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Sample records for cd36-mediated long-chain fatty

  1. Crucial role for LKB1 to AMPKalpha2 axis in the regulation of CD36-mediated long-chain fatty acid uptake into cardiomyocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habets, Daphna D. J.; Coumans, Will A.; El Hasnaoui, Mohammed;

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced contractile activity increases cardiac long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) uptake via translocation of CD36 to the sarcolemma, similarly to increase in glucose uptake via GLUT4 translocation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is assumed to mediate contraction-induced LCFA utilization. However......, the stimulating effects of oligomycin and AICAR on palmitate and deoxyglucose uptake and palmitate oxidation were almost completely lost. Moreover, in AMPKalpha2- and LKB1-knockout cardiomyocytes, oligomycin-induced LCFA and deoxyglucose uptake were completely abolished. However, the stimulatory effect...... of dipyridamole on palmitate uptake and oxidation was preserved in AMPKalpha2-kinase-dead cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, in the heart there is a signaling axis consisting of LKB1 and AMPKalpha2 which activation results in enhanced LCFA utilization, similarly to enhanced glucose uptake. In addition, an unknown...

  2. Increased Mitochondrial Activity in BMP7-Treated Brown Adipocytes, Due to Increased CPT1- and CD36-Mediated Fatty Acid Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Kristy L; An, Ding; Lynes, Matthew D.; Huang, Tian Lian; Zhang, Hongbin; Goodyear, Laurie J.; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Brown adipose tissue dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat and regulates triglyceride and glucose metabolism in the body. Factors that regulate fatty acid uptake and oxidation in brown adipocytes have not yet been fully elucidated. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) is a growth factor capable of inducing brown fat mitochondrial biogenesis during differentiation from adipocyte progenitors. Administration of BMP7 to mice also results in increased energy expenditure. To determine...

  3. Radiolabeled dimethyl branched long chain fatty acid for heart imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Goodman, Mark M.; Kirsch, Gilbert

    1988-08-16

    A radiolabeled long chain fatty acid for heart imaging that has dimethyl branching at one of the carbons of the chain which inhibits the extent to which oxidation can occur. The closer to the carboxyl the branching is positioned, the more limited the oxidation, thereby resulting in prolonged retention of the radiolabeled compound in the heart.

  4. Rapid Capacity Growth of Long Chain Fatty Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Yuying

    2007-01-01

    @@ Long chain fatty alcohols here are referring to those alcohols with more than six carbon atoms per molecular.They are basic chemical raw materials for the synthesis of surfactants,detergents, plasticizers and various other fine chemicals and are extensively used in textile, household chemicals, papermaking, foodstuffs,pharmaceuticals and leather manufacturing sectors.

  5. Synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in preterm newborns fed formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carnielli, Virgilio P.; Simonato, Manuela; Verlato, Giovanna; Luijendijk, Ingrid; De Curtis, Mario; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Cogo, Paola E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPs) that play pivotal roles in growth and neurodevelopment. Objective: We aimed to quantify the synthesis of LCPs in preterm infants fed infant formula containing LCPs. Design: Twenty-two p

  6. Bioavailability of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Supplements have reached a prominent role in improving the supply of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5n-3) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3). Similar to other nutrients, the availability of omega-3 fatty acids is highly variable and determined by numerous factors. However, the question of omega-3 fatty acids bioavailability has long been disregarded, which may have contributed to the neutral or negative results concerning their effects in several studies. This review provides an overview of the influence of chemical binding form (free fatty acids bound in ethylesters, triacylglycerides or phospholipids), matrix effects (capsule ingestion with concomitant intake of food, fat content in food) or galenic form (i.e. microencapsulation, emulsification) on the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids. There is a need to systematically investigate the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids formulations, which might be a key to designing more effective studies in the future.

  7. Very long chain fatty acid synthesis in sunflower kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Joaquín J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael

    2005-04-01

    Most common seed oils contain small amounts of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), the main components of oils from species such as Brassica napus or Lunnaria annua. These fatty acids are synthesized from acyl-CoA precursors in the endoplasmic reticulum through the activity of a dissociated enzyme complex known as fatty acid elongase. We studied the synthesis of the arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric VLCFAs in sunflower kernels, in which they account for 1-3% of the saturated fatty acids. These VLCFAs are synthesized from 18:0-CoA by membrane-bound fatty acid elongases, and their biosynthesis is mainly dependent on NADPH equivalents. Two condensing enzymes appear to be responsible for the synthesis of VLCFAs in sunflower kernels, beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase-I (KCS-I) and beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase-II (KCS-II). Both of these enzymes were resolved by ion exchange chromatography and display different substrate specificities. While KCS-I displays a preference for 20:0-CoA, 18:0-CoA was more efficiently elongated by KCS-II. Both enzymes have different sensitivities to pH and Triton X-100, and their kinetic properties indicate that both are strongly inhibited by the presence of their substrates. In light of these results, the VLCFA composition of sunflower oil is considered in relation to that in other commercially exploited oils.

  8. Plasma long-chain free fatty acids predict mammalian longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jové, Mariona; Naudí, Alba; Aledo, Juan Carlos; Cabré, Rosanna; Ayala, Victoria; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Barja, Gustavo; Pamplona, Reinald

    2013-11-28

    Membrane lipid composition is an important correlate of the rate of aging of animals and, therefore, the determination of their longevity. In the present work, the use of high-throughput technologies allowed us to determine the plasma lipidomic profile of 11 mammalian species ranging in maximum longevity from 3.5 to 120 years. The non-targeted approach revealed a specie-specific lipidomic profile that accurately predicts the animal longevity. The regression analysis between lipid species and longevity demonstrated that the longer the longevity of a species, the lower is its plasma long-chain free fatty acid (LC-FFA) concentrations, peroxidizability index, and lipid peroxidation-derived products content. The inverse association between longevity and LC-FFA persisted after correction for body mass and phylogenetic interdependence. These results indicate that the lipidomic signature is an optimized feature associated with animal longevity, emerging LC-FFA as a potential biomarker of longevity.

  9. Biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livore, Verónica I; Uttaro, Antonio D

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi showed similar fatty acid (FA) compositions, having a high proportion of unsaturated FAs, mainly 18:2Δ9,12 (23-39%) and 18:1Δ9 (11-17%). C22 polyunsaturated FAs are in significant amounts only in T. brucei (12-20%) but represent a mere 2% of total FAs in T. cruzi. Both species have also similar profiles of medium- and long-chain saturated FAs, from 14:0 to 20:0. Interestingly, procyclic and bloodstream forms of T. brucei lack very long chain FAs (VLCFAs), whereas epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of T. cruzi contain 22:0 (0.1-0.2%), 24:0 (1.5-2%), and 26:0 (0.1-0.2%). This is in agreement with the presence of an additional FA elongase gene (TcELO4) in T. cruzi. TcELO4 was expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant lacking the endogenous ScELO3, rescuing the synthesis of saturated and hydroxylated C26 FAs in the yeast. Expression of TcELO4 also rescued the synthetic lethality of a ScELO2, ScELO3 double mutation, and the VLCFA profile of the transformed yeast was similar to that found in T. cruzi. By identifying TcELO4 as the enzyme responsible for the elongation of FA from 16:0 and 18:0 up to 26:0, with 24:0 being the preferred product, this work completed the characterization of FA elongases in Trypanosoma spp.

  10. Regulation of energy metabolism by long-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Manabu T; Yudell, Barbara E; Loor, Juan J

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, excess energy is stored primarily as triglycerides, which are mobilized when energy demands arise. This review mainly focuses on the role of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) in regulating energy metabolism as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). PPAR-alpha expressed primarily in liver is essential for metabolic adaptation to starvation by inducing genes for beta-oxidation and ketogenesis and by downregulating energy expenditure through fibroblast growth factor 21. PPAR-delta is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and induces genes for LCFA oxidation during fasting and endurance exercise. PPAR-delta also regulates glucose metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis by inducing FOXO1 and PGC1-alpha. Genes targeted by PPAR-gamma in adipocytes suggest that PPAR-gamma senses incoming non-esterified LCFAs and induces the pathways to store LCFAs as triglycerides. Adiponectin, another important target of PPAR-gamma may act as a spacer between adipocytes to maintain their metabolic activity and insulin sensitivity. Another topic of this review is effects of skin LCFAs on energy metabolism. Specific LCFAs are required for the synthesis of skin lipids, which are essential for water barrier and thermal insulation functions of the skin. Disturbance of skin lipid metabolism often causes apparent resistance to developing obesity at the expense of normal skin function.

  11. Zeolites relieves inhibitory stress from high concentrations of long chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordell, Erik; Hansson, Anna B; Karlsson, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Protein and fat rich slaughterhouse waste is a very attractive waste stream for the production of biogas because of the high biochemical methane potential of the substrate. The material has however some drawbacks as the sole material for biogas production due to the production of several process disturbing metabolites such as ammonia, sulfides and long chain fatty acids. We can in this work present results that show that zeolites have the potential to relieve inhibitory stress from the presence of long chain fatty acids. Moreover, the results strongly indicate that it is mainly acetic acid consumers that are most negatively affected by long chain fatty acids and that the mechanism of stress relief is an adsorption of long chain fatty acids to the zeolites. In addition to this, it is shown that the effect is immediate and that only a small amount of zeolites is necessary to cancel the inhibitory effect of long chain fatty acids.

  12. Research Advances in the Inhibition of Long Chain Fatty Acid to Methanogenic Activity in Anaeroic Digestion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed the inhibition mechanism of long chain fatty acid on the formation of anaerobic system, then thoroughly analyzed the inhibition factors of long chain fatty acid, and summarized the remission method to its inhibition, finally proposed some suggestions to further study on the influence of long chain fatty acid on anaerobic digestion system.

  13. Rom2-dependent phosphorylation of Elo2 controls the abundance of very long chain fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Daniel K; Fröhlich, Florian; Christiano, Romain;

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are essential components of eukaryotic membranes, where they serve to maintain membrane integrity. They are important components of membrane trafficking and function in signaling as messenger molecules. Sphingolipids are synthesized de novo from very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA...

  14. Roles of Long-chain Acyl Coenzyme A Synthetase in Absorption and Transport of Fatty Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Gao; Xue-feng Yang; Nian Fu; Yang Hu; Yan Ouyang; Kai Qing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Long-chain acyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACSL) is a member of the synthetase family encoded by a multigene family; it plays an important role in the absorption and transport of fatty acid. Here we review the roles of ACSL in the regulating absorption and transport of fatty acid, as well as the connection between ACSL and some metabolic diseases.

  15. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in chronic childhood disorders: panacea, promising, or placebo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA, or LCP) include the essential fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3) and linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6) as well as a number of metabolites of both, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachid...

  16. LIPID CLASS DISTRIBUTION OF HIGHLY UNSATURATED LONG-CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Very-long-chain highly unsaturated C28 fatty acids (HUFAs), found in a number of dinoflagellates, are released as methyl esters from phospholipids obtained by fractionation of lipid extracts. By contrast, the highly unsaturated C18 fatty acid octadecapentaenoic acid (18:5n-3), co...

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Long-Chain Fatty Alcohols against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Inoue

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus of long-chain fatty alcohols was investigated, with a focus on normal alcohols. The antibacterial activity varied with the length of the aliphatic carbon chain and not with the water/octanol partition coefficient. 1-Nonanol, 1-decanol and 1-undecanol had bactericidal activity and membrane-damaging activity. 1-Dodecanol and 1-tridecanol had the highest antibacterial activity among the long-chain fatty alcohols tested, but had no membrane-damaging activity. Consequently, it appears that not only the antibacterial activity but also the mode of action of long-chain fatty alcohols might be determined by the length of the aliphatic carbon chain.

  18. Bioavailability of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has caused greater attention about dietary intake of these fatty acids. Fatty fish is the major dietary source of these fatty acids. Because of the low intake of fish at many places, foods...... enriched with omega-3 LCPUFA can be good alternatives to improve the intake of these fatty acids. Effects of lipid structures and food matrices on bioavailability of omega-3 LCPUFA have been investigated. Short term studies showed that both lipid structure and food matrix affect the bioavailability...

  19. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, endothelial lipase and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Undurti N

    2005-03-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL), a new member of the lipase gene family, was recently cloned and has been shown to have a significant role in modulating the concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein levels (HDL). EL is closely related to lipoprotein and hepatic lipases both in structure and function. It is primarily synthesized by endothelial cells, functions at the cell surface, and shows phospholipase A1 activity. Overexpression of EL decreases HDL cholesterol levels whereas blocking its action increases concentrations of HDL cholesterol. Pro-inflammatory cytokines suppress plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations by enhancing the activity of EL. On the other hand, physical exercise and fish oil (a rich source of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) suppress the activity of EL and this, in turn, enhances the plasma concentrations of HDL cholesterol. Thus, EL plays a critical role in the regulation of plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations and thus modulates the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The expression and actions of EL in specific endothelial cells determines the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis locally explaining the patchy nature of atheroma seen, especially, in coronary arteries. Both HDL cholesterol and EPA and DHA enhance endothelial nitric oxide (eNO) and prostacyclin (PGI2) synthesis, which are known to prevent atherosclerosis. On the other hand, pro-inflammatory cytokines augment free radical generation, which are known to inactivate eNO and PGI2. Thus, interactions between EL, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the ability of endothelial cells to generate NO and PGI2 and neutralize the actions of free radicals may play a critical role in atherosclerosis.

  20. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in maternal and infant nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskiet, Frits A. J.; van Goor, Saskia A.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Smit, Ella N.; Bouwstra, Hylco; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Boersma, E. Rudy; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2006-01-01

    Homo sapiens has evolved on a diet rich in alpha-linolenic acid and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). We have, however, gradually changed our diet from about 10,000 years ago and accelerated this change from about 100 to 200 years ago. The many dietary changes, including lower intake of

  1. gamma-linolenic acid does not augment long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; Hettema, Y; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1998-01-01

    Augmentation of long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acid (LCPUFA omega 3) status can be reached by consumption of fish oil or by improvement of the conversion of a-linolenic acid (ALA) to LCPUFA omega 3. Since gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) might activate the rate-limiting Delta-6 desaturation, we

  2. Plasma Phospholipid Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Body Weight Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers....

  3. Strategies for recovering inhibition caused by long chain fatty acids on anaerobic thermophilic biogas reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palatsi, J.; Laureni, M.; Andres, M.V.

    2009-01-01

    Long chain fatty acids (LCFA) concentrations over 1.0 g L1 were inhibiting manure thermophilic digestion, in batch and semi-continuous experiments, resulting in a temporary cease of the biogas production. The aim of the work was to test and evaluate several recovery actions, such as reactor feedi...

  4. LIPID CLASS DISTRIBUTION OF HIGHLY UNSATURATED LONG CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The very long chain highly unsaturated C28 fatty acids, octacosaheptaenoic [28:7(n-6)] and octacosaoctaenoic acid [28:8(n-3)], were found to be associated with phospholipids, obtained by fractionation of total lipid extracts into distinct lipid classes, in 4 and 6, respectively, ...

  5. Metagenomic analysis on thermophilic biogas reactors fed with high load of Long Chain Fatty Acids (LCFA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xinyu; De Francisci, Davide; Treu, Laura;

    In anaerobic digestion systems, the accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) leads to process instability and decrease of the methane production. This detrimental condition is known to be reversible depending on the concentration of the accumulated LCFAs and mainly on the microbial consortiu...

  6. Modelling inhibitory effects of long chain fatty acids in the anaerobic digestion process

    OpenAIRE

    Flotats Ripoll, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical modelling of anaerobic digestion process has been used to give new insights regarding dynamics of the long chain fatty acids (LCFA) inhibition. Previously published experimental data, including batch tests with clay mineral bentonite additions, were used for parameter identification. New kinetics were considered to describe the bio-physics of the inhibitory process, including: i) adsorption of LCFA over granular biomass and ii) specific LCFA substrate (saturated/unsaturated) a...

  7. Significance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for the development and behaviour of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Huss, Michael; Stauss-Grabo, Manuela; Hahn, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a central role in the normal development and functioning of the brain and central nervous system. Long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5omega-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6omega-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4omega-6), in particular, are involved in numerous neuronal processes, ranging from effects on membrane fluidity to gene expression regulation. Deficiencies and imbalances of these nutrients, not only during the developmental phase but throughout the whole life span, have significant effects on brain function. Numerous observational studies have shown a link between childhood developmental disorders and omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid imbalances. For instance, neurocognitive disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dyslexia, dyspraxia and autism spectrum disorders are often associated with a relative lack of omega-3 fatty acids. In addition to a high omega-6 fatty acid intake and, in many cases, an insufficient supply of omega-3 fatty acids among the population, evidence is increasing to suggest that PUFA metabolism can be impaired in individuals with ADHD. In this context, PUFA imbalances are being discussed as potential risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. Another focus is whether the nutritive PUFA requirements-especially long-chain omega-3 fatty acid requirements-are higher among some individuals. Meanwhile, several controlled studies investigated the clinical benefits of LC-PUFA supplementation in affected children and adolescents, with occasionally conflicting results.

  8. Study on Extracting Rare Earth from Sulfate System by Long-Chain Fatty Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yanhui; Zhao Zengqi; Liu Quansheng

    2004-01-01

    The extraction of rare earths by long-chain fatty acid in kerosene from sulphate system was described.It was demonstrated from the experimental results that the ratio of kerosene: fatty acid: isooctanol = 55 : 30: 15 ( V/V),By the saturation capability method and the slope method, the extracted reaction mechanism of the extraction of rare earth was studied.It is shown that the extraction reaction conform to the cation exchange reaction mechanism.The extracted sequence of rare earth was determined in this system and it is shown that there is no tetrad effect and the position of yttrium is between lanthanum and cerium.

  9. Yeast sphingolipids do not need to contain very long chain fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerantola, Vanessa; Vionnet, Christine; Aebischer, Olivier F;

    2007-01-01

    , a mouse LAG1 homologue. Ceramide synthase activity of 4Delta.Lass5 cells only utilizes C16 and C18 fatty acids and does not require the help of Lip1p, an essential cofactor of Lag1p/Lac1p. HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS/MS analysis demonstrated that in IPCs (inositolphosphorylceramides) of 4Delta.Lass5......, the very long chain fatty acids (C26 and C24) account for 97%. Notwithstanding, IPCs incorporated into glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors of 4Delta.Lass5 show normal mobility on TLC and the ceramide- and raft-dependent traffic of Gas1p (glycophospholipid-anchored surface...

  10. An oleaginous bacterium that intrinsically accumulates long-chain free Fatty acids in its cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Taiki; Kanno, Manabu; Morita, Naoki; Hori, Tomoyuki; Narihiro, Takashi; Mitani, Yasuo; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2014-02-01

    Medium- and long-chain fatty acids are present in organisms in esterified forms that serve as cell membrane constituents and storage compounds. A large number of organisms are known to accumulate lipophilic materials as a source of energy and carbon. We found a bacterium, designated GK12, that intrinsically accumulates free fatty acids (FFAs) as intracellular droplets without exhibiting cytotoxicity. GK12 is an obligatory anaerobic, mesophilic lactic acid bacterium that was isolated from a methanogenic reactor. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that GK12 is affiliated with the family Erysipelotrichaceae in the phylum Firmicutes but is distantly related to type species in this family (less than 92% similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence). Saturated fatty acids with carbon chain lengths of 14, 16, 18, and 20 were produced from glucose under stress conditions, including higher-than-optimum temperatures and the presence of organic solvents that affect cell membrane integrity. FFAs were produced at levels corresponding to up to 25% (wt/wt) of the dry cell mass. Our data suggest that FFA accumulation is a result of an imbalance between excess membrane fatty acid biosynthesis due to homeoviscous adaptation and limited β-oxidation activity due to anaerobic growth involving lactic acid fermentation. FFA droplets were not further utilized as an energy and carbon source, even under conditions of starvation. A naturally occurring bacterium that accumulates significant amounts of long-chain FFAs with noncytotoxicity would provide useful strategies for microbial biodiesel production.

  11. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vascular function in patients with chronic kidney disease and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Morten; Svensson, My; Povlsen, Johan V;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease have a markedly increased cardiovascular mortality compared with the general population. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been suggested to possess cardioprotective properties. This cross-sectional and comparative study evaluated cor...

  12. Long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids associate with development of premature infants up to 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandvik, Birgitta; Ntoumani, Eleni; Lundqvist-Persson, Cristina; Sabel, Karl-Göran

    2016-04-01

    Myelination is important perinatally and highly dependent on long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, nowadays often supplemented, inhibit oleic acid synthesis. Using data from a premature cohort, we studied if nervonic, lignoceric and oleic acids correlated to growth and early development up to 18 months corrected age. Small for gestational age infants had lower concentrations than infants appropriate for gestational age. Only oleic acid was negatively correlated to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Oleic and lignoceric acids correlated to social interaction at one month, and nervonic acid to mental, psychomotor and behavioral development at 6, 10 and 18 months, also when adjusted for several confounders. Negative association between oleic acid and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids suggests inhibition of delta-9 desaturase, and nervonic acid´s divergent correlation to lignoceric and oleic acids suggests different metabolism in neonatal period. Our results may have implications for the supplementation of premature infants.

  13. A Novel Protocol to Analyze Short- and Long-Chain Fatty Acids Using Nonaqueous Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, M. L.; Stockton, A. M.; Mora, Maria F; Willis, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new protocol to identify and quantify both short- and long-chain saturated fatty acids in samples of astrobiological interest using non-aqueous microchip capillary electrophoresis (micronNACE) with laser induced fluorescence (LIF).

  14. Genetic loci associated with circulating levels of very long-chain saturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Rozenn N; King, Irena B; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Wu, Jason H Y; McKnight, Barbara; Manichaikul, Ani; Guan, Weihua; Sun, Qi; Chasman, Daniel I; Foy, Millennia; Wang, Lu; Zhu, Jingwen; Siscovick, David S; Tsai, Michael Y; Arnett, Donna K; Psaty, Bruce M; Djousse, Luc; Chen, Yii-Der I; Tang, Weihong; Weng, Lu-Chen; Wu, Hongyu; Jensen, Majken K; Chu, Audrey Y; Jacobs, David R; Rich, Stephen S; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Steffen, Lyn; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B; Ridker, Paul M; Fornage, Myriam; Friedlander, Yechiel

    2015-01-01

    Very long-chain saturated fatty acids (VLSFAs) are saturated fatty acids with 20 or more carbons. In contrast to the more abundant saturated fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, there is growing evidence that circulating VLSFAs may have beneficial biological properties. Whether genetic factors influence circulating levels of VLSFAs is not known. We investigated the association of common genetic variation with plasma phospholipid/erythrocyte levels of three VLSFAs by performing genome-wide association studies in seven population-based cohorts comprising 10,129 subjects of European ancestry. We observed associations of circulating VLSFA concentrations with common variants in two genes, serine palmitoyl-transferase long-chain base subunit 3 (SPTLC3), a gene involved in the rate-limiting step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis, and ceramide synthase 4 (CERS4). The SPTLC3 variant at rs680379 was associated with higher arachidic acid (20:0 , P = 5.81 × 10(-13)). The CERS4 variant at rs2100944 was associated with higher levels of 20:0 (P = 2.65 × 10(-40)) and in analyses that adjusted for 20:0, with lower levels of behenic acid (P = 4.22 × 10(-26)) and lignoceric acid (P = 3.20 × 10(-21)). These novel associations suggest an inter-relationship of circulating VLSFAs and sphingolipid synthesis.

  15. Dynamic functional characterization and phylogenetic changes due to Long Chain Fatty Acids pulses in biogas reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano;

    2016-01-01

    The process stability of biogas plants is often deteriorated by the accumulation of Long Chain Fatty Acids (LCFA). The microbial community shifts due to LCFA disturbances have been poorly understood as the molecular techniques used were not able to identify the genome characteristics of uncultured...... microorganisms, and additionally, the presence of limited number of reference genomes in public databases prevented the comprehension of specific functional roles characterizing these microorganisms. The present study is the first research which deciphers by means of high throughput shotgun sequencing...

  16. Peanut consumption increases levels of plasma very long chain fatty acids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christina; Wong, Derek; Cederbaum, Stephen; Lim, Bennie; Qu, Yong

    2012-11-01

    Peanut consumption has been suspected of raising plasma very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) levels in humans. The effect of peanut consumption on VLCFAs was studied in six human subjects. After 3 to 4h of peanut butter ingestion, plasma C26:0 and C26:0/C22:0 were found to be significantly elevated to levels seen in patients with peroxisomal disorders. These levels returned to normal within 12h. Peanut consumption needs to be accounted for when interpreting VLCFAs.

  17. Effects of Long Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis and Associated Gene Expression in Microalga Tetraselmis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Catalina Adarme-Vega

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the depletion of global fish stocks, caused by high demand and effective fishing techniques, alternative sources for long chain omega-3 fatty acids are required for human nutrition and aquaculture feeds. Recent research has focused on land-based cultivation of microalgae, the primary producers of omega-3 fatty acids in the marine food web. The effect of salinity on fatty acids and related gene expression was studied in the model marine microalga, Tetraselmis sp. M8. Correlations were found for specific fatty acid biosynthesis and gene expression according to salinity and the growth phase. Low salinity was found to increase the conversion of C18:4 stearidonic acid (SDA to C20:4 eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA, correlating with increased transcript abundance of the Δ-6-elongase-encoding gene in salinities of 5 and 10 ppt compared to higher salinity levels. The expression of the gene encoding β-ketoacyl-coenzyme was also found to increase at lower salinities during the nutrient deprivation phase (Day 4, but decreased with further nutrient stress. Nutrient deprivation also triggered fatty acids synthesis at all salinities, and C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA increased relative to total fatty acids, with nutrient starvation achieving a maximum of 7% EPA at Day 6 at a salinity of 40 ppt.

  18. Saturated long-chain fatty acids activate inflammatory signaling in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sunita; Knight, Alecia G; Gupta, Shruti; Keller, Jeffrey N; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J

    2012-03-01

    This study describes the effects of long-chain fatty acids on inflammatory signaling in cultured astrocytes. Data show that the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid, as well as lauric acid and stearic acid, trigger the release of TNFα and IL-6 from astrocytes. Unsaturated fatty acids were unable to induce cytokine release from cultured astrocytes. Furthermore, the effects of palmitic acid on cytokine release require Toll-like receptor 4 rather than CD36 or Toll-like receptor 2, and do not depend on palmitic acid metabolism to palmitoyl-CoA. Inhibitor studies revealed that pharmacologic inhibition of p38 or p42/44 MAPK pathways prevents the pro-inflammatory effects of palmitic acid, whereas JNK and PI3K inhibition does not affect cytokine release. Depletion of microglia from primary astrocyte cultures using the lysosomotropic agent l-leucine methyl ester revealed that the ability of palmitic acid to trigger cytokine release is not dependent on the presence of microglia. Finally, data show that the essential ω-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid acts in a dose-dependent manner to prevent the actions of palmitic acid on inflammatory signaling in astrocytes. Collectively, these data demonstrate the ability of saturated fatty acids to induce astrocyte inflammation in vitro. These data thus raise the possibility that high levels of circulating saturated fatty acids could cause reactive gliosis and brain inflammation in vivo, and could potentially participate in the reported adverse neurologic consequences of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  19. Mechanisms involved in the selective transfer of long chain polyunsaturted fatty acids to the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso eGil-Sánchez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA in the fetal brain increases dramatically from the third trimester until 18 months of life. Several studies have shown an association between the percentage of maternal plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA during gestation and development of the cognitive functions in the neonate. Since only very low levels of LCPUFA are synthesized in the fetus and placenta, their primary source for the fetus is that of maternal origin. Both in vitro and human in vivo studies using labelled fatty acids have shown the preferential transfer of LCPUFA from the placenta to the fetus compared with other fatty acids, although the mechanisms involved are still uncertain. The placenta takes up circulating maternal non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and fatty acids released mainly by maternal lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase. These NEFA may enter the cell by passive diffusion or by means of membrane carrier proteins. Once in the cytosol, NEFA bind to cytosolic fatty acid-binding proteins for transfer to the fetal circulation or can be oxidized within the trophoblasts and even re-esterified and stored in lipid droplets (LD. Although trophoblast cells are not specialized in lipid storage, LCPUFA may up-regulate peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ and hence the gene expression of fatty acid transport carriers, fatty acid acyl-CoA synthetases and adipophilin or other enzymes related with lipolysis, modifying their rate of placental transfer and metabolization. The placental transfer of LCPUFA during pregnancy seems to be a key factor in the neurological development of the fetus. Increased knowledge on the factors that modify placental transfer of fatty acids would contribute to our understanding of this complex process.

  20. Bacterial Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Their Biosynthetic Genes, Functions, and Practical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kiyohito; Hashimoto, Mikako; Hori, Ryuji; Adachi, Takumi; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Orikasa, Yoshitake; Nagamine, Tadashi; Shimizu, Satoru; Ueno, Akio; Morita, Naoki

    2016-05-12

    The nutritional and pharmaceutical values of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been well recognized. These LC-PUFAs are physiologically important compounds in bacteria and eukaryotes. Although little is known about the biosynthetic mechanisms and functions of LC-PUFAs in bacteria compared to those in higher organisms, a combination of genetic, bioinformatic, and molecular biological approaches to LC-PUFA-producing bacteria and some eukaryotes have revealed the notably diverse organization of the pfa genes encoding a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase complex (PUFA synthase), the LC-PUFA biosynthetic processes, and tertiary structures of the domains of this enzyme. In bacteria, LC-PUFAs appear to take part in specific functions facilitating individual membrane proteins rather than in the adjustment of the physical fluidity of the whole cell membrane. Very long chain polyunsaturated hydrocarbons (LC-HCs) such as hentriacontanonaene are considered to be closely related to LC-PUFAs in their biosynthesis and function. The possible role of LC-HCs in strictly anaerobic bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic environments and the evolutionary relationships of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria carrying pfa-like genes are also discussed.

  1. Bacterial Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Their Biosynthetic Genes, Functions, and Practical Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyohito Yoshida

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional and pharmaceutical values of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs such as arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been well recognized. These LC-PUFAs are physiologically important compounds in bacteria and eukaryotes. Although little is known about the biosynthetic mechanisms and functions of LC-PUFAs in bacteria compared to those in higher organisms, a combination of genetic, bioinformatic, and molecular biological approaches to LC-PUFA-producing bacteria and some eukaryotes have revealed the notably diverse organization of the pfa genes encoding a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase complex (PUFA synthase, the LC-PUFA biosynthetic processes, and tertiary structures of the domains of this enzyme. In bacteria, LC-PUFAs appear to take part in specific functions facilitating individual membrane proteins rather than in the adjustment of the physical fluidity of the whole cell membrane. Very long chain polyunsaturated hydrocarbons (LC-HCs such as hentriacontanonaene are considered to be closely related to LC-PUFAs in their biosynthesis and function. The possible role of LC-HCs in strictly anaerobic bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic environments and the evolutionary relationships of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria carrying pfa-like genes are also discussed.

  2. Associations of human retinal very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with dietary lipid biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorusupudi, Aruna; Liu, Aihua; Hageman, Gregory S; Bernstein, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    The human retina is well-known to have unique lipid profiles enriched in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) that appear to promote normal retinal structure and function, but the influence of diet on retinal lipid profiles in health and disease remains controversial. In this study, we examined two independent cohorts of donor eyes and related their retinal lipid profiles with systemic biomarkers of lipid intake. We found that serum and red blood cell lipids, and to a lesser extent orbital fat, are indeed excellent biomarkers of retinal lipid content and n-3/n-6 ratios in both the LC-PUFA and VLC-PUFA series. Eyes from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) donors have significantly decreased levels of VLC-PUFAs and low n-3/n-6 ratios. These results are consistent with the protective role of dietary n-3 LC-PUFAs against AMD and emphasize the importance of monitoring systemic biomarkers of lipid intake when undertaking clinical trials of lipid supplements for prevention and treatment of retinal disease.

  3. Establishing very long-chain fatty alcohol and wax ester biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenning, Leonie; Yu, Tao; David, Florian

    2017-01-01

    for producing very long-chain fatty alcohols (VLCFOHs) up to a chain length of C22 by heterologous expression of a FAR derived from Apis mellifera (AmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 (Maqu_2220) in S. cerevisiae and achieved maximum yields of 3.22±0.36mg/g cell dry weight (CDW) and 7.84±3.09mg/g CDW......Wax esters (WEs) are neutral lipids and can be used for a broad range of commercial applications, including personal care products, lubricants, or coatings. They are synthesized by enzymatic reactions catalyzed by a fatty acyl reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS). At present, commercially...

  4. An Open-label Phase 2 Study of UX007 (Triheptanoin) in Subjects With Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders (LC-FAOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-23

    Long-chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders (LC-FAOD); Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase (CPT II) Deficiency; Very Long Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (VLCAD) Deficiency; Longchain 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (LCHAD) Deficiency; Trifunctional Protein (TFP) Deficiency

  5. Clinical overview of effects of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Susan A; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    The current report provides a brief background introducing 30 years of research on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and infant development, but focuses mainly on challenges for future studies. Infants fed formulas containing only vegetable fats were found to have lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) status than infants fed human milk. Studies soon focused on efforts to improve LC-PUFA status and evaluate functions suggested by early primate studies of DHA deficiency. Despite evidence for the importance of these fatty acids for development, particularly DHA, several recent meta-analyses conclude dietary supplementation does not enhance development. Future studies should employ (1) more finely grained measures of brain development as opposed to global measures, and (2) tests that evaluate development later in childhood when children are able to be tested on more complex behaviors (if found effective these would also be evidence of early brain programming). (3) Studies are needed to understand the cause of high variability in transfer of DHA to the fetus. (4) Finally, the role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the fatty acid desaturase genes 1 and 2 of mother and infant needs study to determine how they affect requirements for these fatty acids by the fetus/infant.

  6. High contents of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in different moss species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beike, Anna K; Jaeger, Carsten; Zink, Felix; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    2014-02-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important cellular compounds with manifold biological functions. Many PUFAs are essential for the human diet and beneficial for human health. In this study, we report on the high amounts of very long-chain (vl) PUFAs (≥C₂₀) such as arachidonic acid (AA) in seven moss species. These species were established in axenic in vitro culture, as a prerequisite for comparative metabolic studies under highly standardized laboratory conditions. In the model organism Physcomitrella patens, tissue-specific differences in the fatty acid compositions between the filamentous protonema and the leafy gametophores were observed. These metabolic differences correspond with differential gene expression of fatty acid desaturase (FADS)-encoding genes in both developmental stages, as determined via microarray analyses. Depending on the developmental stage and the species, AA amounts for 6-31 %, respectively, of the total fatty acids. Subcellular localization of the corresponding FADS revealed the endoplasmic reticulum as the cellular compartment for AA synthesis. Our results show that vlPUFAs are highly abundant metabolites in mosses. Standardized cultivation techniques using photobioreactors along with the availability of the P. patens genome sequence and the high rate of homologous recombination are the basis for targeted metabolic engineering in moss. The potential of producing vlPUFAs of interest from mosses will be highlighted as a promising area in plant biotechnology.

  7. The function of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá, Angel

    2010-02-01

    The mammalian pineal gland is a prominent secretory organ with a high metabolic activity. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the main secretory product of the pineal gland, efficiently scavenges both the hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals counteracting lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. Approximately 25% of the total fatty acids present in the rat pineal lipids are represented by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). These very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids play important roles in the pineal gland. In addition to the production of melatonin, the mammalian pineal gland is able of convert these polyunsaturated fatty acids into bioactive lipid mediators. Lipoxygenation is the principal lipoxygenase (LOX) activity observed in the rat pineal gland. Lipoxygenation in the pineal gland is exceptional because no other brain regions express significant LOX activities under normal physiological conditions. The rat pineal gland expresses both 12- and 15-lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, producing 12- and 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12- and 15-HpETE) from arachidonic acid and 14- and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14- and 17-HdoHE) from docosahexaenoic acid, respectively. The rat pineal also produces hepoxilins via LOX pathways. The hepoxilins are bioactive epoxy-hydroxy products of the arachidonic acid metabolism via the 12S-lipoxygenase (12S-LOX) pathway. The two key pineal biochemical functions, lipoxygenation and melatonin synthesis, may be synergistically regulated by the status of n-3 essential fatty acids.

  8. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms to produce omega-3 very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yangmin; Wan, Xia; Jiang, Mulan; Hu, Chuanjiong; Hu, Hanhua; Huang, Fenghong

    2014-10-01

    Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have received growing attention due to their significant roles in human health. Currently the main source of these nutritionally and medically important fatty acids is marine fish, which has not met ever-increasing global demand. Microorganisms are an important alternative source also being explored. Although many microorganisms accumulate omega-3 LC-PUFAs naturally, metabolic engineering might still be necessary for significantly improving their yields. Here, we review recent research involving the engineering of microorganisms for production of omega-3 LC-PUFAs, including eicospentaenoic acid and docosohexaenoic acid. Both reconstitution of omega-3 LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways and modification of existing pathways in microorganisms have demonstrated the potential to produce high levels of omega-3 LC-PUFAs. However, the yields of omega-3 LC-PUFAs in host systems have been substantially limited by potential metabolic bottlenecks, which might be caused partly by inefficient flux of fatty acid intermediates between the acyl-CoA and different lipid class pools. Although fatty acid flux in both native and heterologous microbial hosts might be controlled by several acyltransferases, evidence has suggested that genetic manipulation of one acyltransferase alone could significantly increase the accumulation of LC-PUFAs. The number of oleaginous microorganisms that can be genetically transformed is increasing, which will advance engineering efforts to maximize LC-PUFA yields in microbial strains.

  9. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Varela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented.

  10. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase isoforms differ in preferences for eicosanoid species and long-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Eric L; Chen, Shufen; Yechoor, Alekhya; Lih, Fred B; Coleman, Rosalind A

    2017-02-16

    Because the signaling eicosanoids, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), are esterified to membrane phospholipids, we asked which long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) isoforms would activate these molecules and whether the apparent fatty acid substrate preferences of each ACSL isoform might differ depending on whether it was assayed in mammalian cell membranes or as a purified bacterial recombinant protein. We found that all five ACSL isoforms were able to use EETs and HETEs as substrates and showed by LC-MS that ACSLs produce EET-CoAs. We found differences in substrate preference between ACS assays performed in COS7 cell membranes and recombinant purified proteins. Similarly, preferences and Michaelis-Menten kinetics for long-chain fatty acids were distinctive. Substrate preferences identified for the purified ACSLs did not correspond to those observed in ACSL-deficient mouse models. Taken together, these data support the concept that each ACSL isoform exhibits a distinct substrate preference, but apparent substrate specificities depend upon multiple factors including membrane character, co-activators, inhibitors, protein interactions, and post-translational modification.

  11. Genes associated with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in bovine skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, R; Cañón, J; Dunner, S

    2010-01-01

    Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) influence meat tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, and are beneficial to human health. The percentage of long-chain n-3 FAs in total FAs is termed the omega-3 index (O3I). It is thus of great interest to favor rising this index in bovine skeletal muscle, to obtain healthier, tastier, and more nutritive meat. This study was aimed to detect transcriptomic variations related to O3I in muscles in 15-month-old males of 4 Spanish cattle breeds raised under the same conditions. Through the analysis of extreme O3I phenotypes, 3 genes of interest (AANAT, UCP2 and AHA1) were identified. AANAT and UCP2 were strongly up-regulated, while AHA1 was repressed in animals with a high O3I. Moreover, gene expression differed between GDF8-null animal muscles (tested for nt821del11 and Q204X mutations) and the wild-type muscles for genes GDH1, IGF2R, FADS1, ASPH, and AIM1, all showing down-regulation in Asturiana de los Valles calves with muscle hypertrophy (GDF8-null). This shows that in GDF8-null animals other pathways are used for FA synthesis.

  12. Odd-numbered very-long-chain fatty acids from the microbial, animal and plant kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezanka, Tomás; Sigler, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Very long chain fatty acids (FAs) are important components of different classes of lipids in all organisms from bacteria to man. They include also, usually as minor components, odd-numbered FAs. These have so far been given little attention because of technical difficulties inherent in their detection and identification. Current modern analytical methods such as GC-MS and/or LC-MS make this detection and identification possible, and should promote a study of their properties. This review brings, in a concise manner, most of the currently available information about these FAs, their occurrence in different organisms, their structure and other properties. It should provide an impetus for further research into these very interesting compounds whose chemical, biochemical and biological properties are poorly known.

  13. Resistance to herbicides inhibiting the biosynthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Herbicides that act by inhibiting the biosynthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) have been used to control grass weeds in major crops throughout the world for the past 60 years. VLCFA-inhibiting herbicides are generally highly selective in crops, induce similar symptoms in susceptible grasses and can be found within the herbicide groups classified by the HRAC as K3 and N. Even after many years of continuous use, only 12 grass weed species have evolved resistance to VLCFA-inhibiting herbicides. Here, the cases of resistance that have evolved in major grass weed species belonging to the Avena, Echinochloa and Lolium genera in three different agricultural systems are reviewed. In particular we explore the possible reasons why VLCFA herbicides have been slow to select resistant weeds, outline the herbicide mode of action and discuss the resistance mechanisms that are most likely to have been selected.

  14. Immunomodulation by dietary long chain omega-3 fatty acids and the potential for adverse health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Jenifer I; Hord, Norman G; Ghosh, Sanjoy; Gurzell, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Recommendations to consume fish for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), along with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status for long chain omega-3 fatty acids, may have had the unanticipated consequence of encouraging long-chain omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acid [(eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] supplementation and fortification practices. While there is evidence supporting a protective role for EPA/DHA supplementation in reducing sudden cardiac events, the safety and efficacy of supplementation with LCω-3PUFA in the context of other disease outcomes is unclear. Recent studies of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections in animal models of infectious disease demonstrate that LCω-3PUFA intake dampens immunity and alters pathogen clearance and can result in reduced survival. The same physiological properties of EPA/DHA that are responsible for the amelioration of inflammation associated with chronic cardiovascular pathology or autoimmune states, may impair pathogen clearance during acute infections by decreasing host resistance or interfere with tumor surveillance resulting in adverse health outcomes. Recent observations that high serum LCω-3PUFA levels are associated with higher risk of prostate cancer and atrial fibrillation raise concern for adverse outcomes. Given the widespread use of supplements and fortification of common food items with LCω-3PUFA, this review focuses on the immunomodulatory effects of the dietary LCω-3PUFAs, EPA and DHA, the mechanistic basis for potential negative health outcomes, and calls for biomarker development and validation as rational first steps towards setting recommended dietary intake levels.

  15. Egg yolk as a source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, A P; Salem, N

    1992-02-01

    In this paper we compare the fatty acid content of egg yolks from hens fed four different feeds as a source of docosahexaenoic acid to supplement infant formula. Greek eggs contain more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 omega 3) and less linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 omega 6) and alpha-linolenic acid (LNA, 18:3 omega 3) than do fish-meal or flax eggs. Two to three grams of Greek egg yolk may provide an adequate amount of DHA and arachidonic acid for a preterm neonate. Mean intake of breast milk at age 1 mo provides 250 mg long-chain omega 3 fatty acids. This amount can be obtained from less than 1 yolk of a Greek egg (0.94), greater than 1 yolk of flax eggs (1.6) and fish-meal eggs (1.4), or 8.3 yolks of supermarket eggs. With proper manipulation of the hens' diets, eggs could be produced with fatty acid composition similar to that of Greek eggs.

  16. Contrasting metabolic effects of medium- versus long-chain fatty acids in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Magdalene K; Osborne, Brenna; Brown, Simon H J; Small, Lewin; Mitchell, Todd W; Cooney, Gregory J; Turner, Nigel

    2013-12-01

    Dietary intake of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) plays a causative role in insulin resistance and risk of diabetes. Whereas LCFAs promote lipid accumulation and insulin resistance, diets rich in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have been associated with increased oxidative metabolism and reduced adiposity, with few deleterious effects on insulin action. The molecular mechanisms underlying these differences between dietary fat subtypes are poorly understood. To investigate this further, we treated C2C12 myotubes with various LCFAs (16:0, 18:1n9, and 18:2n6) and MCFAs (10:0 and 12:0), as well as fed mice diets rich in LCFAs or MCFAs, and investigated fatty acid-induced changes in mitochondrial metabolism and oxidative stress. MCFA-treated cells displayed less lipid accumulation, increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and less oxidative stress than LCFA-treated cells. These changes were associated with improved insulin action in MCFA-treated myotubes. MCFA-fed mice exhibited increased energy expenditure, reduced adiposity, and better glucose tolerance compared with LCFA-fed mice. Dietary MCFAs increased respiration in isolated mitochondria, with a simultaneous reduction in reactive oxygen species generation, and subsequently low oxidative damage. Collectively our findings indicate that in contrast to LCFAs, MCFAs increase the intrinsic respiratory capacity of mitochondria without increasing oxidative stress. These effects potentially contribute to the beneficial metabolic actions of dietary MCFAs.

  17. PTH1 receptor is involved in mediating cellular response to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Candelario

    Full Text Available The molecular pathways by which long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA influence skeletal health remain elusive. Both LCPUFA and parathyroid hormone type 1 receptor (PTH1R are known to be involved in bone metabolism while any direct link between the two is yet to be established. Here we report that LCPUFA are capable of direct, PTH1R dependent activation of extracellular ligand-regulated kinases (ERK. From a wide range of fatty acids studied, varying in chain length, saturation, and position of double bonds, eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic fatty acids (DHA caused the highest ERK phosphorylation. Moreover, EPA potentiated the effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH(1-34 in a superagonistic manner. EPA or DHA dependent ERK phosphorylation was inhibited by the PTH1R antagonist and by knockdown of PTH1R. Inhibition of PTH1R downstream signaling molecules, protein kinases A (PKA and C (PKC, reduced EPA and DHA dependent ERK phosphorylation indicating that fatty acids predominantly activate G-protein pathway and not the β-arrestin pathway. Using picosecond time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and a genetically engineered PTH1R sensor (PTH-CC, we detected conformational responses to EPA similar to those caused by PTH(1-34. PTH1R antagonist blocked the EPA induced conformational response of the PTH-CC. Competitive binding studies using fluorescence anisotropy technique showed that EPA and DHA competitively bind to and alter the affinity of PTH1 receptor to PTH(1-34 leading to a superagonistic response. Finally, we showed that EPA stimulates protein kinase B (Akt phosphorylation in a PTH1R-dependent manner and affects the osteoblast survival pathway, by inhibiting glucocorticoid-induced cell death. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that LCPUFAs, EPA and DHA, can activate PTH1R receptor at nanomolar concentrations and consequently provide a putative molecular mechanism for the action of fatty acids in bone.

  18. Comprehensive and sensitive quantification of long-chain and very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in small samples of human and mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aihua; Terry, Ryan; Lin, Yanhua; Nelson, Kelly; Bernstein, Paul S

    2013-09-13

    Fatty acids (FAs), including long-chain and very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs, C12-22; VLC-PUFAs, C24-38), play an important role in retinal function and health. Deficiencies in LC-PUFAs and VLC-PUFAs, as well as mutations in the enzyme responsible for elongation of very long-chain fatty acids (ELOVL4), have been associated with macular dystrophies and degenerations. Published analytical methods, including high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and gas chromatography-MS (GC-MS), can quantify VLC-PUFAs but require at least an entire human retina which limits the ability to understand physiologically relevant variations in lipids that can occur at a regional level within the retina. Until now, quantification of VLC-PUFAs in just the human macula, the cone-rich region of the central retina responsible for high acuity vision, has not been feasible due to its small size (4-5mm in diameter). In this study, we have developed a sensitive GC-MS method using newer generation enhanced GC-MS detector sensitivity which for the first time quantifies not only 14 VLC-PUFAs and 26 LC-FAs but also n-3/n-6 ratios of PUFAs in 4mm punches of human retina or a single pair of mouse retinas. Our results showed that saturated LC-FAs are higher in the human peripheral retina than in the macula, while unsaturated LC-FAs are higher in the macula than in the peripheral retina. On the other hand, the VLC-PUFAs are higher in the peripheral retina compared to macula. There is no difference in n-3/n-6 ratios of PUFAs observed between human macula and peripheral retina, while mouse retina has almost ten times more VLC-PUFAs than human macula and peripheral retina (2.27% versus 0.25% and 0.32%, respectively) and much higher n-3/n-6 ratios compared to human retina (9:1 versus ∼0.9:1). This high sensitivity analytical technique provides a valuable new tool for studies on the role of FAs in the pathological processes of macular

  19. Relationship between plasma free fatty acid, intramyocellular triglycerides and long-chain acylcarnitines in resting humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaley, Jill A; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T; Guo, ZengKui; Jensen, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are trafficked directly to intramyocellular long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) rather than transiting intramyocellular triglycerides (imTG) on the way to resting muscle fatty acid oxidation. Overnight fasted adults (n= 61) received intravenous infusions of [U-13C]palmitate (0400–0830 h) and [U-13C]oleate (0800–1400 h) labelling plasma NEFA, imTG, imLCAC and im-non-esterified FA (imNEFA). Two muscle biopsies (0830 and 1400 h) were performed following 6 h, overlapping, sequential palmitate/oleate tracer infusions. Enrichment of plasma palmitate was ∼15 times greater than enrichment of imTG, imNEFA-palmitate and im-palmitoyl-carnitine. Fatty acid enrichment in LCAC was correlated with imTG and imNEFA; there was a significant correlation between imTG concentrations and imLCAC concentrations in women (r= 0.51, P= 0.005), but not men (r= 0.30, P= 0.11). We estimated that ∼11% of NEFA were stored in imTG. imTG NEFA storage was correlated only with NEFA concentrations (r= 0.52, P= 0.004) in women and with (r= 0.45, P= 0.02) in men. At rest, plasma NEFA are trafficked largely to imTG before they enter LCAC oxidative pools; thus, imTG are an important, central pool that regulates the delivery of fatty acids to the intracellular environment. Factors relating to plasma NEFA storage into imTG differ in men and women. PMID:19858228

  20. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids and inflammation: potential application in surgical and trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calder P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids used in nutritional support of surgical or critically ill patients have been based on soybean oil, which is rich in the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (18:2n-6. Linoleic acid is the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. In turn, arachidonic acid in cell membrane phospholipids is the substrate for the synthesis of a range of biologically active compounds (eicosanoids including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds can act as mediators in their own right and can also act as regulators of other processes, such as platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte chemotaxis, inflammatory cytokine production, and immune function. There is a view that an excess of n-6 fatty acids should be avoided since this could contribute to a state where physiological processes become dysregulated. One alternative is the use of fish oil. The rationale of this latter approach is that fish oil contains long chain n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid. When fish oil is provided, eicosapentaenoic acid is incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids, partly at the expense of arachidonic acid. Thus, there is less arachidonic acid available for eicosanoid synthesis. Hence, fish oil decreases production of prostaglandins like PGE2 and of leukotrienes like LTB4. Thus, n-3 fatty acids can potentially reduce platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, and leukocyte chemotaxis, and can modulate inflammatory cytokine production and immune function. These effects have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal feeding and healthy volunteer studies. Fish oil decreases the host metabolic response and improves survival to endotoxin in laboratory animals. Recently clinical studies performed in various patient groups have indicated benefit from this approach.

  1. Very long-chain fatty acids: elongation, physiology and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Akio

    2012-11-01

    Very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are fatty acids (FAs) with a chain-length of ≥22 carbons. Mammals have a variety of VLCFAs differing in chain-length and the number of double bonds. Each VLCFA exhibits certain functions, for example in skin barrier formation, liver homeostasis, myelin maintenance, spermatogenesis, retinal function and anti-inflammation. These functions are elicited not by free VLCFAs themselves, but through their influences as components of membrane lipids (sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids) or precursors of inflammation-resolving lipid mediators. VLCFAs are synthesized by endoplasmic reticulum membrane-embedded enzymes through a four-step cycle. The most important enzymes determining the tissue distribution of VLCFAs are FA elongases, which catalyze the first, rate-limiting step of the FA elongation cycle. Mammals have seven elongases (ELOVL1-7), each exhibiting a characteristic substrate specificity. Several inherited disorders are caused by mutations in genes involved in VLCFA synthesis or degradation. In this review, I describe the molecular mechanism of FA elongation and the responsible enzymes in mammals and yeast, as well as VLCFA-related disorders in human.

  2. Candida cloacae oxidation of long-chain fatty acids to dioic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green; Turner; Woodley

    2000-08-01

    Candida cloacae cells oxidize long-chain fatty acids to their corresponding dicarboxylic acids (dioic acids) at rates dependent on their chain length and degree of saturation. This is despite the well-known toxicity of the fatty acids. Among the saturated substrates, the oxidation is limited to lauric acid (C12). The addition of pristane (5% v/v), which acts as an inert carrier for the poorly water-soluble substrate, boosts the oxidation of lauric acid to a rate that is comparable to that of dodecane. When dissolved in pristane, myristic (C14) and palmitic (C16) acids are effective carbon sources for C. cloacae, but dioic acid production is very low. Media glucose concentration and pH also influence cell growth and productivity. After the glucose is depleted, oxidation is optimal at a low pH. A two-phase (pristane/water) reaction was tested in a 2-l stirred tank bioreactor in which growth and oxidation were separated. A 50% w/w conversion of lauric acid (10 g/l) to dodecanedioic acid was achieved. The bioreactor also alleviated poor mass transfer characteristics experienced in shake flasks.

  3. Role of fatty acid binding proteins and long chain fatty acids in modulating nuclear receptors and gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Friedhelm; Petrescu, Anca D; Huang, Huan; Atshaves, Barbara P; McIntosh, Avery L; Martin, Gregory G; Hostetler, Heather A; Vespa, Aude; Landrock, Danilo; Landrock, Kerstin K; Payne, H Ross; Kier, Ann B

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal energy regulation may significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. For rapid control of energy homeostasis, allosteric and posttranslational events activate or alter activity of key metabolic enzymes. For longer impact, transcriptional regulation is more effective, especially in response to nutrients such as long chain fatty acids (LCFA). Recent advances provide insights into how poorly water-soluble lipid nutrients [LCFA; retinoic acid (RA)] and their metabolites (long chain fatty acyl Coenzyme A, LCFA-CoA) reach nuclei, bind their cognate ligand-activated receptors, and regulate transcription for signaling lipid and glucose catabolism or storage: (i) while serum and cytoplasmic LCFA levels are in the 200 mircroM-mM range, real-time imaging recently revealed that LCFA and LCFA-CoA are also located within nuclei (nM range); (ii) sensitive fluorescence binding assays show that LCFA-activated nuclear receptors [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha)] exhibit high affinity (low nM KdS) for LCFA (PPARalpha) and/or LCFA-CoA (PPARalpha, HNF4alpha)-in the same range as nuclear levels of these ligands; (iii) live and fixed cell immunolabeling and imaging revealed that some cytoplasmic lipid binding proteins [liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), acyl CoA binding protein (ACBP), cellular retinoic acid binding protein-2 (CRABP-2)] enter nuclei, bind nuclear receptors (PPARalpha, HNF4alpha, CRABP-2), and activate transcription of genes in fatty acid and glucose metabolism; and (iv) studies with gene ablated mice provided physiological relevance of LCFA and LCFA-CoA binding proteins in nuclear signaling. This led to the hypothesis that cytoplasmic lipid binding proteins transfer and channel lipidic ligands into nuclei for initiating nuclear receptor transcriptional activity to provide new lipid nutrient signaling pathways that

  4. Perinatal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supply Are there long term consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demmelmair Hans

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are essential components of biological membranes or act as precursors for eicosanoid formation, in case of the 20 carbon atom fatty acids, arachidonic acid (AA, dihomo-c-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. During pregnancy LC-PUFA are enriched in the fetal circulation relative to maternal plasma. The corresponding placental processes have not been fully elucidated so far, but there are good indications that the LC-PUFA enrichment during the materno-fetal transfer is mediated by differences in the incorporation into lipid classes within the placenta between fatty acids and that specific fatty acid binding and transfer proteins are of major importance. In vitro a plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein could be identified, which preferentially binds DHA and AA compared to linoleic and oleic acids; in addition the m-RNA expression of fatty acid transfer protein 4 (FATP-4 in placental tissue was found to correlate significantly with the DHA percentage in cord blood phospholipids. After birth the percentage of LC-PUFA in infantile blood rapidly declines to levels depending on the dietary LC-PUFA supply, although preterm and full-term babies can convert linoleic and _-linolenic acids into AA and DHA, respectively. Breast milk provides preformed LC-PUFA, and breastfed infants have higher LC-PUFA levels in plasma and tissue than infants fed formulas without LC-PUFA. The high percentage of DHA in brain and other nervous tissue and the fact that the perinatal period is a period of fast brain growth suggests the importance of placental DHA transfer and dietary DHA content for optimal infantile development. Most but not all randomized, double blind, controlled clinical trials in preterm and in healthy full term infants demonstrated benefits of formulas supplemented with DHA and AA for the neurological development compared to formulas without LC-PUFA. Furthermore

  5. Omega-3 long chain fatty acid "bioavailability": a review of evidence and methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemifard, Samaneh; Turchini, Giovanni M; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2014-10-01

    This review considers the bioavailability of different forms of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), including ethyl esters (EEs), free fatty acids (FFAs), triacylglycerols (TAGs) and phospholipids (PLs). The retrieved studies include short-term and longer-term studies in humans, and a number of animal studies, which were highly heterogeneous in their design making it difficult to draw substantiated conclusions. The apparent bioavailability (as defined by the authors of these studies) seems to be lowest for the EE form and highest for the FFA form, whilst no conclusion can be made for TAG versus PL from human data. Animal studies suggest that there are substantial differences in the bioavailability of PL form of LC-PUFA compared with the TAG form. This apparent limited knowledge and understanding is fundamentally driven by methodological limitations of these studies. The major limitations with the studies to date include: (between studies) loose definition of the term "bioavailability", lack of standardisation of analytical methodology, and differences in which blood compartment was analysed; (within a study) failure to provide equal amounts the n-3 LC-PUFA of the different forms being compared, failure to provide the dose of n-3 LC-PUFA on a body weight basis, failure to measure fatty acid excretion, failure to control the total fat intake, and failure to adequately power the studies from a statistical point of view. This review has laid out a set of suggestions and criteria for conducting future studies on the bioavailability of different chemical forms of n-3 LC-PUFA.

  6. Establishment and Characterization of an Anaerobic Thermophilic (55 degrees C) Enrichment Culture Degrading Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    A thermophilic, long-chain fatty acid-oxidizing culture was enriched. Stearate was used as the substrate, and methane and carbon dioxide were the sole end products. Cultivation was possible only when a fed-batch system was used or with addition of activated carbon or bentonite. The enrichment...

  7. Reduced absorption of long-chain fatty acids during methotrexate-induced gastrointestinal mucositis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijlstra, Margot; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Stellaard, Frans; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background & aims: Patients with chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal mucositis suffer from weight loss and possibly malabsorption. Since long-chain fatty acids serve important functions in the body, we aimed to determine the intestinal capacity of fat absorption in rats with and without methotrexa

  8. Plasma very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and age-related hearing loss in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullemeijer, C.; Verhoef, P.; Brouwer, I.A.; Kok, F.J.; Brummer, R.J.; Durga, J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Age-related hearing loss is a common social and health problem in the older adult population. Up until now, very little scientific attention has been given to the potential role of fatty acids in agerelated hearing loss. In this study we investigated whether plasma very long-chain n-3 po

  9. Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : the importance of a balanced intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neuro-developmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DNA; 22:6 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 omega 6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in

  10. The Impact of Dietary Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Respiratory Illness in Infants and Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J.H.J.; Hooyenga, P.; Diersen-Schade, D.A.; Scalabrin, D.M.F.; Wichers, H.J.; Birch, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially omega-3 LCPUFA, improves respiratory health early in life. This review summarizes publications from 2009 through July 2012 that evaluated effects of fish, fish oil or LCPUFA intake during pregnanc

  11. Effect of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Full-Term Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    It takes more than 20 years before the human brain obtains its complex, adult configuration. Most dramatic developmental changes occur prenatally and early postnatally. During development, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) such as doxosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) ar

  12. Essential and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status and fatty acid composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Flávia; Torres, Alexandre G; Trugo, Nádia M F

    2008-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) status in lactating adolescents and its association with breast milk composition. Healthy nursing adolescents from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (n 30; 14-19 years; 30-120 d postpartum), exclusively or predominantly breast-feeding, participated in this study. Breast milk and blood samples were collected after overnight fasting. Fatty acid composition of breast milk, erythrocyte membrane (EM) and plasma NEFA were determined by GC. Indices of fatty acid status (mean melting point (MMP); EFA status index; DHA status indices, 22 : 5n-6:22 : 4n-6 and 22 : 6n-3:22 : 5n-6 ratios) were calculated from EM fatty acid composition. Dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids was low when compared with current recommendations for lactating women. MMP was associated with indices of DHA status, some individual fatty acids in EM and years post-menarche and weeks postpartum, suggesting the use of erythrocyte MMP as a possible comprehensive biochemical marker of LCPUFA status in this physiological condition. The DHA status of lactating adolescents and their milk DHA concentrations were similar to the values of Brazilian lactating adults, but lower compared with the values of lactating adults from other countries. Therefore, these lactating adolescents were apparently not disadvantaged, as compared with the Brazilian adults, when EM and breast milk fatty acid composition were considered. In general, PUFA in milk from adolescents presented few associations with their concentrations in plasma NEFA and with maternal status. However, milk DHA was associated with maternal LCPUFA and DHA states.

  13. Suppression of adipose lipolysis by long-chain fatty acid analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalderon, Bella; Azazmeh, Narmen; Azulay, Nili; Vissler, Noam; Valitsky, Michael; Bar-Tana, Jacob

    2012-05-01

    Agonist-induced lipolysis of adipose fat is robustly inhibited by insulin or by feedback inhibition by the long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) produced during lipolysis. However, the mode of action of LCFA in suppressing adipose lipolysis is not clear. β,β'-Tetramethyl hexadecanedioic acid (Mββ/ EDICA16) is a synthetic LCFA that is neither esterified into lipids nor β-oxidized, and therefore, it was exploited for suppressing agonist-induced lipolysis in analogy to natural LCFA. Mββ is shown here to suppress isoproterenol-induced lipolysis in the rat in vivo as well as in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Inhibition of isoproterenol-induced lipolysis is due to decrease in isoproterenol-induced cAMP with concomitant inhibition of the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and perilipin by protein kinase A. Suppression of cellular cAMP levels is accounted for by inhibition of the adenylate cyclase due to suppression of Raf1 expression by Mββ-activated AMPK. Suppression of Raf1 is further complemented by induction of components of the unfolded-protein-response by Mββ. Our findings imply genuine inhibition of agonist-induced adipose lipolysis by LCFA, independent of their β-oxidation or reesterification. Mββ suppression of agonist-induced lipolysis and cellular cAMP levels independent of the insulin transduction pathway may indicate that synthetic LCFA could serve as insulin mimetics in the lipolysis context under conditions of insulin resistance.

  14. Waste lipids to energy: how to optimize methane production from long-chain fatty acids (LCFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M Madalena; Pereira, M Alcina; Sousa, Diana Z; Cavaleiro, Ana J; Picavet, Merijn; Smidt, Hauke; Stams, Alfons J M

    2009-09-01

    The position of high-rate anaerobic technology (HR-AnWT) in the wastewater treatment and bioenergy market can be enhanced if the range of suitable substrates is expanded. Analyzing existing technologies, applications and problems, it is clear that, until now, wastewaters with high lipids content are not effectively treated by HR-AnWT. Nevertheless, waste lipids are ideal potential substrates for biogas production, since theoretically more methane can be produced, when compared with proteins or carbohydrates. In this minireview, the classical problems of lipids methanization in anaerobic processes are discussed and new concepts to enhance lipids degradation are presented. Reactors operation, feeding strategies and prospects of technological developments for wastewater treatment are discussed. Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) degradation is accomplished by syntrophic communities of anaerobic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. For optimal performance these syntrophic communities need to be clustered in compact aggregates, which is often difficult to achieve with wastewaters that contain fats and lipids. Driving the methane production from lipids/LCFA at industrial scale without risk of overloading and inhibition is still a challenge that has the potential for filling a gap in the existing processes and technologies for biological methane production associated to waste and wastewater treatment.

