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Sample records for cd cu pb

  1. Compound pollution of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and As on lowland rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUYanyu; WANGXin

    1999-01-01

    Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and As are typical pollutants originated from Pb-Zn mine, smelting waste water discharge/irrigation and gas emission,and they were distributed widely in China. We studied the compound pollution of Cd, Pb,Cu, Zn, and As on rice.

  2. Divalent Cu, Cd, and Pb Biosorption in Mixed Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Al-Qunaibit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dead dried Chlorella vulgaris was studied in terms of its performance in binding divalent copper, cadmium, and lead ions from their aqueous or 50% v/v methanol, ethanol, and acetone solutions. The percentage uptake of cadmium ions exhibited a general decrease with decrease in dielectric constant values, while that of copper and lead ions showed a general decrease with increase in donor numbers. Uptake percentage becomes less sensitive to solvent properties the larger the atomic radius of the biosorbed ion, and uptake of copper was the most affected. FT-IR analyses revealed stability of the biomass in mixed solvents and a shift in vibrations of amide(I and (II, carboxylate, glucose ring, and metal oxygen upon metal binding in all media. ΔνCOO values (59–69 cm−1 confirmed bidentate metal coordination to carboxylate ligands. The value of νasCOO increased slightly upon Cu, Cd, and Pb biosorption from aqueous solutions indicating lowering of symmetry, while a general decrease was noticed in mixed solvents pointing to the opposite. M–O stretching frequencies increased unexpectedly with increase in atomic mass as a result of solvent effect on the nature of binding sites. Lowering polarity of the solvent permits variations in metal-alga bonds strengths; the smaller the metal ion, the more affected.

  3. Electrodialytic removal of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd from harbor sediment: Influence of changing experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation (EDR) was used to remove Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd from contaminated harbor sediment. Extraction experiments were made prior to EDR, and the metal desorption was pH dependent but not liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) dependent. The desorption order was Cd $GRT Zn $GRT Pb $GRT Cu...... for the removal of Cu, Zn, and Pb, probably due to oxidation of the sediments during stirring. Contrary, Cd removal was lower in the wet sediment as compared to the air-dried. The heavy metal removal was influenced by higher current strengths and varying L/S ratios. The highest removal obtained...... was in an experiment with dry sediment (L/S 8) and a 70 mA applied current that lasted 14 days. These experimental conditions were thereafter used to remediate more strongly contaminated sediments. Regardless of the initial heavy metal concentrations in the sediments, 67-87% Cu, 79-98% Cd, 90-97% Zn, and 91-96% Pb...

  4. Competitive sorption of Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in polluted and unpolluted calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mohsen; Moradi, Fahimeh

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate competitive sorption behaviour of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) under different management practices and identify soil characteristics that can be correlated with the retention and mobility of heavy metals using 65 calcareous soil samples. The lowest sorption was found for Mn and Ni in competition with the other metals, indicating the high mobility of these two cations. The Freundlich equation adequately described heavy metals adsorption. On the basis of Freundlich distribution coefficient, the selectivity sequence of the metal adsorption was Cu > Pb > Cd > Zn > Ni > Mn. The mean value of the joint distribution coefficient (K dΣsp) was 182.1, 364.1, 414.7, 250.1, 277.7, 459.9 and 344.8 l kg(-1) for garden, garlic, pasture, potato, vegetables, wheat and polluted soils, respectively. The lowest observed K dΣsp in garden soil samples was due to the lower cation exchange capacity and lower carbonate content. The results of the geochemical modelling under low and high metal addition indicated that Cd, Ni, Mn and Zn were mainly retained via adsorption, while Pb and Cu were retained via adsorption and precipitation. Stepwise forward regression analysis showed that clay, organic matter and CaCO3 were the most important soil properties influencing competitive adsorption of Cd, Mn, Ni and Zn. The results in this study point to a relatively easy way to estimate distribution coefficient values. PMID:23677680

  5. Role of microbial inoculation and chitosan in phytoextraction of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by Elsholtzia splendens - a field case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fayuan [Agricultural College, Henan University of Science and Technology, 70 Tianjin Road, Luoyang, Henan Province 471003 (China) and Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210008 (China)]. E-mail: wfy1975@163.com; Lin Xiangui [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210008 (China); Yin Rui [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210008 (China)

    2007-05-15

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of microbial inoculation on heavy metal phytoextraction by Elsholtzia splendens and whether chitosan could have a synergistic effect with the microbial inocula. The microbial inocula consisted of a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and two Penicillium fungi. Three treatments were included: the control, inoculation with microbial inocula, and the inoculation combined with chitosan. Microbial inoculation increased plant biomass especially shoot dry weight, enhanced shoot Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations but did not affect Cd, leading to higher shoot Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd uptake. Compared with microbial inoculation alone, chitosan application did not affect plant growth but increased shoot Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations except Cu, which led to higher phytoextraction efficiencies and partitioning to shoots of Zn, Pb and Cd. These results indicated synergistic effects between microbial inocula and chitosan on Zn, Pb and Cd phytoextraction. - Co-application of microbial inocula and chitosan enhanced heavy metal phytoextraction by E. splendens.

  6. Role of microbial inoculation and chitosan in phytoextraction of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by Elsholtzia splendens - a field case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of microbial inoculation on heavy metal phytoextraction by Elsholtzia splendens and whether chitosan could have a synergistic effect with the microbial inocula. The microbial inocula consisted of a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and two Penicillium fungi. Three treatments were included: the control, inoculation with microbial inocula, and the inoculation combined with chitosan. Microbial inoculation increased plant biomass especially shoot dry weight, enhanced shoot Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations but did not affect Cd, leading to higher shoot Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd uptake. Compared with microbial inoculation alone, chitosan application did not affect plant growth but increased shoot Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations except Cu, which led to higher phytoextraction efficiencies and partitioning to shoots of Zn, Pb and Cd. These results indicated synergistic effects between microbial inocula and chitosan on Zn, Pb and Cd phytoextraction. - Co-application of microbial inocula and chitosan enhanced heavy metal phytoextraction by E. splendens

  7. Accumulation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in plants and hyperaccumulator choice in Lanping lead-zinc mine area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanqun, Zu; Yuan, Li; Schvartz, Christian; Langlade, Laurent; Fan, Liu

