related gene expression changes are prevented by caloric restriction, the most robust intervention that slows down the aging process. Manipulating the expression of some age-regulated genes can extend an organism's life span. Remarkably, the activity of many transcription regulatory elements is linked to physiological age as opposed to chronological age, indicating that orderly and tightly controlled regulatory pathways are active during aging.

  6. Measuring facial expression of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Karsten

    2015-12-01

    Research into emotions has increased in recent decades, especially on the subject of recognition of emotions. However, studies of the facial expressions of emotion were compromised by technical problems with visible video analysis and electromyography in experimental settings. These have only recently been overcome. There have been new developments in the field of automated computerized facial recognition; allowing real-time identification of facial expression in social environments. This review addresses three approaches to measuring facial expression of emotion and describes their specific contributions to understanding emotion in the healthy population and in persons with mental illness. Despite recent progress, studies on human emotions have been hindered by the lack of consensus on an emotion theory suited to examining the dynamic aspects of emotion and its expression. Studying expression of emotion in patients with mental health conditions for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes will profit from theoretical and methodological progress.

  7. Homeobox gene expression in Brachiopoda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Martinez, Pedro; Wanninger, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    (ectoderm) specification with co-opted functions in notochord formation in chordates and left/right determination in ambulacrarians and vertebrates. The caudal ortholog, TtrCdx, is first expressed in the ectoderm of the gastrulating embryo in the posterior region of the blastopore. Its expression stays......The molecular control that underlies brachiopod ontogeny is largely unknown. In order to contribute to this issue we analyzed the expression pattern of two homeobox containing genes, Not and Cdx, during development of the rhynchonelliform (i.e., articulate) brachiopod Terebratalia transversa...... completion of larval development, which is marked by a three-lobed body with larval setae. Expression starts at gastrulation in two areas lateral to the blastopore and subsequently extends over the animal pole of the gastrula. With elongation of the gastrula, expression at the animal pole narrows to a small...

  8. Nestin expression in neuroepithelial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Davide; Manazza, Andrea; Tamagno, Ilaria

    2006-05-29

    Nestin is a marker of early stages of neurocytogenesis. It has been studied in 50 neuroepithelial tumors, mostly gliomas of different malignancy grades, by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, immunoblotting, and confocal microscopy and compared with GFAP and Vimentin. As an early marker of differentiation, Nestin is almost not expressed in diffuse astrocytomas, variably expressed in anaplastic astrocytomas and strongly and irregularly expressed in glioblastomas. Negative in oligodendrogliomas, it stains ependymomas and shows a gradient of expression in pilocytic astrocytomas. In glioblastomas, Nestin distribution does not completely correspond to that of GFAP and Vimentin with which its expression varies in tumor cells in a complementary way, as confirmed by confocal microscopy. Tumor cells can thus either derive from or differentiate toward the neurocytogenetic stages. Hypothetically, they could be put in relation with radial glia where during embriogenesis the three antigens are successively expressed. Completely negative cells of invasive or recurrent glioblastomas may represent malignant selected clones after accumulation of mutations or early stem cells not expressing antigens.

  9. The expressive stance: intentionality, expression, and machine art

    OpenAIRE

    Linson, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new interpretive stance for interpreting artistic works and performances that is relevant to artificial intelligence research but also has broader implications. Termed the expressive stance, this stance makes intelligible a critical distinction between present-day machine art and human art, but allows for the possibility that future machine art could find a place alongside our own. The expressive stance is elaborated as a response to Daniel Dennett's notion of the intent...

  10. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.

  11. Expression in E. coli systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsdam, Anne-M; Kristiansen, Karsten; Nøhr, Jane

    2003-01-01

    intracellularly in soluble form. In E. coli, proteins containing disulfide bonds are best produced by secretion because the disulfide forming foldases reside in the periplasm. Likewise, a correct N-terminus is more likely to be obtained upon secretion. Moreover, potentially toxic proteins are more likely......Owing to cost advantage, speed of production, and often high product yield (up to 50% of total cell protein), expression in Escherichia coli is generally the first choice when attempting to express a recombinant protein. Expression systems exist to produce recombinant protein intracellularly...

  12. Analysis of Facial Expression by Taste Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobitani, Kensuke; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    In this study, we focused on the basic taste stimulation for the analysis of real facial expressions. We considered that the expressions caused by taste stimulation were unaffected by individuality or emotion, that is, such expressions were involuntary. We analyzed the movement of facial muscles by taste stimulation and compared real expressions with artificial expressions. From the result, we identified an obvious difference between real and artificial expressions. Thus, our method would be a new approach for facial expression recognition.

  13. A Tattoo Is Expression, Too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    1997-01-01

    In "Stephenson v. Davenport Community School District," the U.S. Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that schools cannot adopt unduly vague policies to regulate student expression, in this case, a cross-shaped tattoo. (LMI)

  14. Online handwritten mathematical expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükbayrak, Hakan; Yanikoglu, Berrin; Erçil, Aytül

    2007-01-01

    We describe a system for recognizing online, handwritten mathematical expressions. The system is designed with a user-interface for writing scientific articles, supporting the recognition of basic mathematical expressions as well as integrals, summations, matrices etc. A feed-forward neural network recognizes symbols which are assumed to be single-stroke and a recursive algorithm parses the expression by combining neural network output and the structure of the expression. Preliminary results show that writer-dependent recognition rates are very high (99.8%) while writer-independent symbol recognition rates are lower (75%). The interface associated with the proposed system integrates the built-in recognition capabilities of the Microsoft's Tablet PC API for recognizing textual input and supports conversion of hand-drawn figures into PNG format. This enables the user to enter text, mathematics and draw figures in a single interface. After recognition, all output is combined into one LATEX code and compiled into a PDF file.

  15. Emerald Express '95: Analysis Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newett, Sandra

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of Emerald Express was to bring together senior representatives from military, relief, political, and diplomatic communities to address issues that arise during Humanitarian Assistance and Peace Operations (HA/POs...

  16. Race, Reparations, and Free Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Describes how a controversial newspaper ad opposing slavery reparations and the subsequent trashing of the student daily have set off a debate at Brown University about the competing values of sensitivity and free expression. (EV)

  17. Expression of Recombinant Human Butyrylcholinesterase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lockridge, Oksana

    1997-01-01

    .... The G117H enzyme has the potential to be useful for decontamination of skin and eye. To determine how many amino acids could be deleted from butyrylcholinesterase without loss of activity, deletion mutants were expressed...

  18. Regulation of eucaryotic gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, R.; Ptashne, M.S

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a method of regulating the expression of a gene in a eucaryotic cell. The method consists of: providing in the eucaryotic cell, a peptide, derived from or substantially similar to a peptide of a procaryotic cell able to bind to DNA upstream from or within the gene, the amount of the peptide being sufficient to bind to the gene and thereby control expression of the gene.

  19. Craniopharyngioma: Survivin expression and ultrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, JIANG; YOU, CHAO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the significance of survivin protein expression levels in craniopharyngioma. Tumor samples and clinical data were obtained from 50 patients with craniopharyngioma who were admitted to the West China Hospital of Sichuan University (Chengdu, China). The morphology of the craniopharyngioma samples was observed using optical and electron microscopes, and survivin expression was investigated in the samples by immunohistochemical analysis. The immunohistochemical results revealed survivin expression in all of the craniopharyngioma samples, but not in the healthy brain tissue samples. It was identified that survivin was expressed at a higher level in cases of the adamantinomatous type compared with those of the squamous-papillary type, in male patients compared with female patients, in children compared with adults and in recurrent cases compared with non-recurrent cases. Furthermore, no significant difference was detected in survivin expression levels among the tumors of different subtypes and different disease stages. The results of the present study indicate that survivin is significant in the development of craniopharyngioma, and that survivin protein expression levels are a meaningful indicator for assessing craniopharyngioma recurrence. PMID:25435936

  20. The motivation to express prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forscher, Patrick S.; Cox, William T. L.; Graetz, Nicholas; Devine, Patricia G.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary prejudice research focuses primarily on people who are motivated to respond without prejudice and the ways in which unintentional bias can cause these people to act inconsistent with this motivation. However, some real-world phenomena (e.g., hate speech, hate crimes) and experimental findings (e.g., Plant & Devine, 2001; 2009) suggest that some expressions of prejudice are intentional. These phenomena and findings are difficult to explain solely from the motivations to respond without prejudice. We argue that some people are motivated to express prejudice, and we develop the motivation to express prejudice (MP) scale to measure this motivation. In seven studies involving more than 6,000 participants, we demonstrate that, across scale versions targeted at Black people and gay men, the MP scale has good reliability and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. In normative climates that prohibit prejudice, the internal and external motivations to express prejudice are functionally non-independent, but they become more independent when normative climates permit more prejudice toward a target group. People high in the motivation to express prejudice are relatively likely to resist pressure to support programs promoting intergroup contact and vote for political candidates who support oppressive policies. The motivation to express prejudice predicted these outcomes even when controlling for attitudes and the motivations to respond without prejudice. This work encourages contemporary prejudice researchers to broaden the range of samples, target groups, and phenomena that they study, and more generally to consider the intentional aspects of negative intergroup behavior. PMID:26479365

  1. Pericentrin expression in Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Michele; Barone, Concetta; Romano, Carmelo; Salluzzo, Roberto; Caraci, Filippo; Cantarella, Rita Anna; Salluzzo, Maria Grazia; Drago, Filippo; Romano, Corrado; Bosco, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Down's syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability and is a chromosomal abnormality of chromosome 21 trisomy. The pericentrin gene (PCNT) has sequenced in 21q22.3 inside of the minimal critical region for Down's syndrome. Alterations of PCNT gene are associated with dwarfism, cardiomyopathy and other pathologies. In this study, we have evaluated the possible differential expression of PCNT mRNA, by qRT-PCR, in peripheral blood leukocytes of DS subjects compared with the normal population. In the present case-control study, PCNT gene expression was increased by 72.72% in 16 out 22 DS samples compared with normal subjects. Our data suggest that changes in the expression levels of PCNT in DS subjects may be involved into the molecular mechanism of Down's syndrome.

  2. Converting nested algebra expressions into flat algebra expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredaens, J.; Van Gucht, D.

    1992-01-01

    Nested relations generalize ordinary flat relations by allowing tuple values to be either atomic or set valued. The nested algebra is a generalization of the flat relational algebra to manipulate nested relations. In this paper we study the expressive power of the nested algebra relative to its

  3. EXPRESS Service to the International Space Station: EXPRESS Pallet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primm, Lowell; Bergmann, Alan

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will be the ultimate scientific accomplishment in the history of NASA, with its primary objective of providing unique scientific investigation opportunities. This objective is the basis for the creation of the EXPRESS Pallet System (ExPs). The EXPRESS Pallet will provide extremal/unpressurized accommodations for a wide variety of external users. The payload developers represent many science disciplines, including earth observation, communications, solar and deep space viewing, long-term exposure, and many others. The EXPRESS Pallet will provide a mechanism to maximum utilization of the limited ISS unpressurized payload volume, standard physical payload interfaces for users, a standard integration template for users and the capability to changeout payloads on-orbit. The EXPRESS Pallet provides access to Ram, Wake, Starboard, Port, Nadir, Zenith and Earth Limb for exposure and viewing. 'Me ExPs consists of the Pallet structure, payload Adapters, and a subsystem assembly which includes data controller, power distribution and conversion, and Extra Vehicular Robotics/Extra-Vehicular Activity systems.

  4. Construction of PVX virus-expression vector to express enterotoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato X potyvirus (PVX)-based vector has been comprehensively applied in transient expression system. In order to produce the heterologous proteins more quickly and stably, the ClaI and NotI enzyme sites were introduced into the Enterotoxin fusion gene LTB-ST by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the LTB-ST ...

  5. Advanced express web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Keig, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A practical book, guiding the reader through the development of a single page application using a feature-driven approach.If you are an experienced JavaScript developer who wants to build highly scalable, real-world applications using Express, this book is ideal for you. This book is an advanced title and assumes that the reader has some experience with node, Javascript MVC web development frameworks, and has heard of Express before, or is familiar with it. You should also have a basic understanding of Redis and MongoDB. This book is not a tutorial on Node, but aims to explore some of the more

  6. Gene expression in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Olesen, Sanne Harder

    2002-01-01

    Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each...... pool) of total RNA from left-sided sporadic colorectal carcinomas. We compared normal tissue to carcinoma tissue from Dukes' stages A-D (noninvasive to distant metastasis) and identified 908 known genes and 4,155 ESTs that changed remarkably from normal to tumor tissue. Based on intensive filtering 226...

  7. Correction of gene expression data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darbani Shirvanehdeh, Behrooz; Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.; Noeparvar, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    This report investigates for the first time the potential inter-treatment bias source of cell number for gene expression studies. Cell-number bias can affect gene expression analysis when comparing samples with unequal total cellular RNA content or with different RNA extraction efficiencies....... For maximal reliability of analysis, therefore, comparisons should be performed at the cellular level. This could be accomplished using an appropriate correction method that can detect and remove the inter-treatment bias for cell-number. Based on inter-treatment variations of reference genes, we introduce...

  8. Microsoft Expression Web for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hefferman, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Expression Web is Microsoft's newest tool for creating and maintaining dynamic Web sites. This FrontPage replacement offers all the simple ""what-you-see-is-what-you-get"" tools for creating a Web site along with some pumped up new features for working with Cascading Style Sheets and other design options. Microsoft Expression Web For Dummies arrives in time for early adopters to get a feel for how to build an attractive Web site. Author Linda Hefferman teams up with longtime FrontPage For Dummies author Asha Dornfest to show the easy way for first-time Web designers, FrontPage ve

  9. The change of expression configuration affects identity-dependent expression aftereffect but not identity-independent expression aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao eSong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the influence of expression configuration on cross-identity expression aftereffect. The expression configuration refers to the spatial arrangement of facial features in a face for conveying an emotion, e.g., an open-mouth smile versus a closed-mouth smile. In the first of two experiments, the expression aftereffect is measured using across-identity/cross-expression configuration factorial design. The facial identities of test faces were the same or different from the adaptor, while orthogonally, the expression configurations of those facial identities were also the same or different. The result shows that the change of expression configuration impaired the expression aftereffect when the facial identities of adaptor and tests were the same; however, the impairment effect disappears when facial identities were different, indicating the identity-independent expression representation is more robust to the change of the expression configuration in comparison with the identity-dependent expression representation. In the second experiment, we used schematic line faces as adaptors and real faces as tests to minimize the similarity between the adaptor and tests, which is expected to exclude the contribution from the identity-dependent expression representation to expression aftereffect. The second experiment yields a similar result as the identity-independent expression aftereffect observed in Experiment 1. The findings indicate the different neural sensitivities to expression configuration for identity-dependent and identity-independent expression systems.

  10. 'Endurance' Courtesy of Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its panoramic camera to capture this false-color image of the interior of 'Endurance Crater' on the rover's 188th martian day (Aug. 4, 2004). The image data were relayed to Earth by the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. The image was generated from separate frames using the cameras 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters.

  11. Communicating emotions in expressive avatars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kierkegaard, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Avatars have become a fundamental part of collaborative virtual environments. They are the visual embodiment of the user and are designed to address key issues in the interaction process between the user and the CVE. Giving avatars expressive abilities has been considered essential in computer-human

  12. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  13. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  14. The SSETI-express Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alminde, Lars; Bisgaard, Morten; Melville, N.

    In January 2004 a group of students met at the European Space Technology and Research Centre (ESTEC) in Holland to discuss the feasibility of building a micro-satellite, dubbed SSETI-Express, from parts derived from other student satellite projects and launch it within one and a half year...

  15. The SSETI-Express Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alminde, Lars; Bisgaard, Morten; Melville, Neil

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004 a group of students met at the European Space Technology and Research Centre (ESTEC) in Holland to discuss the feasibility of building a micro-satellite, dubbed SSETI-Express, from parts derived from other student satellite projects and launch it within one and a half year...

  16. The motivation to express prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forscher, Patrick S; Cox, William T L; Graetz, Nicholas; Devine, Patricia G

    2015-11-01

    Contemporary prejudice research focuses primarily on people who are motivated to respond without prejudice and the ways in which unintentional bias can cause these people to act in a manner inconsistent with this motivation. However, some real-world phenomena (e.g., hate speech, hate crimes) and experimental findings (e.g., Plant & Devine, 2001, 2009) suggest that some prejudice is intentional. These phenomena and findings are difficult to explain solely from the motivations to respond without prejudice. We argue that some people are motivated to express prejudice, and we develop the Motivation to Express Prejudice Scale (MP) to measure this motivation. In 7 studies involving more than 6,000 participants, we demonstrate that, across scale versions targeted at Black people and gay men, the MP has good reliability and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. In normative climates that prohibit prejudice, the internal and external motivations to express prejudice are functionally nonindependent, but they become more independent when normative climates permit more prejudice toward a target group. People high in the motivation to express prejudice are relatively likely to resist pressure to support programs promoting intergroup contact and to vote for political candidates who support oppressive policies. The motivation to express prejudice predicted these outcomes even when controlling for attitudes and the motivations to respond without prejudice. This work encourages contemporary prejudice researchers to give greater consideration to the intentional aspects of negative intergroup behavior and to broaden the range of phenomena, target groups, and samples that they study. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Vascular Gene Expression: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Concepción eMartínez-Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a primitive vascular tissue (a lycophyte, as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte, and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non- vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants.

  18. DNA expressions - A formal notation for DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Rudy van

    2015-01-01

    We describe a formal notation for DNA molecules that may contain nicks and gaps. The resulting DNA expressions denote formal DNA molecules. Different DNA expressions may denote the same molecule. Such DNA expressions are called equivalent. We examine which DNA expressions are minimal, which

  19. Recombination-ready Sindbis replicon expression vectors for transgene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Ken E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sindbis viruses have been widely used as tools to study gene function in cells. Despite the utility of these systems, the construction and production of alphavirus replicons is time consuming and inefficient due to potential additional restriction sites within the insert region and lack of directionality for insert ligation. In this report, we present a system useful for producing recombinant Sindbis replicons that uses lambda phage recombination technology to rapidly and specifically construct replicon expression plasmids that contain insert regions in the desired orientation. Results Recombination of the gene of interest with the replicon plasmid resulted in nearly 100% recombinants, each of which contained a correctly orientated insert. Replicons were easily produced in cell culture and packaged into pseudo-infectious viral particles. Insect and mammalian cells infected with pseudo-infectious viral particles expressed various transgenes at high levels. Finally, inserts from persistently replicating replicon RNA were easily isolated and recombined back into entry plasmids for sequencing and subsequent analysis. Conclusion Replication-ready replicon expression plasmids make the use of alphavirus replicons fast and easy as compared to traditional replicon production methods. This system represents a significant step forward in the utility and ease of use of alphavirus replicons in the study of gene function.

  20. Dynamic Facial Expression of Emotion Made Easy

    OpenAIRE

    Broekens, Joost; Qu, Chao; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2012-01-01

    Facial emotion expression for virtual characters is used in a wide variety of areas. Often, the primary reason to use emotion expression is not to study emotion expression generation per se, but to use emotion expression in an application or research project. What is then needed is an easy to use and flexible, but also validated mechanism to do so. In this report we present such a mechanism. It enables developers to build virtual characters with dynamic affective facial expressions. The mecha...

  1. Emotional Expression in Reality TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tove Arendt

    Reality TV has been disputed and discussed along many lines for the last 20 years; the media themselves always with a twist of concern about reality programs crossing moral borderlines while research has put more interest in questions of genre and representation of more or less useful and maybe...... empowering social identities. In the latest generation of reality TV which Misha Kava has described as the “celebrity generation”, it seems that reality creates new standards for mixing facts and fiction and even different “realities” as participants become media stars while more traditional celebrities...... are being treated as ordinary people. My article will discuss different presentations of selves and especially the emotional verbal and nonverbal expressions in reality TV communication. Aspects of the intimate self and its emotional expressions seem to be strategically managed in reality TV and even...

  2. On the Expressiveness of Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Given-Wilson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The expressiveness of communication primitives has been explored in a common framework based on the pi-calculus by considering four features: synchronism (asynchronous vs synchronous, arity (monadic vs polyadic data, communication medium (shared dataspaces vs channel-based, and pattern-matching (binding to a name vs testing name equality vs intensionality. Here another dimension coordination is considered that accounts for the number of processes required for an interaction to occur. Coordination generalises binary languages such as pi-calculus to joining languages that combine inputs such as the Join Calculus and general rendezvous calculus. By means of possibility/impossibility of encodings, this paper shows coordination is unrelated to the other features. That is, joining languages are more expressive than binary languages, and no combination of the other features can encode a joining language into a binary language. Further, joining is not able to encode any of the other features unless they could be encoded otherwise.

  3. Architecture between construction and expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lanini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available I think that the problem is basically the same as always: to redefine the relationship between Construction and Expression. On one hand, construction is considered an endeavor, on the other hand, a tendency to contest architecture only with expression. The relationship between architecture and control of urban phenomena is a relationship that has been gradually lost in the past three decades and has been replaced by the relationship between finance and planning. A useful object is very different from a building: for its time and costs of construction. Buildings are expected to last many years and are paid with everybody’s taxes, a design object’s lifespan is perhaps fifty years, then it’s ready to be modernized or for the landfill ... I believe that the main tool that a designer must have, beyond necessary technical skills, is the capacity of his/her own critical thought.

  4. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  5. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K.; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-01-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistr...

  6. Summer Oral Expression English Course

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place between 15 August and 30 September 2011. Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enrol here. Or contact: Kerstin FUHRMEISTER (70896) Tessa OSBORNE (72957)  

  7. Children's expression through play therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomirović Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Play as a child's expression, is a skill through which children speaks to adults. Play therapy is a broad field of therapeutic intervention based on the play in order to help the child to cope with problems. Through play, children learn to communicate with others, to express their feelings. Through play they learn and can improve their cognitive, emotional and social capabilities. Play therapy is a nondirective technique focused on the child. It is not focused on the problem, at present even the past, but focused on the expression of the child feelings, accepting the child, rather than correction. The focus has been on the wisdom of a child, not on expertise therapists, guiding the child through play rather than instructing. The aim of play therapy is to encourage healthy growth and development, developing skills in problem solving, reduction of undesirable behavior, confidence building and the development of self-control. This method is effective for a wide range of children's problems, such as the state of stress, anxiety, problem behavior, hyperkinetic syndrome, depression, loss, trauma, the problem of bonding situations parents divorced, somatic disorders, autism spectrum disorders, social problems.

  8. Gene expression profile of pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia, J C; Henson, B R; Parker, J S; Khan, A A

    2016-06-01

    The cost, prevalence and pain associated with endodontic disease necessitate an understanding of the fundamental molecular aspects of its pathogenesis. This study was aimed to identify the genetic contributors to pulpal pain and inflammation. Inflamed pulps were collected from patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis (n=20). Normal pulps from teeth extracted for various reasons served as controls (n=20). Pain level was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Genome-wide microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix GeneTitan Multichannel Instrument. The difference in gene expression levels were determined by the significance analysis of microarray program using a false discovery rate (q-value) of 5%. Genes involved in immune response, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and signaling, integrin cell surface interactions, and others were expressed at relatively higher levels in the pulpitis group. Moreover, several genes known to modulate pain and inflammation showed differential expression in asymptomatic and mild pain patients (⩾30 mm on VAS) compared with those with moderate to severe pain. This exploratory study provides a molecular basis for the clinical diagnosis of pulpitis. With an enhanced understanding of pulpal inflammation, future studies on treatment and management of pulpitis and on pain associated with it can have a biological reference to bridge treatment strategies with pulpal biology.

  9. Children's Representations of Facial Expression and Identity: Identity-Contingent Expression Aftereffects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Mark D.; Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation used adaptation aftereffects to examine developmental changes in the perception of facial expressions. Previous studies have shown that adults' perceptions of ambiguous facial expressions are biased following adaptation to intense expressions. These expression aftereffects are strong when the adapting and probe expressions share…

  10. Nonverbal and verbal emotional expression and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D S; Pennebaker, J W

    1993-01-01

    The spontaneous nonverbal expression of emotion is related to immediate reductions in autonomic nervous system activity. Similar changes in specific autonomic channels occur when individuals are encouraged to verbally express their emotions. Indeed, these physiological changes are most likely to occur among individuals who are either verbally or nonverbally highly expressive. These data suggest that when individuals must actively inhibit emotional expression, they are at increased risk for a variety of health problems. Several experiments are summarized which indicate that verbally expressing traumatic experiences by writing or talking improves physical health, enhances immune function, and is associated with fewer medical visits. Although less research is available regarding nonverbal expression, it is also likely that the nonverbal expression of emotion bears some relation to health status. We propose that the effectiveness of many common expressive therapies (e.g., art, music, cathartic) would be enhanced if clients are encouraged to both express their feelings nonverbally and to put their experiences into words.

  11. Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuura Naomi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. Methods We tested 24 male adolescent/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control participants. Using standard photographs of facial expressions illustrating six basic emotions, participants matched each emotional facial expression with an appropriate verbal label. Results Delinquents were less accurate in the recognition of facial expressions that conveyed disgust than were control participants. The delinquents misrecognized the facial expressions of disgust as anger more frequently than did controls. Conclusion These results suggest that one of the underpinnings of delinquency might be impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions, with a specific bias toward interpreting disgusted expressions as hostile angry expressions.

  12. Cloning and expression of a widely expressed receptor tyrosine phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sap, J; D'Eustachio, P; Givol, D

    1990-01-01

    We describe the identification of a widely expressed receptor-type (transmembrane) protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase; EC 3.1.3.48). Screening of a mouse brain cDNA library under low-stringency conditions with a probe encompassing the intracellular (phosphatase) domain of the CD45 lymphocyte...... antigen yielded cDNA clones coding for a 794-amino acid transmembrane protein [hereafter referred to as receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (R-PTP-alpha)] with an intracellular domain displaying clear homology to the catalytic domains of CD45 and LAR (45% and 53%, respectively). The 142-amino acid...

  13. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer from 20 August to 29 September.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch

  14. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer at some time between 25 June and 28 September. The exact dates will be decided according to the preferences of the students.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch

  15. Summer Oral Expression English course

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place this summer at some time between August 19 and October 4.   Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enroll through this link. Please be sure to indicate your planned absences in the comments field so we can schedule the course. If you need more information please send a message to English.training@cern.ch.

  16. Summer Oral Expression English Course

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    An English Oral Expression course will take place between 15 August and 30 September 2011. Schedule: to be determined (2 sessions of 2 hours per week). Please note that this course is for learners who have a good knowledge of English (CERN level 7 upwards). If you are interested in following this course, please enrol through the following link https://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9:1576796470009589::::X_STATUS,XS_COURSE_NAME,XS_PROGRAMME,XS_SUBCATEGORY,X_COURSE_ID,XS_LANGUAGE,XS_SESSION:D,,1,,4368,B, Or contact: Kerstin FUHRMEISTER (70896) Tessa OSBORNE (72957)  

  17. Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko

    2015-12-23

    Background Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences. However, different types of gene expression alteration should have different effects on an organism, the evolutionary forces that act on them might be different, and different types of genes might show different types of differential expression between species. To confirm this, we studied differentially expressed (DE) genes among closely related groups that have extensive gene expression atlases, and clarified characteristics of different types of DE genes including the identification of regulating loci for differential expression using expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis data. Results We detected differentially expressed (DE) genes between rice subspecies in five homologous tissues that were verified using japonica and indica transcriptome atlases in public databases. Using the transcriptome atlases, we classified DE genes into two types, global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes. Global type DE genes were not expressed in any tissues in the atlas of one subspecies, however changed-tissues type DE genes were expressed in both subspecies with different tissue specificity. For the five tissues in the two japonica-indica combinations, 4.6 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 1.5 % of highly expressed genes were global and changed-tissues DE genes, respectively. Changed-tissues DE genes varied in number between tissues, increasing linearly with the abundance of tissue specifically expressed genes in the tissue. Molecular evolution of global DE genes was rapid, unlike that of changed-tissues DE genes. Based on gene ontology, global and changed-tissues DE genes were different, having no common GO terms. Expression differences of most global DE genes were regulated by cis-eQTLs. Expression

  18. Helping children express grief through symbolic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, R M

    1984-12-01

    Communication barriers erected by grieving children delay problem resolution. Use of the expressive arts--music, art, and body movement--in symbolic communication helps them to express overwhelming feelings and cope with trauma and stress.

  19. The College Student's Freedom of Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Annette

    1974-01-01

    Discussion of means to ensure freedom of expression by college students. Areas of expression noted are student newspapers, lectures by off-campus speakers, freedom to assemble peaceably and freedom to associate. (EK)

  20. Moxibustion upregulates hippocampal progranulin expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, moxibustion is reported to be useful and has few side effects for chronic fatigue syndrome, but its mechanisms are largely unknown. More recently, the focus has been on the wealth of information supporting stress as a factor in chronic fatigue syndrome, and largely concerns dysregulation in the stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of moxibustion on behavioral symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome rats and examine possible mechanisms. Rats were subjected to a combination of chronic restraint stress and forced swimming to induce chronic fatigue syndrome. The acupoints Guanyuan (CV4 and Zusanli (ST36, bilateral were simultaneously administered moxibustion. Untreated chronic fatigue syndrome rats and normal rats were used as controls. Results from the forced swimming test, open field test, tail suspension test, real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western blot assay showed that moxibustion treatment decreased mRNA expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus, and adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels in plasma, and markedly increased progranulin mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that moxibustion may relieve the behavioral symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome, at least in part, by modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and upregulating hippocampal progranulin.

  1. Hepcidin expression in psoriasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursel Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron is an essential nutrient for mammals. Accelerated loss of nutrients through hyperproliferation and desquamation from the skin in psoriasis is known. Hepcidin is an important and recently discovered regulator of iron homeostasis. Aims and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to investigate the hepcidin expression in psoriasis patients. Materials and Methods: We examined peripheral blood cell counts, serum Fe, ferritin, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and hepcidin levels using respectively automated hematology analyzer, Iron assay on the AEROSET system, chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay with automated analyzer, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The independent comparison of Fe, ferritin, IL-6 and hepcidin levels in psoriasis patients and control group (healthy volunteers revealed lower Fe and higher IL-6, hepcidin levels in psoriasis patients. No significant difference was seen in the ferritin level between the psoriasis and the control group. Conclusions: We think that studies on hepcidin expression in psoriatic plaques will contribute to our understanding the role of iron and hepcidin in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  2. Edix: A Software for Editing Algebraic Expressions.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouhineau , Denis; Nicaud , Jean-François; Pavard , X.

    2001-01-01

    International audience; The paper presents a computer software, called Edix, devoted to the edition of algebraic expressions in their usual 2D representation. At present, many systems display fine algebraic expressions, but the edition of such expressions is weak. Systems like Word and FrameMaker place sub-expressions in too many boxes so that many editing actions are not simple, while usual CAS (computer algebra systems) just use a 1D representation for the edition. Furthermore, Edix allows ...

  3. Kivy and Langer on expressiveness in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Schoot Albert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1980 onwards, Peter Kivy has put forward that music does not so much express emotions but rather is expressive of emotions. The character of the music does not represent the character or mood of the composer, but reflects his knowledge of emotional life. Unfortunately, Kivy fails to give credit to Susanne Langer, who brought these views to the fore as early as 1942, claiming that the vitality of music lies in expressiveness, not in expression.

  4. The evolution of gene expression in primates

    OpenAIRE

    Tashakkori Ghanbarian, Avazeh

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of a gene’s expression profile is commonly assumed to be independent of its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between expression of neighboring genes in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes, genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their e...

  5. Intrahepatic expression of interferon alpha & interferon alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    IFN-α and IFN-α Receptor mRNA expression in the liver. All the patients showed IFN-α gene expression except one patient who had the highest degree of fibrosis (fibrosis grade 5) and HAI Index of 9. IFN- α Receptor mRNA was expressed in 30% (9/30). (Figure 4). Non of the patients with HCC had. IFNα-Rc expression and ...

  6. Generating Expressive Speech for Storytelling Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailly, G.; Theune, Mariet; Meijs, Koen; Campbell, N.; Hamza, W.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Hoge, H.; Jianhua, T.

    Work on expressive speech synthesis has long focused on the expression of basic emotions. In recent years, however, interest in other expressive styles has been increasing. The research presented in this paper aims at the generation of a storytelling speaking style, which is suitable for

  7. 75 FR 473 - Community Express Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Community Express Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of extension of the Community Express Pilot Program. SUMMARY: This notice extends the Community Express Pilot Program in its current form through December 31, 2010. Based upon the...

  8. 75 FR 80561 - Community Express Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Community Express Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of short-term extension and termination of the Community Express Pilot Program. SUMMARY: This notice announces the termination of the Community Express Pilot Program following a...

  9. A constructive approach to gene expression dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J.C.; Akutsu, T.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, experiments on mRNA abundance (gene expression) have revealed that gene expression shows a stationary organization described by a scale-free distribution. Here we propose a constructive approach to gene expression dynamics which restores the scale-free exponent and describes the intermediate state dynamics. This approach requires only one assumption: Markov property

  10. Vocal Emotion Expressions Effects on Cooperation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Meneses, Jonathan Azael; Menez Díaz, Judith Marina

    2017-01-01

    Emotional expressions have been proposed to be important for regulating social interaction as they can serve as cues for behavioral intentions. The issue has been mainly addressed analyzing the effects of facial emotional expressions in cooperation behavior, but there are contradictory results regarding the impact of emotional expressions on that…

  11. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene. (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in chimeric cDNA types, encompassing. GST and FLAG with PEP-cDNA. PEP-cDNA was sub-cloned in pGEX6p2 prokaryotic expression ...

  12. Endogenous retrovirus sequences expressed in male mammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In humans, one ERV family, human endogenous retrovirus- K (HERV-K) is abundantly expressed, and is associated with germ cell tumours, while ERV3 env is expressed in normal human testis. Conclusion: The expression of ERVs in male reproductive tissues suggests a possible role in normal and disease conditions ...

  13. Expressiveness modulo Bisimilarity of Regular Expressions with Parallel Composition (Extended Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos C. M. Baeten

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The languages accepted by finite automata are precisely the languages denoted by regular expressions. In contrast, finite automata may exhibit behaviours that cannot be described by regular expressions up to bisimilarity. In this paper, we consider extensions of the theory of regular expressions with various forms of parallel composition and study the effect on expressiveness. First we prove that adding pure interleaving to the theory of regular expressions strictly increases its expressiveness up to bisimilarity. Then, we prove that replacing the operation for pure interleaving by ACP-style parallel composition gives a further increase in expressiveness. Finally, we prove that the theory of regular expressions with ACP-style parallel composition and encapsulation is expressive enough to express all finite automata up to bisimilarity. Our results extend the expressiveness results obtained by Bergstra, Bethke and Ponse for process algebras with (the binary variant of Kleene's star operation.

  14. Gene Therapy Mediated Breast Cancer Immunity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nesbit, Heike

    1999-01-01

    .... POE2 is produced by the cyclooxygenase (COX) mediated oxidation of arachidonic acid. The inhibition of COX activity in B7-1 expressing MDA-MB 231 cells restored the proliferative response of T cells...

  15. Recognising and Interpreting Named Temporal Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brucato, Matteo; Derczynski, Leon; Llorens, Hectjor

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new class of temporal expression – named temporal expressions – and methods for recognising and interpreting its members. The commonest temporal expressions typically contain date and time words, like April or hours. Research into recognising and interpreting these typical...... expressions is mature in many languages. However, there is a class of expressions that are less typical, very varied, and difficult to automatically interpret. These indicate dates and times, but are harder to detect because they often do not contain time words and are not used frequently enough to appear...

  16. Synthetic promoter libraries- tuning of gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Karin; Mijakovic, Ivan; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2006-01-01

    knockout and strong overexpression. However, applications such as metabolic optimization and control analysis necessitate a continuous set of expression levels with only slight increments in strength to cover a specific window around the wildtype expression level of the studied gene; this requirement can......The study of gene function often requires changing the expression of a gene and evaluating the consequences. In principle, the expression of any given gene can be modulated in a quasi-continuum of discrete expression levels but the traditional approaches are usually limited to two extremes: gene...

  17. Expressing Model Constraints Visually with VMQL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2011-01-01

    ) for specifying constraints on UML models. We examine VMQL's usability by controlled experiments and its expressiveness by a representative sample. We conclude that VMQL is less expressive than OCL, although expressive enough for most of the constraints in the sample. In terms of usability, however, VMQL......OCL is the de facto standard language for expressing constraints and queries on UML models. However, OCL expressions are very difficult to create, understand, and maintain, even with the sophisticated tool support now available. In this paper, we propose to use the Visual Model Query Language (VMQL...