  15. Aminocarnitine and acylaminocarnitines: Carnitine acyltransferase inhibitors affecting long-chain fatty acid and glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    DL-Aminocarnitine (DL-3-amino-4-trimethylaminobutyrate) and the acylaminocarnitines acetyl-, decanoyl- and palmitoyl-DL-aminocarnitine have been synthesized and tested as inhibitors of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase and carnitine acetyltransferase in vitro and in vivo. Acetyl-DL-aaminocarnitine is the most potent reversible inhibitor of carnitine acetyltransferase reported to date, and is competitive with respect to acetyl-L-carnitine. Mice given acetyl-DL-aminocarnitine metabolize (U-{sup 14}C)acetyl-L-carnitine at about 60% of the rate of control mice. Palmitoyl-DL-aminocarnitine is the most potent reversible inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase reported to date. Decanoyl-DL-aminocarnitine and DL-aminocarnitine are also very potent inhibitors; all compounds inhibit the catabolism of ({sup 14}C)palmitate to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in intact mice by at least 50%. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase controls the entry of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix for {beta}-oxidation. The inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase by aminocarnitine or acylaminocarnitines in vivo prevents or reverses ketogenesis in fasted mice, and causes the reversible accumulation of triglycerides in liver, kidney and plasma. Administration of DL-aminocarnitine to streptozotocindiabetic mice lowers plasma glucose levels and improves the glucose tolerance test.

  16. Modelling inhibitory effects of long chain fatty acids in the anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonta, Z; Alves, M M; Flotats, X; Palatsi, J

    2013-03-01

    Mathematical modelling of anaerobic digestion process has been used to give new insights regarding dynamics of the long chain fatty acids (LCFA) inhibition. Previously published experimental data, including batch tests with clay mineral bentonite additions, were used for parameter identification. New kinetics were considered to describe the bio-physics of the inhibitory process, including: i) adsorption of LCFA over granular biomass and ii) specific LCFA substrate (saturated/unsaturated) and LCFA-degrading populations. Furthermore, iii) a new variable was introduced to describe the state of damage of the acetoclastic methanogens in order to account for the loss of cell-functionality (inhibition) induced by the adsorbed LCFAs. The proposed model modifications are state compatible and easy to be integrated into the International Water Association's Anaerobic Digestion Model N°1 (ADM1) framework. Practical identifiability of model parameters was assessed with a global sensitivity analysis, while calibration and model structure validation were performed on independent data sets. A reliable simulation of the LCFA-inhibition process can be achieved, if the model includes the description of the adsorptive nature of the LCFAs and the LCFA-damage over specific biomass. The importance of microbial population structure (saturated/unsaturated LCFA-degraders) and the high sensitivity of acetoclastic population to LCFA are evidenced, providing a plausible explanation of experimental based hypothesis.

  17. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids improve brain function and structure in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Hermannstädter, Henrike M; Fiebach, Jochen B; Schreiber, Stephan J; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

    2014-11-01

    Higher intake of seafish or oil rich in long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may be beneficial for the aging brain. We tested in a prospective interventional design whether high levels of supplementary LC-n3-FA would improve cognition, and addressed potential mechanisms underlying the effects. Sixty-five healthy subjects (50-75 years, 30 females) successfully completed 26 weeks of either fish oil (2.2 g/day LC-n3-FA) or placebo intake. Before and after the intervention period, cognitive performance, structural neuroimaging, vascular markers, and blood parameters were assayed. We found a significant increase in executive functions after LC-n3-FA compared with placebo (P = 0.023). In parallel, LC-n3-FA exerted beneficial effects on white matter microstructural integrity and gray matter volume in frontal, temporal, parietal, and limbic areas primarily of the left hemisphere, and on carotid intima media thickness and diastolic blood pressure. Improvements in executive functions correlated positively with changes in omega-3-index and peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and negatively with changes in peripheral fasting insulin. This double-blind randomized interventional study provides first-time evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on brain functions in healthy older adults, and elucidates underlying mechanisms. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age.

  18. Long-chain fatty acid analogues suppress breast tumorigenesis and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluschnaider, Udi; Hertz, Rachel; Ohayon, Sarit; Smeir, Elia; Smets, Martha; Pikarsky, Eli; Bar-Tana, Jacob

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with increased breast cancer incidence and mortality, whereas carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diets ameliorate T2D and suppress breast cancer. These observations suggest an inherent efficacy of nonesterified long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) in suppressing T2D and breast tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated novel antidiabetic MEDICA analogues consisting of methyl-substituted LCFA that are neither β-oxidized nor esterified to generate lipids, prompting interest in their potential efficacy as antitumor agents in the context of breast cancer. In the MMTV-PyMT oncomouse model of breast cancer, in which we confirmed that tumor growth could be suppressed by a carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet, MEDICA treatment suppressed tumor growth, and lung metastasis, promoting a differentiated phenotype while suppressing mesenchymal markers. In human breast cancer cells, MEDICA treatment attenuated signaling through the STAT3 and c-Src transduction pathways. Mechanistic investigations suggested that MEDICA suppressed c-Src-transforming activity by elevating reactive oxygen species production, resulting in c-Src oxidation and oligomerization. Our findings suggest that MEDICA analogues may offer therapeutic potential in breast cancer and overcome the poor compliance of patients to dietary carbohydrate restriction.

  19. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation in the immature swine heart in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; O' Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-09-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports infants and children with severe cardiopulmonary compromise. Nutritional support for these children includes provision of medium- and long-chain fatty acids (FAs). However, ECMO induces a stress response, which could limit the capacity for FA oxidation. Metabolic impairment could induce new or exacerbate existing myocardial dysfunction. Using a clinically relevant piglet model, we tested the hypothesis that ECMO maintains the myocardial capacity for FA oxidation and preserves myocardial energy state. Provision of 13-Carbon labeled medium-chain FA (octanoate), longchain free FAs (LCFAs), and lactate into systemic circulation showed that ECMO promoted relative increases in myocardial LCFA oxidation while inhibiting lactate oxidation. Loading of these labeled substrates at high dose into the left coronary artery demonstrated metabolic flexibility as the heart preferentially oxidized octanoate. ECMO preserved this octanoate metabolic response, but also promoted LCFA oxidation and inhibited lactate utilization. Rapid upregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) protein appeared to participate in this metabolic shift during ECMO. ECMO also increased relative flux from lactate to alanine further supporting the role for pyruvate dehydrogenase inhibition by PDK4. High dose substrate loading during ECMO also elevated the myocardial energy state indexed by phosphocreatine to ATP ratio. ECMO promotes LCFA oxidation in immature hearts, while maintaining myocardial energy state. These data support the appropriateness of FA provision during ECMO support for the immature heart.

  20. Neutral fat hydrolysis and long-chain fatty acid oxidation during anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, L; Massé, D I; Kennedy, K J; Chou, S P

    2002-07-05

    Neutral fat hydrolysis and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation rates were determined during the digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors operated at 25 degrees C. The experimental substrate consisted of filtered slaughterhouse wastewater supplemented with pork fat particles at various average initial sizes (D(in)) ranging from 60 to 450 microm. At the D(in) tested, there was no significant particle size effect on the first-order hydrolysis rate. The neutral fat hydrolysis rate averaged 0.63 +/- 0.07 d(-1). LCFA oxidation rate was modelled using a Monod-type equation. The maximum substrate utilization rate (kmax) and the half-saturation concentration (Ks) averaged 164 +/- 37 mg LCFA/L/d and 35 +/- 31 mg LCFA/L, respectively. Pork fat particle degradation was mainly controlled by LCFA oxidation rate and, to a lesser extent, by neutral fat hydrolysis rate. Hydrolysis pretreatment of fat-containing wastewaters and sludges should not substantially accelerate their anaerobic treatment. At a D(in) of 450 microm, fat particles were found to inhibit methane production during the initial 20 h of digestion. Inhibition of methane production in the early phase of digestion was the only significant effect of fat particle size on anaerobic digestion of pork slaughterhouse wastewater. Soluble COD could not be used to determine the rate of lipid hydrolysis due to LCFA adsorption on the biomass.

  1. Long chain N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of allergic and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Elsen, Lieke; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette

    2012-01-01

    The diet is considered to have a major impact on human health. Dietary lipids including long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) possess potent immunomodulatory activities. Over the last decades the incidence of inflammatory disorders including allergic and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been rising. This phenomenon is associated with deficiencies in N-3 LCPUFA, found in fatty fish, and increased content of N-6 LCPUFA in the Western diet. LCPUFA act via different mechanisms including membrane fluidity, raft composition, lipid mediator formation, signaling pathways and transmembrane receptors. N-3 LCPUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce the development of allergic disease by affecting both the innate and adaptive immune system involved in the initiation and persistence of allergic disease. Fish oil has been shown to be effective in the primary prevention of allergic disease in infants at risk when supplemented during pregnancy and lactation. Subtle effects of N-3 LCPUFA on the outcome of the immune response may underlie these protective effects. This review describes the currently reported effects of LCPUFA on dendritic cells, T cells, B cells and mast cells. Also CVD are positively affected by N-3 LCPUFA. Populations consuming high amounts of oily fish are protected against CVD. Moreover N-3 LCPUFA are effective in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Amongst other effects, EPA and DHA have been shown to suppress endothelial cell activation hereby reducing adhesion molecule expression and endothelial cell - leukocyte interactions. This review describes the mechanistic basis of the preventive role for N-3 LCPUFA in allergic disease and CVD.

  2. Sex Differences in Long Chain Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockner, Robert K.; Burnett, David A.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.

    1979-01-01

    Female sex and estrogen administration are associated with increased hepatic production of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; the basis for this has not been fully elucidated. Inasmuch as hepatic lipoprotein production is also influenced by FFA availability and triglyceride biosynthesis, we investigated sex differences in FFA utilization in rat hepatocyte suspensions and in the components of the triglyceride biosynthetic pathway. Isolated adult rat hepatocyte suspensions were incubated with albumin-bound [14C]oleate for up to 15 min. At physiological and low oleate concentrations, cells from females incorporated significantly more 14C into glycerolipids, especially triglycerides, and into oxidation products than did male cells, per milligram cell protein. At 0.44 mM oleate, incorporation into triglycerides in female cells was approximately twice that in male cells. Comparable sex differences were observed in cells from fasted animals and when [14C]-glycerol incorporation was measured. At higher oleate concentrations, i.e., fatty acid:albumin mole ratios in excess of 2:1, these sex differences were no longer demonstrable, suggesting that maximal rates of fatty acid esterification and oxidation were similar in female and male cells. In female and male hepatic microsomes, specific activities of long chain acyl coenzyme A synthetase, phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, and diglyceride acyltransferase were similar, but glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity was slightly greater in females at certain substrate concentrations. Microsomal incorporation of [14C]oleate into total glycerolipids was not significantly greater in females. In further contrast to intact cells, microsomal incorporation of [14C]oleate into triglycerides, although significantly greater in female microsomes, accounted for only a small fraction of the fatty acid esterified. The binding affinity and stoichiometry of partially purified female hepatic fatty acid binding protein (FABP) were similar to

  3. A computational search for lipases that can preferentially hydrolyze long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Md Zahid; Barrow, Colin J; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2015-04-15

    Consumption of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids is known to decrease the risk of major cardiovascular events. Lipases, a class of triacylglycerol hydrolases, have been extensively tested to concentrate omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils, under mild enzymatic conditions. However, no lipases with preference for omega-3 fatty acids selectivity have yet been discovered or developed. In this study we performed an exhaustive computational study of substrate-lipase interactions by docking, both covalent and non-covalent, for 38 lipases with a large number of structured triacylglycerols containing omega-3 fatty acids. We identified some lipases that have potential to preferentially hydrolyze omega-3 fatty acids from structured triacylglycerols. However omega-3 fatty acid preferences were found to be modest. Our study provides an explanation for absence of reports of lipases with omega-3 fatty acid hydrolyzing ability and suggests methods for developing these selective lipases.

  4. Impaired maternal glucose homeostasis during pregnancy is associated with low status of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) and essential fatty acids (EFA) in the fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijck-Brouwer, DAJ; Hadders-Algra, M; Bouwstra, H; Decsi, T; Boehm, G; Martini, IA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2005-01-01

    Low status of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) and essential fatty acids (EFA) in the fetus is associated with less favorable neonatal neurological condition. A 'relative', rather than 'absolute' EFA deficiency might explain this finding. A relative EFA deficiency may derive from impaire

  5. Rom2-dependent Phosphorylation of Elo2 Controls the Abundance of Very Long-chain Fatty Acids*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Daniel K.; Fröhlich, Florian; Christiano, Romain; Hannibal-Bach, Hans K.; Ejsing, Christer S.; Walther, Tobias C.

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are essential components of eukaryotic membranes, where they serve to maintain membrane integrity. They are important components of membrane trafficking and function in signaling as messenger molecules. Sphingolipids are synthesized de novo from very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and sphingoid long-chain bases, which are amide linked to form ceramide and further processed by addition of various headgroups. Little is known concerning the regulation of VLCFA levels and how cells coordinate their synthesis with the availability of long-chain bases for sphingolipid synthesis. Here we show that Elo2, a key enzyme of VLCFA synthesis, is controlled by signaling of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rom2, initiating at the plasma membrane. This pathway controls Elo2 phosphorylation state and VLCFA synthesis. Our data identify a regulatory mechanism for coordinating VLCFA synthesis with sphingolipid metabolism and link signal transduction pathways from the plasma membrane to the regulation of lipids for membrane homeostasis. PMID:25519905

  6. Influence of C18 long chain fatty acids on hydrogen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Jennifer; Lalman, Jerald A; Jing, Nin; Ndegwa, Pius M

    2006-01-01

    During anaerobic treatment, several microorganisms mediate a series of reactions to convert reduced compounds (electron donors) into methane. Inhibitors such as long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) can affect several anaerobic microbial populations and decrease the treatment efficiency. The effects of three C18 LCFAs on hydrogenotrophic methanogens in a flocculated mixed anaerobic culture were assessed in this study. The reaction half-life and the hydrogen versus time profiles were used to characterize the inhibition process. The half-life values and profiles were similar for controls and cultures exposed to LCFAs for 1 h. The hydrogen inhibition was a function of the exposure time and the LCFA concentration except for cultures exposed to stearic acid (SA). A statistical analysis of the reaction half-life for cultures incubated with 1,500 and 2,000 mg L(-1) LCFAs for 48 h, revealed the following inhibition trend: linoleic acid (LA) > oleic acid (OA) > SA. After 48 h of exposure, no clear inhibition trend was observed for cultures inoculated with LCFA mixtures; however, at levels of 1,500 and 2,000 mg L(-1), the reaction half-life values were less than that observed for cultures fed with only LA. Based on the reaction half-life data, all of the LCFAs except SA at threshold levels of approximately 1,500 mg L(-1) inhibited hydrogen metabolism. The greatest inhibition and, hence, the largest amount of accumulated hydrogen was observed in cultures fed with 2,000 mg L(-1) LA and incubated for 48 h.

  7. Drug discovery opportunities and challenges at G protein coupled receptors for long chain free fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Holliday

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of G protein coupled receptors for long chain free fatty acids (FFAs, FFA1 (GPR40 and GPR120, has expanded our understanding of these nutrients as signalling molecules. These receptors have emerged as important sensors for FFA levels in the circulation or the gut lumen, based on evidence from in vitro and rodent models, and an increasing number of human studies. Here we consider their promise as therapeutic targets for metabolic disease, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. FFA1 directly mediates acute FFA-induced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells, while GPR120 and FFA1 trigger release of incretins from intestinal endocrine cells, and so indirectly enhance insulin secretion and promote satiety. GPR120 signalling in adipocytes and macrophages also results in insulin sensitizing and beneficial anti-inflammatory effects. Drug discovery has focussed on agonists to replicate acute benefits of FFA receptor signalling, with promising early results for FFA1 agonists in man. Controversy surrounding chronic effects of FFA1 on beta-cells illustrates that long term benefits of antagonists also need exploring. It has proved challenging to generate highly selective potent ligands for FFA1 or GPR120 subtypes, given that both receptors have hydrophobic orthosteric binding sites, which are not completely defined and have modest ligand affinity. Structure activity relationships are also reliant on functional read outs, in the absence of robust binding assays to provide direct affinity estimates. Nevertheless synthetic ligands have already helped dissect specific contributions of FFA1 and GPR120 signalling from the many possible cellular effects of FFAs. Approaches including use of fluorescent ligand binding assays, and targeting allosteric receptor sites, may improve further preclinical ligand development at these receptors, to exploit their unique potential to target multiple facets of diabetes.

  8. Nutritional evaluation of microalgae oils rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as an alternative for fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckebosch, Eline; Bruneel, Charlotte; Termote-Verhalle, Romina; Goiris, Koen; Muylaert, Koenraad; Foubert, Imogen

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the nutritional value of the total lipid extract of different omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids producing photoautotrophic microalgae in one study. It was shown that microalgae oils from Isochrysis, Nannochloropsis, Phaeodactylum, Pavlova and Thalassiosira contain sufficient omega-3 LC-PUFA to serve as an alternative for fish oil, which was used as the 'golden standard'. In the microalgae oils an important part of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are present in the polar lipid fraction, which may be favourable from a bioavailability and stability viewpoint. Consumption of microalgae oil ensures intake of sterols and carotenoids. The intake of sterols, including cholesterol and phytosterols, is probably not relevant. The intake of carotenoids is however definitely significant and could give the microalgae oils a nutritional added value compared to fish oil.

  9. Growth and development of term infants fed with milk with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BEN Xiao-ming 贲晓明; ZHOU Xiao-yu 周晓玉; ZHAO Wei-hua 赵卫华; YU Wen-liang 喻文亮; PAN Wei 潘伟; ZHANG Wei-li 张伟利; WU Sheng-mei 吴圣楣; Christien M. Van Beusekom; Anne Schaafsma

    2004-01-01

    @@ Presently, there is growing interest in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), which are considered a major determinant of growth, visual and neural development, and long-term health.1 Two groups of LCPUFAs have received special interest: homologues of linoleic acid (LA) of the n-6 series, which are precursors of arachidonic acid (AA), and homologues of α-linolenic acid (ALA) of the n-3 series, which are precursors of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  10. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids May Be Beneficial for Reducing Obesity—A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Peter R. C.; Buckley, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Current recommendations for counteracting obesity advocate the consumption of a healthy diet and participation in regular physical activity, but many individuals have difficulty complying with these recommendations. Studies in rodents and humans have indicated that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) potentially elicit a number of effects which might be useful for reducing obesity, including suppression of appetite, improvements in circulation which might facilitate n...

  11. Role of perinatal long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in cortical circuit maturation: Mechanisms and implications for psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Robert K.; Vannest, Jennifer J; Valentine, Christina J.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating translational evidence suggests that the long-chain omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plays a role in the maturation and stability of cortical circuits that are impaired in different recurrent psychiatric disorders. Specifically, rodent and cell culture studies find that DHA preferentially accumulates in synaptic and growth cone membranes and promotes neurite outgrowth, dendritic spine stability, and synaptogenesis. Additional evidence suggests that DHA may play a rol...

  12. Involvement of atypical protein kinase C in the regulation of cardiac glucose and long-chain fatty acid uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habets, Daphna D J; Luiken, Joost J F P; Ouwens, Margriet;

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cardiac GLUT4 translocation/glucose uptake and CD36 translocation/long-chain fatty acid uptake are not fully understood. We compared in heart/muscle-specific PKC-¿ knockout mice the roles of atypical PKCs (PKC-¿ and PKC-¿) in regulating ca...... to allow optimal stimulation of glucose and fatty acid uptake, indicating that atypical PKCs are necessary but not rate-limiting in the regulation of cardiac substrate uptake and that PKC-¿ and PKC-¿ have interchangeable functions in these processes.......Aim: The signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cardiac GLUT4 translocation/glucose uptake and CD36 translocation/long-chain fatty acid uptake are not fully understood. We compared in heart/muscle-specific PKC-¿ knockout mice the roles of atypical PKCs (PKC-¿ and PKC-¿) in regulating...... cardiac glucose and fatty acid uptake. Results: Neither insulin-stimulated nor AMPK-mediated glucose and fatty acid uptake were inhibited upon genetic PKC-¿ ablation in cardiomyocytes. In contrast, myristoylated PKC-¿ pseudosubstrate inhibited both insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated glucose and fatty...

  13. [Overexpression of four fatty acid synthase genes elevated the efficiency of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis in mammalian cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guiming; Saleh, Abdulmomen Ali Mohammed; Bahwal, Said Ahmed; Wang, Kunfu; Wang, Mingfu; Wang, Didi; Ge, Tangdong; Sun, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Three long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6), are the most biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids in the body. They are important in developing and maintaining the brain function, and in preventing and treating many diseases such as cardiovascular disease, inflammation and cancer. Although mammals can biosynthesize these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, the efficiency is very low and dietary intake is needed to meet the requirement. In this study, a multiple-genes expression vector carrying mammalian A6/A5 fatty acid desaturases and multiple-genes expression vector carrying mammalian Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid desaturases and Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid elongases coding genes was used to transfect HEK293T cells, then the overexpression of the target genes was detected. GC-MS analysis shows that the biosynthesis efficiency and level of DHA, EPA and ARA were significantly increased in cells transfected with the multiple-genes expression vector. Particularly, DHA level in these cells was 2.5 times higher than in the control cells. This study indicates mammal possess a certain mechanism for suppression of high level of biosynthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the overexpression of Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid desaturases and Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid elongases broke this suppression mechanism so that the level of DHA, EPA and ARA was significantly increased. This study also provides a basis for potential applications of this gene construct in transgenic animal to produce high level of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid.

  14. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in mammary and prostate cancer protection: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Verónica M; Actis, Adriana B

    2012-02-01

    The role of dietary fatty acids on cancer is still controversial. To examine the current literature on the protective role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and marine long-chain fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and the risk of breast and prostate cancer, data from 41 case-control and cohort studies and relevant in vitro and animal experiments were included in this 2000-2010 revision. Epidemiological studies on CLA intake or its tissue concentration related to breast and prostate tumorigenesis are not conclusive; EPA and DHA intake have shown important inverse associations just in some studies. Additional research on the analysed association is required.

  15. Original Research: Effect of various dietary fats on fatty acid profile in duck liver: Efficient conversion of short-chain to long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Du, Xue; Shen, Jianliang; Lu, Lizhi; Wang, Weiqun

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, especially long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, have been associated with potential health benefits for chronic disease prevention. Our previous studies found that dietary omega-3 fatty acids could accumulate in the meat and eggs in a duck model. This study was to reveal the effects of various dietary fats on fatty acid profile and conversion of omega-3 fatty acids in duck liver. Female Shan Partridge Ducks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The experimental diets substituted the basal diet by 2% of flaxseed oil, rapeseed oil, beef tallow, or fish oil, respectively. In addition, a dose response study was further conducted for flaxseed and fish oil diets at 0.5%, 1%, and 2%, respectively. At the end of the five-week treatment, fatty acids were extracted from the liver samples and analyzed by GC-FID. As expected, the total omega-3 fatty acids and the ratio of total omega-3/omega-6 significantly increased in both flaxseed and fish oil groups when compared with the control diet. No significant change of total saturated fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids was found in both rapeseed and beef tallow groups. The dose response study further indicated that 59-81% of the short-chain omega-3 ALA in flaxseed oil-fed group was efficiently converted to long-chain DHA in the duck liver, whereas 1% of dietary flaxseed oil could produce an equivalent level of DHA as 0.5% of dietary fish oil. The more omega-3 fatty acids, the less omega-6 fatty acids in the duck liver. Taken together, this study showed the fatty acid profiling in the duck liver after various dietary fat consumption, provided insight into a dose response change of omega-3 fatty acids, indicated an efficient conversion of short- to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid, and suggested alternative long-chain omega-3 fatty acid-enriched duck products for human health benefits.

  16. Fatty acid profile and composition of milk protein fraction in dairy cows fed long-chain unsaturated fatty acids during the transition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palma Rennó

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilization of different sources of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids in diets for dairy cows during the transition period and early lactation on the milk fatty acid profile and composition of the protein fraction. Thirty-six Holstein cows were divided into three groups, fed the following diets: control (C; soybean oil (SO; and calcium salts of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids (CS. The milk samples utilized for analysis were obtained weekly from parturition to twelve weeks of lactation; each one of the samples originated from two daily milkings. Milk composition and total nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen and non-casein nitrogen levels were analyzed. The cows receiving the diet with calcium salts had lower concentrations of non-protein nitrogen (%CP in milk compared with the animals fed the diet with soybean oil. There was a decrease in concentration of medium-chain fatty acids C12-C16, and a concomitant increase in concentrations of long-chain fatty acids >C18 in milk fat for the animals fed the diets CS and SO when compared with diet C. Soybean oil and CS diets increased milk-fat concentrations of the acids C18: 1 trans-11, C18: 2 cis-9, trans-11 and C18: 2 trans-10 cis-12 in relation to diet C. The utilization of sources of long-chain fatty acids in the diet of dairy cows increases the biological value of milk in early lactation due to higher concentrations of specific fatty acids such as CLA C18: 2cis-9, trans-11.

  17. TORC1 Inhibits GSK3-Mediated Elo2 Phosphorylation to Regulate Very Long Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis and Autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Christine; Santos, Aline; Gable, Kenneth;

    2013-01-01

    Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are essential fatty acids with multiple functions, including ceramide synthesis. Although the components of the VLCFA biosynthetic machinery have been elucidated, how their activity is regulated to meet the cell's metabolic demand remains unknown. The goal...... of this study was to identify mechanisms that regulate the rate of VLCFA synthesis, and we discovered that the fatty acid elongase Elo2 is regulated by phosphorylation. Elo2 phosphorylation is induced upon inhibition of TORC1 and requires GSK3. Expression of nonphosphorylatable Elo2 profoundly alters...... of autophagy. Together, our data reveal a function for TORC1 and GSK3 in the regulation of VLCFA synthesis that has important implications for autophagy and cell homeostasis....

  18. Single-Step Access to Long-Chain α,ω-Dicarboxylic Acids by Isomerizing Hydroxycarbonylation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    KAUST Repository

    Goldbach, Verena

    2016-11-09

    Dicarboxylic acids are compounds of high value, but to date long-chain alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids have been difficult to access in a direct way. Unsaturated fatty acids are ideal starting materials with their molecular structure of long methylene sequences and a carboxylate functionality, in addition to a double bond that offers itself for functionalization. Within this paper, we established a direct access to alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids by combining isomerization and selective terminal carbonylation of the internal double bond with water as a nucleophile on unsaturated fatty acids. We identified the key elements of this reaction: a homogeneous reaction mixture ensuring sufficient contact between all reactants and a catalyst system allowing for activation of the Pd precursor under aqueous conditions. Experiments under pressure reactor conditions with [(dtbpx)Pd(OTf)(2)] as catalyst precursor revealed the importance of nucleophile and reactant concentrations and the addition of the diprotonated diphosphine ligand (dtbpxH(2))(OTf)(2) to achieve turnover numbers >120. A variety of unsaturated fatty acids, including a triglyceride, were converted to valuable long-chain dicarboxylic acids with high turnover numbers and selectivities for the linear product of >90%. We unraveled the activation pathway of the Pd-II precursor, which proceeds via a reductive elimination step forming a Pd species and oxidative addition of the diprotonated diphosphine ligand, resulting in the formation of the catalytically active Pd hydride species. Theoretical calculations identified the hydrolysis as the rate-determining step. A low nucleophile concentration in the reaction mixture in combination with this high energetic barrier limits the potential of this reaction. In conclusion, water can be utilized as a nucleophile in isomerizing functionalization reactions and gives access to long-chain dicarboxylic acids from a variety of unsaturated substrates. The activity of the catalytic

  19. Selective transport of long-chain fatty acids by FAT/CD36 in skeletal muscle of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Shu, G; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Liao, W; Wang, S; Yang, J; Zhou, G; Xi, Q; Gao, P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, S; Yuan, L; Jiang, Q

    2013-03-01

    Fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) is a membrane receptor that facilitates long-chain fatty acid uptake. To investigate its role in the regulation of long-chain fatty acid composition in muscle tissue, we studied and compared FAT/CD36 gene expression in muscle tissues of commercial broiler chickens and Chinese local Silky fowls. The results from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of muscle samples demonstrated that Chinese local Silky fowls had significantly higher (P FAT/CD36 and caveolin-1) in the m. ipsilateral pectoralis and biceps femoris were analyzed by Q-PCR, and FAT/CD36 expression levels showed significant differences between these types of chickens (P FAT/CD36 expression are positively correlated with LA content (r = 0.567, P FAT/CD36 cDNA demonstrated that overexpression of FAT/CD36 improves total FA uptake with a significant increase in the proportion of LA and AA, and a decreased proportion of palmitic acid. These results suggest that chicken FAT/CD36 may selectively transport LA and AA, which may lead to the higher LA deposition in muscle tissue.

  20. Nature of the elements transporting long-chain fatty acids through the red cell membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Inge Norby; Bojesen, Eigil

    1998-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport......Docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, red cell membrane, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport...

  1. Fish oil and mental health: the role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in cognitive development and neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assisi, Alessandro; Banzi, Rita; Buonocore, Carmela; Capasso, Filippo; Di Muzio, Valeria; Michelacci, Francesca; Renzo, Danila; Tafuri, Giovanni; Trotta, Francesco; Vitocolonna, Maria; Garattini, Silvio

    2006-11-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated that consumption of more n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may reduce the risk for a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular, neurological and immunological disorders, diabetes and cancer. This article focuses on the role of marine n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in brain functions, including the development of the central nervous system and neurological disorders. An overview of the major animal studies and clinical trials is provided here, focusing on fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy and infancy, and prevention and management of Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, depression and attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Although an optimal balance in n-3/n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio is important for proper neurodevelopment and cognitive functions, results from randomized controlled trials are controversial and do not confirm any useful effect of supplementation on development of preterm and term infants. The relationship between fatty acid status and mental disorders is confirmed by reduced levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes of patients with central nervous system disorders. Nevertheless, there are very little data supporting the use of fish oil in those patients. The only way to verify whether n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are a potential therapeutic option in the management and prevention of mental disorders is to conduct a large definitive randomized controlled trials similar to those required for the licensing of any new pharmacological treatment.

  2. A novel role for central ACBP/DBI as a regulator of long-chain fatty acid metabolism in astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouyakdan, Khalil; Taïb, Bouchra; Budry, Lionel;

    2015-01-01

    Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is a ubiquitously expressed protein that binds intracellular acyl-CoA esters. Several studies have suggested that ACBP acts as an acyl-CoA pool former and regulates long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) metabolism in peripheral tissues. In the brain, ACBP is known as Diaze......Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is a ubiquitously expressed protein that binds intracellular acyl-CoA esters. Several studies have suggested that ACBP acts as an acyl-CoA pool former and regulates long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) metabolism in peripheral tissues. In the brain, ACBP is known...... (palmitate, stearate) LCFA metabolic fluxes in hypothalamic slices and astrocyte cultures. In addition, lack of ACBP differently affects the expression of genes involved in FA metabolism in cortical versus hypothalamic astrocytes. Finally, ACBP deficiency increases FA content and impairs their release...... in response to palmitate in hypothalamic astrocytes. Collectively, these findings reveal for the first time that central ACBP acts as a regulator of LCFA intracellular metabolism in astrocytes. Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) or diazepam-binding inhibitor is a secreted peptide acting centrally as a GABAA...

  3. Inborn Errors of Long-Chain Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Link Neural Stem Cell Self-Renewal to Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs occur with high incidence in human populations. Especially prevalent among these are inborn deficiencies in fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO, which are clinically associated with developmental neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism. We now report that neural stem cell (NSC-autonomous insufficiencies in the activity of TMLHE (an autism risk factor that supports long-chain FAO by catalyzing carnitine biosynthesis, of CPT1A (an enzyme required for long-chain FAO transport into mitochondria, or of fatty acid mobilization from lipid droplets reduced NSC pools in the mouse embryonic neocortex. Lineage tracing experiments demonstrated that reduced flux through the FAO pathway potentiated NSC symmetric differentiating divisions at the expense of self-renewing stem cell division modes. The collective data reveal a key role for FAO in controlling NSC-to-IPC transition in the mammalian embryonic brain and suggest NSC self renewal as a cellular mechanism underlying the association between IEMs and autism.

  4. Reduced Maternal Erythrocyte Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Exist in Early Pregnancy in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Narang, Ankita S; Mehendale, Savita S; Wagh, Girija N; Gupte, Sanjay A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    The present prospective study examines proportions of maternal erythrocyte fatty acids across gestation and their association with cord erythrocyte fatty acids in normotensive control (NC) and preeclamptic pregnancies. We hypothesize that maternal fatty acid status in early pregnancy influences fetal fatty acid stores in preeclampsia. 137 NC women and 58 women with preeclampsia were included in this study. Maternal blood was collected at 3 time points during pregnancy (16-20th weeks, 26-30th weeks and at delivery). Cord blood was collected at delivery. Fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography. The proportions of maternal erythrocyte α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, nervonic acid, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (p preeclampsia as compared with NC. Cord 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3, 24:1n-9, MUFA, and total n-3 fatty acids (p preeclampsia as compared with NC. A positive association was observed between maternal erythrocyte 22:6n-3 and 24:1n-9 at 16-20th weeks with the same fatty acids in cord erythrocytes (p preeclampsia. Our study for the first time indicates alteration in maternal erythrocyte fatty acids at 16th weeks of gestation which is further reflected in cord erythrocytes at delivery in preeclampsia.

  5. Sheep erythrocyte membrane binding and transfer of long-chain fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Inge Norby; Bojesen, Eigil

    1999-01-01

    Palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, sheep erythrocyte ghosts, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport, transport rate constants......Palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, sheep erythrocyte ghosts, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport, transport rate constants...

  6. High-fat diets rich in medium- versus long-chain fatty acids induce distinct patterns of tissue specific insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel-van den Bosch, J. de; Berg, S.A.A. van den; Bijland, S.; Voshol, P.J.; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, H.A.; Hoeks, J.; Beurden, D. van; Hesselink, M.K.C.; Schrauwen, P.; Dijk, K.W. van

    2011-01-01

    Excess dietary long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intake results in ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. Since medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are preferentially oxidized over LCFA, we hypothesized that diets rich in MCFA result in a lower ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance co

  7. Aspects of the regulation of long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Factors involved in regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation were examined using liver slices. Fatty acid oxidation was measured as the conversion of l-(/sup 14/C) palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C) acid-soluble metabolites. Extended (5 to 7 d) fasting of Holstein cows had relatively little effect on palmitate oxidation to acid-soluble metabolites by liver slices, although oxidation to CO/sup 2/ was decreased. Feeding a restricted roughage, high concentrate ration to lactating cows resulted in inhibition of palmitate oxidation. Insulin, glucose, and acetate inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. The authors suggest the regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation may be less dependent on hormonally induced alterations in enzyme activity as observed in rat liver and more dependent upon action of rumen fermentation products or their metabolites on enzyme systems involved in fatty acid oxidation.

  8. ECERIFERUM2-LIKE proteins have unique biochemical and physiological functions in very-long-chain fatty acid elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Tegan M; Haslam, Richard; Thoraval, Didier; Pascal, Stéphanie; Delude, Camille; Domergue, Frédéric; Fernández, Aurora Mañas; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Napier, Johnathan A; Kunst, Ljerka; Joubès, Jérôme

    2015-03-01

    The extension of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) for the synthesis of specialized apoplastic lipids requires unique biochemical machinery. Condensing enzymes catalyze the first reaction in fatty acid elongation and determine the chain length of fatty acids accepted and produced by the fatty acid elongation complex. Although necessary for the elongation of all VLCFAs, known condensing enzymes cannot efficiently synthesize VLCFAs longer than 28 carbons, despite the prevalence of C28 to C34 acyl lipids in cuticular wax and the pollen coat. The eceriferum2 (cer2) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was previously shown to have a specific deficiency in cuticular waxes longer than 28 carbons, and heterologous expression of CER2 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) demonstrated that it can modify the acyl chain length produced by a condensing enzyme from 28 to 30 carbon atoms. Here, we report the physiological functions and biochemical specificities of the CER2 homologs CER2-LIKE1 and CER2-LIKE2 by mutant analysis and heterologous expression in yeast. We demonstrate that all three CER2-LIKEs function with the same small subset of condensing enzymes, and that they have different effects on the substrate specificity of the same condensing enzyme. Finally, we show that the changes in acyl chain length caused by each CER2-LIKE protein are of substantial importance for cuticle formation and pollen coat function.

  9. The influence of maternal early to mid-gestation nutrient restriction on long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yunhua; Nijland, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Ford, Stephen; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Brenna, J Thomas

    2008-06-01

    The early to mid-gestational period (days 28-78) in sheep is the period of most rapid placental development. Maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in this phase has negative consequences on fetal growth and development, predisposing the fetus to disease in adult life. The influence of MNR on fetal tissue fatty acids has not been reported. Ewes were fed to 50% (MNR) or 100% (control fed) of total digestible nutrients from days 28 to 78 of gestation. At 78 days, fetuses were sacrificed and the fatty acids in fetal liver, lung and muscle as well as maternal and fetal plasma were analyzed. Most fatty acids were not influenced by MNR. The n-3 long chain PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) concentration (microg/mg) was low and more than doubled in the MNR sheep. Similarly, docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3, DPA) increased by 60, 19, and 38% in liver, lung, and muscle, respectively. Neither docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) nor any of n-6 PUFA changed. Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; ARA) increased in MNR maternal plasma as a percent of total fatty acids only, while in MNR fetal plasma only EPA increased. These results provide the first indication that MNR in early to mid-gestation influences the profiles of LCPUFA in fetal tissues, and suggest that metabolic processes involving LCPUFA should be considered in evaluations of the impact of maternal nutriture on perinatal health.

  10. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots using various long-chain fatty acids and their phase transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Aiyu; Yang, Ping; Shen, Jianxing

    2013-06-01

    Monodispersed colloidal photoluminescent CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized via an organic approach by using cadmium oxide and elemental selenium as precursors, and long-chain fatty acids as surface ligands. The hydrocarbon chain length of the fatty acid was adjusted to investigate the effect on CdSe QDs. The fatty acid ligands with different hydrocarbon chain lengths showed an apparent effect on the nanocrystal nucleation and growth which is the key controlling the size, size distribution and crystal structure of resulting CdSe QDs. This effect was attributable to the steric hindrance of different hydrocarbon length of the fatty acids, which affected the reactivity of the monomers and nanocrystals during the nanocrystal nucleation and growth. The water-soluble CdSe QDs were obtained by encapsulating the CdSe ODs in oil phase with amphiphilic poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PSMA)-ethanolamine (EA) polymers, which made it possible for further applications of the CdSe QDs in aqueous environment such as surface functionalization for biological labeling and application in photocatalysis and photosensitization.

  11. Erythrocyte very long-chain saturated fatty acids associated with lower risk of incident sudden cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Rozenn N; King, Irena B; Rice, Kenneth; McKnight, Barbara; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rea, Thomas D; Johnson, Catherine O; Raghunathan, Trivellore E; Cobb, Leonard A; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Siscovick, David S

    2014-10-01

    Prior studies suggest that circulating n-3 and trans-fatty acids influence the risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Yet, while other fatty acids also differ in their membrane properties and biological activities which may influence SCA, little is known about the associations of other circulating fatty acids with SCA. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of 17 erythrocyte membrane fatty acids with SCA risk. We used data from a population-based case-control study of SCA in the greater Seattle, Washington, area. Cases, aged 25-74 years, were out-of-hospital SCA patients, attended by paramedics (n=265). Controls, matched to cases by age, sex and calendar year, were randomly identified from the community (n=415). All participants were free of prior clinically-diagnosed heart disease. Blood was obtained at the time of cardiac arrest by attending paramedics (cases) or at the time of an interview (controls). Higher levels of erythrocyte very long-chain saturated fatty acids (VLSFA) were associated with lower risk of SCA. After adjustment for risk factors and levels of n-3 and trans-fatty acids, higher levels of 20:0 corresponding to 1 SD were associated with 30% lower SCA risk (13-43%, p=0.001). Higher levels of 22:0 and 24:0 were associated with similar lower SCA risk (ORs for 1 SD-difference: 0.71 [95% CI: 0.57-0.88, p=0.002] for 22:0; and 0.79 [95% CI: 0.63-0.98, p=0.04] for 24:0). These novel findings support the need for investigation of biologic effects of circulating VLSFA and their determinants.

  12. Involvement of atypical protein kinase C in the regulation of cardiac glucose and long-chain fatty acid uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna D.J. Habets

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cardiac GLUT4 translocation/glucose uptake and CD36 translocation/ long-chain fatty acid uptake are not fully understood. We compared in heart/muscle-specific PKC-λ knockout mice the roles of atypical PKCs (PKC-ζ and PKC-λ in regulating cardiac glucose and fatty acid uptake. Results: Neither insulin-stimulated nor AMPK-mediated glucose and fatty acid uptake were inhibited upon genetic PKC-λ ablation in cardiomyocytes. In contrast, myristoylated PKC-ζ pseudosubstrate inhibited both insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated glucose and fatty acid uptake by >80% in both wild-type and PKC-λ-knockout cardiomyocytes. In PKC-λ knockout cardiomyocytes, PKC-ζ is the sole remaining atypical PKC isoform, and its expression level is not different from wild-type cardiomyocytes, in which it contributes to 29% and 17% of total atypical PKC expression and phosphorylation, respectively. Conclusion: Taken together, atypical PKCs are necessary for insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated glucose uptake into the heart, as well as for insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated fatty acid uptake. However, the residual PKC-ζ activity in PKC-λ-knockout cardiomyocytes is sufficient to allow optimal stimulation of glucose and fatty acid uptake, indicating that atypical PKCs are necessary but not rate-limiting in the regulation of cardiac substrate uptake and that PKC-λ and PKC-ζ have interchangeable functions in these processes.

  13. Disruption of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue to the murine fatty acid transport protein impairs uptake and growth on long-chain fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgeman, Nils J.; DiRusso, C C; Elberger, A;

    1997-01-01

    described in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (Schaffer and Lodish (1994) Cell 79, 427-436), suggesting a similar function. Disruption of FAT1 results in 1) an impaired growth in YPD medium containing 25 microM cerulenin and 500 microM fatty acid (myristate (C14:0), palmitate (C16:0), or oleate (C18:1)); 2) a marked......The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to utilize exogenous fatty acids for a variety of cellular processes including beta-oxidation, phospholipid biosynthesis, and protein modification. The molecular mechanisms that govern the uptake of these compounds in S. cerevisiae have not been described....... We report the characterization of FAT1, a gene that encodes a putative membrane-bound long-chain fatty acid transport protein (Fat1p). Fat1p contains 623 amino acid residues that are 33% identical and 54% with similar chemical properties as compared with the fatty acid transport protein FATP...

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Long-Chain Fatty Acids on Biogas Production and the Protective Effect of Membrane Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasa, Kris Triwulan; Westman, Supansa Y.; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Niklasson, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of lipid-containing wastes for biogas production is often hampered by the inhibitory effect of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). In this study, the inhibitory effects of LCFAs (palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid) on biogas production as well as the protective effect of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) against LCFAs were examined in thermophilic batch digesters. The results showed that palmitic and oleic acid with concentrations of 3.0 and 4.5 g/L resulted in >50% inhibition on the biogas production, while stearic acid had an even stronger inhibitory effect. The encased cells in the MBR system were able to perform better in the presence of LCFAs. This system exhibited a significantly lower percentage of inhibition than the free cell system, not reaching over 50% at any LCFA concentration tested. PMID:27699172

  15. Omega-3 long-chain fatty acids strongly induce angiopoietin-like 4 in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, M.; Sauerwein, H.P.; Ackermans, M.T.; Kersten, A.H.; Serlie, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is a regulator of LPL activity. In this study we examined whether different fatty acids have a differential effect on plasma ANGPTL4 levels during hyperinsulinemia in healthy lean males. In 10 healthy lean males, 3 hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps were performed durin

  16. Climate warming is predicted to reduce omega-3, long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acid production in phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Arts, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    Phytoplankton are the main source of energy and omega-3 (n-3) long-chain essential fatty acids (EFA) in aquatic ecosystems. Their growth and biochemical composition are affected by surrounding environmental conditions, including temperature, which continues to increase as a result of climate warming. Increasing water temperatures may negatively impact the production of EFA by phytoplankton through the process of homeoviscous adaptation. To investigate this, we conducted an exploratory data synthesis with 952 fatty acid (FA) profiles from six major groups of marine and freshwater phytoplankton. Temperature was strongly correlated with a decrease in the proportion of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated FA (LC-PUFA) and an increase in omega-6 FA and saturated FA. Based on linear regression models, we predict that global n-3 LC-PUFA production will be reduced by 8.2% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 27.8% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with an increase in water temperature of 2.5 °C. Using a previously published estimate of the global production of EPA by diatoms, which contribute to most of the world's supply of EPA, we predict a loss of 14.2 Mt of EPA annually as a result of ocean warming. The n-3 LC-PUFA are vitally important for an array of key physiological functions in aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and these FA are mainly produced by phytoplankton. Therefore, reduced production of these EFA, as a consequence of climate warming, is predicted to negatively affect species that depend on these compounds for optimum physiological function. Such profound changes in the biochemical composition of phytoplankton cell membranes can lead to cascading effects throughout the world's ecosystems.

  17. Characterization of a long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase 1 gene and association between its SNPs and growth traits in the clam Meretrix meretrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ping; Huan, Pin; Wang, Hongxia; Lu, Xia; Liu, Baozhong

    2015-07-25

    Long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligases (ACSLs) play crucial roles in fatty acid (FA) metabolism. They convert free long-chain FA into acyl-CoAs, which are key intermediates in both anabolic and catabolic pathways. A long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase gene was cloned in the clam Meretrix meretrix (MmeACSL1), with a full-length cDNA of 1865 bp encoding 475 amino acids. Its expression was only detected in hepatopancreas by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Expression level of MmeACSL1 exhibited a significant increase in a starvation experiment (Pgrowth traits (Pgrowth-related (Pgrowth traits of M. meretrix.

  18. TORC1 Inhibits GSK3-Mediated Elo2 Phosphorylation to Regulate Very Long Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Zimmermann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs are essential fatty acids with multiple functions, including ceramide synthesis. Although the components of the VLCFA biosynthetic machinery have been elucidated, how their activity is regulated to meet the cell’s metabolic demand remains unknown. The goal of this study was to identify mechanisms that regulate the rate of VLCFA synthesis, and we discovered that the fatty acid elongase Elo2 is regulated by phosphorylation. Elo2 phosphorylation is induced upon inhibition of TORC1 and requires GSK3. Expression of nonphosphorylatable Elo2 profoundly alters the ceramide spectrum, reflecting aberrant VLCFA synthesis. Furthermore, VLCFA depletion results in constitutive activation of autophagy, which requires sphingoid base phosphorylation. This constitutive activation of autophagy diminishes cell survival, indicating that VLCFAs serve to dampen the amplitude of autophagy. Together, our data reveal a function for TORC1 and GSK3 in the regulation of VLCFA synthesis that has important implications for autophagy and cell homeostasis.

  19. Altered development and function of the placental regions in preeclampsia and its association with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Alka; Wadhwani, Nisha; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-01

    The placenta is an essential organ formed during pregnancy that mainly transfers nutrients from the mother to the fetus. Nutrients taken up by the placenta are required for its own growth and development and to optimize fetal growth. Hence, placental function is an important determinant of pregnancy outcome. Among various nutrients, fatty acids, especially long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), including omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids, are essential for placental development from the time of implantation. Studies have associated these LCPUFAs with placental development through their roles in regulating oxidative stress, angiogenesis, and inflammation, which may in turn influence their transfer to the fetus. The placenta has a heterogeneous morphology with variable regional vasculature, oxidative stress, and LCPUFA levels in healthy pregnancies depending upon the location within the placenta. However, these regional structural and functional parameters are found to be disturbed in pathological conditions, such as preeclampsia (PE), thereby affecting pregnancy outcome. Hence, the alterations in LCPUFA metabolism and transport in different regions of the PE placenta as compared with normal placenta could potentially be contributing to the pathological features of PE. The regional variations in development and function of the placenta and its possible association with placental LCPUFA metabolism and transport in normal and PE pregnancies are discussed in this review. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:582-597. doi: 10.1002/wdev.238 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  20. Long chain fatty acid acylated derivatives of quercetin-3-o-glucoside as antioxidants to prevent lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-11-06

    Flavonoids have shown promise as natural plant-based antioxidants for protecting lipids from oxidation. It was hypothesized that their applications in lipophilic food systems can be further enhanced by esterification of flavonoids with fatty acids. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) was esterified individually with six selected long chain fatty acids: stearic acid (STA), oleic acid (OLA), linoleic acid (LNA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA), using Candida antarctica B lipase as the biocatalyst. The antioxidant activity of esterified flavonoids was evaluated using lipid oxidation model systems of poly-unsaturated fatty acids-rich fish oil and human low density lipoprotein (LDL), in vitro. In the oil-in-water emulsion, Q3G esters exhibited 50% to 100% inhibition in primary oxidation and 30% to 75% inhibition in secondary oxidation. In bulk oil, Q3G esters did not provide considerable protection from lipid oxidation; however, Q3G demonstrated more than 50% inhibition in primary oxidation. EPA, DHA and ALA esters of Q3G showed significantly higher inhibition in Cu2+- and peroxyl radical-induced LDL oxidation in comparison to Q3G.

  1. Long Chain Fatty Acid Acylated Derivatives of Quercetin-3-O-Glucoside as Antioxidants to Prevent Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumudu N. Warnakulasuriya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids have shown promise as natural plant-based antioxidants for protecting lipids from oxidation. It was hypothesized that their applications in lipophilic food systems can be further enhanced by esterification of flavonoids with fatty acids. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G was esterified individually with six selected long chain fatty acids: stearic acid (STA, oleic acid (OLA, linoleic acid (LNA, α-linolenic acid (ALA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA, using Candida antarctica B lipase as the biocatalyst. The antioxidant activity of esterified flavonoids was evaluated using lipid oxidation model systems of poly-unsaturated fatty acids-rich fish oil and human low density lipoprotein (LDL, in vitro. In the oil-in-water emulsion, Q3G esters exhibited 50% to 100% inhibition in primary oxidation and 30% to 75% inhibition in secondary oxidation. In bulk oil, Q3G esters did not provide considerable protection from lipid oxidation; however, Q3G demonstrated more than 50% inhibition in primary oxidation. EPA, DHA and ALA esters of Q3G showed significantly higher inhibition in Cu2+- and peroxyl radical-induced LDL oxidation in comparison to Q3G.

  2. Thermal stability and long-chain fatty acid positional distribution on glycerol of argan oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallouki, Farid; Mannina, Luisa; Viel, Stéphane; Owen, Robert W

    2008-09-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the oxidative stability of argan oils by using peroxides and conjugated diene hydroperoxides measurements as analytical indicators. Both food and cosmetic argan oils were investigated. Their oxidative stability was also determined by monitoring the relative changes of their fatty acid profiles by (1)H NMR. In addition, valuable information regarding minor components as well as the acyl positional distribution, were obtained for both grades by high field (1)H and (13)C NMR, respectively. Given that the cosmetic and food grades have a similar profile and content of phenolic antioxidants, vitamers, and squalene, it appears that the ratio of fatty acid aliphatic to bisallylic CH2 groups, much higher in argan oils than in other vegetable oils, is responsible for their higher thermal stability.

  3. Self-assembly of long chain fatty acids: Effect of a methyl branch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljeblad, Jonathan F. D.; Tyrode, Eric; Thormann, Esben

    2014-01-01

    chains of the straight chain fatty acids appear to be oriented perpendicular to the sample surface, based on an orientational analysis of VSFS data and the odd/even effect. In addition, the selection of the subphase (neat water or CdCl2 containing water buffered to pH 6.0) used for the LB-deposition has...... a profound influence on the monolayer morphology, packing density, compressibility, and conformational order. Finally, the orientation of the 19-MEA dimethyl moiety is estimated, and a strategy for performing an orientational analysis to determine the complete molecular orientation of the aliphatic chains...

  4. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA requirement for brain development: A personal view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA is known to accumulate in the infant brain and clinical trials have established that dietary DHA is associated with improvements in visual and neural function in preterm infants. Thus, an elevated DHA status is considered to be important throughout infancy for brain development. While DHA can be added directly to infant foods, there have been important studies to show that infants can partially meet their own DHA requirements by consuming adequate levels of omega 3 alpha linolenic acid (ALA. A key requirement to allow for the conversion of ALA to DHA and to maximise its incorporation into tissues is a diet that is also low in omega 6 linoleic acid (LA. Such diets are hard to find commercially because dietary guidelines dictate that ~3% energy of infant diets should be in the form of LA. These estimates were based on early animal experiments in which basal diets were devoid of both LA and ALA. However, recent animal experiments have indicated that the level of LA required to avoid essential fatty acid deficiency is much lower when ALA is also present in the diet. When a wide range diets are evaluated in animal systems, it is possible to see that the level of DHA found in the blood of animals fed diets containing only LA and ALA can reach levels similar to that of animals fed diets rich in fish oil, but only when the ALA:LA ratio is high and the total amount of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA is low. Diets that are rich in either monounsaturates or saturates meet these requirements. Importantly, there are human infant studies that have tested such diets and demonstrated that human infants accumulate greater amounts of DHA than when diets are high in LA. It might be time to reconsider the dietary requirement of the two essential fatty acids LA and ALA in human infants in terms of their ability to enhance endogenous synthesis of DHA rather than more adult biomarkers like cholesterol levels.

  5. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: new insights into mechanisms relating to inflammation and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Baukje; Mavrommatis, Yiannis; Brouwer, Ingeborg A

    2009-09-01

    Evidence from observational studies, prospective cohort studies and randomized clinical intervention studies indicate that moderate doses of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) significantly decrease risk of fatal coronary heart disease (CHD). Higher doses and longer duration of intervention may also protect from non-fatal CHD events. The exact mechanisms through which LC n-3 PUFA has an effect on CHD are not well established but may include a decrease in fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol levels, a decrease in arrhythmias, modulation of platelet aggregation and decreased synthesis of pro-inflammatory agents. The mechanistic relation between LC n-3 PUFA and inflammation has attracted great interest, and in vitro studies have revealed that these fatty acids decrease endothelial activation, affect eicosanoid metabolism (including epoxygenation pathways) and induce inflammatory resolution. However, the effects of LC n-3 PUFA on established biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial activation in vivo are not strong. Consequently we need new and more sensitive and systemic biomarkers to reveal the effects of LC n-3 PUFA on localized inflammatory processes.

  6. Role of perinatal long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in cortical circuit maturation: Mechanisms and implications for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Vannest, Jennifer J; Valentine, Christina J

    2015-03-22

    Accumulating translational evidence suggests that the long-chain omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plays a role in the maturation and stability of cortical circuits that are impaired in different recurrent psychiatric disorders. Specifically, rodent and cell culture studies find that DHA preferentially accumulates in synaptic and growth cone membranes and promotes neurite outgrowth, dendritic spine stability, and synaptogenesis. Additional evidence suggests that DHA may play a role in microglia-mediated synaptic pruning, as well as myelin development and resilience. In non-human primates n-3 fatty acid insufficiency during perinatal development leads to widespread deficits in functional connectivity in adult frontal cortical networks compared to primates raised on DHA-fortified diet. Preterm delivery in non-human primates and humans is associated with early deficits in cortical DHA accrual. Human preterm birth is associated with long-standing deficits in myelin integrity and cortical circuit connectivity and increased risk for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood, and psychotic disorders. In general, ADHD and mood and psychotic disorders initially emerge during rapid periods of cortical circuit maturation and are characterized by DHA deficits, myelin pathology, and impaired cortical circuit connectivity. Together these associations suggest that early and uncorrected deficits in fetal brain DHA accrual may represent a modifiable risk factor for cortical circuit maturation deficits in psychiatric disorders, and could therefore have significant implications for informing early intervention and prevention strategies.

  7. Acute exposure to long-chain fatty acids impairs {alpha}2-adrenergic receptor-mediated antilipolysis in human adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Jan; Moro, Cédric; Bessière, David; Hejnova, Jindra; Marquès, Marie A; Bajzova, Magda; Lafontan, Max; Crampes, Francois; Berlan, Michel; Stich, Vladimir

    2007-10-01

    The acute in vitro and in vivo effects of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) on the regulation of adrenergic lipolysis were investigated in human adipose tissue. The effect of a 2 h incubation, without or with LCFA (200 mumol/l), on basal and hormonally induced lipolysis was tested in vitro on isolated fat cells. The lipolytic response to epinephrine was enhanced by suppression of the antilipolytic alpha(2)-adrenergic effect. Then, healthy lean and obese male subjects performed a 45 min exercise bout at 50% of their heart rate reserve either after an overnight fast or 3 h after a high-fat meal (HFM: 95% fat, 5% carbohydrates). Subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis was measured by microdialysis in the presence or absence of an alpha-antagonist (phentolamine). In vivo, a HFM increased plasma levels of nonesterified fatty acids in lean and obese subjects. In both groups, the HFM did not alter hormonal responses to exercise. Under fasting conditions, the alpha(2)-adrenergic antilipolytic effect was more pronounced in obese than in lean subjects. The HFM totally suppressed the alpha(2)-adrenergic antilipolytic effect in lean and obese subjects during exercise. LCFAs per se, in vitro as well as in vivo, suppress alpha(2)-adrenergic-mediated antilipolysis in adipose tissue. LCFA-mediated suppression of antilipolytic pathways represents another mechanism whereby a high fat content in the diet might increase adipose tissue lipolysis.

  8. Heterotrophic Production of Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids by Trophically Converted Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L. Hamilton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have created via metabolic engineering a heterotrophic strain of Phaeodactylum tricornutum that accumulates enhanced levels of the high value omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. This was achieved by generation of transgenic strains in which the Δ5-elongase from Ostreococcus tauri was co-expressed with a glucose transporter from the moss Physcomitrella patens. This double transformant has the capacity to grow in the dark in liquid medium supplemented with glucose and accumulate substantial levels of omega-3 LC-PUFAs. The effects of glucose concentrations on growth and LC-PUFA production of wild type and transformed strains cultivated in the light and dark were studied. The highest omega-3 LC-PUFAs accumulation was observed in cultures grown under mixotrophic conditions in the presence of 1% glucose (up to 32.2% of total fatty acids, TFA. Both DHA and EPA are detected at high levels in the neutral lipids of transgenic cells grown under phototrophic conditions, averaging 36.5% and 23.6% of TFA, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential for P. tricornutum to be developed as a viable commercial strain for both EPA and DHA production under mixo- and heterotrophic conditions.

  9. Preparation and properties of gem-dichlorocyclopropane derivatives of long-chain fatty esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, M S; Wong, C F

    1992-01-01

    Methyl oleate (18:1) and linoleate (18:2) were readily transformed to the corresponding gem-dichlorocyclopropane derivatives in high yield, using triethylbenzylammonium chloride as the phase-transfer catalyst in the presence of aqueous NaOH and CHCl3. Reaction of dichlorocarbene with methyl 12-hydroxystearate furnished methyl 12-chlorostearate (49%) and 12-O-formylstearate (19%). The hydroxy group in methyl ricinoleate was protected (O-tetrahydropyran-2'-yl) prior to dichlorocyclopropanation of the ethylenic bond. Removal of the protecting group allowed the hydroxy group to be converted to a chloride, O-acetyl, azido or O-formyl function. Treatment of methyl ricinoleate with thionyl chloride, followed by the reaction with dichlorocarbene gave the corresponding 12-chloro-dichlorocyclopropane derivative. The dichlorocyclopropane derivative of oleic acid was transformed to a C19 allenic fatty acid when treated with t-butyl lithium. However, the remaining dichlorocyclopropane derivatives containing an additional functional group in the alkyl chain, failed to yield the corresponding allenic derivatives. All derivatives were characterized by a combination of spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques, including infrared, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

  10. Development of low birthweight infants at 19 months of age correlates with early intake and status of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Okken-Beukens, M; Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Okken, A

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the influence of early nutrition with and without long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) on later development of less than or equal to 2500 g newborns receiving preterm formula without LCP (n=75), preterm formula with 18:3 omega 6 and LCP omega 3 (at two doses; n=26) or their m

  11. Effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of infant formula on cognition and behaviour at 9 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Corina; Kikkert, Hedwig K.; Fidler, Vaclav; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of infant formula may have a beneficial effect on cognitive development. This study aimed to investigate the effect of LCPUFA formula supplementation primarily on cognition and secondarily on behaviour at age 9 years. Special attent

  12. The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Lien, Eric; Agostoni, Carlo;

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge on the role of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), in maternal and term infant nutrition as well as infant development. Consensus recommendations and practice guidelines...

  13. Peroxisomal very long-chain fatty acid [beta]-oxidation in human skin fibroblasts: activity in Zellweger syndrome and other peroxisomal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, R.J.A.; Roermund, C.W.T. van; Wijland, M.J.A. van; Heikoop, J.; Schutgens, R.B.H.; Schram, A.W.; Tager, J.M.; Bosch, H. van den; Poll-Thé, B.T.; Saudubray, J.M.; Moser, H.W.; Moser, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    Since very long-chain fatty acids with a chain length of 24 carbons or more are known to accumulate in tissues and body fluids from patients with the cerebro-hepato-renal (Zellweger) syndrome, infantile Refsum disease, neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, we studied very

  14. Nanohybrids of Mg/Al layered double hydroxide and long-chain (C18) unsaturated fatty acid anions: Structure and sorptive properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-chain (C18) unsaturated fatty acid anions, elaidate (ELA), oleate (OLE), linoleate (LINO), and linolenate (LINOLEN), were intercalated into Mg/Al (3:1) layered double hydroxide (LDH) and the resultant organo-LDH nanohybrid materials were characterized and subsequently evaluated as sorbents of s...

  15. Does supplementation of formula with evening primrose and fish oils augment long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status of low birthweight infants to that of breast-fed counterparts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Okken, A; Muskiet, FAJ

    1999-01-01

    We investigated whether formulae with evening primrose and fish oils raise long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in plasma cholesterol esters (CE), erythrocytes (RSC) and platelets (PLT) to levels encountered in breast-fed infants. Low birthweight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g) rec

  16. Human milk beyond one year post-partum: lower content of protein, calcium, and saturated very long-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Naim; Aslih, Nardin; Shihab, Shihab; Werman, Moshe J; Sheinman, Rivkah; Shamir, Raanan

    2006-01-01

    Maternal milk feeding for more than 1 year is encouraged by many health care authorities. We demonstrate that human milk beyond 1 year of lactation had a small but significantly lower concentration of protein, calcium, and long-chain saturated fatty acids compared with human milk at 3 months after delivery.

  17. Effect of three low-dose fish oil supplements, administered during pregnancy, on neonatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status at birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzing-Aarts, FV; van der Klis, FRM; van der Dijs, FPL; van Beusekom, CM; Landman, H; Capello, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    2001-01-01

    Adequate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCP) status during pregnancy is important. We studied the effect of three low-dose fish oil supplements, administered during uncomplicated pregnancy, on neonatal LCP status at term delivery. Supplements were administered from the second trimester to de

  18. Long-chain fatty acids inhibition and adaptation process in anaerobic thermophilic digestion: Batch tests, microbial community structure and mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltsi, Jordi; Illa, J.; Prenafeta-Boldu, F.X.

    2010-01-01

    Biomass samples taken during the continuous operation of thermophilic anaerobic digestors fed with manure and exposed to successive inhibitory pulses of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) were characterized in terms of specific metabolic activities and 16S rDNA DGGE profiling of the microbial communit...