    2004-06-01

    A field survey of higher terrestrial plants growing on Lanping lead-zinc mine, China were conducted to identify species accumulating exceptionally large concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn of 20 samples of 17 plant species. Concentrations of Pb and Zn in soil and in plant were higher than that of Cu and Cd. Significant difference was observed among the average concentrations of four heavy metals in plants (except Cd and Cu) and in soil (except Pb and Zn) (Ptree>herbaceous, and herbaceous grew in soil with the highest concentrations of four heavy metals. In different areas, the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in plants and soils and enrichment coefficient were different. Plants in Paomaping had more accumulating ability to Pb, Cd and Zn, and plants in Jinfeng River had more accumulating ability to Cu. Six plant species, i.e. S. cathayana, Lithocarpus dealbatus, L. plyneura, Fargesia dura, Arundinella yunnanensis and R. annae in Paomaping, had high accumulation capacity. R. annae in Paomaping had hyperaccumulating capacity to Pb, Cd and Zn, L. plyneura to Pb and Cd, and S. cathayana to Cd, respectively. PMID:15031017

  8. Atmospheric Deposition of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd in Amman, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric samples were collected by high-volume air sampler and dust fall containers during the summer of 1995 at different sites in Amman City, Jordan. Heavy metal contents in settle able (dust fall) as well as in air particulates (suspended) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The atmospheric concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd were 344, 170, 291, and 3.8 ng/m3 , respectively. On the other hand, the levels of these elements in dust fall deposition were 505, 94, 74, and 3.1 μg/g, respectively. The fluxes and dry deposition velocities of these heavy metals were determined and compared with the findings of other investigators worldwide. Significant enrichment coefficients of heavy metals in dust fall were observed. The enrichment coefficients were 12.1, 6.1, 11.7, and 1.1 for Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd, respectively

  9. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in Varanasi City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh Kumar; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Marshall, Fiona M

    2008-07-01

    Rapid growth in urbanization and industrialization in developing countries may significantly contribute in heavy metal contamination of vegetables through atmospheric depositions. In the present study, an assessment was made to investigate the spatial and seasonal variations in deposition rates of heavy metals and its contribution to contamination of palak (Beta vulgaris). Samples of bulk atmospheric deposits and Beta vulgaris for analysis of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were collected from different sampling locations differing in traffic density and land use patterns. The results showed that the sampling locations situated in industrial or commercial areas with heavy traffic load showed significantly elevated levels of Cu, Zn and Cd deposition rate as compared to those situated in residential areas with low traffic load. The deposition rates of Cu, Zn and Cd were significantly higher in summer and winter as compared to rainy season, however, Pb deposition rate was significantly higher in rainy and summer seasons as compared to winter season. Atmospheric depositions have significantly elevated the levels of heavy metals in B. vulgaris collected during evening as compared to those collected in morning hours. The study further showed that local population has maximum exposure to Cd contamination through consumption of B. vulgaris. The present study clearly points out the urban and industrial activities of a city have potential to elevate the levels of heavy metals in the atmospheric deposits, which may consequently contaminate the food chain and thus posing health risk to the local population. PMID:17879134

  10. Chemical immobilization of Pb, Cu, and Cd by phosphate materials and calcium carbonate in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoyong; Su, Xiaojuan; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Zhu, Yifei; Hu, Hongqing

    2016-08-01

    Soil contamination with toxic metals has increasingly become a global concern over the past few decades. Phosphate and carbonate compounds are good passivation materials for Pb immobilization, while the effect of phosphate and carbonate on the immobilization of multiple heavy metals (Pb, Cu, and Cd) in contaminated soils was seldom investigated. In this study, bone meal (BM), phosphate rock (PR), oxalic acid-activated phosphate rock (APR), super phosphate (SP), and calcium carbonate (CC) were added to the contaminated soils to evaluate the effect of phosphate materials and calcium carbonate on the immobilization of Pb, Cu, and Cd. The results showed that the pH of the treated soils increased 1.3-2.7, except SP which decreased 0.5 at most. Compared to the control treatment, all phosphates and calcium carbonate added to the polluted soils increased the fraction of residual metals, and the application of APR, PR, BM, and CC significantly reduced exchangeable and carbonate-bound fraction metals. PR and APR were the most effective for the immobilization of Pb, Cu, and Cd in the soils among these materials. Moreover, the concentrations of all metals in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachate decreased with increasing amounts of amendments, and the concentrations of Pb in the TCLP leachate for soils treated with PR and APR were below the nonhazardous regulatory limit of 5 mg L(-1) (US Environmental Protection Agency). Based on our results, phosphate rock and oxalic acid-activated phosphate rock are effective in the immobilization of multiple metals by reducing their mobility in the co-contaminated soils. PMID:27197655

  11. Test of experimental set-ups for electrodialytic removal of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from different contaminated harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    of the sediment slurry, the other without stirring. The removal of heavy metals was highest in the non-calcareous sediment, where 94% Cd, 91% Zn and 73% Cu were removed after 24 days. The highest removal obtained for the calcareous sediment was 81% Cd, 76% Zn, 75% Pb and 53% Cu after 21 days, with stirred...... was the most stable in these experiments, and thus, the stirred set-up is the best choice for experimental set-up. The order in which the heavy metals were removed from the harbour sediments was Cd>Zn>Pb>Cu....

  12. Pb, Cu and Cd distribution in five estuary systems of Marche, central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Libani, Giulia; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2015-07-15

    Heavy metals are subjected to monitoring in estuarine and marine water by the European Union Water Framework Directive, which requires water body health to be achieved by 2021. This is the first survey of heavy metals content in five estuaries of Marche, a region in central Italy. Results showed that total Pb and Cu concentrations decreased by 70-80%, from 1000-2000 to 100-200 ng L(-1) (Pb) and from 2000-3000 to 500-1000 ng L(-1) (Cu) from river to sea. Cd was consistently 20-40 ng L(-1). Dissolved Pb and Cu concentrations declined by 50% and 70% respectively passing from oligohaline to euhaline water, from 150 to 70 ng L(-1) and from 2000-1000 to 600-400 ng L(-1). Cd decreased slightly from ∼20 to ∼10 ng L(-1). Although such concentrations are in the range allowed by the Water Framework Directive, they far exceed (up to 10×) the ground content ceiling set for 2021. PMID:25960271

  13. Dissolved Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd in the South China Sea surface waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huo Wenmian; Ji Weidong; Xu Kuncan