  18. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  19. E-mail: Outlook Express

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainul Bakri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu layanan Internet yang sangat penting adalah electronic mail atau sering hanya disebut sebagai e-mail. Untuk menggunakan e-mail, diperlukan piranti lunak khusus supaya pengguna dapat mengirim dan menerima e-mail. Jenis piranti lunak e-mail diantaranya adalah Outlook Express yang merupakan satu paket yang didistribusikan bersama Internet Explorer versi 4. Piranti lunak ini dijalankan pada PC yang mempunyai sistem operasi Windows 95 atau 98. Jenis piranti lunak e-mail yang lain adalah Eudora, Pegasus dan sebagainya. Bahkan ada yang diintegrasikan dengan Web Browser (alat untuk menelusuri situs Web misalnya IE,dan Netscape.Sebagai layaknya pelayanan pos, maka setiap pengguna e-mail mempunyai alamat tertentu yang tidak mungkin dipunyai oleh pengguna lainnya diseluruh dunia. Untuk keperluan pendistribusian, maka e-mail mempunyai semacam kantor pos yang ditempatkan dalam sebuah komputer server (mail server atau sering disebut sebagai host. 

  20. Generalized Expression for Polarization Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lu; Hahm, T.S.

    2009-01-01

    A general polarization density which consists of classical and neoclassical parts is systematically derived via modern gyrokinetics and bounce-kinetics by employing a phase-space Lagrangian Lie-transform perturbation method. The origins of polarization density are further elucidated. Extending the work on neoclassical polarization for long wavelength compared to ion banana width [M. N. Rosenbluth and F. L. Hinton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 724 (1998)], an analytical formula for the generalized neoclassical polarization including both finite-banana-width (FBW) and finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) effects for arbitrary radial wavelength in comparison to banana width and gyroradius is derived. In additional to the contribution from trapped particles, the contribution of passing particles to the neoclassical polarization is also explicitly calculated. Our analytic expression agrees very well with the previous numerical results for a wide range of radial wavelength.

  1. Perceived intimacy of expressed emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, A; Conway, M

    1990-08-01

    Research on norms for emotional expression and self-disclosure provided the basis for two hypotheses concerning the perceived intimacy of emotional self-disclosure. The first hypothesis was that the perceived intimacy of negative emotional disclosure would be greater than that of positive emotional disclosure; the second was that disclosures of more intense emotional states would be perceived as more intimate than disclosures of less intense emotional states for both negative and positive disclosures. Both hypotheses received support when male students in Canada rated the perceived intimacy of self-disclosures that were equated for topic and that covered a comprehensive sample of emotions and a range of emotional intensities. The effects were observed across all the topics of disclosure examined.

  2. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-12-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas.

  3. Definition, Detection and Generation of Iyashi Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Tetsuko; Diago, Luis A.; Hagiwara, Ichiro; Kitazaki, Satoshi; Yamane, Shigeru

    This paper concerns the engineering analysis of “Iyashi”, a peculiar concept to the Japanese, which affect person's heart and may change their expression and behavior. We have integrated the advocator's view of “Iyashi”, analyzed the social background of “Iyashi” and have defined Iyashi and also the Iyashi expression. As the facial expression is the special and important stimulus for both observers and people who show expressions, we want to prove the existence of expressions that change the observer's emotion with Iyashi. We have developed the system to clarify the combination of facial features important for Iyashi through the psychological experiments and the analysis by Holographic Neural Networks (HNN). HNN analysis gave the structure of the Iyashi expression, that is the important combination of the physical facial parameters contributing to the high degree of Iyashi. Based on the structure of Iyashi we are able to generate the Iyashi expression appropriate for each person.

  4. Adaptive Evolution of Gene Expression in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armita Nourmohammad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression levels are important quantitative traits that link genotypes to molecular functions and fitness. In Drosophila, population-genetic studies have revealed substantial adaptive evolution at the genomic level, but the evolutionary modes of gene expression remain controversial. Here, we present evidence that adaptation dominates the evolution of gene expression levels in flies. We show that 64% of the observed expression divergence across seven Drosophila species are adaptive changes driven by directional selection. Our results are derived from time-resolved data of gene expression divergence across a family of related species, using a probabilistic inference method for gene-specific selection. Adaptive gene expression is stronger in specific functional classes, including regulation, sensory perception, sexual behavior, and morphology. Moreover, we identify a large group of genes with sex-specific adaptation of expression, which predominantly occurs in males. Our analysis opens an avenue to map system-wide selection on molecular quantitative traits independently of their genetic basis.

  5. Anticausatives are weak scalar expressions, not reflexive expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Schäfer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We discuss conceptual and empirical arguments from Germanic, Romance and Slavic languages against an analysis treating anticausative verbs as derived from their lexical causative counterparts under reflexivization. Instead, we defend the standard account to the semantics of the causative alternation according to which anticausatives in general, and anticausatives marked with reflexive morphology in particular, denote simple one-place inchoative events that are logically entailed by their lexical causative counterparts. Under such an account, anticausative verbs are weak scalar expressions that stand in a semantico-pragmatic opposition to their strong lexical causative counterparts. Due to this scalar relation, the use of an anticausative can trigger the implicature that the use of its lexical causative counterpart is too strong. As usual with implicatures, they can be ‘metalinguistically’ denied, cancelled, or reinforced and we argue that these mechanisms explain all central empirical facts brought up in the literature in favor of a treatment of anticausatives as semantically reflexive predicates. Our results reinforce the view that the reflexive morphemes used in many (Indo-European languages to mark anticausatives do not necessarily trigger reflexive semantics. However, we also show that a string involving a reflexively marked (anti-causative verb can be forced into a semantically reflexive construal under particular conceptual or grammatical circumstances.

  6. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the normal human eye and its expression pattern in selected eye tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jinmei; Wu, Yazhen; Heegaard, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an enzyme involved in neoplastic processes. The purpose of the present study is to investigate COX-2 expression in the normal human eye and the expression pattern in selected eye tumours involving COX-2 expressing cells. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining...... using antibodies against COX-2 was performed on paraffin sections of normal human eyes and selected eye tumours arising from cells expressing COX-2. Results: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression was found in various structures of the normal eye. Abundant expression was seen in the cornea, iris, ciliary body...... and retina. The COX-2 expression was less in tumours deriving from the ciliary epithelium and also in retinoblastoma. Conclusion: Cyclooxygenase-2 is constitutively expressed in normal human eyes. The expression of COX-2 is much lower in selected eye tumours involving COX-2 expressing cells....

  7. Facial expressions and pair bonds in hylobatids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkiewicz, Brittany; Skollar, Gabriella; Reichard, Ulrich H

    2018-06-06

    Facial expressions are an important component of primate communication that functions to transmit social information and modulate intentions and motivations. Chimpanzees and macaques, for example, produce a variety of facial expressions when communicating with conspecifics. Hylobatids also produce various facial expressions; however, the origin and function of these facial expressions are still largely unclear. It has been suggested that larger facial expression repertoires may have evolved in the context of social complexity, but this link has yet to be tested at a broader empirical basis. The social complexity hypothesis offers a possible explanation for the evolution of complex communicative signals such as facial expressions, because as the complexity of an individual's social environment increases so does the need for communicative signals. We used an intraspecies, pair-focused study design to test the link between facial expressions and sociality within hylobatids, specifically the strength of pair-bonds. The current study compared 206 hr of video and 103 hr of focal animal data for ten hylobatid pairs from three genera (Nomascus, Hoolock, and Hylobates) living at the Gibbon Conservation Center. Using video footage, we explored 5,969 facial expressions along three dimensions: repertoire use, repertoire breadth, and facial expression synchrony [FES]. We then used focal animal data to compare dimensions of facial expressiveness to pair bond strength and behavioral synchrony. Hylobatids in our study overlapped in only half of their facial expressions (50%) with the only other detailed, quantitative study of hylobatid facial expressions, while 27 facial expressions were uniquely observed in our study animals. Taken together, hylobatids have a large facial expression repertoire of at least 80 unique facial expressions. Contrary to our prediction, facial repertoire composition was not significantly correlated with pair bond strength, rates of territorial synchrony

  8. Expressiveness in musical performance: Pedagogic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Natalija R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of our research relates to pedagogic aspects of expressive vocal-instrumental musical performance. We intended to examine: (1 how undergraduate students see/conceptualize and evaluate expressiveness in musical performance; (2 whether and how they were trained in the skill of expressive musical performance during their musical training; (3 whether and in which way they rehearse the expressive component of musical performance and interpretation and (4 whether there are any differences regarding gender, age, instrument, department, year of study and years of instrument playing in relation to the group of dependant variables related to expressiveness, tuition and practice. The sample for the research included 82 students of instrumental and theory departments at the Faculty of Music in Belgrade. Psychological and pedagogical aspects of musical expressiveness during vocal-instrumental performance were analyzed. The results show that students highly evaluate expressiveness but its place is secondary compared to mastering technical and tonal requirements. Statistically significant differences were shown regarding gender, age and departments. It can be concluded that there is a potential for the development and enhancement of expressiveness of students if we abandon the traditional view that expressiveness is linked exclusively to talent. The findings indicate that pedagogical work should be directed towards finding purposeful strategies for training individual expressiveness.

  9. Widespread ectopic expression of olfactory receptor genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanai Itai

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory receptors (ORs are the largest gene family in the human genome. Although they are expected to be expressed specifically in olfactory tissues, some ectopic expression has been reported, with special emphasis on sperm and testis. The present study systematically explores the expression patterns of OR genes in a large number of tissues and assesses the potential functional implication of such ectopic expression. Results We analyzed the expression of hundreds of human and mouse OR transcripts, via EST and microarray data, in several dozens of human and mouse tissues. Different tissues had specific, relatively small OR gene subsets which had particularly high expression levels. In testis, average expression was not particularly high, and very few highly expressed genes were found, none corresponding to ORs previously implicated in sperm chemotaxis. Higher expression levels were more common for genes with a non-OR genomic neighbor. Importantly, no correlation in expression levels was detected for human-mouse orthologous pairs. Also, no significant difference in expression levels was seen between intact and pseudogenized ORs, except for the pseudogenes of subfamily 7E which has undergone a human-specific expansion. Conclusion The OR superfamily as a whole, show widespread, locus-dependent and heterogeneous expression, in agreement with a neutral or near neutral evolutionary model for transcription control. These results cannot reject the possibility that small OR subsets might play functional roles in different tissues, however considerable care should be exerted when offering a functional interpretation for ectopic OR expression based only on transcription information.

  10. Platelet cyclooxygenase expression in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, J; Lunsford, K; Mullins, K; Stokes, J; Pinchuk, L; Wills, R; McLaughlin, R; Langston, C; Pruett, S; Mackin, A

    2011-01-01

    Human platelets express both cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Variation in COX-2 expression could be a mechanism for variable response to aspirin. The hypotheses were that circulating canine platelets express COX-1 and COX-2, and that aspirin alters COX expression. The objective was to identify changes in platelet COX expression and in platelet function caused by aspirin administration to dogs. Eight female, intact hounds. A single population, repeated measures design was used to evaluate platelet COX-1 and COX-2 expression by flow cytometry before and after aspirin (10 mg/kg Q12h for 10 days). Platelet function was analyzed via PFA-100(®) (collagen/epinephrine), and urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B(2) (11-dTXB(2)) was measured and normalized to urinary creatinine. Differences in COX expression, PFA-100(®) closure times, and urine 11-dTXB(2 ): creatinine ratio were analyzed before and after aspirin administration. Both COX-1 and COX-2 were expressed in canine platelets. COX-1 mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) increased in all dogs, by 250% (range 63-476%), while COX-2 expression did not change significantly (P = 0.124) after aspirin exposure, with large interindividual variation. PFA-100(®) closure times were prolonged and urine 11-dTXB(2) concentration decreased in all dogs after aspirin administration. Canine platelets express both COX isoforms. After aspirin exposure, COX-1 expression increased despite impairment of platelet function, while COX-2 expression varied markedly among dogs. Variability in platelet COX-2 expression should be explored as a potential mechanism for, or marker of, variable aspirin responsiveness. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Expressiveness and definability in circumscription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francicleber Martins Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate expressiveness and definability issues with respect to minimal models, particularly in the scope of Circumscription. First, we give a proof of the failure of the Löwenheim-Skolem Theorem for Circumscription. Then we show that, if the class of P; Z-minimal models of a first-order sentence is Δ-elementary, then it is elementary. That is, whenever the circumscription of a first-order sentence is equivalent to a first-order theory, then it is equivalent to a finitely axiomatizable one. This means that classes of models of circumscribed theories are either elementary or not Δ-elementary. Finally, using the previous result, we prove that, whenever a relation Pi is defined in the class of P; Z-minimal models of a first-order sentence Φ and whenever such class of P; Z-minimal models is Δ-elementary, then there is an explicit definition ψ for Pi such that the class of P; Z-minimal models of Φ is the class of models of Φ ∧ ψ. In order words, the circumscription of P in Φ with Z varied can be replaced by Φ plus this explicit definition ψ for Pi.

  12. Adipocyte differentiation and leptin expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, C S; Loftus, T M; Mandrup, S

    1997-01-01

    Adipose tissue has long been known to house the largest energy reserves in the animal body. Recent research indicates that in addition to this role, the adipocyte functions as a global regulator of energy metabolism. Adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to a variety of endocrine and paracrine ...... of energy intake and expenditure. The hormonal and transcriptional control of adipocyte differentiation is discussed, as is the role of leptin and other factors secreted by the adipocyte that participate in the regulation of adipose homeostasis.......Adipose tissue has long been known to house the largest energy reserves in the animal body. Recent research indicates that in addition to this role, the adipocyte functions as a global regulator of energy metabolism. Adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to a variety of endocrine and paracrine......, most notably those of the C/EBP and PPAR families, which combine to regulate each other and to control the expression of adipocyte-specific genes. One such gene, i.e. the obese gene, was recently identified and found to encode a hormone, referred to as leptin, that plays a major role in the regulation...

  13. Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

    Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

  14. Stochastic gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ilka Schultheiß; Pietsch, Jessica Magdalena; Keizer, Emma Mathilde; Greese, Bettina; Balkunde, Rachappa; Fleck, Christian; Hülskamp, Martin

    2017-12-14

    Although plant development is highly reproducible, some stochasticity exists. This developmental stochasticity may be caused by noisy gene expression. Here we analyze the fluctuation of protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using the photoconvertible KikGR marker, we show that the protein expressions of individual cells fluctuate over time. A dual reporter system was used to study extrinsic and intrinsic noise of marker gene expression. We report that extrinsic noise is higher than intrinsic noise and that extrinsic noise in stomata is clearly lower in comparison to several other tissues/cell types. Finally, we show that cells are coupled with respect to stochastic protein expression in young leaves, hypocotyls and roots but not in mature leaves. Our data indicate that stochasticity of gene expression can vary between tissues/cell types and that it can be coupled in a non-cell-autonomous manner.

  15. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian

    2011-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:  In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:  One hundred and seventy......:  Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known...... prognostic factors in salivary gland carcinomas was insignificant. Conclusions:  Salivary gland carcinomas express OPN. The expression does not correlate with known prognostic factors....

  16. "Express yourself": culture and the effect of self-expression on choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejung S; Sherman, David K

    2007-01-01

    Whereas self-expression is valued in the United States, it is not privileged with such a cultural emphasis in East Asia. Four studies demonstrate the psychological implications of this cultural difference. Studies 1 and 2 found that European Americans value self-expression more than East Asians/East Asian Americans. Studies 3 and 4 examined the roles of expression in preference judgments. In Study 3, the expression of choice led European Americans but not East Asian Americans to be more invested in what they chose. Study 4 examined the connection between the value of expression and the effect of choice expression and showed that European Americans place greater emphasis on self-expression than East Asian Americans, and this difference explained the cultural difference in Study 3. This research highlights the importance of the cultural meanings of self-expression and the moderating role of cultural beliefs on the psychological effect of self-expression. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Generating Expressive Speech for Storytelling Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bailly, G.; Theune, Mariet; Meijs, Koen; Campbell, N.; Hamza, W.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Hoge, H.; Jianhua, T.

    2006-01-01

    Work on expressive speech synthesis has long focused on the expression of basic emotions. In recent years, however, interest in other expressive styles has been increasing. The research presented in this paper aims at the generation of a storytelling speaking style, which is suitable for storytelling applications and more in general, for applications aimed at children. Based on an analysis of human storytellers' speech, we designed and implemented a set of prosodic rules for converting "neutr...

  18. Willingness to Express Emotions to Caregiving Spouses

    OpenAIRE

    Monin, Joan K.; Martire, Lynn M.; Schulz, Richard; Clark, Margaret S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between care-recipients’ willingness to express emotions to spousal caregivers and caregiver’s well-being and support behaviors. Using self-report measures in the context of a larger study, 262 care-recipients with osteoarthritis reported on their willingness to express emotions to caregivers, and caregivers reported on their stress and insensitive responding to care-recipients. Results revealed that care-recipients’ willingness to express happiness was ass...

  19. Comparative gene expression between two yeast species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Yuanfang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics brings insight into sequence evolution, but even more may be learned by coupling sequence analyses with experimental tests of gene function and regulation. However, the reliability of such comparisons is often limited by biased sampling of expression conditions and incomplete knowledge of gene functions across species. To address these challenges, we previously systematically generated expression profiles in Saccharomyces bayanus to maximize functional coverage as compared to an existing Saccharomyces cerevisiae data repository. Results In this paper, we take advantage of these two data repositories to compare patterns of ortholog expression in a wide variety of conditions. First, we developed a scalable metric for expression divergence that enabled us to detect a significant correlation between sequence and expression conservation on the global level, which previous smaller-scale expression studies failed to detect. Despite this global conservation trend, between-species gene expression neighborhoods were less well-conserved than within-species comparisons across different environmental perturbations, and approximately 4% of orthologs exhibited a significant change in co-expression partners. Furthermore, our analysis of matched perturbations collected in both species (such as diauxic shift and cell cycle synchrony demonstrated that approximately a quarter of orthologs exhibit condition-specific expression pattern differences. Conclusions Taken together, these analyses provide a global view of gene expression patterns between two species, both in terms of the conditions and timing of a gene's expression as well as co-expression partners. Our results provide testable hypotheses that will direct future experiments to determine how these changes may be specified in the genome.

  20. Structural development of child's artistic expression

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Filipović; Milica Vojvodić

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Structural development implies control and capability of the expression usage in terms of independent creative expression and making. Understanding of structural development of child's artistic expression as a phenomenon (which is suitable to child's age) has some implications on methodical acts considering artistic education of children and youngsters. Therefore, it is of unexceptional importance to know these laws as well as methodical acts which encourage the structural develop...

  1. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, Randy [Davis, CA; Bachkirova, Elena [Davis, CA; Rey, Michael [Davis, CA

    2012-05-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  2. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, Randy; Bachkirova, Elena; Rey, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  3. Identification of Emotional Facial Expressions: Effects of Expression, Intensity, and Sex on Eye Gaze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jean Wells

    Full Text Available The identification of emotional expressions is vital for social interaction, and can be affected by various factors, including the expressed emotion, the intensity of the expression, the sex of the face, and the gender of the observer. This study investigates how these factors affect the speed and accuracy of expression recognition, as well as dwell time on the two most significant areas of the face: the eyes and the mouth. Participants were asked to identify expressions from female and male faces displaying six expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise, each with three levels of intensity (low, moderate, and normal. Overall, responses were fastest and most accurate for happy expressions, but slowest and least accurate for fearful expressions. More intense expressions were also classified most accurately. Reaction time showed a different pattern, with slowest response times recorded for expressions of moderate intensity. Overall, responses were slowest, but also most accurate, for female faces. Relative to male observers, women showed greater accuracy and speed when recognizing female expressions. Dwell time analyses revealed that attention to the eyes was about three times greater than on the mouth, with fearful eyes in particular attracting longer dwell times. The mouth region was attended to the most for fearful, angry, and disgusted expressions and least for surprise. These results extend upon previous findings to show important effects of expression, emotion intensity, and sex on expression recognition and gaze behaviour, and may have implications for understanding the ways in which emotion recognition abilities break down.

  4. Identification of Emotional Facial Expressions: Effects of Expression, Intensity, and Sex on Eye Gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Laura Jean; Gillespie, Steven Mark; Rotshtein, Pia

    2016-01-01

    The identification of emotional expressions is vital for social interaction, and can be affected by various factors, including the expressed emotion, the intensity of the expression, the sex of the face, and the gender of the observer. This study investigates how these factors affect the speed and accuracy of expression recognition, as well as dwell time on the two most significant areas of the face: the eyes and the mouth. Participants were asked to identify expressions from female and male faces displaying six expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise), each with three levels of intensity (low, moderate, and normal). Overall, responses were fastest and most accurate for happy expressions, but slowest and least accurate for fearful expressions. More intense expressions were also classified most accurately. Reaction time showed a different pattern, with slowest response times recorded for expressions of moderate intensity. Overall, responses were slowest, but also most accurate, for female faces. Relative to male observers, women showed greater accuracy and speed when recognizing female expressions. Dwell time analyses revealed that attention to the eyes was about three times greater than on the mouth, with fearful eyes in particular attracting longer dwell times. The mouth region was attended to the most for fearful, angry, and disgusted expressions and least for surprise. These results extend upon previous findings to show important effects of expression, emotion intensity, and sex on expression recognition and gaze behaviour, and may have implications for understanding the ways in which emotion recognition abilities break down.

  5. Profiling Gene Expression in Germinating Brassica Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Wang, Yi-Hong; Hasenstein, Karl H

    2014-01-01

    Based on previously developed solid-phase gene extraction (SPGE) we examined the mRNA profile in primary roots of Brassica rapa seedlings for highly expressed genes like ACT7 (actin7), TUB (tubulin1), UBQ (ubiquitin), and low expressed GLK (glucokinase) during the first day post-germination. The assessment was based on the mRNA load of the SPGE probe of about 2.1 ng. The number of copies of the investigated genes changed spatially along the length of primary roots. The expression level of all genes differed significantly at each sample position. Among the examined genes ACT7 expression was most even along the root. UBQ was highest at the tip and root-shoot junction (RS). TUB and GLK showed a basipetal gradient. The temporal expression of UBQ was highest in the MZ 9 h after primary root emergence and higher than at any other sample position. Expressions of GLK in EZ and RS increased gradually over time. SPGE extraction is the result of oligo-dT and oligo-dA hybridization and the results illustrate that SPGE can be used for gene expression profiling at high spatial and temporal resolution. SPGE needles can be used within two weeks when stored at 4 °C. Our data indicate that gene expression studies that are based on the entire root miss important differences in gene expression that SPGE is able to resolve for example growth adjustments during gravitropism.

  6. TRPM4 protein expression in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Soldini, Davide; Jung, Maria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 (TRPM4) messenger RNA (mRNA) has been shown to be upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and might be a new promising tissue biomarker. We evaluated TRPM4 protein expression and correlated the expression level.......79-2.62; p = 0.01-0.03 for the two observers) when compared to patients with a lower staining intensity. CONCLUSIONS: TRPM4 protein expression is widely expressed in benign and cancerous prostate tissue, with highest staining intensities found in PCa. Overexpression of TRPM4 in PCa (combination of high...

  7. Automatic emotional expression analysis from eye area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoç, Betül; Arslan, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    Eyes play an important role in expressing emotions in nonverbal communication. In the present study, emotional expression classification was performed based on the features that were automatically extracted from the eye area. Fırst, the face area and the eye area were automatically extracted from the captured image. Afterwards, the parameters to be used for the analysis through discrete wavelet transformation were obtained from the eye area. Using these parameters, emotional expression analysis was performed through artificial intelligence techniques. As the result of the experimental studies, 6 universal emotions consisting of expressions of happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger and fear were classified at a success rate of 84% using artificial neural networks.

  8. Modulation of gene expression made easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2002-01-01

    A new approach for modulating gene expression, based on randomization of promoter (spacer) sequences, was developed. The method was applied to chromosomal genes in Lactococcus lactis and shown to generate libraries of clones with broad ranges of expression levels of target genes. In one example...... that the method can be applied to modulating the expression of native genes on the chromosome. We constructed a series of strains in which the expression of the las operon, containing the genes pfk, pyk, and ldh, was modulated by integrating a truncated copy of the pfk gene. Importantly, the modulation affected...

  9. Judgments of subtle facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Hwang, Hyisung C

    2014-04-01

    Most studies on judgments of facial expressions of emotion have primarily utilized prototypical, high-intensity expressions. This paper examines judgments of subtle facial expressions of emotion, including not only low-intensity versions of full-face prototypes but also variants of those prototypes. A dynamic paradigm was used in which observers were shown a neutral expression followed by the target expression to judge, and then the neutral expression again, allowing for a simulation of the emergence of the expression from and then return to a baseline. We also examined how signal and intensity clarities of the expressions (explained more fully in the Introduction) were associated with judgment agreement levels. Low-intensity, full-face prototypical expressions of emotion were judged as the intended emotion at rates significantly greater than chance. A number of the proposed variants were also judged as the intended emotions. Both signal and intensity clarities were individually associated with agreement rates; when their interrelationships were taken into account, signal clarity independently predicted agreement rates but intensity clarity did not. The presence or absence of specific muscles appeared to be more important to agreement rates than their intensity levels, with the exception of the intensity of zygomatic major, which was positively correlated with agreement rates for judgments of joy.

  10. Examining emotional expressions in discourse: methodological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, Elizabeth; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2017-10-01

    This methodological paper presents an approach for examining emotional expressions through discourse analysis and ethnographic methods. Drawing on trends in the current literature in science education, we briefly explain the importance of emotions in science education and examine the current research methodologies used in interactional emotion studies. We put forth and substantiate a methodological approach that attends to the interactional, contextual, intertextual, and consequential aspects of emotional expressions. By examining emotional expressions in the discourse in which they are constructed, emotional expressions are identified through semantics, contextualization, and linguistic features. These features make salient four dimensions of emotional expressions: aboutness, frequency, type, and ownership. Drawing on data from a large empirical study of pre-service elementary teachers' emotional expressions about climate change in a science course, we provide illustrative examples to describe what counts as emotional expressions in situ. In doing so we explain how our approach makes salient the nuanced nature of such expressions as well as the broader discourse in which they are constructed and the implications for researching emotional expressions in science education discourse. We suggest reasons why this discourse orientated research methodology can contribute to the interactional study of emotions in science education contexts.

  11. Social Use of Facial Expressions in Hylobatids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheider, Linda; Waller, Bridget M.; Oña, Leonardo; Burrows, Anne M.; Liebal, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates use various communicative means in interactions with others. While primate gestures are commonly considered to be intentionally and flexibly used signals, facial expressions are often referred to as inflexible, automatic expressions of affective internal states. To explore whether and how non-human primates use facial expressions in specific communicative interactions, we studied five species of small apes (gibbons) by employing a newly established Facial Action Coding System for hylobatid species (GibbonFACS). We found that, despite individuals often being in close proximity to each other, in social (as opposed to non-social contexts) the duration of facial expressions was significantly longer when gibbons were facing another individual compared to non-facing situations. Social contexts included grooming, agonistic interactions and play, whereas non-social contexts included resting and self-grooming. Additionally, gibbons used facial expressions while facing another individual more often in social contexts than non-social contexts where facial expressions were produced regardless of the attentional state of the partner. Also, facial expressions were more likely ‘responded to’ by the partner’s facial expressions when facing another individual than non-facing. Taken together, our results indicate that gibbons use their facial expressions differentially depending on the social context and are able to use them in a directed way in communicative interactions with other conspecifics. PMID:26978660

  12. Clusterin expression in elastofibroma dorsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigelsreiter, Ariane; Pichler, Martin; Pixner, Thomas; Janig, Elke; Schuller, Monika; Lackner, Carolin; Scheipl, Susanne; Beham, Alfred; Regauer, Sigrid

    2013-05-01

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a benign soft tissue lesion composed of abnormal elastic fibers. Degenerated elastic fibers in skin and liver are associated with clusterin, an apoprotein that shares functional properties with small heat shock proteins. We evaluated the staining pattern and possible role of clusterin in elastofibroma dorsi. Twenty-one subcutaneous elastofibromas from the scapular region were evaluated with Elastica van Gieson and Orcein stains, immunohistochemically with antibodies to clusterin, smooth muscle actin, S-100, vimentin and CD34 and correlated with clinical data with respect to physical trauma. Clusterin correlated with the staining pattern of Elastica van Gieson and labelled abnormal broad coarse fibrillar and globular elastic fibers in all elastofibromas. Orcein stains additionally identified fine oxytalan fibers which were not stained by clusterin. Clusterin staining was observed only on the outside of the elastin fibers, while the cores of fibers and globules were unstained. 4/21 elastofibromas showed cellular nodules with a myxoid/collagenous stroma. The round to oval cells showed cytoplasmic staining with vimentin and clusterin; CD34 labelled mostly cell membranes. The cells lacked SMA and S-100 expression. The central areas of the nodules were devoid of elastic fibers, but the periphery contained coarse fibers and globules. 9/ 11 patients, for whom clinical data were available, reported trauma to the scapular region. Many investigated ED were associated with trauma, which supports a reactive/degenerative etiology of ED. The abnormal large elastic fibers in all ED were enveloped by clusterin. Clusterin deposition may protect elastic fibers from degradation and thus contribute indirectly to the tumor-like presentation of ED.

  13. Gene expression inference with deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yifei; Li, Yi; Narayan, Rajiv; Subramanian, Aravind; Xie, Xiaohui

    2016-06-15

    Large-scale gene expression profiling has been widely used to characterize cellular states in response to various disease conditions, genetic perturbations, etc. Although the cost of whole-genome expression profiles has been dropping steadily, generating a compendium of expression profiling over thousands of samples is still very expensive. Recognizing that gene expressions are often highly correlated, researchers from the NIH LINCS program have developed a cost-effective strategy of profiling only ∼1000 carefully selected landmark genes and relying on computational methods to infer the expression of remaining target genes. However, the computational approach adopted by the LINCS program is currently based on linear regression (LR), limiting its accuracy since it does not capture complex nonlinear relationship between expressions of genes. We present a deep learning method (abbreviated as D-GEX) to infer the expression of target genes from the expression of landmark genes. We used the microarray-based Gene Expression Omnibus dataset, consisting of 111K expression profiles, to train our model and compare its performance to those from other methods. In terms of mean absolute error averaged across all genes, deep learning significantly outperforms LR with 15.33% relative improvement. A gene-wise comparative analysis shows that deep learning achieves lower error than LR in 99.97% of the target genes. We also tested the performance of our learned model on an independent RNA-Seq-based GTEx dataset, which consists of 2921 expression profiles. Deep learning still outperforms LR with 6.57% relative improvement, and achieves lower error in 81.31% of the target genes. D-GEX is available at https://github.com/uci-cbcl/D-GEX CONTACT: xhx@ics.uci.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Expression of CD133 in acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Fetnat M; Foda, Mona E; Kamal, Howyda M; Elshabrawy, Deena A

    2013-06-01

    There have been conflicting results regarding a correlation between CD133 expression and disease outcome. To assess CD133 expression in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and to evaluate its correlation with the different clinical and laboratory data as well as its relation to disease outcome, the present study included 60 newly diagnosed acute leukemic patients; 30 ALL patients with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1 and their ages ranged from 9 months to 48 years, and 30 AML patients with a male to female ratio of 1:1 and their ages ranged from 17 to 66 years. Flow cytometric assessment of CD133 expression was performed on blast cells. In ALL, no correlations were elicited between CD133 expression and some monoclonal antibodies, but in AML group, there was a significant positive correlation between CD133 and HLA-DR, CD3, CD7 and TDT, CD13 and CD34. In ALL group, patients with negative CD133 expression achieved complete remission more than patients with positive CD133 expression. In AML group, there was no statistically significant association found between positive CD133 expression and treatment outcome. The Kaplan-Meier curve illustrated a high significant negative correlation between CD133 expression and the overall survival of the AML patients. CD133 expression is an independent prognostic factor in acute leukemia, especially ALL patients and its expression could characterize a group of acute leukemic patients with higher resistance to standard chemotherapy and relapse. CD133 expression was highly associated with poor prognosis in acute leukemic patients.

  15. Foxp3 expression in human cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis Konstantinos I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Transcription factor forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3 specifically characterizes the thymically derived naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Tregs. Limited evidence indicates that it is also expressed, albeit to a lesser extent, in tissues other than thymus and spleen, while, very recently, it was shown that Foxp3 is expressed by pancreatic carcinoma. This study was scheduled to investigate whether expression of Foxp3 transcripts and mature protein occurs constitutively in various tumor types. Materials and methods Twenty five tumor cell lines of different tissue origins (lung cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, erythroid leukemia, acute T-cell leukemia were studied. Detection of Foxp3 mRNA was performed using both conventional RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR while protein expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, using different antibody clones. Results Foxp3 mRNA as well as Foxp3 protein was detected in all tumor cell lines, albeit in variable levels, not related to the tissue of origin. This expression correlated with the expression levels of IL-10 and TGFb1. Conclusion We offer evidence that Foxp3 expression, characterizes tumor cells of various tissue origins. The biological significance of these findings warrants further investigation in the context of tumor immune escape, and especially under the light of current anti-cancer efforts interfering with Foxp3 expression.

  16. Explanations for Contempt Expressed Towards Old People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Eleanor Krassen; Maxwell, Robert J.

    The issue of contempt expressed towards the aged was examined from a cross-cultural perspective. Eight reasons for expressions of contempt emerged from a study of 95 societies drawn from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample, and were treated as independent variables, with the overall level of contempt as the dependent variable, in a application of…

  17. Equilibrium-constant expressions for aqueous plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2010-01-01

    Equilibrium-constant expressions for Pu disproportionation reactions traditionally contain three or four terms representing the concentrations or fractions of the oxidation states. The expressions can be rewritten so that one of the oxidation states is replaced by a term containing the oxidation number of the plutonium. Experimental estimations of the numerical values of the constants can then be checked in several ways. (author)

  18. Behavior, Experience and Expression: Some Research Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyshyn, Robert D.

    Utilizing research conducted on nostalgia, this paper shows how a phenomenological approach assists in understanding behavior, experience and expression. Moreover, a clearer understanding of them aids one's research with and comprehension of nostalgia. Human action can be studied from the experiential, behavioral and expressive perspectives. These…

  19. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruissen, Fred; Baas, Frank

    2007-01-01

    In 1995, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was developed as a versatile tool for gene expression studies. SAGE technology does not require pre-existing knowledge of the genome that is being examined and therefore SAGE can be applied to many different model systems. In this chapter, the SAGE

  20. Dihydrotestostenone increase the gene expression of androgen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HNTEP cells were grown in basal medium and treated with DHT in different conditions. HNTEP cells under treatment with DHT (10-13 M) induced an increase in FHL-2 expression. In turn, high DHT concentrations (10-8 M) induced an increase in the expression SHP-1. The present data suggest that the SHP-1 and FHL-2 ...

  1. Predictable tuning of protein expression in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mads; Pedersen, Margit; Klausen, Michael Schantz

    2016-01-01

    We comprehensively assessed the contribution of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence to protein expression and used the data to develop EMOPEC (Empirical Model and Oligos for Protein Expression Changes; http://emopec.biosustain.dtu.dk). EMOPEC is a free tool that makes it possible to modulate the expressi...

  2. A Robot with Complex Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Takeno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors believe that the consciousness of humans basically originates from languages and their association-like flow of consciousness, and that feelings are generated accompanying respective languages. We incorporated artificial consciousness into a robot; achieved an association flow of language like flow of consciousness; and developed a robot called Kansei that expresses its feelings according to the associations occurring in the robot. To be able to fully communicate with humans, robots must be able to display complex expressions, such as a sense of being thrilled. We therefore added to the Kansei robot a device to express complex feelings through its facial expressions. The Kansei robot is actually an artificial skull made of aluminum, with servomotors built into it. The face is made of relatively soft polyethylene, which is formed to appear like a human face. Facial expressions are generated using 19 servomotors built into the skull, which pull metal wires attached to the facial “skin” to create expressions. The robot at present is capable of making six basic expressions as well as complex expressions, such as happiness and fear combined.

  3. Automating InDesign with Regular Expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Kahrel, Peter

    2006-01-01

    If you need to make automated changes to InDesign documents beyond what basic search and replace can handle, you need regular expressions, and a bit of scripting to make them work. This Short Cut explains both how to write regular expressions, so you can find and replace the right things, and how to use them in InDesign specifically.

  4. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in ... pGEX6p2-PEP and pUcD3-FLAG-PEP constructed vectors were transformed into the one shot TOP10 and JM105 bacterial competent cells, respectively.

  5. Assessment of Outcomes of Free Expression Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andsager, Julie; Ross, Susan Dente

    1999-01-01

    Assesses outcomes of instruction in three college-senior-level courses on freedom of expression. Suggests that increased attention to freedom-of-expression issues may have resulted in broader understanding of First Amendment issues, and individual and media rights. Notes that students seem to develop an appreciation of the reflexive nature of…

  6. Local expressions for one-loop calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasson, D.A.; Koonin, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    We develop local expressions for the contributions of the short-wavelength vacuum modes to the one-loop vacuum energy. These expressions significantly improve the convergence properties of various ''brute-force'' calculational methods. They also provide a continuous series of approximations that interpolate between the brute-force calculations and the derivative expansion

  7. Artistic Expression: Another Challenge for Rural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Álvarez-Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the parameters required to create opportunities that would strengthen the social fabric and would promote a comprehensive development through the artistic expression as a method for expressing feelings and constructing –cultural and social– identities as individuals, which, in our global context have been eroded by the homogenization of experiences.