  19. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from genesis to senescence: the influence of LCPUFA on neural development, aging, and neurodegeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.I.F.; Kiliaan, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Many clinical and animal studies demonstrate the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in neural development and neurodegeneration. This review will focus on involvement of LCPUFA from genesis to senescence. The LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are important c

  20. Short communication: Genome-wide scan for bovine milk-fat composition. II. Quantitative trait loci for long-chain fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schennink, A.; Stoop, W.M.; Visker, M.H.P.W.; Poel, van der J.J.; Bovenhuis, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a genome-wide scan to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contribute to genetic variation in long-chain milk fatty acids. Milk-fat composition phenotypes were available on 1,905 Dutch Holstein-Friesian cows. A total of 849 cows and their 7 sires were genotyped for 1

  1. Serum long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mercury, and risk of sudden cardiac death in men: a prospective population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki K Virtanen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fish consumption has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD, especially sudden cardiac death (SCD. Fish is the major source of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also a major source of methylmercury, which was associated with increased risk of CVD in this study population. Impact of interaction between long-chain n-3 PUFA and methylmercury on the SCD risk is unknown. METHODS: A total of 1857 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor study, aged 42-60 years and free of CVD at baseline in 1984-1989, were studied. Serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was used as the marker for long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and hair mercury as the marker for mercury exposure. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 91 SCD events occurred. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models, serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration was not associated with the risk of SCD until hair mercury was accounted for; then the hazard ratio (HR in the highest vs. lowest tertile was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI 0.32 to 0.91, p for trend = 0.046]. When the analyses were stratified by hair mercury content, among those with lower hair mercury, each 0.5 percentage unit increase in the serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was associated with HR of 0.77 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.93, whereas no association was seen among those with higher hair mercury (p for interaction = 0.01. Among the individual long-chain n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid was most strongly associated with the risk. CONCLUSION: High exposure to mercury may reduce the benefits of long-chain n-3 PUFA on SCD.

  2. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in the euryhaline herbivorous teleost Scatophagus argus: Functional characterization, tissue expression and nutritional regulation of two fatty acyl elongases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dizhi; Chen, Fang; Lin, Siyuan; You, Cuihong; Wang, Shuqi; Zhang, Qinghao; Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R; Li, Yuanyou

    2016-08-01

    Both the spotted scat Scatophagus argus and rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus belong to the few cultured herbivorous marine teleost, however, their fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) system involved in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis is different. The S. argus has a △6 Fad, while the rabbitfish has △4 and △6/△5 Fads, which were the first report in vertebrate and marine teleost, respectively. In order to compare the characteristics of elongases of very long-chain fatty acids (Elovl) between them, two Elovl cDNAs were cloned from S. argus in the present study. One has 885bp of open read fragment (ORF) encoding a protein with 294 amino acid (aa) showing Elovl5 activity functionally characterized by heterologous expression in yeast, which was primarily active for the elongation of C18 and C20 PUFAs. The other has 915bp of ORF coding for a 305 aa protein showing Elovl4 activity, which was more efficient in the elongation of C20 and C22 PUFAs. Tissue distribution analyses by RT-PCR showed that elovl5 was highly expressed in the liver compared to other tissues determined, whereas elovl4 transcripts were only detected in the eye. The expression of elovl5 and elovl4 were significantly affected by dietary fatty acid composition, with highest expression of mRNA in the liver and eye of fish fed a diet with an 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 ratio of 1.7:1. These results indicated that the S. argus has a similar Elovl system in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway to that of rabbitfish although their Fad system was different, suggesting that the diversification of fish LC-PUFA biosynthesis specificities is more associated with its Fad system. These new insights expand our knowledge and understanding of the molecular basis and regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in fish.

  3. Real-Time Tracking of BODIPY-C12 Long-Chain Fatty Acid in Human Term Placenta Reveals Unique Lipid Dynamics in Cytotrophoblast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Kolahi

    Full Text Available While the human placenta must provide selected long-chain fatty acids to support the developing fetal brain, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the transport process. We tracked the movement of the fluorescently labeled long-chain fatty acid analogue, BODIPY-C12, across the cell layers of living explants of human term placenta. Although all layers took up the fatty acid, rapid esterification of long-chain fatty acids and incorporation into lipid droplets was exclusive to the inner layer cytotrophoblast cells rather than the expected outer syncytiotrophoblast layer. Cytotrophoblast is a progenitor cell layer previously relegated to a repair role. As isolated cytotrophoblasts differentiated into syncytialized cells in culture, they weakened their lipid processing capacity. Syncytializing cells suppress previously active genes that regulate fatty-acid uptake (SLC27A2/FATP2, FABP4, ACSL5 and lipid metabolism (GPAT3, LPCAT3. We speculate that cytotrophoblast performs a previously unrecognized role in regulating placental fatty acid uptake and metabolism.

  4. Effect of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Full-Term Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijna Hadders-Algra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It takes more than 20 years before the human brain obtains its complex, adult configuration. Most dramatic developmental changes occur prenatally and early postnatally. During development, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA such as doxosahexaenoic acid (DHA and arachidonic acid (AA are accreted in the brain. Since breastfeeding is associated with a better developmental outcome than formula feeding, and human milk in contrast to traditional standard formula contains LCPUFA, the question arose whether LCPUFA supplementation of infant formula may promote the neurodevelopmental outcome. The current paper reviews the evidence available in full-term infants. It concludes that postnatal supplementation of formula with LCPUFA is associated with a beneficial effect on short-term neurodevelopmental outcome. However, no evidence is available that LCPUFA supplementation enhances neurodevelopmental outcome in full-term infants beyond the age of four months. Nevertheless, it should be realized that very limited information is available on the effect of LCPUFA supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcome at school age or later. It is conceivable that effects of LCPUFA supplementation first emerge or re-emerge at school age when more complex neural functions are expressed.

  5. Structural and solubility parameter correlations of gelation abilities for dihydroxylated derivatives of long-chain, naturally occurring fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mohan; Selvakumar, Sermadurai; Zhang, Xinran; Sibi, Mukund P; Weiss, Richard G

    2015-06-01

    Creating structure-property correlations at different distance scales is one of the important challenges to the rational design of molecular gelators. Here, a series of dihydroxylated derivatives of long-chain fatty acids, derived from three naturally occurring molecules-oleic, erucic and ricinoleic acids-are investigated as gelators of a wide variety of liquids. Conclusions about what constitutes a more (or less!) efficient gelator are based upon analyses of a variety of thermal, structural, molecular modeling, and rheological results. Correlations between the manner of molecular packing in the neat solid or gel states of the gelators and Hansen solubility data from the liquids leads to the conclusion that diol stereochemistry, the number of carbon atoms separating the two hydroxyl groups, and the length of the alkanoic chains are the most important structural parameters controlling efficiency of gel formation for these gelators. Some of the diol gelators are as efficient or even more efficient than the well-known, excellent gelator, (R)-12-hydroxystearic acid; others are much worse. The ability to form extensive intermolecular H-bonding networks along the alkyl chains appears to play a key role in promoting fiber growth and, thus, gelation. In toto, the results demonstrate how the efficiency of gelation can be modulated by very small structural changes and also suggest how other structural modifications may be exploited to create efficient gelators.

  6. Improving rheology and enzymatic hydrolysis of high-solid corncob slurries by adding lignosulfonate and long-chain fatty alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hongming; Wu, Shun; Li, Xiuli; Lan, Tianqing; Yang, Dongjie; Pang, Yuxia; Qiu, Xueqing; Li, Xuehui; Huang, Jinhao

    2014-08-20

    The effects of lignosulfonate (SXSL) and long-chain fatty alcohols (LFAs) on the rheology and enzymatic hydrolysis of high-solid corncob slurries were investigated. The application of 2.5% (w/w) SXSL increased the substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) of high-solid corncob slurries at 72 h from 31.7 to 54.0%, but meanwhile it increased the slurry's yield stress and complex viscosity to make the slurry difficult to stir and pump. The smallest molecular weight (MW) SXSL fraction had the strongest enhancement on SED. The SXSL fraction with large MW had a negative effect on rheology. n-Octanol (C8) and n-decanol (C10) improved the rheological properties of high-solid slurry and are strong enough to counteract the negative effect of SXSL. Furthermore, C8 and C10 clearly enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis of high-solid corncob slurries with and without SXSL. A mechanism was proposed to explain the observed negative effect of SXSL and the positive effect of LFAs on the rheological properties.

  7. Effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on rat liver microsomal long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase and hydrolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, A.Q.; Faas, F.H.; Carter, W.J.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of hyperthyroidism (hyperT/sub 3/), (tri-iodothryonine (T/sub 3/) injected rats), and hypothyroidism (hypoT/sub 3/) (thyroidectomized rats) on the activation of fatty acids by a microsomal long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (LCA-CoA) synthetase and the degradation of LCA-CoA by a microsomal LCA-CoA hydrolase was determined. MAS was assayed by measuring the (1-/sup 14/C)-palmitate or -1-/sup 14/C) oleate incorporated into its water soluble CoA ester. MAH was assayed spectrophotomerically by following the reduction of 5',5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) by the CoA released from palmitoyl-CoA or oleoyl-CoA. Enzyme activities are given as mean (nmoles/mg/min) +/- SEM. MAS activities were decreased 36-44% (p < 0.01) in both hypoT/sub 3/ and hyperT/sub 3/ (controls = 101 +/- 4 (n = 11, (1-/sup 14/C)-palmitate) of 72 +/- 2 (n = 5,(1-/sup 14/C)oleate)). These decreases may contribute to the decreased triacelyglycerol (TG) and phospholipid contents in the hyperT/sub 3/ liver and the decreased clearance rate of plasma TG in the hypoT/sub 3/. MAH was decreased 27-42% (p<0.01) only in hypoT/sub 3/ (controls = 77 +/- 3 (n = 11, palmitoyl-CoA) or 45 +/- 1 (n = 5, oleoyl-CoA)). This decrease was corrected by T/sub 3/ treatment. Since the decreased MAH would increase the availability of LCA-CoA, it may contribute to the increased TG synthesis in hypoT/sub 3/.

  8. Effect of salinity on the biosynthesis of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in silverside Chirostoma estor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Madrigal, J; Pineda-Delgado, D; Martínez-Palacios, C; Rodríguez, C; Tocher, D R

    2012-08-01

    The genus Chirostoma (silversides) belongs to the family Atherinopsidae, which contains around 150 species, most of which are marine. However, Mexican silverside (Chirostoma estor) is one of the few representatives of freshwater atherinopsids and is only found in some lakes of the Mexican Central Plateau. However, studies have shown that C. estor has improved survival, growth, and development when cultured in water conditions with increased salinity. In addition, C. estor displays an unusual fatty acid composition for a freshwater fish with high docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/ eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ratios. Freshwater and marine fish species display very different essential fatty acid metabolism and requirements, and so the present study investigated long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis to determine the capacity of C. estor for endogenous production of EPA and DHA, and the effect that salinity has on these pathways. Briefly, C. estor were maintained at three salinities (0, 5, and 15 ppt), and the metabolism of ¹⁴C-labeled 18:3n-3 was determined in isolated hepatocyte and enterocyte cells. The results showed that C. estor has the capacity for endogenous biosynthesis of LC-PUFA from 18-carbon fatty acid precursors, but that the pathway was essentially only active in saline conditions with virtually no activity in cells isolated from fish grown in freshwater. The activity of the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway was also higher in cells isolated from fish at 15 ppt compared with fish at 5 ppt. The activity was around fivefold higher in hepatocytes compared with enterocytes; although the majority of 18:3n-3 was converted to 18:4n-3 and 20:4n-3 in hepatocytes, the proportions of 18:3n-3 converted to EPA and DHA were higher in enterocytes. The data were consistent with the hypothesis that conversion of EPA to DHA could contribute, at least in part, to the generally high DHA/EPA ratios observed in the tissue lipids of C. estor.

  9. Long-chain omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognition in older people: interaction with APOE genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barberger-Gateau Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic research and epidemiological studies suggest a protective effect of long-chain omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA against age-related cognitive decline. However, most randomized controlled trials with LC n-3 PUFA supplements have yielded disappointing results on cognitive outcomes in older persons. One explanation for this discrepancy may be an inadequate targeting of potential beneficiaries of LC n-3 PUFA according to their Apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype. The aim of this paper was to examine the potential modifying effect of APOE genotype on LC n-3 PUFA metabolism and its relation to cognitive decline in older persons. At least five epidemiological studies and three intervention studies with LC n-3 PUFA supplements have found an interaction between LC n-3 PUFA and APOE genotype on cognition. However, the direction of the effect is inconsistent across studies: the impact of LC n-3 PUFA on cognition is stronger in APOE4 carriers (the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease in some studies, but conversely stronger in APOE4 non-carriers in other studies. These discordant results may be explained by different age groups, cognitive status, measures of cognition, or amounts of DHA intake across studies. Experimental studies suggest that the APOE4 genotype modifies the metabolism of DHA. The APOE genotype should be systematically taken into account and interactions tested in epidemiological and intervention studies with LC n-3 PUFA. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms of this gene X diet interaction.

  10. [Peroxisomal neurologic diseases and Refsum disease: very long chain fatty acids and phytanic acid as diagnostic markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molzer, B; Stöckler, S; Bernheimer, H

    1992-01-01

    Peroxisomal disorders are genetic metabolic diseases with generalized, multiple, or single functional disturbances of the peroxisome. According to the extent of the functional disturbances 3 groups of diseases can be differentiated: disorders with generalized loss of peroxisomal functions (Zellweger syndrome, ZS; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, NALD; infantile Refsum's disease), disorders with multiple enzymatic defects (e.g. rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata), and disorders with a single enzymatic defect in the peroxisome, the most important being adrenoleukodystrophy/adrenomyeloneuropathy (ALD/AMN). Adult Refsum's disease, a genetic neurological disorder with phytanic acid accumulation, is due to a mitochondrial enzyme deficiency, but is often considered together with peroxisomal diseases because of phytanic acid (PHYT) accumulation in most peroxisomal diseases. The main clinical and pathological criteria of the major disorders and the biochemical parameters of their differentiation are presented. Elevated levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and/or PHYT are the primary diagnostic markers for all peroxisomal disorders and adult Refsum's disease, respectively. Our investigations disclosed 30 ALD/AMN hemizygotes, 16 ALD/AMN heterozygotes, 8 cases of ZS/NALD and 7 patients with adult Refsum's disease. In addition, 15 cases of peroxisomal disorders were confirmed by biochemical investigations in autopsy material. With regard to peroxisomal disorders, therapeutic concepts exist only for ALD/AMN: corticosteroid substitution for adrenal insufficiency, dietary treatment, and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Adult Refsum's disease can be treated successfully by dietary therapy. In case of dietary treatment and BMT, assay of VLCFA and/or PHYT is important for the biochemical evaluation of these therapies.

  11. CD36 abnormality and impaired myocardial long-chain fatty acid uptake in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Fumio; Tanaka, Takao; Sohmiya, Koichi; Kawamura, Keishiro [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    In this study, in order to discover the relationship between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and the CD36 molecular abnormality, the expression level of platelet CD36 and CD36 cDNA in 55 HCM patients was analyzed. Twelve patients showed negligible (<5%) CD36 expression on their platelets. Among them, one was found to be homozygous for the C-478{yields}T substitution and 6 were heterozygous for the C-478{yields}T substitution. In 9 patients, CD36 was expressed by less than 50% of the platelets. One of them was found to be heterozygous for the C-478{yields}T substitution. Two other patients were also found to be heterozygous for this point mutation, although their platelets expressed CD36. Thus, 23 out of 55 (41.8%) HCM patients had negligible (<5%) or reduced (<50%) levels of CD36 expression on platelets, or had a point mutation of CD36 cDNA. These 55 HCM patients were also evaluated with myocardial scintigraphy both for long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) uptake and perfusion, which showed a moderate to severe discrepancy between myocardial LCFA accumulation and myocardial perfusion in 95.5% of the patients (21/23). On the other hand, 70% of the patients with normal (>90%) CD36 expression (14/20) did not show any severe discrepancies between myocardial LCFA accumulation and myocardial perfusion. These data could suggest that abnormal myocardial LCFA metabolism seen in HCM patients may be related to abnormality of the CD36 molecule, and that abnormalities of this molecule may be linked to the cause of some types of HCM. (K.H.)

  12. Long-chain fatty acid combustion rate is associated with unique metabolite profiles in skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Seifert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Incomplete or limited long-chain fatty acid (LCFA combustion in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Signals that are responsive to shifts in LCFA beta-oxidation rate or degree of intramitochondrial catabolism are hypothesized to regulate second messenger systems downstream of the insulin receptor. Recent evidence supports a causal link between mitochondrial LCFA combustion in skeletal muscle and insulin resistance. We have used unbiased metabolite profiling of mouse muscle mitochondria with the aim of identifying candidate metabolites within or effluxed from mitochondria and that are shifted with LCFA combustion rate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Large-scale unbiased metabolomics analysis was performed using GC/TOF-MS on buffer and mitochondrial matrix fractions obtained prior to and after 20 min of palmitate catabolism (n = 7 mice/condition. Three palmitate concentrations (2, 9 and 19 microM; corresponding to low, intermediate and high oxidation rates and 9 microM palmitate plus tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and electron transport chain inhibitors were each tested and compared to zero palmitate control incubations. Paired comparisons of the 0 and 20 min samples were made by Student's t-test. False discovery rate were estimated and Type I error rates assigned. Major metabolite groups were organic acids, amines and amino acids, free fatty acids and sugar phosphates. Palmitate oxidation was associated with unique profiles of metabolites, a subset of which correlated to palmitate oxidation rate. In particular, palmitate oxidation rate was associated with distinct changes in the levels of TCA cycle intermediates within and effluxed from mitochondria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This proof-of-principle study establishes that large-scale metabolomics methods can be applied to organelle-level models to discover metabolite patterns reflective of LCFA combustion, which may lead to identification of molecules

  13. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S.B.; Madsbad, S.; Høy, Carl-Erik;

    2006-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity...... analysis that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R-2 = 0.33, P dietary intervention programme increased....... Design Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements...

  14. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in sceletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Inplications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Madsbad, Sten; Høy, C-E;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity...... that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.33, Pdietary intervention programme increased incorporation of long....... DESIGN Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements...

  15. Cancer Risk and Eicosanoid Production: Interaction between the Protective Effect of Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Georgia Lenihan-Geels; Karen S. Bishop; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-01-01

    Dietary inclusion of fish and fish supplements as a means to improve cancer prognosis and prevent tumour growth is largely controversial. Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, may modulate the production of inflammatory eicosanoids, thereby influencing local inflammatory status, which is important in cancer development. Although in vitro studies have demonstrated inhibition of tumour cell growth and proliferation by LCn-3 ...

  16. Partial replacement of dietary linoleic acid with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Anupama; Kumar, Uday; Santosh, Vadakattu Sai; Reddy, Suryam; Mohammed, Saazida Bhanu; Ibrahim, Ahamed

    2014-12-01

    Imbalances in the dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been implicated in the increased prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease. This study investigated the effects of substitution of linoleic acid with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and hence decreasing n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on inflammatory response in dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis. Male weanling Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets with n-6:n-3 fatty acid in the ratios of 215,50,10 or 5 for 3 months and colitis was induced by administration of dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water during last 11 days. Decreasing the dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio to 10 and 5 significantly attenuated the severity of colitis as evidenced by improvements in clinical symptoms, reversal of shortening of colon length, reduced severity of anemia, preservation of colonic architecture as well as reduced colonic mucosal myeloperoxidase activity. This protection was associated with suppression of colonic mucosal proinflammatory mediators such as TNFα, IL-1β and nitric oxide. These findings suggest that long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids at a level of 3.0 g/kg diet (n-6:n-3 ratio of 10) prevents dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators.

  17. Depletion of ceramides with very long chain fatty acids causes defective skin permeability barrier function, and neonatal lethality in ELOVL4 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenmei Li, Roger Sandhoff, Mari Kono, Patricia Zerfas, Vickie Hoffmann, Bryan Char-Hoa Ding, Richard L. Proia, Chu-Xia Deng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA, either free or as components of glycerolipids and sphingolipids, are present in many organs. Elongation of very long chain fatty acids-4 (ELOVL4 belongs to a family of 6 members of putative fatty acid elongases that are involved in the formation of VLCFA. Mutations in ELOVL4 were found to be responsible for an autosomal dominant form of Stargardt's-like macular dystrophy (STGD3 in human. We have previously disrupted the mouse Elovl4 gene, and found that Elovl4+/- mice were developmentally normal, suggesting that haploinsufficiency of ELOVL4 is not a cause for the juvenile retinal degeneration in STGD3 patients. However, Elovl4-/- mice died within several hours of birth for unknown reason(s. To study functions of ELOVL4 further, we have explored the causes for the postnatal lethality in Elovl4-/- mice. Our data indicated that the mutant mice exhibited reduced thickness of the dermis, delayed differentiation of keratinocytes, and abnormal structure of the stratum corneum. We showed that all Elovl4-/- mice exhibited defective skin water permeability barrier function, leading to the early postnatal death. We further showed that the absence of ELOVL4 results in depletion in the epidermis of ceramides with ω-hydroxy very long chain fatty acids (≥C28 and accumulation of ceramides with non ω-hydroxy fatty acids of C26, implicating C26 fatty acids as possible substrates of ELOVL4. These data demonstrate that ELOVL4 is required for VLCFA synthesis that is essential for water permeability barrier function of skin.

  18. Uptake of long chain fatty acids is regulated by dynamic interaction of FAT/CD36 with cholesterol/sphingolipid enriched microdomains (lipid rafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrmann Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms of long chain fatty acid uptake across the plasma membrane are important targets in treatment of many human diseases like obesity or hepatic steatosis. Long chain fatty acid translocation is achieved by a concert of co-existing mechanisms. These lipids can passively diffuse, but certain membrane proteins can also accelerate the transport. However, we now can provide further evidence that not only proteins but also lipid microdomains play an important part in the regulation of the facilitated uptake process. Methods Dynamic association of FAT/CD36 a candidate fatty acid transporter with lipid rafts was analysed by isolation of detergent resistant membranes (DRMs and by clustering of lipid rafts with antibodies on living cells. Lipid raft integrity was modulated by cholesterol depletion using methyl-β-cyclodextrin and sphingolipid depletion using myriocin and sphingomyelinase. Functional analyses were performed using an [3H]-oleate uptake assay. Results Overexpression of FAT/CD36 and FATP4 increased long chain fatty acid uptake. The uptake of long chain fatty acids was cholesterol and sphingolipid dependent. Floating experiments showed that there are two pools of FAT/CD36, one found in DRMs and another outside of these domains. FAT/CD36 co-localized with the lipid raft marker PLAP in antibody-clustered domains at the plasma membrane and segregated away from the non-raft marker GFP-TMD. Antibody cross-linking increased DRM association of FAT/CD36 and accelerated the overall fatty acid uptake in a cholesterol dependent manner. Another candidate transporter, FATP4, was neither present in DRMs nor co-localized with FAT/CD36 at the plasma membrane. Conclusion Our observations suggest the existence of two pools of FAT/CD36 within cellular membranes. As increased raft association of FAT/CD36 leads to an increased fatty acid uptake, dynamic association of FAT/CD36 with lipid rafts might regulate the process. There is no

  19. Adipocyte Accumulation of Long-Chain Fatty Acids in Obesity is Multifactorial, Resulting from Increased Fatty Acid Uptake and Decreased Activity of Genes Involved in Fat Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walewski, José L.; Ge, Fengxia; Gagner, Michel; Inabnet, William B.; Pomp, Alfons; Branch, Andrea D.

    2010-01-01

    Background The obesity epidemic causes significant morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of cellular function and gene expression in obese adipose tissue will yield insights into obesity pathogenesis and suggest therapeutic targets. The aim of this work is to study the processes determining fat accumulation in adipose tissue from obese patients. Methods Omental fat was collected from two cohorts of obese bariatric surgery patients and sex-matched normal-weight donors. Isolated adipocytes were compared for cell size, volume, and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. Omental fat RNAs were screened by 10K microarray (cohort 1: three obese, three normal) or Whole Genome microarray (cohort 2: seven obese, four normal). Statistical differences in gene and pathway expression were identified in cohort 1 using the GeneSifter Software (Geospiza) with key results confirmed in cohort 2 samples by microarray, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and pathway analysis. Results Obese omental adipocytes had increased surface area, volume, and Vmax for saturable LCFA uptake. Dodecenoyl-coenzyme A delta isomerase, central to LCFA metabolism, was approximately 1.6-fold underexpressed in obese fat in cohorts 1 and 2. Additionally, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomics pathway analysis identified oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism pathways as having coordinate, nonrandom down-regulation of gene expression in both cohorts. Conclusions In obese omental fat, saturable adipocyte LCFA uptake was greater than in controls, and expression of key genes involved in lipolysis, β-oxidation, and metabolism of fatty acids was reduced. Thus, both increased uptake and reduced metabolism of LCFAs contribute to the accumulation of LCFAs in obese adipocytes. PMID:19866242

  20. Is autism a disorder of fatty acid metabolism? Possible dysfunction of mitochondrial beta-oxidation by long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Taylor, Tonya; Clark-Taylor, Benjamin E

    2004-01-01

    Long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) has recently been shown to be the mitochondrial enzyme responsible for the beta-oxidation of branched chain and unsaturated fatty acids [Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1393 (1998) 35; Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1485 (2000) 121]. Whilst disorders of short, medium and very long chain acyl dehydrogenases are known, there is no known disorder of LCAD deficiency in humans. Experimental LCAD deficiency in mice shows an acyl-carnitine profile with prominent elevations of unsaturated fatty acid metabolites C14:1 and C14:2 [Hum. Mol. Genet. 10 (2001) 2069]. A child with autism whose acyl-carnitine profile also shows these abnormalities is presented, and it is hypothesized that the child may have LCAD deficiency. Additional metabolic abnormalities seen in this patient include alterations of TCA energy production, ammonia detoxification, reduced synthesis of omega-3 DHA, and abnormal cholesterol metabolism. These metabolic changes are also seen as secondary abnormalities in dysfunction of fatty acid beta-oxidation, and have also been reported in autism. It is hypothesized that LCAD deficiency may be a cause of autism. Similarities between metabolic disturbances in autism, and those of disorders of fatty acid beta-oxidation are discussed.

  1. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast-milk and erythrocytes and neurodevelopmental outcomes in Danish late-preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Brøndum; Hellgren, Lars I; Larsen, Mette Krogh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) during pregnancy and early lactation has been shown to affect cognitive development in preterm infants, but the effect on early neurodevelopment of late-preterm infants has not yet been examined. Aim: To examine the fatty...... acid composition of late-preterm human milk and identify possible associations between infant LC-PUFA status and perinatal as well as 1-year neurobehavioral outcomes. Methods: Mother’s milk and erythrocytes (RBC) were sampled from 53 Danish late-preterm infants (33-36 weeks of gestation) 1 week and 1...... month after delivery, and 3 months corrected age. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed by the Nicu Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) at 1 week and 1 month and the Bayley Scales (BSID-III) at 1 year corrected age. Results: We...

  2. Higher de novo synthesized fatty acids and lower omega 3-and omega 6-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in umbilical vessels of women with preeclampsia and high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskes, Victor J. B.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; van der Meulen, Jan; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Umbilical veins (UV) and arteries (UA) of preeclamptic women in Curacao harbor lower long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). The present aim was to test these findings in Mwanza (Tanzania), whose inhabitants have high LCP omega 3 and LCP omega 6 intakes from Lake Victoria fish. Women with pree

  3. Possible involvement of long chain fatty acids in the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Houshi) to its anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzawa, Masataka; Yamaguchi, Rie; Hide, Izumi; Chen, Zhiqing; Hirai, Yuko; Sugimoto, Akiko; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    2008-10-01

    During our isolation of biologically active substances from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Houshi, G. lucidum) guided by the inhibitory activity on HL-60 cell proliferation, NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data indicate the substance contains a mixture of several long chain fatty acids. Hence, in this study, we have examined the inhibitory effects of an ethanolic extract of the spores of G. lucidum as the spore extract, on the proliferation of various human cancer cell lines by comparison with several authentic long chain fatty acids. Of the fatty acids we examined nonadecanoic acid (C19:0) showed the highest inhibitory activity for HL-60 cell proliferation with IC(50) values of 68+/-7 microM followed by heptadecanoic acid (C17:0, 120+/-23 microM), octa- (C18:0, 127+/-4 microM) and hexadecanoic acids (C16:0, 132+/-25 microM), respectively. The corresponding unsaturated fatty acids containing one double bond such as cis-10-nonadecenoic acid (C19:1), cis-9-octadecenoic acid (C18:1), cis-10-heptadecenoic acid (C17:1) and cis-9-hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) were less effective. The ethanolic extract of spores of G. lucidum were shown by annexin-V FITC/PI double staining to induce apoptosis of HL-60 cells in a similar way to cis-10-nonadecenoic acid (C19:1). These unsaturated fatty acids probably inhibit tumor necrosis factor production induced by lipopolysaccharide in a mouse macrophage preparation. Our results suggest the spores of G. lucidum contain 19-carbon fatty acids as one of the components for characteristics of its physiological effects.

  4. High content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cells of Kenyan Maasai despite low dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiage-Mokua Beatrice N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing land restrictions and a reduced livestock-to-human ratio during the 20th century led the Maasai to lead a more sedentary, market-orientated lifestyle. Although plant-derived food nowadays contributes substantially to their diet, dairy products being high in saturated fatty acids (SFA and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA still are an important energy source. Since reliable data regarding the Maasai diet date back to the 1980s, the study objective was to document current diet practices in a Kenyan Maasai community and to investigate the fatty acid distribution in diet and red blood cells. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 26 Maasai (20 women, 6 men from Loodokilani, Kajiado District, Kenya. Food intake was described by the subjects via 24-h recall, and both food and blood samples were analysed. Results Two main foods - milk and ugali - constituted the Maasai diet in this region. A total of 0.9 L of milk and 0.6 kg of ugali were consumed per person and day to yield an energy intake of 7.6 MJ/d per person. A major proportion of ingested food contributing 58.3% to the total dietary energy (en% was plant-derived, followed by dairy products representing 41.1 en%. Fat consumed (30.5 en% was high in SFA (63.8% and low in PUFA (9.2%. Long-chain n-3 PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA made up only 0.15% of the ingested fatty acids, but 5.9% of red blood cell fatty acids. Conclusion The study indicates the Maasai diet is rich in SFA and low in PUFA. Nevertheless, red blood cells are composed of comparable proportions of long-chain n-3 PUFA to populations consuming higher amounts of this fatty acid group.

  5. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, fibrates and niacin as therapeutic options in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Matthew K

    2015-10-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia affects approximately 33% of the US population. Elevated triglyceride levels are independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and severe hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Guidelines for the management of severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥5.6 mmol/L [≥500 mg/dL]) recommend immediate use of triglyceride-lowering agents; however, statins remain the first line of therapy for the management of mild to moderate hypertriglyceridemia (1.7-5.6 mmol/L [150-499 mg/dL]). Statins primarily target elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, but have also been shown to reduce mean triglyceride levels by up to 18% (or 43% in patients with triglyceride levels≥3.1 mmol/L [≥273 mg/dL]). However, individuals with hypertriglyceridemia may need additional reduction in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and remnant particles to further reduce residual CVD risk. A number of guidelines recommend the addition of fibrates, niacin, or long-chain omega-3 fatty acids if elevated triglyceride or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels persist despite the use of high-intensity statin therapy. This review evaluates the impact of fibrates, niacin, and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids on lipid profiles and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. It also assesses the adverse effects and drug-drug interactions associated with these triglyceride-lowering agents, because although they have all been shown to effectively reduce triglyceride levels in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, they differ with regard to their associated benefit-risk profiles. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may be a well-tolerated and effective alternative to fibrates and niacin, yet further large-scale clinical studies are required to evaluate their effects on cardiovascular outcomes and CVD risk reduction in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.

  6. Production of long chain omega-3 fatty acids and carotenoids in tropical areas by a new heat-tolerant microalga Tetraselmis sp. DS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsin-Pei; Chuang, Lu-Te; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan

    2016-02-01

    Demand for long chain ω-3 fatty acids from non-fish source for vegetarians has increased recently. Marine microalgae are the primary producers of EPA/DHA and promising alternatives for fish oil. Tropical areas have abundant sunlight throughout the year for microalgal cultivation but this practice can be hindered by high temperature. Discovery of heat-tolerant marine microalgae that can synthesize EPA/DHA will solve these problems. A new species of microalga was isolated from a high temperature lagoon and identified as Tetraselmis sp. DS3. These cells could grow at 40 °C, the highest temperature for marine microalgal growth ever reported. Its ω-3 fatty acids and EPA accounted for 33 and 10% of total lipids, respectively, grown in nitrogen-depleted conditions. These cells also accumulated more than 5% β-carotene and 0.48% lutein in biomass. This new microalga can be cultivated for long chain ω-3 fatty acids and lutein production in the tropical areas.

  7. The change in cholesterol content of long chain fatty acid egg during processing and its influence to the Rattus norvegicus L. blood cholesterol content

    OpenAIRE

    Dini Hardini; Tri Yuwanta; Zuprizal (Zuprizal); Supadmo (Supadmo)

    2006-01-01

    Egg containing long chain unsaturated fatty acids is a functional food, because it is highly nutritious and could prevent diseases, (omega 3 and 6) such as coronary heart attack. The research was aimed to measure the change of egg cholesterol content during proceesing: frying, oiless frying and boiling and their influence to the blood plasma cholesterol of normal and hypercholesterolemia rat. Seven treatments of egg yolk were frying at 170°C for 3 min (welldone = GM), and 1min (half medium f...

  8. Multiple erythroid isoforms of human long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases are produced by switch of the fatty acid gate domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuypers Frans A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of acyl-CoA by the action of acyl-CoA synthetases plays a crucial role in membrane lipid turnover, including the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. In human, five Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long-chain (ACSL genes have been identified with as many as 3 different transcript variants for each. Results Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long-chain member 6 (ACSL6 is responsible for activation of long-chain fatty acids in erythrocytes. Two additional transcript variants were also isolated from brain and testis. We report the expression in reticulocytes of two new variants and of the one isolated from brain. All three represented different spliced variants of a mutually exclusive exon pair. They encode a slightly different short motif which contains a conserved structural domain, the fatty acid Gate domain. The motifs differ in the presence of either the aromatic residue phenylalanine (Phe or tyrosine (Tyr. Based on homology, two new isoforms for the closely related ACSL1 were predicted and characterized. One represented a switch of the Phe- to the Tyr-Gate domain motif, the other resulted from the exclusion of both. Swapping of this motif also appears to be common in all mammalian ACSL member 1 and 6 homologs. Conclusion We propose that a Phe to Tyr substitution or deletion of the Gate domain, is the structural reason for the conserved alternative splicing that affects these motifs. Our findings support our hypothesis that this region is structurally important to define the activity of these enzymes.

  9. Field trial evaluation of the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic Camelina sativa: Making fish oil substitutes in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Usher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global consumption of fish oils currently exceeds one million tonnes, with the natural de novo source of these important fatty acids forming the base of marine foodwebs. Here we describe the first field-based evaluation of a terrestrial source of these essential nutrients, synthesised in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa plants via the heterologous reconstitution of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Our data demonstrate the robust nature of this novel trait, and the feasibility of making fish oils in genetically modified crops. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the most complex example of plant genetic engineering to undergo environmental release and field evaluation.

  10. Cancer Risk and Eicosanoid Production: Interaction between the Protective Effect of Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Lenihan-Geels

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary inclusion of fish and fish supplements as a means to improve cancer prognosis and prevent tumour growth is largely controversial. Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, may modulate the production of inflammatory eicosanoids, thereby influencing local inflammatory status, which is important in cancer development. Although in vitro studies have demonstrated inhibition of tumour cell growth and proliferation by LCn-3 PUFA, results from human studies have been mainly inconsistent. Genes involved in the desaturation of fatty acids, as well as the genes encoding enzymes responsible for eicosanoid production, are known to be implicated in tumour development. This review discusses the current evidence for an interaction between genetic polymorphisms and dietary LCn-3 PUFA in the risk for breast, prostate and colorectal cancers, in regards to inflammation and eicosanoid synthesis.

  11. Cancer Risk and Eicosanoid Production: Interaction between the Protective Effect of Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenihan-Geels, Georgia; Bishop, Karen S; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-02-15

    Dietary inclusion of fish and fish supplements as a means to improve cancer prognosis and prevent tumour growth is largely controversial. Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, may modulate the production of inflammatory eicosanoids, thereby influencing local inflammatory status, which is important in cancer development. Although in vitro studies have demonstrated inhibition of tumour cell growth and proliferation by LCn-3 PUFA, results from human studies have been mainly inconsistent. Genes involved in the desaturation of fatty acids, as well as the genes encoding enzymes responsible for eicosanoid production, are known to be implicated in tumour development. This review discusses the current evidence for an interaction between genetic polymorphisms and dietary LCn-3 PUFA in the risk for breast, prostate and colorectal cancers, in regards to inflammation and eicosanoid synthesis.

  12. Parasite burden and CD36-mediated sequestration are determinants of acute lung injury in an experimental malaria model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona E Lovegrove

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Although acute lung injury (ALI is a common complication of severe malaria, little is known about the underlying molecular basis of lung dysfunction. Animal models have provided powerful insights into the pathogenesis of severe malaria syndromes such as cerebral malaria (CM; however, no model of malaria-induced lung injury has been definitively established. This study used bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, histopathology and gene expression analysis to examine the development of ALI in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA. BAL fluid of PbA-infected C57BL/6 mice revealed a significant increase in IgM and total protein prior to the development of CM, indicating disruption of the alveolar-capillary membrane barrier-the physiological hallmark of ALI. In contrast to sepsis-induced ALI, BAL fluid cell counts remained constant with no infiltration of neutrophils. Histopathology showed septal inflammation without cellular transmigration into the alveolar spaces. Microarray analysis of lung tissue from PbA-infected mice identified a significant up-regulation of expressed genes associated with the gene ontology categories of defense and immune response. Severity of malaria-induced ALI varied in a panel of inbred mouse strains, and development of ALI correlated with peripheral parasite burden but not CM susceptibility. Cd36(-/- mice, which have decreased parasite lung sequestration, were relatively protected from ALI. In summary, parasite burden and CD36-mediated sequestration in the lung are primary determinants of ALI in experimental murine malaria. Furthermore, differential susceptibility of mouse strains to malaria-induced ALI and CM suggests that distinct genetic determinants may regulate susceptibility to these two important causes of malaria-associated morbidity and mortality.

  13. Carnitine supplementation and ketogenesis by small-for-date neonates on medium-and long-chain fatty acid formulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadaridis, J; Mavridou, I; Sarafidou, G; Alexiou, N; Costalos, C; Michelakakis, H

    2000-01-01

    Carnitine is a key molecule in energy production from various substrates. Although it is generally believed that it plays no role in the metabolism of medium-chain triglycerides, quite a few data exist to the contrary. In the present study we investigated the effect of carnitine on ketogenesis in small-for-date neonates fed formulae of equal caloric value and fat content that was predominantly long-chain triglycerides or medium-chain triglycerides (46% of total fat). According to our results there was a statistically significant interaction between carnitine and the chain length of the administered fat with respect to ketone production. Increased ketogenesis was only shown by the neonates receiving medium-chain triglycerides and carnitine. Our results provide further evidence for the involvement of carnitine in medium-chain triglyceride metabolism.

  14. Isolation of animal cell mutants defective in long-chain fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase. Sensitivity to fatty aldehydes and Schiff's base modification of phospholipids: implications for Sj-ogren-Larsson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P F; Zoeller, R A

    1997-09-19

    Using tritium suicide, we have isolated a variant of the Chinese hamster ovary cell line, CHO-K1, that is deficient in long-chain fatty alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase (FAO; EC 1.1.1.192). Specifically, it was the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase component that was affected. The enzymatic deficiency found in this mutant strain, designated FAA. K1A, was similar to that displayed by fibroblasts from patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS), an inheritable neurocutaneous disorder. Complementation analyses suggested that the deficiency in fatty alcohol oxidation in the FAA.K1A cells and the SLS fibroblasts is a result of lesions in homologous genes. The FAA.K1A cells were unable to convert long chain fatty aldehydes to the corresponding fatty acids. This resulted in a hypersensitivity of the FAA.K1A cells to the cytotoxic effects of long chain fatty aldehydes. The difference between the mutant and wild-type cells was most obvious when using fatty aldehydes between 14 and 20 carbons, with the greatest difference between wild-type and mutant cells found when using octadecanal. Fibroblasts from a patient with SLS also displayed the hypersensitivity phenotype when compared with FAldDH+ human fibroblasts. In both CHO and human FAldDH- cell lines, addition of long chain fatty aldehydes to the medium caused a dramatic increase in aldehyde-modified phosphatidylethanolamine, presumably through Schiff's base addition to the primary amine of the ethanolamine head group. When 25 microM hexadecanal was added to the growth medium, approximately 10% of the phosphatidylethanolamine was found in the fatty aldehyde-modified form in FAA.K1A, although this was not observed in wild-type cells. Modified phosphatidylethanolamine could be detected in FAldDH- cells even when exogenous fatty aldehydes were not added to the medium. We propose a possible role for fatty aldehydes, or other aldehydic species, in mediating some of the symptoms associated with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome.

  15. Two very long chain fatty acid acyl-CoA synthetase genes, acs-20 and acs-22, have roles in the cuticle surface barrier in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Kage-Nakadai

    Full Text Available In multicellular organisms, the surface barrier is essential for maintaining the internal environment. In mammals, the barrier is the stratum corneum. Fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4 is a key factor involved in forming the stratum corneum barrier. Mice lacking Fatp4 display early neonatal lethality with features such as tight, thick, and shiny skin, and a defective skin barrier. These symptoms are strikingly similar to those of a human skin disease called restrictive dermopathy. FATP4 is a member of the FATP family that possesses acyl-CoA synthetase activity for very long chain fatty acids. How Fatp4 contributes to skin barrier function, however, remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we characterized two Caenorhabditis elegans genes, acs-20 and acs-22, that are homologous to mammalian FATPs. Animals with mutant acs-20 exhibited defects in the cuticle barrier, which normally prevents the penetration of small molecules. acs-20 mutant animals also exhibited abnormalities in the cuticle structure, but not in epidermal cell fate or cell integrity. The acs-22 mutants rarely showed a barrier defect, whereas acs-20;acs-22 double mutants had severely disrupted barrier function. Moreover, the barrier defects of acs-20 and acs-20;acs-22 mutants were rescued by acs-20, acs-22, or human Fatp4 transgenes. We further demonstrated that the incorporation of exogenous very long chain fatty acids into sphingomyelin was reduced in acs-20 and acs-22 mutants. These findings indicate that C. elegans Fatp4 homologue(s have a crucial role in the surface barrier function and this model might be useful for studying the fundamental molecular mechanisms underlying human skin barrier and relevant diseases.

  16. Patatin-related phospholipase pPLAIIIδ increases seed oil content with long-chain fatty acids in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoyin; Bahn, Sung Chul; Fan, Chuchuan; Li, Jia; Phan, Tien; Ortiz, Michael; Roth, Mary R; Welti, Ruth; Jaworski, Jan; Wang, Xuemin

    2013-05-01

    The release of fatty acids from membrane lipids has been implicated in various metabolic and physiological processes, but in many cases, the enzymes involved and their functions in plants remain unclear. Patatin-related phospholipase As (pPLAs) constitute a major family of acyl-hydrolyzing enzymes in plants. Here, we show that pPLAIIIδ promotes the production of triacylglycerols with 20- and 22-carbon fatty acids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Of the four pPLAIIIs (α, β, γ, δ), only pPLAIIIδ gene knockout results in a decrease in seed oil content, and pPLAIIIδ is most highly expressed in developing embryos. The overexpression of pPLAIIIδ increases the content of triacylglycerol and 20- and 22-carbon fatty acids in seeds with a corresponding decrease in 18-carbon fatty acids. Several genes in the glycerolipid biosynthetic pathways are up-regulated in pPLAIIIδ-overexpressing siliques. pPLAIIIδ hydrolyzes phosphatidylcholine and also acyl-coenzyme A to release fatty acids. pPLAIIIδ-overexpressing plants have a lower level, whereas pPLAIIIδ knockout plants have a higher level, of acyl-coenzyme A than the wild type. Whereas seed yield decreases in transgenic plants that ubiquitously overexpress pPLAIIIδ, seed-specific overexpression of pPLAIIIδ increases seed oil content without any detrimental effect on overall seed yield. These results indicate that pPLAIIIδ-mediated phospholipid turnover plays a role in fatty acid remodeling and glycerolipid production.

  17. Jumping on the omega-3 bandwagon: distinguishing the role of long-chain and short-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchini, Giovanni M; Nichols, Peter D; Barrow, Colin; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) are almost unanimously recognized for their health benefits, while only limited evidence of any health benefit is currently available specifically for the main precursor of these fatty acids, namely α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3). However, both the n-3 LC-PUFA and the short-chain C₁₈ PUFA (i.e., ALA) are commonly referred to as "omega-3" fatty acids, and it is difficult for consumers to recognize this difference. A current gap of many food labelling legislations worldwide allow products containing only ALA and without n-3 LC-PUFA to be marketed as "omega-3 source" and this misleading information can negatively impact the ability of consumers to choose more healthy diets. Within the context of the documented nutritional and health promoting roles of omega-3 fatty acids, we briefly review the different metabolic fates of dietary ALA and n-3 LC-PUFA. We also review food sources rich in n-3 LC-PUFA, some characteristics of LC-PUFA and current industry and regulatory trends. A further objective is to present a case for regulatory bodies to clearly distinguish food products containing only ALA from foods containing n-3 LC-PUFA. Such information, when available, would then avoid misleading information and empower consumers to make a more informed choice in their food purchasing behavior.

  18. Direct supplementation of diet is the most efficient way of enriching broiler meat with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, T; Lordelo, M M; Alves, S P; Bessa, R J B; Costa, P; Lemos, J P C; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Prates, J A M

    2013-01-01

    1. Concentrations of beneficial omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) in poultry meat can be improved by increasing the concentration of n-3 PUFA in poultry diets. 2. A decrease in flavour quality is, however, usually associated with the dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA, which is due to the susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation. 3. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of introducing two different n-3 fatty acid sources (extruded linseed and DHA Gold™, a proprietary algal product rich in docosahexaenoic acid), either separately or together, on broiler productive performance, and meat quality, oxidative stability, sensory traits and LC-PUFA profile. 4. Birds given the algal product displayed better productive performances than animals from other groups. 5. The data revealed an improvement in the fatty acid nutritional value of meat from birds receiving the algal product and an inefficient conversion of α-linolenic acid (LNA) into LC-PUFA. 6. Metabolisation of LNA in vivo is not sufficient to improve meat quality in n-3 LC-PUFA and direct supplementation of the diet with n-3 LC-PUFA is a better alternative to modulate an increase in beneficial fatty acids of broiler meat. 7. The overall acceptability of meat was negatively affected by the dietary supplementation with 7.4% of DHA, in contrast to the supplementation with 3.7% of DHA, which showed to be efficient in improving LC-PUFA meat content without affecting its sensory properties.

  19. The associations between serum adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein, insulin, and serum long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in Labrador Retrievers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streeter RM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Renee M Streeter,1 Angela M Struble,1 Sabine Mann,2 Daryl V Nydam,2 John E Bauer,3 Marta G Castelhano,1 Rory J Todhunter,1 Bethany P Cummings,4 Joseph J Wakshlag11Department of Clinical Sciences, 2Department of Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; 3Department of Clinical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USAAbstract: Obesity has been associated with an increased inflammatory response and insulin resistance due to adipose tissue–derived adipokines and increases in C-reactive protein (CRP. Dogs appear to be similar to other species with the exception of adiponectin, which might not be affected by obesity status. Serum long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations have been positively and negatively associated with serum adipokines. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between leptin, CRP, adiponectin, and insulin to body condition score (BCS and to the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in serum lipoproteins, including alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosapentanenoic acid (DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA as a reflection of dietary omega-3 status in the Labrador Retriever. Seventy-seven Labrador Retrievers were evaluated for BCS, percent fasting serum lipoprotein fatty acid concentrations, as well as serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and CRP. A multivariable general linear regression model was constructed to examine the association between the dependent variables leptin, CRP, adiponectin, and insulin and the predictor variables of BCS, age, and sex, as well as concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid, EPA, DHA, and DPA. Adiponectin concentration was positively associated with age (P<0.0008, EPA (P=0.027 and negatively associated with DHA (P=0.008. Leptin concentration was positively associated with an increased DHA (P=0.009, BCS (P

  20. Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Frias, Janice A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M. (UMM)

    2012-10-25

    OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme that has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products, a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine that is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a nondecarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure determined, along with inhibitor-bound and xenon-derivatized structures, to improve our understanding of substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologues, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the two remaining channels: one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short {beta}-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms, and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117{beta}) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly

  1. Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goblirsch, BR; Frias, JA; Wackett, LP; Wilmot, CM

    2012-05-22

    OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme that has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty acylcoenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products, a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine that is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a nondecarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure determined, along with inhibitor-bound and xenon-derivatized structures, to improve our understanding of substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologues, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the two remaining channels: one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short beta-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms, and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117 beta) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly, Glu117

  2. The effect of dietary supplementation with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids and/or L-carnitine on ovarian activity of Rahmani ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahat, K H; Abo-El maaty, Amal M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids with or without of l-carnitine on ovarian activity using 24 Rahmani ewes randomly allocated to four treatments. Control animals (n=6) were fed a basal diet of hay (64.2%) and barley grain (35.0%) plus minerals and vitamins (0.8%). Ewes on the three treatments received the same basal diet supplemented with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids (CSFA) at 3% of the basal diet dry matter intake (1.4 kg/ewe/d); 250 ppm l-carnitine (LC); or both these supplements (CSFA+LC). All use exhibited natural estrus on one or two occasions and were weighed at the start and the end of the study as well as body condition score was assessed at the end of study. All ewes were then synchronised for estrus using intravaginal sponges for 12 d prior to the start of the nutritional treatments and three weeks after the nutritional treatments began. The nutritional treatments were imposed for a total of 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected prior to the start of treatments and every two weeks thereafter except after sponge removal of first and second synchronisation where the blood samples were collected daily for progesterone assay. The results revealed that Rahmani ewes received basal diet (control) and l-carnitine had significantly decrease final body weight and body condition score (36.3+/-0.4; 36.8+/-0.3; 2.2+/-0.04; 2.1+/-0.05; pcarnitine (8.7+/-1.5) and CSFA+LC (8.0+/-0.6) treatments. The increased numbers occurred in the medium and large categories of follicles. In addition, the ovulation rates were significantly lower (pcarnitine (1.5+/-0.00) than for CSFA (2.5+/-0.3) and CSFA+LC (2.3+/-0.2). Furthermore, serum progesterone concentrations had risen and were significantly higher (pcarnitine (1.5+/-0.4 ng/ml). It was concluded that supplementation of the basal diet with l-carnitine alone did not improve performance of ewes or the ovarian response. However, the addition of

  3. Disturbance of mitochondrial functions provoked by the major long-chain 3-hydroxylated fatty acids accumulating in MTP and LCHAD deficiencies in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecatto, Cristiane; Godoy, Kálita Dos Santos; da Silva, Janaína Camacho; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Wajner, Moacir

    2016-10-01

    The pathogenesis of the muscular symptoms and recurrent rhabdomyolysis that are commonly manifested in patients with mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) and long-chain 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiencies is still unknown. In this study we investigated the effects of the major long-chain monocarboxylic 3-hydroxylated fatty acids (LCHFA) accumulating in these disorders, namely 3-hydroxytetradecanoic (3HTA) and 3-hydroxypalmitic (3HPA) acids, on important mitochondrial functions in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria. 3HTA and 3HPA markedly increased resting (state 4) and decreased ADP-stimulated (state 3) and CCCP-stimulated (uncoupled) respiration. 3HPA provoked similar effects in permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers, validating the results obtained in purified mitochondria. Furthermore, 3HTA and 3HPA markedly diminished mitochondrial membrane potential, NAD(P)H content and Ca(2+) retention capacity in Ca(2+)-loaded mitochondria. Mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) induction probably underlie these effects since they were totally prevented by cyclosporin A and ADP. In contrast, the dicarboxylic analogue of 3HTA did not alter the tested parameters. Our data strongly indicate that 3HTA and 3HPA behave as metabolic inhibitors, uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and mPT inducers in skeletal muscle. It is proposed that these pathomechanisms disrupting mitochondrial homeostasis may be involved in the muscle alterations characteristic of MTP and LCHAD deficiencies.

  4. Tissue-specific strategies of the very-long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient (VLCAD-/- mouse to compensate a defective fatty acid β-oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tucci

    Full Text Available Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD-deficiency is the most common long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorder presenting with heterogeneous phenotypes. Similar to many patients with VLCADD, VLCAD-deficient mice (VLCAD(-/- remain asymptomatic over a long period of time. In order to identify the involved compensatory mechanisms, wild-type and VLCAD(-/- mice were fed one year either with a normal diet or with a diet in which medium-chain triglycerides (MCT replaced long-chain triglycerides, as approved intervention in VLCADD. The expression of the mitochondrial long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD was quantified at mRNA and protein level in heart, liver and skeletal muscle. The oxidation capacity of the different tissues was measured by LC-MS/MS using acyl-CoA substrates with a chain length of 8 to 20 carbons. Moreover, in white skeletal muscle the role of glycolysis and concomitant muscle fibre adaptation was investigated. In one year old VLCAD(-/- mice MCAD and LCAD play an important role in order to compensate deficiency of VLCAD especially in the heart and in the liver. However, the white gastrocnemius muscle develops alternative compensatory mechanism based on a different substrate selection and increased glucose oxidation. Finally, the application of an MCT diet over one year has no effects on LCAD or MCAD expression. MCT results in the VLCAD(-/- mice only in a very modest improvement of medium-chain acyl-CoA oxidation capacity restricted to cardiac tissue. In conclusion, VLCAD(-/- mice develop tissue-specific strategies to compensate deficiency of VLCAD either by induction of other mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenases or by enhancement of glucose oxidation. In the muscle, there is evidence of a muscle fibre type adaptation with a predominance of glycolytic muscle fibres. Dietary modification as represented by an MCT-diet does not improve these strategies long-term.

  5. Management of familial Mediterranean fever by colchicine does not normalize the altered profile of microbial long chain fatty acids in the human metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna eKtsoyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our previous works we established that in an autoinflammatory condition, familial Mediterranean fever, the gut microbial diversity is specifically restructured, which also results in the altered profiles of microbial long chain fatty acids (LCFAs present in the systemic metabolome. The mainstream management of the disease is based on oral administration of colchicine to suppress clinical signs and extend remission periods and our aim was to determine whether this therapy normalizes the microbial LCFA profiles in the metabolome as well. Unexpectedly, the treatment does not normalize these profiles. Moreover, it results in the formation of new distinct microbial LCFA clusters, which are well separated from the corresponding values in healthy controls and FMF patients without the therapy. We hypothesize that the therapy alters the proinflammatory network specific for the disease, with the concomitant changes in gut microbiota and the corresponding microbial LCFAs in the metabolome.

  6. Fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes during pregnancy and risk of postpartum depression: a prospective study based on a large national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2009-01-01

    that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might have a beneficial effect on depression. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore the association between intake of fish and n-3 PUFAs during pregnancy and PPD in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). DESIGN: Exposure information from the DNBC...... was linked to the Danish patient and prescription registries for data on clinically identified cases of depression up to 1 y postpartum. Intake of fish and n-3 PUFAs was assessed in midpregnancy with a food-frequency questionnaire. Admission to the hospital for PPD (PPD-admission) and prescription...... of antidepressants (PPD-prescription) were treated as separate outcomes. A total of 54,202 women were included in the present study sample. RESULTS: Rates of depression were 0.3% (PPD-admission) and 1.6% (PPD-prescription). No association was observed between fish intake and risk of PPD-admission [crude odds ratio...

  7. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, Elaina M. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Center for Cardiovascular Sciences, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY (United States); Cerny, Ronald L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); DiRusso, Concetta C. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Black, Paul N., E-mail: pblack2@unl.edu [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. •Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. •FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. •FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The

  8. The effect of fatty acid positioning in dietary triacylglycerols and intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone mineral accretion in growing piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Daniel; Ludvig, Stine E; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab;

    2013-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCPUFA) and palmitate (16:0) positioning in the triacylglycerol (TAG) of infant formula may affect calcium-uptake which could affect bone health. We investigated if a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) with a modified TAG structure holding 16:0 predominantly in the sn-2-position...

  9. The impact of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on food allergy and cardiovascular disease. Fish and no chips?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Elsen, L.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis creates more insight into the efficacy and mechanism of action of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which act on the interface between pharmacology and nutrition in the prevention of allergic and cardiovascular disease. PUFA are categorized into n-6 and n-3 PUFA. The last decades have

  10. Different oral sensitivities to and sensations of short-, medium-, and long-chain fatty acids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Cordelia A; Mattes, Richard D

    2014-08-01

    Fatty acids that vary in chain length and degree of unsaturation have different effects on metabolism and human health. As evidence for a "taste" of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) accumulates, it may be hypothesized that fatty acid structures will also influence oral sensations. The present study examined oral sensitivity to caproic (C6), lauric (C12), and oleic (C18:1) acids over repeated visits. Analyses were also conducted on textural properties of NEFA emulsions and blank solutions. Oral thresholds for caproic acid were lower compared with oleic acid. Lauric acid thresholds were intermediate but not significantly different from either, likely due to lingering irritating sensations that prevented accurate discrimination. From particle size analysis, larger droplets were observed in blank solutions when mineral oil was used, leading to instability of the emulsion, which was not observed when emulsions contained NEFA or when mineral oil was removed from the blank. Rheological data showed no differences in viscosity among samples except for a slightly higher viscosity with oleic acid concentrations above 58 mM. Thus, texture was unlikely to be the property used to distinguish between the samples. Differences in oral detection and sensation of caproic, lauric, and oleic acids may be due to different properties of the fatty acid alkyl chains.

  11. FAT-ABSORPTION IN NEONATES - COMPARISON OF LONG-CHAIN-FATTY-ACID AND TRIGLYCERIDE COMPOSITIONS OF FORMULA, FECES, AND BLOOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERKADE, HJ; HOVING, EB; MUSKIET, FAJ; MARTINI, IA; JANSEN, G; OKKEN, A; VONK, RJ; BIJLEVELD, CMA

    1991-01-01

    We studied malabsorption of fat in neonates who were fed either a lard-modified formula (n = 22, gestational age, 33.6 +/- 3.9 wk) or an unmodified formula (n = 14, gestational age, 34.1 +/- 3.7 wk). In both groups fecal lipid consisted almost completely (> 90%) of free fatty acids, whose compositio

  12. Predictors of treatment response in young people at ultra-high risk for psychosis who received long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amminger, G P; Mechelli, A; Rice, S; Kim, S-W; Klier, C M; McNamara, R K; Berk, M; McGorry, P D; Schäfer, M R

    2015-01-13

    Previous efforts in the prospective evaluation of individuals who experience attenuated psychotic symptoms have attempted to isolate mechanisms underlying the onset of full-threshold psychotic illness. In contrast, there has been little research investigating specific predictors of positive outcomes. In this study, we sought to determine biological and clinical factors associated with treatment response, here indexed by functional improvement in a pre-post examination of a 12-week randomized controlled intervention in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Participants received either long-chain omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or placebo. To allow the determination of factors specifically relevant to each intervention, and to be able to contrast them, both treatment groups were investigated in parallel. Univariate linear regression analysis indicated that higher levels of erythrocyte membrane α-linolenic acid (ALA; the parent fatty acid of the ω-3 family) and more severe negative symptoms at baseline predicted subsequent functional improvement in the treatment group, whereas less severe positive symptoms and lower functioning at baseline were predictive in the placebo group. A multivariate machine learning analysis, known as Gaussian Process Classification (GPC), confirmed that baseline fatty acids predicted response to treatment in the ω-3 PUFA group with high levels of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. In addition, GPC revealed that baseline fatty acids were predictive in the placebo group. In conclusion, our investigation indicates that UHR patients with higher levels of ALA may specifically benefit from ω-3 PUFA supplementation. In addition, multivariate machine learning analysis suggests that fatty acids could potentially be used to inform prognostic evaluations and treatment decisions at the level of the individual. Notably, multiple statistical analyses were conducted in a relatively small sample, limiting the

  13. Role of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters in the regulation of metabolism and in cell signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgeman, Nils J.; Knudsen, J

    1997-01-01

    or by hydrolysis by acyl-CoA hydrolases. Under normal physiological conditions the free cytosolic concentration of acyl-CoA esters will be in the low nanomolar range, and it is unlikely to exceed 200 nM under the most extreme conditions. The fact that acetyl-CoA carboxylase is active during fatty acid synthesis...... by the observation that fatty acids do not repress expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase or Delta9-desaturase in yeast deficient in acyl-CoA synthetase....... (Ki for acyl-CoA is 5 nM) indicates strongly that the free cytosolic acyl-CoA concentration is below 5 nM under these conditions. Only a limited number of the reported experiments on the effects of acyl-CoA on cellular functions and enzymes have been carried out at low physiological concentrations...

  14. 超长链脂肪酸延伸酶家族的功能及表达调控%The function and expression regulation of elongases of very long chain fatty acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐慧; 潘志雄; 卢立志; 王继文

    2009-01-01

    The elongase of very long chain fatty acid (ELOVL) family is responsible for the synthesis of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). The ELOVL family consists of seven members: ELOVL1~7. And they are believed to carry out substrate-specific elongation with fatty acids of various lengths and regulate fatty acid metabolism. In this review, we present the structure, biological function, expression regulation of ELOVL proteins.%超长链脂肪酸延伸酶(elongase of very long chain fatty acids,ELOVL)家族是哺乳动物中一类编码超长链脂肪酸(very long chain fatty acids,VLCFA)延伸酶的基因家族.该家族有7个成员:ELOVL1~7.各个成员编码的蛋白质参与不同长度脂肪酸链的延长,对脂肪酸的代谢进行调控,进而发挥其生物学功能.本文就该家族成员的结构、生物学功能及表达调控进行综述.

  15. High levels of both n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in cord serum phospholipids predict allergy development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Barman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs reduce T-cell activation and dampen inflammation. They might thereby counteract the neonatal immune activation and hamper normal tolerance development to harmless environmental antigens. We investigated whether fatty acid composition of cord serum phospholipids affects allergy development up to age 13 years. METHODS: From a population-based birth-cohort born in 1996/7 and followed until 13 years of age (n = 794, we selected cases with atopic eczema (n = 37 or respiratory allergy (n = 44, as well as non-allergic non-sensitized controls (n = 48 based on diagnosis at 13 years of age. Cord and maternal sera obtained at delivery from cases and controls were analysed for proportions of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids among serum phospholipids. RESULTS: The cord serum phospholipids from subject who later developed either respiratory allergy or atopic eczema had significantly higher proportions of 5/8 LCPUFA species, as well as total n-3 LCPUFA, total n-6 LCPUFA and total LCPUFA compared to cord serum phospholipids from controls who did not develop allergy (P<0.001 for all comparisons. Conversely, individuals later developing allergy had lower proportion of the monounsaturated fatty acid 18∶1n-9 as well as total MUFA (p<0.001 among cord serum phospholipids. The risk of respiratory allergy at age 13 increased linearly with the proportion of n-3 LCPUFA (Ptrend<0.001, n-6 LCPUFA (Ptrend = 0.001, and total LCPUFA (Ptrend<0.001 and decreased linearly with the proportions of total MUFA (Ptrend = 0.025 in cord serum phospholipids. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier estimates of allergy development demonstrated that total LCPUFA proportion in cord serum phospholipids was significantly associated with respiratory allergy (P = 0.008 and sensitization (P = 0.002, after control for sex and parental allergy. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of long-chain

  16. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Elaina M; Cerny, Ronald L; DiRusso, Concetta C; Black, Paul N

    2013-11-01

    In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The trafficking of exogenous C16:0 and C22:6 into PA was significant where there was 6.9- and 5.3-fold increased incorporation, respectively, over the control; C18:3 and C20:4 also trended to increase in the PA pool while there were no changes for C18:1 and C18:2. The trafficking of C18:3 into PC and PI trended higher and approached significance. In the case of C20:4, expression of

  17. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P  0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product.