    2001-01-01

    A total of 106 surface water samples were collected in the South China Sea during two transects in June and December 1998. The samples were collected with strictly contamination free procedure and trace metals were measured by clean laboratory methods and GFAAS. The mean concentrations for the dissolved fractions are: Cu 0.100 μg/dm3, Pb 0.060 μg/dm3, Zn 0.086 μg/dm3, Cd 0.007 μg/dm3, which is close to the world open ocean's level. The spatial distribution of the trace heavy metals shows higher concentrations in offshore area and lower concentrations in the central in the South China Sea, and the concentrations decrease with the distance from the offshore, which suggests the existence of significant continental shelf input of the trace heavy metals. The correlationship among the elements is better in summer than that in winter. Cu is positively correlated with Cd in both seasons and it is also found for the first time that they are positively correlated with nutrients in the South China Sea surface waters which further indicate the biogeochemical cycle of these elements in the marine environment. The baseline value of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd in the South China Sea surface waters is obtained through statistical analysis.

  14. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FRACTIONATIONS OF Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn AND Ni AND SOIL PROPERTIES IN URBAN SOILS OF CHANGCHUN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ping; XIE Zhong-lei; LI Jun; KANG Chun-li; LIU Jian-hua

    2005-01-01

    An extensive soil investigation was conducted in different domains of Changchun to disclose the fractionations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni in urban soils. Meanwhile correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regressions were used to define relationships between soil properties and metal fractions and the chief factors influencingthe fractionation of heavy metals in the soils. The results showed that Pb, Ni and Cu were mainly associated with the residual and organic forms; most of Cd was concentrated in the residual and exchangeable fractions. Zn in residual and carbonate fraction was the highest. The activities of the heavy metals probably declined in the following order: Cd, Zn,Pb, CuandNi. The chemical fractions of heavy metals in different domains in Changchun City were of significantly spatial heterogeneity. Soil properties had different influences on the chemical fractions of heavy metals to some extent and the main factors influencing Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Ni fractionation and transformation were apparently different.

  15. Effects of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ on the Aqueous Zn2+ Sorption by Hydroxyapatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Yong; LIU Yu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the behaviors of aqueous zinc sorption by hydroxyapatite in the co-existence of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ are investigated, the effects of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ on the sorption of Zn2+ are discussed, and the hydroxyapatite sorption capabilities for Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ are compared.The experimental results show that the Zn2+ removal efficiency decreases gradually with the increase of the Cd2+ concentration of the solution, and there is no sorption preference between Cd2+ and Zn2+. On the other hand, the Zn2+ removal efficiency rapidly decreases rapidly with the increase of the Cu2+ concentration of the solution, and there is a clear sorption preference between Cu2+ and Zn2+. It is noticed that the Zn2+ removal efficiency is hardly changed with the variance of Pb2+ concentration because the removal mechanisms for these two ions are totally different. It is concluded that the adsorption affinities of the heavy metals for the hydroxyapatite follows this sequence: Pb2+> Cu2+>Cd2+> Zn2+.

  16. Physiological responses and detoxific mechanisms to Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in young seedlings of Paulownia fortunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiang; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Chongbang; Ke, Shisheng

    2010-01-01

    Paulownia fortunei has been successfully used in the phytoremediation of many Pb/Zn mine tailings. However, seed germination and young seedlings of P. fortunei rarely occurred in these mine tailings. The physiological responses and detoxific mechanisms of P. fortunei young seedling to Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd stress were investigated. The germinated rate, shoot length, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in leaves of young seedlings had a great reduction under Zn and Cu treatments, but had little decrease under Pb and Cd treatments. The production rate of O2*-, H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents significantly increased in response to added Zn and Cu indicating great oxidative stress for young seedlings, but they had no significant change to added Pb and Cd. Young seedlings had effective detoxific mechanism to Pb and Cd, as antioxidant enzymes activities, phytochelatins (PCs-SH) and proline contents increased with increasing rates of added Pb and Cd. However, young seedlings had un-effective detoxific mechanisms to Zn and Cu stress. Results revealed the heavy metals (such as Cu) that present at low concentrations in mine tailings may be major constraint for the survival of young seedlings. PMID:21462710

  17. Spatial distribution of dissolved Pb,Hg,Cd,Cu and As in the Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Characteristics of the spatial distribution of selected dissolved heavy metals were analyzed during large scale surveys from August 12 to 25.2003 in the Bohai Sea.Dissolved Pb was the only element with average concentrations higher than the grade-one sea water quality standard of China.The spatial distribution of dissolved Pb in surface water was similar to those of Cd,Cu and As,where the isopleths generally indicated decreasing values from the bays to the central areas.Only for Hg did the high concentrations not only appear in Liaodong Bay,Bohai Bay and Laizhou Bay,but also in the Central Area,viz.not only in inshore but also in offshore areas.Vertical distributions of dissolved Pb,Cd,Cu and As were largely uniform,while that of dissolved Hg increased with depth.We infer that the input of pollutants from land was the main influencing factor for the detected distribution patterns of dissolved heavy metals,followed by the dynamics of sea water,release from bottom sediments and biochemical processes.Comparing with historical data,average concentrations of dissolved heavy metals appear to decline in recent years.

  18. ELECTROOXIDATION OF METHANOL ON PT MODIFIED WITH ADATOMS (NI, CU, PB, CD)

    OpenAIRE

    A.Khouchaf; D. Takky; M. E1 M. Chbihi; S. Benmokhtar

    2015-01-01

    The electro oxidation of methanol has been studied in alkaline medium NaOH 0.1 M and acid medium H2SO4 0.5 M on a platinum electrode and a platinum modified by adatom adsorption (Ni, Cu, Pb, and Cd). The influence of different experimental variables (methanol concentration, and temperature) is reported. Preliminary investigations by cyclic voltammetry showed that the catalytic activity of platinum is still too low to be considered as a practical catalyst. Underpotential deposition of lead, ni...

  19. ELECTROOXIDATION OF METHANOL ON PT MODIFIED WITH ADATOMS (NI, CU, PB, CD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Khouchaf

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The electro oxidation of methanol has been studied in alkaline medium NaOH 0.1 M and acid medium H2SO4 0.5 M on a platinum electrode and a platinum modified by adatom adsorption (Ni, Cu, Pb, and Cd. The influence of different experimental variables (methanol concentration, and temperature is reported. Preliminary investigations by cyclic voltammetry showed that the catalytic activity of platinum is still too low to be considered as a practical catalyst. Underpotential deposition of lead, nickel, cadmium, or copper adatoms at platinum allowed increasing significantly the current densities.

