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Sample records for cd doped compounds

  1. Tuning the electronic hybridization in the heavy fermion cage compound YbFe2Zn20 with Cd doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Baez, M.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Avila, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    The tuning of the electronic properties of heavy fermion compounds by chemical substitution provides excellent opportunities for further understanding the physics of hybridized ions in crystal lattices. Here we present an investigation on the effects of Cd doping in flux-grown single crystals of the complex intermetallic cage compound YbFe2Zn20, which has been described as a heavy fermion with a Sommerfeld coefficient of 535 mJ mol-1 · K-2. The substitution of Cd for Zn disturbs the system by expanding the unit cell and, in this case, the size of the Zn cages that surround the Yb and Fe. With an increasing amount of Cd, the hybridization between the Yb 4f electrons and the conduction electrons is weakened, as shown by a decrease in the Sommerfeld coefficient, which should be accompanied by a valence shift of the Yb3+ due to the negative chemical pressure effect. This scenario is also supported by the low temperature DC magnetic susceptibility, which is gradually suppressed and shows an increment of the Kondo temperature, based on a shift to higher temperatures of the characteristic broad susceptibility peak. Furthermore, the DC resistivity decreases with the isoelectronic substitution of Cd for Zn, contrary to expectations in an increasingly disordered system, and implying that the valence shift is not related to charge carrier doping. The combined results demonstrate the excellent complementarity between positive physical pressure and negative chemical pressure, and point to a rich playground for exploring the physics and chemistry of strongly correlated electron systems in the general family of Zn20 compounds, despite their structural complexity.

  2. Doping of CdSe Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, John

    2003-10-01

    What happens to a nanocrystal when it is doped with electrons? We doped CdSe nanocrystals with potassium metal and sodium biphenyl, potassium and sodium acting as the charge carriers. In order to monitor the properties of the doped nanocrystals we used Electron Spin Resonance and luminescence techniques. In this poster we present findings and problems encountered in doping CdSe nanocrystals.

  3. Cu-Doped-CdS/In-Doped-CdS Cosensitized Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu-doped-CdS and In-doped-CdS cosensitized (Cu-doped-CdS/In-doped-CdS quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs are introduced here. Different cosensitized sequences, doping ratios, and the thickness (SILAR cycles of Cu-doped-CdS and In-doped-CdS are discussed. Compared with undoped CdS QDSCs, the short circuit current density, UV-Vis absorption spectra, IPCE (monochromatic incident photon-to-electron conversion, open circuit voltage, and so on are all improved. The photoelectric conversion efficiency has obviously improved from 0.71% to 1.28%.

  4. Performance Study of CdS/Co-Doped-CdSe Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the charge transfer path in quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs, we employed successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to dope CdSe with Co for fabricating CdS/Co-doped-CdSe QDSCs constructed with CdS/Co-doped-CdSe deposited on mesoscopic TiO2 film as photoanode, Pt counter electrode, and sulfide/polysulfide electrolyte. After Co doping, the bandgap of CdSe quantum dot decreases, and the conduction band and valence band all improve, forming a cascade energy level which is more conducive to charge transport inside the solar cell and reducing the recombination of electron-hole thus improving the photocurrent and ultimately improving the power conversion efficiency. This work has not been found in the literature.

  5. Photovoltaic properties of sintered CdS/CdTe solar cells doped with Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. W.; Ahn, B. T.; Im, H. B.; Kim, C. S.

    1992-11-01

    The effect of Cu doping before sintering on the photovoltaic properties of sintered CdS/CdTe solar cells were investigated by putting various amounts of CuCl2 either into the CdTe layer or into the back contact carbon layer. It was found that, as the amount of CuCl2 in the CdTe layers increased up to 25 ppm, the cell parameters of the sintered CdS/CdTe solar cells remained at about the same values, and then decreased sharply with further increase of CuCl2. The decreases in cell parameters are caused mainly by the increase in the resistivity of CdS and CdTe layer and the decrease in the optical transmission of CdS due to Cu doping from the CdTe.

  6. Low temperature magnetism of Cd-doped Ce{sub 2}RhIn{sub 8} heavy fermion antiferromagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriano, C., E-mail: cadriano@ifi.unicamp.b [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , UNICAMP, C. P. 6165, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Giles, C.; Mendonca-Ferreira, L. [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , UNICAMP, C. P. 6165, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bergevin, F. de; Mazzoli, C.; Paolasini, L. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble 38043 (France); Fisk, Z. [University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4574 (United States); Pagliuso, P.G. [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , UNICAMP, C. P. 6165, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    We report the low temperature magnetic properties of Cd-doped single crystals of Ce{sub 2}RhIn{sub 8} grown from In-flux. Measurements of temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, electrical resistivity and X-ray magnetic scattering revealed that Cd-doping enhances the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature from T{sub N}=2.8to4.8K for crystals with nominal Cd-concentration of approx20%. Similarly to the pure compound, Cd-doped Ce{sub 2}RhIn{sub 8} presents just below T{sub N} a commensurate antiferromagnetic structure with a propagation vector eta{sup -}>=(1/2,1/2,0). Comparisons between our results and the general effects of Cd-doping on the single layer related family CeMIn{sub 5} (M=Co, Rh and Ir) will also be given.

  7. Ethanol gas sensing by Zn-doped CdS/CdTe nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu, M., E-mail: prabhumku@gmail.com; Manikandan, V. S.; Soundararajan, N.; Ramachandran, K. [School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai – 625 021 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Zn-doped CdS/CdTe nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and studied here for gas sensing. The crystallographic properties of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), which shows cubic structure for CdS and CdTe NPs. The three longitudinal optical phonon modes at 298, 595 and 895 cm{sup −1} were obtained from Raman spectrum and this also reveals the cubic structure of CdS NPs. The band gap for Zn-doped CdS/CdTe NPs increased slightly when compared with pure sample. The ethanol gas sensing in CdS/CdTe NPs shows an enhancement on Zn substitution.

  8. Iodine Doping of CdTe and CdMgTe for Photovoltaic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogedengbe, O. S.; Swartz, C. H.; Jayathilaka, P. A. R. D.; Petersen, J. E.; Sohal, S.; LeBlanc, E. G.; Edirisooriya, M.; Zaunbrecher, K. N.; Wang, A.; Barnes, T. M.; Myers, T. H.

    2017-06-06

    Iodine-doped CdTe and Cd1-xMgxTe layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Secondary ion mass spectrometry characterization was used to measure dopant concentration, while Hall measurement was used for determining carrier concentration. Photoluminescence intensity and time-resolved photoluminescence techniques were used for optical characterization. Maximum n-type carrier concentrations of 7.4 x 1018 cm-3 for CdTe and 3 x 1017 cm-3 for Cd0.65Mg0.35Te were achieved. Studies suggest that electrically active doping with iodine is limited with dopant concentration much above these values. Dopant activation of about 80% was observed in most of the CdTe samples. The estimated activation energy is about 6 meV for CdTe and the value for Cd0.65Mg0.35Te is about 58 meV. Iodine-doped samples exhibit long lifetimes with no evidence of photoluminescence degradation with doping as high as 2 x 1018 cm-3, while indium shows substantial non-radiative recombination at carrier concentrations above 5 x 1016 cm-3. Iodine was shown to be thermally stable in CdTe at temperatures up to 600 degrees C. Results suggest iodine may be a preferred n-type dopant compared to indium in achieving heavily doped n-type CdTe.

  9. Luminescence in Mn-doped CdS nanocrystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angshuman Nag; Sameer Sapra; Subhra Sen Gupta; Ankita Prakash; Ajit Ghangrekar; N Periasamy; D D Sarma

    2008-06-01

    We have synthesized Mn-doped CdS nanocrystals (NCs) with size ranging from 1.8–3 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the doped NCs differ from that of the undoped NCs with an additional peak due to Mn – transitions. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra along with X-ray absorption spectroscopy and PL spectra confirm the incorporation of Mn in the CdS lattice. The fact that emissions from surface states and the Mn levels occur at two different energies, allowed us to study the PL lifetime decay behaviour of both kinds of emissions.

  10. Photoacoustic Study on a Photonic System CdS and Doped CdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, N.; Ramachandran, K.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2002-12-01

    Using Photoacoustic spectroscopy thermal diffusion, thermal conductivity and energy band gap are studied on crystals of photonic system CdS and doped CdS grown by Physical Vapour transport. Optical band gap measured here agrees well with Photo current measurements. It is also found that the thermal diffusivity, effusivity, and optical band gap increases with increase of carrier concentration.

  11. Nitrogen Doped Zinc Telluride Back Contact to CdS/CdTe Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayton, J.; Makhratchev, K.; Price, K. J.; Ma, X.; Simmons, D. A.; Ludwig, K.; Gupta, A.; Bohn, R. G.; Compaan, A. D.

    2000-10-01

    We describe the development of the Nitrogen doped ZnTe for the back contacts of CdS/CdTe solar cell. Reproducible p-ZnTe films were obtained using RF magnetron sputtering technique with Ar/N2 gas mixture. Both, intrinsic and nitrogen doped, ZnTe films were investigated for electronic properties. The conductivity of the N:ZnTe films was about five orders of magnitude higher than that of intrinsic ones. A bilayer of intrinsic and doped ZnTe films were used in back contact structure of CdS/CdTe solar cells. The ZnTe/N:ZnTe/Ni structure showed slightly lower initial performance but better stability in comparison to evaporated Cu/Au back contacts.

  12. La Doping of CdS for Enhanced CdS/CdSe Quantum Dot Cosensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Qi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CdS/CdSe system of quantum dot cosensitized solar cells (QDCSCs is one of the most attractive structures for high-efficiency due to its effect of level adjusting. However, the stepwise structure formed between levels of CdS and CdSe has a limitation for enhancing the efficiencies. Metal ions doping in quantum dots have emerged as a common way for changing the Fermi level, band gap, and conductance. Here we report an innovative concept for the rare earth materials La-doped of the CdS layer in the CdS/CdSe QDCSCs by means of the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR. Then we tested that La doped quantum dots can help more electrons accumulate in CdS film, which makes the Fermi level shift up and form a stepped structure. This method leads to enhanced absorption intensity, obviously increasing current density in CdS/CdSe QDCSCs. Our research is a new exploration for improving efficiencies of quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

  13. Effects of Different Doping Ratio of Cu Doped CdS on QDSCs Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method for the preparation of quantum dot sensitized solar cells, to improve the performance of solar cells by doping quantum dots. We tested the UV-Vis absorption spectrum of undoped CdS QDSCs and Cu doped CdS QDSCs with different doping ratios. The doping ratios of copper were 1 : 100, 1 : 500, and 1 : 1000, respectively. The experimental results show that, under the same SILAR cycle number, Cu doped CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells have higher open circuit voltage, short circuit current density photoelectric conversion efficiency than undoped CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells. Refinement of Cu doping ratio are 1 : 10, 1 : 100, 1 : 200, 1 : 500, and 1 : 1000. When the proportion of Cu and CdS is 1 : 10, all the parameters of the QDSCs reach the minimum value, and, with the decrease of the proportion, the short circuit current density, open circuit voltage, and the photoelectric conversion efficiency are all increased. When proportion is 1 : 500, all parameters reach the maximum values. While with further reduction of the doping ratio of Cu, the parameters of QDSCs have a decline tendency. The results showed that, in a certain range, the lower the doping ratio of Cu, the better the performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cell.

  14. Growth and characterization of Arsenic doped CdTe single crystals grown by Cd-solvent traveling-heater method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Akira; Han, Kyu-Bum; Misra, Sudhajit; Wilenski, Thomas; Sparks, Taylor D.; Scarpulla, Michael A.

    2017-06-01

    We report the growth of p-type As-doped, Cd-rich CdTe single crystals using metallic Cd as the solvent in the traveling-heater method. We investigate the growth process from Cd solution in terms of the solid-liquid interface shape and the effects of As incorporation on p-type doping. The resulting CdTe crystals have Cd-rich composition which enhances p-type doping. The As doping efficacy was measured for As concentrations by the combination of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, capacitance-voltage measurements. The p-type doping concentration varied from 6 × 1015 to 8 × 1016 cm-3 with increasing As concentration, with an apparent doping limit just below 1017 cm-3.

  15. Physical properties of Bi doped CdTe thin films grown by CSVT and their influence on the CdS/CdTe solar cells PV-properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Galan, O. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas-I.P.N., Edificio de Fisica Avanzada, av. IPN y Juan de Dios Batiz s/n U.P.A.L.M. 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: osvaldo@esfm.ipn.mx; Sanchez-Meza, E. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas-I.P.N., Edificio de Fisica Avanzada, av. IPN y Juan de Dios Batiz s/n U.P.A.L.M. 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ruiz, C.M. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Sastre-Hernandez, J. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas-I.P.N., Edificio de Fisica Avanzada, av. IPN y Juan de Dios Batiz s/n U.P.A.L.M. 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Morales-Acevedo, A. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas-I.P.N., Edificio de Fisica Avanzada, av. IPN y Juan de Dios Batiz s/n U.P.A.L.M. 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); CINVESTAV-IPN, Electrical Engineering Department, Av. IPN No2508, C. P. 07360, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Cruz-Gandarilla, F. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas-I.P.N., Edificio de Fisica Avanzada, av. IPN y Juan de Dios Batiz s/n U.P.A.L.M. 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar-Hernandez, J. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas-I.P.N., Edificio de Fisica Avanzada, av. IPN y Juan de Dios Batiz s/n U.P.A.L.M. 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Saucedo, E. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Contreras-Puente, G. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas-I.P.N., Edificio de Fisica Avanzada, av. IPN y Juan de Dios Batiz s/n U.P.A.L.M. 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Bermudez, V. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2007-05-31

    The physical properties of Bi doped CdTe films, grown on glass substrates by the Closed Space Transport Vapour (CSVT) method, from different Bi doped CdTe powders are presented. The CdTe:Bi films were characterized using Photoluminescence, Hall effect, X-Ray diffraction, SEM and Photoconductivity measurements. Moreover, CdS/CdTe:Bi solar cells were made and their characteristics like short circuit current density (J {sub sc}), open circuit voltage (V {sub OC}), fill factor (FF) and efficiency ({eta}) were determined. These devices were fabricated from Bi doped CdTe layers deposited on CdS with the same growth conditions than those used for the single CdTe:Bi layers. A correlation between the CdS/CdTe:Bi solar cell characteristics and the physical properties of the Bi doped CdTe thin films are presented and discussed.

  16. Chemical bath deposition of CdS thin films doped with Zn and Cu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A I Oliva; J E Corona; R Patiño; A I Oliva-Avilés

    2014-04-01

    Zn- and Cu-doped CdS thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by the chemical bath technique. ZnCl2 and CuCl2 were incorporated as dopant agents into the conventional CdS chemical bath in order to promote the CdS doping process. The effect of the deposition time and the doping concentration on the physical properties of CdS films were investigated. The morphology, thickness, bandgap energy, crystalline structure and elemental composition of Zn- and Cu-doped CdS films were investigated and compared to the undoped CdS films properties. Both Zn- and Cu-doped CdS films presented a cubic crystalline structure with (1 1 1) as the preferential orientation. Lower values of the bandgap energy were observed for the doped CdS films as compared to those of the undoped CdS films. Zn-doped CdS films presented higher thickness and roughness values than those of Cu-doped CdS films. From the photoluminescence results, it is suggested that the inclusion of Zn and Cu into CdS crystalline structure promotes the formation of acceptor levels above the CdS valence band, resulting in lower bandgap energy values for the doped CdS films.

  17. Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of spray deposited lithium doped CdO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velusamy, P.; Babu, R. Ramesh, E-mail: rampap2k@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Growth and Thin Films Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli-620 024, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramamurthi, K. [Crystal Growth and Thin Films Laboratory, Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattankulathur – 603 203, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-05-23

    In the present work, CdO and Li doped CdO thin films were deposited on microscopic glass substrates at 300°C by a spray pyrolysis experimental setup. The deposited CdO and Li doped CdO thin films were subjected to XRD, SEM, UV-VIS spectroscopy and Hall measurement analyses. XRD studies revealed the polycrystalline nature of the deposited films and confirmed that the deposited CdO and Li doped CdO thin films belong to cubic crystal system. The Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the information on shape of CdO and Li doped CdO films. Electrical study reveals the n-type semiconducting nature of CdO and the optical band gap is varied between 2.38 and 2.44 eV, depending on the Li doping concentrations.

  18. Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of spray deposited lithium doped CdO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, P.; Babu, R. Ramesh; Ramamurthi, K.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, CdO and Li doped CdO thin films were deposited on microscopic glass substrates at 300˚C by a spray pyrolysis experimental setup. The deposited CdO and Li doped CdO thin films were subjected to XRD, SEM, UV-VIS spectroscopy and Hall measurement analyses. XRD studies revealed the polycrystalline nature of the deposited films and confirmed that the deposited CdO and Li doped CdO thin films belong to cubic crystal system. The Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the information on shape of CdO and Li doped CdO films. Electrical study reveals the n-type semiconducting nature of CdO and the optical band gap is varied between 2.38 and 2.44 eV, depending on the Li doping concentrations.

  19. Solution-phase synthesis of un-doped and Pb doped CdO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülen, Y.; Sahin, B.; Bayansal, F.; Çetinkara, H. A.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, un-doped and Pb doped cadmium oxide (CdO) films were prepared for the first time on glass substrates by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The crystal structure parameters such as average crystallite size and dislocation density were calculated from X-ray diffraction analysis. XRD analysis showed that the films have poly-crystalline structures with decent crystallinity levels. Surface morphology was found to be modified with various Pb doping concentrations. The diameters of the nanoparticles were calculated from the SEM. The optical properties of the prepared CdO films were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. With the increase in Pb concantration from 0.5% to 2.5%, the optical absorption edge shifted towards shorter wavelengths which might be attributed to change in crystallite size.

  20. Effect of CdS/Mg-Doped CdSe Cosensitized Photoanode on Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Guan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dots have emerged as a material platform for low-cost high-performance sensitized solar cells. And doping is an effective method to improve the performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs. Since Kwak et al. from South Korea proved the incorporation of Mg in the CdSe quantum dots (QDs in 2007, the Mg-doped CdSe QDs have been thoroughly studied. Here we report a new attempt on CdS/Mg-doped CdSe quantum dot cosensitized solar cells (QDCSSC. We analyzed the performance of CdS/Mg-doped CdSe quantum dot cosensitized solar cells via discussing the different doping concentration of Mg and the different SILAR cycles of CdS. And we studied the mechanism of CdS/Mg-doped CdSe QDs in detail for the reason why the energy conversion efficiency had been promoted. It is a significant instruction on the development of Mg-doped CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs.

  1. Ultrasound-assisted microwave preparation of Ag-doped CdS nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Tai, Guo'an; Guo, Wanlin

    2010-03-01

    Ag-doped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized by an ultrasound-assisted microwave synthesis method. The X-ray diffraction patterns reveal a structural evolution from cubic to hexagonal with increasing molar ratios of Ag(+)/Cd(2+) from 0% to 5%. It shows that the Ag-doped hexagonal CdS nanoparticles are polycrystal. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the CdS nanoparticles doping with 5% Ag(+) shows that the doped Ag in CdS is metallic. Simultaneously, the characteristic Raman peaks of the CdS nanoparticles enhance with increasing Ag(+) concentrations. The photocatalytic activity of different Ag-doped samples show a reasonable change due to different ratios of Ag which doped into CdS. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Photoluminescence of Cu-doped CdTe and related stability issues in CdS/CdTe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecu, D. [University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606-3390 (United States); Compaan, A. D. [University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606-3390 (United States); Young, D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Jayamaha, U. [First Solar LLC., Perrysburg, Ohio 43551 (United States); Rose, D. H. [First Solar LLC., Perrysburg, Ohio 43551 (United States)

    2000-09-01

    We explore Cu electronic states in CdTe using photoluminescence as the main investigative method. Our results are consistent with some Cu atoms occupying substitutional positions on the Cd sublattice and with others forming Frenkel pairs of the type Cu{sub i}{sup +}-V{sub Cd}{sup -} involving an interstitial Cu and a Cd vacancy. In addition, we find that Cu-doped CdTe samples exhibit a significant ''aging'' behavior, attributable to the instability of Cu acceptor states as verified by our Hall measurements. The aging appears to be reversible by a 150-200 degree sign C anneal. Our results are used to explain efficiency degradation of some CdTe solar-cell devices which use Cu for the formation of a backcontact. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Nanoscale doping of compound semiconductors by solid phase dopant diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jaehyun, E-mail: jaehyun.ahn@utexas.edu; Koh, Donghyi; Roy, Anupam; Banerjee, Sanjay K., E-mail: banerjee@ece.utexas.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Chou, Harry [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Kim, Taegon [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Semiconductor R& D Center, Samsung Electronics Corporation, 1 Samsungjeonja-ro, Hwasung, Kyounggi 445-330 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jonghan [Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Cheongryang, P.O. Box 131, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-21

    Achieving damage-free, uniform, abrupt, ultra-shallow junctions while simultaneously controlling the doping concentration on the nanoscale is an ongoing challenge to the scaling down of electronic device dimensions. Here, we demonstrate a simple method of effectively doping ΙΙΙ-V compound semiconductors, specifically InGaAs, by a solid phase doping source. This method is based on the in-diffusion of oxygen and/or silicon from a deposited non-stoichiometric silicon dioxide (SiO{sub x}) film on InGaAs, which then acts as donors upon activation by annealing. The dopant profile and concentration can be controlled by the deposited film thickness and thermal annealing parameters, giving active carrier concentration of 1.4 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}. Our results also indicate that conventional silicon based processes must be carefully reviewed for compound semiconductor device fabrication to prevent unintended doping.

  4. Phosphorus Doping of Polycrystalline CdTe by Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colegrove, Eric; Albin, David S.; Guthrey, Harvey; Harvey, Steve; Burst, James; Moutinho, Helio; Farrell, Stuart; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2015-06-14

    Phosphorus diffusion in single crystal and polycrystalline CdTe material is explored using various methods. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) is used to determine 1D P diffusion profiles. A 2D diffusion model is used to determine the expected cross-sectional distribution of P in CdTe after diffusion anneals. Time of flight SIMS and cross-sectional cathodoluminescence corroborates expected P distributions. Devices fabricated with diffused P exhibit hole concentrations up to low 1015 cm-3, however a subsequent activation anneal enabled hole concentrations greater than 1016 cm-3. CdCl2 treatments and Cu based contacts were also explored in conjunction with the P doping process.

  5. Cu-doped CdS and its application in CdTe thin film solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yi [School of Automation, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hankou University, Wuhan, Hubei 430212 (China); Yang, Jun; Yang, Ruilong; Shen, Kai; Wang, Dezhao [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang, Deliang, E-mail: eedewang@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Cu is widely used in the back contact formation of CdTe thin film solar cells. However, Cu is easily to diffuse from the back contact into the CdTe absorber layer and even to the cell junction interface CdS/CdTe. This phenomenon is generally believed to be the main factor affecting the CdTe solar cell stability. In this study Cu was intentionally doped in CdS thin film to study its effect on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the CdS material. Upon Cu doping, the V{sub Cd{sup −}} and the surface-state-related photoluminescence emissions were dramatically decreased/quenched. The presence of Cu atom hindered the recrystallization/coalescence of the nano-sized grains in the as-deposited CdS film during the air and the CdCl{sub 2} annealing. CdTe thin film solar cell fabricated with Cu-doped CdS window layers demonstrated much decreased fill factor, which was induced by the increased space-charge recombination near the p-n junction and the worsened junction crystalline quality. Temperature dependent current-voltage curve measurement indicated that the doped Cu in the CdS window layer was not stable at both room and higher temperatures.

  6. Inorganic cluster syntheses of TM2+-doped quantum dots (CdSe, CdS, CdSe/CdS): physical property dependence on dopant locale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Paul I; Santangelo, Steven A; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2007-08-08

    A series of colloidal transition-metal-doped chalcogenide semiconductor nanocrystals (TM2+:CdSe, TM2+:CdS, etc.) has been prepared by thermal decomposition of inorganic cluster precursors. It is shown through extensive spectroscopic and structural characterization that the nanocrystals prepared following literature procedures for synthesis of TM2+:CdSe nanocrystals actually possess an unintended CdSe/TM2+:CdS core/shell morphology. The conditions required for successful formation of TM2+:CdSe and TM2+:CdS by cluster decomposition have been determined. Magneto-optical and photoluminescence spectroscopic results for this series of doped nanocrystals reveal major physical consequences of dopant localization within the shell and demonstrate the capacity to engineer dopant-carrier exchange interactions via core/shell doping strategies. The results presented here illustrate some of the remarkable and unexpected complexities that can arise in nanocrystal doping chemistries and emphasize the need for meticulous characterization to avoid false positives.

  7. Re-dispersible Li+ and Eu3+ co-doped CdS nanoparticles: Luminescence studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N S Gajbhiye; Raghumani Singh Ninghoujam; Asar Ahmed; D K Panda; S S Umare; S J Sharma

    2008-02-01

    Re-dispersible CdS, 5 at.% Eu3+-doped CdS, 2 at.% Li+ and 5 at.% Eu3+ co-doped CdS nanoparticles in organic solvent are prepared by urea hydrolysis in ethylene glycol medium at a low temperature of 170°C. CdS nanoparticles have spherical shape with a diameter of ∼ 80 nm. The asymmetric ratio (21) of the integrated intensities of the electrical dipole transition to the magnetic dipole transition for 5 at.% Eu3+-doped CdS is found to be 3.8 and this ratio is significantly decreased for 2 at.% Li+ and 5 at.% Eu3+ co-doped CdS (21 = 2.6). It establishes that the symmetry environment of Eu3+ ion is more favored by Li-doping. Extra peak at 550 nm (green emission) could be seen for 2 and 5 at.% Eu3+ co-doped CdS. Also, the significant energy transfer from host CdS to Eu3+ is found for 5 at.% Eu3+-doped CdS compared to that for 2 at.% Li+ and 5 at.% Eu3+ co-doped CdS.

  8. Cu-doped CdS and its application in CdTe thin film solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Yang, Jun; Yang, Ruilong; Shen, Kai; Wang, Dezhao; Wang, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Cu is widely used in the back contact formation of CdTe thin film solar cells. However, Cu is easily to diffuse from the back contact into the CdTe absorber layer and even to the cell junction interface CdS/CdTe. This phenomenon is generally believed to be the main factor affecting the CdTe solar cell stability. In this study Cu was intentionally doped in CdS thin film to study its effect on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the CdS material. Upon Cu doping, the VCd- and the surface-state-related photoluminescence emissions were dramatically decreased/quenched. The presence of Cu atom hindered the recrystallization/coalescence of the nano-sized grains in the as-deposited CdS film during the air and the CdCl2 annealing. CdTe thin film solar cell fabricated with Cu-doped CdS window layers demonstrated much decreased fill factor, which was induced by the increased space-charge recombination near the p-n junction and the worsened junction crystalline quality. Temperature dependent current-voltage curve measurement indicated that the doped Cu in the CdS window layer was not stable at both room and higher temperatures.

  9. Cu-doped CdS and its application in CdTe thin film solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu is widely used in the back contact formation of CdTe thin film solar cells. However, Cu is easily to diffuse from the back contact into the CdTe absorber layer and even to the cell junction interface CdS/CdTe. This phenomenon is generally believed to be the main factor affecting the CdTe solar cell stability. In this study Cu was intentionally doped in CdS thin film to study its effect on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the CdS material. Upon Cu doping, the VCd− and the surface-state-related photoluminescence emissions were dramatically decreased/quenched. The presence of Cu atom hindered the recrystallization/coalescence of the nano-sized grains in the as-deposited CdS film during the air and the CdCl2 annealing. CdTe thin film solar cell fabricated with Cu-doped CdS window layers demonstrated much decreased fill factor, which was induced by the increased space-charge recombination near the p-n junction and the worsened junction crystalline quality. Temperature dependent current-voltage curve measurement indicated that the doped Cu in the CdS window layer was not stable at both room and higher temperatures.

  10. Performance of Graphite Pastes Doped with Various Materials as Back Contact for CdS/CdTe Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, Akira; Aramoto, Tetsuya; Morita, Akikatsu

    2001-12-01

    To date the problem of developing a suitable back contact for CdS/CdTe solar cells has yet to be resolved. The Cu-doped graphite paste that is widely used as a back contact is associated with degradation problems due to possible Cu diffusion across the CdS/CdTe junction. This study was designed to find ways to improve the graphite paste for superior electrical contacts. Mixtures of graphite paste with various material constituents and dopants consisting of silver-, lead-, nickel-, antimony-, bismuth-, or phosphor-based compounds, were studied. Results show that the performances of solar cells fabricated from these graphite pastes vary with the change in the composition. In the cases of Ag2Te and Ni2P, we studied their relationship with the solar cell characteristics with regard to dopant quantity, and furthermore in the case of Ag2Te, with regard to the sintering temperature of the graphite electrode. A fill factor (F.F.) of over 0.65 and efficiencies over 13% were obtained with Ag2Te, Ag3PO4, Ag2MoO4, and NiTe, and efficiencies over 12% were obtained with AgF, AgCl, Ni2P, and Ni3P.

  11. Study of high mobility carriers in Ni-doped CdO films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A A Dakhel

    2013-10-01

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) doped with different amounts of nickel ion thin films have been prepared on silicon and glass substrates by vacuum evaporation technique. The effects of nickel doping on the structural, electrical, optical and optoelectronic properties of the host CdO films were systematically studied. The sample elemental composition was determined by the X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy method. The X-ray diffraction method was used to study the crystalline structure of the samples. It shows that some of Ni3+ ions occupy mainly locations when in interstitial positions and Cd2+-ion vacancies of CdO lattice. The bandgap of Ni-doped CdO suffers narrowing till 10–12% compared to undoped CdO. Such bandgap narrowing was studied within the framework of the available models. The electrical behaviours show that all the prepared Ni-doped CdO films are degenerate semiconductors. However, the nickel doping influences all the optoelectrical properties of CdO. Their d.c. conductivity, carrier concentration and mobility increased compared to undoped CdO film. The largest mobility of 112.6 cm2/V.s was measured for 1–2% Ni-doped CdO film. From optoelectronics point of view, Ni-doped CdO can be used in infrared-transparent-conducting-oxide (NIR–TCO) applications.

  12. Doping-assisted defect control in compound semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Petra; Weber, Eicke R.; Weatherford, Todd Russell

    2006-07-11

    The present invention relates to the production of thin film epilayers of III–V and other compounds with acceptor doping wherein the acceptor thermally stabilizes the epilayer, stabilize the naturally incorporated native defect population and therewith maintain the epilayer's beneficial properties upon annealing among other advantageous effects. In particular, balanced doping in which the acceptor concentration is similar to (but does not exceed) the antisite defects in the as-grown material is shown to be particularly advantageous in providing thermal stability, high resistivity and ultrashort trapping times. In particular, MBE growth of LT-GaAs epilayers with balanced Be doping is described in detail. The growth conditions greatly enhance the materials reproducibility (that is, the yield in processed devices). Such growth techniques can be transferred to other III–V materials if the growth conditions are accurately reproduced. Materials produced herein also demonstrate advantages in reproducibility, reliability and radiation hardening.

  13. Optimization of High-Efficiency CdS/CdTe Thin Film Solar Cell Using Step Doping Grading and Thickness of the Absorption Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Sabaghi; Abbas Majdabadi; Saeid Marjani; Saeed Khosroabadi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of stepped doping of the absorber layer on performance of Cadmium Sulfide/Cadmium Telluride (CdS/CdTe) solar cell has been investigated. At first, the electrical characteristics of conventional CdS/CdTe solar cell is validated with fabricated CdS/CdTe solar cell. To improve the maximum efficiency of CdS/CdTe solar cell, the doping and thickness of the absorption layer are optimized. By step doping concentration within the absorber layer using buffer layer back con...

  14. Sol-Gel Synthesis, Characterization and Optical Properties of Bi 3+ - Doped CdO Sub-Micron Size Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Khademinia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly crystalline Bi3+-doped cadmium oxide (CdO sub-micron structures were synthesized by calcination the obtained precursor from a sol-gel reaction. The reaction was carried out with cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO32.4H2O, bismuth nitrate (Bi(NO33.5H2O and ethylene glycol (C2H6O2 reactants without any additives at 80°C for 2h. Resulting gel was calcined at 900 °C with increasing temperature rate of 15°C per minute for 12 h in a furnace. As a result of heating, the organic section of gel was removed and Bi3+-doped cadmium oxide micro structure was produced. The obtained compound from the sol-gel technique possesses a cubic crystalline structure at micro scale. Powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD study indicated that the obtained Bi3+-doped CdO has a cubic phase. Also, SEM images showed that the resulting material is composed of particles with the average diameter of 1 µm. Also, UV–vis and FT-IR spectroscopies were employed to characterize the Bi3+-doped CdO micro structures.

  15. Minority carrier lifetimes in different doped LWIR HgCdTe grown by LPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, GuangYin; Wei, YanFeng; Sun, QuanZhi; Yang, JianRong

    2012-10-01

    The carrier lifetimes of different types of p-type doped HgCdTe(x~0.23) long wavelength infrared (LWIR) epilayers were measured which were Hg-vacancy, Au and arsenic doped ones prepared by Te-rich Liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE). By comparing the lifetimes of Hg-vacancy and extrinsic doped HgCdTe, we focus on three primary mechanisms limiting the lifetimes in these different p-type HgCdTe samples: radiative recombination, Auger recombination and Schokley-Read- Hall (SRH) Recombination. The recombination mechanism in p-type HgCdTe is the SRH recombination at low temperatures and Auger and radiative recombination at high temperature. It is found that the lifetime of As-doped and Au-doped HgCdTe is far longer than that of Hg-vacancy-doped sample which is caused by the deep energy level of the Hg-vacancy acceptor that is considered as a recombination center in HgCdTe. Also we found lifetime in those p-type doped HgCdTe LWIR epilayers is limited by SRH by comparing the experimental lifetimes with the calculated data. Impurity doping was found to have a main effect on minority carrier lifetime.

  16. Magnetic and magneto-optical properties of doped and co-doped CdTe with (Mn, Fe): Ab-initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Raiss, A.; Sbai, Y. [Laboratory of Magnetism and high-energy physics (LMPHE), Faculty of Sciences, University Mohammed-V, Av. Ibn Batouta, B. P. 1014 Rabat (Morocco); Bahmad, L., E-mail: bahmad@fsr.ac.ma [Laboratory of Magnetism and high-energy physics (LMPHE), Faculty of Sciences, University Mohammed-V, Av. Ibn Batouta, B. P. 1014 Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [Laboratory of Magnetism and high-energy physics (LMPHE), Faculty of Sciences, University Mohammed-V, Av. Ibn Batouta, B. P. 1014 Rabat (Morocco); Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco)

    2015-07-01

    On the basis of ab-initio calculations performed by the Akai-KKR-CPA method within the spin polarized density functional theory (DFT) and local density approximation (LDA). The magnetic and magneto-optical properties of CdTe doped with Mn and Fe, and co-doped with transitions metals (TM), have been investigated. Moreover, the density of state (DOS) have been calculated and plotted with the energy diagram, for different dopants concentrations. In this work we study, these compounds and compare our theoretical results with the experimental works concerning the doped CdTe. Then we determine which one, Mn or Fe, is responsible of the appearing magnetic and/or optical properties. We also investigate the effect of the co-doping with these elements: Mn and Fe. We show that the iron Fe does not contribute strongly in the magnetism, but it affects the optical properties of the co-doped materials. When comparing our results with the existing experimental works, we found that a low concentration of Fe improves well the magneto-optical properties such as the Faraday rotation. On the other hand, we have investigated the microscopic behavior of electrons by studying their electronic structure and density of states (DOS). - Highlights: • In this revised version, we have calculated the energy difference between the ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic states. • In this revised version we have discussed the ferromagnetic mechanism based on the competition between the anti-ferromagnetic super-exchange interaction (Mn-doped CdTe) and ferromagnetic Zuner's double exchange mechanism (Fe-doped CdTe). We also added the suggested papers. • In the introduction, we added a description of possibility of high blocking temperature in the spinodal nano-decomposition by referring the added papers. The observed results are exactly the same as the blocking effects in the super-paramagnetism with very small hysterethyis. • We compared our results with the SIC-LDA calculations based on

  17. Role of extracellular compounds in Cd-sequestration relative to Cd uptake by bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaveykova, Vera I., E-mail: vera.slaveykova@epfl.c [Environmental Biophysical Chemistry, IIE-ENAC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 2, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Parthasarathy, Nalini [Department of Inorganic, Analytic and Applied Chemistry, University of Geneva, Sciences II, 30 Quai Ernest Ansermet, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Dedieu, Karine; Toescher, Denis [Environmental Biophysical Chemistry, IIE-ENAC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 2, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    The role of bacterially derived compounds in Cd(II) complexation and uptake by bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti wild type (WT) and genetically modified ExoY-mutant, deficient in exopolysaccharide production, was explored combining chemical speciation measurements and assays with living bacteria. Obtained results demonstrated that WT- and ExoY-strains excreted siderophores in comparable amounts, while WT-strain produced much higher amount of exopolysaccharides and less exoproteins. An evaluation of Cd(II) distribution in bacterial suspensions under short term exposure conditions, showed that most of the Cd is bound to bacterial surface envelope, including Cd bound to the cell wall and to the attached extracellular polymeric substances. However, the amount of Cd bound to the dissolved extracellular compounds increases at high Cd(II) concentrations. The implications of these findings to more general understanding of the Cd(II) fate and cycling in the environment is discussed. - Bacterial excreted extracellular compounds play minor role in Cd(II) sequestration relative to bacteria.

  18. Digital Doping in Magic-Sized CdSe Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckel, Franziska; Yang, Jiwoong; Lorenz, Severin; Baek, Woonhyuk; Chang, Hogeun; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Bacher, Gerd; Fainblat, Rachel

    2016-07-26

    Magic-sized semiconductor clusters represent an exciting class of materials located at the boundary between quantum dots and molecules. It is expected that replacing single atoms of the host crystal with individual dopants in a one-by-one fashion can lead to unique modifications of the material properties. Here, we demonstrate the dependence of the magneto-optical response of (CdSe)13 clusters on the discrete number of Mn(2+) ion dopants. Using time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we are able to distinguish undoped, monodoped, and bidoped cluster species, allowing for an extraction of the relative amount of each species for a specific average doping concentration. A giant magneto-optical response is observed up to room temperature with clear evidence that exclusively monodoped clusters are magneto-optically active, whereas the Mn(2+) ions in bidoped clusters couple antiferromagnetically and are magneto-optically passive. Mn(2+)-doped clusters therefore represent a system where magneto-optical functionality is caused by solitary dopants, which might be beneficial for future solotronic applications.

  19. Microstructural, optical and electrical properties of Cl-doped CdTe single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Hyojeong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural, optical and electrical properties of Cl-doped CdTe crystals grown by the low pressure Bridgman (LPB method were investigated for four different doping concentrations (unintentionally doped, 4.97 × 1019 cm−3, 9.94 × 1019 cm−3 and 1.99 × 1020 cm−3 and three different locations within the ingots (namely, samples from top, middle and bottom positions in the order of the distance from the tip of the ingot. It was shown that Cl dopant suppressed the unwanted secondary (5 1 1 crystalline orientation. Also, the average size and surface coverage of Te inclusions decreased with an increase in Cl doping concentration. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements showed that the optical quality of the Cl-doped CdTe single crystals was enhanced. The resistivity of the CdTe sample doped with Cl at the 1.99 × 1020 cm−3 was above 1010 Ω.cm.

  20. N-doping of organic semiconductors by bis-metallosandwich compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Stephen; Qi, Yabing; Kahn, Antoine; Marder, Seth; Kim, Sang Bok; Mohapatra, Swagat K.; Guo, Song

    2016-01-05

    The various inventions disclosed, described, and/or claimed herein relate to the field of methods for n-doping organic semiconductors with certain bis-metallosandwich compounds, the doped compositions produced, and the uses of the doped compositions in organic electronic devices. Metals can be manganese, rhenium, iron, ruthenium, osmium, rhodium, or iridium. Stable and efficient doping can be achieved.

  1. Effects of Antimony Doping in Polycrystalline CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Tamotsu; Ikeda, Shigeyuki; Nagatsuka, Satsuki; Hayashi, Ryoji; Yoshino, Kaoru; Kanda, Yohei; Noda, Akira; Hirano, Ryuichi

    2012-10-01

    The effects of antimony (Sb) doping of the CdTe layer in the CdTe solar cells were investigated using Sb-doped CdTe powders as source materials for CdTe deposition by the close-spaced sublimation (CSS) method. Conversion efficiency increased with increasing Sb concentration below 1×1018 cm-3, mainly owing to the improvement of the fill factor. Secondary ion microprobe mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profile revealed that the Sb impurities at a concentration of approximately 1×1016 cm-3 were incorporated into the CdTe layer when using the Sb-doped CdTe source of 1×1018 cm-3. The observation of surface morphology showed that the grain sizes were improved by Sb addition. Therefore, the improved performance upon Sb addition to CdTe solar cells was probably due to the improvements in crystallinity, such as increased grain size.

  2. Compensation models in chlorine doped CdTe based on positron annihilation and photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, W.; Hofman, D.M.; Meyer, B.K. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Krause-Rehberg, R.; Polity, A.; Abgarjan, Th. [Martin-Luther Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, FB Physik, Halle (Germany); Salk, M.; Benz, K.W. [Kristallographisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany); Azoulay, M. [Soreq, Nuclear Research Centre, Yavne (Israel)

    1995-12-31

    In this investigation positron annihilation, photoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance techniques are employed to gain insight in the compensation of CdTe doped with the halogen Cl. We will demonstrate that the high resistivity of CdTe:Cl cannot be explain by the interaction between the shallow effective mass type donor Cl on Te site and the doping induced shallow acceptor complex, a Cd vacancy paired off with a nearest-neighbour Cl atom (A centre). From electron paramagnetic resonance investigations we conclude that the mid gap trap, often detected by electrical methods in CdTe, is not the isolated Cd vacancy. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.

  3. Broad spectral response photodetector based on individual tin-doped CdS nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichang Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High purity and tin-doped 1D CdS micro/nano-structures were synthesized by a convenient thermal evaporation method. SEM, EDS, XRD and TEM were used to examine the morphology, composition, phase structure and crystallinity of as-prepared samples. Raman spectrum was used to confirm tin doped into CdS effectively. The effect of impurity on the photoresponse properties of photodetectors made from these as-prepared pure and tin-doped CdS micro/nano-structures under excitation of light with different wavelength was investigated. Various photoconductive parameters such as responsivity, external quantum efficiency, response time and stability were analyzed to evaluate the advantage of doped nanowires and the feasibility for photodetector application. Comparison with pure CdS nanobelt, the tin-doped CdS nanowires response to broader spectral range while keep the excellect photoconductive parameters. Both trapped state induced by tin impurity and optical whispering gallery mode microcavity effect in the doped CdS nanowires contribute to the broader spectral response. The micro-photoluminescence was used to confirm the whispering gallery mode effect and deep trapped state in the doped CdS nanowires.

  4. Broad spectral response photodetector based on individual tin-doped CdS nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weichang; Peng, Yuehua; Yin, Yanling; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Yong; Tang, Dongsheng

    2014-12-01

    High purity and tin-doped 1D CdS micro/nano-structures were synthesized by a convenient thermal evaporation method. SEM, EDS, XRD and TEM were used to examine the morphology, composition, phase structure and crystallinity of as-prepared samples. Raman spectrum was used to confirm tin doped into CdS effectively. The effect of impurity on the photoresponse properties of photodetectors made from these as-prepared pure and tin-doped CdS micro/nano-structures under excitation of light with different wavelength was investigated. Various photoconductive parameters such as responsivity, external quantum efficiency, response time and stability were analyzed to evaluate the advantage of doped nanowires and the feasibility for photodetector application. Comparison with pure CdS nanobelt, the tin-doped CdS nanowires response to broader spectral range while keep the excellect photoconductive parameters. Both trapped state induced by tin impurity and optical whispering gallery mode microcavity effect in the doped CdS nanowires contribute to the broader spectral response. The micro-photoluminescence was used to confirm the whispering gallery mode effect and deep trapped state in the doped CdS nanowires.

  5. Photoactivity enhancement of Zn-doped CdWO{sub 4} prepared with a hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xu Chun, E-mail: songxuchunfj@163.com [Department of Chemistry, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Cui, Xia [Department of Chemistry, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Huang, Wan Zhen [Research Center of Analysis and Measurement, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Zhang, Yong [Hangzhou Area Military Representative Office, Hangzhou, 310011 (China); Yin, Hao Yong [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zheng, Yi Fan [Research Center of Analysis and Measurement, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The zinc-doped CdWO{sub 4} photocatalyst was synthesized by a hydrothermal process. • The Zn-doped CdWO{sub 4} exhibited excellent photocatalytic efficiency. • Zinc effect on photocatalytic activity and photodegradation mechanism were investigated. - Abstract: The zinc-doped CdWO{sub 4} photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal process. The influences of zinc doping on the phase structures, optical properties, morphologies and photocatalytic activities of the CdWO{sub 4} catalyst were investigated. The results showed that the zinc-doping can enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of CdWO{sub 4} with the highest activity obtained on the Zn-doped CdWO{sub 4} (Zn/Cd ratio of 0.1) for degradation of rhodamine B(RhB) under simulated solar light irradiation. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity may be attributed to the zinc doping which can change the band gap of the catalyst and subsequently inhibit the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes.

  6. Electrical parameters of metal doped n-CdO/p-Si heterojunction diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umadevi, P. [Department of Physics, Sri Vidya College of Engineering & Technology, Virudhunagar 626005, Tamilnadu (India); Prithivikumaran, N., E-mail: janavi_p@yahoo.com [Nanoscience Research Lab, Department of Physics, VHNSN College, Virudhunagar 626001, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-11-15

    The CdO, Al doped CdO and Cu doped CdO thin films were coated on p-type silicon substrates by sol–gel spin coating method. The structural, surface morphological and electrical properties of undoped, Al and Cu doped CdO films on silicon substrate were studied. The Ag/CdO/p-Si, Ag/Al: CdO/p-Si and Ag/Cu: CdO/p-Si heterojunction diodes were fabricated and the diode parameters such as reverse saturation current, barrier height and ideality factor of the diodes were investigated by current–voltage (I–V)characteristics. The reverse current of the diode was found to increase strongly with the doping. The values of barrier height and ideality factor were decreased by doping with aluminium and copper. Photo response of the heterojunction diodes was studied and it was found that, the heterojunction diode constructed with the doped CdO has larger Photo response than the undoped heterojunction diode.

  7. Electrical parameters of metal doped n-CdO/p-Si heterojunction diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umadevi, P.; Prithivikumaran, N.

    2016-11-01

    The CdO, Al doped CdO and Cu doped CdO thin films were coated on p-type silicon substrates by sol-gel spin coating method. The structural, surface morphological and electrical properties of undoped, Al and Cu doped CdO films on silicon substrate were studied. The Ag/CdO/p-Si, Ag/Al: CdO/p-Si and Ag/Cu: CdO/p-Si heterojunction diodes were fabricated and the diode parameters such as reverse saturation current, barrier height and ideality factor of the diodes were investigated by current-voltage (I-V)characteristics. The reverse current of the diode was found to increase strongly with the doping. The values of barrier height and ideality factor were decreased by doping with aluminium and copper. Photo response of the heterojunction diodes was studied and it was found that, the heterojunction diode constructed with the doped CdO has larger Photo response than the undoped heterojunction diode.

  8. Magnetic hyperfine interactions on Cd sites of the rare-earth cadmium compounds R Cd (R =Ce , Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, F. H. M.; Leite Neto, O. F. L. S.; Saitovitch, H.; Cavalcante, J. T. P. D.; Carbonari, A. W.; Saxena, R. N.; Bosch-Santos, B.; Pereira, L. F. D.; Mestnik-Filho, J.; Forker, M.

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the investigation of the magnetic hyperfine field Bh f in a series of rare-earth (R ) cadmium intermetallic compounds R Cd and GdCd2 measured by perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy using 111In/111Cd as probe nuclei at Cd sites as well as first-principles calculations of Bh f at Cd sites in the studied compounds. Vapor-solid state reaction of R metals with Cd vapor and the 111In radioisotope was found to be an appropriate route of doping rare-earth cadmium compounds with the PAC probe 111In/111Cd. The observation that the hyperfine parameters depend on details of the sample preparation provides information on the phase preference of diffusing 111In in the rare-earth cadmium phase system. The 111Cd hyperfine field has been determined in the compounds R Cd for the R constituents Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er, in several cases as a function of temperature. For most R constituents, the temperature dependence Bh f(T ) of 111Cd:R Cd is consistent with ferromagnetic order of the compound. DyCd, however, presents a remarkable anomaly: a finite magnetic hyperfine field is observed only in the temperature interval 35 K ≤ T ≤ 80 K which indicates a transition from ferromagnetic order to a spin arrangement where all 4 f -induced contributions to the magnetic hyperfine field at the Cd site cancel. First-principles calculation results for DyCd show that the (π , π , 0) antiferromagnetic configuration is energetically more favorable than the ferromagnetic. The approach used in the calculations to simulate the R Cd system successfully reproduces the experimental values of Bh f at Cd sites and shows that the main contribution to Bh f comes from the valence electron polarization. The de Gennes plot of the hyperfine field Bh f of 111Cd:R Cd vs the 4 f -spin projection (g -1 )J reflects a decrease of the strength of indirect 4 f -4 f exchange across the R series. Possible mechanisms are discussed and the experimental results indicate that

  9. Effects of indium doping on the structural and optical properties of CdSe thin films deposited by chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez G, A. M.; Arreola, I. V. [Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla, 21 Sur No. 1103, Col Santiago, 72160 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Tepantlan, C. S. [Universidad Politecnica de Tulancingo, Calle Ingenierias 100 Huapalcalco, 43629 Tulancingo, Hidalgo (Mexico)]. e-mail: arllenemariana.perez@upaep.mx

    2009-07-01

    Thin films of n-type CdSe have been grown on Corning glass substrate by chemical bath deposition, prepared with Sodium Seleno-Sulphate (Na{sub 2}SSeO{sub 3}), Cadmium Chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) and Indium Tri-Chloride (InCl{sub 3}), mixed in an aqueous environment. The effects of different In doping concentrations have been investigated. X-ray diffraction spectra show that at low In concentration only the CdSe lattice is present in the deposited film, whereas CdIn{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and InSe compounds are obtained at higher In concentrations. Optical properties have been calculated from transmission spectra and photoluminescence measurements. From transmission spectra, the absorption coefficient and optical gap were obtained; photoluminescence spectra show band-band recombination from 10 K to room temperature. (Author)

  10. Carrier transport dynamics in Mn-doped CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Uma; Maloney, Francis S.; Sapkota, Keshab; Wang, Wenyong

    2017-10-01

    In this work quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) were fabricated with CdSe and Mn-doped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) using the SILAR method. QDSSCs based on Mn-doped CdSe QDs exhibited improved incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency. Carrier transport dynamics in the QDSSCs were studied using the intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy technique, from which transport and recombination time constants could be derived. Compared to CdSe QDSSCs, Mn–CdSe QDSSCs exhibited shorter transport time constant, longer recombination time constant, longer diffusion length, and higher charge collection efficiency. These observations suggested that Mn doping in CdSe QDs could benefit the performance of solar cells based on such nanostructures.

  11. Ion Beam Nanostructuring of HgCdTe Ternary Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Aleksey B.; Savkina, Rada K.; Udovytska, Ruslana S.; Gudymenko, Oleksandr I.; Kladko, Vasyl P.; Korchovyi, Andrii A.

    2017-05-01

    Systematic study of mercury cadmium telluride thin films subjected to the ion beam bombardment was carried out. The evolution of surface morphology of (111) Hg1 - x Cd x Te ( x 0.223) epilayers due to 100 keV B+ and Ag+ ion irradiation was studied by AFM and SEM methods. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods were used for the investigation of the chemical compound and structural properties of the surface and subsurface region. It was found that in the range of nanoscale, arrays of holes and mounds on Hg0.777Cd0.223Te (111) surface as well as the polycrystalline Hg1 - x Cd x Te cubic phase with alternative compound ( x 0.20) have been fabricated using 100 keV ion beam irradiation of the basic material. Charge transport investigation with non-stationary impedance spectroscopy method has shown that boron-implanted structures are characterized by capacity-type impedance whereas for silver-implanted structures, an inductive-type impedance (or "negative capacitance") is observed. A hybrid system, which integrates the nanostructured ternary compound (HgCdTe) with metal-oxide (Ag2O) inclusions, was fabricated by Ag+ ion bombardment. The sensitivity of such metal-oxide-semiconductor hybrid structure for sub-THz radiation was detected with NEP 4.5 × 10-8 W/Hz1/2at ν ≈ 140 GHz and 296 K without amplification.

  12. Optical characterization of CdSe/Dy3+-doped silica matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P V Jyothy; P R Rejikumar; Thomas Vinoy; S Kartika; N V Unnikrishnan

    2010-11-01

    Cadmium selenide nanocrystals along with dysprosium ions are doped in silica matrices through sol–gel route. The optical bandgap and size of the CdSe nanocrystals are calculated from the absorption spectrum. The size of the CdSe nanocrystallites is also evaluated from the TEM measurements. The fluorescence intensities are compared for SiO2–Dy3+ and CdSe-doped SiO2–Dy3+. The fluorescence intensity of Dy3+ is considerably increased in the presence of CdSe nanocrystals.

  13. Semiconductor quantum dots enhanced graphene/CdTe heterostructure solar cells by photo-induced doping

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Peng; Xu, Zhijuan; Zhong, Huikai; Wu, Zhiqian; Lin, Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    Photo-induced doping is employed into graphene based solar cell through designing of a novel type of solar cell based on graphene/CdTe Schottky heterostructure. By coating a layer of ultrathin CdSe quantum dots onto graphene/CdTe heterostructure, the performance of the graphene/CdTe solar cell is improved by about 50%. Photo-induced doping is mainly accounted for this enhancement, as evidenced by resistance, photoluminescence and quantum efficiency measurements. This work demonstrates a general and feasible way of designing novel type of solar cells based on two dimensional materials/semiconductor heterostructures.

  14. Tunable emission and conductivity enhancement by tellurium doping in CdS nanowires for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Muhammad Arshad; Nabi, Ghulam; Majid, Abdul; Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Alharbi, Thamer; Zhang, Yongyou; Zou, Bingsuo

    2017-02-01

    Improvement of the optical and electrical characteristics is essential to get advanced performance from one dimensional (1D) material. Here, we report the first synthesis of a single crystalline Te-doped CdS nanowires (NWs) by a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) method. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed that Te concentration plays an important role in tuning emission color from orange to infrared (IR). Decrease in bandgap and PL intensity with increase in Te concentration was observed as compared to undoped CdS NWs. Red and IR emissions were found at 736.5 and 881 nm for doping concentration >6.06%. To our best knowledge, IR emission band has been observed for the first time in CdS NWs. Red-shift of LO phonon mode and its overtone in Raman spectra, and lifetime of red and IR emissions are longer than bandgap of host indicating the doping effect of CdS NWs. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the Te-doped CdS NWs further confirms the presence of Te in the CdS NWs. Output characteristics confirm enhanced output current Ids with the increase in doping concentration. A possible growth mechanism was proposed. Doping technique offers to develop high-quality, a very stable, effective, and easily-applicable way to enhance the performance of one dimensional optoelectronic devices and solar cell applications.

  15. Optical properties of an indium doped CdSe nanocrystal: A density functional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salini, K.; Mathew, Vincent, E-mail: vincent@cukerala.ac.in [Department of Physics, Central University of Kerala, Riverside Transit Campus, Kasaragod, Kerala (India); Mathew, Thomas [Department of Physics, Central University of Kerala, Riverside Transit Campus, Kasaragod, Kerala (India); Department of Physics, St Pius X College Rajapuram, Kasaragod, Kerala (India)

    2016-05-06

    We have studied the electronic and optical properties of a CdSe nanocrystal doped with n-type impurity atom. First principle calculations of the CdSe nanocrystal based on the density functional theory (DFT), as implemented in the Vienna Ab Initio Simulation Package (VASP) was used in the calculations. We have introduced a single Indium impurity atom into CdSe nanocrystal with 1.3 nm diameter. Nanocrystal surface dangling bonds are passivated with hydrogen atom. The band-structure, density of states and absorption spectra of the doped and undopted nanocrystals were discussed. Inclusion of the n-type impurity atom introduces an additional electron in conduction band, and significantly alters the electronic and optical properties of undoped CdSe nanocrystal. Indium doped CdSe nannocrystal have potential applications in optoelectronic devices.

  16. Physical properties of Bi doped CdTe thin films grown by the CSVT method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Galan, O.; Sastre-Hernandez, J.; Cruz-Gandarilla, F.; Aguilar-Hernandez, J.; Contreras-Puente, G.; Tufino-Velazquez, M. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Marin, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 11500 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Saucedo, E.; Ruiz, C.M.; Bermudez, V. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-09-22

    A study of the physical properties of CdTe thin films doped with Bi is presented. CdTe:Bi thin films were deposited by the close space vapor transport (CSVT) technique using powdered CdTe:Bi crystals grown by the vertical Bridgman method. CdTe:Bi crystals were obtained with nominal Bi doping concentrations varying in the 1x10{sup 17}-8x10{sup 18}cm{sup -3} range. The physical properties of CdTe:Bi thin films were studied performing photoluminescence, X-ray, SEM, photoacoustic spectroscopy and resistivity measurements. We observed a decrease of the resistivity values of CdTe:Bi films with the Bi content as low as 6x10{sup 5}{omega}-cm for Bi concentrations of 8x10{sup 18}cm{sup -3}. These are meaningful results for CdTe-based solar cells. (author)

  17. Deposition of Cl-doped CdTe polycrystalline films by close-spaced sublimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Tamotsu; Takahashi, Kohei; Akiba, Sho; Yasuda, Nao [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kisarazu College, 2-11-1 Kiyomidai-higashi, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0041 (Japan); Tokuda, Satoshi; Kishihara, Hiroyuki; Ichioka, Akina; Doki, Takahiro; Sato, Toshiyuki [Technology Research Laboratory, Shimadzu Corporation, 3-9-4 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    The effects of Cl-doping on the CdTe layers by the close-spaced sublimation (CSS) deposition were investigated. Cl-doped CdTe polycrystalline films were deposited on graphite substrates by CSS method using a mixture of CdTe and CdCl{sub 2} powder as a source. In X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the obtained films with various deposition times, many diffraction peaks other than CdTe peaks were observed in the deposition times lower than 10 min. These diffraction peaks were probably due to the formation of chlorides of Cd, Te and C, such as CdCl{sub 2}, TeCl{sub 4}, Te{sub 3}Cl{sub 2} and C{sub 10}Cl{sub 8}. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses revealed that a large amount of chlorine was contained in the films with the deposition times lower than 10 min, and that Cl concentration decreased with increasing the deposition time above 3 min. These results indicate that the films containing the chlorides of Cd, Te and C in addition to CdTe are formed in the initial stage of the CSS deposition using a mixture of CdTe and CdCl{sub 2} powder as a source. Cross-sectional images revealed that the grain size was decreased by the effect of Cl-doping. Furthermore, current-voltage (I -V) characteristics of the CdTe/graphite structures were measured, and it was found that the resistivity of the Cl-doped CdTe layer was much higher than that of the undoped CdTe layer. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. The investigation of spray pyrolysis grown CdS thin films doped with flourine atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yılmaz, Salih, E-mail: slh_yilmaz@yahoo.com.tr

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Undoped and F-doped CdS thin films were produced. • XRD data showed deterioration with the increase of F-doping. • SEM images indicated a grain growth after F-doping. • RTPL data exhibited an enhancement in the spectrum for F-doped CdS samples. • The best electrical and optical properties were obtained for 2 at.% F-doped CdS. - Abstract: Undoped and F-doped CdS thin films were succesfully grown on the glass substrates by the spray prolysis method. X-ray diffraction results showed that all the samples had hexagonal wurtzite structure with the (1 0 1) preferred orientation. It was found from scanning electron microscopy that an increase in the grain size was observed after F-doping. The band gap value of CdS thin films increased from 2.38 eV to 2.42 eV with the increase of F concentration from 0 to 6 at.%. The intensity of room temperature photoluminescence spectrum of undoped CdS thin films enhanced with the increment of F-doping amount that is related to the increase of point defects formed by the flourine atoms. Electrical measurements showed that the carrier concentration increased from 1.93 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} to 7.62 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} when CdS thin films were doped with 2 at.% F. However, further increase in F amount up to 6 at.% caused a decrease in the carrier concentration. On the other hand, resistivity value first decreased from 1.26 × 10{sup 5} Ω cm to 8.54 × 10{sup 4} Ω cm with the increase of F-doping up to 2 at.% and then increased to 1.65 × 10{sup 5} Ω cm for 6 at.% F-doping. It can be concluded that 2 at.% F-doped CdS thin films exhibited the best electrical and optical properties, which is suitable for the application of thin film solar cells.

  19. Self-Assembled Monolayers of CdSe Nanocrystals on Doped GaAs Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marx, E.; Ginger, D.S.; Walzer, Karsten

    2002-01-01

    This letter reports the self-assembly and analysis of CdSe nanocrystal monolayers on both p- and a-doped GaAs substrates. The self-assembly was performed using a 1,6-hexanedithiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) to link CdSe nanocrystals to GaAs substrates. Attenuated total reflection Fourier tran...

  20. Characteristic analysis on the physical properties of nanostructured Mg-doped CdO thin films-Doping concentration effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Usharani; A.R. Balu; V.S. Nagarethinam; M. Suganya

    2015-01-01

    Highly conductive and transparent magnesium-doped cadmium oxide (CdO:Mg) thin films have been deposited on suitably cleaned glass substrates maintained at 375 1C by spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer. The magnesium content in the films is varied from 0 to 8 at%in steps of 2 at%. The effect of Mg doping on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the CdO thin films has been studied. All the films exhibited cubic structure with a preferential orientation along the (1 1 1) plane irrespective of the Mg doping level. SEM analysis showed that the film morphology modifies from spherical shaped grains to closely packed cauliflower shaped nanostructures with Mg doping. Except for the film coated with 2 at%Mg dopant, all the other doped films exhibited a blue shift in the optical band gap. Electrical studies revealed that the CdO:Mg film coated with 8 at%Mg dopant had a minimum resistivity of 0.0853 ? 101Ω-cm.

  1. Characteristic analysis on the physical properties of nanostructured Mg-doped CdO thin films—Doping concentration effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Usharani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly conductive and transparent magnesium-doped cadmium oxide (CdO:Mg thin films have been deposited on suitably cleaned glass substrates maintained at 375 °C by spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer. The magnesium content in the films is varied from 0 to 8 at% in steps of 2 at%. The effect of Mg doping on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the CdO thin films has been studied. All the films exhibited cubic structure with a preferential orientation along the (1 1 1 plane irrespective of the Mg doping level. SEM analysis showed that the film morphology modifies from spherical shaped grains to closely packed cauliflower shaped nanostructures with Mg doping. Except for the film coated with 2 at% Mg dopant, all the other doped films exhibited a blue shift in the optical band gap. Electrical studies revealed that the CdO:Mg film coated with 8 at% Mg dopant had a minimum resistivity of 0.0853×101 Ω-cm.

  2. Cluster-seeded synthesis of doped CdSe:Cu4 quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Ali M; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Wink, Donald J; Page, Leah E; Snee, Preston T

    2013-04-23

    We report here a method for synthesizing CdSe quantum dots (QDs) containing copper such that each QD is doped with four copper ions. The synthesis is a derivative of the cluster-seed method, whereby organometallic clusters act as nucleation centers for quantum dots. The method is tolerant of the chemical identity of the seed; as such, we have doped four copper ions into CdSe QDs using [Na(H2O)3]2[Cu4(SPh)6] as a cluster seed. The controlled doping allows us to monitor the photophysical properties of guest ions with X-ray spectroscopy, specifically XANES and EXAFS at the copper K-edge. These data reveal that copper can capture both electrons and holes from photoexcited CdSe QDs. When the dopant is oxidized, photoluminescence is quenched and the copper ions translocate within the CdSe matrix, which slows the return to an emissive state.

  3. PENINGKATAN KUALITAS FILM TIPIS CdTe SEBAGAI ABSORBER SEL SURYA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN DOPING TEMBAGA (Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marwoto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Film tipis CdTe dengan doping tembaga (Cu berkonsenterasi 2% telah berhasil ditumbuhkan di atas substrat Indium Tin Oxide (ITO dengan metode dc magnetron sputtering. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh doping Cu(2% terhadap struktur morfologi, struktur kristal, fotoluminisensi dan resistivitas listrik film CdTe. Citra morfologi Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM dan hasil analisis struktur dengan X-Ray Diffraction (XRD menunjukkan bahwa film CdTe:Cu(2% mempunyai citra permukaan dan struktur kristal yang lebih sempurna dibandingkan film CdTe tanpa doping. Hasil analisis spektrometer fotoluminisensi menunjukkan bahwa film CdTe dan CdTe(2% mempunyai puncak fotoluminisensi pada tiga panjang gelombang yang identik yaitu 685 nm (1,81 eV, 725 nm (1,71 eV dan 740 nm (1,67 eV. Film CdTe dengan doping Cu(2% memiliki intensitas puncak fotoluminisensi yang lebih tajam pada pita energi 1,81 eV dibandingkan dengan film CdTe tanpa doping. Pengukuran arus dan tegangan (I-V menunjukkan bahwa pemberian doping Cu(2% dapat menurunkan resistivitas film dari 8,40x109 Ωcm menjadi 6,92x105 Ωcm. Sebagai absorber sel surya, kualitas film tipis CdTe telah berhasil ditingkatkan dengan pemberian doping Cu(2%.CdTe:Cu(2% thin film has been successfully grown on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO substrates by using dc magnetron sputtering. This study was carried out in order to investigate the effect of Cu(2% doping on the morphologycal structure, crystal structure, photoluminesence, and resistivity of CdTe thin film. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM  images and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD results showed that CdTe:Cu(2% thin film has morphologycal and crystal structures more perfect than undoped CdTe film. Photoluminesence spectroscopy results showed that CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2% thin films have luminesence peak at three identical wevelength regions i.e. 685 nm (1.81 eV, 725 nm (1.71 eV and 740 nm (1.67 eV however CdTe:Cu(2% film shows sharper photoluminescence peak at band

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Sn-doped CdZnS nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Shrivastava; S C Shrivastava

    2015-09-01

    Tin (Sn)-doped cadmium zinc sulphide nanoparticles (CdZnS : Sn) were synthesized by the chemical bath deposition method with two different concentrations of Sn (2 and 4 mol%). X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern reveals the formation of CdZnS nanoparticles with cubic and hexagonal structure. It was observed that the presence of Sn does not alter the structure of CdZnS. Average crystallite size was measured from XRD data by using Scherrer’s formula. From the study of absorption spectra, band-to-band absorption was obtained at 460 and 490 nm, respectively, for the Sn-doped (2 and 4 mol%) CdZnS nanoparticles. Energy bandgap for undoped and Sn-doped CdZnS varies from 3.5 to 2.9 eV with error ± 0.05 eV. The presence of Sn was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The effect of dopant concentration on the photoluminescence (PL) intensity has also been studied. The PL emission peak has been observed at 540, 550 and 560 nm for the Sn-doped (CdZnS, CdZnS 2 mol% and CdZnS 4 mol%), respectively, nanoparticles. XRD and PL analyses demonstrate that the Sn2+ ions uniformly substitute Cd2+ sites or interstitial sites in CdZnS lattice, which influence the optical properties. Increase in the concentration of Sn shifts the UV–vis absorption spectra and PL emission spectra towards higher wavelength side. Particle size and the crystallinity of CdZnS : Sn nanoparticles were confirmed through atomic force microscopy.

  5. Cu-doped ZnO nanoporous film for improved performance of CdS/CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Myeong-Soo; Son, Min-Kyu; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Park, Songyi; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Kim, Hee-Je, E-mail: heeje@pusan.ac.kr

    2014-11-03

    Copper (Cu) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) powders were synthesized by co-precipitation method with different at% (0 and 0.5 at%) of Cu dopant. Cu-doped ZnO nanoporous (NP) films were fabricated to enhance the performance of the ZnO based cadmium sulfide (CdS) and cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The existence of Cu ions in the Cu-doped ZnO NP film was detected by X-ray fluorescence. The surface morphology, microstructure and crystal structure of Cu-doped ZnO NP films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The optical property of CdS/CdSe co-sensitized Cu-doped ZnO NP film was studied by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance and electrical property of Cu-doped ZnO CdS/CdSe QDSSCs were studied by current–voltage characteristic curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under air mass 1.5 condition. As a result, short circuit current density and fill factor increased from 9.074 mA/cm{sup 2} and 0.403 to 9.865 mA/cm{sup 2} and 0.427 respectively, based on the enhanced absorbance and electron transport by Cu-doping. This led to the increasing light conversion efficiency from 2.27% to 2.61%. - Highlights: • Cu-doped ZnO powders were synthesized by co-precipitation method. • Cu-doped ZnO nanoporous films with high crystallinity were uniformly deposited. • Absorbance of Cu-doped ZnO nanoporous film was enhanced. • Electron conductivity of Cu-doped ZnO nanoporous film was enhanced. • Performance of Cu-doped ZnO CdS/CdSe QDSSC was improved.