  18. Oviposition response ofLobesia botrana females to long-chain free fatty acids and esters from its eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, B; Thiéry, D

    1996-01-01

    Avoidance of occupied ovisposition sites supposes that females perceive information related to their own progency. Fatty acids identified from egg extracts have been reevaluated using a different extraction method, and we have investigated the dose-dependent oviposition response of European grape vine moths (Lobesia botrana) to myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, methyl palmitate, methyl oleate, and ethyl palmitate; all except ethyl palmitate have been identified from eggs ofL. botrana. A methylene dichloride extract of eggs fromL. botrana revealed the presence of saturated free fatty acids (myristic, palmitic, and stearic) and unsaturated acids (palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic) in amounts ranging from 3.9 ng/egg equivalent for myristic acid to 30 ng/egg equivalent for palmitic and oleic acids. The extract also contained traces of methyl palmitate and methyl stearate. The greatest avoidance indexes were observed in response to palmitic, palmitoleic, and oleic acids. All the other compounds tested caused weaker responses. A reduction in the number of eggs laid was observed when moths were exposed to each of the esters applied at 0.3 µg per application spot. Reduction in eggs laid was also observed at a 10-fold higher dose of oleic acid. The present results confirm that general and simple molecules can be involved in the regulation of oviposition site selection and that they may participate in chemical marking of the eggs.

  19. The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR40 is activated by medium and long chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Celia P; Tadayyon, Mohammad; Andrews, John L; Benson, William G; Chambers, Jon K; Eilert, Michelle M; Ellis, Catherine; Elshourbagy, Nabil A; Goetz, Aaron S; Minnick, Dana T; Murdock, Paul R; Sauls, Howard R; Shabon, Usman; Spinage, Lisa D; Strum, Jay C; Szekeres, Philip G; Tan, Kong B; Way, James M; Ignar, Diane M; Wilson, Shelagh; Muir, Alison I

    2003-03-28

    GPR40 is a member of a subfamily of homologous G protein-coupled receptors that include GPR41 and GPR43 and that have no current function or ligand ascribed. Ligand fishing experiments in HEK293 cells expressing human GPR40 revealed that a range of saturated and unsaturated carboxylic acids with carbon chain lengths greater than six were able to induce an elevation of [Ca(2+)](i), measured using a fluorometric imaging plate reader. 5,8,11-Eicosatriynoic acid was the most potent fatty acid tested, with a pEC(50) of 5.7. G protein coupling of GPR40 was examined in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the G alpha(q/i)-responsive Gal4-Elk1 reporter system. Expression of human GPR40 led to a constitutive induction of luciferase activity, which was further increased by exposure of the cells to eicosatriynoic acid. Neither the constitutive nor ligand-mediated luciferase induction was inhibited by pertussis toxin treatment, suggesting that GPR40 was coupled to G alpha(q/11.) Expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that GPR40 was specifically expressed in brain and pancreas, with expression in rodent pancreas being localized to insulin-producing beta-cells. These data suggest that some of the physiological effects of fatty acids in pancreatic islets and brain may be mediated through a cell-surface receptor.

  20. Brain Lipotoxicity of Phytanic Acid and Very Long-chain Fatty Acids. Harmful Cellular/Mitochondrial Activities in Refsum Disease and X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Peter; Reiser, Georg

    2016-03-01

    It is increasingly understood that in the aging brain, especially in the case of patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, some fatty acids at pathologically high concentrations exert detrimental activities. To study such activities, we here analyze genetic diseases, which are due to compromised metabolism of specific fatty acids, either the branched-chain phytanic acid or very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Micromolar concentrations of phytanic acid or of VLCFAs disturb the integrity of neural cells by impairing Ca(2+) homeostasis, enhancing oxidative stress or de-energizing mitochondria. Finally, these combined harmful activities accelerate cell death. Mitochondria are more severely targeted by phytanic acid than by VLCFAs. The insertion of VLCFAs into the inner membrane distorts the arrangement of membrane constituents and their functional interactions. Phytanic acid exerts specific protonophoric activity, induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and reduces ATP generation. A clear inhibition of the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity by phytanic acid has also been reported. In addition to the instantaneous effects, a chronic exposure of brain cells to low micromolar concentrations of phytanic acid may produce neuronal damage in Refsum disease by altering epigenetic transcriptional regulation. Myelin-producing oligodendrocytes respond with particular sensitivity to VLCFAs. Deleterious activity of VLCFAs on energy-dependent mitochondrial functions declines with increasing the hydrocarbon chain length (C22:0 > C24:0 > C26:0). In contrast, the reverse sequence holds true for cell death induction by VLCFAs (C22:0 fatty acid-mediated neurodegeneration and should help to provide possible therapeutic interventions.

  1. Importance of the Long-Chain Fatty Acid Beta-Hydroxylating Cytochrome P450 Enzyme YbdT for Lipopeptide Biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis Strain OKB105

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Noha H.; Wofford, Neil; McInerney, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus species produce extracellular, surface-active lipopeptides such as surfactin that have wide applications in industry and medicine. The steps involved in the synthesis of 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) substrates needed for surfactin biosynthesis are not understood. Cell-free extracts of Bacillus subtilis strain OKB105 synthesized lipopeptide biosurfactants in presence of l-amino acids, myristic acid, coenzyme A, ATP, and H2O2, which suggested that 3-hydroxylation occurs prior to CoA ligation of the long chain fatty acids (LCFAs). We hypothesized that YbdT, a cytochrome P450 enzyme known to beta-hydroxylate LCFAs, functions to form 3-hydroxy fatty acids for lipopeptide biosynthesis. An in-frame mutation of ybdT was constructed and the resulting mutant strain (NHY1) produced predominantly non-hydroxylated lipopeptide with diminished biosurfactant and beta-hemolytic activities. Mass spectrometry showed that 95.6% of the fatty acids in the NHY1 biosurfactant were non-hydroxylated compared to only ∼61% in the OKB105 biosurfactant. Cell-free extracts of the NHY1 synthesized surfactin containing 3-hydroxymyristic acid from 3-hydroxymyristoyl-CoA at a specific activity similar to that of the wild type (17 ± 2 versus 17.4 ± 6 ng biosurfactant min−1·ng·protein−1, respectively). These results showed that the mutation did not affect any function needed to synthesize surfactin once the 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA substrate was formed and that YbdT functions to supply 3-hydroxy fatty acid for surfactin biosynthesis. The fact that YbdT is a peroxidase could explain why biosurfactant production is rarely observed in anaerobically grown Bacillus species. Manipulation of LCFA specificity of YbdT could provide a new route to produce biosurfactants with activities tailored to specific functions. PMID:21673922

  2. Coordinated Defects in Hepatic Long Chain Fatty Acid Metabolism and Triglyceride Accumulation Contribute to Insulin Resistance in Non-Human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldelli, Amalia; Casiraghi, Francesca; Halff, Glenn A.; Abrahamian, Gregory A.; Davalli, Alberto M.; Bastarrachea, Raul A.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Guardado-Mendoza, Rodolfo; Jimenez-Ceja, Lilia M.; Mattern, Vicki; Paez, Ana Maria; Ricotti, Andrea; Tejero, Mary E.; Higgins, Paul B.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram Pablo; Tripathy, Devjit; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Dick, Edward J.; Cline, Gary W.; Folli, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Non-Alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in hepatocytes, which may also trigger cirrhosis. The mechanisms of NAFLD are not fully understood, but insulin resistance has been proposed as a key determinant. Aims To determine the TG content and long chain fatty acyl CoA composition profile in liver from obese non-diabetic insulin resistant (IR) and lean insulin sensitive (IS) baboons in relation with hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. Methods Twenty baboons with varying grades of adiposity were studied. Hepatic (liver) and peripheral (mainly muscle) insulin sensitivity was measured with a euglycemic clamp and QUICKI. Liver biopsies were performed at baseline for TG content and LCFA profile by mass spectrometry, and histological analysis. Findings were correlated with clinical and biochemical markers of adiposity and insulin resistance. Results Obese IR baboons had elevated liver TG content compared to IS. Furthermore, the concentration of unsaturated (LC-UFA) was greater than saturated (LC-SFA) fatty acyl CoA in the liver. Interestingly, LC-FA UFA and SFA correlated with waist, BMI, insulin, NEFA, TG, QUICKI, but not M/I. Histological findings of NAFLD ranging from focal to diffuse hepatic steatosis were found in obese IR baboons. Conclusion Liver TG content is closely related with both hepatic and peripheral IR, whereas liver LC-UFA and LC-SFA are closely related only with hepatic IR in non-human primates. Mechanisms leading to the accumulation of TG, LC-UFA and an altered UFA: LC-SFA ratio may play an important role in the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in humans. PMID:22125617

  3. Coordinated defects in hepatic long chain fatty acid metabolism and triglyceride accumulation contribute to insulin resistance in non-human primates.

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    Subhash Kamath

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is characterized by accumulation of triglycerides (TG in hepatocytes, which may also trigger cirrhosis. The mechanisms of NAFLD are not fully understood, but insulin resistance has been proposed as a key determinant.To determine the TG content and long chain fatty acyl CoA composition profile in liver from obese non-diabetic insulin resistant (IR and lean insulin sensitive (IS baboons in relation with hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity.Twenty baboons with varying grades of adiposity were studied. Hepatic (liver and peripheral (mainly muscle insulin sensitivity was measured with a euglycemic clamp and QUICKI. Liver biopsies were performed at baseline for TG content and LCFA profile by mass spectrometry, and histological analysis. Findings were correlated with clinical and biochemical markers of adiposity and insulin resistance.Obese IR baboons had elevated liver TG content compared to IS. Furthermore, the concentration of unsaturated (LC-UFA was greater than saturated (LC-SFA fatty acyl CoA in the liver. Interestingly, LC-FA UFA and SFA correlated with waist, BMI, insulin, NEFA, TG, QUICKI, but not M/I. Histological findings of NAFLD ranging from focal to diffuse hepatic steatosis were found in obese IR baboons.Liver TG content is closely related with both hepatic and peripheral IR, whereas liver LC-UFA and LC-SFA are closely related only with hepatic IR in non-human primates. Mechanisms leading to the accumulation of TG, LC-UFA and an altered UFA: LC-SFA ratio may play an important role in the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in humans.

  4. Importance of the Long-Chain Fatty Acid Beta-Hydroxylating Cytochrome P450 Enzyme YbdT for Lipopeptide Biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis Strain OKB105

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    Michael J. McInerney

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus species produce extracellular, surface-active lipopeptides such as surfactin that have wide applications in industry and medicine. The steps involved in the synthesis of 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA substrates needed for surfactin biosynthesis are not understood. Cell-free extracts of Bacillus subtilis strain OKB105 synthesized lipopeptide biosurfactants in presence of L-amino acids, myristic acid, coenzyme A, ATP, and H2O2, which suggested that 3-hydroxylation occurs prior to CoA ligation of the long chain fatty acids (LCFAs. We hypothesized that YbdT, a cytochrome P450 enzyme known to beta-hydroxylate LCFAs, functions to form 3-hydroxy fatty acids for lipopeptide biosynthesis. An in-frame mutation of ybdT was constructed and the resulting mutant strain (NHY1 produced predominantly non-hydroxylated lipopeptide with diminished biosurfactant and beta-hemolytic activities. Mass spectrometry showed that 95.6% of the fatty acids in the NHY1 biosurfactant were non-hydroxylated compared to only ~61% in the OKB105 biosurfactant. Cell-free extracts of the NHY1 synthesized surfactin containing 3-hydroxymyristic acid from 3-hydroxymyristoyl-CoA at a specific activity similar to that of the wild type (17 ± 2 versus 17.4 ± 6 ng biosurfactant min−1·ng·protein−1, respectively. These results showed that the mutation did not affect any function needed to synthesize surfactin once the 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA substrate was formed and that YbdT functions to supply 3-hydroxy fatty acid for surfactin biosynthesis. The fact that YbdT is a peroxidase could explain why biosurfactant production is rarely observed in anaerobically grown Bacillus species. Manipulation of LCFA specificity of YbdT could provide a new route to produce biosurfactants with activities tailored to specific functions.

  5. Elevation of the Yields of Very Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids via Minimal Codon Optimization of Two Key Biosynthetic Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Desong; Sun, Quanxi; Liu, Jiang; Li, Yaxiao; Hua, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5Δ5,8,11,14,17) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6Δ4,7,10,13,16,19) are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Transgenic production of EPA and DHA in oilseed crops by transferring genes originating from lower eukaryotes, such as microalgae and fungi, has been attempted in recent years. However, the low yield of EPA and DHA produced in these transgenic crops is a major hurdle for the commercialization of these transgenics. Many factors can negatively affect transgene expression, leading to a low level of converted fatty acid products. Among these the codon bias between the transgene donor and the host crop is one of the major contributing factors. Therefore, we carried out codon optimization of a fatty acid delta-6 desaturase gene PinD6 from the fungus Phytophthora infestans, and a delta-9 elongase gene, IgASE1 from the microalga Isochrysis galbana for expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis respectively. These are the two key genes encoding enzymes for driving the first catalytic steps in the Δ6 desaturation/Δ6 elongation and the Δ9 elongation/Δ8 desaturation pathways for EPA/DHA biosynthesis. Hence expression levels of these two genes are important in determining the final yield of EPA/DHA. Via PCR-based mutagenesis we optimized the least preferred codons within the first 16 codons at their N-termini, as well as the most biased CGC codons (coding for arginine) within the entire sequences of both genes. An expression study showed that transgenic Arabidopsis plants harbouring the codon-optimized IgASE1 contained 64% more elongated fatty acid products than plants expressing the native IgASE1 sequence, whilst Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the codon optimized PinD6 yielded 20 times more desaturated products than yeast expressing wild-type (WT) PinD6. Thus the codon optimization strategy we developed here offers a simple, effective and low-cost alternative to whole gene synthesis for high expression of

  6. Elevation of the Yields of Very Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids via Minimal Codon Optimization of Two Key Biosynthetic Enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xia

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5Δ5,8,11,14,17 and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6Δ4,7,10,13,16,19 are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Transgenic production of EPA and DHA in oilseed crops by transferring genes originating from lower eukaryotes, such as microalgae and fungi, has been attempted in recent years. However, the low yield of EPA and DHA produced in these transgenic crops is a major hurdle for the commercialization of these transgenics. Many factors can negatively affect transgene expression, leading to a low level of converted fatty acid products. Among these the codon bias between the transgene donor and the host crop is one of the major contributing factors. Therefore, we carried out codon optimization of a fatty acid delta-6 desaturase gene PinD6 from the fungus Phytophthora infestans, and a delta-9 elongase gene, IgASE1 from the microalga Isochrysis galbana for expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis respectively. These are the two key genes encoding enzymes for driving the first catalytic steps in the Δ6 desaturation/Δ6 elongation and the Δ9 elongation/Δ8 desaturation pathways for EPA/DHA biosynthesis. Hence expression levels of these two genes are important in determining the final yield of EPA/DHA. Via PCR-based mutagenesis we optimized the least preferred codons within the first 16 codons at their N-termini, as well as the most biased CGC codons (coding for arginine within the entire sequences of both genes. An expression study showed that transgenic Arabidopsis plants harbouring the codon-optimized IgASE1 contained 64% more elongated fatty acid products than plants expressing the native IgASE1 sequence, whilst Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the codon optimized PinD6 yielded 20 times more desaturated products than yeast expressing wild-type (WT PinD6. Thus the codon optimization strategy we developed here offers a simple, effective and low-cost alternative to whole gene synthesis for high

  7. In Vitro Regulation of Enzymes of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System by Isoquercitrin, Phloridzin and their Long Chain Fatty Acid Derivatives

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    Khushwant S. Bhullar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a crucial risk factor for development of cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Flavonoids exhibit a wide range of biological effects and have had increased interest as a dietary approach for the prevention or possible treatment of hypertension. However, continuous efforts have been made to structurally modify natural flavonoids with the hope of improving their biological activities. One of the methods used for the possible enhancement of flavonoid efficacy is enzymatic esterification of flavonoids with fatty acids. Objective: The current study is designed to investigate the antihypertensive activity of isoquercitrin (quercetin-3-O-glucoside, Q3G and phloridzin (PZ in comparison to their twelve long chain fatty acid derivatives via enzymatic inhibition of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS enzymes. Methods: The novel flavonoid esters were synthesized by the acylation of isoquercitrin and phloridzin with long chain unsaturated and saturated fatty acids (C18–C22. These acylated products were then tested for their in vitro angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, renin and aldosterone synthase activities. Results: The linoleic and α-linolenic acid esters of PZ were the strongest (IC50 69.9-70.9 µM while Q3G and PZ (IC50 >200 µM were the weakest renin inhibitors in vitro (p≤0.05. The eicosapentaenoic acid ester of PZ (IC50 16.0 µM was the strongest inhibitor of ACE, while PZ (IC50 124.0 µM was the weakest inhibitor (p≤0.05 among all tested compounds. However, all investigated compounds had low (5.0-11.9% or no effect on aldosterone synthase inhibition (p≤0.05. The parent compound Q3G and the eicosapentaenoic acid ester of PZ emerged as the strongest ACE inhibitors. Conclusions: The structural modification of Q3G and PZ significantly improved their antihypertensive activities. The potential use of PZ derivatives as natural health products to treat hypertension needs to be further evaluated

  8. Effect of a long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched diet on adipose tissue lipid profiles and gene expression in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis, Sebastien; Desmarchais, Alice; Freret, Sandrine; Maillard, Virginie; Labas, Valérie; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Hivelin, Celine; Dupont, Joëlle; Uzbekova, Svetlana

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether fish oil supplement has an effect on adipose tissue lipid profiles and gene expression in postpartum dairy cows. Holstein cows were supplemented with either long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; protected fish oil) or control PUFA (n-6; toasted soybeans) for 2mo after calving (n=23 per diet). These cows showed no difference in milk production or metabolic parameters, but exhibited a tendency toward a decrease in early embryo mortality rate after artificial insemination. We hypothesized that, in addition to this effect, modifications in adipose tissue (AT) gene expression and lipid profiles would occur in response to diet. Subcutaneous AT samples were thus collected from the dewlaps of n-3 and n-6 dairy cows at 1mo antepartum, and 1wk, 2mo, and 5mo postpartum for the analysis of lipids and gene expression. Lipid profiles were obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in both positive and negative modes. We found 37 lipid species in the 200 to 1,200 m/z range, which differed between the n-3 and control groups, suggesting that the n-3 supplement affected the lipid composition through the enrichment of lipids integrating long-chain PUFA from fish oil sources: eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Moreover, a decrease in triacylglycerolipids was observed in AT of n-3 supplemented cows. The expression of 44 genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and the adipokine system was assessed by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Hierarchical clustering, according to either postpartum stage or diet, enabled us to group genes exhibiting similar kinetic properties during lactation or by those that varied in similar ways after n-3 supplementation, respectively. Among the genes exhibiting a dietary effect, FABP4, LIPE, CD36, and PLIN1 were overexpressed in n-3 AT samples compared with the control, suggesting an increase in lipolysis due to n-3 supplementation, which

  9. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis modify the response of F1B hamsters to dietary very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

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    Rader Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plasma lipoprotein response of F1B Golden-Syrian hamsters fed diets high in very long chain (VLC n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA is paradoxical to that observed in humans. This anomaly is attributed, in part, to low lipoprotein lipase activity and is dependent on cholesterol status. To further elucidate the mechanism(s for these responses, hamsters were fed diets containing supplemental fish oil (VLC n-3 PUFA or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA (both 10% [w/w] and either cholesterol-supplemented (0.1% cholesterol [w/w] or cholesterol-depleted (0.01% cholesterol [w/w] and 10 days prior to killing fed 0.15% lovastatin+2% cholestyramine [w/w]. Results Cholesterol-supplemented hamsters fed fish oil, relative to safflower oil, had higher non-high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P Conclusion These data suggest disturbing cholesterol homeostasis in F1B hamsters alters their response to dietary fatty acids, which is reflected in altered plasma lipoprotein patterns and regulation of genes associated with their metabolism.

  10. Dietary Very Long Chain Saturated Fatty Acids and Metabolic Factors: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Sue; Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aim to evaluate the association between very long chain saturated fatty acids (VLSFAs) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean population. The study population were recruited from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013). Using the cross-sectional study design, socio-demographic factors, medical history, and clinical measurements were investigated according to quartiles of VLSFAs intake. The associations between each and sum of VLSFAs intake and MetS were assessed by logistic regression. The result indicated that higher intake of VLSFAs was significantly associated with favorable metabolic status, including lower levels of circulating triglyceride (TG) (p < 0.05). Additionally, subjects with higher intake of arachidic acid and total VLSFAs were negatively associated with MetS risk compared to subjects with lower intake of those fatty acids (p < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary VLSFAs intake was associated with metabolic risk factors and lower risk of MetS in Korean population.

  11. Commercially available avian and mammalian whole prey diet items targeted for consumption by managed exotic and domestic pet felines: macronutrient, mineral, and long-chain fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Katherine R; Kappen, Kelly L; Garner, Lindsay M; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-01-01

    Whole prey diets encourage species-typical behaviors making them popular in the zoo and home setting for captive exotic and domestic felids, respectively. We evaluated macronutrient, mineral, and long-chain fatty acid composition of 20 whole prey items: mice (1-2, 10-13, 21-25, 30-40, and 150-180 days of age); rats (1-4, 10-13, 21-25, 33-42, and >60 days of age); rabbits (still born, 30-45 days, >65 days with skin, and >65 days of age with skin removed); chicken (1-3 days of age, ground adult); duck (ground adult); and quail (1-3, 21-40, and >60 days of age). Composition of whole prey was highly variable (15-40% DM, 34-75% CP, 10-60% fat, and 8-18% ash). A majority of whole prey samples (15/20) had at least one mineral or fatty acid below AAFCO [] or NRC [] minimum recommended concentrations for domestic cats (K, Na, Cl, Mg, Cu, Mn, and/or Zn; total fat, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and/or EPA and DHA). These data identify potential nutrient deficiencies allowing for alterations in dietary formulation prior to long-term feeding.

  12. Deregulation of mitochondrial functions provoked by long-chain fatty acid accumulating in long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and mitochondrial permeability transition deficiencies in rat heart--mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening as a potential contributing pathomechanism of cardiac alterations in these disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecatto, Cristiane; Hickmann, Fernanda H; Rodrigues, Marília D N; Amaral, Alexandre U; Wajner, Moacir

    2015-12-01

    Mitochondrial trifunctional protein and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies are fatty acid oxidation disorders biochemically characterized by tissue accumulation of long-chain fatty acids and derivatives, including the monocarboxylic long-chain 3-hydroxy fatty acids (LCHFAs) 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid (3HTA) and 3-hydroxypalmitic acid (3HPA). Patients commonly present severe cardiomyopathy for which the pathogenesis is still poorly established. We investigated the effects of 3HTA and 3HPA, the major metabolites accumulating in these disorders, on important parameters of mitochondrial homeostasis in Ca(2+) -loaded heart mitochondria. 3HTA and 3HPA significantly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, the matrix NAD(P)H pool and Ca(2+) retention capacity, and also induced mitochondrial swelling. These fatty acids also provoked a marked decrease of ATP production reflecting severe energy dysfunction. Furthermore, 3HTA-induced mitochondrial alterations were completely prevented by the classical mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) inhibitors cyclosporin A and ADP, as well as by ruthenium red, a Ca(2+) uptake blocker, indicating that LCHFAs induced Ca(2+)-dependent mPT pore opening. Milder effects only achieved at higher doses of LCHFAs were observed in brain mitochondria, implying a higher vulnerability of heart to these fatty acids. By contrast, 3HTA and docosanoic acids did not change mitochondrial homeostasis, indicating selective effects for monocarboxylic LCHFAs. The present data indicate that the major LCHFAs accumulating in mitochondrial trifunctional protein and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies induce mPT pore opening, compromising Ca(2+) homeostasis and oxidative phosphorylation more intensely in the heart. It is proposed that these pathomechanisms may contribute at least in part to the severe cardiac alterations characteristic of patients affected by these diseases.

  13. Role of ω3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in reducing cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Patten, Glen S

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in many economically developed nations, and its incidence is increasing at a rapid rate in emerging economies. Diet and lifestyle issues are closely associated with a myriad of cardiovascular disease risk factors including abnormal plasma lipids, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes and obesity, suggesting that diet-based approaches may be of benefit. Omega-3 longchain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) are increasingly being used in the prevention and management of several cardiovascular risk factors. Both the ω3 and ω6 PUFA families are considered essential, as the human body is itself unable to synthesize them. The conversion of the two precursor fatty acids - linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linoleic acid (α18:3ω3) - of these two pathways to longer (≥C(20)) PUFA is inefficient. Although there is an abundance of ω6 PUFA in the food supply; in many populations the relative intake of ω3 LC-PUFA is low with health authorities advocating increased consumption. Fish oil, rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3) acids, has been found to cause a modest reduction in blood pressure at a dose level of >3g/d both in untreated and treated hypertensives. Whilst a multitude of mechanisms may contribute to the blood pressure lowering action of ω3 LC-PUFA, improved vascular endothelial cell function appears to play a central role. Recent studies which evaluated the potential benefits of fish oil in type-2 diabetes have helped to alleviate concerns raised in some previous studies which used relatively large dose (5-8 g/d) and reported a worsening of glycemic control. Several meta-analyses have confirmed that the most consistent action of ω3 LC-PUFA in insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes is the reduction in triglycerides. In some studies, fish oil has been found to cause a small rise in LDL-cholesterol, but a change in the LDL particle size, from the smaller more

  14. Postprandial inhibition of gastric ghrelin secretion by long-chain fatty acid through GPR120 in isolated gastric ghrelin cells and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinping; Zhao, Xilin; Feng, Jianying; Liou, Alice P; Anthony, Shari; Pechhold, Susanne; Sun, Yuxiang; Lu, Huiyan; Wank, Stephen

    2012-08-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric peptide hormone that controls appetite and energy homeostasis. Plasma ghrelin levels rise before a meal and fall quickly thereafter. Elucidation of the regulation of ghrelin secretion has been hampered by the difficulty of directly interrogating ghrelin cells diffusely scattered within the complex gastric mucosa. Therefore, we generated transgenic mice with ghrelin cell expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) to enable characterization of ghrelin secretion in a pure population of isolated gastric ghrelin-expressing GFP (Ghr-GFP) cells. Using quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining, we detected a high level of expression of the long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) receptor GPR120, while the other LCFA receptor, GPR40, was undetectable. In short-term-cultured pure Ghr-GFP cells, the LCFAs docosadienoic acid, linolenic acid, and palmitoleic acid significantly suppressed ghrelin secretion. The physiological mechanism of LCFA inhibition on ghrelin secretion was studied in mice. Serum ghrelin levels were transiently suppressed after gastric gavage of LCFA-rich lipid in mice with pylorus ligation, indicating that the ghrelin cell may directly sense increased gastric LCFA derived from ingested intraluminal lipids. Meal-induced increase in gastric mucosal LCFA was assessed by measuring the transcripts of markers for tissue uptake of LCFA, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid translocase (CD36), glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored HDL-binding protein 1, and nuclear fatty acid receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Quantitative RT-PCR studies indicate significantly increased mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored HDL-binding protein 1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in postprandial gastric mucosa. These results suggest that meal-related increases in gastric mucosal LCFA interact with GPR120 on ghrelin cells to inhibit ghrelin secretion.

  15. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation.

  16. Infant Formula Supplementation With Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Has No Effect on Bayley Developmental Scores at 18 Months of Age-IPD Meta-analysis of 4 Large Clinical Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Kennedy, Katherine; Fewtrell, Mary; Singhal, Atul; Rosenfeld, Eva; Lucas, Alan; Bouwstra, Hylco; Koletzko, Berthold; von Kries, Ruediger

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To find out whether supplementation of formula milk by long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) affects neurodevelopment at 18 months of age in term or preterm infants by an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Data of 870 children from 4 large rando

  17. ERYTHROCYTE AND PLASMA-CHOLESTEROL ESTER LONG-CHAIN POLYUNSATURATED FATTY-ACIDS OF LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT BABIES FED PRETERM FORMULA WITH AND WITHOUT RIBONUCLEOTIDES - COMPARISON WITH HUMAN-MILK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLTIL, HA; VANBEUSEKOM, CM; SIEMENSMA, AD; POLMAN, HA; MUSKIET, FAJ; OKKEN, A

    1995-01-01

    We investigated whether a regular formula for premature infants (pre) supplemented with ribonucleotides (pre+RN) raises erythrocyte and plasma cholesterol ester (CE) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) of low-birthweight babies (less than or equal to 2.50 kg) compared with their breast-

  18. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids Docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5n-6) and Docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) from -100 to 20° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structural, cognitive and visual development of the human brain and retina strictly require long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Excluding water, the mammalian brain is about 60% lipid. One of the great unanswered questions with respect to biological science in general is the absolu...

  19. The change in cholesterol content of long chain fatty acid egg during processing and its influence to the Rattus norvegicus L. blood cholesterol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Hardini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Egg containing long chain unsaturated fatty acids is a functional food, because it is highly nutritious and could prevent diseases, (omega 3 and 6 such as coronary heart attack. The research was aimed to measure the change of egg cholesterol content during proceesing: frying, oiless frying and boiling and their influence to the blood plasma cholesterol of normal and hypercholesterolemia rat. Seven treatments of egg yolk were frying at 170°C for 3 min (welldone = GM, and 1min (half medium fried = GSM using deep fryer , oilless frying at 70°C for10 min (fried = TM, and 6 min (half fried = TSM using Teflon pan, and boiling at 100°C for 10’ (boiled = RM dan 4 min (half boiled = RSM using pan provided with thermoregulator and a fresh omega egg as a control. The Completely randomized design was apllied for 4 weeks research period. The data from different treatments were analyzed by Orthogonal Contrast. Fifty 2 months old male rats Rattus norvegicus L. separated in 2 groups; normal and hypercholesterolemia (blood cholesterol > 200 mg dl-1. The rats were placed in individual cage, fed 15 g h-1 day-1 and water drinking ad libitum. The ration was composed of 90% basal commercial feed BR II and 10% egg yolk was given to each animal at 20% of live weight. Factorial 2 x 7 of completely randomized design was applied. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Processsing method of egg affected to cholesterol content of egg, The lowest and the highest cholesterol contents were observed in TSM (0.30 g/100g and GM (0.37 g/100g, respectively. Biological test using Rattus norvegicus L rat showed that either fresh and processed long chain fatty acid egg decreased plasma cholesterol. The highest and the lowest decreases of cholesterol content were found in the group consumed RSM (8.64% and GM (1.77% for normal rat; and control (46.3% followed by RSM (44.53% and GM (24.86%, respectively. To maintain normal cholesterol and decrease

  20. Effect of acetate formation pathway and long chain fatty acid CoA-ligase on the free fatty acid production in E. coli expressing acy-ACP thioesterase from Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mai; Zhang, Xiujun; Agrawal, Arpita; San, Ka-Yiu

    2012-07-01

    Microbial biosynthesis of fatty acid like chemicals from renewable carbon sources has attracted significant attention in recent years. Free fatty acids can be used as precursors for the production of fuels or chemicals. Wild type E. coli strains produce fatty acids mainly for the biosynthesis of lipids and cell membranes and do not accumulate free fatty acids as intermediates in lipid biosynthesis. However, free fatty acids can be produced by breaking the fatty acid elongation through the overexpression of an acyl-ACP thioesterase. Since acetyl-CoA might be an important factor for fatty acid synthesis (acetate formation pathways are the main competitive pathways in consuming acetyl-CoA or pyruvate, a precursor of acetyl-CoA), and the long chain fatty acid CoA-ligase (FadD) plays a pivotal role in the transport and activation of exogenous fatty acids prior to their subsequent degradation, we examined the composition and the secretion of the free fatty acids in four different strains including the wild type MG1655, a mutant strain with inactivation of the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway (fadD mutant (ML103)), and mutant strains with inactivation of the two major acetate production pathways (an ack-pta (acetate kinase/phosphotransacetylase), poxB (pyruvate oxidase) double mutant (ML112)) and a fadD, ack-pta, poxB triple mutant (ML115). The engineered E. coli cells expressing acyl-ACP thioesterase with glucose yield is higher than 40% of theoretical yield. Compared to MG1655(pXZ18) and ML103(pXZ18), acetate forming pathway deletion strains such as ML112(pXZ18) and ML115(pXZ18) produced similar quantity of total free fatty acids, which indicated that acetyl-CoA availability does not appear to be limiting factor for fatty acid production in these strains. However, these strains did show significant differences in the composition of free fatty acids. Different from MG1655(pXZ18) and ML103(pXZ18), acetate formation pathway deletion strains such as ML112(pXZ18) and ML115

  1. Recent findings of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs) on atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) contrasting studies in Western countries to Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekikawa, Akira; Doyle, Margaret F; Kuller, Lewis H

    2015-11-01

    Recent long-term randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs) on coronary heart disease (CHD) among high-risk patients conducted in Western countries all failed to show their clinical benefits. In striking contrast, an RCT of LCn-3 PUFAs on CHD conducted in Japan, which is a combination of secondary and primary prevention, showed a significant 19% reduction. Potential reasons for this discrepancy are large differences in doses of LCn-3 PUFAs administered (300-900 mg/day in Western countries vs. 1800 mg/day in Japan) and background dietary intake of LCn-3 PUFAs (1000 mg/day in Japan). These observations suggest that higher doses of LCn-3 PUFAs than examined in RCTs in Western countries may be cardio-protective. Atherosclerosis is the major underlying cause of CHD. Recent observational studies and an RCT of LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis in Japan show that LCn-3 PUFAs are anti-atherogenic. In this brief review, we focus on recent epidemiological and clinical findings of LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis and CHD, contrasting studies in Western countries to those in Japan. We also discuss mechanisms of high-dose LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis.

  2. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from genesis to senescence: the influence of LCPUFA on neural development, aging, and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Carola I F; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2014-01-01

    Many clinical and animal studies demonstrate the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in neural development and neurodegeneration. This review will focus on involvement of LCPUFA from genesis to senescence. The LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are important components of neuronal membranes, while eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid also affect cardiovascular health and inflammation. In neural development, LCPUFA deficiency can lead to severe disorders like schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Perinatal LCPUFA supplementation demonstrated beneficial effects in neural development in humans and rodents resulting in improved cognition and sensorimotor integration. In normal aging, the effect of LCPUFA on prevention of cognitive impairment will be discussed. LCPUFA are important for neuronal membrane integrity and function, and also contribute in prevention of brain hypoperfusion. Cerebral perfusion can be compromised as result of obesity, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus type 2. Last, we will focus on the role of LCPUFA in most common neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. These disorders are characterized by impaired cognition and connectivity and both clinical and animal supplementation studies have shown the potential of LCPUFA to decrease neurodegeneration and inflammation. This review shows that LCPUFA are essential throughout life.

  3. A Simple Method for the Detection of Long-Chain Fatty Acids in an Anaerobic Digestate Using a Quartz Crystal Sensor

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    Takuro Kobayashi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In anaerobic digestion (AD, long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs produced by hydrolysis of lipids, exhibit toxicity against microorganisms when their concentration exceeds several millimolar. An absorption detection system using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM was developed to monitor the LCFA concentration during an anaerobic digester’s operation treating oily organic waste. The dissociation of the LCFAs considerably improved the sensor response and, moreover, enabled it to specifically detect LCFA from the mixture of LCFA and triglyceride. Under alkaline conditions, the frequency-shift rates of the QCM sensor linearly increased in accordance with palmitic acid concentration in the range of 0–100 mg/L. Frequency changes caused by anaerobic digestate samples were successfully measured after removing suspended solids and adjusting the pH to 10.7. Finally, the QCM measurements for digestate samples demonstrated that frequency-shift rates are highly correlated with LCFA concentrations, which confirmed that the newly developed QCM sensor is helpful for LCFA monitoring in terms of rapidness and usability.

  4. Designing hydrophobic sheet protected Eu(III)-tetracycline complex using long chain unsaturated fatty acid: Efficient ‘antenna effect’ in aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, Swarna Kamal; Sanyal, Sagarika; Samanta, Sugata; Ghosh, Sanjib, E-mail: pchemsg@gmail.com

    2015-04-15

    We have designed a novel ternary system consisting of Tetracycline hydrochloride (TC), Eu(III) and unsaturated long chain fatty acid (Oleic acid, α-Linolenic acid) in aqueous buffer at physiological pH of 7.2. The systems exhibit highly efficient ‘antenna effect’ of Eu(III) compared to that observed in the binary system of TC and Eu(III) [Eu{sub 3}TC]. Transients of Eu(III) emission in aqueous buffer and D{sub 2}O buffer show that the number of water molecules, coordinated directly to the Eu(III) ion, decreases from 12 in Eu{sub 3}TC to 2 in the ternary system using oleic acid. The micelle formed by the bent conformation of the unsaturated oleic acid provides a hydrophobic sheet on all sides of Eu{sub 3}TC complex protecting Eu(III) from interacting with O–H oscillator. The simple biocompatible system could be used for imaging purpose, and biomedical assay. - Highlights: • A ternary system containing a ligand, oleic acid and Eu(III) has been developed. • The system exhibits enhanced ‘antenna effect’ in aqueous medium at pH=7.2. • This may help design a useful biosensor/imaging technique using Eu(III)

  5. Feeding laying hens stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil, as compared to flaxseed oil, more efficiently enriches eggs with very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Robert G; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2015-03-18

    The desaturation of α-linolenic acid (ALA) to stearidonic acid (SDA) is considered to be rate-limiting for the hepatic conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans, rodents, and chickens. Thus, we hypothesized that feeding laying hens SDA, as a component of the oil derived from the genetic modification of the soybean, would bypass this inefficient metabolic step and result in the enrichment of eggs with EPA and DHA at amounts comparable to that achieved by direct supplementation of hens' diet with these very long-chain (VLC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In a 28-d study, laying hens incorporated 0.132 mg, 0.041 mg, or 0.075 mg of VLC n-3 PUFAs into egg yolk for each milligram of ingested dietary ALA derived primarily from conventional soybean oil (CON), dietary ALA derived primarily from flaxseed oil (FLAX), or dietary SDA derived from SDA-enriched soybean oil, respectively. Moreover, the amounts of total yolk VLC n-3 PUFAs in eggs from hens fed the CON (51 mg), FLAX (91 mg), or SDA (125 mg) oils were markedly less than the 305 mg found in eggs from fish oil-fed hens. Unexpectedly, SDA appeared to be more readily incorporated into adipose tissue than into egg yolk. Since egg yolk FAs typically reflect the hens' dietary pattern, these tissue-specific differences suggest the existence of an alternate pathway for the hepatic secretion and transport of SDA in the laying hen.

  6. Associations of Dietary Long-Chain ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Fish Consumption With Endometrial Cancer Risk in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasky, Theodore M; Sponholtz, Todd R; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Wise, Lauren A

    2016-02-01

    Dietary long-chain (LC) ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which derive primarily from intakes of fatty fish, are thought to inhibit inflammation and de novo estrogen synthesis. This study prospectively examined the associations of dietary LC ω-3 PUFAs and fish with endometrial cancer risk in 47,602 African-American women living in the United States, aged 21-69 years at baseline in 1995, and followed them until 2013 (n = 282 cases). Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of LC ω-3 PUFA (quintiled) and fish (quartiled) intake with endometrial cancer risk, overall and by body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)). The hazard ratio for quintile 5 of total dietary LC ω-3 PUFAs versus quintile 1 was 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51, 1.24); there was no linear trend. Hazard ratios for the association were smaller among normal-weight women (BMI <25: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.18, 1.58) than among overweight/obese women (BMI ≥ 25: HR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.43), but these differences were not statistically significant. Fish intake was also not associated with risk (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.56, 1.31). Again hazard ratios were smaller among normal-weight women (HR = 0.65) than among overweight/obese women (HR = 0.94). While compatible with no association, the hazard ratios observed among leaner African-American women are similar to those from recent prospective studies conducted in predominantly white populations.

  7. Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase Underpins Persistent Cardiac Nutritional-Preconditioning by Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace G. Abdukeyum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species paradoxically underpin both ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R damage and ischaemic preconditioning (IPC cardioprotection. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to peroxidation, but are paradoxically cardioprotective. This study tested the hypothesis that LCn-3 PUFA cardioprotection is underpinned by peroxidation, upregulating antioxidant activity to reduce I/R-induced lipid oxidation, and the mechanisms of this nutritional preconditioning contrast to mechanisms of IPC. Rats were fed: fish oil (LCn-3 PUFA; sunflower seed oil (n-6 PUFA; or beef tallow (saturated fat, SF enriched diets for six weeks. Isolated hearts were subject to: 180 min normoxic perfusion; a 30 min coronary occlusion ischaemia protocol then 120 min normoxic reperfusion; or a 3 × 5 min global IPC protocol, 30 min ischaemia, then reperfusion. Dietary LCn-3 PUFA raised basal: membrane docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA; fatty acid peroxidisability index; concentrations of lipid oxidation products; and superoxide dismutase (MnSOD activity (but not CuZnSOD or glutathione peroxidase. Infarct size correlated inversely with basal MnSOD activity (r2 = 0.85 in the ischaemia protocol and positively with I/R-induced lipid oxidation (lipid hydroperoxides (LPO, r2 = 0.475; malondialdehyde (MDA, r2 = 0.583 across ischaemia and IPC protocols. While both dietary fish oil and IPC infarct-reduction were associated with reduced I/R-induced lipid oxidation, fish oil produced nutritional preconditioning by prior LCn-3 PUFA incorporation and increased peroxidisability leading to up-regulated mitochondrial SOD antioxidant activity.

  8. What Is the Most Effective Way of Increasing the Bioavailability of Dietary Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids—Daily vs. Weekly Administration of Fish Oil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Ghasemifard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The recommendations on the intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA vary from eating oily fish (“once to twice per week” to consuming specified daily amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (“250–500 mg per day”. It is not known if there is a difference in the uptake/bioavailability between regular daily consumption of supplementsvs. consuming fish once or twice per week. In this study, the bioavailability of a daily dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Constant treatment, representing supplements, vs. a large weekly dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Spike treatment, representing consuming once or twice per week, was assessed. Six-week old healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a Constant treatment, a Spike treatment or Control treatment (no n-3 LC-PUFA, for six weeks. The whole body, tissues and faeces were analysed for fatty acid content. The results showed that the major metabolic fate of the n-3 LC-PUFA (EPA+docosapentaenoic acid (DPA + DHA was towards catabolism (β-oxidation accounting for over 70% of total dietary intake, whereas deposition accounted less than 25% of total dietary intake. It was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were β-oxidised when originating from the Constant treatment (84% of dose, compared with the Spike treatment (75% of dose. Conversely, it was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were deposited when originating from the Spike treatment (23% of dose, than from the Constant treatment (15% of dose. These unexpected findings show that a large dose of n-3 LC-PUFA once per week is more effective in increasing whole body n-3 LC-PUFA content in rats compared with a smaller dose delivered daily.

  9. What Is the Most Effective Way of Increasing the Bioavailability of Dietary Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids--Daily vs. Weekly Administration of Fish Oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemifard, Samaneh; Sinclair, Andrew J; Kaur, Gunveen; Lewandowski, Paul; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2015-07-10

    The recommendations on the intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) vary from eating oily fish ("once to twice per week") to consuming specified daily amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ("250-500 mg per day"). It is not known if there is a difference in the uptake/bioavailability between regular daily consumption of supplementsvs. consuming fish once or twice per week. In this study, the bioavailability of a daily dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Constant treatment), representing supplements, vs. a large weekly dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Spike treatment), representing consuming once or twice per week, was assessed. Six-week old healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a Constant treatment, a Spike treatment or Control treatment (no n-3 LC-PUFA), for six weeks. The whole body, tissues and faeces were analysed for fatty acid content. The results showed that the major metabolic fate of the n-3 LC-PUFA (EPA+docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) + DHA) was towards catabolism (β-oxidation) accounting for over 70% of total dietary intake, whereas deposition accounted less than 25% of total dietary intake. It was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were β-oxidised when originating from the Constant treatment (84% of dose), compared with the Spike treatment (75% of dose). Conversely, it was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were deposited when originating from the Spike treatment (23% of dose), than from the Constant treatment (15% of dose). These unexpected findings show that a large dose of n-3 LC-PUFA once per week is more effective in increasing whole body n-3 LC-PUFA content in rats compared with a smaller dose delivered daily.

  10. Low blood long chain omega-3 fatty acids in UK children are associated with poor cognitive performance and behavior: a cross-sectional analysis from the DOLAB study.

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    Paul Montgomery

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, especially DHA (docosahexaenonic acid are essential for brain development and physical health. Low blood Omega-3 LC-PUFA have been reported in children with ADHD and related behavior/learning difficulties, as have benefits from dietary supplementation. Little is known, however, about blood fatty acid status in the general child population. We therefore investigated this in relation to age-standardized measures of behavior and cognition in a representative sample of children from mainstream schools. PARTICIPANTS: 493 schoolchildren aged 7-9 years from mainstream Oxfordshire schools, selected for below average reading performance in national assessments at age seven. METHOD: Whole blood fatty acids were obtained via fingerstick samples. Reading and working memory were assessed using the British Ability Scales (II. Behaviour (ADHD-type symptoms was rated using the revised Conners' rating scales (long parent and teacher versions. Associations were examined and adjusted for relevant demographic variables. RESULTS: DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, accounted for only 1.9% and 0.55% respectively of total blood fatty acids, with DHA showing more individual variation. Controlling for sex and socio-economic status, lower DHA concentrations were associated with poorer reading ability (std. OLS coeff. = 0.09, p = <.042 and working memory performance (0.14, p = <.001. Lower DHA was also associated with higher levels of parent rated oppositional behavior and emotional lability (-0.175, p = <.0001 and -0.178, p = <.0001. CONCLUSIONS: In these healthy UK children with below average reading ability, concentrations of DHA and other Omega-3 LC-PUFA were low relative to adult cardiovascular health recommendations, and directly related to measures of cognition and behavior. These findings require confirmation, but suggest that the benefits from dietary supplementation with

  11. Bioconversion of α-linolenic acid into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in hepatocytes and ad hoc cell culture optimisation.

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    Ramez Alhazzaa

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish optimal conditions for a cell culture system that would allow the measurement of 18:3n-3 (ALA bioconversion into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA, and to determine the overall pathway kinetics. Using rat hepatocytes (FaO as model cells, it was established that a maximum 20:5n-3 (EPA production from 50 µM ALA initial concentration was achieved after 3 days of incubation. Next, it was established that a gradual increase in the ALA concentration from 0 up to 125 µM lead to a proportional increase in EPA, without concomitant increase in further elongated or desaturated products, such as 22:5n-3 (DPA and 22:6n-3 (DHA in 3 day incubations. Of interest, ALA bioconversion products were observed in the culture medium. Therefore, in vitro experiments disregarding the medium fatty acid content are underestimating the metabolism efficiency. The novel application of the fatty acid mass balance (FAMB method on cell culture system (cells with medium enabled quantifying the apparent enzymatic activities for the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. The activity of the key enzymes was estimated and showed that, under these conditions, 50% (Km of the theoretical maximal (V max = 3654 µmol.g(-1 of cell protein.hour(-1 Fads2 activity on ALA can be achieved with 81 µM initial ALA. Interestingly, the apparent activity of Elovl2 (20:5n-3 elongation was the slowest amongst other biosynthesis steps. Therefore, the possible improvement of Elovl2 activity is suggested toward a more efficient DHA production from ALA. The present study proposed and described an ad hoc optimised cell culture conditions and methodology towards achieving a reliable experimental platform, using FAMB, to assist in studying the efficiency of ALA bioconversion into n-3 LC-PUFA in vitro. The FAMB proved to be a powerful and inexpensive method to generate a detailed description of the kinetics of n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis enzymes activities in vitro.

  12. Long-Chain Fatty Acid Sensor, PsrA, Modulates the Expression of rpoS and the Type III Secretion exsCEBA Operon in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y.; Lunin, V. V.; Skarina, T.; Savchenko, A.; Schurr, M. J.; Hoang, T. T.

    2009-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PsrA autorepressor has dual roles as a repressor of the fadBA5{beta}-oxidation operon and an activator of the stationary-phase sigma factor rpoS and exsCEBA operon of the type III secretion system (TTSS). Previously, we demonstrated that the repression of the fadBA5 operon by PsrA is relieved by long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). However, the signal affecting the activation of rpoS and exsC via PsrA is unknown. In this study, microarray and gene fusion data suggested that LCFA (e.g. oleate) affected the expression of rpoS and exsC. DNA binding studies confirmed that PsrA binds to the rpoS and exsC promoter regions. This binding was inhibited by LCFA, indicating that LCFA directly affects the activation of these two genes through PsrA. LCFA decreased rpoS and exsC expression, resulting in increased N-(butyryl)-l-homoserine-lactone quorum sensing signal and decreased ExoS/T production respectively. Based on the crystal structure of PsrA, site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues, within the hydrophobic channel thought to accommodate LCFA, created two LCFA-non-responsive PsrA mutants. The binding and activation of rpoS and exsC by these PsrA mutants was no longer inhibited by LCFA. These data support a mechanistic model where LCFAs influence PsrA regulation to control LCFA metabolism and some virulence genes in P. aeruginosa.

  13. Functional characterization of ExFadLO, an outer membrane protein required for exporting oxygenated long-chain fatty acids in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Eriel; Estupiñán, Mónica; Pastor, F I Javier; Busquets, Montserrat; Díaz, Pilar; Manresa, Angeles

    2013-02-01

    Bacterial proteins of the FadL family have frequently been associated to the uptake of exogenous hydrophobic substrates. However, their outer membrane location and involvement in substrate uptake have been inferred mainly from sequence similarity to Escherichia coli FadL, the first well-characterized outer membrane transporters of Long-Chain Fatty Acids (LCFAs) in bacteria. Here we report the functional characterization of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane protein (ORF PA1288) showing similarities to the members of the FadL family, for which we propose the name ExFadLO. We demonstrate herein that this protein is required to export LCFAs 10-HOME and 7,10-DiHOME, derived from a diol synthase oxygenation activity on oleic acid, from the periplasm to the extracellular medium. Accumulation of 10-HOME and 7,10-DiHOME in the extracellular medium of P. aeruginosa was abolished by a transposon insertion mutation in exFadLO (ExFadLO¯ mutant). However, intact periplasm diol synthase activity was found in this mutant, indicating that ExFadLO participates in the export of these oxygenated LCFAs across the outer membrane. The capacity of ExFadLO¯ mutant to export 10-HOME and 7,10-DiHOME was recovered after complementation with a wild-type, plasmid-expressed ExFadLO protein. A western blot assay with a variant of ExFadLO tagged with a V5 epitope confirmed the location of ExFadLO in the bacterial outer membrane under the experimental conditions tested. Our results provide the first evidence that FadL family proteins, known to be involved in the uptake of hydrophobic substrates from the extracellular environment, also function as secretion elements for metabolites of biological relevance.

  14. Anaerobic biodegradation of oleic and palmitic acids: evidence of mass transfer limitations caused by long chain fatty acid accumulation onto the anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M A; Pires, O C; Mota, M; Alves, M M

    2005-10-05

    Palmitic acid was the main long chain fatty acids (LCFA) that accumulated onto the anaerobic sludge when oleic acid was fed to an EGSB reactor. The conversion between oleic and palmitic acid was linked to the biological activity. When palmitic acid was fed to an EGSB reactor it represented also the main LCFA that accumulated onto the sludge. The way of palmitic acid accumulation was different in the oleic and in the palmitic acid fed reactors. When oleic acid was fed, the biomass-associated LCFA (83% as palmitic acid) were mainly adsorbed and entrapped in the sludge that became "encapsulated" by an LCFA layer. However, when palmitic acid was fed, the biomass-associated LCFA (the totality as palmitic acid) was mainly precipitated in white spots like precipitates in between the sludge, which remained "non-encapsulated." The two sludges were compared in terms of the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) in the presence of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and H(2)CO(2), before and after the mineralization of similar amounts of biomass-associated LCFA (4.6 and 5.2 g COD-LCFA/g of volatile suspended solids (VSS), for the oleic and palmitic acid fed sludge, respectively). The "non-encapsulated," sludge exhibited a considerable initial methanogenic activity on all the tested substrates, with the single exception of butyrate. However, with the "encapsulated" sludge only methane production from ethanol and H(2)/CO(2) was detected, after a lag phase of about 50 h. After mineralization of the biomass-associated LCFA, both sludges exhibited activities of similar order of magnitude in the presence of the same individual substrates and significantly higher than before. The results evidenced that LCFA accumulation onto the sludge can create a physical barrier and hinder the transfer of substrates and products, inducing a delay on the initial methane production. Whatever the mechanism, metabolic or physical, that is behind this inhibition, it is reversible, being eliminated after the

  15. Long chain fatty Acyl-CoA synthetase 4 is a biomarker for and mediator of hormone resistance in human breast cancer.

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    Xinyu Wu

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the role of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4 in breast cancer. Public databases were utilized to analyze the relationship between ACSL4 mRNA expression and the presence of steroid hormone and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 in both breast cancer cell lines and tissue samples. In addition, cell lines were utilized to assess the consequences of either increased or decreased levels of ACSL4 expression. Proliferation, migration, anchorage-independent growth and apoptosis were used as biological end points. Effects on mRNA expression and signal transduction pathways were also monitored. A meta-analysis of public gene expression databases indicated that ACSL4 expression is positively correlated with a unique subtype of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC, characterized by the absence of androgen receptor (AR and therefore referred to as quadruple negative breast cancer (QNBC. Results of experiments in breast cancer cell lines suggest that simultaneous expression of ACSL4 and a receptor is associated with hormone resistance. Forced expression of ACSL4 in ACSL4-negative, estrogen receptor α (ER-positive MCF-7 cells resulted in increased growth, invasion and anchorage independent growth, as well as a loss of dependence on estrogen that was accompanied by a reduction in the levels of steroid hormone receptors. Sensitivity to tamoxifen, triacsin C and etoposide was also attenuated. Similarly, when HER2-positive, ACSL4-negative, SKBr3 breast cancer cells were induced to express ACSL4, the proliferation rate increased and the apoptotic effect of lapatinib was reduced. The growth stimulatory effect of ACSL4 expression was also observed in vivo in nude mice when MCF-7 control and ACSL4-expressing cells were utilized to induce tumors. Our data strongly suggest that ACSL4 can serve as both a biomarker for, and mediator of, an aggressive breast cancer phenotype.

  16. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for determination of Long Chain Free Fatty Acid concentration in oily wastewater using the double wavenumber extrapolation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zisu; Malyala, Divya; Dean, Lisa; Ducoste, Joel

    2017-04-01

    Long Chain Free Fatty Acids (LCFFAs) from the hydrolysis of fat, oil and grease (FOG) are major components in the formation of insoluble saponified solids known as FOG deposits that accumulate in sewer pipes and lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). A Double Wavenumber Extrapolative Technique (DWET) was developed to simultaneously measure LCFFAs and FOG concentrations in oily wastewater suspensions. This method is based on the analysis of the Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectrum, in which the absorbance of carboxyl bond (1710cm(-1)) and triglyceride bond (1745cm(-1)) were selected as the characteristic wavenumbers for total LCFFAs and FOG, respectively. A series of experiments using pure organic samples (Oleic acid/Palmitic acid in Canola oil) were performed that showed a linear relationship between the absorption at these two wavenumbers and the total LCFFA. In addition, the DWET method was validated using GC analyses, which displayed a high degree of agreement between the two methods for simulated oily wastewater suspensions (1-35% Oleic acid in Canola oil/Peanut oil). The average determination error of the DWET approach was ~5% when the LCFFA fraction was above 10wt%, indicating that the DWET could be applied as an experimental method for the determination of both LCFFAs and FOG concentrations in oily wastewater suspensions. Potential applications of this DWET approach includes: (1) monitoring the LCFFAs and FOG concentrations in grease interceptor (GI) effluents for regulatory compliance; (2) evaluating alternative LCFFAs/FOG removal technologies; and (3) quantifying potential FOG deposit high accumulation zones in the sewer collection system.

  17. Conversion of α-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

    2014-04-01

    The effect of α-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert α-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time.

  18. Differential effect of maternal diet supplementation with α-Linolenic adcid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on glial cell phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine fatty acid profile in neonate rat brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Hernandez Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylserine (PS in the neonates. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during the whole gestation and lactation period with a diet containing either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 0.55% and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.75% of total fatty acids or α-linolenic acid (ALA, 2.90%. At two weeks of age, gastric content and brain glial cell PE and PS of rat neonates were analyzed for their fatty acid and dimethylacetal (DMA profile. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results In the neonates from the group fed with n-3 LC-PUFA, the DHA level in gastric content (+65%, P Conclusion The present study confirms that early supplementation of maternal diet with n-3 fatty acids supplied as LC-PUFA is more efficient in increasing n-3 in brain glial cell PE and PS in the neonate than ALA. Negative correlation between n-6 DPA, a conventional marker of DHA deficiency, and DMA in PE suggests n-6 DPA that potentially be considered as a marker of tissue ethanolamine plasmalogen status. The combination of multivariate and bivariate statistics allowed to underline that the accretion pattern of n-3 LC-PUFA in PE and PS differ.

  19. Synthesis of structured triacylglycerols containing medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids by interesterification with a stereoespecific lipase from Mucor miehei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto, Susana

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of structured triacylglycerols sn-1, sn-3 dilauryl, sn-2 eicosapentaenoyl glycerol and sn-1, sn-3 dilauryl, sn-2 docosahexaenoyl glycerol by enzymatic interesterification under restricted water availability is described. Laurie acid, one of the substrates for interesterification, was obtained by the controlled hydrolysis of coconut oil by a non-specific lipase obtained from Candida cylindracea. The fatty acid was separated from the hydrolysis products by silverresin column chromatography and converted to methyl ester, sn-2 Eicosapentaenoyl glycerol and sn-2 docosahexaenoyl glycerol were prepared by the hydrolysis of fish oil by the sn-1, sn-3 stereospecific immobilized lipase Lipozyme IM-20 obtained from Mucor miehei as described in the accompanying paper. The interesterification was carried out in a water jacketed glass reactor and the triacylglycerol products were separated and recovered through aluminum oxide column chromatography The interesterification procedure described allows to obtain In laboratory scale structured triacylglycerols containing medium-chain fatty acids at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid from marine origin at the sn-2 glycerol position.

    Se describe la preparación de triacilgliceroles estructurados sn-1, sn-3 dilauril, sn-2 ecosapentaenoil glicerol y sn-1, sn-3 diiauril, sn-2 docosahexaenoil glicerol por interesterificación enzimática bajo disponibilidad de agua reducida. Acido láurico, uno de los sustratos para la interesterificación, se obtuvo mediante hidrólisis controlada del aceite de coco por una lipasa no-específica obtenida de Candida cylindracea. Los ácidos grasos se separaron de los productos de hidrólisis mediante cromatografía en columna de resina de plata y convertidos en sus esteres metílicos, sn-2 Eicosapentaenoil glicerol y sn-2 docosahexaenoil glicerol se prepararon mediante hidrólisis de aceite de pescado por la sn-1, sn

  20. Hypothalamic fatty acid sensing in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): response to long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Bonacic, Kruno; Velasco, Cristina; Valente, Luisa M P; Morais, Sofia; Soengas, José L

    2015-12-15

    We assessed the presence of fatty acid (FA)-sensing mechanisms in hypothalamus of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and investigated their sensitivity to FA chain length and/or level of unsaturation. Stearate (SA, saturated FA), oleate (OA, monounsaturated FA of the same chain length), α-linolenate [ALA, a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the same chain length], and eicosapentanoate (EPA, a n-3 PUFA of a larger chain length) were injected intraperitoneally. Parameters related to FA sensing and neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus were assessed after 3 h and changes in accumulated food intake after 4, 24, and 48 h. Three FA sensing systems characterized in rainbow trout were also found in Senegalese sole and were activated by OA in a way similar to that previously characterized in rainbow trout and mammals. These hypothalamic FA sensing systems were also activated by ALA, differing from mammals, where n-3 PUFAs do not seem to activate FA sensors. This might suggest additional roles and highlights the importance of n-3 PUFA in fish diets, especially in marine species. The activation of FA sensing seems to be partially dependent on acyl chain length and degree of saturation, as no major changes were observed after treating fish with SA or EPA. The activation of FA sensing systems by OA and ALA, but not SA or EPA, is further reflected in the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake. Both OA and ALA enhanced anorexigenic capacity compatible with the activation of FA sensing systems.

  1. Microbial community adaptation influences long-chain fatty acid conversion during anaerobic codigestion of fats, oils, and grease with municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziels, Ryan M; Karlsson, Anna; Beck, David A C; Ejlertsson, Jörgen; Yekta, Sepehr Shakeri; Bjorn, Annika; Stensel, H David; Svensson, Bo H

    2016-10-15

    Codigesting fats, oils, and greases with municipal wastewater sludge can greatly improve biomethane recovery at wastewater treatment facilities. Process loading rates of fats, oils, and greases have been previously tested with little knowledge of the digester microbial community structure, and high transient fat loadings have led to long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation and digester upsets. This study utilized recently-developed quantitative PCR assays for syntrophic LCFA-degrading bacteria along with 16S amplicon sequencing to relate changes in microbial community structure to LCFA accumulation during transient loading increases to an anaerobic codigester receiving waste restaurant oil and municipal wastewater sludge. The 16S rRNA gene concentration of the syntrophic β-oxidizing genus Syntrophomonas increased to ∼15% of the Bacteria community in the codigester, but stayed below 3% in the control digester that was fed only wastewater sludge. Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum were the dominant methanogenic genera enriched in the codigester, and together comprised over 80% of the Archaea community by the end of the experimental period. Constrained ordination showed that changes in the codigester Bacteria and Archaea community structures were related to measures of digester performance. Notably, the effluent LCFA concentration in the codigester was positively correlated to the specific loading rate of waste oil normalized to the Syntrophomonas 16S rRNA concentration. Specific loading rates of 0-1.5 × 10(-12) g VS oil/16S gene copies-day resulted in LCFA concentrations below 30 mg/g TS, whereas LCFA accumulated up to 104 mg/g TS at higher transient loading rates. Based on the community-dependent loading limitations found, enhanced biomethane production from high loadings of fats, oils and greases can be achieved by promoting a higher biomass of slow-growing syntrophic consortia, such as with longer digester solids retention times. This work also

  2. Relationship between Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Case-Control and Randomised Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mazahery

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation (n-3 LCPUFA for treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is popular. The results of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on ASD outcomes were inconclusive. Two meta-analyses were conducted; meta-analysis 1 compared blood levels of LCPUFA and their ratios arachidonic acid (ARA to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, ARA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, or total n-6 to total n-3 LCPUFA in ASD to those of typically developing individuals (with no neurodevelopmental disorders, and meta-analysis 2 compared the effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation to placebo on symptoms of ASD. Case-control studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs were identified searching electronic databases up to May, 2016. Mean differences were pooled and analysed using inverse variance models. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistic. Fifteen case-control studies (n = 1193 were reviewed. Compared with typically developed, ASD populations had lower DHA (−2.14 [95% CI −3.22 to −1.07]; p < 0.0001; I2 = 97%, EPA (−0.72 [95% CI −1.25 to −0.18]; p = 0.008; I2 = 88%, and ARA (−0.83 [95% CI, −1.48 to −0.17]; p = 0.01; I2 = 96% and higher total n-6 LCPUFA to n-3 LCPUFA ratio (0.42 [95% CI 0.06 to 0.78]; p = 0.02; I2 = 74%. Four RCTs were included in meta-analysis 2 (n = 107. Compared with placebo, n-3 LCPUFA improved social interaction (−1.96 [95% CI −3.5 to −0.34]; p = 0.02; I2 = 0 and repetitive and restricted interests and behaviours (−1.08 [95% CI −2.17 to −0.01]; p = 0.05; I2 = 0. Populations with ASD have lower n-3 LCPUFA status and n-3 LCPUFA supplementation can potentially improve some ASD symptoms. Further research with large sample size and adequate study duration is warranted to confirm the efficacy of n-3 LCPUFA.

  3. Relationship between Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Case-Control and Randomised Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazahery, Hajar; Stonehouse, Welma; Delshad, Maryam; Kruger, Marlena C.; Conlon, Cathryn A.; Beck, Kathryn L.; von Hurst, Pamela R.