  8. Dirichlet expression for L(1, χ )

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We show that this expression with obvious modification is valid for the general primitive Dirichlet character χ. Keywords. Hurwitz zeta function; Dirichlet character; Dirichlet L-series; primitive character. 1. Introduction. In Dirichlet's famous work dealing with class number formula, the value of L(1,χ) is expressed in terms of finite ...

  9. Sad Facial Expressions Increase Choice Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have discovered a fascinating phenomenon known as choice blindness—individuals fail to detect mismatches between the face they choose and the face replaced by the experimenter. Although previous studies have reported a couple of factors that can modulate the magnitude of choice blindness, the potential effect of facial expression on choice blindness has not yet been explored. Using faces with sad and neutral expressions (Experiment 1 and faces with happy and neutral expressions (Experiment 2 in the classic choice blindness paradigm, the present study investigated the effects of facial expressions on choice blindness. The results showed that the detection rate was significantly lower on sad faces than neutral faces, whereas no significant difference was observed between happy faces and neutral faces. The exploratory analysis of verbal reports found that participants who reported less facial features for sad (as compared to neutral expressions also tended to show a lower detection rate of sad (as compared to neutral faces. These findings indicated that sad facial expressions increased choice blindness, which might have resulted from inhibition of further processing of the detailed facial features by the less attractive sad expressions (as compared to neutral expressions.

  10. Sad Facial Expressions Increase Choice Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajie; Zhao, Song; Zhang, Zhijie; Feng, Wenfeng

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have discovered a fascinating phenomenon known as choice blindness-individuals fail to detect mismatches between the face they choose and the face replaced by the experimenter. Although previous studies have reported a couple of factors that can modulate the magnitude of choice blindness, the potential effect of facial expression on choice blindness has not yet been explored. Using faces with sad and neutral expressions (Experiment 1) and faces with happy and neutral expressions (Experiment 2) in the classic choice blindness paradigm, the present study investigated the effects of facial expressions on choice blindness. The results showed that the detection rate was significantly lower on sad faces than neutral faces, whereas no significant difference was observed between happy faces and neutral faces. The exploratory analysis of verbal reports found that participants who reported less facial features for sad (as compared to neutral) expressions also tended to show a lower detection rate of sad (as compared to neutral) faces. These findings indicated that sad facial expressions increased choice blindness, which might have resulted from inhibition of further processing of the detailed facial features by the less attractive sad expressions (as compared to neutral expressions).

  11. Biased Facial Expression Interpretation in Shy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokin, Jessica; Younger, Alastair; Gosselin, Pierre; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between shyness and the interpretations of the facial expressions of others was examined in a sample of 123 children aged 12 to 14?years. Participants viewed faces displaying happiness, fear, anger, disgust, sadness, surprise, as well as a neutral expression, presented on a computer screen. The children identified each expression…

  12. Characterization of differentially expressed genes using high-dimensional co-expression networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coelho Goncalves de Abreu, Gabriel; Labouriau, Rodrigo S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a technique to characterize differentially expressed genes in terms of their position in a high-dimensional co-expression network. The set-up of Gaussian graphical models is used to construct representations of the co-expression network in such a way that redundancy and the propagation...... that allow to make effective inference in problems with high degree of complexity (e.g. several thousands of genes) and small number of observations (e.g. 10-100) as typically occurs in high throughput gene expression studies. Taking advantage of the internal structure of decomposable graphical models, we...... construct a compact representation of the co-expression network that allows to identify the regions with high concentration of differentially expressed genes. It is argued that differentially expressed genes located in highly interconnected regions of the co-expression network are less informative than...

  13. Polycistronic gene expression in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Tabea; Meyer, Vera

    2017-09-25

    Genome mining approaches predict dozens of biosynthetic gene clusters in each of the filamentous fungal genomes sequenced so far. However, the majority of these gene clusters still remain cryptic because they are not expressed in their natural host. Simultaneous expression of all genes belonging to a biosynthetic pathway in a heterologous host is one approach to activate biosynthetic gene clusters and to screen the metabolites produced for bioactivities. Polycistronic expression of all pathway genes under control of a single and tunable promoter would be the method of choice, as this does not only simplify cloning procedures, but also offers control on timing and strength of expression. However, polycistronic gene expression is a feature not commonly found in eukaryotic host systems, such as Aspergillus niger. In this study, we tested the suitability of the viral P2A peptide for co-expression of three genes in A. niger. Two genes descend from Fusarium oxysporum and are essential to produce the secondary metabolite enniatin (esyn1, ekivR). The third gene (luc) encodes the reporter luciferase which was included to study position effects. Expression of the polycistronic gene cassette was put under control of the Tet-On system to ensure tunable gene expression in A. niger. In total, three polycistronic expression cassettes which differed in the position of luc were constructed and targeted to the pyrG locus in A. niger. This allowed direct comparison of the luciferase activity based on the position of the luciferase gene. Doxycycline-mediated induction of the Tet-On expression cassettes resulted in the production of one long polycistronic mRNA as proven by Northern analyses, and ensured comparable production of enniatin in all three strains. Notably, gene position within the polycistronic expression cassette matters, as, luciferase activity was lowest at position one and had a comparable activity at positions two and three. The P2A peptide can be used to express at

  14. Expression of Sox genes in tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Katsushige; Kawasaki, Maiko; Watanabe, Momoko; Idrus, Erik; Nagai, Takahiro; Oommen, Shelly; Maeda, Takeyasu; Hagiwara, Nobuko; Que, Jianwen; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Sox gene family play roles in many biological processes including organogenesis. We carried out comparative in situ hybridization analysis of seventeen sox genes (Sox1-14, 17, 18, 21) during murine odontogenesis from the epithelial thickening to the cytodifferentiation stages. Localized expression of five Sox genes (Sox6, 9, 13, 14 and 21) was observed in tooth bud epithelium. Sox13 showed restricted expression in the primary enamel knots. At the early bell stage, three Sox genes (Sox8, 11, 17 and 21) were expressed in pre-ameloblasts, whereas two others (Sox5 and 18) showed expression in odontoblasts. Sox genes thus showed a dynamic spatio-temporal expression during tooth development.

  15. Emotion Expression of Robot with Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A robot emotional expression model based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM is built to enable robots which have different personalities to response in a more satisfactory emotional level. Gross emotion regulation theory and Five Factors Model (FFM which are the theoretical basis are firstly described. And then the importance of the personality effect on the emotion expression process is proposed, and how to make the effect quantization is discussed. After that, the algorithm of HMM is used to describe the process of emotional state transition and expression, and the performance transferring probability affected by personality is calculated. At last, the algorithm model is simulated and applied in a robot platform. The results prove that the emotional expression model can acquire humanlike expressions and improve the human-computer interaction.

  16. Willingness to express emotions to caregiving spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monin, Joan K; Martire, Lynn M; Schulz, Richard; Clark, Margaret S

    2009-02-01

    This study examined the association between care-recipients' willingness to express emotions to spousal caregivers and caregiver's well-being and support behaviors. Using self-report measures in the context of a larger study, 262 care-recipients with osteoarthritis reported on their willingness to express emotions to caregivers, and caregivers reported on their stress and insensitive responding to care-recipients. Results revealed that care-recipients' willingness to express happiness was associated with less insensitive caregiver responding, and willingness to express interpersonal emotions (e.g., compassion, guilt) was associated with less caregiving stress. There were also gender differences, such that caregiving wives, in particular, benefited from their husband's willingness to express vulnerable (e.g., anxiety, sadness) and interpersonal emotions. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Personality expression in Chinese language use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lin; Lu, Jiahui; Ramsay, Jonathan; Yang, Shanshan; Qu, Weina; Zhu, Tingshao

    2017-12-01

    To date, little research has investigated personality expressions in languages other than English. Given that the Chinese language has the largest number of native speakers in the world, it is vitally important to examine the associations between personality and Chinese language use. In this research, we analysed Chinese microblogs and identified word categories and factorial structures associated with personality traits. We also compared our results with previous findings in English and showed that linguistic expression of personality has both universal- and language-specific aspects. Expression of personality via content words is more likely to be consistent across languages than expression via function words. This makes an important step towards uncovering universal patterns of personality expression in language. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. PRAME gene expression profile in medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Vulcani-Freitas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant tumors of central nervous system in the childhood. The treatment is severe, harmful and, thus, has a dismal prognosis. As PRAME is present in various cancers, including meduloblastoma, and has limited expression in normal tissues, this antigen can be an ideal vaccine target for tumor immunotherapy. In order to find a potential molecular target, we investigated PRAME expression in medulloblastoma fragments and we compare the results with the clinical features of each patient. Analysis of gene expression was performed by real-time quantitative PCR from 37 tumor samples. The Mann-Whitney test was used to analysis the relationship between gene expression and clinical characteristics. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to evaluate survival. PRAME was overexpressed in 84% samples. But no statistical association was found between clinical features and PRAME overexpression. Despite that PRAME gene could be a strong candidate for immunotherapy since it is highly expressed in medulloblastomas.

  19. Determining Physical Mechanisms of Gene Expression Regulation from Single Cell Gene Expression Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ezer, Daphne; Moignard, Victoria; G?ttgens, Berthold; Adryan, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Many genes are expressed in bursts, which can contribute to cell-to-cell heterogeneity. It is now possible to measure this heterogeneity with high throughput single cell gene expression assays (single cell qPCR and RNA-seq). These experimental approaches generate gene expression distributions which can be used to estimate the kinetic parameters of gene expression bursting, namely the rate that genes turn on, the rate that genes turn off, and the rate of transcription. We construct a complete ...

  20. The MPI facial expression database--a validated database of emotional and conversational facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Kaulard

    Full Text Available The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural

  1. The MPI Facial Expression Database — A Validated Database of Emotional and Conversational Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulard, Kathrin; Cunningham, Douglas W.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Wallraven, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision) to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural facial expressions

  2. Vitamin D Receptor Expression in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, A.G.; Milne, E.; Drummond, D.; Smith, S.; Handel, I.; Mellanby, R.J.

    2018-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence linking low blood vitamin D concentration to numerous diseases in people and in dogs. Vitamin D influences cellular function by signaling through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Little is known about which non‐skeletal tissues express the VDR or how inflammation influences its expression in the dog. Objectives To define which non‐skeletal canine tissues express the VDR and to investigate expression in inflamed small intestine. Animals Thirteen non‐skeletal tissues were collected prospectively from 6 control dogs. Thirty‐five dogs diagnosed with a chronic enteropathy (CE) and 24 control dogs were prospectively enrolled and duodenal biopsies were evaluated for VDR expression. Methods Prospective; blinded assessment of canine intestinal VDR. Dogs with CE were included once other identifiable causes of intestinal disease were excluded. Age matched controls were included with no intestinal clinical signs. VDR expression was assessed immunohistochemically in all samples, using a Rat IgG VDR monoclonal antibody. Quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was also used for duodenal biopsies. Results VDR expression as assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) was highest in the kidney, duodenum, skin, ileum and spleen, and weak in the colon, heart, lymph node, liver, lung, and ovary. Gastric and testicular tissue did not express the VDR. There was no statistical difference in duodenal VDR expression between the 24 healthy dogs and 34 dogs with CE when quantified by either qPCR (P = 0.87) or IHC (P = 0.099). Conclusions and Clinical Importance The lack of down regulation of VDR expression in inflamed intestine contrasts with previous studies in humans. Our findings support future studies to investigate whether vitamin D and its analogues can be used to modulate intestinal inflammation in the dog. PMID:29469965

  3. The functional landscape of mouse gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale quantitative analysis of transcriptional co-expression has been used to dissect regulatory networks and to predict the functions of new genes discovered by genome sequencing in model organisms such as yeast. Although the idea that tissue-specific expression is indicative of gene function in mammals is widely accepted, it has not been objectively tested nor compared with the related but distinct strategy of correlating gene co-expression as a means to predict gene function. Results We generated microarray expression data for nearly 40,000 known and predicted mRNAs in 55 mouse tissues, using custom-built oligonucleotide arrays. We show that quantitative transcriptional co-expression is a powerful predictor of gene function. Hundreds of functional categories, as defined by Gene Ontology 'Biological Processes', are associated with characteristic expression patterns across all tissues, including categories that bear no overt relationship to the tissue of origin. In contrast, simple tissue-specific restriction of expression is a poor predictor of which genes are in which functional categories. As an example, the highly conserved mouse gene PWP1 is widely expressed across different tissues but is co-expressed with many RNA-processing genes; we show that the uncharacterized yeast homolog of PWP1 is required for rRNA biogenesis. Conclusions We conclude that 'functional genomics' strategies based on quantitative transcriptional co-expression will be as fruitful in mammals as they have been in simpler organisms, and that transcriptional control of mammalian physiology is more modular than is generally appreciated. Our data and analyses provide a public resource for mammalian functional genomics.

  4. Simultaneous Breast Expression in Breastfeeding Women Is More Efficacious Than Sequential Breast Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Catherine P.; Hartmann, Peter E.; Kent, Jacqueline C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Simultaneous (SIM) breast expression saves mothers time compared with sequential (SEQ) expression, but it remains unclear whether the two methods differ in milk output efficiency and efficacy. Subjects and Methods The Showmilk device (Medela AG, Baar, Switzerland) was used to measure milk output and milk ejection during breast expression (electric pump) in 31 Australian breastfeeding mothers of term infants (median age, 19 weeks [interquartile range, 10–33 weeks]). The order of expression type (SIM/SEQ) and breast (left/right) was randomized. Results SIM expression yielded more milk ejections (p≤0.001) and greater amounts of milk at 2, 5, and 10 minutes (p≤0.01) and removed a greater total amount of milk (p≤0.01) and percentage of available milk (p<0.05) than SEQ expression. After SIM expression the cream content of both the overall (8.3% [p≤0.05]) and postexpression (12.6% [p≤0.001]) milk were greater. During SEQ expression, the breast expressed first had a shorter time to 50% and 80% of the total amount of milk than the breast expressed second (p≤0.05), but, overall, a similar percentage of available milk was removed from both breasts. Conclusions SIM expression stimulated more milk ejections and was a more efficient and efficacious method of expression, yielding milk with a higher energy content. PMID:23039397

  5. The Relations of Mothers' Negative Expressivity to Children's Experience and Expression of Negative Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Fabes, Richard A.; Cumberland, Amanda J.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2004-01-01

    Guided by the heuristic model proposed by Eisenberg et al. [Psychol. Inq. 9 (1998) 241], we examined the relations of mothers' reported and observed negative expressivity to children's (N = 159; 74 girls; M age = 7.67 years) experience and expression of emotion. Children's experience and/or expression of emotion in response to a distressing film…

  6. Recognition, Expression, and Understanding Facial Expressions of Emotion in Adolescents with Nonverbal and General Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Elana; Heath, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) have been found to be worse at recognizing facial expressions than children with verbal learning disabilities (LD) and without LD. However, little research has been done with adolescents. In addition, expressing and understanding facial expressions is yet to be studied among adolescents with LD…

  7. ["Les Impatients": expression through art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Céline; Palardy, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    The organization called "Les Impatients" was founded in 1992. Using a unique model, Les Impatients welcomes those with mental health issues who would like to express themselves through art. Les Impatients offers free creative workshops and encourages exchanges with the community through the sharing of its participants' creations. The name Les Impatients reinforces the idea that the organization does not consider those attending its workshops as patients, but rather creators who are eager to heal, develop their craft and find their place in society. The participants contribute to the collective objective of breaking down the stigma that surrounds mental illness.Les Impatients collaborates with various mental health organizations in Quebec, such as the Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal (IUSMM) affiliated to the Université de Montréal, Douglas Mental Health University Institute (DMHUI), the Centre de santé et services sociaux Drummond (CSSS Drummond) and the Centre de santé et services sociaux Pierre-Boucher (CSSS Pierre-Boucher). Les Impatients offers more than 48 workshops in eight different locations to around 450 participants each week.Dissemination activities, remarkable events, original projects: Les Impatients stands out through its realizations. Examples are exhibitions, collections of love letters, comic books, CD, concerts, and reading nights. The organization's originality resides in the exploration of the links between the work of the participants and that of professional artists. An illustration of this interest is the annual Parle-moi d'amour auction-exhibition, which has been one of Les Impatients' major events since 1999.As part of its mission, Les Impatients conserves the works of art created by the participants during the workshops. Its collection includes more than 15,000 works of art from Les Impatients as well as pieces donated by collectors of unconventional art, commonly known as "art brut" or "outsider art". The

  8. Micro-Expression Recognition Using Color Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Jing; Yan, Wen-Jing; Li, Xiaobai; Zhao, Guoying; Zhou, Chun-Guang; Fu, Xiaolan; Yang, Minghao; Tao, Jianhua

    2015-12-01

    Micro-expressions are brief involuntary facial expressions that reveal genuine emotions and, thus, help detect lies. Because of their many promising applications, they have attracted the attention of researchers from various fields. Recent research reveals that two perceptual color spaces (CIELab and CIELuv) provide useful information for expression recognition. This paper is an extended version of our International Conference on Pattern Recognition paper, in which we propose a novel color space model, tensor independent color space (TICS), to help recognize micro-expressions. In this paper, we further show that CIELab and CIELuv are also helpful in recognizing micro-expressions, and we indicate why these three color spaces achieve better performance. A micro-expression color video clip is treated as a fourth-order tensor, i.e., a four-dimension array. The first two dimensions are the spatial information, the third is the temporal information, and the fourth is the color information. We transform the fourth dimension from RGB into TICS, in which the color components are as independent as possible. The combination of dynamic texture and independent color components achieves a higher accuracy than does that of RGB. In addition, we define a set of regions of interests (ROIs) based on the facial action coding system and calculated the dynamic texture histograms for each ROI. Experiments are conducted on two micro-expression databases, CASME and CASME 2, and the results show that the performances for TICS, CIELab, and CIELuv are better than those for RGB or gray.

  9. Glucose transporters: expression, regulation and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODOLFO A. MEDINA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian cells depend on glucose as a major substrate for energy production. Glucose is transported into the cell via facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT present in all cell types. Many GLUT isoforms have been described and their expression is cell-specific and subject to hormonal and environmental control. The kinetic properties and substrate specificities of the different isoforms are specifically suited to the energy requirements of the particular cell types. Due to the ubiquitousness of these transporters, their differential expression is involved in various disease states such as diabetes, ischemia and cancer. The majority of cancers and isolated cancer cell lines over-express the GLUT family members which are present in the respective tissue of origin under non-cancerous conditions. Moreover, due to the requirement of energy to feed uncontrolled proliferation, cancer cells often express GLUTs which under normal conditions would not be present in these tissues. This over-expression is predominantly associated with the likelihood of metastasis and hence poor patient prognosis. This article presents a review of the current literature on the regulation and expression of GLUT family members and has compiled clinical and research data on GLUT expression in human cancers and in isolated human cancer cell lines.

  10. Regular Expression Matching and Operational Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiri Rathnayake

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Many programming languages and tools, ranging from grep to the Java String library, contain regular expression matchers. Rather than first translating a regular expression into a deterministic finite automaton, such implementations typically match the regular expression on the fly. Thus they can be seen as virtual machines interpreting the regular expression much as if it were a program with some non-deterministic constructs such as the Kleene star. We formalize this implementation technique for regular expression matching using operational semantics. Specifically, we derive a series of abstract machines, moving from the abstract definition of matching to increasingly realistic machines. First a continuation is added to the operational semantics to describe what remains to be matched after the current expression. Next, we represent the expression as a data structure using pointers, which enables redundant searches to be eliminated via testing for pointer equality. From there, we arrive both at Thompson's lockstep construction and a machine that performs some operations in parallel, suitable for implementation on a large number of cores, such as a GPU. We formalize the parallel machine using process algebra and report some preliminary experiments with an implementation on a graphics processor using CUDA.

  11. The Communicative Function of Sad Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Lawrence Ian; DeScioli, Peter

    2017-01-01

    What are the communicative functions of sad facial expressions? Research shows that people feel sadness in response to losses but it's unclear whether sad expressions function to communicate losses to others and if so, what makes these signals credible. Here we use economic games to test the hypothesis that sad expressions lend credibility to claims of loss. Participants play the role of either a proposer or recipient in a game with a fictional backstory and real monetary payoffs. The proposers view a (fictional) video of the recipient's character displaying either a neutral or sad expression paired with a claim of loss. The proposer then decided how much money to give to the recipient. In three experiments, we test alternative theories by using situations in which the recipient's losses were uncertain (Experiment 1), the recipient's losses were certain (Experiment 2), or the recipient claims failed gains rather than losses (Experiment 3). Overall, we find that participants gave more money to recipients who displayed sad expressions compared to neutral expressions, but only under conditions of uncertain loss. This finding supports the hypothesis that sad expressions function to increase the credibility of claims of loss.

  12. Expressive Dissonance: When Emotional Inconsistency Arouses Dissonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Pelt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the two studies was to explore a new dissonance paradigm–expressive dissonance–based on the inconsistency between what people feel and what people express behaviorally. Expressive dissonance was aroused by asking participants to watch a film with a high emotional content, either positive (joy or negative (sadness. In the no-dissonance condition, they received the instruction to naturally watch the film. In the expressive dissonance condition, they received the instruction to facially express emotions that were the opposite of what they felt. We expected that the expressive dissonance situation would: 1 require cognitive resources leading to a decrease in cognitive performance (studies 1 and 2; 2 be accompanied by emotional regulation strategies (study 1; 3 be accompanied by an increase in dissonance-related affects (study 2. Although our results (studies 1 and 2 corroborated those obtained previously in terms of performance, they also showed that participants in the expressive dissonance situation use emotional regulation strategies: exaggeration and suppression (study 1, and that they felt self-directed negative affects (study 2, just like the participants in a cognitive dissonance situation. These first results allowed us to establish a theoretical bridge between the theories of emotions–particularly those related to the emotional regulation processes–and to widen the scope of relevance of the dissonance theory.

  13. Gene expression and gene therapy imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, Claire; Couillaud, Franck; Moonen, Chrit T.W.

    2007-01-01

    The fast growing field of molecular imaging has achieved major advances in imaging gene expression, an important element of gene therapy. Gene expression imaging is based on specific probes or contrast agents that allow either direct or indirect spatio-temporal evaluation of gene expression. Direct evaluation is possible with, for example, contrast agents that bind directly to a specific target (e.g., receptor). Indirect evaluation may be achieved by using specific substrate probes for a target enzyme. The use of marker genes, also called reporter genes, is an essential element of MI approaches for gene expression in gene therapy. The marker gene may not have a therapeutic role itself, but by coupling the marker gene to a therapeutic gene, expression of the marker gene reports on the expression of the therapeutic gene. Nuclear medicine and optical approaches are highly sensitive (detection of probes in the picomolar range), whereas MRI and ultrasound imaging are less sensitive and require amplification techniques and/or accumulation of contrast agents in enlarged contrast particles. Recently developed MI techniques are particularly relevant for gene therapy. Amongst these are the possibility to track gene therapy vectors such as stem cells, and the techniques that allow spatiotemporal control of gene expression by non-invasive heating (with MRI guided focused ultrasound) and the use of temperature sensitive promoters. (orig.)

  14. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Shukla

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. METHODS: Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. RESULTS: Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1 expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  15. Facial Expression Recognition Through Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Perveen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions communicate non-verbal cues which play an important role in interpersonal relations. Automatic recognition of facial expressions can be an important element of normal human-machine interfaces it might likewise be utilized as a part of behavioral science and in clinical practice. In spite of the fact that people perceive facial expressions for all intents and purposes immediately solid expression recognition by machine is still a challenge. From the point of view of automatic recognition a facial expression can be considered to comprise of disfigurements of the facial parts and their spatial relations or changes in the faces pigmentation. Research into automatic recognition of the facial expressions addresses the issues encompassing the representation and arrangement of static or dynamic qualities of these distortions or face pigmentation. We get results by utilizing the CVIPtools. We have taken train data set of six facial expressions of three persons and for train data set purpose we have total border mask sample 90 and 30 border mask sample for test data set purpose and we use RST- Invariant features and texture features for feature analysis and then classified them by using k- Nearest Neighbor classification algorithm. The maximum accuracy is 90.

  16. Family emotional expressiveness and family structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čotar-Konrad Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper scrutinizes the relationship between family emotional expressiveness (i.e., the tendency to express dominant and/or submissive positive and negative emotions and components of family structure as proposed in Olson’s Circumplex model (i.e., cohesion and flexibility, family communication, and satisfaction in families with adolescents. The study was conducted on a sample of 514 Slovenian adolescents, who filled out two questionnaires: the Slovenian version of Family Emotional Expressiveness - FEQ and FACES IV. The results revealed that all four basic dimensions of family functioning were significantly associated with higher/more frequent expressions of positive submissive emotions, as well as with lower/less frequent expressions of negative dominant emotions. Moreover, expressions of negative submissive emotions explained a small, but significant amount of variance in three out of four family functioning variables (satisfaction, flexibility, and communication. The importance of particular aspects of emotional expressiveness for family cohesion, flexibility, communication, and satisfaction is discussed, and the relevance of present findings for family counselling is outlined.

  17. The Communicative Function of Sad Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ian Reed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available What are the communicative functions of sad facial expressions? Research shows that people feel sadness in response to losses but it’s unclear whether sad expressions function to communicate losses to others and if so, what makes these signals credible. Here we use economic games to test the hypothesis that sad expressions lend credibility to claims of loss. Participants play the role of either a proposer or recipient in a game with a fictional backstory and real monetary payoffs. The proposers view a (fictional video of the recipient’s character displaying either a neutral or sad expression paired with a claim of loss. The proposer then decided how much money to give to the recipient. In three experiments, we test alternative theories by using situations in which the recipient’s losses were uncertain (Experiment 1, the recipient’s losses were certain (Experiment 2, or the recipient claims failed gains rather than losses (Experiment 3. Overall, we find that participants gave more money to recipients who displayed sad expressions compared to neutral expressions, but only under conditions of uncertain loss. This finding supports the hypothesis that sad expressions function to increase the credibility of claims of loss.

  18. CNPase Expression in Olfactory Ensheathing Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Radtke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large body of work supports the proposal that transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs into nerve or spinal cord injuries can promote axonal regeneration and remyelination. Yet, some investigators have questioned whether the transplanted OECs associate with axons and form peripheral myelin, or if they recruit endogenous Schwann cells that form myelin. Olfactory bulbs from transgenic mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP under the control of the 2-3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNPase promoter were studied. CNPase is expressed in myelin-forming cells throughout their lineage. We examined CNPase expression in both in situ in the olfactory bulb and in vitro to determine if OECs express CNPase commensurate with their myelination potential. eGFP was observed in the outer nerve layer of the olfactory bulb. Dissociated OECs maintained in culture had both intense eGFP expression and CNPase immunostaining. Transplantation of OECs into transected peripheral nerve longitudinally associated with the regenerated axons. These data indicate that OECs in the outer nerve layer of the olfactory bulb of CNPase transgenic mice express CNPase. Thus, while OECs do not normally form myelin on olfactory nerve axons, their expression of CNPase is commensurate with their potential to form myelin when transplanted into injured peripheral nerve.

  19. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Swati; Srivastava, Arpna; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Usha; Goswami, Sandeep; Chawla, Bhavna; Bajaj, Mandeep Singh; Kashyap, Seema; Kaur, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC) were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin) were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1) expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp) was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  20. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Swati; Srivastava, Arpna; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Usha; Goswami, Sandeep; Chawla, Bhavna; Bajaj, Mandeep Singh; Kashyap, Seema; Kaur, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    AIM To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. METHODS Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC) were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin) were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. RESULTS Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1) expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp) was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy. PMID:29181307

  1. A comparative gene expression database for invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormestad Mattias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As whole genome and transcriptome sequencing gets cheaper and faster, a great number of 'exotic' animal models are emerging, rapidly adding valuable data to the ever-expanding Evo-Devo field. All these new organisms serve as a fantastic resource for the research community, but the sheer amount of data, some published, some not, makes detailed comparison of gene expression patterns very difficult to summarize - a problem sometimes even noticeable within a single lab. The need to merge existing data with new information in an organized manner that is publicly available to the research community is now more necessary than ever. Description In order to offer a homogenous way of storing and handling gene expression patterns from a variety of organisms, we have developed the first web-based comparative gene expression database for invertebrates that allows species-specific as well as cross-species gene expression comparisons. The database can be queried by gene name, developmental stage and/or expression domains. Conclusions This database provides a unique tool for the Evo-Devo research community that allows the retrieval, analysis and comparison of gene expression patterns within or among species. In addition, this database enables a quick identification of putative syn-expression groups that can be used to initiate, among other things, gene regulatory network (GRN projects.

  2. Adaptive Evolution of Gene Expression in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmohammad, Armita; Rambeau, Joachim; Held, Torsten; Kovacova, Viera; Berg, Johannes; Lässig, Michael

    2017-08-08

    Gene expression levels are important quantitative traits that link genotypes to molecular functions and fitness. In Drosophila, population-genetic studies have revealed substantial adaptive evolution at the genomic level, but the evolutionary modes of gene expression remain controversial. Here, we present evidence that adaptation dominates the evolution of gene expression levels in flies. We show that 64% of the observed expression divergence across seven Drosophila species are adaptive changes driven by directional selection. Our results are derived from time-resolved data of gene expression divergence across a family of related species, using a probabilistic inference method for gene-specific selection. Adaptive gene expression is stronger in specific functional classes, including regulation, sensory perception, sexual behavior, and morphology. Moreover, we identify a large group of genes with sex-specific adaptation of expression, which predominantly occurs in males. Our analysis opens an avenue to map system-wide selection on molecular quantitative traits independently of their genetic basis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cyclin D1 expression in prostate carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, R.A.; Ravinal, R.C.; Costa, R.S.; Lima, M.S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Patologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Tucci, S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Divisão de Urologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Urologia, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Muglia, V.F. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Medicina Interna (Centro de Ciência da Imagem), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina Interna (Centro de Ciência da Imagem), Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Reis, R.B. Dos [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Divisão de Urologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Urologia, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, G.E.B. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Patologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and clinicopathological parameters in patients with prostate carcinoma. We assessed cyclin D1 expression by conventional immunohistochemistry in 85 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 10 normal prostate tissue samples retrieved from autopsies. We measured nuclear immunostaining in the entire tumor area and based the results on the percentage of positive tumor cells. The preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 8.68±5.16 ng/mL (mean±SD). Cyclin D1 staining was positive (cyclin D1 expression in >5% of tumor cells) in 64 cases (75.4%) and negative (cyclin D1 expression in ≤5% of tumor cells) in 21 cases (including 15 cases with no immunostaining). Normal prostate tissues were negative for cyclin D1. Among patients with a high-grade Gleason score (≥7), 86% of patients demonstrated cyclin D1 immunostaining of >5% (P<0.05). In the crude analysis of cyclin D1 expression, the high-grade Gleason score group showed a mean expression of 39.6%, compared to 26.9% in the low-grade Gleason score group (P<0.05). Perineural invasion tended to be associated with cyclin D1 expression (P=0.07), whereas cyclin D1 expression was not associated with PSA levels or other parameters. Our results suggest that high cyclin D1 expression could be a potential marker for tumor aggressiveness.

  4. Cyclin D1 expression in prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.A.; Ravinal, R.C.; Costa, R.S.; Lima, M.S.; Tucci, S.; Muglia, V.F.; Reis, R.B. Dos; Silva, G.E.B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and clinicopathological parameters in patients with prostate carcinoma. We assessed cyclin D1 expression by conventional immunohistochemistry in 85 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 10 normal prostate tissue samples retrieved from autopsies. We measured nuclear immunostaining in the entire tumor area and based the results on the percentage of positive tumor cells. The preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 8.68±5.16 ng/mL (mean±SD). Cyclin D1 staining was positive (cyclin D1 expression in >5% of tumor cells) in 64 cases (75.4%) and negative (cyclin D1 expression in ≤5% of tumor cells) in 21 cases (including 15 cases with no immunostaining). Normal prostate tissues were negative for cyclin D1. Among patients with a high-grade Gleason score (≥7), 86% of patients demonstrated cyclin D1 immunostaining of >5% (P<0.05). In the crude analysis of cyclin D1 expression, the high-grade Gleason score group showed a mean expression of 39.6%, compared to 26.9% in the low-grade Gleason score group (P<0.05). Perineural invasion tended to be associated with cyclin D1 expression (P=0.07), whereas cyclin D1 expression was not associated with PSA levels or other parameters. Our results suggest that high cyclin D1 expression could be a potential marker for tumor aggressiveness

  5. Effects of Expressive Writing on Psychological and Physical Health: The Moderating Role of Emotional Expressivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltom, Kate E.; Mulvenna, Catherine M.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Stanton, Annette L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study assessed main effects and moderators (including emotional expressiveness, emotional processing and ambivalence over emotional expression) of the effects of expressive writing in a sample of healthy adults. Young adult participants (N = 116) were randomly assigned to write for 20 minutes on four occasions about deepest thoughts and feelings regarding their most stressful/traumatic event in the past five years (expressive writing) or about a control topic (control). Dependent variables were indicators of anxiety, depression, and physical symptoms. No significant effects of writing condition were evident on anxiety, depressive symptoms, or physical symptoms. Emotional expressiveness emerged as a significant moderator of anxiety outcomes, however. Within the expressive writing group, participants high in expressiveness evidenced a significant reduction in anxiety at three-month follow-up, and participants low in expressiveness showed a significant increase in anxiety. Expressiveness did not predict change in anxiety in the control group. These findings on anxiety are consistent with the matching hypothesis, which suggests that matching a person’s naturally elected coping approach with an assigned intervention is beneficial. These findings also suggest that expressive writing about a stressful event may be contraindicated for individuals who do not typically express emotions. PMID:23742666

  6. Expression-dependent susceptibility to face distortions in processing of facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Soornack, Yoshi; Settle, Rebecca

    2018-03-05

    Our capability of recognizing facial expressions of emotion under different viewing conditions implies the existence of an invariant expression representation. As natural visual signals are often distorted and our perceptual strategy changes with external noise level, it is essential to understand how expression perception is susceptible to face distortion and whether the same facial cues are used to process high- and low-quality face images. We systematically manipulated face image resolution (experiment 1) and blur (experiment 2), and measured participants' expression categorization accuracy, perceived expression intensity and associated gaze patterns. Our analysis revealed a reasonable tolerance to face distortion in expression perception. Reducing image resolution up to 48 × 64 pixels or increasing image blur up to 15 cycles/image had little impact on expression assessment and associated gaze behaviour. Further distortion led to decreased expression categorization accuracy and intensity rating, increased reaction time and fixation duration, and stronger central fixation bias which was not driven by distortion-induced changes in local image saliency. Interestingly, the observed distortion effects were expression-dependent with less deterioration impact on happy and surprise expressions, suggesting this distortion-invariant facial expression perception might be achieved through the categorical model involving a non-linear configural combination of local facial features. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulation of Gene Expression in Protozoa Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Gomez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or drug resistance, and the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in that control could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. However, until now these mechanisms are poorly understood in protozoa. Recent investigations into gene expression in protozoa parasites suggest that they possess many of the canonical machineries employed by higher eukaryotes for the control of gene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic levels, but they also contain exclusive mechanisms. Here, we review the current understanding about the regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium sp., Trypanosomatids, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.

  8. Regulation of gene expression in protozoa parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Consuelo; Esther Ramirez, M; Calixto-Galvez, Mercedes; Medel, Olivia; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2010-01-01

    Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or drug resistance, and the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in that control could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. However, until now these mechanisms are poorly understood in protozoa. Recent investigations into gene expression in protozoa parasites suggest that they possess many of the canonical machineries employed by higher eukaryotes for the control of gene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic levels, but they also contain exclusive mechanisms. Here, we review the current understanding about the regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium sp., Trypanosomatids, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.

  9. Lunar Plants Prototype for Moon Express

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our project is to bring the first full life cycle to the moon: to demonstrate germination of plants in lunar gravity and radiation.The Moon Express...

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Bacterial Expression Profiles Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were performed to determine the phytochemicals in the active fraction. Results: Five differentially expressed bacterial proteins (four from Escherichia coli and one from Staphylococcus aureus), were identified via ...

  11. Inferring gene networks from discrete expression data

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, L.; Mallick, B. K.

    2013-01-01

    graphical models applied to continuous data, which give a closedformmarginal likelihood. In this paper,we extend network modeling to discrete data, specifically data from serial analysis of gene expression, and RNA-sequencing experiments, both of which

  12. Gene Expression and Microarray Investigation of Dendrobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blood glucose > 16.7 mmol/L were used as the model group and treated with Dendrobium mixture. (DEN ... Keywords: Diabetes, Gene expression, Dendrobium mixture, Microarray testing ..... homeostasis in airway smooth muscle. Am J.