  20. Electrokinetic enhancement on phytoremediation in Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd contaminated soil using potato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboughalma, Hanssan; Bi, Ran; Schlaak, Michael

    2008-07-01

    The use of a combination of electrokinetic remediation and phytoremediation to decontaminate soil polluted with heavy metals has been demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. Potato tubers were planted in plastic vessels filled with Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd contaminated soil and grown in a greenhouse. Three of these vessels were treated with direct current electric field (DC), three with alternative current (AC) and three remained untreated as control vessels. The soil pH varied from anode to cathode with a minimum of pH 3 near the anode and a maximum of pH 8 near the cathode in the DC treated soil profile. There was an accumulation of Zn, Cu and Cd at about 12 cm distance from anode when soil pH was 5 in the DC treated soil profile. There was no significant metal redistribution and pH variation between anode and cathode in the AC soil profile. The biomass production of the plants was 72% higher under AC treatment and 27% lower under DC treatment compared to the control. Metal accumulation was generally higher in the plant roots treated with electrical fields than the control. The overall metal uptake in plant shoots was lower under DC treatment compared to AC treatment and control, although there was a higher accumulation of Zn and Cu in the plant roots treated with electrical fields. The Zn uptake in plant shoots under AC treatment was higher compared to the control and DC treatment. Zn and Cu accumulation in the plant roots under AC and DC treatment was similar, and both were higher comparing to control. Cd content in plant roots under all three treatments was found to be higher than that in the soil. The Pb accumulation in the roots and the uptake into the shoots was lower compared to its content in the soil. PMID:18569305

  1. Valorization of biosorbent obtained from a forestry waste: Competitive adsorption, desorption and transport of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas-Barreiro, Laura; Paradelo, Remigio; Igrexas-Soto, Alba; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Álvarez-Rodriguez, Esperanza; Garrote, Gil; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Bark from Pinus pinaster is one of the most abundant forestry wastes in Europe, and among the proposed technologies for its reutilization, the removal of heavy metals from wastewater has been gaining increasing attention. In this work, we have studied the performance of pine bark for heavy metal biosorption on competitive systems. Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd sorption and desorption at equilibrium were studied in batch experiments, whereas transport was studied in column experiments. Batch experiments were performed adding simultaneously different concentrations (0.08-3.15mM) of two or more metals in solution to pine bark samples. Column experiments were performed with 10mM solutions of two metals or a 5mM solution of the five metals. In general, the results under competitive conditions were different to those obtained in monoelemental experiments. The multi-metal batch experiments showed the adsorption sequence Pb≈Cu>Cd>Zn>Ni for lower metal doses, Pb>Cu>Cd>Zn>Ni for intermediate doses, and Pb>Cu>Cd≈Zn≈Ni for high metal doses. Desorption followed the sequence PbCdCdCd, Ni and Zn from adsorption sites on pine bark. The transport experiments produced comparable results to those obtained in the batch experiments, with pine bark retention capacity following the sequence Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd>Ni. The presence of a second metal affected the transport of all the elements studied except Pb, and confirmed the strong influence of Pb and Cu on the retention of the other metals. These results can help to appropriately design decontamination systems using this forestry waste.

  2. Assessing Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb Sorption on montmorillonite using surface complexation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akafia, Martin M.; Reich, Thomas J. [Department of Geosciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Koretsky, Carla M., E-mail: carla.koretsky@wmich.edu [Department of Geosciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb sorption on montmorillonite is measured at 6 distinct conditions. > The data are used to develop a diffuse layer model with variable charge and fixed charge sites. > The DLM lacked the robustness to accurately predict adsorption at all conditions. - Abstract: Cadmium, Co, Cu, Ni and Pb adsorption is measured on montmorillonite as a function of pH (3-11), ionic strength (0.001-0.1 M NaNO{sub 3}), and sorbate concentration (0.1-10 {mu}M metal on 0.5 g/L solid). Sorption of all metals shows strong dependence on ionic strength and sorbate concentration, as well as a break in the slope of the edge, indicative of a 2-site interaction with montmorillonite. The resulting adsorption edges are used to parameterize diffuse layer surface complexation models (DLMs) for each metal. A 2-site DLM with a bidentate variable charge surface hydroxyl site and a bidentate permanent charge exchange site produced good fits for the individual experiments, but lacked the robustness to accurately predict adsorption across the entire experimental range. Other models, such as CCM, TLM, or CD-MUSIC may be required for more accurate predictions across broad ranges of solution conditions.

  3. Geospatial Mapping of Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Sb in Urban Soil, Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, M. A.; Grimida, S. E.; Elkekli, A. R.; Aldouri, R. K.; Benedict, B. A.; Pingitore, N. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Population-based random stratified sampling of the city of Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico provided 500 city blocks for study. We collected soil from the public space (where present) in front of each house on a selected block; equal measured small volumes of these were combined to produce a composite sample for analysis. Such composite samples (1) decrease, by an order of magnitude, laboratory processing and analysis costs, and (2) smooth the data to represent blocks as averages of individual houses. Retention of the unanalyzed samples of the individual houses permits their later analysis should the composites suggest further study of individual houses on an anomalous block. Elemental analysis of 10 mg pressed powders was performed on a Panalytical Epsilon5 EDS-XRF, via 8 secondary targets and 12 USGS and NIST multi-element rock standards. The mean and (range) of concentration for Pb was 43 (13-550) ppm; for Cr, 31 (1.8-76); for Cu, 22 (6-550); for Zn 84 (42-415) ppm; for Cd, 1.9 (0.1-6.2); and for Sb, 5.9 (2.7-29). The old urban core of Cd. Juarez was marked by high levels of Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn, and, to a smaller degree, of Cd and Sb. This pattern mirrors that of contiguous El Paso, Texas, USA, directly across the narrow Rio Grande. Businesses, industrial facilities, transportation (both railroads and highways), traditional "downtown" shopping, and old residential districts cluster in this urban core. A Pb-Cu-Zn smelter, which operated for more than a century until 1999, is present in the US adjacent to the Rio Grande, about two km away from downtown Cd. Juarez. Thus the city has been subject to both traditional metal sources (e.g., leaded gasoline, highway debris) and smelter emissions. The poplation of Cd. Juarez has exploded in the last few decades to some 1.5 million inhabitants due both to natural growth and in-migration from rural districts for economic opportunity. Most of this growth has been accommodated by radial expansion of the city into the surrounding