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation (n-3 LCPUFA) for treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is popular. The results of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on ASD outcomes were inconclusive. Two meta-analyses were conducted; meta-analysis 1 compared blood levels of LCPUFA and their ratios arachidonic acid (ARA) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), ARA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or total n-6 to total n-3 LCPUFA in ASD to those of typically developing individuals (with no neurodevelopmental disorders), and meta-analysis 2 compared the effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation to placebo on symptoms of ASD. Case-control studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were identified searching electronic databases up to May, 2016. Mean differences were pooled and analysed using inverse variance models. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistic. Fifteen case-control studies (n = 1193) were reviewed. Compared with typically developed, ASD populations had lower DHA (−2.14 [95% CI −3.22 to −1.07]; p < 0.0001; I2 = 97%), EPA (−0.72 [95% CI −1.25 to −0.18]; p = 0.008; I2 = 88%), and ARA (−0.83 [95% CI, −1.48 to −0.17]; p = 0.01; I2 = 96%) and higher total n-6 LCPUFA to n-3 LCPUFA ratio (0.42 [95% CI 0.06 to 0.78]; p = 0.02; I2 = 74%). Four RCTs were included in meta-analysis 2 (n = 107). Compared with placebo, n-3 LCPUFA improved social interaction (−1.96 [95% CI −3.5 to −0.34]; p = 0.02; I2 = 0) and repetitive and restricted interests and behaviours (−1.08 [95% CI −2.17 to −0.01]; p = 0.05; I2 = 0). Populations with ASD have lower n-3 LCPUFA status and n-3 LCPUFA supplementation can potentially improve some ASD symptoms. Further research with large sample size and adequate study duration is warranted to confirm the efficacy of n-3 LCPUFA. PMID:28218722

  4. Nutritional enrichment of vegetable oils with long-chain n-3 fatty acids through enzymatic interesterification with a new vegetable lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa, J. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to produce vegetable oils enriched with long-chain n-3 fatty acids of nutraceutical interest, through an enzyme-catalyzed interesterification with a new lipase, from physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.. The Vegetable Lipase Powder (biocatalyst called VLP, which has never been applied in functional foods, was obtained from the physic nut seed, and efficiently hydrolyzed the 95% of waste fish oil in 24 h. Urea precipitation was used to concentrate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and was further interesterified with oils of different sources by means of enzymatic catalysis. After the interesterification reaction, which was also catalyzed by the VLP, the PUFA content in coconut oil increased almost ten-fold from 1.8% to 17.7%. In palm oil, the PUFA content increased two-fold from 10.5% to 21.8%, while in olive oil the level of PUFA increased from 8.6% to 21.3%. The mixture of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (3.7% to 3.9% was incorporated into the triacylglycerol fraction of each of the coconut, palm and olive oils. Through the hydroesterification (hydrolysis followed by interesterification all the interesterified vegetable oils tested presented sufficient EPA and DHA levels to satisfy the levels recommended for intake by human adults in one tablespoon.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue producir aceites vegetales enriquecidos con ácidos grasos n-3 de cadena larga de interés nutraceutico, por interesterificación catalizada mediante una nueva lipasa, una enzima de semilla de Jatropha curcas L. La lipasa vegetal en polvo (biocatalizador llamada VLP, nunca ha sido aplicada en alimentos funcionales, se obtuvo mediante procedimientos físicos con semillas de nueces, e hidrolizó eficientemente el 95% de aceites de residuos de pescado en 24 h. La precipitación con urea se utilizó para concentrar los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA que fueron posteriormente interesterificados con aceites de

  5. The Groningen LCPUFA study : no effect of postnatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy term infants on neurological condition at 9 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Corina; Kikkert, Hedwig K.; Fidler, Vaclav; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    Long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) supplementation of formula can have beneficial effects on neurodevelopmental outcome in early infancy, but uncertainty exists regarding effects after 6 months. The present study is the first to investigate whether consumption by term infants of formula containing LCPUFA for

  6. Very long-chain fatty acid-containing lipids rather than sphingolipids per se are required for raft association and stable surface transport of newly synthesized plasma membrane ATPase in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigg, Barbara; Toulmay, Alexandre; Schneiter, Roger

    2006-11-10

    The proton-pumping H+-ATPase, Pma1p, is an abundant and very long lived polytopic protein of the yeast plasma membrane. Pma1p constitutes a major cargo of the secretory pathway and thus serves as a model to study plasma membrane biogenesis. Pma1p associates with detergent-resistant membrane domains (lipid "rafts") already in the ER, and a lack of raft association correlates with mistargeting of the protein to the vacuole, where it is degraded. We are analyzing the role of specific lipids in membrane domain formation and have previously shown that surface transport of Pma1p is independent of newly synthesized sterols but that sphingolipids with C26 very long chain fatty acid are crucial for raft association and surface transport of Pma1p (Gaigg, B., Timischl, B., Corbino, L., and Schneiter, R. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 22515-22522). We now describe a more detailed analysis of the function that sphingolipids play in this process. Using a yeast strain in which the essential function of sphingolipids is substituted by glycerophospholipids containing C26 very long chain fatty acids, we find that sphingolipids per se are dispensable for raft association and surface delivery of Pma1p but that the C26 fatty acid is crucial. We thus conclude that the essential function of sphingolipids for membrane domain formation and stable surface delivery of Pma1p is provided by the C26 fatty acid that forms part of the yeast ceramide.

  7. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group were fed a control diet (CD or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day. The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AGPICL sintetizados principalmente por el hígado, cumplen funciones relevantes en el organismo. Una dieta alta en grasa (DAG genera un incremento en los niveles de grasa y estrés oxidativo (lipoperoxidación en hígado y una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos. El aceite de oliva extra virgen (AOEV es rico en antioxidantes (polifenoles y tocoferoles que ayudan a prevenir el desarrollo del estrés oxidativo. Este trabajo evaluó el rol del AOEV en la prevención del depósito de grasa, estrés oxidativo hepático y reducción de los AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos generado por una DAG en ratones C57BL/6J. Cuatro grupos experimentales (n=10/grupo fueron alimentados (12 semanas con dieta control (DC o DAG y suplementados con AOEV (100 mg/día. El grupo alimentado con DAG presentó un incremento (p < 0,05 en la acumulación de grasa y estrés oxidativo hepático, acompañado de una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en hígado, eritrocitos y cerebro. La suplementación con AOEV logr

  8. Candida cloacae长链脂肪酸醇氧化酶基因的克隆与表达%Cloning and Expression of Long-chain Fatty-acid Alcohol Oxidase from Candida cloacae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛正龙; AntoniR.SLABAS

    2003-01-01

    The cDNA encoding long-chain fatty-acid alcohol oxidase(FAO) was isolated by using RT-PCR method from Canbdida cloacae grown in a medium containing oleic acid.The cDNA of fatty-acid alcohol oxidase was cloned into expression plasmid pET176b under T7 promoter and then transformed into E.coli BL21/DE3.The molecular weight of the expressed protein was estimated to be approximately 64 kD by SDS-PAGE.The expressed protein had a specific catalytic activity of fatty-acid alcohol oxidase and its activity was 1090±116 U/ml medium.Northern blotting revealed that there was high expression of fao mRNA in Candida cloacae yeast grown in a medium containing oleic acid.

  9. A randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on cognitive and retinal function in cognitively healthy older people: the Older People And n-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (OPAL study protocol [ISRCTN72331636

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letley Louise

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of individuals with age-related cognitive impairment is rising dramatically in the UK and globally. There is considerable interest in the general hypothesis that improving the diet of older people may slow the progression of cognitive decline. To date, there has been little attention given to the possible protective role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPs most commonly found in oily fish, in age-related loss of cognitive function. The main research hypothesis of this study is that an increased dietary intake of n-3 LCPs will have a positive effect on cognitive performance in older people in the UK. To test this hypothesis, a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial will be carried out among adults aged 70–79 years in which the intervention arm will receive daily capsules containing n-3 LCP (0.5 g/day docosahexaenoic acid and 0.2 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid while the placebo arm will receive daily capsules containing olive oil. The main outcome variable assessed at 24 months will be cognitive performance and a second major outcome variable will be retinal function. Retinal function tests are included as the retina is a specifically differentiated neural tissue and therefore represents an accessible window into the functioning of the brain. The overall purpose of this public-health research is to help define a simple and effective dietary intervention aimed at maintaining cognitive and retinal function in later life. This will be the first trial of its kind aiming to slow the decline of cognitive and retinal function in older people by increasing daily dietary intake of n-3 LCPs. The link between cognitive ability, visual function and quality of life among older people suggests that this novel line of research may have considerable public health importance.

  10. The capacity for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis in a carnivorous vertebrate: Functional characterisation and nutritional regulation of a Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase with Δ4 activity and an Elovl5 elongase in striped snakehead (Channa striata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuah, Meng-Kiat; Jaya-Ram, Annette; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2015-03-01

    The endogenous production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in carnivorous teleost species inhabiting freshwater environments is poorly understood. Although a predatory lifestyle could potentially supply sufficient LC-PUFA to satisfy the requirements of these species, the nutrient-poor characteristics of the freshwater food web could impede this advantage. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterisation of an elongase enzyme in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway from striped snakehead (Channa striata), which is a strict freshwater piscivore that shows high deposition of LC-PUFA in its flesh. We also functionally characterised a previously isolated fatty acyl desaturase cDNA from this species. Results showed that the striped snakehead desaturase is capable of Δ4 and Δ5 desaturation activities, while the elongase showed the characteristics of Elovl5 elongases. Collectively, these findings reveal that striped snakehead exhibits the genetic resources to synthesise docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3). Both genes are expressed at considerable levels in the brain and the liver. In liver, both genes were up-regulated by dietary C18 PUFA, although this increase did not correspond to a significant rise in the deposition of muscle LC-PUFA. Brain tissue of fish fed with plant oil diets showed higher expression of fads2 gene compared to fish fed with fish oil-based diet, which could ensure DHA levels remain constant under limited dietary DHA intake. This suggests the importance of DHA production from EPA via the ∆4 desaturation step in order to maintain an optimal reserve of DHA in the neuronal tissues of carnivores.

  11. Echium oil increased the expression of a Δ4 Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase and the deposition of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in comparison with linseed oil in striped snakehead (Channa striata) muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya-Ram, Annette; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Kuah, Meng-Kiat

    2016-08-01

    Despite the potential of vegetable oils as aquafeed ingredients, a major drawback associated with their utilization is the inferior level of beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Echium oil (EO), which is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3), could potentially improve the deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA as the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA is enhanced through bypassing the rate-limiting ∆6 desaturation step. We report for the first time an attempt to investigate whether the presence of a desaturase (Fads2) capable of ∆4 desaturation activities and an elongase (Elovl5) will leverage the provision of dietary SDA to produce a higher rate of LC-PUFA bioconversion. Experimental diets were designed containing fish oil (FO), EO or linseed oil (LO) (100FO, 100EO, 100LO), and diets which comprised equal mixtures of the designated oils (50EOFO and 50EOLO) were evaluated in a 12-week feeding trial involving striped snakeheads (Channa striata). There was no significant difference in growth and feed conversion efficiency. The hepatic fatty acid composition and higher expression of fads2 and elovl5 genes in fish fed EO-based diets indicate the utilization of dietary SDA for LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Collectively, this resulted in a higher deposition of muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) compared to LO-based diets. Dietary EO improved the ratio of n-3 LC-PUFA to n-6 LC-PUFA in fish muscle, which is desirable for human populations with excessive consumption of n-6 PUFA. This study validates the contribution of SDA in improving the content of n-3 LC-PUFA and the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) in a freshwater carnivorous species.

  12. Oxidative stability of fish and algae oils containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in bulk and in oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, E.N.; Satue-Gracia, T.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2002-01-01

    , and the presence and activity of transition metals. Fish and algal oils were initially much more stable to oxidation in bulk systems than in the corresponding oil-in-water emulsions. The oxidative stability of emulsions cannot, therefore, be predicted on the basis of stability data obtained with bulk long......-chain PUFA-containing fish oils and DHA-containing algal oils. The relatively high oxidative stability of an algal oil containing 42% DHA was completely lost after chromatographic purification to remove tocopherols and other antioxidants. Therefore, this evidence does not support the claim that DHA-rich oils...

  13. Long-Chain Fatty Acids Elicit a Bitterness-Masking Effect on Quinine and Other Nitrogenous Bitter Substances by Formation of Insoluble Binary Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogi, Kayako; Yamashita, Haruyuki; Terada, Tohru; Homma, Ryousuke; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Abe, Keiko; Asakura, Tomiko

    2015-09-30

    We have previously found that fatty acids can mask the bitterness of certain nitrogenous substances through direct molecular interactions. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we investigated the interactions between sodium oleate and 22 bitter substances. The hydrochloride salts of quinine, promethazine, and propranolol interacted strongly with fatty acids containing 12 or more carbon atoms. The (1)H NMR spectra of these substances, obtained in the presence of the sodium salts of the fatty acids in dimethyl sulfoxide, revealed the formation of hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen atoms of the bitter substances and the carboxyl groups of the fatty acids. When sodium laurate and the hydrochloride salt of quinine were mixed in water, an equimolar complex formed as insoluble heterogeneous needlelike crystals. These results suggested that fatty acids interact directly with bitter substances through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions to form insoluble binary complexes that mask bitterness.

  14. Pregnancy duration and the ratio of long-chain n-3 fatty acids to arachidonic acid in erythrocytes from Faroese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.;

    1989-01-01

    of long-chain n-3 FA to arachidonic acid (the (3/6) ratio) was used as the most relevant single measure of exposure. In 18 women with certain gestational age and with spontaneous onset of delivery, gestational age was significantly associated with the (3/6) ratio quantified in PC (correlation coefficient...... 0.50, P = 0.035), but not with the (3/6) radio in PE (correlation coefficient 0.21, P = 0.40) or TL (correlation coefficient 0.29, P = 0.26). The association with the (3/6) ratio in PC could not be attributed to confounding by maternal age, weight, marital status or smoking....

  15. Brain docosahexaenoic acid status and learning in young rats submitted to dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency and supplementation limited to lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Calatayud, Salvador; Redondo, Carlos; Martín, Eva; Ruiz, José Ignacio; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Sanjurjo, Pablo

    2005-05-01

    N-3 fatty acid deficiency has been related to decreased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and increased docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) levels in brain and to learning disadvantages. The influence of n-3 deficiency and supplementation on brain fatty acids and learning were investigated in young rats. Newborn Wistar rats were assigned to three groups of cross-foster mothers. The control group (C) was nursed by mothers that received essential fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation, and the deficient group (D) was nursed by mothers that did not receive those fatty acids. The supplemental group (S) had the same conditions as D, receiving an additional DHA and arachidonic acid supplement during lactation. Cerebral cortex and hippocampus fatty acid composition was examined using thin-layer and capillary column gas chromatography, and learning was measured by passive-avoidance procedure. D brains showed low DHA and high DPA levels, but S brain composition was similar to C. Learning in the S group was unaffected, but in the D group, it was poorer than C. Learning was directly correlated with DHA levels and inversely with DPA levels in brain. Low DHA and high DPA brain levels both were correlated with poor learning. DPA seems not to be a suitable brain functional analogue of DHA, and DHA supplementation reversed both biochemical and learning adverse effects observed in n-3 deficiency.

  16. A practical synthesis of long-chain iso-fatty acids (iso-C12-C19) and related natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mark B; Williams, Spencer J

    2013-01-01

    A gram-scale synthesis of terminally-branched iso-fatty acids (iso-C12-C19) was developed commencing with methyl undec-10-enoate (methyl undecylenate) (for iso-C12-C14) or the C15 and C16 lactones pentadecanolide (for iso-C15-C17) and hexadecanolide (for iso-C18-C19). Central to the approaches outlined is the two-step construction of the terminal isopropyl group through addition of methylmagnesium bromide to the ester/lactones and selective reduction of the resulting tertiary alcohols. Thus, the C12, C17 and C18 iso-fatty acids were obtained in three steps from commercially-available starting materials, and the remaining C13-C16 and C19 iso-fatty acids were prepared by homologation or recursive dehomologations of these fatty acids or through intercepting appropriate intermediates. Highlighting the synthetic potential of the iso-fatty acids and various intermediates prepared herein, we describe the synthesis of the natural products (S)-2,15-dimethylpalmitic acid, (S)-2-hydroxy-15-methylpalmitic acid, and 2-oxo-14-methylpentadecane.

  17. A practical synthesis of long-chain iso-fatty acids (iso-C12–C19 and related natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B. Richardson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A gram-scale synthesis of terminally-branched iso-fatty acids (iso-C12–C19 was developed commencing with methyl undec-10-enoate (methyl undecylenate (for iso-C12–C14 or the C15 and C16 lactones pentadecanolide (for iso-C15–C17 and hexadecanolide (for iso-C18–C19. Central to the approaches outlined is the two-step construction of the terminal isopropyl group through addition of methylmagnesium bromide to the ester/lactones and selective reduction of the resulting tertiary alcohols. Thus, the C12, C17 and C18 iso-fatty acids were obtained in three steps from commercially-available starting materials, and the remaining C13–C16 and C19 iso-fatty acids were prepared by homologation or recursive dehomologations of these fatty acids or through intercepting appropriate intermediates. Highlighting the synthetic potential of the iso-fatty acids and various intermediates prepared herein, we describe the synthesis of the natural products (S-2,15-dimethylpalmitic acid, (S-2-hydroxy-15-methylpalmitic acid, and 2-oxo-14-methylpentadecane.

  18. Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Madsen, Lise; Skjøth, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference in humans. Effect modification by the carbohydrate:protein ratio and glycemic index was also investigated.Design: A total of 29,152 participants included in the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort were followed...... acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were observed. Intake of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with a 5-y change in waist circumference. For high (0.16%) compared with low (0.06%) adipose tissue content of EPA, the difference in 5-y weight change was -649.6 g (95% CI: -1254.2, -44.9 g); P......-trend = 0.027. No associations between total n-3 PUFA, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid and 5-y weight change were observed. Adipose tissue content of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with 5-y change in waist circumference. No effect modification by carbohydrate:protein ratio or glycemic index...

  19. Role of ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in metabolic syndrome%ω-3长链不饱和脂肪酸在代谢综合征中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑郁; 母义明

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the long-term outcome data and guidelines up to date, and systemically reviews the effect of ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption, the major effective component in deep-sea fish oil, on metabolic syndrome, including improvements in abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, etc. Its adverse effects are also commented.%本文根据国内外最新文献报道,就深海鱼油的主要有效成分ω-3长链不饱和脂肪酸对代谢综合征的作用进行综述,包括减轻腹型肥胖、改善胰岛素抵抗、调节血脂紊乱、控制高血压等积极作用及不良反应。

  20. Long chain fatty acid (Lcfa) abnormalities in hyper Igd syndrome (Hids) and Familial Mediterranean Fever (Fmf): new insight into heritable periodic fevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, A.; Drenth, J.P.H.; Matern, D.; Goetzman, E.S.; Hager, E.J.; Gibson, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine essential fatty acids (EFAs) in hyper-IgD syndrome (HIDS) and Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF). METHODS: EFAs were determined in sera derived from an archival, cross-sectional group of HIDS/FMF patients, stratified for presence and absence of fever. Control populations includ

  1. Detection of impaired intestinal absorption of long-chain fatty acids : validation studies of a novel test in a rat model of fat malabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalivianakis, M; Minich, DM; Havinga, R; Kuipers, F; Stellaard, F; Vonk, RJ; Verkade, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Background: Classic fat balance studies detect fat malabsorption but do not discriminate between the potential causes of malabsorption, such as impaired intestinal lipolysis or reduced uptake of fatty acids. Objective: We aimed to validate a novel test for the specific, sensitive detection of impair

  2. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-01-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the eff

  3. Effects of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids and rumen-protected methionine on plasma concentrations of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (7 to 36) amide and pancreatic hormones in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumori, R; Sugino, T; Shingu, H; Moriya, N; Hasegawa, Y; Kojima, M; Kangawa, K; Obitsu, T; Kushibiki, S; Taniguchi, K

    2012-02-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CLFAs) and rumen-protected methionine (RPM) on plasma concentrations of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (7 to 36) amide, and pancreatic hormones in lactating cows. Four Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 by 4 Latin square experiment in each 2-wk period. Cows were fed corn silage-based diets with supplements of CLFAs (1.5% added on dry matter basis), RPM (20 g/d), CLFAs plus RPM, and without supplement. Jugular blood samples were taken from 1 h before to 2 h after morning feeding at 10-min intervals on day 12 of each period. CLFAs decreased dry matter intake, but RPM did not affect dry matter intake. Both supplements of CLFAs and RPM did not affect metabolizable energy intake and milk yield and composition. Plasma concentrations of NEFAs, triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol (T-Cho) were increased with CLFAs alone, but increases of plasma concentrations of TG and T-Cho were moderated by CLFAs plus RPM. Calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids increased plasma ghrelin concentration, and the ghrelin concentration with CLFAs plus RPM was the highest among the treatments. Plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, glucagon, and insulin were decreased with CLFAs, whereas adding RPM moderated the decrease of plasma glucagon concentration by CLFAs. These results indicate that the addition of methionine to cows given CLFAs increases plasma concentrations of ghrelin and glucagon associated with the decrease in plasma concentrations of TG and T-Cho.

  4. 3种长链脂肪酸对水华鱼腥藻的生长影响%Effects of Three Long Chain Fatty Acids on the Growth of Anabaena Flos-aquae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗万芬; 曾仁权

    2011-01-01

    Effects of three long chain fatty acids on the growth of Anabaena glos-aquae in the cell density of 2. 575 × 106 cells/mL afe studied by dodecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, 9, 12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, the results show that three long chain fatty acid on the inhibition of anabaena f los-aquae are different. The inhibiting shows more inhibitory effect in high concentration. In the some time,the inhibition is as follows: dodecanoic acid > octadecatrienoic acid>octadecadienoic acid.%研究了十二酸(月桂酸)、9,12-十八碳二烯酸、9,12,15-十八碳三烯酸3种长链脂肪酸对密度为2.575×106个/mL水华鱼腥藻的生长影响.结果表明,这3种长链脂肪酸对水华鱼腥藻都有不同程度的抑制作用,其浓度越大效果越明显.在同一时间内,这3种脂肪酸对水华鱼腥藻的抑藻作用大小顺序为:十二酸>十八碳三烯酸>十八碳二烯酸,十二酸对水华鱼腥藻的生长有很强的抑制作用.

  5. Metabolism of medium- and long-chain fatty acids by isolated hepatocytes from small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and appropriate for-gestational-age (AGA) piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odle, J.; Benevenga, N.J.; Crenshaw, T.D. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Hepatocytes were isolated from full-term, SGA and AGA piglets at 6 or 48 hours postpartum and were incubated with 1 mM (1-{sup 14}C)-octanoate (C8), -nonanoate (C9) or-oleate (C18:1). The cells oxidized (natom 1-C/(h 10{sup 6} cells)) C9 to Co{sub 2} (12.5) and acid soluble products (28.9) faster than C8 (10.9, 20.6, respectively), and both were oxidized faster than C18:1 (3.9, 9.9) regardless of the piglet age or weight. Oleate accumulated in lipid products 8-fold faster than C8 and C9. No differences between cells from SGA and AGA piglets were detected. Recovery of 1-C in CO{sub 2} was 48% higher in incubations with cells from 48 hours old than from 6 hour old piglets. This increase was attributable to a 70% higher oxygen consumption by 48 hour old cells. Theoretical oxygen consumption rates were computed from the fatty acid flux data and compared to measured oxygen consumption. hepatocytes from SGA and AGA piglets were equally capable of satisfying more that 57% of their energy needs from fatty acid oxidation. The oxygen consumption attributable to C9 metabolism was 30% higher than observed for C8 and C18:1. All fatty acids apparently spared endogenous fuels to a greater degree in 6 hour than in 48 hour piglets.

  6. The intake of long chain omega 3 fatty acids through fish versus capsules results in greater increments of their plasma levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visioli Francesco

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Omega 3 fatty acids from fish appear to be more cardioprotective than equivalent amounts provided as capsules. We gave volunteers, for six weeks, either 100 g\\\\day of salmon, providing 383 mg of EPA and 544 mg of DHA or one or three capsules of fish oil\\\\day, providing 150 mg of EPA and 106 mg of DHA or 450 mg of EPA and 318 mg of DHA. We also re-evaluated data from a previous study carried out with the same design. Marked increments in plasma EPA and DHA concentrations (μg\\\\mg total lipid and percentages of total fatty acids were recorded at the end of either treatment. Such increments were linearly and significantly correlated with the dose after capsule administration. Notably, increments in plasma EPA and DHA concentration after salmon intake were significantly higher than after administration of capsules. In fact, the same increments would be obtained with at least two- and nine-fold higher doses of EPA and DHA, respectively, if administered with capsules rather than salmon. In turn, we provide experimental evidence that omega 3 fatty acids from fish are more effectively incorporated into plasma lipids than when administered as capsules and that increments in plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA given as capsules are linearly correlated with their intakes.

  7. Long-chain alkanes and fatty acids from Ludwigia octovalvis weed leaf surface waxes as short-range attractant and ovipositional stimulant to Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, S; Sarkar, N; Barik, A

    2017-01-30

    The importance of leaf surface wax compounds from the rice-field weed Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven (Onagraceae) was determined in the flea beetle Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Extraction, thin layer chromatography and GC-MS and GC-FID analyses of surface waxes of young, mature and senescent leaves revealed 20, 19 and 19 n-alkanes between n-C15 and n-C35, respectively; whereas 14, 14 and 12 free fatty acids between C12:0 and C22:0 fatty acids were identified in young, mature and senescent leaves, respectively. Tricosane was predominant n-alkane in young and mature leaves, whilst eicosane predominated in senescent leaves. Heneicosanoic acid, palmitic acid and docosanoic acid were the most abundant free fatty acids in young, mature and senescent leaves, respectively. A. cyanea females showed attraction to 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes compared with young or senescent leaves in a short glass Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. The insects were attracted to a synthetic blend of 0.90, 1.86, 1.83, 1.95, 0.50 and 0.18 µg ml-1 petroleum ether of hexadecane, octadecane, eicosane, tricosane, palmitic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively, comparable with the proportions as present in 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes. A. cyanea also laid eggs on a filter paper moistened with 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes or a synthetic blend of 0.90, 1.86, 1.83, 1.95, 0.50 and 0.18 µg ml-1 petroleum ether of hexadecane, octadecane, eicosane, tricosane, palmitic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively. This finding could provide a basis for monitoring of the potential biocontrol agent in the field.

  8. Studies on very long chain marine n-3 fatty acids in patients with atherosclerotic heart disease with special focus on mechanisms, dosage and formulas of supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnesen, H; Seljeflot, I

    2010-02-25

    Based on experience from randomised trials with n-3 PUFA we intend to answer some relevant questions in patients with coronary heart disease. In the SHOT study supplementation with 3.4 g/day of highly concentrated n-3 PUFA for 1 year significantly reduced the occlusion rate of venous aortocoronary bypass grafts, and this effect correlated significantly to the change in serum levels of n-3 fatty acids. In the CART study 5.1 g/day of highly concentrated n-3 PUFA did not reduce the incidence of restenosis after 6 months. If anything, a negative effect was observed. The background for this was probably a pro-oxidative and proinflammatory mechanism as elucidated in substudies. In the OVITES trial the addition of vitamin E did not counteract the proinflammatory effect of high amounts of n-3 PUFA supplementation as observed in CART, although circulating oxidative substances were unaffected. In the "Fiord-to-table" study replacement of fish oils by vegetable oils in the feed of farmed Atlantic salmon was mirrored in the fatty acid profile of the salmon fillets as well as in that of serum from patients after ingesting about 700 g/week for six weeks. A parallel reduction of the proinflammatory profile was observed only in patients who ingested salmon fed on fish oil.

  9. Dietary supplementation with long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids attenuates obesity-related metabolic dysfunction and increases expression of PPAR gamma in adipose tissue in type 2 diabetic KK-Ay mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhi-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of present study was to examine the effect of long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (LC-MUFAs with chain lengths longer than 18 (i.e., C20:1 and C22:1 isomers combined on obesity-related metabolic dysfunction and its molecular mechanisms. Type-2 diabetic KK-Ay mice (n = 20 were randomly assigned to the 7% soybean oil-diet group (control group and 4% LC-MUFA concentrate-supplemented-diet group (LC-MUFA group. At 8 weeks on the diet, the results showed that plasma, liver and adipose tissue levels of C20:1 and C22:1 isomers increased significantly with LC-MUFA treatment. Supplementation with LC-MUFAs markedly reduced white fat pad weight as well as adipocyte size in the mice. The levels of plasma free fatty acids, insulin, and leptin concentration in the obese diabetic mice of the LC-MUFA group were also decreased as compared with the mice in the soybean oil-diet control group. Dietary LC-MUFAs significantly increased the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg, lipoprotein lipase (Lpl, fatty acid transport protein (Fatp, fatty acid translocase/CD36 (Cd36, as well as mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid oxidation such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (Cpt1a and citrate synthase (Cs, and decreased the mRNA expression of inflammatory marker serum amyloid A 3 (Saa3 in the adipose tissues of diabetic mice. The results suggest that LC-MUFAs may ameliorate obesity-related metabolic dysfunction partly through increased expression of Pparg as well as its target genes, and decreased inflammatory marker expression in white adipose tissue.

  10. Metabolic fate (absorption, β-oxidation and deposition) of long-chain n-3 fatty acids is affected by sex and by the oil source (krill oil or fish oil) in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemifard, Samaneh; Hermon, Karen; Turchini, Giovanni M; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2015-09-14

    The effects of krill oil as an alternative source of n-3 long-chain PUFA have been investigated recently. There are conflicting results from the few available studies comparing fish oil and krill oil. The aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability and metabolic fate (absorption, β-oxidation and tissue deposition) of n-3 fatty acids originating from krill oil (phospholipid-rich) or fish oil (TAG-rich) in rats of both sexes using the whole-body fatty acid balance method. Sprague-Dawley rats (thirty-six male, thirty-six female) were randomly assigned to be fed either a krill oil diet (EPA+DHA+DPA=1·38 mg/g of diet) or a fish oil diet (EPA+DHA+DPA=1·61 mg/g of diet) to constant ration for 6 weeks. The faeces, whole body and individual tissues were analysed for fatty acid content. Absorption of fatty acids was significantly greater in female rats and was only minimally affected by the oil type. It was estimated that most of EPA (>90 %) and more than half of DHA (>60 %) were β-oxidised in both diet groups. Most of the DPA was β-oxidised (57 and 67 % for female and male rats, respectively) in the fish oil group; however, for the krill oil group, the majority of DPA was deposited (82-83 %). There was a significantly greater deposition of DPA and DHA in rats fed krill oil compared with those fed fish oil, not due to a difference in bioavailability (absorption) but rather due to a difference in metabolic fate (anabolism v. catabolism).

  11. Expression of a novel 90-kDa protein, Lsd90, involved in the metabolism of very long-chain fatty acid-containing phospholipids in a mitosis-defective fission yeast mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Kazuaki; Nakagawa, Miyuki; Satoh, Masayuki; Saitoh, Shigeaki; Dohmae, Naoshi; Harada, Ayako; Satoh, Noriko; Karasawa, Ken; Takio, Koji; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro; Inoue, Keizo

    2008-03-01

    The fission yeast lsd1/fas2 strain carries a temperature-sensitive mutation of the fatty-acid-synthase alpha-subunit, exhibiting an aberrant mitosis lsd phenotype, with accumulation of very-long-chain fatty-acid-containing phospholipid (VLCFA-PL). A novel 90-kDa protein, Lsd90 (SPBC16E9.16c), was found to be newly expressed in small particle-like structures in lsd1/fas2 cells under restrictive conditions. Two mismatches leading to a double frame shift were found between the sequences of the lsd90(+) gene registered in the genomic database and the sequences determined experimentally at the amino acid, cDNA and genomic DNA levels. Unexpectedly, overexpression and disruption of the lsd90(+) gene in either lsd1/fas2 or wild-type cells did not affect either cell growth or expression of the lsd phenotype. The amounts of VLCFA-PL that accumulated in lsd90-overexpressing lsd1/fas2 cells were significantly lower than those in lsd1/fas2 cells, suggesting the involvement of Lsd90 in the metabolism of VLCFA-PL.

  12. The effect of non-esterified long-chain fatty acids on blood flow and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue in the young dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Christensen, N J

    1985-01-01

    In vitro experiments have demonstrated that increasing the molar ratio of extracellular non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) to albumin stimulates thermogenesis in brown adipocytes. To test these results, in vivo blood flow and local temperature were measured in perirenal brown adipose tissue (BAT......) in puppies during thermogenesis induced by increasing the plasma NEFA: albumin ratio by injection of intralipid and heparin. Plasma NEFA concentration increased to 1.5 mmol X 1-I and plasma NEFA:albumin ratio to 4. Concomitantly, the whole body oxygen consumption rose on average about 100% above baseline...... production was also reduced. Consequently, the increase in whole body oxygen consumption was not due to stimulation of BAT thermogenesis. It is concluded that in vivo assessment of BAT thermogenesis requires concomitant measurements of both local BAT temperature and blood flow....

  13. Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Alleviates Doxorubicin-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors and Neurotoxicity in Rats: Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Qin Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DOX is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in human malignancies. Its long-term use can cause neurobiological side-effects associated with depression. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs, the essential fatty acids found in fish oil, possess neuroprotecitve and antidepressant activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the potential protective effects of ω-3 PUFAs against DOX-induced behavioral changes and neurotoxicity. ω-3 PUFAs were given daily by gavage (1.5 g/kg over three weeks starting seven days before DOX administration (2.5 mg/kg. Open-field test (OFT and forced swimming test (FST were conducted to assess exploratory activity and despair behavior, respectively. Our data showed that ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly mitigated the behavioral changes induced by DOX. ω-3 PUFAs pretreatment also alleviated the DOX-induced neural apoptosis. Meanwhile, ω-3 PUFAs treatment ameliorated DOX-induced oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Additionally, gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and the protein levels of NF-κB and iNOS were significantly increased in brain tissues of DOX-treated group, whereas ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly attenuated DOX-induced neuroinflammation. In conclusion, ω-3 PUFAs can effectively protect against DOX-induced depressive-like behaviors, and the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect are potentially associated with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties.

  14. Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Alleviates Doxorubicin-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors and Neurotoxicity in Rats: Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Qin; Dang, Rui-Li; Tang, Mi-Mi; Cai, Hua-Lin; Li, Huan-De; Liao, De-Hua; He, Xin; Cao, Ling-Juan; Xue, Ying; Jiang, Pei

    2016-04-23

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in human malignancies. Its long-term use can cause neurobiological side-effects associated with depression. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), the essential fatty acids found in fish oil, possess neuroprotecitve and antidepressant activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the potential protective effects of ω-3 PUFAs against DOX-induced behavioral changes and neurotoxicity. ω-3 PUFAs were given daily by gavage (1.5 g/kg) over three weeks starting seven days before DOX administration (2.5 mg/kg). Open-field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST) were conducted to assess exploratory activity and despair behavior, respectively. Our data showed that ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly mitigated the behavioral changes induced by DOX. ω-3 PUFAs pretreatment also alleviated the DOX-induced neural apoptosis. Meanwhile, ω-3 PUFAs treatment ameliorated DOX-induced oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Additionally, gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and the protein levels of NF-κB and iNOS were significantly increased in brain tissues of DOX-treated group, whereas ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly attenuated DOX-induced neuroinflammation. In conclusion, ω-3 PUFAs can effectively protect against DOX-induced depressive-like behaviors, and the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect are potentially associated with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties.

  15. Two Predicted Transmembrane Domains Exclude Very Long Chain Fatty acyl-CoAs from the Active Site of Mouse Wax Synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kawelke

    Full Text Available Wax esters are used as coatings or storage lipids in all kingdoms of life. They are synthesized from a fatty alcohol and an acyl-CoA by wax synthases. In order to get insights into the structure-function relationships of a wax synthase from Mus musculus, a domain swap experiment between the mouse acyl-CoA:wax alcohol acyltransferase (AWAT2 and the homologous mouse acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2 was performed. This showed that the substrate specificity of AWAT2 is partially determined by two predicted transmembrane domains near the amino terminus of AWAT2. Upon exchange of the two domains for the respective part of DGAT2, the resulting chimeric enzyme was capable of incorporating up to 20% of very long acyl chains in the wax esters upon expression in S. cerevisiae strain H1246. The amount of very long acyl chains in wax esters synthesized by wild type AWAT2 was negligible. The effect was narrowed down to a single amino acid position within one of the predicted membrane domains, the AWAT2 N36R variant. Taken together, we provide first evidence that two predicted transmembrane domains in AWAT2 are involved in determining its acyl chain length specificity.

  16. Quantitative analysis of long chain fatty acids present in a Type I kerogen using electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: compared with BF₃/MeOH methylation/GC-FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamga, Albert W; Behar, Fancoise; Hatcher, Patrick G

    2014-05-01

    Long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are present in various natural samples and are easily detectable using electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR-MS) in negative ion mode. The capability of the ESI-FT-ICR-MS for quantifying LCFAs was evaluated by performing a standard addition followed by an internal standard methodology to several kerogen extracts using n-C₂₀ fatty acid as standard. As the concentration of the standard increased, the magnitude of its peak (m/z 311.29525) increased linearly but with two separate slopes, leaving the entire mass spectra relatively unchanged, which shows evidence of reproducibility. Response factors of other LCFAs are obtained using a standard addition approach. We employed five LCFA standards (n-C₁₅, n-C₁₉, n-C₂₄, n-C₂₆, and n-C₃₀) with different carbon numbers. This allowed us to determine the response factor of all fatty acids (with carbon number between 15 and 30) by plotting the slope of each standard versus its carbon number. With the observed response factors and use of the internal standard, the concentrations of LCFAs in four kerogen extracts were measured by ESI-FT-ICR-MS and compared with those from GC-FID. The carbon number distribution obtained by ESI-FT-ICR-MS matched well the GC-FID distribution (5%–50%) with the exception of C₁₆ and C₁₈, considering that ESI-FT-ICR-MS does not differentiate between normal and branched LCFAs, whereas GC-FID does. This allows one to quantitatively compare samples with a relatively similar matrix for specific compounds such as LCFAs with no need of time-consuming derivatization procedures. Moreover, the calibration can be extended to higher carbon numbers with ESI-FT-ICR-MS, beyond the capabilities of GC/MS.

  17. Lead discovery for mammalian elongation of long chain fatty acids family 6 using a combination of high-throughput fluorescent-based assay and RapidFire mass spectrometry assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamiya, Mari; Sakurai, Masaaki; Teranishi, Fumie; Ikeda, Tomoko; Kamiyama, Tsutomu; Asai, Akira

    2016-11-25

    A high-throughput RapidFire mass spectrometry assay is described for elongation of very long-chain fatty acids family 6 (Elovl6). Elovl6 is a microsomal enzyme that regulates the elongation of C12-16 saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Elovl6 may be a new therapeutic target for fat metabolism disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. To identify new Elovl6 inhibitors, we developed a high-throughput fluorescence screening assay in 1536-well format. However, a number of false positives caused by fluorescent interference have been identified. To pick up the real active compounds among the primary hits from the fluorescence assay, we developed a RapidFire mass spectrometry assay and a conventional radioisotope assay. These assays have the advantage of detecting the main products directly without using fluorescent-labeled substrates. As a result, 276 compounds (30%) of the primary hits (921 compounds) in a fluorescence ultra-high-throughput screening method were identified as common active compounds in these two assays. It is concluded that both methods are very effective to eliminate false positives. Compared with the radioisotope method using an expensive (14)C-labeled substrate, the RapidFire mass spectrometry method using unlabeled substrates is a high-accuracy, high-throughput method. In addition, some of the hit compounds selected from the screening inhibited cellular fatty acid elongation in HEK293 cells expressing Elovl6 transiently. This result suggests that these compounds may be promising lead candidates for therapeutic drugs. Ultra-high-throughput fluorescence screening followed by a RapidFire mass spectrometry assay was a suitable strategy for lead discovery against Elovl6.

  18. Capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection for the determination of cis/trans isomers of octadec-9-enoic acid and other long chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yong Foo; Saad, Bahruddin; Makahleh, Ahmad

    2013-05-17

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE)-capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) method for the simultaneous separation of eleven underivatized fatty acids (FAs), namely, lauric, myristic, tridecanoic (internal standard), pentadecanoic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, elaidic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic acids is described. The separation was carried out in normal polarity mode at 20 °C, 30 kV and using hydrodynamic injection (50 mbar for 1 s). The separation was achieved in a bare fused-silica capillary (70 cm × 75 μm i.d.) using a background electrolyte of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (~6 mM) and heptakis-(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (~8 mM) dissolved in a mixture of Na2HPO4/KH2PO4 (5 mM, pH 7.4):ACN:MeOH:n-octanol (3:4:2.5:0.5, v/v/v/v). C(4)D parameters were set at fixed amplitude of 100 V and frequency of 1000 kHz. The developed method was validated. Calibration curves of the ten FAs were well correlated (r(2)>0.99) within the range of 5-250 μg mL(-1) for lauric acid, and 3-250 μg mL(-1) for the other FAs. The method was simple and sensitive with detection limits (S/N=3) of 0.9-1.9 μg mL(-1) and good relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day for migration times and peak areas (≤9.7%) were achieved. The method was applied to the determination of FAs in margarine samples. The proposed method offers distinct advantages over the GC and HPLC methods, especially in terms of simplicity (without derivatization) and sensitivity.

  19. The role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of cancer Cachexia and tumour growth in patients with malignant diseases: A review

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    Elizabeth A Symington

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have the capacity to modulate cancer outcomes. The body responds to cancer in the same way that it responds to inflammation and wound healing. Nutrients with anti-inflammatory effects could therefore be expected to play a role in cancer treatment. This review focuses on the role of ω-3 PUFAs in tumourigenesis and cancer cachexia. Studies indicate that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA supplementation may promote arrest of tumour growth and reduce cell proliferation. Patients need to consume at least 2 g of EPA per day for it to have a therapeutic effect. Positive outcomes related to cachexia include diminished weight loss, increased appetite, improved quality of life and prolonged survival, although there is controversy regarding these clinical outcomes. The effects of ω-3 PUFAs on tumourigenesis and cachexia are viewed in the context of altered lipid and protein metabolism. This altered metabolism usually experienced by cancer patients results in increased formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines. Cytokines play an indirect role by stimulating the production of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids, which support inflammation, cell proliferation and angiogenesis, and inhibit apoptosis. It can be concluded that ω-3 PUFA supplementation offers a means of augmenting cancer therapy, inhibiting tumourigenesis and possibly contributing to cachexia alleviation. Opsomming Onlangse studies toon dat ω-3-poli-onversadigde vetsure (POVSe oor die vermoë beskik om kankeruitkomste te moduleer. Die liggaam reageer op kanker op dieselfde wyse as wat dit op inflammasie en wondgenesing reageer. Daar kan dus verwag word dat voedingstowwe met ‘n anti-inflammatoriese uitwerking ‘n rol in die behandeling van kanker kan speel. In hierdie oorsig word daar op die rol van ω-3-POVSe in tumorigenese en kankerkageksie gefokus. Studies dui daarop dat eikosapentanoënsuur- (EPS

  20. Australians are not Meeting the Recommended Intakes for Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Results of an Analysis from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

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    Barbara J. Meyer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Health benefits have been attributed to omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA. Therefore it is important to know if Australians are currently meeting the recommended intake for n-3 LCPUFA and if they have increased since the last National Nutrition Survey in 1995 (NNS 1995. Dietary intake data was obtained from the recent 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2011–2012 NNPAS. Linoleic acid (LA intakes have decreased whilst alpha-linolenic acid (LNA and n-3 LCPUFA intakes have increased primarily due to n-3 LCPUFA supplements. The median n-3 LCPUFA intakes are less than 50% of the mean n-3 LCPUFA intakes which highlights the highly-skewed n-3 LCPUFA intakes, which shows that there are some people consuming high amounts of n-3 LCPUFA, but the vast majority of the population are consuming much lower amounts. Only 20% of the population meets the recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes and only 10% of women of childbearing age meet the recommended docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake. Fish and seafood is by far the richest source of n-3 LCPUFA including DHA.

  1. Induction of Mitochondrial Changes Associated with Oxidative Stress on Very Long Chain Fatty Acids (C22:0, C24:0, or C26:0-Treated Human Neuronal Cells (SK-NB-E

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    Amira Zarrouk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease, lipid alterations point towards peroxisomal dysfunctions. Indeed, a cortical accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs: C22:0, C24:0, C26:0, substrates for peroxisomal β-oxidation, has been found in Alzheimer patients. This study was realized to investigate the effects of VLCFAs at the mitochondrial level since mitochondrial dysfunctions play crucial roles in neurodegeneration. On human neuronal SK-NB-E cells treated with C22:0, C24:0, or C26:0 (0.1–20 μM; 48 h, an inhibition of cell growth and mitochondrial dysfunctions were observed by cell counting with trypan blue, MTT assay, and measurement of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm with DiOC6(3. A stimulation of oxidative stress was observed with DHE and MitoSOX used to quantify superoxide anion production on whole cells and at the mitochondrial level, respectively. With C24:0 and C26:0, by Western blotting, lower levels of mitochondrial complexes III and IV were detected. After staining with MitoTracker and by transmission electron microscopy used to study mitochondrial topography, mass and morphology, major changes were detected in VLCFAs treated-cells: modification of the cytoplasmic distribution of mitochondria, presence of large mitochondria, enhancement of the mitochondrial mass. Thus, VLCFAs can be potential risk factors contributing to neurodegeneration by inducing neuronal damages via mitochondrial dysfunctions.

  2. Australians are not Meeting the Recommended Intakes for Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Results of an Analysis from the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Barbara J

    2016-02-24

    Health benefits have been attributed to omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). Therefore it is important to know if Australians are currently meeting the recommended intake for n-3 LCPUFA and if they have increased since the last National Nutrition Survey in 1995 (NNS 1995). Dietary intake data was obtained from the recent 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2011-2012 NNPAS). Linoleic acid (LA) intakes have decreased whilst alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) and n-3 LCPUFA intakes have increased primarily due to n-3 LCPUFA supplements. The median n-3 LCPUFA intakes are less than 50% of the mean n-3 LCPUFA intakes which highlights the highly-skewed n-3 LCPUFA intakes, which shows that there are some people consuming high amounts of n-3 LCPUFA, but the vast majority of the population are consuming much lower amounts. Only 20% of the population meets the recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes and only 10% of women of childbearing age meet the recommended docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake. Fish and seafood is by far the richest source of n-3 LCPUFA including DHA.

  3. Maternal supplementation with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during perinatal period alleviates the metabolic syndrome disturbances in adult hamster pups fed a high-fat diet after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbi-Chadli, Fatima; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Simard, Gilles; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Leray, Véronique; Meynier, Anne; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Champ, Martine; Nguyen, Patrick; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2014-07-01

    Perinatal nutrition is thought to affect the long-term risk of the adult to develop metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy and lactation would protect offspring fed a high-fat diet from developing metabolic disturbances. Thus, two groups of female hamsters were fed a low-fat control diet, either alone (LC) or enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) (LO), through the gestational and lactation periods. After weaning, male pups were randomized to separate groups that received either a control low-fat diet (LC) or a high-fat diet (HC) for 16 weeks. Four groups of pups were defined (LC-LC, LC-HC, LO-LC and LO-HC), based on the combinations of maternal and weaned diets. Maternal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation was associated with reduced levels of basal plasma glucose, hepatic triglycerides secretion and postprandial lipemia in the LO-HC group compared to the LC-HC group. Respiratory parameters were not affected by maternal supplementation. In contrast, n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation significantly enhanced the activities of citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase compared to the offspring of unsupplemented mothers. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and tumor necrosis factor α expression levels were not affected by n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation. These results provide evidence for a beneficial effect of n-3 LC-PUFA maternal supplementation in hamsters on the subsequent risk of metabolic syndrome. Underlying mechanisms may include improved lipid metabolism and activation of the mitochondrial oxidative pathway.

  4. Hybrid striped bass feeds based on fish oil, beef tallow, and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplements: Insight regarding fish oil sparing and demand for -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowzer, J; Jackson, C; Trushenski, J

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) rich lipids, including beef tallow, can make utilization or diet-to-tissue transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) more efficient. We hypothesized that using beef tallow as an alternative to fish oil may effectively reduce the LC-PUFA demand of hybrid striped bass × and allow for greater fish oil sparing. Accordingly, we evaluated growth performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of juvenile fish (23.7 ± 0.3 g) fed diets containing menhaden fish oil (considered an ideal source of LC-PUFA for this taxon), beef tallow (BEEF ONLY), or beef tallow amended with purified sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve levels corresponding to 50 or 100% of those observed in the FISH ONLY feed. Diets were randomly assigned to quadruplicate tanks of fish ( = 4; 10 fish/tank), and fish were fed assigned diets to apparent satiation once daily for 10 wk. Survival (98-100%) was equivalent among treatments, but weight gain (117-180%), specific growth rate (1.1-1.5% BW/d), feed intake (1.4-1.8% BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (0.50-0.70), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 1.1-1.4, DM basis) varied. Except for FCR, no differences were observed between the FISH ONLY and BEEF ONLY treatments, but performance was generally numerically superior among fish fed the diets containing beef tallow supplemented with DHA at the 100% or both EPA and DHA at the 50% or 100% level. Tissue fatty acid composition was significantly distorted in favor among fish fed the beef tallow-based feeds; however, profile distortion was most overt in peripheral tissues. Results suggest that beef tallow may be used as a primary lipid source in practical diets for hybrid striped bass, but performance may be improved by supplementation with LC-PUFA, particularly DHA. Furthermore, our results suggest that -3 LC-PUFA requirements reported for hybrid striped bass may not be

  5. Astrocytes and mitochondria from adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ABCD1)-deficient mice reveal that the adrenoleukodystrophy-associated very long-chain fatty acids target several cellular energy-dependent functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruska, Nicol; Schönfeld, Peter; Pujol, Aurora; Reiser, Georg

    2015-05-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder resulting from defective ABCD1 transport protein. ABCD1 mediates peroxisomal uptake of free very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) as well as their CoA-esters. Consequently, VLCFA accumulate in patients' plasma and tissues, which is considered as pathogenic X-ALD triggering factor. Clinical symptoms are mostly manifested in neural tissues and adrenal gland. Here, we investigate astrocytes from wild-type control and a genetic X-ALD mouse model (Abcd1-knockout), exposed to supraphysiological VLCFA (C22:0, C24:0 and C26:0) concentrations. They exhibit multiple impairments of energy metabolism. Furthermore, brain mitochondria from Abcd1(-/-) mice and wild-type control respond similarly to VLCFA with increased ROS generation, impaired oxidative ATP synthesis and diminished Ca(2+) uptake capacity, suggesting that a defective ABCD1 exerts no adaptive pressure on mitochondria. In contrast, astrocytes from Abcd1(-/-) mice respond more sensitively to VLCFA than wild-type control astrocytes. Moreover, long-term application of VLCFA induces high ROS generation, and strong in situ depolarization of mitochondria, and, in Abcd1(-/-) astrocytes, severely diminishes the capability to revert oxidized pyridine nucleotides to NAD(P)H. In addition, observed differences in responses of mitochondria and astrocytes to the hydrocarbon chain length of VLCFA suggest that detrimental VLCFA activities in astrocytes involve defective cellular functions other than mitochondria. In summary, we clearly demonstrate that VLCFA increase the vulnerability of Abcd1(-/-) astrocytes.

  6. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5n-6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) from -100 to 20° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, C. Leigh; Schmidt, Walter F.; Kim, Moon S.; Nguyen, Julie K.; Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Bauchan, Gary L.; Shelton, Daniel R.

    2016-05-01

    The structural, cognitive and visual development of the human brain and retina strictly require long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Excluding water, the mammalian brain is about 60% lipid. One of the great unanswered questions with respect to biological science in general is the absolute necessity of the LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in these fast signal processing tissues. A lipid of the same chain length with just one less diene group, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-6) is fairly abundant in terrestrial food chains yet cannot substitute for DHA. Gradient Temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur near and at phase transitions. Herein we apply GTRS to DPA, and DHA from -100 to 20°C. 20 Mb three-dimensional data arrays with 1°C increments and first/second derivatives allows complete assignment of solid, liquid and transition state vibrational modes, including low intensity/frequency vibrations that cannot be readily analyzed with conventional Raman. DPA and DHA show significant spectral changes with premelting (-33 and -60°C, respectively) and melting (-27 and -44°C, respectively). The CH2-(HC=CH)-CH2 moieties are not identical in the second half of the DHA and DPA structures. The DHA molecule contains major CH2 twisting (1265 cm-1) with no noticeable CH2 bending, consistent with a flat helical structure with small pitch. Further modeling of neuronal membrane phospholipids must take into account this structure for DHA, which would be configured parallel to the hydrophilic head group line.

  7. Influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid in combination with other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on expression of biosynthesis genes and phospholipid fatty acid compositions in tissues of post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Mónica B; Howarth, Fraser J E; Glencross, Brett D; Tocher, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    To investigate interactions of dietary LC-PUFA, a dose-response study with a range of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) levels (1 g kg(-1), 5 g kg(-1), 10 g kg(-1), 15 g kg(-1) and 20 g kg(-1)) was performed with post-smolts (111 ± 2.6g; mean ± S.D.) over a nine-week feeding period. Additional diets included 10 g kg(-1) DHA in combination with 10 g kg(-1) of either eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) or arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n-6), and a diet containing 5 g kg(-1) each of DHA and EPA. The liver, brain, head kidney and gill were collected at the conclusion of the trial, and lipid and fatty acid compositions were determined as well as expression of genes of LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Total lipid content and class composition were largely unaffected by changes in dietary LC-PUFA. However, phospholipid (PL) fatty acid compositions generally reflected that of the diet, although the response varied between tissues. The liver most strongly reflected diet, followed by the head kidney. In both tissues increasing dietary DHA led to significantly increased DHA in PL and inclusion of EPA or ARA led to higher levels of these fatty acids. The brain showed the most conserved composition and gene expression profile, with increased dietary LC-PUFA resulting in only minor changes in PL fatty acids. Dietary LC-PUFA significantly affected the expression of Δ6 and Δ5 desaturases, Elovl 2, 4 and 5, and SREBPs although this varied between tissues with greatest effects observed in the liver followed by the head kidney, similar to PL fatty acid compositions.

  8. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration in patients with inborn errors of metabolism Concentración de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga en pacientes con errores innatos del metabolismo

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    M.ª A. Vilaseca

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA can be provided by diet (fatty fish, eggs, viscera and human milk or synthetised from essential fatty acids linoleic and α-linolenic acids through the microsomal pathway. However, endogenous LCPUFA synthesis is rather low, especially for docosahexaenoic (DHA, and seems insufficient to achieve normal DHA values in individuals devoid of preformed dietary supply. Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs are therefore diseases with a special risk for LCPUFA deficient status. Aim: Our aim was to evaluate LCPUFA status in 132 patients with different IEMs. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of plasma and erythrocyte LCPUFA composition of 63 patients with IEMs treated with protein-restricted diets compared with data from 69 patients with IEMs on protein-unrestricted diets, and 43 own reference values. Results: Erythrocyte and plasma DHA and arachidonic acid concentrations were significantly decreased in patients treated with protein-restriction compared with those on protein-unrestricted diets and with our reference values (p Introducción: Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (LCPUFA pueden ser suministrados por la dieta o sintetizados a partir de los ácidos grasos esenciales, linoleico y α-linolénico. La síntesis endógena de LCPUFA es escasa, especialmente la de ácido docosahe-xaenoico (DHA, e insuficiente para alcanzar los valores normales de DHA en individuos que carecen de un suministro dietético de dichos ácidos preformados. Por ello, los errores innatos del metabolismo (IEM son enfermedades con riesgo especial de deficiencia de LCPUFAs. Objetivos: Evaluar el estado de LCPUFA en 132 pacientes con diferentes IEMs. Métodos: Estudio transversal de LCPUFA en plasma y eritrocitos de 63 pacientes con IEMs tratados con dieta restringida en proteínas comparados con 69 pacientes con IEMs con una dieta libre y 43 valores de referencia. Resultados: Las concentraciones de

  9. Fine metabolic regulation in ruminants via nutrient-gene interactions: saturated long-chain fatty acids increase expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and immune response partly through PPAR-α activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bionaz, Massimo; Thering, Betsy J; Loor, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cells cultured with 150 μm of Wy-14 643 (WY, PPARα agonist) or twelve long-chain fatty acids (LCFA; 16 : 0, 18 : 0, cis-9-18 : 1, trans-10-18 : 1, trans-11-18 : 1, 18 : 2n-6, 18 : 3n-3, cis-9, trans-11-18 : 2, trans-10, cis-12-18 : 2, 20 : 0, 20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3) were used to uncover PPAR-α target genes and determine the effects of LCFA on expression of thirty genes with key functions in lipid metabolism and inflammation. Among fifteen known PPAR-α targets in non-ruminants, ten had greater expression with WY, suggesting that they are bovine PPAR-α targets. The expression of SPP1 and LPIN3 was increased by WY, with no evidence of a similar effect in the published literature, suggesting that both represent bovine-specific PPAR-α targets. We observed the strongest effect on the expression of PPAR-α targets with 16 : 0, 18 : 0 and 20 : 5n-3.When considering the overall effect on expression of the thirty selected genes 20 : 5n-3, 16 : 0 and 18 : 0 had the greatest effect followed by 20 : 0 and c9t11-18 : 2. Gene network analysis indicated an overall increase in lipid metabolism by WY and all LCFA with a central role of PPAR-α but also additional putative transcription factors. A greater increase in the expression of inflammatory genes was observed with 16 : 0 and 18 : 0. Among LCFA, 20 : 5n-3, 16 : 0 and 18 : 0 were the most potent PPAR-α agonists. They also affected the expression of non-PPAR-α targets, eliciting an overall increase in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, signalling and inflammatory response. Data appear to highlight a teleological evolutionary adaptation of PPAR in ruminants to cope with the greater availability of saturated rather than unsaturated LCFA.

  10. Fish oil-derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce expression of M1-associated macrophage markers in an ex vivo adipose tissue culture model, in part through adiponectin

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    Anna A. De Boer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue (AT macrophages (ATM play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad, may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an established ex vivo AT organ culture model using visceral AT from mice fed a control (CON; 10% w/w safflower oil n-6 PUFA-rich diet or an isocaloric fish-oil (FO; 3% w/w menhaden oil + 7% w/w safflower oil-derived LC n-3 PUFA-rich diet to generate AT conditioned media (ACM. We then evaluated if CON or FO ACM affected macrophage polarization markers in a model designed to mimic acute (18 h ACM plus LPS for the last 6 h or chronic (macrophages treated with LPS-challenged CON or FO ACM for 24 h inflammation ± Ad-neutralizing antibody and the LPS-neutralizing agent, polymyxin B. In the acute inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased lipid uptake and mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Nfκb, Il6, Il18, Ccl2 and Ccl5 compared with CON ACM (p≤0.05; however, these effects were largely attenuated when Ad was neutralized (p>0.05. Further, in the chronic inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Tnfα, Ccl2 and Il1β and IL-6 and CCL2 secretion (p≤0.05; however, some of these effects were lost when Ad was neutralized, and were further exacerbated when both Ad and LPS were neutralized. Taken together, this work shows that LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to suppress certain M1 macrophage responses. Thus, future strategies to modulate the ATM phenotype should consider the role of both LC n-3 PUFA and Ad in mitigating obese AT inflammation.

  11. PPARs Mediate the Regulation of Energy Metabolism By Long-Chain Fatty Acids%PPARs 在长链脂肪酸调控能量代谢中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚艳; 王宗保; 唐朝克

    2016-01-01

    过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体α(PPARα)主要在肝脏中表达,饥饿时能诱导β-氧化与生酮作用相关基因和成纤维化生长因子21(FGF21)表达,这在肝脏的饥饿代谢适应中起重要作用。饥饿与耐力训练时,骨骼肌中,过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体δ(PPARδ)能诱导长链脂肪酸(LCFAs)氧化基因、叉头转录因子(FOXO1)及 PPARδ共激活物α1(PGC1α)表达,其中,FOXO1和 PGC1α能调控糖代谢与线粒体生物发生。脂肪细胞中,PPARγ能介导 LCFAs 调控能量代谢,活化的PPARγ能诱导与 LCFAs 转化为甘油三酯形式储存相关的基因表达。脂联素,PPARγ的另一靶基因,能维持脂肪细胞的胰岛素敏感性。本文就 PPARs 在 LCFAs 调控能量代谢中的作用做一综述。%PPAR-alpha expressed primarily in liver is essential for metabolic adaptation to starvation by inducing genes for beta-oxidation and ketogenesis to increase the utility of LCFAs and fibroblast growth factor 21.PPAR-delta induces genes for LCFA oxidation during fasting and endurance exercise in skeletal muscle.PPAR-delta also regulates glucose metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis by inducing FOXO1 and PGC1-alpha.PPAR-gamma can induces the pathways to store LCFAs as triglycerides in adipocytes . Adiponectin,another important target of PPAR-gamma may maintain insulin sensitivity between adipo-cytes.The present review summarize that PPARs mediate the regulation of energy metabolism by long-chain fatty acids.

  12. Synthesis and catalysis property of Gemini surfactants with ester based long-chain fatty alcohol%含长链脂肪醇酯基双子表面活性剂合成及催化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁效明; 潘忠稳; 何领; 李凯波; 刘玉莹

    2012-01-01

    Three Gemini surfactants (C12, C14, C16) with ester based long-chain fatty alcohol were prepared by reacting bis ( ( dimethylamino) methyl) phthalate with dodecyl 2 - chloroacetate, tetradecyl 2 -chloroacetate and hexadecyl 2-chloroacetate respectively with 80% yield in acetone for refluxing 36 h . The purity was measured by two-phase chemical titration analysis, and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) values were 2.6×l0-4, 3.6×l0-5, 8.02×l0-6 by measuring the electrical conductivity. The phase transfer catalysis property of (C16) was studied by reaction of 4-methyl benzyl chloride with sodium acetate. It was founded that C16 had good catalysis property when reaction activation energy ( Ea) was 18. 59 kJ · mol-1 lower than the blank at C b =0.004 394 mol · L-1.%以丙酮为溶剂,二(二甲基胺基乙基)邻苯二甲酸酯分别与氯乙酸正十二醇酯、氯乙酸正十四醇酯及氯乙酸正十六醇酯回流反应36 h,得到3种含长链脂肪醇酯基季铵盐双子表面活性剂C12、C14、C16,收率80%.采用两相滴定法测定了其纯度,采用电导法测定了其CMC值分别是2.6× 10-4、3.6×10-5,8.02× 10-6.在无水乙酸钠与对甲基氯苄反应中,研究了C16的催化性能.当其浓度为0.004 394 mol·L-1,该反应活化能(Ea)相对于不加催化剂降低了18.59 kJ·mol-1,具有良好的催化性能.