  6. On the doping problem of CdTe films: The bismuth case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Galan, O. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Edif. 9, UPALM, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Brown, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, 43606 Toledo, OH (United States); Ruiz, C.M. [Depto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vidal-Borbolla, M.A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Av. Karakorum 1470, Lomas 4a. Secc., 78210 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico); Ramirez-Bon, R. [CINVESTAV-IPN, U. Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, 76230 Santiago de Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Sanchez-Meza, E. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Edif. 9, UPALM, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Tufino-Velazquez, M. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Edif. 9, UPALM, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)], E-mail: mtufinovel@yahoo.com.mx; Calixto, M. Estela [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Edif. 9, UPALM, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Compaan, A.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, 43606 Toledo, OH (United States); Contreras-Puente, G. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Edif. 9, UPALM, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-08-30

    The controlled increase of hole concentration is an important issue and still an unsolved problem for polycrystalline CdTe-based solar cells. The typical hole concentration of as-grown CdTe thin-films goes up to 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}, depending on the specific growth technique. The highest electron concentration obtained for CdS, the suitable window partner material of CdTe, is around 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. Thus, the PV-performance of a CdS/CdTe device can be optimized if the hole concentration in CdTe is increased. We have faced up this problem by studying the electrical properties of two types of CdTe films: CdTe films grown by Close Space Vapor Transport using a CdTe:Bi powder as the starting material and CdTe sputtered films doped by implantation with different Bi-doses. Temperature-dependent resistivity and Hall effect measurements and a discussion on the efficiency of both doping processes are presented.

  7. Effects of Sn-doping on morphology and optical properties of CdTe polycrystalline films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jin; Yang Linyu; Jian Jikang; Zou Hua; Sun Yanfei

    2009-01-01

    Sn-doped CdTe polycrystalline films were successfully deposited on ITO glass substrates by close space sublimation. The effects of Sn-doping on the microstructure, surface morphology, and optical properties of polycrystalline films were studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, respectively. The results show that the lower molar ratio of Sn and CdTe conduces to a strongly preferential orientation of (111) in films and a larger grain size, which indicates that the crystallinity of films can be improved by appropriate Sn-doping. As the molar ratio of Sn and CdTe increases, the preferential orientation of (111) in films becomes weaker, the grain size becomes smaller, and the crystal boundary becomes indistinct, which indicates that the crystallization growth of films is incomplete. However, as the Sn content increases, optical absorption becomes stronger in the visible region. In summary, a strongly preferential orientation of (111) in films and a larger grain size can be obtained by appropriate Sn-doping (molar ratio of Sn : CdTe = 0.06 : 1), while the film retains a relatively high optical absorption in the visible region. However, Sn-doping has no obvious influence on the energy gap of CdTe films.

  8. Cowrie-shell architectures: Low temperature growth of Ni doped CdS film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thool, Gautam Sheel; Sraveen, K. [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Uppal Road, Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Singh, Ajaya Kumar [Department of Chemistry, Govt. VYT PG. Autonomous College, Durg 491001, Chhattisgarh (India); Pal, Ujjwal [Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, M. G. Avenue, Durgapur 713209 (India); Singh, Surya Prakash, E-mail: spsingh@iict.res.in [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Uppal Road, Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500007 (India)

    2015-11-15

    In this work, we report the synthesis of Ni doped CdS cowrie-shell architectures and submicron balls like structures via low temperature chemical bath deposition method. The as-synthesized materials were systematically characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectra. XRD results revealed the existence of cubic phase of CdS based material. SEM pictures depicted the growth of well define morphologies i.e. cowries-shell and submicron balls. Deposition time and dopant played significant role in the growth of CdS based different architectures. The EDAX spectra confirmed the presence of Ni into the CdS lattice. Surface structure of synthesized material was derived by FTIR analysis. - Highlights: • Ni doped CdS cowrie-shell like architectures were synthesized using low temperature aqueous solution method. • We demonstrated the deposition time and dopant played significant role in the growth of CdS based different architectures. • The formation of Ni doped CdS submicron balls has taken place by simple over growth on cowrie-shell particles. • FTIR spectra showed that the surface Cd{sup 2+} ions probably coordinated to triethanol amine molecules.

  9. Doping levels, trap density of states and the performance of co-doped CdTe(As,Cl) photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, Y.Y.; Durose, K.; Major, J.D.; Al Turkestani, M.K. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Barrioz, V.; Irvine, S.J.C.; Jones, E.W. [Bangor University, School of Chemistry, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Doping, compensation and photovoltaic performance have been investigated in all-metal-organic vapour-phase deposition (MOCVD) grown CdTe/CdS solar cells that were co-doped with arsenic and chlorine. Although arsenic chemical concentration is in the range of 10{sup 17}-1.5 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, the maximum net acceptor concentration is only in the order of 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}, as determined by capacitance-voltage characteristics. Admittance spectroscopy revealed shallow traps at 0.055 eV which were attributed to As{sub Te}; its compensation by Cd{sub i} is discussed. Formation of the alloy CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} is linked to deep levels at E{sub V}+{proportional_to}0.55 eV and E{sub V}+{proportional_to}0.65 eV. Limits to the diffusion of photo-generated carriers were considered to be important in determining photovoltaic performance rather than carrier lifetime. Prospects for optimizing the performance of such co-doped MOCVD-grown devices are discussed. (author)

  10. Excimer laser doping technique for application in an integrated CdTe imaging device

    CERN Document Server

    Mochizuki, D; Aoki, T; Tomita, Y; Nihashi, T; Hatanaka, Y

    1999-01-01

    CdTe is an attractive semiconductor material for applications in solid-state high-energy X-ray and gamma-ray imaging systems because of its high absorption coefficient, large band gap, good mobility lifetime product of holes and stability at normal atmospheric conditions. We propose a new concept for fabricating an integrated CdTe with monolithic circuit configuration for two-dimensional imaging systems suitable for medical, research or industrial applications and operation at room temperature. A new doping technique has been recently developed that employs excimer laser radiation to diffuse impurity atoms into the semiconductor. Accordingly, heavily doped n- and p-type layers with resistivities less than 1 OMEGA cm can be formed on the high resistive CdTe crystals. We have further extended this technique for doping with spatial pattern. We will present the laser doping technique and various results thus obtained. Spatially patterned doping is demonstrated and we propose the use of these doping techniques for...

  11. Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of CdSe sensitized Al-doped ZnO photoanode compared with CdSe–ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jinwen; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin, E-mail: yanghb@jlu.edu.cn; Cheng, Shuli; Zhang, Lina; Zhou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yanyan; Sun, Meiling; Yang, Lihua; Zhao, Hui; Chi, Kailin

    2013-10-31

    CdSe nanoparticles sensitized Al-doped ZnO nanorod array films (CdSe–AZO) were prepared via a simple two-step method. The morphological, structural, optical and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the films have been examined. The results confirm that Al element has been implanted into the ZnO lattice structure and distributed in the ZnO nanorod homogenously. CdSe nanoparticles were deposited on Al-doped ZnO nanorod, and the heterojunction interfacial structure of CdSe/AZO was verified by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The photoresponse of Al-doped ZnO nanorod array films in the visible region has been significantly improved by sensitizing them with CdSe nanoparticles. Under AM 1.5G illumination, the CdSe–AZO electrode have an optimum short-circuit photocurrent density of 4.28 mA cm{sup −2}, nearly 13 times of bare ZnO and 1.7 times of CdSe–ZnO. We attribute the improvement to the fact that Al doping augments more active centers and then increases the amount of CdSe nanoparticles grown on AZO, which leads to significantly enhanced optical absorption and more efficient charge transfer channel. This study provides an insight of combination inorganic semiconductor sensitization with elemental doping for improving PEC properties. - Highlights: • CdSe sensitized Al-doped ZnO nanorod array film (AZO) was prepared. • Al doping induces increased heterostructure area of CdSe/ZnO. • CdSe extends the photoresponse of AZO electrode into the visible light region. • CdSe–AZO shows remarkable improved photoelectrochemical properties than CdSe–ZnO.

  12. Study of photoconductivity in Ni doped CdS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patidar, Manju Mishra, E-mail: manjumishra.iuc@gmail.com; Gangrade, Mohan; Nath, R.; Ganesan, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandawa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Ajay, Akhil [Physics Department, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Wala, Arwa Dewas [Holkar Science College, Indore - 452001 (India); N, Kiran [Physics Department, University of Mysore, Mysore-570005 (India); Panda, Richa [AITR, Bhopal-462044 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Ni-doped cadmium sulphide [Cd{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}S, (x=0, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.20)] thin films were investigated for photoconductive properties. The films were prepared by spray Pyrolysis technique (SPT). AFM and two probe resistivity measurements were carried out to analyze the morphological and electrical properties of the films. AFM shows the note worthy changes in the morphology where the nanorod structures in CdS is changed into nano particles with the Ni doping. The presence of persistence photo current is demonstrated and extensive photoconductivity analysis has been studied on these films.

  13. The role of stress in CdTe quantum dot doped glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Almeida, D. B.; Pelegati, V. B.; Carvalho, H. F.; Moreira, S. G. C.; Barbosa, L. C.; Cesar, C. L.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we unequivocally demonstrate the influence of matrix-related stresses on quantum dots by measuring, side by side, a CdTe quantum dot doped glass and a colloidal sample with similar sizes. We measured the fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime for both samples as a function of the temperature. We show that the expansion coefficient mismatch between CdTe quantum dots and the glass host causes stresses and drastically changes its behavior compared to its colloidal counterpart, even leading to phase transitions. This finding indicates that most experimental data on glass-doped quantum dots used to validate confinement models should be revised, taking stress into account.

  14. Carbon doping of III-V compound semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, Amy Jo [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Focus of the study is C acceptor doping of GaAs, since C diffusion coefficient is at least one order of magnitude lower than that of other common p-type dopants in GaAs. C ion implantation results in a concentration of free holes in the valence band < 10% of that of the implanted C atoms for doses > 1014/cm2. Rutherford backscattering, electrical measurements, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were amonth the techniques used. Ga co-implantation increased the C activation in two steps: first, the additional radiation damage creates vacant As sites that the implanted C can occupy, and second, it maintains the stoichiometry of the implanted layer, reducing the number of compensating native defects. In InP, the behavior of C was different from that in GaAs. C acts as n-type dopant in the In site; however, its incorporation by implantation was difficult to control; experiments using P co-implants were inconsistent. The lattice position of inactive C in GaAs in implanted and epitaxial layers is discussed; evidence for formation of C precipitates in GaAs and InP was found. Correlation of the results with literature on C doping in III-V semiconductors led to a phenomenological description of C in III-V compounds (particularly GaAs): The behavior of C is controlled by the chemical nature of C and the instrinsic Fermi level stabilization energy of the material.

  15. Correlated transport and optical phenomena in Ga-doped CdO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakhel, A.A. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain)

    2008-06-15

    Series of samples of lightly Ga-doped CdO thin films (3%, 6%, and 9%) have been prepared by evaporation method on glass substrate. The prepared films were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy, and dc-electrical measurements. The investigation shows that Ga doping widens the energy gap of CdO. The optical properties were easily explained by using Tauc et al. band-to-band transitions and classical Drude theory. The electrical behaviour of the samples shows that they are degenerate semiconductors. The 6% Ga-doped CdO sample shows increase its mobility by 3.2 times, increase its conductivity by 1.5 times, increase its intrinsic bandgap, and a slight increase its transmittance relative to undoped CdO film. Explanation was given concerning these variations. From transparent conducting oxide (TCO) point of view, Ga is not sufficiently effective for CdO doping comparing to other dopants like In, Sn, Sc, and Y. (author)

  16. Inverted organic solar cells based on Cd-doped TiO2 as an electron extraction layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitha, A.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Thambidurai, M.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan; Madhan Kumar, A.; Gasem, Zuhair M.

    2014-10-01

    Nanocrystalline Cd-doped TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that TiO2 and Cd-doped TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films are of anatase phase. The average grain size of TiO2 and Cd-doped TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films was found to lie in the range of 15-18 nm. Solar cells have been fabricated with a device structure of ITO/Cd-doped TiO2/P3HT:PC71BM/MoO3/Al configuration. The power conversion efficiency of the inverted organic solar cell with Cd-doped TiO2 is 3.06% and is higher than that of TiO2 based organic solar cell (2.64%).

  17. Structural, optical and morphological studies of undoped and Zn-doped CdSe QDs via aqueous route synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N THIRUGNANAM; D GOVINDARAJAN

    2016-12-01

    Undoped and Zn-doped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were successfully synthesized by the chemical precipitation method. The structural, optical and morphological properties of the synthesized undoped and Zn-dopedCdSe QDs were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission transmissionelectron microscopy (FE-TEM) and FTIR. The synthesized undoped and Zn-doped CdSe QDs were in cubic crystalline phase, which was confirmed by the XRD technique. From the UV–visible absorption spectral analysis, theabsorption wavelengths of both undoped and Zn-doped CdSe QDs show blue-shift with respect to their bulk counterpart as a result of quantum confinement effect. The highest luminescence intensity was observed for CdSe QDs doped with 4% Zn by PL studies. TEM analysis shows that the prepared QDs are spherical in shape.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and anti-microbial activity of pure, Cu2+ and Cd2+ doped organic NLO l-arginine trifluoroacetate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanyaa, T.; Haris, M.; Jayaramakrishnan, V.; Amgalan, M.; Mathivanan, V.

    2013-10-01

    Optically transparent Cu2+ and Cd2+ doped l-arginine trifluoroacetate (LATF) single crystals were grown from its aqueous solution using the slow solvent evaporation technique. The grown crystals were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction to confirm the monoclinic crystal structure. The percentage of transmittance measured using the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectrophotometer was found to be more than 80% for doped crystals. The functional group analysis of the grown crystals has been made by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis was performed for the grown crystals. An atomic absorption study was carried out to determine the presence of Cu2+ and Cd2+. The hardness of the grown crystals was assessed and the results show a significant variation in the hardness value between the pure and doped LATF crystals. The second harmonic generation measurements show that Cu2+ doped LATF is 2.8 times greater and Cd2+ doped is 2.6 times greater than KDP. The anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities of the title compound were performed using the disc diffusion method against standard bacteria Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas oryzae and against the fungus Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus.

  19. Luminescence and physical properties of copper doped CdO derived nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhaliliba, M., E-mail: bmost_31@yahoo.fr [Physics Department, Sciences Faculty, Oran University of Sciences and Technology USTOMB, BP1505 Oran (Algeria); Benouis, C.E. [Physics Department, Sciences Faculty, Oran University of Sciences and Technology USTOMB, BP1505 Oran (Algeria); Tiburcio-Silver, A. [ITT-DIEE, Apdo, Postal 20, Metepec 3, 52176, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Yakuphanoglu, F. [Firat University, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, 23119, Elazig (Turkey); Avila-Garcia, A.; Tavira, A. [Cinvestav-IPN, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica-SEES, Apdo. postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Trujillo, R.R. [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores-BUAP 14 Sur y Av. San Claudio, C.U. Puebla, Pue. Mexico (Mexico); Mouffak, Z. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering California State University, Fresno, CA (United States)

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, we studied the photoluminescence (PL), the morphological, electrical and optical properties of pure and copper-doped cadmium oxide. CdO films were grown by a facile sol-gel spin coating process at 1200 rpm, and doped with copper at 2 and 3%. A (1 1 1)-oriented cubic structure with a lattice parameter of a=4.69 A was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Copper was shown to improve the optical transmittance in the short wavelength range of the visible spectrum. The optical band gap of CdO ranged between 2.49 and 2.62 eV as a result of Cu content. At room temperature, resistance fell drastically with Cu doping levels. AFM analysis of samples exhibited nano-mounts and nanowires. Finally, PL results showed a strong blue-violet emission peak at 2.80 eV. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pure and copper doped CdO have been synthesized by a facile sol-gel route at fixed speed 1200 rpm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural properties of pure and doped CdO were studied in details. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transmittance in UV-vis and IR spectra were investigated. Optical band gaps were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atomic force microscope surface morphology has been analyzed and grain sizes and height were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Room temperature resistance was measured. Pure and copper doped CdO photoluminescence has been achieved at ambient. Electrical measurement was complemented by Hall effect measurement in the aim to re-evaluate the resistivity and the carrier mobility.

  20. Linear and nonlinear optical discussions of nanostructured Zn-doped CdO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, I. S.; Salem, G. F.; Iqbal, Javed; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2017-04-01

    Here, we report the doping effect of zinc (Zn) on the physical properties of cadmium oxide (CdO) at various concentrations (1, 2, 3 and 4 wt% of Zn). The studied samples were prepared using sol-gel in addition with sol gel spin coating technique. The structural, optical and dispersive properties were compared with the already reported work in the literature. The structural properties were observed by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images show that the grain size decreases with increasing the concentration of Zn. The highest value of average cluster size (78. 71 nm) was found at 1% and the lowest (60.23 nm) when the doping concentration of Zn was 4%. Similar trend was observed in the roughness of the doped thin film when the Zn concentration was increased. The optical properties were examined using Shimadzu UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and we found that the optical band gap of the un-doped CdO and the Zn-doped CdO thin films increases from 2.54 to 2.62 eV as the Zn concentration is increased from 1% to 4%. Also, the optical dispersion parameters (Eo, Ed, n2∞, λ0 and So) were calculated and discussed. We observed that the refractive index dispersion of undoped CdO and the Zn-doped CdO thin films follow the single oscillator model. Finally, spectroscopic method has been exploited to analyze the 3rd order non-linear optical susceptibility χ (3) and nonlinear refractive index n (2).

  1. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Cd-doped ZnO thin films through defect engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debbichi, M., E-mail: mourad_fsm@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de la matière condensée et nanosciences, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Souissi, M. [College of Arts and Science Nayriya, Dammam University, 31441 Dammam (Saudi Arabia); Fouzri, A. [Laboratoire Physico-Chimie des Matériaux, Unité de Service Commun de Recherche ‘‘High Resolution X-ray Diffractometer’’, Département de Physique, Université de Monastir, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Schmerber, G. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS) UMR 7504 CNRS-Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Said, M. [Laboratoire de la matière condensée et nanosciences, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Alouani, M. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS) UMR 7504 CNRS-Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • ZnO:Cd thin film grown on c-sapphire substrate by MOCVD method. • RTFM in ZnO:Cd thin film is detected by SQUID magnetometer measurement. • DFT theory is conducted to elucidate the mechanism of RTFM in Cd-doped ZnO. - Abstract: Room-temperature ferromagnetism is detected in undoped and cadmium-doped ZnO (ZnO:Cd) thin film grown on c-plane sapphire substrate by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition method. To elucidate the origin of ferromagnetism, a theoretical study based on density functional theory is conducted, focusing on the role of the neutral cation vacancy on the appearance of magnetism in Cd-doped ZnO thin film. The calculations revealed that Cd substitution at Zn sites contributes to the long-ranged ferromagnetism in ZnO by lowering the formation energy of Zn vacancies and thereby stabilizing Zn vacancies from which the magnetic moments originate.

  2. Microstructural, optical and photocatalytic properties of CdS doped TiO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, S. H.; Shaaban, E. R.

    2011-11-01

    CdS doped TiO2 thin films (with CdS content=0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 at%) were grown on glass substrates. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the films are polycrystalline of monoclinic TiO2 structure. The microstructure parameters of the films such as crystallite size (Dν) and microstrain (e) are calculated. Both the crystallites size and the microstrain are decreased with increasing CdS content. The optical constants have been determined in terms of Murmann's exact equations. The refractive index and extinction coefficient are increased with increasing CdS content. The optical band gap is calculated in the strong absorption region. The possible optical transition in these films is found to be an allowed direct transition. The values of Egopt are found to decrease as the CdS content increased. The films with 3 at% CdS content have better decomposition efficiency than undoped TiO2. The films with 6 at% and 9 at% CdS content have decomposition efficiency comparable to that of undoped TiO2, although they have lower band gap. The CdS doped TiO2 could have a better impact on the decomposing of organic wastes.

  3. Structural and luminescent properties of Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindranadh K.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During recent decades, magnetic and semiconductor nanoparticles have attracted significant attention of scientists in various fields of engineering, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, optical, EPR and PL techniques to collect the information about the crystal structure, coordination/local site symmetry of doped Fe3+ ions in the host lattice and the luminescent properties of prepared sample. Powder XRD data revealed that the crystal structure belongs to a cubic system and its lattice cell parameters were evaluated. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 8 nm. The morphology of prepared samples was analyzed by using SEM and TEM investigations. Functional groups of the prepared sample were observed in FT-IR spectra. Optical absorption and EPR studies have shown that on doping, Fe3+ ions enter the host lattice in octahedral site symmetry. PL studies of Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles revealed UV and blue emission bands. CIE chromaticity coordinates were also calculated from the emission spectrum of Fe3+ doped PVA capped CdTe nanoparticles.

  4. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of cobalt-doped CdSe nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaspal Singh; N K Verma

    2014-05-01

    Pure and Co-doped CdSe nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal technique. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV–Visible), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), at room temperature. From XRD analysis, pure and cobalt-doped CdSe nanoparticles have been found to be polycrystalline in nature and possess zinc blende phase having cubic structure. In addition to this, some peaks related to secondary phase or impurities such as cobalt diselenide (CoSe2) have also been observed. The calculated average crystallite size of the nanoparticles lies in the range, 3–21 nm, which is consistent with the results obtained from TEM analysis. The decrease in average crystallite size and blue shift in the band gap has been observed with Co-doping into the host CdSe nanoparticles. The magnetic analysis shows the ferromagnetic behaviour up to 10% of Co-doping concentration. The increase of Co content beyond 10% doping concentration leads to antiferromagnetic interactions between the Co ions, which suppress the ferromagnetism.

  5. Room temperature synthesis and spectral characterization of Cu2+-doped CdO powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Reddy, Ch.; Shim, J.; Byon, C.; Krishna Rao, L. V.; Satish, D. V.; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we have synthesized undoped and Cu2+-doped CdO nanopowders by a mild solution method at room temperature. Powder X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared measurements are used to characterize prepared powders. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns reflect the cubic crystal structure for undoped and Cu2+-doped CdO powders. Surface morphology images and compositional features are studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray techniques, respectively. The optical absorption spectra exhibit a single absorption band for Cu2+-doped sample, which is the characteristic absorption band of distorted octahedral site symmetry. By correlating the electron paramagnetic resonance and optical results for Cu2+-doped CdO nanopowder, bonding parameters are evaluated. These values indicate the partial covalency of in-plane σ ( α 2) and in-plane π bonding ( β12 ) between copper ions and their ligands. The FT-IR spectra indicate the fundamental vibrations of Cd-O.

  6. Arsenic complexes optical signatures in As-doped HgCdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemain, F.; Robin, I. C.; Brochen, S.; Ballet, P.; Gravrand, O.; Feuillet, G. [CEA-LETI Minatec Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2013-04-08

    In this paper, the optical signatures of arsenic complexes in As-doped HgCdTe samples grown by molecular beam epitaxy are clearly identified using comparison between photoluminescence spectra, Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure, and Hall measurements. The ionization energies of the different complexes are measured both by photoluminescence and Hall measurements.

  7. Recent progress in the doping of MBE HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivananthan, Sivalingam; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.; Faurie, Jean-Pierre

    1995-09-01

    We present a review of the recent progress in the doping of HgCdTe grown by molecular beam epitaxy. A detailed analysis of the unintentional/intrinsic, n-type, and p-type doping is presented. Our results show that CdZnTe substrates should be carefully screened to reduce the out-diffusion of impurities from the substrate. N-type HgCdTe layers exhibit excellent Hall characteristics down to indium levels of 2 X 10(superscript 15) cm(superscript -3). Electron mobilities in the range of (2 - 3) X 10(superscript 5) cm(superscript 2)/vs at 23 K were obtained. Measured lifetime data fits very well with the intrinsic band-to-band recombination. However, below 2 X 10(superscript 15) cm(superscript -3) doping levels, minority carrier lifetime is limited by Schockley-Reed recombination. We have implemented planar doping with arsenic as p-type dopant during MBE growth. Our results clearly indicate that arsenic incorporates as an acceptor dopant during the growth of MBE HgCdTe.

  8. Structural and optical properties of Ba-doped CdO films prepared by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, B.; Gülen, Y.; Bayansal, F.; Çetinkara, H. A.; Güder, H. S.

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructure materials have opened a new discussion in the field of semiconductor device technology because material properties could be changed by changing the crystal morphology and size. In this article, Ba doped CdO films were prepared by SILAR method. The crystal morphology, structure and optical properties of the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, respectively. From the SEM analysis it is seen that Ba-doping concentration affects the shapes of the nanostructures. XRD analysis showed that the films have poly-crystalline structures. The room temperature UV-vis analysis showed that the optical band gap of the CdO films was firstly decreased then increased with the increasing barium doping concentration.

  9. Organic capping-Effect and mechanism in Mn-doped CdS nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Prinsa, E-mail: prinsa.verma@gmail.co [Nanophosphor Application Center, Allahabad University (India); Satish Dhawan Space Center, ISRO (India); Manoj, Gali S. [Satish Dhawan Space Center, ISRO (India); Pandey, Avinash C. [Nanophosphor Application Center, Allahabad University (India)

    2010-03-01

    Driven with an objective of confining the growth of nanoparticles, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) was used as a capping agent over Mn{sup +2}-doped CdS nanoparticles. The mechanism is studied and results are discussed. An improvement in the doping efficiency and improvement in reproducibility of the nanoparticles as compared to the common co-precipitation method is observed which can be endorsed to the introduction of PVP, as coordination of PVP molecular orbitals with metallic orbitals attribute to the surface passivation of the CdS nanoparticles. PVP helps in stabilizing the nanoparticles, increases the doping efficiency and leads to enhancement in optoelectronic properties. A change in band gap is noticed as there is blue shift in wavelength compared to bulk due to confinement of particle size. The obtained nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  10. Graphene/CdTe heterostructure solar cell and its enhancement with photo-induced doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shisheng, E-mail: shishenglin@zju.edu.cn; Chen, Hongsheng [Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Shengjiao; Wang, Peng; Xu, Zhijuan; Zhong, Huikai; Wu, Zhiqian [Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-11-09

    We report a type of solar cell based on graphene/CdTe Schottky heterostructure, which can be improved by surface engineering as graphene is atomic thin. By coating a layer of ultrathin CdSe quantum dots onto graphene/CdTe heterostructure, the power conversion efficiency is increased from 2.08% to 3.10%. Photo-induced doping is mainly accounted for this enhancement, as evidenced by field effect transport, Raman, photoluminescence, and quantum efficiency measurements. This work demonstrates a feasible way of improving the performance of graphene/semiconductor heterostructure solar cells by combining one dimensional with two dimensional materials.

  11. Electrical Properties Analysis of Copper doped CdTe/CdS Deposited Thin Films on ITO Coated Glass Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, Darren; Flaherty, James; Sahiner, M. Alper

    CdTe proves to be a viable source for renewable energy in the form of photovoltaic conversion. While CdTe/CdS naturally provide interesting results adding dopants to the cell can yield higher conversion efficiencies. Copper, famous for its electrical properties, can be used as a dopant in the CdTe layer. In conjunction with its dopant characteristics Copper also improves cell performance by acting as a low resistant and high current back contact. All thin films were synthesized using pulsed laser deposition onto ITO coated glass substrates. The CdS layer across all cells has an approximate thickness of 1500 Angstroms. The following CdTe layer has an approximate thickness of 5500 Angstroms. This created the base cell that was then doped. Cu, typically deposited using sublimation or vapor deposition, was done by PLD as well. Two of the three base cells were treated with Cu using the same deposition parameters. The third cell also received a CdCl treatment on top of the Cu layer to understand the effect when the oxygen layer is deferred. Ellipsometer measurements were used to confirm layer thickness. XRD analysis was used to confirm the presence of Cu and the crystal structure of the thin films. A Hall Effect Measurement system was used to measure active charge carrier concentration introduced by dopant. Also, a Keithley sourcemeter was utilized to determine photovoltaic properties. Notable results discussed will be the effects of Copper dopant on the electrical properties of CdS/CdTe based solar cells.

  12. Magnetic, thermal, and transport properties of Cd-doped CeIn3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, N.; Bittar, E. M.; Capan, C.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Fisk, Z.

    2010-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of Cd substitution on the archetypal heavy fermion antiferromagnet CeIn3 via magnetic susceptibility, specific-heat, and resistivity measurements. The suppression of the Neel temperature, TN , with Cd doping is more pronounced than with Sn. Nevertheless, a doping-induced quantum critical point does not appear to be achievable in this system. The magnetic entropy at TN and the temperature of the maximum in resistivity are also systematically suppressed with Cd, while the effective moment and the Curie-Weiss temperature in the paramagnetic state are not affected. These results suggest that Cd locally disrupts the antiferromagnetic order on its neighboring Ce moments, without affecting the valence of Ce. Moreover, the temperature dependence of the specific heat below TN is not consistent with three-dimensional magnons in pure as well as in Cd-doped CeIn3 , a point that has been missed in previous investigations of CeIn3 and that has bearing on the type of quantum criticality in this system.

  13. A controllable growth-doping approach to synthesize bright white-light-emitting Cd:In2S3 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jian; Zhu, Hui; Yang, Xiurong

    2013-06-01

    A new type of doped Cd:In2S3 NC, which exhibits bright white-light emission with a QY of about 18%, synthesized by a one-pot G-doping synthesis approach is presented. The successful realization of temporal separation of nucleation doping and growth doping makes this approach a facile method to synthesize the In2S3/Cd:In2S3 core/shell nanostructure.A new type of doped Cd:In2S3 NC, which exhibits bright white-light emission with a QY of about 18%, synthesized by a one-pot G-doping synthesis approach is presented. The successful realization of temporal separation of nucleation doping and growth doping makes this approach a facile method to synthesize the In2S3/Cd:In2S3 core/shell nanostructure. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed synthetic procedure, ICP-MS, TEM, HRTEM, PL decay curves, CIE coordinates and CCT of Cd:In2S3 NCs, and PL spectra of In2S3 and CdS. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00878a

  14. Effects of praseodymium doping on thermoelectric transport properties of CaMnO3 compound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张飞鹏; 牛保成; 张坤书; 张忻; 路清梅; 张久兴

    2013-01-01

    The rare earth Pr doped Ca1-xPrxMnO3 (x=0, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1, 0.12, and 0.14) compound bulk samples were prepared to study the effect of Pr doping on thermoelectric transport properties of CaMnO3 compound system. The doped samples exhibited sin-gle phase composition within the experimental doping range, with condensed bulk microstructure and small porosities. The electrical resistivity was remarkably reduced for doped samples, on account of the enhanced carrier concentration;the absolute value of See-beck coefficient was deteriorated mainly due to enhanced electron carrier concentration. The electrical performances of the doped samples reflected by resistivity and Seebeck coefficient fluctuations were optimistically tuned, with an optimized power factor value of 0.342 mW/(m·K2) at 873 K for x=0.08 sample, which was very much higher comparing with that of the un-doped sample. The lattice thermal conduction was really confined, leading to distinctly repressed total thermal conductivity. The thermoelectric per-formance was noticeably improved by Pr doping and the dimensionless figure of merit ZT for the Ca0.92Pr0.08MnO3 compound was favorably optimized with the maximum value 0.16 at 873 K.

  15. Growth and superconducting properties of Cd-doped La(O,F)BiS2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Masanori; Tanaka, Masashi; Watauchi, Satoshi; Takano, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Isao

    2017-08-01

    Cd-doped La(O,F)BiS2 single crystals were grown using a CsCl/KCl flux. The grown crystals have a plate-like shape with 1-2 mm square size in a well-developed ab-plane. The Cd doping in the crystals was successfully characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis techniques. The superconductivity of La(O,F)BiS2 was gradually suppressed with Cd doping. The superconducting transition temperature with zero resistivity of La(O0.54F0.46)(Bi0.92Cd0.08)S2 was 2.3 K. The Cd doping does not change the superconducting anisotropy so much, albeit the considerable suppression of Tc.

  16. Optimization of High-Efficiency CdS/CdTe Thin Film Solar Cell Using Step Doping Grading and Thickness of the Absorption Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Sabaghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of stepped doping of the absorber layer on performance of Cadmium Sulfide/Cadmium Telluride (CdS/CdTe solar cell has been investigated. At first, the electrical characteristics of conventional CdS/CdTe solar cell is validated with fabricated CdS/CdTe solar cell. To improve the maximum efficiency of CdS/CdTe solar cell, the doping and thickness of the absorption layer are optimized. By step doping concentration within the absorber layer using buffer layer back contact and the increase in stepping gradient of the doping of CdTe layer, improved the conversion efficiency about 2.4% were obtained. The open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, fill factor and total area conversion efficiency of optimized solar cell structure are 952 mV, 25.97 mA/cm2, 78.5% and 18.7% under global AM 1.5 conditions, respectively.

  17. Effect of low concentration Sn doping on optical properties of CdS films grown by CBD technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Atefeh; Zakaria, Azmi; Rizwan, Zahid; Mohd Ghazali, Mohd Sabri

    2011-01-01

    Thin and transparent films of doped cadmium sulfide (CdS) were obtained on commercial glass substrates by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. The films were doped with low concentration of Sn, and annealed in air at 300 °C for 45 min. The morphological characterization of the films with different amounts of dopant was made using SEM and EDAX analysis. Optical properties of the films were evaluated by measuring transmittance using the UV-vis spectrophotometer. A comparison of the results revealed that lower concentration of Sn doping improves transmittance of CdS films and makes them suitable for application as window layer of CdTe/CIGS solar cells.

  18. Formation of DX-centers in indium doped CdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerker, M.; Kronenberg, J.; Deicher, M., E-mail: manfred.deicher@tech-phys.uni-sb.de; Wolf, H.; Wichert, Th. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Technische Physik (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    In CdTe, the achievable n-type doping is limited by the formation of DX-centers. A characteristic feature of DX-centers is the 'persistent photoconductivity (PPC)' which is created by illumination at low temperatures and caused by a metastable state of the DX-center. The DX-center and the PPC effect in n-type CdTe are theoretically explained by the 'large lattice relaxation model'. PAC measurements on In doped CdTe using {sup 111}In/{sup 111}Cd and, in addition, resistivity measurements on the same samples have been performed. Below 150 K, the samples showed a PPC effect that was accompanied by an increase of about 20% of the carrier concentration. This effect is not accompanied by any changes of the observed EFG. Possible explanations of the EFG observed, originally assigned to the DX-center, will be discussed. Finally, first reports on the investigation of DX-centers in CdTe using the radioactive isotope {sup 117}Cd decaying to {sup 117}In are presented.

  19. Fluorine compounds for doping conductive oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessert, Tim; Li, Xiaonan; Barnes, Teresa M; Torres, Jr., Robert; Wyse, Carrie L

    2013-04-23

    Methods of forming a conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition are described. The methods may include heating the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The methods may also include adding an oxygen-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The precursors are reacted to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate. Methods may also include forming the conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. These methods may include providing the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor, and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. A plasma may be formed that includes species from the metal-containing precursor and the fluorine-containing precursor. The species may react to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate.

  20. Cu doping concentration effect on the physical properties of CdS thin films obtained by the CBD technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albor Aguilera, M. L.; Flores Márquez, J. M.; Remolina Millan, A.; Matsumoto Kuwabara, Y.; González Trujillo, M. A.; Hernández Vásquez, C.; Aguilar Hernandez, J. R.; Hernández Pérez, M. A.; Courel-Piedrahita, M.; Madeira, H. T. Yee

    2017-08-01

    Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) semiconductors are direct band gap materials; when these types of material are used in solar cells, they provide efficiencies of 22.1% and 12.6%, respectively. Most traditional fabrication methods involve expensive vacuum processes including co-evaporation and sputtering techniques, where films and doping are conducted separately. On the other hand, the chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique allows an in situ process. Cu-doped CdS thin films working as a buffer layer on solar cells provide good performing devices and they may be deposited by low cost techniques such as chemical methods. In this work, Cu-doped CdS thin films were deposited using the CBD technique on SnO2:F (FTO) substrates. The elemental analysis and mapping reconstruction were conducted by EDXS. Morphological, optical and electrical properties were studied, and they revealed that Cu doping modified the CdS structure, band-gap value and the electrical properties. Cu-doped CdS films show high resistivity compared to the non-doped CdS. The appropriate parameters of Cu-doped CdS films were determined to obtain an adequate window or buffer layer on CIGS and CZTS photovoltaic solar cells.

  1. Identification of Ag-acceptor related photoluminescence in $^{111}\\!$Ag doped CdTe

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, J; Deicher, M; Filz, T; Ostheimer, V; Schmitz, C; Wolf, H; Wichert, T

    1998-01-01

    Bridgman-grown, nominally undoped CdTe crystals were doped with Ag by implanting radioactive $^{111}\\!$Ag. Photoluminescence spectra of the crystals show a donor-acceptor pair (DAP) line at 1.491 eV. The decrease of the intensity of this line with a half life of T$_{1/2}$=(7.2$\\pm$0.4) d is in good agreement with the half life of the $\\beta\\!^{-}$-decay of $^{111}\\!$Ag to $^{111}\\!$Cd of 7.45 d. This decrease is not caused by the aging behavior of Ag which was reported in the literature. The data show that the involved acceptor defect contains exactly one Ag atom and confirm the earlier assignment of the acceptor to the AgCd defect. Based on the DAP line at 1.491 eV, the spectra did not reveal a contamination of the CdTe crystals by stable Ag.

  2. Luminescence of Ce doped oxygen crystalline compounds based on Hf and Ba

    CERN Document Server

    Borisevich, A E; Lecoq, P

    2003-01-01

    The luminescence properties of the Ce-doped hafnium and barium compounds have been investigated to determine their potential as heavy scintillation materials. Compounds have been prepared by solid state synthesis. All of them have shown a bright luminescence attributed to trivalent cerium. Emission bands are peaked in the 425-475nm spectral region at room temperature.

  3. Synthesis of Co-Doped CdS Nanocrystals by Direct Thermolysis of Cadmium and Cobalt Thiolate Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-doped CdS (Co:CdS nanocrystals with controllable morphology (quantum dots and nanorods were easily synthesized by direct thermolysis of (Me4N2[Co4(SC6H510] and (Me4N4[S4Cd10(SPh16] under different precursor concentration, in virtue of the ions exchange of molecular clusters. The Co:CdS quantum dots were produced under low precursor concentration, and the Co:CdS nanorods could be obtained under higher precursor concentration. The Co-doping effect on the structure, growth process, and property of CdS nanocrystals was also investigated. The results indicated that the Co-doping was favorable for the formation of the nanorod structures for a short reaction time. In addition, the Co-doping in the CdS lattice resulted in the ferromagnetic property of the Co:CdS quantum dots at room temperature. Moreover, compared with the CdS quantum dots, the Co:CdS quantum dots exhibited obvious quantum confinement effect and photoluminescence emission with slightly red-shift.

  4. Photoluminescence and electrical properties of polyvinyl alcohol films doped with CdS nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Z.I.; Hosni, H.M.; Saleh, H.H.; Ghazy, O.A. [Atomic Energy Authority, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-05-15

    In situ preparation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films doped with cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles was conducted by gamma radiation. The films were characterized in terms of photoluminescence and electrical conductivity. The photoluminescence results indicated the existence of two emission peaks around 470 and 530 nm, which are due to electron-hole recombination of CdS nanoparticles and surface trapped emission due to the PVA capping, respectively. DC electrical conductivity (σ {sub DC}) measurement in the temperature range from 303 up to 373 K reveals an increase in its value with increasing both Cd{sup 2+} ion molar concentration and irradiation dose. AC electrical conductivity (σ {sub AC}) measurement over the same temperature range at an applied field frequency of 10, 100, 500 and 1000 kHz shows an increase behavior with increasing temperature, frequency, Cd{sup 2+} ion molar concentration and irradiation dose. Dielectric constant (ε {sub 1}) exhibits an increase with temperature, whereas it shows reduced values with increasing frequency, Cd{sup 2+} ion molar concentration and irradiation dose. Also, the dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) follows an increasing trend with increasing temperature, Cd{sup 2+} ion molar concentration and irradiation dose while it has an opposite trend with increasing frequency. The CdS/PVA nanocomposite films behavior could be explained on the basis of formation of charge-transfer complexes (CTCs) by the CdS nanoparticles doped into the PVA matrix and the role of radiation in enhancing the charge carrier mobility of such CTCs. (orig.)

  5. Aqueous synthesis and characterization of Ni, Zn co-doped CdSe QDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanam, N.; Govindarajan, D.

    2016-01-01

    Ni, Zn co-doped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by chemical precipitation method through aqueous route. The prepared QDs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD technique results indicate that the prepared samples have a zinc blende cubic phase. From UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy technique, the prepared samples were blue shifted with respect to their bulk counter part due to quantum confinement effect. Among different doping ratios examined, a maximum PL emission intensity was observed for CdSe:Ni(1 %):Zn(1 %) QDs. HRTEM pictures show that the prepared QDs were in spherical shape.

  6. Optical Properties of Al- and Sb-Doped CdTe Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. J. Al-Douri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nondoped and (Al, Sb-doped CdTe thin films with 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5  wt.%, respectively, were deposited by thermal evaporation technique under vacuum onto Corning 7059 glass at substrate temperatures ( of room temperature (RT and 423 K. The optical properties of deposited CdTe films such as band gap, refractive index (n, extinction coefficient (, and dielectric coefficients were investigated as function of Al and Sb wt.% doping, respectively. The results showed that films have direct optical transition. Increasing and the wt.% of both types of dopant, the band gap decrease but the optical is constant as n, and real and imaginary parts of the dielectric coefficient increase.

  7. Doping and Diffusion in HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-28

    In’i, -InT. Te - 1.8 ( - 3 .5 )h ( + 2.9 - 6/) TeT1’- Tej . 4 Hg rich HgCdTe Hg - 1.8 + 1.2 + 1.4 - 2p H - ’g, - H g j.. ’TI - tetrahedral position...A. Anderson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 11.81 (1988). B. D. Patterson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 60, 69 (1988). 60 V. A. Singh , C. Weigel, J. W. Corbett, and L. M

  8. Ion-assisted doping of 2-6 compounds during physical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bube, R H [Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1990-07-01

    This report describes a research program to (1) investigate ion-assisted doping during chemical vapor deposition of CdTe and (2) determine the influence of co-depositing ionized dopant atoms in the growth and structural and photoelectronic properties of the deposited films. In p-CdTe homo-epitaxial films, we controlled doping up to about 6 {times} 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3} and 2 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sub {minus}3} or ion-assisted depositions with As and P ions, respectively. At a growth rate of approximately 0.1 {mu}m/min, a substrate temperature of 400{degree}C, and ion energy of 60 eV, a maximum doping density was found near an ion current of 0.6{mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Related studies included elucidating the role of low-energy ion damage in the ion-assisted doping process, and investigating the decrease in carrier density near the surface of p-CdTe upon heating in vacuum, H{sub 2}, or Ar. We demonstrate the ability to make carrier density profiles and to grade junctions, and we present preliminary results from polycrystalline p-CdTe films grown on graphite and alumina substrates. We also present solar cells prepared using the p-CdTe as the collector area and n-CdS as the window layer, and we examine their photovoltaic parameters for different carrier densities and configurations in p-CdTe. 91 refs., 44 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Magnetic and dielectric study of Fe-doped CdSe nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sayantani; Banerjee, Sourish; Bandyopadhyay, Sudipta; Sinha, Tripurari Prasad

    2017-08-01

    Nanoparticles of cadmium selenide (CdSe) and Fe (5% and 10%) doped CdSe have been synthesized by soft chemical route and found to have cubic structure. The magnetic field dependent magnetization measurement of the doped samples indicates the presence of anti-ferromagnetic order. The temperature dependent magnetization (M-T) measurement under zero field cooled and field cooled conditions has also ruled out the presence of ferromagnetic component in the samples at room temperature as well as low temperature. In order to estimate the anti-ferromagnetic coupling among the doped Fe atoms, an M-T measurement at 500 Oe has been carried out, and the Curie-Weiss temperature θ of the samples has been estimated from the inverse of susceptibility versus temperature plots. The dielectric relaxation peaks are observed in the spectra of imaginary part of dielectric constant. The temperature dependent relaxation time is found to obey the Arrhenius law having activation energy 0.4 eV for Fe doped samples. The frequency dependent conductivity spectra are found to obey the power law. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Preparation, characterization and photoluminescent studies of Cr and Nd co-doped Ce:YAG compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, S.R. [Department of Chemistry, Goa University, Goa 403206 (India); Shripathi, T. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India); Salker, A.V., E-mail: sal_arun@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Goa University, Goa 403206 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Sol–gel autocombustion as an efficient method in the preparation of monophasic Cr and Nd co-doped Ce:YAG compounds has been demonstrated. A reduction in the formation temperature to 1000 °C as compared to the classical ceramic method has been effectively shown. Monophasic formation of the compounds has been confirmed from the X-ray diffraction study which is equally supported by the Raman spectroscopy. The TEM analysis confirms the formation of submicron sized particles (around 100 nm) which are equally supported by SEM micrographs revealing the granular morphology for the compounds. Photoluminescence (excitation) studies carried out for the compounds at 468, 341 and 685 nm display excellent emission intensity for the compounds with similar emission pattern pointing towards a common emission centre in all the three cases. Decrease in Ce{sup 3+} emission intensity for the Cr and Nd co-doped Ce:YAG is observed. Energy transfer mechanism is suggested for the lowering of emission intensity confirming the activity of Ce{sup 3+} as a sensitizer. - Highlights: • Nd and Cr co-doped Ce:YAG are prepared by the sol–gel autocombustion. • Monophasic preparation proves the method to be efficient. • Formation of particles around 100 nm is confirmed from TEM. • Singly doped Ce:YAG exhibits maximum emission intensity. • Energy transfer between ions in excited state is in co-doped samples.

  11. A Study of Structural and Photoluminescence for Al-Doped CdO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Ju Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-doped CdO thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at different deposition time and substrate temperature. X-ray diffraction showed that the changes in the intensities of the (200, (220, and (311 planes followed a similar trend with increase in deposition time. The surface of the thin film was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Grain sizes of Al-doped CdO thin films increased significantly with increasing deposition time. The film thicknesses were 0.09, 0.12, 0.20, and 0.225 μm for the deposition times of 1, 2, 3, and 4 h, respectively. The photoluminescence spectra of the Al-doped CdO thin films were measured at room temperature. The photoluminescence wavelength changed in the sequence, green, blue, green, and blue, with increasing deposition time, which indicates that blue light emitting films can be fabricated by adjusting the processing parameters.

  12. Influence of Cd doping on structural and optical properties of (Cd, Al)-codoped ZnO powders synthesized via sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Libing, E-mail: lbduan@nwpu.edu.cn; Zhao, Xiaoru; Wang, Yajun; Shen, Hao; Geng, Wangchang; Zhang, Fuli

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • (Al, Cd) codoped ZnO powders prepared by sol–gel method. • Cd worked effectively on ZnO band gap engineering for Cd content x < 6%. • Phase segregation appears at high Cd doping concentration x ⩾ 6%. - Abstract: The effect of Cd doping on structural and optical properties of 1 at.% Al-doped Zn{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}O (x = 0–8%) powders prepared by sol–gel method was systematically investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed the powders retained a hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO below x = 6%, while cubic rocksalt CdO appeared when x = 8%. The bandgap and near band emission (NBE) energies determined from ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorbance and photoluminescence (PL) spectra, respectively, decreased linearly with increasing Cd content up to x = 6%, it seemed that the Cd worked effectively on ZnO bandgap engineering. However, the Stokes shift unexpectedly decreased from 136 meV to 33 meV with increasing Cd content. According to the fluctuation of integrated intensity of Cd 3d{sub 5/2} X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and redshift for x ⩽ 4% and then blueshift for x > 4% of the broadening A{sub 1}(LO)/E{sub 1}(LO) Raman mode, it was concluded that CdO impurity might also exist in the sample of x = 6% at least. The redshift of bandgap and NBE could not be simply ascribed to bandgap shrinkage of Zn{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}O powders for x > 4%, but also due to the existence of CdO impurity with narrower bandgap of 2.3 eV.

  13. Effect of Ag doping on the electrical properties of thermally deposited CdS-La2O3 TFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Paragjyoti; Saikia, Rajib

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we have reported the fabrication of CdS thin film transistors (TFTs) doped with Ag by thermal evaporation technique on chemically cleaned glass substrates using multiple pumps down process. High-k rare earth oxide La2O3 is used as gate dielectric in CdS TFTs. Some important electrical parameters have been evaluated using Weimer's model. The electrical parameters are compared with the parameters of undoped CdS TFTs. The Ag-doped CdS TFTs exhibit a high mobility of 6.1 cm2 V-1 s-1 than that of the undoped CdS TFTs, mobility of which is found as 6.25 × 10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1. The TFTs also exhibit low threshold voltage. Both Ag-doped and undoped TFTs are characterised using Levinson et al. model.

  14. Influence of Be doping on the characteristics of CdO/p-Si heterojunction for optoresponse applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A A Dakhel

    2014-10-01

    In this work, the optoelectronic properties of Be-doped CdO films grown on p-Si forming CdO : Be/p-Si hetero-p–n junctions were investigated. The spotlight was on the influence of electronic properties of CdO : Be layers, which were controlled by Be-dopant content, on the optoelectronic properties of the constructed p–n heterojunction. The characterization of the transparent conducting oxide CdO : Be layer was performed with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electrical measurements and spectral photometry. It was found that Be doping greatly enhanced the optoresponse (*) of the p–n heterojunction, such that * was boosted by ∼36 times for CdO : 0.10% Be/p-Si sample, compared with the undoped CdO/p-Si. This *-enhancement was explained by the improvement of carrier mobility in host CdO with Be doping. Therefore, the utmost * that was found with 0.10% Be-doped CdO sample was due to its highest carrier mobility among other samples of different Be content. The results of optoelectronic measurements in visible and NIR spectral range demonstrate the utility of the CdO : Be/p-Si heterojunction in photodetection applications.

  15. Multicolor Photodetector of a Single Er(3+)-Doped CdS Nanoribbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedong, Hou; Ying-Kai, Liu; Yu, De-Peng

    2015-12-01

    Er(3+)-doped CdS nanoribbons (Er-CdS NRs) are synthesized by thermal evaporation and then characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL), and absorption spectra. The Er-CdS NR photodetector is studied systematically, including spectral response, light intensity response, and photoconductance (G) versus temperature (T). It is found that Er-CdS NR has the ability of detecting multicolor light including blue, red, and near-infrared light with higher responsivity (R λ ) and external quantum efficiency (η). The conductance of Er-CdS NR under dark conditions decreases with increasing temperature in the range of 87-237 K, while its conductance increases with increasing temperature in the range of 237-297 K when T is larger than 237 K. These results indicated that ionized impurities and the intrinsic excitation are responsible for the conductance change of Er-CdS NR in the dark. The superior performance of the Er-CdS NR device offers an avenue to develop highly sensitive multicolor photodetector applications.

  16. Physical properties of Bi-doped CdTe thin films deposited by cosputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerril, M.; Zelaya-Angel, O. [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Vigil-Galan, O.; Contreras-Puente, G.; Sanchez-Meza, E. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-03-15

    The structural, morphological, electrical, and optical properties of CdTe-Bi cosputtered thin films related with composition are presented. The films were grown on Corning glass substrates at room temperature from a CdTe-Bi target. The composition measurements show that the Bi content in the films ranges from x = 0.0 to x = 6.37 at%, depending on the area fraction covered by the Bi piece attached to the CdTe target. The structure of the annealed films was determined from X-ray diffraction measurements. Two kinds of structures were observed, depending on the Bi content: (1) CdTe polycrystalline films containing a small amount of Bi that is probably incorporated in the Cd and Te sites of the CdTe lattice. (2) Amorphization of the polycrystalline films, with higher Bi content. From the experimental results, we concluded that using this deposition method n/p-type Bi-doped CdTe polycrystalline films can be produced with electrical resistivity between 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} {omega} cm and electron mobility between 10{sup 1} and 10{sup 2} cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1}. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Visualization of hormone binding proteins in vivo based on Mn-doped CdTe QDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang fei; Yu, Ying; Lin, Bi xia; Hu, Xiao gang; Cao, Yu juan; Wu, Jian zhong

    2014-10-01

    Daminozide (B9) is a growth inhibitor with important regulatory roles in plant growth and development. Locating and quantifying B9-binding proteins in plant tissues will assist in investigating the mechanism behind the signal transduction of B9. In this study, red fluorescent Mn-doped CdTe quantum dots (CdTeMn QDs) were synthesized by a high-temperature hydrothermal process. Since CdTeMn QDs possess a maximum fluorescence emission peak at 610 nm, their fluorescence properties are more stable than those of CdTe QDs. A B9-CdTeMn probe was synthesized by coupling B9 with CdTeMn QDs. The fluorescence intensity of the probe is double that of CdTeMn QDs; its fluorescence stability is also superior under different ambient conditions. The probe retains the biological activity of B9 and is unaffected by interference from the green fluorescent protein present in plants. Therefore, we used this probe to label B9-binding proteins selectively in root tissue sections of mung bean seedlings. These proteins were observed predominantly on the surfaces of the cell membranes of the cortex and epidermal parenchyma.

  18. Electrochemical Incineration of Phenolic Compounds from the Hydrocarbon Industry Using Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Medel; Erika Bustos; Karen Esquivel; Godínez, Luis A.; Yunny Meas

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical incineration using boron-doped diamond electrodes was applied to samples obtained from a refinery and compared to the photo-electro-Fenton process in order to selectively eliminate the phenol and phenolic compounds from a complex matrix. Due to the complex chemical composition of the sample, a pretreatment to the sample in order to isolate the phenolic compounds was applied. The effects of the pretreatment and of pH on the degradation of the phenolic compounds were evaluated. ...

  19. Magnetic Properties of AIIBIVCV2 Compounds Doped with Mn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Kochura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mn-doped AIIBIVCV2 semiconductors bulk crystals were grown by direct melting of base components with fast cooling. Structural and magnetic properties of samples were investigated. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the magnetization reveals three types of magnetic species: the substitutional Mn ions making Mn complexes (especially dimers, the MnAs micro- and nanosize precepitates.

  20. Enthalpies of formation of Cd-Pr intermetallic compounds and thermodynamic assessment of the Cd-Pr system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Thomas L; Richter, Klaus W; Delsante, Simona; Borzone, Gabriella; Ipser, Herbert

    2014-12-01

    In the present study standard enthalpies of formation were measured by reaction and solution calorimetry at stoichiometric compositions of Cd2Pr, Cd3Pr, Cd58Pr13 and Cd6Pr. The corresponding values were determined to be -46.0, -38.8, -35.2 and -24.7 kJ/mol(at), respectively. These data together with thermodynamic data and phase diagram information from literature served as input data for a CALPHAD-type optimization of the Cd-Pr phase diagram. The complete composition range could be described precisely with the present models, both with respect to phase equilibria as well as to thermodynamic input data. The thermodynamic parameters of all intermetallic compounds were modelled following Neumann-Kopp rule. Temperature dependent contributions to the individual Gibbs energies were used for all compounds. Extended solid solubilities are well described for the low- and high-temperature modifications of Pr and also for the intermetallic compound CdPr. A quite good agreement with all viable data available from literature was found and is presented.

  1. A novel electrochemiluminescence sensor based on nitrogen-doped graphene/CdTe quantum dots composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Aming; Zhang, Shengyi, E-mail: syzhangi@126.com; Mao, Changjie; Song, Jiming; Niu, Helin; Jin, Baokang; Tian, Yupeng

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • The composite was prepared by combining CdTe QDs with nitrogen-doped graphene. • The NG/CdTe QDs composite as-prepared was used to construct sensor. • The sensor exhibited high ECL intensity and good ECL stability. • The sensor was used to detect ascorbic acid based on its ECL quenching. - Abstract: A novel sensor was assembled by combining CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) on the surface of glassy carbon electrode. The sensor as-assembled with the NG/CdTe QDs composite exhibited high electrochemiluminescence (ECL) intensity and long-time ECL stability. The ECL mechanism and effect factors on ECL emission of the sensor are discussed. Significantly, the sensor was used in ascorbic acid (AA) detection based on the ECL quenching of AA. The results show that the sensor has a linear response range from 0.04 to 200 μM and the detection limit of 0.015 μM for AA.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Mn2+ doped CdOZn3(PO4)2 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Bhaskararao, Y.; Satyavathi, K.; Subba Rao, M.; Cole, Sandhya

    2017-02-01

    Undoped and Mn2+ doped CdOZn3(PO4)2 nanocomposites are fruitfully synthesized by chemical precipitation process at room temperature. The morphology, structure and spectroscopic properties of the prepared samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption, Scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDS, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Photolumiscence (PL) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). XRD data confirms the cubic phase of CdO and monoclinic phase of Zn3(PO4)2. Strain and dislocation density are also calculated from XRD studies. Optical absorption spectrum of Mn2+ doped CdOZn3(PO4)2 nanocomposite shows different spin-forbidden DMSO-d6 bands which are the characteristics of octahedral site symmetry related to Mn2+. The crystal field parameter Dq and inter electronic repulsion parameters (B and C) are deliberate using optical absorption data. Surface morphology of sample is firm by Using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the distribution of Zn, Cd, phosphate and oxygen species in the prepared sample is identified by EDS. PL studies recognize the white light emission. The 'g' value of the nanocomposite material synthesized is lesser than (negative shift) the free electron value (2.0023), which gives ionic nature to the bonding and confirms the presence of Mn2+ in distorted octahedral site symmetry.

  3. Spectroscopic characterization of iron-doped II-VI compounds for laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alan

    currently covered by available sources while maintaining absorption which overlaps with available pump sources. Because optimization of these materials requires extensive experimentation, a technique to fabricate and characterize novel crystals in powder form was developed, eliminating the need for the crystal growth. Powders were characterized using Raman, photoluminescence studies, and kinetics of luminescence. The first demonstration of random lasing of Fe:ZnCdTe powder at 6 microm was reported. These results show promise for the development of these TM-doped ternary II-VI compounds as laser gain media operating at 6 microm and longer. The second major objective was to study the performance of TM:II-VI elements as saturable absorber Q-switches and mode-lockers in flash lamp pumped Er:YAG and Er:Cr:YSGG cavities. Different cavity schemes were arranged to eliminate depolarization losses and improve Q-switching performance in Er:YAG and the first use of Cr:ZnSe to passively Q -switch an Er:Cr:YSGG cavity was demonstrated. While post-growth thermal diffusion is an effective way to prepare large-scale highly doped TM:II-VI laser elements, the diffusion rate of some ions into II-VI semiconductors is too low to make this method practical for large crystals. The third objective was to improve the rate of thermal diffusion of iron into II-VI semiconductor crystals by means of gamma-irradiation during the diffusion process. When exposed to a dose rate of 44 R/s during the diffusion process, the diffusion coefficient for Fe into ZnSe showed improvement of 60% and the diffusion coefficient of Fe into ZnS showed improvement of 30%.

  4. Current noise in some transition-metal compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinpenning, Th.G.M.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements are reported on current noise in some single crystals of transition-metal compounds, namely: reduced Al-doped rutile (TiO2), Li-doped NiO, Li-doped CoO and Ga-doped CdCr2Se4. Also results obtained with polycrystalline Ga-doped CdCr2Se4 are reported. The current-noise spectra of the mate

  5. Implications of orbital hybridization on the electronic properties of doped quantum dots: the case of Cu:CdSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Joshua T.; Forsythe, Kyle; Hutchins, Jamie; Meulenberg, Robert W.

    2016-04-13

    This paper investigates how chemical dopants affect the electronic properties of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and why a model that incorporates the concepts of orbital hybridization must be used to understand these properties. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements show that copper dopants in CdSe QDs occur primarily through a statistical doping mechanism. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) experiments provide a detailed insight on the valence band (VB) structure of doped and undoped QDs. Using UPS measurements, we are able to observe photoemission from the Cu d-levels above VB maximum of the QDs which allows a complete picture of the energy band landscape of these materials. This information provides insights into many of the physical properties of doped QDs, including the highly debated near-infrared photoluminescence in Cu doped CdSe QDs. We show that all our results point to a common theme of orbital hybridization in Cu doped CdSe QDs which leads to optically and electronically active states below the conduction band minimum. Our model is supported from current–voltage measurements of doped and undoped materials, which exhibit Schottky to Ohmic behavior with Cu doping, suggestive of a tuning of the lowest energy states near the Fermi level.

  6. Investigation of Boron-doping Effect on Photoluminescence Properties of CdNb2O6: Eu(3+) Phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başak, Ali Sadi; Ekmekçi, Mete Kaan; Erdem, Murat; Ilhan, Mustafa; Mergen, Ayhan

    2016-03-01

    Pure, Eu(3+) - doped and Eu(3+),B(3+) co-doped CdNb2O6 powders have been prepared by a molten salt synthesis method using Li2SO4/Na2SO4 salt mixture as a flux at a relatively low temperatures as compared to solid state reaction. X-ray diffraction patterns of pure CdNb2O6 samples indicated orthorhombic single phase. Photoluminescence investigations of CdNb2O6 samples showed a strong blue emission band centered at 460 nm. For Eu-doped CdNb2O6 samples, the luminescence of Eu(3+) was observed with the host red emission varying with the Eu-doping concentrations. This PL characteristic of the doped samples may be attributed to the energy transfer between Eu(3+) and niobate groups (NbO6). Boron incorporation has remarkably increased the luminescence of Eu(3+)-doped CdNb2O6.

  7. Effect of doping concentration on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of Mn-doped CdO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of manganese-doped cadmium oxide (CdO:Mn with different Mn-doping levels (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 at.% were deposited on glass substrates by employing an inexpensive, simplified spray technique using a perfume atomizer at 375 °C. The influence of Mn incorporation on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of CdO films has been studied. All the films exhibit cubic crystal structure with a (1 1 1 preferential orientation. Mn-doping causes a slight shift of the (1 1 1 diffraction peak towards higher angle. The crystallite size of the films is found to decrease from 34.63 nm to 17.68 nm with an increase in Mn doping concentration. The CdO:Mn film coated with 1 at.% Mn exhibit a high transparency of nearly 90 % which decreases for higher doping concentration. The optical band gap decreases with an increase in Mn doping concentration. All the films have electrical resistivity of the order of 10−4 Ω·cm.

  8. Two-temperature synthesis of non-linear optical compound CdGeAs2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chongqiang; Verozubova, G. A.; Mironov, Yuri P.; Lei, Zuotao; Song, Liangcheng; Ma, Tianhui; Okunev, A. O.; Yang, Chunhui

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we report on a new approach to synthesize large-scale nonlinear optical chalcopyrite compound CdGeAs2 (cadmium germanium arsenide), in which the arsenic (As) precursor and the mixture of the cadmium (Cd) and the germanium (Ge) were separated in two distinct temperature-defined zones of a furnace. Through probing the intermediate product prepared at pre-set temperature points of hot-zone area, it was revealed that the ternary compound CdGeAs2 was formed through chemical reactions among Cd3As2, CdAs2, GeAs, GeAs2 and Ge. A new intermediate crystalline compound, with determined crystal parameter c=0.9139 nm and unknown a parameter, was identified when the temperature of the mixture of Cd and Ge was set to 680 °C, which, however, disappeared when the temperature was set to 770 °C, yielding pure CdGeAs2 product. Most likely, the identified new intermediate compound has layered graphite-like structure. Moreover, we show that the described two-temperature synthesis method allows us to produce near 250 g CdGeAs2 product during one run in a horizontal furnace and 500 g in a tilted horizontal furnace with rotated reactor.

  9. The activation of thin film CdTe solar cells using alternative chlorine containing compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniscalco, B., E-mail: B.Maniscalco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering (United Kingdom); Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Kaminski, P.M.; Bass, K. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering (United Kingdom); West, G. [Department of Materials, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    The re-crystallisation of thin film cadmium telluride (CdTe) using cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) is a vital process for obtaining high efficiency photovoltaic devices. However, the precise micro-structural mechanisms involved are not well understood. In this study, we have used alternative chlorine-containing compounds to determine if these can also assist the re-crystallisation of the CdTe layer and to understand the separate roles of cadmium and chlorine during the activation. The compounds used were: tellurium tetrachloride (TeCl{sub 4}), cadmium acetate (Cd(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2}), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}). TeCl{sub 4} was used to assess the role of Cl and the formation of a Te-rich outer layer which may assist the formation of the back contact. (Cd(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2}) and HCl were used to distinguish between the roles of cadmium and chlorine in the process. Finally, ZnCl{sub 2} was employed as an alternative to CdCl{sub 2}. We report on the efficacy of using these alternative Cl-containing compounds to remove the high density of planar defects present in untreated CdTe. - Highlights: • Cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) activation treatment • Alternative chlorine containing compounds • Microstructure analysis and electrical performances.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of nanostructured Mg-doped CdS/AAO nanoporous membrane for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Mohamed; Mustafa, Mona; Hamdy, Hany

    2016-04-01

    In this study, Mg-doped CdS nanostructure was deposited onto anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane substrate using sol-gel spin coating method. The AAO membrane was prepared by a two-step anodization process combined with pore widening process. The morphology, chemical composition, and structure of the spin- coated CdS nanostructure have been studied. The morphology of the fabricated AAO membrane and the deposited Mg-doped CdS nanostructure was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM of AAO illustrates a typical hexagonal and smooth nanoporous alumina membrane with interpore distance of ~ 100 nm, the pore diameter of ~ 60 nm. SEM of Mgdoped CdS shows porous nanostructured film of CdS nanoparticles. This film well adherents and covers the AAO substrate. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) pattern exhibits the signals of Al, O from AAO membrane and Mg, Cd, and S from the deposited CdS. This indicates the high purity of the fabricated membrane and the deposited Mg-doped CdS nanostructure. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, Scherrer equation was used to calculate the average crystallite size. Additionally, the texture coefficients and density of dislocations were calculated. The fabricated CdS/AAO was applied to detect glucose of different concentrations. The proposed method has some advantages such as simple technology, low cost of processing, and high throughput. All of these factors facilitate the use of the prepared films in sensing applications.

  11. Effect of Ag doping on opto-electrical properties of CdS thin films for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazir, Adnan, E-mail: adnan.nazir@iit.it [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Toma, Andrea [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Shah, Nazar Abbas [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Panaro, Simone [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Butt, Sajid [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Space Technology (IST), Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Sagar, Rizwan ur Rehman [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Raja, Waseem [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Rasool, Kamran [Micro and Nano Devices Group, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Pakistan, Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Maqsood, Asghari [Department of Physics, Air University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Polycrystalline CdS thin films are fabricated by means of Close Spaced Sublimation technique. • Ag is doped by simple ion-exchange technique in order to reduce resistivity of CdS thin films. • Remarkable reduction in resistivity without introducing many transparency losses. - Abstract: Cadmium sulfide (CdS) polycrystalline thin films of different thicknesses (ranging from 370 nm to 750 nm) were fabricated on corning glass substrates using Close Spaced Sublimation (CSS) technique. Optical and electrical investigation revealed that CdS thin films show an appreciable transparency (50–70% transmission) in visible range and a highly resistive behavior (10{sup 6} Ω cm). Samples were doped by silver (Ag) at different concentrations, using ion exchange technique, in order to reduce the resistivity of CdS thin films and to improve their efficiency as a window layer for solar cell application. The doping of Ag in pure CdS thin films resulted into an increase of surface roughness and a decrease both in electrical resistivity and in transparency. By optimizing annealing parameters, we were able to properly control the optical properties of the present system. In fact, the Ag doping of pure CdS films has led to a decrease of the sample resistivity by three orders of magnitude (10{sup 3} Ω cm) against a 20% cut in optical transmission.

  12. Room temperature ferromagnetism in undoped and Mn doped CdO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sumeet [Department of Physics, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, 211004 (India); Layek, Samar [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Yashpal, Madhu [Electron Microscope Facility Department of Anatomy Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Ojha, Animesh K., E-mail: animesh198@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, 211004 (India)

    2015-11-01

    Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O (x=00–0.07) nanostructures were synthesized and their structural, optical and magnetic properties were investigated. The shift of diffraction peaks towards lower angle side with increase of Mn content indicates the incorporation of Mn{sup 2+} ions into the CdO lattice. The values of optical band gaps were calculated at each value of Mn concentration. The values of band gap were increased by increasing the Mn concentrations as a direct consequence of the quantum confinement effect. The undoped CdO [Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O (x=0.00)] nanostructure shows weak ferromagnetic nature at room temperature. The ferromagnetic nature increases consistently with increase of Mn concentrations from x=0.01 to 0.05 and then slightly drops for x=0.07. As there were no magnetic impurities present in the samples, we assume that the origin of ferromagnetism in the undoped CdO nanostructures could be due to formation of CdO structure in triplet state (S=1). However, the consistent increase of magnetic nature with Mn doped (x=0.01–0.05) CdO nanostructures might be attributed to the ferromagnetic coupling between the spins and enhancement of spin concentrations due to entering of Mn atom into the lattice. The sudden drop of ferromagnetic nature at x=0.07 may be due to the presence of anti-ferromagnetic coupling. - Highlights: • Simple synthesis method is used to synthesize Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O nanostructures. • The optical band gap of Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O nanostructures is calculated. • Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O (x=0) nanostructure shows weak RTFM. • The RTFM of Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O (x=0) is explained by a model based on electronic distribution. • The RTFM nature of Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O is increased consistently from x=0.01 to 0.05.