  4. Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) contamination of vegetables in urban India: A case study in Varanasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions of heavy metals in selected vegetables through atmospheric deposition were quantified in an urban area of India. Deposition rate of Zn was recorded maximum followed by Cu, Cd and Pb. The concentrations of Zn and Cu were highest in Brassica oleracea, Cd in Abelmoschus esculentus and B. oleracea, while Pb was highest in Beta vulgaris. Heavy metal pollution index showed that B. oleracea was maximally contaminated with heavy metals followed by A. esculentus and then B. vulgaris. The results of washing showed that atmospheric deposition has contributed to the increased levels of heavy metals in vegetables. Both Cu and Cd posed health risk to local population via test vegetables consumption, whereas Pb posed the same only through B. oleracea. The study concludes that atmospheric depositions can elevate the levels of heavy metals in vegetables during marketing having potential health hazards to consumers. - Atmospheric depositions can significantly increase the heavy metal concentrations in vegetables during marketing

  5. Role of metal mixtures (Ca, Cu and Pb) on Cd bioaccumulation and phytochelatin production by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the study was to determine whether metal uptake and biological effects could be predicted by free ion concentrations when organisms were exposed to Cd and a second metal. Bioaccumulation and algal phytochelatin (PC) concentrations were determined for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii following a 6-h exposure. Bioaccumulation results, after six hours of exposure, showed that Cd uptake decreased in the presence of relatively high concentrations of Ca, Cu and Pb, however, Cd bioaccumulation increased in the presence of ca. equimolar concentrations of Cu. A good correlation was observed between the production of PCs and the amount of metals bioaccumulated for the binary mixtures of Cd–Pb and Cd–Cu, but not the Cd–Ca mixture. Overall, the results suggested that, in the case of mixtures, bioaccumulated metal rather than free ion concentrations would be a better predictor of biological effect. -- Highlights: •Cd bioaccumulation and phytochelatin production were evaluated for metal mixtures. •Bioaccumulated metal rather than free ion was a better predictor of biological effect. •Calcium additions decreased Cd bioaccumulation but increased phytochelatin production. •Copper additions increased Cd bioaccumulation and phytochelatin production. •Lead additions had little effect on either Cd bioaccumulation or phytochelatin production. -- In metal mixtures containing Cd and Ca, Pb or Cu, bioaccumulated metal rather than free ion was a better predictor of biological effect

  6. Spatial distribution of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd) in sediments of a coastal wetlands in eastern Fujian, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Zhao; Yong Tan; Dongjin He; Weibin You; Haiqing Hu; Wei Hong; Xiaojuan LIAO; Shihong Xiao; Ren Wang; Jinbiao Cai; Xuncheng Fan

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the spatial distribution (horizontal and vertical concentrations) of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) in five wetland types (mudflat, aquaculture wetland, water area, farmland wetland and mangrove) from three areas (Ningde, Fuding, and Xiapu), China. Cu concentrations in five wetland types descended in the order:farm wetland, mudflat, aquaculture, water area and mangrove. Pb concentrations decreased in the order: aquaculture, mangrove, farm wetland, mudflat, and water area. Zn content decreased in the order: farm wetland, water area, aquaculture, mudflat and mangrove, and Cd content decreased as follows: mangrove, aquacul-ture, water area, mudflat, and farm wetland. Comparison of the concentrations of the same heavy metals in different areas showed that the highest Cu (63.75 mg kg-1) and Zn (152.32 mg kg-1) concentrations occurred in Ningde coastal wetlands; Pb (110.58 mg kg-1) and Cd (2.81 mg kg-1) contents were highest in Fuding wetlands, and the average contents of all heavy metals were very low in Xiapu wetlands. Examination of the vertical distribution showed that the Cu content was high in all mudflat layers;Pb and Cd concentrations were highest in aquaculture and mangrove wetlands, respectively, and Zn content was highest in farm wetlands. The spatial distribution of Cu and Zn contents for different areas decreased as follows:Ningde [ Fuding [ Xiapu, for Pb and Cd were most concentrated in Fuding coastal wetlands. Concentrations of Zn and Cu were highly correlated, while Zn and Cu were not significantly correlated with Pb.

  7. Continuous biosorption of Pb/Cu and Pb/Cd in fixed-bed column using algae Gelidium and granulated agar extraction algal waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Loureiro, José M; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-06-15

    Continuous metal ions biosorption from Pb/Cu and Pb/Cd solutions onto seaweed Gelidium sesquipedale and a composite material prepared from an industrial algal waste was performed in a packed bed column. A binary Langmuir equation describes well the equilibrium data and indicates a good adsorption capacity. In the sorption process, Cd and Cu break through the column faster than Pb due to its lower affinity for the biosorbent. An overshoot in the outlet Cd concentration was observed and explained by competitive adsorption between Pb and Cd, whereby the higher Pb affinity for the biosorbent displaces bound Cd ions. A small overshoot happens for Cu adsorption in the presence of Pb ions. Desorption using 0.1 M HNO3 as eluant, was 100% effective. A mass transfer model for the adsorption and desorption processes, considering an external and intraparticle film resistance, adequately simulates the column performance. A binary Langmuir equation was used to describe equilibrium for the saturation process and a mass action law for the desorption process. Elution process is defined as an ion exchange mechanism, between protons and metal ions. PMID:18162305

  8. Continuous biosorption of Pb/Cu and Pb/Cd in fixed-bed column using algae Gelidium and granulated agar extraction algal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, Vitor J.P. [LSRE-Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: vilar@fe.up.pt; Loureiro, Jose M. [LSRE-Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: loureiro@fe.up.pt; Botelho, Cidalia M.S. [LSRE-Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: cbotelho@fe.up.pt; Boaventura, Rui A.R. [LSRE-Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: bventura@fe.up.pt

    2008-06-15

    Continuous metal ions biosorption from Pb/Cu and Pb/Cd solutions onto seaweed Gelidium sesquipedale and a composite material prepared from an industrial algal waste was performed in a packed bed column. A binary Langmuir equation describes well the equilibrium data and indicates a good adsorption capacity. In the sorption process, Cd and Cu break through the column faster than Pb due to its lower affinity for the biosorbent. An overshoot in the outlet Cd concentration was observed and explained by competitive adsorption between Pb and Cd, whereby the higher Pb affinity for the biosorbent displaces bound Cd ions. A small overshoot happens for Cu adsorption in the presence of Pb ions. Desorption using 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} as eluant, was 100% effective. A mass transfer model for the adsorption and desorption processes, considering an external and intraparticle film resistance, adequately simulates the column performance. A binary Langmuir equation was used to describe equilibrium for the saturation process and a mass action law for the desorption process. Elution process is defined as an ion exchange mechanism, between protons and metal ions.