  13. 游离脂肪酸对滋养细胞线粒体长链脂肪酸氧化酶表达的影响%Effects of expression of mitochondria long-chain fatty acid oxidative enzyme with different chain lengths of free fatty acids in trophoblast cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓乐; 杨孜; 王晓晔; 王伽略; 武淑英

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨不同链长游离脂肪酸对人滋养细胞线粒体脂肪酸β氧化循环中长链三羟基酰基辅酶A脱氢酶(LCHAD)基因和蛋白表达变化的影响.方法 体外无血清培养人绒毛滋养细胞,将细胞分为五组,每组用不同链长脂肪酸孵育细胞,分别为无游离脂肪酸( F-FFA)、短链脂肪酸(SC-FFA)、中链脂肪酸(MC-FFA)、长链脂肪酸(LC-FFA)、极长链脂肪酸(VLC-FFA).采用实时荧光定量PCR和蛋白印迹法检测各组LCHAD基因和蛋白的表达变化.结果 与F-FFA、SC -FFA、MC-FFA 3组比较,LC-FFA组LCHAD基因和蛋白明显降低(P<0.05),VLC-FFA组LCHAD基因明显升高(P<0.05),而蛋白表达差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).F-FFA、SC-FFA、MC-FFA 3组之间LCHAD基因和蛋白表达差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).与LC-FFA组比较,VLC-FFA组LCHAD基因和蛋白明显升高(P<0.05).结论 游离脂肪酸对人滋养细胞线粒体脂肪酸β氧化循环LCHAD的基因蛋白表达变化存在影响;LC-FFA刺激下的胎盘滋养细胞中存在LC-FFA线粒体β-氧化代谢障碍.VLC-FFA与脂肪酸β-氧化代谢存在一定的相关性,其相互作用机制还有待进一步研究.短链、中链脂肪酸未显示对线粒体脂肪酸β-氧化代谢的影响.%Objective To explore the interacting mechanisms and influences of different chain lengths of fatty acids and the expression of mitochondria long-chain 3 hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) in trophoblast cells.Methods The serum-free trophoblast cells cultured in vitro were divided into 5 groups to receieve the stimulations of DMEM/F12 medium without FFA (F-FFA),short-chain fatty acids (SC-FFA),medium-chain fatty acids (MC-FFA),long-chain fatty acids (LC-FFA),very long-chain fatty acids (VLC-FFA).The expressions of mRNA and protein of LCHAD in trophoblast cells were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot.Results Compared with the F-FFA,SCFFA and MC-FFA groups,the expressions of gene and

  14. Feeding long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to obese leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA- cp rats modifies immune function and lipid-raft fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Megan R; Proctor, Spencer D; Field, Catherine J

    2009-05-01

    Dietary EPA and DHA modulate immunity and thereby may improve the aberrant immune function in obese states. To determine the effects of feeding fish oil (FO) containing EPA and DHA on splenocyte phospholipid (PL) and lipid-raft fatty acid composition, phenotypes and cytokine production, 14-week-old obese, leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA-cp rats (cp/cp; n 10) were randomised to one of three nutritionally adequate diets for 3 weeks: control (Ctl, 0 % EPA+DHA); low FO (LFO, 0.8 % (w/w) EPA+DHA); high FO (HFO, 1.4 % (w/w) EPA+DHA). Lean JCR:LA-cp (+/ - or +/+) rats (n 5) were fed the Ctl diet. Obese Ctl rats had a higher proportion of n-3 PUFA in splenocyte PL than lean rats fed the same diet (P JCR:LA-cp rats. Feeding FO lowered the ex vivo inflammatory response, without altering IL-2 production from ConA-stimulated splenocytes which may occur independent of leptin signalling.

  15. Lymphatic recovery of exogenous oleic acid in rats on long chain or specific structured triacylglycerol diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    Specific structured triacylglycerols, MLM (M = medium-chain fatty acid, L = long-chain fatty acid), rapidly deliver energy and long-chain fatty acids to the body and are used for longer periods in human enteral feeding. In the present study rats were fed diets of 10 wt% MLM or LLL (L = oleic acid...... structure and composition (P = 0.07). This study demonstrated that with a diet containing specific structured triacylglycerol, the lymphatic recovery of 18:1 n-9 after a single bolus of fat was dependent on the triacylglycerol structure of the bolus. This indicates that the lymphatic recovery of long...

  16. Identification of long chain dicarboxylic acids in the serum of two patients with Reye's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K J; Andresen, B D; Hilty, M D; Bianchine, J R

    1983-08-12

    Sera from two patients with Reye's Syndrome were analysed by computerized capillary gas chromatography--mass spectrometry profiling techniques. The most striking abnormalities were the accumulation of long chain dicarboxylic acids. Four saturated dicarboxylic acids (dodecanedioic, tetradecanedioic, hexadecanedioic, and octadecanedioic), and six unsaturated long chain dicarboxylic acids (dodecenedioic, tetradecenedioic, tetradecadienedioic, hexadecenedioic, octadecadienedioic, and octadecenedioic) were identified. The C16 and C13 dicarboxylic acids have never been reported for Reye's Syndrome or any other dicarboxylic acidemias. The data might reflect marked increase of extramitochondrial omega-oxidation of long chain fatty acids or impaired metabolism of omega-dicarboxylic acids formed in Reye's patients.

  17. 普洱茶对非酒精性脂肪肝大鼠肠道脂肪吸收及粘膜屏障的干预研究%Effect of Pu-erh Tea on Long Chain Fatty Acid Metabolism and Expression of Tight Junction Proteins in the Rat Model of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晟易; 童钰铃; 赵奕; 吕海鹏; 林智; 沈国丽; 孙婷; 宋震亚

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the influence of Pu-erh tea on the absorption of long chain fatty acids in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats was analyzed. Moreover, the possible interventional mechanism was also discussed. Thirty-six SD rats were randomly divided into three groups, normal group (NG), NAFLD group, and Pu-erh tea group (PTG), 12 rats for each group. All rats were killed after 8 weeks. Rat weight, liver index, serum lipid level, intestinal lipid absorption protein (CD36), tight junction proteins (Occludin, ZO-1), and TNF-α mRNA were measured. Compared with NAFLD group, rat weight and serum LDL-C in PTG were decreased by 16.12% and 42.59%, respectively. In addition, the expressions of CD36 and TNF-α mRNA in PTG were decreased, while occludin and ZO-1 mRNA expressions were increased. Our results suggest that Pu-erh tea can regulate the intestinal absorption of long chain fatty acids and the tight junction proteins in rats, and it is especially effective in prophylaxis against ‘the first attack’ in the early stage of NAFLD.%研究了普洱茶调控非酒精性脂肪肝大鼠肠道对长链脂肪酸的吸收,并探讨了其可能机制。将36只 SD大鼠随机分成正常对照组、脂肪肝模型组和普洱茶干预组,每组12只。实验第8周末处死所有大鼠,测定大鼠体质量、肝指数及血清血脂水平;采用定量 PCR 测定大鼠肠道黏膜脂质吸收相关蛋白细胞分化抗原36(Cluster of differentiation 36,CD36)、紧密连接相关蛋白如闭锁蛋白(Occludin)、紧密连接蛋白(Zonula occludens 1,ZO-1)和肿瘤坏死因子α(Tumor necrosis factor-α, TNF-α)基因表达水平。研究结果表明,与模型组相比,普洱茶组大鼠体质量和血清 LDL-C 水平分别下降了16.12%和42.59%;此外,普洱茶组大鼠小肠组织 CD36、TNF-α表达水平明显降低,而 Occludin、ZO-1表达水平明显升高。研究发现,普洱茶对 NAFLD大鼠肠道长链脂肪酸吸

  18. Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuernberg Karin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor β protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ζ expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

  19. Synthesis of Long Chain Unsaturated-alpha,omega-Dicarboxylic Acids from Renewable Materials via Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The self-metathesis reaction of soy, rapeseed, tall, and linseed oil fatty acids was investigated for the synthesis of symmetrical long-chain unsaturated-alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids. The metathesis reactions were carried out in the presence of a Grubbs catalyst under solvent-free conditions at a...

  20. Prevalence of Long-Chain 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, K; Ounap, K; Zordania, R;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) in the general Estonian population and among patients with symptoms suggestive of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects. We collected DNA from a cohort of 1,040 anonymous newborn blo...... prevalence of LCHADD in Estonia would be 1: 91,700....

  1. Effects of long-chain PUFA supplementation in infant formula on cognitive function in later childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Willatts (Peter); S. Forsyth (Stewart); C. Agostoni (Carlo); P. Casaer (Paul); E. Riva (Enrica); G. Boehm (Günther)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Evidence is accumulating that a dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) enhances the development of attention and efficient information processing in infants. However, it is uncertain whether LC-PUFAs in infancy influence cognitive development in l

  2. Effects of Supplementing Different Ratios of Short-medium Chain Fatty Acids and Long Chain Fatty Acids on the Immune Function in Mid-lactating Dairy Cows%日粮添加不同比例的中短链和长链脂肪酸对奶牛免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓燕; 卜登攀; 孙鹏; 崔海; 赵小伟; 孙妍; 赵国琦

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing different ratios of short-medium chain fatty acids (SMCFA) and long chain fatty acids (LCFA) on the immune function in mid-lactating dairy cows. Seventy-two Chinese Holstein cows were blocked by the milk yield, lactation day age and parity, and then assigned to six groups. The animals were fed 0 g/d, 400 g/d LCFA, 80 g/d SMCFA, 320 g/d LCFA, 400 g/d butter fat, 240 g/d SMCFA and 160 g/d LCFA and 400 g/d SMCFA respectively on the basis of ordinary diets for the control) group A, group B,group C, group D and group E. The experiment lasted 63 days and on the last day, blood samples were collected to determine the concentrations of serum IgA, IgG, IgM, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cytokines. The results showed that among all the groups, IgM and PGE2 were not affected by supplementing fatty acids (P>0. 05). The concentrations of IgA in group A was higher than that in groups B and E and the concentrations of IgG in groups B and D were higher than the other four groups (P<0. 05). Interleukin-4 and 10 increased after supplementing fatty acids, especially in group D(P<0. 01). In conclusion, supplementing fatty acids which consisted of 240 g/d SMCFA and 160 g/d LCFA could improve the immune functions in mid-lactating dairy cows well.%为探讨不同比例的中短链和长链脂肪酸混合物对奶牛免疫功能的影响,试验选用72头产奶量、胎次及泌乳日龄相近的中国荷斯坦奶牛,按随机区组试验设计,分为对照组和5个处理组,对照组饲喂基础日粮,处理组在基础日粮上分别添加400 g/d长链脂肪酸(LCFA,A组)、80 g/d中短链脂肪酸(SMCFA)+320 g/d LCFA(B组)、400 g/d黄油(C组)、240 g/dSMCFA+160 g/d LCFA(D组)及400 g/d SMCFA(E组).试验期为63 d,第1周为预试期,试验期最后1d采集血液样品,用于测定血清中免疫球蛋白及细胞因子的含量.结果显示,日粮添加不同比例的中短链和长链脂肪酸对奶牛血

  3. Effect of intakes of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy and early childhood оn development, morbidity and immunity of in infants in fist year of life: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: at present, there are considered the efficient mechanisms existed by which diets high in n-3 LC PUFAs during pregnancy and early childhood may modulate the development of innative immune disorders and promote the adequate formation of immune system both on general and local levels. Early availability of n-3 LC PUFA could contribute to the normal growth and development, decrease risk factors of diseases or pathological disorders in infants. Goals: to assess the relationship between n-3 LC PUFAs intakes during pregnancy and postnatally and development, morbidity and immunity of infants in first year of life. A retrospective study was conducted using interview method of 300 women, whose children reached the age of one year. Elaborated questionnaires were filled in by pediatricians throughout their daily working hours while attending the patients. Was conducted assessment of frequency of common diseases and disorders like respiratory diseases, functional intestinal disorders and atopic diseases. Were investigated immunity of infants assessing the content of IgA, IgG and IgM by immunological methods and detected DHA, EPA (n-3 LC PUFAs and AA (n-6 LC PUFAs by gas chromatographic analysis in blood serum of children. The outcomes of the study were analysed and processed using statistical methods. Retrospective clinical findings indicate on higher incidence of acute respiratory tract and atopic diseases as well as functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in infants whose mothers did not use seafood in their diets during the pregnancy and in the lactating period. The research of immunity of children showed no difference in concentration of IgG and IgM in blood serum (p >> 0,05 but significant difference for IgA concentrations in plasma. In infants of n-3 LC PUFAs group IgA concentration was higher compared to opposite group. The fatty acid composition of the blood serum showed changes in the content of the main representatives of n-3

  4. Evaluation of the impact of genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes on the association between methylmercury or n-3 polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberg Margareta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which are present in fish, are protective against myocardial infarction. However, fish also contains methylmercury, which influences the risk of myocardial infarction, possibly by generating oxidative stress. Methylmercury is metabolized by conjugation to glutathione, which facilitates elimination. Glutathione is also an antioxidant. Individuals with certain polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes may tolerate higher exposures to methylmercury, due to faster metabolism and elimination and/or better glutathione-associated antioxidative capacity. They would thus benefit more from the protective agents in fish, such as eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and selenium. The objective for this study was to elucidate whether genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes modify the association between eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or methylmercury and risk of first ever myocardial infarction. Methods Polymorphisms in glutathione-synthesizing (glutamyl-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, GCLC and glutamyl-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, GCLM or glutathione-conjugating (glutathione S-transferase P, GSTP1 genes were genotyped in 1027 individuals from northern Sweden (458 cases of first-ever myocardial infarction and 569 matched controls. The impact of these polymorphisms on the association between erythrocyte-mercury (proxy for methylmercury and risk of myocardial infarction, as well as between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and risk of myocardial infarction, was evaluated by conditional logistic regression. The effect of erythrocyte-selenium on risk of myocardial infarction was also taken into consideration. Results There were no strong genetic modifying effects on the association between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury and risk of myocardial infarction risk. When eicosapentaenoic

  5. Long-chain n-3 PUFA: plant v. marine sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christine M; Burdge, Graham

    2006-02-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the long-chain n-3 PUFA, EPA and DHA, to cardiovascular health, and in the case of DHA to normal neurological development in the fetus and the newborn, has focused greater attention on the dietary supply of these fatty acids. The reason for low intakes of EPA and DHA in most developed countries (0.1-0.5 g/d) is the low consumption of oily fish, the richest dietary source of these fatty acids. An important question is whether dietary intake of the precursor n-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (alphaLNA), can provide sufficient amounts of tissue EPA and DHA by conversion through the n-3 PUFA elongation-desaturation pathway. alphaLNA is present in marked amounts in plant sources, including green leafy vegetables and commonly-consumed oils such as rape-seed and soyabean oils, so that increased intake of this fatty acid would be easier to achieve than via increased fish consumption. However, alphaLNA-feeding studies and stable-isotope studies using alphaLNA, which have addressed the question of bioconversion of alphaLNA to EPA and DHA, have concluded that in adult men conversion to EPA is limited (approximately 8%) and conversion to DHA is extremely low (<0.1%). In women fractional conversion to DHA appears to be greater (9%), which may partly be a result of a lower rate of utilisation of alphaLNA for beta-oxidation in women. However, up-regulation of the conversion of EPA to DHA has also been suggested, as a result of the actions of oestrogen on Delta6-desaturase, and may be of particular importance in maintaining adequate provision of DHA in pregnancy. The effect of oestrogen on DHA concentration in pregnant and lactating women awaits confirmation.

  6. Long chain branching on linear polypropylene by solid state reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsig, E.; Gotsis, A. D.; Picchioni, F.

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for the long chain branching (LCB) of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) via modification in the solid state. PP long chains have been linked as branches to the original linear iPP chains using solid state reactions in the presence of a free radical initiator and a multifunctional

  7. The older people, omega-3, and cognitive health (EPOCH trial design and methodology: A randomised, double-blind, controlled trial investigating the effect of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive ageing and wellbeing in cognitively healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Carlene

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have suggested an association between omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs and better cognitive outcomes in older adults. To date, only two randomised, controlled trials have assessed the effect of n-3 LC PUFA supplementation on cognitive function in older cognitively healthy populations. Of these trials only one found a benefit, in the subgroup carrying the ApoE-ε4 allele. The benefits of n-3 LC PUFA supplementation on cognitive function in older normal populations thus still remain unclear. The main objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the potential of n-3 LC PUFAs to slow cognitive decline in normal elderly people, and included ApoE-ε4 allele carriage as a potential moderating factor. The detailed methodology of the trial is reported herein. Methods The study was a parallel, 18-month, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention with assessment at baseline and repeated 6-monthly. Participants (N = 391, 53.7% female aged 65-90 years, English-speaking and with normal cognitive function, were recruited from metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. Participants in the intervention arm received capsules containing fish-oil at a daily dosage of 1720 mg of docosahexaenoic acid and 600 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid while the placebo arm received the equivalent amount of olive oil in their capsules. The primary outcome is rate of change in cognitive performance, as measured by latent variables for the cognitive constructs (encompassing Reasoning, Working Memory, Short-term Memory, Retrieval Fluency, Inhibition, Simple and Choice-Reaction Time, Perceptual Speed, Odd-man-out Reaction Time, Speed of Memory Scanning, and Psychomotor Speed and assessed by latent growth curve modeling. Secondary outcomes are change in the Mini-mental State Examination, functional capacity and well-being (including health status, depression, mood, and self

  8. Meta-analysis of effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of pregnant women on head circumference of newborn infants%孕期补充n-3长链多不饱和脂肪酸对婴儿出生头围影响的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓娟; 谢林; 刘国良; 杨镜玉

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨孕妇补充n-3长链多不饱和脂肪酸(n-3 LC-PUFA)对婴儿出生头围的影响.方法 以n-3长链多不饱和脂肪酸、孕妇、婴儿、头围、n-3、LC-PUFA、DHA、EPA、docosahexaenoic acid、eicosapentaenoic acid、fish oil,pregnancy、infant为检索词,分别检索PubMed数据库、Cochrane图书馆、中国期刊全文数据库、万方数据库,搜集研究孕妇摄取n-3 LC-PUFA与婴儿出生头围关联性的随机对照研究全文文献,并进行筛选.应用RevMan 5.0软件对符合纳入标准的8篇文献进行分析,应用方差倒数法计算加权均数差,并对结果进行敏感性分析.结果 共纳入8篇文献,全部为英文文献,其中6篇来自发达国家,2篇来自发展中国家.入选文献年限跨度为2001-2011年.干预组(补充n-3 LC-PUFA)共有871名研究对象,对照组(不补充n-3LC-PUFA或使用安慰剂)共有894名研究对象.孕妇补充n-3 LC-PUFA对婴儿出生头围影响的加权均数差为0.17 cm,其95% CI值为(0.01 ~0.32)cm,P<0.05.进行敏感性分析后,加权均数差为0.16 cm,95%CI值为(-0.01 ~0.34)cm,P=0.07.合并结果漏斗图基本对称,纳入的文献不存在发表偏倚,具有较好的代表性.结论 目前的资料尚不能确认孕期补充n-3LC-PUFA可增加婴儿的出生头围.%Objective To evaluate systematically the effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) supplementation of pregnant women on head circumference of newborn infants.Methods A thorough literature search was done for full texts which studied the effect of n-3LC-PUFA supplementation of pregnant women on head circumference of newborn infants among PubMed,Cochrane Library,Chinese periodical full text database and Wanfang database using the mesh terms as n-3,long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids,DHA,EPA,docosahexaenoic acid,eicosapentaenoic acid,fish oil,pregnancy,infant.Only randomized controlled trials were chosen for analysis.A total of 74 relevant articles were

  9. Genes involved in long-chain alkene biosynthesis in Micrococcus luteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, Harry R.; Goh, Ee-Been; Keasling, Jay D.

    2010-01-07

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are highly appealing targets for advanced cellulosic biofuels, as they are already predominant components of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuels. We have studied alkene biosynthesis in Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, a close relative of Sarcina lutea (now Kocuria rhizophila), which four decades ago was reported to biosynthesize iso- and anteiso branched, long-chain alkenes. The underlying biochemistry and genetics of alkene biosynthesis were not elucidated in those studies. We show here that heterologous expression of a three-gene cluster from M. luteus (Mlut_13230-13250) in a fatty-acid overproducing E. coli strain resulted in production of long-chain alkenes, predominantly 27:3 and 29:3 (no. carbon atoms: no. C=C bonds). Heterologous expression of Mlut_13230 (oleA) alone produced no long-chain alkenes but unsaturated aliphatic monoketones, predominantly 27:2, and in vitro studies with the purified Mlut_13230 protein and tetradecanoyl-CoA produced the same C27 monoketone. Gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry confirmed the elemental composition of all detected long-chain alkenes and monoketones (putative intermediates of alkene biosynthesis). Negative controls demonstrated that the M. luteus genes were responsible for production of these metabolites. Studies with wild-type M. luteus showed that the transcript copy number of Mlut_13230-13250 and the concentrations of 29:1 alkene isomers (the dominant alkenes produced by this strain) generally corresponded with bacterial population over time. We propose a metabolic pathway for alkene biosynthesis starting with acyl-CoA (or -ACP) thioesters and involving decarboxylative Claisen condensation as a key step, which we believe is catalyzed by OleA. Such activity is consistent with our data and with the homology (including the conserved Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad) of Mlut_13230 (OleA) to FabH (?-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III), which catalyzes decarboxylative Claisen condensation during

  10. EFFECT OF FREE FATTY ACIDS ON LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE 1 EXPRESSION LEVEL AND LIPID METABOLISM IN LIVER CELLS%游离脂肪酸对肝细胞ACSL1表达及相关脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 施文荣; 洪振丰; 郑海音; 李颖

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究游离脂肪酸(FFA)的诱导对L02肝细胞长链脂酰CoA合成酶1(ACSL1)的表达及相关代谢的影响.方法 用含不同浓度(0.2、0.4、0.8 mmol/L) FFA的培养液诱导L02细胞48 h,Western blot检测ACSL1蛋白水平,荧光定量PCR检测ACSL1 mRNA水平,比色法测定甘油三酯(TG)含量、ATP水平和培养上清FFA浓度变化,生化法测定酮体含量和培养上清葡萄糖浓度变化.结果 FFA的诱导可显著提高ACSL1蛋白表达水平(P<0.01),但对ACSL1 mRNA水平无明显影响(P>0.05),细胞内TG含量显著升高(P<0.01或P<0.05),酮体含量显著升高(P<0.05),培养上清葡萄糖消耗显著增加(P<0.01),胞内ATP水平无明显变化(P>0.05),与0.2 mmol/L、0.4 mmol/L FFA组相比,0.8 mmol/L FFA组培养上清FFA消耗显著增加(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论 FFA通过上调ACSL1蛋白表达水平致肝细胞TG蓄积.%Objective To investigate the effect of free fatty acids (FFA) on long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase l(ACSL1) expression level and lipid metabolism in L02 cells.Methods The cells were treated by FFA (0.2,0.4,0.8 mmol/L) for 48 h.ACSL1 mRNA level was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and protein level by Western blotting.Cellular triglyceride (TG),ketone bodies (Ket),ATP and consumption of FFA and glucose in culture supernatant were measured.Results Compared with normal control group,treatment of L02 cells with FFA did not affect ACSL1 mRNA expression level but significantly increased ACSL1 protein expression level.TG content,Ket level and consumption of glucose in culture supernatant were significantly higher and ATP level was not affected.Compared with 0.2 and 0.4 mmol/L FFA group,the consumption of FFA in culture supernatant was significantly higher in treatment with 0.8 mmol/L FFA.Conclusion FFA induced intracellular TG accumulation by up-regulating ACSL1 protein level in L02 cells.

  11. La sustitución eucalórica de triglicéridos de cadena larga por triglicéridos de cadena media mejora la composición corporal y el perfil lipídico en un paciente con lipodistrofia asociada al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana Eucaloric substitution of medium chain triglycerides for dietary long chain fatty acids improves body composition and lipid profile in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus lipodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vázquez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La lipodistrofia asociada a la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH es una patología frecuente, caracterizada por una pérdida de tejido adiposo en las extremidades, región glútea y cara, junto con un depósito excesivo del mismo en el cuello y abdomen. La coexistencia de dislipemia y diabetes mellitus en la lipodistrofia asociada al VIH es también frecuente, y aumenta el riesgo cardiovascular de los pacientes que la padecen. Aunque hay tratamientos disponibles para las alteraciones metabólicas asociadas, hasta la fecha no existen terapias con un claro beneficio demostrado para la lipodistrofia. Caso clínico: Un paciente de 42 años con lipodistrofia asociada al VIH fue inicialmente tratado con dieta hipocalórica (Background: Lipodystrophy is a frequent disorder among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, characterized by a loss of adipose tissue from the extremities, gluteal region and face, with excess fat in the neck and abdominal region. Metabolic abnormalities such as hyperlipidaemia and diabetes mellitus frequently coexist, posing these patients to an increased cardiovascular risk. Drug therapy may improve some of these metabolic disturbances, but to date there are no treatments for lipodystrophy with proven benefit. Case report: A 42 year old man with HIV lipodystrophy was started on a standard low caloric diet with <30% of total fat and < 10% of saturated fat, together with rosiglitazone 8 mg daily. After five months of treatment, given that lipodystrophic features and dyslipidaemia were still present in our patient, we tried to further improve therapeutic results by eucaloric substitution of medium chain triglycerides for dietary long chain fatty acids. Three months later, a dramatic change in body composition was shown with an increase in lean mass and a decrease in fat mass, together with an improvement in lipid profile. Conclusion: Eucaloric substitution of medium chain

  12. Very long-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency which was accepted as infanticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminoglu, Tuba F; Tumer, Leyla; Okur, Ilyas; Ezgu, Fatih S; Biberoglu, Gursel; Hasanoglu, Alev

    2011-07-15

    Very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) (OMIM #201475) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation. Major phenotypic expressions are hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, elevated creatinine kinase, and lipid infiltration of liver and muscle. At the same time, it is a rare cause of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) or unexplained death in the neonatal period [1-4]. We report a patient with VLCADD whose parents were investigated for infanticide because her three previous siblings had suddenly died after normal deliveries.

  13. Increased and early lipolysis in children with long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency during fast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglind, C Bieneck; Nordenström, A; Ask, S; von Döbeln, U; Gustafsson, J; Stenlid, M Halldin

    2015-03-01

    Children with long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHAD) have a defect in the degradation of long-chain fatty acids and are at risk of hypoketotic hypoglycemia and insufficient energy production as well as accumulation of toxic fatty acid intermediates. Knowledge on substrate metabolism in children with LCHAD deficiency during fasting is limited. Treatment guidelines differ between centers, both as far as length of fasting periods and need for night feeds are concerned. To increase the understanding of fasting intolerance and improve treatment recommendations, children with LCHAD deficiency were investigated with stable isotope technique, microdialysis, and indirect calometry, in order to assess lipolysis and glucose production during 6 h of fasting. We found an early and increased lipolysis and accumulation of long chain acylcarnitines after 4 h of fasting, albeit no patients developed hypoglycemia. The rate of glycerol production, reflecting lipolysis, averaged 7.7 ± 1.6 µmol/kg/min, which is higher compared to that of peers. The rate of glucose production was normal for age; 19.6 ± 3.4 µmol/kg/min (3.5 ± 0.6 mg/kg/min). Resting energy expenditure was also normal, even though the respiratory quotient was increased indicating mainly glucose oxidation. The results show that lipolysis and accumulation of long chain acylcarnitines occurs before hypoglycemia in fasting children with LCHAD, which may indicate more limited fasting tolerance than previously suggested.

  14. Long-chain carboxylic acids in pyrolysates of Green River kerogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, K.; Tannenbaum, E.; Huizinga, B. J.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1986-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acids (C10-C32), as well as C14-C21 isoprenoid acids (except for C18), have been identified in anhydrous and hydrous pyrolyses products of Green River kerogen (200-400 degrees C, 2-1000 hr). These kerogen-released fatty acids are characterized by a strong even/odd predominance (CPI: 4.8-10.2) with a maximum at C16 followed by lesser amounts of C18 and C22 acids. This distribution is different from that of unbound and bound geolipids extracted from Green River shale. The unbound fatty acids show a weak even/odd predominance (CPI: 1.64) with a maximum at C14, and bound fatty acids display an even/odd predominance (CPI: 2.8) with maxima at C18 and C30. These results suggest that fatty acids were incorporated into kerogen during sedimentation and early diagenesis and were protected from microbial and chemical changes over geological periods of time. Total quantities of fatty acids produced during heating of the kerogen ranged from 0.71 to 3.2 mg/g kerogen. Highest concentrations were obtained when kerogen was heated with water for 100 hr at 300 degrees C. Generally, their amounts did not decrease under hydrous conditions with increase in temperature or heating time, suggesting that significant decarboxylation did not occur under the pyrolysis conditions used, although hydrocarbons were extensively generated.

  15. Plasma very long chain fatty acids levels and its relationship with obesity, insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome women%多囊卵巢综合征患者超长链脂肪酸的变化及其与肥胖、胰岛素抵抗的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲娇; 吴静; 张婉; 粱逸珍; 王珊; 吴良燕; 汶倩

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes in plasma very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients,and further to explore its relationship with obesity and insulin resistance.Methods Two hundred and five PCOS patients were screened out according to the diagnostic criteria of Rotterdam conference (2003),aged 18-40 years.A group of 117 healthy infertile women of corresponding period was taken as control.These women were chosen randomly from reproductive center due to the problems of uterine tube or males.The plasma hormone levels were examined.Ten kinds of plasma VLCFAs were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).Data between two groups analysis was performed by t test.Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to analysize multiple factors of measurement data.Results Compared with normal individuals,plasma VLCFAs levels was disorder in PCOS patients.There is a lower C20:4n-6/C20:3n-6 in VLCFAs of PCOS patients,and a higher C20:1n-9,C20:2n-7,C20:3n-6,C22:4n-6,C20:5n-3,C22:5n-3 and C22:6n-3,compared with the control group(t =0.539-6.155,all P < 0.05).In the PCOS group,compared with non-obese patients,obese patients had a higher C20:0,and lower C20:3n-6 and C20:2n-7 (t =-0.927,2.452,0.767,both P < 0.05).Compared with non insulin resistance group,patients with insulin resistance had a higher C20:0 and lower C20:2n-7 and C22:5n-3 levels (t =-2.064,2.195,2.183,both P<0.05).Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that C20:2n-7 and C20:0 were independent risk factors of obesity and insulin resistance,respectively.Conclusions Disturbance metabolism of VLCFA existed in the PCOS patients.The decrease of C20:2n-7 was probably an influence factor of obesity in PCOS patients and the increase of C20:0 was probably an influence factor of insulin resistance in PCOS patients.%目的 了解多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者血浆超长链脂肪酸(VLCFAs)的变化,并分析各种脂肪酸与肥胖、

  16. Biodiscovery of new Australian thraustochytrids for production of biodiesel and long-chain omega-3 oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Chang, Kim Jye [CSIRO, Hobart, TAS (Australia). Energy Transformed National Research Flagship; CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia). School of Plant Science; Dunstan, Graeme A.; Blackburn, Susan I. [CSIRO, Hobart, TAS (Australia). Energy Transformed National Research Flagship; CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Abell, Guy C.J.; Clementson, Lesley A. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Nichols, Peter D. [CSIRO, Hobart, TAS (Australia). Food Futures National Research Flagship; CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Koutoulis, Anthony [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia). School of Plant Science

    2012-03-15

    Heterotrophic growth of thraustochytrids has potential in co-producing a feedstock for biodiesel and long-chain (LC, {>=}C{sub 20}) omega-3 oils. Biodiscovery of thraustochytrids from Tasmania (temperate) and Queensland (tropical), Australia, covered a biogeographic range of habitats including fresh, brackish, and marine waters. A total of 36 thraustochytrid strains were isolated and separated into eight chemotaxonomic groups (A-H) based on fatty acid (FA) and sterol composition which clustered closely with four different genera obtained by 18S rDNA molecular identification. Differences in the relative proportions (%FA) of long-chain C{sub 20}, C{sub 22}, omega-3, and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and saturated FA, as well as the presence of odd-chain PUFA (OC-PUFA) were the major factors influencing the separation of these groups. OC-PUFA were detected in temperate strains of groups A, B, and C (Schizochytrium and Thraustochytrium). Group D (Ulkenia) had high omega-3 LC-PUFA (53% total fatty acids (TFA)) and EPA up to 11.2% TFA. Strains from groups E and F (Aurantiochytrium) contained DHA levels of 50-61% TFA after 7 days of growth in basal medium at 20 C. Groups G and H (Aurantiochytrium) strains had high levels of 15:0 (20-30% TFA) and the sum of saturated FA was in the range of 32-51%. {beta},{beta}-Carotene, canthaxanthin, and astaxanthin were identified in selected strains. Phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic groupings demonstrated similar patterns for the majority of strains. Our results demonstrate the potential of these new Australian thraustochytrids for the production of biodiesel in addition to omega-3 LC-PUFA-rich oils. (orig.)

  17. Synthesis of Some New Long-chain Salen Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; JinCai

    2001-01-01

    In the research of enantioselective epoxidation of unfunctionalized alkenes using Salen compounds, Katasuki1 and Jacobsen2 pointed out that 3 and 3′ groups of Salen were very important to increase the e.e of the catalytic product. Recently, in order to explore useful information concerning molecular design of metal catalysts for enantioselective epoxidation of trans-disubstituted alkenes, which remains an unresolved problem in the field of metal-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation of unfunctionalized alkenes,some new Salen compounds containing long-chain in 3 and 3′ were designed and synthesized. We think these 3 and 3′ long-chain groups not only do as bulky group, but also act as second introduced chiral source. The following is the route:  ……

  18. Long-chain acyl-CoA-dependent regulation of gene expression in bacteria, yeast and mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, P N; Færgeman, Nils J.; DiRusso, C C

    2000-01-01

    signal that modulates gene expression. In the bacteria Escherichia coli, long-chain fatty acyl-CoA bind directly to the transcription factor FadR. Acyl-CoA binding renders the protein incapable of binding DNA, thus preventing transcription activation and repression of many genes and operons. In the yeast......). Both repression and activation are dependent upon the function of either of the acyl-CoA synthetases Faa1p or Faa4p. In mammals, purified hepatocyte nuclear transcription factor 4alpha (HNF-4alpha) like E. coli FadR, binds long chain acyl-CoA directly. Coexpression of HNF-4alpha and acyl-CoA synthetase...

  19. Long-chain acyl-CoA esters in metabolism and signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neess, Ditte; Sørensen, Signe Bek; Engelsby, Hanne;

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters are key intermediates in numerous lipid metabolic pathways, and recognized as important cellular signaling molecules. The intracellular flux and regulatory properties of acyl-CoA esters have been proposed to be coordinated by acyl-CoA-binding domain containing...... proteins (ACBDs). The ACBDs, which comprise a highly conserved multigene family of intracellular lipid-binding proteins, are found in all eukaryotes and ubiquitously expressed in all metazoan tissues, with distinct expression patterns for individual ACBDs. The ACBDs are involved in numerous intracellular...... studies have gained further insights into their in vivo functions and provided further evidence for ACBD-specific functions in cellular signaling and lipid metabolic pathways. This review summarizes the structural and functional properties of the various ACBDs, with special emphasis on the function...

  20. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Cinnamyl Long Chain Aroma Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worzakowska, Marta

    2015-06-08

    Cinnamyl long chain aroma esters were prepared by using the conventional and microwave-assisted methods. The esterification reaction of naturally occurring 3-phenyl-prop-2-en-1-ol and different chain lengths acidic and diol reagents was carried out at the temperature of 140 °C under solvent free conditions. As acidic reagents, oxolane-2,5-dione, oxane-2,6-dione, hexanedioic acid and decanedioic acid were applied. Ethane-1,2-diol and 2,2'-[oxybis(2,1-ethandiyloxy)]diethanol were used as diol reagents. The synthesis of high molecular mass cinnamyl esters under conventional method conditions requires a long time to obtain high yields. The studies confirm that by using microwave irradiation, it is possible to reduce the reaction times to only 10-20 min. The structures of prepared esters were confirmed on the basis of FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. In addition, the newly obtained cinnamyl long chain esters were tested for their thermal properties. The TG studies proved the high thermal resistance of the obtained esters under inert and oxidative conditions.

  1. New long chain bases in lipophosphonoglycan of Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaś, Magdalena A; Russa, Ryszard

    2013-06-01

    The polymer called lipophosphonoglycan (LPG) was isolated from Acanthamoeba castellanii membranes after exhaustive delipidation and butanol extraction. A novel extremely long phytosphingosine was revealed in glycoinositolphosphosphingolipid (GIPSL). All data obtained by gas-liquid chromatography coupled with MS analyses of products liberated during acid methanolysis and products of sodium metaperiodate and permanganate-periodate oxidations showed an unusual pattern of long chain bases (LCB) with branched bases (anteiso-C₂₄, anteiso-C₂₅, anteiso-C₂₆, iso-C₂₆, anteiso-C₂₇, and anteiso-C28) and normal ones (C₂₄, C₂₅, C₂₆, C₂₇). The phytosphingosines with hexa-, hepta-, and octacosanoic chains have not been detected in Acanthamoeba cells up to now. Also, the isomer configuration of long chain bases in LPG of A. castellanii was not defined in earlier reports. In the GC-MS chromatograms, the component forming a peak corresponding to anteiso-C₂₅ phytosphingosine was the most abundant and constituted more than 50 % of all LCB.

  2. Long-chain alkane production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhou, Yongjin J; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-06-01

    In the past decade industrial-scale production of renewable transportation biofuels has been developed as an alternative to fossil fuels, with ethanol as the most prominent biofuel and yeast as the production organism of choice. However, ethanol is a less efficient substitute fuel for heavy-duty and maritime transportation as well as aviation due to its low energy density. Therefore, new types of biofuels, such as alkanes, are being developed that can be used as drop-in fuels and can substitute gasoline, diesel, and kerosene. Here, we describe for the first time the heterologous biosynthesis of long-chain alkanes by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that elimination of the hexadecenal dehydrogenase Hfd1 and expression of a redox system are essential for alkane biosynthesis in yeast. Deletion of HFD1 together with expression of an alkane biosynthesis pathway resulted in the production of the alkanes tridecane, pentadecane, and heptadecane. Our study provides a proof of principle for producing long-chain alkanes in the industrial workhorse S. cerevisiae, which was so far limited to bacteria. We anticipate that these findings will be a key factor for further yeast engineering to enable industrial production of alkane based drop-in biofuels, which can allow the biofuel industry to diversify beyond bioethanol.

  3. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic..., PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3780 Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids. Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids identified in...

  4. Very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3: overexpression and growth dependence in lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtong Pei

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. In the United States, only one in six lung cancer patients survives five years after diagnosis. These statistics may improve if new therapeutic targets are identified. We previously reported that an enzyme of fatty acid metabolism, very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3 (ACSVL3, is overexpressed in malignant glioma, and that depleting glioblastoma cells of ACSVL3 diminishes their malignant properties. To determine whether ACSVL3 expression was also increased in lung cancer, we studied tumor histologic sections and lung cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal human lung showed moderate ACSVL3 expression only in bronchial epithelial cells. In contrast, all of 69 different lung tumors tested, including adeno-, squamous cell, large cell, and small cell carcinomas, had robustly elevated ACSVL3 levels. Western blot analysis of lung cancer cell lines derived from these tumor types also had significantly increased ACSVL3 protein compared to normal bronchial epithelial cells. Decreasing the growth rate of lung cancer cell lines did not change ACSVL3 expression. However, knocking down ACSVL3 expression by RNA interference reduced cell growth rates in culture by 65-76%, and the ability of tumor cells to form colonies in soft agar suspension by 65-80%. We also conducted studies to gain a better understanding of the biochemical properties of human ACSVL3. ACSVL3 mRNA was detected in many human tissues, but the expression pattern differed somewhat from that of the mouse. The enzyme activated long- and very long-chain saturated fatty acid substrates, as well as long-chain mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids to their respective coenzyme A derivatives. Endogenous human ACSVL3 protein was found in a punctate subcellular compartment that partially colocalized with mitochondria as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation. From these studies, we conclude

  5. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the mouse brain cytosolic long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serek, Robert; Forwood, Jade K. [School of Molecular and Microbial Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Hume, David A. [School of Molecular and Microbial Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Chronic Inflammatory Diseases, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Special Research Centre for Functional and Applied Genomics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Martin, Jennifer L.; Kobe, Bostjan, E-mail: b.kobe@uq.edu.au [School of Molecular and Microbial Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Special Research Centre for Functional and Applied Genomics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2006-02-01

    The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized by vapour diffusion. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution. The mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase, the enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to free fatty acids, contains two fused 4HBT (4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA thioesterase) motifs. The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase (Acot7) has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized. The crystals were obtained by vapour diffusion using PEG 2000 MME as precipitant at pH 7.0 and 290 K. The crystals have the symmetry of space group R32 (unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.83, c = 99.82 Å, γ = 120°). Two molecules are expected in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution using the laboratory X-ray source and are suitable for crystal structure determination.

  6. Synthesis and stereochemistry of long-chain quinoxaline metallocyclophanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Mark J; Heirtzler, Fenton R; Dias, Sandra I G

    2008-04-04

    Condensation of 1,2-diamino-4,5-bis(n-alkoxy)arenes with an oligopyridyl-type alpha-diketone afforded a series of long-chain pyridine-quinoxaline hybrids. These were evaluated for their ability to self-assemble with tetrahedral Cu(I) and Ag(I) to form dimeric, double-decker amphiphillic complexes having a flattened metallocyclophane topology. Detailed NOESY and T1 relaxation time experimentation showed that the configuration of the dicopper(I) complexes corresponds to inversion (meso) symmetry, which leads to an extended molecular shape, wherein the alkoxy chains of the individual ligand components lie on opposite sides of the metallocyclophane core, as opposed to the same side. Preliminary measurements show that the disilver(I) complexes having nC12H25 and nC18H37 chains exhibit reversible melting processes and undergo two endothermic transitions each, at 189/237 and 59/80 degrees C, respectively.

  7. Assessment of the environmental risk of long chain alcohols (LCOH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belanger, Scott; Sanderson, Hans; Fisk, Peter

    2009-01-01

    rapidly in the environment (half-lives on the order of minutes); however, due to continuous use and distribution to wastewater treatment systems, partitioning properties, biodegradation of alcohol-based surfactants, and natural alcohol sources, LCOH are universally detected in wastewater effluents......An environmental assessment of long-chain alcohols (LCOH) has recently been conducted under the OECD SIDS High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Aliphatic Alcohols Consortium. LCOH are used primarily as intermediates, as a precursor...... to alcohol-based surfactants and as alcohol per se in a wide variety of consumer product applications. Global production volume is approximately 1.58 million metric tonnes. The OECD HPV assessment covers linear to slightly branched LCOH ranging from 6 to 22 alkyl carbons (C). LCOH biodegrade exceptionally...

  8. Ultrafast excited state relaxation in long-chain polyenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antognazza, Maria Rosa, E-mail: mariarosa.antognazza@polimi.it [Center for Nano Science and Technology of IIT-PoliMI, via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lueer, Larry [National Laboratory for Ultrafast and Ultraintense Optical Science, CNR-INFM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, P.za L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Madrid Institute of Advanced Studies, IMDEA Nanociencia, Faculdad de Ciencias, Av. Tomas y Valiente 7, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Polli, Dario [National Laboratory for Ultrafast and Ultraintense Optical Science, CNR-INFM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, P.za L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Christensen, Ronald L. [Department of Chemistry, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 04011 (United States); Schrock, Richard R. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lanzani, Guglielmo [Center for Nano Science and Technology of IIT-PoliMI, via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); National Laboratory for Ultrafast and Ultraintense Optical Science, CNR-INFM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, P.za L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Cerullo, Giulio [National Laboratory for Ultrafast and Ultraintense Optical Science, CNR-INFM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, P.za L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2010-07-19

    Graphical abstract: Excited state dynamics of a long-chain polyene studied by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. - Abstract: We present a comprehensive study, by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy, of excited state dynamics in a polyene that approaches the infinite chain limit. By excitation with sub-10-fs pulses resonant with the 0-0 S{sub 0} {yields} S{sub 2} transition, we observe rapid loss of stimulated emission from the bright excited state S{sub 2}, followed by population of the hot S{sub 1} state within 150 fs. Vibrational cooling of S{sub 1} takes place within 500 fs and is followed by decay back to S{sub 0} with 1 ps time constant. By excitation with excess vibrational energy we also observe the ultrafast formation of a long-living absorption, that is assigned to the triplet state generated by singlet fission.

  9. Human health risk assessment of long chain alcohols (LCOH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veenstra, Gauke; Sanderson, Hans; Webb, Catherine;

    2009-01-01

    Representative chemicals from the long chain alcohols category have been extensively tested to define their toxicological hazard properties. These chemicals show low acute and repeat dose toxicity with high-dose effects (if any) related to minimal liver toxicity. These chemicals do not show...... evidence of activity in genetic toxicity tests or to the reproductive system or the developing organism. These chemicals also are not sensitizers. Irritation is dependant on chain length; generally, alcohols in the range C6-C11 are considered as irritant, intermediate chain lengths (C12-C16) alcohols...... are considered to be mild irritants and chain lengths of C18 and above are considered non-irritants. These chemicals are broadly used across the consumer products industry with highest per person consumer exposures resulting from use in personal care products. Margins of exposure adequate for the protection...

  10. Anaerobic degradation of long-chain alkylamines by a denitrifying Pseudomonas stutzeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong D; van Ginkel, Cornelis G; Plugge, Caroline M

    2008-10-01

    The anaerobic degradation of tetradecylamine and other long-chain alkylamines by a newly isolated denitrifying bacterium was studied. Strain ZN6 was isolated from a mixture of soil and active sludge and was identified as representing Pseudomonas stutzeri, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain ZN6 was a mesophilic, motile, Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium and was able to grow on a variety of compounds including even-numbered primary fatty amines with alkyl chains ranging from C(4) to C(18) coupled to nitrate reduction. Alkylamines were used as sole carbon, energy and nitrogen source and were completely mineralized. Nitrate was dissimilated by ZN6 to nitrite. When strain ZN6 was grown under nitrate limitation, nitrite was slowly dissimilated further. When cocultivated with the complete denitrifier Castellaniella defragens ZN3, anaerobic degradation under denitrifying of alkylamines by strain ZN6 was slightly faster. Strain ZN3 is a complete denitrifier, unable to convert tetradecylamine, and was copurified from the same enrichment culture as strain ZN6. The proposed pathway for the degradation of alkylamines in strain ZN6 starts with C-N cleavages to alkanals and further oxidation to the corresponding fatty acids.

  11. Influência do treinamento físico aeróbio no transporte mitocondrial de ácidos graxos de cadeia longa no músculo esquelético: papel do complexo carnitina palmitoil transferase Influence of aerobic physical training in the motochondrial transport of long chain fatty acids in the skeletal muscle: role of the carnitine palmitoil transferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Shimura Yamashita

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O ácido graxo (AG é uma importante fonte de energia para o músculo esquelético. Durante o exercício sua mobilização é aumentada para suprir as necessidades da musculatura ativa. Acredita-se que diversos pontos de regulação atuem no controle da oxidação dos AG, sendo o principal a atividade do complexo carnitina palmitoil transferase (CPT, entre os quais três componentes estão envolvidos: a CPT I, a CPT II e carnitina acilcarnitina translocase. A função da CPT I durante o exercício físico é controlar a entrada de AG para o interior da mitocôndria, para posterior oxidação do AG e produção de energia. Em resposta ao treinamento físico há um aumento na atividade e expressão da CPT I no músculo esquelético. Devido sua grande importância no metabolismo de lipídios, os mecanismos que controlam sua atividade e sua expressão gênica são revisados no presente estudo. Reguladores da expressão gênica de proteínas envolvidas no metabolismo de lipídios no músculo esquelético, os receptores ativados por proliferadores de peroxissomas (PPAR alfa e beta, são discutidos com um enfoque na resposta ao treinamento físico.Fatty acids are an important source of energy for the skeletal muscle. During exercise, their mobilization is increased to supply the muscle energetic needs. Many points of regulation act in the fatty acids metabolism, where the carnitine palmytoiltransferase (CPT complex is the main control system. Three compounds named CPT I, CPT II and carnitine acyl carnitine translocase (CACT are components of this system. Its function is to control the influx of fatty acids inside the mitochondria for posterior oxidation and energy production. There is a pronounced increase in both activity and gene expression of CPT I in the skeletal muscle in response to exercise. Due to its importance in lipid metabolism, the controlling mechanisms are reviewed in the present study. The modulation of gene expression by peroxisome

  12. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2016-11-04

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction with the first substrate produces a covalent cysteine-thioester tethered acyl group that is transferred to the second substrate through formation of a carbon-carbon bond. Although the basics of thiolase chemistry are precedented, the mechanism by which OleA accommodates two substrates with extended carbon chains and a coenzyme moiety—unusual for a thiolase—are unknown. Gaining insights into this process could enable manipulation of the system for large scale olefin production with hydrocarbon chains lengths equivalent to those of fossil fuels. In this study, mutagenesis of the active site cysteine in Xanthomonas campestris OleA (Cys143) enabled trapping of two catalytically relevant species in crystals. In the resulting structures, long chain alkyl groups (C12 and C14) and phosphopantetheinate define three substrate channels in a T-shaped configuration, explaining how OleA coordinates its two substrates and product. The C143A OleA co-crystal structure possesses a single bound acyl-CoA representing the Michaelis complex with the first substrate, whereas the C143S co-crystal structure contains both acyl-CoA and fatty acid, defining how a second substrate binds to the acyl-enzyme intermediate. An active site glutamate (Gluβ117) is positioned to deprotonate bound acyl-CoA and initiate carbon-carbon bond formation.

  13. Fragrances by selective oxidation of long-chain alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Villa; Carine E-Chan-Thaw; Marco Schiavoni; Sebastiano Campisi; Di Wang; Laura Prati

    2014-01-01

    The activity and the selectivity of Ru and Pt based carbon catalysts in the selective oxidation of long-chain aliphatic alcohols (C8, C10, C12) have been investigated. Ru/AC and Pt/AC always showed good initial activity, however deactivation phenomena rapidly depressed the catalytic per-formance of the catalysts. These phenomena can be limited by modification of Ru/AC and Pt/AC with Au improving the durability of the catalyst. Ru/AC and AuRu/AC showed good selectivity to the corresponding aldehyde (>95%) making these catalysts promising for fragrances manufactur-ing. The advantage in using Au modified catalyst lies on the easier regeneration procedure com-pared to the one necessary for Ru/AC. Pt/AC and AuPt/AC showed a lower selectivity to aldehyde promoting the formation of the acid and the ester formation respectively. The addition of water in the solvent system speeds up the reaction rate but drastically decreased the selectivity to aldehyde especially in the case of Pt based catalysts.

  14. The long-chain alkane metabolism network of Alcanivorax dieselolei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanpeng; Shao, Zongze

    2014-12-12

    Alkane-degrading bacteria are ubiquitous in marine environments, but little is known about how alkane degradation is regulated. Here we investigate alkane sensing, chemotaxis, signal transduction, uptake and pathway regulation in Alcanivorax dieselolei. The outer membrane protein OmpS detects the presence of alkanes and triggers the expression of an alkane chemotaxis complex. The coupling protein CheW2 of the chemotaxis complex, which is induced only by long-chain (LC) alkanes, sends signals to trigger the expression of Cyo, which participates in modulating the expression of the negative regulator protein AlmR. This change in turn leads to the expression of ompT1 and almA, which drive the selective uptake and hydroxylation of LC alkanes, respectively. AlmA is confirmed as a hydroxylase of LC alkanes. Additional factors responsible for the metabolism of medium-chain-length alkanes are also identified, including CheW1, OmpT1 and OmpT2. These results provide new insights into alkane metabolism pathways from alkane sensing to degradation.

  15. 78 FR 62443 - Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate Chemical Substances; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 9 and 721 RIN 2070-AJ95 Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl... new use rule (SNUR) for perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) chemical substances to add PFAS chemical.... EPA is also finalizing a SNUR for long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylate (LCPFAC) chemical...

  16. Sources and proxy potential of long chain alkyl diols in lacustrine environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rampen, Sebastiaan W.; Datema, Mariska; Rodrigo-Gámiz, M.; Schouten, Stefan; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Sinninghe Damste, Jaap S.

    2014-01-01

    Long chain 1,13- and 1,15-alkyl diols form the base of a number of recently proposed proxies used for climate reconstruction. However, the sources of these lipids and environmental controls on their distribution are still poorly constrained. We have analyzed the long chain alkyl diol (LCD) compositi

  17. Sources and proxy potential of long chain alkyl diols in lacustrine environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rampen, S.; Datema, M.; Rodrigo-Gámiz, M.; Schouten, S.; Reichart, G.-J.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Long chain 1,13- and 1,15-alkyl diols form the base of a number of recently proposed proxies used for climate reconstruction. However, the sources of these lipids and environmental controls on their distribution are still poorly constrained. We have analyzed the long chain alkyl diol (LCD) compositi

  18. Magnetic properties of cubic FeCo nanoparticles with anisotropic long chain structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinming; Wu, Kai; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Cubic FeCo alloy nanoparticles (NPs) with body-centered cubic (bcc) phase were prepared using sputter based gas-condensation method. When the NPs formed long chain assemblies, the magnetic properties were quite different from that of well-dispersed NPs. Most of the well-dispersed NPs were superparamagnetic at room temperature while the long chain NP assemblies were ferromagnetic with coercivities around 765 Oe, which displayed quite different magnetic properties. The ferromagnetism of long chain NPs was from the exchange coupling between NPs, which eventually led to the transition from superparamagnetism (SPM) to superferromagetism (SFM). Zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) curves were obtained and long chain NP assemblies displayed ferromagnetism at the temperature ranging from 10 K to 400 K. Time-dependent remanent magnetic moment curves also indicated that the long chain structure had better thermal stability due to the strong exchange coupling.

  19. Magnetic properties of cubic FeCo nanoparticles with anisotropic long chain structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinming Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cubic FeCo alloy nanoparticles (NPs with body-centered cubic (bcc phase were prepared using sputter based gas-condensation method. When the NPs formed long chain assemblies, the magnetic properties were quite different from that of well-dispersed NPs. Most of the well-dispersed NPs were superparamagnetic at room temperature while the long chain NP assemblies were ferromagnetic with coercivities around 765 Oe, which displayed quite different magnetic properties. The ferromagnetism of long chain NPs was from the exchange coupling between NPs, which eventually led to the transition from superparamagnetism (SPM to superferromagetism (SFM. Zero-field-cooled (ZFC and field-cooled (FC curves were obtained and long chain NP assemblies displayed ferromagnetism at the temperature ranging from 10 K to 400 K. Time-dependent remanent magnetic moment curves also indicated that the long chain structure had better thermal stability due to the strong exchange coupling.

  20. The molecular basis of ligand interaction at free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Brian D; Shimpukade, Bharat; Milligan, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    The long-chain fatty acid receptor FFA4 (previously GPR120) is receiving substantial interest as a novel target for the treatment of metabolic and inflammatory disease. This study examines for the first time the detailed mode of binding of both long-chain fatty acid and synthetic agonist ligands ...

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of some surface active agents from long chain fatty amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A. M. F.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study continues our series of synthesis of surface active agents containing heterocyclic moiety. NHeptadecanoyl- 3-(4-oxo-4H-benzo[d][1,3]oxazin-2-yl- acrylamide (4 was used as a new starting material to synthesize propenoxylated nonionic surface active agents having heterocycles such as (thiazole, triazole, benzoxazine, quinazoline, triazine, and oxazine. The structures of the prepared compounds were elucidated by using spectroscopic tools (IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectroscopy. Physical properties such as surface and interfacial tension, cloud point, foaming height, wetting time, emulsification power and critical micelle concentration (CMC were determined. Antimicrobial and biodegradability properties were also screened. It was found that the produced novel groups of nonionic surface active agents have pronounced surface properties and good antimicrobial activities.Este estudio continua nuestra serie sobre la síntesis de agentes surfactantes que contienen grupos heterociclicos. N-Heptadecanoyl-3-(4-oxo-4H-benzo[d][1,3]oxazin-2-yl- acrylamida (4 se usa como nueva materia prima para sintetizar surfactantes noiónico propenoxilado conteniendo herociclos tales como thiazol, triazol, benzoxazina, quinazolina, triazina, y oxazina. Las estructuras de los compuestos preparados se dilucidan mediante herramientas espectroscópicas (IR, 1H NMR and espectroscopía de masas. Se determinan sus propiedades físicas, tensión superficial e interfacial, punto de nube, altura de espuma, poder de emulsificación y concentración micelar critica.También se revisan sus propiedades antimicrobianas y de biodegradabilidad Se encontró que los nuevos compuestos poseían destacadas propiedades superficiales y unas buenas actividades antimicrobianas.

  2. Waste lipids to energy: how to optimize methane production from long-chain fatty acids (LCFA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves, M.M.; Pereira, M.A.; Sousa, D.Z.; Cavaleiro, A.J.; Picavet, M.; Smidt, H.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The position of high-rate anaerobic technology (HR-AnWT) in the wastewater treatment and bioenergy market can be enhanced if the range of suitable substrates is expanded. Analyzing existing technologies, applications and problems, it is clear that, until now, wastewaters with high lipids content are

  3. Folate and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in psychiatric disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Kemperman, Ramses F. J.

    2006-01-01

    Schizophrenia, autism and depression do not inherit by Mendel's law, and the search for a genetic basis seems unsuccessful. Schizophrenia and autism relate to low birth weight and pregnancy complications, which are associated with developmental adaptations by "programming". Epigenetics might constit

  4. Dynamic process of biosorption of long-chain fatty acids by anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwu, C.S.; Tseng, S.K.; Lettinga, G.

    1994-01-01

    The preoptic area is anatomically divided into medial and lateral portions and both are involved in the regulation of sleep-wakefulness and body temperature. We have recently reported the specific role of the adrenoceptors, present in the medial preoptic area, in the regulation of those functions. I

  5. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status and early growth of low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Okken, A

    1998-01-01

    We correlated arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status with anthropometric measures and growth rates in a group of low birth weight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g; gestational ages 30-41 weeks; n = 143). AA and DHA status were measured in erythrocytes (RBC) and plasma chole

  6. Degradation of long-chain fatty acids by sulfate-reducing and methanogenic communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, D.Z.; Balk, M.; Alves, M.M.; Schink, B.; McInerney, M.J.; Smidt, H.; Plugge, C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    "Water is life!" All active cellular systems require water as the medium and solvent of their metabolic activities. Hydrophobic compounds and structures, which tend to exclude water, though providing inter alia excellent sources of energy and a means of biological compartmentalization, present probl

  7. OMEGA-3 LONG-CHAIN POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN OLDER CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenylketonuria (PKU), the most prevalent inborn error of metabolism, is usually secondary to low hepatic activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. Growth and development of infants and children with PKU who are managed by mandatory n...

  8. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) requirement for brain development: A personal view

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is known to accumulate in the infant brain and clinical trials have established that dietary DHA is associated with improvements in visual and neural function in preterm infants. Thus, an elevated DHA status is considered to be important throughout infancy for brain development. While DHA can be added directly to infant foods, there have been important studies to show that infants can partially meet ...

  9. Long-chain GM1 gangliosides alter transmembrane domain registration through interdigitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manna, Moutusi; Javanainen, Matti; Monne, Hector Martinez Seara

    2017-01-01

    together. Based on atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we find that long-chain GM1 in the extracellular leaflet exhibits a strong tendency to protrude into the opposing bilayer leaflet. This interdigitation modulates the order in the cytosolic monolayer and thereby strengthens the interaction...... effect, the situation is altered with long-chain GM1. Here, the significant interdigitation induced by long-chain GM1 modulates the behavior in the cytosolic GM1-free leaflet, weakening and slowing down the membrane registration process. The observed physical interaction mechanism provides a possible...

  10. Arabidopsis CER8 encodes LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE 1 (LACS1) that has overlapping functions with LACS2 in plant wax and cutin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Shiyou; Song, Tao; Kosma, Dylan K; Parsons, Eugene P; Rowland, Owen; Jenks, Matthew A

    2009-08-01

    Plant cuticle is an extracellular lipid-based matrix of cutin and waxes, which covers aerial organs and protects them from many forms of environmental stress. We report here the characterization of CER8/LACS1, one of nine Arabidopsis long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases thought to activate acyl chains. Mutations in LACS1 reduced the amount of wax in all chemical classes on the stem and leaf, except in the very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) class wherein acids longer than 24 carbons (C(24)) were elevated more than 155%. The C(16) cutin monomers on lacs1 were reduced by 37% and 22%, whereas the C(18) monomers were increased by 28% and 20% on stem and leaf, respectively. Amounts of wax and cutin on a lacs1-1 lacs2-3 double mutant were much lower than on either parent, and lacs1-1 lacs2-3 had much higher cuticular permeability than either parent. These additive effects indicate that LACS1 and LACS2 have overlapping functions in both wax and cutin synthesis. We demonstrated that LACS1 has synthetase activity for VLCFAs C(20)-C(30), with highest activity for C(30) acids. LACS1 thus appears to function as a very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase in wax metabolism. Since C(16) but not C(18) cutin monomers are reduced in lacs1, and C(16) acids are the next most preferred acid (behind C(30)) by LACS1 in our assays, LACS1 also appears to be important for the incorporation of C(16) monomers into cutin polyester. As such, LACS1 defines a functionally novel acyl-CoA synthetase that preferentially modifies both VLCFAs for wax synthesis and long-chain (C(16)) fatty acids for cutin synthesis.

  11. Thermodynamic Interactions between Polystyrene and Long-Chain Poly(n-Alkyl Acrylates) Derived from Plant Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu; Robertson, Megan L

    2015-06-10

    Vegetable oils and their fatty acids are promising sources for the derivation of polymers. Long-chain poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) are readily derived from fatty acids through conversion of the carboxylic acid end-group to an acrylate or methacrylate group. The resulting polymers contain long alkyl side-chains with around 10-22 carbon atoms. Regardless of the monomer source, the presence of alkyl side-chains in poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) provides a convenient mechanism for tuning their physical properties. The development of structured multicomponent materials, including block copolymers and blends, containing poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) requires knowledge of the thermodynamic interactions governing their self-assembly, typically described by the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter χ. We have investigated the χ parameter between polystyrene and long-chain poly(n-alkyl acrylate) homopolymers and copolymers: specifically we have included poly(stearyl acrylate), poly(lauryl acrylate), and their random copolymers. Lauryl and stearyl acrylate were chosen as model alkyl acrylates derived from vegetable oils and have alkyl side-chain lengths of 12 and 18 carbon atoms, respectively. Polystyrene is included in this study as a model petroleum-sourced polymer, which has wide applicability in commercially relevant multicomponent polymeric materials. Two independent methods were employed to measure the χ parameter: cloud point measurements on binary blends and characterization of the order-disorder transition of triblock copolymers, which were in relatively good agreement with one another. The χ parameter was found to be independent of the alkyl side-chain length (n) for large values of n (i.e., n > 10). This behavior is in stark contrast to the n-dependence of the χ parameter predicted from solubility parameter theory. Our study complements prior work investigating the interactions between

  12. Long-chain alkanoic acid esters of lupeol from Dorstenia harmsiana Engl. (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poumale, Herve Martial P; Awoussong, Kenzo Patrice; Randrianasolo, Rivoarison; Simo, Christophe Colombe F; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Shiono, Yoshihito

    2012-01-01

    In addition to lupeol (1a), three long-chain alkanoic acid esters of lupeol, in which two were new, were isolated from the hexane and ethyl acetate twigs extract of Dorstenia harmsiana Engl. (Moraceae). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments. Some isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities. The lupeol and its three long-chain alkanoic acid esters showed antifungal and antibacterial activities.

  13. Successful Treatment of Cardiomyopathy due to Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency: First Case Report from Oman with Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharef Waadallah Sharef

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MIM 201475 is a severe defect of mitochondrial energy production from oxidation of very long-chain fatty acids. This inherited metabolic disorder often presents in early neonatal period with episodes of symptomatic hypoglycemia usually responding well to intravenous glucose infusion. These babies are often discharged without establishment of diagnosis but return by 2-5 months of age with severe and progressive cardiac failure due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with or without hepatic failure and steatosis. An early diagnosis and treatment with high concentration medium chain triglycerides based feeding formula can be life saving in such patients. Here, we report the first diagnosed and treated case of Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in Oman. This infant developed heart failure with left ventricular dilation, hypertrophy and pericardial effusion at the age of 7 weeks. Prompt diagnosis and subsequent intervention with medium chain triglycerides-based formula resulted in a reversal of severe clinical symptoms with significant improvement of cardiac status. This treatment also ensured normal growth and neurodevelopment. It is stressed that the disease must be recognized by the pediatricians and cardiologists since the disease can be identified by Tandem Mass Spectrometry; therefore, it should be considered to be included in expanded newborn screening program, allowing early diagnosis and intervention in order to ensure better outcome and prevent complications.

  14. Readily Available Sources of Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils: Is Farmed Australian Seafood a Better Source of the Good Oil than Wild-Caught Seafood?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter D Nichols; Brett Glencross; Petrie, James R.; Surinder P. Singh

    2014-01-01

    Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils). Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain lower LC omega-3 content than wild-harvested seafood due to the use of oil blending in diets fed to farmed fish. However, we observed that two major Australian farmed finfish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo ...