  13. Decreased decorin expression in the tumor microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoky, Benedek; Savchenko, Andrii; Guven, Hayrettin; Ponten, Fredrik; Klein, George; Szekely, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    Decorin is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, synthesized and deposited by fibroblasts in the stroma where it binds to collagen I. It sequesters several growth factors and antagonizes numerous members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. In experimental murine systems, it acted as a potent tumor suppressor. Examining the Human Protein Atlas online database of immunostained tissue samples we have surveyed decorin expression in silico in several different tumor types, comparing them with corresponding normal tissues. We found that decorin is abundantly secreted and deposited in normal connective tissue but its expression is consistently decreased in the tumor microenvironment. We developed a software to quantitate the difference in expression. The presence of two closely related proteoglycans in the newly formed tumor stroma indicated that the decreased decorin expression was not caused by the delay in proteoglycan deposition in the newly formed connective tissue surrounding the tumor

  14. SOX4 expression in bladder carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Mads; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Wiuf, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    The human transcription factor SOX4 was 5-fold up-regulated in bladder tumors compared with normal tissue based on whole-genome expression profiling of 166 clinical bladder tumor samples and 27 normal urothelium samples. Using a SOX4-specific antibody, we found that the cancer cells expressed...... in the clinical bladder material and a small subset of the genes showed a high correlation to SOX4 expression. The present data suggest a role of SOX4 in the bladder cancer disease....... the SOX4 protein and, thus, did an evaluation of SOX4 protein expression in 2,360 bladder tumors using a tissue microarray with clinical annotation. We found a correlation (P bladder cell line HU609, SOX4...

  15. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Natural Sciences, International Christian University, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8585, Japan ... the changes of expression predicted from gene function suggested association ... ate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University.

  16. Drosophila melanogaster gene expression changes after spaceflight.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gene expression levels were determined in 3rd instar and adult Drosophila melanogaster reared during spaceflight to elucidate the genetic and molecular mechanisms...

  17. Expression of maize prolamins in Escherichia Coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Szu-zhen; Esen, Asim

    1985-01-01

    We have constructed a cDNA expression library of developing corn (Zea manys L.) endosperm using plasmid pUC8 as vector and Escherichia coli strain DH1 as host. The expression library was screened with non-radioactive immunological probes to detect the expression of gamma-zein and alpha-zein. When anti-gamma-zein antibody was used as the probe, 23 colonies gave positive reactions. The lengths of cDNA inserts of the 23 colonies were found to be 250-900 base pairs. When anti-alpha zein antibody was used, however, fewer colonies gave positive reactions. The library was also screened by colony-hybridization with 32 P-labeled DNA probes. Based on immunological and hybridization screening of the library and other evidence, we conclude that alpha-zein was either toxic to E. coli cells or rapidly degraded whereas gamma-zein and its fragments were readily expressed. (author)

  18. Determinants of human adipose tissue gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viguerie, Nathalie; Montastier, Emilie; Maoret, Jean-José

    2012-01-01

    weight maintenance diets. For 175 genes, opposite regulation was observed during calorie restriction and weight maintenance phases, independently of variations in body weight. Metabolism and immunity genes showed inverse profiles. During the dietary intervention, network-based analyses revealed strong...... interconnection between expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and components of the metabolic syndrome. Sex had a marked influence on AT expression of 88 transcripts, which persisted during the entire dietary intervention and after control for fat mass. In women, the influence of body mass index...... on expression of a subset of genes persisted during the dietary intervention. Twenty-two genes revealed a metabolic syndrome signature common to men and women. Genetic control of AT gene expression by cis signals was observed for 46 genes. Dietary intervention, sex, and cis genetic variants independently...

  19. Exertional Heat Illness and Human Gene Expression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonna, L.A; Sawka, M. N; Lilly, C. M

    2007-01-01

    Microarray analysis of gene expression at the level of RNA has generated new insights into the relationship between cellular responses to acute heat shock in vitro, exercise, and exertional heat illness...

  20. Deriving Trading Rules Using Gene Expression Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian VISOIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents how buy and sell trading rules are generated using gene expression programming with special setup. Market concepts are presented and market analysis is discussed with emphasis on technical analysis and quantitative methods. The use of genetic algorithms in deriving trading rules is presented. Gene expression programming is applied in a form where multiple types of operators and operands are used. This gives birth to multiple gene contexts and references between genes in order to keep the linear structure of the gene expression programming chromosome. The setup of multiple gene contexts is presented. The case study shows how to use the proposed gene setup to derive trading rules encoded by Boolean expressions, using a dataset with the reference exchange rates between the Euro and the Romanian leu. The conclusions highlight the positive results obtained in deriving useful trading rules.

  1. The human endolymphatic sac expresses natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Kirkeby, Svend; Vikeså, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    : Several natriuretic peptides were found expressed significantly in the ES, including uroguanylin and brain natriuretic peptide, but also peptides regulating vascular tone, including adrenomedullin 2. In addition, both neurophysin and oxytocin (OXT) were found significantly expressed. All peptides were...... verified by immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSION: The present data support the hypothesis that the human ES may have an endocrine/paracrine capacity through expression of several peptides with potent natriuretic activity. Furthermore, the ES may influence the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and may regulate...... vasopressin receptors and aquaporin-2 channels in the inner ear via OXT expression. We hypothesize that the ES is likely to regulate inner ear endolymphatic homeostasis, possibly through secretion of several peptides, but it may also influence systemic and/or intracranial blood pressure through direct...

  2. Expression Profiling of Tyrosine Kinase Genes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weier, Heinz

    2000-01-01

    ... of these genes parallels the progression of tumors to a more malignant phenotype. We developed a DNA micro-array based screening system to monitor the level of expression of tyrosine kinase (tk...

  3. Regulation of meiotic gene expression in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele eZhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the recent advances in genomics and sequencing technologies, databases of transcriptomes representing many cellular processes have been built. Meiotic transcriptomes in plants have been studied in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice (Oryza sativa, wheat (Triticum aestivum, petunia (Petunia hybrida, sunflower (Helianthus annuus, and maize (Zea mays. Studies in all organisms, but particularly in plants, indicate that a very large number of genes are expressed during meiosis, though relatively few of them seem to be required for the completion of meiosis. In this review, we focus on gene expression at the RNA level and analyze the meiotic transcriptome datasets and explore expression patterns of known meiotic genes to elucidate how gene expression could be regulated during meiosis. We also discuss mechanisms, such as chromatin organization and non-coding RNAs, that might be involved in the regulation of meiotic transcription patterns.

  4. Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary figure 1. Protein expression dynamics observed in Experiment, Synchronous and. Asynchronous simulation. .... molecular basis for T cell suppression by IL-10: CD28-asso- ciated IL-10 receptor inhibits CD28 tyrosine ...

  5. Identification of genes preferentially expressed during

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    雨林木风

    2012-08-16

    Aug 16, 2012 ... The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method conducted to generate ... which showed the lack of genomic information currently available for lily. ..... characterization of genes expressed during somatic embryo.

  6. An atlas of Caenorhabditis elegans chemoreceptor expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Vidal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One goal of modern day neuroscience is the establishment of molecular maps that assign unique features to individual neuron types. Such maps provide important starting points for neuron classification, for functional analysis, and for developmental studies aimed at defining the molecular mechanisms of neuron identity acquisition and neuron identity diversification. In this resource paper, we describe a nervous system-wide map of the potential expression sites of 244 members of the largest gene family in the C. elegans genome, rhodopsin-like (class A G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR chemoreceptors, using classic gfp reporter gene technology. We cover representatives of all sequence families of chemoreceptor GPCRs, some of which were previously entirely uncharacterized. Most reporters are expressed in a very restricted number of cells, often just in single cells. We assign GPCR reporter expression to all but two of the 37 sensory neuron classes of the sex-shared, core nervous system. Some sensory neurons express a very small number of receptors, while others, particularly nociceptive neurons, coexpress several dozen GPCR reporter genes. GPCR reporters are also expressed in a wide range of inter- and motorneurons, as well as non-neuronal cells, suggesting that GPCRs may constitute receptors not just for environmental signals, but also for internal cues. We observe only one notable, frequent association of coexpression patterns, namely in one nociceptive amphid (ASH and two nociceptive phasmid sensory neurons (PHA, PHB. We identified GPCRs with sexually dimorphic expression and several GPCR reporters that are expressed in a left/right asymmetric manner. We identified a substantial degree of GPCR expression plasticity; particularly in the context of the environmentally-induced dauer diapause stage when one third of all tested GPCRs alter the cellular specificity of their expression within and outside the nervous system. Intriguingly, in a number of

  7. Fast and compact regular expression matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Farach-Colton, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We study 4 problems in string matching, namely, regular expression matching, approximate regular expression matching, string edit distance, and subsequence indexing, on a standard word RAM model of computation that allows logarithmic-sized words to be manipulated in constant time. We show how...... to improve the space and/or remove a dependency on the alphabet size for each problem using either an improved tabulation technique of an existing algorithm or by combining known algorithms in a new way....

  8. Unsupervised learning of facial expression components

    OpenAIRE

    Egede, Joy Onyekachukwu

    2013-01-01

    The face is one of the most important means of non-verbal communication. A lot of information can be gotten about the emotional state of a person just by merely observing their facial expression. This is relatively easy in face to face communication but not so in human computer interaction. Supervised learning has been widely used by researchers to train machines to recognise facial expressions just like humans. However, supervised learning has significant limitations one of which is the fact...

  9. Gauge choice in Witten's energy expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    Witten's equation Dpsi=0 can be interpreted as a gauge fixing condition for classical supergravity. We rigorously prove the existence of asymptotically constant solutions of the more general gauge condition Dpsi=Apsi for almost all endomorphisms A of the spin bundle. Each gives an expression for the gravitational energy similar to Witten's. These include the choice A=√R, which yields the particularly elegant energy expression first noticed by Deser. (orig.)

  10. Analytical expressions for the electron backscattering coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    August, H.J.; Wernisch, J.

    1989-01-01

    Several analytical expressions for the electron backscattering coefficient for massive homogeneous samples are compared with experimental data, directing special attention to the dependence of this quantity on the electron acceleration energy. It is shown that this dependence generally cannot be neglected. The expression proposed by Hunger and Kuechler turns out to be better than that of Love and Scott, although even the better formula can be slightly improved by a small modification. (author)

  11. Le tappe italiane del Trimble Express 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Leonardi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Trimble Express stopped over Italy Trimble Express stopped in Italy, in 6 cities. The european road show has been set up to promote the latest news regarding Trimble technologies such as Trimble Access, the software that offers to survey teams a new approach in surveying; Trimble Access expedites data collection, processing, analysis, and delivery through improved workflows, collaboration and control.

  12. Le tappe italiane del Trimble Express 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Leonardi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Trimble Express stopped over ItalyTrimble Express stopped in Italy, in 6 cities. The european road show has been set up to promote the latest news regarding Trimble technologies such as Trimble Access, the software that offers to survey teams a new approach in surveying; Trimble Access expedites data collection, processing, analysis, and delivery through improved workflows, collaboration and control.

  13. Hepatocyte specific expression of human cloned genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortese, R

    1986-01-01

    A large number of proteins are specifically synthesized in the hepatocyte. Only the adult liver expresses the complete repertoire of functions which are required at various stages during development. There is therefore a complex series of regulatory mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of the differentiated state and for the developmental and physiological variations in the pattern of gene expression. Human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B display a pattern of gene expression similar to adult and fetal liver, respectively; in contrast, cultured fibroblasts or HeLa cells do not express most of the liver specific genes. They have used these cell lines for transfection experiments with cloned human liver specific genes. DNA segments coding for alpha1-antitrypsin and retinol binding protein (two proteins synthesized both in fetal and adult liver) are expressed in the hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, but not in HeLa cells or fibroblasts. A DNA segment coding for haptoglobin (a protein synthesized only after birth) is only expressed in the hepatoma cell line HepG2 but not in Hep3B nor in non hepatic cell lines. The information for tissue specific expression is located in the 5' flanking region of all three genes. In vivo competition experiments show that these DNA segments bind to a common, apparently limiting, transacting factor. Conventional techniques (Bal deletions, site directed mutagenesis, etc.) have been used to precisely identify the DNA sequences responsible for these effects. The emerging picture is complex: they have identified multiple, separate transcriptional signals, essential for maximal promoter activation and tissue specific expression. Some of these signals show a negative effect on transcription in fibroblast cell lines.

  14. Fluoxetin Upregulates Connexin 43 Expression in Astrocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mostafavi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent studies have shown that astrocytes play major roles in normal and disease condition of the central nervous system including multiple sclerosis (MS. Molecular target therapy studies in MS have revealed that connexin-43 (Cx43 and Aquaporin-4 (AQP4 contents of astrocytes undergo expression alteration. Fluoxetine had some effects in MS patients unrelated to its known antidepressant effects. Some of fluoxetine effects were attributed to its capability of cAMP signaling pathway stimulation. This study aimed to investigate possible acute effects of fluoxetine on Cx43 and AQP4 expression in astrocyte.  Methods: Astrocytoma cells were treated for 24 hours with fluoxetine (10 and 20 &mug/ml with or without adenyl cyclase (AC and protein kinase A (PKA inhibition. Cx43 expression at both mRNA and protein levels and AQP4 expression at mRNA level were evaluated.  Results: Acquired results showed that fluoxetine with and without AC and PKA inhibition resulted in Cx43 up-regulation both in mRNA and protein levels, whereas AQP4 expression have not changed.  Discussion: In conclusion, data showed that fluoxetine alone and in the absence of serotonin acutely up-regulated Cx43 expression in astrocytes that can be assumed in molecular target therapy of MS patients. It seems that cAMP involvement in fluoxetine effects need more researches.

  15. Dlx homeobox gene family expression in osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lézot, F; Thomas, B L; Blin-Wakkach, C; Castaneda, B; Bolanos, A; Hotton, D; Sharpe, P T; Heymann, D; Carles, G F; Grigoriadis, A E; Berdal, A

    2010-06-01

    Skeletal growth and homeostasis require the finely orchestrated secretion of mineralized tissue matrices by highly specialized cells, balanced with their degradation by osteoclasts. Time- and site-specific expression of Dlx and Msx homeobox genes in the cells secreting these matrices have been identified as important elements in the regulation of skeletal morphology. Such specific expression patterns have also been reported in osteoclasts for Msx genes. The aim of the present study was to establish the expression patterns of Dlx genes in osteoclasts and identify their function in regulating skeletal morphology. The expression patterns of all Dlx genes were examined during the whole osteoclastogenesis using different in vitro models. The results revealed that Dlx1 and Dlx2 are the only Dlx family members with a possible function in osteoclastogenesis as well as in mature osteoclasts. Dlx5 and Dlx6 were detected in the cultures but appear to be markers of monocytes and their derivatives. In vivo, Dlx2 expression in osteoclasts was examined using a Dlx2/LacZ transgenic mouse. Dlx2 is expressed in a subpopulation of osteoclasts in association with tooth, brain, nerve, and bone marrow volumetric growths. Altogether the present data suggest a role for Dlx2 in regulation of skeletal morphogenesis via functions within osteoclasts. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Cyclin d1 expression in odontogenic cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Nasim; Modabbernia, Shirin; Akbarzadeh, Alireza; Sajjadi, Samad

    2013-01-01

    In the present study expression of cyclin D1 in the epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocyst, radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and glandular odontogenic cyst was investigated to compare proliferative activity in these lesions. Immunohistochemical staining of cyclin D1 on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of odontogenic keratocysts (n=23), dentigerous cysts (n=20), radicular cysts (n=20) and glandular odontogenic cysts (n=5) was performed by standard EnVision method. Then, slides were studied to evaluate the following parameters in epithelial lining of cysts: expression, expression pattern, staining intensity and localization of expression. The data analysis showed statistically significant difference in cyclin D1 expression in studied groups (p keratocysts, but difference was not statistically significant among groups respectively (p=0.204, 0.469). Considering expression localization, cyclin D1 positive cells in odontogenic keratocysts and dentigerous cysts were frequently confined in parabasal layer, different from radicular cysts and glandular odontogenic cysts. The difference was statistically significant (p keratocyst and the entire cystic epithelium of glandular odontogenic cysts comparing to dentigerous cysts and radicular cysts, implying the possible role of G1-S cell cycle phase disturbances in the aggressiveness of odontogenic keratocyst and glandular odontogenic cyst.

  17. Rho GTPase expression in human myeloid cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne F G van Helden

    Full Text Available Myeloid cells are critical for innate immunity and the initiation of adaptive immunity. Strict regulation of the adhesive and migratory behavior is essential for proper functioning of these cells. Rho GTPases are important regulators of adhesion and migration; however, it is unknown which Rho GTPases are expressed in different myeloid cells. Here, we use a qPCR-based approach to investigate Rho GTPase expression in myeloid cells.We found that the mRNAs encoding Cdc42, RhoQ, Rac1, Rac2, RhoA and RhoC are the most abundant. In addition, RhoG, RhoB, RhoF and RhoV are expressed at low levels or only in specific cell types. More differentiated cells along the monocyte-lineage display lower levels of Cdc42 and RhoV, while RhoC mRNA is more abundant. In addition, the Rho GTPase expression profile changes during dendritic cell maturation with Rac1 being upregulated and Rac2 downregulated. Finally, GM-CSF stimulation, during macrophage and osteoclast differentiation, leads to high expression of Rac2, while M-CSF induces high levels of RhoA, showing that these cytokines induce a distinct pattern. Our data uncover cell type specific modulation of the Rho GTPase expression profile in hematopoietic stem cells and in more differentiated cells of the myeloid lineage.

  18. Shadows alter facial expressions of Noh masks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers' recognition of the emotional expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa's smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art "yugen (profound grace and subtlety", which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness.

  19. The predictive nature of transcript expression levels on protein expression in adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauernfeind, Amy L; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2017-04-24

    Next generation sequencing methods are the gold standard for evaluating expression of the transcriptome. When determining the biological implications of such studies, the assumption is often made that transcript expression levels correspond to protein levels in a meaningful way. However, the strength of the overall correlation between transcript and protein expression is inconsistent, particularly in brain samples. Following high-throughput transcriptomic (RNA-Seq) and proteomic (liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry) analyses of adult human brain samples, we compared the correlation in the expression of transcripts and proteins that support various biological processes, molecular functions, and that are located in different areas of the cell. Although most categories of transcripts have extremely weak predictive value for the expression of their associated proteins (R 2 values of < 10%), transcripts coding for protein kinases and membrane-associated proteins, including those that are part of receptors or ion transporters, are among those that are most predictive of downstream protein expression levels. The predictive value of transcript expression for corresponding proteins is variable in human brain samples, reflecting the complex regulation of protein expression. However, we found that transcriptomic analyses are appropriate for assessing the expression levels of certain classes of proteins, including those that modify proteins, such as kinases and phosphatases, regulate metabolic and synaptic activity, or are associated with a cellular membrane. These findings can be used to guide the interpretation of gene expression results from primate brain samples.

  20. Differential expression of granulopoiesis related genes in neutrophil subsets distinguished by membrane expression of CD177

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Nan; Mora-Jensen, Helena; Theilgaard-Mønch, Kim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Differential gene expression in CD177+ and CD177- neutrophils was investigated, in order to detect possible differences in neutrophil function which could be related to the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated Vasculitides (AAV). METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from healthy controls (HC......) with high, negative or bimodal CD177 expression, and sorted into CD177+ and CD177- subpopulations. Total RNA was screened for expression of 24,000 probes with Illumina Ref-8 Beadchips. Genes showing differential expression between CD177+ and CD177- subsets in microarray analysis were re-assessed using...... quantitative-PCR. CD177 expression on neutrophil precursors in bone marrow was analyzed using quantitative PCR and flowcytometry. RESULTS: The proportion of CD177+ cells increased during neutrophil maturation in bone marrow. Fold change analysis of gene expression profile of sorted CD177+ and CD177...

  1. cis sequence effects on gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Kevin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence and transcriptional variability within and between individuals are typically studied independently. The joint analysis of sequence and gene expression variation (genetical genomics provides insight into the role of linked sequence variation in the regulation of gene expression. We investigated the role of sequence variation in cis on gene expression (cis sequence effects in a group of genes commonly studied in cancer research in lymphoblastoid cell lines. We estimated the proportion of genes exhibiting cis sequence effects and the proportion of gene expression variation explained by cis sequence effects using three different analytical approaches, and compared our results to the literature. Results We generated gene expression profiling data at N = 697 candidate genes from N = 30 lymphoblastoid cell lines for this study and used available candidate gene resequencing data at N = 552 candidate genes to identify N = 30 candidate genes with sufficient variance in both datasets for the investigation of cis sequence effects. We used two additive models and the haplotype phylogeny scanning approach of Templeton (Tree Scanning to evaluate association between individual SNPs, all SNPs at a gene, and diplotypes, with log-transformed gene expression. SNPs and diplotypes at eight candidate genes exhibited statistically significant (p cis sequence effects in our study, respectively. Conclusion Based on analysis of our results and the extant literature, one in four genes exhibits significant cis sequence effects, and for these genes, about 30% of gene expression variation is accounted for by cis sequence variation. Despite diverse experimental approaches, the presence or absence of significant cis sequence effects is largely supported by previously published studies.

  2. Metallothionein gene expression in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metallothioneins (MTs are a group of low-molecular weight, cysteine-rich proteins. In general, MT is known to modulate three fundamental processes: (1 the release of gaseous mediators such as hydroxyl radical or nitric oxide, (2 apoptosis and (3 the binding and exchange of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium or copper. Previous studies have shown a positive correlation between the expression of MT with invasion, metastasis and poor prognosis in various cancers. Most of the previous studies primarily used immunohistochemistry to analyze localization of MT in renal cell carcinoma (RCC. No information is available on the gene expression of MT2A isoform in different types and grades of RCC. Materials and Methods: In the present study, total RNA was isolated from 38 histopathologically confirmed cases of RCC of different types and grades. Corresponding adjacent normal renal parenchyma was taken as control. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR analysis was done for the MT2A gene expression using b-actin as an internal control. All statistical calculations were performed using SPSS software. Results: The MT2A gene expression was found to be significantly increased (P < 0.01 in clear cell RCC in comparison with the adjacent normal renal parenchyma. The expression of MT2A was two to three-fold higher in sarcomatoid RCC, whereas there was no change in papillary and collecting duct RCC. MT2A gene expression was significantly higher in lower grade (grades I and II, P < 0.05, while no change was observed in high-grade tumor (grade III and IV in comparison to adjacent normal renal tissue. Conclusion: The first report of the expression of MT2A in different types and grades of RCC and also these data further support the role of MT2A in tumorigenesis.

  3. Channel properties of Nax expressed in neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Nax is a sodium-concentration ([Na+]-sensitive Na channel with a gating threshold of ~150 mM for extracellular [Na+] ([Na+]o in vitro. We previously reported that Nax was preferentially expressed in the glial cells of sensory circumventricular organs including the subfornical organ, and was involved in [Na+] sensing for the control of salt-intake behavior. Although Nax was also suggested to be expressed in the neurons of some brain regions including the amygdala and cerebral cortex, the channel properties of Nax have not yet been adequately characterized in neurons. We herein verified that Nax was expressed in neurons in the lateral amygdala of mice using an antibody that was newly generated against mouse Nax. To investigate the channel properties of Nax expressed in neurons, we established an inducible cell line of Nax using the mouse neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro-2a, which is endogenously devoid of the expression of Nax. Functional analyses of this cell line revealed that the [Na+]-sensitivity of Nax in neuronal cells was similar to that expressed in glial cells. The cation selectivity sequence of the Nax channel in cations was revealed to be Na+ ≈ Li+ > Rb+ > Cs+ for the first time. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Nax bound to postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95 through its PSD95/Disc-large/ZO-1 (PDZ-binding motif at the C-terminus in neurons. The interaction between Nax and PSD95 may be involved in promoting the surface expression of Nax channels because the depletion of endogenous PSD95 resulted in a decrease in Nax at the plasma membrane. These results indicated, for the first time, that Nax functions as a [Na+]-sensitive Na channel in neurons as well as in glial cells.

  4. LocExpress: a web server for efficiently estimating expression of novel transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Mei; Tian, Feng; Jiang, Shuai; Kong, Lei; Yang, Dechang; Gao, Ge

    2016-12-22

    The temporal and spatial-specific expression pattern of a transcript in multiple tissues and cell types can indicate key clues about its function. While several gene atlas available online as pre-computed databases for known gene models, it's still challenging to get expression profile for previously uncharacterized (i.e. novel) transcripts efficiently. Here we developed LocExpress, a web server for efficiently estimating expression of novel transcripts across multiple tissues and cell types in human (20 normal tissues/cells types and 14 cell lines) as well as in mouse (24 normal tissues/cell types and nine cell lines). As a wrapper to RNA-Seq quantification algorithm, LocExpress efficiently reduces the time cost by making abundance estimation calls increasingly within the minimum spanning bundle region of input transcripts. For a given novel gene model, such local context-oriented strategy allows LocExpress to estimate its FPKMs in hundreds of samples within minutes on a standard Linux box, making an online web server possible. To the best of our knowledge, LocExpress is the only web server to provide nearly real-time expression estimation for novel transcripts in common tissues and cell types. The server is publicly available at http://loc-express.cbi.pku.edu.cn .

  5. Morphing between expressions dissociates continuous from categorical representations of facial expression in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Richard J.; Young, Andrew W.; Andrews, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Whether the brain represents facial expressions as perceptual continua or as emotion categories remains controversial. Here, we measured the neural response to morphed images to directly address how facial expressions of emotion are represented in the brain. We found that face-selective regions in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and the amygdala responded selectively to changes in facial expression, independent of changes in identity. We then asked whether the responses in these regions reflected categorical or continuous neural representations of facial expression. Participants viewed images from continua generated by morphing between faces posing different expressions such that the expression could be the same, could involve a physical change but convey the same emotion, or could differ by the same physical amount but be perceived as two different emotions. We found that the posterior superior temporal sulcus was equally sensitive to all changes in facial expression, consistent with a continuous representation. In contrast, the amygdala was only sensitive to changes in expression that altered the perceived emotion, demonstrating a more categorical representation. These results offer a resolution to the controversy about how facial expression is processed in the brain by showing that both continuous and categorical representations underlie our ability to extract this important social cue. PMID:23213218

  6. Expression of Na,K-ATPase and H,K-ATPase Isoforms with the Baculovirus Expression System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.B.; Swarts, H.G.

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases can be expressed in several cell systems. The baculovirus expressions system uses an insect virus to enter and express proteins in Sf9 insect cells. This expression system is a lytic system in which the cells will die a few days after viral infection. Subsequently, the expressed

  7. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages) seed coats (globular and torpedo stages) and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages) and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST) (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011) were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152) had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid clones that comprise

  8. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpe Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages seed coats (globular and torpedo stages and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011 were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152 had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid

  9. Transgene expression in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgene expression in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) ... and Bar genes for β-glucuronidase expression and bialaphos resistance respectively. ... expression also showed positive signals under PCR and Southern analysis giving ...

  10. Three new shuttle vectors for heterologous expression in Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Cao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: These results indicated that these expression vectors are useful tools for gene expression in Z. mobilis and this could provide a solid foundation for further studies of heterologous gene expression in Z. mobilis.

  11. Preventing, detecting & revising flaws in object property expressions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Keet, CM

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The OWL 2 DL ontology language is very expressive and has many features for declaring complex object property expressions. Standard reasoning services for OWL ontologies take these expressions as correct and according to the ontologist's intention...

  12. Processing of emotional facial expressions in Korsakoff's syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagne, B.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Wester, A.J.; Haan, E.H.F. de

    2006-01-01

    Interpersonal contacts depend to a large extent on understanding emotional facial expressions of others. Several neurological conditions may affect proficiency in emotional expression recognition. It has been shown that chronic alcoholics are impaired in labelling emotional expressions. More

  13. Time perception and dynamics of facial expressions of emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie L Fayolle

    Full Text Available Two experiments were run to examine the effects of dynamic displays of facial expressions of emotions on time judgments. The participants were given a temporal bisection task with emotional facial expressions presented in a dynamic or a static display. Two emotional facial expressions and a neutral expression were tested and compared. Each of the emotional expressions had the same affective valence (unpleasant, but one was high-arousing (expressing anger and the other low-arousing (expressing sadness. Our results showed that time judgments are highly sensitive to movements in facial expressions and the emotions expressed. Indeed, longer perceived durations were found in response to the dynamic faces and the high-arousing emotional expressions compared to the static faces and low-arousing expressions. In addition, the facial movements amplified the effect of emotions on time perception. Dynamic facial expressions are thus interesting tools for examining variations in temporal judgments in different social contexts.

  14. Decomposition of gene expression state space trajectories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C Mar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Representing and analyzing complex networks remains a roadblock to creating dynamic network models of biological processes and pathways. The study of cell fate transitions can reveal much about the transcriptional regulatory programs that underlie these phenotypic changes and give rise to the coordinated patterns in expression changes that we observe. The application of gene expression state space trajectories to capture cell fate transitions at the genome-wide level is one approach currently used in the literature. In this paper, we analyze the gene expression dataset of Huang et al. (2005 which follows the differentiation of promyelocytes into neutrophil-like cells in the presence of inducers dimethyl sulfoxide and all-trans retinoic acid. Huang et al. (2005 build on the work of Kauffman (2004 who raised the attractor hypothesis, stating that cells exist in an expression landscape and their expression trajectories converge towards attractive sites in this landscape. We propose an alternative interpretation that explains this convergent behavior by recognizing that there are two types of processes participating in these cell fate transitions-core processes that include the specific differentiation pathways of promyelocytes to neutrophils, and transient processes that capture those pathways and responses specific to the inducer. Using functional enrichment analyses, specific biological examples and an analysis of the trajectories and their core and transient components we provide a validation of our hypothesis using the Huang et al. (2005 dataset.

  15. A promoter-level mammalian expression atlas

    KAUST Repository

    Forest, Alistair R R

    2014-03-26

    Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body. We find that few genes are truly ‘housekeeping’, whereas many mammalian promoters are composite entities composed of several closely separated TSSs, with independent cell-type-specific expression profiles. TSSs specific to different cell types evolve at different rates, whereas promoters of broadly expressed genes are the most conserved. Promoter-based expression analysis reveals key transcription factors defining cell states and links them to binding-site motifs. The functions of identified novel transcripts can be predicted by coexpression and sample ontology enrichment analyses. The functional annotation of the mammalian genome 5 (FANTOM5) project provides comprehensive expression profiles and functional annotation of mammalian cell-type-specific transcriptomes with wide applications in biomedical research.

  16. Pragmatic expressions in cross-linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Overstreet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on some pragmatic expressions that are characteristic of informal spoken English, their possible equivalents in some other languages, and their use by EFL learners from different backgrounds. These expressions, called general extenders (e.g. and stuff, or something, are shown to be different from discourse markers and to exhibit variation in form, function and distribution across varieties of English, as well as in other languages. In EFL contexts, students are reported to use fewer pragmatic expressions and a smaller range of possible forms. They also tend to favor expressions more often associated with writing and formal speaking (e.g. and so on, include literal translation equivalents from their first language that are not used in English (e.g. and, and, and, or used only in restricted contexts (e.g. or so, and often seem not to realize that some forms may carry negative connotations (e.g. and blah, blah, blah. The possibility of fostering better pragmatic awareness among EFL students is discussed in terms of an explicit cross-linguistic focus on the forms and functions of pragmatic expressions.

  17. The perception of emotion in body expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, B; de Borst, A W; Watson, R

    2015-01-01

    During communication, we perceive and express emotional information through many different channels, including facial expressions, prosody, body motion, and posture. Although historically the human body has been perceived primarily as a tool for actions, there is now increased understanding that the body is also an important medium for emotional expression. Indeed, research on emotional body language is rapidly emerging as a new field in cognitive and affective neuroscience. This article reviews how whole-body signals are processed and understood, at the behavioral and neural levels, with specific reference to their role in emotional communication. The first part of this review outlines brain regions and spectrotemporal dynamics underlying perception of isolated neutral and affective bodies, the second part details the contextual effects on body emotion recognition, and final part discusses body processing on a subconscious level. More specifically, research has shown that body expressions as compared with neutral bodies draw upon a larger network of regions responsible for action observation and preparation, emotion processing, body processing, and integrative processes. Results from neurotypical populations and masking paradigms suggest that subconscious processing of affective bodies relies on a specific subset of these regions. Moreover, recent evidence has shown that emotional information from the face, voice, and body all interact, with body motion and posture often highlighting and intensifying the emotion expressed in the face and voice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A validated battery of vocal emotional expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Maurage

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, the exploration of emotions focused on facial expression, and vocal expression of emotion has only recently received interest. However, no validated battery of emotional vocal expressions has been published and made available to the researchers’ community. This paper aims at validating and proposing such material. 20 actors (10 men recorded sounds (words and interjections expressing six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, neutral and sadness. These stimuli were then submitted to a double validation phase: (1 preselection by experts; (2 quantitative and qualitative validation by 70 participants. 195 stimuli were selected for the final battery, each one depicting a precise emotion. The ratings provide a complete measure of intensity and specificity for each stimulus. This paper provides, to our knowledge, the first validated, freely available and highly standardized battery of emotional vocal expressions (words and intonations. This battery could constitute an interesting tool for the exploration of prosody processing among normal and pathological populations, in neuropsychology as well as psychiatry. Further works are nevertheless needed to complement the present material.

  19. IL-21 Receptor Expression in Human Tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail L. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying tendinopathy remain unclear, with much debate as to whether inflammation or degradation has the prominent role. Increasing evidence points toward an early inflammatory infiltrate and associated inflammatory cytokine production in human and animal models of tendon disease. The IL-21/IL-21R axis is a proinflammatory cytokine complex that has been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. This project aimed to investigate the role and expression of the cytokine/receptor pair IL-21/IL-21R in human tendinopathy. We found significantly elevated expression of IL-21 receptor message and protein in human tendon samples but found no convincing evidence of the presence of IL-21 at message or protein level. The level of expression of IL-21R message/protein in human tenocytes was significantly upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα/IL-1β in vitro. These findings demonstrate that IL-21R is present in early human tendinopathy mainly expressed by tenocytes and macrophages. Despite a lack of IL-21 expression, these data again suggest that early tendinopathy has an inflammatory/cytokine phenotype, which may provide novel translational targets in the treatment of tendinopathy.