  9. Valorization of biosorbent obtained from a forestry waste: Competitive adsorption, desorption and transport of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas-Barreiro, Laura; Paradelo, Remigio; Igrexas-Soto, Alba; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Álvarez-Rodriguez, Esperanza; Garrote, Gil; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Bark from Pinus pinaster is one of the most abundant forestry wastes in Europe, and among the proposed technologies for its reutilization, the removal of heavy metals from wastewater has been gaining increasing attention. In this work, we have studied the performance of pine bark for heavy metal biosorption on competitive systems. Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd sorption and desorption at equilibrium were studied in batch experiments, whereas transport was studied in column experiments. Batch experiments were performed adding simultaneously different concentrations (0.08-3.15mM) of two or more metals in solution to pine bark samples. Column experiments were performed with 10mM solutions of two metals or a 5mM solution of the five metals. In general, the results under competitive conditions were different to those obtained in monoelemental experiments. The multi-metal batch experiments showed the adsorption sequence Pb≈Cu>Cd>Zn>Ni for lower metal doses, Pb>Cu>Cd>Zn>Ni for intermediate doses, and Pb>Cu>Cd≈Zn≈Ni for high metal doses. Desorption followed the sequence Pbretention, with high capacity to displace Cd, Ni and Zn from adsorption sites on pine bark. The transport experiments produced comparable results to those obtained in the batch experiments, with pine bark retention capacity following the sequence Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd>Ni. The presence of a second metal affected the transport of all the elements studied except Pb, and confirmed the strong influence of Pb and Cu on the retention of the other metals. These results can help to appropriately design decontamination systems using this forestry waste. PMID:27232204

  10. Competitive adsorption of Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb by agricultural soils of the Changjiang and Zhujiang deltas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soils can often be contaminated simultaneously by more than one heavy metal. The sorption-desorption behavior of a metal in a soil will be affected by the presence of other metals. Therefore, selective retention and competitive adsorption of the soils to heavy metals can affect their availability and movement through the soils. In this study, the simultaneous competitive adsorption of four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, and Pb) on ten agricultural soils collected from the Changjiang and Zhujiang deltas,China was assessed. The results showed that the competition affected the behavior of heavy metal cations in such a way that the soils adsorbed less Cd and Hg, and more Pb and Cu with increasing total metal concentrations, regardless of the molar concentration applied. As the applied concentrations increased, Pb and Cu adsorption increased, while Cd and Hg adsorption decreased.The adsorption sequence most found was Pb>Cu>Hg>Cd. The maximum adsorption capacity for the heavy metal cations was calculated, and affected markedly by soil properties. The results suggest that Hg and Cd have higher mobility associated to the lower adsorption and that Pb and Cu present the opposite behavior. Significant correlations were found between the maximum adsorption capacity of the metals and pH value and exchangeable acid, suggesting that soil pH and exchangeable acid were key factors controlling the solubility and mobility of the metals in the agricultural soils.

  11. Bioaccumulation of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Cr by Porphyridium cruentum (S.F. Gray Nägeli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Retnaningsih Soeprobowati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The red microalgae Porphyridium cruentum (S.F. Gray Nägeli usually was used as feeds, a pigment for food and cosmetic, and antiviral activity that might be became industrial interest. Similar to another microalgae, P. cruentum has an ability to remediate heavy metals pollution, however research on it still limited. This research was conducted in order to find out the the accumulation of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Cu on the P. cruentum. A laboratory experiment were developed with different concentrations. Based on this research, P. cruentum with the treatment of 1 mg/L had reduced higher Cu, Pb, Cd, and Cr concentrations rather than 3 and 5 mg/L concentrations, respectively. This was also similar to the BCF, that in day 8 in order of Cu > Cr > Cd > Pb, respectively; however, in day 15 was Cu > Pb > Cd > Cr. The length of treatment influenced BCF value. P. cruentum was good for bioremediation of heavy metal pollution, with the advantage of the short of accumulation time.

  12. Risk assessment for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in urban soils: chemical availability as the central concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.R.; Cruz, N.; Coelho, C.; Henriques, B.; Carvalho, L.; Duarte, A.C.; Pereira, E.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the geochemical reactivity and oral bioaccessibility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils from the Porto area, four extractions were performed including Aqua Regia (AR; pseudototal), 0.43 M HNO(3) (reactive), 0.01 M CaCl(2) (available), and 0.4 M glycine at pH = 1.5, SBET method (oral bioac

  13. Utilização de pelos de animais silvestres para monitoramento ambiental de Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb e Zn Utilization of wild animal hair for the environmental monitoring of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb e Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Hoff Brait

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of wild animal hair of C. brachyurus, C. thous and L. pardalis as biomonitors of trace metal at Parque Nacional das Emas, Brazil. Results reveal a strong correlation between Cd and Pb as well as Cu and Zn, which suggests a single source of emission. Most metals showed a lower or equal concentration than those obtained in previous studies. The research shows that monitoring may be performed only with Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cr because of statistical similarity and of a non-natural occurrence of large amounts of the material under analysis.