  13. Effect of Mn Doping on Properties of CdS Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs have received extensive attention in recent years due to their higher theoretical conversion efficiency and lower production costs. However, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of QDSSCs is still lower than the DSSCs because of the severe recombination of electrons of quantum dots conduction band. In order to improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency of QDSSCs, impurity element Mn2+ is doped into the precursor solution of cadmium sulfide (CdS. By optimizing the experimental parameters, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of QDSSCs can be greatly improved. For the deposition of a fixed number of six times, the photoelectric conversion efficiency shows the maximum value (1.51% at the doped ratio of 1 : 10.

  14. Sn-doped CdTe as promising intermediate-band photovoltaic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Mauricio A.; Menéndez-Proupin, Eduardo; Orellana, Walter; Peña, Juan L.

    2017-01-01

    The formation energies, charge transition levels and quasiparticle defect states of several tin-related impurities are investigated within the DFT  +  GW formalism. The optical spectrum obtained from the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation shows that the absorption strongly increases in the sub-bandgap region after doping, suggesting a two-step photoexcitation process that facilitates transitions from photons with insufficient energy to cause direct transitions from the valence to the conduction band via an intermediate-band. We propose Sn-doped CdTe as a promising candidate for the development of high-efficiency solar cells, which could potentially overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit.

  15. Minority carrier lifetime in iodine-doped molecular beam epitaxy-grown HgCdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madni, I.; Umana-Membreno, G. A.; Lei, W.; Gu, R.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

    2015-11-02

    The minority carrier lifetime in molecular beam epitaxy grown layers of iodine-doped Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Te (x ∼ 0.3) on CdZnTe substrates has been studied. The samples demonstrated extrinsic donor behavior for carrier concentrations in the range from 2 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} without any post-growth annealing. At a temperature of 77 K, the electron mobility was found to vary from 10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/V s to 7 × 10{sup 3} cm{sup 2}/V s and minority carrier lifetime from 1.6 μs to 790 ns, respectively, as the carrier concentration was increased from 2 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}. The diffusion of iodine is much lower than that of indium and hence a better alternative in heterostructures such as nBn devices. The influence of carrier concentration and temperature on the minority carrier lifetime was studied in order to characterize the carrier recombination mechanisms. Measured lifetimes were also analyzed and compared with the theoretical models of the various recombination processes occurring in these materials, indicating that Auger-1 recombination was predominant at higher doping levels. An increase in deep-level generation-recombination centers was observed with increasing doping level, which suggests that the increase in deep-level trap density is associated with the incorporation of higher concentrations of iodine into the HgCdTe.

  16. Effect of Cu doping on the properties of ZnTe:Cu thin films and CdS/CdTe/ZnTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Mao, D.; Trefny, J. U.

    1997-02-01

    The effects of Cu doping concentration and post-deposition annealing treatment on the properties of ZnTe thin films were investigated in an effort to decrease the Cu doping concentration and improve the long-term stability of CdS/CdTe/ZnTe solar cells. The structural, compositional, and electrical properties were studied systematically using x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe, Hall effect and conductivity measurements. XRD measurements indicated that the crystalline phase of as-deposited and low-temperature annealed ZnTe films is dependent on Cu doping concentration. Low-Cu-doped films exhibited zincblende phase, whereas high-Cu-doped films showed wurtzite phase. After annealing at high temperature (⩾350 °C), all films exhibited zincblende structure. Electron probe microanalysis revealed a deficiency of cations in low-Cu-doped films and an excess of cations in high-Cu-doped films. Hall effect measurements revealed a dependence of hole mobility on Cu doping concentration with the highest mobility (20 cm2/Vṡs) obtained at a low Cu concentration. Carrier concentrations higher than mid-1016cm-3 were obtained at a Cu concentration of 2 at. % and relatively low annealing temperatures. Studies of the activation energy of dark conductivity suggested that intrinsic defects (e.g., Zn vacancies) are the dominant acceptors for Cu concentrations lower than 4.5 at. %. Finally, ZnTe films with Cu concentrations as low as 1 at. % were used successfully as a back contact layer in CdTe based solar cells. Fill factors over 0.70 were obtained using ZnTe films of low Cu concentrations.

  17. Reactivity of silicon and germanium doped CNTs toward aromatic sulfur compounds: A theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galano, Annia [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, C.P. 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: agalano@prodigy.net.mx; Francisco-Marquez, Misaela [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, C.P. 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-04-03

    Adsorption processes of thiophene and benzothiophene on pristine carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and on CNTs doped with Si or Ge, have been modeled with Density Functional. This is the first study on the chemical reactivity of such doped tubes. The calculated data suggest that the presence of silicon or germanium atoms in CNTs increases their reactivity toward thiophene, and benzothiophene. The adsorption of these species on pristine CNTs seems very unlikely to occur, while the addition products involving doped CNTs were found to be very stable, with respect to the isolated reactants, in terms of Gibbs free energy. Several of these adsorption processes were found to be significantly exergonic ({delta}G < 0) in non-polar liquid phase. The results reported in this work suggest that Si and Ge defects on CNTs increase their reactivity toward unsaturated species, and could make them useful in the removal processes of aromatic sulfur compounds from oil-hydrocarbons. However, according to our results, CNTs doped with Si atoms are expected to be more efficient as aromatic sulfur compounds scavengers than those doped with Ge. These results also suggest that the presence of silicon and germanium atoms in the CNTs structures enhances their reactivity toward nucleophilic molecules, compared to pristine carbon nanotubes.

  18. Cryogenic abnormal thermal expansion properties of carbon-doped La(Fe,Si)13 compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaopeng; Huang, Rongjin; Zhao, Yuqiang; Wang, Wei; Li, Laifeng

    2015-12-14

    Recently, La(Fe,Si)13-based compounds have attracted much attention due to their isotropic and tunable abnormal thermal expansion (ATE) properties as well as bright prospects for practical applications. In this research, we have prepared cubic NaZn13-type carbon-doped La(Fe,Si)13 compounds by the arc-melting method, and their ATE and magnetic properties were investigated by means of variable-temperature X-ray diffraction, strain gauge and the physical property measurement system (PPMS). The experimental results indicate that both micro and macro negative thermal expansion (NTE) behaviors gradually weaken with the increase of interstitial carbon atoms. Moreover, the temperature region with the most remarkable NTE properties has been broadened and near zero thermal expansion (NZTE) behavior occurs in the bulk carbon-doped La(Fe,Si)13 compounds.

  19. Effect of Low Concentration Sn Doping on Optical Properties of CdS Films Grown by CBD Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sabri Mohd Ghazali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Thin and transparent films of doped cadmium sulfide (CdS were obtained on commercial glass substrates by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD technique. The films were doped with low concentration of Sn, and annealed in air at 300 °C for 45 min. The morphological characterization of the films with different amounts of dopant was made using SEM and EDAX analysis. Optical properties of the films were evaluated by measuring transmittance using the UV-vis spectrophotometer. A comparison of the results revealed that lower concentration of Sn doping improves transmittance of CdS films and makes them suitable for application as window layer of CdTe/CIGS solar cells.

  20. Al-doped graphene as a new nanostructure adsorbent for some halomethane compounds: DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Ali Shokuhi

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the electronic structure and property of pristine as well as Al-doped graphene sheets towards adsorption of some halomethane compounds (trichloromethane, dichloromethane, and difluoromethane) using density functional theory (DFhsT) calculations. The adsorption energies have been calculated for each adsorbed-adsorbent system. Based on our results, compared to pristine graphene, the Al-doped graphene causes significant adsorption energy, higher charge transferring, and smaller bond distances to halomethane compounds. Our calculated adsorption energies of trichloromethane, dichloromethane, and difluoromethane on Al-doped graphene were - 54.1, - 68.3, and - 123.2 kJ mol- 1, respectively, which are categorized in the chemisorption region while the adsorption of these molecules on pristine graphene release insignificant energies which correspond to very weak adsorption on it. Furthermore, we used charge transfer analysis to search the amount of electron allocation. Orbital analysis including the density of states (DOS) was done to find the possible orbital hybridization between adsorbates and two graphene sheets. These results imply the suitability of Al-doped graphene as a good adsorbent/sensor for halomethane compounds.

  1. Anodic stripping voltammetry of synthesized CdS nanoparticles at boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, Mohammad; Ivandini, Tribidasari A., E-mail: ivandini.tri@sci.ui.ac.id; Saepudin, Endang [Department of Chemistry, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Keio University (Japan)

    2016-04-19

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using reverse micelles microreactor methods. By using different washing treatments, UV-Vis spectroscopy showed that the absorption peaks appeared at 465 nm, 462 nm, 460 nm, and 459 nm respectively for CdS nanoparticles without and with 1, 2, and 3 times washing treatments using pure water. In comparison with the absorbance peak of bulk CdS at 512 nm, the shifted absorption peaks, indicates that the different sizes of CdS can be prepared. Anodic stripping voltammetry of the CdS nanoparticles was then studied at a boron-doped diamond electrode using 0.1 M KClO{sub 4} and 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} as the electrolytes. A scan rate of 100 mV/s with a deposition potential of -1000 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) for 60 s at a potential scan from -1600 mV to +800 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) was applied as the optimum condition of the measurements. Highly-accurate linear calibration curves (R{sup 2} = 0.99) in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} with the sensitivity of 0.075 mA/mM and the limit of detection of 81 µM in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} can be achieved, which is promising for an application of CdS nanoparticles as a label for biosensors.

  2. Effect of annealing on structural and optical properties of sol-gel prepared Cd doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Guruprasad, E-mail: guruprasad@physics.iitm.ac.in; Jain, Mahaveer K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai-600036 (India); Meher, S. R. [School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore-632014 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}O thin films have been prepared by sol-gel spin coating method. Structural analysis shows that the Cd substitution into the wutrzite ZnO lattice is achieved up to about 20 mol %. The optical band gap is found to decrease with the increase in Cd content. Increase in the annealing temperature up to a certain critical temperature leads to band gap narrowing because of the proper substitution of Zn by Cd and thereafter the band gap increases due to Cd re-evaporation from the lattice sites. This critical temperature lowers down with the increase in Cd doping concentration. The resistivity decreases with the increase in Cd content and increases with the increase in annealing temperature.

  3. Raman characterization of a new Te-rich binary compound: CdTe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, Jean; Rzepka, Edouard; Lincot, Daniel

    2009-04-02

    Structural characterization by Raman spectroscopy of CdTe thin films electrodeposited in acidic conditions is considered in this work. This study focuses on the evolution of material properties as a function of the applied potential and the film thickness, demonstrating the possibility to obtain a new Te-rich compound with a II/VI ratio of 1/2 under specific bath conditions. Raman measurements carried out on etched samples first allow the elimination of the assumption of a mixture of phases CdTe + Te and tend to confirm the formation of the CdTe(2) binary compound. The signature of this phase on the Raman spectrum is the increase of the LO band intensity compared to that obtained for the CdTe. The influence of the laser power is also considered. While no effect is observed on CdTe films, the increase of the incident irradiation power leads to the decomposition of the CdTe(2) compound into two more stable phases namely CdTe and Te.

  4. Nitrogen Doped Carbon Nanotubes from Organometallic Compounds: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil J. Coville

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs have become a topic of increased importance in the study of carbonaceous materials. This arises from the physical and chemical properties that are created when N is embedded in a CNT. These properties include modified chemical reactivity and modified conductivity and mechanical properties. A range of methodologies have been devised to synthesize N-CNTs. One of the procedures uses a floating catalyst in which an organometallic complex is decomposed in the gas phase in the presence of a nitrogen containing reactant to give N-CNTs. Most studies have been limited to ferrocene, ring substituted ferrocene and Fe(CO5. This review covers the synthesis (and properties of N-CNTs and other shaped carbon nanomaterials (SCNMs produced using organometallic complexes. It summarizes the effects that physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, gas flow rates, type and concentration of N source etc. have on the N-CNT type, size and yields as well as the nitrogen content incorporated into the tubes that are produced from organometallic complexes. Proposed growth models for N-CNT synthesis are also reported.

  5. Effect of chlorine doping on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of spray deposited CdS thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sivaraman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available CdS and chlorine doped CdS (CdS:Cl thin films with different Cl-doping levels (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 at% have been deposited on glass substrates by a spray pyrolysis technique using a perfume atomizer. The effect of Cl doping on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the films was investigated. XRD patterns revealed that all the films exhibit hexagonal crystal structure with a preferential orientation along the (0 0 2 plane irrespective of the Cl doping level. The particle size value decreases from 22.03 nm to 18.12 nm with increase in Cl concentration. Optical band gap is blue-shifted from 2.48 eV to 2.73 eV with increase in Cl doping concentration. All the films have resistivity in the order of 104 Ω cm. The obtained results confirm that chlorine as an anionic dopant material can enhance the physical properties of CdS thin films to a large extent.

  6. Preparation of luminescent CdTe quantum dots doped core-shell nanoparticles and their application in cell recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhaohui; WANG Kemin; TAN Weihong; LI Jun; FU Zhiying; WANG Yilin; LIU Jianbo; YANG Xiaohai

    2005-01-01

    Based on the reverse microemulsion technique, luminescent quantum dots doped core-shell nanoparticles have been prepared by employing silica as the shell and CdTe quantum dots as the core of the nanoparticles, which have an excellent solubility and dispersibility, especially amine and phosphonate groups have been modified on their surface synchronously. In comparison with CdTe quantum dots, these nanoparticles show superiority in chemical and photochemical stability. The quantum dots doped core-shell nanoparticles were successfully linked with lactobionic acid by amine group on it, which was used to recognize living liver cells.

  7. Influence of substrate temperature on the structural and properties of In-doped CdO films prepared by PLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Biju; Hu Wen

    2013-01-01

    Transparent indium-doped cadmium oxide (ln-CdO) thin films were deposited on quartz glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) from an ablating Cd-In metallic target.The effect of substrate temperature on the structural,optical and electrical properties of In-doped CdO thin films were studied in detail.The optical transmittance of In doped CdO films are obviously influenced by the substrate temperature.All films exhibit a transmittance higher than 75% in the visible region.More significantly,In-doping leads to an evident widening of optical band gap from 2.56 to 2.91 eV; and the increase in optical band gap is found to depend on the deposition temperature.It is also seen that the electrical properties of these films strongly depend on the substrate temperature.The In-CdO thin film grown at 300 ℃ has low resistivity (1.15 × 10-4 Ω·cm),high carrier concentration (5.35 ×1020 cm-3),and high mobility (101.43 cm2/(V.s)).

  8. Aqueous synthesis of highly luminescent surface Mn2+-doped CdTe quantum dots as a potential multimodal agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; He, Fei; He, Xi-Wen; Li, Wen-You; Zhang, Yu-Kui

    2014-12-01

    Mn(2+)-doped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized directly via a facile surface doping strategy in aqueous solution. The best optical property emerged when the added amount of Mn(2+) was 5% compared to Cd(2+) in the CdTe nanoparticles and the reaction temperature was 60 °C. The fluorescence and magnetic properties of the QDs were studied. The as-prepared Mn(2+)-doped CdTe QDs have high quantum yield (48.13%) and a narrow distribution with an average diameter of 3.7 nm. The utility of biological imaging was also studied. Depending on the high quantum yield, cells in culture were illuminated and made more distinct from each other compared to results obtained with normal QDs. They also have a prominent longitudinal relaxivity value (r1= 4.2 mM(-1) s(-1)), which could indicate that the Mn(2+)-doped CdTe QDs can be used as a potential multimodal agent for fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging.

  9. Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide photocatalysts for visible response prepared by using organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Nosaka, Masami Matsushita, Junichi Nishino and Atsuko Y. Nosaka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to utilize visible light in photocatalytic reactions, nitrogen atoms were doped in commercially available photocatalytic TiO2 powders by using an organic compound such as urea and guanidine. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS indicated that N atoms were incorporated into two different sites of the bulk phase of TiO2. A significant shift of the absorption edge to a lower energy and a higher absorption in the visible light region were observed. These N-doped TiO2 powders exhibited photocatalytic activity for the decomposition of 2-propanol in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity increased with the decrease of doped N atoms in O site, while decreased with decrease of the other sites. Degradation of photocatalytic activity based on the release of nitrogen atoms was observed for the reaction in the aqueous suspension system.

  10. Boron, bismuth co-doping of gallium arsenide and other compounds for photonic and heterojunction bipolar transistor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2017-08-01

    Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with acceptors and deep donors is used to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. For example, Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, B and Bi, to customize solar cells, and other semiconductor devices. Isoelectronically co-doped Group II-VI compounds and alloys are also included.

  11. Boron, bismuth co-doping of gallium arsenide and other compounds for photonic and heterojunction bipolar transistor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2015-07-07

    Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with acceptors and deep donors is sued to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. For example, Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, B and Bi, to customize solar cells, and other semiconductor devices. Isoelectronically co-doped Group II-VI compounds and alloys are also included.

  12. Structural and optical properties of Cu-doped CdTe films with hexagonal phase grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de Moure-Flores

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cu-doped CdTe thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition on Corning glass substrates using powders as target. Films were deposited at substrate temperatures ranging from 100 to 300 °C. The X-ray diffraction shows that both the Cu-doping and the increase in the substrate temperature promote the presence of the hexagonal CdTe phase. For a substrate temperature of 300 °C a CdTe:Cu film with hexagonal phase was obtained. Raman and EDS analysis indicate that the films grew with an excess of Te, which indicates that CdTe:Cu films have p-type conductivity.

  13. Study of the physical properties of Bi doped CdTe thin films deposited by close space vapour transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Galan, O.; Sanchez-Meza, E.; Sastre-Hernandez, J.; Cruz-Gandarilla, F. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Marin, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 11500 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)], E-mail: emarin63@yahoo.es; Contreras-Puente, G. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Saucedo, E.; Ruiz, C.M. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Tufino-Velazquez, M. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 07738 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Calderon, A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 11500 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-04-30

    Bi doped cadmium telluride (CdTe:Bi) thin films were grown on glass-substrates by the close space vapour transport method. CdTe:Bi crystals grown by the vertical Bridgman method, varying the nominal Bi concentration in the range between 1 x 10{sup 17} and 8 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}, were used in powder form for CdTe:Bi thin film deposition. Dark conductivity and photoconductivity measurements in the 90-300 K temperature range and determination by photoacoustic spectroscopy of the optical-absorption coefficient of the films in the 1.0 to 2.4 eV spectral region were carried out. The influence of Bi doping levels upon the intergrain barrier height and other associated grain boundary parameters of the polycrystalline CdTe:Bi thin films were determined from electrical, optical and morphological characterization.

  14. Synthesis and Fluorescence Properties of Europium, Terbium Doped Zn2+, Cd2+ and Cr3+ Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Europium and terbium complexes with strong fluorescence intensity and long fluorescence lifetime were prepared.By replacing half of the europium or terbium ion with M (M=Zn2+, Cd2+, and Cr3+) using the doped method, and then incorporating it with 18-crown-6 ether and terephthalic acid, six heteronuclear samples EuZnLL'Cl3·3H2O(1), EuCdLL2'Cl3·5H2O(2), EuCrLL'Cl4·4H2O(3), TbZnLL'Cl3·4H2O(4), TbCdLL'2Cl3·4H2O(5), and TbCrLL'2Cl4·4H2O(6) (L=terephthalic acid, L'=18-Crown-6 ether) were obtained.The elemental analysis, molar conductivities, rare earth complexometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet (UV), TGA, fluorescence intensity, and fluorescence lifetime of the samples were measured.The results showed that there were good luminescence properties for heteronuclear complexes (1), (2), (4), and (5), which were even stronger than those of the homonuclear complexes Eu2LL'2Cl4·4H2O and Tb2LL'2Cl4·4H2O, but the luminescence properties of EuCrLL'Cl4·4H2O, TbCrLL'Cl4·4H2O were very weak.A possible luminescence mechanism was suggested by the organic-inorganic doped mechanism and the law of intramolecular energy transfer.

  15. Tuning Equilibrium Compositions in Colloidal Cd1-xMnxSe Nanocrystals Using Diffusion Doping and Cation Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Charles J; Chakraborty, Pradip; Kornowske, Lindsey M; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2016-01-26

    The physical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals can be tuned dramatically via composition control. Here, we report a detailed investigation of the synthesis of high-quality colloidal Cd1-xMnxSe nanocrystals by diffusion doping of preformed CdSe nanocrystals. Until recently, Cd1-xMnxSe nanocrystals proved elusive because of kinetic incompatibilities between Mn(2+) and Cd(2+) chemistries. Diffusion doping allows Cd1-xMnxSe nanocrystals to be prepared under thermodynamic rather than kinetic control, allowing access to broader composition ranges. We now investigate this chemistry as a model system for understanding the characteristics of nanocrystal diffusion doping more deeply. From the present work, a Se(2-)-limited reaction regime is identified, in which Mn(2+) diffusion into CdSe nanocrystals is gated by added Se(2-), and equilibrium compositions are proportional to the amount of added Se(2-). At large added Se(2-) concentrations, a solubility-limited regime is also identified, in which x = xmax = ∼0.31, independent of the amount of added Se(2-). We further demonstrate that Mn(2+) in-diffusion can be reversed by cation exchange with Cd(2+) under exactly the same reaction conditions, purifying Cd1-xMnxSe nanocrystals back to CdSe nanocrystals with fine tunability. These chemistries offer exceptional composition control in Cd1-xMnxSe NCs, providing opportunities for fundamental studies of impurity diffusion in nanocrystals and for development of compositionally tuned nanocrystals with diverse applications ranging from solar energy conversion to spin-based photonics.

  16. Comparative Study of Structural and Photocatalytic Properties of M-Doped (M = Ce3+, Zn2+, Cu2+) Dendritic-Like CdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqian; Yang, Xiande; Ye, Ting; Xu, Chao; Xia, Fan; Meng, Dawei

    2017-03-01

    M-doped (M = Ce3+, Zn2+, Cu2+) dendritic-like CdS has been synthesized by a hydrothermal method. As-prepared samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Their photocatalytic activity was evaluated in degradation of methylene blue under simulated visible-light irradiation. XRD results revealed that M:CdS is a hexagonal phase at low doping concentration. XRD and EDS results indicated that Ce3+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ were successfully introduced into CdS. FESEM results indicated that CdS retains dendritic-like structure at low doping concentration. UV-Vis spectroscopy results indicated that doping with Ce3+, Zn2+ or Cu2+ can be used to improve the absorbing capability of dendritic-like CdS for visible light, and the doping content affects the bandgap. Photocatalytic results indicated that doping with Ce3+, Zn2+ or Cu2+ can improve the photocatalytic efficiency of dendritic-like CdS, with highest degradation rates of 93.2%, 91.2%, and 95.5% for Ce:CdS, Zn:CdS, and Cu:CdS, respectively. The photocatalytic mechanism of M:CdS in degradation of methylene blue is also described.

  17. White light emitting Ho{sup 3+}-doped CdS nanocrystal ingrained glass nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Chirantan; Karmakar, Basudeb, E-mail: basudebk@cgcri.res.in [Glass Science and Technology Section, Glass Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Goswami, Madhumita [Glass and Advanced Materials Division, Bhaba Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-02-23

    We report the generation of white light from Ho{sup 3+} ion doped CdS nanocrystal ingrained borosilicate glass nanocomposites prepared by the conventional melt-quench method. Near visible 405 nm diode laser excited white light emission is produced by tuning the blue emission from the Ho{sup 3+} ions, green band edge, and orange-red surface-state emissions of the nanocrystalline CdS, which are further controlled by the size of the nanocrystals. The absorption and emission spectra evidenced the excitation of Ho{sup 3+} ions by absorption of photons emitted by the CdS nanocrystals. The high color rendering index (CRI = 84–89) and befitting chromaticity coordinates (x = 0.308–0.309, y = 0.326–0.338) of white light emission, near visible harmless excitation wavelength (405 nm), and high absorbance values at excitation wavelength point out that these glass nanocomposites may serve as a prominent candidate for resin free high power white light emitting diodes.

  18. One-pot aqueous synthesis of gadolinium doped CdTe quantum dots with dual imaging modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunli; Shen, Zhitao; Luo, Chunhua; Lin, Hechun; Huang, Rong; Wang, Yiting; Peng, Hui

    2016-08-01

    A facile one-pot strategy has been developed for the aqueous synthesis of Gd doped CdTe (Gd:CdTe) QDs as fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging dual-modal agent. The prepared Gd:CdTe QDs showed narrow size distribution and the average size was less than 5nm. The amount of Gd(3+) dopant in Gd:CdTe QDs significantly affected the optical properties of obtained QDs. The highest PL QY for the prepared Gd:CdTe QDs was up to 42.5%. The QDs showed the weak toxicity and significant enhancement in MRI signal. The specific relaxivity value (r1) was determined to be 4.22mM(-1)s(-1). These properties make the prepared Gd:CdTe QDs be an effective dual-modal imaging agent and have great potential applications in biomedical field.

  19. Persistent Luminescence in Eu2+-Doped Compounds: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Van den Eeckhout

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, Matsuzawa et al. reported on the extremely long-lasting afterglow of SrAl2O4:Eu2+ codoped with Dy3+ ions, which was more than 10-times brighter than the previously widely used ZnS:Cu,Co. Since then, research for stable and efficient persistent phosphors has continuously gained popularity. However, even today - almost 15 years after the discovery of SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ - the number of persistent luminescent materials is still relatively low. Furthermore, the mechanism behind this phenomenon is still unclear. Although most authors agree on the general features, such as the existence of long-lived trap levels, many details are still shrouded in mystery. In this review, we present an overview of the important classes of known persistent luminescent materials based on Eu2+-emission and how they were prepared, and we take a closer look at the models and mechanisms that have been suggested to explain bright afterglow in various compounds.

  20. Structural and Photoelectrochemical Properties of Cu-Doped CdS Thin Films Prepared by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu-doped CdS thin films of variable doping levels have been deposited on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrate by simple and cost-effective ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The influences of doping concentration and annealing treatment on the structure and photoelectrochemical properties of the films were investigated. The deposited films were characterized by XRD, SEM, and UV-Vis spectra. Moreover, the films were investigated by electrochemical and photoelectrochemical measurements with regard to splitting water for solar energy conversion. The results showed that the Cu impurity can cause a structural change and red shift of absorption edge. It was found that the photocurrent can be improved by the Cu-doping process for the unannealed films under the weak illumination. The unannealed 5 at.% Cu-doped sample obtained the maximum IPCE, which achieved about 45% at 0.3 V versus SCE potential under 420 nm wavelength photoirradiation. In addition, the p-type CdS was formed with a doping of 4 at.%~10 at.% Cu after 450°C 2 h annealed in vacuum.

  1. CdS quantum dots sensitized Cu doped ZnO nanostructured thin films for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poornima, K.; Gopala Krishnan, K.; Lalitha, B.; Raja, M.

    2015-07-01

    ZnO nanorods and Cu doped ZnO nanorods thin films have been prepared by simple hydrothermal method. CdS quantum dots are sensitized with Cu doped ZnO nanorod thin films using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The X-ray diffraction study reveals that ZnO nanorods, and CdS quantum dot sensitized Cu doped ZnO nanorods exhibit hexagonal structure. The scanning electron microscope image shows the presence of ZnO nanorods. The average diameter and length of the aligned nanorod is 300 nm and 1.5 μm respectively. The absorption spectra shows that the absorption edge of CdS quantum dot sensitized ZnO nanorod thin film is shifted toward longer wavelength region when compared to the absorption edge of ZnO nanorods film. The conversion efficiency of the CdS quantum dot sensitized Cu doped ZnO nanorod thin film solar cell is 1.5%.

  2. Ab initio LSDA and LSDA+U study of pure and Cd-doped cubic lanthanide sesquioxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, D.; Muñoz, E.L.; Rentería, M.

    2013-01-01

    The electronic, structural, and hyperfine properties of pure and Cd-doped lanthanide (Ln) sesquioxides with the cubic bixbyite structure (Ln2O3, Ln ranging from La to Lu) have been studied using the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbital (APW+lo) method within the local spin density...

  3. Electronic structures and magnetism for carbon doped CdSe: Modified Becke-Johnson density functional calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, S. W.; Song, T.; Huang, X. N.; Yang, L.; Ding, L. J.; Pan, L. Q.

    2016-09-01

    Utilizing the full potential linearized augment plane wave method, the electronic structures and magnetism for carbon doped CdSe are investigated. Calculations show carbon substituting selenium could induce CdSe to be a diluted magnetic semiconductor. Single carbon dopant could induce 2.00 μB magnetic moment. Electronic structures show the long-range ferromagnetic coupling mainly originates from the p-d exchange-like p-p coupling interaction. Positive chemical pair interactions indicate carbon dopants would form homogeneous distribution in CdSe host. The formation energy implies the non-equilibrium fabricated technology is necessary during the samples fabricated.

  4. An investigation of arsenic-doped CdS/electrolyte solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, L.P.; Palwe, A.B. (Dept. of Applied Electronics, Shivaji Univ., Centre for Post-Graduate Studies, Solapur (India)); Sawant, V.S. (Dept. of Electronics, Y.C. Inst. of Science, Satara (India))

    1990-01-01

    An investigation of the photovoltaic properties of the cadmium sulphide semiconductor-liquid junction solar cell is presented. A well known chemical bath deposition technique was used for the deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide photoelectrodes. The photoelectrode was doped with trivalent arsenic in the concentration range 0.01-2 wt.%. Current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements were performed in a sulphide/polysulphide redox couple using a sensitized carbon counterelectrode. The performance of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell is examined in terms of the cell parameters, namely open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, series and shunt resistances, efficiency, fill factor, junction ideality factors and flat band potential. An improvement in cell performance has been observed for a cell formed with 0.25 wt.% CdS:As photoelectrode. The results are supported by spectral response and optical absorption studies. (orig.).

  5. AgCl-doped CdSe quantum dots with near-IR photoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotin, Pavel Aleksandrovich; Bubenov, Sergey Sergeevich; Mordvinova, Natalia Evgenievna; Dorofeev, Sergey Gennadievich

    2017-01-01

    We report the synthesis of colloidal CdSe quantum dots doped with a novel Ag precursor: AgCl. The addition of AgCl causes dramatic changes in the morphology of synthesized nanocrystals from spherical nanoparticles to tetrapods and finally to large ellipsoidal nanoparticles. Ellipsoidal nanoparticles possess an intensive near-IR photoluminescence ranging up to 0.9 eV (ca. 1400 nm). In this article, we explain the reasons for the formation of the ellipsoidal nanoparticles as well as the peculiarities of the process. The structure, Ag content, and optical properties of quantum dots are also investigated. The optimal conditions for maximizing both the reaction yield and IR photoluminescence quantum yield are found.

  6. Spectroscopic study on the doping of polycrystalline CdTe layers for solar cells; Spektroskopische Untersuchungen zur Dotierung von polykristallinen CdTe-Schichten fuer Solarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Christian

    2011-11-29

    First in the present thesis the fundamental properties of CdTe are described. In the following it is discussed, how a CdTe solar cell is generally constructed, which specialities are to be regarded, and how an improvement of the actually reachable data of such a solar cell in view of the efficiency can be reached fundamentally and in then practical realization. In the third chapter the physical foundations of the most important methods are discussed, which are applied in the framework of this thesis for the analysis of the CdTe layers. The fourth chapter describes the details of the experiments of this thesis. The fifth chapter deals with the analysis of the photoluminescence of CdTe layers. Special attention is put on the analysis of the excitonic luminescence. The sixth chapter treats the implantation of CdTe layers with phosphor. The influence of phosphorus as dopant on the PL spectra of CdTe and the correponding characteristics of implanted solar cells are presented. Also the influence of radiation damages as consequence of the ion implantation is studied in this chapter by means of the analysis of differently thick absorber layers. In the seventh chapter finally a new procedure for the fabrication of solar cells on the base of CdTe as absorber material is introduced, which shall make possible to change the stoichiometry of cadmium mand tellurium specifically and to present additionally a suited material, in order to form the doping of CdTE a solar-cell material variably. The fundamental properties of the new facility are experimentally determined, and first solar cells are fabricated with this facility and analyzed. Also an in-situ doping with phosphorus is thereby performed and the result studied.

  7. Carboxylic-containing copolymer as template to prepare CdS, ZnS and doped nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    CdS, CdS:Mn, ZnS, ZnS:Mn and ZnS:Tb nanoparticles were preparedby using carboxylic-containing copolymer, polystyrene-maleic anhydride (PSM), as template. Average particle size, 2.5 nm for CdS nanoparticles, is deduced from UV-vis absorption spectra and consistent with the observation of TEM. Characteristic emissions of the doping ions can be observed and the energy transfer from the host to the doping ions is verified. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were studied to confirm the bonding effect of the copolymer and the metal ions. PSM hydrolyzed and chelated metal ions by its carboxylic group, and then performed as a protection layer after the formation of nanoparticles.

  8. Cobalt-doping effects in single crystalline and polycrystalline EuFe2-xCoxAs2 compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A series of Co-doped EuFe2-xCoxAs2 compounds were prepared in both of single crystalline and polycrystalline forms.The Co-doping effects on the crystal structure,electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility were systematically studied.Superconductivity was found in polycrystalline Co-doped samples from zero resistivity effects,with the highest onset superconducting transition temperature at 26 K in the optimum doped EuFe1.84Co0.16As2 compound.While due to the stronger competition between the superconducting order and the Eu2+ magnetic order,the zero resistivity effect is absent in the Co-doped single crystal samples.

  9. A facile synthesis and spectral characterization of Cu{sup 2+} doped CdO/ZnS nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce Stella, R.; Thirumala Rao, G.; Babu, B.; Pushpa Manjari, V. [Department of Physics, University College of Sciences, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, AP 522510 (India); Reddy, Ch. Venkata; Shim, Jaesool [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ravikumar, R.V.S.S.N., E-mail: rvssn@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, University College of Sciences, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, AP 522510 (India)

    2015-06-15

    A facile two-step method is demonstrated for the preparation of Cu{sup 2+} doped CdO/ZnS nanocomposite. Systematic investigations like X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL) and magnetic studies are carried out for the prepared material. From powder XRD, the nanocomposites are comprised for cubic phase of both CdO and ZnS in a close contact with each other. The ground state wave function of dopant ions has been estimated from EPR studies. Optical and EPR data confirm that doped Cu{sup 2+}ions occupy rhombically distorted octahedral sites with the host material. Due to doping, band gap has been changed and blue shifts occurred in PL. Magnetic measurements indicate a possible ferromagnetic response, associated to the exchange interaction between local spin-polarized electrons of Cu{sup 2+} ions and conductive electrons. - Graphical abstract: M–H curve of Cu{sup 2+} doped CdO–ZnS nanocomposites. The magnetic properties of Cu{sup 2+} doped CdO/ZnS nanocomposite has been investigated using vibrating sample magnetometer given as magnetization and hysteresis (M–H) curve. The magnetization curve with noticeable coercivity of M–H loop clearly indicate the existence of ferromagnetic ordering in Cu{sup 2+} doped CdO/ZnS nanocomposite at room temperature. According to the Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida (RKKY) theory, the exchange interaction between local spin-polarized electrons (such as the electrons of Cu{sup 2+} ions) and conductive electrons is the main cause that leads to the ferromagnetism. Coercivity (Hc) of the field is about 98 Oe, saturation magnetization (Ms) and remnant magnetization (Mr) of present sample is estimated to be 15.8×10{sup −3} and 1.43×10{sup −3} emu/g respectively. The ferromagnetism observed in the prepared material is not commencing with other impurities but expected to

  10. Electrochemical Incineration of Phenolic Compounds from the Hydrocarbon Industry Using Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Medel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical incineration using boron-doped diamond electrodes was applied to samples obtained from a refinery and compared to the photo-electro-Fenton process in order to selectively eliminate the phenol and phenolic compounds from a complex matrix. Due to the complex chemical composition of the sample, a pretreatment to the sample in order to isolate the phenolic compounds was applied. The effects of the pretreatment and of pH on the degradation of the phenolic compounds were evaluated. The results indicate that the use of a boron-doped diamond electrode in an electrochemical incineration process mineralizes 99.5% of the phenolic sample content. Working in acidic medium (pH = 1, and applying 2 A at 298 K under constant stirring for 2 hours, also results in the incineration of the reaction intermediates reflected by 97% removal of TOC. In contrast, the photo-electro-Fenton process results in 99.9% oxidation of phenolic compounds with only a 25.69% removal of TOC.

  11. Electronic structure and magnetism in doped semiconducting half-Heusler compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, B R K; Dasgupta, I [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2005-08-24

    We have studied in detail the electronic structure and magnetism in M (Mn and Cr)-doped semiconducting half-Heusler compounds FeVSb, CoTiSb and NiTiSn (XY{sub x}M{sub 1-x}Z) in a wide concentration range using the local-spin density functional method in the framework of the tight-binding linearized muffin tin orbital method (TB-LMTO) and supercell approach. Our calculations indicate that some of these compounds are not only ferromagnetic but also half-metallic and may be useful for spintronics applications. The electronic structure of the doped systems is analysed with the aid of a simple model where we have considered the interaction between the dopant transition metal (M) and the valence band X-Z hybrid. We have shown that the strong X-d-M-d interaction places the M-d states close to the Fermi level with the M-t{sub 2g} states lying higher in energy in comparison to the M-e{sub g} states. Depending on the number of available d electrons, ferromagnetism is realized provided that the d manifold is partially occupied. The tendencies toward ferromagnetic (FM) or antiferromagnetic (AFM) behaviour are discussed within Anderson-Hasegawa models of super-exchange and double-exchange. In our calculations for Mn-doped NiTiSn, the strong preference for FM over AFM ordering suggests a possible high Curie temperature for these systems.

  12. NIR photoluminescence of bismuth-doped CsCdBr{sub 3} – The first ternary bromide phase with a univalent bismuth impurity center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, Alexey N., E-mail: alexey.romanov@list.ru [N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Kosygina Street, 119991 (Russian Federation); Veber, Alexander A. [Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Lehrstuhl für Glas und Keramik, Martensstraße 5, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Vtyurina, Daria N. [N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Kosygina Street, 119991 (Russian Federation); Kouznetsov, Mikhail S.; Zaramenskikh, Ksenia S.; Lisitsky, Igor S. [State Scientific-Research and Design Institute of Rare-Metal Industry “Giredmet” JSC, 5-1 B.Tolmachevsky Lane, 119017 Moscow (Russian Federation); Fattakhova, Zukhra T.; Haula, Elena V. [N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Kosygina Street, 119991 (Russian Federation); Loiko, Pavel A.; Yumashev, Konstantin V. [Center for Optical Materials and Technologies, Belarusian National Technical University, 65/17 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220013 Minsk (Belarus); Korchak, Vladimir N. [N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Kosygina Street, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    Single crystals of ternary bromide phase CsCdBr{sub 3} doped with univalent bismuth cations are prepared for the first time by the Bridgman method. Bi{sup +} impurity center emits a broadband long-lived near-infrared photoluminescence with a maximum at ~1053 nm. The characteristics of this photoluminescence and its relations with the energy spectrum of Bi{sup +} impurity center are discussed. A comparison of Bi{sup +} photoluminescence in CsCdBr{sub 3} and ternary chlorides (studied previously) is performed. - Highlights: • Single crystals of Bi{sup +}-doped ternary bromide CsCdBr{sub 3} were prepared. • Broadband NIR photoluminescence was observed from Bi{sup +}-doped CsCdBr{sub 3}. • Single optical center is responsible for NIR emission in Bi{sup +}-doped CsCdBr{sub 3}.

  13. New intermetallic compounds with the ErCuCd{sub 2} type of structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelinska, O.Ya.; Solokha, P.G.; Pavlyuk, V.V

    2004-03-24

    The crystal structure of new RTZn{sub 2} intermetallic compounds (R=La, Ce, Tb; T=Co, Cu) was determined. The X-ray diffraction data showed that these compounds are isostructural to the new ternary compound ErCuCd{sub 2}, which was found to crystallize with a superstructure of the ErCd{sub 3} structure type (space group Cmcm, Pearson code oS16, a=0.7097(1) nm, b=1.0659(3) nm, c=0.4471(1) nm, V=0.3382(2) nm{sup 3}, Z=4). The obtained reliability factors are R{sub F}=0.0240 and R{sub w}=0.1127 for 235 unique reflections (vertical barF{sub 0} vertical bar>4.00{sigma}|F{sub 0}|)

  14. Influence of Sr-doping on the photocatalytic activities of CdS-ZnS solid solution photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Jing, Dengwei; Chen, Qingyun; Guo, Liejin [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 West Xianning Road, Xi' an City, Shanxi Province 710049 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Alkaline earth metal Sr was successfully doped into CdS-ZnS solid solutions for the first time. The as-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis), photoluminescence spectra (PL), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), etc. BET characterization indicated that all the prepared samples possessed mesoporous structures with large specific surface areas. Photocatalytic H{sub 2} evolution results showed that Sr-doping can efficiently improve the photocatalytic activities while the molar ratio of Zn was greater than 20% in the absence of noble metal as co-catalyst. The correlation between the Zn/Cd ratio of solid solution and the Sr-doping amount was investigated in detail. Results showed that the recombination of photoelectrons and holes could be efficiently suppressed by doping metal ions on the shallow surface of CdS-ZnS, which could become the centers of shallow electrons or holes traps, thus significantly improve the efficiency of charge separation. (author)

  15. Structural, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Co Doped CdTe Alloy Powders Prepared by Solid-State Reaction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rigana Begam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Co doped CdTe powder samples were prepared by solid-state reaction method. In the present work effect of Co doping on structural, optical, and magnetic properties has been studied. X-ray diffraction studies confirm zinc blend structure for all the samples. The lattice parameter showed linear increase with the increase in Co content. The elemental constituents were characterized by EDAX. Optical studies showed the increase in band gap with increase in Co level. The samples were diluted magnetic semiconductors and exhibited clear hysteresis loop showing room temperature ferromagnetism as confirmed by vibrating sample magnetometer.

  16. Effect of indium doping level on certain physical properties of CdS films deposited using an improved SILAR technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K., E-mail: kkr1365@yahoo.com [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM Sri Pushpam College (Autonomous), Poondi, Thanjavur-613 503, Tamil Nadu (India); Senthamilselvi, V. [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM Sri Pushpam College (Autonomous), Poondi, Thanjavur-613 503, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Physics, Kunthavai Naachiyaar Government College for Women (Autonomous), Thanjavur-613 007, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-04-01

    The influence of indium (In) doping levels (0, 2, …, 8 at.%) on certain physical properties of cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films deposited using an improved successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (ISILAR) method has been studied. In this improved SILAR technique, a fresh anionic solution was introduced after a particular number of dipping cycles in order to achieve good stoichiometry. All the deposited films exhibited cubic phase with (1 1 1) plane as preferential orientation. The calculated crystallite size values are found to be decreased from 54.80 nm to 23.65 nm with the increase in In doping level. The optical study confirmed the good transparency (80%) of the film. A most compact and pinhole free smooth surface was observed for the CdS films with 8 at.% of In doping level. The perceived photoluminescence (PL) bands endorsed the lesser defect crystalline nature of the obtained CdS:In films. The chemical composition analysis (EDAX) showed the near stoichiometric nature of this ISILAR deposited CdS:In films.

  17. Point Defects in Pb-, Bi-, and In-Doped CdZnTe Detectors: Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, R.; Keeter, K.; Rodriguez, R.; Bolotnikov, A. E.; Hossain, A.; Camarda, G. S.; Kim, K. H.; Yang, G.; Cui, Y.; Carcelen, V.; Franc, J.; Li, Z.; James, R. B.

    2012-03-01

    We studied, by current deep-level transient spectroscopy (I-DLTS), point defects induced in CdZnTe detectors by three dopants: Pb, Bi, and In. Pb-doped CdZnTe detectors have a new acceptor trap at around 0.48 eV. The absence of a VCd trap suggests that all Cd vacancies are compensated by Pb interstitials after they form a deep-acceptor complex [[PbCd]+-V{Cd/2-}]-. Bi-doped CdZnTe detectors had two distinct traps: a shallow trap at around 36 meV and a deep donor trap at around 0.82 eV. In detectors doped with In, we noted three well-known traps: two acceptor levels at around 0.18 eV (A-centers) and 0.31 eV (VCd), and a deep trap at around 1.1 eV.

  18. Excellent magnetocaloric properties in RE2Cu2Cd (RE = Dy and Tm) compounds and its composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yikun; Yang, Yang; Xu, Xiao; Geng, Shuhua; Hou, Long; Li, Xi; Ren, Zhongming; Wilde, Gerhard

    2016-09-01

    The magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of ternary intermetallic RE2Cu2Cd (RE = Dy and Tm) compounds and its composite materials have been investigated in detail. Both compounds undergo a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition at its own Curie temperatures of TC ~ 48.5 and 15 K for Dy2Cu2Cd and Tm2Cu2Cd, respectively, giving rise to the large reversible MCE. An additionally magnetic transition can be observed around 16 K for Dy2Cu2Cd compound. The maximum values of magnetic entropy change (-ΔSMmax) are estimated to be 17.0 and 20.8 J/kg K for Dy2Cu2Cd and Tm2Cu2Cd, for a magnetic field change of 0-70 kOe, respectively. A table-like MCE in a wide temperature range of 10-70 K and enhanced refrigerant capacity (RC) are achieved in the Dy2Cu2Cd - Tm2Cu2Cd composite materials. For a magnetic field change of 0-50 kOe, the maximum improvements of RC reach 32% and 153%, in comparison with that of individual compound Dy2Cu2Cd and Tm2Cu2Cd. The excellent MCE properties suggest the RE2Cu2Cd (RE = Dy and Tm) and its composite materials could be expected to have effective applications for low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  19. Photoluminescence in Er-doped V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Er-doped CdV{sub 2}O{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Rivera, Y.A.; Cervantes-Juárez, E.; Aquino-Meneses, L. [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla. Postgrado en Física Aplicada. Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Av. San Claudio y Av. 18 sur, Col. San Manuel Ciudad Universitaria, Puebla Pue. C. P. 72570 (Mexico); Lozada-Morales, R., E-mail: rlozada@fcfm.buap.mx [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla. Postgrado en Física Aplicada. Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Av. San Claudio y Av. 18 sur, Col. San Manuel Ciudad Universitaria, Puebla Pue. C. P. 72570 (Mexico); Jiménez-Sandoval, S. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Apartado Postal 1-798, Querétaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico); Rubio-Rosas, E.; Agustín-Serrano, R.; Cerna, C. de la; Reyes-Cervantes, E. [Centro Universitario de Vinculación y transferencia de Tecnología, Prol. De la 24 Sur y Av. San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, Puebla (Mexico); Zelaya Angel, O.; Tomas, S.A. [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, P.O. Box 14-740, México 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez-Melgarejo, F. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Apartado Postal 1-798, Querétaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico); and others

    2014-11-15

    A group of samples from the CdO–V{sub 2}O{sub 5} binary system, particularly with high V{sub 2}O{sub 5} content, doped with Er{sup 3+} were prepared. The set of samples was fabricated using the conventional melt-quenching method. Depending on the proportion of the used reactants, the existence of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and of CdV{sub 2}O{sub 6} was identified from X-ray diffraction measurements and Raman spectroscopy. Depending on the relative concentrations of CdO and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, different types of morphologies for each sample were found in a scanning electron microscope. Their chemical composition was measured from energy dispersive spectroscopy in the same instrument. An effective Er-doping of the order of 1.0±0.35 at% was found for each sample. From optical absorption data, the composition dependent optical band gap was determined with values between 1.94 and 2.29 eV. Finally, photoluminescence experiments showed, in the samples with the highest V{sub 2}O{sub 5} content, wide bands associated to oxygen vacancies. For the rest of the samples emissions from electronic transitions of Er{sup 3+} ions were detected. - Highlights: • PL ascribed to oxygen vacancies in Er-doped V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was observed. • PL of electronic transitions of Er{sup 3+} which is immersed in CdV{sub 2}O{sub 6} was found. • Some of those electronic transitions present sharp and narrow emissions. • An E{sub g} in the 1.94–2.29 range for this batch of samples was determined.

  20. Structural and optical properties of Ni-doped CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premarani, R. [Arumugam Pillai SeethaiAmmal College, Thiruppattur-630211 (India); Saravanakumar, S., E-mail: sarophy84@gmail.com; Chandramohan, R. [SreeSevuganAnnamalai College, Devakottai-630303 (India); Mahalingam, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-24

    The structural and optical behavior of undoped Cadmiun Sulphide (CdS) and Ni-doped CdS thinfilms prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique is reported. The crystallite sizes of the thinfilms have been characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD). The particle sizes increase with the increase of Ni content in the CdS thinfilms. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) results indicated that CdS thinfilms is made up of aggregate of spherical-like particles. The composition was estimated by Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-ray (EDX) and reported. Spectroscopic studies revealed considerable improvement in transmission and the band gap of the films changes with addition of Ni dopant that is associated with variation in crystallite sizes in the nano regime.

  1. Physical Property Characterization of Pb2+-Doped CdS Nanofilms Deposited by Chemical-Bath Deposition at Low Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Reyes, J.; Contreras-Rascón, J. I.; Galván-Arellano, M.; Arias-Cerón, J. S.; Gutiérrez-Arias, J. E. M.; Flores-Mena, J. E.; Morín-Castillo, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    Pb2 +-doped CdS nanofilms are prepared using the growth technique chemical bath deposition (CBD) under optimum conditions lead acetate at the reservoir temperature of 20 ± 2 °C. The Pb2+ molar concentration was in the range 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.19.67, which was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The X-ray diffraction results show that the films are of PbS-CdS composites with individual CdS and PbS planes. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Raman scattering reveal that CdS-deposited films showed the zincblende (ZB) crystalline phase. The average grain size of the CdS films ranged from 1.21 to 6.67 nm that was determined by the Debye-Scherrer equation from ZB (111) direction, and it was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Raman scattering shows that the lattice dynamics is characteristic of bimodal behaviour and the multipeaks adjust of the first optical longitudinal mode for the Pb2+-doped CdS denotes the Raman shift of the characteristic peak in the range of 305-298 cm-1 of the CdS crystals, which is associated with the lead ion incorporation. The films exhibit three direct bandgaps, ~2.44 eV attributed to CdS; the other varies continuously from 1.67 to 1.99 eV and another disappears as Pb2+ molar fraction increases.

  2. A novel visible-light Nd-doped CdTe photocatalyst for degradation of Reactive Red 43:Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Younes HANIFEHPOUR; Nazanin HAMNABARD; Bamin KHOMAMI; Sang Woo JOO; Bong-Ki MIN; Jae Hak JUNG

    2016-01-01

    Novel high-efficiency visible-light-sensitive Nd-doped CdTe nanoparticles were prepared with various doping concentra-tions of neodymium ion by a facile hydrothermal method. The reaction products were analyzed via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-Vis diffuse re-flectance spectroscopy techniques. Red shift was seen in the absorption band edge peak in the UV-Vis absorbance spectrum with in-creasing Nd content. The XRD and XPS results confirmed that Nd ions successfully replaced Cd atoms and were incorporated into the crystal lattice of CdTe. SEM and TEM images indicated spherical structure and high crystallinity. Even at a very low Nd/CdTe molar ratio of 2 mol.%, Nd doping could greatly enhance the photocatalytic activity of CdTe. The photocatalytic activity of Nd-doped CdTe nanoparticles was evaluated by monitoring the decolorization of RRed 43 in aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. The color removal efficiency of Nd0.08Cd0.92Te and pure CdTe were 83.14% and 14.32% after 100 min of treatment, respectively. Among different amounts of the doping agent, 8 mol.% Nd indicated the highest decolorization. The presence of radical scavengers such as Cl−, CO32−, SO42−, and buthanol was found to reduce the decolorization efficiency.

  3. Comparative analysis on homogeneity of Pb and Cd in epoxy molding compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyun-Gmee LEE; Yong-Keun SON; Jin-Sook LEE; Tai-Min NOH; Hee-Soo LEE

    2011-01-01

    Reference materials for quantitative determination of regulated heavy metals, such as Pb and Cd in electronic components,were designed and investigated in terms of stability and homogeneity. Reference materials with two concentration levels of heavy metals were prepared by spiking Pb and Cd compounds to epoxy molding compounds made by mixing silica powders and epoxy resin. The concentration changes of the reference materials during stability test for I a were not observed. In the homogeneity assessment, the as-prepared reference materials were studied by using three different analytical tools, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). X-ray fluoroescence spectrometry (XRF) and laser ablation ICP mass. The results show different homogeneities by the characteristics of analytical tools and the materials.

  4. The effect of In doping in CdS/CuInSe[sub 2] heterojunction formation: A photoemission investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.J.; Niles, D.W. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)); Rioux, D.; Patel, R.; Hoechst, H. (Synchrotron Radiation Center, 3731 Schneider Drive, Stoughton, Wicsonsin 53589 (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopy was used to investigate the development of the electronic structure at the CdS(In)/CuInSe[sub 2] heterojunction interface. In-doped CdS overlayers were deposited in steps on single-crystal [ital n]-type CuInSe[sub 2] at 250 [degree]C. Results indicate that the CdS(In) grows in registry with the substrate, initially in a two dimensional growth mode followed by three dimensional island growth as is corroborated by RHEED analysis. Photoemission measurements were acquired after each growth in order to observe changes in the valence band electronic structure as well as changes in the In4d, Se3d, Cd4d, and S2p core lines. The results were used to correlate the interface chemistry with the electronic structure at these interfaces and to directly determine the CdS(In)/CuInSe[sub 2] heterojunction valence band discontinuity and the consequent heterojunction band diagram as a function of In dopant concentration. We measured a valence band offset [Delta]E[sub v]=0.3 eV, independent of In doping.

  5. Spectral investigations on undoped and Cu²⁺ doped ZnO-CdS composite nanopowders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G Thirumala; Babu, B; Stella, R Joyce; Manjari, V Pushpa; Ravikumar, R V S S N

    2015-03-15

    Undoped and Cu(2+) doped ZnO-CdS composite nanopowders were synthesized by simple chemical precipitation method. Structural and spectroscopic properties of the prepared samples have been characterized by XRD, SEM with EDS, TEM, FT-IR, UV-Vis, EPR and Photoluminescence studies. X-ray diffraction pattern contains a series of peaks corresponds to hexagonal phase of ZnO and CdS. The average crystallite sizes of undoped and Cu(2+) doped samples are determined and are in the range of 25-30 nm. SEM and TEM micrographs reveal that the samples show spherical like structures with little agglomeration. FT-IR spectra show the fundamental mode of vibrations of ZnO at 515 cm(-1), CdS at 621 cm(-1) and other functional groups. Optical absorption spectrum of Cu(2+) doped sample consists of three bands at 665, 823 and 1192 nm attributed to the transitions (2)B1g→(2)Eg, (2)B2g and (2)A1g respectively. Crystal field and tetragonal field parameters are evaluated as Dq=1214, Ds=1610 and Dt=389 cm(-1). From EPR, spin-Hamiltonian and hyperfine splitting parameters are evaluated for Cu(2+) doped sample as g‖=2.3391, g⊥=2.0550 and A‖=130×10(-4) cm(-1), A⊥=36×10(-4) cm(-1). The optical and EPR data suggests that Cu(2+) entered into host lattice as tetragonally distorted octahedral site symmetry. PL spectra consists two emission bands at 367, 380 nm in UV region. A sharp blue emission peak at 425 nm and a broad green emission peak in the range of 450-570 nm are observed. The enhanced visible emission is observed after doping.

  6. CdS/CdSe-sensitized solar cell based on Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by the decomposition of zinc acetate solid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jianping; Wang, Minqiang; Ye, Wei; Fang, Junfei; Zhang, Pengchao; Yang, Yongping; Yang, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    In the study, Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Al-ZnO NPs) were prepared by the decomposition of zinc acetate solid solution. The X-ray diffraction results showed that Al3+ was successfully doped without the formation of Al and Al2O3 impurity phases. The less Al-doping did not change the hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO. The ratio of Al to Al + Zn (9.05%) measured by the energy dispersive X-ray also confirmed the formation of Al-ZnO. The Al-ZnO NPs were used as the photoanode material to prepare CdS/CdSe-sensitized solar cell. Compared with the cell based on commercial ZnO NPs (C-ZnO), the short-circuit current density and the fill factor of the cell were increased from 5.8 mA/cm2 and 34.1% (C-ZnO) to 7.78 mA/cm2 and 48.7% (Al-ZnO), respectively. The cell efficiency was increased from 1.01% (C-ZnO) to (1.9%) (Al-ZnO) and the increase percentage reached 88.1%. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage-decay suggested the lower carrier transport resistance and the longer electron lifetime of Al-ZnO-based cell.

  7. Nanocauliflower like structure of CdS thin film for solar cell photovoltaic applications: Insitu tin doping by chemical bath deposition technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wilson, KC

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on surface morphology changes of in situ tin (Sn) doped cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin film nanostructures prepared on a glass substrate using the chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. Sn-doping in the presence of triethanolammine (TEOA...

  8. Surface plasmon waveguides with gradually doped or NiAl intermetallic compound buried contact for terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indjin, D.; Ikonić, Z.; Harrison, P.; Kelsall, R. W.

    2003-09-01

    Improved designs of surface plasmon waveguides for use in GaAs/AlGaAs terahertz quantum cascade lasers are presented. Modal losses and confinement factors are calculated for TM modes in metal-variably doped multilayer semiconductor and metal-intermetallic compound layer clad structures and compared with those obtained in recently realized metal-highly doped semiconductor clad layer structures. Considerable improvements of the mode confinement factors are predicted, and guidelines for choosing the confinement layer parameters are given.

  9. Effect of boron-doping on the luminescent and electrical properties of a CdS/Si heterostructure based on Si nanoporous pillar array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ling Ling [Department of Physics and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); College of Physics and Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); Wang, Xiao Bo [Department of Physics and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); College of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455000 (China); Cai, Xiao Jun [Department of Physics and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Li, Xin Jian, E-mail: lixj@zzu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • B-doped CdS/Si-NPA heterostructure was prepared by a CBD method. • B-doping does not affect the crystal structure and surface morphology of CdS/Si-NPA. • The optical/electrical properties of CdS/Si-NPA could be tuned by changing [B]/[Cd] ratio. • CdS/Si-NPA with optimal physical properties could be prepared with [B]/[Cd] = 0.01. • The method may find applications in preparing CdS/Si-NPA devices with high device performances. - Abstract: Using silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) as substrates and boric acid as dopant source, a series of CdS/Si nanoheterostructures were prepared by growing B-doped CdS thin films on Si-NPA via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The structural, optical and electrical properties of CdS/Si-NPA were studied as a function of the [B]/[Cd] ratio of the initial CBD solutions. Our results disclosed that B concentration could be tuned effectively through changing the ratio of [B]/[Cd], which would bring large variation on the optical and electrical properties of CdS/Si-NPA without affecting its crystal structure and surface morphology. The samples with optimal optical and electrical properties were prepared with [B]/[Cd] = 0.01, in which the physical properties of relatively strong light absorption, small electrical resistivity, low turn-on voltage, small leakage current density and high breakdown voltage could be obtained. These results indicated that B-doping might be an effective path for promoting the performance of the optoelectronic devices based on CdS/Si-NPA.

  10. XPS Study of CdTe Thin Films Doped with Gd%掺Gd-CdTe薄膜的XPS研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安晓晖; 李蓉萍; 田磊; 何志刚; 吴蓉; 李忠贤

    2012-01-01

    CdTe thin film doped with Gd has been obtained by vacuum evaporation technique with two sources , and chemical state has been studied by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. XPS data show that Cd,Te,O,C and Gd elements exist on the surface of the film. C1s and O1s binding energy indicates that the two elements mainly exist in the form of physical adsorption. The experiment results show that Cd and Te atoms exist in oxidation state as in well as in CdTe. Due to carbon pol-lution, Gd element does not appear on the surface, only appears in the etching process. Erosion analysis shows the Cd element s content is greater than Te, and the ratio between them tends to 1:0. 8.%应用双源法真空蒸发制备掺Gd的CdTe薄膜,并借助XPS对其进行组份分析.实验表明,Gd掺杂的CdTe薄膜的组分为Cd、Te、O、C、Gd等元素,其中C、O主要以物理吸附方式存在于薄膜表面;Cd、Te元素的存在方式为CdTe化合物及其氧化物形式;而Gd元素由于碳污染的原因在其表面未曾出现,只在刻蚀过程中出现;深度剥蚀分析表明在样品内部Cd元素的含量大于Te元素的含量,且接近于1∶0.8,趋于稳定.

  11. Synthesis and characterisations of Au-nanoparticle-doped TiO2 and CdO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin, Aytaç; Karanfil, Gamze; Özel, Faruk; Kuş, Mahmut; Say, Ridvan; Sönmezoğlu, Savaş

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, pure and gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) and cadmium oxide (CdO) thin film were prepared by the sol-gel method, and the effect of Au NP doping on the optical, structural and morphological properties of these thin films was investigated. The prepared thin films were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectra. While the optical band increases from 3.62 to 3.73 for TiO2 thin films, it decreases from 2.20 to 1.55 for CdO thin films with increasing Au doping concentration. Analysis of XRD indicates that the intensities of peaks of the crystalline phase have increased with the increasing Au NP concentrations in all thin films. SEM images demonstrate that the surface morphologies of the samples were affected by the incorporation of Au NPs. Consequently, the most significant results of the present study are that the Au NPs can be used to modify the optical, structural and morphological properties of TiO2 and CdO thin films.

  12. Metal–insulator transition in electron-doped Ba1-LaMnO3 compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoranjan Kar; S Ravi

    2002-05-01

    Electron-doped (Ba1-La)MnO3 compounds were prepared for = 0-0.5. Measurements of X-ray diffraction (XRD) at room temperature and temperature variation of dc electrical resistivity down to 20 K were carried out. Samples with = 0.2-0.5 exhibit metal–insulator (M–I) transition. The maximum M–I transition temperature (c) of 289 K was observed for 30% of La doping ( = 0.3). XRD patterns of these samples ( = 0.2-0.5) were analyzed using Rietveld refinement. These samples are found to be mostly in single-phase form with orthorhombic symmetry (space group Pbnm). We have found strong correlation between Mn–O–Mn bond angles and c of M–I transition. The resistivity data below c could be fitted to the expression ρ=ρ1 +ρ22 and this shows that double exchange interaction plays a major role even in Mn4+-rich compound. Above c the resistivity data were fitted to variable range hopping and small polaron models.

  13. Structural, optical and photovoltaic properties of co-doped CdTe QDs for quantum dots sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyaswamy, Arivarasan; Ganapathy, Sasikala; Alsalme, Ali; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Ramasamy, Jayavel

    2015-12-01

    Zinc and sulfur alloyed CdTe quantum dots (QDs) sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes have been fabricated for quantum dots sensitized solar cells. Alloyed CdTe QDs were prepared in aqueous phase using mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) as a capping agent. The influence of co-doping on the structural property of CdTe QDs was studied by XRD analysis. The enhanced optical absorption of alloyed CdTe QDs was studied using UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectra. The capping of MSA molecules over CdTe QDs was confirmed by the FTIR and XPS analyses. Thermogravimetric analysis confirms that the prepared QDs were thermally stable up to 600 °C. The photovoltaic performance of alloyed CdTe QDs sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes were studied using J-V characteristics under the illumination of light with 1 Sun intensity. These results show the highest photo conversion efficiency of η = 1.21%-5% Zn & S alloyed CdTe QDs.

  14. Influence of film thickness and In-doping on physical properties of CdS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, Sajid, E-mail: sajidarif@hotmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Space Technology (IST), Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Thermal Transport Laboratory, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Shah, Nazar Abbas [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Nazir, Adnan [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Ali, Zulfiqar [Optics Laboratories, P. O. Box 1021, Islamabad (Pakistan); Maqsood, Asghri [CESET, Center for Emerging Sciences, Engineering and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • Fabrication of polycrystalline CdS thin films by Close Spaced Sublimation technique. • The direct band gap of 2.44 eV and the electrical resistivity in the order of 10{sup 6}–10{sup 8} Ω cm was measured. • Resistivity was reduced to the order of 10{sup –2}–10{sup 1} Ω m by the thermally diffusion of indium into CdS films. -- Abstract: Polycrystalline CdS thin films were deposited on glass substrates by close spaced sublimation technique. Samples of various thicknesses, ranging from 250 to 940 nm were obtained. The optical and electrical properties of pure CdS thin films were studied as a function of film thickness. The resistivity of as-deposited CdS films was in the order of 10{sup 6}–10{sup 8} Ω cm, depending upon the film thickness. In the high temperature region, carriers are transported over the grain boundaries by thermionic emission. Resistivity was reduced to the order of 10{sup −2}–10{sup 1} Ω cm by the thermally diffusion of indium into CdS films, without changing the type of carriers. The annealing temperature dependence of structural, optical and electrical properties of In-doped CdS films showed that the samples annealed at 350 °C and 400 °C exhibited better results.

  15. Effect of Er-doping on the structural and optical properties of Cd{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozada-Morales, R.; Cid-Garcia, A.; Palomino-Merino, R. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Postgrado en Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Av. 14, San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, Puebla (Mexico); Lopez-Calzada, G.; Jimenez-Sandoval, S. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro, Apartado Postal 1-798, Queretaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico); Zayas, Ma.E. [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica de la Universidad de Sonora, Edificio 3I, Blvd. Edificio 5 E, Luis Encinas s/n, Col. Centro, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Zelaya-Angel, O. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico D. F. 07360 (Mexico); Carmona-Rodriguez, J. [Instituto Tecnologico Superior de Poza Rica, Calle Luis Donaldo Colosio S/N, Col. Arroyo del Maiz, C.P. 93230, Poza Rica, Veracruz (Mexico); Rubio-Rosas, E. [Centro de Vinculacion Universitaria, Av. 14, San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, Puebla (Mexico); Portillo-Moreno, O. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Av. 14, San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, Puebla (Mexico)

    2012-11-15

    The melt-quenching method was used to prepare two groups of samples using CdO and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} as starting materials. Taking into account that a crystalline-amorphous phase transition would be expected for the CdO-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} system, a first batch was prepared varying the proportions of CdO and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in the intervals 60-95 and 40-5 wt%, respectively. With the aim of investigating the effect of erbium in the phase transition and crystalline quality of the first group of samples, a second batch was fabricated with the same proportions of CdO and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, with the addition of 5 wt% of Er(NO{sub 3})5H{sub 2}O as source of Er{sup 3+} ions. It was found that crystalline or amorphous samples could be obtained depending on the relative concentrations of CdO and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and that the borderline between amorphous and crystalline samples was affected by the incorporation of Er. From X-ray diffraction, it was possible to identify the formation of the ternary compound Cd{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} in the crystalline cases. The Raman and infrared bands in these samples were in agreement with the lattice modes of Cd{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Additionally, an improvement in the crystalline quality of Cd{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} was obtained for the Er-doped samples. The effect of the local environment around the Er{sup 3+} ions on the room temperature photoluminescence was also investigated for the amorphous and crystalline samples. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Effects of ultraviolet light on B-doped CdS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method using perfume atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novruzov, V.D. [Department of Physics, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize (Turkey); Keskenler, E.F., E-mail: keskenler@gmail.com [Department of Nanotechnology Engineering, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize (Turkey); Tomakin, M. [Department of Physics, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize (Turkey); Kahraman, S. [Department of Physics, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Gorur, O. [Department of Physics, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu (Turkey)

    2013-09-01

    Boron doped CdS thin films were deposited by spray pyrolysis method using perfume atomizer. The effects of ultraviolet light on the structural, optical and electrical properties of B-doped CdS thin films were investigated as a function of dopant concentration (B/Cd). X-ray diffraction studies showed that all samples were polycrystalline nature with hexagonal structure. It was determined that the preferred orientation of non-illuminated samples changes from (1 0 1) to (0 0 2) with B concentration. The c lattice constant of films decreases from 6.810 Å to 6.661 Å with boron doping. The XRD peak intensity increased with the illumination for almost all the samples. The lattice parameters of B-doped samples remained nearly constant after illumination. It was found that the optical transmittance, photoluminescence spectra, resistivity and carrier concentration of the B-doped samples are stable after the illumination with UV light. Also the effects of UV light on B-doped CdS/Cu{sub 2}S solar cell were investigated and it was determined that photoelectrical parameters of B-doped solar cell were more durable against the UV light.

  17. Effects of ultraviolet light on B-doped CdS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method using perfume atomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novruzov, V. D.; Keskenler, E. F.; Tomakin, M.; Kahraman, S.; Gorur, O.

    2013-09-01

    Boron doped CdS thin films were deposited by spray pyrolysis method using perfume atomizer. The effects of ultraviolet light on the structural, optical and electrical properties of B-doped CdS thin films were investigated as a function of dopant concentration (B/Cd). X-ray diffraction studies showed that all samples were polycrystalline nature with hexagonal structure. It was determined that the preferred orientation of non-illuminated samples changes from (1 0 1) to (0 0 2) with B concentration. The c lattice constant of films decreases from 6.810 Å to 6.661 Å with boron doping. The XRD peak intensity increased with the illumination for almost all the samples. The lattice parameters of B-doped samples remained nearly constant after illumination. It was found that the optical transmittance, photoluminescence spectra, resistivity and carrier concentration of the B-doped samples are stable after the illumination with UV light. Also the effects of UV light on B-doped CdS/Cu2S solar cell were investigated and it was determined that photoelectrical parameters of B-doped solar cell were more durable against the UV light.