  20. A promoter-level mammalian expression atlas

    KAUST Repository

    Forest, Alistair R R; Kawaji, Hideya; Rehli, Michael; Baillie, John Kenneth; De Hoon, Michiel Jl L; Haberle, Vanja; Lassmann, Timo; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.; Lizio, Marina; Itoh, Masayoshi; Andersson, Robin; Iida, Kei; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Jankovic, Boris R.; Jia, Hui; Joshi, Anagha Madhusudan; Jurman, Giuseppe; Kaczkowski, Bogumił; Kai, Chieko; Kaida, Kaoru; Kaiho, Ai; Mungall, Christopher J.; Kajiyama, Kazuhiro; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Kasianov, Artem S.; Kasukawa, Takeya; Katayama, Shintaro; Kato, Sachi; Kawaguchi, Shuji; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yuki I.; Kawashima, Tsugumi; Meehan, Terrence F.; Kempfle, Judith S.; Kenna, Tony J.; Kere, Juha; Khachigian, Levon M.; Kitamura, Toshio; Klinken, Svend Peter; Knox, Alan; Kojima, Miki; Kojima, Soichi; Kondo, Naoto; Schmeier, Sebastian; Koseki, Haruhiko; Koyasu, Shigeo; Krampitz, Sarah; Kubosaki, Atsutaka; Kwon, Andrew T.; Laros, Jeroen F J; Lee, Weonju; Lennartsson, Andreas; Li, Kang; Lilje, Berit; Bertin, Nicolas; Lipovich, Leonard; MacKay-Sim, Alan; Manabe, Riichiroh; Mar, Jessica; Marchand, Benoî t; Mathelier, Anthony; Mejhert, Niklas; Meynert, Alison M.; Mizuno, Yosuke; De Morais, David A Lima; Jø rgensen, Mette Christine; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Morimoto, Mitsuru; Moro, Kazuyo; Motakis, Efthymios; Motohashi, Hozumi; Mummery, Christine L.; Murata, Mitsuyoshi; Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Nakachi, Yutaka; Nakahara, Fumio; Dimont, Emmanuel; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Nakazato, Kenichi; Van Nimwegen, Erik; Ninomiya, Noriko; Nishiyori, Hiromi; Noma, Shohei; Nozaki, Tadasuke; Ogishima, Soichi; Ohkura, Naganari; Arner, Erik; Ohmiya, Hiroko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Okazaki, Yasushi; Orlando, Valerio; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A.; Pain, Arnab; Passier, Robert C J J; Patrikakis, Margaret; Schmidl, Christian; Persson, Helena A.; Piazza, Silvano; Prendergast, James G D; Rackham, Owen J L; Ramilowski, Jordan A.; Rashid, Mamoon; Ravasi, Timothy; Rizzu, Patrizia; Roncador, Marco; Roy, Sugata; Schaefer, Ulf; Rye, Morten Beck; Saijyo, Eri; Sajantila, Antti; Saka, Akiko; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Sakai, Mizuho; Sato, Hiroki; Satoh, Hironori; Savvi, Suzana; Saxena, Alka; Medvedeva, Yulia; Schneider, Claudio H.; Schultes, Erik A.; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula G.; Schwegmann, Anita; Sengstag, Thierry; Sheng, Guojun; Shimoji, Hisashi; Shimoni, Yishai; Shin, Jay W.; Simon, Chris M.; Plessy, Charles; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Takaaki; Suzuki, Masanori; Suzuki, Naoko; Swoboda, Rolf K.; 't Hoen, Peter Ac Chr; Tagami, Michihira; Tagami, Naokotakahashi; Takai, Jun; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Vitezic, Morana; Tatsukawa, Hideki; Tatum, Zuotian; Thompson, Mark; Toyoda, Hiroo; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Valen, Eivind; Van De Wetering, Marc L.; Van Den Berg, Linda M.; Verardo, Roberto; Vijayan, Dipti; Severin, Jessica M.; Vorontsov, Ilya E.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Watanabe, Shoko; Wells, Christine A.; Winteringham, Louise Natalie; Wolvetang, Ernst Jurgen; Wood, Emily J.; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yoneda, Misako; Semple, Colin Am M; Yonekura, Yohei; Yoshida, Shigehiro; Zabierowski, Susan E.; Zhang, Peter; Zhao, Xiaobei; Zucchelli, Silvia; Summers, Kim M.; Suzuki, Harukazu; Daub, Carsten Olivier; Kawai, Jun; Ishizu, Yuri; Heutink, Peter; Hide, Winston; Freeman, Tom C.; Lenhard, Boris; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Taylor, Martin S.; Makeev, Vsevolod J.; Sandelin, Albin; Hume, David A.; Carninci, Piero; Young, Robert S.; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide Yoshihide; Francescatto, Margherita; Altschuler, Intikhab Alam; Albanese, Davide; Altschule, Gabriel M.; Arakawa, Takahiro; Archer, John A.C.; Arner, Peter; Babina, Magda; Rennie, Sarah; Balwierz, Piotr J.; Beckhouse, Anthony G.; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Blake, Judith A.; Blumenthal, Antje; Bodega, Beatrice; Bonetti, Alessandro; Briggs, James A.; Brombacher, Frank; Burroughs, Alexander Maxwell; Califano, Andrea C.; Cannistraci, Carlo; Carbajo, Daniel; Chen, Yun; Chierici, Marco; Ciani, Yari; Clevers, Hans C.; Dalla, Emiliano; Davis, Carrie Anne; Detmar, Michael J.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Dohi, Taeko; Drablø s, Finn; Edge, Albert SB B; Edinger, Matthias G.; Ekwall, Karl; Endoh, Mitsuhiro; Enomoto, Hideki; Fagiolini, Michela; Fairbairn, Lynsey R.; Fang, Hai; Farach-Carson, Mary Cindy; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Favorov, Alexander V.; Fisher, Malcolm E.; Frith, Martin C.; Fujita, Rie; Fukuda, Shiro; Furlanello, Cesare; Furuno, Masaaki; Furusawa, Junichi; Geijtenbeek, Teunis Bh H; Gibson, Andrew P.; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Goldowitz, Dan; Gough, Julian; Guhl, Sven; Guler, Reto; Gustincich, Stefano; Ha, Thomas; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hara, Mitsuko; Harbers, Matthias; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hasegawa, Akira; Hasegawa, Yuki; Hashimoto, Takehiro; Herlyn, Meenhard F.; Hitchens, Kelly J.; Sui, Shannan J Ho; Hofmann, Oliver M.; Hoof, Ilka; Hori, Fumi; Huminiecki, Łukasz B.

    2014-01-01

    Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body. We find that few genes are truly ‘housekeeping’, whereas many mammalian promoters are composite entities composed of several closely separated TSSs, with independent cell-type-specific expression profiles. TSSs specific to different cell types evolve at different rates, whereas promoters of broadly expressed genes are the most conserved. Promoter-based expression analysis reveals key transcription factors defining cell states and links them to binding-site motifs. The functions of identified novel transcripts can be predicted by coexpression and sample ontology enrichment analyses. The functional annotation of the mammalian genome 5 (FANTOM5) project provides comprehensive expression profiles and functional annotation of mammalian cell-type-specific transcriptomes with wide applications in biomedical research.

  1. Differential gene expression during Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Krieger

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of epimastigotes into metacyclic trypomastigotes involves changes in the pattern of expressed genes, resulting in important morphological and functional differences between these developmental forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. In order to identify and characterize genes involved in triggering the metacyclogenesis process and in conferring to metacyclic trypomastigotes their stage specific biological properties, we have developed a method allowing the isolation of genes specifically expressed when comparing two close related cell populations (representation of differential expression or RDE. The method is based on the PCR amplification of gene sequences selected by hybridizing and subtracting the populations in such a way that after some cycles of hybridization-amplification genes specific to a given population are highly enriched. The use of this method in the analysis of differential gene expression during T. cruzi metacyclogenesis (6 hr and 24 hr of differentiation and metacyclic trypomastigotes resulted in the isolation of several clones from each time point. Northern blot analysis showed that some genes are transiently expressed (6 hr and 24 hr differentiating cells, while others are present in differentiating cells and in metacyclic trypomastigotes. Nucleotide sequencing of six clones characterized so far showed that they do not display any homology to gene sequences available in the GeneBank.

  2. Developmental Hypothyroidism Reduces the Expression of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) is a known effect of environmental contaminants. Neurotrophins including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) have been implicated in brain dysfunction resulting from severe developmental TH insufficiency. Neurotrophins are also implicated in activity-dependent plasticity, a process critical for appropriate use-dependent connectivity in the developing brain and for memory formation in the adult. This study examined activity-induced expression of neurotrophin gene products in the hippocampus using the long-term potentiation (LTP) after developmental hypothyroidism induced by propylthiouracil (PTU). Pregnant rats were exposed to PTU (0 or I0ppm) via the drinking water from early gestation to weaning. Adult male offspring were anesthetized with urethane and implanted with electrodes in the dentate gyrus (00) and perforant path (PP). LTP was induced by PP stimulation and responses from 00 were monitored at 15m intervals until sacrifice of the animals 5 h later. The 00 was dissected from the stimulated and nonstimulated hemispheres for rtPCR analysis of the neurotrophins Bdnf, Ngf, Ntf3 and related genes Egrl, Arc, Klf9. We found no PTU-induced difference in basal levels of expression of any of these genes in the nonstimulated 00. LTP increased expression of Bdnf, Ngf, Arc and Klj9 in the control DG, and reduced expression of Ntf3. LTP in DG from PTU animals failed to increase expression of Bdnf,

  3. Mothers' pupillary responses to infant facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yrttiaho, Santeri; Niehaus, Dana; Thomas, Eileen; Leppänen, Jukka M

    2017-02-06

    Human parental care relies heavily on the ability to monitor and respond to a child's affective states. The current study examined pupil diameter as a potential physiological index of mothers' affective response to infant facial expressions. Pupillary time-series were measured from 86 mothers of young infants in response to an array of photographic infant faces falling into four emotive categories based on valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (mild vs. strong). Pupil dilation was highly sensitive to the valence of facial expressions, being larger for negative vs. positive facial expressions. A separate control experiment with luminance-matched non-face stimuli indicated that the valence effect was specific to facial expressions and cannot be explained by luminance confounds. Pupil response was not sensitive to the arousal level of facial expressions. The results show the feasibility of using pupil diameter as a marker of mothers' affective responses to ecologically valid infant stimuli and point to a particularly prompt maternal response to infant distress cues.

  4. Evaluating Haskell expressions in a tutoring environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Olmer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of introductory textbooks for Haskell use calculations right from the start to give the reader insight into the evaluation of expressions and the behavior of functional programs. Many programming concepts that are important in the functional programming paradigm, such as recursion, higher-order functions, pattern-matching, and lazy evaluation, can be partially explained by showing a stepwise computation. A student gets a better understanding of these concepts if she performs these evaluation steps herself. Tool support for experimenting with the evaluation of Haskell expressions is currently lacking. In this paper we present a prototype implementation of a stepwise evaluator for Haskell expressions that supports multiple evaluation strategies, specifically targeted at education. Besides performing evaluation steps the tool also diagnoses steps that are submitted by a student, and provides feedback. Instructors can add or change function definitions without knowledge of the tool's internal implementation. We discuss some preliminary results of a small survey about the tool.

  5. IER3 Expression in Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Andrica; Zwaan, Christian M.; Danen van Ooschot, Astrid

    Background: Childhood myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a rare disease accounting for less than 5% of all hematological malignancies. In about 50% of the MDS cases an abnormal karyotype is found by conventional karyotyping, of which chromosome 6 is involved in 10%. The immediate-early-response 3...... (IER3) gene, which is located on chromosome 6p21, encodes for a glycoprotein that plays a role in the regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Recently, it was shown that IER3 gene aberrations frequently occur in adult MDS patients, which are not restricted to patients with chromosome 6...... aberrations and that low IER3 expression was associated with a worse outcome. Therefore, we investigated the frequency and prognostic impact of IER3 expression in childhood MDS. Methods: IER3 mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR in 58 childhood MDS patients of which 17 carried...

  6. Greater perceptual sensitivity to happy facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Stephen; Ekstrom, Tor; Chen, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Perception of subtle facial expressions is essential for social functioning; yet it is unclear if human perceptual sensitivities differ in detecting varying types of facial emotions. Evidence diverges as to whether salient negative versus positive emotions (such as sadness versus happiness) are preferentially processed. Here, we measured perceptual thresholds for the detection of four types of emotion in faces--happiness, fear, anger, and sadness--using psychophysical methods. We also evaluated the association of the perceptual performances with facial morphological changes between neutral and respective emotion types. Human observers were highly sensitive to happiness compared with the other emotional expressions. Further, this heightened perceptual sensitivity to happy expressions can be attributed largely to the emotion-induced morphological change of a particular facial feature (end-lip raise).

  7. Drug-induced regulation of target expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskar, Murat; Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Drug perturbations of human cells lead to complex responses upon target binding. One of the known mechanisms is a (positive or negative) feedback loop that adjusts the expression level of the respective target protein. To quantify this mechanism systems-wide in an unbiased way, drug......-induced differential expression of drug target mRNA was examined in three cell lines using the Connectivity Map. To overcome various biases in this valuable resource, we have developed a computational normalization and scoring procedure that is applicable to gene expression recording upon heterogeneous drug treatments....... In 1290 drug-target relations, corresponding to 466 drugs acting on 167 drug targets studied, 8% of the targets are subject to regulation at the mRNA level. We confirmed systematically that in particular G-protein coupled receptors, when serving as known targets, are regulated upon drug treatment. We...

  8. Podocalyxin expression in malignant astrocytic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayatsu, Norihito; Kaneko, Mika Kato; Mishima, Kazuhiko; Nishikawa, Ryo; Matsutani, Masao; Price, Janet E.; Kato, Yukinari

    2008-01-01

    Podocalyxin is an anti-adhesive mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein that has been implicated in the development of aggressive forms of cancer. Podocalyxin is also known as keratan sulfate (KS) proteoglycan. Recently, we revealed that highly sulfated KS or another mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein podoplanin/aggrus is upregulated in malignant astrocytic tumors. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between podocalyxin expression and malignant progression of astrocytic tumors. In this study, 51 astrocytic tumors were investigated for podocalyxin expression using immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry detected podocalyxin on the surface of tumor cells in six of 14 anaplastic astrocytomas (42.9%) and in 17 of 31 glioblastomas (54.8%), especially around proliferating endothelial cells. In diffuse astrocytoma, podocalyxin expression was observed only in vascular endothelial cells. Podocalyxin might be associated with the malignant progression of astrocytic tumors, and be a useful prognostic marker for astrocytic tumors

  9. EXPRESSING DISTRESS IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Gabriela FELEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Negative emotions (distress are recognized as part of the psychological profile of patients diagnosed with advanced stage cancer. However, most patients are not accustomed to verbalize feelings towards their physician, and generally towards family and medical care personnel. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the expression of emotions by patients in advanced stages of cancer, respectively the means by which they get to express emotions. To this respect, we identified the most common types of emotions expressed, or metaphors used by patients to describe their emotions and topics that trigger emotions. Words and phrases most commonly used are in relation to: fear, anxiety, depression, guilt, negligence, concern. They are uttered in order to depict the network created between disclosed emotions and topics on health status, symptoms, adverse effects and therapeutic choice, patient privacy, and social and family issues.

  10. Snail1 Expression Is Required for Sarcomagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Alba-Castellón

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Snail1 transcriptional repressor is a major inducer of epithelial-to mesenchymal transition but is very limitedly expressed in adult animals. We have previously demonstrated that Snail1 is required for the maintenance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, preventing their premature differentiation. Now, we show that Snail1 controls the tumorigenic properties of mesenchymal cells. Increased Snail1 expression provides tumorigenic capabilities to fibroblastic cells; on the contrary, Snail1 depletion decreases tumor growth. Genetic depletion of Snail1 in MSCs that are deficient in p53 tumor suppressor downregulates MSC markers and prevents the capability of these cells to originate sarcomas in immunodeficient SCID mice. Notably, an analysis of human sarcomas shows that, contrarily to epithelial tumors, these neoplasms display high Snail1 expression. This is particularly clear for undifferentiated tumors, which are associated with poor outcome. Together, our results indicate a role for Snail1 in the generation of sarcomas.

  11. Mental Health and Emotional Expression in Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglee Duran Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reports the results of the project “Mental health and emotional expression in Facebook”. The research was approached from the qualitative paradigm under virtual ethnographic approach, interpreting the findings through their own players and triangulated with the views of researchers and experts in the area of mental health, emotions and information technology and communication. We concluded that a good part of users vented their secrets on Facebook, where they are able to confide and express a range of emotions and intimacies that in the real context is unlikely to give. Along these findings show that the use of Facebook serves as a space for emotional expression impacting the mental and emotional health.

  12. Structural development of child's artistic expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Filipović

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Structural development implies control and capability of the expression usage in terms of independent creative expression and making. Understanding of structural development of child's artistic expression as a phenomenon (which is suitable to child's age has some implications on methodical acts considering the artistic education of children and youngsters. Therefore, it is of unexceptional importance to know these laws as well as methodical acts which encourage the structural development of artistic capabilities from an early age. Various experts dealt with this phenomenon, particularly Bogomil Karlavaris. In his methodical research, he has given an unexceptional part to this problem. It has been a starting point for analysis of certain methodical questions which are included in this work.

  13. Capsular Polysaccharide Expression in Commensal Streptococcus Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Sørensen, Uffe B; Yao, Kaihu; Yang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Expression of a capsular polysaccharide is considered a hallmark of most invasive species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which the capsule is among the principal virulence factors and is the basis for successful vaccines. Consequently, it was previously assumed that capsule....... pneumoniae evolved by import of cps fragments from commensal Streptococcus species, resulting in a mosaic of genes of different origins. The demonstrated antigenic identity of at least eight of the numerous capsular polysaccharide structures expressed by commensal streptococci with recognized serotypes of S...... of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is the basis for successful vaccines against infections caused by this important pathogen. Contrasting with previous assumptions, this study showed that expression of capsular polysaccharides by the same genetic mechanisms is a general property of closely related species...

  14. Brachyury expression in tailless Molgulid ascidian embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Norio; York, Jonathan; Davis, J Muse; Schumpert, Brenda; Yasuo, Hitoyoshi; Satoh, Nori; Swalla, Billie J

    2002-01-01

    The T-box transcription factor gene Brachyury is important for the differentiation of notochord in all chordates, including the ascidians Halocynthia roretzi and Ciona intestinalis. We isolated Brachyury from molgulid ascidians, which have evolved tailless larvae multiple times independently, and found the genes appear functional by cDNA sequence analyses. We then compared the expression of Mocu-Bra in tailed Molgula oculata embryos to two tailless species, Molgula occulta (Mocc-Bra) and Molgula tectiformis (Mt-Bra). Here we show that both tailless species express Brachyury in the notochord lineage during embryogenesis. Initial expression of Mocu-Bra is normal in tailed M. oculata embryos; 10 precursor notochord cells divide twice to result in 40 notochord cells that converge and extend to make a notochord down the center of the tail. In contrast, in tailless Molgula occulta, Mocc-Bra expression disappears prematurely, and there is only one round of division, resulting in 20 cells in the final notochord lineage that never converge or extend. In M. occulta x M. oculata hybrid embryos, expression of Mocu-Bra is prolonged, and the embryos form a tail with 20 notochord cells that converge and extend normally. However, in Molgula tectiformis, a different tailless ascidian, Mt-Bra was expressed only in the 10 notochord precursor cells, which never divide, converge, or extend. In summary, neither Brachyury function nor the early establishment of the notochord lineage appears to be impaired in tailless embryos. In light of these results, we are continuing to investigate how and why notochord development is lost in tailless molgulid ascidian embryos.

  15. Population-expression models of immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, Sean P; Antia, Rustom; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    The immune response to a pathogen has two basic features. The first is the expansion of a few pathogen-specific cells to form a population large enough to control the pathogen. The second is the process of differentiation of cells from an initial naive phenotype to an effector phenotype which controls the pathogen, and subsequently to a memory phenotype that is maintained and responsible for long-term protection. The expansion and the differentiation have been considered largely independently. Changes in cell populations are typically described using ecologically based ordinary differential equation models. In contrast, differentiation of single cells is studied within systems biology and is frequently modeled by considering changes in gene and protein expression in individual cells. Recent advances in experimental systems biology make available for the first time data to allow the coupling of population and high dimensional expression data of immune cells during infections. Here we describe and develop population-expression models which integrate these two processes into systems biology on the multicellular level. When translated into mathematical equations, these models result in non-conservative, non-local advection-diffusion equations. We describe situations where the population-expression approach can make correct inference from data while previous modeling approaches based on common simplifying assumptions would fail. We also explore how model reduction techniques can be used to build population-expression models, minimizing the complexity of the model while keeping the essential features of the system. While we consider problems in immunology in this paper, we expect population-expression models to be more broadly applicable. (paper)

  16. Gene expression in periodontal tissues following treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenacher Martin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In periodontitis, treatment aimed at controlling the periodontal biofilm infection results in a resolution of the clinical and histological signs of inflammation. Although the cell types found in periodontal tissues following treatment have been well described, information on gene expression is limited to few candidate genes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the expression profiles of immune and inflammatory genes in periodontal tissues from sites with severe chronic periodontitis following periodontal therapy in order to identify genes involved in tissue homeostasis. Gingival biopsies from 12 patients with severe chronic periodontitis were taken six to eight weeks following non-surgical periodontal therapy, and from 11 healthy controls. As internal standard, RNA of an immortalized human keratinocyte line (HaCaT was used. Total RNA was subjected to gene expression profiling using a commercially available microarray system focusing on inflammation-related genes. Post-hoc confirmation of selected genes was done by Realtime-PCR. Results Out of the 136 genes analyzed, the 5% most strongly expressed genes compared to healthy controls were Interleukin-12A (IL-12A, Versican (CSPG-2, Matrixmetalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1, Down syndrome critical region protein-1 (DSCR-1, Macrophage inflammatory protein-2β (Cxcl-3, Inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (BIRC-1, Cluster of differentiation antigen 38 (CD38, Regulator of G-protein signalling-1 (RGS-1, and Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma virus oncogene (C-FOS; the 5% least strongly expressed genes were Receptor-interacting Serine/Threonine Kinase-2 (RIP-2, Complement component 3 (C3, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (COX-2, Interleukin-8 (IL-8, Endothelin-1 (EDN-1, Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-2 (PAI-2, Matrix-metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14, and Interferon regulating factor-7 (IRF-7. Conclusion Gene expression profiles found in periodontal tissues following

  17. Shadows Alter Facial Expressions of Noh Masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Miyata, Hiromitsu; Nishimura, Ritsuko; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Background A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers’ recognition of the emotional expressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. Conclusions/Significance Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa’s smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art “yugen (profound grace and subtlety)”, which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness. PMID:23940748

  18. Covariance expressions for eigenvalue and eigenvector problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liounis, Andrew J.

    There are a number of important scientific and engineering problems whose solutions take the form of an eigenvalue--eigenvector problem. Some notable examples include solutions to linear systems of ordinary differential equations, controllability of linear systems, finite element analysis, chemical kinetics, fitting ellipses to noisy data, and optimal estimation of attitude from unit vectors. In many of these problems, having knowledge of the eigenvalue and eigenvector Jacobians is either necessary or is nearly as important as having the solution itself. For instance, Jacobians are necessary to find the uncertainty in a computed eigenvalue or eigenvector estimate. This uncertainty, which is usually represented as a covariance matrix, has been well studied for problems similar to the eigenvalue and eigenvector problem, such as singular value decomposition. There has been substantially less research on the covariance of an optimal estimate originating from an eigenvalue-eigenvector problem. In this thesis we develop two general expressions for the Jacobians of eigenvalues and eigenvectors with respect to the elements of their parent matrix. The expressions developed make use of only the parent matrix and the eigenvalue and eigenvector pair under consideration. In addition, they are applicable to any general matrix (including complex valued matrices, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors) as long as the eigenvalues are simple. Alongside this, we develop expressions that determine the uncertainty in a vector estimate obtained from an eigenvalue-eigenvector problem given the uncertainty of the terms of the matrix. The Jacobian expressions developed are numerically validated with forward finite, differencing and the covariance expressions are validated using Monte Carlo analysis. Finally, the results from this work are used to determine covariance expressions for a variety of estimation problem examples and are also applied to the design of a dynamical system.

  19. Human Eosinophils Express Functional CCR7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Estanislau, Jessica; Weller, Peter F.

    2013-01-01

    Human eosinophils display directed chemotactic activity toward an array of soluble chemokines. Eosinophils have been observed to migrate to draining lymph nodes in experimental models of allergic inflammation, yet it is unknown whether eosinophils express CCR7, a key chemokine receptor in coordinating leukocyte trafficking to lymph nodes. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate expression of CCR7 by human eosinophils and functional responses to CCL19 and CCL21, the known ligands of CCR7. Human eosinophils were purified by negative selection from healthy donors. CCR7 expression of freshly purified, unstimulated eosinophils and of IL-5–primed eosinophils was determined by flow cytometry and Western blot. Chemotaxis to CCL19 and CCL21 was measured in transwell assays. Shape changes to CCL19 and CCL21 were analyzed by flow cytometry and microscopy. Calcium fluxes of fluo-4 AM–loaded eosinophils were recorded by flow cytometry after chemokine stimulation. ERK phosphorylation of CCL19- and CCL21-stimulated eosinophils was measured by Western blot and Luminex assay. Human eosinophils expressed CCR7 as demonstrated by flow cytometry and Western blots. Eosinophils exhibited detectable cell surface expression of CCR7. IL-5–primed eosinophils exhibited chemotaxis toward CCL19 and CCL21 in a dose-dependent fashion. Upon stimulation with CCL19 or CCL21, IL-5–primed eosinophils demonstrated dose-dependent shape changes with polarization of F-actin and exhibited calcium influxes. Finally, primed eosinophils stimulated with CCL19 or CCL21 exhibited increased phosphorylation of ERK in response to both CCR7 ligands. We demonstrate that human eosinophils express CCR7 and have multipotent responses to the known ligands of CCR7. PMID:23449735

  20. Expert Oracle Application Express Plug-Ins

    CERN Document Server

    D'Souza, Martin Giffy

    2011-01-01

    Expert Oracle Application Express Plugins is your "go to" book on the groundbreaking plugin architecture introduced in Oracle Application Express 4.0. Using the new APEX functionality, you can create well-packaged, documented, reusable components and reliably leverage your coding investments across many applications. Components you create can define new item and region types, specify validation processes, and present dynamic actions to client applications. You can design innovative and colorful ways to display information, such as displaying the temperature using an image of a thermometer, or

  1. MHC class II expression in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yayi; Rozeboom, Leslie; Rivard, Christopher J; Ellison, Kim; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Caicun; Hirsch, Fred R

    2017-10-01

    Immunotherapy is an exciting development in lung cancer research. In this study we described major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II protein expression in lung cancer cell lines and patient tissues. We studied MHC Class II (DP, DQ, DR) (CR3/43, Abcam) protein expression in 55 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, 42 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and 278 lung cancer patient tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven (12.7%) NSCLC cell lines were positive for MHC Class II. No SCLC cell lines were found to be MHC Class II positive. We assessed 139 lung cancer samples available in the Hirsch Lab for MHC Class II. There was no positive MHC Class II staining on SCLC tumor cells. MHC Class II expression on TILs in SCLC was significantly lower than that on TILs in NSCLC (P<0.001). MHC Class II was also assessed in an additional 139 NSCLC tumor tissues from Medical University of Gdansk, Poland. Patients with positive staining of MHC Class II on TILs had longer regression-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those whose TILs were MHC Class II negative (2.980 years, 95% CI 1.628-4.332 vs. 1.050 years, 95% CI 0.556-1.554, P=0.028) (3.230 years, 95% CI 2.617-3.843 vs. 1.390 years, 95% CI 0.629-2.151, P=0.014). MHC Class II was expressed both in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. However, MHC Class II was not detected in SCLC cell lines or tissue tumor cells. MHC Class II expression was lower on SCLC TILs than on NSCLC TILs. Loss of expression of MHC Class II on SCLC tumor cells and reduced expression on SCLC TILs may be a means of escaping anti-cancer immunity. Higher MHC Class II expression on TILs was correlated with better prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Parts Characterization for Tunable Protein Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Michael Schantz; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Flow-seq combines flexible genome engineering methods with flow cytometry-based cell sorting and deep DNA sequencing to enable comprehensive interrogation of genotype to phenotype relationships. One application is to study the effect of specific regulatory elements on protein expression. Construc......Flow-seq combines flexible genome engineering methods with flow cytometry-based cell sorting and deep DNA sequencing to enable comprehensive interrogation of genotype to phenotype relationships. One application is to study the effect of specific regulatory elements on protein expression...

  3. Assigning Numerical Scores to Linguistic Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Campión

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study different methods of scoring linguistic expressions defined on a finite set, in the search for a linear order that ranks all those possible expressions. Among them, particular attention is paid to the canonical extension, and its representability through distances in a graph plus some suitable penalization of imprecision. The relationship between this setting and the classical problems of numerical representability of orderings, as well as extension of orderings from a set to a superset is also explored. Finally, aggregation procedures of qualitative rankings and scorings are also analyzed.

  4. Encapsulated social perception of emotional expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smortchkova, Joulia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the detection of emotional expressions is, in its early stages, informationally encapsulated. I clarify and defend such a view via the appeal to data from social perception on the visual processing of faces, bodies, facial and bodily expressions. Encapsulated social perception might exist alongside processes that are cognitively penetrated, and that have to do with recognition and categorization, and play a central evolutionary function in preparing early and rapid responses to the emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Oncomirs Expression Profiling in Uterine Leiomyosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Cristine de Almeida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that act as regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They play a key role in several biological processes. Their abnormal expression may lead to malignant cell transformation. This study aimed to evaluate the expression profile of 84 miRNAs involved in tumorigenesis in immortalized cells of myometrium (MM, uterine leiomyoma (ULM, and uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS. Specific cell lines were cultured and qRT-PCR was performed. Thirteen miRNAs presented different expression profiles in ULM and the same thirteen in ULMS compared to MM. Eight miRNAs were overexpressed, and five were underexpressed in ULM. In ULMS cells, five miRNAs exhibited an overexpression and eight were down-regulated. Six miRNAs (miR-1-3p, miR-130b-3p, miR-140-5p, miR-202-3p, miR-205-5p, and miR-7-5p presented a similar expression pattern in cell lines compared to patient samples. Of these, only three miRNAs showed significant expression in ULM (miR-1-3p, miR-140-5p, and miR-7-5p and ULMS (miR-1-3p, miR-202-3p, and miR-7-5p. Our preliminary approach identified 24 oncomirs with an altered expression profile in ULM and ULMS cells. We identified four differentially expressed miRNAs with the same profile when compared with patients’ samples, which strongly interacted with relevant genes, including apoptosis regulator (BCL2, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA, insulin like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R,serine/threonine kinase (RAF1, receptor tyrosine kinase (MET, and bHLH transcription factor (MYCN. This led to alterations in their mRNA-target.

  6. MEMBRANE LEc EXPRESSION IN BREAST CANCER CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. A. Udalova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Affine chromatography was used to isolate Lec antibodies from the sera of a healthy female donor with the high titers of these anti- bodies, which were labeled with biotin. The study enrolled 51 patients with primary breast cancer (BC. Antigen expression was found by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. With these two techniques being used, the detection rate of Lec expression in BC cells was 65% (33/51; the antigen was most frequently found by flow cytometry as compared with immunohistochemistry: 72 and 58% of cases, respectively.

  7. Comparative gene expression of intestinal metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ho-Chul; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Cho, Hee-Jung; Yi, Hee; Cho, Soo-Min; Lee, Dong-Goo; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Jin-Suk; Sun, Duxin; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the expression profiles of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the intestine of mouse, rat and human. Total RNA was isolated from the duodenum and the mRNA expression was measured using Affymetrix GeneChip oligonucleotide arrays. Detected genes from the intestine of mouse, rat and human were ca. 60% of 22690 sequences, 40% of 8739 and 47% of 12559, respectively. Total genes of metabolizing enzymes subjected in this study were 95, 33 and 68 genes in mouse, rat and human, respectively. Of phase I enzymes, the mouse exhibited abundant gene expressions for Cyp3a25, Cyp4v3, Cyp2d26, followed by Cyp2b20, Cyp2c65 and Cyp4f14, whereas, the rat showed higher expression profiles of Cyp3a9, Cyp2b19, Cyp4f1, Cyp17a1, Cyp2d18, Cyp27a1 and Cyp4f6. However, the highly expressed P450 enzymes were CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP4F3, CYP2C18, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A7, CYP11B1 and CYP2B6 in the human. For phase II enzymes, glucuronosyltransferase Ugt1a6, glutathione S-transferases Gstp1, Gstm3 and Gsta2, sulfotransferase Sult1b1 and acyltransferase Dgat1 were highly expressed in the mouse. The rat revealed predominant expression of glucuronosyltransferases Ugt1a1 and Ugt1a7, sulfotransferase Sult1b1, acetyltransferase Dlat and acyltransferase Dgat1. On the other hand, in human, glucuronosyltransferases UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, glutathione S-transferases MGST3, GSTP1, GSTA2 and GSTM4, sulfotransferases ST1A3 and SULT1A2, acetyltransferases SAT1 and CRAT, and acyltransferase AGPAT2 were dominantly detected. Therefore, current data indicated substantial interspecies differences in the pattern of intestinal gene expression both for P450 enzymes and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes. This genomic database is expected to improve our understanding of interspecies variations in estimating intestinal prehepatic clearance of oral drugs.

  8. PCI-kortin muuntaminen PCI Express -kortiksi

    OpenAIRE

    Vilander, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa yritykselle PCI-väylään kytkettävän kortin tilalle jokin modernimpi vaihtoehto kuitenkin tekemällä uuden laitteen toiminnasta yhteensopiva kohdelaitteen kanssa. Kortin muuntaminen PCI Express -väylän kanssa yhteensopivaksi oli lopulta kaikkein miellyttävin ratkaisu. Opinnäytetyössä perehdytään PCI- ja PCI Express -väylien toimintaan sekä elektroniikka– ja piirilevysuunnitteluun liittyviin asioihin. The purpose of this thesis is ...

  9. Positron emission tomography imaging of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ganghua

    2001-01-01

    The merging of molecular biology and nuclear medicine is developed into molecular nuclear medicine. Positron emission tomography (PET) of gene expression in molecular nuclear medicine has become an attractive area. Positron emission tomography imaging gene expression includes the antisense PET imaging and the reporter gene PET imaging. It is likely that the antisense PET imaging will lag behind the reporter gene PET imaging because of the numerous issues that have not yet to be resolved with this approach. The reporter gene PET imaging has wide application into animal experimental research and human applications of this approach will likely be reported soon

  10. CXCR3 expression and activation of eosinophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinquan, T; Jing, C; Jacobi, H H

    2000-01-01

    CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3), predominately expressed on memory/activated T lymphocytes, is a receptor for both IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 (gamma IP-10) and monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig). We report a novel finding that CXCR3 is also expressed on eosinophils. gamma IP-10 and Mig induce...... in eosinophils are up- and down-regulated by IL-2 and IL-10, respectively, as detected using flow cytometry, immunocytochemical assay, and a real-time quantitative RT-PCR technique. gamma IP-10 and Mig act eosinophils to induce chemotaxis via the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A signaling pathways. The fact...

  11. Lithium ions induce prestalk-associated gene expression and inhibit prespore gene expression in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Dorien J.M.; Lookeren Campagne, Michiel M. van; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Spek, Wouter; Schaap, Pauline

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Li+ on two types of cyclic AMP-regulated gene expression and on basal and cyclic AMP-stimulated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) levels. Li+ effectively inhibits cyclic AMP-induced prespore gene expression, half-maximal inhibition occurring at about 2mM-LiCl.

  12. Scaling of gene expression data allowing the comparison of different gene expression platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruissen, Fred; Schaaf, Gerben J.; Kool, Marcel; Baas, Frank; Ruijter, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and microarrays have found a widespread application, but much ambiguity exists regarding the amalgamation of the data resulting from these technologies. Cross-platform utilization of gene expression data from the SAGE and microarray technology could reduce

  13. Athero Express : ATHERO-sclerotic plaque EXPRESSion in relation to vascular events and patient characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, B.A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Athero-Express is a tissue bank study, designed to investigate the expression of atherosclerotic derived biological variables in relation to the long-term outcome of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Its design includes both cross-sectional and follow-up studies, the results from which

  14. Gene Expression Commons: an open platform for absolute gene expression profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Seita

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling using microarrays has been limited to comparisons of gene expression between small numbers of samples within individual experiments. However, the unknown and variable sensitivities of each probeset have rendered the absolute expression of any given gene nearly impossible to estimate. We have overcome this limitation by using a very large number (>10,000 of varied microarray data as a common reference, so that statistical attributes of each probeset, such as the dynamic range and threshold between low and high expression, can be reliably discovered through meta-analysis. This strategy is implemented in a web-based platform named "Gene Expression Commons" (https://gexc.stanford.edu/ which contains data of 39 distinct highly purified mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor/differentiated cell populations covering almost the entire hematopoietic system. Since the Gene Expression Commons is designed as an open platform, investigators can explore the expression level of any gene, search by expression patterns of interest, submit their own microarray data, and design their own working models representing biological relationship among samples.

  15. Perceiving and producing facial expressions of emotion : The role of dynamic expressions and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, X.

    2018-01-01

    We spend much of our waking lives interacting with other people, reading their facial expressions to figure out what they might be feeling, thinking, or intending to do next (Ekman 1994; Fridlund 1994). At the same time, we also express our own feelings, thoughts, and intentions through facial

  16. Methods of milk expression for lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Genevieve E; Smith, Hazel A; Cooney, Fionnuala

    2016-09-29

    Breastfeeding is important, however not all infants can feed at the breast and methods of expressing milk need evaluation. To assess acceptability, effectiveness, safety, effect on milk composition, contamination and costs of methods of milk expression. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (21 March 2016), handsearched relevant journals and conference proceedings, and contacted experts in the field to seek additional published or unpublished studies. We also examined reference lists of all relevant retrieved papers. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing methods at any time after birth. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. This updated review includes 41 trials involving 2293 participants, with 22 trials involving 1339 participants contributing data for analysis. Twenty-six of the trials referred to mothers of infants in neonatal units (n = 1547) and 14 to mothers of healthy infants at home (n = 730), with one trial containing mothers of both neonatal and healthy older infants (n = 16). Eleven trials compared one or more types of pump versus hand expression and 14 studies compared one type of pump versus another type of pump, with three of these studies comparing both hand expression and pump types. Twenty studies compared a specific protocol or adjunct behaviour including sequential versus simultaneous pumping protocols, pumping frequency, provision of an education and support intervention, relaxation, breast massage, combining hand expression with pumping and a breast cleansing protocol.Due to heterogeneity in participants, interventions, and outcomes measured or reported, we were unable to pool findings for most of the specified outcomes. It was not possible therefore to produce a 'Summary of findings' table in this update. Most of the included results were derived from single studies. Trials took place in 14 countries under

  17. Serial Expression Analysis: a web tool for the analysis of serial gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nueda, Maria José; Carbonell, José; Medina, Ignacio; Dopazo, Joaquín; Conesa, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Serial transcriptomics experiments investigate the dynamics of gene expression changes associated with a quantitative variable such as time or dosage. The statistical analysis of these data implies the study of global and gene-specific expression trends, the identification of significant serial changes, the comparison of expression profiles and the assessment of transcriptional changes in terms of cellular processes. We have created the SEA (Serial Expression Analysis) suite to provide a complete web-based resource for the analysis of serial transcriptomics data. SEA offers five different algorithms based on univariate, multivariate and functional profiling strategies framed within a user-friendly interface and a project-oriented architecture to facilitate the analysis of serial gene expression data sets from different perspectives. SEA is available at sea.bioinfo.cipf.es. PMID:20525784

  18. Anger expression among Danish cyclists and drivers: A comparison based on mode specific anger expression inventories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    , gender, self-reported aggressive behaviours and traffic fines: Women scored for instance lower in physical expression, while older people scored higher in constructive expression. The effect of age and gender on anger expression among drivers and cyclists remained significant when controlling......Based on the short form of the driving anger expression inventory (DAX-short, 15-item), the present study developed an adapted version of the DAX for cyclists (CAX, 14 items). The data basis was an online survey of 2000 inhabitants of Denmark. A principle component analysis on the translated DAX...... for exposure and other factors in linear regression analyses. These analyses also showed a relationship between a positive attitude towards driving and higher levels of anger expression among drivers, while this was not the case for cyclists....