  14. Investigation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg Concentrations in Groundwater Resources of Razan Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sobhan Ardakani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Iran is located in the dry and semi dry regions, thus almost 90% of the required fresh water is exploited from groundwater resources. Due to the increasing pol-lution of water resources, the purpose of this study was evaluation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg concentrations in groundwater resources of Razan Plain and preparing the zoning map using GIS. Materials & Methods: Groundwater samples were collected from 20 selected stations during two seasons in 2012. The samples were filtered (0.45 ?m and maintained cool in polyethyl-ene bottles. The samples were taken for the analysis of cations, the former was acidified with HNO3 to pH lower than 2. Minor elements were determined using ICP-OES. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Also, Kriging Method was used to prepare spatial distribution maps of elements in groundwater samples. Results: The results showed that the mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg in the groundwater samples during the spring were 5.60±0.66, 0.21±0.04, 32.10±2.21 and 6990.0±302.10 ppb, respectively, and the mean concentrations of these elements in the groundwater samples in the summer were 4.86±0.46, 0.30±0.08, 25.55±3.63 and 3654.05±215.65 ppb, respectively. Comparing the mean concentrations of the evaluated metals with WHO permissible limits showed a significant difference (p<0.05. Thus, the mean concentrations of the metals were significantly lower than the permissible limits. Conclusion: Although the groundwater resources of Razan Plain are not currently polluted with heavy metals, long-term excessive use of agricultural inputs and establishment of pollut-ing industries, can pose a threat to groundwater resources of this area. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21(4:319-329

  15. Water Soluble Cationic Porphyrin Sensor for Detection of Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cu2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matibur Zamadar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the sensing properties of the aqueous solution of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridylporphine tetrachloride (1 for simultaneous detection of toxic metal ions by using UV-vis spectroscopy. Cationic porphyrin 1 displayed different electronic absorptions in UV-vis region upon interacting with Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cu2+ ions in neutral water solution at room temperature. Quite interestingly, the porphyrin 1 showed that it can function as a single optical chemical sensor and/or metal ion receptor capable of detecting two or more toxic metal ions, particularly Hg2+, Pb2+, and Cd2+ ions coexisting in a water sample. Porphyrin 1 in an aqueous solution provides a unique UV-vis sensing system for the determination of Cd2+ in the presence of larger metal ions such as Hg2+, or Pb2+. Finally, the examination of the sensing properties of 1 demonstrated that it can operate as a Cu2+ ion selective sensor via metal displacement from the 1-Hg2+, 1-Pb2+, and 1-Cd2+.

  16. Interactions of tetracycline with Cd (II), Cu (II) and Pb (II) and their cosorption behavior in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetracycline (TC), a common antibiotic, can behave as an efficient ligand with cations, but the effect of its interaction with heavy metal cations on the mobility of both species in soils has not been well evaluated. In this study, the complexation affinities of TC with Cd (II), Cu (II) and Pb (II) were examined using potentiometric titration and spectroscopic methods. The cosorption behavior of TC and metal ions onto three selected Chinese soils was evaluated using batch adsorption experiments. The presence of metal cations promoted TC adsorption through an ion bridging effect in the order Cu (II) > Pb (II) > Cd (II), which is in accordance with their complexation ability with TC. The addition of TC affects metal adsorption differently depending on the solution pH and metal type. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the complexation ability of TC and divalent metal cations when evaluating their mobility in soils. -- Highlights: •The complex affinity with TC has an order of Cu(II) > Pb(II) > Cd(II). •The complexation constants of TC with the three metals are obtained. •The cosorption behavior in soils greatly depends on the complexation affinity. -- The interaction between tetracycline and metal cations can influence the adsorption behavior of these species in soils, depending on their complexation ability

  17. Removal of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn from a highly contaminated industrial soil using surfactant enhanced soil washing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luis G.; Lopez, Rosario B.; Beltran, Margarita

    Surfactant enhanced soil washing (SESW) was applied to an industrial contaminated soil. A preliminary characterization of the soil regarding the alkaline-earth metals, Na, K, Ca and Mg took values of 2866, 2036, 2783 and 4149 mg/kg. The heavy metals As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn, had values of 4019, 14, 35582, 70, 2603, and 261 mg/kg, respectively. When using different surfactants, high removal of Cu, Ni and Zn were found, and medium removals for Pb, As and Cd. In the case of these three metals, tap water removed more than the surfactant solutions, except for the case of As. There were surfactants with average removals (this is, the removal for all the metals studied) of 67.1% (Tween 80), 64.9% (Surfacpol 14104) and 61.2% (Emulgin W600). There were exceptional removals using Texapon N-40 (83.2%, 82.8% and 86.6% for Cu, Ni and Zn), Tween 80 (85.9, 85.4 and 81.5 for Cd, Zn and Cu), Polafix CAPB (79%, 83.2% and 49.7% for Ni, Zn and As). The worst results were obtained with POLAFIX LO with a global removal of 45%, well below of the average removal with tap water (50.2%).All removal efficiencies are reported for a one step washing using 0.5% surfactant solutions, except for the case of mezquite gum, where a 0.1% solution was employed.

  18. Distributions of dissolved trace metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ag in the southeastern Atlantic and the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boye

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive synoptic datasets (surface water down to 4000 m of dissolved cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn, lead (Pb and silver (Ag are presented along a section between 34° S and 57° S in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean to the south off South Africa. The vertical distributions of Cu, Ag, and of Cd display nutrient-like profiles similar to silicic acid, and phosphate, respectively. The distribution of Mn shows a subsurface maximum in the oxygen minimum zone, whereas Pb concentrations are rather invariable with depth. Dry deposition of aerosols is thought to be an important source of Pb to surface waters close to South Africa, and dry deposition and snowfall may have been significant sources of Cu and Mn at the higher latitudes. Furthermore, the advection of water-masses enriched in trace metals following contact with continental margins appeared to be an important source of trace elements to the surface, intermediate and deep waters in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Hydrothermal inputs appeared to have formed a source of trace metals to the deep waters over the Bouvet Triple Junction ridge crest, as suggested by relatively enhanced dissolved Mn concentrations. The biological utilization of Cu and Ag was proportional to that of silicic acid across the section, suggesting that diatoms formed an important control over the removal of Cu and Ag from surface waters. However uptake by dino- and nano-flagelattes may have influenced the distribution of Cu and Ag in the surface waters of the subtropical Atlantic domain. Cadmium correlated strongly with phosphate (P, yielding lower Cd/P ratios in the subtropical surface waters where phosphate concentrations were below 0.95 μM. The greater depletion of Cd relative to P observed in the Weddell Gyre compared to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current could be due to increase Cd-uptake induced by iron-limiting conditions in these High