  18. Enhancing Roentgen Sensitivity of Gold-Doped CdIn2S4 Thiospinel for X-Ray Detection Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz N. Mustafaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The single crystals CdIn2S4Au were grown from preliminarily synthesized polycrystals by the method of chemical transport reactions in a closed volume with iodine used as a carrier. The influence of doping CdIn2S4 single crystals by gold (3 mol % on their X-ray dosimetric parameters is studied. It is found that the X-ray sensitivity coefficients of CdIn2S4Au crystals increase 6–8 times compared with undoped CdIn2S4 at effective radiation hardness Va= 25–50 keV and dose rate E=0.75–78.05 R/min. Moreover, the persistence of the crystal characteristics completely disappears and the supple voltage of a CdIn2S4Au roentgen detector decreases threefold. The dependence of the steady X-ray-induced current in CdIn2S4Au on the X-ray dose is described by linear law. The studied crystals have a rather high room-temperature X-ray sensitivity (K=2·10-9–1.5·10-8 (A·min/(R·V and are attractive as materials for X-ray detectors.

  19. Preparation and improved electrical performance of the Pr-doped CaMnO3-δ thermoelectric compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F. P.; Lu, Q. M.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, J. X.

    2013-09-01

    The rare earth Pr-doped Ca1-xPrxMnO3-δ (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.14) compound bulk samples are fabricated by citrate acid sol-gel combined with the ceramic preparation method. The effects of Pr doping on the structural and electrical transport properties of CaMnO3-δ within the high-temperature region are investigated in detail. The results show that single orthorhombic compounds can be formed in the experimental doping region. The remarkably reduced electrical resistivity is observed for the doped samples with the minimum value 3.90 mΩ cm at 373 K for the x = 0.14 sample; the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient is decreased due to electron carrier concentration enhancement. The electrical properties of the doped samples are optimized compared with that of the parent sample, and the x = 0.08 sample is found to have the largest power factor value of 0.334 mW m-1 K-2 at 873 K. It is confirmed from the investigation that the electrical performance could be improved remarkably by rare earth Pr doping at a lower content.

  20. Study of doping non-PMMA polymer fibre canes with UV photosensitive compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Fasano, Andrea; Janting, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    and hollow-core TOPAS canes were doped with a solution of dopants in acetone/methanol and hexane/methanol, respectively. Doping time, solvent mixture concentration and doping temperature were optimised. A long and stepwise drying process was applied to the doped canes to ensure complete solvent removal...

  1. Electric-field gradients at the $^{111}In$ and $^{111m}Cd$ sites in undoped and Mg-doped $LiNbO_{3}$

    CERN Document Server

    Hauer, B; Marques, J G; Barradas, N P; Correia, J G; Agulló-López, F; Diéguez, E

    1995-01-01

    The quadrupole interaction of 111Cd in undoped (congruent) and Mg-doped LiNbO3 single crystals has been studied using the perturbed angular correlation technique after implantation of 111In and 111mCd. A stepwise-annealing procedure shows the lattice to be fully reconstructed at 773 K. Our results show that both In and Cd are in the Li position. Mg doping at 6 mol % does not have any effect on the lattice location of these impurities in LiNbO3.

  2. Development and analysis of Cu-doped ZnTe for use as a back contact interface for CdS/CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessert, T. A.; Coutts, T. J.

    1994-06-01

    It is well known that the losses associated with the back contact of typical CdS/CdTe solar cell devices can be a substantial part of the total external loss. Previous modeling has indicated that these losses will be significant, unless the value of specific contact resistance (rc) at this interface is reduced to ˜0.10 Ω-cm2 or less. Although several studies have inferred values of rc near this level, few have attempted to measure directly the value of rc as a function of various processing conditions. One reason for this situation is the difficulty in fabricating the appropriate patterns for direct analysis of rc. In the following paper, initial characterization studies of sputter-deposited, Cu-doped ZnTe are documented. Additionally, recent attempts to measure directly the contact resistance associated with the two interfaces of the Ni/ZnTe/CdTe contact stack, are presented and discussed. Preliminary testing of these processes has been conducted using sputter-deposited test structures representing the individual interfaces of a typical Ni/ZnTe/CdTe contact stack. Contact resistance analysis of these structures has allowed for the estimation of rc suggesting that, for the conditions studied, the contact stack appears to meet the criterion of yielding an rc value <0.1 Ω-cm2.

  3. Effects of Free Carriers on the Optical Properties of Doped CdO for Full-Spectrum Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao Ping; Foo, Yishu; Kamruzzaman, M.; Ho, Chun Yuen; Zapien, J. A.; Zhu, Wei; Li, Y. J.; Walukiewicz, Wladek; Yu, Kin Man

    2016-12-01

    CdO-based transparent-conducting oxide thin films have great potential applications in optoelectronic devices due their high mobility, low resistivity, and high transparency over a wide spectral range. In this paper, we report the results of a comprehensive study of optical properties of CdO thin films doped with different donors (In, Ga, V, Ti) with a carrier concentration in the range of 1020 to >1021/cm3 . Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) studies reveal that the complex dielectric function of CdO thin films drastically depends on the carrier concentration. Specifically, with increasing carrier concentration, (1) the net effect of Burstein-Moss shift and band-gap renormalization gives rise to an increase in the optical band gap from 2.6 to 3.2 eV; (2) the free-carrier absorption coefficient at a wavelength of 1200 nm increases from 102 to 1 ×104 cm-1 ; (3) the refractive index decreases from 2.4 to 2.05 at 600 nm; (4) the high-frequency dielectric constant reduces from 5.5 to 4.8. The SE results are analyzed with results from Hall measurements to obtain information on the electron effective mass and optical mobility of CdO thin films. The significantly higher effective mass of V- and Ti-doped CdO thin film is attributed to the modification of the conduction band due to an anticrossing interaction between the localized d levels of V and Ti atoms and the CdO conduction-band extended states. The effective mass of In- and Ga-doped CdO increases with the electron concentration, consistent with the prediction from the nonparabolic conduction-band model. We also find that the optical mobility μopt is close to the Hall mobility μHall when the μHall<60 cm2/V s , while μopt<μHall for materials with higher μHall .

  4. Fabrication and characterization of CdS doped TiO2 nanotube composite and its photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jinwook; Kim, Seu-Run; Kim, Jong-Oh

    2015-01-01

    CdS doped TiO2 nanotube composite was fabricated by chemical bath deposition, and was characterized by the structural, spectral and photoelectrochemical properties. The results of the structural and spectral properties showed that CdS particles were successfully deposited onto the surface of TiO2 nanotube. It is demonstrated that CdS doped TiO2 nanotube composite improved the light harvesting ability. Power conversion efficiency of about 0.32% was observed. This value is about 2.9 times higher than that of pure TiO2 nanotube. The CdS doped TiO2 nanotube composite possesses relatively higher photocatalytic activity and photodegradation efficiency than that of pure TiO2 nanotube under UV light irradiation, and the degradation efficiency of methyl orange was about 42% at UV intensity of 32 W.

  5. Using Diffusion-Reaction Simulation to Study the Formation and Self-Compensation Mechanism of Cu Doping in CdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, D.; Akis, R.; Brinkman, D.; Moore, A.; Yang, Ji-Hui; Krasikov, D.; Sankin, I.; Ringhofer, C.; Vasileska, D.

    2016-11-21

    An improved model of copper p-type doping in CdTe absorbers is proposed that accounts for the mechanisms related to tightly bound Cu(i)-Cu(Cd) and Cd(i)-Cu(Cd) complexes that both limit diffusion and cause self-compensation of Cu species. The new model explains apparent discrepancy between DFT-calculated and fitted diffusion parameters of Cu reported in our previous work, and allows for better understanding of performance and metastabilities in CdTe PV devices.

  6. Synthesis, Characterization, and Investigation of Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of C Doped TiO2/CdS Core-Shell Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul B. Lavand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon (C doped TiO2/CdS core-shell nanocomposite (C/TiO2/CdS was synthesized using microemulsion method. Synthesized powder was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and UV-visible spectrophotometery. TEM images reveal that C/TiO2/CdS core-shell heterostructure is successfully prepared with CdS as a core and C doped TiO2 as a shell. UV-visible absorption spectra show that CdS nanoparticles act as a sensitizer and effectively enhance the photoabsorption capacity of C/TiO2/CdS nanocomposite in visible region. Visible light photocatalytic activity of synthesized nanocomposite was evaluated for the degradation of methylene blue. C/TiO2/CdS core-shell nanocomposite exhibits better photocatalytic activity as compared to bare TiO2, CdS, CdS/TiO2, and C doped TiO2.

  7. Ab initio LSDA and LSDA+U study of pure and Cd-doped cubic lanthanide sesquioxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, D.; Muñoz, E.L.; Rentería, M.

    2013-01-01

    approximation (LSDA) and the Coulomb-corrected LSDA+U. In the case of the pure systems, our calculations show that LSDA+U gives a better representation of the band structure compared to LSDA. The predicted equilibrium structures and the electric field gradient (EFG) tensor at Ln sites were calculated...... and compared with those obtained by means of hyperfine techniques and with theoretical results obtained in In2O3, Sc2O3, and Lu2O3 reported in the literature. The origin of the EFG at Ln sites and the role played by the 4f electrons on this quantity are discussed. In the case of the Cd-doped systems, the APW......+lo method (also within LSDA and LSDA+U) was applied to treat the electronic structure of the doped system. The role of the Ln 4felectrons on the EFG at Cd impurity sites, and other variables like structural distortions induced by the Cd impurity, were investigated in detail and are discussed and compared...

  8. SILAR次数对In掺杂CdS量子点敏化太阳电池的影响%Effect of SILAR cycles on In-doped-CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周烽; 邹小平; 周洪全

    2015-01-01

    Taking In-doped-CdS quantum dot solar cell (QDSCs) for example, the effects of SILAR cycles on In-doped-CdS QDSCs were discussed. With these characterization results of SEM,EDS,IPCE,UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy,J-V curnes and EIS, finally it is concluded that when In-doped-CdS molar ratio is fixed at 1:5, the short circuit current density,open circuit voltage and photoelectric conversion efficiency of the In-doped-CdS QDSCs increase accordingly with SILAR cycles. When the SILAR cycles reaches 6, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of In-dope-CdS QDSCs gets the maximum value (η=0.76%). When the SILAR cycles increase gradually, photoelectric conversion efficiency of solar cell decreases.%以In掺杂CdS量子点太阳能电池为例,讨论了SILAR次数对In掺杂CdS量子点敏化太阳能电池性能的影响。通过SEM、EDS、IPCE、紫外吸收光谱、J-V曲线、EIS等实验测试结果表明,当In 掺杂CdS的摩尔比固定在1:5时,随着SILAR 次数的增加,电池的短路电流密度、开路电压和光电转换效率都随着增加,当SILAR次数为6次时,In掺杂CdS的QDSCs光电转化效率达到了最大值(η=0.76%)。随着SILAR次数的继续增加,其光电转换效率将会下降。

  9. Laser scribing of fluorine doped tin oxide for serial interconnection of CdS/CdTe solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In thin film PV-module production the scribing of transparent conducting oxides, like fluorine doped tin oxides thin films, is performed with serial interconnection of solar cells without the use of external wires. This scribing is usually carried out with infrared and ultraviolet lasers, while for the other films that complete the solar cell structure, the scribing is performed with visible laser light. Thus, the use of only one laser in all scribing steps in the monolithic interconnection p...

  10. Electronic structures and magnetic properties of a II-II-V based diluted magnetic semiconductor Ba 1-x K x (Cd 1-y Mn y )2 As 2 with decoupled charge and spin doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juntao; Luo, Shijun; Cheng, ZhenXiang; Wang, Xiaotian; Xiong, Yongchen; Amel, Laref

    2016-10-01

    By using the density functional theory within Perdew-Burke-Ernzerh of generalized gradient approximation, the electronic structures and magnetic properties of {{Ba}}1-x{K}x{({{Cd}}1-y{{Mn}}y)}2{{As}}2 system were investigated. Undoped compound {{BaCd}}2{{As}}2 is a semiconductor crystallized with a hexagonal {{CaAl}}2{{Si}}2-type structure. After local moments doping via isovalent (Cd2+, Mn2+) substitutions, {Ba}{({{Cd}}1-y{{Mn}}y)}2{{As}}2 is antiferromagnetic system, which is attributed to the superexchange interactions between the Mn2+ ions in the high spin state. With itinerant holes introduced via off-stoichiometry (Ba2+, {{{K}}}+) substitutions, {{Ba}}1-x{K}x{({{Cd}}1-y{{Mn}}y)}2{{As}}2 system (except for the system doped with the most nearest neighbor Mn-Mn pair) changes from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic, resulted from the indirect exchange interactions based on p - d exchange coupling between As 4p and Mn 3d orbitals. Moreover, hypothetical supercells {{Ba}}10{K}2{{Cd}}22{{Mn}}2{{As}}24 with different lattice parameters under mechanical compression and expansion were calculated to study the effect of itinerant holes on the Curie temperature. Our results reveal that the {{Ba}}1-x{K}x{({{Cd}}1-y{{Mn}}y)}2{{As}}2 system with small lattice has more holes amount and better holes mobility, leading to a higher Curie temperature for the {{CaAl}}2{{Si}}2-type structure DMSs.

  11. Identification of Ag-acceptors in $^{111}Ag^{111}Cd$ doped ZnTe and CdTe

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, J; Deicher, M; Filz, T; Lany, S; Ostheimer, V; Strasser, F; Wolf, H; Wichert, T

    2000-01-01

    Nominally undoped ZnTe and CdTe crystals were implanted with radioactive /sup 111/Ag, which decays to /sup 111/Cd, and investigated by photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). In ZnTe, the PL lines caused by an acceptor level at 121 meV are observed: the principal bound exciton (PBE) line, the donor-acceptor pair (DAP) band, and the two-hole transition lines. In CdTe, the PBE line and the DAP band that correspond to an acceptor level at 108 meV appear. Since the intensities of all these PL lines decrease in good agreement with the half-life of /sup 111/Ag of 178.8 h, both acceptor levels are concluded to be associated with defects containing a single Ag atom. Therefore, the earlier assignments to substitutional Ag on Zn- and Cd-lattice sites in the respective II-VI semiconductors are confirmed. The assignments in the literature of the S/sub 1/, S /sub 2/, and S/sub 3/ lines in ZnTe and the X/sub 1//sup Ag/, X/sub 2 //sup Ag//C/sub 1//sup Ag/, and C/sub 2//sup Ag/ lines in CdTe to Ag- related defect complexes are ...

  12. The frequency-domain relaxation response of gallium doped Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzmiel, Justyna; Weron, Karina [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Jurlewicz, Agnieszka [Hugo Steinhaus Center, Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2010-03-10

    In this paper the complex dielectric permittivity of gallium doped Cd{sub 0.99}Mn{sub 0.01}Te mixed crystals is studied at different temperatures. We observe a two-power-law relaxation pattern with m and n, the low- and high-frequency power-law exponents respectively, satisfying the relation m < 1 - n. To interpret the empirical result we propose a correlated-cluster relaxation mechanism. This approach allows us to find origins of both power-law exponents, m and n.

  13. Reduced thermal conductivity in niobium-doped calcium-manganate compounds for thermoelectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, Ayelet; Amouyal, Yaron, E-mail: amouyal@tx.technion.ac.il [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2014-11-03

    Reduction of thermal conductivity is essential for obtaining high energy conversion efficiency in thermoelectric materials. We report on significant reduction of thermal conductivity in niobium-doped CaO(CaMnO{sub 3}){sub m} compounds for thermoelectric energy harvesting due to introduction of extra CaO-planes in the CaMnO{sub 3}-base material. We measure the thermal conductivities of the different compounds applying the laser flash analysis at temperatures between 300 and 1000 K, and observe a remarkable reduction in thermal conductivity with increasing CaO-planar density, from a value of 3.7 W·m{sup −1}K{sup −1} for m = ∞ down to 1.5 W·m{sup −1}K{sup −1} for m = 1 at 400 K. This apparent correlation between thermal conductivity and CaO-planar density is elucidated in terms of boundary phonon scattering, providing us with a practical way to manipulate lattice thermal conductivity via microstructural modifications.

  14. Optical waveguide behavior of Se-doped and undoped CdS one-dimensional nanostructures using near-field optical microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao; LIU Dan; PAN Anlian; FANG Zheyu; HUANG Shan; ZHU Xing

    2009-01-01

    The optical waveguide behaviors of CdS and CdSxSe1-x nanostructures are studied using near-field optical microscopy. Optical measurements demonstrate that light may be guided on sub-wavelength scales along CdS nanoribbons in straight or bent structures. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra from nanoribbon emission using scanning near-field optical microscopy are analyzed under different inci-dent laser intensities. The PL spectra along Se-doped and undoped CdS nanoribbons at different propagation distances are investigated. Both the guided PL spectra of Se-doped and undoped CdS nanoribbons show red-shifts because of the band-edge absorption. Our results are useful for the de-velopment of new kinds of functional nano devices.

  15. Optical waveguide behavior of Se-doped and undoped CdS one-dimensional nanostructures using near-field optical microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The optical waveguide behaviors of CdS and CdSxSe1?x nanostructures are studied using near-field optical microscopy. Optical measurements demonstrate that light may be guided on sub-wavelength scales along CdS nanoribbons in straight or bent structures. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra from nanoribbon emission using scanning near-field optical microscopy are analyzed under different incident laser intensities. The PL spectra along Se-doped and undoped CdS nanoribbons at different propagation distances are investigated. Both the guided PL spectra of Se-doped and undoped CdS nanoribbons show red-shifts because of the band-edge absorption. Our results are useful for the development of new kinds of functional nano devices.

  16. Molecular Dynamics Study of Poly And Monocrystalline CdS/CdTe Junctions and Cu Doped Znte Back Contacts for Solar Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Rodolfo, II

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a material used to make solar cells because it absorbs the sunlight very efficiently and converts it into electricity. However, CdTe modules suffer from degradation of 1% over a period of 1 year. Improvements on the efficiency and stability can be achieved by designing better materials at the atomic scale. Experimental techniques to study materials at the atomic scale, such as Atomic Probe Tomography (APT) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) are expensive and time consuming. On the other hand, Molecular Dynamics (MD) offers an inexpensive and fast computer simulation technique to study the growth evolution of materials with atomic scale resolution. In combination with advance characterization software, MD simulations provide atomistic visualization, defect analysis, structure maps, 3-D atomistic view, and composition profiles. MD simulations help to design better quality materials by predicting material behavior at the atomic scale. In this work, a new MD method to study several phenomena such as polycrystalline growth of CdTe-based materials, interdiffusion of atoms at interfaces, and deposition of a copper doped ZnTe back contact is established. Results are compared with experimental data found in the literature and experiments performed and shown to be in remarkably good agreement.

  17. Point Defects in Pb-, Bi-, and In-Doped CdZnTe Detectors:Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov A.; GUL, R.; KEETER, K.; RODRIGUEZ, R.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; HOSSAIN, A.; CAMARDA, G.S.; KIM, K.H.; YANG, Y.; CUI, Y.; CARCELEN, V.; FRANC, J.; LI, Z.; JAMES, R.B.

    2012-02-29

    We studied, by current deep-level transient spectroscopy (I-DLTS), point defects induced in CdZnTe detectors by three dopants: Pb, Bi, and In. Pb-doped CdZnTe detectors have a new acceptor trap at around 0.48 eV. The absence of a V{sub Cd} trap suggests that all Cd vacancies are compensated by Pb interstitials after they form a deep-acceptor complex [[Pb{sub Cd}]{sup +}-V{sub Cd}{sup 2-}]{sup -}. Bi-doped CdZnTe detectors had two distinct traps: a shallow trap at around 36 meV and a deep donor trap at around 0.82 eV. In detectors doped with In, we noted three well-known traps: two acceptor levels at around 0.18 eV (A-centers) and 0.31 eV (V{sub Cd}), and a deep trap at around 1.1 eV.

  18. High performance of Mn-doped CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cells based on the vertical ZnO nanorod arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juan; Zhao, Haifeng; Huang, Fei; Jing, Qun; Cao, Haibin; Wu, Qiang; Peng, Shanglong; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-09-01

    Doping transition metal ions Mn2+ to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are extremely interesting for the development of photovoltaic devices. Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) are able to show promising power conversion efficiencies (PCE) by employing Mn2+ doped QDs. Herein we achieve effective CdS/Mnsbnd CdSe/ZnS QDs co-sensitized vertical ZnO nanorod arrays film that provides an appreciable enhancement in photovoltaic performance. The measured PCE of the solar cells with Mn2+ doped CdSe QDs is 4.14%, which is higher than the efficiency of 2.91% for the solar cells without Mn2+ or a ∼42% increase. The improvement in PCE is ascribed to a higher open-circuit voltage (Voc = 0.74 V) and a superior short-circuit current density (Jsc = 12.6 mA cm-2) with the introduction of Mn2+ into CdSe QDs. The enhancement seen with Mn2+ doped CdSe QDs are investigated and explained by the fact that the enhanced light absorption and reduced charge recombination by the formation of Mnsbnd CdSe passivation layer covering the QDs.

  19. Increased carrier mobility and lifetime in CdSe quantum dot thin films through surface trap passivation and doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Daniel B; Goodwin, E D; Gaulding, E Ashley; Muramoto, Shin; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R

    2015-11-19

    Passivating surface defects and controlling the carrier concentration and mobility in quantum dot (QD) thin films is prerequisite to designing electronic and optoelectronic devices. We investigate the effect of introducing indium in CdSe QD thin films on the dark mobility and the photogenerated carrier mobility and lifetime using field-effect transistor (FET) and time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) measurements. We evaporate indium films ranging from 1 to 11 nm in thickness on top of approximately 40 nm thick thiocyanate-capped CdSe QD thin films and anneal the QD films at 300 °C to densify and drive diffusion of indium through the films. As the amount of indium increases, the FET and TRMC mobilities and the TRMC lifetime increase. The increase in mobility and lifetime is consistent with increased indium passivating midgap and band-tail trap states and doping the films, shifting the Fermi energy closer to and into the conduction band.

  20. Identification of Ag-acceptors in $^{111}\\!$Ag $^{111}\\!$Cd doped ZnTe and CdTe

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, J; Deicher, M; Filz, T; Lany, S; Ostheimer, V; Strasser, F; Wolf, H; Wichert, T

    2000-01-01

    Nominally undoped ZnTe and CdTe crystals were implanted with radioactive $^{111}\\!$Ag, which decays to $^{111}\\!$Cd, and investigated by photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). In ZnTe, the PL lines caused by an acceptor level at 121 meV are observed: the principal bound exciton (PBE) line, the donor-acceptor pair (DAP) band, and the two-hole transition lines. In CdTe, the PBE line and the DAP band that correspond to an acceptor level at 108 meV appear. Since the intensities of all these PL lines decrease in good agreement with the half-life of $^{111}\\!$Ag of 178.8 h, both acceptor levels are concluded to be associated with defects containing a single Ag atom. Therefore, the earlier assignments to substitutional Ag on Zn- and Cd-lattice sites in the respective II-VI semiconductors are confirmed. The assignments in the literature of the S$_1$, S$_2$, and S$_3$ lines in ZnTe and the X$\\scriptstyle^\\textrm{Ag}_{1}\\,\\,,$ X$\\scriptstyle^\\textrm{Ag}_{2}$/ C$\\scriptstyle^\\textrm{Ag}_{1}\\,$ and C$\\scriptstyle^\\textrm{...

  1. A novel small-molecule compound targeting CD147 inhibits the motility and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhi-guang; Wang, Li; Cui, Hong-yong; Peng, Jian-long; Wang, Shi-jie; Geng, Jie-jie; Liu, Ji-de; Feng, Fei; Song, Fei; Li, Ling; Zhu, Ping; Jiang, Jian-li; Chen, Zhi-nan

    2016-02-23

    CD147, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is highly expressed in various cancer types and plays important roles in tumor progression, especially by promoting the motility and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. These crucial roles make CD147 an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in HCC, but no small-molecule inhibitors of CD147 have been developed to date. To identify a candidate inhibitor, we used a pharmacophore model derived from the structure of CD147 to virtually screen over 300,000 compounds. The 100 highest-ranked compounds were subjected to biological assays, and the most potent one, dubbed AC-73 (ID number: AN-465/42834501), was studied further. We confirmed that AC-73 targeted CD147 and further demonstrated it can specifically disrupt CD147 dimerization. Moreover, molecular docking and mutagenesis experiments showed that the possible binding sites of AC-73 on CD147 included Glu64 and Glu73 in the N-terminal IgC2 domain, which two residues are located in the dimer interface of CD147. Functional assays revealed that AC-73 inhibited the motility and invasion of typical HCC cells, but not HCC cells that lacked the CD147 gene, demonstrating on-target action. Further, AC-73 reduced HCC metastasis by suppressing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 via down-regulation of the CD147/ERK1/2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway. Finally, AC-73 attenuated progression in an orthotopic nude mouse model of liver metastasis, suggesting that AC-73 or its derivatives have potential for use in HCC intervention. We conclude that the novel small-molecule inhibitor AC-73 inhibits HCC mobility and invasion, probably by disrupting CD147 dimerization and thereby mainly suppressing the CD147/ERK1/2/STAT3/MMP-2 pathways, which are crucial for cancer progression.

  2. Superconductivity and electron-phonon coupling in doped MgB{sub 2} and related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, V.; Rosner, H. [MPI CPfS Dresden (Germany); Koepernik, K. [MPI CPfS Dresden (Germany); IFW Dresden (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Recently, substitutions on the Mg site in MgB{sub 2}, e.g., Mg{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}B{sub 2}, Mg{sub 1-x}(AlLi){sub x}B{sub 2} were investigated intensively. For achievable doping levels, Mg{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}B{sub 2} shows only very small structural changes but clear changes in the electronic structure, whereas AlLi doping affects the lattice parameters but has almost no influence on the electronic structure. Our theoretical approach comprises different approximations in the framework of band structure calculations: the rigid band and virtual crystal method as well as supercell calculations and coherent potential approximation. We show that the latter two lead to consistent results with respect to lattice expansion and electronic properties. We show that lattice effects are of minor importance. Concluding that the B 2p {sigma} states remain the most relevant subsystem with regard to superconductivity, we calculated the electron phonon coupling constant {lambda} and the critical temperature T{sub c}. In contrast, for ZrB{sub 2} as a typical representative of transition metal diborides TB{sub 2} we find the sp{sup 2}(B)-d(T) hybridization to be crucial. Comparing calculated and measured angle dependent dHvA-data we show that: (i) LDA provides an excellent description of the electronic structure of TB{sub 2}. (ii) The electron phonon coupling is too small to expect superconductivity above a few mK for the stoichiometric compounds. (orig.)

  3. Structural, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of N-dope BBi compound under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Battal G.

    2016-04-01

    The structural, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of N-dope BBi compound have been reported in the current study. The structural and mechanical results of the studied binary compounds (BN and BBi) and their ternary alloys BBi1- x N x structures are presented by means of density functional theory. The exchange and correlation effects are taken into account by using the generalized gradient approximation functional of Wu and Cohen which is an improved form of the most popular Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof. The quasi-harmonic Debye model is used for the thermodynamic properties of studied materials. The basic physical properties of considered structures such as the equilibrium lattice parameter (a 0), bulk modulus (B 0), its pressure derivative (B'), elastic constants (C 11, C 12 and C 44), Kleinman's internal-strain parameter (ƺ), shear modulus anisotropy (A), the average shear modulus (G), Young's modulus (Y) and Poisson's ratio (v), B 0/ G ratio, microhardness parameter (H), Cauchy pressure (C″), and 1st and 2nd Lame constants (λ, μ), debye temperature (θ D), wave velocities (ν l, ν t and ν m), melting temperature (T m) and minimum thermal conductivity (κ min) have been calculated at zero pressure. In order to obtain more information, thermodynamic properties, such as internal energy (U), Helmoltz free energy (F), entropy (S), Debye temperature (θ D), thermal expansion (α), constant volume and pressure heat capacities (C V and C P ), are analyzed under the whole range from 0 to 20 GPa and temperature range from 0 to 1500 K. The obtained results of the studied binary compounds are in coincidence with experimental works.

  4. Comparison of various organic compounds destruction on rare earths doped Ti/Sb-SnO{sub 2} electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yu-Hong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037 Luoyu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Feng, Yu-Jie, E-mail: yujief@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Liu, Junfeng; Ren, Nanqi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different REs doping has distinct effect on the Ti/Sb-SnO{sub 2} electrode performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gd or Eu improves the performance of Ti/Sb-SnO{sub 2} on aromatic ring cleavage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catechol is more refractory to be degraded than benzoquinone and hydroquinone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The molecular structure of organic compound influences its degradation rate. - Abstract: Ti/Sb-SnO{sub 2} and three kinds of rare earths (REs), namely Ce, Gd, and Eu doped Ti/Sb-SnO{sub 2} electrodes were prepared and tested for their capacity on electrocatalytic degradation of three kinds of basal aromatic compounds (benzoquinone, hydroquinone and catechol) and six kinds of aliphatic acids (maleic acid, fumaric acid, succinic acid, malonic acid, oxalic acid and acetic acid). The elimination of selected organics as well as their TOC removal with different doped Ti/Sb-SnO{sub 2} electrodes was described by first-order kinetics. Compared with Ti/Sb-SnO{sub 2}, the Gd and Eu doped electrodes show better performance on the degradation of most of the selected organics, while Ce doped electrode shows either closely or lower efficiency on the degradation of these selected organics. Besides electrode material, the molecular structure of organic compound has obvious effect on its degradation in the electrocatalytic process. Catechol is more resistant to the electrophilic attack by hydroxyl radicals than benzoquinone and hydroquinone. The compound with more complicate molecular structure or longer carbon chain is more difficult to be mineralized. The aliphatic acid with higher oxygen content or more double bonds is more readily to be oxidized in the electrocatalytic process.

  5. Possibility of valence-fluctuatsion-mediated superconductivity in Cd-doped CeIrIn(5) probed by In NQR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashima, M; Tagami, N; Taniguchi, S; Unemori, T; Uematsu, K; Mukuda, H; Kitaoka, Y; Ota, Y; Honda, F; Settai, R; Onuki, Y

    2012-09-14

    We report on a pressure-induced evolution of exotic superconductivity and spin correlations in CeIr(In(1-x)Cd(x))(5) by means of in-nuclear-quadrupole-resonance (NQR) studies. Measurements of an NQR spectrum and nuclear-spin-lattice-relaxation rate 1/T(1) have revealed that antiferromagnetism induced by Cd doping emerges locally around Cd dopants, but superconductivity is suddenly induced at T(c)=0.7 and 0.9 K at 2.34 and 2.75 GPa, respectively. The unique superconducting characteristics with a large fraction of the residual density of state at the Fermi level which increases with T(c) differ from those for anisotropic superconductivity mediated by antiferromagnetic correlations. By incorporating the pressure dependence of the NQR frequency pointing to the valence change of Ce, we suggest that unconventional superconductivity in the CeIr(In(1-x)Cd(x))(5) system may be mediated by valence fluctuations.

  6. Cu-doped Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S alloy: synthesis and structural investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Indu; Ahlawat, Dharamvir Singh; Ahlawat, Rachna [Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Department of Physics, Sirsa, Haryana (India)

    2016-03-15

    Copper doped Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S (x ≤ 1) quantum dots have been synthesized using chemical co-precipitation method. Structural investigation of the synthesized nanomaterials has been carried out by powder XRD method. The XRD results have confirmed that as-prepared Cu-doped Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S quantum dots have hexagonal structure. The average nanocrystallite size was estimated in the range 2-12 nm using Debye-Scherrer formula. The lattice constants, lattice plane, d-spacing, unit cell volume, Lorentz factor and dislocation density were also calculated from XRD data. The change in particle size was observed with the change in Zn concentration. Furthermore, FTIR spectra of the prepared samples were observed for identification of COO- and O-H functional groups. The TEM study has also reported the same size range of nanoparticles. The increase in agglomeration has been observed with the increase in Zn concentration in the prepared samples. (orig.)

  7. Structural, optical and electrical characterization of Mn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} doped/co-doped PbS nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakthi Sudar Saravanan, R., E-mail: rsakthiss@yahoo.com [Physics Research Centre, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil 629 002 (India); Department of Physics, Satyam College of Engineering and Technology, Aralvaimozhi 629 301 (India); Meena, M. [Physics Research Centre, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil 629 002 (India); Pukazhselvan, D. [Nanotechnology Research Division, Centre for Mechanical Technology and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Mahadevan, C.K. [Physics Research Centre, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil 629 002 (India)

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • Mn and Cd doped/codoped nano PbS was synthesized by SMI method. • The observed stress is ∼90% lower, and the strain is only in the order of 10{sup −6}. • Band gap value can be enhanced from 0.5 eV to 2.025–2.235 eV (±0.012 eV). • Role of two conduction activation barriers was observed. - Abstract: The strain and stress minimized nanoparticles of PbS, Pb{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}S, Pb{sub 0.95}Cd{sub 0.05}S and Pb{sub 0.90}Mn{sub 0.05}Cd{sub 0.05}S were successfully synthesized using solvothermal microwave irradiation (SMI) method. The quality/performance of the materials was found to be in the series Pb{sub 0.90}Mn{sub 0.05}Cd{sub 0.05}S > Pb{sub 0.95}Cd{sub 0.05}S > Pb{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}S > PbS. The average crystallite size in the best material Pb{sub 0.90}Mn{sub 0.05}Cd{sub 0.05}S was found to be ∼18 nm where the particles are distributed within the range 20–60 nm. Optical studies reveals the existence of direct band gap in the range of 2.025–2.235 eV (±0.012 eV). This is one of the widest E{sub g} values reported for this system. Electrical measurements were performed on compacts of nanoparticles in the temperature range 313–433 K and frequency range 100 Hz–1 MHz. The conductivity profile exhibits two components; in which the activation energy (ΔE) values obtained for the temperature range 373–433 K is almost twice as compared to the ΔE value obtained for 313–373 K. Nonetheless, the conductivity at the higher temperatures was always higher than at the low temperatures and interestingly, the nanoparticles exhibits higher conductivity than their bulk counterpart. The feasible mechanism of conduction is discussed.

  8. Magneto-optical study of the sp-d exchange interaction on 1.4 nm diameter Mn{sup 2+} doped (CdSe){sub 13} clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fainblat, Rachel; Iavarone, Dino; Bacher, Gerd [Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik und CeNIDE, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen (Germany); Yang, Jiwoong; Hyeon, Taeghwan [Nanomaterials Laboratory, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Magnetical doping of chemically synthesized nanostructures combines the optical and electronic properties of the host semiconductor with the magnetic characteristics of the doping ions. The mechanism of colloidal nanocrystal doping can be classified into doping at the ''growth'' or at the ''cluster'' stage and, in particular, the doping efficiency in small nanocrystals is controversially discussed. On one hand, the statistical adsorption of an impurity is expected to decrease with decreasing nanocrystal size, whereas a recent model points out that the dopant adsorption onto the sites of small clusters (d < 2 nm) is more efficient than the adsorption on larger nanocrystals (d > 5 nm). Here, we report on low temperature (T = 5 K) magneto-optical effects in so-called ''magic size'' Mn{sup 2+} doped (CdSe){sub 13} clusters. Both absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra are dominated by a resonance peak related to the heavy hole excitonic transition at 3.65 eV. From the pronounced MCD signal a giant Zeeman splitting of about 15 meV at 1.5 T is extracted supporting the theory that the Mn{sup 2+} ions are doped directly into the (CdSe){sub 13} clusters.

  9. Effects of metallic nanoparticle doped flux on the interfacial intermetallic compounds between lead-free solder ball and copper substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujan, G.K., E-mail: sgkumer@gmail.com; Haseeb, A.S.M.A., E-mail: haseeb@um.edu.my; Afifi, A.B.M., E-mail: amalina@um.edu.my

    2014-11-15

    Lead free solders currently in use are prone to develop thick interfacial intermetallic compound layers with rough morphology which are detrimental to the long term solder joint reliability. A novel method has been developed to control the morphology and growth of intermetallic compound layers between lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder ball and copper substrate by doping a water soluble flux with metallic nanoparticles. Four types of metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, molybdenum and titanium) were used to investigate their effects on the wetting behavior and interfacial microstructural evaluations after reflow. Nanoparticles were dispersed manually with a water soluble flux and the resulting nanoparticle doped flux was placed on copper substrate. Lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder balls of diameter 0.45 mm were placed on top of the flux and were reflowed at a peak temperature of 240 °C for 45 s. Angle of contact, wetting area and interfacial microstructure were studied by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was observed that the angle of contact increased and wetting area decreased with the addition of cobalt, molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles to flux. On the other hand, wettability improved with the addition of nickel nanoparticles. Cross-sectional micrographs revealed that both nickel and cobalt nanoparticle doping transformed the morphology of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} from a typical scallop type to a planer one and reduced the intermetallic compound thickness under optimum condition. These effects were suggested to be related to in-situ interfacial alloying at the interface during reflow. The minimum amount of nanoparticles required to produce the planer morphology was found to be 0.1 wt.% for both nickel and cobalt. Molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles neither appear to undergo alloying during reflow nor have any influence at the solder/substrate interfacial reaction. Thus, doping

  10. Photoluminescence of manganese- and copper-doped CdS nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiordanescu, V.; Sima, M.; Enculescu, I.; Grecu, M.N.; Mihut, L.; Secu, M. [National Institute of Material Physics P.O. Box MG 7, 77125-Magurele Bucharest (Romania); Neumann, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Arrays of CdS:Mn{sup 2+}:Cu{sup +} micro- and nanowires grown in polycarbonate ion-track templates exhibit photoluminescence in the spectral domain ranging from 500 to 800 nm at room temperature. A comparison with similar CdS and CdS:Mn{sup 2+} wire arrays is presented. The individual contributions to the emission spectra of Cu{sup +} and Mn{sup 2+} ions in the CdS matrix are explained using their energy level schemes. Also SEM, EDX and EPR data are given for these wires. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Investigation on Structure and Optical Properties of Gd-doped CdTe Films%Gd掺杂CdTe薄膜的结构和光学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志刚; 李蓉萍; 董海成; 安晓晖; 吴蓉; 李忠贤

    2011-01-01

    CdTe thin films and Gd - doped CdTe thin films were prepared by vacuum thermal evaporation on glass substrates. The effect of heat - treatment and doping content of Gd on the structure, optical characteristics of CdTe films was studied. The results show that all thin films are cube sphalerite structure. Gd doping doesn't change crystal structure of thin films, but it makes average crystal size of CdTe films tum small, the lattice constant and crystal cell volume tum big appreciably, and a preferential growth orientation along [220] tum to along [ 111 ] . The transmissivity becomes higher in visible spectrad range and the optical band gap changes small by Cd doping.%用真空热蒸发法在玻璃衬底制备CdTe和Cd掺杂CdTe薄膜.研究热处理和Gd掺杂量对CdTe薄膜结构、光学特性的影响.结果表明,薄膜均为立方闪锌矿结构,Gd的掺入没有改变薄膜的晶体结构,但使薄膜的晶粒尺寸减小,晶格常数和晶胞体积略有增大,并使其择优取向由[220]晶向变为[111]晶向.掺Gd使薄膜在可见光范围透过率增强,但对光能隙影响不大.

  12. Crystal structure and superconductivity in the Th-doped LaPtSi compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.Y.; Sung, H.H.; Syu, K.J. [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Ming-Hsiung, Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China); Lee, W.H., E-mail: whlee@phy.ccu.edu.t [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Ming-Hsiung, Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China)

    2010-12-15

    As observed with X-ray powder diffraction, the tetragonal structure of the parent compound LaPtSi, which crystallizes in the LaPtSi-type structure with space group I4{sub 1}md, is retained in (La{sub 1-x}Th{sub x})PtSi up to the solubility limit near x = 0.5. By considering the size factor of Hume-Rothery theory of alloy phase formation, it is not marvelous that the extensive solid solutions cannot be fully completed in (La{sub 1-x}Th{sub x})PtSi. We present the room temperature powder X-ray diffraction patterns, the room temperature lattice parameters and the dc magnetic susceptibility between 1.8 and 4.0 K for three single phase polycrystalline samples in (La{sub 1-x}Th{sub x})PtSi with x 0, 0.25 and 0.50. The refined lattice parameters show that both the a-axis and the volume of the unit cell v contract clearly, though the c-axis gives a less percentage expansion due to doping with thorium. It is found that the change in T{sub c} with x is similar to the change in the lattice parameter a or v, which indicates that the stiffening of the lattice under pressure has a dominant effect on the decrease in T{sub c} in this system.

  13. Formation of aromatics in rich methane flames doped by unsaturated compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Gueniche, Hadj-Ali; Fournet, René; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand the importance of the different channels leading to the first aromatic ring, we have investigated, the structure of a laminar rich premixed methane flame doped with several unsaturated hydrocarbons: allene and propyne, as they are precursors of propargyl radicals, which are well known as having an important role in forming benzene, 1,3-butadiene, to put in evidence a possible production of benzene due to reactions of C4 compounds, and, finally, cyclopentene, which is a source of cyclopentadienyl methylene radicals which are supposed to easily isomerizes to give benzene. A ratio additive / CH4 of 16 % and an equivalence ratio of 1.79 have been used. These flames have been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa using argon as dilutant. A new mechanism for the oxidation of allene, propyne, 1,3 butadiene and cyclopentene has been proposed including the formation and decomposition of benzene and toluene. The main reaction pathways of formation of aromatics have been derived f...

  14. A Comparative Study of the Formation of Aromatics in Rich Methane Flames Doped by Unsaturated Compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Gueniche, Hadj-Ali; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Fournet, René; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; 10.1016/j.fuel.2009.03.006

    2009-01-01

    For a better modeling of the importance of the different channels leading to the first aromatic ring, we have compared the structures of laminar rich premixed methane flames doped with several unsaturated hydrocarbons: allene and propyne, because they are precursors of propargyl radicals which are well known as having an important role in forming benzene, 1,3-butadiene to put in evidence a possible production of benzene due to reactions of C4 compounds, and, finally, cyclopentene which is a source of cyclopentadienylmethylene radicals which in turn are expected to easily isomerizes to give benzene. These flames have been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa (50 Torr) using argon as dilutant, for equivalence ratios (?) from 1.55 to 1.79. A unique mechanism, including the formation and decomposition of benzene and toluene, has been used to model the oxidation of allene, propyne, 1,3 butadiene and cyclopentene. The main reaction pathways of aromatics formation have been derived from reaction rate and ...

  15. Volatile organic compound gas sensor based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide with nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nak-Jin; Lee, Hyung-Kun; Moon, Seung Eon; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Jongdae

    2013-08-01

    Thick film semiconductor gas sensors based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) with nanoparticle size were fabricated to detect volatile organic compound (VOC) existed in building, especially, formaldehyde (HCHO) gas which was known as the cause of sick building syndrome. The sensing materials for screen printing were prepared using roll milling process with binder. The crystallite sizes of prepared materials were about 15 nm through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Gas response characteristics were examined for formaldehyde (HCHO), benzene, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide gas existing in building. In particular, the sensors showed responses to HCHO gas at sub ppm as a function of operating temperatures and gas concentrations. Also, we investigated sensitivity, repeativity, selectivity, and response time of sensor. The transients were very sharp, taking less than 2 s for 90% response. The sensor has shown very stable response at 350 degrees C and followed a very good behavior and showed 60% response in 50 ppb HCHO concentration at 350 degrees C operating temperatures.

  16. ESR studies on Er sup 3 sup + -doped YBiPt compound

    CERN Document Server

    Guener, S; Aktas, B

    2003-01-01

    The semi-metallic cubic compound YBiPt doped by Er sup 3 sup + (4f sup 1 sup 1) has been studied by ESR technique between 4 and 300 K. X-band and Q-band measurements have been performed. The angular dependence of the ESR spectra on the crystal orientation with respect to the static magnetic field has been measured. Two anisotropic lines with hyperfine peaks coming from the interaction between electronic and nuclear spins of sup 1 sup 6 sup 7 Er sup 3 sup + (I=7/2) isotopes have been observed below 30 K in the spectra. Computer modeling showed that these lines are the ESR signals from the quadruplet ground state of Er sup 3 sup + ions in the cubic crystal field. The values of crystal field parameters B sub 4 =-5.68 x 10 sup - sup 4 cm sup - sup 1 and B sub 6 =-6.64 x 10 sup - sup 6 cm sup - sup 1 have been extracted. Also an isotropic line near g=2 have been observed in both frequency bands. Dysonian lineshape of the spectra components due to the skin-depth effect shows the conducting property of the sample un...

  17. Analysis of the structural, electronic and optic properties of Ni doped MgSiP2 semiconductor chalcopyrite compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, Belgin; Ciftci, Yasemin Oztekin

    2016-03-01

    The structural, electronic band structure and optic properties of the Ni doped MgSiP2 chalcopyrite compound have been performed by using first-principles method in the density functional theory (DFT) as implemented in Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP). The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) in the scheme of Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE) is used for the exchange and correlation functional. The present lattice constant (a) follows generally the Vegard's law. The electronic band structure, total and partial density of states (DOS and PDOS) are calculated. We present data for the frequency dependence of imaginary and real parts of dielectric functions of Ni doped MgSiP2. For further investigation of the optical properties the reflectivity, refractive index, extinction coefficient and electron energy loss function are also predicted. Our obtained results indicate that the lattice constants, electronic band structure and optical properties of this compound are dependent on the substitution concentration of Ni.

  18. Highly photoconducting O2-doped CdS films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, D.; El-Korashy, A. M.; Stirn, R. J.; Karulkar, P. C.

    1984-01-01

    CdS films have been prepared by spraying in air solutions of thiourea with either cadmium chloride or cadmium acetate with varying mole ratio and substrate temperature, and subsequently heat treating in oxygen. Substrates included both bare glass or sapphire and transparent conducting oxide-coated sapphire for electrical measurements lateral and transverse to the CdS plane, respectively. Dark resistances of over 10 to the 14th ohms and light-to-dark conductivities of up to 10 to the 7th were obtained using uncoated substrates. The use of Cd(C2H3O2)2 in place of CdCl2 greatly increased the speed of response although with some sacrifice in photoconductivity. Deposition of CdS on ITO-coated surfaces led to greatly reduced dark resistances for the case of CdCl2, but not Cd(C2H3O2)2, presumably due to HCl reaction with the ITO coating in the course of spraying with the former. Ion microprobe analysis detected indium within the CdS films exhibiting low dark resistance. Measurements of the dark and light conductivities at temperatures down to 77 K are given as are the response times for unetched and HCl-etched surfaces.

  19. Influence of Zn2+ doping on the crystal structure and optical-electrical properties of CdTe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, R.; Sakthivel, K.

    2015-10-01

    The present study reports the synthesis of Cd1-xZnxTe (x = 0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075 and 0.100) nanocrystalline thin film through a simple two step method. In the first step fine nanoparticles of Cd1-xZnxTe was prepared by solvothermal microwave irradiation (SMI) technique and then deposited as thin film using dip-coating technique. X-ray diffraction study showed that films are polycrystalline with cubic phase, which are preferentially oriented along the (1 1 1) direction. No impurity phase was observed in the XRD pattern even after higher concentration of doping (x = 0.100) of Zn. FESEM study revealed that the films are homogeneous without cracks and pinholes. TEM micrographs revealed the particles are slightly agglomerated and lesser than 25 nm. The optical absorption study revealed that pure and doped CdTe films possess a direct band gap material with bandgap values between 2.39 and 2.63 eV (±0.02 eV). The values of optical bandgap increase with an increase in dopant (Zn) concentration from x = 0.025 to 0.10. The pure cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanocrystalline film shows a strong green emission peak centered at about 525 nm. The emission peaks of Cd1-xZnxTe nanocrystalline films are red shifted from 525 nm to 611 nm according to the dopant (Zn2+) concentration. The grains in the prepared films are uniformly distributed, which was confirmed by narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the emission peaks (40-65 nm). The DC conductivity has increased by 1.25 and 4 orders as the concentration of dopant increases from x = 0.025 to 0.10 at room temperature (30 °C) and 150 °C respectively. The higher conductivity value is underpinned by the smaller activation energy value and is explained by thermionic emission mechanism.

  20. Electrical properties and phase transition of [(CH3)3NH]CdCl3 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kchaou, H.; Ben Rhaiem, A.; Karoui, K.; jomni, F.; Guidara, K.

    2016-02-01

    The [(CH3)3NH]CdCl3 compound was obtained by slow evaporation at room temperature and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction patterns, differential scanning calorimetry, and impedance spectroscopy. This compound was found to crystallize in the orthorhombic system with Pbnm space group and was characterized by four phase transitions ( T 1 = 355 K, T 2 = 372 K, T 3 = 415 K, and T 4 = 446 K). The analysis of Nyquist plots has revealed the contribution of two electrically active regions corresponding to the bulk mechanism and distribution of grain boundaries. The modulus plots were characterized by the presence of two peaks associated with the grain and grain boundaries. Thermodynamic parameters such as the free energy for dipole relaxation Δ F, the enthalpy Δ H, and the change in entropy Δ S h ave been determined with the help of the Eyring theory. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity (σ g ), σ dc , and f p confirms the observed transitions in the calorimetric study.

  1. Magnetic and electric properties of CaMn7O12 based multiferroic compounds: effect of electron doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannigrahi, J; Chattopadhyay, S; Dutta, D; Giri, S; Majumdar, S

    2013-06-19

    The mixed valent multiferroic compound CaMn7O12 is studied for its magnetic and electric properties. The compound undergoes magnetic ordering below 90 K with a helimagnetic structure followed by a low temperature magnetic anomaly observed around 43 K. This study shows that the magnetic anomaly at 43 K is associated with thermal hysteresis indicating the first order nature of the transition. The compound also shows field-cooled magnetic memory and relaxation below 43 K, although no zero-field-cooled memory is present. A clear magnetic hysteresis loop is present in the magnetization versus field measurements, signifying the presence of some ferromagnetic clusters in the system. We doped trivalent La at the site of divalent Ca expecting to enhance the fraction of Mn(3+) ions. The La doped samples show reduced magnetization, although the temperatures associated with the magnetic anomalies remain almost unaltered. Interestingly, the spontaneous electrical polarization below 90 K increases drastically on La substitution. We propose that the ground states of the pure as well as the La doped compositions contain isolated superparamagnetic like clusters, which can give rise to metastability in the form of field-cooled memory and relaxation. The ground state is certainly not spin glass type, as is evident from the absence of zero-field-cooled memory and frequency shift in the ac susceptibility measurements.

  2. Hole Transport in Arsenic-Doped Hg1- x Cd x Te with x ≥ 0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umana-Membreno, G. A.; Kala, H.; Bains, S.; Akhavan, N. D.; Antoszewski, J.; Maxey, C. D.; Faraone, L.

    2016-09-01

    Hole transport in arsenic-doped p-type Hg1- x Cd x Te epitaxial layers with x ≥ 0.5 has been studied employing Hall-effect measurements and theoretical modeling of hole scattering mechanisms. The hole transport parameters extracted from four different Hg1- x Cd x Te films with x = 0.50, 0.56-0.58, 0.65, and 0.80, were analyzed using an iterative solution of Boltzmann's transport equation. Hole mobilities in the samples with x values of 0.5 and 0.56-0.58 were found to be predominantly limited by ionized impurity scattering, and exhibited relatively high impurity compensation ratios ≥2. The sample with x = 0.65 exhibited the highest hole mobility, a low compensation ratio of 1.05, and mobility characteristics were limited predominantly by polar optical phonon scattering at temperatures ≥200 K. Hole mobility in the sample with x = 0.80 was found to be limited by polar optical phonon scattering and ionized impurity scattering (compensation ratio 1.20-1.56). Although the sample temperatures employed were not sufficiently low to unambiguously discriminate the scattering strength of static strain and dislocations, the experimental hole mobility characteristics cannot be adequately modeled if these two mechanisms are neglected. The ionization energy of the arsenic acceptor impurities was found to exhibit a quadratic dependence on the CdTe mole fraction.

  3. Structural analysis of Sm{sup 3+} doped nanocrystalline Mg-Cd ferrites prepared by oxalate co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadkari, A.B., E-mail: kashokabg@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, GKG College, Kolhapur, 416 012 (India); Shinde, T.J. [Department of Physics, KRP Kanya Mahavidylaya, Isalampur, 415409 (India); Vasambekar, P.N. [Department of Electronic, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, 416 004 (India)

    2009-11-15

    The structural properties of polycrystalline Sm{sup 3+} doped Mg{sub 1} {sub -} {sub x}Cd{sub x} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) have been investigated by oxalate co-precipitation method from high purity sulphates. The samples were sintered at 1050 deg. C for a duration of 5 h. The X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the formation of a cubic spinel structure. The different parameters like lattice constant, X-ray density, physical density, porosity, crystallite size, site radii and bond length on tetrahedral and octahedral sites have been calculated. The lattice constant increases with an increase in Cd{sup 2+} content and shows non linear behavior. The crystallite size was calculated using Scherrer formula and varies from 28.69 to 32.05 nm. Physical densities were obtained by Archimedes principle. The surface morphology studied by scanning electron microscope shows that the grain size of the samples increases with an increase in Cd{sup 2+} content. The IR spectra show two strong absorption bands around 5.87 x 10{sup 4} m{sup -1} and 4.27 x 10{sup 4} m{sup -1} on the tetrahedral and octahedral sites respectively. IR spectra also show that Sm{sup 3+} occupies the octahedral B-site.

  4. Application of visible-light photocatalysis with nitrogen-doped or unmodified titanium dioxide for control of indoor-level volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Kim, Jong-Tae

    2009-05-15

    The present study evaluated visible-light photocatalysis, applying an annular reactor coated with unmodified or nitrogen (N)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), to cleanse gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at indoor levels. The surface chemistry investigation of N-doped TiO(2) suggested that there was no significant residual of sulfate ions or urea species on the surface of the N-doped TiO(2). Under visible-light irradiation, the photocatalytic technique using N-doped TiO(2) was much superior to that for unmodified TiO(2) for the degradation of VOCs. Moreover, the degradation efficiency by a reactor coated with N-doped TiO(2) was well above 90% for four target compounds (ethyl benzene, o,m,p-xylenes), suggesting that this photocatalytic system can be effectively employed to cleanse these pollutants at indoor air quality (IAQ) levels. The degradation efficiency of all target compounds increased as the stream flow rate (SFR) decreased. For most target compounds, a reactor with a lower hydraulic diameter (HD) exhibited elevated degradation efficiency. The result on humidity effect suggested that the N-doped photocatalyst could be employed effectively to remove four target compounds (ethyl benzene, o,m,p-xylenes) under conditions of less humidified environments, including a typical indoor comfort range (50-60%). Consequently, it is suggested that with appropriate photocatalytic conditions, a visible-light-assisted N-doped photocatalytic system is clearly an important tool for improving IAQ.

  5. Effects of Lattice Defects and Niobium Doping on Thermoelectric Properties of Calcium Manganate Compounds for Energy Harvesting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Ayelet; Amouyal, Yaron

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectric (TE) properties of Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) CaO(CaMnO3) m n-type compounds, to be applied for TE waste heat recovery at elevated temperatures. We prepared several Nb-doped and undoped CaO(CaMnO3) m compounds having different CaO planar densities by controlling the Ca content via solid-state reaction, and characterized the resulting microstructures by x-ray diffraction analysis and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. The thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and TE thermopower of the different compounds were measured in the range from 300 K through 1000 K. We observed a remarkable reduction in thermal conductivity as a result of increasing the CaO planar density for the Nb-doped RP compounds, from a value of 2.9 W m-1 K-1 for m = ∞ down to 1.3 W m-1 K-1 for m = 1 at 1000 K. This trend was, however, accompanied by a corresponding reduction in electrical conductivity from 76 Ω-1 cm-1 to 2.9 Ω-1 cm-1, which is associated with electron scattering. Finally, we propose an approach that enables optimization of the TE performance of these RP compounds.

  6. EDTA对Cd及Cd-Mn复合污染处理下藜生长的影响%Effects of EDTA on Cd and Cd-Mn Compound Pollution Soil of Growth with Chenopodium Album

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学锋; 丁雪莲

    2012-01-01

    Pot experiments were carried out to make the study of the effect of EDTA on Cd and Cd-Mn compound pollution soil of growth with Chenopodium album. The results indicate that: with 2. 5 mmol · kg-1 EDTA on the Cd contaminated soil and 5. 0 mmol · kg-' EDTA on the Cd-Mn compound pollution soil is the best repairing efficient. This case makes that under the Cd processing and Cd-Mn processing of Chenopodium album aerial parts Cd content to enhance 1. 8 times, 3. 7 times compares to the comparison. At the same time, the enrichment factors of Cd also have been improved drstinctively.%采用盆栽实验方法,研究了在Cd及Cd-Mn复合污染土壤中添加EDTA对藜生长的影响以及对Cd的转运和富集作用.结果表明:单一Cd污染处理下最佳的EDTA添加水平为2.5 mmol· kg-1,Cd-Mn复合污染处理下EDTA的添加水平为5.0 mmol,kg-1,这时EDTA可以促进藜地下部分的重金属元素向地上部分迁移,藜地上部分含Cd量分别是对照值的1.8倍、3.7倍,同时对Cd的富集系数也有明显提高.

  7. Thermally stimulated third-order optical nonlinearity in Cd-doped CuO-PVA thin films under cw laser illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamgadge, Y. S.; Pahurkar, V. G.; Talwatkar, S. S.; Sunatkari, A. L.; Muley, G. G.

    2015-08-01

    We report synthesis, linear and third-order nonlinear optical properties of Cd-doped CuO-PVA nanocomposite thin films. Cd-doped CuO nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained by chemical synthesis method, and spin coating technique was used to obtain thin films in polyvinyl alcohol matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows formation of crystalline CuO having monoclinic phase with average particle size of 10 nm. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy attests formation of NPs by witnessing strong blue shift in the excitonic absorption. Absorption wavelength of CuO NPs shifts from 365 to 342 nm for Cd doping of 1-5 wt%. Both XRD and UV-Vis data confirm decrease in particle size with increase in Cd-doping concentration. Thin films have been characterized by Z-scan technique under continuous-wave He-Ne laser, and enhanced values of nonlinear refractive index n 2 and nonlinear absorption coefficient β have been obtained. Enhancements in the nonlinear optical properties have been attributed to the thermal effect due to strong linear absorption coefficient combined with increased thermo-optic coefficient. Contributing mechanisms such as photoacoustic effect, surface states effect and dielectric effect due to dopant and thin film structure have been discussed.

  8. Efficiency Enhanced Colloidal Mn-Doped Type II Core/Shell ZnSe/CdS Quantum Dot Sensitized Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamshidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal Mn-doped ZnSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs are synthesized for the first time and employed as a strategy to boost the power conversion efficiency of quantum dot sensitized solar cells. By using Mn-doping as a band gap engineering tool for core/shell QDs an effective improvement of absorption spectra could be obtained. The mid-states generated by a proper Mn content alleviate carrier separation and enhance the electron injection rate, thus facilitating electron transport to the TiO2 substrate. It is demonstrated that a device constructed with 0.25% Mn-doped ZnSe/CdS leads to an enhancement of the electron injection rate and power conversion efficiency by 4 times and 1.3, respectively.

  9. Solvothermal synthesis of CdIn2S4 photocatalyst for selective photosynthesis of organic aromatic compounds under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Cancan; Ye, Xiangju; Zhang, Jinghu; Zhang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Sujuan; Meng, Sugang; Fu, Xianliang; Chen, Shifu

    2017-12-01

    Ternary chalcogenide semiconductor, cadmium indium sulfide (CdIn2S4), was prepared by a simple solvothermal method using ethylene glycol as a solvent, as well as indium chloride tetrahydrate (InCl3(.)4H2O), cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate [Cd(NO3)2(.)4H2O], and thiacetamide (TAA) as precursors. The resulted sample was subject to a series of characterizations. It is the first time to use CdIn2S4 sample as a visible light-driven photocatalyst for simultaneous selective redox transformation of organic aromatic compounds. The results indicate that the as-synthesized CdIn2S4 photocatalyst not only has excellent photocatalytic performance compared with pure In2S3 and CdS for the selective oxidation of aromatic alcohols in an oxygen environment, but also shows high photocatalytic redox activities under nitrogen atmosphere. A possible mechanism for the photocatalytic redox reaction in the coupled system was proposed. It is hoped that our current work could extend the applications of CdIn2S4 photocatalyst and provide new insights for selective transformations of organic compounds.

  10. Studies on AC Electrical Conductivity of CdCl2 Doped PVA Polymer Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Nanda Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PVA-based polymer electrolytes were prepared with various concentrations of CdCl2 using solvent casting method. Prepared polymer films were investigated using line profile analysis employing X-ray diffraction (XRD data. XRD results show that the crystallite size decreases and then increases with increase in CdCl2. AC conductivity in these polymer increases films first and then decreases. These observations are in agreement with XRD results. The highest ionic conductivity of 1.68E − 08 Scm−1 was observed in 4% of CdCl2 in PVA polymer blend. Crystallite ellipsoids for different concentrations of CdCl2 are computed here using whole pattern powder fitting (WPPF indicating that crystallite area decreases with increase in the ionic conductivity.

  11. The thymus atrophy inducing organotin compound DBTC stimulates TCRalfabeta-CD3 signalling in immature rat thymocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, R.H.H.; Punt, P.; Bol, M.; Dijken, J.M. van; Seinen, W.; Penninks, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, we show that the thymus atrophy inducing compound DBTC stimulates the intracellular release, but not the influx, of Ca2+ elicited by cross-linking of the TcRαβ-CD3-complex on rat thymocytes and inhibits capping of TcRαβ. Similarities with the effects of cytochalasin B together

  12. The heavy metal ions (Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd+) toxic compounds influence on triticale plants growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezoczki, V. M.; Filip, G. M.

    2017-05-01

    The presence of the heavy metals toxic compounds (CuSO4 · 5H2O, ZnSO4 · 7H2O and 3CdSO4·8H2O) in water and soil can be observed by their negative effects on the germination and growth process for different vegetable (barley, oat, maize) who are used for human and animal consumption. This paper it aims the determination of germination and growth inhibition negative effects for triticale plants in the heavy metals ions presence by ecotoxicological laboratory tests. The triticale plants was chosen for their different characteristics to the other grasses respectively: a very good resistance for a wide range of diseases, an accelerated growth and a very good tolerance for aluminum ions presents in acid soils. The determinations were conducted step by step, first, we put the triticale grains in contact with the heavy metal solutions with different concentration then for 3 days we noticed the triticale germination inhibition effects and finally we noticed the growth inhibition process for triticale plants respectively in 7th and 9th day from the start of the experiment. At the end of the tests we can conclude that the triticale roots have a very great sensibility to a CuSO4 solutions compared to the effects for their stalks. A positive effect for triticale stalks we can see for low CuSO4 solution concentrations thus for 5 mg Cu/l the growth is 19,44%. A positive effect for triticale roots it can see for low ZnSO4 solution concentrations so for 5 - 15 mg Zn/l the growth is 24,4%. In the presence of the CdSO4 solution all the processes are inhibited (germination and growth for triticale plants) even for a low concentrations for this toxic.

  13. Investigation of light induced effect on density of states of Pb doped CdSe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Singh, Baljinder; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Thin films of Pb doped CdSe are deposited on the glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique using inert gas condensation method. The prepared thin films are light soaked under vacuum of 2×10-3 mbar for two hour. The absorption coefficient in the sub-band gap region has been studied using Constant Photocurrent Method (CPM). The absorption coefficient in the sub-band gap region follows an exponential Urbach tail. The value of Urbach energy and number density of defect states have been calculated from the absorption coefficient in the sub-band gap region and found to increase after light soaking treatment. The energy distribution of the occupied density of states below Fermi level has been evaluated using derivative procedure of the absorption coefficient.

  14. Deep electron states in indium-doped Cd0.93Mn0.07Te DLTS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdusianek, A.; Szatkowski, J.; Paczek-Popko, E.; Sieraski, K.; Becla, P.

    2006-03-01

    Electron traps in indium doped Cd0.93Mn0.07Te were studied with Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy. Five electron traps were found (labeled as E1 - E5). Energy levels ET of related defects are equal to E T 1 = 0.09 eV, E T 2 = 0.12 eV, E T 3 = 0.18 eV, E T 4 = 0.56 eV and E T 5 = 0.65 eV. Three of them (E1, E2, E3 ) are related to the defects with thermally activated capture cross section. Electric field enhanced electron emission from the trap E4 was observed and described in the terms of the Poole-Frenkel - mechanism.

  15. Mn-doped CdS quantum dots sensitized hierarchical TiO{sub 2} flower-rod for solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Libo; Li, Zhen; Liu, Yingbo; Cheng, Fa; Sun, Shuqing, E-mail: sunshuqing@tju.edu.cn

    2014-06-01

    A double-layered TiO{sub 2} film which three dimensional (3D) flowers grown on highly ordered self-assembled one dimensional (1D) TiO{sub 2} nanorods was synthesized directly on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrate by a facile hydrothermal method and was applied as photoanode in Mn-doped CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The 3D TiO{sub 2} flowers with the increased surface areas can adsorb more QDs, which increased the absorption of light; meanwhile 1D TiO{sub 2} nanorods beneath the flowers offered a direct electrical pathway for photogenerated electrons, accelerating the electron transfer rate. A typical type II band alignment which can effectively separate photogenerated excitons and reduce recombination of electrons and holes was constructed by Mn-doped CdS QDs and TiO{sub 2} flower-rod. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the Mn-doped CdS/TiO{sub 2} flower-rod solar cell reached to 40% with the polysulfide electrolyte filled in the solar cell. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.09% was obtained with the Mn-doped CdS/TiO{sub 2} flower-rod solar cell under one sun illumination (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}), which is 105.7% higher than that of the CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanorod solar cell (0.53%).

  16. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with a progressive reduction of recombination using Cu-doped CdS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalif, Mohammed Panthakkal Abdul; Lee, Young-Seok; Sunesh, Chozhidakath Damodharan; Kim, Hee-Je; Choe, Youngson

    2017-02-01

    In this article, we have systematically probed the effect of Cu-doping in CdS quantum dots (QDs) to enhance the photovoltaic performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The Cu-doped CdS photoanodes were prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and the corresponding cell devices were fabricated using CuS counter electrodes with a polysulfide electrolyte. The photovoltaic performance results demonstrate that 3 mM Cu-doped CdS QDs based QDSSCs exhibit the efficiency (η) of 3% including JSC = 9.40 mA cm-2, VOC = 0.637 V, FF = 0.501, which are higher than those with bare CdS (η = 2.05%, JSC = 7.12 mA cm-2, VOC = 0.588 V, FF = 0.489). The structural, topographical and optical properties of the thin films have been studied with the help of X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis spectrophotometer. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and open circuit voltage decay (OCVD) measurements indicate that Cu-dopant can inhibit the charge recombination at the photoanode/electrolyte interface and extend the lifetime of electrons. These results reveal that incorporation of copper metal in CdS QDs is a simple and effective method to improve the photovoltaic properties of QDSSCs.

  17. Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance of Nanosized Anatase TiO2 Doped with CdS Quantum Dots for Cancer-Cell Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangqiang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CdS quantum-dots-(QDs-doped TiO2 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized using the sol-gel technique and characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS, UV-Vis, and FS. They were then used as a new “photosensitizer” based on photodynamic therapy (PDT for cancer-cell treatment. The photocatalytic activities of CdS-TiO2 on leukemia tumors were investigated by using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay. The ultrastructural morphology of treated cells was also studied by AFM. The experimental results indicated that an obvious inhibition of tumor growth would be observed in groups treated with CdS-TiO2 nanocomposites, and the PDT efficiency in the presence of CdS-doped TiO2 was significantly higher than that of TiO2, revealing that the photocatalytic activities of TiO2 could be effectively enhanced by the modification of CdS QDs. Additionally, CdS- TiO2 can exhibit a very high photodynamic efficiency of 80.5% at a final concentration of 200 μg/mL under visible-light irradiation. CdS-TiO2 nanocomposites in this case were regarded as a promising application for cancer-cell treatment.

  18. Identification of Ag and Cd photoluminescence in $^{111}$Ag-doped GaN

    CERN Document Server

    Stötzler, A; Deicher, M

    1999-01-01

    In order to unambiguously identify the chemical nature of Cd and Ag related optical transitions in GaN, epitaxial GaN layers were implanted with the radioactive isotope $^{111}$Ag which decays into stable $^{111}$Cd. This chemical transmutation was monitored by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Being an element specific property, the half-life of this decay was used to establish the chemical assignment of the optical transitions to a specific defect. We found that the Ag related transitions consist of a series of four single lines (1.610, 1.600, 1.594, and 1.573 eV), each accompanied by two phonon replicas separated by 63 meV. Cd produces two PL bands centered at 2.7 and 3.2 eV. Additional Cd-related single transitions at 3.341, 3.328, and 3.249 eV have been observed. Exponential fits to the PL intensities yield half-lives of $t_{1/2}^{Ag}$= (7.61$\\pm$0.27) d and $t_{1/2}^{Cd}$=(7.60$\\pm$0.27) d, respectively, in good agreement with the half-life of $^{111}$Ag of 7.45 d. (13 refs).