  19. FTO is expressed in neurones throughout the brain and its expression is unaltered by fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, James S; Lee, Sheena; Iberl, Michaela; Church, Chris; Cox, Roger D; Ashcroft, Frances M

    2011-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the first intron of the ubiquitously expressed FTO gene are associated with obesity. Although the physiological functions of FTO remain unclear, food intake is often altered when Fto expression levels are manipulated. Furthermore, deletion of FTO from neurones alone has a similar effect on food intake to deletion of FTO in all tissues. These results indicate that FTO expression in the brain is particularly important. Considerable focus has been placed on the dynamic regulation of Fto mRNA expression in the hypothalamus after short-term (16-48 hour) fasting, but results have been controversial. There are no studies that quantify FTO protein levels across the brain, and assess its alteration following short-term fasting. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that FTO protein is widely expressed in mouse brain, and present in the majority of neurones. Using quantitative Western blotting and RT-qPCR we show that FTO protein and mRNA levels in the hypothalamus, cerebellum and rostral brain are relatively uniform, and levels in the brain are higher than in skeletal muscles of the lower limbs. Fasting for 18 hours does not alter the expression pattern, or levels, of FTO protein and mRNA. We further show that the majority of POMC neurones, which are critically involved in food intake regulation, also express FTO, but that the percentage of FTO-positive POMC neurones is not altered by fasting. In summary, we find no evidence that Fto/FTO expression is regulated by short-term (18-hour) fasting. Thus, it is unlikely that the hunger and increased post-fasting food intake caused by such food deprivation is driven by alterations in Fto/FTO expression. The widespread expression of FTO in neurones also suggests that physiological studies of this protein should not be limited to the hypothalamus.

  20. FTO is expressed in neurones throughout the brain and its expression is unaltered by fasting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S McTaggart

    Full Text Available Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the first intron of the ubiquitously expressed FTO gene are associated with obesity. Although the physiological functions of FTO remain unclear, food intake is often altered when Fto expression levels are manipulated. Furthermore, deletion of FTO from neurones alone has a similar effect on food intake to deletion of FTO in all tissues. These results indicate that FTO expression in the brain is particularly important. Considerable focus has been placed on the dynamic regulation of Fto mRNA expression in the hypothalamus after short-term (16-48 hour fasting, but results have been controversial. There are no studies that quantify FTO protein levels across the brain, and assess its alteration following short-term fasting. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that FTO protein is widely expressed in mouse brain, and present in the majority of neurones. Using quantitative Western blotting and RT-qPCR we show that FTO protein and mRNA levels in the hypothalamus, cerebellum and rostral brain are relatively uniform, and levels in the brain are higher than in skeletal muscles of the lower limbs. Fasting for 18 hours does not alter the expression pattern, or levels, of FTO protein and mRNA. We further show that the majority of POMC neurones, which are critically involved in food intake regulation, also express FTO, but that the percentage of FTO-positive POMC neurones is not altered by fasting. In summary, we find no evidence that Fto/FTO expression is regulated by short-term (18-hour fasting. Thus, it is unlikely that the hunger and increased post-fasting food intake caused by such food deprivation is driven by alterations in Fto/FTO expression. The widespread expression of FTO in neurones also suggests that physiological studies of this protein should not be limited to the hypothalamus.

  1. Reconstructing dynamic mental models of facial expressions in prosopagnosia reveals distinct representations for identity and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richoz, Anne-Raphaëlle; Jack, Rachael E; Garrod, Oliver G B; Schyns, Philippe G; Caldara, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The human face transmits a wealth of signals that readily provide crucial information for social interactions, such as facial identity and emotional expression. Yet, a fundamental question remains unresolved: does the face information for identity and emotional expression categorization tap into common or distinct representational systems? To address this question we tested PS, a pure case of acquired prosopagnosia with bilateral occipitotemporal lesions anatomically sparing the regions that are assumed to contribute to facial expression (de)coding (i.e., the amygdala, the insula and the posterior superior temporal sulcus--pSTS). We previously demonstrated that PS does not use information from the eye region to identify faces, but relies on the suboptimal mouth region. PS's abnormal information use for identity, coupled with her neural dissociation, provides a unique opportunity to probe the existence of a dichotomy in the face representational system. To reconstruct the mental models of the six basic facial expressions of emotion in PS and age-matched healthy observers, we used a novel reverse correlation technique tracking information use on dynamic faces. PS was comparable to controls, using all facial features to (de)code facial expressions with the exception of fear. PS's normal (de)coding of dynamic facial expressions suggests that the face system relies either on distinct representational systems for identity and expression, or dissociable cortical pathways to access them. Interestingly, PS showed a selective impairment for categorizing many static facial expressions, which could be accounted for by her lesion in the right inferior occipital gyrus. PS's advantage for dynamic facial expressions might instead relate to a functionally distinct and sufficient cortical pathway directly connecting the early visual cortex to the spared pSTS. Altogether, our data provide critical insights on the healthy and impaired face systems, question evidence of deficits

  2. Metallothionein expression and roles in the CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena

    2002-01-01

      Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight (6-7 kDa) nonenzymatic proteins (60-68 amino acid residues, 25-30% being cysteine) expressed ubiquitous in the animal kingdom. In the central nervous system (CNS), three MT isoforms are known, namely MT-I to MT-III. MT-I and MT-II (MT...

  3. Expressivity in Children's Drawings: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, William

    This paper reports a follow-up study of 5-, 7-, and 9-year-old subjects who had participated in an investigation of the nature of children's and adults' ability to graphically represent expressive qualities (i.e., happy, sad, angry, loud, quiet, hard). In the original study, the use of literal representation (such as a smiling face on a tree) and…

  4. Expression of cocoa butter from cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Schouten, N.; Hink, R.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of temperature (40–110 °C), applied mechanical pressure (20–80 MPa), applied pressure profile (constant/linearly increasing) and moisture content (0–8 wt.%, wet basis) on the expression of cocoa nibs were investigated. The maximum cocoa butter yield is achieved at 100 °C. The optimum

  5. Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression of Cocoa Nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to investigate the expression of cocoa nibs and a way to optimise the cocoa butter yield (defined as the mass of cocoa butter recovered as a percentage of the total cocoa butter content) obtainable from cocoa nibs without modifying the composition of the cocoa

  6. Identification of differentially expressed sequences in bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The developmental process of lily flower bud differentiation has been studied in morphology thoroughly, but the mechanism in molecular biology is still ambiguous and few studies on genetic expression have been carried out. Little is known about the physiological responses of flower bud differentiation in Oriental hybrid lily ...

  7. Giant omental lipoblastoma and CD56 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Miyano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of giant omental lipoblastoma in a 13-month-old boy, which was treated successfully by total excision. Tumor cells were positive for S100, CD34 and CD56. This is the first report of lipoblastoma expressing CD56, a fact that could be used to differentiate lipoblastoma from liposarcoma.

  8. Analysis of baseline gene expression levels from ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of gene expression profiling to predict chemical mode of action would be enhanced by better characterization of variance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis of microarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the control arm of toxicogenomics studies has yielded useful information on baseline fluctuations in gene expression. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Technical Committee on the Application of Genomics in Mechanism Based Risk Assessment in order to provide a public resource for assessments of variability in baseline gene expression. Data from over 500 Affymetrix microarrays from control rat liver and kidney were collected from 16 different institutions. Thirty-five biological and technical factors were obtained for each animal, describing a wide range of study characteristics, and a subset were evaluated in detail for their contribution to total variability using multivariate statistical and graphical techniques. The study factors that emerged as key sources of variability included gender, organ section, strain, and fasting state. These and other study factors were identified as key descriptors that should be included in the minimal information about a toxicogenomics study needed for interpretation of results by an independent source. Genes that are the most and least variable, gender-selectiv

  9. Evaluating Haskell expressions in a tutoring environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmer, Tim; Heeren, Bastiaan; Jeuring, Johan

    2014-01-01

    A number of introductory textbooks for Haskell use calculations right from the start to give the reader insight into the evaluation of expressions and the behavior of functional programs. Many programming concepts that are important in the functional programming paradigm, such as recursion,

  10. Expressive Drawing Ability in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Richard P.; O'Kelly, Rachael; Barlow, Claire M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The autistic impairments in emotional and social competence, imagination and generating ideas predict qualitative differences in expressive drawings by children with autism beyond that accounted by any general learning difficulties. In a sample of 60 5-19-year-olds, happy and sad drawings were requested from 15 participants with non-savant autism…

  11. Mastering web application development with Express

    CERN Document Server

    Vlăduțu, Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Node.js developer who wants to take your Express skills to the next level and develop high performing, reliable web applications using best practices, this book is ideal for you. The only prerequisite is knowledge of Node.js.

  12. Generation of chickens expressing Cre recombinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Philip A; Pedersen, Darlene; Ching, Kathryn; Collarini, Ellen J; Izquierdo, Shelley; Jacob, Roy; van de Lavoir, Marie-Cecile

    2016-10-01

    Cre recombinase has been extensively used for genome engineering in transgenic mice yet its use in other species has been more limited. Here we describe the generation of transgenic chickens expressing Cre recombinase. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive chicken primordial germ cells were stably transfected with β-actin-Cre-recombinase using phiC31 integrase and transgenic chickens were generated. Cre recombinase activity was verified by mating Cre birds to birds carrying a floxed transgene. Floxed sequences were only excised in offspring from roosters that inherited the Cre recombinase but were excised in all offspring from hens carrying the Cre recombinase irrespective of the presence of the Cre transgene. The Cre recombinase transgenic birds were healthy and reproductively normal. The Cre and GFP genes in two of the lines were closely linked whereas the genes segregated independently in a third line. These founders allowed development of GFP-expressing and non-GFP-expressing Cre recombinase lines. These lines of birds create a myriad of opportunities to study developmentally-regulated and tissue-specific expression of transgenes in chickens.

  13. 7 CFR 27.99 - Values; expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Values; expression. 27.99 Section 27.99 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Price Quotations and Differences § 27.99 Values...

  14. On finding algebraic expressions for genealogical coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyauskas, J.M.; Shimonis, V.Ch.; Rudzikas, Z.B.

    1979-01-01

    It has been attempted to obtain analytical expressions for genealogical coefficients with one detached electron in the case of L-S coupling. A method of second quantization and tensorial properties of the quasi-spin operator are applied. It is restricted to the states for the classification of which the seigniority quantum number v is sufficient. Three ways of the acquirement of these expressions are discussed: 1. In the recurrent way wave functions of N and N-1 electrons are built, consequently expressing these functions in terms of the creation-annihilation operators. 2. Recurrent summation with the use of evident, simple genealogical coefficients. 3. Using the ratios, connecting the genealogical coefficients with the normalized multiplier. The data are presented in formulae and discussions. The generalization of the Redmond's formula is obtained and relatively simple algebraic expressions of the genealogical coefficients of the equivalent electron configurations, for the distinction of the recurrent terms of which introduction of the seigniority quantum number v is sufficient, are given

  15. Progranulin expression in advanced human atherosclerotic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yoji; Ono, Koh; Inoue, Katsumi; Takagi, Yasushi; Kikuta, Ken-ichiro; Nishimura, Masaki; Yoshida, Yoshinori; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Matsumae, Hironobu; Furukawa, Yutaka; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Kimura, Takeshi; Kita, Toru; Tanaka, Makoto

    2009-09-01

    Progranulin (PGRN) is a unique growth factor that plays an important role in cutaneous wound healing. It has an anti-inflammatory effect and promotes cell proliferation. However, when it is degraded to granulin peptides (GRNs) by neutrophil proteases, a pro-inflammatory reaction occurs. Since injury, inflammation and repair are common features in the progression of atherosclerosis, it is conceivable that PGRN plays a role in atherogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis of human carotid endoatherectomy specimens indicated that vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) in the intima expressed PGRN. Some macrophages in the plaque also expressed PGRN. We assessed the effect of PGRN on a human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). PGRN alone had no effect on HASMC or THP-1 proliferation or migration. However, when THP-1 cells were stimulated with MCP-1, the number of migrated cells decreased in a PGRN-dose-dependent manner. TNF-alpha-induced HASMC migration was enhanced only at 10nM of PGRN. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from HASMCs was reduced by forced expression of PGRN and increased by RNAi-mediated knockdown of PGRN. While exogenous treatment with recombinant PGRN decreased IL-8 secretion, degraded recombinant GRNs increased IL-8 secretion from HASMCs. The expression of PGRN mainly reduces inflammation and its degradation into GRNs enhances inflammation in atherosclerotic plaque and may contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis.

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF ) receptor expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avidin-biotin complex method was employed for immunohistochemical detection of VEGF. Results: VEGF immuno-expression was positive in 51.9% of CRC, while it was 18.2% in the normal colonic tissue (p<0.05). VEGF immunostaining was positively correlated with grade of colonic malignancy (p<0.05). Conclusion: ...

  17. Gene expression of the endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas; Friis-Hansen, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    that the endolymphatic sac has multiple and diverse functions in the inner ear. Objectives:The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of the genes expressed in the endolymphatic sac in the rat and perform a functional characterization based on measured mRNA abundance. Methods:Microarray technology...

  18. Gas assisted Mechanical Expression of oilseeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, P.

    2007-01-01

    It is the objective of this thesis to show the general applicability of the Gas Assisted Mechanical Expression (GAME) process for recovery of oil from oilseeds with high yields. In this process, the oilseeds are saturated with supercritical CO2 before mechanical pressing. The CO2 displaces part of

  19. Expression and characterization of recombinant human serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C-peptide (CP), connecting the A and B chains in proinsulin, has been considered to possess physiological effects in diabetes. In order to prolong the half-life of CP in vivo, a long acting CP analog [human serum albumin (HSA-CP)] was obtained by direct gene fusion of a single-chain CP to HSA and expressed in host ...

  20. Fixed expressions and the production of idioms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD-thesis explores the mental representations of Fixed Expressions (FEs). Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the field of FEs and provides an overview of Chapters 2-5. In Chapter 2, research on the frequency of Dutch FEs is reported. The results suggest that about 7% of written Dutch language

  1. Heterologous expression of biologically active chicken granulocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After being screened by yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) containing high concentrations of Zeocin and direct PCR, the positive clone was cultured in flask with buffered minimal methanol (BMMY) and expression induced by methanol. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot ...

  2. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  3. Expression of p53 in oligodendrogliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Kros (Johan); J.J.C.J. Godschalk (J. J C J); K.K. Krishnadath (Kausilia); C.G. van Eden (C.)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe expression of the nuclear protein p53 in oligodendrogliomas was investigated by immunohistochemistry, using a monoclonal anti-p53 antibody (DO-7) on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material in 84 histologically verified cases, and compared with the histopathological grade and

  4. Expression of p53 in oligodendrogliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, J. M.; Godschalk, J. J.; Krishnadath, K. K.; van Eden, C. G.

    1993-01-01

    The expression of the nuclear protein p53 in oligodendrogliomas was investigated by immunohistochemistry, using a monoclonal anti-p53 antibody (DO-7) on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material in 84 histologically verified cases, and compared with the histopathological grade and survival.

  5. Freedom of Expression in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2003-01-01

    Uses question and answer format to discuss scope of elementary students' First Amendment freedom of expression rights. For example, does the First Amendment prevent the disciplining of a sixth grader for writing a sexually inappropriate remark in another student's notebook? Answer: No. (Contains 13 references.) (PKP)

  6. Chiral discotics; expression and amplification of chirality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunsveld, L.; Meijer, E.W.; Rowan, A.E.; Nolte, R.J.M.; Denmark, S.E.; Nolte, R.J.M.; Meijer, E.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution, chirality and discotic liquid crystals are discussed as a tool for studying the self-assembly of these molecules, both in solution and in the solid state. Therefore, the objective of this chapter is to summarize and elucidate how molecular chirality can be expressed in discotic

  7. Inferring gene networks from discrete expression data

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, L.

    2013-07-18

    The modeling of gene networks from transcriptional expression data is an important tool in biomedical research to reveal signaling pathways and to identify treatment targets. Current gene network modeling is primarily based on the use of Gaussian graphical models applied to continuous data, which give a closedformmarginal likelihood. In this paper,we extend network modeling to discrete data, specifically data from serial analysis of gene expression, and RNA-sequencing experiments, both of which generate counts of mRNAtranscripts in cell samples.We propose a generalized linear model to fit the discrete gene expression data and assume that the log ratios of the mean expression levels follow a Gaussian distribution.We restrict the gene network structures to decomposable graphs and derive the graphs by selecting the covariance matrix of the Gaussian distribution with the hyper-inverse Wishart priors. Furthermore, we incorporate prior network models based on gene ontology information, which avails existing biological information on the genes of interest. We conduct simulation studies to examine the performance of our discrete graphical model and apply the method to two real datasets for gene network inference. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  8. Emotion expression in human punishment behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Erte; Houser, Daniel

    2005-05-17

    Evolutionary theory reveals that punishment is effective in promoting cooperation and maintaining social norms. Although it is accepted that emotions are connected to punishment decisions, there remains substantial debate over why humans use costly punishment. Here we show experimentally that constraints on emotion expression can increase the use of costly punishment. We report data from ultimatum games, where a proposer offers a division of a sum of money and a responder decides whether to accept the split, or reject and leave both players with nothing. Compared with the treatment in which expressing emotions directly to proposers is prohibited, rejection of unfair offers is significantly less frequent when responders can convey their feelings to the proposer concurrently with their decisions. These data support the view that costly punishment might itself be used to express negative emotions and suggest that future studies will benefit by recognizing that human demand for emotion expression can have significant behavioral consequences in social environments, including families, courts, companies, and markets.

  9. On written expression of primary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Normative rules of standard Serbian language are acquired during primary and secondary education through curriculum demands of Serbian language instruction, which takes place in three fields: grammar, orthography and culture of expression. Topic of interest in this paper is the quality of written expression of 6th and 7th grade pupils, in the context of all three fields specified to be mastered by the curriculum of Serbian language. Research comprised 148 primary school pupils from Belgrade. Linguistic analysis of spontaneously created written text was performed, in the conditions where it was not explicitly demanded form the pupil to write correctly. The results indicate that the majority of pupils make spelling and grammatical errors, meeting the condition for the basic level of mastering the knowledge in Serbian language according to the standards specified for the end of compulsory education. In addition to this, a considerable majority of pupils has a satisfactory level of culture of written expression. Pupils more often make spelling than grammatical errors. Seventh grade pupils are better than sixth grade pupils with respect to adhering to grammar rules and according to culture of written expression, while the mark in Serbian language and general school achievement of pupils correlate only with the degree of adhering to the orthographic rules. It was concluded that not only individual programs of support for pupils who make more errors are necessary, but also launching national projects for the development of linguistic competence of the young in Serbia.

  10. Decidability and Expressiveness of Recursive Weighted Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2014-01-01

    Labelled weighted transition systems (LWSs) are transition systems labelled with actions and real numbers. The numbers represent the costs of the corresponding actions in terms of resources. RecursiveWeighted Logic (RWL) is a multimodal logic that expresses qualitative and quantitative properties...

  11. Emotion expression in body action and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dael, Nele; Mortillaro, Marcello; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-10-01

    Emotion communication research strongly focuses on the face and voice as expressive modalities, leaving the rest of the body relatively understudied. Contrary to the early assumption that body movement only indicates emotional intensity, recent studies have shown that body movement and posture also conveys emotion specific information. However, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms is hampered by a lack of production studies informed by a theoretical framework. In this research we adopted the Body Action and Posture (BAP) coding system to examine the types and patterns of body movement that are employed by 10 professional actors to portray a set of 12 emotions. We investigated to what extent these expression patterns support explicit or implicit predictions from basic emotion theory, bidimensional theory, and componential appraisal theory. The overall results showed partial support for the different theoretical approaches. They revealed that several patterns of body movement systematically occur in portrayals of specific emotions, allowing emotion differentiation. Although a few emotions were prototypically expressed by one particular pattern, most emotions were variably expressed by multiple patterns, many of which can be explained as reflecting functional components of emotion such as modes of appraisal and action readiness. It is concluded that further work in this largely underdeveloped area should be guided by an appropriate theoretical framework to allow a more systematic design of experiments and clear hypothesis testing.

  12. Expressions of Emotion as Mediated by Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarriba, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    In her thoughtful work regarding various aspects of emotion and emotion related words, Pavlenko explores a variety of perspectives on how we might characterize and conceptualize expressions of emotion. It is a work that is quite rich in breadth--one that leads to a variety of different thoughts on this topic, many of which are amenable to…

  13. literacy.ca EXPRESS. April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This issue of "literacy.ca EXPRESS" focuses on poverty. The articles included in this issue are: (1) Poverty Overview; (2) Tony's Story; (3) LAN (Learner Advisory Network) Member's Story (Dianne Smith); (4) Linking Adult Literacy to Poverty Reduction; (5) MCL (Movement for Canadian Literacy) Update; (6) Highlights from the LAN; (7) Good…

  14. Artistic Expressions as Primary Modes of Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNiff, Shaun

    2011-01-01

    "Art-Based Research" (McNiff, 1998a) introduced the idea of using artistic expressions by researchers as ways of knowing and methods of inquiry as distinguished from approaching art made by subjects as data which are interpreted by discursive methods, a practice that has been widely used in various disciplines studying human behaviour.…

  15. Endogenous retrovirus sequences expressed in male mammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To review the research findings on the expression of endogenous retroviruses and retroviral-related particles in male mammalian reproductive tissues, and to discuss their possible role in normal cellular events and association with disease conditions in male reproductive tissues. Data sources: Published ...

  16. Real-time PCR gene expression profiling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubista, Mikael; Sjögreen, B.; Forootan, A.; Šindelka, Radek; Jonák, Jiří; Andrade, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2007), s. 56-60 ISSN 1360-8606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500520601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : real - time PCR, * expression profiling * statistical analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. Expression and Purification of Sperm Whale Myoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen; Indivero, Virginia; Burkhard, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    We present a multiweek laboratory exercise that exposes students to the fundamental techniques of bacterial expression and protein purification through the preparation of sperm whale myoglobin. Myoglobin, a robust oxygen-binding protein, contains a single heme that gives the protein a reddish color, making it an ideal subject for the teaching…

  18. Gene expression profiling in autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovin, Lone Frier; Brynskov, Jørn; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2007-01-01

    A central issue in autoimmune disease is whether the underlying inflammation is a repeated stereotypical process or whether disease specific gene expression is involved. To shed light on this, we analysed whether genes previously found to be differentially regulated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA...

  19. Theorising creative expression in children's participation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper suggests that phenomenology, the anthropology of the senses and of embodiment, performance theory and multi-modal pedagogies offer a rich set of theoretical ideas with which to consider children's expressive repertoires as overlooked forms of social participation and critique. Four case studies in relation to ...

  20. Learners' right to freedom of written expression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Learners' right to freedom of written expression. W.J. van Vollenhoven. Department of Education Management and Policy Studies, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 South Africa wvvollen@postino.up.ac.za. Charles I. Glenn. Training and Policy Studies of the University Professors' Program, University of Boston. Although ...

  1. Cytokine gene expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... Key words: Lipopolysaccharide, lymphocytes, TLRs, cytokines. INTRODUCTION. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a predominant glycolipid in the outer membranes of Gam-negative bacteria, stimulates monocyte, macrophages, and neutrophils and increase expression of cell adhesion molecules (Trent et al., ...

  2. Limits to expression on religion in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade conflicts about expression on religion have increased globally. Generally, these conflicts are regarded as a conflict between freedom of speech and freedom of thought, conscience and religion. In France there are many active religious interest groups that aim to protect a

  3. Pointing and Voicing in Deictic Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levelt, Willem J. M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study of how the interdependence of speech and gesture is realized in the course of motor planning and execution. Do the two systems operate interactively or do they operate in a ballistic or independent fashion? Four experiments showed that, for deictic expressions, the ballistic view is very nearly correct. (SED)

  4. Exposure Influences Expressive Timing Judgments in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; Ladinig, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    This study is concerned with the question whether, and to what extent, listeners' previous exposure to music in everyday life, and expertise as a result of formal musical training, play a role in making expressive timing judgments in music. This was investigated by using a Web-based listening experiment in which listeners with a wide range of…

  5. Supplementary data: Materials and methods RNA expression ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ritt8

    Supplementary data: Materials and methods. RNA expression analysis. Freshly collected tissue was taken in TRIzol reagent for total RNA isolation according to the manufacturer's protocol. The cDNA synthesis was carried out in 1 μg total RNA using Random hexamer (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, USA) and Superscript III ...

  6. Expression of recombinant Streptokinase from local Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We reported for the first time the expression of a recombinant SK from a local Streptococcus strain. When produced on industrial scale this r-SK may substantially contribute to reducing the costs of thrombolytic therapy in developing countries. In this study, a highly purified r-SK from Streptococcus sp. isolated from Egyptian ...

  7. Electroacupuncture at the Wangu acupoint suppresses expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The 54 healthy, male, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, 9 months old, and of clean grade (300-450) g, were randomly divided into three groups: sham surgery group, VD group and electro-acupuncture group. The ethology scores of VD rats were evaluated and the mRNA expressions of inflammatory ...

  8. Expression and characterization of recombinant ecarin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonebring, A.; Lange, U.; Bucha, E.; Deinum, J.; Elg, M.; Lovgren, A.

    2012-01-01

    The snake venom protease ecarin from Echis carinatus was expressed in stable transfected CHO-S cells grown in animal component free cell culture medium. Recombinant ecarin (r-ecarin) was secreted from the suspension adapted Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-S) host cells as a pro-protein and activation to

  9. Exposure influences expressive timing judgments in music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; Ladinig, O.

    2009-01-01

    This study is concerned with the question whether, and to what extent, listeners' previous exposure to music in everyday life, and expertise as a result of formal musical training, play a role in making expressive timing judgments in music. This was investigated by using a Web-based listening

  10. Children's Sensitivity to Expression in Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Andrew S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents three studies of children's ability to create and detect expressions of emotion in drawings. Compared to younger children, older children used more strategies, experimented with line and color, and were more likely to explore themes of death, aging, and illness. Includes sample drawings and statistical tables. (MJP)

  11. 37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... before the date of issue or publication unless it is actually received by appropriate officials in time... application to avoid publication of the application (see § 1.211(a)(1)) must submit a declaration of express abandonment by way of a petition under this paragraph including the fee set forth in § 1.17(h) in sufficient...

  12. Analysis of musical expression in audio signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Simon

    2003-01-01

    In western art music, composers communicate their work to performers via a standard notation which specificies the musical pitches and relative timings of notes. This notation may also include some higher level information such as variations in the dynamics, tempo and timing. Famous performers are characterised by their expressive interpretation, the ability to convey structural and emotive information within the given framework. The majority of work on audio content analysis focusses on retrieving score-level information; this paper reports on the extraction of parameters describing the performance, a task which requires a much higher degree of accuracy. Two systems are presented: BeatRoot, an off-line beat tracking system which finds the times of musical beats and tracks changes in tempo throughout a performance, and the Performance Worm, a system which provides a real-time visualisation of the two most important expressive dimensions, tempo and dynamics. Both of these systems are being used to process data for a large-scale study of musical expression in classical and romantic piano performance, which uses artificial intelligence (machine learning) techniques to discover fundamental patterns or principles governing expressive performance.

  13. Ameloblasts express type I collagen during amelogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaraf-Weill, N; Gasse, B; Silvent, J; Bardet, C; Sire, J Y; Davit-Béal, T

    2014-05-01

    Enamel and enameloid, the highly mineralized tooth-covering tissues in living vertebrates, are different in their matrix composition. Enamel, a unique product of ameloblasts, principally contains enamel matrix proteins (EMPs), while enameloid possesses collagen fibrils and probably receives contributions from both odontoblasts and ameloblasts. Here we focused on type I collagen (COL1A1) and amelogenin (AMEL) gene expression during enameloid and enamel formation throughout ontogeny in the caudate amphibian, Pleurodeles waltl. In this model, pre-metamorphic teeth possess enameloid and enamel, while post-metamorphic teeth possess enamel only. In first-generation teeth, qPCR and in situ hybridization (ISH) on sections revealed that ameloblasts weakly expressed AMEL during late-stage enameloid formation, while expression strongly increased during enamel deposition. Using ISH, we identified COL1A1 transcripts in ameloblasts and odontoblasts during enameloid formation. COL1A1 expression in ameloblasts gradually decreased and was no longer detected after metamorphosis. The transition from enameloid-rich to enamel-rich teeth could be related to a switch in ameloblast activity from COL1A1 to AMEL synthesis. P. waltl therefore appears to be an appropriate animal model for the study of the processes involved during enameloid-to-enamel transition, especially because similar events probably occurred in various lineages during vertebrate evolution.

  14. Immunohistochemical expression of latent membrane protein 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded NPC biopsies were evaluated in 23 Moroccan patients for the presence of LMP1 and p53 using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: No LMP1 expression was observed whereas 8 of 23 cases (34. 7%) had detectable p53 protein in the nuclei of tumor cells.

  15. Expression and subcellular localization of antiporter regulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined the expression and subcellular localization of antiporter regulating protein OsARP in a submergence tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar FR13A. In the public databases, this protein was designated as putative Os02g0465900 protein. The cDNA containing the full-length sequence of OsARP gene was ...

  16. Gene expression in early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, Petra; Buist, Marrije R.; Moerland, Perry D.; van Thernaat, Emiel Ver Loren; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.; Baas, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Pelvic lymph node metastases are the main prognostic factor for survival in early stage cervical cancer, yet accurate detection methods before surgery are lacking. In this study, we examined whether gene expression profiling can predict the presence of lymph node metastasis in early stage

  17. Shrinkage Approach for Gene Expression Data Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haman, Jiří; Valenta, Zdeněk; Kalina, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 65-65 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : shrinkage estimation * covariance matrix * high dimensional data * gene expression Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  18. Judgment of facial expressions and depression persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hale, WW

    1998-01-01

    In research it has been demonstrated that cognitive and interpersonal processes play significant roles in depression development and persistence. The judgment of emotions displayed in facial expressions by depressed patients allows for a better understanding of these processes. In this study, 48

  19. Theorising Creative Expression in Children's Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Patricia C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper suggests that phenomenology, the anthropology of the senses and of embodiment, performance theory and multi-modal pedagogies offer a rich set of theoretical ideas with which to consider children's expressive repertoires as overlooked forms of social participation and critique. Four case studies in relation to children's photography,…

  20. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION IN ETHIOPIA: THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    freedom of expression as provided under the FDRE Constitution. Then, some ... M (CEU); Addis Ababa University School of Law, Currently on .... The other line of reasoning that is adopted to justify the protection of speech is one that makes ...

  1. Gene Expression in the Human Endolymphatic Sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Kirkeby, Svend; Vikeså, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    a1 sodium-bicarbonate transporter, SLC9a2 sodium-hydrogen transporter, SLC12a3 thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl transporter, and SLC34a2 sodium-phosphate transporter. CONCLUSIONS: Several important ion transporters of the SLC family are expressed in the human endolymphatic sac, including Pendrin...

  2. Bit-coded regular expression parsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Henglein, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    the DFA-based parsing algorithm due to Dub ´e and Feeley to emit the bits of the bit representation without explicitly materializing the parse tree itself. We furthermore show that Frisch and Cardelli’s greedy regular expression parsing algorithm can be straightforwardly modified to produce bit codings...

  3. Imaging gene expression in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, Leonard I.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on 'suicide gene therapy' of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k + ) has been use for 'suicide' in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k + gene expression where the H S V-1 t k + gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([ 18 F]F H P G; [ 18 F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([ 123 / 131 I]I V R F U; [ 124 / 131I ]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [ 123 / 131I ]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k + reporter gene will be presented

  4. Nuclear AXIN2 represses MYC gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennoll, Sherri A.; Konsavage, Wesley M.; Yochum, Gregory S., E-mail: gsy3@psu.edu

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •AXIN2 localizes to cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments in colorectal cancer cells. •Nuclear AXIN2 represses the activity of Wnt-responsive luciferase reporters. •β-Catenin bridges AXIN2 to TCF transcription factors. •AXIN2 binds the MYC promoter and represses MYC gene expression. -- Abstract: The β-catenin transcriptional coactivator is the key mediator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, β-catenin associates with a cytosolic and multi-protein destruction complex where it is phosphorylated and targeted for proteasomal degradation. In the presence of Wnt, the destruction complex is inactivated and β-catenin translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, β-catenin binds T-cell factor (TCF) transcription factors to activate expression of c-MYC (MYC) and Axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2). AXIN2 is a member of the destruction complex and, thus, serves in a negative feedback loop to control Wnt/β-catenin signaling. AXIN2 is also present in the nucleus, but its function within this compartment is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AXIN2 localizes to the nuclei of epithelial cells within normal and colonic tumor tissues as well as colorectal cancer cell lines. In the nucleus, AXIN2 represses expression of Wnt/β-catenin-responsive luciferase reporters and forms a complex with β-catenin and TCF. We demonstrate that AXIN2 co-occupies β-catenin/TCF complexes at the MYC promoter region. When constitutively localized to the nucleus, AXIN2 alters the chromatin structure at the MYC promoter and directly represses MYC gene expression. These findings suggest that nuclear AXIN2 functions as a rheostat to control MYC expression in response to Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  5. Nuclear AXIN2 represses MYC gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennoll, Sherri A.; Konsavage, Wesley M.; Yochum, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •AXIN2 localizes to cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments in colorectal cancer cells. •Nuclear AXIN2 represses the activity of Wnt-responsive luciferase reporters. •β-Catenin bridges AXIN2 to TCF transcription factors. •AXIN2 binds the MYC promoter and represses MYC gene expression. -- Abstract: The β-catenin transcriptional coactivator is the key mediator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, β-catenin associates with a cytosolic and multi-protein destruction complex where it is phosphorylated and targeted for proteasomal degradation. In the presence of Wnt, the destruction complex is inactivated and β-catenin translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, β-catenin binds T-cell factor (TCF) transcription factors to activate expression of c-MYC (MYC) and Axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2). AXIN2 is a member of the destruction complex and, thus, serves in a negative feedback loop to control Wnt/β-catenin signaling. AXIN2 is also present in the nucleus, but its function within this compartment is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AXIN2 localizes to the nuclei of epithelial cells within normal and colonic tumor tissues as well as colorectal cancer cell lines. In the nucleus, AXIN2 represses expression of Wnt/β-catenin-responsive luciferase reporters and forms a complex with β-catenin and TCF. We demonstrate that AXIN2 co-occupies β-catenin/TCF complexes at the MYC promoter region. When constitutively localized to the nucleus, AXIN2 alters the chromatin structure at the MYC promoter and directly represses MYC gene expression. These findings suggest that nuclear AXIN2 functions as a rheostat to control MYC expression in response to Wnt/β-catenin signaling

  6. Temporal expression-based analysis of metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara B Collins

    Full Text Available Metabolic flux is frequently rerouted through cellular metabolism in response to dynamic changes in the intra- and extra-cellular environment. Capturing the mechanisms underlying these metabolic transitions in quantitative and predictive models is a prominent challenge in systems biology. Progress in this regard has been made by integrating high-throughput gene expression data into genome-scale stoichiometric models of metabolism. Here, we extend previous approaches to perform a Temporal Expression-based Analysis of Metabolism (TEAM. We apply TEAM to understanding the complex metabolic dynamics of the respiratorily versatile bacterium Shewanella oneidensis grown under aerobic, lactate-limited conditions. TEAM predicts temporal metabolic flux distributions using time-series gene expression data. Increased predictive power is achieved by supplementing these data with a large reference compendium of gene expression, which allows us to take into account the unique character of the distribution of expression of each individual gene. We further propose a straightforward method for studying the sensitivity of TEAM to changes in its fundamental free threshold parameter θ, and reveal that discrete zones of distinct metabolic behavior arise as this parameter is changed. By comparing the qualitative characteristics of these zones to additional experimental data, we are able to constrain the range of θ to a small, well-defined interval. In parallel, the sensitivity analysis reveals the inherently difficult nature of dynamic metabolic flux modeling: small errors early in the simulation propagate to relatively large changes later in the simulation. We expect that handling such "history-dependent" sensitivities will be a major challenge in the future development of dynamic metabolic-modeling techniques.