  15. Effect of medium/ω-6 long chain triglyceride-based emulsion on leucocyte death and inflammatory gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury-Boaventura, M F; Gorjão, R; Martins de Lima, T; Fiamoncini, J; Godoy, A B P; Deschamphs, F C; Soriano, F G; Curi, R

    2011-01-01

    Lipid emulsion (LE) containing medium/ω-6 long chain triglyceride-based emulsion (MCT/ω-6 LCT LE) has been recommended in the place of ω-6 LCT-based emulsion to prevent impairment of immune function. The impact of MCT/ω-6 LCT LE on lymphocyte and neutrophil death and expression of genes related to inflammation was investigated. Seven volunteers were recruited and infusion of MCT/ω-6 LCT LE was performed for 6 h. Four volunteers received saline and no change was found. Blood samples were collected before, immediately afterwards and 18 h after LE infusion. Lymphocytes and neutrophils were studied immediately after isolation and after 24 and 48 h in culture. The following determinations were carried out: plasma-free fatty acids, triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations, plasma fatty acid composition, neutral lipid accumulation in lymphocytes and neutrophils, signs of lymphocyte and neutrophil death and lymphocyte expression of genes related to inflammation. MCT/ω-6 LCT LE induced lymphocyte and neutrophil death. The mechanism for MCT/ω-6 LCT LE-dependent induction of leucocyte death may involve changes in neutral lipid content and modulation of expression of genes related to cell death, proteolysis, cell signalling, inflammatory response, oxidative stress and transcription. PMID:21682721

  16. Examination of fluorination effect on physical properties of saturated long-chain alcohols by DSC and Langmuir monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Nakamura, Shohei; Okahashi, Yoshinori; Kitaguchi, Daisuke; Kawabata, Noritake; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Shibata, Osamu

    2013-02-01

    Partially fluorinated long-chain alcohols have been newly synthesized from a radical reaction, which is followed by a reductive reaction. The fluorinated alcohols have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and compression isotherms in a Langmuir monolayer state. Their melting points increase with an increase in chain length due to elongation of methylene groups. However, the melting points for the alcohols containing shorter fluorinated moieties are lower than those for the typical hydrogenated fatty alcohols. Using the Langmuir monolayer technique, surface pressure (π)-molecular area (A) and surface potential (ΔV)-A isotherms of monolayers of the fluorinated alcohols have been measured in the temperature range from 281.2 to 303.2K. In addition, a compressibility modulus (Cs(-1)) is calculated from the π-A isotherms. Four kinds of the alcohol monolayers show a phase transition (π(eq)) from a disordered to an ordered state upon lateral compression. The π(eq) values increase linearly with increasing temperatures. A slope of π(eq) against temperature for the alcohols with shorter fluorocarbons is unexpectedly larger than that for the corresponding fatty alcohols. Generally, fluorinated amphiphiles have a greater thermal stability (or resistance), which is a characteristic of highly fluorinated or perfluorinated compounds. Herein, however, the alcohols containing perfluorobutylated and perfluorohexylated chains show the irregular thermal behavior in both the solid and monolayer states.

  17. CD36 binds oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) in a mechanism dependent upon fatty acid binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Anthony G; Chen, Alexander N; Paz, Miguel A; Hung, Justin P; Hamilton, James A

    2015-02-20

    The association of unesterified fatty acid (FA) with the scavenger receptor CD36 has been actively researched, with focuses on FA and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake. CD36 has been shown to bind FA, but this interaction has been poorly characterized to date. To gain new insights into the physiological relevance of binding of FA to CD36, we characterized FA binding to the ectodomain of CD36 by the biophysical method surface plasmon resonance. Five structurally distinct FAs (saturated, monounsaturated (cis and trans), polyunsaturated, and oxidized) were pulsed across surface plasmon resonance channels, generating association and dissociation binding curves. Except for the oxidized FA HODE, all FAs bound to CD36, with rapid association and dissociation kinetics similar to HSA. Next, to elucidate the role that each FA might play in CD36-mediated oxLDL uptake, we used a fluorescent oxLDL (Dii-oxLDL) live cell assay with confocal microscopy imaging. CD36-mediated uptake in serum-free medium was very low but greatly increased when serum was present. The addition of exogenous FA in serum-free medium increased oxLDL binding and uptake to levels found with serum and affected CD36 plasma membrane distribution. Binding/uptake of oxLDL was dependent upon the FA dose, except for docosahexaenoic acid, which exhibited binding to CD36 but did not activate the uptake of oxLDL. HODE also did not affect oxLDL uptake. High affinity FA binding to CD36 and the effects of each FA on oxLDL uptake have important implications for protein conformation, binding of other ligands, functional properties of CD36, and high plasma FA levels in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  18. Long-chain SFA at the sn-1, 3 positions of TAG reduce body fat deposition in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouk, Shiou Wah; Cheng, Sit Foon; Mok, Josephine Shiueh Lian; Ong, Augustine Soon Hock; Chuah, Cheng Hock

    2013-12-14

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of positional distribution of long-chain SFA in TAG, especially at the sn-1, 3 positions, on fat deposition using the C57BL/6 mouse model. Throughout the 15 weeks of the study, mice were fed with diets fortified with palm olein (POo), chemically interesterified POo (IPOo) and soyabean oil (SOY). Mice receiving the SOY-enriched diet gained significantly higher amounts of subcutaneous fat (P= 0·011) and total fat (P= 0·013) compared with the POo group, despite similar body mass gain being recorded. During normalisation with food consumption to obtain the fat:feed ratio, mice fed with the POo-enriched diet exhibited significantly lower visceral (P= 0·044), subcutaneous (P= 0·006) and total (P= 0·003) fat:feed than those fed with the SOY-enriched diet. It is noteworthy that mice fed with the IPOo-enriched diet gained 14·3 % more fat per food consumed when compared with the POo group (P= 0·013), despite their identical total fatty acid compositions. This was mainly attributed to the higher content of long-chain SFA at the sn-1, 3 positions of TAG in POo, which results in delayed absorption after deacylation as evidenced by the higher amounts of long-chain SFA excreted in the faeces of mice fed with the POo-enriched diet. Negative correlations were found between the subcutaneous, visceral as well as total fat accretion per food consumption and the total SFA content at the sn-1, 3 positions, while no relationships were found for MUFA and PUFA. The present results show that the positional distribution of long-chain SFA exerts a more profound effect on body fat accretion than the total SFA content.

  19. 长链烯烃的应用%The Application of Long Chain Olefins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜秋实; 赵萌; 刘姝

    2013-01-01

    概述了长链烯烃的生产工艺,石蜡裂解和低碳烯烃齐聚.详述了长链烯烃的应用,可生产烯烃共聚体、润滑油、表面活性剂、油田化学品等.通过对它们需求量和生产能力数据进行分析,得出国内外对长链烯烃需求量日益增大,开发生产长链烯烃具有重要意义.%An overview of the production process of long chain olefins, paraffin cracking and low-carbon olefin oligomerization was given. The applications of long chain olefins were detailed, such as producing olefin copolymer, lubricants, surfactants and oil field chemicals, etc. Through the data analysis of demand for long chain olefins and production capacity, it was concluded that the demand for long chain olefins at home and abroad was increasing; the development and production of long chain olefins had a great significance.

  20. A severe genotype with favourable outcome in very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touma, E; Rashed, M; Vianey-Saban, C; Sakr, A; Divry, P; Gregersen, N; Andresen, B

    2001-01-01

    A patient with very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is reported. He had a severe neonatal presentation and cardiomyopathy. He was found to be homozygous for a severe mutation with no residual enzyme activity. Tandem mass spectrometry on dried blood spots revealed increased long chain acylcarnitines. VLCAD enzyme activity was severely decreased to 2% of control levels. Dietary management consisted of skimmed milk supplemented with medium chain triglycerides and L-carnitine. Outcome was good and there was no acute recurrence.

 PMID:11124787

  1. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in anthropometry: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre;

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue...... fatty acids and changes in anthropometry....

  2. Molecular cloning and nutrient regulation analysis of long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 gene in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Han-Liang; Chen, Shuai; Xu, Jian-He; Yi, Le-Fei; Peng, Yong-Xing; Pan, Qian; Shen, Xin; Dong, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Xia-Qing; Wang, Wen-Xiang

    2017-02-01

    Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1), a key regulatory enzyme of fatty acid metabolism, catalyzes the conversion of long-chain fatty acids to acyl-coenzyme A. The full-length cDNAs of ACSL1a and ACSL1b were cloned from the liver of a grass carp. Both cDNAs contained a 2094bp open reading frame encoding 697 amino acids. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that ACSL1a shared 73.5% sequence identity with ACSL1b. Each of the two ACSL1s proteins had a transmembrane domain, a P-loop domain, and L-, A-, and G-motifs, which were relatively conserved in comparison to other vertebrates. Relative expression profile of ACSL1 mRNAs in different tissues indicated that ACSL1a is highly expressed in heart, mesenteric adipose, and brain tissues, whereas ACSL1b is highly expressed in heart, white muscle, foregut, and liver tissues. Nutrient regulation research showed that the expression levels of ACSL1a and ACSL1b were significantly down-regulated when 3, 6, and 9% fish oil were added in diet of grass carp as compared to the control group. However, no significant difference in the levels of ACSL1 mRNA was observed between the experimental groups. This study demonstrated the relationship between ACSL1a and ACSL1b genes in grass carp and laid a foundation for further research on ACSL family members in other species.

  3. Novel long-chain anteiso-alkanes and anteiso-alkanoic acids in Antarctic rocks colonized by living and fossil cryptoendolithic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, G. I.; Friedmann, E. I.; Watanuki, K.; Ocampo-Friedmann, R.

    1992-01-01

    Saponified extracts of rock samples colonized by cryptoendolithic microbial communities from the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, were separated into hydrocarbon and fatty acid fractions by silica gel column chromatography. Hydrocarbons and methyl esters of fatty acids were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Unusually, a suite of long-chain anteiso-alkanes (a-C20 to a-C30) and anteiso-alkanoic acids (a-C20 to a-C30) were detected in many samples, together with straight-chain, branched and/or cyclic and acyclic isoprenoid compounds. These novel compounds are probably derived from unidentified heterotrophic bacteria or symbiotic processes in a unique microbial community in the Antarctic cold desert and suggest the occurrence of a special biosynthetic pathway. Long-chain anteiso-alkanes are probably formed through microbial decarboxylation of corresponding anteiso-alkanoic acids. They may serve as new biomarkers in environmental and geochemical studies.

  4. Dependence of Brown Adipose Tissue Function on CD36-Mediated Coenzyme Q Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney M. Anderson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT possesses the inherent ability to dissipate metabolic energy as heat through uncoupled mitochondrial respiration. An essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is coenzyme Q (CoQ. While cells synthesize CoQ mostly endogenously, exogenous supplementation with CoQ has been successful as a therapy for patients with CoQ deficiency. However, which tissues depend on exogenous CoQ uptake as well as the mechanism by which CoQ is taken up by cells and the role of this process in BAT function are not well understood. Here, we report that the scavenger receptor CD36 drives the uptake of CoQ by BAT and is required for normal BAT function. BAT from mice lacking CD36 displays CoQ deficiency, impaired CoQ uptake, hypertrophy, altered lipid metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, and defective nonshivering thermogenesis. Together, these data reveal an important new role for the systemic transport of CoQ to BAT and its function in thermogenesis.

  5. Rspo2 suppresses CD36-mediated apoptosis in oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced apoptosis of macrophages contributes to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. R-spondin 2 (Rspo2), a member of the cysteine-rich secreted proteins, has been shown to be involved in the oncogenesis of several types of cancer. It has also been found to be abundantly expressed among the four R-spondin members in macrophages. The present study was performed to determine whether Rspo2 is involved in the ox-LDL-induced apoptosis of macrophages. I...

  6. Fuel utilization in patients with very long-chain acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ØRngreen, Mette C; Nørgaard, Mette; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    Fuel utilization in two adult patients with the myopathic form of very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency and five healthy subjects was investigated with stable isotopes during exercise at 50% of VO2max. The findings indicate that residual VLCAD activity in the patients...

  7. Potential biological sources of long chain alkyl diols in a lacustrine system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villanueva, Laura; Besseling, Marc; Rodrigo-Gámiz, Marta; Rampen, Sebastiaan W.; Verschuren, Dirk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-01-01

    Long chain alkyl diols (LCDs) have been detected in a range of marine and lacustrine environments, as well as in several algal cultures. However, the identity of the producers, their preferred ecological niche and seasonality are uncertain. We applied a gene-based approach to determine the identity

  8. Environmental properties of long-chain alcohols. Structure-activity Relationship for Chronic Aquatic Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefers, Christoph; Sanderson, Hans; Boshof, Udo;

    2009-01-01

    Daphnia magna reproduction tests were performed with C10, C12, C14 and C15 alcohols to establish a structure-activity relationship of chronic effects of long-chain alcohols. The data generation involved substantial methodological efforts due to the exceptionally rapid biodegradability of the test...

  9. A lattice Monte Carlo study of long chain conformations at solid-polymer melt interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bitsanis, Ioannis A.; Brinke, Gerrit ten

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present a comprehensive lattice Monte Carlo study of long chain conformations at solid-polymer melt interfaces. Segmental scale interfacial features, like the bond orientational distribution were found to be independent of surface-segment energetics, and statistically identical with

  10. Fish oil supplementation alters the plasma lipidomic profile and increases long-chain PUFAs of phospholipids and triglycerides in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Ottestad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While beneficial health effects of fish and fish oil consumption are well documented, the incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma lipid classes is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on the plasma lipidomic profile in healthy subjects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a double-blinded randomized controlled parallel-group study, healthy subjects received capsules containing either 8 g/d of fish oil (FO (1.6 g/d EPA+DHA (n = 16 or 8 g/d of high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO (n = 17 for seven weeks. During the first three weeks of intervention, the subjects completed a fully controlled diet period. BMI and total serum triglycerides, total-, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol were unchanged during the intervention period. Lipidomic analyses were performed using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS, where 568 lipids were detected and 260 identified. Both t-tests and Multi-Block Partial Least Square Regression (MBPLSR analysis were performed for analysing differences between the intervention groups. The intervention groups were well separated by the lipidomic data after three weeks of intervention. Several lipid classes such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, and triglycerides contributed strongly to this separation. Twenty-three lipids were significantly decreased (FDR<0.05 in the FO group after three weeks compared with the HOSO group, whereas fifty-one were increased including selected phospholipids and triglycerides of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. After seven weeks of intervention the two intervention groups showed similar grouping. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In healthy subjects, fish oil supplementation alters lipid metabolism and increases the

  11. Short-term long chain omega3 diet protects from neuroinflammatory processes and memory impairment in aged mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie F Labrousse

    Full Text Available Regular consumption of food enriched in omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFAs has been shown to reduce risk of cognitive decline in elderly, and possibly development of Alzheimer's disease. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA are the most likely active components of ω3-rich PUFAs diets in the brain. We therefore hypothesized that exposing mice to a DHA and EPA enriched diet may reduce neuroinflammation and protect against memory impairment in aged mice. For this purpose, mice were exposed to a control diet throughout life and were further submitted to a diet enriched in EPA and DHA during 2 additional months. Cytokine expression together with a thorough analysis of astrocytes morphology assessed by a 3D reconstruction was measured in the hippocampus of young (3-month-old and aged (22-month-old mice. In addition, the effects of EPA and DHA on spatial memory and associated Fos activation in the hippocampus were assessed. We showed that a 2-month EPA/DHA treatment increased these long-chain ω3 PUFAs in the brain, prevented cytokines expression and astrocytes morphology changes in the hippocampus and restored spatial memory deficits and Fos-associated activation in the hippocampus of aged mice. Collectively, these data indicated that diet-induced accumulation of EPA and DHA in the brain protects against neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment linked to aging, further reinforcing the idea that increased EPA and DHA intake may provide protection to the brain of aged subjects.

  12. Clear correlation of genotype with disease phenotype in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, B S; Olpin, S; Poorthuis, B J; Scholte, H R; Vianey-Saban, C; Wanders, R; Ijlst, L; Morris, A; Pourfarzam, M; Bartlett, K; Baumgartner, E R; deKlerk, J B; Schroeder, L D; Corydon, T J; Lund, H; Winter, V; Bross, P; Bolund, L; Gregersen, N

    1999-01-01

    Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) catalyzes the initial rate-limiting step in mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. VLCAD deficiency is clinically heterogenous, with three major phenotypes: a severe childhood form, with early onset, high mortality, and high incidence of cardiomyopathy; a milder childhood form, with later onset, usually with hypoketotic hypoglycemia as the main presenting feature, low mortality, and rare cardiomyopathy; and an adult form, with isolated skeletal muscle involvement, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria, usually triggered by exercise or fasting. To examine whether these different phenotypes are due to differences in the VLCAD genotype, we investigated 58 different mutations in 55 unrelated patients representing all known clinical phenotypes and correlated the mutation type with the clinical phenotype. Our results show a clear relationship between the nature of the mutation and the severity of disease. Patients with the severe childhood phenotype have mutations that result in no residual enzyme activity, whereas patients with the milder childhood and adult phenotypes have mutations that may result in residual enzyme activity. This clear genotype-phenotype relationship is in sharp contrast to what has been observed in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, in which no correlation between genotype and phenotype can be established. PMID:9973285

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis growth and development requires the activity of host Long-chain Acyl-CoA Synthetases (ACSLs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recuero-Checa, Maria A; Sharma, Manu; Lau, Constance; Watkins, Paul A; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Dean, Deborah

    2016-03-18

    The obligate-intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) has undergone considerable genome reduction with consequent dependence on host biosynthetic pathways, metabolites and enzymes. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs) are key host-cell enzymes that convert fatty acids (FA) into acyl-CoA for use in metabolic pathways. Here, we show that the complete host ACSL family [ACSL1 and ACSL3-6] translocates into the Ct membrane-bound vacuole, termed inclusion, and remains associated with membranes of metabolically active forms of Ct throughout development. We discovered that three different pharmacologic inhibitors of ACSL activity independently impede Ct growth in a dose-dependent fashion. Using an FA competition assay, host ACSLs were found to activate Ct branched-chain FAs, suggesting that one function of the ACSLs is to activate Ct FAs and host FAs (recruited from the cytoplasm) within the inclusion. Because the ACSL inhibitors can deplete lipid droplets (LD), we used a cell line where LD synthesis was switched off to evaluate whether LD deficiency affects Ct growth. In these cells, we found no effect on growth or on translocation of ACSLs into the inclusion. Our findings support an essential role for ACSL activation of host-cell and bacterial FAs within the inclusion to promote Ct growth and development, independent of LDs.

  14. Short-term long chain omega3 diet protects from neuroinflammatory processes and memory impairment in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrousse, Virginie F; Nadjar, Agnès; Joffre, Corinne; Costes, Laurence; Aubert, Agnès; Grégoire, Stéphane; Bretillon, Lionel; Layé, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Regular consumption of food enriched in omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFAs) has been shown to reduce risk of cognitive decline in elderly, and possibly development of Alzheimer's disease. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are the most likely active components of ω3-rich PUFAs diets in the brain. We therefore hypothesized that exposing mice to a DHA and EPA enriched diet may reduce neuroinflammation and protect against memory impairment in aged mice. For this purpose, mice were exposed to a control diet throughout life and were further submitted to a diet enriched in EPA and DHA during 2 additional months. Cytokine expression together with a thorough analysis of astrocytes morphology assessed by a 3D reconstruction was measured in the hippocampus of young (3-month-old) and aged (22-month-old) mice. In addition, the effects of EPA and DHA on spatial memory and associated Fos activation in the hippocampus were assessed. We showed that a 2-month EPA/DHA treatment increased these long-chain ω3 PUFAs in the brain, prevented cytokines expression and astrocytes morphology changes in the hippocampus and restored spatial memory deficits and Fos-associated activation in the hippocampus of aged mice. Collectively, these data indicated that diet-induced accumulation of EPA and DHA in the brain protects against neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment linked to aging, further reinforcing the idea that increased EPA and DHA intake may provide protection to the brain of aged subjects.

  15. Long-chain n-3 DHA reduces the extent of skeletal muscle fatigue in the rat in vivo hindlimb model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Gregory E; McLennan, Peter L

    2014-03-28

    Dietary fish oil modifies skeletal muscle membrane fatty acid composition and oxygen efficiency similar to changes in the myocardium. Oxygen efficiency is a key determinant of sustained force in mammalian skeletal muscle. Therefore, in the present study, we tested the effects of a fish-oil diet on skeletal muscle fatigue under the stress of contraction using the rat in vivo autologous perfused hindlimb model. For 8 weeks, male Wistar rats were fed a diet rich in saturated fat (SF), a diet rich in n-6 PUFA or a diet rich in long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA DHA derived from fish oil. In anaesthetised, mechanically ventilated rats, with their hindlimbs perfused with arterial blood at a constant flow, the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus muscle bundle was stimulated via sciatic nerve (2 Hz, 6-12 V, 0·05 ms) to contract repetitively for 30 min. Rats fed the n-3 PUFA diet developed higher maximum twitch tension than those fed the SF and n-6 PUFA diets (PDHA into skeletal muscle membranes increases the efficiency of oxygen use over a range of contractile force and this is expressed as a higher sustained force and prolonged time to fatigue.

  16. Role of Intracellular Lipid Logistics in the Preferential Usage of Very Long Chain-Ceramides in Glucosylceramide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Yamaji

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ceramide is a common precursor of sphingomyelin (SM and glycosphingolipids (GSLs in mammalian cells. Ceramide synthase 2 (CERS2, one of the six ceramide synthase isoforms, is responsible for the synthesis of very long chain fatty acid (C20–26 fatty acids (VLC-containing ceramides (VLC-Cer. It is known that the proportion of VLC species in GSLs is higher than that in SM. To address the mechanism of the VLC-preference of GSLs, we used genome editing to establish three HeLa cell mutants that expressed different amounts of CERS2 and compared the acyl chain lengths of SM and GSLs by metabolic labeling experiments. VLC-sphingolipid expression was increased along with that of CERS2, and the proportion of VLC species in glucosylceramide (GlcCer was higher than that in SM for all expression levels of CERS2. This higher proportion was still maintained even when the proportion of C16-Cer to the total ceramides was increased by disrupting the ceramide transport protein (CERT-dependent C16-Cer delivery pathway for SM synthesis. On the other hand, merging the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER by Brefeldin A decreased the proportion of VLC species in GlcCer probably due to higher accessibility of UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG to C16-rich ceramides. These results suggest the existence of a yet-to-be-identified mechanism rendering VLC-Cer more accessible than C16-Cer to UGCG, which is independent of CERT.

  17. Role of Intracellular Lipid Logistics in the Preferential Usage of Very Long Chain-Ceramides in Glucosylceramide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Toshiyuki; Horie, Aya; Tachida, Yuriko; Sakuma, Chisato; Suzuki, Yusuke; Kushi, Yasunori; Hanada, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Ceramide is a common precursor of sphingomyelin (SM) and glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in mammalian cells. Ceramide synthase 2 (CERS2), one of the six ceramide synthase isoforms, is responsible for the synthesis of very long chain fatty acid (C20–26 fatty acids) (VLC)-containing ceramides (VLC-Cer). It is known that the proportion of VLC species in GSLs is higher than that in SM. To address the mechanism of the VLC-preference of GSLs, we used genome editing to establish three HeLa cell mutants that expressed different amounts of CERS2 and compared the acyl chain lengths of SM and GSLs by metabolic labeling experiments. VLC-sphingolipid expression was increased along with that of CERS2, and the proportion of VLC species in glucosylceramide (GlcCer) was higher than that in SM for all expression levels of CERS2. This higher proportion was still maintained even when the proportion of C16-Cer to the total ceramides was increased by disrupting the ceramide transport protein (CERT)-dependent C16-Cer delivery pathway for SM synthesis. On the other hand, merging the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by Brefeldin A decreased the proportion of VLC species in GlcCer probably due to higher accessibility of UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG) to C16-rich ceramides. These results suggest the existence of a yet-to-be-identified mechanism rendering VLC-Cer more accessible than C16-Cer to UGCG, which is independent of CERT. PMID:27775668

  18. Differential cytotoxicity of long-chain bases for human oral gingival epithelial keratinocytes, oral fibroblasts, and dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie A. Mehalick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain bases, found in the oral cavity, have potent antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. In an article associated with this dataset, Poulson and colleagues determined the cytotoxicities of long-chain bases (sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, and phytosphingosine for human oral gingival epithelial (GE keratinocytes, oral gingival fibroblasts (GF, dendritic cells (DC, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC cell lines [1]. Poulson and colleagues found that GE keratinocytes were more resistant to long-chain bases as compared to GF, DC, and SCC cell lines [1]. In this study, we assess the susceptibility of DC to lower concentrations of long chain bases. 0.2–10.0 µM long-chain bases and GML were not cytotoxic to DC; 40.0–80.0 µM long-chain bases, but not GML, were cytotoxic for DC; and 80.0 µM long-chain bases were cytotoxic to DC and induced cellular damage and death in less than 20 mins. Overall, the LD50 of long-chain bases for GE keratinocytes, GF, and DC were considerably higher than their minimal inhibitory concentrations for oral pathogens, a finding important to pursuing their future potential in treating periodontal and oral infections.

  19. Therapeutic Benefits Of ?-3 Fatty Acids from Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta S Khora

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids play important roles in human nutrition and disease management. Fish are rich in Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LC- PUFAs). Marine fish are the best source of these fatty acids. They typically include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The major health maintenance and prevention of diseases recognized in EPA and DHA. These forms of fatty acids have excellent body usability com...

  20. Long Chain N-acyl Homoserine Lactone Production by Enterobacter sp. Isolated from Human Tongue Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the isolation of N-acyl homoserine lactone-producing Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 from the posterior dorsal surfaces of the tongue of a healthy individual. Spent supernatants extract from Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 activated the biosensor Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4(pZLR4, suggesting production of long chain AHLs by these isolates. High resolution mass spectrometry analysis of these extracts confirmed that Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 produced a long chain N-acyl homoserine lactone, namely N-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first isolation of Enterobacter sp., strain T1-1 from the posterior dorsal surface of the human tongue and N-acyl homoserine lactones production by this bacterium.

  1. Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency with adult onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smelt, A H; Poorthuis, B J; Onkenhout, W;

    1998-01-01

    Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a severe disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in infants. We report adult onset of attacks of painful rhabdomyolysis. Gas chromatography identified strongly elevated levels of tetradecenoic acid, 14:1(n-9), tetrade......Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a severe disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in infants. We report adult onset of attacks of painful rhabdomyolysis. Gas chromatography identified strongly elevated levels of tetradecenoic acid, 14:1(n-9......), tetradecadienoic acid, 14:2(n-6), and hexadecadienoic acid, 16:2(n-6). Palmitoyl-CoA and behenoyl-CoA dehydrogenase in fibroblasts were deficient. Muscle VLCAD activity was very low. DNA analysis revealed compound heterozygosity for two missense mutations in the VLCAD gene. The relatively mild clinical course may...

  2. Modification of nano-sized layered double hydroxides by long-chain organic aliphatic surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    RAMASAMY ANBARASAN; SEUNG SOON IM; WANDUC LEE

    2008-01-01

    The inter-layer anion of layered double hydroxides (LDH) with a hydrotalcite (HT)-like structure was ion-exchanged with various organic surfactants, particularly with long chain aliphatic surfactants. After the ion-exchange process, the basal spacing of the LDH was increased and the increase of the basal spacing depended on various factors, such as the intercalation capacity functionality and orientation capability of the surfactant. Of the employed surfactants, stearic acid intercalated LDH ...

  3. Flocculation of fine fluorite particles with Corynebacterium xerosis and commercial long chain polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigo Lisandra N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study, comparatively, the flocculation of fluorite particles with Corynebacterium xerosis cells and three commercial long chain polymers. Best flocculation results were obtained with cells of C. xerosis and with an anionic polyacrylamide. Both were effective in solids removal and water clarification, although flocculation with C. xerosis cells requires a higher dosage of reagent per mass unit of processed ore.

  4. Shear Modification of long-chain branched polymers : a theoretical approach using POM-POM model

    OpenAIRE

    Bourrigault, S.; Marin, Gérard; Poitou, Arnaud

    2003-01-01

    International audience; “Shear modification” is a strong modification of rheological properties which affects mainly long-chain branched polymers like LDPE. The aim of this work is to explain this effect using recent advances in molecular dynamics and especially the pom-pom model which was designed for branched polymers. The original model was slightly modified in order to take into account the change in molecular topology related to the branch point withdrawal mechanism without introducing a...

  5. Soluble Polyimides Bearing Long-Chain Alkyl Groups on Their Side Chain via Polymer Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tsuda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel soluble polyimides having long-chain alkyl groups on their side chain were synthesized via polymer reaction with the polyimides having phenolic OH groups and 3,4,5-tris(dodecyloxybenzoic acid (12GA using N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC as a dehydration reagent. The polyimides having phenolic OH groups were synthesized from the tetracarboxylic dianhydrides such as 5-(2,5-dioxotetrahydrofuryl-3-methyl-3-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (cyclohexene-DA, 4,4′-hexafluoroisopropylidendi(phthalic anhydride (6FDA, and 3,3′,4,4′-diphenylsulfone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (DSDA and aromatic diamines such as 4,4′-diamino-3,3′-dihydroxybiphenyl (HAB. The polymer reactions were carried out in NMP and the progresses of polymer reactions were quantitatively monitored by 1H NMR measurements (conversion; 12.2–98.7%. The obtained polyimides bearing long-chain alkyl groups have enough molecular weights, good film-forming ability, good solubility for various organic solvents, and enough thermal stability. The water contact angles of the polyimide films were investigated, and it is noted that the introduction of long-chain alkyl groups increases the hydrophobicity of polyimide surface. These polyimides are expected to be applicable as the functional materials for microelectronics such as the alignment layers of LCDs.

  6. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status of Dutch vegans and omnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Hettema, Y; Bemelmans, W J; Muskiet, F A

    2000-01-01

    We compared the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status of Dutch vegans and omnivores to investigate whether disparities can be explained by different diets and long chain PUFA (LCP) synthesis rates. Dietary intakes and fatty acid compositions of erythrocytes (RBC), platelets (PLT), plasma choleste

  7. The molecular basis of ligand interaction at free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120)

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Brian D.; Shimpukade, Bharat; Milligan, Graeme; Ulven, Trond

    2014-01-01

    The long-chain fatty acid receptor FFA4(previously GPR120) is receiving substantial interest as a novel target for the treatment of metabolic and inflammatory disease. The current study examines for the first time the detailed mode of binding of both a long-chain fatty acid and synthetic agonist ligands at FFA4 by integrating molecular modeling, receptor mutagenesis, and ligand structure-activity relationship approaches in an iterative format. In doing so, residues required for binding of fat...

  8. Identification of intact long-chain p-hydroxycinnamate esters in leaf fibers of abaca (Musa textilis) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, José C; Rodríguez, Isabel M; Gutiérrez, Ana

    2004-01-01

    The study of acetone-extractable components from the leaf fibers of the non-wood plant abaca (Musa textilis) resulted in the isolation and identification of series of intact hydroxycinnamate esters consisting of ferulic and p-coumaric acids esterified to long-chain fatty alcohols (C20 to C28) and omega-hydroxyfatty acids (C22 to C28). These series of compounds were characterized by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using capillary columns (12 m length) with thin films that allowed the analysis of intact (i.e., without prior saponification) hydroxycinnamate esters. Characterization of intact individual compounds was achieved based on the mass spectra obtained by GC/MS of the underivatized compounds and their methyl and/or trimethylsilyl ether derivatives.

  9. Bioavailability of seocalcitol I: Relating solubility in biorelevant media with oral bioavailability in rats--effect of medium and long chain triglycerides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Mette; Pedersen, Gitte P; Nielsen, Jeanet L

    2005-01-01

    the influence of fatty acid chain length on the in vitro solubility of seocalcitol. The same solubility of seocalcitol was found in media containing either MC-LP or LC-LP. The bioavailability after oral administration of seocalcitol dissolved in medium chain triglyceride (MCT), long chain triglyceride (LCT......), and a reference formulation containing propylene glycol (PG) was studied in vivo in rats. The lipid formulations showed a twofold increase in bioavailability compared with the reference formulation, indicating positive effects of lipids on the bioavailability reflecting a better solubility in the intestine...... and protection against precipitation of seocalcitol in the gastro intestinal tract. There was no difference in the in vivo bioavailability of seocalcitol between the MCT and the LCT solutions, which correlates with the identical in vitro solubility of seocalcitol in SIM containing MC-LP or LC-LP....

  10. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, van C.; Pel, R.; Ellers, J.

    2009-01-01

    A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (P

  11. Uridine prevents fenofibrate-induced fatty liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuc T Le

    Full Text Available Uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside, can modulate liver lipid metabolism although its specific acting targets have not been identified. Using mice with fenofibrate-induced fatty liver as a model system, the effects of uridine on liver lipid metabolism are examined. At a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg, fenofibrate treatment causes reduction of liver NAD(+/NADH ratio, induces hyper-acetylation of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme (ECHD and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1, and induces excessive accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFA and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA. Uridine co-administration at a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg raises NAD(+/NADH ratio, inhibits fenofibrate-induced hyper-acetylation of ECHD, ACOX1, and reduces accumulation of LCFA and VLCFA. Our data indicates a therapeutic potential for uridine co-administration to prevent fenofibrate-induced fatty liver.

  12. PPARδ activation induces hepatic long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4 expression in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Chin Fung Kelvin; Singh, Amar Bahadur; Dong, Bin; Shende, Vikram Ravindra; Liu, Jingwen

    2015-05-01

    The arachidonic acid preferred long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4) is a key enzyme for fatty acid metabolism in various metabolic tissues. In this study, we utilized hamsters fed a normal chow diet, a high-fat diet or a high cholesterol and high fat diet (HCHFD) as animal models to explore novel transcriptional regulatory mechanisms for ACSL4 expression under hyperlipidemic conditions. Through cloning hamster ACSL4 homolog and tissue profiling ACSL4 mRNA and protein expressions we observed a selective upregulation of ACSL4 in testis and liver of HCHFD fed animals. Examination of transcriptional activators of the ACSL family revealed an increased hepatic expression of PPARδ but not PPARα in HCHFD fed hamsters. To explore a role of PPARδ in dietary cholesterol-mediated upregulation of ACSL4, we administered a PPARδ specific agonist L165041 to normolipidemic and dyslipidemic hamsters. We observed significant increases of hepatic ACSL4 mRNA and protein levels in all L165041-treated hamsters as compared to control animals. The induction of ACSL4 expression by L165041 in liver tissue in vivo was recapitulated in human primary hepatocytes and hepatocytes isolated from hamster and mouse. Moreover, employing the approach of adenovirus-mediated gene knockdown, we showed that depletion of PPARδ in hamster hepatocytes specifically reduced ACSL4 expression. Finally, utilizing HepG2 as a model system, we demonstrate that PPARδ activation leads to increased ACSL4 promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression, and consequently higher arachidonoyl-CoA synthetase activity. Taken together, we have discovered a novel PPARδ-mediated regulatory mechanism for ACSL4 expression in liver tissue and cultured hepatic cells.

  13. PCSK9 variant, long-chain n-3 PUFAs, and risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rican Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi; Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Tiange; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Dianjianyi; Campos, Hannia; Qi, Lu

    2017-03-22

    Background: Previous studies have indicated that the cardioprotective effects of long-chain (LC) n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may vary across various ethnic populations. Emerging evidence has suggested that the gene-environment interaction may partly explain such variations. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) was shown to have a mutually regulating relation with LC n-3 PUFAs and also to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Therefore, we hypothesized that certain PCSK9 genetic variants may modify the association between LC n-3 PUFA intake and CVD risk.Objective: We determined whether a PCSK9 variant (rs11206510), which has been identified for early onset myocardial infarction (MI), modified the association of LC n-3 PUFAs with nonfatal MI risk in Costa Rican Hispanics.Design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1932 case subjects with a first nonfatal MI and 2055 population-based control subjects who were living in Costa Rica to examine potential gene-environment interactions. Two-sided P values n-3 PUFA intake on nonfatal MI risk (P-interaction = 0.012). The OR of nonfatal MI was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.98) per 0.1% increase in total energy intake from LC n-3 PUFAs in protective-allele (C-allele) carriers, whereas the corresponding OR (95% CI) in non-C-allele carriers was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.10). Similar results were observed when we examined the association between docosahexaenoic acid, which is one type of LC n-3 PUFA, and nonfatal MI risk (P-interaction = 0.003).Conclusion: LC n-3 PUFA intake is associated with a lower risk of nonfatal MI in C-allele carriers of PCSK9 rs11206510 (n = 799) but not in non-C-allele carriers (n = 3188).

  14. Relationship between orbital energy gaps and excitation energies for long-chain systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuneda, Takao; Singh, Raman K; Nakata, Ayako

    2016-06-15

    The difference between the excitation energies and corresponding orbital energy gaps, the exciton binding energy, is investigated based on time-dependent (TD) density functional theory (DFT) for long-chain systems: all-trans polyacetylenes and linear oligoacenes. The optimized geometries of these systems indicate that bond length alternations significantly depend on long-range exchange interactions. In TDDFT formalism, the exciton binding energy comes from the two-electron interactions between occupied and unoccupied orbitals through the Coulomb-exchange-correlation integral kernels. TDDFT calculations show that the exciton binding energy is significant when long-range exchange interactions are involved. Spin-flip (SF) TDDFT calculations are then carried out to clarify double-excitation effects in these excitation energies. The calculated SF-TDDFT results indicate that double-excitation effects significantly contribute to the excitations of long-chain systems. The discrepancies between the vertical ionization potential minus electron affinity (IP-EA) values and the HOMO-LUMO excitation energies are also evaluated for the infinitely long polyacetylene and oligoacene using the least-square fits to estimate the exciton binding energy of infinitely long systems. It is found that long-range exchange interactions are required to give the exciton binding energy of the infinitely long systems. Consequently, it is concluded that long-range exchange interactions neglected in many DFT calculations play a crucial role in the exciton binding energies of long-chain systems, while double-excitation correlation effects are also significant to hold the energy balance of the excitations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Incorporation of Amino Acids with Long-Chain Terminal Olefins into Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Exner, Matthias P.; Sebastian Köhling; Julie Rivollier; Sandrine Gosling; Puneet Srivastava; Palyancheva, Zheni I; Piet Herdewijn; Marie-Pierre Heck; Jörg Rademann; Nediljko Budisa

    2016-01-01

    The increasing need for site-specific protein decorations that mimic natural posttranslational modifications requires access to a variety of noncanonical amino acids with moieties enabling bioorthogonal conjugation chemistry. Here we present the incorporation of long-chain olefinic amino acids into model proteins with rational variants of pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS). Nε-heptenoyl lysine was incorporated for the first time using the known promiscuous variant PylRS(Y306A/Y384F), and Nε-p...

  16. Soluble Polyimides Bearing Long-Chain Alkyl Groups on Their Side Chain via Polymer Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Novel soluble polyimides having long-chain alkyl groups on their side chain were synthesized via polymer reaction with the polyimides having phenolic OH groups and 3,4,5-tris(dodecyloxy)benzoic acid (12GA) using N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as a dehydration reagent. The polyimides having phenolic OH groups were synthesized from the tetracarboxylic dianhydrides such as 5-(2,5-dioxotetrahydrofuryl)-3-methyl-3-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (cyclohexene-DA), 4,4′-hexafluoroisoprop...

  17. A severe genotype with favourable outcome in very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touma, E H; Rashed, M S; Vianey-Saban, C

    2001-01-01

    A patient with very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is reported. He had a severe neonatal presentation and cardiomyopathy. He was found to be homozygous for a severe mutation with no residual enzyme activity. Tandem mass spectrometry on dried blood spots revealed increased lo...... chain acylcarnitines. VLCAD enzyme activity was severely decreased to 2% of control levels. Dietary management consisted of skimmed milk supplemented with medium chain triglycerides and L-carnitine. Outcome was good and there was no acute recurrence....

  18. Accumulation of long-chain glycosphingolipids during aging is prevented by caloric restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Hernández-Corbacho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease are major causes of morbidity and mortality that are seen far more commonly in the aged population. Interestingly, kidney function declines during aging even in the absence of underlying renal disease. Declining renal function has been associated with age-related cellular damage and dysfunction with reports of increased levels of apoptosis, necrosis, and inflammation in the aged kidney. Bioactive sphingolipids have been shown to regulate these same cellular processes, and have also been suggested to play a role in aging and cellular senescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We hypothesized that alterations in kidney sphingolipids play a role in the declining kidney function that occurs during aging. To begin to address this, the sphingolipid profile was measured in young (3 mo, middle aged (9 mo and old (17 mo C57BL/6 male mice. Interestingly, while modest changes in ceramides and sphingoid bases were evident in kidneys from older mice, the most dramatic elevations were seen in long-chain hexosylceramides (HexCer and lactosylceramides (LacCer, with C14- and C16-lactosylceramides elevated as much as 8 and 12-fold, respectively. Increases in long-chain LacCers during aging are not exclusive to the kidney, as they also occur in the liver and brain. Importantly, caloric restriction, previously shown to prevent the declining kidney function seen in aging, inhibits accumulation of long-chain HexCer/LacCers and prevents the age-associated elevation of enzymes involved in their synthesis. Additionally, long-chain LacCers are also significantly elevated in human fibroblasts isolated from elderly individuals. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates accumulation of the glycosphingolipids HexCer and LacCer in several different organs in rodents and humans during aging. In addition, data demonstrate that HexCer and LacCer metabolism is regulated by caloric restriction. Taken together

  19. Parenteral Administration of Medium- but Not Long-Chain Lipid Emulsions May Increase the Risk for Infections by Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Wanten, Geert J.; Netea, Mihai G.; Naber, Ton H.; Curfs, Jo H.; Jacobs, Liesbeth E.; Verver-Jansen, Trees J.; Kullberg, Bart-Jan

    2002-01-01

    Intravenous administration to volunteers of an emulsion of medium-chain lipids, but not of an emulsion of pure long-chain lipids or a placebo, increased the growth of Candida albicans in serum and modulated Candida-induced cytokine production by mononuclear cells in a way suggesting that medium-chain, but not long-chain, triglycerides increase the risk for infections by Candida.

  20. Application of the Long-Chain Linear Polyester in Plastification of PVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; WANG Changming; WANG Guojian; QU Zehua

    2008-01-01

    The plastification modification of poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC)with the long-chain linear polyester(LP)synthesized by linear dodecanedioic acid(DC12)or tetradecanedioic acid(DC 14)with different diols is investigated.The processing characteristics,mechanical properties and extraction property of the PVC/LP blends in different solvents(xylene,cyclohexane,ethanol)were also studied in detail.All results were compared with that of the PVC plasticized with dioctyl phthalate(DOP).The results show that the molecular weight,molecular structure and loading of LP greatly influence the mechanical properties of the PVC/LP blends.The processability and the mechanical properties of PVC plasticized by LP are comparable to those of the corresponding PVC/DOP blends.However,the PVC/LP blends posses much better migration resistance property than the corresponding PVC/DOP blends,which makes the long-chain linear polyester become a very good plasticizer candidate for PVC industry.

  1. Hydrophobic, electrostatic, and dynamic polymer forces at silicone surfaces modified with long-chain bolaform surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Michael V; Donaldson, Stephen H; Gebbie, Matthew A; Das, Saurabh; Kaufman, Yair; Gizaw, Yonas; Koenig, Peter; Roiter, Yuri; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2015-05-06

    Surfactant self-assembly on surfaces is an effective way to tailor the complex forces at and between hydrophobic-water interfaces. Here, the range of structures and forces that are possible at surfactant-adsorbed hydrophobic surfaces are demonstrated: certain long-chain bolaform surfactants-containing a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mid-block domain and two cationic α, ω-quarternary ammonium end-groups-readily adsorb onto thin PDMS films and form dynamically fluctuating nanostructures. Through measurements with the surface forces apparatus (SFA), it is found that these soft protruding nanostructures display polymer-like exploration behavior at the PDMS surface and give rise to a long-ranged, temperature- and rate-dependent attractive bridging force (not due to viscous forces) on approach to a hydrophilic bare mica surface. Coulombic interactions between the cationic surfactant end-groups and negatively-charged mica result in a rate-dependent polymer bridging force during separation as the hydrophobic surfactant mid-blocks are pulled out from the PDMS interface, yielding strong adhesion energies. Thus, (i) the versatile array of surfactant structures that may form at hydrophobic surfaces is highlighted, (ii) the need to consider the interaction dynamics of such self-assembled polymer layers is emphasized, and (iii) it is shown that long-chain surfactants can promote robust adhesion in aqueous solutions.

  2. High orientation of long chain branched poly (lactic acid) with enhanced blood compatibility and bionic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqiu; Ye, Lin; Zhao, Xiaowen; Coates, Phil; Caton-Rose, Fin; Martyn, Michasel

    2016-05-01

    Highly oriented poly (lactic acid) (PLA) with bionic microgrooves was fabricated through solid hot drawing technology for further improving the mechanical properties and blood biocompatibility of PLA. In order to enhance the melt strength and thus obtain high orientation degree, long chain branched PLA was prepared at first through a two-step ring-opening reaction during processing. Linear viscoelasticity combined with branch-on-branch model was used to predict probable compositions and chain topologies of the products, and it was found that the molecular weight of PLA increased and topological structures with star like chain with three arms and tree-like chain with two generations formed during reactive processing, and consequently draw ratio as high as1200% can be achieved during the subsequent hot stretching. With the increase of draw ratio, the tensile strength and orientation degree of PLA increased dramatically. Long chain branching and orientation could significantly enhance the blood compatibility of PLA by prolonging clotting time and decreasing platelet activation. Microgrooves can be observed on the surface of the oriented PLA which were similar to the intimal layer of blood vessel, and such bionic structure resulted from the formation of the oriented shish kebab-like crystals along the draw direction.

  3. Conversion of raw lignocellulosic biomass into branched long-chain alkanes through three tandem steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunrui; Ding, Daqian; Xia, Qineng; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yanqin

    2016-07-07

    Synthesis of branched long-chain alkanes from renewable biomass has attracted intensive interest in recent years, but the feedstock for this synthesis is restricted to platform chemicals. Here, we develop an effective and energy-efficient process to convert raw lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., corncob) into branched diesel-range alkanes through three tandem steps for the first time. Furfural and isopropyl levulinate (LA ester) were prepared from hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of corncob in toluene/water biphasic system with added isopropanol, which was followed by double aldol condensation of furfural with LA ester into C15 oxygenates and the final hydrodeoxygenation of C15 oxygenates into branched long-chain alkanes. The core point of this tandem process is the addition of isopropanol in the first step, which enables the spontaneous transfer of levulinic acid (LA) into the toluene phase in the form of LA ester through esterification, resulting in LA ester co-existing with furfural in the same phase, which is the basis for double aldol condensation in the toluene phase. Moreover, the acidic aqueous phase and toluene can be reused and the residues, including lignin and humins in aqueous phase, can be separated and carbonized to porous carbon materials.

  4. Characterization of Oilseed Lipids from “DHA-Producing Camelina sativa”: A New Transformed Land Plant Containing Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged P. Mansour

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available New and sustainable sources of long-chain (LC, ≥C20 omega-3 oils containing DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6ω3 are required to meet increasing demands. The lipid content of the oilseed of a novel transgenic, DHA-producing land plant, Camelina sativa, containing microalgal genes able to produce LC omega-3 oils, contained 36% lipid by weight with triacylglycerols (TAG as the major lipid class in hexane extracts (96% of total lipid. Subsequent chloroform-methanol (CM extraction recovered further lipid (~50% polar lipid, comprising glycolipids and phospholipids and residual TAG. The main phospholipid species were phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The % DHA was: 6.8% (of total fatty acids in the TAG-rich hexane extract and 4.2% in the polar lipid-rich CM extract. The relative level of ALA (α-linolenic acid, 18:3ω3 in DHA-camelina seed was higher than the control. Major sterols in both DHA- and control camelina seeds were: sitosterol, campesterol, cholesterol, brassicasterol and isofucosterol. C16–C22 fatty alcohols, including iso-branched and odd-chain alcohols were present, including high levels of iso-17:0, 17:0 and 19:0. Other alcohols present were: 16:0, iso-18:0, 18:0 and 18:1 and the proportions varied between the hexane and CM extracts. These iso-branched odd-chain fatty alcohols, to our knowledge, have not been previously reported. These components may be derived from wax esters, or free fatty alcohols.

  5. Characterization of oilseed lipids from "DHA-producing Camelina sativa": a new transformed land plant containing long-chain omega-3 oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Maged P; Shrestha, Pushkar; Belide, Srinivas; Petrie, James R; Nichols, Peter D; Singh, Surinder P

    2014-02-21

    New and sustainable sources of long-chain (LC, ≥C₂₀) omega-3 oils containing DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6ω3) are required to meet increasing demands. The lipid content of the oilseed of a novel transgenic, DHA-producing land plant, Camelina sativa, containing microalgal genes able to produce LC omega-3 oils, contained 36% lipid by weight with triacylglycerols (TAG) as the major lipid class in hexane extracts (96% of total lipid). Subsequent chloroform-methanol (CM) extraction recovered further lipid (~50% polar lipid, comprising glycolipids and phospholipids) and residual TAG. The main phospholipid species were phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The % DHA was: 6.8% (of total fatty acids) in the TAG-rich hexane extract and 4.2% in the polar lipid-rich CM extract. The relative level of ALA (α-linolenic acid, 18:3ω3) in DHA-camelina seed was higher than the control. Major sterols in both DHA- and control camelina seeds were: sitosterol, campesterol, cholesterol, brassicasterol and isofucosterol. C₁₆-C₂₂ fatty alcohols, including iso-branched and odd-chain alcohols were present, including high levels of iso-17:0, 17:0 and 19:0. Other alcohols present were: 16:0, iso-18:0, 18:0 and 18:1 and the proportions varied between the hexane and CM extracts. These iso-branched odd-chain fatty alcohols, to our knowledge, have not been previously reported. These components may be derived from wax esters, or free fatty alcohols.

  6. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  7. Early intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids preserves brain structure and function in diet-induced obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnoldussen, I.A.C.; Zerbi, V.; Wiesmann, M.; Noordman, R.H.J.; Bolijn, S.; Mutsaers, M.P.C.; Dederen, P.J.W.C.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Tol, E.A.F. van; Gross, G.; Schoemaker, M.H.; Wieling, P.Y.; Kilian, A.

    2016-01-01

    orldwide, the incidence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate, and the number of children with obesity is especially worrisome. These developments raise concerns about the physical, psychosocial and cognitive consequences of obesity. It was shown that early dietary intake of arachidonic acid

  8. Sequencing adsorption and degradation cycles towards the methanization of long chain fatty acids : comparison between granular and suspended sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, M A; Pires, O. C.; Mota, M.; Alves, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the maximum potential methane production in batch assays of sludge samples taken along the operation of two EGSB reactors (RI inoculated with granular sludge and RII inoculated with suspended sludge) fed with increasing oleic acid concentrations between 2 and 8 gCOD/l (HRT=1 day). After removing the residual substrate, the sludge was incubated in batch vials without any added carbon source. A maximum methane production rate of 152±21 mlCH4(...

  9. The effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone formation and growth factors in adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Mølgaard, C.; Gyldenløve, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status and (ii) affected by fish oil supplementation, in adolescent boys. METHODS: Seventy-eight healthy, slightly overweight 13- to 15-y-old boys were randomly assigned to breads with DHA-rich fish oil (1.1 g/d n-3 LCPUFA) or control for 16 wk. Whole-body bone mineral content (BMC......), bone area (BA), bone mineral density (BMD), plasma osteocalcin, and growth factors were measured at wk 0 and wk 16, as well as diet, physical activity, and n-3 LCPUFA status in erythrocytes. RESULTS: Fish oil strongly increased DHA status (P = 0.0001). No associations were found between DHA status...... and BMC, BA, BMD, or the markers of bone formation and growth at baseline. Furthermore, the fish oil intervention did not affect any of the outcomes as compared with control. However, dose-response analyses revealed a positive association between changes in DHA status and plasma insulin-like growth factor...

  10. Characterising pharmacological ligands to study the long chain fatty acid receptors GPR40/FFA1 and GPR120/FFA4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, G; Alvarez-Curto, E; Watterson, K R

    2015-01-01

    control of blood glucose and improve tissue insulin sensitivity, both receptors are being studied as potential therapeutic targets for the control of type II diabetes. Furthermore, genetic and systems biology studies in both humans and mouse models link FFA4 to diabetes and obesity. Although activated...... of the sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor S1P1 . Screening and subsequent medicinal chemistry programmes have developed a number of FFA1 selective agonists that are effective in promoting insulin secretion in a glucose concentration-dependent manner, and in lowering blood glucose levels. However, the recent...... termination of phase III clinical trials employing TAK-875/Fasiglifam has caused a setback and raises important questions over the exact nature and mechanistic causes of the problems. Progress in the identification and development of highly FFA4-selective pharmacological tools has been less rapid and several...

  11. Reducing the burden of obesity-associated cancers with anti-inflammatory long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib, Subreen A.; Rossi, Emily L.; Bowers, Laura W.; Hursting, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    Today’s world population has an unprecedented risk of dying from the consequences of being overweight and obese. Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer are often accelerated because of excessive adiposity. Various biological mechanisms are implicated in the obesity-cancer link, particularly local and systemic inflammation as well as altered growth factor signaling pathways. In order to combat obesity-induced inflammation and the resulting increases in can...

  12. Toxicity in anaerobic digestion with emphasis on the effect of ammonia, sulfide and long-chain fatty acids on methanogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, I.W.

    1989-01-01

    The dissertation concerns the problem of toxicity in anaerobic digestion, which to a large extent is the problem of inhibition of methanogenic conversions by chemical compounds. The dissertation begins with an extensive literature review in which the microbiology o

  13. Genetic variation in FADS genes is associated with maternal long-chain PUFA status but not with cognitive development of infants in a high fish-eating observational study.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeates, Alison J; Tanzy M Love; Engström, Karin; Mulhern, Maria S.; McSorley, Emeir M.; Grzesik, Katherine; Alhamdow, Ayman; Wahlberg, Karin E; Thurston, Sally W.; Davidson, Philip W; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Watson, Gene E.; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Myers, G.J.; Strain, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA (LC-PUFA), arachidonic acid (AA) (20:4n-6) and DHA (22:6n-3), are critical for optimal brain development. These fatty acids can be consumed directly from the diet, or synthesized endogenously from precursor PUFA by Δ-5 (encoded by FADS1) and Δ-6 desaturases (encoded by FADS2). The aim of this study was to determine the potential importance of maternal genetic variability in FADS1 and FADS2 genes to maternal LC-PUFA status and infant neurodevelopment in populations ...

  14. Interdigitation of long-chain sphingomyelin induces coupling of membrane leaflets in a cholesterol dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Róg, Tomasz; Orłowski, Adam; Llorente, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    It has been a long-standing question how the two leaflets in a lipid bilayer modulate each others' physical properties. In this paper, we discuss how this interaction may take place through interdigitation. We use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to consider asymmetric lipid membrane models...... whose compositions are based on the lipidomics data determined for exosomes released by PC-3 prostate cancer cells. The simulations show interdigitation to be exceptionally strong for long-chain sphingomyelin (SM) molecules. In asymmetric membranes the amide-linked chain of SM is observed to extend deep......, and that cholesterol modulates the effect of SM interdigitation by influencing the conformational order of lipid hydrocarbon chains in the opposing (cytosolic) leaflet....

  15. Quantitative Profiling of Long-Chain Bases by Mass Tagging and Parallel Reaction Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing, Christer S; Bilgin, Mesut; Fabregat, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain bases (LCBs) are both intermediates in sphingolipid metabolism and potent signaling molecules that control cellular processes. To understand how regulation of sphingolipid metabolism and levels of individual LCB species impinge upon physiological and pathophysiological processes requires...... sensitive and specific assays for monitoring these molecules. Here we describe a shotgun lipidomics method for quantitative profiling of LCB molecules. The method employs a "mass-tag" strategy where LCBs are chemically derivatized with deuterated methyliodide (CD3I) to produce trimethylated derivatives...... having a positively charged quaternary amine group. This chemical derivatization minimizes unwanted in-source fragmentation of LCB analytes and prompts a characteristic trimethylaminium fragment ion that enables sensitive and quantitative profiling of LCB molecules by parallel reaction monitoring...

  16. Modification of nano-sized layered double hydroxides by long-chain organic aliphatic surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMASAMY ANBARASAN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The inter-layer anion of layered double hydroxides (LDH with a hydrotalcite (HT-like structure was ion-exchanged with various organic surfactants, particularly with long chain aliphatic surfactants. After the ion-exchange process, the basal spacing of the LDH was increased and the increase of the basal spacing depended on various factors, such as the intercalation capacity functionality and orientation capability of the surfactant. Of the employed surfactants, stearic acid intercalated LDH showed the highest increase of the basal spacing, which was confirmed by XRD analysis. FTIR results supported the interaction of the surfactants with the LDH. In addition, an increase in the thermal stability of the dodecanedioic acid intercalated HT was evidenced by the TGA method.

  17. Determination of Diffusion Coefficients of Selected Long Chain Hydrocarbons using Reversed- Flow Gas Chromatographic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalisanni Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The reversed-flow gas chromatography (RF-GC technique was used to study the evaporation rate and estimating the diffusion coefficient of samples. The RF-GC system comprises of six-port valve, sampling and diffusion column, detector and modified commercial gas chromatography machine. Selected long chain of hydrocarbons (99.99% purity was used as samples. The solute (stationary phase were carried out by carrier gas (mobile phase to the detector. The data obtained from the RF-GC analysis were analysed by deriving the elution curve of the sample peaks using mathematical expression to find the diffusion coefficients values of respective liquids. The values obtained were compared with theoretical values to ensure the accuracy of readings. The interesting findings of the research showed the theoretical values of equilibrium at liquid-gas interphase lead to profound an agreement with the experimental evidence, which contributes for the references of future studies.

  18. Environmental properties of long chain alcohols. Part 1: Physicochemical, environmental fate and acute aquatic toxicity properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisk, Peter; Sanderson, Hans; Wildey, Ross;

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarises the physicochemical, biodegradation and acute aquatic ecotoxicity properties of long chain aliphatic alcohols. Properties of pure compounds are shown to follow somewhat predictable trends, which are amenable to estimation by quantitative structure-activity relationships ((Q......)SARs). This allows predictions of data relating to human and environmental safety profiles and patterns. These alcohols have been shown to be rapidly degradable under standard conditions up to C18. Furthermore, evidence suggests that longer chain lengths are also rapidly biodegradable. While log Kow values suggest...... possible bioaccumulation potential, available data suggest that these substances are not as bioaccumulative as estimations would predict. For acute aquatic toxicity, solubility limits the possibility of effects being appropriately observed and become increasingly challenging above C12. Further, a model has...

  19. Dielectric relaxation of long-chain glass-forming monohydroxy alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanqin; Tu, Wenkang; Chen, Zeming; Tian, Yongjun; Liu, Riping; Wang, Li-Min

    2013-10-01

    The dielectric relaxation of two long-chain glass forming monohydroxy alcohols, 2-butyl-1-octanol and 2-hexyl-1-decanol, is studied at low temperature. Remarkable broadening from the pure Debye relaxation is identified for the slowest dynamics, differing from the dielectric spectra of short-chain alcohols. The broadening of the Debye-like relaxation in the two liquids develops as temperature increases, and the approaching of the Debye-like and structural relaxation widths is shown. Similar results are observed in the dielectric spectra of dilute 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in either 2-hexyl-1-decanol or squalane. The results of the liquids and mixtures reveal a correlation between the broadening and the Debye-like relaxation strength. Molecular associations in monohydroxy alcohols are discussed with the modification of the Debye relaxation.

  20. Aggregation Behavior of Long-Chain Piperidinium Ionic Liquids in Ethylammonium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caili Dai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Micelles formed by the long-chain piperidinium ionic liquids (ILs N-alkyl-N-methylpiperidinium bromide of general formula CnPDB (n = 12, 14, 16 in ethylammonium nitrate (EAN were investigated through surface tension and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD simulations. Through surface tension measurements, the critical micelle concentration (cmc, the effectiveness of surface tension reduction (Πcmc, the maximum excess surface concentration (Гmax and the minimum area occupied per surfactant molecule (Amin can be obtained. A series of thermodynamic parameters (DG0 m, DH0 m and DS0 m of micellization can be calculated and the results showed that the micellization was entropy-driven. In addition, the DPD simulation was performed to simulate the whole aggregation process behavior to better reveal the micelle formation process.

  1. Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils–An Update on Sustainable Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Nichols

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Seafood is currently the best and generally a safe source of long-chain (LC, (≥C20 omega-3 oils amongst the common food groups. LC omega-3 oils are also obtained in lower amounts per serve from red meat, egg and selected other foods. As global population increases the opportunities to increase seafood harvest are limited, therefore new alternate sources are required. Emerging sources include microalgae and under-utilized resources such as Southern Ocean krill. Prospects for new land plant sources of these unique and health-benefiting oils are also particularly promising, offering hope for alternate and sustainable supplies of these key oils, with resulting health, social, economic and environmental benefits.

  2. Distinct Phosphorylation Clusters Determine the Signaling Outcome of Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4/G Protein-Coupled Receptor 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prihandoko, Rudi; Alvarez-Curto, Elisa; Hudson, Brian D;

    2016-01-01

    It is established that long-chain free fatty acids includingω-3 fatty acids mediate an array of biologic responses through members of the free fatty acid (FFA) receptor family, which includes FFA4. However, the signaling mechanisms and modes of regulation of this receptor class remain unclear. He...

  3. Concomitant action of structural elements and receptor phosphorylation determines arrestin-3 interaction with the free fatty acid receptor FFA4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Adrian J; Hudson, Brian D; Shimpukade, Bharat;

    2014-01-01

    In addition to being nutrients, free fatty acids act as signaling molecules by activating a family of G protein-coupled receptors. Among these is FFA4, previously called GPR120, which responds to medium and long chain fatty acids, including health-promoting ω-3 fatty acids, which have been implic...

  4. Molecular characterization of the fatty alcohol oxidation pathway for wax-ester mobilization in germinated jojoba seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is the only plant species known to use liquid wax esters (WE) as a primary seed storage reserve. Upon germination, WE hydrolysis releases very long-chain fatty alcohols, which must be oxidised to fatty acids by the sequential action of a fatty alcohol oxidase (FAO) and ...

  5. Long chain n-alkanes and their carbon isotopes in lichen species from western Hubei Province: implication for geological records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianyu HUANG; Jiantao XUE; Shouyu GUO

    2012-01-01

    Five coticolous lichen samples were collected from western Hubei Province of China to analyze the long chain n-alkanes and their carbon isotope compositions.The n-alkanes range in carbon number from C17 to C33 with strong odd-over-even predominance between C21and C33.Lichens are dominated by n-C29 in the samples of Dajiuhu,Shennongjia Mountain,but by both n-C23 and n-C29 at Qizimei Mountain.This difference may result from the different environmental conditions in these two sites.The δ13C values of long chain n-alkanes in lichen samples show the signature of C3 plants.Based on compoundspecific carbon isotopic values and previous results,we state that alkane homologs > C23 mainly originate from the symbiotic fungi,while symbiotic algae only contribute trace amount of long chain alkanes.Of great interesting is the occurrence of long chain 3-methylalkanes in the Qizimei samples.These anteiso compounds range from C24 to C32,displaying obvious even-over-odd predominance.This study reveals that the association of long chain 3-methylalkanes with n-C23 alkane might be used as proxies to reconstruct the paleoecological implications of lichens in Earth history.

  6. Long chain n-alkanes and their carbon isotopes in lichen species from western Hubei Province: implication for geological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianyu; Xue, Jiantao; Guo, Shouyu

    2012-03-01

    Five coticolous lichen samples were collected from western Hubei Province of China to analyze the long chain n-alkanes and their carbon isotope compositions. The n-alkanes range in carbon number from C17 to C33 with strong odd-over-even predominance between C21 and C33. Lichens are dominated by n-C29 in the samples of Dajiuhu, Shennongjia Mountain, but by both n-C23 and n-C29 at Qizimei Mountain. This difference may result from the different environmental conditions in these two sites. The δ 13C values of long chain n-alkanes in lichen samples show the signature of C3 plants. Based on compoundspecific carbon isotopic values and previous results, we state that alkane homologs >C23 mainly originate from the symbiotic fungi, while symbiotic algae only contribute trace amount of long chain alkanes. Of great interesting is the occurrence of long chain 3-methylalkanes in the Qizimei samples. These anteiso compounds range from C24 to C32, displaying obvious even-over-odd predominance. This study reveals that the association of long chain 3-methylalkanes with n-C23 alkane might be used as proxies to reconstruct the paleoecological implications of lichens in Earth history.