  19. Cd doping of AlN via ion implantation studied with perturbed angular correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, Patrick; Miranda, Sérgio MC; Simon, R; Correia, João Guilherme; Johnston, Karl; Vianden, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    AlN with a wide bandgap of 6.2 eV is a promising candidate for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. However, the production of the required p-type AlN is still challenging. As a possible dopant Cd was suggested among other Group II atoms (Be, Mg, and Zn). In this study the annealing condition of implanted Cd in AlN was investigated with the method of the perturbed angular correlation (PAC). Therefore radioactive $^{117}$Cd or $^{111m}$Cd ions were implanted into thin AlN films on sapphire substrate with an energy of 30 keV and fluences in the range of 10$^{11}$ ions/cm$^{2}$. After thorough annealing with a proximity cap of the same material most of the Cd-probes occupy substitutional lattice sites and almost all implantation damage can be annealed. This results in a distinct frequency in the PAC spectra which increases with temperature. In contrast to the formation of an indium nitrogen-vacancy complex observed with the probe $^{111}$In on substitutional Al-sites no defects are bound to substi...

  20. Structural and optical characterization of mechanochemically synthesized copper doped CdS nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, P., E-mail: pireyes@cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica-SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Zacatenco, D.F., C.P.07360, Mexico (Mexico); Velumani, S. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica-SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Zacatenco, D.F., C.P.07360, Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-09-20

    Incorporation of copper into CdS crystals has been successfully prepared by mechanical alloying using a planetary ball mill. The powders are prepared with different milling times at 300 rpm with various Cu/Cd ratios from 0.1 to 25 at%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of milled powders showed peaks corresponding to hexagonal structure with a detection of phase transition to a cubic structure with increasing milling time. Grain sizes varied from 21 to 30 nm corresponding to different Cu/Cd ratios. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images reveal agglomerated materials with particle size of approximately 28 nm (5 Cu at%) and layered structures caused due to the milling process. Powder composition by energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) reveals the incorporation of copper into the CdS. Micro Raman spectroscopy showed peaks approximately at 301 and 585 cm{sup -1} corresponding to first and second order scatterings of longitudinal optical phonon mode. The LO mode at 301 cm{sup -1} shifted towards lower wave number due to decrease of grain size by increase in milling time. From high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), the dominant phase of individual CdS nanocrystals was found to be hexagonal structure along with cubic structure.

  1. Microstructure, electrical conductivity and modulus spectra of CdI2 doped nanocomposite-electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Ranadip; Roy, Debasish; Bhattacharya, Sanjib

    2017-02-01

    Ionic conductivity and dielectric behavior of Ag2O-CdI2-CdO nanocomposite system have been studied. X-ray diffraction has been carried out to obtain the crystallite sizes and the growth of CdO dispersed in glass-matrices. Total conductivity of them shows thermally activated nature. It is observed that total conductivity decreases and corresponding activation energy for conduction follows opposite behavior. The high-frequency ac conductivity may correspond to a nonrandom, correlated and sub-diffusive motion of Ag+ ions. Conductivity relaxation time is found to increase. The nature of scaling of the conductivity as well as modulus spectra indicates that the electrical relaxation of Ag+ is temperature independent but depends upon composition.

  2. Microstructure, electrical conductivity and modulus spectra of CdI{sub 2} doped nanocomposite-electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Ranadip [Department of Engineering Sciences and Humanities, Siliguri Institute of Technology, Darjeeeling 734009, West Bengal (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Roy, Debasish [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bhattacharya, Sanjib, E-mail: sanjib_ssp@yahoo.co.in [Department of Engineering Sciences and Humanities, Siliguri Institute of Technology, Darjeeeling 734009, West Bengal (India)

    2017-02-15

    Ionic conductivity and dielectric behavior of Ag{sub 2}O–CdI{sub 2}–CdO nanocomposite system have been studied. X-ray diffraction has been carried out to obtain the crystallite sizes and the growth of CdO dispersed in glass-matrices. Total conductivity of them shows thermally activated nature. It is observed that total conductivity decreases and corresponding activation energy for conduction follows opposite behavior. The high-frequency ac conductivity may correspond to a nonrandom, correlated and sub-diffusive motion of Ag{sup +} ions. Conductivity relaxation time is found to increase. The nature of scaling of the conductivity as well as modulus spectra indicates that the electrical relaxation of Ag{sup +} is temperature independent but depends upon composition.

  3. Mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon microfibers derived from Mg-biquinoline-dicarboxy compound for efficient oxygen electroreduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Aiguo; Fan, Xiaohong; Chen, Aoling; Zhang, Hengiang; Shan, Yongkui

    2017-02-01

    An in-situ MgO-templating synthesis route was introduced to obtain the mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon microfibers by thermal conversion of new Mg-2,2‧-biquinoline 4,4-dicarboxy acid coordination compound (Mg-DCA) microfibers. The investigated crystal structure of Mg-DCA testified that the assembling of Mg2+ and DCA through Mg-O coordination bond and hydrogen bond contributed to the formation of one-dimensional (1D) crystalline Mg-DCA microfibers. The nitrogen-doped carbons derived from the pyrolysis of Mg-DCA showed the well-defined microfiber morphology with high mesopore-surface area. Such mesoporous microfibers exhibited the efficient catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline solutions with better stability and methanol-tolerance performance.

  4. Evolution of magnetostructural transition and magnetocaloric effect with Al doping in MnCoGe1-xAlx compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Lifu

    2014-01-03

    The effect of Al doping in MnCoGe1-xAlx compounds has been investigated. The substitution of Al for Ge enhances Mn-Mn covalent bonding by shortening the distance of nearest Mn atom layers, and thus stabilizes the hexagonal structure. As a result, first-order magnetostructural transition between ferromagnetic martensite and paramagnetic austenite takes place for the optimized compositions (x = 0.01, 0.02). Accompanied with the magnetostructural transition, large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is observed. More doping of Al(x = 0.03, 0.04) leads to the separation of magnetic and structural transitions and remarkable reduction of MCE. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Annealing-induced optical and sub-band-gap absorption parameters of Sn-doped CdSe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Thin films of Sn-doped CdSe were prepared by thermal evaporation onto glass substrates in an argon gas atmosphere and annealed at different temperatures. Structural evaluation of the films was carried out using X-ray diffraction and their stoichiometry studied by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The films exhibit a preferred orientation along the hexagonal direction of CdSe. The optical transmittance of the films shows a red shift of the absorption edge with annealing. The fundamental absorption edge corresponds to a direct energy gap with a temperature coefficient of 3.34 × 10-3 eV K-1. The refractive index, optical conductivity and real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constants were found to increase after annealing. The sub-band gap absorption coefficient was evaluated using the constant photocurrent method. It varies exponentially with photon energy. The Urbach energy, the density of defect states, and the steepness of the density of localized states were evaluated from the sub-band-gap absorption.

  6. Al-doped ZnO contact to CdZnTe for x- and gamma-ray detector applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, U. N.; Camarda, G. S.; Cui, Y.; Gul, R.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Mundle, R. M.; Pradhan, A. K.; James, R. B.

    2016-06-01

    The poor adhesion of common metals to CdZnTe (CZT)/CdTe surfaces has been a long-standing challenge for radiation detector applications. In this present work, we explored the use of an alternative electrode, viz., Al-doped ZnO (AZO) as a replacement to common metallic contacts. ZnO offers several advantages over the latter, such as having a higher hardness, a close match of the coefficients of thermal expansion for CZT and ZnO, and better adhesion to the surface of CZT due to the contact layer being an oxide. The AZO/CZT contact was investigated via high spatial-resolution X-ray response mapping for a planar detector at the micron level. The durability of the device was investigated by acquiring I-V measurements over an 18-month period, and good long-term stability was observed. We have demonstrated that the AZO/CZT/AZO virtual-Frisch-grid device performs fairly well, with comparable or better characteristics than that for the same detector fabricated with gold contacts.

  7. Influence of Cobalt Doping on the Physical Properties of Zn0.9Cd0.1S Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Hari Om

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Zn0.9Cd0.1S nanoparticles doped with 0.005–0.24 M cobalt have been prepared by co-precipitation technique in ice bath at 280 K. For the cobalt concentration >0.18 M, XRD pattern shows unidentified phases along with Zn0.9Cd0.1S sphalerite phase. For low cobalt concentration (≤0.05 M particle size, d XRDis ~3.5 nm, while for high cobalt concentration (>0.05 M particle size decreases abruptly (~2 nm as detected by XRD. However, TEM analysis shows the similar particle size (~3.5 nm irrespective of the cobalt concentration. Local strain in the alloyed nanoparticles with cobalt concentration of 0.18 M increases ~46% in comparison to that of 0.05 M. Direct to indirect energy band-gap transition is obtained when cobalt concentration goes beyond 0.05 M. A red shift in energy band gap is also observed for both the cases. Nanoparticles with low cobalt concentrations were found to have paramagnetic nature with no antiferromagnetic coupling. A negative Curie–Weiss temperature of −75 K with antiferromagnetic coupling was obtained for the high cobalt concentration.

  8. Linear and nonlinear optical study of pure PVA and CdSe doped PVA nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Chetna; Sharma, Ambika

    2016-05-01

    This research work reports the synthesis and optical properties of CdSe/PVA polymer nanocomposite (PNC's) prepared by wet chemical co-precipitation method. The transmission spectra obtained from UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer has been investigated to determine the optical properties of PNC's. Absorption spectra give the information about energy band gap (Eg) and type of transition. Refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k) was calculated using well known Swanepoel method. Wemple-Di Domenico model (WDD) has been used to calculate dispersion energy (Ed) and oscillator energy (E0). Boling formula is used to calculate nonlinear refractive index (n2) of CdSe/PVA nanocomposite.

  9. Impedance spectroscopy and sensors under ethanol vapors application of sprayed vanadium-doped ZnO compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhamdi, A., E-mail: mhaammar@gmail.com [Unité de physique des dispositifs à semi-conducteurs, Tunis EL MANAR University, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Labidi, A. [Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, IPEST, BP 51, La Marsa 2070, Tunis (Tunisia); Souissi, B. [Unité de physique des dispositifs à semi-conducteurs, Tunis EL MANAR University, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Kahlaoui, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, Zarzouna 7021 (Tunisia); Yumak, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Marmara University, 34722 Göztepe, Istanbul (Turkey); Boubaker, K.; Amlouk, A.; Amlouk, M. [Unité de physique des dispositifs à semi-conducteurs, Tunis EL MANAR University, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • Proposing an original explanation to the behavior of vanadium-doped zinc oxide structures. • Presenting an original combination of several referred and established characterization means. • Outlining average particle size changes effects along the surface of the compounds. - Abstract: Thin films of vanadium-doped zinc oxide with different vanadium-doping levels (0, 1, 2 and 3 at%) were deposited on glass substrates by employing an inexpensive, simplified spray technique using at relatively low substrate temperature (460 °C). The effect of V doping on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the films was investigated by Mhamdi et al. (2013). The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the films were well crystallized in würtzite phase with the crystallites preferentially oriented toward (0 0 2) direction parallel c-axis. As also that the average particle size along the surface of the films decreases with increasing of concentration of vanadium. In this work we study the AC and DC conductivity and gas sensor application on ZnO:V thin films. The dielectric properties of ZnO:V thin films were studied by means of complex impedance spectroscopy and frequency dependence of conductivity measured from the impedance data at a range of frequency intervals between 10 Hz and 13 MHz with a temperature between 355 and 445 °C. The frequency dependence of the dielectric constant ε′, dielectric loss ε″, loss tangent (tan δ) and AC electrical conductivity (σ{sub AC}) of the layers was subsequently investigated. In literature, we have shown in previous papers that structural and surface morphology of ZnO thin films, prepared by spray, plays an important role in the gas detection mechanism. In this article, we have studied the response evolution of ZnO:V sensors ethanol versus time and working temperature, relative doping and the concentration of the ethanol vapor.

  10. CdTe and related compounds: physics, defects, hetero- and nano-structures, crystal growth, surfaces and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Triboulet, Robert

    Almost thirty years after the remarkable monograph of K. Zanio and the numerous conferences and articles dedicated since that time to CdTe and CdZnTe, after all the significant progresses in that field and the increasing interest in these materials for several extremely attractive industrial applications, such as nuclear detectors and solar cells, the edition of a new enriched and updated monograph dedicated to these two very topical II-VI semiconductor compounds, covering all their most prominent, modern and fundamental aspects, seemed very relevant and useful.

  11. Swift heavy ion irradiation effect on Cu-doped CdS nanocrystals embedded in PMMA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shweta Agrawal; Subodh Srivastava; Sumit Kumar; S S Sharma; B Tripathi; M Singh; Y K Vijay

    2009-12-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have received much interest for their optical and electronic properties. When these NCs dispersed in polymer matrix, brightness of the light emission is enhanced due to their quantum dot size. The CdCuS NCs have been synthesized by chemical route method and then dispersed in PMMA matrix. These nanocomposite polymer films were irradiated by swift heavy ion (SHI) (100 MeV, Si+7 ions beam) at different fluences of 1 × 1010 and 1 × 1012 ions/cm2 and then compared their structural and optical properties by XRD, atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence, and UV-Vis spectroscopy before and after irradiation. The XRD spectra showed a broad hump around 2 ≈ 11.83° due to amorphous PMMA and other peaks corresponding to hexagonal structure of CdS nanocrystals in PMMA matrix. The photoluminescence spectra shows a broad peak at 530 nm corresponding to green emission due to Cu impurities in CdS. The UV-Vis measurement showed red shift in optical absorption and bandgap changed from 4.38–3.60 eV as the irradiation fluency increased with respect to pristine CdCuS nanocomposite polymer film.

  12. Optical absorption and Faraday rotation in spin doped Cd1-xHgxSe : Mn crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savchuk, AI; Paranchich, SY; Paranchich, LD; Romanyuk, OS; Andriychuk, MD; Nikitin, PI; Tomlinson, RD; Hill, AE; Pilkington, RD

    1998-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra and the Faraday effect in crystals of Cd1-xHgxSe : Mn have been studied. The studied samples have been characterized abrupt absorption edge and transparency region with high transmission coefficient. The measured values of Verdet constant were considerably larger than in I

  13. Investigating the effect of Cd-Mn co-doped nano-sized BiFeO3 on its physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, B.; Murtaza, G.; Sharif, S.; Azhar Khan, M.; Akhtar, Naeem; Will, I. G.; Saleem, Murtaza; Ramay, Shahid M.

    This work deals with the investigation of different effects on the structural, magnetic, electronic and dielectric properties of Cd and Mn doped Bi0.75Cd0.25Fe1-xMnxO3 multiferroic samples by taking fixed ratios of Cd and varying the Mn ratio with values of x = 0.0, 0.5, 0.10 and 0.15. Cd-Mn doped samples were synthesized chemically using a microemulsion method. All the samples were finally sintered at 700 °C for 2 h to obtain the single phase perovskites structure of BiFeO3 materials. The synthesized samples were characterized by different techniques, such as X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), LCR meter and magnetic properties using VSM. XRD results confirm BFO is a perovskite structure having crystallite size in the range of 24-54 nm. XRD results also reveal observed structural distortion due to doping of Cd at the A-site and Mn at the B-site of BFO. SEM results depict that, as the substitution of Cd-Mn increases in BFO, grain size decreases up to 30 nm. FTIR spectra showed prominent absorption bands at 555 cm-1 and 445 cm-1 corresponding to the stretching vibrations of the metal ions complexes at site A and site B, respectively. Variation of dielectric constant (ɛ‧) and loss tangent (tan δ) at room temperature in the range of 1 MHz to 3 GHz have been investigated. Results reveal that with Cd-Mn co doping a slight decrease in dielectric constant have been observed. Magnetic properties of Cd-Mn doped pure BFO samples have been studied at 300 K. Results reveal that undoped BiFeO3 exhibits weak ferromagnetic ordering due to the canting of its spin. Increase in magnetization and decrease in coercivity is a clear indication that a material can be used in high density recording media and memory devices.

  14. Effects of monovalent cation doping on the structure, microstructure, lattice distortion and magnetic behavior of single crystalline NdMnO3 compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Anshuman; Pradhan, S K

    2015-10-21

    Pure and 15 mol% Na, K-doped NdMnO3 compounds with perovskite structures are prepared by sol-gel method. Tiny single crystals are formed after sintering the compounds at 1000 °C. The effect of Na and K doping as well as the effect of sintering temperature on the formation and microstructure of NdMnO3 are studied in detail by the Rietveld refinement technique using X-ray powder diffraction data. Single phase formation and single crystalline growth are also confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Bond angles and bond lengths are calculated and shown by 3D diagrams. Monovalent doping induces noticeable changes in the microstructure and yields better structural stability in these compounds. Doping results in the change of Mn-O, Nd-O and Mn-O-Mn bond lengths which in turn reduces the lattice and octahedral distortion in the system along with an increase in the tolerance factor. The magnetic properties of these compounds are also modified as a result of doping. The temperature dependent magnetization results show that the Neel temperature of antiferromagnetic NdMnO3 compound is 67.2 K and the Curie temperatures of ferromagnetic Nd0.85Na0.15MnO3 and Nd0.85K0.15MnO3 compounds are 99.1 K and 98.6 K respectively. Both 15% Na and K doping results in a similar TC in doped NdMnO3 compounds.

  15. Electronic and magnetic properties of Mn-doped BeSiAs{sub 2} and BeGeAs{sub 2} compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivosheeva, A V; Shaposhnikov, V L; Borisenko, V E [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, P. Browka 6, 220013 Minsk (Belarus); Arnaud D' Avitaya, F; Lazzari, J-L [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanoscience de Marseille CINAM, UPR CNRS 3118 conventionnee a Aix-Marseille Universite, Case 913, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: anna@nano.bsuir.edu.by

    2009-01-28

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of BeSiAs{sub 2} and BeGeAs{sub 2} chalcopyrite ternary compounds doped with manganese were investigated by means of ab initio calculations. It was found that substitution of Be atoms by Mn increases the lattice constants of both compounds that provide acceptable mismatch with conventional Si, Ge and GaAs substrates. In spite of the increase of the spin polarization upon doping, both compounds possess antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering with the impurity in the group II position whereas ferromagnetic (FM) ordering is obtained in the case of an impurity in the group IV position.

  16. Improvement in Superconducting Properties of MgB2 Superconductors by Nanoscale Carbon-Based Compound Doping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Hai Zhou

    2008-01-01

    MgB2 is a relatively new superconductor; it has attracted great interest from superconductor researchers all over the world. Thorough investigations have been carried out to study the material fabrication, as well as to study the material and superconducting properties from a fundamental physics point of view. The University of Wollongong has played a very active role in this research and a leading role in the research on high critical current density and high critical magnetic fields. Our recent research on the improve- ment of critical current density and the upper critical magnetic field by carbon-based compound doping is reviewed in this paper.

  17. Heat treatment effects on the superconducting properties of Ag-doped SrKFeAs compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The superconducting properties of polycrystalline Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 were strongly influenced by Ag doping(Supercond.Sci.Technol.23(2010) 025027).Ag addition is mainly dominated by silver diffusing,so the annealing process is one of the essential factors to achieve high quality Ag doped Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2.In this paper,the optimal annealing conditions were studied for Ag doped Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 bulks prepared by a one-step solid reaction method.It is found that the annealing temperature has a strong influence on the superconducting properties,especially on the critical current density Jc.As a result,higher heat treatment temperature(~900℃) is helpful in diffusing Ag and reducing the impurity phase gathered together to improve the grain connectivity.In contrast,low-temperature sintering is counterproductive for Ag doped samples.These results clearly suggest that annealing at ~900℃ is necessary for obtaining high Jc Ag-doped samples.

  18. Compound amino acids added in media improved Solanum nigrum L. phytoremediating CD-PAHS contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shuhe; Bai, Jiayi; Yang, Chuanjie; Zhang, Qianru; Knorrm, Klaus-Holger; Zhan, Jie; Gao, Qianhui

    2016-01-01

    Cd hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. was a promising plant used to simultaneously remediate Cd-PAHs combined pollution soil through its extra accumulation capacity and rhizosphere degradation. This article compared the strengthening remediation role of cysteine (Cys), glycine (Gly) and glutamic acid (Glu) with EDTA and TW80. The results showed that the addition of 0.03 mmol L(-1) Cys, Gly, and Glu didn't significantly impact (p Cd concentration. Therefore, Cd capacity (µg pot(-1)) in shoots of S. nigrum was significantly increased (p Cd might lie in the addition of Cys, Gly, and Glu which reduced pH and increased extractable Cd concentration in rhizosphere and phytochelatines (PCs) concentration in leaves. As for the degradation of PAHs in rhizosphere, increased microorganism number might be play important role.

  19. The Effect of Fluorine Doping on the Characteristic Behaviour of CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, A. A.; Dharmadasa, I. M.

    2016-11-01

    Fluorine which is an n-type dopant of cadmium telluride thin films was included during growth from a cadmium nitrate [Cd(NO3)2·4H2O] bath using an electrodeposition technique. The fluorine concentration in the Cd(NO3)2·4H2O baths were varied between 0.5 ppm and 50 ppm in order to determine its effect on the optical, structural, morphological and electrical properties of the as-deposited and the post-growth-treated layers. These characterisations were carried out using x-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-rays spectroscopy, photoelectrochemical cell measurement, direct current conductivity measurement and fully fabricated device characterisation. The results are systematically reported in this paper.

  20. Synthesis and optical properties of Tb{sup 3+} doped CdF{sub 2} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubekri, H. [Laser Department, Nuclear Technique Division, Nuclear Research Center of Algiers, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, 16000 Algiers (Algeria); Laboratory of Laser Physics, Optical Spectroscopy and Optoelectronics (LAPLASO), Badji Mokhtar Annaba University, PO Box 12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Diaf, M., E-mail: diafma@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Laser Physics, Optical Spectroscopy and Optoelectronics (LAPLASO), Badji Mokhtar Annaba University, PO Box 12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Labbaci, K. [Laboratory of Laser Physics, Optical Spectroscopy and Optoelectronics (LAPLASO), Badji Mokhtar Annaba University, PO Box 12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Guerbous, L. [Laser Department, Nuclear Technique Division, Nuclear Research Center of Algiers, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, 16000 Algiers (Algeria); Duvaut, T.; Jouart, J.P. [ECATHERM/GRESPI, Reims Champagne-Ardenne University (France)

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •Terbium doped CdF{sub 2} single crystals grown by Bridgman technique. •Absorption, excitation and emission spectra recorded at room temperature. •Spectroscopic properties investigated by use of the Judd–Ofelt theory. •Transition probability, radiative lifetimes, quantum efficiency and branching ratios are calculated. •Emission cross-section is measured by use of Füchtbauer–Ladenburg theory. -- Abstract: This paper reports the optical analysis of Tb{sup 3+} doped CdF{sub 2} single crystals. The pulled crystals were prepared by use of the Bridgman technique from a vacuum furnace in fluoride atmosphere. Absorption, photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra were recorded at room temperature. The Judd–Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters Ω{sub 2}, Ω{sub 4} and Ω{sub 6} for 4f–4f transitions of Tb{sup 3+} ions were computed from the optical absorption spectra using UV, visible and near infrared transitions. These parameters were then used to calculate the radiative transition probabilities (A{sub JJ′}), branching ratios (β{sub JJ′}) and radiative lifetimes of the two main laser emitting levels {sup 5}D{sub 3} and {sup 5}D{sub 4} of Tb{sup 3+} ions. The obtained spectroscopic properties are compared to those of Tb{sup 3+} transitions in other hosts. The excitation spectrum in the UV–Visible spectral range is very close to the absorption spectrum indicating that all observed absorption levels can excite the green emission of Tb{sup 3+} corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 5} transition. The emission spectra exhibit a weak blue emission and a strong green emission in the spectral range 370–460 nm and 478–612 nm which are assigned to {sup 5}D{sub 3} → {sup 7}F{sub J} (J = 6, 5, 4, 3, 2) and {sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub J} (J = 6, 5, 4, 3) transitions of Tb{sup 3+}, respectively. The green emission {sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 5} at 532 nm having an emission cross-section equal to 8 × 10{sup −22} cm

  1. Polarization-dependent angular distribution of the absorption behavior in Ytterbium-doped monoclinic LYB and LGB compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremichael, W.; Petit, Y.; Rouzet, S.; Fargues, A.; Veber, P.; Velazquez, M.; Jubera, V.; Canioni, L.; Manek-Hönninger, I.

    2017-02-01

    In this contribution we detail the full characterization of the anisotropy of the absorption properties of two different Yb-doped monoclinic borate compounds under polarized light. The studied crystals are Li6(Gd)0.75Yb0.25(BO3)3 and Li6Y0.75Yb0.25(BO3)3, respectively, grown by the Czochralski method. We focused on the study of their absorption at the zero line transition as a function of the polarization direction of the incident light for two different crystal cuts of each compound. We discuss the different Eigen frames that must be considered in these materials due to their monoclinic character, as well as the optimal crystal orientation for the considered absorption and the potential influences when used as laser materials.

  2. Effects of active bufadienolide compounds on human cancer cells and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in mitogen-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; He, Jing; Kisoh, Keishi; Hayashi, Hideki; Tanaka, Sachiko; Si, Nan; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Hirano, Toshihiko; Bian, Baolin; Takagi, Norio

    2016-09-01

    The growth inhibitory effects of bufadienolide compounds were investigated in two intractable cancer cells, a human glioblastoma cell line U-87 and a pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990. Among four bufadienolide compounds, a dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed in these cancer cells after treatment with gamabufotalin and arenobufagin. The IC50 values of the two compounds were 3-5 times higher in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) than these values for both cancer cell lines. However, similar phenomena were not observed for two other bufadienolide compounds, telocinobufagin and bufalin. These results thus suggest that gamabufotalin and arenobufagin possess selective cytotoxic activity against tumor cells rather than normal cells. Moreover, a clear dose-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, a well-known hallmark of necrosis, was observed in both cancer cells treated with gamabufotalin, suggesting that gamabufotalin-mediated cell death is predominantly associated with a necrosis-like phenotype. Of most importance, treatment with as little as 8 ng/ml of gamabufotalin, even an almost non-toxic concentration to PBMCs, efficiently downregulated the percentages of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulator T (Treg) cells in mitogen-activated PBMCs. Given that Treg cells play a critical role in tumor immunotolerance by suppressing antitumor immunity, these results suggest that gamabufotalin may serve as a promising candidate, as an adjuvant therapeutic agent by manipulating Treg cells to enhance the efficacy of conventional anticancer drugs and lessen their side-effects. These findings provide insights into the clinical application of gamabufotalin for cancer patients with glioblastoma/pancreatic cancer based on its cytocidal effect against tumor cells as well as its depletion of Treg cells.

  3. Modification of ZnO Thin Films by Ni, Cu, and Cd Doping*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-González, A. E.

    1997-02-01

    With the propose of investigating the effect of transition elements in ZnO thin films prepared by the Successive Ion Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) technique, the deposition solutions were chemically impurified with Ni, Cu, and Cd, as elements of the Ib, IIb, and VIIIa groups. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses confirm that the impurification with Ni and Cu in fact took place but the impurification with Cd did not, while the XRD analyses show that foras preparedand Ni-impurified annealed films, the crystallites are almost oriented along thecaxis. The electrical properties of the ZnO films were also modified with the impurification. After annealing in air (450°C) the dark conductivity of the films was increased in the case of Ni and Cd impurification up to 1.80×10-3and 1.86×10-2[Ω cm]-1, respectively, but it decreased drastically in the case of Cu to 5.51×10-7[Ω cm]-1, as referred to the dark conductivity (1.86×10-4[Ω cm]-1) of the pure ZnO sample. The measured activation energy for the electrical conductivity of the modified ZnO thin films is 55 meV for the Ni modification, indicating the existence of donor levels. On the other hand, the Cu modification increases the activation energy up to 132 meV, which is higher than the activation energy for pure ZnO thin films (98 meV).

  4. Growth and optical properties of Cr3+-doped CdWO4 single crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuntao Wan; Haoyang Hu; Haiping Xia; Yuepin Zhang; Haochuan Jiang; Hongbing Chen

    2012-01-01

    A high-quality Cra+:CdWO4 single crystal at a size of approximately φ 25×80 mm is grown using the Bridgman method with CdO,WO3,and Cr2O3 as raw materials and their molar ratio of 100∶100∶0.5.The temperature gradient of solid-liquid interface at growth is approximately 50 ℃/cm and the growth rate is 0.05 mm/h.The X-ray diffraction (XRD),absorption,excitation,and emission spectra of different parts of the as-grown and O2-annealed crystals are investigated.Two strong broad optical absorption bands of about 472 and 708 nm are observed,and they are associated with the transitions 4A2 →4T1 and 4A2 →4T2.The weak 4T2 →2E transition (the R-line) at 632 nm is also observed.The crystal-field parameter Dq and the Racah parameters B and C are estimated to be 1412.4,776.8,and 3427.6 cm-1,respectively,according to the absorption spectra and crystal-splitting theory.A broadband fluorescence at about 1000 nm due to 4T2 →4A2 transition is produced by exciting the samples at 675 nm.After being annealed in an O2 atmosphere,the crystals become more transparent,while the effective light absorption of Cr3+ ions is evidently enhanced and the emission intensity is also strengthened due to the reduction of oxygen vacancies in the CdWO4 crystal after annealing.

  5. Photoluminescence properties of the ZnO-CdO-TeO{sub 2} system doped with the Tb{sup 3+}and Yb{sup 3+} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruvalcaba-Cornejo, C. [Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Universidad de Sonora (Mexico); Flores-Acosta, M. [Universidad de Sonora, Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Rosales y Luis Encinas s/n, colonia Centro 83000, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Elena Zayas, Ma. [Departamento de C. Quimico-Biologicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad de Sonora, Unidad Regional Sur, Navojoa, Sonora (Mexico); Lozada-Morales, R. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Palomino-Merino, R. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico)], E-mail: palomino@fcfm.buap.mx; Espinosa, J.E. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Portillo-Moreno, O. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Martinez-Juarez, J. [Departamento de Dispositivos Semiconductores, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Av. Sur y Av. San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, Puebla (Mexico); Zelaya-Angel, O.; Tomas, S.A.; Soto, A.B. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico 07360 D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-02-15

    ZnO-CdO-TeO{sub 2} was employed as a host of Tb{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions. The matrix doped with Tb{sup 3+} presents a crystalline/amorphous structure, while the same matrix shows an amorphous structure when it is doped with Yb{sup 3+}. Optical absorption spectra, measured by using photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy, allowed to determine the band gap, which is localized in the range 3.47-3.60 eV. Both kinds of ions Tb{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} in the ZnO-CdO-TeO{sub 2} matrix show emissions that are characteristic of such ions. For Tb{sup 3+} the signals were allocated in 548, 586, 622 nm, respectively, while for Yb{sup 3+} only one signal was registered at 1000 nm.

  6. 长波碲镉汞材料 As 掺杂激活研究%Research on arsenic-doping activation in LW HgCdTe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张舟; 陈慧卿; 朱西安

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic-doped long-wavelength HgCdTe was realized by ion implantation.As doping medium,arsenic shows amphiprotic doping property.When Arsenic only occupies Te-site to be acceptor,P type HgdTe material can be formed.After the arsenic-doped HgCdTe is annealed in the mercury atmosphere,the change of electrical property which is caused by annealing is analyzed.And the effect of mercury pressure,temperature and time on arsenic activa-tion is studied.The activation effect is analyzed by Hall measurement and SIMS.In the end,when the arsenic-doped HgCdTe is annealed in the high temperature and high mercury atmosphere,arsenic activation is achieved.%利用离子注入工艺实现长波碲镉汞材料的 As 掺杂,As 作为掺杂介质表现出两性掺杂行为,而 As 只有占据 Te 位成为受主才能形成 P 型碲镉汞材料。通过对砷掺杂碲镉汞材料在汞气氛中进行退火,分析注入退火引起的样品电学性质的变化,对砷激活退火采用的汞压、温度及时间进行了研究,利用霍尔测试和二次离子质谱仪(SIMS)等手段分析激活效果,研究发现,高温富汞热退火可以实现碲镉汞 As 激活。

  7. Depolymerization of organosolv lignin to aromatic compounds over Cu-doped porous metal oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barta, Katalin; Warner, Genoa R.; Beach, Evan S.; Anastas, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Isolated, solvent-extracted lignin from candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) biomass was subjected to catalytic depolymerization in methanol with an added pressure of H-2, using a porous metal oxide catalyst (PMO) derived from a Cu-doped hydrotalcite-like precursor. The Cu-PMO was effective in converting

  8. Study of doping non-PMMA polymer fibre canes with UV photosensitive compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Fasano, Andrea; Janting, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    We propose a solution doping method for polycarbonate (PC) and TOPAS polymer optical fibre (POF) canes using different UV photosensitive dopants aiming to reduce the fibre Bragg grating inscription time at the typical Bragg grating inscription wavelength (325nm). Three-ring solid-core PC mPOF canes...

  9. Depolymerization of organosolv lignin to aromatic compounds over Cu-doped porous metal oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barta, Katalin; Warner, Genoa R.; Beach, Evan S.; Anastas, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Isolated, solvent-extracted lignin from candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) biomass was subjected to catalytic depolymerization in methanol with an added pressure of H-2, using a porous metal oxide catalyst (PMO) derived from a Cu-doped hydrotalcite-like precursor. The Cu-PMO was effective in converting

  10. Synthesis of an optically clear, flexible and stable hybrid ureasilicate matrix doped with CdSe nanoparticles produced by reverse micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonçalves, Luis F.F.F., E-mail: luisfillipeffgoncalves@yahoo.com [Centro de Química – Departamento de Química, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Centro de Física – Departamento de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Silva, Carlos J.R. [Centro de Química – Departamento de Química, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Kanodarwala, Fehmida K.; Stride, John A. [School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Pereira, Mario R.; Gomes, Maria J.M. [Centro de Física – Departamento de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    Optically clear and flexible organic–inorganic hybrid materials doped with CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by a sol–gel method based on the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of ureasilicate precursors. The CdSe NPs were produced by a colloidal method using reverse micelles and were then transferred to the ureasilicate precursor solution followed by gelation of the mixture using ammonia/water vapours as catalyst for the sol–gel process. The influence of the NPs surface in the dispersion of the NPs within the matrix was investigated by the addition of a capping agent with both thiol and siloxane groups (3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane, MPTMS). This capping agent was used in order to improve compatibility and avoid aggregation of the NPs within the matrix and to increase the preservation of the original optical properties of the NPs. The nanocomposites obtained were characterized by absorption spectroscopy, steady-state photoluminescence, time resolved photoluminescence, HRTEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The results obtained showed the influence of the use of MPTMS in the preservation of the original optical properties of the CdSe NPs after their transfer into the ureasilicate matrix. The HRTEM analysis showed the presence of well-dispersed spherical NPs with well-defined lattice fringes. The obtained nanocomposites exhibit high transparency in the visible range as a result of the good dispersion of the NPs within the matrix, showing the potentials of the developed method in the production of composite materials in which the optical properties of the NPs incorporated are crucial to the desired application. - Highlights: • Synthesis of a hybrid ureasilicate matrix doped with CdSe nanoparticles. • Absorption and PL spectra of doped xerogels show features of quantum size effect. • Using MPTMS plays an important role in the optical properties of the nanocomposites. • HRTEM analysis showed well-dispersed spherical NPs with well-defined lattice

  11. Magnetic hyperfine field in Tb Zn compound measured by PAC spectroscopy using {sup 111}Cd and {sup 140}Ce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch-Santos, B.; Cabrera-Pasca, G.A.; Carbonari, A.W.; Costa, M.S.; Saxena, R.N., E-mail: brianna@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The ferromagnetic compound Tb Zn has been investigated by perturbed {gamma}-{gamma} angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy using {sup 111}In{yields}{sup 111}Cd (t{sub 1/2} = 85 ns) and {sup 140}La{yields}{sup 140}Ce (t{sub 1/2} = 3,4 ns) as probe nuclei. Measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 10 - 295K for the {sup 111}Cd probe and below Curie temperature (T{sub C}) for the {sup 140}Ce probe. The study of magnetic properties of rare earth (R) and zinc compounds of the type RZn is interesting because Zn ion is a closed shell atom and the rare earth elements present a localized magnetism associated with 4f electrons, which do not participate in chemical bonds. Therefore, the magnetic properties of these compounds are only originated from the 4f electrons of rare earth. Furthermore, the compounds exhibit the highly symmetric cubic structure of the CsCl prototype and have a Curie temperature of TbZn is T{sub C} {approx} 204 K. (author)

  12. Nonlinear optical properties of cobalt and iron doped CdSe nanoparticles using Z-scan technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Poonam, E-mail: poonam.gaur612@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Sonipat 131001, Haryana (India); Malik, B.P. [Department of Physics, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Sonipat 131001, Haryana (India); Gaur, Arun [Department of Physics, Hindu College, Sonipat 131001, Haryana (India)

    2015-01-15

    The present work aims at the synthesis of pure, Cobalt (Co) and Iron (Fe) doped CdSe nanoparticles by the wet chemical method. The optical properties of synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectroscopy to find the optical direct band gap and estimation of particle size by using Debye–Scherrer formula and HRTEM. The nonlinear optical properties such as nonlinear absorption co-efficient, nonlinear refraction co-efficient and third order nonlinear susceptibility χ{sup (3)} are investigated. The calculations have been performed with the help of Z-scan experimental set-up using Nd: YAG laser emitting 532 nm, 5 ns laser pulses with intensity maintained at 2.296 TW/cm{sup 2}. The nanoparticles clearly exhibit a negative value of nonlinear refraction, which is attributed to the two photon absorption and free carrier absorption. Further the optical limiting behavior is determined (figure of merit (FOM)). The presence of RSA in these nanoparticles makes them a potential material for the development of optical limiter.

  13. Quadrupole interaction at111Cd in RRh3B2 compounds (R=Ce to Gd) and absence of transferred hyperfine field at111Cd in GdRh3B2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devare, S. H.; Dhar, S. K.; Malik, S. K.; Devare, H. G.

    1983-12-01

    The quadrupole interaction at111Cd in RRh3B2 compounds studied by the TDPAC technique supports the prediction that Ce in CeRh3B2 is not trivalent. The highly anisotropic EFG indicates that111Cd in GdRh3B2 cannot occupy the rare earth site. The transferred magnetic hyperfine field at111Cd is nearly zero which supports the conjecture that the impurity probe nuclei are at the 3g(Rh) site.

  14. Characterization of the Microstructure of HgCdTe with p-Type Doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobre, C.; Jouneau, P.-H.; Mollard, L.; Ballet, P.

    2014-08-01

    Nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony ions were implanted in Hg0.3Cd0.7Te (MCT) layers under the same implantation conditions. An identical annealing process was then applied to these layers to eradicate implantation damage and to activate the impurities. Implantation damage was investigated by direct visualization, by use of bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (BF-STEM). Secondary-ion mass spectrometry was used to investigate impurity diffusion on annealing. The combination of these two techniques revealed the significant effect of structural implantation damage on the diffusion process. Annealed layers were then investigated by high-resolution STEM imaging and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy in STEM (STEM-EDX). This approach enables direct visualization and, therefore, further description of arsenic and antimony-rich nanocrystals.

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis of a doped Mn-Cd-S solid solution as a visible-light-driven photocatalyst for H2 evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeue, Keita; Shiiba, Satoshi; Machida, Masato

    2011-02-18

    The effect of metal doping (i.e., with Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag and Sn) on the crystal structure of hydrothermally synthesized Mn(1-x)Cd(x) S (where x≈0.1) is studied with the aim of enhancing photocatalytic activity. In contrast to the low-crystalline, undoped solid solution Mn(1-x)Cd(x)S, Ni doping yields a well-crystallized wurtzite-type Mn-Cd-S solid solution, which precipitates as planar hexagonal facets of several hundred nanometers in size, together with much larger grains of α-MnS (>10 μm). By removing inactive α-MnS through sedimentation, a single phase with composition of Ni(0.01)Mn(0.56)Cd(0.43)S is obtained successfully. The Ni doping achieved a threefold higher photocatalytic activity for H(2) evolution from a 0.1 M Na(2)S/0.5 M Na(2)SO(3) solution under visible-light irradiation (λ≥420 nm). The apparent quantum yield of 1 wt % Pt-loaded Ni(0.01)Mn(0.56)Cd(0.43)S measured at λ=420 nm reached 25 %. The enhanced photocatalytic activity is most likely the result of a decreased concentration of defects, responsible for electron-hole recombination, in the active solid-solution phase and a slightly higher bandgap energy (2.4 eV).

  16. CdTe Nanocrystal Hetero-Junction Solar Cells with High Open Circuit Voltage Based on Sb-doped TiO₂ Electron Acceptor Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaozi; Liu, Xinyan; Wen, Shiya; Liu, Songwei; Heng, Jingxuan; Qin, Donghuan; Hou, Lintao; Wu, Hongbin; Xu, Wei; Huang, Wenbo

    2017-05-03

    We propose Sb-doped TiO₂ as electron acceptor material for depleted CdTe nanocrystal (NC) hetero-junction solar cells. Novel devices with the architecture of FTO/ZnO/Sb:TiO₂/CdTe/Au based on CdTe NC and TiO₂ precursor are fabricated by rational ambient solution process. By introducing TiO₂ with dopant concentration, we are able to tailor the optoelectronic properties of NC solar cells. Our novel devices demonstrate a very high open circuit voltage of 0.74 V, which is the highest Voc reported for any CdTe NC based solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solar cells increases with the increase of Sb-doped content from 1% to 3%, then decreases almost linearly with further increase of Sb content due to the recombination effect. The champion device shows Jsc, Voc, FF, and PCE of 14.65 mA/cm², 0.70 V, 34.44, and 3.53% respectively, which is prospective for solution processed NC solar cells with high Voc.

  17. Soft x-ray photoemission investigation on the effect of In doping in CdS/CuInSe sub 2 heterojunction formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.J.; Niles, D.W. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)); Rioux, D.; Patel, R.; Hoechst, H. (Synchrotron Radiation Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3731 Schneider Drive, Stoughton, Wisconsin 53589 (United States))

    1992-12-15

    Synchrotron radiation soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopy was used to investigate the development of the electronic structure at the CdS(In)/CuInSe{sub 2} heterojunction interface. In-doped CdS overlayers were deposited in steps on single-crystal {ital n}-type CuInSe{sub 2} at 250 {degree}C. Results indicate that the CdS(In) grows in registry with the substrate, initially in a two-dimensional growth mode followed by three-dimensional island growth as is corroborated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction analysis. Photoemission measurements were acquired after each growth in order to observe changes in the valence-band electronic structure. The results were used to correlate the interface chemistry with the electronic structure at these interfaces and to directly determine the CdS(In)/CuInSe{sub 2} heterojunction valence-band discontinuity and the consequent heterojunction band diagram as a function of In dopant concentration. We measured a valence-band offset {Delta}{ital E}{sub {ital v}}=0.3 eV, independent of In doping.

  18. Synthesis of CdTe QDs/single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes hybrid compound and their antimicrobial activity on bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Daniela A., E-mail: daniela.geraldo@unab.cl [Universidad Andres Bello, Departamento de Ciencias Quimicas (Chile); Arancibia-Miranda, Nicolas [CEDENNA, Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (Chile); Villagra, Nicolas A. [Universidad Andres Bello, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas (Chile); Mora, Guido C. [Universidad Andres Bello, Unidad de Microbiologia, Facultad de Medicina (Chile); Arratia-Perez, Ramiro [Universidad Andres Bello, Departamento de Ciencias Quimicas (Chile)

    2012-12-15

    The use of molecular conjugates of quantum dots (nanocrystalline fluorophores) for biological purposes have received much attention due to their improved biological activity. However, relatively, little is known about the synthesis and application of aluminosilicate nanotubes decorated with quantum dots (QDs) for imaging and treatment of pathogenic bacteria. This paper describes for a first time, the use of single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes (SWNT) (imogolite) as a one-dimensional template for the in situ growth of mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe QDs. This new nanohybrid hydrogel was synthesized by a simple reaction pathway and their enhanced optical properties were monitored by fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy, confirming that the use of these nanotubes favors the confinement effects of net CdTe QDs. In addition, studies of FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the non-covalent functionalization of SWNT. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of SWNT coated with CdTe QDs toward three opportunistic multi-resistant pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were tested. Growth inhibition tests were conducted by exposing growing bacteria to CdTe QDs/SWNT hybrid compound showing that the new nano-structured composite is a potential antimicrobial agent for heavy metal-resistant bacteria.

  19. Rietveld refinement of the semiconducting compound CdGaCrS{sub 4} from X-ray powder diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Gerzon E.; Mora, Asiloe J. [Laboratorio de Cristalografia, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101 (Venezuela); Betancourt, Luis; Sagredo, Vicente [Laboratorio de Magnetismo en Solidos, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101 (Venezuela)

    2003-10-01

    The semiconducting compound CdGaCrS{sub 4} was refined from an X-ray powder diffraction pattern using the Rietveld method. The X-ray powder pattern was mainly composed of CdGaCrS{sub 4} (88.3%), with CdGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} (9.9%) and Cr{sub 2}S{sub 3} (1.8%) appearing as secondary phases. The CdGaCrS{sub 4} phase crystallizes in the space group Fd-3m (N{sup 0} 227), Z=8, with a=10.1800(3) A, V=1054.98(5) A{sup 3}. The refinement of 28 instrumental and structural parameters led to R{sub p}=9.6 %, R{sub wp}=12.5 %, R{sub exp}=10.5 % and S=1.2. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. High activity of Ag-doped Cd0.1Zn0.9S photocatalyst prepared by the hydrothermal method for hydrogen production under visible-light irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny Yuliati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hydrothermal method was used as a new approach to prepare a series of Ag-doped Cd0.1Zn0.9S photocatalysts. The effect of Ag doping on the properties and photocatalytic activity of Cd0.1Zn0.9S was studied for the hydrogen production from water reduction under visible light irradiation.Results: Compared to the series prepared by the co-precipitation method, samples prepared by the hydrothermal method performed with a better photocatalytic activity. The sample with the optimum amount of Ag doping showed the highest hydrogen production rate of 3.91 mmol/h, which was 1.7 times higher than that of undoped Cd0.1Zn0.9S. With the Ag doping, a red shift in the optical response was observed, leading to a larger portion of the visible light absorption than that of without doping. In addition to the larger absorption in the visible-light region, the increase in photocatalytic activity of samples with Ag doping may also come from the Ag species facilitating electron–hole separation.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that Ag doping is a promising way to enhance the activity of Cd0.1Zn0.9S photocatalyst.

  1. Zn Doping Effect on Magnetic Properties of Znx Cd1-xCr2S4 Systems by High-Temperature Series Expansions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Hamedoun; R. Masrour; K. Bouslykhane; A. Hourmatallah; N. Benzakour; A. Filali

    2007-01-01

    The effect of Zn doping on the magnetic properties of CdCr2S4 systems is studied by mean field theory and high-temperature series expansion (HTSE). The nearest neighbouring and the next-neighbouring super-exchange interactions J1(x) and J2(x) are evaluated for the spinel system ZnxCd1-xCr2S4 in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. The intra-planar and the inter-planar interactions are deduced. The HTSE combined with the Pad?approximant method (PA) is applied to the spinel system ZnxCd1-xCr2S4. Themagnetic phase diagram, i.e. TC versus dilution x, is obtained. The critical exponents associated with the magnetic susceptibility γ and the correlation length v are deduced. The obtained theoretical results are in agreement with the experimental data obtained by magnetic measurements.

  2. Ab initio calculation of ZnSiAs{sub 2} and CdSiAs{sub 2} semiconductor compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukabrine, F., E-mail: bk_fouzia@yahoo.f [Applied Materials Laboratory, Electronics Department, Djillali Liabes University of Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Physics Department, Djillali Liabes University Of Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Chiker, F. [Physics Department, Djillali Liabes University Of Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Khachai, H., E-mail: h_khachai@yahoo.f [Applied Materials Laboratory, Electronics Department, Djillali Liabes University of Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Physics Department, Djillali Liabes University Of Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Haddou, A. [Applied Materials Laboratory, Electronics Department, Djillali Liabes University of Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Physics Department, Djillali Liabes University Of Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Baki, N. [Physics Department, Djillali Liabes University Of Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Khenata, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique (LPQ3M), Departement de Technologie, Universite de Mascara, 29000 (Algeria); Abbar, B. [Laboratoire de Modelisation et de Simulation en Sciences des Materiaux, Physics Department, Djillali Liabes University of Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Khalfi, A [Laboratory of Catalysis and Reactive Systems, Djillali Liabes University of Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria)

    2011-01-15

    In order to get a good overall description of the structural, electronic and optical properties of ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors especially for ZnSiAs{sub 2} and CdSiAs{sub 2}, they have been calculated self consistently using the full potential augmented plane wave plus local orbital method (FPAPW+lo). The calculations are presented within the local density approximation (LDA), where we clarify the electronic and optical properties for both compounds. Since, we prove the existence of the direct band gap and also the efficiency of the method to give more details about the optical properties. We found that the most important features of the band gap is pseudo-direct for ZnSiAs{sub 2}, and direct for CdSiAs{sub 2}; then the contribution of the different transitions peaks are analyzed from the imaginary part of the dielectric function and the reflectivity spectra.

  3. Synthesis, crystal structures and fluorescence properties of four mixed-ligands Zn(Ⅱ) and Cd(Ⅱ) coordination compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Four new coordination compounds, [Zn(dba)(bpy)]n (1), {[Zn(dba)(phen)]·2H2O}n (2), [Cd(dba)(bpy)(H2O)2] (3) and [Cd2(dba)2(phen)2]n (4) (H2dba = 2,5-dihydroxy-p-benzenediacetic acid, bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) have been prepared via solvothermal method and characterized by sin-gle-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and powder X-ray diffraction. 1 and 2 possess 1D infinite chain structures. Complex 3 exhibits a mononuclear structure. Complex 4 owns binuclear symmetry units, which were bridged via the dba ligands forming a 2D framework. The fluorescence properties of 1―4 have been studied.

  4. Research progress of CdSe/ZnS and PbSe-quantum-dot doped fibers and fiber amplifiers%CdSe/ZnS和PbSe量子点光纤及光纤放大器研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程成; 江慧绿

    2011-01-01

    Quantum dots(QDs), quantum dot doped fibers(QDFs) and quantum dot doped fiber amplifiers (QDFAs) are ones of the research focuses in recent years. In this study, the spectral characteristics and absorption-emission cross section of the CdSe/ZnS and PbSe QDs were described. The results showed that QDs had enhanced absorption and emission. The research advances were summarized for the CdSe/ ZnS QD doped fibers with different QD concentrations, and for the PbSe QDF materials fabricated by fusion and sol-gel method. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods in preparing QDF materials were analyzed. In addition, the researches on the PbSe QDFA were reviewed. A suggestion was given for potential applications of the QDFs in the future.%近年来,纳米晶体(量子点)以及量子点光纤、量子点光纤放大器成为一个研究热点.介绍了CdSe/ZnS和PbSe量子点的光谱特性以及量子点的吸收-辐射截面,表明量子点具有强的吸收和发射.总结了低浓度和较高浓度CdSe/ZnS量子点掺杂光纤、熔融法及溶胶凝胶法制备PbSe量子点光纤材料的最新研究进展,分析了两种方法制备量子点光纤材料的优缺点,概述了PbSe量子点光纤放大器的研究近况,展望了量子点光纤的应用前景.

  5. Boosting the catalytic performance of MoSx cocatalysts over CdS nanoparticles for photocatalytic H2 evolution by Co doping via a facile photochemical route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yonggang; Hou, Jianhua; Wang, Fang; Ma, Xiaohua; Jin, Zhiliang; Xu, Jing; Min, Shixiong

    2017-10-01

    Low-crystalline or amorphous molybdenum sulfides (MoSx), bearing abundant unsaturated active sites, have been identified as efficient catalysts for electrocatalytic and photocatalytic H2 evolution reactions, however, their intrinsic activity is still low and need to be further improved for large-scale applications. In this paper, we report that low-crystalline MoSx doped with Co (Co-MoSx) as efficient cocatalysts could be loaded on CdS nanoparticles through a facile and controllable photochemical reduction method and showed high performances in catalyzing H2 evolution under visible light irradiation (≥420 nm). The photochemical loading of Co-MoSx was accomplished by using an in-situ formed molecular complex precursor and photogenerated electrons on CdS as reductants under mild conditions. The optimized CdS/Co-MoSx (Co:Mo = 1:4, 2 mol% loading) photocatalyst exhibited a catalytic H2 evolution rate of 535 μmol h-1, which is 1.8 times higher than that of CdS/MoSx, and an apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) of 23.5% was achieved over CdS/Co-MoSx photocatalyst at 420 nm. Co-MoSx catalyst also shows a long-term stability without noticeable activity degradation. Notably, Co-MoSx cocatalyst was found more efficient than that of noble metals in catalyzing photocatalytic H2 evolution on CdS. The formation of CoMoS phase, the enhanced electrocatalytic activity as well as reduced electron transfer resistance due to the doping effects of Co ions, account for the enhanced catalytic activity of this Co-MoSx cocatalyst.

  6. Optical Spectra of Tm3+ -doped CdWO4 Crystal%Tm3+掺杂CdWO4单晶的发光特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡皓阳; 万云涛; 胡建旭; 夏海平; 张约品; 陈红兵

    2012-01-01

    用坩埚下降法生长获得了尺寸为φ25 mm×90 mm、Tm2O3初始掺杂摩尔分数为0.5%的CdWO4单晶.晶体的颜色由上部血红色逐渐加深至下部的黑褐色.对不同部位的晶体薄片进行800℃的氧化处理,测定了处理前后不同部位的吸收光谱和FTIR红外光谱.经氧气退火处理后,由于氧空位缺陷减少,晶体的颜色明显变淡.在吸收光谱中观测到421,684,805 nm的吸收带.其中421 nm的吸收峰随退火温度的升高而逐步减弱,经800℃处理后基本消失.在808 nm激光二极管激发下,观察到中心波长为1.5 μm和1.8 μm的荧光发射,分别对应于Tm3+的3H4→3 F4,3F4→3 H6的能级跃迁.%Tm3 + -doped CdWO4 single crystal with a size of ψ25 mm x 90 mm was grown by the Bridgman method. The raw mole fraction of Tm2O3 in crystal was 0.5%. The upper part of crystal grown at the final stage appears blood-red color, while the lower at the initial stage brown-blackness. The absorption and IR spectra of various parts of crystal before and after O2-annealing were characterized. The color of the crystal becomes weak after the crystal is treated at O2 atmosphere due to the reducing of oxygen vacant defect. The peaks of 421,684 and 805 nm were observed in the absorption spectra. The peak of 421 nm becomes weak gradually with the increase of annealing tempearture, and almost disappears after 800 ℃. The emission spectra of single crystal were also investigated under the excitation of 808 nm at room temperature. A strong emission band at 1. 50 μm and a weak band at 1. 80 μm were observed, which corresponding to the 3 H4 →3 F4 and 3F4→3H6 transitions of Tm3+ , respectively.

  7. Ab initio study of doping effects in the 42214 compounds: A new family of layered iron-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, F.; Sanna, A.; Profeta, G.; Continenza, A.; Gross, E. K. U.

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic DFT-GGA theoretical characterization of the RE4Fe2As2Te1 -xO4 -yFy family of compounds (conventionally called 42214) as a function of a set of key tuning parameters: rare earth (RE = Pr, Sm, and Gd), Te content, oxygen → fluorine substitutional doping, and external pressure. We focus our discussion on the effect of these parameters on magnetic stability and on the nonmagnetic electronic structure, as most relevant aspects related to the occurrence of superconductivity. To uncover the complexity of the 42214 crystal structure, the electronic analysis is based on an unfolding procedure that allows us to observe the behavior of the hole and electron pockets of the Fermi surface and of the nesting function. We complete the present study with the characterization of a related hypothetical compound having Se substituting for Te. Our results show that this peculiar compound family offers very good opportunities to properly harness material properties; based on our results, we infer that suitably tuning a variety of parameters, as those examined here, improved superconducting properties could be achieved.

  8. Luminescence and structural properties of RbGdS2 compounds doped by rare earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarý, V.; Havlák, L.; Bárta, J.; Mihóková, E.; Nikl, M.

    2013-04-01

    Rare earth elements (Pr, Ce) doped ternary sulfides of formula RbGd1-xRExS2 were synthesized in the form of crystalline hexagonal platelets by chemical reaction under the flow of hydrogen sulfide. The X-ray powder diffraction detected only a single crystalline phase of rhombohedral lattice system. Optical properties of studied systems are investigated by methods of time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. Thermal stability of the Pr3+ emission is demonstrated. Application potential in the white light-emitting diode solid state lighting or X-ray phosphors is discussed.

  9. Preparation and Properties of Zinc Doped Cadmium Selenide Compounds by E-Beam Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J. Suthan Kissinger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cd1 – xZnxSe films with different zinc content were deposited by electron beam evaporation technique onto glass substrates for the application of solid-state photovoltaic devices. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of Cd1 – xZnxSe films have been studied in the present work. The host material,Cd1 – xZnxSe, have been prepared by the physical vapor deposition method of electron beam evaporation technique (PVD: EBE under a pressure of 1 × 10 – 5 mbar. The X-ray diffractogram indicates that these alloy films are polycrystalline in nature, hexagonal structure with strong preferential orientation of the crystallites along (002 direction. Linear variation of lattice constant with composition (x is observed. The optical properties shows that the band gap (Eg values varies from 2.08 to 2.64 eV as zinc content varies from 0.2 to 0.8. The surface morphological studies show the very small, fine and hardly distinguishable grains smeared all over the surface. It is observed that the grain size is decreasing with increasing zinc content.

  10. Absorption and Magnetic Circular Dichroism Analyses of Giant Zeeman Splittings in Diffusion-Doped Colloidal Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Se Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Charles J; Vlaskin, Vladimir A; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2015-08-06

    Impurity ions can transform the electronic, magnetic, or optical properties of colloidal quantum dots. Magnetic impurities introduce strong dopant-carrier exchange coupling that generates giant Zeeman splittings (ΔEZ) of excitonic excited states. To date, ΔEZ in colloidal doped quantum dots has primarily been quantified by analysis of magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) intensities and absorption line widths (σ). Here, we report ΔEZ values detected directly by absorption spectroscopy for the first time in such materials, using colloidal Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Se quantum dots prepared by diffusion doping. A convenient method for decomposing MCD and absorption data into circularly polarized absorption spectra is presented. These data confirm the widely applied MCD analysis in the low-field, high-temperature regime, but also reveal a breakdown at low temperatures and high fields when ΔEZ/σ approaches unity, a situation not previously encountered in doped quantum dots. This breakdown is apparent for the first time here because of the extraordinarily large ΔEZ and small σ achieved by nanocrystal diffusion doping.

  11. Electrical properties from photoinduced charging on Cd-doped (100) surfaces of CuInSe{sub 2} epitaxial thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nicole, E-mail: nejhnsn2@illinois.edu; Rockett, Angus [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1304 W Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Aydogan, Pinar; Suzer, Sefik [Department of Chemistry, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-05-15

    The photoresponse of Cd-doped CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) epitaxial thin films on GaAs(100) was studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under illumination from a 532 nm laser between sample temperatures of 28–260 °C. The initial, air-exposed surface shows little to no photoresponse in the photoelectron binding energies, the Auger electron kinetic energies or peak shapes. Heating between 50 and 130 °C in the analysis chamber results in enhanced n-type doping at the surface and an increased light-induced binding energy shift, the magnitude of which persists when the samples are cooled to room temperature from 130 °C but which disappears when cooling from 260 °C. Extra negative charge trapped on the Cu and Se atoms indicates deep trap states that dissociate after cooling from 260 °C. Analysis of the Cd modified Auger parameter under illumination gives experimental verification of electron charging on Cd atoms thought to be shallow donors in CIS. The electron charging under illumination disappears at 130 °C but occurs again when the sample is cooled to room temperature.

  12. GaInP semiconductor compounds doped with the Sb isovalent impurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skachkov, A. F., E-mail: afskachkov@mail.ru [OAO Saturn (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    GaInP{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x} layers containing different Sb fractions are produced by metal-organic vaporphase epitaxy on GaAs and Ge substrates. The charge-carrier mobilities in the GaInP{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x} layers are measured at room temperature and 77 K. The room-temperature charge-carrier mobilities in the GaInP{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x} layers additionally doped with donor and acceptor impurities are measured. The photoluminescence peaks of GaInP{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x} are detected. The influence of the Sb impurity on the band gap and charge-carrier mobility in GaInP is determined.

  13. CdTe detector efficiency calibration using thick targets of pure and stable compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, P. C.; Taborda, A.; Reis, M. A.

    2012-02-01

    Quantitative PIXE measurements require perfectly calibrated set-ups. Cooled CdTe detectors have good efficiency for energies above those covered by Si(Li) detectors and turn on the possibility of studying K X-rays lines instead of L X-rays lines for medium and eventually heavy elements, which is an important advantage in various cases, if only limited resolution systems are available in the low energy range. In this work we present and discuss spectra from a CdTe semiconductor detector covering the energy region from Cu (K α1 = 8.047 keV) to U (K α1 = 98.439 keV). Pure thick samples were irradiated with proton beams at the ITN 3.0 MV Tandetron accelerator in the High Resolution High Energy PIXE set-up. Results and the application to the study of a Portuguese Ossa Morena region Dark Stone sample are presented in this work.

  14. Fe2+-doped CdSe single crystal: growth, spectroscopic and laser properties, potential use as a 6 µm broadband amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, M. P.; Gordienko, V. M.; Korostelin, Yu V.; Kozlovsky, V. I.; Podmar'kov, Yu P.; Potemkin, F. V.; Skasyrsky, Ya K.

    2017-02-01

    We report on the successful growth of single crystals of Fe2+:CdSe by seeded physical vapor transport (SPVT) technique with doping within the growing process and subsequent annealing in Se vapor. Luminescence lifetime measurements, spectroscopic studies of 5E-5T2 transition of Fe2+ in CdSe, and laser experiments were performed. The lifetime of the 5T2 energy level was measured to be 20  ±  5 ns at a room temperature (RT) of 290 K. At liquid nitrogen (LN) temperature, luminescence kinetics displayed a non-exponential decay, which can be fitted to a bi-exponential function with time constants τ 1  =  6 µs and τ 2  =  29 µs. As much as 3.2 mJ of output energy at 5.2 µm with 27% absorbed pump energy slope efficiency of an Fe2+:CdSe laser was achieved at RT under 2.94 µm nanosecond Er:YAG laser pumping. The Fe2+:CdSe laser was tuned from 4.63 to 6.10 µm. Obtained characteristics of Fe2+:CdSe indicate that the crystal can be considered a promising medium for amplification of femtosecond pulses in the middle infrared range up to 6 µm.

  15. Investigation of point defects and electrical properties of the In-doped CdMnTe grown by traveling heater method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xuliang; Zhang, Jijun; Mao, Yifei; Min, Jiahua; Liang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jian; Tang, Ke; Wang, Linjun

    2017-04-01

    The In-doped Cd0.9Mn0.1Te (CdMnTe:In) crystal was grown by the Travelling Heater Method. The crystallity of the CdMnTe:In wafers extracted from different part of the CdMnTe:In ingot was studied including the impurity contents, the Te inclusions and the Mn composition. The point defects in the CdMnTe:In wafers were revealed by the Photo-Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy (PICTS). The ionization energy, the capture cross-section and the concentration of the defect traps in different parts of the ingot were identified. The PICTS result showed the concentration of the VCd decreases from the top part to the tail part along the bulk while the concentration of A-center increase. The wafers from the middle part of the bulk were proved to have less deep level point defects compared to other parts of the crystal bulk, and had higher electronic performance with the resistivity up to 3.07 × 1010 Ω cm and the μτ value up to 1.45 × 10-3 cm2 V-1. The concentration of the deep level point defects plays an important role in the electrical properties, especially for the mobility-lifetime product.

  16. Structural, electronic, elastic, thermodynamic and phonon properties of LaX (X = Cd, Hg and Zn) compounds in the B2 phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örnek, Osman; Arıkan, Nihat

    2016-07-01

    The ab initio computations have been performed to examine the structural, elastic, electronic and phonon properties of cubic LaX (X = Cd, Hg and Zn) compounds in the B2 phase. The optimized lattice constants, bulk modulus, and its pressure derivative and elastic constants are evaluated and compared with available data. Electronic band structures and total and partial densities of states (DOS) have been derived for LaX (X = Cd, Hg and Zn) compounds. The electronic band structures show metallic character; the conductivity is mostly governed by La-5d states for three compounds. Phonon-dispersion curves have been obtained using the first-principle linear-response approach of the density-functional perturbation theory. The specific heat capacity at a constant volume CV of LaX (X = Cd, Hg and Zn) compounds are calculated and discussed.

  17. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of Dy{sup 3+} doped white light emitting CdTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    İlhan, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafa.ilhan@marmara.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Marmara University, Göztepe Kampüsü, Kadıköy, 34722 İstanbul (Turkey); Ekmekçi, Mete Kaan [Department of Chemistry, Marmara University, Göztepe Kampüsü, Kadıköy, 34722 İstanbul (Turkey)

    2015-03-15

    The undoped and CdTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} (0.2≤x≤2.0 mol%) phosphors were synthesized at 1100 °C for 12 h by the conventional solid state reaction method. The synthesized CdTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Photoluminescence (PL) analyses. The PL spectra showed the presence of excitation peaks between 310 and 440 nm due to the 4f–4f transitions of Dy{sup 3+}. The emission of Dy{sup 3+} ions at 353.0 nm excitation was observed at 487.1 nm (blue) and 577.8 nm (yellow) due to the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 15/2} transitions and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} transitions, respectively. The PL analysis results also showed that the emissions increase with the increasing Dy{sup 3+} ion content. The emissions increased with the doping concentration of up to 1 mol%, and above this level decreased due to concentration quenching effect. The CIE chromaticity color coordinates (x,y) of the CdTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphors were found to be in the white light region of the chromaticity diagram. - Graphical abstract: Emission spectra at λ{sub ex}=353.0 nm and CIE chromaticity coordinate diagram of CdTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphors. - Highlights: • Pure and CdTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} was produced by solid state reaction method. • CdTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphor exhibited blue and yellow emissions due to the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} transitions. • The CCT value for 1.0 mol% CdTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} was 5133 K which was located in the cool white daylight region. • Dy{sup 3+} doped CdTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} phosphor has potential in the production of white LEDs.

  18. Identification of peptide and protein doping related drug compounds confiscated in Denmark between 2007-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Rune Andersen; Holm, Niels Bjerre; Dalsgaard, Petur Weihe

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of protein and peptide compounds confiscated in Denmark from late 2007 till late 2013 together with a description of a newly developed HRAM-LC-MS method used for identification. As examples of identification, we present data for the peptides AOD-9604, [D-Ala2, Gln8, Ala15, ...

  19. Doping La into the depletion layer of the Cd(0.6)Zn(0.4)S photocatalyst for efficient H(2) evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yao-Guang; Chen, Gang; Hao, Lin-Xing; Zhou, Yan-Song; Wang, Yu; Pei, Jian; Sun, Jing-Xue; Han, Zhong-Hui

    2013-10-01

    We report a novel strategy for the enhancement of photocatalytic H2 evolution by doping La into the depletion layer of Cd0.6Zn0.4S (CZS: x% La). The apparent quantum yield of the CZS: 2% La photocatalyst at 350 nm is up to 93.3%, which is extremely high for solar water splitting even compared with the noble metal cocatalyst systems. This work may contribute to the design and construction of materials with outstanding capability for charge separation and hence improve the properties of the materials for various applications.

  20. Dense CdS thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass by high-rate microreactor-assisted solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yu-Wei, E-mail: suyuweiwayne@gmail.com [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Ramprasad, Sudhir [Energy Processes and Materials Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Corvallis, OR 9730 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Han, Seung-Yeol; Wang, Wei [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Ryu, Si-Ok [School of Display and Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1 Dae-dong, Gyeonsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Palo, Daniel R. [Barr Engineering Co., Hibbing, MN 55747 (United States); Paul, Brian K. [School of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Chang, Chih-hung [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Continuous microreactor-assisted solution deposition is demonstrated for the deposition of CdS thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass. The continuous flow system consists of a microscale T-junction micromixer with the co-axial water circulation heat exchanger to control the reacting chemical flux and optimize the heterogeneous surface reaction. Dense, high quality nanocrystallite CdS thin films were deposited at an average rate of 25.2 nm/min, which is significantly higher than the reported growth rate from typical batch chemical bath deposition process. Focused-ion-beam was used for transmission electron microscopy specimen preparation to characterize the interfacial microstructure of CdS and FTO layers. The band gap was determined at 2.44 eV by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. X-ray photon spectroscopy shows the binding energies of Cd 3d{sub 3/2}, Cd 3d{sub 5/2}, S 2P{sub 3/2} and S 2P{sub 1/2} at 411.7 eV, 404.8 eV, 162.1 eV and 163.4 eV, respectively. - Highlights: ► CdS films deposited using continuous microreactor-assisted solution deposition (MASD) ► Dense nanocrystallite CdS films can be reached at a rate of 25.2 [nm/min]. ► MASD can approach higher film growth rate than conventional chemical bath deposition.