  7. Imaging gene expression in gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, Leonard I. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada). Noujaim Institute for Pharmaceutical Oncology Research

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on `suicide gene therapy` of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k{sup +}) has been use for `suicide` in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k{sup +} gene expression where the H S V-1 t k{sup +} gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([{sup 18} F]F H P G; [{sup 18} F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([{sup 123}/{sup 131} I]I V R F U; [{sup 124}/{sup 131I}]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [{sup 123}/{sup 131I}]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k{sup +} reporter gene will be presented

  8. Different Serotonergic Expression in Nevomelanocytic Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naimi-Akbar, Clara; Ritter, Markus; Demel, Sasika; El-Nour, Husameldin; Hedblad, Mari-Anne [Dermatology and Venereology Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna (Sweden); Azmitia, Efrain C. [Department of Biology and Psychiatry, New York University, NY (United States); Nordlind, Klas, E-mail: klas.nordlind@karolinska.se [Dermatology and Venereology Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna (Sweden)

    2010-06-07

    The neuromediator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) has been proposed to play a role in tumor progression. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to determine whether alterations in the serotonergic system occur in nevomelanocytic tumors. For this purpose, paraffin-embedded biopsies of superficial spreading malignant melanoma (SSM), dysplastic compound nevi (DN) and benign compound nevi (BCN) were characterized with regard to their expression of 5-HT, the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, and the serotonin transporter protein (SERT), by immunohistochemical analysis. Melanocytes in the region surrounding the tumor were found to express both the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. Tumor cells that immunostained positively for the different serotonergic markers were observed in the suprabasal epidermis of DN tissue and, to an even greater extent, in the case of SSM. Furthermore, some of these latter cells expressed both 5-HT1AR and 5-HT2AR. The level of expression of 5-HT1AR at the junctional area was lower for SSM than for DN or BCN. As the degree of atypia increased, the intensity of tumor cell staining in the dermis for 5-HT1AR and SERT declined. Vessel immunoreactivity for 5-HT2A was more intense in SSM than in BCN tissue. Round-to-dendritic cells that expressed both SERT and 5-HT1AR were seen to infiltrate into the dermal region of the tumor, this infiltration being more evident in the case of DN and SSM. These latter cells were also tryptase-positive, indicating that they are mast cells. Thus, alterations in serotonergic system may be involved in nevomelanocytic tumors and mast cells may play an important role in this connection.

  9. Probiotic metabolites from Bacillus coagulans GanedenBC30TM support maturation of antigen-presenting cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Kathleen F; Redman, Kimberlee A; Carter, Steve G; Keller, David; Farmer, Sean; Endres, John R; Jensen, Gitte S

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of probiotic metabolites on maturation stage of antigen-presenting immune cells. METHODS: Ganeden Bacillus coagulans 30 (GBC30) bacterial cultures in log phase were used to isolate the secreted metabolite (MET) fraction. A second fraction was made to generate a crude cell-wall-enriched fraction, by centrifugation and lysis, followed by washing. A preparation of MET was subjected to size exclusion centrifugation, generating three fractions: < 3 kDa, 3-30 kDa, and 30-200 kDa and activities were tested in comparison to crude MET and cell wall in primary cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) as a source of antigen-presenting mononuclear phagocytes. The maturation status of mononuclear phagocytes was evaluated by staining with monoclonal antibodies towards CD14, CD16, CD80 and CD86 and analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Treatment of PBMC with MET supported maturation of mononuclear phagocytes toward both macrophage and dendritic cell phenotypes. The biological activity unique to the metabolites included a reduction of CD14+ CD16+ pro-inflammatory cells, and this property was associated with the high molecular weight metabolite fraction. Changes were also seen for the dendritic cell maturation markers CD80 and CD86. On CD14dim cells, an increase in both CD80 and CD86 expression was seen, in contrast to a selective increase in CD86 expression on CD14bright cells. The co-expression of CD80 and CD86 indicates effective antigen presentation to T cells and support of T helper cell differentiation. The selective expression of CD86 in the absence of CD80 points to a role in generating T regulatory cells. CONCLUSION: The data show that a primary mechanism of action of GBC30 metabolites involves support of more mature phenotypes of antigen-presenting cells, important for immunological decision-making. PMID:22563167

  10. Expression of MIF and CD74 in leukemic cell lines: correlation to DR expression destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgouli, Mirella; Papadimitriou, Lina; Glymenaki, Maria; Patsaki, Valia; Athanassakis, Irene

    2016-06-01

    Invariant chain (Ii) or CD74 is a non-polymorphic glycoprotein, which apart from its role as a chaperone dedicated to MHCII molecules, is known to be a high-affinity receptor for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). The present study aimed to define the roles of CD74 and MIF in the immune surveillance escape process. Towards this direction, the cell lines HL-60, Raji, K562 and primary pre-B leukemic cells were examined for expression and secretion of MIF. Flow cytometry analysis detected high levels of MIF and intracellular/membrane CD74 expression in all leukemic cells tested, while MIF secretion was shown to be inversely proportional to intracellular HLA-DR (DR) expression. In the MHCII-negative cells, IFN-γ increased MIF expression and induced its secretion in HL-60 and K562 cells, respectively. In K562 cells, CD74 (Iip33Iip35) was shown to co-precipitate with HLA-DOβ (DOβ), inhibiting thus MIF or DR binding. Induced expression of DOα in K562 (DOα-DOβ+) cells in different transfection combinations decreased MIF expression and secretion, while increasing surface DR expression. Thus, MIF could indeed be part of the antigen presentation process.

  11. Characterization and Oral Delivery of Proinsulin-Transferrin Fusion Protein Expressed Using ExpressTec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Sheng Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Proinsulin-transferrin fusion protein (ProINS-Tf has been designed and successfully expressed from the mammalian HEK293 cells (HEK-ProINS-Tf. It was found that HEK-ProINS-Tf could be converted into an activated form in the liver. Furthermore, HEK-ProINS-Tf was demonstrated as an extra-long acting insulin analogue with liver-specific insulin action in streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1 diabetic mice. However, due to the low production yield from transfected HEK293 cells, there are other interesting features, including the oral bioavailability, which have not been fully explored and characterized. To improve the protein production yield, an alternative protein expression system, ExpressTec using transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L., was used. The intact and active rice-derived ProINS-Tf (ExpressTec-ProINS-Tf was successfully expressed from the transgenic rice expression system. Our results suggested that, although the insulin-like bioactivity of ExpressTec-ProINS-Tf was slightly lower in vitro, its potency of in vivo blood glucose control was considerably stronger than that of HEK-ProINS-Tf. The oral delivery studies in type 1 diabetic mice demonstrated a prolonged control of blood glucose to near-normal levels after oral administration of ExpressTec-ProINS-Tf. Results in this report suggest that ExpressTec-ProINS-Tf is a promising insulin analog with advantages including low cost, prolonged and liver targeting effects, and most importantly, oral bioactivity.

  12. VH gene expression and regulation in the mutant Alicia rabbit. Rescue of VHa2 allotype expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H T; Alexander, C B; Young-Cooper, G O; Mage, R G

    1993-04-01

    Rabbits of the Alicia strain, derived from rabbits expressing the VHa2 allotype, have a mutation in the H chain locus that has a cis effect upon the expression of VHa2 and VHa- genes. A small deletion at the most J-proximal (3') end of the VH locus leads to low expression of all the genes on the entire chromosome in heterozygous ali mutants and altered relative expression of VH genes in homozygotes. To study VH gene expression and regulation, we used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify the VH genes expressed in spleens of young and adult wild-type and mutant Alicia rabbits. The cDNA from reverse transcription of splenic mRNA was amplified and polymerase chain reaction libraries were constructed and screened with oligonucleotides from framework regions 1 and 3, as well as JH. Thirty-three VH-positive clones were sequenced and analyzed. We found that in mutant Alicia rabbits, products of the first functional VH gene (VH4a2), (or VH4a2-like genes) were expressed in 2- to 8-wk-olds. Expression of both the VHx and VHy types of VHa- genes was also elevated but the relative proportions of VHx and VHy, especially VHx, decreased whereas the relative levels of expression of VH4a2 or VH4a2-like genes increased with age. Our results suggest that the appearance of sequences resembling that of the VH1a2, which is deleted in the mutant ali rabbits, could be caused by alterations of the sequences of the rearranged VH4a2 genes by gene conversions and/or rearrangement of upstream VH1a2-like genes later in development.

  13. Regulation of Expressive Behavior as Reflecting Affect Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarni, Carolyn

    Regulated expressiveness (the modification of expressive behavior) is a complex phenomenon. Accomplished basically in four ways, regulated expressiveness has developmental dimensions, motivational precursors, and cognitive antecedents, including perspective-taking ability and the growth of self-awareness. Ability to regulate expressiveness appears…

  14. Effectively identifying regulatory hotspots while capturing expression heterogeneity in gene expression studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping is a tool that can systematically identify genetic variation affecting gene expression. eQTL mapping studies have shown that certain genomic locations, referred to as regulatory hotspots, may affect the expression levels of many genes. Recently, studies have shown that various confounding factors may induce spurious regulatory hotspots. Here, we introduce a novel statistical method that effectively eliminates spurious hotspots while retaining genuine hotspots. Applied to simulated and real datasets, we validate that our method achieves greater sensitivity while retaining low false discovery rates compared to previous methods. PMID:24708878

  15. A polynomial time biclustering algorithm for finding approximate expression patterns in gene expression time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeira Sara C

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to monitor the change in expression patterns over time, and to observe the emergence of coherent temporal responses using gene expression time series, obtained from microarray experiments, is critical to advance our understanding of complex biological processes. In this context, biclustering algorithms have been recognized as an important tool for the discovery of local expression patterns, which are crucial to unravel potential regulatory mechanisms. Although most formulations of the biclustering problem are NP-hard, when working with time series expression data the interesting biclusters can be restricted to those with contiguous columns. This restriction leads to a tractable problem and enables the design of efficient biclustering algorithms able to identify all maximal contiguous column coherent biclusters. Methods In this work, we propose e-CCC-Biclustering, a biclustering algorithm that finds and reports all maximal contiguous column coherent biclusters with approximate expression patterns in time polynomial in the size of the time series gene expression matrix. This polynomial time complexity is achieved by manipulating a discretized version of the original matrix using efficient string processing techniques. We also propose extensions to deal with missing values, discover anticorrelated and scaled expression patterns, and different ways to compute the errors allowed in the expression patterns. We propose a scoring criterion combining the statistical significance of expression patterns with a similarity measure between overlapping biclusters. Results We present results in real data showing the effectiveness of e-CCC-Biclustering and its relevance in the discovery of regulatory modules describing the transcriptomic expression patterns occurring in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to heat stress. In particular, the results show the advantage of considering approximate patterns when compared to state of

  16. Compartmentalised expression of meprin in small intestinal mucosa: enhanced expression in lamina propria in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottaz, Daniel; Buri, Caroline; Monteleone, Giovanni; Rösmann, Sandra; Macdonald, Thomas T; Sanderson, Ian R; Sterchi, Erwin E

    2007-03-01

    Epithelial cells in the human small intestine express meprin, an astacin-like metalloprotease, which accumulates normally at the brush border membrane and in the gut lumen. Therefore, meprin is targeted towards luminal components. In coeliac disease patients, peptides from ingested cereals trigger mucosal inflammation in the small intestine, disrupting epithelial cell differentiation and function. Using in situ hybridisation on duodenal tissue sections, we observed a marked shift of meprin mRNA expression from epithelial cells, the predominant expression site in normal mucosa, to lamina propria leukocytes in coeliac disease. Meprin thereby gains access to the substrate repertoire present beneath the epithelium.

  17. Regulation of methane genes and genome expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John N. Reeve

    2009-09-09

    At the start of this project, it was known that methanogens were Archaeabacteria (now Archaea) and were therefore predicted to have gene expression and regulatory systems different from Bacteria, but few of the molecular biology details were established. The goals were then to establish the structures and organizations of genes in methanogens, and to develop the genetic technologies needed to investigate and dissect methanogen gene expression and regulation in vivo. By cloning and sequencing, we established the gene and operon structures of all of the “methane” genes that encode the enzymes that catalyze methane biosynthesis from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. This work identified unique sequences in the methane gene that we designated mcrA, that encodes the largest subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase, that could be used to identify methanogen DNA and establish methanogen phylogenetic relationships. McrA sequences are now the accepted standard and used extensively as hybridization probes to identify and quantify methanogens in environmental research. With the methane genes in hand, we used northern blot and then later whole-genome microarray hybridization analyses to establish how growth phase and substrate availability regulated methane gene expression in Methanobacterium thermautotrophicus ΔH (now Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus). Isoenzymes or pairs of functionally equivalent enzymes catalyze several steps in the hydrogen-dependent reduction of carbon dioxide to methane. We established that hydrogen availability determine which of these pairs of methane genes is expressed and therefore which of the alternative enzymes is employed to catalyze methane biosynthesis under different environmental conditions. As were unable to establish a reliable genetic system for M. thermautotrophicus, we developed in vitro transcription as an alternative system to investigate methanogen gene expression and regulation. This led to the discovery that an archaeal protein

  18. Allele specific expression and methylation in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë Lonsdale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The social hymenoptera are emerging as models for epigenetics. DNA methylation, the addition of a methyl group, is a common epigenetic marker. In mammals and flowering plants methylation affects allele specific expression. There is contradictory evidence for the role of methylation on allele specific expression in social insects. The aim of this paper is to investigate allele specific expression and monoallelic methylation in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris. We found nineteen genes that were both monoallelically methylated and monoallelically expressed in a single bee. Fourteen of these genes express the hypermethylated allele, while the other five express the hypomethylated allele. We also searched for allele specific expression in twenty-nine published RNA-seq libraries. We found 555 loci with allele-specific expression. We discuss our results with reference to the functional role of methylation in gene expression in insects and in the as yet unquantified role of genetic cis effects in insect allele specific methylation and expression.

  19. Building embodied agents that experience and express emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, T.D.; Magnenat-Thalmann, N.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Joslin, C.; Nijholt, Antinus; Kim, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we presented Obie, an embodied agent that experiences and expresses emotions. Obie has an adaptive, quantitative and domain-independent emotion component which appraises events to trigger emotions. Obie’s emotions are expressed via his utterances or his facial expressions. The expression via utterances is done by a simple mapping from emotions to text fragments. The mapping from emotions to facial expressions is done by a fuzzy rule-based system. Obie’s utterances and facial exp...

  20. VMEXT: A Visualization Tool for Mathematical Expression Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Schubotz, Moritz; Meuschke, Norman; Hepp, Thomas; Cohl, Howard S.; Gipp, Bela

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical expressions can be represented as a tree consisting of terminal symbols, such as identifiers or numbers (leaf nodes), and functions or operators (non-leaf nodes). Expression trees are an important mechanism for storing and processing mathematical expressions as well as the most frequently used visualization of the structure of mathematical expressions. Typically, researchers and practitioners manually visualize expression trees using general-purpose tools. This approach is labori...

  1. Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED): a relational database of gene expression profiles in kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingzhou; Yang, Bo; Chen, Xujiao; Xu, Jing; Mei, Changlin; Mao, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    We present a bioinformatics database named Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED), which contains comprehensive gene expression data sets from renal disease research. The web-based interface of RGED allows users to query the gene expression profiles in various kidney-related samples, including renal cell lines, human kidney tissues and murine model kidneys. Researchers can explore certain gene profiles, the relationships between genes of interests and identify biomarkers or even drug targets in kidney diseases. The aim of this work is to provide a user-friendly utility for the renal disease research community to query expression profiles of genes of their own interest without the requirement of advanced computational skills. Website is implemented in PHP, R, MySQL and Nginx and freely available from http://rged.wall-eva.net. http://rged.wall-eva.net. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Implementation of the agmatine-controlled expression system for inducible gene expression in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M; Alvarez-Sieiro, Patricia; del Rio, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Martin, Ma Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2015-12-30

    Lactococcus lactis has been safely consumed in fermented foods for millennia. This Gram-positive bacterium has now become of industrial importance as an expression host for the overproduction of lipopolysaccharide-free recombinant proteins used as food ingredients, therapeutic proteins and biotechnological enzymes. This paper reports an agmatine-controlled expression (ACE) system for L. lactis, comprising the lactococcal agmatine-sensor/transcriptional activator AguR and its target promoter P(aguB). The usefulness and efficiency of this system was checked via the reporter gene gfp and by producing PEP (Myxococcus xanthus prolyl-endopeptidase), an enzyme of biomedical interest able to degrade the immunotoxic peptides produced during the gastrointestinal breakdown of gluten. The ACE system developed in this work was suitable for the efficient expression of the functional recombinant proteins GFP and PEP. The expression system was tightly regulated by the agmatine concentration and allowed high protein production without leakiness.

  3. Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED): a relational database of gene expression profiles in kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingzhou; Yang, Bo; Chen, Xujiao; Xu, Jing; Mei, Changlin; Mao, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    We present a bioinformatics database named Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED), which contains comprehensive gene expression data sets from renal disease research. The web-based interface of RGED allows users to query the gene expression profiles in various kidney-related samples, including renal cell lines, human kidney tissues and murine model kidneys. Researchers can explore certain gene profiles, the relationships between genes of interests and identify biomarkers or even drug targets in kidney diseases. The aim of this work is to provide a user-friendly utility for the renal disease research community to query expression profiles of genes of their own interest without the requirement of advanced computational skills. Availability and implementation: Website is implemented in PHP, R, MySQL and Nginx and freely available from http://rged.wall-eva.net. Database URL: http://rged.wall-eva.net PMID:25252782

  4. System for face recognition under expression variations of neutral-sampled individuals using recognized expression warping and a virtual expression-face database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petpairote, Chayanut; Madarasmi, Suthep; Chamnongthai, Kosin

    2018-01-01

    The practical identification of individuals using facial recognition techniques requires the matching of faces with specific expressions to faces from a neutral face database. A method for facial recognition under varied expressions against neutral face samples of individuals via recognition of expression warping and the use of a virtual expression-face database is proposed. In this method, facial expressions are recognized and the input expression faces are classified into facial expression groups. To aid facial recognition, the virtual expression-face database is sorted into average facial-expression shapes and by coarse- and fine-featured facial textures. Wrinkle information is also employed in classification by using a process of masking to adjust input faces to match the expression-face database. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method using the CMU multi-PIE, Cohn-Kanade, and AR expression-face databases, and we find that it provides significantly improved results in terms of face recognition accuracy compared to conventional methods and is acceptable for facial recognition under expression variation.

  5. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Hurst, Laurence D.

    2015-01-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene’s expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking. PMID:25743543

  6. Área de expressões

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Márcia de Matos

    2016-01-01

    O presente relatório foi realizado com base na Prática de Ensino Supervisionada do Mestrado para Qualificação para a Docência em Educação Pré-Escolar e Ensino do 1º Ciclo do Ensino Básico, com o objetivo de entender o contributo da área de expressões para o desenvolvimento global e integral das crianças do Ensino do 1º Ciclo. Através da prática realizada pude constatar que a área de expressões é muito pouco trabalhada no Ensino do 1º Ciclo, tornando-se importante compreender a ...

  7. Fluid Mechanics, Arterial Disease, and Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbell, John M; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Dunn, Jessilyn; Jo, Hanjoong

    2014-01-01

    This review places modern research developments in vascular mechanobiology in the context of hemodynamic phenomena in the cardiovascular system and the discrete localization of vascular disease. The modern origins of this field are traced, beginning in the 1960s when associations between flow characteristics, particularly blood flow-induced wall shear stress, and the localization of atherosclerotic plaques were uncovered, and continuing to fluid shear stress effects on the vascular lining endothelial) cells (ECs), including their effects on EC morphology, biochemical production, and gene expression. The earliest single-gene studies and genome-wide analyses are considered. The final section moves from the ECs lining the vessel wall to the smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts within the wall that are fluid me chanically activated by interstitial flow that imposes shear stresses on their surfaces comparable with those of flowing blood on EC surfaces. Interstitial flow stimulates biochemical production and gene expression, much like blood flow on ECs.

  8. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy, and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. In response to the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy, it is argued that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural......The strongest versions of the democracy argument for freedom of expression rely on the deliberative conception of democracy. Deliberative democracy entails both an ideal of political autonomy and of autonomous preference formation. This paper elaborates the deliberative democracy argument...... diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, I argue that citizens cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation. Moreover, to be successful deliberation must foster some degree of personal autonomy, at least the ability to distinguish what...

  9. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy...... is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation and develop some degree of personal autonomy. While freedom...... of expression is indispensable for deliberation and autonomy, this does not mean that people have no obligations regarding how they speak to each other. The moral insights provided by deliberation depend on the participants in the process treating one another with respect. The argument is related to the Danish...

  10. Stream Processing Using Grammars and Regular Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ulrik Terp

    disambiguation. The first algorithm operates in two passes in a semi-streaming fashion, using a constant amount of working memory and an auxiliary tape storage which is written in the first pass and consumed by the second. The second algorithm is a single-pass and optimally streaming algorithm which outputs...... as much of the parse tree as is semantically possible based on the input prefix read so far, and resorts to buffering as many symbols as is required to resolve the next choice. Optimality is obtained by performing a PSPACE-complete pre-analysis on the regular expression. In the second part we present...... Kleenex, a language for expressing high-performance streaming string processing programs as regular grammars with embedded semantic actions, and its compilation to streaming string transducers with worst-case linear-time performance. Its underlying theory is based on transducer decomposition into oracle...

  11. Automatic recognition of emotions from facial expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Henry; Gertner, Izidor

    2014-06-01

    In the human-computer interaction (HCI) process it is desirable to have an artificial intelligent (AI) system that can identify and categorize human emotions from facial expressions. Such systems can be used in security, in entertainment industries, and also to study visual perception, social interactions and disorders (e.g. schizophrenia and autism). In this work we survey and compare the performance of different feature extraction algorithms and classification schemes. We introduce a faster feature extraction method that resizes and applies a set of filters to the data images without sacrificing the accuracy. In addition, we have enhanced SVM to multiple dimensions while retaining the high accuracy rate of SVM. The algorithms were tested using the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database and the Database of Faces (AT&T Faces).

  12. Altered aquaporin expression in glaucoma eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy Linh; Bek, Toke; Cour, Morten la

    2014-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQP) are channels in the cell membrane that mainly facilitate a passive transport of water. In the eye, AQPs are expressed in the ciliary body and retina and may contribute to the pathogenesis of glaucoma and optic neuropathy. We investigated the expression of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5......, AQP7 and AQP9 in human glaucoma eyes compared with normal eyes. Nine glaucoma eyes were examined. Of these, three eyes were diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma; three eyes had neovascular glaucoma; and three eyes had chronic angle-closure glaucoma. Six eyes with normal intraocular pressure...... and without glaucoma were used as control. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP7 and AQP9. For each specimen, optical densities of immunoprecipitates were measured using Photoshop and the staining intensities were calculated. Immunostaining showed labelling...

  13. Transitional cell carcinoma express vitamin D receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Andersen, C B

    1997-01-01

    Recently, vitamin D analogues have shown antineoplastic effect in several diseases. Vitamin D analogues exert its effect by interacting with the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Studies of VDR in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) have not been reported. The purpose of the present study was therefore.......05). Similarly, also tumor grade appeared to be related to the number of cells expressing the receptor. Normal urothlium also expressed VDR but only with low intensity. Our study shows that TCC cells possess the VDR receptor which may make them capable to respond to stimulation with vitamin D, but functional...... studies of vitamin D's effect on TCC cells in vitro are necessary before the efficacy of treatment with vitamin D analogues in TCC can be evaluated in patients....

  14. Network Completion for Static Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsu Nakajima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tackle the problem of completing and inferring genetic networks under stationary conditions from static data, where network completion is to make the minimum amount of modifications to an initial network so that the completed network is most consistent with the expression data in which addition of edges and deletion of edges are basic modification operations. For this problem, we present a new method for network completion using dynamic programming and least-squares fitting. This method can find an optimal solution in polynomial time if the maximum indegree of the network is bounded by a constant. We evaluate the effectiveness of our method through computational experiments using synthetic data. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our proposed method can distinguish the differences between two types of genetic networks under stationary conditions from lung cancer and normal gene expression data.

  15. Concise expression of a classical radiation spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present a concise expression of the classical electromagnetic radiation spectrum of a moving charge. It is shown to be equivalent to the often used and much more complicated form derived from the Lienard-Wiechert potentials when the observation distance R satisfies the condition R much-gt γλ. The expression reveals a relationship between the radiation spectrum and the motion of the radiation source. It also forms the basis of an efficient computing approach, which is of practical value in numerical calculations of the spectral output of accelerated charges. The advantages of this approach for analytical and numerical applications are discussed and the bending-magnet synchrotron radiation spectrum is calculated according to the approach

  16. Prognostic Gene Expression Profiles in Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristina Pilekær

    Each year approximately 4,800 Danish women are diagnosed with breast cancer. Several clinical and pathological factors are used as prognostic and predictive markers to categorize the patients into groups of high or low risk. Around 90% of all patients are allocated to the high risk group...... clinical courses, and they may be useful as novel prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer. The aim of the present project was to predict the development of metastasis in lymph node negative breast cancer patients by RNA profiling. We collected and analyzed 82 primary breast tumors from patients who...... and the time of event. Previous findings have shown that high expression of the lncRNA HOTAIR is correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. We validated this finding by demonstrating that high HOTAIR expression in our primary tumors was significantly associated with worse prognosis independent...

  17. Predicting the emotions expressed in music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens

    With the ever-growing popularity and availability of digital music through streaming services and digital download, making sense of the millions of songs, is ever more pertinent. However the traditional approach of creating music systems has treated songs like items in a store, like books...... and movies. However music is special, having origins in a number of evolutionary adaptations. The fundamental needs and goals of a users use of music, was investigated to create the next generation of music systems. People listen to music to regulate their mood and emotions was found to be the most important...... fundamental reason. (Mis)matching peoples mood with the emotions expressed in music was found to be an essential underlying mechanism, people use to regulate their emotions. This formed the basis and overall goal of the thesis, to investigate how to create a predictive model of emotions expressed in music...

  18. A study on facial expressions recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing

    2017-09-01

    In terms of communication, postures and facial expressions of such feelings like happiness, anger and sadness play important roles in conveying information. With the development of the technology, recently a number of algorithms dealing with face alignment, face landmark detection, classification, facial landmark localization and pose estimation have been put forward. However, there are a lot of challenges and problems need to be fixed. In this paper, a few technologies have been concluded and analyzed, and they all relate to handling facial expressions recognition and poses like pose-indexed based multi-view method for face alignment, robust facial landmark detection under significant head pose and occlusion, partitioning the input domain for classification, robust statistics face formalization.

  19. Supplementary Material for: Global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences in rice evolution result in two contrasting types of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Horiuchi, Youko; Harushima, Yoshiaki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Mochizuki, Takako; Fujita, Masahiro; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Kurata, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Since the development of transcriptome analysis systems, many expression evolution studies characterized evolutionary forces acting on gene expression, without explicit discrimination between global expression differences and tissue specific expression differences. However, different types of gene expression alteration should have different effects on an organism, the evolutionary forces that act on them might be different, and different types of genes might show different types of differential expression between species. To confirm this, we studied differentially expressed (DE) genes among closely related groups that have extensive gene expression atlases, and clarified characteristics of different types of DE genes including the identification of regulating loci for differential expression using expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis data. Results We detected differentially expressed (DE) genes between rice subspecies in five homologous tissues that were verified using japonica and indica transcriptome atlases in public databases. Using the transcriptome atlases, we classified DE genes into two types, global DE genes and changed-tissues DE genes. Global type DE genes were not expressed in any tissues in the atlas of one subspecies, however changed-tissues type DE genes were expressed in both subspecies with different tissue specificity. For the five tissues in the two japonica-indica combinations, 4.6 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 1.5 % of highly expressed genes were global and changed-tissues DE genes, respectively. Changed-tissues DE genes varied in number between tissues, increasing linearly with the abundance of tissue specifically expressed genes in the tissue. Molecular evolution of global DE genes was rapid, unlike that of changed-tissues DE genes. Based on gene ontology, global and changed-tissues DE genes were different, having no common GO terms. Expression differences of most global DE genes were regulated by cis

  20. EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RECOMBINANT β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    enzyme had an optimum pH and temperature of 6.0 and 40 oC .... were sterilized by autoclave on liquid cycle at 121 oC for 15 ... minutes) at room temperature. ... hydrophobic and ionic interactions stabilize the anionic form of the ..... review. Bioresource Technology, 55(1): 1–33. EasySelectTM Pichia Expression Kit user ...

  1. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    OpenAIRE

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms w...

  2. Expression of nociceptive ligands in canine osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, S; Fadl-Alla, B A; Pondenis, H C; Zhang, X; Wycislo, K L; Lezmi, S; Fan, T M

    2015-01-01

    Canine osteosarcoma (OS) is associated with localized pain as a result of tissue injury from tumor infiltration and peritumoral inflammation. Malignant bone pain is caused by stimulation of peripheral pain receptors, termed nociceptors, which reside in the localized tumor microenvironment, including the periosteal and intramedullary bone cavities. Several nociceptive ligands have been determined to participate directly or indirectly in generating bone pain associated with diverse skeletal abnormalities. Canine OS cells actively produce nociceptive ligands with the capacity to directly or indirectly activate peripheral pain receptors residing in the bone tumor microenvironment. Ten dogs with appendicular OS. Expression of nerve growth factor, endothelin-1, and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 was characterized in OS cell lines and naturally occurring OS samples. In 10 dogs with OS, circulating concentrations of nociceptive ligands were quantified and correlated with subjective pain scores and tumor volume in patients treated with standardized palliative therapies. Canine OS cells express and secrete nerve growth factor, endothelin-1, and prostaglandin E2. Naturally occurring OS samples uniformly express nociceptive ligands. In a subset of OS-bearing dogs, circulating nociceptive ligand concentrations were detectable but failed to correlate with pain status. Localized foci of nerve terminal proliferation were identified in a minority of primary bone tumor samples. Canine OS cells express nociceptive ligands, potentially permitting active participation of OS cells in the generation of malignant bone pain. Specific inhibitors of nociceptive ligand signaling pathways might improve pain control in dogs with OS. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Limits to expression on religion in France

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, E.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade conflicts about expression on religion have increased globally. Generally, these conflicts are regarded as a conflict between freedom of speech and freedom of thought, conscience and religion. In France there are many active religious interest groups that aim to protect a certain religion in society. They often initiate judicial proceedings seeking to prohibit certain kinds of speech on their religion. This practice has resulted in a rich case law on the limits of expre...

  4. Expressions for the Total Yaw Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    1. Introduction 1 2. Mathematical Notation 1 3. Total Yaw Expression Derivations 2 3.1 First Derivation 2 3.2 Second Derivation 4 3.3 Other...4 iv Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1. Introduction The total yaw angle, γt , of a ballistic projectile is... elevation angles from spherical coordinates.∗ We again place point A at the end point of V. Now imagine a plane parallel to the y-z plane that includes

  5. Deterministic automata for extended regular expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syzdykov Mirzakhmet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the algorithms to produce deterministic finite automaton (DFA for extended operators in regular expressions like intersection, subtraction and complement. The method like “overriding” of the source NFA(NFA not defined with subset construction rules is used. The past work described only the algorithm for AND-operator (or intersection of regular languages; in this paper the construction for the MINUS-operator (and complement is shown.

  6. Mining gene expression data of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi Guo

    Full Text Available Microarray produces a large amount of gene expression data, containing various biological implications. The challenge is to detect a panel of discriminative genes associated with disease. This study proposed a robust classification model for gene selection using gene expression data, and performed an analysis to identify disease-related genes using multiple sclerosis as an example.Gene expression profiles based on the transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a total of 44 samples from 26 multiple sclerosis patients and 18 individuals with other neurological diseases (control were analyzed. Feature selection algorithms including Support Vector Machine based on Recursive Feature Elimination, Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve, and Boruta algorithms were jointly performed to select candidate genes associating with multiple sclerosis. Multiple classification models categorized samples into two different groups based on the identified genes. Models' performance was evaluated using cross-validation methods, and an optimal classifier for gene selection was determined.An overlapping feature set was identified consisting of 8 genes that were differentially expressed between the two phenotype groups. The genes were significantly associated with the pathways of apoptosis and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. TNFSF10 was significantly associated with multiple sclerosis. A Support Vector Machine model was established based on the featured genes and gave a practical accuracy of ∼86%. This binary classification model also outperformed the other models in terms of Sensitivity, Specificity and F1 score.The combined analytical framework integrating feature ranking algorithms and Support Vector Machine model could be used for selecting genes for other diseases.

  7. International express student's book : pre-intermediate

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Liz

    1996-01-01

    The New Edition of International Express Pre-Intermediate retains all the keys features of this popular and successel four-level course. It combines engaging, up-to-date topics with a time-efficient and student-centred approach to language work, and clearly focused activities that reflect learner's real communicative needs - the ideal course for professional adults who use English for work, travel, and socializing.

  8. Expression of Nrf2 in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Chenere P; Glass, Charles A; Montgomery, Marshall B; Lindl, Kathryn A; Ritson, Gillian P; Chia, Luis A; Hamilton, Ronald L; Chu, Charleen T; Jordan-Sciutto, Kelly L

    2007-01-01

    In response to oxidative stress, the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor translocates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and transactivates expression of genes with antioxidant activity. Despite this cellular mechanism, oxidative damage is abundant in Alzheimer and Parkinson disease (AD and PD). To investigate mechanisms by which Nrf2 activity may be aberrant or insufficient in neurodegenerative conditions, we assessed Nrf2 localization in affected brain regions of AD, Lewy body variant of AD (LBVAD), and PD. By immunohistochemistry, Nrf2 is expressed in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of neurons in normal hippocampi with predominant expression in the nucleus. In AD and LBVAD, Nrf2 was predominantly cytoplasmic in hippocampal neurons and was not a major component of beta amyloid plaques or neurofibrillary tangles. By immunoblotting, we observed a significant decrease in nuclear Nrf2 levels in AD cases. In contrast, Nrf2 was strongly nuclear in PD nigral neurons but cytoplasmic in substantia nigra of normal, AD, and LBVAD cases. These findings suggest that Nrf2-mediated transcription is not induced in neurons in AD despite the presence of oxidative stress. In PD, nuclear localization of Nrf2 is strongly induced, but this response may be insufficient to protect neurons from degeneration.

  9. Protection by neuroglobin expression in brain pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Baez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes play an important role in physiological, metabolic and structural functions and, when impaired, they can be involved in various pathologies including Alzheimer, focal ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. These disorders involve an imbalance in the blood flow and nutrients such as glucose and lactacte, leading to biochemical and molecular changes that cause neuronal damage, which is followed by loss of cognitive and motor functions. Previous studies have shown that astrocytes are more resilient than neurons during brain insults as a consequence of their more effective antioxidant systems, transporters and enzymes, which made them less susceptible to excitotoxicity. In addition, astrocytes synthesize and release different protective molecules for neurons, including neuroglobin, a member of the globin family of proteins. After brain injury neuroglobin expression is induced in astrocytes. Since neuroglobin promotes neuronal survival, its increased expression in astrocytes after brain injury may represent an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism. Here, we review the role of neuroglobin in the CNS, its relationship with different pathologies, and the role of different factors that regulate its expression in astrocytes.

  10. Noise minimization in eukaryotic gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter B Fraser

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available All organisms have elaborate mechanisms to control rates of protein production. However, protein production is also subject to stochastic fluctuations, or "noise." Several recent studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli have investigated the relationship between transcription and translation rates and stochastic fluctuations in protein levels, or more generally, how such randomness is a function of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. However, the fundamental question of whether stochasticity in protein expression is generally biologically relevant has not been addressed, and it remains unknown whether random noise in the protein production rate of most genes significantly affects the fitness of any organism. We propose that organisms should be particularly sensitive to variation in the protein levels of two classes of genes: genes whose deletion is lethal to the organism and genes that encode subunits of multiprotein complexes. Using an experimentally verified model of stochastic gene expression in S. cerevisiae, we estimate the noise in protein production for nearly every yeast gene, and confirm our prediction that the production of essential and complex-forming proteins involves lower levels of noise than does the production of most other genes. Our results support the hypothesis that noise in gene expression is a biologically important variable, is generally detrimental to organismal fitness, and is subject to natural selection.

  11. Noise minimization in eukaryotic gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Hunter B.; Hirsh, Aaron E.; Giaever, Guri; Kumm, Jochen; Eisen, Michael B.