  7. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate......Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns...

  8. CPI values of terrestrial higher plant-derived long-chain n-alkanes: a potential paleoclimatic proxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiguo RAO; Zhaoyu ZHU; Suping WANG; Guodong JIA; Mingrui QIANG; Yi WU

    2009-01-01

    Carbon Preference Index (CPI values) of higher plant-derived long-chain n-alkanes extracted from 62 surface soil samples in eastern China exhibited a specific pattern of variations, namely gradual increase with the increasing latitudes. Such regular variations existed in both forest soil and grassland soil. Our data implied that CPI values of higher plant-derived long-chain n-alkanes had a certain connection with climatic conditions, and such a connection was not influenced by vegetation types. Together with previous data from marine sediments, loess/ paleosol sequences, tertiary red clay and modern plants, our observation made us conclude that CPI values of higher plant-derived long-chain n-alkanes may be used as an excellent proxy for paleoclimatic studies.

  9. Dietary α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and n-3 long-chain PUFA and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedtofte, Mia Sadowa; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    n-3 (omega-3) PUFA has been proposed as having health-promoting effects, primarily in relation to ischemic heart disease (IHD). Whether these benefits can be achieved by both α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) and n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) is debatable.......n-3 (omega-3) PUFA has been proposed as having health-promoting effects, primarily in relation to ischemic heart disease (IHD). Whether these benefits can be achieved by both α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) and n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) is debatable....

  10. Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Delaš

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

  11. A Review of the Metabolic Origins of Milk Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria COZMA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat and its fatty acid profile are important determinants of the technological, sensorial, and nutritional properties of milk and dairy products. The two major processes contributing to the presence of fatty acids in ruminant milk are the mammary lipogenesis and the lipid metabolism in the rumen. Among fatty acids, 4:0 to 12:0, almost all 14:0 and about a half of 16:0 in milk fat derive from de novo synthesis within the mammary gland. De novo synthesis utilizes as precursors acetate and butyrate produced through carbohydrates ruminal fermentation and involves acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase as key enzymes. The rest of 16:0 and all of the long-chain fatty acids derive from mammary uptake of circulating lipoproteins and nonesterified fatty acids that originate from digestive absorption of lipids and body fat mobilization. Further, long-chain fatty acids as well as medium-chain fatty acids entering the mammary gland can be desaturated via Δ-9 desaturase, an enzyme that acts by adding a cis-9-double bond on the fatty acid chain. Moreover, ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids results in the formation of numerous fatty acids available for incorporation into milk fat. Ruminal biohydrogenation is performed by rumen microbial population as a means of protection against the toxic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Within the rumen microorganisms, bacteria are principally responsible for ruminal biohydrogenation when compared to protozoa and anaerobic fungi.

  12. Free fatty acid profiles of emulsified lipids during in vitro digestion with pancreatic lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianqian; Ye, Aiqian; Verrier, Timothee; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-08-15

    Individual free fatty acids released from milk protein-stabilized emulsions prepared with milk fat, soya bean oil or tuna fish oil during in vitro digestion with pancreatic lipase were monitored using gas chromatography. The results showed that saturated fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) were released faster than unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1n9, C18:2n6 and C18:3n3) from soya bean oil emulsions; short chain fatty acids were released faster than long chain fatty acids from milk fat emulsions; long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, were released more slowly than other fatty acids from fish oil emulsions. The results confirm that the release behaviour of fatty acids from emulsions during digestion is related not only to the position of the fatty acids in the triglycerides in the fat/oil, but also to the length of the carbon chain of the fatty acid. The rates and the extents of the digestion of lipids consisting of short chain fatty acids are higher than those of lipids consisting of long chain fatty acids.

  13. Electrogenicity of hepatocellular fatty acid uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsing, C; Kassner, A; Gajdzik, L; Graf, J; Stremmel, W

    1998-08-18

    Sensitivity of cellular fatty acids uptake to the membrane potential difference is still a matter of controversy. For direct evaluation of potential sensitivity the effect of changing membrane potential on uptake of a fluorescent long chain fatty acid derivative, 12-NBD-stearate, in isolated rat hepatocytes, was examined. Changes in membrane potential were achieved by patch clamp procedures. Fatty acid influx was simultaneously determined by recording of cell fluorescence. Hyperpolarization from -30 to -70 mV accelerated fatty acid influx whereas depolarization to +50 mV reduced uptake. After obtaining equilibrium hyperpolarization increased cell fluorescence, whereas depolarization pushed NBD-stearate out of cells. Potential sensitivity of uptake was dependent on the fatty acid concentrations in the medium with most prominent effects at low unbound concentrations. These data show that, at low fatty acid concentrations, uptake is, in part, driven by an intracellular negative electric membrane potential.

  14. Regulation of skeletal muscle insulin action in relation to dietary fatty acids and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Louise Dalgas

    -rich diet enriched in long-chain saturated fatty acids, whole body insulin sensitivity (19%) and insulin stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle (24%) were also reduced, whereas no changes was observed after a diet enriched in medium-chain saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates. These findings show...... in skeletal muscle could rather be ascribed to attenuated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma surface membrane after the unsaturated (23%) and long-chain saturated fatty acid diet (26%) compared with the control diet (52%)(investigated in rats). Furthermore, the present data suggest that mechanisms regulating...

  15. Differences in NEXAFS of odd/even long chain n-alkane crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaraj, Sufal, E-mail: sufal.swaraj@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin – BP 48, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Ade, Harald [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •Number and parity of Carbon backbone influences the NEXAFS spectra of n-alkane crystals. •Odd/even effect observed is attributed to the geometrical consequence of a zig–zag chain structure. •NEXAFS spectra are influenced by Interaction of molecular orbitals with periodic lattice. -- Abstract: We present the near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra of several long chain n-alkanes crystallites formed on Silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) windows. Dichroic signature was investigated with the C-C backbone aligned perpendicular to the substrate. Significant changes in the dichroic signature of spectral intensities at energies below the ionization edge (287.5 and 288.1 eV) have been observed. While the dichroic ratio corresponding to the spectral feature at 287.5 eV remains relatively unaffected by the overall length of C-C backbone, it is noticeably affected by the parity (odd or even) of the number of Carbon atoms in the n-alkane backbone. Data obtained provide evidence of the influence of interaction of molecular orbitals with periodic lattice structure.

  16. Study the cooperative motion of long-chain polyelectrolyte in presence of small globular protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Saber; Bassalah, Mohamed Arbi; Aschi, Adel; Othman, Tahar; Gharbi, Abdelhafidh

    2016-12-01

    We study in this paper the effect of small globular protein on the dynamic properties of long-chain NaPSS in semidilute regime using Dynamic Light Scattering and viscometry in three phases respecting the pH of the medium. The scaling concept of the heterogeneous system is compared with the De Gennes argument for homogeneous polymer solutions. The results showed a positive and negative deviations to the De Gennes approach of the correlation length scale of mixture defined by (c/c*)δ. The macroscopic viscosity of protein and the potential electrostatic interaction are taken as principal factors affecting the cooperative motion of blobs. δ was discussed as the parameter responsible for the conformational change of polyelectrolyte chain subunit within blob. The theoretical analysis of the electrostatic interaction between protein and subunit gave one possible solution relating the deviation δ to the dimensionless coupling constant u as δ uu+1 and δ - 1/3 u/u+1 for a swollen and shrunk subunit, respectively. A good accordance of experimental values of δ to theoretical approach was found.

  17. Genetically engineering cyanobacteria to convert CO₂, water, and light into the long-chain hydrocarbon farnesene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfmann, Charles; Gu, Liping; Gibbons, William; Zhou, Ruanbao

    2014-12-01

    Genetically engineered cyanobacteria offer a shortcut to convert CO2 and H2O directly into biofuels and high value chemicals for societal benefits. Farnesene, a long-chained hydrocarbon (C15H24), has many applications in lubricants, cosmetics, fragrances, and biofuels. However, a method for the sustainable, photosynthetic production of farnesene has been lacking. Here, we report the photosynthetic production of farnesene by the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 using only CO2, mineralized water, and light. A codon-optimized farnesene synthase gene was chemically synthesized and then expressed in the cyanobacterium, enabling it to synthesize farnesene through its endogenous non-mevalonate (MEP) pathway. Farnesene excreted from the engineered cyanobacterium volatilized into the flask head space and was recovered by adsorption in a resin column. The maximum photosynthetic productivity of farnesene was 69.1 ± 1.8 μg·L(-1)·O.D.(-1)·d(-1). Compared to the wild type, the farnesene-producing cyanobacterium also exhibited a 60 % higher PSII activity under high light, suggesting increased farnesene productivity in such conditions. We envision genetically engineered cyanobacteria as a bio-solar factory for photosynthetic production of a wide range of biofuels and commodity chemicals.

  18. Continuous reaction performances of benzene alkylation with long chain olefins catalyzed by ionic liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Congzhen QIAO; Chengyue LI

    2008-01-01

    Based on a compulsive mixing-reacting-sepa-rating-recycling small experimental setup,the continuous reaction performances of benzene alkylation with long chain olefins catalyzed by [BMIM]Cl-AlCl3 ionic liquid were investigated. Three different situations including normal continuous operation mode (reagent materials), sidetrack feeding from different axial positions along the static mixing reactor (reagent materials) and normal con-tinuous alkylation using industrial paraffin and olefins materials were examined. Even under the relatively hype-critical reaction conditions, the single pass conversion of pure 1-dodecene could reach to nearly 100.0%, and the selectivity of 2-phenyl isomer was higher than 37.7%. Although the positions along the reactor for sidetrack feeding were different, the 100.0% single pass conversion of 1-dodecene was also attained before the outlet of the reactor. The refined industrial olefins as raw material could meet with the requirements of continuous alkyla-tion. The influences of impurities such as di-olefins and non-benzene aromatics on the catalytic activity and stability should be studied further.

  19. "Green" functionalization of pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes with long-chain aliphatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiuk, Elena V; Ochoa-Olmos, Omar; Contreras-Torres, Flavio F; Meza-Laguna, Víctor; Alvarez-Zauco, Edgar; Puente-Lee, Iván; Basiuk, Vladimir A

    2011-06-01

    Short pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were functionalized with a series of long-chain (including polymeric) aliphatic amines, namely octadecylamine (ODA), 1,8-diaminooctane (DO), polyethylene glycol diamine (PEGDA) and polyethylenimine (PEI), via two "green" approaches: (1) gas-phase functionalization (for volatile ODA and DO) and (2) direct heating in the melt (for polymeric PEGDA and PEI). Both of them consist in one-step reaction between MWNTs and amine without the use of organic solvents. The nanostructures obtained were characterized by using infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It was observed that both solvent-free methods were efficient in the nanotube functionalization, and the nanostructures of variable solubility and morphology were obtained depending on the amines attached. ODA, PEGDA and PEI-functionalized MWNTs were found to be soluble in propanol, meanwhile the MWNTs-PEGDA and MWNTs-PEI were soluble in water as well. The attachment of 1,8-diaminooctane onto MWNTs resulted in cross-linked stable nanostructure.

  20. Critical constants and acentric factors for long-chain alkanes suitable for corresponding states applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Dimitrios, Tassios

    1997-01-01

    Several methods for the estimation of the critical temperature T-c, the critical pressure P-c, and the acentric factor omega for long-chain n-alkanes are reviewed and evaluated for the prediction of vapor pressures using Corresponding States (CS) methods, like the Lee-Kesler equation and the cubic...... equations of state. Most reliable and recent literature methods proposed for the estimation of the acentric factor of heavy alkanes yield similar values and the emphasis is, thus, given to the determination of the best sets of T-c and P-c. Various extrapolation schemes proposed for this purpose and several...... general group-contribution methods were investigated in this work. The correlations proposed by K. Magoulas and D. Tassios, Thermophysical properties of n-alkanes from C-1 to C-20 and their prediction for higher ones, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 56 ( 1990) 119-140; A.S. Teja, R.J. Lee, D.J. Rosenthal, M...

  1. Energy optimal routing for long chain-type wireless sensor networks in underground mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Haifeng; Qian Jiansheng; Sun Yanjing; Zhang Guoyong

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are useful complements to existing monitoring systems in underground mines.They play an important role of enhancing and improving coverage and flexibility of safety monitoring systems. Regions prone to danger and enyironments after disasters in underground mines require saving and balancing energy consumption of nodes to prolong the lifespan of networks. Based on the structure of a tunnel, we present a Long Chain-type Wireless Sensor Network (LC-WSN) to monitor the safety of underground mine tunnels. We define the optimal transmission distance and the range of the key region and present an Energy Optimal Routing (EOR) algorithm for LC-WSN to balance the energy consumption of nodes and maximize the lifespan of networks. EOR constructs routing paths based on an optimal transmission distance and uses an energy balancing strategy in the key region. Simulation results show that the EOR algorithm extends the lifespan of a network, balances the energy consumption of nodes in the key region and effectively limits the length of routing paths, compared with similar algorithms.

  2. A Long-Chain Alkylation of Dialdehyde Starch to Improve Its Thermal Stability and Hydrophobicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobic dialdehyde starch (HDAS was synthesized by dialdehyde starch (DAS and eighteen-alkyl primary amine as the raw material in DMSO. The effect of the reaction conditions on the yield of HDAS was investigated such as catalyst content, reaction temperature, reaction time, and the in-feed molar ratio of -CHO/-NH2. Moreover, the optimized test parameters were obtained by conducting orthogonal experiment. The molecular structure and the morphology of HDAS were characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscope (SEM. And the thermal stability and the hydrophobic properties of HDAS were investigated by thermal gravimetric analyzer (TG and the hydrophobic testing. The results indicate that the yield of HDAS is the highest up to 44.21%, with feed composition 1 : 0.9, reaction temperature 40°C, reaction time 8 h, and acetic acid content 3%. And the introduction of the long-chain alkyl groups into the DAS backbones will ameliorate efficaciously the thermal stability and the hydrophobic properties of DAS, which almost has no effect on the DAS particle size.

  3. Dynamics of interfacial reactions between O(3 P) atoms and long-chain liquid hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Mhairi; Bagot, Paul A. J.; Köhler, Sven P. K.; Reed, Stewart K.; Westacott, Robin E.; Costen, Matthew L.; McKendrick, Kenneth G.

    2007-09-01

    Recent progress that has been made towards understanding the dynamics of collisions at the gas-liquid interface is summarized briefly. We describe in this context a promising new approach to the experimental study of gas-liquid interfacial reactions that we have introduced. This is based on laser-photolytic production of reactive gas-phase atoms above the liquid surface and laser-spectroscopic probing of the resulting nascent products. This technique is illustrated for reaction of O(3P) atoms at the surface of the long-chain liquid hydrocarbon squalane (2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyltetracosane). Laser-induced fluorescence detection of the nascent OH has revealed mechanistically diagnostic correlations between its internal and translational energy distributions. Vibrationally excited OH molecules are able to escape the surface. At least two contributions to the product rotational distributions are identified, confirming and extending previous hypotheses of the participation of both direct and trapping-desorption mechanisms. We speculate briefly on future experimental and theoretical developments that might be necessary to address the many currently unanswered mechanistic questions for this, and other, classes of gas-liquid interfacial reaction.

  4. Electrical conductivity study on micelle formation of long-chain imidazolium ionic liquids in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tohru; Ebina, Hayato; Dong, Bin; Zheng, Liqiang

    2007-10-01

    Electrical conductivity was measured for aqueous solutions of long-chain imidazolium ionic liquids (IL), 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromides with C(12)-C(16) alkyl chains. The break points appeared in specific conductivity (kappa) vs concentration (c) plot indicates that the molecular aggregates, i.e., micelles, are formed in aqueous solutions of these IL species. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) determined from the kappa vs c plot is somewhat lower than those for typical cationic surfactants, alkyltrimethylammonium bromides with the same hydrocarbon chain length. The electrical conductivity data were analyzed according to the mixed electrolyte model of micellar solution, and the aggregation number, n, and the degree of counter ion binding, beta, were estimated. The n values of the present ILs are somewhat smaller than those reported for alkyltrimethylammonium bromides, which may be attributed to bulkiness of the cationic head group of the IL species. The thermodynamic parameters for micelle formation of the present ILs were estimated using the values of cmc and beta as a function of temperature. The contribution of entropy term to the micelle formation is superior to that of enthalpy term below about 30 degrees C, and it becomes opposite at higher temperature. This coincides with the picture drawn for the micelle formation of conventional ionic surfactants.

  5. Structure and properties of mixtures based on long chain polyacrylate and 1-alcohol composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Haifeng, E-mail: haifeng.shi@gmail.com; Zhang, Lingjian; Li, Weiwei; Han, Xu; Zhang, Xingxiang

    2014-02-14

    A series of phase change materials (PCMs) based on long chain polyacrylate and 1-alcohol, i.e., poly (stearyl methacrylate) and 1-tetradecanol (PSMA/C14OH) were prepared through the solution-mixing method. Thermal energy storage capacity, thermal stability and morphology of PSMA/C14OH PCMs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), polarized optical microscopy (POM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). DSC results demonstrated that the heat of fusion of PSMA/C14OH PCMs increased from 85.9 to 172.3 J g{sup −1} with the weight fraction of C14OH increasing from 20 to 80 wt%. And, the thermal stability also enhanced with PSMA weight. The spherulite (ca. 250 μm) in PSMA/C14OH composites containing 60 wt% C14OH proved the compatibility between PSMA and C14OH, indicating the cocrystallization behavior of alkyl side groups appeared. The cocrystallization behavior contributes the enhanced thermal stability of PSMA/C14OH PCMs, and it is suitable as the thermal energy storage materials in the future. - Highlights: • Heat storage capability of PSMA/C14OH PCMs increased with C14OH weight. • The spherulites exhibit the weight-dependence upon C14OH. • The thermal stability of PSMA/C14OH PCMs obviously improved.

  6. Susceptibility of synthetic long-chain alkylbenzenes to degradation in reducing marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eganhouse, Robert P.; Pontolillo, James

    2008-01-01

    Long-chain alkylbenzenes (LCABs) synthesized for production of alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactants have been used as molecular markers of anthropogenic waste for 25 years. Synthetic LCABs comprise two classes, the tetrapropylene-based alkylbenzenes (TABs) and the linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). LABs supplanted TABs in the mid-1960s because of improved biodegradability of their sulfonated analogs. Use of LCABs for molecular stratigraphy depends on their preservation in sediments over decadal time scales. Most laboratory and field studies suggest that LABs degrade rapidly under aerobic conditions but are resistant to degradation when oxygen is absent. However, recent work indicates that LABs may not be as persistent under reducing conditions as previously thought. To assess the potential for degradation of LCABs in reducing sediments, box cores collected in 1992 and 2003 near a submarine wastewater outfall system were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The TABs were effectively preserved; differences between whole-core inventories were within analytical error. By contrast, whole-core inventories of the LABs decreased by about 50-60% during the same time interval. Based on direct comparison of chemical inventories in coeval core sections, LAB transformation rates are estimated at 0.07 ±. 0.01 yr-1. These results indicate that caution should be exercised when using synthetic LCABs for reconstruction of depositional records.

  7. Non-Acidic Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4 Agonists with Antidiabetic Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves de Azavedo, Carlos M. B. P.; Watterson, Kenneth R; Wargent, Ed T;

    2016-01-01

    The free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4 or GPR120) has appeared as an interesting potential target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. At present, most FFA4 ligands are carboxylic acids that are assumed to mimic the endogenous long-chain fatty acid agonists. Here, we report preliminary structu...

  8. Pharmacological Tool Compounds for the Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen V F; Ulven, Trond

    2017-01-01

    The free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4), also known as GPR120, is a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by long-chain fatty acids and that has been associated with regulation of appetite, release of insulin controlling hormones, insulin sensitization, anti-inflammatory and potentially anti...

  9. Fatty acid desaturase gene variants, cardiovascular risk factors, and myocardial infarction in the costa rica study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has previously been linked to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk. The goal of our study was to test associations between six common FADS polymorphisms (rs174556, rs3834458, rs174570, rs2524299, r...

  10. Synthesis of Higher Fatty Acid Starch Esters using Vinyl Laurate and Stearate as Reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junistia, Laura; Sugih, Asaf K.; Manurung, Robert; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of long-chain fatty esters of corn starch (starch laurate and starch stearate) with a broad range in degree of substitution (DS = 0.24-2.96). The fatty esters were prepared by reacting the starch with vinyl laurate or vinyl stearate in the presence of basic catalys

  11. Gestational age in relation to marine n-3 fatty acids in maternal erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Sommer, S.;

    1991-01-01

    Gestation is longer in Faroese than Danish women, possibly because of the high intake of marine long-chain n-3 fatty acids that down regulates formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were quantified in erythrocytes obtained within 2 days of delivery from...

  12. Long-chain Acyl-CoA is not primarily increased in myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Malene; Faergeman, Nils J; Knudsen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Accumulation of intramuscular long-chain acyl-CoA esters (LCACoA) has previously in animal and human models been suggested to play an important role in lipid induced insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to examine whether myotubes established from type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects and lean...

  13. On the role of long-chain aldehydes in the light reaction in Photobacterium phosphoreum enzyme preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Willemke

    1960-01-01

    1. (1) Active luciferase-DPNH-oxidase preparations from Photobacterium phosphoreum generally contain some aldehyde-attacking enzyme, probably ADH. Under the experimental conditions applied this enzyme appears to attack decanal, but not palmital. 2. (2) The presence of long-chain aldehydes in the en

  14. Impact of fatty acids on brain circulation, structure and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haast, R.A.M.; Kiliaan, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of dietary intervention has evolved into a promising approach to prevent the onset and progression of brain diseases. The positive relationship between intake of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3-LCPUFAs) and decreased onset of disease- and aging-related deterioration of

  15. On the appearance of traffic jams in a long chain with a shortcut in the bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzarova, N. Zh.; Pesheva, N. C.; Brankov, J. G.

    2015-11-01

    The Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process (TASEP) is studied on open long chains with a shunted section between two simple chain segments in the maximum current phase. The reference case, when the two branches are chosen with equal probability, is considered. The conditions for the occurrence of traffic jams and their properties are investigated both within the effective rates approximation and by extensive Monte Carlo simulations for arbitrary length of the shortcut. Our main results are: (1) For any length of the shortcut and any values of the external rates in the domain of the maximum current phase, there exists a position of the shortcut where the shunted segment is in a phase of coexistence with a completely delocalized domain wall; (2) The main features of the coexistence phase and the density profiles in the whole network are well described by the domain wall theory. Apart from the small inter-chain correlations, they depend only on the current through the shortcut; (3) The model displays unexpected features: (a) the current through the longer shunted segment is larger than the current through the shortcut, and (b) the delocalized domain wall in the coexistence phase of the long shunted segment induces similar behavior even in shortcuts containing a small number of sites; (4) From the viewpoint of vehicular traffic, most comfortable conditions for the drivers are provided when the shortcut is shifted downstream from the position of coexistence, when both the shunted segment and the shortcut exhibit low-density lamellar flow. Most unfavorable is the opposite case of upstream shifted shortcut, when both the shunted segment and the shortcut are in a high-density phase describing congested traffic of slowly moving cars. The above results are relevant also to phenomena like crowding of molecular motors moving along twisted protofilaments.

  16. Inhibition of cereulide toxin synthesis by emetic Bacillus cereus via long-chain polyphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Elrike; Letzel, Thomas; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2011-02-01

    Severe intoxications caused by the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin cereulide can hardly be prevented due to the ubiquitous distribution and heat resistance of spores and the extreme thermal and chemical stability of cereulide. It would therefore be desirable to inhibit cereulide synthesis during food manufacturing processes or in prepared foods, which are stored under time-temperature abuse conditions. Toward this end, the impacts of three long-chain polyphosphate (polyP) formulations on growth and cereulide production were examined. The inhibition was dependent on the concentration and the type of the polyP blend, indicating that polyPs and not the orthophosphates were effective. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) monitoring at sublethal concentrations revealed that polyPs reduced the transcription of ces nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes by 3- to 4-fold along with a significantly reduced toxin production level. At lower concentrations, toxin synthesis was decreased, although the growth rate was not affected. These data indicate a differential effect on toxin synthesis independent of growth inhibition. The inhibition of toxin synthesis in food was also observed. Despite the growth of B. cereus, toxin synthesis was reduced by 70 to 100% in two model food systems (reconstituted infant food and oat milk), which were analyzed with HEp-2 cell culture assays and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/electrospray ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). Accordingly, ces promoter activity was strongly downregulated, as visualized by using a lux-based reporter strain. These data illustrate the potential of polyphosphate formulations to reduce the risk of cereulide synthesis in food and may contribute to targeted hurdle concepts.

  17. Long chain microRNA conjugates in calcium phosphate nanoparticles for efficient formulation and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyosook; Kim, Seung An; Yang, Yong Geun; Yoo, Hyundong; Lim, Soo-Jeong; Mok, Hyejung

    2015-01-01

    A long chain microRNA-34a conjugate (lc-miRNA) was prepared by chemical crosslinking in order to improve entrapment efficiency into calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPs) and intracellular delivery. Thiol-modified miRNA at both terminal ends was chemically conjugated using crosslinkers to form lc-miRNA which was encapsulated within CaPs by a conventional co-precipitation method. Encapsulation efficiencies, physicochemical properties, and in vitro intracellular delivery efficiencies of the prepared linear polyethyleneimine (LPEI)-coated CaPs (LPEI-CaP) containing common miRNA and lc-miRNA were comparatively evaluated. The prepared lc-miRNA exhibited noticeably enhanced encapsulation efficiency during the CaP formulation process when compared to common miRNA. LPEI-CaP/lc-miRNAs consisted of nano-sized particles with great homogeneity and were observed to be successfully delivered into PC-3 cells. Fabricated LPEI-CaPs with duplex form of lc-miRNA (lc-miRNA-d) suppressed cancer cell proliferation as well as migration much more efficiently than those with duplex form of miRNA (miRNA-d). In addition, LPEI-CaP/lc-miRNA-d conferred negligible cytotoxicity on PC-3 cells. Chemical crosslinking of therapeutic miRNAs via a reducible linkage may allow more efficient encapsulation within CaPs as well as homogeneous particle formulation due to a higher spatial charge density than common miRNAs. The well-formulated LPEI-CaPs with lc-miRNA-d have the potential to provide superior miRNA transfection efficiency and inhibition of cancer proliferation.

  18. Readily Available Sources of Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils: Is Farmed Australian Seafood a Better Source of the Good Oil than Wild-Caught Seafood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Nichols

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils. Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain lower LC omega-3 content than wild-harvested seafood due to the use of oil blending in diets fed to farmed fish. However, we observed that two major Australian farmed finfish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar and barramundi (Lates calcifer, have higher oil and LC omega-3 content than the same or other species from the wild, and remain an excellent means to achieve substantial intake of LC omega-3 oils. Notwithstanding, LC omega-3 oil content has decreased in these two farmed species, due largely to replacing dietary fish oil with poultry oil. For Atlantic salmon, LC omega-3 content decreased ~30%–50% between 2002 and 2013, and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio also decreased (>5:1 to <1:1. Australian consumers increasingly seek their LC omega-3 from supplements, therefore a range of supplement products were compared. The development and future application of oilseeds containing LC omega-3 oils and their incorporation in aquafeeds would allow these health-benefitting oils to be maximized in farmed Australian seafood. Such advances can assist with preventative health care, fisheries management, aquaculture nutrition, an innovative feed/food industry and ultimately towards improved consumer health.

  19. Readily available sources of long-chain omega-3 oils: is farmed Australian seafood a better source of the good oil than wild-caught seafood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Peter D; Glencross, Brett; Petrie, James R; Singh, Surinder P

    2014-03-11

    Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C₂₀) polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils). Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain lower LC omega-3 content than wild-harvested seafood due to the use of oil blending in diets fed to farmed fish. However, we observed that two major Australian farmed finfish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and barramundi (Lates calcifer), have higher oil and LC omega-3 content than the same or other species from the wild, and remain an excellent means to achieve substantial intake of LC omega-3 oils. Notwithstanding, LC omega-3 oil content has decreased in these two farmed species, due largely to replacing dietary fish oil with poultry oil. For Atlantic salmon, LC omega-3 content decreased ~30%-50% between 2002 and 2013, and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio also decreased (>5:1 to oils and their incorporation in aquafeeds would allow these health-benefitting oils to be maximized in farmed Australian seafood. Such advances can assist with preventative health care, fisheries management, aquaculture nutrition, an innovative feed/food industry and ultimately towards improved consumer health.

  20. DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-05-22

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  1. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soressa M. Kitessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of long-chain (≥C20 omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3. However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  2. Correlation between the different chain lengths of free fatty acid oxidation and ability of trophoblastic invasion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Huan; Yang Zi; Ding Xiaoyan; Wang Yanling; Han Yiwei

    2014-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with abnormal fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO),especially metabolic disorders of long-chain fatty acid oxidation.The role of FAO dysfunction in inadequate invasion is unclear.The aim of this study was to explore the influence of various lengths fatty acids oxidation on invasiveness of trophoblasts.Methods Primary human trophoblast cells and HTR8/SVneo cells were treated with fatty acids of various lengths.Morphological changes,lipid deposition and ultrastructure changes of trophoblast cells were detected.Cells invasiveness was determined by transwell insert.CPT1,CPT2 and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) protein expression were analyzed.The correlation between intracellular lipid droplets deposition and cells invasiveness was evaluated.Results Cells treated with long-chain fatty acids showed significant increased lipid droplets deposition,severe mitochondrial damage,decreased CPT2 and LCHAD protein expression (P <0.05) but no significant difference in CPT1 protein expression (P >0.05).Invasiveness of the trophoblast cells of the LC-FFA group significantly decreased (P <0.05).Intracellular lipid droplets deposition was negatively correlated with invasivenss (R=-0.745,P <0.05).Conclusion Trophoblast cells after stimulation with long chain fatty acids exist fatty acid oxidation disorders,and reduce the ability of trophoblastic invasion.

  3. Linseed oil in the maternal diet increases long chain-PUFA status of the foetus and the newborn during the suckling period in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quelen, Francine; Boudry, Gaëlle; Mourot, Jacques

    2010-08-01

    Linseed oil, being rich in 18 : 3n-3, represents an alternative source of n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet. However, little is known about the effect of this oil on the long chain n-3 PUFA composition of offspring, which are required for normal growth and maturation of numerous organs. The main objective of the experiment was therefore to investigate fatty acid composition of tissues from sows at the end of gestation and from piglets during the first week of postnatal life in response to maternal dietary linseed oil intake. Sows received either a lard (LAR)-based diet or a linseed oil (LSO)-based diet during gestation and lactation. Fatty acid composition was evaluated in sow plasma, placenta and milk, and in different tissues of piglets on days 0, 3, 7, 21 and 32. The LSO diet increased the proportions of n-3 PUFA and especially 22 : 6n-3 in the placenta. The carcass of LSO piglets at birth contained greater proportions of 20 : 5n-3, 22 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3. The LSO sow milk exhibited greater proportions of 18 : 3n-3 compared with the LAR sow milk. The piglets suckling LSO sows had greater proportions of 18 : 3n-3, 20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 5n-3 in plasma and carcass. The proportions of 22 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3 were greater in the brain of LSO piglets than in that of LAR piglets during the suckling period. In conclusion, LSO in the maternal diet during gestation and lactation increases 22 : 6n-3 concentrations in the placenta and in the foetus carcass, and it maintains 22 : 6n-3 concentrations in the brain during the first week of postnatal life.

  4. Impaired plasma phospholipids and relative amounts of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in autistic patients from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Ansary Afaf K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by social and emotional deficits, language impairments and stereotyped behaviors that manifest in early postnatal life. This study aims to compare the relative concentrations of essential fatty acids (Linoleic and α- linolenic, their long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids in plasma of autistic patients from Saudi Arabia with age-matching controls. Methods 25 autistic children aged 3-15 years and 16 healthy children as control group were included in this study. Relative concentration of essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid series together with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine were measured in plasma of both groups. Results Remarkable alteration of essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, omeg-3/omega-6 and significant lower levels of phospholipids were reported. Reciever Operating characteristics (ROC analysis of the measured parameters revealed a satisfactory level of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion Essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and omeg-3/omega-6 ratios, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine could be used as potential biomarkers that point to specific mechanisms in the development of autism and may help tailor treatment or prevention strategies.

  5. Inhibition of gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion by medium-chain triglycerides and long-chain triglycerides in healthy young men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.I.M.; Hopman, W.P.M.; Katan, M.B.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Long-chain triglycerides inhibit gastric acid secretion, but the effect of medium-chain triglycerides in humans is unknown. We compared the effects of intraduodenally perfused saline, medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides on gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and cholecystokinin release.

  6. The isolation and characterization of a mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that requires a long chain base for growth and for synthesis of phosphosphingolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, G B; Lester, R L

    1983-09-10

    A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been obtained that shows an absolute growth requirement for long chain bases found in sphingolipids. In the absence of a long chain base, the cells are unable to synthesize the phosphoinositol-containing sphingolipids characteristic of yeast. These results suggest that one or more of the yeast sphingolipids plays a vital biological role.

  7. Long-chain aliphatic wax esters isolated from the sponge Chalinula saudensis (Demospongia along the Jeddah coast of the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmohsin Al-Sofyani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The sponge Chalinula saudensis, which occurs along the Jeddah coast, has only recently been isolated and identified. In this study, the total crude organic matter of the sponge was extracted by solvents. The total crude extract was further separated by partitioning it with hexane and water, then with water and chloroform, and finally with water and t-butanol. The chloroform layer was subjected to separation by preparative layer chromatography on silica. One fraction contained four long-chain fatty acid esters, C28H56O2, C30H60O2, C32H62O2 and C36H70 O2. The second ester, C30H60O2, has been identified in the fire corals Millepora dichotoma and Millepora platyphylla. The others have not previously been reported from marine organisms; however similar long-chain esters with different long aliphatic chains and with different molecular weights have been identified from other marine organisms. These compounds are normally waxy and their presence in Chalinula saudensis plays a vital role in the biosynthetic pathways. They also act as insulators against seasonal variations.A esponja Chalinula saudensis ocorre ao longo da costa de Jeddah, Arabia Saudita, mas apenas recentemente foi isolada e identificada. No presente estudo a matéria orgânica total da esponja foi extraída por solventes e o extrato foi separado por partição sucessiva através do emprego de hexano e água, clorofórmio e água e finalmente t-butanol e água. A camada contendo clorofórmio foi então separada por cromatografia em sílica. Os resultados mostraram a presença de ésteres de quatro ácidos graxos de cadeira longa (C28H56O2, C30H60O2, C32H62O2 e C36H70O2, sendo que o segundo deles foi também identificado nos corais Millepora dichotoma e Millepora platyphylla. Não se tem evidência da presença dos demais compostos em outros organismos marinhos, embora haja relatos para ésteres semelhantes de cadeia longa, mas contendo diferentes cadeias alifáticas e diferentes pesos

  8. The effect of fatty acid positioning in dietary triacylglycerols and intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone mineral accretion in growing piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvig, Stine Erbs; Andersen, Anders Daniel

    2013-01-01

    compared with a control (CONT) and if increasing n-3LCPUFA intake giving fish oil (FO) compared with sunflower oil (SO) would affect bone parameters in piglets in two sets of controlled 14d-interventions (n=12/group). We assessed this by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative...

  9. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of chiral carbohydrate-derived nitrone and olefin: towards long-chain sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukani, Hassan; Pellegrini-Moïse, Nadia; Jackowski, Olivier; Chrétien, Françoise; Chapleur, Yves

    2013-11-15

    The thermal and microwave-activated 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of several α,β-unsaturated esters derived from d-mannose and chiral nitrones derived from threitol have been studied as a model reaction en route to eleven carbon long chain carbohydrates. Very high facial selectivity is observed for the chiral nitrones whereas the olefin facial selectivity varies with the substrate. The presence of a dioxolane ring α to the olefinic bond is beneficial to the facial selectivity of the olefin whereas a pyranose ring is not. The combination of a d-mannose derivative and a l-threitol-derived nitrone is a matched pair suitable for the synthesis of long chain sugars with nine contiguous chiral centres. Finally complete facial selectivity was observed with exo-glycals which gave a single cycloadduct.

  10. Light conditions alter accumulation of long chain polyprenols in leaves of trees and shrubs throughout the vegetation season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajda, Agnieszka; Chojnacki, Tadeusz; Hertel, Józefina; Swiezewska, Ewa; Wójcik, Jacek; Kaczkowska, Alicja; Marczewski, Andrzej; Bojarczuk, Tomasz; Karolewski, Piotr; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    In many plants belonging to angiosperms and gymnosperms the accumulation in leaves of long chain polyprenols and polyprenyl esters during growth in natural habitats depends on the light intensity. The amount of polyprenols in leaves is also positively correlated with the thickness of the leaf blade (SLA, specific leaf area). The polyprenol content of leaves shows seasonal changes with a maximum in autumn and a minimum in early summer with the difference between poorly and well illuminated plants persisting throughout the vegetation season.

  11. Cultural symbolism of fish and the psychotropic properties of omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, L C; Hibbeln, J R

    2006-01-01

    Fish is a food with unique psychotropic properties. Consumption of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, rich in seafood, reduces depression, aggression and anger while improving mental well-being. We posit that symbols of fish have become linked to the emotional states induced by long-chain fatty acid by associative pairings, both conscious and unconscious. The limbic and hippocampal activity necessary for memory formation containing emotional content and the labeling of social context by cortical processes appears to be optimized by diets rich in long-chain omega-3 fatty acid. In this critical literature survey, we find that fish have been culturally labeled as symbols of emotional well-being and social healing in religious and medical practices among independent cultures, for at least six millennia. This understanding of the perception of fish as a symbolically healing or purifying food can assist current messages improving public health.

  12. Short- and long-chain perfluoroalkyl substances in the water, suspended particulate matter, and surface sediment of a turbid river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pujun; Xia, Xinghui; Dong, Jianwei; Xia, Na; Jiang, Xiaoman; Li, Yang; Zhu, Yuemei

    2016-10-15

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have attracted attentions all around the world. However, little is known about their distribution among water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sediment phases in rivers, especially for the short-chain PFASs. In this work, the Yellow River, the largest turbid river in the world, was selected as a case to study eleven kinds of PFASs in the three phases of rivers. These PFASs included C4-C12 perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluorobutyl sulfonate (PFBS), and perfluorooctansulfonate (PFOS), among which C4-C7 PFCAs and PFBS belong to short-chain PFASs, while C8-C12 PFCAs and PFOS belong to long-chain PFASs. The results showed that the total PFAS concentration ranged from 44.7ngL(-1) to 1.52μgL(-1) in the water, from 8.19 to 17.4ngg(-1) in the sediment, and from 3.44 to 14.7ngg(-1) in the SPM. Short-chain PFASs predominated in the water and could reach up to 88.8% of the total PFAS concentration in water, while long-chain PFASs prevailed in the sediment and SPM. The PFAS concentration in SPM showed a significant negative correlation with SPM concentration in river water (pperfluoroalkyl chemicals from traditional long-chain ones to short-chain ones. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the eco-environmental risks of these short-chain PFASs in water environments.

  13. N-长链胆酸酰胺的合成%Synthesis of N-long-chain alkyl cholic amide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立中; 卞小琴; 周兰香; 李双双; 李广州; 王存德

    2012-01-01

    本文研究了具有长脂链胆酸基非离子型表面活性剂的合成,以商品化胆酸和一系列的长链伯胺(C12~C18)为原料,经过多步反应获得了N-长链烷基胆酸酰胺.目标化合物结构经IR,1H-NMR,13C-NMR,LC-MS等表征确证,同时,对其表面活性进行了初步研究.%The long-chain alkyl cholic amide derivatives were synthesized using bile acid and long-chain alkyl amines as starting materials. All these structures were confirmed by IR/H-NMR^C-NMR.LC-MS and their tensionmetric property was tested. The results were indicated that the long-chain alkyl induced in the cholic acid increased its hydrophobic property.

  14. Impact of L-FABP and glucose on polyunsaturated fatty acid induction of PPARα-regulated β-oxidative enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Petrescu, Anca D.; Huang, Huan; Martin, Gregory G.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Storey, Stephen M.; Landrock, Danilo; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2012-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is the major soluble protein that binds very-long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in hepatocytes. However, nothing is known about L-FABP's role in n-3 PUFA-mediated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα) transcription of proteins involved in long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) β-oxidation. This issue was addressed in cultured primary hepatocytes from wild-type, L-FABP-null, and PPARα-null mice with these major findings: 1) PUF...

  15. Assessment of essential fatty acid and omega 3-fatty acid status by measurement of erythrocyte 20 : 3 omega 9 (Mead acid), 22 : 5 omega 6/20 : 4 omega 6 and 22 : 5 omega 6/22 : 6 omega 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Martini, IA; Woltil, HA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2002-01-01

    Background. Early suspicion of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) or omega3-deficiency may rather focus on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or long-chain PUFA (LCP) analyses than clinical symptoms. We determined cut-off values for biochemical EFAD, omega3-and omega3/22:6omega3 [docosahexaenoic

  16. Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes by Free Fatty Acid Receptor Agonists

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth R. Watterson; Hudson, Brian D.; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Dietary free fatty acids (FFAs), such as ω-3 fatty acids, regulate metabolic and anti-inflammatory processes, with many of these effects attributed to FFAs interacting with a family of G protein-coupled receptors. Selective synthetic ligands for Free Fatty Acid receptors (FFA1-4) have consequently been developed as potential treatments for type 2 diabetes (T2D). In particular, clinical studies show that Fasiglifam, an agonist of the long chain FFA receptor, FFA1, improved glycaemic control an...

  17. Increased hepatic CD36 expression with age is associated with enhanced susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheedfar, Fareeba; Sung, Miranda MY; Aparicio-Vergara, Marcela; Kloosterhuis, Niels J; Miquilena-Colina, Maria Eugenia; Vargas-Castrillón, Javier; Febbraio, Maria; Jacobs, René L; de Bruin, Alain; Vinciguerra, Manlio; García-Monzón, Carmelo; Hofker, Marten H; Dyck, Jason RB; Koonen, Debby PY

    2014-01-01

    CD36 has been associated with obesity and diabetes in human liver diseases, however, its role in age-associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unknown. Therefore, liver biopsies were collected from individuals with histologically normal livers (n=30), and from patients diagnosed with simple steatosis (NAS; n=26). Patients were divided into two groups according to age and liver biopsy samples were immunostained for CD36. NAFLD parameters were examined in young (12-week) and middle-aged (52-week) C57BL/6J mice, some fed with chow-diet and some fed with low-fat (LFD; 10% kcal fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal fat) for 12-weeks. CD36 expression was positively associated with age in individuals with normal livers but not in NAS patients. However, CD36 was predominantly located at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes in aged NAS patients as compared to young. In chow-fed mice, aging, despite an increase in hepatic CD36 expression, was not associated with the development of NAFLD. However, middle-aged mice did exhibit the development of HFD-induced NAFLD, mediated by an increase of CD36 on the membrane. Enhanced CD36-mediated hepatic fat uptake may contribute to an accelerated progression of NAFLD in mice and humans. Therapies to prevent the increase in CD36 expression and/or CD36 from anchoring at the membrane may prevent the development of NAFLD. PMID:24751397

  18. SLC27 fatty acid transport proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Courtney M; Stahl, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The uptake and metabolism of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) are critical to many physiological and cellular processes. Aberrant accumulation or depletion of LCFA underlie the pathology of numerous metabolic diseases. Protein-mediated transport of LCFA has been proposed as the major mode of LCFA uptake and activation. Several proteins have been identified to be involved in LCFA uptake. This review focuses on the SLC27 family of fatty acid transport proteins, also known as FATPs, with an emphasis on the gain- and loss-of-function animal models that elucidate the functions of FATPs in vivo and how these transport proteins play a role in physiological and pathological situations.

  19. Lower fetal status of docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid and essential fatty acids is associated with less favorable neonatal neurological condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijck-Brouwer, DAJ; Hadders-Algra, M; Bouwstra, H; Decsi, T; Boehm, G; Martini, IA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2005-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, notably arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are abundant in brain and may be conditionally essential in fetal life. We investigated umbilical artery (UA) and vein (UV) fatty acid compositions and early neonatal neurological condition in 317 term i

  20. Negative confounding by essential fatty acids in methylmercury neurotoxicity associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Anna L; Mogensen, Ulla Brasch; Bjerve, Kristian S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methylmercury, a worldwide contaminant of fish and seafood, can cause adverse effects on the developing nervous system. However, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in seafood provide beneficial effects on brain development. Negative confounding will likely result in underestim......BACKGROUND: Methylmercury, a worldwide contaminant of fish and seafood, can cause adverse effects on the developing nervous system. However, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in seafood provide beneficial effects on brain development. Negative confounding will likely result...... concentrations of fatty acids were determined in cord serum phospholipids. Neuropsychological performance in verbal, motor, attention, spatial, and memory functions was assessed at 7 years of age. Multiple regression and structural equation models (SEMs) were carried out to determine the confounder...

  1. Implications of impaired ketogenesis in fatty acid oxidation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olpin, Simon Edward

    2004-03-01

    Long-chain fatty acids are important sources of respiratory fuel for many tissues and during fasting the rate of hepatic production of ketone bodies is markedly increased. Many extra hepatic tissues utilize ketone bodies in the fasted state with the advantage that glucose is "spared" for more vital tissues like the brain. This glucose sparing effect of ketones is especially important in infants where there is a high proportional glucose utilization in cerebral tissue. The first reported inherited defect affecting fatty acid oxidation was described in 1973 and to date about 15 separate disorders have been described. Although individually rare, cumulatively fatty acid oxidation defects are relatively common, have major consequences for affected individuals and their families, and carry significant health care implications. The major biochemical consequence of fatty acid oxidation defects is an inability of extra hepatic tissues to utilize fatty acids as an energy source with absent or limited hepatic capacity to generate ketones. Clinically patients usually present in infancy with acute life-threatening hypoketotic hypoglycaemia, liver disease, hyperammonaemia and cerebral oedema, with or without cardiac involvement, usually following a period of catabolic stress. Chronically there may be muscle involvement with hypotonia or exercise intolerance with or without cardiomyopathy. Treatment is generally by the avoidance of fasting, frequent carbohydrate rich feeds and for long-chain defects, the replacement of long-chain dietary fats with medium-chain formulae. Novel approaches to treatment include the use of d,l-3-hydoxybutyrate or heptanoate as an alternative energy source.

  2. Long-chain glycerol diether and polyol dialkyl glycerol triether lipids of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langworthy, T A; Mayberry, W R; Smith, P F

    1974-07-01

    Cells of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius contain about 2.5% total lipid on a dry-weight basis. Total lipid was found to contain 10.5% neutral lipid, 67.6% glycolipid, and 21.7% polar lipid. The lipids contained C(40)H(80) isopranol glycerol diethers. Almost no fatty acids were present. The glycolipids were composed of about equal amounts of the glycerol diether analogue of glucosyl galactosyl diglyceride and a glucosyl polyol glycerol diether. The latter compound contained an unidentified polyol attached by an ether bond to the glycerol diether. The polar lipids contained a small amount of sulfolipid, which appeared to be the monosulfate derivative of glucosyl polyol glycerol diether. About 40% of the lipid phosphorus was found in the diether analogue of phosphatidyl inositol. The remaining lipid phosphorus was accounted for by approximately equal amounts of two inositol monophosphate-containing phosphoglycolipids, inositolphosphoryl glucosyl galactosyl glycerol diether and inositolphosphoryl glucosyl polyol glycerol diether.

  3. Fatty Aldehyde and Fatty Alcohol Metabolism: Review and Importance for Epidermal Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, William B.

    2014-01-01

    Normal fatty aldehyde and alcohol metabolism is essential for epidermal differentiation and function. Long-chain aldehydes are produced by catabolism of several lipids including fatty alcohols, sphingolipids, ether glycerolipids, isoprenoid alcohols and certain aliphatic lipids that undergo α- or ω-oxidation. The fatty aldehyde generated by these pathways is chiefly metabolized to fatty acid by fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH, alternately known as ALDH3A2), which also functions to oxidize fatty alcohols as a component of the fatty alcohol:NAD oxidoreductase (FAO) enzyme complex. Genetic deficiency of FALDH/FAO in patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) results in accumulation of fatty aldehydes, fatty alcohols and related lipids (ether glycerolipids, wax esters) in cultured keratinocytes. These biochemical changes are associated with abnormalities in formation of lamellar bodies in the stratum granulosum and impaired delivery of their precursor membranes to the stratum corneum (SC). The defective extracellular SC membranes are responsible for a leaky epidermal water barrier and ichthyosis. Although lamellar bodies appear to be the pathogenic target for abnormal fatty aldehyde/alcohol metabolism in SLS, the precise biochemical mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Nevertheless, studies in SLS highlight the critical importance of FALDH and normal fatty aldehyde/alcohol metabolism for epidermal function. PMID:24036493

  4. Preparation of sn-2 long-chain polyunsaturated monoacylglycerols from fish oil by hydrolysis with a stereospecific lipase from mucor miehei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto, Susana

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of sn-2 eicosapentaenoyi glycerol and sn-2 docosahexaenoyi glycerol by the hydrolysis of fish oil by the sn-1, sn-3 stereo-specific immobilised lipase (Lipozyme IM-20 from mucor miehei is described. Monoacylglycerols obtained after the enzymatic hydrolysis were separated by silver nitrate-coated silicic acid column chromatography Both monoacylglycerols can be individually separated in almost pure form by elution from the column with a solvent mixture. The preparation of sn-2 substituted monoacylglycerols from marine origin allows their utilization as substrates for the synthesis of structured long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing triacylglycerols at specific positions.

    Se describe la preparación de sn-2 eicosapentaenoil glicerol y sn-2 docosahexaenoil glicerol mediante la hidrólisis de aceite de pescado por lipasa inmovilizada sn-1, sn-3 estereoespecífica (Lipozime IM-20 de mucor miehei. Los monoacilgliceroles obtenidos después de la hidrólisis enzimática se separaron por cromatografía en columna de ácido silícico impregnado de nitrato de plata. Ambos monoacilgliceroles pueden ser individualmente separados en forma casi pura por elución de la columna con una mezcla de solvente. La preparación de sn-2 monoacilgliceroles sustituidos de origen marino permite su utilización como sustratos para la síntesis de triacilgliceroles que contienen ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga en posiciones específicas.

  5. Efficient photochemical decomposition of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids by means of an aqueous/liquid CO2 biphasic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hisao; Yamamoto, Ari; Kutsuna, Shuzo

    2005-10-01

    Photochemical decomposition of persistent and bioaccumulative long-chain (C9-C11) perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with persulfate ion (S2O8(2-)) in an aqueous/liquid CO2 biphasic system was examined to develop a technique to neutralize stationary sources of the long-chain PFCAs. The long-chain PFCAs, namely, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA), which are used as emulsifying agents and as surface treatment agents in industry, are relatively insoluble in water but are soluble in liquid CO2; therefore, introduction of liquid CO2 to the aqueous photoreaction system reduces the interference of colloidal PFCA particles. When the biphasic system was used to decompose these PFCAs, the extent of reaction was 6.4-51 times as high as that achieved in the absence of CO2. In the biphasic system, PFNA, PFDA, and PFUA (33.5-33.6 micromol) in 25.0 mL of water were 100%, 100%, and 77.1% decomposed, respectively, after 12 h of irradiation with a 200-W xenon-mercury lamp; F- ions were produced as a major product, and short-chain PFCAs, which are less bioaccumulative than the original PFCAs, were minor products. All of the initial S2O8(2-) was transformed to SO42-. The system also efficiently decomposed PFCAs at lower concentrations (e.g., 4.28-16.7 micromol of PFDA in 25.0 mL) and was successfully applied to decompose PFNA in floor wax.

  6. Anti-inflammatory coumarins with short- and long-chain hydrophobic groups from roots of Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wu, Xiu-Wen; Deng, Gai-Gai; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2016-03-01

    The (1)H NMR-guided fractionation of a cyclohexane soluble portion of the 75% ethanolic extract of the roots of Angelica dahurica cv. Hangbaizhi led to the isolation of two coumarins, namely, 5-(3"-hydroxy-3"-methylbutyl)-8-hydroxyfuranocoumarin, and isobyakangelicin hydrate-3"-ethyl ether, and ten coumarins with short- or long-chain hydrophobic groups, namely, andafocoumarins A-J. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of the C-2" secondary alcohols in ten of these compounds were deduced via the circular dichroism data of the in situ formed [Rh2(OCOCF3)4] complex, and oxidation reactions were utilized to determine location of the double bonds in the lipid chain of andafocoumarins H and I, respectively. The long-chain hydrophobic group of andafocoumarin J was determined by the method of chemical degradation and GC-MS analysis. It was the first time that coumarins with short- or long-chain hydrophobic groups in this plant had been comprehensively investigated. All isolates were assayed for their inhibitory effect against nitric oxide (NO) production in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, among which andafocoumarins A and B exhibited a potent inhibition on LPS-activated NO production with IC50 values of 19.7 and 13.9 μM, respectively, indicating their stronger inhibitory activity than l-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (IC50=23.7 μM), a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

  7. Optimization of lipase-catalyzed synthesis of medium-and long-chain triglycerides using response surface methodology%响应面优化脂肪酶催化合成中长碳链甘三酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨剀舟; 毕艳兰; 马素敏; 孙尚德; 杨国龙; 汪学德

    2012-01-01

    The medium - and long - chain triglycerides ( MLCT) were synthesized from medium - and long - chain fatty acids ( mixture of caprylic acid, capric acid and oleic acid ) and glycerol by Novozym 435 lipase catalysis in a solvent - free system, and the reaction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology. ( RSM) . The results showed that the reaction temperature, reaction time and enzyme load strongly affected MLCT yield (P0.05) effect on MLCT yield. The optimum conditions were as follows: reaction temperature 901, enzyme load 6. 5% ( rasis on the total mass of fatty acids and glycerol) .substrate molar ratio(ratio of fatty acid to glycerol) 3.5:1 ,and reaction time 12.97 h. The triglycerides yield was 78.5% under these conditions. The contents of triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides and free fatty acids in the product were 85.6% ,0. 3% ,0. 1% and 14. 0% , respectively. The fatty acids compositions of triglycerides were caprylic acid 25.4% ,capric acid 10. 7% and long - chain fatty acid 63. 9% .which were almost in accordance with target product.%采用响应面设计对脂肪酶Novozym 435在无溶剂体系中催化甘油和中长碳链脂肪酸(辛酸、癸酸和油酸混合物)酯化反应合成中长碳链甘三酯进行了研究.研究发现:反应温度、加酶量和反应时间对中长碳链甘三酯得率具有显著性影响(P<0.05),而底物摩尔比(脂肪酸与甘油摩尔比)对中长碳链甘三酯得率不具有显著性影响.优化得到的最佳条件为:反应温度90℃,加酶量6.5%(以脂肪酸和甘油的总质量计),底物摩尔比3.5∶1,反应时间12.97 h.在此条件下,平均甘三酯得率为78.5%;产品中甘三酯、甘二酯、甘一酯和游离脂肪酸含量分别为85.6%、0.3%、0.1%和14.0%;产品甘三酯中辛酸、癸酸和长碳链脂肪酸含量分别为25.4%、10.7%和63.9%,与目标中长碳链甘三酯产品指标基本一致.

  8. Lymphatic fatty acids in canine with pharmaceutical formulations containing structured triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, R.; Porsgaard, Trine; Porter, C.J.H.;

    2006-01-01

    ; 8:0) and L represented long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). Lymph was collected from thoracic duct-cannulated canines for 12 h and the fatty acid composition was determined. The lymphatic transport of total fatty acids was significantly higher than the amount dosed; hence, the small exogenously dosed...... lipid recruited a large pool of endogenous fatty acids. The LML vehicle led to a significantly higher total fatty acid transport than the MLM vehicle. The amount of 8:0 recovered in lymph was almost similar and low for both groups. The amount of LCFA recovered from the animals dosed with the LML vehicle...

  9. Surface passivation of (100 GaSb using self-assembled monolayers of long-chain octadecanethiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Papis-Polakowska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The passivation of (100 GaSb surface was investigated by means of the long-chain octadecanethiol (ODT self-assembled monolayer (SAM. The properties of ODT SAM on (100 GaSb were characterized by the atomic force microscopy using Kelvin probe force microscopy mode and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The chemical treatment of 10mM ODT-C2H5OH has been applied to the passivation of a type-II superlattice InAs/GaSb photodetector. The electrical measurements indicate that the current density was reduced by one order of magnitude as compared to an unpassivated photodetector.

  10. Study of Sorption Properties of Anion Exchangers with Long-Chained Cross-Linking Agents for Tungsten Hydrometallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.N.Kononova; S.V.Kachin; O.P.Kalyakina; G.L.Pashkov; A.G.Kholmogorov

    2000-01-01

    The macroporous anion exchangers with long-chained cross-linking agents were investigated for the tungsten recovery from salt solutions. The physical-chemical characteristics of these sorbents were studied by means of sorption-desorption experiment aswell as electron and IR-spectroscopy. The anion exchangers on the basis of macroporous copolymers of methylacrylate and divinyl-ester of diethyleneglycol or tetravinyl-ester of pentaerythritol possess the exchange capacity to tungsten 2--5 times greater than the porous anion exchangers on the basis of styrene and divinylbenzene, therefore they can be used for selective tungsten recovery from comulex salt solutions.

  11. A novel high-performance thin layer chromatography method for quantification of long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons from Cissus quadrangularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Jain

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: A high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC is an analytical technique, which can be used for the determination of constituents or marker components in various parts of the plants. Earlier studies have estimated phytoconstituents from the stem and other aerial plant parts of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Estimation of hydrocarbons can also be successfully done using HPTLC technique using suitable derivatization. Aims: To develop and validate a simple and rapid method for the estimation of long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons from the leaves of C. quadrangularis using HPTLC technique. Methods: Precoated silica gel 60 F254 plates were used as stationary phase. The mobile phase used was hexane (100 %. The detection of spots was carried out using berberine sulphate as detecting reagent. Results: The method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. Linearity range was found to be 2-10 µg/mL, limit of detection 0.127 µg/mL, and limit of quantification 0.384 µg/mL. Conclusions: A novel, simple, accurate, precise and sensitive HPTLC method has been developed and validated for the estimation of long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons obtained from the leaves of C. quadrangularis Linn.

  12. Effects of ethanol and long-chain ethyl ester concentrations on volatile partitioning in a whisky model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothroyd, Emily L; Linforth, Robert S T; Cook, David J

    2012-10-10

    Ethanolic atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) was used to analyze the headspace concentrations of a test set of 14 whisky volatile compounds above a series of aqueous ethanolic solutions differing in alcohol content (5-40% ABV) and with regard to concentration of ethyl hexadecanoate (0-500 mg/L). The latter was selected to represent the long-chain ethyl esters found at various concentrations in new-make spirit. Headspace ion intensities were modeled against ethanol and ethyl hexadecanoate concentrations as factors. A separate model was prepared for each compound. Not surprisingly, ethanol content in the range of 5-40% ABV had a significant effect (P 2.5). This finding is discussed in terms of the "structuring" effects of ethyl hexadecanoate when present above critical micelle concentration, leading to the selective incorporation of hydrophobic volatile compounds into the interior of micelle-like structures. Data presented illustrate that dilution of whiskies to 23% ABV for "nosing" in the presence of long-chain ethyl esters is likely to change the balance of volatile compounds in the headspace and thus the perceived aroma character.

  13. Fatty acids, inflammation and intestinal health in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    The intestine is not only critical for nutrient digestion and absorption, but also is the largest immune organ in the body. However, in pig production, inflammation induced by numerous factors, such as pathogen infection and stresses (e.g., weaning), results in intestinal mucosal injury and dysfunction, and consequently results in poor growth of pigs. Dietary fatty acids not only play critical roles in energy homeostasis and cellular membrane composition, but also exert potent effects on intestinal development, immune function, and inflammatory response. Recent studies support potential therapeutic roles for specific fatty acids (short chain and medium chain fatty acids and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) in intestinal inflammation of pigs. Results of these new lines of work indicate trophic and cytoprotective effects of fatty acids on intestinal integrity in pigs. In this article, we review the effect of inflammation on intestinal structure and function, and the role of specific fatty acids on intestinal health of pigs, especially under inflammatory conditions.

  14. Maternal and fetal brain contents of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) at various essential fatty acid (EFA), DHA and AA dietary intakes during pregnancy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Iest, Theo Hans; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2008-01-01

    We investigated essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in maternal and fetal brain as a function of EFA/LCP availability to the feto-maternal unit in mice. Diets varying in parent EFA, arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were administered from

  15. Induction of lipid oxidation by polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin in small intestine of mice fed a high-fat diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Flachs, P.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.; Kuda, O.; Bunschoten, A.; Molthoff, J.W.; Vink, C.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Kopecky, J.; Keijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in particular the long chain marine fatty acids docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA), are linked to many health benefits in humans and in animal models. Little is known of the molecular response to DHA and EPA of the small intestine

  16. Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikunhi, Nabeel M; Narayanasamy, Rajendran; Kandasamy, Kathiresan

    2010-06-01

    Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus), prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and finfish (Mugil cephalus), that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids. The branched fatty acids are absent in undecomposed mangrove leaves, but present significantly in the decomposed leaves and in prawns and finfish, representing an important source for them. This revealed that the microbes are dominant producers that contribute significantly to the fishes and prawns in the mangrove ecosystem. This work has proved the fatty acid biomarkers as an effective tool for identifying the trophic interactions among dominant producers and consumers in this mangrove.

  17. Nickel inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W; Brant, Kelly A; Fabisiak, James P; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-08-07

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy-in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with l-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 h), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis.

  18. Metabolomics of dietary fatty acid restriction in patients with phenylketonuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Mütze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6-C18 in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re- absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6 a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B(2 and thromboxane B(3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta

  19. Probing fatty acid metabolism in bacteria, cyanobacteria, green microalgae and diatoms with natural and unnatural fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beld, Joris; Abbriano, Raffaela; Finzel, Kara; Hildebrand, Mark; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fatty acid synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acids in an iterative process, extending the fatty acid by two carbon units every cycle. Thus, odd numbered fatty acids are rarely found in nature. We tested whether representatives of diverse microbial phyla have the ability to incorporate odd-chain fatty acids as substrates for their fatty acid synthases and their downstream enzymes. We fed various odd and short chain fatty acids to the bacterium Escherichia coli, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Major differences were observed, specifically in the ability among species to incorporate and elongate short chain fatty acids. We demonstrate that E. coli, C. reinhardtii, and T. pseudonana can produce longer fatty acid products from short chain precursors (C3 and C5), while Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks this ability. However, Synechocystis can incorporate and elongate longer chain fatty acids due to acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasS) activity, and knockout of this protein eliminates the ability to incorporate these fatty acids. In addition, expression of a characterized AasS from Vibrio harveyii confers a similar capability to E. coli. The ability to desaturate exogenously added fatty acids was only observed in Synechocystis and C. reinhardtii. We further probed fatty acid metabolism of these organisms by feeding desaturase inhibitors to test the specificity of long-chain fatty acid desaturases. In particular, supplementation with thia fatty acids can alter fatty acid profiles based on the location of the sulfur in the chain. We show that coupling sensitive gas chromatography mass spectrometry to supplementation of unnatural fatty acids can reveal major differences between fatty acid metabolism in various organisms. Often unnatural fatty acids have antibacterial or even therapeutic properties. Feeding of short

  20. Structural and functional interaction of fatty acids with human liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) T94A variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan; McIntosh, Avery L; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Kerstin K; Landrock, Danilo; Gupta, Shipra; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2014-05-01

    The human liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) T94A variant, the most common in the FABP family, has been associated with elevated liver triglyceride levels. How this amino acid substitution elicits these effects is not known. This issue was addressed using human recombinant wild-type (WT) and T94A variant L-FABP proteins as well as cultured primary human hepatocytes expressing the respective proteins (genotyped as TT, TC and CC). The T94A substitution did not alter or only slightly altered L-FABP binding affinities for saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids, nor did it change the affinity for intermediates of triglyceride synthesis. Nevertheless, the T94A substitution markedly altered t