  1. Thin-Film Solar Cells Based on the Polycrystalline Compound Semiconductors CIS and CdTe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Powalla

    2007-01-01

    14% expected in the near future. The integrated interconnection of single cells into large-area modules of 0.6×1.2m2 enables low-cost mass production, so that thin-film modules will soon be able to compete with conventional silicon-wafer-based modules. This contribution provides an overview of the basic technologies for CdTe and CIS modules, the research and development (R&D issues, production technology and capacities, the module performance in long-term outdoor testing, and their use in installations.

  2. CdTe detector efficiency calibration using thick targets of pure and stable compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, P.C.; Taborda, A., E-mail: ataborda@itn.pt; Reis, M.A.

    2012-02-15

    Quantitative PIXE measurements require perfectly calibrated set-ups. Cooled CdTe detectors have good efficiency for energies above those covered by Si(Li) detectors and turn on the possibility of studying K X-rays lines instead of L X-rays lines for medium and eventually heavy elements, which is an important advantage in various cases, if only limited resolution systems are available in the low energy range. In this work we present and discuss spectra from a CdTe semiconductor detector covering the energy region from Cu (K{sub {alpha}1} = 8.047 keV) to U (K{sub {alpha}1} = 98.439 keV). Pure thick samples were irradiated with proton beams at the ITN 3.0 MV Tandetron accelerator in the High Resolution High Energy PIXE set-up. Results and the application to the study of a Portuguese Ossa Morena region Dark Stone sample are presented in this work.

  3. Structural, morphological and optical properties of Cd doped ZnO film grown on a- and r-plane sapphire substrate by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouzri, A., E-mail: Fouzri.Afif@gmail.com [Institut Supérieur des Sciences Appliquées et de Technologie de Sousse, Université de Sousse (Tunisia); Laboratoire Physico-chimie des Matériaux, Unité de Service Commun de Recherche, High resolution X-ray diffractometer, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Boukadhaba, M.A. [Laboratoire Physico-chimie des Matériaux, Unité de Service Commun de Recherche, High resolution X-ray diffractometer, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Touré, A. [Unité de recherche hétéroepitaxie et ses applications, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Sakly, N. [Laboratoire Physico-chimie des Interfaces, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); and others

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Cd doped ZnO films have been grown on (1 1 −20) (a-plane) and (0 1 −1 2) (r-plane) sapphire substrate by MOCVD. • A maximum cadmium incorporation of 8.5% and 11.2% has been, respectively, determined for films deposited on a- and r-plane sapphire. • XRD study revealed that all films had wurtzite phase but solid solution grown on a-plane sapphire are polycrystalline with a preferred orientation along the [0 0 0 1] and a-plane (1 1 −2 0) film are epitaxially grown on r-plane-sapphire. • The near band-edge photoluminescence emission shifts gradually to lower energies as Cd is incorporated and reaches 2.916 eV for the highest Cd content (11.2%) at low temperature (20 K). - Abstract: Cd doped ZnO films have been grown on (1 1 −2 0) (a-plane) and (0 1 −1 2) (r-plane) sapphire substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. A maximum cadmium incorporation of 8.5% and 11.2% has been, respectively, determined for films deposited on a- and r-plane sapphire. The optical transmission spectra and energy band-gap equation established by Makino et al. were used to estimate the cadmium mole fraction in layer. Structural, morphological and optical properties of these films were examined using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and room and low temperature photoluminescence (Pl) as Cd incorporation and employed substrate. X-ray diffraction study revealed that all films had wurtzite phase but solid solution grown on a-plane sapphire are polycrystalline with a preferred orientation along the [0 0 0 1] direction and a-plane (1 1 −2 0) film are epitaxially grown on r-plane sapphire. AFM image show significant differences between morphologies depending on orientation sapphire substrate but no significant differences on surface roughness have been found. The near band-edge photoluminescence emission shifts gradually to lower energies as Cd is incorporated and reaches 2.916 eV for the highest Cd content (11.2%) at

  4. Diverse Cd(II) compounds based on N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid and N-donor ligands: Structures and photoluminescent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Guo, Wei-Ying; Song, Hui-Hua; Yu, Hai-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Five new Cd(II) coordination polymers with N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid (H2bzgluO) and different N-donor ligands, [Cd(bzgluO)(2,2‧-bipy)(H2O)]n (1), [Cd(bzgluO)(2,4‧-bipy)2(H2O)·3H2O]n (2), [Cd(bzgluO)(phen)·H2O]n (3), [Cd(bzgluO)(4,4‧-bipy)(H2O)]n (4), [Cd(bzgluO)(bpp)(H2O)·2H2O]n (5) were synthesized (2,2‧-bipy=2,2‧-bipyridine, 2,4‧-bipy=2,4‧-bipyridine, phen=1,10-phenanthroline, 4,4‧-bipy=4,4‧-bipyridine, bpp=1,3-di(4-pyridyl)propane). Compounds 1-2 exhibit a 1D single-chain structure. Compound 1 generates a 2D supramolecular structure via π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding, 3D architecture of compound 2 is formed by hydrogen bonding. Compound 3 features a 1D double-chain structure, which are linked by π-π interactions into a 2D supramolecular layer. Compounds 4-5 display a 2D network structure. Neighboring layers of 4 are extended into a 3D supramolecular architecture through hydrogen bonding. The structural diversity of these compounds is attributed to the effect of ancillary N-donor ligands and coordination modes of H2bzgluO. Luminescent properties of 1-5 were studied at room temperature. Circular dichroism of compounds 1, 2 and 5 were investigated.

  5. Influence of CdO-doping on the photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanofibers: Effective visible light photocatalyst for waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousef, Ayman [Center for Healthcare Technology Development, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Bionanosystem Engineering Department, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Barakat, Nasser A.M., E-mail: nasser@jbnu.ac.kr [Organic Materials and Fiber Engineering Department, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, El-Minia University, El-Minia (Egypt); Amna, Touseef [Center for Healthcare Technology Development, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Unnithan, Afeesh R. [Center for Healthcare Technology Development, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Bionanosystem Engineering Department, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Al-Deyab, Salem S. [Petrochemical Research Chair, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Kim, Hak Yong, E-mail: khy@jbnu.ac.kr [Center for Healthcare Technology Development, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Organic Materials and Fiber Engineering Department, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Among the various nanostructural morphologies, nanofibers have a distinct interest due to the long axial ratio which strongly modifies the photocatalytic activity. In this work, study of the effect of CdO-doping on the photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanofibers was carried out. Nanofibers composed of the two oxides (ZnO and CdO) were prepared using facile, effective, simple and high yield technique; electrospinning. Typically, a sol-gel consisting of poly(vinyl alcohol), cadmium acetate and zinc acetate was electrospun. Calcination of the produced nanofibers in air did not affect the nanofibrous morphology and led to produce ZnO/CdO alloy nanofibers. Interestingly, variation of Zn to Cd ratio in the original electrospun solution did not influence the morphology, so nanofibers having CdO of 39.4, 56.5 and 72.2 wt% could be prepared. Optical properties study indicated that addition of CdO to ZnO decreases the band gap and consequently the introduced nanofibers can be utilized as photocatalyst under a visible light radiation. Moreover, the results indicated that increasing the CdO content causes to increase the solid solubility. Accordingly, the low content CdO nanofibers (39.4 wt%) reveal two band gaps in the PL spectra. Consequently, these nanofibers have the best photocatalytic activity among the prepared samples; the methylene blue dye was completely eliminated within 4.5 h. However, full dye degradation was obtained at relatively longer times when the other formulations were utilized. Beside the simplicity and low cost aspects in the proposed preparation strategy, utilizing the solar radiation as activation energy to initiate the photoreactions might recommend the introduced nanofibers to be exploited as photocatalyts in the field of waste water treatment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel CdO/ZnO nanofibers are introduced as photocatalysts under sun lights. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scientifically, the study affirms that low CdO content is

  6. Energy transfer upconversion in Ho sup 3 sup + and Ho sup 3 sup + , Yb sup 3 sup + doped CdF sub 2 crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Xia; Mary, G

    1998-01-01

    A comparative spectroscopic study for Ho sup 3 sup + and Ho sup 3 sup + , Yb sup 3 sup + doped CdF sub 2 crystals has been realised at liquid nitrogen temperature. The Ho sup 3 sup + single-doped sample shows principally blue emission corresponding to the sup 5 F sub 3-> sup 5 I sub g transition, whereas the Ho sup 3 sup + , Yb sup 3 sup + codoped sample gives rise to a very efficient green emission which is ascribed to the sup 5 F sub 4 , sup 5 S sub 2-> sup 5 I sub g transition. The total integrated upconversion emission intensity (including blue and green emissions) for the codoped crystal is three times more intense than that of the Ho sup 3 sup + doped one, while the ratio for green emission rises to 27. The green emission in the codoped sample results mainly from the Ho sup 3 sup + -Yb sup 3 sup + mixed centre, whereas the blue emission is essentially due to the Ho sup 3 sup + -Ho sup 3 sup + pair. Two energy transfer upconversion mechanisms have been proposed and are discussed in the paper. (author)

  7. Structural dependence of the photocatalytic properties of double perovskite compounds A2InTaO6 (A = Sr or Ba) doped with nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Meilin; Wang, Yawei; Lu, Lingwei; Wang, Ruinan; Ni, Shuang; Liu, Gang; Xu, Xiaoxiang

    2016-08-03

    The crystal structure of photocatalysts generally plays a pivotal role in controlling their electronic structure as well as catalytic performance. In this work, a series of double perovskite compounds A2InTaO6 (A = Sr or Ba) and their Ni doped counterparts were investigated with the aim of understanding how doping and structural modification will affect their photocatalytic activity. Our results show that Ni doping is effective in improving the optical absorption of these wide band gap semiconductors and accommodating the Sr cation in the A sites leads to severe structural distortion, i.e. the In(Ni)-O-Ta bond angle deviates largely from 180°. A better photocatalytic performance was observed for samples with Ni doping and Ba in the A sites. The best photocatalytic hydrogen production rate recorded was ∼293.6 μmol h(-1) for Ba2In0.9Ni0.1TaO6 under full range irradiation, corresponding to an apparent quantum efficiency of 2.75%. DFT calculations reveal the role of Ni doping by forming additional spin-polarized bands inside the intrinsic band gap of the native perovskite. The better photocatalytic activity of Ba2In0.9Ni0.1TaO6 can then be understood as a result of a reduced band gap as well as a linear In(Ni)-O-Ta bond arrangement that is favorable for the strong metal-oxygen-metal interactions.

  8. Different growth response of Euglena gracilis to Hg, Cd, Cr and Ni compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajdosova, J. [Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Limbova 14, Bratislava (Slovakia); Reichrtova, E. [Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Limbova 14, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-03-01

    The toxicity of inorganic mercury, nickel, chromium and cadmium on the unicellular photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis, strain Z (E.g.) has been tested. Under the conditions used each metal impaired the growth rate of E.g., and had a very strong effect on cell motility. The degree of cytotoxicity and motility decreased from mercury iodide to cadmium chloride to cadmium nitrate to potassium dichromate to nickel sulfate. No mutagenic effects of the metals investigated have been observed. Adverse effects of metal compounds can be tested on the eukaryotic species of Euglena gracilis used as an intermediate model system between bacterial and animal model. (orig.). With 2 figs.

  9. Identification of the odor-active volatile compound (Z,Z)-4,7-tridecadienal as a potential ligand for the transmembrane receptor CD36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Amitsuka, Takahiko; Okahashi, Tatsuya; Kozai, Yuki; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a broadly expressed transmembrane protein that has multiple ligands, including oxidized low-density lipoproteins. We found recently that CD36 is expressed in olfactory sensory neurons and postulated that it plays a role in the detection of distinct odorants in the nasal cavity. To date, however, there have been few examples of attempts to identify CD36-recognizable odorants. In this study, by an in vitro assay using a peptide mimic of the receptor, we provided evidence that CD36 recognizes (Z,Z)-4,7-tridecadienal, an odor-active volatile compound that is known to occur in Katsuobushi (dried, fermented, and smoked skipjack tuna commonly used in Japanese cuisine as a seasoning) and in the preorbital secretion of male oribi. In addition, by comparing the data with those of its related compounds, we provided information on the structural requirements of (Z,Z)-4,7-tridecadienal for recognition by CD36. For instance, we showed that flexible rotation around the C2-C3 bond of the volatile may be of importance in gaining access to CD36. Identification of (Z,Z)-4,7-tridecadienal as the ligand prompts us to hypothesize that CD36 could participate in the control of distinct mammalian behaviors (e.g., food selection) through its ability to recognize specific odorants in the environment.

  10. Fabrication of Ce doped UiO-66/graphene nanocomposites with enhanced visible light driven photoactivity for reduction of nitroaromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiwang; Xu, Xueqing; Liang, Xixi; Lei, Cheng; Gao, Lihong; Hao, Ruoxue; Lu, Dedai; Lei, Ziqiang

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the photocatalytic reduction of nitroaromatic compounds upon visible light over novel Ce-doped UiO-66/graphene nanocomposites. Ce doped UiO-66 nanostructures and the corresponding graphene hybridized nanocomposites were facilely synthesized by means of one step solvothermal reaction. It has been demonstrated that produced nanocomposites could be used as highly efficient and chemical stable photocatalysts for the reduction of nitroaromatic compounds under visible irradiation and ambient conditions. Compared with the bare UiO-66, Ce-UiO-66/GR distinctly enhanced photocatalytic activity. Ce as ;mediator; introduced into the MOFs materials can greatly improve the electron transfer across the interface between grephene and the UiO-66 and further improve the visible light driven photoactivity. This is an effective strategy for the development of high photocatalytic activity MOFs based materials.

  11. Investigation of thermodynamics properties of chalcopyrite compound CdGeAs2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Zhao, Beijun; Zhu, Shifu; He, Zhiyu; Chen, Baojun; Zhen, Zhen; Pu, Yunxiao; Liu, Weijia

    2016-06-01

    Chalcopyrite of CdGeAs2 single crystal was grown by a modified vertical Bridgman method with sufficient size and quality, and its optical, electrical and thermodynamic properties are characterized. The transmission is recorded in the 2.3-18 μm range, and the band-gap at room temperature is at 0.56 eV. Non-ideal transparency near 5.5 μm which limited its application severely exists in the front of the crystal. The crystal is p type at room temperature with hole concentrations varying from 1014 to 1016 cm-3. From the results of X-ray diffraction measurements carried out over the range 25-450 °C and thermal dilatometer tests, the thermal expansion coefficients are evaluated. And on this basis the Grüneisen parameters at different temperatures are evaluated and also exhibit anisotropic behavior (γa>γc). It is found that γa, γc, and γV have some difference between these two kinds of test methods. Using these Grüneisen parameters, lattice thermal conductivities have been deduced by two correction formulas. Meanwhile, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity of [204] have been obtained as a function of temperature by experiment.

  12. Dithiol-mediated incorporation of CdS nanoparticles from reverse micellar system into Zn-doped SBA-15 mesoporous silica and their photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Takayuki; Nanba, Masanori; Komasawa, Isao

    2003-12-15

    CdS nanoparticles, as prepared in reverse micellar systems, were incorporated into alkanedithiol-modified Zn-doped SBA-15 mesoporous silica (dtz.sbnd;ZnSBA-15; pore diameter, ca. 4 nm), which were themselves prepared via hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) in the presence of Zn(NO(3))(2) and triblock copolymer, as a nonsurfactant template and pore-forming agent, followed by contact with dithiol molecules. A particle-sieving effect for the dtz.sbnd;ZnSBA-15 was observed, in that the incorporation of the nanoparticles was remarkably decreased with increasing the nanoparticle size. The resulting CdSz.sbnd;ZnSBA-15 composite was then used as photocatalysts for the generation of H(2) from 2-propanol aqueous solution. Under UV irradiation (lambda>300 nm), a high photocatalytic activity was observed for this composite material. This is effected by electron transfer from the photoexcited ZnS (dithiol-bonded Zn on SBA-15) to CdS nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activity is increased with a decrease in the number of methylene groups in the dithiol molecules, according to the rank order 1,10-decanedithiol < 1,6-hexanedithiol < 1,2-ethanedithiol.

  13. Effect of ZnSe and CdSe nanoparticles on the fluorescence and optical band gap of Sm3+ doped lead borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, Stephen O.

    For the first part of this work, we prepared a series of Sm-doped lead borate (PbO-B2O3) glasses containing zinc selenide (ZnSe) and cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles (NPs) and studied the Sm 3+ fluorescence by varying the glass composition and size of the NPs. We have chosen these heavy metal oxide glasses to incorporate Sm3+ ions because they have large glass forming region, high refractive index, and good physical and thermal stability. Lead borate glasses with the following compositions xPbO:(96.5-x)B2O 3:0.5Sm2O3:3ZnSe/CdSe, x=36.5 and 56.5 mol%) are prepared using the melt-quenching method. Transmission electron microscopy characterization was done to confirm both nucleation and growth of the NPs for different annealing times. Fluorescence spectra of these samples are obtained with the excitation wavelengths at 403 and 477nm. Three fluorescence transitions are observed at 563 nm, 598 nm and 646 nm. The transition at 646 nm is a electric dipole (ED) transition that strongly depends on the covalency of the Sm-O bond and the asymmetry of the crystal field at the Sm3+ site. The 646 nm/598 nm fluorescence intensity ratio has been studied for different annealing times and PbO concentration for both ZnSe and CdSe samples. Longer annealing times tend to make the crystal field at the Sm3+ site more symmetric in nature for these glasses. The presence of CdSe NPs is seen to produce the greatest influence on the fluorescence intensity ratio. This is believed to be due to the larger size of the CdSe nanoparticles and its stronger influence on Sm3+ ions. The second part of this work was dedicated to the understanding of the optical band gap of samarium doped lead borate glasses with and without ZnSe/CdSe NPs. Optical absorption spectra for all these glass samples show their absorption edge in the ultraviolet region. Detailed analysis of the absorption edge was carried out using the Mott-Davis model and the optical band gap and the width of the tail in the band gap

  14. Obtaining half-metallic ferrimagnetism and antiferromagnetism by doping Mn and Fe for DO{sub 3}-type Heusler compound Cr{sub 3}Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jia, E-mail: jiali@hebut.edu.cn [School of Science, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Liu, Heyan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Zhang, Zhidong [School of Science, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Zhang, Shaoling; Xu, Xuewen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Six doped Heusler compounds are predicted to be half-metallic magnetism. • New feature of occupation rule for doping 3d transition metal atoms is found. • The uniformity rule of occupation for doped Heusler compound is verified. - Abstract: The electronic structure, magnetic properties and occupation feature of DO{sub 3}-type Heusler compounds (Cr{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}){sub 3}Si and (Cr{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}){sub 3}Si (x = n/12, n = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12) have been investigated by first principles calculations. The compounds Cr{sub 3}Si, (Cr{sub 1–4/12}Mn{sub 4/12}){sub 3}Si, Mn{sub 3}Si, (Cr{sub 1–2/12}Fe{sub 2/12}){sub 3}Si, and (Cr{sub 1–6/12}Fe{sub 6/12}){sub 3}Si are predicted to be half-metallic ferrimagnets. The compound (Cr{sub 1–4/12}Fe{sub 4/12}){sub 3}Si is predicted to be half-metallic antiferromagnet, which is applicable to spintronic devices due to its zero magnetization. The Fe atoms of (Cr{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}){sub 3}Si prefer to occupy the (A,C) sites while the Mn atoms of (Cr{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}){sub 3}Si tend to occupy the B site, indicating that the occupation of doping atoms is affected strongly by the inter-atom hybridization and the 3d electrons number of doping atoms is not a determining factor. In addition, the results confirm the uniformity rule that the A site is equivalent to C site and the doping atoms prefer to enter the two sublattice uniformly. The more symmetric surroundings of atom coordination in B site in contrast to (A,C) site leads to a typical 3d electronic splitting peaks. The total moment for all the doped compounds (Cr{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}){sub 3}Si and (Cr{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}){sub 3}Si agrees well with the Slater–Pauling rule. The coexisting Cr(B) and Cr(A,C) atoms show antiferromagnetic coupling character for both (Cr{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}){sub 3}Si and (Cr{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}){sub 3}Si. The coexisting doping Mn(B) and Mn(A,C) atoms show antiferromagnetic coupling character for (Cr{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x

  15. The specific heat of the electron-doped La-1038 compound (Ca0.85La0.15)10(FeAs)10(Pt3As8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J S; Stürzer, T; Johrendt, D; Stewart, G R

    2013-04-01

    The specific heat of polycrystalline (Ca0.85La0.15)10(FeAs)10(Pt3As8), an electron-doped iron-based superconductor (T(c)(onset) = 34.6 K) with Ca/La ions and Pt3As8 separating the FeAs layers, was measured between 0.4 and 48 K.This compound has been recently reported to represent an electron-doped variant of the non-superconducting 10-3-8 phase, featuring a superconducting transition in the range of that of the 10-4-8 phase. This family of compounds is unique among the iron pnictide superconductors discovered to date due to the second metal pnictide layer, Pt3As8, present in the structure competing with the familiar FeAs layer for the electron from the Ca/La. This superconductor is further unusual in that it has a rather low crystalline symmetry (triclinic) for such a high superconducting transition temperature. The specific heat γ is found to be approximately 26 mJ/(Ca/La mol)K(2), comparable to 122 iron-based superconductors electron-doped on the Fe sites and a factor of two smaller than 122 compounds hole-doped on the cation site, e.g., Ba(1-x)K(x)Fe2As2. The present work also investigates the discontinuity in the specific heat at T(c), ΔC, to compare with the global trend, established by Bud'ko, Ni and Canfield (BNC), of ΔC/T(c) versus T(c) found for essentially all iron-based superconductors. The result is a value lower than the BNC trend by a factor of ten, consistent with a severely broadened superconducting transition.

  16. 真空蒸发制备Sb掺杂CdTe薄膜%Deposition of Sb-doped CdTe thin films by vacuum evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯松; 李蓉萍; 田磊; 邹凯; 刘永生

    2013-01-01

    采用真空蒸发技术在玻璃衬底上制备了Sb掺杂的CdTe薄膜,薄膜为沿(111)晶向择优生长的立方闪锌矿结构的CdTe,结果表明Sb掺杂使得薄膜表面更加均匀致密,改善了薄膜的结晶状况,增大了薄膜的光吸收范围,同时也使薄膜的带隙宽度有所减小,大大降低了薄膜的电阻率.

  17. Peculiarities of hopping conduction in p-Hg sub 0 sub . sub 7 sub 8 Cd sub 0 sub . sub 2 sub 2 Te crystals at binary doping

    CERN Document Server

    Bogoboyashchij, V V

    2002-01-01

    Electric conductivity and the Hall effect within the 4.2-125 K temperature range have been investigated in p-Hg sub 0 sub . sub 7 sub 8 Cd sub 0 sub . sub 2 sub 2 Te crystals, containing 3 x 10 sup 1 sup 6 cm sup - sup 3 of copper impurities and 1.83 x 10 sup 1 sup 6 cm sup - sup 3 of mercury vacancies (together or separately). The epsilon sub 1 -conductivity due to free holes above 10-12 K and the hopping conductivity below 8-10 K are dominant in such crystals respectively. It was found that the epsilon sub 1 -conductivity in copper-doped crystals is independent of the vacancy presence, while the hopping conductivity essentially increases due to the vacancy availability. This phenomenon is explained in terms hole joining neutral mercury vacancies.The binding energy is calculated; it equal 3.7 meV in background state

  18. Reactive ion etching (RIE) induced p- to n-type conversion in extrinsically doped p-type HgCdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musca, C.A.; Smith, E.P.G.; Siliquini, J.F.; Dell, J.M.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. [Univ. of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia (Australia). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Piotrowski, J. [Vigo System Ltd., Warsaw (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    Mercury annealing of reactive ion etching (RIE) induced p- to n-type conversion in extrinsically doped p-type epitaxial layers of HgCdTe (x = 0.31) has been used to reconvert n-type conversion sustained during RIE processing. For the RIE processing conditions used (400 mT, CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}, 90 W) p- to n-type conversion was observed using laser beam induced current (LBIC) measurements. After a sealed tube mercury anneal at 200 C for 17 hours, LBIC measurements clearly indicated no n-type converted region remained. Subsequent Hall measurements confirmed that the material consisted of a p-type layer, with electrical properties equivalent to that of the initial as-grown wafer (N{sub A}-N{sub D} = 2 {times} 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3}, {mu} = 350 cm{sup 2}.V{sup {minus}1}.s{sup {minus}1}).

  19. Light emission from conductive paths in nanocrystalline CdSe embedded Zr-doped HfO{sub 2} high-k stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chi-Chou; Kuo, Yue [Thin Film Nano and Microelectronics Research Laboratory, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3122 (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Electrical and optical properties of the solid state incandescent light emitting devices made of zirconium doped hafnium oxide high-k films with and without an embedded nanocrystalline CdSe layer on the p-type Si wafer have been studied. The broad band white light was emitted from nano sized conductive paths through the thermal excitation mechanism. Conductive paths formed from the dielectric breakdown have been confirmed from scanning electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic images and the secondary ion mass spectrometric elemental profiles. Si was diffused from the wafer to the device surface through the conductive path during the high temperature light emission process. There are many potential applications of this type of device.

  20. Fabrication of high color rendering index white LED using Cd-free wavelength tunable Zn doped CuInS2 nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wonkeun; Jung, Hyunchul; Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2012-10-22

    Highly luminescent Cd-free Zn doped CuInS(2) nanocrystals (ZCIS NCs) were synthesized, and their properties were evaluated using X-ray diffraction, Raman, UV, and photoluminescence. The crystal structure of the ZCIS NCs was similar to the zinc blende, and the lattice constant decreased with increasing Zn concentration. By incorporation of Zn, the emission wavelength was tuned from 536 to 637 nm with concomitant enhancement of the quantum yield up to 45%. A white light emitting diodes, integrating dual ZCIS NCs (λ(em) = 567, and 617 nm) and a 460 nm InGaN LED, exhibited a high color rendering index of 84.1 with a warm color temperature of 4256.2K. The CIE-1931 chromaticity coordinates were slightly shifted from (0.3626, 0.3378) at 20 mA to (0.3480, 0.3206) at 50 mA.

  1. Microwave studies on the dielectric properties of Sm{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+}/CdTe doped sol-gel silica glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Siby; Rejikumar, P.R. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Yohannan, Jaimon; Mathew, K.T. [Department of Electronics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022 (India); Unnikrishnan, N.V. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India)], E-mail: nvu50@yahoo.co.in

    2008-08-25

    Complex permittivity and conductivity studies of Samarium and Samarium/semiconductor cadmium telluride sol-gel silica glass samples were done. We use cavity perturbation technique at S band frequencies using TE{sub 10p} Mode. Structural evolution of the matrix on annealing is discussed based on FTIR analysis/XRD power diffraction. In cavity perturbation technique dielectric parameters like complex permittivity and conductivity are determined by measuring changes in resonant frequency due to small perturbation inside the cavity produced by the introduction of the samples. The addition of the semiconductor along with the samarium was found to lower the permittivity, loss factor and conductivity. Variations of permittivity values with annealing temperature find applications in IC Technology, optic fibre communication, etc. The Sm{sup 3+}/CdTe doped glasses can also be used in the fabrication of new and improved materials for microwave electronic circuits and in electromagnetic shielding devices.

  2. Deep electron states in indium-doped Cd{sub 0.93}Mn{sub 0.07}Te DLTS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajdusianek, A.; Szatkowski, J.; Placzek-Popko, E.; Sieranski, K. [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Becla, P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Electron traps in indium doped Cd{sub 0.93}Mn{sub 0.07}Te were studied with Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy. Five electron traps were found (labeled as E1-E5). Energy levels E{sub T} of related defects are equal to E{sub T1}=0.09 eV, E{sub T2}=0.12 eV, E{sub T3}=0.18 eV, E{sub T4}=0.56 eV and E{sub T5}=0.65 eV. Three of them (E1,E2,E3) are related to the defects with thermally activated capture cross section. Electric field enhanced electron emission from the trap E4 was observed and described in the terms of the Poole-Frenkel-mechanism. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Visible-light sensitization of TiO2 photocatalysts via wet chemical N-doping for the degradation of dissolved organic compounds in wastewater treatment: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Jia, Baoping; Wang, Qiuze; Dionysiou, Dionysois

    2015-05-01

    Increased pollution of ground and surface water and emerging new micropollutants from a wide variety of industrial, municipal, and agricultural sources has increased demand on the development of innovative new technologies and materials whereby challenges associated with the provision of safe potable water can be addressed. Heterogeneous photocatalysis using visible-light sensitized TiO2 photocatalysts has attracted a lot of attention as it can effectively remove dissolved organic compound in water without generating harmful by-products. On this note, recent progress on visible-light sensitive TiO2 synthesis via wet chemical N-doping method is reviewed. In a typical visible-light sensitive TiO2 preparation via wet chemical methods, the chemical (e.g., N-doping content and states) and morphological properties (e.g., particle size, surface area, and crystal phase) of TiO2 in as-prepared resultants are sensitively dependent on many experimental variables during the synthesis. This has also made it very difficult to provide a universal guidance at this stage with a certainty for each variable of N-doping preparation. Instead of one-factor-at-a-time style investigation, a statistically valid parameter optimization investigation for general optima of photocatalytic activity will be certainly useful. Optimization of the preparation technique is envisaged to be beneficial to many environmental applications, i.e., dissolved organic compounds removal in wastewater treatment.

  4. Effect of free-carrier concentration and optical injection on carrier lifetimes in undoped and iodine doped CdMgTe/CdSeTe double heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohal, S.; Edirisooriya, M.; Ogedengbe, O. S.; Petersen, J. E.; Swartz, C. H.; LeBlanc, E. G.; Myers, T. H.; Li, J. V.; Holtz, M.

    2016-12-01

    Time-resolved and time integrated photoluminescence (PL) studies are reported for undoped and doped CdMgTe/CdSeTe double heterostructures (DHs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Undoped DHs are studied with absorber layer thickness varying from 0.5 to 2.5 µm. The n-type free-carrier concentration is varied ~7  ×  1015, 8.4  ×  1016, and 8.4  ×  1017 cm-3 using iodine as a dopant in different absorber layer thicknesses (0.25-2.0 µm). Optical injection is varied from 1  ×  1010 to 3  ×  1011 photons/pulse/cm2, corresponding to the initial injection of photo-carriers up to ~8  ×  1015 cm-3, to examine the effects of excess carrier concentration on the PL lifetimes. Undoped DHs exhibit an initial rapid decay followed by a slower dependence with carrier lifetimes up to ~485 ns. The dependence of carrier lifetimes on the thickness of the absorber layers (0.5-2.5 µm) suggests interface recombination velocities ({{v}\\operatorname{int}}~ ) ~ 1288 and 238 cm s-1 in the initial and later decay times, respectively, corresponding to high and low photo-carrier concentrations. The Shockley-Read-Hall model is used to describe the results in which variations are observed in {{v}\\operatorname{int}}~ for undoped DHs. The lifetimes of doped DHs show a consistent trend with thickness. The {{v}\\operatorname{int}}~ ~ 80-200 cm s-1 is estimated for doping n ~ 7  ×  1015 cm-3 and 240-410 cm s-1 for n ~ 8.4  ×  1016 cm-3. The observed decrease in carrier lifetimes with increasing n is consistent with growing importance of the radiative recombination rate due to the excess carrier concentration. The effect of carrier concentration on the PL spectrum is also discussed.

  5. Influence of Ca2+ doped on structural and optical properties of RPO4 (R = Ce3+, Nd3+ and Pr3+) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemdek, El Mokhtar; Benkhouja, Khalil; Touhtouh, Samira; Sbiaai, Khalid; Arbaoui, Abdezzahid; Bakasse, Mina; Hajjaji, Abdelowahed; Boughaleb, Yahia; Saez-Puche, Regino

    2013-11-01

    This paper investigates the effect of doping by Ca2+ ions on the structural and optical properties of RPO4 (R = Ce3+, Nd3+ and Pr3+) compounds. A simple ceramic method in air at 900 °C was used to prepare all compounds. The structural characterization of compounds was carried out by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and IR spectroscopy. Optical properties were characterized by reflectance spectral data and by colorimeter. The results reveal a single monazite phase for x values up to 0.4. The lattice parameters of the synthesized samples decrease linearly with the reduction of ionic radius of the Ce3+. These rare earth phosphates based materials have a potential to be adopted for the eco-friendly colorants for paints and plastics.

  6. Manipulating Ce Valence in RE2Fe14B Tetragonal Compounds by La-Ce Co-doping: Resultant Crystallographic and Magnetic Anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiaying; Zhang, Yujing; Bai, Guohua; Qian, Zeyu; Wu, Chen; Ma, Tianyu; Shen, Baogen; Yan, Mi

    2016-07-26

    Abundant and low-cost Ce has attracted considerable interest as a prospective alternative for those critically relied Nd/Pr/Dy/Tb in the 2:14:1-type permanent magnets. The (Nd, Ce)2Fe14B compound with inferior intrinsic magnetic properties to Nd2Fe14B, however, cannot provide an equivalent magnetic performance. Since Ce valence is sensitive to local steric environment, manipulating it towards the favorable trivalent state provides a way to enhance the magnetic properties. Here we report that such a desirable Ce valence can be induced by La-Ce co-doping into [(Pr, Nd)1-x(La, Ce)x]2.14Fe14B (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) compounds via strip casting. As verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, Ce valence shifts towards the magnetically favorable Ce(3+) state in the composition range of x > 0.3, owing to the co-doping of large radius La(3+) into 2:14:1 phase lattice. As a result, both crystallographic and magnetic anomalies are observed in the same vicinity of x = 0.3, above which lattice parameters a and c, and saturation magnetization Ms increase simultaneously. Over the whole doping range, 2:14:1 tetragonal structure forms and keeps stable even at 1250 K. This finding may shed light on obtaining a favorable Ce valence via La-Ce co-doping, thus maintaining the intrinsic magnetic properties of 2:14:1-type permanent magnets.

  7. Apoptosis induction and histological changes in rat kidney following Cd-doped silica nanoparticle exposure: evidence of persisting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccini, Teresa; Barni, Sergio; Manzo, Luigi; Roda, Elisa

    2013-10-01

    Abstract Histological and immunocytochemical methods were used to examine rat's renal responses to intratracheal (i.t.) instillation of model cadmium-containing silica nanoparticles (Cd-SiNPs) and also exploring whether these potential modifications would be associated with toxicogenomic changes. Renal effects of Cd-SiNPs (1 mg/rat), CdCl2 (400 µg/rat), SiNPs (600 µg/rat) or 0.1 ml saline (control), assessed 7 and 30 d post-i.t., included (i) induction of apoptosis, (ii) cell proliferation and (iii) the overall toxic response evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry as well as Periodic acid Schiff and Hematoxylin & Eosin, respectively. Area-specific apoptosis was observed in all treatment groups, the cortex and inner medulla being the most affected regions: the apoptotic changes were apparent seven days post-exposure in both areas and were still observable in inner medulla at day 30. Apoptotic frequency increase was more pronounced in Cd-SiNP-treated animals compared to either CdCl2 or SiNPs groups. At day 7, the observed parallel increased number of PCNA immunopositive cells may be associated with an enhanced cell proliferation aimed at replacing the damaged cells. Histopathological findings demonstrated comparable morphological changes of the renal structure (at glomerular and tubular levels) occurring after all treatments at both time-points and more markedly 30 d after instillation. Both morphological and toxicogenomic evaluations confirmed long-lasting renal effects of Cd-SiNPs on apoptosis and regulatory processes. Bare SiNPs i.t. administration caused morphological and apoptotic changes but did not modify gene expression profile in kidney. These findings substantiate the notion that multiple assays and an integrated testing strategy should be recommended to characterize toxicological responses to nanoparticles in mammalian systems.

  8. The role of ionic sizes in inducing the cubic to tetragonal distortion in AV2O4 and ACr2O4 (A = Zn, Mg and Cd) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Sohan; Pandey, Sudhir K.

    2016-11-01

    Cubic to tetragonal distortion in AV2O4 and ACr2O4 (A = Zn, Mg and Cd) compounds have been a contentious issue for last two decades. Different groups have proposed different mechanisms to understand such a distortion in these spinels, which are: (i) spin lattice coupling mechanism known as the spin driven Jahn-Teller (JT) effect, (ii) the strong relativistic spin-orbit coupling, a moderate JT distortion and weak V-V interactions and (iii) the JT effect. Now, in order to know the possible cause for such a distortion, we have avoided these complexities (various interactions among spin, electronic, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom) by carrying out spin unpolarized calculations. The calculated values of bulk moduli for ZnV2O4 (ZnCr2O4), MgV2O4 (MgCr2O4) and CdV2O4 (CdCr2O4) are found to be ˜289 (˜254), ˜244 (˜243) and ˜230 (˜233) GPa, respectively which suggest that CdV2O4 (among vanadates) and CdCr2O4 (among chromates) are more compressible. For vanadates and chromates, the order of calculated values of lattice parameter a are found to CdV2O4 > MgV2O4 > ZnV2O4 and CdCr2O4 > MgCr2O4 > ZnCr2O4, respectively and are consistent with the experimental results. The calculated values of cubic to tetragonal distortion (c/a), with c/a compounds. The present study clearly shows the role of ionic sizes in inducing the cubic to tetragonal distortion in these spinels. However, the discrepancies between the calculated and experimental data for CdV2O4 and CdCr2O4 are expected to improve by considering the above mentioned mechanisms. These mechanisms also appear to be responsible for deciding the other physical properties of these compounds.

  9. 1D zigzag chain and 0D monomer Cd(II)/Zn(II) compounds based on flexible phenylenediacetic ligand: Synthesis, crystal structures and fluorescent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Ren, Yixia; Li, Dongsheng; Fu, Feng; Qi, Guangcai; Wang, Yaoyu

    2008-12-01

    Three novel Cd(II)/Zn(II) compounds, [Cd 2(poda) 2(phen) 3(H 2O)] n· nEtOH·3 nH 2O (1), [Zn(poda) 2(bpy)(H 2O)] n(2) and [Zn(Hpoda) 2(bpy)] (3) (H 2poda = 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl), have been synthesized and characterized by IR, TG, fluorescent spectrum and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. In 1, poda 2- anions link the adjacent Cd(II) centers to generate a 1D zigzag chain. Furthermore, an unprecedented four-footed "8-shaped" mixed water-ethanol (H 2O) 6(C 2H 5OH) 2 cluster connects four double chains based on 1D zigzag chain into 3D supramolecular architecture. By bis(chelate-monodentate) fashion of poda 2- ligand, compound 2 exhibits 1D zigzag chains, which forming a dense zipper-like 2D structure via strong π-π stacking interactions. Differed from 1 and 2, compound 3 has a mononuclear motif, and displays a 3D 6-connected α-Po net hydrogen-bonded topology. The structure-related solid-state fluorescence spectra of compounds 1 and 2 have been determined.

  10. Tunable magnetocaloric effect around room temperature by Fe doping in Mn0.98Cr (0.02 - x)Fex As compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipus, Jhon J.; Ribeiro, Paula O.; von Ranke, P.; Caraballo Vivas, R. J.; Carvalho, Alexandre M. G.; Coelho, Adelino A.; Franco, Victorino; Rocco, Daniel L.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we present an investigation of the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Mn0.98Cr (0.02 - x)Fex As compounds with x = 0.002, 0.005 and 0.010. Our findings show that as Fe content increases the unit cell volume decreases, which indicates that Fe doping emulates the pressure effect on the crystalline structure. The transition temperature TC decreases as x increases and it can be set at approximate value of room temperature by changing the doping level. In addition, the magnetic entropy change ΔSM was determined using a discontinuous measurement protocol, and realistic values from the magnetocaloric effect presented by MnAs-type compounds under pressure (emulated pressure) could be obtained. The values of Δ SMMAX are very large, around -11 Jkg-1K-1 with ΔH = 15 kOe, which is higher than that observed for most compounds with TC around room temperature. However, ΔSM is confined to a narrow temperature range of 11 K. To overcome this drawback, the composition of a theoretical composite formed by our samples was calculated in order to obtain a table-shaped ΔSM curve. The simulated composite showed a high value of full width at half maximum δTFWHM of 33 K, which is much higher than that of single sample.

  11. First principles study of structural, elastic, electronic and magnetic properties of Mn-doped AlY (Y=N, P, As) compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajjad, M. [School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Alay-e-Abbas, S.M. [Department of Physics, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Government College University, Faisalabad, Allama Iqbal Road, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Zhang, H.X. [School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Work Safety Intelligent Monitoring (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), Beijing 100876 (China); Noor, N.A. [Centre for High Energy Physics, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, 54590 Lahore (Pakistan); Saeed, Y. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Faisalabad, Allama Iqbal Road, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran [Deanship of scientific research, College of Engineering, King Saud University, P. O. BOX 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Shaukat, A., E-mail: schaukat@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100 (Pakistan)

    2015-09-15

    We investigate zinc-blende phase Al{sub 0.75}Mn{sub 0.25}Y (Y=N, P, As) compounds using full-potential linear-augmented-plane wave plus local-orbital method. For computing structural and elastic properties the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) has been used; whereas the electronic and magnetic properties are examined at the optimized GGA lattice parameters by employing modified Becke and Johnson local density approximation. All these compounds are found to be stable in ferromagnetic ordering in the zinc-blende structure which is supported by the computed elastic constants. The nature of electronic band structure are calculated and the nature of band gaps in the doped system is analyzed. The results are examined to identify exchange mechanism which is the main source of introducing ferromagnetism in the compounds under investigation. Spin charge density contour plots in the (1 1 0) plane and the evaluation of s–p and p–d exchange constants (N{sub 0}α and N{sub 0}β) are evaluated for understanding bonding and exchange splitting process, respectively. - Highlights: • Spin-polarized DFT investigation Mn-doped AlN, AlP and AlAs is reported. • Structrual and elastic properites are computed for evaluating stability. • mBJLDA used for appropriate treatment of d states of Mn for electronic properties. • Half metallicity, ferromagnetic stability and exchange constants are evaluated.

  12. One-pot synthesis of Ni doped CdS nanosheets for near infrared emission and excellent photocatalytic materials for degradation of MB dye under UV and sunlight irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Bilal; Ojha, Animesh K; Kumar, Sumeet

    2017-05-15

    Undoped CdS nanostructures and Ni (3%, 5% and 7%) doped CdS nanosheets were synthesized via template-free one pot solvothermal method. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS), UV-visible (UV-vis.) spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy techniques. The Ni doped CdS nanosheets excited by 2.75eV revealed two weak near-infrared emission bands at 2.02 and 1.73eV. These two bands may be due to transition from of d electronic state of Ni to hybridized (p-d) state of Ni ions and S. The photodegradation of MB dye with Ni doped nanosheets is more efficient under sunlight compared to UV light irradiation. The 3% Ni doped nanostructures act as an efficient photocatalyst. The presence of Ni(2+) generate electron and holes and prolonged the recombination rate by introducing the temporary trapping sites, which essentially causes to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized samples.

  13. Closed-ampoule diffusion of sulfur into Cd-doped InP substrates - Dependence of S profiles on diffusion temperature and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faur, Mircea; Faur, Maria; Honecy, Frank; Goradia, Chandra; Goradia, Manju; Jayne, Douglas; Clark, Ralph

    1992-01-01

    In order to optimize the fabrication of n(+)-p InP solar cells made by closed-ampoule diffusion of sulfur into p-InP:Cd substrates, we have investigated the influence of diffusion conditions on sulfur diffusion profiles. We show that S diffusion in InP is dominated by the P vacancy mechanism and is not characterized by a complementary error function as expected for an infinite source diffusion. The S diffusion mechanism in p-InP is qualitatively explained by examining the depth profiles of S, P, and In in the emitter layer and by taking into account the presence and composition of different compounds found to form in the In-P-S-O-Cd system as a result of diffusion.

  14. Ultra-sharp metamagnetic transitions in the half-doped manganite compound Eu0.5Sr0.5MnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, D. S.; Nirmala, R.; Malik, S. K.

    2005-05-01

    Magnetization, electrical-resistance and specific-heat measurements have been performed on the ABO3-type half-doped Eu0.5Sr0.5MnO3 manganite compound. These studies reveal successive sharp step-like metamagnetic transitions at low temperatures. The steps are sharp at T system (in which Eu is non-magnetic), along with the irreversibility in the magnetization isotherms, suggests that rare-earth magnetism has no role in the occurrence of this fascinating property.

  15. Diverse Cd(II) compounds based on N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid and N-donor ligands: Structures and photoluminescent properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ning; Guo, Wei-Ying; Song, Hui-Hua, E-mail: songhuihua@mail.hebtu.edu.cn; Yu, Hai-Tao, E-mail: haitaoyu@mail.hebtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    Five new Cd(II) coordination polymers with N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid (H{sub 2}bzgluO) and different N-donor ligands, [Cd(bzgluO)(2,2′-bipy)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (1), [Cd(bzgluO)(2,4′-bipy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)·3H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (2), [Cd(bzgluO)(phen)·H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (3), [Cd(bzgluO)(4,4′-bipy)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (4), [Cd(bzgluO)(bpp)(H{sub 2}O)·2H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (5) were synthesized (2,2′-bipy=2,2′-bipyridine, 2,4′-bipy=2,4′-bipyridine, phen=1,10-phenanthroline, 4,4′-bipy=4,4′-bipyridine, bpp=1,3-di(4-pyridyl)propane). Compounds 1–2 exhibit a 1D single-chain structure. Compound 1 generates a 2D supramolecular structure via π–π stacking and hydrogen bonding, 3D architecture of compound 2 is formed by hydrogen bonding. Compound 3 features a 1D double-chain structure, which are linked by π–π interactions into a 2D supramolecular layer. Compounds 4-5 display a 2D network structure. Neighboring layers of 4 are extended into a 3D supramolecular architecture through hydrogen bonding. The structural diversity of these compounds is attributed to the effect of ancillary N-donor ligands and coordination modes of H{sub 2}bzgluO. Luminescent properties of 1–5 were studied at room temperature. Circular dichroism of compounds 1, 2 and 5 were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Five new Cd(II) metal coordination compounds with H{sub 2}bzgluO and different N-donor ligands were synthesized and characterized. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 present 1D structures, compounds 4 and 5 display 2D networks. Results indicate that auxiliary ligands and coordination modes of H{sub 2}bzgluO play an important role in governing the formation of final frameworks, and the hydrogen-bonding and π–π stacking interactions contribute the formation of the diverse supramolecular architectures. Furthermore, the different crystal structures influence the emission spectra significantly. - Highlights: • It is rarely reported that complexes prepared with N-benzoyl-L-glutamic acid

  16. Unsaturated compounds induce up-regulation of CD86 on dendritic cells in the in vitro sensitization assay LCSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohwein, Thomas Armin; Sonnenburg, Anna; Zuberbier, Torsten; Stahlmann, Ralf; Schreiner, Maximilian

    2016-04-01

    Unsaturated compounds are known to cause false-positive reactions in the local lymph node assay (LLNA) but not in the guinea pig maximization test. We have tested a panel of substances (succinic acid, undecylenic acid, 1-octyn-3-ol, fumaric acid, maleic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, squalene, and arachidonic acid) in the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA) to evaluate whether unspecific activation of dendritic cells is a confounder for sensitization testing in vitro. Eight out of 10 tested substances caused significant up-regulation of CD86 on dendritic cells cocultured with keratinocytes and would have been classified as sensitizers; only succinic acid was tested negative, and squalene had to be excluded from data analysis due to poor solubility in cell culture medium. Based on human data, only undecylenic acid can be considered a true sensitizer. The true sensitizing potential of 1-octyn-3-ol is uncertain. Fumaric acid and its isomer maleic acid are not known as sensitizers, but their esters are contact allergens. A group of 18- to 20-carbon chain unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid, oleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid) elicited the strongest reaction in vitro. This is possibly due to the formation of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators in the cell culture causing nonspecific activation of dendritic cells. In conclusion, both the LLNA and the LCSA seem to provide false-positive results for unsaturated fatty acids. The inclusion of T cells in dendritic cell-based in vitro sensitization assays may help to eliminate false-positive results due to nonspecific dendritic cell activation. This would lead to more accurate prediction of sensitizers, which is paramount for consumer health protection and occupational safety.

  17. New insights into organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 nanoparticles. An experimental and theoretical study of doping in Pb2+ sites with Sn2+, Sr2+, Cd2+ and Ca2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Javier; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Gallardo, Juan Jesús; Cruz Hernández, Norge; Piñero, Jose Carlos; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Fernández-Lorenzo, Concha; de Los Santos, Desireé M.; Aguilar, Teresa; Martín-Calleja, Joaquín

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3, doped in the Pb2+ position with Sn2+, Sr2+, Cd2+ and Ca2+. The incorporation of the dopants into the crystalline structure was analysed, observing how the characteristics of the dopant affected properties such as the crystalline phase, emission and optical properties. XRD showed how doping with Sn2+, Sr2+ and Cd2+ did not modify the normal tetragonal phase. When doping with Ca2+, the cubic phase was obtained. Moreover, DR-UV-Vis spectroscopy showed how the band gap decreased with the dopants, the values following the trend Sr2+ Cd2+ > Sr2+ for the tetragonal structure and Pb2+ > Ca2+ for the cubic phase. The electron localization function (ELF) analysis showed similar electron localizations for undoped and Sn2+-doped tetragonal structures, which were different from those doped with Sr2+ and Cd2+. Furthermore, when Cd2+ was incorporated, the Cd-I interaction was strengthened. For Ca2+ doping, the Ca-I interaction had a greater ionic nature than Cd-I. Finally, an analysis based on the non-covalent interaction (NCI) index is presented to determine the weak-type interactions of the CH3NH3 groups with the dopant and I atoms. To our knowledge, this kind of analysis with these hybrid systems has not been performed previously.This paper presents the synthesis of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3, doped in the Pb2+ position with Sn2+, Sr2+, Cd2+ and Ca2+. The incorporation of the dopants into the crystalline structure was analysed, observing how the characteristics of the dopant affected properties such as the crystalline phase, emission and optical properties. XRD showed how doping with Sn2+, Sr2+ and Cd2+ did not modify the normal tetragonal phase. When doping with Ca2+, the cubic phase was obtained. Moreover, DR-UV-Vis spectroscopy showed how the band gap decreased with the dopants, the values following the trend Sr2+ Cd2+ > Sr2+ for the tetragonal structure and Pb

  18. CdS nanoparticles sensitization of Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode for solar water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2012-10-25

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment possesses the functions of transparent conducting oxide thin film and 1-D nanostructured semiconductor simultaneously. To enhance the absorption in the visible light region, it is sensitized by cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles which efficiently increase the absorption around 460 nm. The CdS nanoparticles-sensitized AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment exhibits significantly improved photoelectrochemical property. After further heat treatment, a maximum short current density of 5.03 mA cm-2 is obtained under illumination. They not only are much higher than those without CdS nanoparticles sensitization and those without Al-doping and/or hydrogen treatment, but also comparable and even slightly superior to some earlier works for the CdS-sensitized zinc oxide nanorod array thin films with indium tin oxide (ITO) or fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as substrates. This demonstrated successfully that the AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment is quite suitable as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode and has great potentials in solar water splitting after sensitization by quantum dots capable of visible light absorption.

  19. Observation of the nano-effect on the SHG in moderately Cu-doped CdI2 thin nanocrystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M I Miah

    2015-09-01

    Nanocrystals take into account the nano-sized quantum-confined effect, where k-space bulk-like dispersion disappears and discrete excitonic-like nanolevels occur within the forbidden energy gap of the material processes. Nanocrystals of cadmium iodide both un-doped and doped with copper, synthesized and grown by the standard Bridgman method, were analysed by scanning electron microscopy for the investigation of the nano-confined effect on the optical nonlinearity. The second harmonic generation (SHG) of the crystals was measured and studied. The second-order optical susceptibilities in dependences of the size of the nanocrystals and of their copper contents within low levels were calculated. The results showed a clear increase in the SHG with the decrease in the thickness of the nanocrystals. The observed size dependence, however, demonstrates the nano-confined effect or nano-effect on the SHG, where the quantum confinement dominates the material’s optical properties. A significant change in the second-order optical response with copper content of the nanocrystals was also observed. The observed results are discussed by exploring the photo-induced electron–phonon anharmonic interaction for the noncentrosymmetry of the nanocrystallite’s process.

  20. Micromorphology of pure and PbI{sub 2}-doped CdI{sub 2} dendritic single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Binay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Sinha, Nidhi [Department of Electronics, SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-7 (India)

    2005-09-01

    Undoped and PbI{sub 2}-doped dendritic single crystals were grown by vapour growth technique. The basal surfaces of the as grown crystals were examined by optical and electron microscopy to observe wide variety of growth and defect features. Apart from typical features of dendritic growth, features of overgrowth, slip bands, growth steps and their bunching, etc. were observed. The basal surfaces of the crystals were then etched by controlled condensation of water vapour, after optimizing the etching condition, and the microscopic studies were repeated. Etch pits of hexagonal and triangular shape, both symmetric and asymmetric, and of different density, were observed in the case of undoped and doped crystals, respectively. In some cases, crystallographic hillocks were also observed. The crystals were also examined by X-ray diffraction for their polytypism and related behaviour. The results are analyzed to elicit information on the correlation of structure, defects and surface features of the crystals. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Effects of Cu-Doped on Structure and Photoluminescence of CdS Thin Films and Property of CdS/CdTe Solar Cells%Cu掺杂对CdS薄膜结构、光致发光及CdS/CdTe电池性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 杨瑞龙; 白治中; 王德亮

    2013-01-01

    采用化学浴沉积(CBD)法在FTO(SnO2∶F)/Glass衬底上制备了Cu掺杂的CdS薄膜.用电感耦合等离子体-原子发射光谱(ICP-AES)测得不同Cu掺杂浓度的薄膜中Cu/Cd原子比分别为0.5%、1.5%、5%.分别用X射线衍射(XRD)、扫描电镜(SEM)、光致发光谱(PL)、紫外-可见-近红外反射透射谱对薄膜样品进行表征.研究了Cu掺杂对CdS薄膜的晶体结构,微观形貌以及体内点缺陷的影响.用Cu掺杂的CdS薄膜作为N型层制备CdTe太阳能电池,研究了CdS层中Cu对电池性能的影响.

  2. Copper dynamics in doped metal-bis(histidine) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaneri, Michael J; Vitali, Jacqueline

    2014-07-03

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) temperature-dependent measurements were undertaken on three Cu(II)-doped metal-histidine complexes to assess copper site dynamic behavior. Previous single-crystal EPR analysis on two of these, zinc d,l-histidine pentahydrate (ZnDLH) and bis(l-histidinato)cadmium dihydrate (CdLH), found that doped Cu(2+) can be modeled as hopping between two neighboring conformational states, with a temperature-dependent rate becoming large enough at room temperature to produce an "averaged" spectrum. By comparing spectra from their powdered form, we show that Cu(2+) doped into a third system, Cd(2+)-d,l-histidine (CdDLH), also exhibits temperature-dependent EPR with features indicating a similar motional-averaging process. In addition, the change of g and copper hyperfine parameters from low to high temperature for CdDLH resembles that in ZnDLH, whereas the change in these parameters for CdLH is like that found in a fourth copper-doped system, zinc l-histidine dihydrate (ZnLH). Taken together, these results suggest that averaging motion between neighboring copper sites is common in metal-bis(histidine) compounds. More detailed studies on biological models are thus warranted, especially because they reveal unique relationships between structure, dynamic processes, and stability and can lead to a better understanding of the role played by site flexibility in copper proteins.

  3. Memory effect and magnetic relaxation in Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 2}O{sub 6} and the doped compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, X.M.; Ouyang, Z.W., E-mail: zwouyang@mail.hust.edu.cn; Ruan, M.Y.; Guo, Y.M.; Cheng, J.J.; Xia, Z.C.

    2014-01-15

    We report memory effect and magnetic relaxation in spin-chain compounds Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 2}O{sub 6}, Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 2−x}T{sub x}O{sub 6} (T=Mn, Fe, Al, and Mg) with x=0.02 and 0.04, and Ca{sub 3−x}A{sub x}Co{sub 2}O{sub 6} (A=Sr and Na) with x=0.06 and 0.12. The memory effect serves as an evidence of spin-glass-like freezing at low temperatures. The time-dependent magnetization exhibits a nearly exponential variation with time for initial relaxation and is not much influenced by chemical doping. With time goes on, the magnetization follows the stretched exponential function and doping effect gradually appears with uncertainty. In comparison, the influence from Fe-doping is dramatic and possible reason is proposed within the geometrical frustration scenario.

  4. Effect of manganese doping on the thermoelectric properties of Zintl phase EuCd2Sb2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵武茂; 郭凯; 王继伟; 赵景泰

    2015-01-01

    Polycrystalline samples of Zintl phase EuCd2–xMnxSb2 (0.0≤x≤0.6) with the CaAl2Si2-type crystal structure (space group P3m1) were synthesized via a solid-state reaction followed by suitable cooling, annealing and spark plasma sintering (SPS) processes. In samples withx=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6, the electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity were performed as a function of temperature from 300 to 650 K. It was found that chemical substitution of Mn failed to optimize the thermoelectric properties ofp-type conductive EuCd2Sb2. It was because that the Mn substitution induced the minority carriers (electrons), resulting in decreasing the electrical conductivity drastically despite the fact that it enlarged the Seebeck coefficient and reduced the thermal conductivity synchronously.

  5. Structural analysis of Y{sup 3+}-doped Mg-Cd ferrites prepared by oxalate co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadkari, A.B. [Department of Physics, GKG College, Kolhapur 416012, Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: kashokabg@yahoo.com; Shinde, T.J. [Department of Physics, KRP Kanya Mahavidylaya, Islampur 415409 (India); Vasambekar, P.N. [Department of Electronics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India)

    2009-04-15

    Polycrystalline ferrites of Cd{sub x}Mg{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) with addition of 5% of yttrium has been synthesized by oxalate co-precipitation method and characterized by XRD, SEM and FTIR techniques. The samples were presintered at 700 deg. C for duration of 6 h and sintered at 1050 deg. C for 5 h. The X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure. Lattice constant, X-ray density, physical density, crystallite size, ionic radii on A-site and B-site (r{sub A}, r{sub B}), bond length on A-site and B-site (A-O, B-O) and porosity have been calculated. The lattice constant is found to increase with increase in Cd{sup 2+} content. The physical densities are about 86.96% of their X-ray density. Average crystallite size lies in the range of 28.86-32.06 nm. SEM study shows that the grain size of the samples increases with increase in Cd{sup 2+} content. The addition of Y{sup 3+} reduces the grain growth. The FTIR spectra shows two strong absorption bands in the frequency range 575-435 cm{sup -1}, on the tetrahedral and octahedral sites, respectively. Further it shows that Y{sup 3+} occupies B-sites.

  6. Non-targeted acquisition strategy for screening doping compounds based on GC-EI-hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry: A focus on exogenous anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque Cavalcanti, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Lucas Martins; Dos Santos, Leonardo; Zheng, Xin; Gujar, Amit; Cole, Jason; Padilha, Monica Costa; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

    2017-06-10

    This is a first look at a non-targeted screening method based on Orbitrap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology for a large number of banned compounds in sports found in urine, including exogenous anabolic steroids, β-agonists, narcotics, stimulants, hormone modulators, and diuretics. A simple sample preparation was processed in four steps: an enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, evaporation, and trimethylsilylation. All compounds were able to meet the World Anti-Doping Agency's sensitivity criteria with mass accuracies less than 1 ppm and with sufficient points across the peak by running the Orbitrap GC-MS in full-scan mode. In addition, we discuss our initial findings of using a full-scan selected ion monitoring-tandem mass spectrometry (SIM-MS/MS) approach as a way to obtain lower detection limits and reach desirable selectivity for some exogenous anabolic steroids. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Thermally deposited Ag-doped CdS thin film transistors with high-k rare-earth oxide Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} as gate dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoi, P., E-mail: paragjyoti_g@rediffmail.com [Sibsagar College, Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics (India)

    2013-03-15

    The performance of thermally deposited CdS thin film transistors doped with Ag has been reported. Ag-doped CdS thin films have been prepared using chemical method. High dielectric constant rare earth oxide Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been used as gate insulator. The thin film trasistors are fabricated in coplanar electrode structure on ultrasonically cleaned glass substrates with a channel length of 50 {mu}m. The thin film transistors exhibit a high mobility of 4.3 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} and low threshold voltage of 1 V. The ON-OFF ratio of the thin film transistors is found as 10{sup 5}. The TFTs also exhibit good transconductance and gain band-width product of 1.15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mho and 71 kHz respectively.

  8. Luminescence and influence of defect concentration on excitons in $^{197}\\!$Hg / $^{197}\\!$Au-doped CdTe

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, J; Deicher, M; Filz, T; Ostheimer, V; Strasser, F; Wolf, H; Wichert, T

    1999-01-01

    CdTe, implanted with $^{197}\\!$Hg ions, which decay to $^{197}\\!$Au with a half-life of 64.1 h, was investigated by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results unambiguously verify the assignments of both, the donor–acceptor pair transition at 1.335 eV, which corresponds to an acceptor level with E$\\scriptstyle_{A}$=263 meV, and the recombination of excitons bound to neutral acceptors at 1.57606 eV to single Au atoms on Cd sites. In addition, the dependence of the intensities of excitonic lines on the defect concentration was investigated quantitatively. The observed intensities are well explained, assuming that a defect can only bind an exciton if there is no additional defect within the volume of the bound exciton. The ratio between the exciton radii of the Cu and Au-bound excitons R$\\scriptscriptstyle^\\textrm{Cu}_{exc}$ / R$\\scriptscriptstyle^\\textrm{Au}_{exc}$ = 1.2$\\pm$0.2 obtained from this model is in good agreement with the ratio derived from the diamagnetic shift parameters of the two correspo...

  9. Investigation of inhomogeneities in Ga, Cd and Zn - doped Pbsub(1-x)Snsub(x)Te (x=0,00 and 0,20) crystals by the method of Auger electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gas' kov, A.M.; Lisina, N.G.; Zlomanov, V.P.; NovoseloVa, A.V. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    An Auger electron microanalysis of doped crystal Pbsub(1-x)Snsub(x)Te is made using the Jamp-10 Jeol device with an analyser of cycindric mirror type. The crystals have been doped with Ga, Cd and Zn both in the process of growing from vapour and by means of diffusion annealing. Auger electron spectra have been studied in high vacuum (10/sup -9/ - 10/sup -10/ mm Hg) in the range of 70-1200 eV under the following conditions: the energy of electron beam is 5 keV, the current across the sample is 10/sup -8/ - 10/sup -9/ A. A conclusion is made that PbTe and Pbsub(0,8)Snsub(0,2)Te crystals doped by Ga, Cd and Zn both in the process of growing and by means of the diffusion annealing are characterized by inhomogeneous distribution of impurities. Gallium segregations in the vicinity of low-angle boundaries and dislocations in PbTe (Ga) tin- and lead-enriched inclusions in Pbsub(0,8)Snsub(0,2)Te (Cd), and ZnTe inclusions in Pbsub(0,8)Snsub(0,2)Te (Zn) samples are found.

  10. Travelling-solvent floating-zone growth of the dilutely Co-doped spin-ladder compound Sr14(Cu, Co)24O41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Rabindranath; Karmakar, Koushik; Singh, Surjeet

    2017-01-01

    We present here crystal growth of dilutely Co-doped spin-ladder compounds Sr14(Cu 1-x, Cox)24O41 (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1) using the Travelling Solvent Floating Zone (TSFZ) technique associated with an image furnace. We carried out detailed microstructure and compositional analysis. The microstructure of the frozen-in FZ revealed two bands: a lower band consisting of well-aligned single-crystalline stripes of the phase Sr14(Cu, Co)24O41 embedded in the eutectic mixture of composition SrO 18% and (Cu, Co)O 82%; and an upper band consisting of a criss-crossed pattern of these stripes. These analyses were also employed to determine the distribution coefficient of the dopants in Sr14Cu24O41. The distribution coefficient turned out to be close to 1, different from Sr2CuO3 reported previously where Co tend to accumulate in the molten zone. Direct access to the composition of the frozen-in zone eliminated any previous ambiguities associated with the composition of the peritectic point of Sr14Cu24O41; and also the eutectic point in the binary SrO-CuO phase diagram. The lattice parameters show an anisotropic variation upon Co-doping with parameters a and b increasing, c decreasing; and with an overall decrease of the unit cell volume. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were carried out on the pristine and the Co-doped crystals along the principal crystallographic axes. The spin susceptibility of the x = 0.01 crystal exhibits a strong anisotropy, which is in stark contrast with the isotropic behaviour of the pristine crystal. This anisotropy seems to arise from the intradimer exchange interaction as inferred from the anisotropy of the dimer contribution to the susceptibility of the Co-doped crystal. The Curie-tail in the magnetic susceptibility of Sr14(Cu 1-x, Cox)24O41 (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1) crystals (field applied parallel to the ladder) was found to scale with Co-doping - the scaling is employed to confirm a homogeneous distribution of Co in a x = 0

  11. Annealing group III-V compound doped silicon-germanium alloy for improved thermo-electric conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersande, Jan W. (Inventor); Wood, Charles (Inventor); Draper, Susan L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The thermoelectric conversion efficiency of a GaP doped SiGe alloy is improved about 30 percent by annealing the alloy at a temperature above the melting point of the alloy, preferably stepwise from 1200 C to 1275 C in air to form large grains having a size over 50 microns and to form a GeGaP rich phase and a silicon rich phase containing SiP and SiO2 particles.

  12. Unbiased photoelectrochemical water splitting in Z-scheme device using W/Mo-doped BiVO4 and Zn(x)Cd(1-x)Se.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun S; Lee, Heung Chan; Leonard, Kevin C; Liu, Guanjie; Bard, Allen J

    2013-07-22

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting to generate H2 and O2 using only photon energy (with no added electrical energy) has been demonstrated with dual n-type-semiconductor (or Z-scheme) systems. Here we investigated two different Z-scheme systems; one is comprised of two cells with the same metal-oxide semiconductor (W- and Mo-doped bismuth vanadate), that is, Pt-W/Mo-BiVO4, and the other is comprised of the metal oxide and a chalcogenide semiconductor, that is, Pt-W/Mo-BiVO4 and Zn(0.2)Cd(0.8)Se. The redox couples utilized in these Z-scheme configurations were I(-)/IO3(-) or S(2-)/S(n)(2-), respectively. An electrochemical analysis of the system in terms of cell components is shown to illustrate the behavior of the complete photoelectrochemical Z-scheme water-splitting system. H2 gas from the unbiased photolysis of water was detected using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and using a membrane-electrode assembly. The electrode configuration to achieve the maximum conversion efficiency from solar energy to chemical energy with the given materials and the Z-scheme is discussed. Here, the possibilities and challenges of Z-scheme unbiased photoelectrochemical water-splitting devices and the materials to achieve practical solar-fuel generation are discussed.

  13. Graphene quantum dots decorated CdS doped graphene oxide sheets in dual action mode: As initiator and platform for designing of nimesulide imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Santanu; Roy, Ekta; Choudhary, Raksha; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K

    2017-03-15

    The present work describes the preparation of a nanohybrid by a combination of the 2D graphene sheet and 0D graphene quantum dots (GQDs). The GQDs were prepared from natural green precursors i.e. carrot juice by the one-step hydrothermal process. To get the maximum fluorescence property from nanohybrid, the graphene sheets were chemically doped with cadmium sulphide (CdS). The as prepared nanohybrid was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopic techniques. The nanohybrid was further modified to design a nano-iniferter, which shows dual property i.e. works as polymerization initiator as well as provides platform for synthesis of the nimesulide-imprinted polymer. For designing of imprinted polymer two biocompatible monomers (cystine monomer and N-vinyl caprolactam) were used, which provides biodegradability to the polymer matrix. The imprinted polymer shows a very good selectivity towards the detection of nimesulide with a limit of detection as low as 6.65ngL(-1) (S/N=3). The sensor was also applied for the detection of nimesulide in real samples like human blood serum, plasma and urine samples as well as some pharmaceutical tablets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of F-doping and oxygen vacancies on the superconductivity in SmFeAsO compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jie; Ren Zhian; Che Guangcan; Lu Wei; Shen Xiaoli; Li Zhengcai; Yi Wei; Dong Xiaoli; Sun Liling; Zhou Fang; Zhao Zhongxian [National Laboratory for Superconductivity, Institute of Physics and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 603, Beijing 100190 (China)], E-mail: renzhian@aphy.iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: zhxzhao@aphy.iphy.ac.cn

    2009-02-15

    By investigating the F-doping effect in the SmFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x}, SmFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub 0.20} and SmFeAsO{sub 0.90}F{sub x} systems as well as the oxygen vacancy effect in the SmFeAsO{sub 1-y} superconductors, we obtained the following results: (a) the substitution range of F for oxygen in the SmFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} system prepared by the ambient pressure method is 0{<=}x{<=}0.125; (b) F cannot substitute for oxygen in samples without oxygen vacancies; (c) the oxygen-deficient SmFeAsO{sub 1-y} superconductor cannot be prepared by the ambient pressure method; and (d) F-doping and oxygen vacancies both lead to lattice shrinkage. Oxygen-deficient SmFeAsO{sub 0.85} and F-doped SmFeAsO{sub 0.85}F{sub 0.15} prepared by the high pressure method have higher superconducting transition temperature compared to SmFeAsO{sub 0.85}F{sub 0.15} prepared by the ambient pressure method.