    2004-01-15

    All organisms have elaborate mechanisms to control rates of protein production. However, protein production is also subject to stochastic fluctuations, or noise. Several recent studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli have investigated the relationship between transcription and translation rates and stochastic fluctuations in protein levels, or more generally, how such randomness is a function of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. However, the fundamental question of whether stochasticity in protein expression is generally biologically relevant has not been addressed, and it remains unknown whether random noise in the protein production rate of most genes significantly affects the fitness of any organism. We propose that organisms should be particularly sensitive to variation in the protein levels of two classes of genes: genes whose deletion is lethal to the organism and genes that encode subunits of multiprotein complexes. Using an experimentally verified model of stochastic gene expression in S. cerevisiae, we estimate the noise in protein production for nearly every yeast gene, and confirm our prediction that the production of essential and complex-forming proteins involves lower levels of noise than does the production of most other genes. Our results support the hypothesis that noise in gene expression is a biologically important variable, is generally detrimental to organismal fitness, and is subject to natural selection.

  12. Expressions of TRPVs in the cholesteatoma epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ba Hung; Koizumi, Hiroki; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Kawaguchi, Rintaro; Suzuki, Hideaki

    2017-10-01

    We have recently proposed a hypothesis that acid leakage through the cholesteatoma epithelium mediates bone resorption in middle ear cholesteatoma. In the present study, we investigated the expressions of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels, which have been shown to play roles in the regulation of epidermal barrier function, in the cholesteatoma epithelium in comparison with the normal skin. Cholesteatoma epithelium and postauricular skin were collected from 17 patients with primary acquired middle ear cholesteatoma who underwent tympanomastoidectomy. Expressions of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, and TRPV6 were explored by fluorescence immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, and TRPV6 mRNAs were all detected by qRT-PCR both in the skin and cholesteatoma tissue. Immunohistochemical staining showed that TRPV1 and TRPV3 were positive in the viable cell layers of the epidermis of the skin, and only TRPV3 was positive in those of the cholesteatoma epithelium. The immunoreactivity for TRPV3 was significantly weaker in cholesteatoma than in the skin. The lower expression of TRPV3 in cholesteatoma may be one of the mechanisms underlying the increased permeability of this tissue. On the other hand, TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPV6 are unlikely to be involved in the regulation of epithelial permeability in cholesteatoma.

  13. Similarity queries for temporal toxicogenomic expression profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam A Smith

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for answering similarity queries about gene expression time series that is motivated by the task of characterizing the potential toxicity of various chemicals. Our approach involves two key aspects. First, our method employs a novel alignment algorithm based on time warping. Our time warping algorithm has several advantages over previous approaches. It allows the user to impose fairly strong biases on the form that the alignments can take, and it permits a type of local alignment in which the entirety of only one series has to be aligned. Second, our method employs a relaxed spline interpolation to predict expression responses for unmeasured time points, such that the spline does not necessarily exactly fit every observed point. We evaluate our approach using expression time series from the Edge toxicology database. Our experiments show the value of using spline representations for sparse time series. More significantly, they show that our time warping method provides more accurate alignments and classifications than previous standard alignment methods for time series.

  14. EXPRESS Rack Technology for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ted B.; Adams, J. Brian; Fisher, Edward M., Jr.; Prickett, Guy B.; Smith, Timothy G.

    1999-01-01

    The EXPRESS rack provides accommodations for standard Mid-deck Locker and ISIS drawer payloads on the International Space Station. A design overview of the basic EXPRESS rack and two derivatives, the Human Research Facility and the Habitat Holding Rack, is given in Part I. In Part II, the design of the Solid State Power Control Module (SSPCM) is reviewed. The SSPCM is a programmable and remotely controllable power switching and voltage conversion unit which distributes and protects up to 3kW of 12OVDC and 28VDC power to payloads and rack subsystem components. Part III details the development and testing of a new data storage device, the BRP EXPRESS Memory Unit (BEMU). The BEMU is a conduction-cooled device which operates on 28VDC and is based on Boeing-modified 9GB commercial disk-drive technology. In Part IV results of a preliminary design effort for a rack Passive Damping System (PDS) are reported. The PDS is intended to isolate ISPR-based experiment racks from on-orbit vibration. System performance predictions based on component developmental testing indicate that such a system can provide effective isolation at frequencies of 1 Hz and above.

  15. The identification of unfolding facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Chiara; Schmidt, Susanna; Viviani, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    We asked whether the identification of emotional facial expressions (FEs) involves the simultaneous perception of the facial configuration or the detection of emotion-specific diagnostic cues. We recorded at high speed (500 frames s-1) the unfolding of the FE in five actors, each expressing six emotions (anger, surprise, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness). Recordings were coded every 10 frames (20 ms of real time) with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al 2002, Salt Lake City, UT: Research Nexus eBook) to identify the facial actions contributing to each expression, and their intensity changes over time. Recordings were shown in slow motion (1/20 of recording speed) to one hundred observers in a forced-choice identification task. Participants were asked to identify the emotion during the presentation as soon as they felt confident to do so. Responses were recorded along with the associated response times (RTs). The RT probability density functions for both correct and incorrect responses were correlated with the facial activity during the presentation. There were systematic correlations between facial activities, response probabilities, and RT peaks, and significant differences in RT distributions for correct and incorrect answers. The results show that a reliable response is possible long before the full FE configuration is reached. This suggests that identification is reached by integrating in time individual diagnostic facial actions, and does not require perceiving the full apex configuration.

  16. Colour Perception on Facial Expression towards Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubita Sudirman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is to investigate human perceptions on pairing of facial expressions of emotion with colours. A group of 27 subjects consisting mainly of younger and Malaysian had participated in this study. For each of the seven faces, which expresses the basic emotions neutral, happiness, surprise, anger, disgust, fear and sadness, a single colour is chosen from the eight basic colours for the match of best visual look to the face accordingly. The different emotions appear well characterized by a single colour. The approaches used in this experiment for analysis are psychology disciplines and colours engineering. These seven emotions are being matched by the subjects with their perceptions and feeling. Then, 12 male and 12 female data are randomly chosen from among the previous data to make a colour perception comparison between genders. The successes or failures in running of this test depend on the possibility of subjects to propose their every single colour for each expression. The result will translate into number and percentage as a guide for colours designers and psychology field.

  17. Noise minimization in eukaryotic gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, Hunter B.; Hirsh, Aaron E.; Giaever, Guri; Kumm, Jochen; Eisen, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    All organisms have elaborate mechanisms to control rates of protein production. However, protein production is also subject to stochastic fluctuations, or noise. Several recent studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli have investigated the relationship between transcription and translation rates and stochastic fluctuations in protein levels, or more generally, how such randomness is a function of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. However, the fundamental question of whether stochasticity in protein expression is generally biologically relevant has not been addressed, and it remains unknown whether random noise in the protein production rate of most genes significantly affects the fitness of any organism. We propose that organisms should be particularly sensitive to variation in the protein levels of two classes of genes: genes whose deletion is lethal to the organism and genes that encode subunits of multiprotein complexes. Using an experimentally verified model of stochastic gene expression in S. cerevisiae, we estimate the noise in protein production for nearly every yeast gene, and confirm our prediction that the production of essential and complex-forming proteins involves lower levels of noise than does the production of most other genes. Our results support the hypothesis that noise in gene expression is a biologically important variable, is generally detrimental to organismal fitness, and is subject to natural selection

  18. Expression of CGRP in the temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caviedes Bucheli, Javier; Medina Buitrago, Diana Marcela

    2002-01-01

    The presence and content of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is evaluated in the hyperplastic retrodiscal tissue of the temporomandibular joint in patients with joint degenerative disease by radioimmunoassay. Study population has included 8 female patients in pre-menopausic status, without to be pregnant, without to be lactating for a year and with diagnostic of joint degenerative disease (osteoarthrosis). Pain levels are registered with visual analog scale, where 0 is absence of pain and 16 acute pain. A bone degeneration is classified as mild, moderate and severe, according to findings of nuclear magnetic resonance. The 15 retrodiscal hyperplastic tissue samples are taken from patients undergoing to open surgery of temporomandibular joint. The specimens were placed in plastic blocks with freezing medium and are stored at -70 degrees celsius until neuropeptide extraction by radioimmunoassay with kit for CGRP. A directly proportional relationship is established between the degree of bone degeneration and neuropeptide expression and between the osteoarthrosis classification with analogue visual scale. Findings have shown definitive correlation between pain levels and expression of neuropeptide. CGRP is expressed in the retrodiscal tissue of temporomandibular joint in human with joint degenerative disease and is directly related with levels osteoarthrosis and pain [es

  19. Expressive drawing ability in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Richard P; O'Kelly, Rachael; Barlow, Claire M; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    The autistic impairments in emotional and social competence, imagination and generating ideas predict qualitative differences in expressive drawings by children with autism beyond that accounted by any general learning difficulties. In a sample of 60 5-19-year-olds, happy and sad drawings were requested from 15 participants with non-savant autism and compared with those drawn by three control groups matched on either degree of learning difficulty (MLD), mental age (MA) or chronological age (CA). All drawings were rated by two artists on a 7-point quality of expression scale. Contrary to our predictions, the drawings from the autistic group were rated similar to those of the MA and MLD groups. Analysis of the people and social content of the drawings revealed that although children with autism did not draw fewer people, they did draw more immature forms than mental age controls. Furthermore, there was tentative evidence that fewer social scenes were produced by the autism sample. We conclude that the overall merit of expressive drawing in autism is commensurate with their general learning difficulties, but the social/emotional impairment in autism affects their drawings of people and social scenes. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Decorin expression in quiescent myogenic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Takanori; Nozu, Kenjiro; Kishioka, Yasuhiro; Wakamatsu, Jun-ichi; Hattori, Akihito

    2008-01-01

    Satellite cells are quiescent muscle stem cells that promote postnatal muscle growth and repair. When satellite cells are activated by myotrauma, they proliferate, migrate, differentiate, and ultimately fuse to existing myofibers. The remainder of these cells do not differentiate, but instead return to quiescence and remain in a quiescent state until activation begins the process again. This ability to maintain their own population is important for skeletal muscle to maintain the capability to repair during postnatal life. However, the mechanisms by which satellite cells return to quiescence and maintain the quiescent state are still unclear. Here, we demonstrated that decorin mRNA expression was high in cell cultures containing a higher ratio of quiescent satellite cells when satellite cells were stimulated with various concentrations of hepatocyte growth factor. This result suggests that quiescent satellite cells express decorin at a high level compared to activated satellite cells. Furthermore, we examined the expression of decorin in reserve cells, which were undifferentiated myoblasts remaining after induction of differentiation by serum-deprivation. Decorin mRNA levels in reserve cells were higher than those in differentiated myotubes and growing myoblasts. These results suggest that decorin participates in the quiescence of myogenic cells

  1. Molecular mechanisms of curcumin action: gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishodia, Shishir

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin derived from the tropical plant Curcuma longa has a long history of use as a dietary agent, food preservative, and in traditional Asian medicine. It has been used for centuries to treat biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, rheumatism, and sinusitis. The preventive and therapeutic properties of curcumin are associated with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Extensive research over several decades has attempted to identify the molecular mechanisms of curcumin action. Curcumin modulates numerous molecular targets by altering their gene expression, signaling pathways, or through direct interaction. Curcumin regulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF, IL-1), growth factors (e.g., VEGF, EGF, FGF), growth factor receptors (e.g., EGFR, HER-2, AR), enzymes (e.g., COX-2, LOX, MMP9, MAPK, mTOR, Akt), adhesion molecules (e.g., ELAM-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1), apoptosis related proteins (e.g., Bcl-2, caspases, DR, Fas), and cell cycle proteins (e.g., cyclin D1). Curcumin modulates the activity of several transcription factors (e.g., NF-κB, AP-1, STAT) and their signaling pathways. Based on its ability to affect multiple targets, curcumin has the potential for the prevention and treatment of various diseases including cancers, arthritis, allergies, atherosclerosis, aging, neurodegenerative disease, hepatic disorders, obesity, diabetes, psoriasis, and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms of modulation of gene expression by curcumin. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Alterated integrin expression in lichen planopilaris

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    Erriquez Roberta

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lichen planopilaris (LPP is an inflammatory disease characterized by a lymphomononuclear infiltrate surrounding the isthmus and infundibulum of the hair follicle of the scalp, that evolves into atrophic/scarring alopecia. In the active phase of the disease hairs are easily plucked with anagen-like hair-roots. In this study we focused on the expression of integrins and basement membrane components of the hair follicle in active LPP lesions. Methods Scalp biopsies were taken in 10 patients with LPP and in 5 normal controls. Using monoclonal antibodies against α3β1 and α6β4 integrins we showed the expression of these integrins and of the basement membrane components of the hair follicle in active LPP lesions and in healthy scalp skin. Results In the LPP involved areas, α3β1 was distributed in a pericellular pattern, the α6 subunit was present with a basolateral distribution while the β4 subunit showed discontinuous expression at the basal pole and occasionally, basolateral staining of the hair follicle. Conclusion: An altered distribution of the integrins in active LPP lesions can explain the phenomenon of easy pulling-out of the hair with a "gelatinous" root-sheath.

  3. Functional features of gene expression profiles differentiating gastrointestinal stromal tumours according to KIT mutations and expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, Jerzy; Dobosz, Anna Jerzak Vel; Jarosz, Dorota; Ruka, Wlodzimierz; Wyrwicz, Lucjan S; Polkowski, Marcin; Paziewska, Agnieszka; Skrzypczak, Magdalena; Goryca, Krzysztof; Rubel, Tymon; Kokoszyñska, Katarzyna; Rutkowski, Piotr; Nowecki, Zbigniew I

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) represent a heterogeneous group of tumours of mesenchymal origin characterized by gain-of-function mutations in KIT or PDGFRA of the type III receptor tyrosine kinase family. Although mutations in either receptor are thought to drive an early oncogenic event through similar pathways, two previous studies reported the mutation-specific gene expression profiles. However, their further conclusions were rather discordant. To clarify the molecular characteristics of differentially expressed genes according to GIST receptor mutations, we combined microarray-based analysis with detailed functional annotations. Total RNA was isolated from 29 frozen gastric GISTs and processed for hybridization on GENECHIP ® HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays (Affymetrix). KIT and PDGFRA were analyzed by sequencing, while related mRNA levels were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Fifteen and eleven tumours possessed mutations in KIT and PDGFRA, respectively; no mutation was found in three tumours. Gene expression analysis identified no discriminative profiles associated with clinical or pathological parameters, even though expression of hundreds of genes differentiated tumour receptor mutation and expression status. Functional features of genes differentially expressed between the two groups of GISTs suggested alterations in angiogenesis and G-protein-related and calcium signalling. Our study has identified novel molecular elements likely to be involved in receptor-dependent GIST development and allowed confirmation of previously published results. These elements may be potential therapeutic targets and novel markers of KIT mutation status

  4. Expression of Recombinant Human Coagulation Factor VII by the Lizard Leishmania Expression System

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    Sina Mirzaahmadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The variety of recombinant protein expression systems have been developed as a resource of FVII gene expression. In the current study, the authors used a novel protein expression system based on the Iranian Lizard Leishmania, a trypanosomatid protozoan as a host for expression of FVII. Plasmid containing cDNA encoding full-length human FVII was introduced into Lizard Leishmania and positive transfectants were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Furthermore, biological activity of purified protein was detected by PT assay. The recombinant strain harboring a construct was analyzed for expression of FVII at the mRNA and protein level. Purified rFVII was obtained and in order to confirm the purified compound was in fact rFVII. Western blot analysis was carried out. Clotting time in PT assay was reduced about 30 seconds with the purified rFVII. In Conclusion, this study has demonstrated, for the first time, that Leishmania cells can be used as an expression system for producing recombinant FVII.

  5. Differential expression and interaction of host factors augment HIV-1 gene expression in neonatal mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaravaradan, Vasudha; Mehta, Roshni; Harris, David T.; Zack, Jerome A.; Ahmad, Nafees

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown a higher level of HIV-1 replication and gene expression in neonatal (cord) blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) compared with adult blood cells (PBMC), which could be due to differential expression of host factors. We performed the gene expression profile of CBMC and PBMC and found that 8013 genes were expressed at higher levels in CBMC than PBMC and 8028 genes in PBMC than CBMC, including 1181 and 1414 genes upregulated after HIV-1 infection in CBMC and PBMC, respectively. Several transcription factors (NF-κB, E2F, HAT-1, TFIIE, Cdk9, Cyclin T1), signal transducers (STAT3, STAT5A) and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10) were upregulated in CBMC than PBMC, which are known to influence HIV-1 replication. In addition, a repressor of HIV-1 transcription, YY1, was down regulated in CBMC than PBMC and several matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-7, -12, -14) were significantly upregulated in HIV-1 infected CBMC than PBMC. Furthermore, we show that CBMC nuclear extracts interacted with a higher extent to HIV-1 LTR cis-acting sequences, including NF-κB, NFAT, AP1 and NF-IL6 compared with PBMC nuclear extracts and retroviral based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for STAT3 and IL-6 down regulated their own and HIV-1 gene expression, signifying that these factors influenced differential HIV-1 gene expression in CBMC than PBMC.

  6. Three gene expression vector sets for concurrently expressing multiple genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Takashi; Makino, Harumi; Ogura, Akira; Matsuda, Fumio; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-05-01

    Yeast has the potential to be used in bulk-scale fermentative production of fuels and chemicals due to its tolerance for low pH and robustness for autolysis. However, expression of multiple external genes in one host yeast strain is considerably labor-intensive due to the lack of polycistronic transcription. To promote the metabolic engineering of yeast, we generated systematic and convenient genetic engineering tools to express multiple genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We constructed a series of multi-copy and integration vector sets for concurrently expressing two or three genes in S. cerevisiae by embedding three classical promoters. The comparative expression capabilities of the constructed vectors were monitored with green fluorescent protein, and the concurrent expression of genes was monitored with three different fluorescent proteins. Our multiple gene expression tool will be helpful to the advanced construction of genetically engineered yeast strains in a variety of research fields other than metabolic engineering. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Expressive means of irony expression in Marcel Proust’s aphorisms

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    Shumakova Alla Petrovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study is determined by the lack of work on the analysis of linguistic expressive means of aphorisms by Marcel Proust. The material of the research are aphoristic sayings of ironic character found in the novels of Proust “Jean Santeuil”, “La Prisonnière”, “Albertine disparue”, “A l’ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs”, “Sodome et Gomorrhe”, “Le Côté de Guermantes”, “Le Temps retrouvé”. Since none of the linguistic resources of imagery is self-sufficient it is considered the most effective for the expression of irony combination means expressive syntax (figures and figurative means (tropes. Among the means of expressive syntax it is analyzed the use of aphorisms by Proust, like parallel structures, chiasm, antithesis, repetition, poliptota. The most frequent in aphorisms by Proust are metaphors and similes. An important aspect of the study of aphorisms of Marcel Proust is a detailed examination of the arsenal of linguistic means of language pun used to create an ironic effect. The material of the pun became a unit of lexical and syntactic level, forming a paradox, pun, parody and illogic. Through the use of expressive means of expression of irony and their various combinations aphorisms Proust acquired ambiguity, originality, intellectual and emotional capacity.

  8. T helper-independent activation of human CD8+ cells: the role of CD28 costimulation.

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    Van Gool, S W; Zhang, Y; Kasran, A; de Boer, M; Ceuppens, J L

    1996-07-01

    The concept that activation of MHC class I-restricted CD8+ cells entirely depends on help from MHC class II-restricted CD4+ T cells has recently been supplemented with an alternative model in which CD8+ cells can directly be activated by MHC class I-expressing professional antigen-presenting cells (APC), which are able to deliver an accessory signal. The authors analysed the role of CD28-mediated costimulation for T helper cell-independent activation of purified human CD8+ T cells in two different in vitro models. Freshly isolated CD8+ cells could be activated (proliferation, IL-2 production and cytotoxic activity) by anti-CD3-presenting Fc gamma R+ mouse cells transfected with the human CD28 ligand, CD80, as the only accessory signal. On the other hand, activation of CD8+ cells by allogeneic MHC class I on EBV-transformed B cells, which express two different CD28 ligands, CD80 and CD86, also proceeded very efficiently (proliferation, cytotoxic activity and CD25 expression), but was either not, or only partially, blocked by anti-CD80 and anti-CD86 MoAb or CTLA-4Ig. This indicates that other costimulatory signals are also effective, and that CD28 triggering is not absolutely required for initial T-cell activation. CsA and CD80/CD86-blocking agents were synergistic in completely inhibiting activation of CD8+ cells in the MLR with allogeneic B-cell lines. This combination also induced non-responsiveness of CD8+ cells upon restimulation in the absence of blocking agents. Therefore, although professional APC can apparently provide multiple costimulatory signals for direct activation of CD8+ T cells, the signal derived from CD80/CD86 is unique in providing CsA-resistance.

  9. Metaplastic Breast Cancer and EGFR Expression

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    Nilufer Avci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Metaplastic breast cancer has poor prognosis and is usually triple negative. Although it is morphologically more heterogeneous than triple negative breast cancers, expression profile is more homogeneous. In this study, we investigated our metaplastic breast cancer cases regarding their pathology and clinical characteristics. Material and Method: 16 metaplastic breast cancer cases from four different center were included in the study. Pathology and clinical characteristics of the cases were evaluated retrospectively. Results: All the cases are female and median age is 48 (39-45. Tumor is commonly localized to the outer quadrant and mean diameter of the mass is 37.5 (15-100 mm. Tumor diameter is ≤20 mm in 3 (15.8%, >20-≤50 mm in 11 (57.9% and >50 mm in 3 (10.51% of the cases. Only 4 (16.1% patients have axillary lymph node involvement. When considering histological subtypes, five of the cases has squamous cell, five of them has spindle cell, one of them has mucoepidermoid, and in five cases the subtype was not identified. Considering hormone receptor status ER and PR was negative in 78.9%, 63.2% respectively. HER2 protein expression was positive by immunohistochemical staining in 1 (5.3% case. CK5/6 and CK17 was both positive in 7 (36.8% cases. EGFR expression was positive in 4 (21.1% cases, was negative in 5 (26.3% cases and not identified in 7 (36.8% cases. Three of the cases were offered neoadjuvant chemotherapy. As neoadjuvant chemotherapy, anthracycline and taxane combination (n:2 TAC, n:1 AC-paclitaxel was preferred. Mean follow-up was 41 months. Mean survival was 42.4 months in EGFR negative patients and 47.5 months in EGFR positive patients. This difference was not statistically significant. During follow-up 3 cases had recurrence. Discussion: EGFR expression is seen in metaplastic breast cancer. Although EGFR expression is related to poor prognosis, it is not a predictive marker. Therefore, predictive molecular markers are

  10. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor expression in aganglionic bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oue, T; Yoneda, A; Shima, H; Puri, P

    2000-01-01

    In Hirschsprung's disease (HD) there exists an overabundance of acetylcholine (ACh), which in turn stimulates excessive production of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) play an important role in smooth-muscle contraction. Recent studies have indicated five different subtypes of mAChRs encoded by five different genes, ml to m5. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of each mAChR subtype in aganglionic (AG) colon to further understand the pathophysiology of HD. Entire colon resected at the time of pull-through operation for HD was obtained from 14 patients. Specimens obtained at autopsy from 8 age-matched patients without gastrointestinal disease acted as controls. Frozen sections were used for indirect immunohistochemistry as well as in-situ hybridization. Immunohistochemistry was performed using specific antiserum against each mAChR subtype and in-situ hybridization was performed using specific oligonucleotide probes against ml to m5 subtypes. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was extracted from normoganglionic (NG) and AG bowel of HD patients and normal control bowel. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate mRNA levels of each mAChR subtype. To adjust the levels of mRNA expression, a housekeeping gene G3PDH, known to be expressed normally, was used as an internal control. Strong m2 and m3 immunoreactivity was observed in the mucosal layer, smooth-muscle layers, and myenteric plexus of NG bowel, whereas ml immunoreactivity was only detected in the mucosal layer. The most striking finding was the abundance of m3-immunoreactive fibers in muscle layers of NG bowel while there was a total lack of m3 fibers in smooth-muscle of AG bowel. Intense mRNA signals encoding m2 and m3 and to a lesser degree ml were detected in NG bowel, and these signals were weak in AG bowel. Immunoreactivity and mRNA expression of m4 and m5 was not detected in NG or AG bowel. The lack of m3-immunoreactive fibers in the

  11. Freedom of Expression in Distributed Networks

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    Ejvind Hansen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the following question: Is it possible to transfer human rights like the freedom of expression – or at least to preserve the formal protections guarding speech acts from arbitrary suppression – in a post-national setting? The question arises as an urgent matter in the context of our global system of connected markets and distributed telecommunications networks – the Internet – since, as many academics and policy makers have noted, the two tend to undermine nationals boundaries, putting into question the power of individual states to continue function as the traditional legal and identity-generating entities of last resort.   If this analysis is reliable the dialectical union between the autonomous individual citizen and the legally regulated nation state is broken. In this paper I will draw the consequences of that supposed break, exploring the question of the extent to which it makes sense to accord “rights” – freedom of expression – to entities that are not classical autonomous humans, and to confer them by entities that no longer bear the marks of nation-state sovereignty. The question thus is: Is it possible to transfer the normative approach of the classic liberal nation states into a global system?   The paper explores this question through an elaboration of problems for the preservation of the human right to freedom of expression: On the one hand communication on the Internet is regulated by an immense legal body, but on the other hand, the machinery for enforcement controlled by this legal body is dependent on various agencies that don’t necessarily recognize its legitimacy. I will then explore whether a more technologically oriented approach could be a more fruitful approach in defining the actual limitations to freedom of expression in the new global system. My answer is that ultimately the control paradigm fails, because it is too clumsy at incorporating self-correcting measures. Thirdly, I

  12. Undervaluing Gratitude: Expressers Misunderstand the Consequences of Showing Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Epley, Nicholas

    2018-06-01

    Expressing gratitude improves well-being for both expressers and recipients, but we suggest that an egocentric bias may lead expressers to systematically undervalue its positive impact on recipients in a way that could keep people from expressing gratitude more often in everyday life. Participants in three experiments wrote gratitude letters and then predicted how surprised, happy, and awkward recipients would feel. Recipients then reported how receiving an expression of gratitude actually made them feel. Expressers significantly underestimated how surprised recipients would be about why expressers were grateful, overestimated how awkward recipients would feel, and underestimated how positive recipients would feel. Expected awkwardness and mood were both correlated with participants' willingness to express gratitude. Wise decisions are guided by an accurate assessment of the expected value of action. Underestimating the value of prosocial actions, such as expressing gratitude, may keep people from engaging in behavior that would maximize their own-and others'-well-being.

  13. Gender roles, sex and the expression of driving anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullman, M J M; Paxion, J; Stephens, A N

    2017-09-01

    The present study investigated the validity of the 25-item Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) as well as the role of sex and gender-roles in relation to the expression of driving anger in a sample of 378 French drivers (males=38%, M=32.9years old). Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported the four-factor structure of the 25-item DAX (Adaptive/Constructive Expression; Use of the Vehicle to Express Anger; Verbal Aggressive Expression and Personal Physical Aggressive Expression) and two of the three aggressive factors were found to have significant positive relationships with driving anger, while adaptive/constructive expression was negatively related to driving anger. Use of the vehicle to express anger was not significantly related to crash involvement, but was significantly related to all other crash-related conditions (traffic tickets, loss of concentration, loss of control of the vehicle, near crash). The presence of feminine traits, but not sex, was predictive of adaptive/constructive behaviours, while masculine traits predicted more frequent verbal aggressive expression, use of the vehicle to express anger, personal physical aggressive expression and total aggressive expression. This finding may account for the inconsistent relationship found between driving anger and sex in previous research. This research also found that the 25-item DAX is a valid tool to measure the expression of driving anger and that the endorsement of masculine traits are related to more aggressive forms of driving anger expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impaired detection of happy facial expressions in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Sawada, Reiko; Uono, Shota; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sakihama, Morimitsu; Toichi, Motomi

    2017-10-17

    The detection of emotional facial expressions plays an indispensable role in social interaction. Psychological studies have shown that typically developing (TD) individuals more rapidly detect emotional expressions than neutral expressions. However, it remains unclear whether individuals with autistic phenotypes, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and high levels of autistic traits (ATs), are impaired in this ability. We examined this by comparing TD and ASD individuals in Experiment 1 and individuals with low and high ATs in Experiment 2 using the visual search paradigm. Participants detected normal facial expressions of anger and happiness and their anti-expressions within crowds of neutral expressions. In Experiment 1, reaction times were shorter for normal angry expressions than for anti-expressions in both TD and ASD groups. This was also the case for normal happy expressions vs. anti-expressions in the TD group but not in the ASD group. Similarly, in Experiment 2, the detection of normal vs. anti-expressions was faster for angry expressions in both groups and for happy expressions in the low, but not high, ATs group. These results suggest that the detection of happy facial expressions is impaired in individuals with ASD and high ATs, which may contribute to their difficulty in creating and maintaining affiliative social relationships.

  15. Differentially expressed proteins on postoperative 3

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    Jialili Ainuer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objectives: Surgical repair of Achilles tendon (AT rupture should immediately be followed by active tendon mobilization. The optimal time as to when the mobilization should begin is important yet controversial. Early kinesitherapy leads to reduced rehabilitation period. However, an insight into the detailed mechanism of this process has not been gained. Proteomic technique can be used to separate and purify the proteins by differential expression profile which is related to the function of different proteins, but research in the area of proteomic analysis of AT 3 days after repair has not been studied so far. Methods: Forty-seven New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into 3 groups. Group A (immobilization group, n=16 received postoperative cast immobilization; Group B (early motion group, n=16 received early active motion treatments immediately following the repair of AT rupture from tenotomy. Another 15 rabbits served as control group (Group C. The AT samples were prepared 3 days following the microsurgery. The proteins were separated employing twodimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE. PDQuest software version 8.0 was used to identify differentially expressed proteins, followed by peptide mass fingerprint (PMF and tandem mass spectrum analysis, using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI protein database retrieval and then for bioinformatics analysis. Results: A mean of 446.33, 436.33 and 462.67 protein spots on Achilles tendon samples of 13 rabbits in Group A, 14 rabbits in Group B and 13 rabbits in Group C were successfully detected in the 2D-PAGE. There were 40, 36 and 79 unique proteins in Groups A, B and C respectively. Some differentially expressed proteins were enzyme with the gel, matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. We successfully identified 9 and 11 different proteins in Groups A and B, such as GAPDH, phosphoglycerate kinase 1

  16. Expression of Enzymes that Metabolize Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, V. E.; Peters, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Increased exposure to radiation is one physiological stressor associated with spaceflight and it is feasible to conduct ground experiments using known radiation exposures. The health of the liver, especially the activity rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. While radiation is known to alter normal physiological function, how radiation affects liver metabolism of administered medications is unclear. Crew health could be affected if the actions of medications used in spaceflight deviated from expectations formed during terrestrial medication use. This study is an effort to identify liver metabolic enzymes whose expression is altered by spaceflight or by radiation exposures that mimic features of the spaceflight environment. METHODS: Using procedures approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee, mice were exposed to either 137Cs (controls, 50 mGy, 6Gy, or 50 mGy + 6Gy separated by 24 hours) or 13 days of spaceflight on STS 135. Animals were anesthetized and sacrificed at several time points (4 hours, 24 hours or 7 days) after their last radiation exposure, or within 6 hours of return to Earth for the STS 135 animals. Livers were removed immediately and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tissue was homogenized, RNA extracted, purified and quality-tested. Complementary DNA was prepared from high-quality RNA samples, and used in RT-qPCR experiments to determine relative expression of a wide variety of genes involved in general metabolism and drug metabolism. RESULTS: Results of the ground radiation exposure experiments indicated 65 genes of the 190 tested were significantly affected by at least one of the radiation doses. Many of the affected genes are involved in the metabolism of drugs with hydrophobic or steroid-like structures, maintenance of redox homeostasis and repair of DNA damage. Most affected genes returned to near control expression levels by 7 days post

  17. NCAM (CD56) expression in keratin-producing odontogenic cysts: aberrant expression in KCOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Sirera, Beatriz; Forner-Navarro, Leopoldo; Vera-Sempere, Francisco

    2015-02-12

    To investigate immunohistochemically the expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), which has been identified as a signaling receptor with frequent reactivity in ameloblastomas (AB), in a series of keratin-producing odontogenic cysts (KPOCs). Immunohistochemical expression of NCAM, using a monoclonal antibody, was determined in a series of 58 KPOCs comprising 12 orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOCs) and 46 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), corresponding to 40 non-syndromic KCOT (NS-KCOTs) and 6 syndromic KCOT (S-KCOTs), associated with nevic basocellular syndrome (NBCS). NCAM expression was negative in all OOCs, but 36.45% of KCOTs exhibited focal and heterogeneous expression at the basal cell level, as well as in basal budding areas and the basal cells of daughter cysts. The latter two locations were especially applicable to S-KCOTs, with focal NCAM reactivity occurring in 66.66% of cases. Aberrant NCAM expression, in KCOTs but especially in S-KCOTs, together with its immunomorphological location, suggests that this adhesion molecule and signaling receptor plays a role in the pathogenesis of KCOTs, with a probable impact on lesional recurrence.

  18. Cell surface expression of single chain antibodies with applications to imaging of gene expression in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northrop, Jeffrey P.; Bednarski, Mark; Li, King C.; Barbieri, Susan O.; Lu, Amy T.; Nguyen, Dee; Varadarajan, John; Osen, Maureen; Star-Lack, Josh

    2003-01-01

    Imaging of gene expression in vivo has many potential uses for biomedical research and drug discovery, ranging from the study of gene regulation and cancer to the non-invasive assessment of gene therapies. To streamline the development of imaging marker gene technologies for nuclear medicine, we propose a new approach to the design of reporter/probe pairs wherein the reporter is a cell surface-expressed single chain antibody variable fragment that has been raised against a low molecular weight imaging probe with optimized pharmacokinetic properties. Proof of concept of the approach was achieved using a single chain antibody variable fragment that binds with high affinity to fluorescein and an imaging probe consisting of fluorescein isothiocyanate coupled to the chelator diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid labeled with the gamma-emitter 111 In. We demonstrate specific high-affinity binding of this probe to the cell surface-expressed reporter in vitro and assess the in vivo biodistribution of the probe both in wild-type mice and in mice harboring tumor xenografts expressing the reporter. Specific uptake of the probe by, and in vivo imaging of, tumors expressing the reporter are shown. Since ScFvs with high affinities can be raised to almost any protein or small molecule, the proposed methodology may offer a new flexibility in the design of imaging tracer/reporter pairs wherein both probe pharmacokinetics and binding affinities can be readily optimized. (orig.)

  19. Measuring ability to enhance and suppress emotional expression: The Flexible Regulation of Emotional Expression (FREE) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Charles L; Bonanno, George A

    2016-08-01

    Flexibility in self-regulatory behaviors has proved to be an important quality for adjusting to stressful life events and requires individuals to have a diverse repertoire of emotion regulation abilities. However, the most commonly used emotion regulation questionnaires assess frequency of behavior rather than ability, with little evidence linking these measures to observable capacity to enact a behavior. The aim of the current investigation was to develop and validate a Flexible Regulation of Emotional Expression (FREE) Scale that measures a person's ability to enhance and suppress displayed emotion across an array of hypothetical contexts. In Studies 1 and 2, a series of confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the FREE Scale consists of 4 first-order factors divided by regulation and emotional valence type that can contribute to 2 higher order factors: expressive enhancement ability and suppression ability. In Study 1, we also compared the FREE Scale to other commonly used emotion regulation measures, which revealed that suppression ability is conceptually distinct from suppression frequency. In Study 3, we compared the FREE Scale with a composite of traditional frequency-based indices of expressive regulation to predict performance in a previously validated emotional modulation paradigm. Participants' enhancement and suppression ability scores on the FREE Scale predicted their corresponding performance on the laboratory task, even when controlling for baseline expressiveness. These studies suggest that the FREE Scale is a valid and flexible measure of expressive regulation ability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Ectopic ERK Expression Induces Phenotypic Conversion of C10 Cells and Alters DNA Methyltransferase Expression

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    Sontag, Ryan L.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2012-05-04

    In some model systems constitutive extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activation is sufficient to promote an oncogenic phenotype. Here we investigate whether constitutive ERK expression influences phenotypic conversion in murine C10 type II alveolar epithelial cells. C10 cells were stably transduced with an ERK1-green fluorescent protein (ERK1-GFP) chimera or empty vector and ectopic ERK expression was associated with the acquisition of soft agar focus-forming potential in late passage, but not early passage cells. Late passage ERK1-GFP cells exhibited a significant increase in the expression of DNA methyl transferases (DNMT1 and 3b) and a marked increase in sensitivity to 5-azacytidine (5-azaC)-mediated toxicity, relative to early passage ERK1-GFP cells and vector controls. The expression of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA) and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) were significantly increased in late passage cells, suggesting enhanced DNA damage recognition and repair activity which we interpret as a reflection of genomic instability. Phospho-ERK levels were dramatically decreased in late passage ERK1-GFP cells, relative to early passage and vector controls, and phospho-ERK levels were restored by treatment with sodium orthovanadate, indicating a role for phosphatase activity in this response. Collectively these observations suggest that ectopic ERK expression promotes phenotypic conversion of C10 cells that is associated with latent effects on epigenetic programming and phosphatase activities.