  15. Uniaxial compressive stress induced nuclear quadrupole interaction at the {sup 111}Cd nucleus in n-doped silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessema, Genene [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) and Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen und Kernphysik, Nussalle 14-16, 53115 Bonn (Germany)]. E-mail: genene@gmx.net

    2006-03-01

    Stress induced quadrupole interaction at the probe nucleus ({sup 111}Cd) in silicon has been studied using the perturbed {gamma}-{gamma} angular correlation (PAC) method. The extra nuclear field, at the sites of the nuclei, is produced via the disturbances of the surrounding charges by the action of a uniaxial compressive stress on the samples. However, the probes situated at various lattice locations in the sample showed different responses for the same value of stress. The various lattice environments are mainly caused by the involvement of either tellurium or antimony donor atoms in the samples. As a result, the donor free substitutional probe atoms experience a finite nuclear quadrupole interaction due to the broken symmetry of the charge distribution upon uniaxial compression; those probe atoms, which form pairs with donors, exhibit a strong electric-field gradient (EFG) that appears to be pressure independent.

  16. Arrays of ZnO/AZO (Al-doped ZnO) nanocables: a higher open circuit voltage and remarkable improvement of efficiency for CdS-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jianping; Wang, Minqiang; Liu, Jing; Song, Xiaohui; Yang, Zhi

    2014-03-15

    Photoelectrode of nanocables (NCs) structure of ZnO nanowires (NWs) coated with Al-doped ZnO (AZO) shells was investigated for CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). ZnO NWs serve as the frame for the preparation of AZO shells, in which electron transport more rapidly due to the more higher electron mobility of AZO (n-ZnO) than that of i-ZnO. AZO shells were assembled onto the surface of ZnO NWs via a spin-coating method. Optical band-gap of the ZnO/AZO films varies from 3.19 eV for pure ZnO to 3.25 eV for AZO (15%) depending on the Al-doping concentration. The PL intensity of AZO/ZnO, V(oc), J(sc) and η of the cells first increased and then decreased with the increase in the Al-doping (from 0% to 20%) and post-annealed temperature. Remarkably, the value of V(oc) can achieve above 0.8 V after Al-doping. The dark current and absorption spectrum provided direct evidence of the increase in J(sc) and V(oc), respectively. Moreover, we discussed the effect of Al-doping on optical band-gap of the samples and the transfer of electron.

  17. Synthesis,crystal structures and fluorescence properties of four mixed-ligands Zn(Ⅱ) and Cd(Ⅱ) coordination compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO LiMin; REN Peng; ZHANG ZhenJie; FANG Ming; SHI Wei; CHENG Peng

    2009-01-01

    Four new coordination compounds,[Zn(dba)(bpy)]n (1),{[Zn(dba)(phen)].2H2O}n (2),[Cd(dba)(bpy)(H2O)2](3) and [Cd2(dba)2(phen)2]n (4) (H2dba = 2,5-dihydroxy-p-benzenediacetic acid,bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine,phen =1,10-phenanthroline) have been prepared via solvothermal method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction,infrared spectroscopy,elemental analysis and powder X-ray diffraction.1 and 2 possess 1D infinite chain structures.Complex 3 exhibits a mononuclear structure.Complex 4 owns binuclear symmetry units,which were bridged via the dba ligands forming a 2D framework.The fluorescence properties of 1-4 have been studied.

  18. Magnetic characterization of undoped and 15%F-doped LaFeAsO and SmFeAsO compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimberle, M.R. [CNR-IMEM via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)], E-mail: cimberle@fisica.unige.it; Canepa, F. [CNR-IMEM via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita di Genova via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Ferretti, M. [CNR-INFM-LAMIA Corso Perrone 24, 16152 Genova (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita di Genova via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Martinelli, A. [CNR-INFM-LAMIA Corso Perrone 24, 16152 Genova (Italy); Palenzona, A. [CNR-INFM-LAMIA Corso Perrone 24, 16152 Genova (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita di Genova via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Siri, A.S. [CNR-INFM-LAMIA Corso Perrone 24, 16152 Genova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Tarantini, C. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Tropeano, M. [CNR-INFM-LAMIA Corso Perrone 24, 16152 Genova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Ferdeghini, C. [CNR-INFM-LAMIA Corso Perrone 24, 16152 Genova (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    In this paper, the magnetic behavior of undoped and 15%F-doped SmFeAsO (Sm-1111) and LaFeAsO (La-1111) samples is presented and discussed. Magnetization measurements are not a simple tool to use for the characterization of the new family of Fe-based superconductors, because magnetic impurities can be easily formed during the preparation procedure and may affect the magnetic signal. In spite of this problem bulk magnetization measurements, properly treated, may give very useful information. In the undoped samples we gathered the main aspects of the physical behavior of the 1111 phase, i.e. the onset of the spin density wave (SDW), the antiferromagnetic ordering at the Sm sublattice and the susceptibility increase with increasing temperature above the SDW temperature, and, in addition, we were able to estimate the Pauli contribution to susceptibility and therein the Wilson ratio both for LaFeAsO and SmFeAsO compounds, and the amplitude of the jump at the SDW temperature. In the doped samples, while the presence of magnetic signals due to impurities is dominating in the normal state, the superconducting behavior may be clearly observed and studied. In particular, in the Sm-1111 superconducting sample the coexistence-competition between superconductivity and antiferromagnetic ordering of the Sm ions was clearly observed.

  19. Improvement of visible light-induced photocatalytic performance by Cr-doped SrTiO3-carbon nitride intercalation compound (CNIC) composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明; 金效齐

    2016-01-01

    Novel organic−inorganic composite photocatalyst offers new opportunities in the practical applications of photocatalysis. Novel visible light-induced Cr-doped SrTiO3–carbon nitride intercalation compound (CNIC) composite photocatalysts were synthesized. The composite photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and BET surface area analyzer. The photocatalytic oxidation ability of the novel composite photocatalyst was evaluated using methyl orange (MO) as a target pollutant. The photocatalysts exhibited a significantly enhanced photocatalytic performance in degrading MO. For maximizing the photodegradation activity of the composite photocatalysts, the optimal CNIC content was determined. The improved photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared Cr-doped SrTiO3–CNIC composite photocatalyst may be attributed to the enhancement of photo-generated electron–hole separations at the interface.

  20. 模拟城市垃圾焚烧中硫化合物对重金属Cd迁移分布的影响%Effects of Sulfur Compounds on Cd Partitioning in a Simulated Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张衍国; 李清海; 蒙爱红; 陈勇; 禚玉群; 陈昌和

    2007-01-01

    The effect of sulfur compounds (including sulfur,sulfide,sulfite and sulfate),initial concentration of heavy metal and operating conditions on Cd emission in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration were investigated using a simulated tubular furnace and simulated MSW spiked with Cd. The concentration of Cd was measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) after digesting the samples including bottom ash,fly ash and flue gas according to related USEPA methods. The results show that S and Na2S tend to increase Cd partitioning in bottom ash,whereas Na2SO3 and Na2SO4 tend to reduce Cd partitioning in bottom ash.The effect of sulfur compounds on Cd partitioning in bottom ash was in the sequence of Na2S>S>Na2SO3>Na2SO4. chemical equilibrium analysis is also performed to determine the effect of sorbents on Cd adsorption. The calculations show that S presents strong affinity for Cd and restrains Cd adsorption by SiO2,whereas when temperature rises to between 830℃ and 1030℃,Cd adsorption efficiency of SiO2 is over 80% and the efficiency of Al2O3 is up to 85%.

  1. Superconductivity in Ti-doped iron-arsenide compound Sr4Cr0.8Ti1.2O6Fe2As2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Superconductivity was achieved in Ti-doped iron-arsenide compound Sr4Cr0.8Ti1.2O6Fe2As2 (abbreviated as Cr-FeAs-42622). The X-ray diffraction measurement shows that this material has a layered structure with the space group of P4/nmm,and with the lattice constants a = b = 3.9003  and c = 15.8376 . Clear diamagnetic signals in ac susceptibility data and zero-resistance in resistivity data were detected at about 6 K,confirming the occurrence of bulk superconductivity. Meanwhile we observed a supercon-ducting transition in the resistive data with the onset transition temperature at 29.2 K,which may be induced by the nonuniform distribution of the Cr/Ti content in the FeAs-42622 phase.

  2. β-Thalassaemia Major in a Spanish Patient due to a Compound Heterozygosity for CD39 C→T/−28 A→C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Gamarra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A Spanish male patient with β-thalassaemia major was studied. Compound heterozygosity was found for one of the most common β-globin gene mutations in the Spanish population (codon 39 C→T and for a mutation in the TATA box element of the β-globin gene promoter (−28 A→C mutation. To our knowledge this is the first report of a CD39 C→T and −28 A→C change association and the first report of the −28 A→C substitution in a Spanish patient.

  3. Superconductivity by rare earth doping in the 1038-type compounds (Ca1-xREx) 10(FeAs)10(Pt3As8) with RE=Y, La-Nd, Sm-Lu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürzer, Tobias; Derondeau, Gerald; Bertschler, Eva-Maria; Johrendt, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    We report superconductivity in polycrystalline samples of the 1038-type compounds (Ca1-xREx) 10(FeAs)10(Pt3As8) up to Tc=35 K with RE=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Lu. The critical temperatures are nearly independent of the trivalent rare earth element used, yielding a common Tc(xRE) phase diagram for electron doping in all these systems. The absence of superconductivity in Eu2+ doped samples, as well as the close resemblance of (Ca1-xREx) 10(FeAs)10(Pt3As8) to the 1048 compound substantiate that the electron doping scenario in the RE-1038 and 1048 phases is analogous to other iron-based superconductors with simpler crystal structures.

  4. Nanocrystalline semiconductor doped rare earth oxide for the photocatalytic degradation studies on Acid Blue 113: A di-azo compound under UV slurry photoreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya Josephine, G A; Mary Nisha, U; Meenakshi, G; Sivasamy, A

    2015-11-01

    Preventive measures for the control of environmental pollution and its remediation has received much interest in recent years due to the world-wide increase in the contamination of water bodies. Contributions of these harmful effluents are caused by the leather processing, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, textile, agricultural and other chemical industries. Nowadays, advanced oxidation processes considered to be better option for the complete destruction of organic contaminants in water and wastewater. Acid Blue 113 is a most widely used di-azo compound in leather, textile, dying and food industry as a color rending compound. In the present study, we have reported the photo catalytic degradation of Acid Blue 113 using a nanocrystalline semiconductor doped rare earth oxide as a photo catalyst under UV light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by a simple precipitation technique and were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-DRS and FE-SEM analysis. The experimental results proved that the prepared photo catalyst was nanocrystalline and highly active in the UV region. The UV-DRS results showed the band gap energy was 3.15eV for the prepared photo catalyst. The photodegradation efficiency was analyzed by various experimental parameters such as pH, catalyst dosage, variation of substrate concentration and effect of electrolyte addition. The photo degradation process followed a pseudo first order kinetics and was continuously monitored by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The experimental results proved the efficacy of the nanocrystalline zinc oxide doped dysprosium oxide which are highly active under UV light irradiations. It is also suggested that the prepared material would find wider applications in environmental remediation technologies to remove the carcinogenic and toxic moieties present in the industrial effluents.

  5. Luminescent MOFs comprising mixed tritopic linkers and Cd(II)/Zn(II) nodes for selective detection of organic nitro compounds and iodine capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachuri, Yadagiri; Bisht, Kamal Kumar [Analytical Discipline and Centralized Instrument Facility, CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Parmar, Bhavesh [Analytical Discipline and Centralized Instrument Facility, CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Suresh, Eringathodi, E-mail: esuresh@csmcri.org [Analytical Discipline and Centralized Instrument Facility, CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR–Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India)

    2015-03-15

    Two CPs ([Cd{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2}(TIB){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}].(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}){sub n} (1) and ([Zn{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2}(TIB){sub 2}].(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}){sub n} (2) composed of tripodal linkers BTC (1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) and TIB (1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene) were synthesized via solvothermal route and structurally characterized. Single crystal structural analysis reveals 1 possesses a novel 3D framework structure, whereas 2 represents a previously established compound. Owing to the d{sup 10} configuration of metal nodes and robust 3D frameworks, 1 and 2 exhibit excellent fluorescence properties which have been exploited to sense organic nitro compounds in vapor phase. Compound 1 demonstrates selective sensing of nitromethane over structurally similar methanol with ca. 70 and 43% fluorescence quenching in case of former and later. Similarly, 58% fluorescence quenching was observed in case of nitrobenzene over the structurally resembling toluene for which 30% quenching was observed. Compound 2 did not show any preference for nitro compounds and exhibited comparable fluorescence quenching when exposed to the vapors of nitro or other geometrically resembling organic molecules. Furthermore, adsorption experiments revealed that 1 and 2 can uptake 2.74 and 14.14 wt% molecular iodine respectively in vapor phase which can be released in organic solvents such as hexane and acetonitrile. The maximal iodine uptake in case of 1 and 2 corresponds to 0.15 and 0.80 molecules of iodine per formula unit of respective frameworks. Comprehensive structural description, thermal stability and luminescence behavior for both CPs has also been presented. - Graphical abstract: Two 3D luminescent CPs comprising mixed tripodal ligands have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Iodine encapsulation capacity of synthesized CPs is evaluated and their fluorescence quenching in presence of small organic molecules is exploited for sensing of nitro

  6. Isoelectronic co-doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2004-11-09

    Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with deep acceptors and deep donors is used to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, N and Bi, to customize solar cells, thermal voltaic cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and lasers on GaP, InP, GaAs, Ge, and Si substrates. Isoelectronically co-doped Group II-VI compounds and alloys are also included.

  7. Magnetic dilution in the cadmium-doped spin ladder compound Cdx Cu1 - x (quinoxaline) Br2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Brian; Landee, Chris; Turnbull, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Both Cu (quinoxaline) (Br2) and Cu (quinoxaline) (Cl2) are examples of molecule-based magnets where the CuX4 dimers are linked into ladders by quinoxaline molecules, where X is either Cl or Br. The rung exchange occurs through the bridging halides while the rail exchange occurs through the quinoxaline rings. Introducing random rung interactions into the system [ Cu (quinoxaline) (Br2)1-x (Cl2)x ] has caused the spin gap to close, in contrast with the gapped pure spin ladder parents. Crystal growth of non-magnetic-doped molecular magnets, CdxCu1 - x (2 , 3 - dimethylpyrazine)Br2 , have been performed for several values of the nominal conentration, x, and have been confirmed. The magnetizations and susceptibilities of the magnetically diluted ladder assemblage are presented along with a comparison of the effects of dilution from the pure case (x=0).

  8. Constrained DFT+U approach for understanding the magnetic behaviour of ACr2O4 (A = Zn, Mg, Cd and Hg) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Sohan; Pandey, Sudhir K.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we try to understand the inconsistency reported by Yaresko (2008) [10] in the theoretically estimated sign of nearest neighbour exchange coupling constant (J1) and variation of its magnitude with increasing U in ACr2O4 (A = Zn, Cd, Mg and Hg) compounds by using density functional theory. In unconstrained calculations, the sign of J1 and variation of its magnitude as a function of U in the present study are not consistent with the experimental data and not according to the relation, J1 ∝ t2/U, respectively especially for CdCr2O4 for U > 3 eV and HgCr2O4 for U = 2- 6 eV. Such an inconsistent behaviour of J1 is almost similar to that of Yaresko for these two compounds for U = 2- 4 eV. For ZnCr2O4 and MgCr2O4, the sign of J1 and variation of its magnitude in the present work are in accordance with the experimental data and above mentioned relation, respectively for U = 2- 6 eV and are similar to that of Yaresko for ZnCr2O4 for U = 2- 4 eV. However, in constrained calculations the sign of J1c and variation of its magnitude in the present work are according to experimental data and above mentioned relation, respectively for all four compounds. Hence, the present study shows the importance of constrained calculations in understanding the magnetic behaviour of these spinels. The values of magnitude of Curie-Weiss temperature (ΘCW)c for ZnCr2O4 > MgCr2O4 > CdCr2O4 > HgCr2O4 for U = 2- 5 eV, which are according to the order of experimentally observed values for these spinels. The calculated values of (ΘCW)c for ZnCr2O4, MgCr2O4, CdCr2O4 and HgCr2O4 are -982 K, -721 K, -147 K and -122 K, respectively at U = 5 eV.

  9. Preparation of CdS Nanocrystals Doped TiO2 Supported on Bamboo Charcoal and Photocatalytic Properties%竹炭负载纳米CdS掺杂TiO2光催化剂制备及光催化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建军

    2012-01-01

    A photocatalyst of CdS nanocrystals doped with TiO2 supported bamboo charcoal was prepared by a hydrothermal method in the different temperature. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption in low temperature and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The XRD and SEM results showed that the as -synthesized TiO2 was anatase phase and its size was about 20-40nm. The UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra indicated that in the visible region, the absorption edges of the CdS nanonrystals doping TiO2 supported on bamboo charcoal shifted to visible light region, thus largely enhancing the TiO2 absorption of visible light. A xenon lamp ( λ >420nm) was used as an illuminant in the degeneration experiment and Rhodamine B (Rh B) was chosen as the model substance to evaluate photocatalytic activity of the CdS nanocrystals doped with TiO2 supported bamboo charcoal. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of the CdS nanocrystals doping TiO2 supported bamboo charcoal synthesized at 240℃ when the doping amount of CdS nanocrystals is 4% ( mol fraction) is best, the colour removal of Rh B is 98.2% in 200 minutes.%采用水热法在不同温度下制备了竹炭(BC)负载纳米CdS掺杂TiO2光催化剂;采用X-射线粉末衍射(XRD)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、氮气低温吸附和紫外-可见漫反射图谱等对竹炭(BC)负载纳米CdS掺杂TiO2光催化剂进行了表征,XRD和SEM结果表明,TiO2为锐钛矿相.粒径为20nm~ 40nm.紫外-可见漫反射图谱显示,竹炭负载纳米CdS掺杂的TiO2的样品吸收边发生了明显的红移,大大提高了TiO2对可见光吸收.以氙灯为光源(λ> 420nm)、罗丹明B(Rh B)为模型污染物进行降解实验,探索了不同条件下合成竹炭负载纳米CdS掺杂TiO2的可见光催化性能.结果表明,纳米CdS掺杂量为4%(摩尔分数)240℃时,制备的竹炭负载纳米CdS掺杂TiO2对RhB的降解效果最好,

  10. First and second harmonic generation of the XAl2Se4 (X=Zn,Cd,Hg) defect chalcopyrite compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Ouahrani, Tank; Khenata, R.; Lasri, B; Reshak, Ali H.; Bouhemadou, A.; Bin-Omran, S

    2012-01-01

    The chemical bonding of the ZnAl2Se4, CdAl2Se4 and HgAl2Se4 defect chalcopyrites has been studied in the framework of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (AIM). The GW quasi-particle approximation is used to correct the DFT-underestimation of energy gap, and as a consequence the linear and nonlinear optical properties are significantly enhanced. The second harmonic generation (SHG) displays certain dependence with the ionicity degree decrease through the dependency of the SHG on the band...

  11. Ion beam synthesis of CdS, ZnS, and PbS compound semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, C.W.; Budai, J.D.; Meldrum, A.L. [and others

    1997-12-01

    Sequential ion implantation followed by thermal annealing has been used to form encapsulated CdS, ZnS, and PbS nanocrystals in SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrices. In SiO{sub 2}, nanoparticles are nearly spherical and randomly oriented, and ZnS and PbS nanocrystals exhibit a bimodal size distribution. In Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, nanoparticles are faceted and coherent with the matrix. Initial photoluminescence (PL) results are presented.

  12. Electronic and optical properties of the LiCdX (X = N, P, As and Sb) filled-tetrahedral compounds with the Tran–Blaha modified Becke–Johnson density functional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhemadou, A., E-mail: a_bouhemadou@yahoo.fr [Laboratory for Developing New Materials and their Characterization, University of Setif 1, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Bin-Omran, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science & Humanitarian Studies, Salman Bin Abdalaziz University, Alkharj 11942 (Saudi Arabia); Allali, D. [Laboratory for Developing New Materials and their Characterization, University of Setif 1, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Al-Otaibi, S.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Département de Technologie, Université de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Al-Douri, Y. [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kangar, Perlis 01000 (Malaysia); Chegaar, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Setif 1, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Reshak, A.H. [New Technologies-Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, Pilson 306 14 (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Kangar, Perlis 01007 (Malaysia)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Electronic and optical properties of the LiCdX compounds have been predicted. • Tran–Blaha-modified Becke–Johnson functional significantly improves the band gap. • We predict a direct band gap in all of the considered LiCdX compounds. • Origin of the peaks in the optical spectra is determined. - Abstract: The structural, electronic and optical properties of the LiCdN, LiCdP, LiCdAs and LiCdSb filled-tetrahedral compounds have been explored from first-principles. The calculated structural parameters are consistent with the available experimental results. Since DFT with the common LDA and GGA underestimates the band gap, we use a new developed functional able to accurately describe the electronic structure of semiconductors, namely the Tran–Blaha-modified Becke–Johnson potential. The four investigated compounds demonstrate semiconducting behavior with direct band gap ranging from about 0.32 to 1.65 eV. The charge-carrier effective masses are evaluated at the topmost valence band and at the bottommost conduction band. The evolution of the value and nature of the energy band gap under pressure effect is also investigated. The frequency-dependent complex dielectric function and some macroscopic optical constants are estimated. The microscopic origins of the structures in the optical spectra are determined in terms of the calculated energy band structures.

  13. Reddish-orange, neutral and warm white emissions in Eu3+, Dy3+ and Dy3+/Eu3+ doped CdO-GeO2-TeO2 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carvajal, David A.; Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Caldiño, U.; Lozada-Morales, R.; Álvarez, E.; Zayas, Ma. E.

    2016-11-01

    Eu3+, Dy3+ and Dy3+/Eu3+ doped CdO-GeO2-TeO2 glasses were prepared using the melt-quenching process and analyzed by X-diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, excitation and emission spectra, and emission decay time profiles. The lack of X ray diffraction peaks revealed that all samples are amorphous. Vibrational modes associated with Tesbnd Osbnd Te and Gesbnd Osbnd Ge related bonds and molecular oxygen were detected by Raman spectroscopy. The luminescence characteristics were studied upon excitations that correspond with the emission of InGaN (370-420 nm) based LEDs. The Eu3+ singly doped glass displayed reddish-orange global emission, with x = 0.601 and y = 0.349 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, upon 393 nm excitation. Neutral emission with x = 0.373 and y = 0.412 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4400 K, was achieved in the Dy3+ singly doped glass excited at 388 nm. The Dy3+/Eu3+ co-doped glass exhibited warm, neutral and soft warm white emissions with CCT values of 3435, 4153 and 2740 K, under excitations at 382, 388 and 393 nm, respectively, depending mainly on the Dy3+ and Eu3+ relative excitation. The Dy3+ excitation bands observed in the Dy3+/Eu3+ glass by monitoring the 611 nm Eu3+ emission, suggest that Dy3+ → Eu3+ energy transfer takes place, despite the fact that the Dy3+ emission decays in the Dy3+ and Dy3+/Eu3+ doped glass, remain without changes. The shortening of Eu3+ decay in presence of Dy3+ was attributed to an Eu3+ → Dy3+ non-radiative energy transfer process, which according with the Inokuti-Hirayama model might be dominated through an electric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction, with efficiency and probability of 5.5% and 51.6 s-1, respectively.

  14. Doping of Semi Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Agashe

    1960-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of the semi-conductors are formed by addition of foreign substances in an insulator. This is called 'Doping'. These doped semi-conductors today are widely used in many electrical devices. Some of them are rectifiers, transistors, thermistors, oxides cathodes and photo-sensitive elements. This paper reviews the fundamental concept of impurity in semi-conductors and recent work on doping of the latter. Purification methods are described in the case of group IV elements and semi-conducting intermetallic compounds. Results of different physical measurements have been discussed in order to understand the role of 'doping'.

  15. Magnetic and electrical properties of In doped FeCr{sub 2}S{sub 4} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagredo, V. [Lab. de Magnetismo, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes, Merida, 5101 (Venezuela)], E-mail: sagredo@ula.ve; Davila, Y. [Lab. de Magnetismo, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes, Merida, 5101 (Venezuela); Goya, G.F. [Instituto Universitario de Investigacion en Nanociencia de Aragon, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    Single crystals of FeIn{sub 1-x}Cr{sub 2x}S{sub 4} compounds have been grown by using the chemical transport method. DC magnetization measurements on single crystals for 0.6{<=}x{<=}1.0 revealed a reentrant behavior below T{sub sg}=120-170 K depending on the Cr concentration sample. The transition temperature T{sub c} increases as the indium concentration increases. The electrical resistivity measurements on polycrystalline materials above the Curie temperature revealed that the conduction behavior could be described as magnetic-polaron transport.

  16. Synthesis and study of the magnetic properties of thallium-based over-doped superconducting compounds; Synthese et etude des proprietes magnetiques des composes supraconducteurs surdopes a base de thallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opagiste, C.

    1994-07-01

    The synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of the normal and superconducting states of over-doped Tl{sub 2} Ba{sub 2} Cu O{sub 6{+-}x} and Tl{sub 2} Ba{sub 2} Ca Cu{sub 2} O{sub 8{+-}x} superconducting compounds, are presented. Synthesis under high pressure using Tl{sub 2} Ba{sub 2} O{sub 5} as a precursor avoids thallium losses and Ba Cu O{sub 2} formation. The entire over-doped region has been investigated (Tc ranging from 0 to 92 K) and the different stability zones for the two crystallographic structures have been explored. The orthorhombic structure is shown to be stoichiometric in cations, while the tetragonal one could present thallium deficiency. Clear correlations have been established between Tc and the lattice parameters for the two phases. It has been observed that the Meissner fraction increased with Tc and that the reversibility domain was more extended for samples having a Tc near the maximal value, which must be linked to the decrease of the anisotropy with over-doping. In the reversible regime, the mixed state is affected by thermal fluctuations around Tc. Evolution of the penetration depth with Tc is examined; it shows that the optimum doped compound (maximal Tc) behaves as a BCS type superconductor. The over-doping results in a penetration depth behaviour which strongly deviates from the standard model (BCS, two fluids). The zero temperature, obtained by extrapolation, seems to be independent of the over-doping. 54 figs., 3 tabs., 168 refs.

  17. Magnetic anisotropy of pure and doped YbInCu sub 4 compounds at ambient and high pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Mushnikov, N V; Rozenfeld, E V; Yoshimura, K; Zhang, W; Yamada, M; Kageyama, H

    2003-01-01

    The susceptibility and high-field magnetization of single-crystalline Yb sub 1 sub - sub x Y sub x InCu sub 4 (x = 0, 0.2 and 0.3) samples have been measured for different field orientations at ambient and high pressures. The compounds with x = 0 and 0.2 undergo a first-order valence transition from the intermediate-valence state to the trivalent state on increasing either temperature or magnetic field. The magnetization and susceptibility of these compounds have appreciable anisotropy in both states. The magnetic phase diagram of Yb sub 1 sub - sub x Y sub x InCu sub 4 determined at ambient pressure is also anisotropic, which is explained by the crystal-field calculations for the free Yb ion in the high-temperature phase. Moreover, the low-temperature magnetization process for x = 0.2 and 0.3 has been measured in low fields under high pressure; it shows anisotropic ferromagnetic ordering.

  18. Phase transitions and dielectric properties of a hexagonal ABX3 perovskite-type organic-inorganic hybrid compound: [C3H4NS][CdBr3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Qiang; Ye, Heng-Yun; Zhang, Yi; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2015-06-21

    A new organic-inorganic hexagonal perovskite-type compound with the formula ABX3, thiazolium tribromocadmate(ii) (1), in which thiazolium cations are situated in the space between the one-dimensional chains of face-sharing CdBr(6) octahedra, has been successfully synthesized. Systematic characterizations including differential scanning calorimetry measurements, variable-temperature structural analyses, and dielectric measurements reveal that it undergoes two structural phase transitions, at 180 and 146 K. These phase transitions are accompanied by remarkable dielectric relaxation and anisotropy. The thiazolium cations remain orientationally disordered during the two phase transition processes. The origins of the phase transitions at 180 and 146 K are ascribed to the slowing down and reorientation of the molecular motions of the cations, respectively. Moreover, the dielectric relaxation process well described by the Cole-Cole equation and the prominent dielectric anisotropy are also connected with the dynamics of the dipolar thiazolium cations.

  19. Concentrations of metals and potential metal-binding compounds and speciation of Cd, Zn and Cu in phloem and xylem saps from castor bean plants (Ricinus communis) treated with four levels of cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazama, Kenji; Nagata, Shinji; Fujimori, Tamaki; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu

    2015-06-01

    We examined the concentrations of metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) and potential metal-binding compounds [nicotianamine (NA), thiol compounds and citrate] in xylem and phloem saps from 4-week-old castor bean plants (Ricinus communis) treated with 0 (control), 0.1, 1.0, and 10 μM Cd for 3 weeks. Treatment with 0.1 and 1 μM Cd produced no visible damage, while 10 μM Cd retarded growth. Cadmium concentrations in both saps were higher than those in the culture solution at 0.1 μM, similar at 1.0 μM and lower at 10 μM. Cd at 10 μM reduced Cu and Fe concentrations in both saps. NA concentrations measured by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (MS) in xylem sap (20 μM) were higher than the Cu concentrations, and those in phloem sap (150 μM) were higher than those of Zn, Fe and Cu combined. Reduced glutathione concentrations differed in xylem and phloem saps (1-2 and 30-150 μM, respectively), but oxidized glutathione concentrations were similar. Phloem sap phytochelatin 2 concentration increased from 0.8 μM in controls to 8 μM in 10 μM Cd. Free citrate was 2-4 μM in xylem sap and 70-100 μM in phloem sap. Total bound forms of Cd in phloem and xylem saps from 1 μM Cd-treated plants were 54 and 8%, respectively. Treatment of phloem sap with proteinaseK reduced high-molecular compounds while increasing fractions of low-molecular Cd-thiol complexes. Zinc-NA, Fe-NA and Cu-NA were identified in the phloem sap fraction of control plants by electrospray ionization time-of-flight MS, and the xylem sap contained Cu-NA.

  20. Nanocrystal diffusion doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskin, Vladimir A; Barrows, Charles J; Erickson, Christian S; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2013-09-25

    A diffusion-based synthesis of doped colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals is demonstrated. This approach involves thermodynamically controlled addition of both impurity cations and host anions to preformed seed nanocrystals under equilibrium conditions, rather than kinetically controlled doping during growth. This chemistry allows thermodynamic crystal compositions to be prepared without sacrificing other kinetically trapped properties such as shape, size, or crystallographic phase. This doping chemistry thus shares some similarities with cation-exchange reactions, but proceeds without the loss of host cations and excels at the introduction of relatively unreactive impurity ions that have not been previously accessible using cation exchange. Specifically, we demonstrate the preparation of Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Se (0 ≤ x ≤ ∼0.2) nanocrystals with narrow size distribution, unprecedentedly high Mn(2+) content, and very large magneto-optical effects by diffusion of Mn(2+) into seed CdSe nanocrystals grown by hot injection. Controlling the solution and lattice chemical potentials of Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) allows Mn(2+) diffusion into the internal volumes of the CdSe nanocrystals with negligible Ostwald ripening, while retaining the crystallographic phase (wurtzite or zinc blende), shape anisotropy, and ensemble size uniformity of the seed nanocrystals. Experimental results for diffusion doping of other nanocrystals with other cations are also presented that indicate this method may be generalized, providing access to a variety of new doped semiconductor nanostructures not previously attainable by kinetic routes or cation exchange.

  1. n-Doping of organic electronic materials using air-stable organometallics: a mechanistic study of reduction by dimeric sandwich compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Song; Mohapatra, Swagat K; Romanov, Alexander; Timofeeva, Tatiana V; Hardcastle, Kenneth I; Yesudas, Kada; Risko, Chad; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Marder, Seth R; Barlow, Stephen

    2012-11-12

    Several 19-electron sandwich compounds are known to exist as "2×18-electron" dimers. Recently it has been shown that, despite their air stability in the solid state, some of these dimers act as powerful reductants when co-deposited from either the gas phase or from solution and that this behavior can be useful in n-doping materials for organic electronics, including compounds with moderate electron affinities, such as 6,13-bis[tri(isopropyl)silylethynyl]pentacene (3). This paper addresses the mechanisms by which the dimers of 1,2,3,4,5-pentamethylrhodocene (1 b(2)), (pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)(1,3,5-trialkylbenzene)ruthenium (alkyl=Me, 2 a(2); alkyl=Et, 2 b(2)), and (pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)(benzene)iron (2 c(2)) react with 3 in solution. Vis/NIR and NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography indicate that the products of these solution reactions are 3(·-) salts of the monomeric sandwich cations. Vis/NIR kinetic studies for the Group 8 dimers are consistent with a mechanism whereby an endergonic electron transfer from the dimer to 3 is followed by rapid cleavage of the dimer cation. NMR crossover experiments with partially deuterated derivatives suggest that the C-C bond in the 1 b(2) dimer is much more readily broken than that in 2 a(2); consistent with this observation, Vis/NIR kinetic measurements suggest that the solution reduction of 3 by 1 b(2) can occur by both the mechanism established for the Group 8 species and by a mechanism in which an endergonic dissociation of the dimer is followed by rapid electron transfer from monomeric 1 b to 3.

  2. Perturbed angular correlation study of {sup 181}Ta-doped PbTi{sub 1-x}Hf{sub x}O{sub 3} compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, R.E., E-mail: alonso@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Fisica La Plata, CONICET (Argentina); Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC-67, CP 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Lopez Garcia, A.R. [Instituto de Fisica La Plata, CONICET (Argentina); Rubia, M.A. de la [Departamento de Electroceramica, Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada a las Tecnologias de la Informacion, ETSI Telecomunicacion (UPM), Ciudad Universitaria s/n 28040 Madrid (Spain); De Frutos, J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada a las Tecnologias de la Informacion, ETSI Telecomunicacion (UPM), Ciudad Universitaria s/n 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    In this work, the hyperfine quadrupole interaction at Ta-doped PbTi{sub 1-x}Hf{sub x}O{sub 3} polycrystalline samples is studied for the first time. Powders with x=0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) analyses were done as a function of temperature, using low concentration {sup 181}Ta nuclei as probes. In the ferroelectric and paraelectric phases of these compounds two sites were occupied by the probes. For each site the quadrupole frequency, asymmetry and relative distribution width parameters were obtained as a function of temperature above and below the Curie temperature (T{sub C}). One of these sites was assigned to the regular Ti-Hf site, while the other one was assigned to some kind of defect. The behavior of the hyperfine parameters as a function of temperature was analyzed in terms of a recent published phase diagram and the presence of disorder below and above T{sub C}. For the three compositions measured, the obtained hyperfine parameters present discontinuities which correspond to the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition. In both phases it was found broad frequency distributed interactions. The disorder in the electronic distribution would be responsible for the broad line width of the hyperfine interaction.

  3. 5f-electronic states of neptunium compounds: NpGe{sub 3}, NpRhGa{sub 5} and NpCd{sub 11}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onuki, Y; Yoshiuchi, S; Settai, R [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Aoki, D; Homma, Y; Shiokawa, Y [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Haga, Y; Sakai, H; Ikeda, S; Yamamoto, E; Nakamura, A [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Takeuchi, T [Low Temperature Center, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yamagami, H, E-mail: onuki@phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    We studied the electronic states of three typical neptunium compounds, NpGe{sub 3}, NpRhGa{sub 5} and NpCd{sub 11}. Among them, NpGe{sub 3} and NpCd{sub 11} with the cubic crystal structure are paramagnets without magnetic ordering, while NpRhGa{sub 5} with the tetragonal structure is an antiferromagnet. At high temperatures, the 5f electrons in NpGe{sub 3} are almost localized, and the magnetic susceptibility {chi}(T) approximately follows the Curie-Weiss law. With decreasing temperature, {chi}(T) shows a broad peak around 50 K, indicating a moderate heavy fermion state at lower temperatures. In fact, the results of the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) experiments for NpGe{sub 3} are well explained by the 5f-itinerant band model; namely, the 5f electrons contribute to the Fermi surface and the cyclotron effective mass. The cyclotron mass is thus enhanced, ranging from 2.6 to 16 times the rest mass of the electron m{sub 0}. In the antiferromagnet NpRhGa{sub 5}, it was clarified from the results of dHvA experiments and energy band calculations that the 5f electrons contribute to the Fermi surface. The cyclotron mass varies from 8.1 to 11.7 m{sub 0}, and the magnetic moment is 0.89 {mu}{sub B}/Np. In NpCd{sub 11}, the 5f electrons are localized in the whole temperature range and do not contribute to the Fermi surface. The corresponding cyclotron mass is thus light, below 1 m{sub 0}, revealing no hybridization between the localized 5f electrons and the conduction electrons. The Fermi surface consists of small closed Fermi surfaces, reflecting the small Brillouin zone associated to the large unit cell of the crystal structure in NpCd{sub 11}. The long Np-Np nearest-neighbor distance (6.568 A) results in the well localized 5f {sup 4}states. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetization curves are well explained in a crystalline electric field (CEF) scheme assuming a singlet ground state and an excited triplet state separated by a 120 K energy gap.

  4. Zn(Ⅱ)-EDTA和Cd(Ⅱ)-EDTA在草酸根掺杂溴化银颗粒乳剂中的增感效应%Sensitization of Zn (Ⅱ)-EDTA and Cd (Ⅱ)-EDTA on Silver Bromide Emulsion Doped with Oxalate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马望京; 史瑶; 赵艳艳; 段培成; 李智; 杨新民

    2009-01-01

    使用反馈式微机控制双注乳化仪,在晶体生长过程特定时间内,加入一定量的草酸盐,制得了草酸根离子处于晶体次表面的立方体溴化银微晶乳剂,并对其进行传统的硫加金化学增感、Zn(Ⅱ)-EDTA或Cd(Ⅱ)-EDTA增感以及光谱增感.对实验过程的考察和感光性能的测试结果表明,Zn(Ⅱ)-EDTA或Cd(Ⅱ)-EDTA对细微粒溴化银颗粒乳剂均有显著的增感效应;Zn(Ⅱ)-EDTA或Cd(Ⅱ)-EDTA增感可在传统硫加金增感基础上与光谱增感协同作用,三者具有兼容和可加和性;Zn(Ⅱ)-EDTA或Cd(Ⅱ)-EDTA增感可在传统硫加金增感与光谱增感协同作用的基础上,与草酸根内部掺杂增感兼容,实现四者的协同作用,而不引起乳剂灰雾增加.%In the emulsifying process of AgBr microcrystals in the double-jet apparatus controlled by a microcomputer, a certain amount of oxalate salt was injected at specific time and pAg into a reac-tor to prepare AgBr grain emulsions in which oxalate ions were doped at subsurface of AgBr micro-crystals, and which were sensitized respectively by sulfur plus gold, sulfur plus gold plus Zn (Ⅱ)-EDTA or Cd(Ⅱ)-EDTA, and dye. The results from the whole experiments and sensitometric re-sults from these emulsions showed: 1) that sensitization of Zn (Ⅱ)-EDTA or Cd (Ⅱ)-EDTA on sil-ver bromide emulsion was affirmed; 2) That a cooperation sensitization of Zn (Ⅱ)-EDTA or Cd (Ⅱ)-EDTA, sulfur plus gold, and dye could be carried out to make a higher level of sensitization; 3) That a cooperation sensitization of Zn (Ⅱ)-EDTA or Cd (Ⅱ)-EDTA, on the basis of (sulfur plus gold) and dye, with oxalate-doped was carried out to make a higher level of sensitization without any increase in the level of fog.

  5. Effect of low irradiation temperature on the thermoluminescent response of doped crystal NaCl:XCl{sub 2} :MnCl{sub 2}(X=Ca, Cd); Efecto de baja temperatura de irradiacion sobre la respuesta termoluminiscente del cristal dopado NaCl:XCl{sub 2} :MnCl{sub 2}(X=Ca, Cd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz M, A.; Cruz Z, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, A. P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Furetta, C. [Touro University Rome, Circne Gianicolense 15-17, 00153 Rome (Italy); Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2009-10-15

    Production of crystalline materials suitable thermoluminescent properties over a wide range of doses is becoming more important to evaluate different radiation fields. However, the thermoluminescence response and the structure of the glow curves may be modified by the participation of defects to low irradiation temperature. In this work it is analyzed the effect of the irradiation temperature, 77 and 200 K on the thermoluminescence response of crystal NaCl:XCl{sub 2}:MnCl{sub 2} (X=Ca, Cd) doubly doped. The glow curves obtained were analyzed using a deconvolution program of CGCD, and the response linearity was analyzed by supra linearity index. (Author)

  6. Electrical Properties Of Indium And Yttrium-Doped Barium Cerate-Based Compounds For Use As Ceramic Fuel Cell Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawel R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to compare the electrical properties of BaCe0.85Y0.15O3−δ (BCY15, BaCe0.70In0.30O3−δ (BCI30 and a composite material consisting of 30%vol. BCY15 and 70%vol. Ce0.85Y0.15O2−δ (YDC15. BCY15 and YDC15 were synthesized by co-precipitation, whereas BCI30 was obtained using the solid-state reaction method. Pellets were initially formed from powders at 5 MPa, after which they were isostatically pressed at 250 MPa and sintered at 1500°C. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was used to determine the electrical properties of the samples in both air (pO2 = 0.021 MPa and Ar-5%H2 atmospheres. In the temperature range 200-400°C in air atmosphere the highest conductivity values were determined for BCY15 (5,22·10−5 − 2.74·10−3 S/cm. On the other hand, the electrical conductivity values obtained for Y70B30 in both atmospheres between 200 and 550°C are in the order of magnitude of 10−7 − 10−3 S/cm. Consequently, it can be concluded that the compounds exhibit significant H+ and O2− electrical conductivity at temperatures above 500°C, which indicates the possibility for their potential use as ceramic fuel cell electrolytes.

  7. Structure and Optical Properties of Te-doped CdTe Thin Films%自掺杂Te生长CdTe薄膜的结构及其光学性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马灵灵; 郑毓峰; 侯娟; 匡代洪; 孙言飞; 简基康

    2007-01-01

    使用近距离升华(CSS)方法在玻璃衬底上制备了CdTe自掺杂Te薄膜.通过XRD,SEM,EDS,紫外可见分光光度计,以及光致发光(PL)谱分析讨论了掺Te薄膜的结构变化,其表面形貌以及掺杂浓度对CdTe薄膜光学性质的影响.结果表明:适量掺Te改善了CdTe薄膜的结晶质量,CdTe薄膜的晶格常数变大,禁带宽度Eg有略微减小,晶体中施主能级深度无变化--掺Te对CdTe薄膜的光学性质影响不大.

  8. Preparation and Thermochemistrg of Crystalline Compound( n-C12 H25 NH3 ) 2 CdCl4 ( s)%晶体化合物( n-C12 H25 NH3 ) 2 CdCl4 ( s )的制备及热化学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓兰; 王建军; 范妮; 张静; 倪俊超; 陈经涛

    2015-01-01

    The crystal compounds synthesized by the hydrothermal synthesis of (n-C12H25NH3)2 CdCl4(s);compound were calculated based on the thermochemical principle ( n-C12 H25 NH3 ) 2 CdCl4 ( s) of the lattice energy of 889. 81 kJ·mol-1 . Using isothermal solution reaction calorimeter,the standard molar enthalpy of the compound was obtained:[n-C12H25NH3)2 CdCl4,S] = - (1 836. 23 + 7. 95) kJ David mol-1.%用水热合成法合成了晶体化合物 (n-C12H25NH3)2 CdCl4(s);根据热化学原理计算了化合物(n-C12H25 NH3)2 CdCl4(s)的晶格能为889. 81 kJ·mol-1. 利用等温溶解-反应热量计,得到了该化合物的标准的摩尔焓: [(n-C12H25NH3)2 CdCl4,s] = -(1836.23 ±7.95) kJ·mol-1.

  9. Ⅱ-Ⅵ族镉化物材料的MBE生长及器件应用进展%Device Applications and MBE Growth of Ⅱ-Ⅵ Cd-based Compound Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰; 刘超; 李彦波; 曾一平

    2011-01-01

    Ⅱ-Ⅵ Cd-based compounds with the characteristics of direct band gap, high optical absorption coefficient, and excellent electrical properties, have been extensively used in solar cells, X- and γ-ray detectors, infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs), etc. In this paper,progresses in molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) growth and device applications of Cd-based compounds are briefly reviewed. And their prospects in the field of optoelectronics are also predicted.%Ⅱ-Ⅵ族镉(Cd)化物,如CdTe、CdSe、CdSeTe等具有直接带隙、光学吸收系数高和电学特性优异等突出特点,在太阳电池、X及γ射线探测器、红外焦平面阵列(FPA)等方面均得到了广泛应用.文章简要综述了近年来用分子束外延(MBE)工艺生长镉化物微结构材料的研究进展和器件应用动态,并对镉化物在光电子领域中的发展前景进行了展望.

  10. On the effect of Cd doping for Ca in La 3CaBa 3Cu 7O y superconducting cuprate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandyel, Elsayed; Elsabawy, Khaled M.

    2006-02-01

    We report on the influence of isovalent substitution of Cd 2+ for Ca 2+ on the structural, electrical and magnetic properties of La 3CaBa 3Cu 7O y. Based on X-ray diffraction and DSC measurements, Cd can replace upto 100% of Ca ions without affecting the basic crystal structure or the formation of any impurity phases. Both Tc and oxygen content decrease monotonously with Cd content. Contrary to Y-123, the transition from the region of maximal Tc to the non-superconducting state takes place within a narrow range of oxygen content. The difference in chemical properties between Cd and Ca, as well as the observed concomitant decrease in the oxygen content, is believed to be responsible for the structural changes and suppression of superconductivity through the reduction of oxygen in the Cu-O layers when Cd replaces Ca.

  11. On the effect of Cd doping for Ca in La{sub 3}CaBa{sub 3}Cu{sub 7}O {sub y} superconducting cuprate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandyel, Elsayed [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Tanta University, Tanta 31527 (Egypt)]. E-mail: skandyel@yahoo.com; Elsabawy, Khaled M. [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Tanta University, Tanta 31527 (Egypt)

    2006-02-15

    We report on the influence of isovalent substitution of Cd{sup 2+} for Ca{sup 2+} on the structural, electrical and magnetic properties of La{sub 3}CaBa{sub 3}Cu{sub 7}O {sub y}. Based on X-ray diffraction and DSC measurements, Cd can replace upto 100% of Ca ions without affecting the basic crystal structure or the formation of any impurity phases. Both T {sub c} and oxygen content decrease monotonously with Cd content. Contrary to Y-123, the transition from the region of maximal T {sub c} to the non-superconducting state takes place within a narrow range of oxygen content. The difference in chemical properties between Cd and Ca, as well as the observed concomitant decrease in the oxygen content, is believed to be responsible for the structural changes and suppression of superconductivity through the reduction of oxygen in the Cu-O layers when Cd replaces Ca.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization And Optoelectrical Properties of Cd Doped ZnO Poly Crystalline Nano Thin Films Deposited by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindal, Nitin; Sharma, Manisha; Kumar, H.; Sharma, S.; Upadhaya, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Cadmium doped zinc oxide polycrystalline nano thin films were deposited on microscopic glass substrates following a modified chemical bath technique called Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR). Cadmium doping was found to increase the film grown rate. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that films have polycrystalline nature. The SEM image revealed growth of large crystallites perpendicular to the substrates. The optical transmittance spectra indicate that these thin films have the direct energy band gap. The resistivity of these films decreased with increase in the temperature for all compositions, which confirmed the semiconducting nature of films.

  13. Spectroscopy and tunable mid-infrared lasing of a novel gain medium: Cr sup 2 sup + doped Cd sub 0 sub . sub 8 sub 5 Mn sub 0 sub . sub 1 sub 5 Te

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, J T; Trivedi, S B; Kutcher, S W; Chen, R J; Wang, C C; Zong, H; Boyd, P R; Tardiff, W

    1999-01-01

    A novel mid-infrared transition-metal laser has been developed based on chromium (II)-doped Cd sub 0 sub . sub 8 sub 5 Mn sub 0 sub . sub 1 sub 5 Te. The characteristic spectroscopy features of Cr sup 2 sup + : Cd sub 0 sub . sub 8 sub 5 Mn sub 0 sub . sub 1 sub 5 Te are large absorption and emission cross sections (approx 10 sup - sup 1 sup 8 cm sup 2), a predicted absence of excited state absorption (ESA), and a broad emission band extending from 2.1 approx 3.5 mu m. The broad emission band makes Cr sup 2 sup + : Cd sub 0 sub . sub 8 sub 5 Mn sub 0 sub . sub 1 sub 5 Te very attractive for the development of a widely tunable mid-infrared laser. In initial studies, a laser tunability from 2.3 to 2.75 mu m has been demonstrated with a full width at half maximum of 2.3 nm. A larger tuning range seems possible with the appropriate optics. The highest slope efficiency achieved for a pulsed (2 Hz) free-running laser was 44.2%.

  14. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Reveals Disordered Level-Crossing Physics in the Bose-Glass Regime of the Br-Doped Ni (Cl1 -xBrx )2-4 SC (NH2 )2 Compound at a High Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Anna; Blinder, Rémi; Kermarrec, Edwin; Dupont, Maxime; Laflorencie, Nicolas; Capponi, Sylvain; Mayaffre, Hadrien; Berthier, Claude; Paduan-Filho, Armando; Horvatić, Mladen

    2017-02-01

    By measuring the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) T1-1 relaxation rate in the Br (bond) doped DTN compound, Ni (Cl1 -xBrx )2-4 SC (NH2 )2(DTN X ) , we show that the low-energy spin dynamics of its high magnetic field "Bose-glass" regime is dominated by a strong peak of spin fluctuations found at the nearly doping-independent position H*≅13.6 T . From its temperature and field dependence, we conclude that this corresponds to a level crossing of the energy levels related to the doping-induced impurity states. Observation of the local NMR signal from the spin adjacent to the doped Br allowed us to fully characterize this impurity state. We have thus quantified a microscopic theoretical model that paves the way to better understanding of the Bose-glass physics in DTN X , as revealed in the related theoretical study [M. Dupont, S. Capponi, and N. Laflorencie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 067204 (2017)., 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.067204].

  15. Structure Evolution and Multiferroic Properties in Cobalt Doped Bi4NdTi3Fe1-xCoxO15-Bi3NdTi2Fe1-xCoxO12-δ Intergrowth Aurivillius Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D. L.; Huang, W. C.; Chen, Z. W.; Zhao, W. B.; Feng, L.; Li, M.; Yin, Y. W.; Dong, S. N.; Li, X. G.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report the structure evolution, magnetic and ferroelectric properties in Co-doped 4- and 3-layered intergrowth Aurivillius compounds Bi4NdTi3Fe1-xCoxO15-Bi3NdTi2Fe1-xCoxO12-δ. The compounds suffer a structure evolution from the parent 4-layered phase (Bi4NdTi3FeO15) to 3-layered phase (Bi3NdTi2CoO12-δ) with increasing cobalt doping level from 0 to 1. Meanwhile the remanent magnetization and polarization show opposite variation tendencies against the doping level, and the sample with x = 0.3 has the largest remanent magnetization and the smallest polarization. It is believed that the Co concentration dependent magnetic properties are related to the population of the Fe3+ -O-Co3+ bonds, while the suppressed ferroelectric polarization is due to the enhanced leakage current caused by the increasing Co concentration. Furthermore, the samples (x = 0.1–0.7) with ferromagnetism show magnetoelectric coupling effects at room temperature. The results indicate that it is an effective method to create new multiferroic materials through modifying natural superlattices. PMID:28272495

  16. Visible-light sensitization of TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts via wet chemical N-doping for the degradation of dissolved organic compounds in wastewater treatment: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: Wei.Zhang@unisa.edu.au [University of Cincinnati, Environmental Engineering and Science Program, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering (United States); Jia, Baoping; Wang, Qiuze [Changzhou University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Dionysiou, Dionysois [University of Cincinnati, Environmental Engineering and Science Program, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Increased pollution of ground and surface water and emerging new micropollutants from a wide variety of industrial, municipal, and agricultural sources has increased demand on the development of innovative new technologies and materials whereby challenges associated with the provision of safe potable water can be addressed. Heterogeneous photocatalysis using visible-light sensitized TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts has attracted a lot of attention as it can effectively remove dissolved organic compound in water without generating harmful by-products. On this note, recent progress on visible-light sensitive TiO{sub 2} synthesis via wet chemical N-doping method is reviewed. In a typical visible-light sensitive TiO{sub 2} preparation via wet chemical methods, the chemical (e.g., N-doping content and states) and morphological properties (e.g., particle size, surface area, and crystal phase) of TiO{sub 2} in as-prepared resultants are sensitively dependent on many experimental variables during the synthesis. This has also made it very difficult to provide a universal guidance at this stage with a certainty for each variable of N-doping preparation. Instead of one-factor-at-a-time style investigation, a statistically valid parameter optimization investigation for general optima of photocatalytic activity will be certainly useful. Optimization of the preparation technique is envisaged to be beneficial to many environmental applications, i.e., dissolved organic compounds removal in wastewater treatment.

  17. 共溅射CdTe掺Nd薄膜的结构和电导性能%Structural and Conductive Properties of Nd-doped CdTe Thin Films Obtained by Co-sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑毓峰; 陈树义; 李锦; 简基康; 李冬来; 马忠权; 常爱民

    2002-01-01

    采用共溅射法在ITo/玻璃基片上沉积CdTe掺Nd薄膜,并利用XRD和阻抗测试研究薄膜的结构和电导性能.结果表明,适当Nd掺入可以改善CdTe薄膜结晶特征和电导性能.

  18. Structural, optical and electrical properties of Cd-doped SnO{sub 2} thin films grown by RF reactive magnetron co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moure-Flores, F. de, E-mail: jdemoure@fis.cinvestav.mx [Physics Department, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Quinones-Galvan, J.G.; Hernandez-Hernandez, A.; Guillen-Cervantes, A. [Physics Department, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Santana-Aranda, M.A. [Univ Guadalajara, CUCEI, Dept Fis, Guadalajara 44430, Jalisco (Mexico); Olvera, M. de la L. [Electrical Engineering Department, Solid State Section, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Melendez-Lira, M. [Physics Department, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico)

    2012-01-15

    Transparent conducting SnO{sub 2}:Cd thin films were prepared by RF reactive magnetron co-sputtering on glass slides at a substrate temperature of 500 Degree-Sign C using CdO as cadmium source. The films were deposited under a mixed argon/oxygen atmosphere. The structural, optical and electrical properties were analyzed as a function of the Cd amount in the target. The X-ray diffraction shows that polycrystalline films were grown with both the tetragonal and orthorhombic phases of SnO{sub 2}. The obtained films have high transmittance and conductivity. The figure of merit of SnO{sub 2}:Cd films are in the order of 10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1}, which suggests that these films can be considered as candidates for transparent electrodes.

  19. 掺铅离子硒化镉量子点的水相合成%Aqueous Synthesis of Pb2+ Doped CdSe Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅

    2010-01-01

    水相合成CdSe量子点时掺杂Pb2+一步合成了CdPbSe三元量子点.控制不同的反应时间得到了不同粒径的量子点,这些量子点都具有良好的荧光特性,且荧光发射随合成时间的延长有明显的红移.

  20. Intermetallic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagiwa, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Kimura, K.

    2014-06-01

    We have focused on the binary narrow-bandgap intermetallic compounds FeGa3 and RuGa3 as thermoelectric materials. Their crystal structure is FeGa3-type (tetragonal, P42/ mnm) with 16 atoms per unit cell. Despite their simple crystal structure, their room temperature thermal conductivity is in the range 4-5-W-m-1-K-1. Both compounds have narrow-bandgaps of approximately 0.3-eV near the Fermi level. Because their Seebeck coefficients are quite large negative values in the range 350-FeGa3 and RuGa3 as n and p-type materials. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, was significantly improved by substitution of Sn for Ga in FeGa3 (electron-doping) and by substitution of Zn for Ga in RuGa3 (hole-doping), mainly as a result of optimization of the electronic part, S 2 σ.

  1. CdS/CdSSe quantum dots in glass matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Sonawane; S D Naik; S K Apte; M V Kulkarni; B B Kale

    2008-06-01

    The compositions containing 55 and 60% of silica have been formulated for preparation of glass filters having sharp cut-off at 475 and 575 nm. To achieve cut-off at these wavelengths, the glasses have been doped with CdS/CdSSe and melted at 1200–1300°C. The glass samples were transparent and pale yellow in colour due to presence of CdS/CdSSe tiny nano crystal (Q-dots). in situ growth of CdS/CdSSe nano crystals imparts the yellow/orange/red colour to these glasses. Optical study shows that as prepared glasses have optical cut-off in the range 350–370 nm. The linear crystal growth of CdS/CdSSe in glasses exhibits red shift in optical cut-off. The optical filter having cut-off at 475 nm can be prepared by doping CdS and cut-off filter of wavelength 575 nm by CdSSe. The TEM results show that the CdS/CdSSe nano crystals (Q-dots) ranging from 2–5 nm are uniformly distributed into the glass matrix.

  2. Efficient fluorescence energy transfer system between CdTe-doped silica nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles for turn-on fluorescence detection of melamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Ye, Qingqing; Cui, Peng; Zhang, Lu

    2012-05-09

    We here report an efficient and enhanced fluorescence energy transfer system between confined quantum dots (QDs) by entrapping CdTe into the mesoporous silica shell (CdTe@SiO₂) as donors and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as acceptors. At pH 6.50, the CdTe@SiO₂-AuNPs assemblies coalesce to form larger clusters due to charge neutralization, leading to the fluorescence quenching of CdTe@SiO₂ as a result of energy transfer. As compared with the energy transfer system between unconfined CdTe and AuNPs, the maximum fluorescence quenching efficiency of the proposed system is improved by about 27.0%, and the quenching constant, K(sv), is increased by about 2.4-fold. The enhanced quenching effect largely turns off the fluorescence of CdTe@SiO₂ and provides an optimal "off-state" for sensitive "turn-on" assay. In the present study, upon addition of melamine, the weak fluorescence system of CdTe@SiO₂-AuNPs is enhanced due to the strong interactions between the amino group of melamine and the gold nanoparticles via covalent bond, leading to the release of AuNPs from the surfaces of CdTe@SiO₂; thus, its fluorescence is restored. A "turn-on" fluorimetric method for the detection of melamine is proposed based on the restored fluorescence of the system. Under the optimal conditions, the fluorescence enhanced efficiency shows a linear function against the melamine concentrations ranging from 7.5 × 10⁻⁹ to 3.5 × 10⁻⁷ M (i.e., 1.0-44 ppb). The analytical sensitivity is improved by about 50%, and the detection limit is decreased by 5.0-fold, as compared with the analytical results using the CdTe-AuNPs system. Moreover, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of melamine in real samples with excellent recoveries in the range from 97.4 to 104.1%. Such a fluorescence energy transfer system between confined QDs and AuNPs may pave a new way for designing chemo/biosensing.

  3. Raman Spectroscopy of SiO{sub 2}–Na{sub 2}O–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass doped with Nd{sup 3+} and CdS nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serqueira, E.O.; Dantas, N.O. [Laboratório de Novos Materiais Isolantes e Semicondutores (LNMIS), Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902 (Brazil); Anjos, V. [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiais, Departamento de Física, ICE – UFJF, Campus Universitário, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-330 (Brazil); Bell, M.J.V., E-mail: mjvbell@yahoo.com.br [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiais, Departamento de Física, ICE – UFJF, Campus Universitário, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-330 (Brazil)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • The formation of CdS nanocrystals in the glassy host is shown by Raman measurements. • Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} modifies the growth of CdS nanocrystals in the SNAB glass. • Nd{sup 3+} ions are not incorporated inside the semiconductor nanocrystals. -- Abstract: We report the Raman spectroscopic characterization of a SNAB glass system doped with neodymium and CdS nanocrystals and fabricated by the fusion process. Raman spectra revealed CdS nanocrystals in the glass host and bands associated with Si–O vibrational modes with five structural configurations, boroxol modes of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al–O and Cd–S vibrational modes. Additionally, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} modifies the growth of CdS nanocrystals in the SNAB glass and Nd{sup 3+} ions are not incorporated inside the semiconductor nanocrystals.

  4. Core-shell interaction and its impact on the optical absorption of pure and doped core-shell CdSe/ZnSe nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinqin; Cui, Yingqi; Yu, Shengping; Zeng, Qun; Yang, Mingli

    2016-04-07

    The structural, electronic, and optical properties of core-shell nanoclusters, (CdSe)(x)@(CdSe)(y) and their Zn-substituted complexes of x = 2-4 and y = 16-28, were studied with density functional theory calculations. The substitution was applied in the cores, the shells, and/or the whole clusters. All these clusters are characterized by their core-shell structures in which the core-shell interaction was found different from those in core or in shell, as reflected by their bondlengths, volumes, and binding energies. Moreover, the core and shell combine together to compose a new cluster with electronic and optical properties different from those of separated individuals, as reflected by their HOMO-LUMO gaps and optical absorptions. With the substitution of Cd by Zn, the structural, electronic, and optical properties of clusters change regularly. The binding energy increases with Zn content, attributed to the strong Zn-Se bonding. For the same core/shell, the structure with a CdSe shell/core has a narrower gap than that with a ZnSe shell/core. The optical absorption spectra also change accordingly with Zn substitution. The peaks blueshift with increasing Zn concentration, accompanying with shape variations in case large number of Cd atoms are substituted. Our calculations reveal the core-shell interaction and its influence on the electronic and optical properties of the core-shell clusters, suggesting a composition-structure-property relationship for the design of core-shell CdSe and ZnSe nanoclusters.

  5. Electric field gradients in (111)In-doped (Hf/Zr)3Al2 and (Hf/Zr)4Al3 mixed compounds: ab initio calculations, perturbed angular correlation measurements and site preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, L A; Petrilli, H M; Terrazos, L A; Kulińska, A; Wodniecki, P; Lieb, K P; Uhrmacher, M; Belosevic-Cavor, J; Koteski, V

    2010-06-02

    The quadrupolar hyperfine interactions of in-diffused (111)In --> (111)Cd probes in polycrystalline isostructural Zr(4)Al(3) and Hf(4)Al(3) samples containing small admixtures of the phases (Zr/Hf)(3)Al(2) were investigated. A strong preference of (111)In solutes for the contaminant (Zr/Hf)(3)Al(2) minority phases was observed. Detailed calculations of the electric field gradient (EFG) at the Cd nucleus using the full-potential augmented plane wave + local orbital formalism allowed us to assign the observed EFG fractions to the various lattice sites in the (Zr/Hf)(3)Al(2) compounds and to understand the preferential site occupation of the minority phases by the (111)In atoms. The effects of the size of the supercell and relaxation around the oversized In and Cd probe atoms were investigated in detail.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of the dual-modified composite Fe3O4/CdSe/CdS magnetic fluorescent compound%双修饰Fe3O4/CdSe/CdS荧光磁性复合物的制备及其表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利杰; 顾银君; 马倩; 刘勇健

    2013-01-01

    采用共沉淀法制得Fe3O4溶胶,用γ-缩水甘油醚氧丙基三甲氧基硅烷(KH-560)对其表面进行改性,制得有机硅改性的纳米Fe3O4磁性粒子;用L-半胱氨酸盐酸盐(L-Cys)将油相的CdSe/CdS转成水相并带上氨基的CdSe/CdS纳米晶;将其复合制备了Fe3O4/CdSe/CdS荧光磁性双功能纳米复合物颗粒.该Fe3O4/CdSe/CdS复合物颗粒平均尺寸约为40nm,饱和磁化强度为21.287A·m2/kg,该纳米粒子既具有优异的荧光特性,也具有较强的超顺磁性.%Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were prepared using hydrothermal coprecipitation process of ferric and ferrous ions.The as-prepared nanoparticles were further modified by γ-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)propytrimethoxysilane (KH-560) to obtain silicone modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles.Also,the water-soluble CdSe/CdS bearing amino have been synthesized using L-cysteine hydrochloride (L-Cys) as stabilizer,At last,CdSe/CdS were linked to Fe3O4 to form luminescent/magnetic bifunctional nanoparticles.The as-prepared composites with a typical diameter of 40nm show 21.287A · m2/kg of saturation magnetic susceptibility.Such material still retains a strong photoluminescence effect of CdSe/CdS quantum dots and also exhibits a typical superparamagnetic behavior of Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

  7. Photoluminescence and Raman studies for the confirmation of oxygen vacancies to induce ferromagnetism in Fe doped Mn:ZnO compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, J., E-mail: jayashree304@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Silicon Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar 751024, Odisha (India); Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1710 (South Africa); Mishra, D.K. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1710 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Institute of Technical Education and Research, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Khandagiri Square, Bhubaneswar 751030, Odisha (India); Srinivasu, V.V. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1710 (South Africa); Sahu, D.R. [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida (India); Roul, B.K. [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Acharya Vihar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India)

    2015-05-15

    With a motivation to compare the magnetic property, we synthesised undoped, transition metal (TM) Mn doped and (Mn:Fe) co-doped ZnO ceramics in the compositions ZnO, Zn{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.02}O and Zn{sub 0.96}(Mn{sub 0.02}Fe{sub 0.02})O. Systematic investigations on the structural, microstructural, defect structure and magnetic properties of the samples were performed. Low temperature as well as room temperature ferromagnetism has been observed for all our samples, however, enhanced magnetisation at room temperature has been noticed when ZnO is co-doped with Fe along with Mn. Particularly the sample with the composition Zn{sub 0.96}Mn{sub 0.02}Fe{sub 0.02}O showed a magnetisation value more than double of the sample with composition Zn{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.02}O, indicating long range strong interaction between the magnetic impurities leading to higher ferromagnetic ordering. Raman and PL studies reveal presence of higher defects in form of oxygen vacancy clusters created in the sample due to Fe co doping. PL study also reveals enhanced luminescence efficiency in the co doped sample. Temperature dependent magnetisation study of this sample shows the spin freezing temperature around 39 K indicating the presence of small impurity phase of Mn{sub 2−x}Zn{sub x}O{sub 3} type. Electron Spin Resonance signal obtained supports ferromagnetic state in the co doped sample. Enhancement of magnetisation is attributed to interactions mediated by magnetic impurities through large number of oxygen vacancies created by Fe{sup 3+} ions forming bound magnetic polarons (BMP) and facilitating long range ferromagnetic ordering in the co- doped system. - Highlights: • Comparison of magnetic property of ZnO, Zn{sub 0.98}Mn {sub 0.02}O and Zn{sub 0.96}(Mn{sub 0.02}Fe{sub 0.02})O. • Observation of enhanced magnetisation at room temperature in (Mn,Fe) doped ZnO. • Raman and PL studies reveal presence of higher oxygen vacancy clusters. • Electron Spin Resonance signal supports

  8. Antimicrobial activity and second harmonic studies on organic non-centrosymmetric pure and doped ninhydrin single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanyaa, T.; Jayaramakrishnan, V.; Haris, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we report the successful growth of pure, Cu2+ ions and Cd2+ ions doped on ninhydrin single crystals by slow solvent evaporation technique. The presence of Cu2+ and Cd2+ ions in the specimen of ninhydrin single crystal has been determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The powder X-ray diffraction analysis was done to calculate the lattice parameters of the pure and doped crystals. The percentage of transmittance of the crystal was recorded using the UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. Thermal behaviors of the grown crystals have been examined by the thermal gravimetric/differential thermal analysis. The hardness of the grown crystals was assessed and the results show the minor variation in the hardness value for the pure and doped ninhydrin samples. The value of the work hardening coefficient n was found to be 2.0, 1.0 and 1.06 for pure, copper and cadmium doped ninhydrin crystals respectively. The second harmonic generation efficiency of Cd2+ and Cu2+ doped ninhydrin is 8.3 and 6.3 times greater than well known nonlinear crystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate respectively. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the title compound were performed by disk diffusion method against the standard bacteria Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas oryzae and against the fungus Aspergillis niger and Aspergillus flavus.

  9. CdSe:Mn量子点的制备及其光致发光特性研究%Synthesis and Photoluminescence of Mn2+ Doped CdS Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单云

    2008-01-01

    采用低温水热法,以柠檬酸为配位稳定剂制备了Mn2+掺杂的CdSe量子点.用紫外吸收光谱、荧光发射光谱、X射线衍射(XRD)、透射电镜(TEM)等进行了表征.研究了Mn2+掺杂浓度对量子点的结构及其光致发光性能的影响.光致发光光谱表明,当粒子尺寸为3 nm时,在580 nm处出现了属于Mn2+的4T1-6A1跃迁的特征发射峰.当激发波长为480nm时,在630nm处出现了CdSe的表面缺陷发射峰.随着Mn2+的掺杂浓度增大,CdSe:Mn表面陷阱态发射峰位置没有显著红移.TEM分析结果显示,CdSe:Mn量子点为单分散的,尺寸约为5 nm的圆形纳米粒子.当Mn2+离子掺杂浓度不大于5%时,Mn2+取代表面晶格中的Cd2+离子位置形成辐射性表面缺陷,产生表面陷阱态发射.吸收光谱显示,随着量子点变小,吸收带边发生蓝移,显示明显的量子尺寸效应.

  10. Structure, microstructure and determination of optical constants from transmittance data of co-doped Zn{sub 0.90}Co{sub 0.05}M{sub 0.05}O (M=Al, Cu, Cd, Na) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roguai, S. [LASPI" 2 A Laboratoire des Structures, Propriétés et Interactions Inter Atomiques, Université Abbes Laghrour, Khenchela 40000 (Algeria); Djelloul, A., E-mail: djelloulabdelkader@yahoo.fr [LASPI" 2 A Laboratoire des Structures, Propriétés et Interactions Inter Atomiques, Université Abbes Laghrour, Khenchela 40000 (Algeria); Nouveau, Corinne [LaBoMaP Laboratoire Bourguignon des Matériaux et Procédés, Arts et Métiers ParisTech of Cluny Campus, F-71250 Cluny (France); Souier, T. [Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Material Science and Engineering, PO Box 54224, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Dakhel, A.A.; Bououdina, M. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, PO Box 32038 (Bahrain)

    2014-06-25

    Highlights: • A series of Zn{sub 0.90}Co{sub 0.05}M{sub 0.05}O (M=Al, Cu, Cd, Na) films has been prepared. • Thin films of these prepared samples have been deposited using USP technique. • Absorption of electronic transition has been used to fit the transmittance data. • Optical and dispersion parameters have been determined. - Abstract: ZnO, Zn{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.05}O and Zn{sub 0.90}Co{sub 0.05}M{sub 0.05}O (M=Al, Cd, Na, Cu) single phase films have been successfully synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. Structural analysis by X-ray diffraction show that all the films have hexagonal wurtzite structure with an average crystallite size in the range of 19–25 nm. SEM analysis revealed that Cd and Na preserve the shape of nanopetals observed with ZnO or Co-ZnO films, while the doping with Al or Cu promote the formation of dense films constituted of nanorods. By the application of Levenberg–Marquardt least square method, the experimental transmittance data were fitted perfectly with the transmittance data calculated via a combination of Wemple–DiDomenico model, absorption coefficient of an electronic transition and Tauc–Urbach model. The concentration of absorbing centres N{sub Co} and oscillator strength f of d–d transition of Co{sup 2+} ions are calculated from Smakula’s formula.

  11. Preparation of CdS-doped TiO2 Film and Its Photoelectric Property%CdS敏化TiO2薄膜的制备和光电转换性质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凤霞; 殷海荣; 杨勇; 王水庆

    2001-01-01

    本文采用溶胶-凝胶法在玻璃基片上涂敷,制备了掺杂CdS微晶的Ti02复合薄膜.采用XRD、TEM研究了薄膜的物相及其结构特征;Uv-vis-nir谱研究了薄膜的光吸收特性;光生电流谱研究了薄膜的光电转换效率.结论表明:CdS的掺入有利于薄膜对可见光吸收的增强,从而提高其采光效率及光电转换效率.

  12. Second order magnetic phase transition and scaling analysis in iron doped manganite La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3} compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginting, Dianta [Department of Applied Physics and Institute of Natural Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yong-in 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Nanto, Dwi [Physics Education, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta 15412 (Indonesia); Denny, Yus Rama [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Banten 42435 (Indonesia); Tarigan, Kontan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mercu Buana University, Jakarta-Barat, Jakarta 11650 (Indonesia); Hadi, Syamsul [Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Polytechnic of Malang, East Java 65100 (Indonesia); Ihsan, Mohammad [PSTBM-BATAN, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, Banten 15314 (Indonesia); Institute of Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW 2522 (Australia); Rhyee, Jong-Soo, E-mail: jsrhyee@khu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Institute of Natural Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yong-in 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    We investigated magnetic properties of La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0.09 and 0.11) compounds in terms of isothermal magnetization analysis and scaling behavior with various critical exponents. From the Landau theory of magnetic phase transition, we found that the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition in La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0.09 and 0.11) compounds is the type of second order magnetic transition (SOMT), which contrary to the first order magnetic transition (FOMT) for low Fe-doped compounds (x<0.09) in previous reports. When we investigate the critical behavior of the compounds near T=T{sub c} by the modified Arrott plot, Kouvel–Fisher plots, and critical isothermal analysis, the estimated critical exponents β, γ, and δ are in between the theoretically predicted values for three-dimensional Heisenberg and mean-field interaction models. It is noteworthy that the scaling relations are obeyed in terms of renormalization magnetization m=ε{sup −β}M(H,ε) and renormalized field h=|ε|{sup β+γ}H. Temperature-dependent effective exponents β{sub eff} and γ{sub eff} correspond to the ones of disordered ferromagnets. It is shown that the magnetic state of the compounds is not fully described by the conventional localized-spin interaction model because the ferromagnetic interaction has itinerant character by increasing Fe-doping concentration. - Highlights: • The ferromagnetic phase transition is of second order in La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3}. • The critical exponents are in between the 3D Heisenberg and mean-field models. • The ferromagnetic interaction becomes more itinerant by Fe-doping.

  13. 水溶性CdTe量子点及其复合物的电化学发光研究%Study on electrochemiluminescence of water-soluble CdTe quantum dots and its compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩鑫; 张纪梅

    2014-01-01

    通过水热法制备了高荧光效率的巯基丙酸修饰的水溶性CdTe量子点,对不同取样时间的CdTe量子点进行电化学发光强度测试,并对其电化学发光的测试条件(包括扫描速度、共反应剂浓度、缓冲液的pH 等)进行了优化,得到最佳测试条件;同时,在水合肼还原剂作用下用微波快速有效的合成了石墨烯,并在超声作用下制备了石墨烯-CdTe 量子点复合物,进一步提高了水溶性CdTe 量子点的电化学发光强度。%The hydrothermal method was applied to synthese water-soluble CdTe quantum dots with high fluorescence quan-tum yield, and the electrochemiluminescence of CdTe quantum dots was tested with different sampling time. Be-sides, the best conditions for testing electrochemiluminescence were obtained by optimizing the testing conditions including scanning rate, concentration of coreagent, pH of buffer solution, etc. Meanwhile, grapheme (RGO) was obtained rapidly and effectively by using hydrazine hydrate as reductant in the microwave reactor and graphene-CdTe quantum dots was prepared under ultrasound to further improve the electrochemiluminescence intensity of CdTe quantum dots.

  14. Raman evidence for presence of high-temperature ferromagnetic clusters in magnetodielectric compound Ba-doped La2NiMnO6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, D. A. B.; Paschoal, C. W. A.

    2017-10-01

    Magnetodielectric ferromagnetic semiconductors are key materials because of their applications in spintronic devices; they can be used to control the magnetic properties by applying electric fields. La2NiMnO6 emerged as an important magnetodielectric ferromagnetic semiconductor because of its high Curie temperature near room temperature. Recently Ba doped was successfully used to improve magnetic properties in La2NiMnO6, originating partially ordered systems with different ordering degrees but presenting same Tc = 280 K. However, the influence of Ba doping on the temperature dependent vibrational properties of the system was not investigated. To investigate the Ba doping influence on temperature dependent phonon spectra in La2NiMnO6, we used Raman Spectroscopy to probe the symmetric stretching mode behavior in the range from 10 to 600 K. Remarkable softenings were detected in the phonon behavior due to spin phonon coupling, at several different temperatures, much above Tc. The FWHM dependence with temperature rules out magnetostriction effects. The phonon softenings are the largest reported so far for the RE2NiMnO6 systems and also indicate that Ba doping induces ordering in the Ni/Mn sites. The temperature discordance in characteristic softening onset of the spin phonon coupling are related to ferromagnetic short range clusters due the presence of Ni3 +, Mn3 + oxidation states.

  15. Electrical transport measurements under pressure for BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} compounds doped with Co, Cr, or Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombier, E; Ni, N; Thaler, A; Bud' ko, S L; Canfield, P C [Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Torikachvili, M S [Department of Physics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-1233 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    We investigate the in-plane resistivity of single crystalline samples of Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} (x = 0.038, 0.047, 0.074, 0.1 and 0.114), Ba(Fe{sub 0.973}Cr{sub 0.027}){sub 2}As{sub 2} and slightly tin-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} under various pressures up to 7.5 GPa, in order to establish temperature-pressure, T(P), phase diagrams and to compare the influence of pressure and doping on superconductivity. At ambient pressure, cobalt doping is known to lead to a decrease in the combined magnetic and structural transition temperature T{sub 0}. Likewise, an increase of pressure tends to have the same effect for Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} for the various values of x. As was seen in the T(P) phase diagram of BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, a superconducting dome is observed for Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} samples with the dome shifted to lower temperatures and pressures with increased cobalt doping levels. A very different behaviour is noticed for Ba(Fe{sub 0.973}Cr{sub 0.027}){sub 2}As{sub 2} and the slightly tin-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} with the decrease of T{sub 0} being close to linear down to 2 K, and no obvious sign of superconductivity in the pressure range investigated.

  16. AC conductivity, dielectric and impedance studies of Cd{sub 0.8−x}Pb{sub x}Zn{sub 0.2}S mixed semiconductor compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekharam, T., E-mail: tshekharam@gmail.com; Laxminarasimha Rao, V.; Yellaiah, G.; Mohan Kumar, T.; Nagabhushanam, M., E-mail: mamidala_nb@yahoo.com

    2014-12-25

    Graphical abstract: A plot of 1−s versus T (K) for Cd{sub 0.8−x}Pb{sub x}Zn{sub 0.2}S (x = 0, 0.1–0.8), inset: plot of s versus T (K) for x = 0. - Highlights: • Activation energy of relaxation process of Cd{sub 0.8−x}Pb{sub x}Zn{sub 0.2}S (x = 0, 0.1–0.8) compounds has been determined. • Grain resistances and grain capacitances of the compounds were estimated at different temperatures. • Relaxation time for all the compounds has been determined at different temperatures. - Abstract: The samples of Cd{sub 0.8−x}Pb{sub x}Zn{sub 0.2}S (x = 0, 0.1–0.8) are prepared by Controlled Co-Precipitation Method. X-ray diffraction studies have confirmed the polycrystalline nature of the samples with Hexagonal and Cubic phases of Wurtzite structure. AC conductivity (σ{sub ac}) measurements of Cd{sub 0.8−x}Pb{sub x}Zn{sub 0.2}S samples at different temperatures (between 40 and 300 °C), in the frequency range 5 kHz–20 MHz were made. The results showed that σ{sub ac} obeys the relation σ{sub ac}(ω) = Aω{sup s}. The exponent “s” was found to decrease with increase in temperature. Further analysis revealed that, the AC conductivity of the samples follow correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. The dielectric constant (∊′) and dielectric loss (Tan δ) were observed to (i) increase with the increase in temperature and the increase is higher at lower frequencies and (ii) decrease rapidly at low frequencies and remains almost constant at higher frequencies. The cole–cole plot showed a single semicircle, indicating an equivalent circuit with a single parallel resistor R{sub g} and capacitance C{sub g} network with a series resistance R{sub s}. The plots also show the grain contribution toward AC conductivity. The relaxation frequencies, determined from these plots are used to calculate the activation energies E{sub a} of relaxation process using Log τ versus 10{sup 3}/T plots. The values of E{sub a} for all the studied compounds range from 0.05 to 0

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Thiourea Modified Water-Soluble Cd Doped ZnO Quantum Dots%硫脲修饰Cd掺杂ZnO水溶性量子点的制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵斌; 赵肃清; 张焜; 刘端; 苏娟

    2011-01-01

    ZnO quantum-dots (QDs) capped with Cd were synthesized in dilute water-free solution with PVP K30 as a stabilizer and thiourea as a surface modification agent.The samples were characterized by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence emission spectra, Infrared spectra (IR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The effects of optimization of matrix and the thiourea concentration on the optical properties of ZnO QDs were studied.The effects of Eu, Li doping on the optical properties of ZnO: Cd was also studied.The results showed that the fluorescence intensity of quantum dots increased obviously after the matrix optimized by doping Cd and doping Eu, Li.It maked particle size distribution more uniform, the grain size more smaller, the main peak blueshift and the yield of quantum dots increase with the use of the thiourea.The XRD peaks of the sample were the broad scattering peaks, and belonged to amorphous form.NH2 and C-NH2 stretching vibration absorption peaks were 3189.0 and 1088.2 cm-1 in infrared spectra as a result of thiourea.The best concentration of thiourea was 32 mg/mL.This method was simple, quantum dots prepared by this method obtained good stability and strong fluorescence intensity.The approach introduced in this paper laid a solid foundation for the biological markers and applications of the quantum-dots.%在非水稀溶液中以聚乙烯吡咯烷酮K-30为稳定剂,硫脲为表面修饰剂,制备Cd掺杂ZnO水溶性量子点荧光体;同时研究了基质的优化及硫脲含量对ZnO量子点发光性能的影响,Eu和Li的共掺杂对ZnO:Cd量子点发光性能的影响.采用紫外光谱、荧光发射光谱、红外光谱和透射电镜、XRD对样品进行表征.结果表明:经Cd优化基质后、Eu和Li的共掺杂使量子点荧光强度明显增强;硫脲修饰后纳米颗粒分布更加均匀、晶粒更小、荧光光谱蓝移、量子点产率增加;该样品XRD衍射峰是馒头峰.属于无定形态;红外光

  18. Highly selective detection of Zn2+ and Cd2+ with a simple amino-terpyridine compound in solution and solid state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Duobin Chao

    2016-01-01

    A simple amino-terpyridine sensor exhibits highly selective detection of Zn2+ and Cd2+ in solution and solid state based on the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) effect. The detection limits were determined to be 0.184 M for Zn2+ and 0.176 M for Cd2+. Job’s plot experiments suggest a 1:1 binding mode between the sensor and metal ions like Zn2+ and Cd2+. The resulting complexes were found to be emissive in solution and solid state.

  19. Properties of Mn2+-Doped CdS Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells%Mn2+掺杂CdS量子点敏化太阳电池的性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕其坤; 顾修全

    2015-01-01

    采用连续式离子层吸附与反应(SILAR)法不仅成功制备出CdS量子点敏化的TiO2纳米晶光阳极,而且实现了Mn2+在CdS量子点晶格内部的可控掺杂.应用场发射扫描电子显微镜(FESEM)对电极的形貌进行了分析和表征.继而通过组装光伏电池研究Mn2+掺杂浓度与电池性能之间的关系.通过测量其紫外-可见吸收光谱及电流密度-电压(J-V)特性曲线考察电池性能随Mn2+掺杂量的变化规律.在研究中发现,掺杂适量的Mn2+有助于提高CdS/TiO2光阳极对可见光的吸收,进而增强太阳电池的能量转换效率.当Mn2+浓度为0.075 mmol/L时,量子点敏化太阳电池(QDSSC)的能量转换效率可达2.85%,较未掺杂的光阳极试样性能提高约50%.

  20. 阿苯达唑-β-环糊精包合物的制备和体外溶出度考察%THE PREPARATION OF INCLUSION COMPOUND OF ALBENDAZOLE-β-CD AND INVESTIGATING ITS DISSOLUTION RATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许爱霞; 翟所迪

    2001-01-01

    目的:制备阿苯达唑-β-环糊精包合物,考察了有关性质。方法:采用逆向搅拌法制备阿苯达唑的β-环糊精包合物,用紫外分光光度法测定阿苯达唑、包合物的溶解度、溶出度。结果:经空白对照、X-射线衍射图谱、差示扫描量热等方法证明,阿苯达唑与β-环糊精已形成包合物,包合物的溶解度是原药的10倍,溶出度明显高于阿苯达唑原药。结论:阿苯达唑-β-环糊精包合物可提高阿苯达唑的溶解度、溶出度。%OBJECTIVE:To prepare the inclusion compound of albendazole-β-CD and investigate its properties.METHODS:Using test of counter mixture stirring to prepare albendazole-β-CD. The solubility and dissolution rate of inclusion compound and albendazole were measured by UV spectrophotometry.RESULTS:The inclusion compound of albendazole β-CD was confirmed by blank contrast test, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning.Its solubility was ten times as high as that of albendazole, and its dissolution rate higher than that of albendazole obviously.CONCLUSION:The solubility and dissolution rate of albendazole were increased when the drug was included by β-CD.

  1. Zintl phase compounds AM2Sb2 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu, Yb;M=Zn, Cd) and their substitution variants:a class of potential thermoelectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凯; 操齐高; 赵景泰

    2013-01-01

    Zintl phase compounds AM2Sb2 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu, Yb;M=Zn, Cd) is a new class of promising thermoelectrics owing to their intrinsic features in electronic and crystal structure, such as a small or even disappeared band-gap, large density-of-states at the Fermi level, covalently bonded network of M-Sb, as well as the layered stacking by cations A2+and anionic slabs (M2Sb2)2-. In addi-tion, the rich solid-state chemistry of Zintl phase allows structural modification and chemical substitution to adjust the fundamental transport parameters (carrier concentration, mobility, effective mass, electronic and lattice thermal conductivity) for improving the thermoelectric performance. In the present review, the recent advances in synthesis and thermoelectric characterization of title com-pounds AM2Sb2 were presented, and the effects of alloying or substitution for sites A, M and Sb on the electrical and thermal trans-port were emphasized. The structural disorder yielded by the incorporation of multiple ions significantly increased the thermoelectric figure of merit mainly resulted from the reduction of thermal conductivity without disrupting the carrier transport region in substance. Therefore, alloying or substitution has been a feasible and common route utilized to enhance thermoelectric properties in these Zintl phase compounds, especially for YbZn0.4Cd1.6Sb2 (ZT700 K=1.26), EuZn1.8Cd0.2Sb2 (ZT650 K=1.06), and YbCd1.85Mn0.15Sb2 (ZT650 K=1.14).

  2. The diffusivity-mobility ratio in heavily doped nonlinear optical, optoelectronic and related materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, S. [Nano Scale Device Research Laboratory, Centre for Electronics Design and Technology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Pahari, S. [Administrative Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sarkar, R. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, West Bengal University of Technology, BF-142, Salt Lake City, Sector-1, Kolkata 700064 (India); Ghosh, S. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Howrah 711 103 (India); Ghatak, K.P. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92, Achryya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)], E-mail: kamakhyaghatak@yahoo.co.in

    2008-10-01

    We study the diffusivity-mobility ratio (DMR) in heavily doped nonlinear compounds forming band tails on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion law and III-V, ternary and quaternary materials form a special case of our generalized analysis. The complex nature of the energy spectrum and creation of a new forbidden zone is the consequence of anisotropic energy band constants and the interaction of the impurity atoms in the tails with spin-orbit splitting of valence bands for the other compounds. Analytically, the presence of non-removable poles in the dispersion relation of the undoped material creates the complex energy spectrum for the corresponding heavily doped sample. The DMR for the heavily doped II-VI, IV-VI and stressed materials has been studied. It has been found taking n-type CdGeAs{sub 2,}, Cd{sub 3}As{sub 2}, InAs, InSb, Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Te, In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}As{sub y}P{sub 1-y} lattice matched to InP, CdS, PbTe, PbSnTe, Pb{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}Se and stressed InSb as examples that the DMR increases with the increasing electron concentration with different numerical values and the nature of variations are totally band structure dependent. An experimental method of determining the DMR in heavily doped materials for arbitrary dispersion relations together with three applications in the area of material science in general has been suggested.

  3. CdTe devices and method of manufacturing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Noufi, Rommel; Dhere, Ramesh G.; Albin, David S.; Barnes, Teresa; Burst, James; Duenow, Joel N.; Reese, Matthew

    2015-09-29

    A method of producing polycrystalline CdTe materials and devices that incorporate the polycrystalline CdTe materials are provided. In particular, a method of producing polycrystalline p-doped CdTe thin films for use in CdTe solar cells in which the CdTe thin films possess enhanced acceptor densities and minority carrier lifetimes, resulting in enhanced efficiency of the solar cells containing the CdTe material are provided.

  4. Mn doping effect on optical and ESR studies of Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O compound sintered at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahule, T.; Srinivasu, V. V. [Department of Physics, CSET, University of South Africa, Johannesburg, 1710 (South Africa); Das, J., E-mail: jayashree304@gmail.com [Department of Physics, CSET, University of South Africa, Johannesburg, 1710 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Silicon Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar, 751024, Odisha (India)

    2016-05-06

    Polycrystalline bulk samples of Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O with x=0.02, 0.04, 0.05 and sintered at different temperatures (500 °C & 800 °C) were studied to investigate the doping effect on the structural, optical properties and spin dynamics in ZnO system. The crystallite size was seen to decrease with no significant change in other structural parameters. FTIR study showed a small effect on the Zn-O stretching bond and other bonds due to presence of Mn. Calculation from UV-Vis spectra showed increase in the optical band gap in the low temperature sintered samples due to Mn doping. In the PL spectra, the UV emission seen to dominate for the 500 °C sintered sample, for 800 °C sample the visible emission dominate indicating increase in non-radiative emission. ESR signals obtained from the microwave absorption shows ferromagnetic signal for the low temperature sintered sample only with a g value of 2.004 for the 2% Mn doped sample. The number of spin participation for resonance is calculated from the ESR signal, which supports the magnetic behaviour of this particular sample.

  5. Effect of copper doping on structural, optical and electrical properties of Cd0.8Zn0.2S films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Hadasa; G Yellaiah; M Nagabhushanam

    2014-02-01

    Cd0.8Zn0.2S:Cu films of 1.3–6.1 mole percentage of copper have been grown on mica substrate by using chemical bath deposition technique. The films have been characterized by using XRD, SEM and UV spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the films are polycrystalline. The average crystallite size as measured from XRD data is in the range of 125–130 nm. The activation energies of Cd0.8Zn0.2S:Cu films, as observed from d.c. conductivity studies in the temperature range (77–300 K) studied, decreased with the increase in Cu concentration. The optical absorption studies have revealed that the energy gap increases gradually with an increase in Cu concentration, whereas conductivity studies have shown an anomalous increase in conductivity in films of 3.8 mole percentage of Cu. SEM pictures have revealed the presence of defects with spherical structure having fibre network. The variation of electrical conductivity is explained based on the defects present and by adopting tunneling mechanism.

  6. Room temperature photoluminescence in crystalline/amorphous Er-doped Cd{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid-Garcia, A. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla. Postgrado en Fisica Aplicada. Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Mexico (Mexico); Lozada-Morales, R., E-mail: rlozada@fcfm.buap.mx [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla. Postgrado en Fisica Aplicada. Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Mexico (Mexico); Lopez-Calzada, G. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro, Apartado Postal 1-798, Queretaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico); Zayas, Ma. E. [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica de la Universidad de Sonora, Edificio 3I, Blvd. Edificio 5 E, Luis Encinas s/n, Col. Centro, 83000. Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico (Mexico); Zelaya Angel, O. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico 07360 D. F. (Mexico); and others

    2012-06-15

    Er{sup 3+} ions were introduced into a new type of oxide matrixes prepared with different proportions of CdO and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The source of Er{sup 3+} employed was Er(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O, which yielded an Er{sup 3+} concentration of {approx}1 at%. Depending on the reactants proportions, the samples resulted in crystalline or amorphous structures. X-ray diffraction indicated that the crystalline samples were constituted by polycrystalline Cd{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}, in agreement with Raman spectroscopy measurements. Depending on the proportions of the component oxides, the band gap changed in the 2.49-1.77 eV energy range, as determined through photoacoustic spectroscopy. From photoluminescence spectra, the following electronic transitions of Er{sup 3+} were observed in both types of samples: {l_brace}{sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}{r_brace}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 13/2}. In the case of crystalline samples manifolds, originating from the Stark effect, were measured for the {l_brace}{sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}{r_brace}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 13/2} transitions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Cd{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been fabricated in amorphous and crystalline phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The band gap of crystalline samples varied in the 2.49-2.41 eV range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The absorption edge for the glasses had lower values with a minimum of 1.77 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The {l_brace}{sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}{r_brace}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 13/2,} were observed in PL.

  7. A novel P-doped g-C3N4/Zn0.8Cd0.2S composite photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue under simulated sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Li, Naixu; Zhou, Jiancheng

    2016-01-01

    P-doped g-C3N4/Zn0.8Cd0.2S (PCN/ZS) heterostructures have been constructed via a two-pot method and investigated as catalysts for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under simulated sunlight. XRD, UV-vis spectrometry, FT-IR, PL, TEM, and EDS were used to provide structure information of the as-prepared samples involving the formation of the ZS solid solution, the existence of the heterostructure between PCN and ZS, the graphite-like structure of PCN and successful incorporation of P into the framework of CN. The enhanced catalytic performance of PCN/ZS for the degradation of MB compared with pure PCN and ZS benefited from elevated light-harvesting property, favorable transport and separation efficiency of photoinduced charge carriers through the construction of the heterojunction originated from in situ growth of the ZS solid solution on PCN. The degradation efficiency (D) had a maximum of 91.3% with a given mass ratio of PCN to ZS (y = 0.5 wt%). h+ and rad O2- proved the main reactive species for MB degradation, based on which the possible reaction path was proposed.

  8. Challenges and Prospects for Developing CdS/CdTe Substrate Solar Cells on Mo foils

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Ben; Major, Jonathan; Bowen, Leon; Phillips, Laurie; Zoppi, Guillaume; Forbes, Ian; Durose, Ken

    2014-01-01

    ITO/ZnO/CdS/CdTe/Mo solar cells have been grown in the substrate configuration by a combination of close-space sublimation and RF sputtering. A peak efficiency of 8.01% was achieved. A two stage CdCl2 annealing process was developed, with the first stage contributing to CdTe doping and the second being linked to CdTe/CdS interdiffusion by secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis. The inclusion of a ZnO layer between CdS and ITO layers improved performance significantly (from η=6% to η=8%) by ...

  9. Synthesis, crystal structure, NMR study and AC conductivity of [(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 4}N]{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}ClF{sub 5} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajji, Rachid; Oueslati, Abderrazak; Hlel, Faouzi [Universite de Sfax, Laboratoire de l' Etat Solide, Faculte des Sciences, Sfax (Tunisia); Body, Monique [Universite du Maine, Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, Faculte des Sciences, UMR CNRS No. 6087, Le Mans (France)

    2015-08-15

    The [(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 4}N]{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}ClF{sub 5} compound was crystallized in the triclinic system with space group P1. The crystal structure consists of organic-inorganic layers, stacked along [0 anti 11] direction. The organic part consists of two cations types. The inorganic layer is made up of Cd{sub 2}ClF{sub 5} dimmers composed of two in-equivalent irregular tetrahedra sharing one edge (Cl-F). The MAS NMR spectra showed two, three and five isotropic resonances relative to {sup 111}Cd, {sup 13}C and {sup 19}F nuclei, respectively. DSC measurement disclosed a phase transition at around 380 K. The impedance spectroscopy and AC electrical conductivity measurements of our compound were taken from 209 Hz to 5 MHz over the temperature range of 350-381 K. Nyquist plots (Z'' vs Z') show semicircle arcs at different temperatures, and an electrical equivalent circuit has been proposed to explain the impedance results. The circuits consist of the parallel combination of bulk resistance (R), capacitance (C) and fractal capacitance (CPE). The conductivity σ{sub p} follows the Arrhenius relation. The near value of activation energies obtained from the conductivity data and circuit equivalent confirms that the transport is through hopping mechanism. The analysis of the experimental data shows that the reorientation motion of [N(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 4}]{sup +} cations and/or [Cd{sub 2}ClF{sub 5}]{sup 2-} anions is probably responsible for the observed conductivity. (orig.)

  10. Improvement of the physical properties of ZnO/CdTe core-shell nanowire arrays by CdCl2 heat treatment for solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Vincent; Renet, Sébastien; Garnier, Jérôme; Gergaud, Patrice; Artús, Lluis; Michallon, Jérôme; Rapenne, Laetitia; Appert, Estelle; Kaminski-Cachopo, Anne

    2014-01-01

    CdTe is an important compound semiconductor for solar cells, and its use in nanowire-based heterostructures may become a critical requirement, owing to the potential scarcity of tellurium. The effects of the CdCl2 heat treatment are investigated on the physical properties of vertically aligned ZnO/CdTe core-shell nanowire arrays grown by combining chemical bath deposition with close space sublimation. It is found that recrystallization phenomena are induced by the CdCl2 heat treatment in the CdTe shell composed of nanograins: its crystallinity is improved while grain growth and texture randomization occur. The presence of a tellurium crystalline phase that may decorate grain boundaries is also revealed. The CdCl2 heat treatment further favors the chlorine doping of the CdTe shell with the formation of chlorine A-centers and can result in the passivation of grain boundaries. The absorption properties of ZnO/CdTe core-shell nanowire arrays are highly efficient, and more than 80% of the incident light can be absorbed in the spectral range of the solar irradiance. The resulting photovoltaic properties of solar cells made from ZnO/CdTe core-shell nanowire arrays covered with CuSCN/Au back-side contact are also improved after the CdCl2 heat treatment. However, recombination and trap phenomena are expected to operate, and the collection of the holes that are mainly photo-generated in the CdTe shell from the CuSCN/Au back-side contact is presumably identified as the main critical point in these solar cells.

  11. 掺Ag离子的纳米CdTe薄膜的结构和电性能研究%Studies of Structure and Properties of Ag-Doped CdTe Nanocrystalline Thin Films Fabricated by Low Temperature Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠敏; 郭福强; 张保花

    2009-01-01

    采用射频(R.F.)磁控溅射在陶瓷(Al_2O_3)衬底上制备出了纳米晶CdTe 薄膜,常温下将薄膜样品浸泡到 AgNO_3 水溶液后,在真空380℃下退火60min获得Ag离子掺杂的样品. 利用X射线衍射(XRD)和场发射扫描电镜(FESEM)对掺杂前后薄膜的晶体结构、外貌形态进行了表征. 利用扫描电镜配备的能量色散谱仪(EDS)对薄膜化合物元素组成进行定量分析,并使用HMS-3000型霍耳效应测试测定薄膜电导等电学参数.

  12. Band Gap Variation of CdInSe and CdZnS Fabricated by High Throughput Combinatorial Growth Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z. X.; Hao, H. Y.; Xiao, P.; Oehlerking, L. J.; Liu, D. F.; Zhang, X. J.; Yu, K.-M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Mao, S. S.; Yu, P. Y.; Liu, Lei; Yu, Peter Y.

    2011-12-01

    High energy radiation detector operating at room temperature requires the semiconductors having band-gap energies in the range of 1.35 ˜ 2.5 eV, high Z and high carrier mobility-lifetime (μτ) product. We report here the screening of the band-gap energies of compound semiconductor CdIn2Se4 and ZnCdS doped with Sn and In, prepared by high throughput combinatorial growth technique. It is found that the band-gap energies decrease as [Cd] decreases in Cd1-xIn2+2xSe4+2x, and as In or Sn elements are incorporated in ZnxCd1-xS. For both libraries, the μτ can reach a value on the order of 10-4 cm2/V. These results have demonstrated the strong capability of the combinatorial growth technique in rapid material discovery for room temperature radiation detector applications.

  13. Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of CdSe/Mn-CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Libo; Li, Zhen; Liu, Yingbo; Cheng, Fa; Sun, Shuqing, E-mail: sunshuqing@tju.edu.cn

    2014-08-01

    Vertically oriented single-crystalline one-dimensional TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays was synthesized directly on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrate by a facile hydrothermal method and was applied as photoanode in CdSe/Mn-doped CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The effect of coating cycles of QDs on the photovoltaic performance was investigated to find the optimal combination is 10 cycles of Mn-doped CdS and 9 cycles of CdSe, the CdSe(9)/Mn-CdS(10)/TiO{sub 2} solar cell exhibited the best performance due to the complementary effect in the light absorption of Mn-doped CdS and CdSe QDs. The power conversion efficiency of CdSe(9)/Mn-CdS(10)/TiO{sub 2} solar cell reached to 2.40% under one sun illumination (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}), which was 46.34% higher than that of CdSe(9)/CdS(10)/TiO{sub 2} solar cell without doping of Mn (1.64%).

  14. Highly effective Fe-doped TiO₂ nanoparticles photocatalysts for visible-light driven photocatalytic degradation of toxic organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Swati; Umar, Ahmad; Mehta, Surinder Kumar; Kansal, Sushil Kumar

    2015-07-15

    This paper reports the synthesis of various molar concentrations of iron (Fe)-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and their efficient use as potential photocatalysts for photocatalytic degradation of toxic and harmful chemical, paranitrophenol. The nanoparticles were synthesized by a novel and facile ultrasonic assisted hydrothermal method and characterized in detail by various analytical techniques in terms of their morphological, structural, compositional, thermal, optical, pore size distribution, etc properties. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were examined under visible light illumination using para-nitrophenol as target pollutant. By detailed experimental findings revealed that the Fe dopant content crucially determines the catalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles. The maximum degradation rate of para-nitrophenol observed was 92% in 5 h when the Fe(3+) molar concentration was 0.05 mol%, without addition of any oxidizing reagents. The prepared nanoparticles demonstrated excellent photocatalytic response because of their small size, excellent crystalline structure, increase in threshold wavelength response and maximum separation of photogenerated charge carriers. Further, the determination of reaction intermediates has also been carried out and plausible mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of para-nitrophenol has been proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Greener process to synthesize water-soluble Mn.sup.2+-doped CdSSe(ZnS) core(shell) nanocrystals for ratiometric temperature sensing, nanocrystals, and methods implementing nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haw; Hsia, Chih-Hao

    2017-07-04

    Novel Mn.sup.2+-doped quantum dots are provided. These Mn.sup.2+-doped quantum dots exhibit excellent temperature sensitivity in both organic solvents and water-based solutions. Methods of preparing the Mn.sup.2+-doped quantum dots are provided. The Mn.sup.2+-doped quantum dots may be prepared via a stepwise procedure using air-stable and inexpensive chemicals. The use of air-stable chemicals can significantly reduce the cost of synthesis, chemical storage, and the risk associated with handling flammable chemicals. Methods of temperature sensing using Mn.sup.2+-doped quantum dots are provided. The stepwise procedure provides the ability to tune the temperature-sensing properties to satisfy specific needs for temperature sensing applications. Water solubility may be achieved by passivating the Mn.sup.2+-doped quantum dots, allowing the Mn.sup.2+-doped quantum dots to probe the fluctuations of local temperature in biological environments.

  16. Fluorometric selective detection of fluoride ions in aqueous media using Ag doped CdS/ZnS core/shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxi, Siddhartha Sankar; Paria, Santanu

    2016-01-14

    The presence of fluoride ions in drinking water plays an important role in human health. For that reason, maintaining the optimum concentration of fluoride ions in drinking water is essential, as both low and excess (above the permissible level) concentrations can cause different health problems, such as fluorosis, urolithiasis, kidney failure, cancer, and can even lead to death. So, development of a simple and low cost method for the detection of fluoride ions in water is highly desirable. In this study, a fluorometric method based on Ag-CdS/Ag-ZnS core/shell nanoparticles is developed for fluoride ion detection. The method was tested in aqueous solution at different pH values. The selectivity and sensitivity of the fluorescence probe was checked in the presence of other anions (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), NO3(-) SO4(2-), HCO3(-), HPO4(2-), CH3COO(-), and H2PO4(-)) and found there is no significant interference of these associated ions. The fluoride ion concentration was varied in the range 190-22 800 μg L(-1) and a lower detection limit was obtained as 99.7 μg L(-1).

  17. The doping effect of fluorinated aromatic hydrocarbon solvents on the performance of common olefin metathesis catalysts: application in the preparation of biologically active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samojłowicz, Cezary; Bieniek, Michał; Zarecki, Andrzej; Kadyrov, Renat; Grela, Karol

    2008-12-21

    Aromatic fluorinated hydrocarbons, used as solvents for olefin metathesis reactions, catalysed by standard commercially available Ru precatalysts, allow substantially higher yields to be obtained, especially of challenging substrates, including natural and biologically active compounds.

  18. 溶胶-凝胶法制备掺镉ZnO薄膜及光学禁带研究%The Preparation of Cd-doped ZnO Thin Films by Sol-Gel Technique and Its Optical Bandgap Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瀚

    2011-01-01

    主要研究掺镉ZnO薄膜的光学禁带.采用溶胶-凝胶(Sol-Gel)旋转涂覆法,在Si(100)上生长掺镉ZnO薄膜,对薄膜的XRD分析表明,掺镉ZnO薄膜仍为六角纤锌矿结构,并沿c轴择优取向生长.通过实验优化出本工艺条件下的较佳参数:退火温度为800℃,x(Cd)=6%~8%;以普通玻璃为基片的透射光谱表明掺镉ZnO薄膜的禁带宽度约为3.22 eV,比纯ZnO晶体禁带宽度3.30 eV明显减小,适度掺镉可降低薄膜的光学禁带宽度.%The Cd-doped zinc oxide film was prepared on Si (100) substrate by the Sol-Gel process using a spinning-technique. The XRD analysis showed that the Cd-doped ZnO film had a hexagonal wurtzite structure and was grown preferentially along caxis orientation. The better technical parameters were obtained through optimizing the process,that was,the annealing temperature was 800 ℃ and the Cd-doped concentration was at the range of 6%~ 8%. The optical transmission spectrum of the Cd-doped ZnO film on glass substrate indicated that the band-gap width of the thin film was 3. 22 eV. This band-gap width was narrower than that of ZnO bulk crystal (the band-gap width of ZnO crystal was 3. 30 eV). It was practicable to reduce the optical bandgap width of the thin film by Cd-do-ping appropriately.

  19. Heterovalent Cation Substitutional and Interstitial Doping in Semiconductor Sensitizers for Quantum Dot Cosensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Doped films of TiO2/PbS/CdS have been prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. Bi- and Ag-doped-PbS quantum dot (QD were produced by admixing Bi3+ or Ag+ during deposition and the existing forms of the doping element in PbS QD were analyzed. The results show that Bi3+ entered the cube space of PbS as donor yielding interstitial doping Bi-doped-PbS QD, while Ag+ replaced Pb2+ of PbS as acceptor yielding substitutional doping Ag-doped-PbS QD. The novel Bi-doped-PbS/CdS and Ag-doped-PbS/CdS quantum dot cosensitized solar cell (QDCSC were fabricated and power conversion efficiency (PCE of 2.4% and 2.2% was achieved, respectively, under full sun illumination.

  20. Magnetocaloric effect and negative thermal expansion in hexagonal Fe doped MnNiGe compounds with a magnetoelastic AFM-FM-like transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Li, Zhe; Liu, Enke; Zhou, Haichun; Zhang, Yuanlei; Jing, Chao

    2017-01-30

    We report a detailed study of two successive first-order transitions, including a martensitic transition (MT) and an antiferromagnetic (AFM)-ferromagnetic (FM)-like transition, in Mn1-xFexNiGe (x = 0, 0.06, 0.11) alloys by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, magnetization and linear thermal expansion measurements. Such an AFM-FM-like transition occurring in the martensitic state has seldom been observed in the M(T) curves. The results of Arrott plot and linear relationship of the critical temperature with M(2) provide explicit evidence of its first-order magnetoelastic nature. On the other hand, their performances as magnetocaloric and negative thermal expansion materials were characterized. The isothermal entropy change for a field change of 30 kOe reaches an impressive value of -25.8 J/kg K at 203 K for x = 0.11 compared to the other two samples. It demonstrates that the magneto-responsive ability has been significantly promoted since an appropriate amount of Fe doping can break the local Ni-6Mn AFM configuration. Moreover, the Fe-doped samples reveal both the giant negative thermal expansion and near-zero thermal expansion for different temperature ranges. For instance, the average thermal expansion coefficient ā of x = 0.06 reaches -60.7 × 10(-6)/K over T = 231-338 K and 0.6 × 10(-6)/K over T = 175-231 K during cooling.

  1. Rf sputtering of CdTE and CdS for thin film PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compaan, A.D.; Tabory, C.N.; Shao, M.; Fischer, A.; Feng, Z.; Bohn, R.G. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States))

    1994-06-30

    In late 1992 we demonstrated the first rf sputtered CdS/CdTe photovoltaic cell with efficiency exceeding 10%. In this cell both CdS and CdTe layers were deposited by rf sputtering. In this paper we report preliminary measurements of (1) optical emission spectroscopy of the rf plasma, (2) the width of the phonon Raman line as a function of deposition temperature for CdS, and (3) studies of oxygen doping during pulsed laser deposition of CdTe.

  2. The Lattice Compatibility Theory LCT: Physical and Chemical Arguments from the Growth Behavior of Doped Compounds in terms of Bandgap Distortion and Magnetic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Boubaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical arguments for the recently discussed materials-related Lattice Compatibility Theory are presented. The discussed arguments are based on some differences of Mn ions incorporation kinetics inside some compounds. These differences have been evaluated and quantified in terms of alteration of bandgap edges, magnetic patterns, and Faraday effect.

  3. CdS nanoparticles sensitization of Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode for solar water splitting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment possesses the functions of transparent conducting oxide thin film and 1-D nanostructured semiconductor simultaneously...

  4. Te-doped cadmium telluride films fabricated by close spaced sublimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Zheng, Y. F.; Xu, J. B.; Dai, K.

    2003-07-01

    Te-doped cadmium telluride (CdTe) films were deposited on ITO/glass substrates using the close spaced sublimation (CSS) method. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), the x-ray fixed-quantity (XRF) method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the Hall effect. The XRD and SEM results show that appropriate Te doping would be favourable to the growth of CdTe crystallite. The Hall effect measurements indicate that the conductivity of CdTe films could be dramatically improved by Te doping. The work presented here suggests that p-type doping CdTe films can be produced using this deposition method.

  5. The Antimony-Based Type I Clathrate compounds Cs8Cd18Sb28 and Cs8Zn18Sb28**

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yi; Wu, Li-Ming; Li, Long-Hua; Du, Shao-Wu; Corbett, John D.; Chen, Ling

    2009-06-17

    The title compounds lie in a new region of phase space for such a structure, and have stoichiometries in accord with a classical Zintl phase formulation. The small semiconductor gaps indicated by DFT calculations are also supported by their diamagnetic susceptibilities.

  6. The effect of Dy doped on structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La0.67-xDyxPb0.33MnO3 (x=0.00, 0.15 and 0.20) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, N.; Mnefgui, S.; Dhahri, A.; Dhahri, J.; Hlil, E. K.

    2014-10-01

    La0.67-xDyxPb0.33MnO3 (x=0.00, 0.15 and 0.20) compounds were prepared using solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements were used to investigate the effects of Dy doping on the physical properties of La0.67-xDyxPb0.33MnO3. XRD data have been analyzed by Rietveld refinement technique. Results have shown that all obtained perovskite manganites were a single phase. Moreover they crystallized in a rhombohedric structure with R3barc space group. Magnetization as a function of temperature has shown that these compounds exhibit a transition from a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase with increasing temperature. A magnetocaloric effect in the obtained samples has been deduced by two methods: Classical Maxwell relation and Landau theory. The maximum of magnetic entropy change |ΔSMmax| in a magnetic field change of 5 T is found to be 4.26 J kg-1 K-1 at 360 K, 3.51 J kg-1 K-1 at 290 K and 2.3 J kg-1 K-1 at 277 K for x=0.00, 0.15 and 0.20, respectively. At this value of magnetic field, the relative cooling power (RCP) is found to be 292, 246 and 215 J kg-1 for x=0.00, 0.15 and 0.20, respectively. Our result on magnetocaloric properties suggests that La0.67-xDyxPb0.33MnO3 (x=0.00, 0.15 and 0.2) compounds are attractive as possible refrigerants for near room temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  7. Structure, photoluminescence and thermoluminescence study of a composite ZnTa2O6/ZnGa2O4 compound doped with Pr3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, L. L.; Shaat, S. K. K.; Poelman, D.; Dhlamini, M. S.; Mothudi, B. M.; Swart, H. C.

    2016-05-01

    The study of persistent luminescence is interesting for applications related to biological imaging, self-lit roads and security signs. Composite Pr-doped samples were prepared in one pot by solid chemical reaction at 1200 °C for 4 h. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples showed mixed phases which correspond to ZnGa2O4 and ZnTa2O6 phases. Interestingly, the secondary electron microscopy images showed that the surface morphology is composed of particles with different shapes: irregular, rhombus and rod shapes. The X-ray maps obtained using field emission scanning electron microscopy, confirmed that the irregular particles correspond to ZnTa2O6, and the rods correspond to ZnGa2O4. Red emission was observed from 1D2 → 3H4, 3P0 → 3H6, 3P0 → 3F2 and 1D2 → 3H5 transitions of Pr3+. The lifetime of the persistent luminescence was measured, and the corresponding trapping centres were investigated using thermoluminescence spectroscopy.

  8. Superconductivity at 55 K in Iron-Based F-Doped Layered Quaternary Compound Sm[O1-xFx]FeAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Zhi-An; ZHOU Fang; ZHAO Zhong-Xian; LU Wei; YANG Jie; YI Wei; SHEN Xiao-Li; LI Zheng-Cai; CHE Guang-Can; DONG Xiao-Li; SUN Li-Ling

    2008-01-01

    We report the superconductivity in iron-based oxyarsenide Sm[O1-xFx]FeAs, with the onset resistivity transition temperature at 55.0K and Meissner transition at 54.6K. This compound has the same crystal structure as LaOFeAs with shrunk crystal lattices, and becomes the superconductor with the highest critical temperature among all materials besides copper oxides up to now.

  9. First-Principles Study of Doped Half-Metallic Spinels: Cu0.5Zn0.5Cr2S4,Cu0.5Cd0.5Cr2S4, Li0.5Zn0.5Cr2O4 and Li0.5Zn0.5Cr2S4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tie-Ge; LIU Zhi-Qiang; ZUO Xu

    2012-01-01

    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Cu0.5 Zn0.5 Cr2S4, Cu0.5 Cd0.5 CrS4, Li0.5 Zn0.5 CrO4 and Li0.5 Zn0.5 Cr2S4 are investigated using the first-principles calculation based on the density functional theory. GGA+U exchange correlation is used in the calculation to correct the effective Coulomb repulsion energy of Cr underestimated by LSDA or GGA. The calculation results reveal that half-metallic Cu0.5 Zn0.5 Cr2S4 and Cu0.5 Cd0.5 CrS4 can be achieved by doping CuCr2S4 with Zn or Cd, though CuCr2S4 is not half-metallic. Half-metallic LiCr2O4 is experimentally unstable, but half-metallic Li0.5 Zn0.5 Cr2O4 and Li0.5 Zn0.5 Cr2S4 can be achieved by doping Li into experimentally stable ZnCr2O4 and ZnCr2S4, though ZnCr2O4 and ZnCr2S4 are not half-metallic. The influence of +U on the electronic structure and half-metallicity of the doped systems is also presented.%Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Cu0.5 Zn0.5 Cr2S4,Cu0.5 5 Cd0.5 Cr2S4,Li0.5 Zn0.5 Cr2O4 and Li0.5 Zn0.5 Cr2S4 are investigated using the first-principles calculation based on the density functional theory.GGA +U exchange correlation is used in the calculation to correct the effective Coulomb repulsion energy of Cr underestimated by LSDA or GGA.The calculation results reveal that half-metallic Cu0.5Zn0.5Cr2S4 and Cu0.5Cd0.5Cr2S4 can be achieved by doping CuCr2S4 with Zn or Cd,though CuCr2S4 is not half-metallic.Half-metallic LiCr2O4 is experimentally unstable,but half-metallic Li0.5Zn0.5 Cr2O4 and Li0.5Zn0.5 Cr2S4 can be achieved by doping Li into experimentally stable ZnCr2O4 and ZnCr2S4,though ZnCr2O4 and ZnCr2S4 are not half-metallic.The influence of +U on the electronic structure and half-metallicity of the doped systems is also presented.

  10. 掺Cd氧化锌的电子结构及相结构稳定性的第一性原理研究%First-principles study on the electronic structures and structural stability of Cd-doped ZnO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    濮春英; 唐鑫; 吕海峰; 张庆瑜

    2011-01-01

    采用基于密度泛函理论结合投影缀加平面波方法的VASP软件包,在考虑所有掺杂原子构型的前提下,对Cd掺杂ZnO合金的晶格常数、禁带宽度、电子态密度和形成焓进行了计算,分析了Cd含量和掺杂原子构型对纤锌矿wz-Zn1-xCdxO合金的电子结构和结构稳定性的影响.计算结果表明:随着Cd含量的不断增加,纤锌矿ZnCdO合金的平均晶格常数a,c均线性增加,但c/a的比值不会发生显著的变化;纤锌矿ZnCdO合金的能带宽度随着Cd含量增加而减小,满足Eg(x)=3.28-5.04x+4.60x2,与实验结果相符合.但是,不同掺杂原子构型的禁带宽度之间存在比较明显的差异,是ZnCdO合金PL光谱宽化的重要因素之一;Cd掺杂导致纤锌矿ZnCdO合金的导带电子态密度分布整体向低能方向移动,引起带隙宽度变小;Cd的5s电子态是能带窄化的主要贡献;纤锌矿、闪锌矿和熔岩矿三种相结构的ZnCdO合金形成焓对比分析发现:当CdO掺杂比例在0.25-0.75的范围内时,纤锌矿和闪锌矿ZnCdO存在共生的可能;当CdO掺杂比例达到0.75时,ZnCdO合金开始发生从纤锌矿结构到熔岩矿的结构相变.%The VASP (Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package) based on the density-functional theory (DFT) method combined with projector augmented wave (PAW) method is used to calculate the lattice parameters, band gap, density of states ( DOS), and formation enthalpy of ZnCdO alloy by considering all the doping configurations. The calculation results indicate that the average parameters of wurtzite (wz) Zn1-x Cdx O alloy, a and c, increase linearly, but the ratio of c/a does not change obviously with the increase of Cd content. With increasing Cd content, the band gap is reduced and the variation of band gap can be fitted by Eg (x) = 3.28 - 5.04x + 4.60x2, which is consistent with the experimental results.At a given Cd content, different doping configurations result in different Eg values, being one of the reasons

  11. First and second harmonic generation of the XAl{sub 2}Se{sub 4} (X=Zn,Cd,Hg) defect chalcopyrite compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouahrani, Tarik, E-mail: tarik_ouahrani@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Tlemcen, B.P.230,13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); Ecole Preparatoire en Sciences et Techniques, Depertement de Physique EPST-T, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique (LPQ3M), Universite de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria); Lasri, B. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Tlemcen, B.P.230,13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); Universite Dr Tahar Moulay de Saida, B.P. 138, Cite el Nasr, Saida 20000 (Algeria); Reshak, Ali H. [School of Complex systems, FFPW- South Bohemia University, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); School of Material Engineering, Malaysia University of Perlis, P.O Box 77, d/a Pejabat Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Bouhemadou, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Setif, 19000 Setif (Algeria); Bin-Omran, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-09-15

    The chemical bonding of the ZnAl{sub 2}Se{sub 4}, CdAl{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and HgAl{sub 2}Se{sub 4} defect chalcopyrites has been studied in the framework of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (AIM). The GW quasi-particle approximation is used to correct the DFT-underestimation of energy gap, and as a consequence the linear and nonlinear optical properties are significantly enhanced. The second harmonic generation (SHG) displays certain dependence with the ionicity degree decrease through the dependency of the SHG on the band gap. The occurrence of the AIM saddle point is characterized and some clarifying features in relationship with the density topology are exposed, which enable to understand the relation with the second harmonic generation effect.

  12. {sup 115}In-NQR study of the novel superconductivity in the heavy-fermion compounds CeIr(In{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}){sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashima, M., E-mail: mitsuharu@nmr.mp.es.osaka-u.ac.j [Department of Materials Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); JST, TRIP (Transformative Research-Project on Iron Pnictides), Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Taniguchi, S.; Tagami, N.; Mugino, Y. [Department of Materials Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Mukuda, H. [Department of Materials Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); JST, TRIP (Transformative Research-Project on Iron Pnictides), Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Kitaoka, Y. [Department of Materials Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Ota, Y.; Shishido, H.; Settai, R. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Onuki, Y. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    We present the In-NQR results under pressure (P) in CeIr(In{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}){sub 5}. In CeCoIn{sub 5} and CeRhIn{sub 5}, the occurrence of superconductivity (SC) is related with the antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations (AFM-SFs) originating from the antiferromagnetic quantum-critical point (AFM-QCP). The high-T{sub c}SC(T{sub cmax}>2K) is realized in both compounds. However, in CeIrIn{sub 5} which is apart from the AFM-QCP, SC occurs even without AFM-SFs and the quite small value of T{sub cmax} ({approx}1 K) is observed around P=3GPa. The mechanism of SC in CeIrIn{sub 5} may be different from that in CeCoIn{sub 5} and CeRhIn{sub 5}.

  13. Preparation and properties of evaporated CdTe films compared with single crystal CdTe. Progress report No. 4, August 1-October 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bube, R H

    1981-10-01

    The hot-wall vacuum evaporation system is nearly complete and the first films are expected in early December. CdTe homojunction cells were theoretically modelled and to some extent tested experimentally using the n-type CdTe film on p-type CdTe crystal homojunction cells previously deposited at Linz. Modelling emphasizes the known importance of surface recombination velocity for such homojunction cells. The n-type layer on the experimental cell was thinned by etching from 5 micrometers to 1.5 micrometers, with a corresponding increase in short-circuit current from 0.1 to 1 mA/cm/sup 2/. This behavior is as theoretically expected; to obtain a short-circuit current of 11 mA/cm/sup 2/, as required for a 10% cell, requires a thickness of about 0.2 micrometers for a surface recombination velocity of 10/sup 6/ cm/sec and other realistic cell parameters. By doping experiments on single crystal CdTe, it has been shown that the hole density does decrease when the P dopant density is decreased below a critical value in CdTe:P crystals, thus eliminating the possibility that the major acceptors in the P-doped crystals were not P impurity. Attempts to heavily dope CdTe with As were less successful, but this may be due to the use of elemental As as the dopant in this case rather than a compound of the dopant. Cs was shown to be an effective dopant of CdTe and resistivities as low as 0.3 ohm-cm corresponding to hole densities in the low 10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/ range were obtained. An apparent correlation between the low-temperature barrier height associated with a grain boundary in CdTe and the angle of mismatch between the two grains has been observed. Improved capacitance of grain boundary measurements should yield defect densities.

  14. Potential for high thermoelectric performance in n-type Zintl compounds: a case study of Ba doped KAlSb 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Brenden R.; Gorai, Prashun; Krishna, Lakshmi; Mow, Rachel; Lopez, Armando; McKinney, Robert; Stevanović, Vladan; Toberer, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput calculations (first-principles density functional theory and semi-empirical transport models) have the potential to guide the discovery of new thermoelectric materials. Herein we have computationally assessed the potential for thermoelectric performance of 145 complex Zintl pnictides. Of the 145 Zintl compounds assessed, 17% show promising n-type transport properties, compared with only 6% showing promising p-type transport. We predict that n-type Zintl compounds should exhibit high mobility un while maintaining the low thermal conductivity KL typical of Zintl phases. Thus, not only do candidate n-type Zintls outnumber their p-type counterparts, but they may also exhibit improved thermoelectric performance. From the computational search, we have selected n-type KAlSb4 as a promising thermoelectric material. Synthesis and characterization of polycrystalline KAlSb4 reveals non-degenerate n-type transport. With Ba substitution, the carrier concentration is tuned between 1018 and 1019 e- cm-3 with a maximum Ba solubility of 0.7% on the K site. High temperature transport measurements confirm a high un (50 cm2 V-1 s-1) coupled with a near minimum KL (0.5 W m-1 K-1) at 370 degrees C. Together, these properties yield a zT of 0.7 at 370 degrees C for the composition K0.99Ba0.01AlSb4. Based on the theoretical predictions and subsequent experimental validation, we find significant motivation for the exploration of n-type thermoelectric performance in other Zintl pnictides.

  15. Study of hyperfine parameters in Co-doped tin dioxide using PAC spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Juliana M.; Carbonari, Artur W.; Martucci, Thiago; Costa, Messias S.; Saxena, Rajendra N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vianden, R.; Kessler, P.; Geruschke, T.; Steffens, M., E-mail: vianden@hiskp.uni-bonn.d [Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn (HISKP- Bonn) (Germany). Helmholtz - Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik

    2011-07-01

    PAC technique has been used to measure the hyperfine interactions in nano-structured powder samples of semiconducting SnO{sub 2} doped with Co. The aim of this work is to compare the results of PAC measurements using two different techniques of introducing the radioactive {sup 111}In probe nuclei in the sample of SnO{sub 2} doped with Co. The perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy is used for the measurements of the magnetic hyperfine field (MHF) and the electric field gradient (EFG) at {sup 111}Cd sites in SnO{sub 2} doped with 1% and 2% Co. The measurement of EFG is used to study the defects introduced in the semiconductor material and also for the identification of different phases formed within the compound. The techniques utilized for introducing the radioactive {sup 111}In in the sample are the ion-implantation using radioactive ion beam of {sup 111}In and the chemical process in which {sup 111}InCl{sub 3} solution is added during the preparation of SnO{sub 2} doped with Co using sol gel method. The ion-implantation of {sup 111}In in SnO{sub 2} doped with Co was carried out using the University of Bonn ion-implanter with beam energy of 160 keV. The PAC measurements were carried out with four BaF{sub 2} detector gamma spectrometer in the temperature range of 10-295 K. The results show no significant difference in the values of hyperfine parameters. Both techniques show practically the same electric quadrupole interaction for the substitutional site. The results were compared with previous PAC and Moessbauer measurements of SnO{sub 2} powder samples using {sup 111}In-{sup 111}Cd probe. (author)

  16. Isolation and Identification of Two Novel Attractant Compounds from Chinese Cockroach (Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker by Combination of HSCCC, NMR and CD Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hextane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1.5:1:1.5:1, v/v/v/v was applied to the isolation and purification of attractants from Chinese cockroach, Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker. Two new attractants with attractant activity towards the male insects were obtained from the extract sample in a one-step separation. Their purities were determined by HPLC. Subsequent MS, NMR and CD analyses have led to the characterization of (R-3-ethyl-6,8-dihydroxy-7-methyl-3,4-dihydroisochromen-1-one (1 and (R-6,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisochromen-1-one (2, two novel isocumarin type attractants. Based on these results, it is concluded that HSCCC is a viable separation method option for purifying insect attractants, while effectively maintaining the attracting activity of the isolates. This is the first attempt to apply counter-current chromatography technique to separate attractants from Chinese cockroach.

  17. 近距离升华沉积CdTe掺Cd薄膜的微结构和电学、光学特性%Microstructure, electrical and optical properties of Cd-doped CdTe thin films deposited by close-spaced-sublimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茜; 郑毓峰; 周向玲; 孙言飞; 简基康

    2008-01-01

    采用近距离升华技术制备了掺杂Cd元素的CdTe多晶薄膜.利用X射线衍射仪和扫描电子显微镜表征其微结构,用霍尔效应测试仪和紫外可见分光光度计分析其电学、光学特性.结果显示,适量的掺杂Cd元素可改善CdTe薄膜晶形,显著提高薄膜的电导特性,由弱的P型电导转变为导电性能良好的n型电导,但对光能隙影响不大.

  18. The influence of the relative thermal expansion and electric permittivity on phase transitions in the perovskite-type bidimensional layered NH3(CH2)3NH3CdBr4 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staśkiewicz, Beata; Staśkiewicz, Anna

    2017-07-01

    Hydrothermal method has been used to synthesized the layered hybrid compound NH3(CH2)3NH3CdBr4 of perovskite architecture. Structural, dielectric and dilatometric properties of the compound have been analyzed. Negative thermal expansion (NTE) effect in the direction perpendicular to the perovskite plane as well as an unusual phase sequence have been reported based on X-ray diffraction analysis. Electric permittivity measurements evidenced the phase transitions at Tc1=326/328 K and Tc2=368/369 K. Relative linear expansion measurements almost confirmed these temperatures of phase transitions. Anomalies of electric permittivity and expansion behavior connected with the phase transitions are detected at practically the same temperatures as those observed earlier in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared (IR), far infrared (FIR) and Raman spectroscopy studies. Mechanism of the phase transitions is explained. Relative linear expansion study was prototype to estimate critical exponent value β for continuous phase transition at Tc1. It has been inferred that there is a strong interplay between the distortion of the inorganic network, those hydrogen bonds and the intermolecular interactions of the organic component.

  19. Synthesis of Al-doped Mg{sub 2}Si{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} compound using magnesium alloy for thermoelectric application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiaokai, E-mail: xiaokai.hu@deakin.edu.au [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3217 (Australia); Research Institute for Energy Conservation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Barnett, Matthew R. [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3217 (Australia); Yamamoto, Atsushi [Research Institute for Energy Conservation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Mg{sub 2}Si{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} thermoelectric compounds were synthesized through a solid-state reaction at 700 °C between chips of Mg{sub 2}Sn–Mg eutectic alloy and silicon fine powders. The Al dopants were introduced by employing AZ31 magnesium alloy that contains aluminum. The as-synthesized Mg{sub 2}Si{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} powders were consolidated by spark plasma sintering at 650–700 °C. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the Mg{sub 2}Si{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} bulk materials were comprised of Si-rich and Sn-rich phases. Due to the complex microstructures, the electrical conductivities of Mg{sub 2}Si{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} are lower than Mg{sub 2}Si. As a result, the average power factor of Al{sub 0.05}Mg{sub 2}Si{sub 0.73}Sn{sub 0.27} is about 1.5 × 10{sup −3} W/mK{sup 2} from room temperature to 850 K, being less than 2.5 × 10{sup −3} W/mK{sup 2} for Al{sub 0.05}Mg{sub 2}Si. However, the thermal conductivity of Mg{sub 2}Si{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} was reduced significantly as compared to Al{sub 0.05}Mg{sub 2}Si, which enabled the ZT of Al{sub 0.05}Mg{sub 2}Si{sub 0.73}Sn{sub 0.27} to be superior to Al{sub 0.05}Mg{sub 2}Si. Lastly, the electric power generation from one leg of Al{sub 0.05}Mg{sub 2}Si and Al{sub 0.05}Mg{sub 2}Si{sub 0.73}Sn{sub 0.27} were evaluated on a newly developed instrument, with the peak output power of 15–20 mW at 300 °C hot-side temperature. - Highlights: • Aluminium is used as dopant in n-type Mg{sub 2}(Si,Sn) thermoelectric compounds. • Scrap magnesium alloy is used instead of pure raw material, and ball milling is avoided. • Dual phases of solid solution lower thermal conductivity. • Thermoelectric conversion of one-leg material is demonstrated.

  20. Effect of Sb Doping on Thermoelectric Property of N-type Half-Heusler Compounds%Sb掺杂对N型half-Heusler材料热电性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊毅; 李小亚; 蒋永锋; 包晔峰

    2014-01-01

    研究了Sb掺杂对N型half-Heusler化合物Zr0.25Hf0.25Ti0.5NiSn1-xSbx (x=0、0.002、0.005、0.01、0.02、0.03)热电传输特性的影响。结果显示,随着Sb掺杂量增加,材料的载流子浓度提高,电阻率降低,尤其是低温(<300 K)电阻率下降显著,赛贝克系数降低,且取得最大赛贝克系数的温度向高温端移动,最大功率因子增加~20%,材料的热导率增大,主要是电子热导率提高的贡献,晶格热导率影响不大;当 Sb 掺杂量较低时(x<0.01),材料的最大热电性能优值ZT值在0.77左右,掺杂量x=0.005的样品ZT值在整个温度区间内最优。%The effect of Sb doping on thermoelectric transport properties of N-type half-Heusler compounds Zr0.25Hf0.25Ti0.5NiSn1-xSbx(x=0, 0.002, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03) was studied. Results show that with increasing Sb doping amount, the carrier concentration of the samples increases while the electrical resistivity decreases, especially sharply at low temperature range (~300 K). The Seebeck coefficient decreases, and the temperatures at which the Seebeck co-efficient reaches climax move to higher ones. Therefore, the power factor increases by ~20%. The total thermal con-ductivity increases mainly due to the enhancement of electrical thermal conductivity, the lattice thermal conductivity remains almost unchanged. For the samples withx<0.01, the maximumZT value is about 0.77 at 800 K, and among the samples, the one withx=0.005 performs the best in the whole temperature range.

  1. A comparative study of Cu, Ag and Au doped CeO{sub 2} in the total oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboukaïs, Antoine, E-mail: aboukais@univ-littoral.fr [Unité de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant EA 4492, ULCO, Equipe de Catalyse-UCEIV, MREI, 59140, Dunkerque (France); Skaf, Mira, E-mail: miraskaf@hotmail.com [Unité de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant EA 4492, ULCO, Equipe de Catalyse-UCEIV, MREI, 59140, Dunkerque (France); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Balamand, P.O. Box 100, Deir El Balamand, Kelhat-Tripoli (Lebanon); Hany, Sara, E-mail: sarahani@hotmail.com [Unité de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant EA 4492, ULCO, Equipe de Catalyse-UCEIV, MREI, 59140, Dunkerque (France); Cousin, Renaud, E-mail: Renaud.Cousin@univ-littoral.fr [Unité de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant EA 4492, ULCO, Equipe de Catalyse-UCEIV, MREI, 59140, Dunkerque (France); Aouad, Samer, E-mail: Samer.Aouad@balamand.edu.lb [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Balamand, P.O. Box 100, Deir El Balamand, Kelhat-Tripoli (Lebanon); Labaki, Madona, E-mail: mlabaki@ul.edu.lb [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Materials (LCPM)/PR2N, Faculty of Sciences, Lebanese University, Fanar, PO Box 90656, Jdeidet El Metn (Lebanon); Abi-Aad, Edmond, E-mail: abiaad@univ-littoral.fr [Unité de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant EA 4492, ULCO, Equipe de Catalyse-UCEIV, MREI, 59140, Dunkerque (France)

    2016-07-01

    Total oxidation of two Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), propylene and toluene, was investigated over M/CeO{sub 2} catalysts, where M is a metal from IB group (i.e. Au, Ag, Cu), prepared by two different methods: the conventional wet impregnation and the deposition-precipitation. The catalysts have been characterized by means of total surface area (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflectance ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy (DR-UV/Vis), and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), in order to explain the differences observed in their catalytic activity towards the studied reactions. By comparing the two different preparation methods, the presence of metal in high oxidation state for gold and silver, and the presence of clusters for copper were the main factors responsible for the high catalytic activity. This latter was also found to be related, when comparing the different IB metals, to the values of the oxidation/reduction potential of the redox couples of the different metals. - Highlights: • IB metals (Au, Ag and Cu) were supported on ceria (CeO{sub 2}) by two different methods. • The solids were tested as catalysts for total oxidation of propylene and toluene. • The deposition-precipitation is better for Au whereas for Ag and Cu it is the impregnation. • High oxidation states of gold and silver and clusters of copper enhanced catalytic behavior. • Catalytic activity is linked to the oxidation/reduction potential of the redox IB couples.

  2. Scandium-doped zinc cadmium oxide as a new stable n-type oxide thermoelectric material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn; Bhowmik, Arghya

    2016-01-01

    Scandium-doped zinc cadmium oxide (Sc-doped ZnCdO) is proposed as a new n-type oxide thermoelectric material. The material is sintered in air to maintain the oxygen stoichiometry and avoid instability issues. The successful alloying of CdO with ZnO at a molar ratio of 1 : 9 significantly reduced...

  3. Substitutional Doping for Aluminosilicate Mineral and Superior Water Splitting Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Fu, Liangjie; Shu, Zhan; Yang, Huaming; Tang, Aidong; Jiang, Tao

    2017-07-01

    Substitutional doping is a strategy in which atomic impurities are optionally added to a host material to promote its properties, while the geometric and electronic structure evolution of natural nanoclay mineral upon substitutional metal doping is still ambiguous. This paper first designed an efficient lanthanum (La) doping strategy for nanotubular clay (halloysite nanotube, HNT) through the dynamic equilibrium of a substitutional atom in the presence of saturated AlCl3 solution, and systematic characterization of the samples was performed. Further density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to reveal the geometric and electronic structure evolution upon metal doping, as well as to verify the atom-level effect of the La doping. The CdS loading and its corresponding water splitting performance could demonstrate the effect of La doping. CdS nanoparticles (11 wt.%) were uniformly deposited on the surface of La-doped halloysite nanotube (La-HNT) with the average size of 5 nm, and the notable photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate of CdS/La-HNT reached up to 47.5 μmol/h. The results could provide a new strategy for metal ion doping and constructive insight into the substitutional doping mechanism.

  4. Electronic structure and properties of Cd4As2Br3 and Cd4Sb2I3, analogues of CdSe and CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anand; Suchitra; Manjunath, K.; Ahmad, Tokeer; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Rao, C. N. R.

    2017-04-01

    Substitution of aliovalent anions in metal oxides and chalcogenides significantly affects the electronic structure and properties of the materials. Thus, substitution of P3- and Cl- in CdS decreases the band gap and favorably influences the photocatalytic activity. Complete substitution of a trivalent (A3-) and a monovalent (B-) anions in a cadmium chalcogenides, CdX, should give rise to a material of the composition Cd A0.5B0.5 or Cd