  19. The relationships between heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) levels and the size of six Mediterranean fish species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant relationships between metal concentrations and fish size were negative. - Heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) concentrations in the muscle, gill and liver of six fish species (Sparus auratus, Atherina hepsetus, Mugil cephalus, Trigla cuculus, Sardina pilchardus and Scomberesox saurus) from the northeast Mediterranean Sea were measured and the relationships between fish size (length and weight) and metal concentrations in the tissues were investigated by linear regression analysis. Metal concentrations (as μg/g d.w.) were highest in the liver, except for iron in the gill of Scomberesox saurus and lowest in the muscle of all the fish species. Highest concentrations of Cd (4.50), Cr (17.1) and Pb (41.2) were measured in liver tissues of T. cuculus, Sardina pilchardus and A. hepsetus, respectively. The liver of M. cephalus showed strikingly high Cu concentrations (202.8). The gill of Scomberesox saurus was the only tissue that showed highest (885.5) iron concentrations. Results of linear regression analysis showed that, except in a few cases, significant relationships between metal concentrations and fish size were negative. Highly significant (P<0.001) negative relationships were found between fish length and Cr concentrations in the liver of A. hepsetus and M. cephalus, and Cr concentrations in the gill of T. cuculus. Cr and Pb concentrations in the liver and Cu concentrations in all the tissues of Scomberesox saurus also showed very significant (P<0.001) negative relationships. Negative relationships found here were discussed

  20. Pine bark as bio-adsorbent for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutillas-Barreiro, L.; Ansias-Manso, L.; Fernandez Calviño, David;

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the retention of five metals on pine bark using stirred flow and batch-type experiments. Resulting from batch-type kinetic experiments, adsorption was rapid, with no significant differences for the various contact times. Adsorption was between 98 and 99...... to the added concentrations, with Pb always showing the lowest levels. Stirred flow chamber experiments showed strong hysteresis for Pb and Cu, sorption being mostly irreversible. The differences affecting the studied heavy metals are mainly due to different affinity for the adsorption sites. Pine bark can...

  1. Genotypic variations in the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn exhibited by six commonly grown vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal contaminants in garden and allotment soils could possibly affect human health through a variety of pathways. This study focused on the potential pathway of consumption of vegetables grown on contaminated soil. Five cultivars each of six common vegetables were grown in a control and in a soil spiked with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Highly significant differences in metal content were evident between cultivars of a number of vegetables for several of the contaminants. Carrot and pea cultivars exhibited significant differences in accumulated concentrations of Cd and Cu with carrot cultivars also exhibiting significant differences in Zn. Distinctive differences were also identified when comparing one vegetable to another, legumes (Leguminosae) tending to be low accumulators, root vegetables (Umbelliferae and Liliaceae) tending to be moderate accumulators and leafy vegetables (Compositae and Chenopodiaceae) being high accumulators. - Genotypic differences between cultivars of vegetable species can be important in determining the extent of accumulation of metals from contaminated soil

  2. Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetric determination of Cd, Pb and Cu in wine: Set-up and optimization of sample pre-treatment and instrumental parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time, square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was set up and optimized for the determination of Cd, Pb and Cu in white wine after UV photo-oxidative digestion of the sample. The best procedure for the sample pre-treatment consisted in a 6-h UV irradiation of diluted, acidified wine, with the addition of ultrapure H2O2 (three sequential additions during the irradiation). Due to metal concentration differences, separate measurements were carried out for Cd (deposition potential −950 mV vs. Ag/AgCl/3 M KCl deposition time 15 min) and simultaneously for Pb and Cu (Ed −750 mV, td 30 s). The optimum set-up of the main instrumental parameters, evaluated also in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, were as follows: ESW 20 mV, f 100 Hz, ΔEstep 8 mV, tstep 100 ms, twait 60 ms, tdelay 2 ms, tmeas 3 ms. The electrochemical behaviour was reversible bielectronic for Cd and Pb, and kinetically controlled monoelectronic for Cu. Good accuracy was found both when the recovery procedure was used and when the results were compared with data obtained by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The linearity of the response was verified up to ∼4 μg L−1 for Cd and Pb and ∼15 μg L−1 for Cu. The detection limits for td = 5 min in the 10 times diluted, UV digested sample were (ng L−1): Cd 7.0, Pb 1.2 and Cu 6.6, which are well below currently applied methods. Application to a Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi white wine revealed concentration levels of Cd ∼0.2, Pb ∼10, Cu ∼30 μg L−1 with repeatabilities of (±RSD%) Cd ±6%, Pb ±5%, Cu ±10%

  3. Selective removals of heavy metals (Pb(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+)) from wastewater by gelation with alginate for effective metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Lu, Xingwen; Li, Xiao-yan

    2016-05-01

    A novel method that uses the aqueous sodium alginate solution for direct gelation with metal ions is developed for effective removal and recovery of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. The experimental study was conducted on Pb(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) as the model heavy metals. The results show that gels can be formed rapidly between the metals and alginate in less than 10 min and the gelation rates fit well with the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The optimum dosing ratio of alginate to the metal ions was found to be between 2:1 and 3:1 for removing Pb(2+) and around 4:1 for removing Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) from wastewater, and the metal removal efficiency by gelation increased as the solution pH increased. Alginate exhibited a higher gelation affinity toward Pb(2+) than Cu(2+) and Cd(2+), which allowed a selective removal of Pb(2+) from the wastewater in the presence of Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) ions. Chemical analysis of the gels suggests that the gelation mainly occurred between the metal ions and the -COO(-) and -OH groups on alginate. By simple calcination of the metal-laden gels at 700 °C for 1 h, the heavy metals can be well recovered as valuable resources. The metals obtained after the thermal treatment are in the form of PbO, CuO, and CdO nanopowders with crystal sizes of around 150, 50, and 100 nm, respectively.

  4. Experimental analysis of the simultaneous uptake of the heavy metals Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Se in the sporophore of mushrooms. Versuche ueber die simultane Aufnahme der Schwermetalle Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn und Se in Pilzfruchtkoerper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suehs, K.

    With mushrooms of the species Agaricus bisporus and Boletus badius the simultaneous uptake of the heavy metals Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Se from soil to the sporophore was studied. To avoid misleadingly overrated enrichmentfactors when comparing the heavy metal contents of dried mushrooms and soils, a so-called transfer factor TF[sub v] which is related to the volume is put to discussion here, this factor takes account of the relatively small amount of dry matter in mushrooms and of the different composition (that means specific weight) of the soils in question. With help of these transfer factors the conclusion is derived, that essential elements show a better enrichment behaviour than biologically superfluous heavy metals, at least this is true with the insignificantly contaminated soils we investigated. With Cd as an example of a ''superfluous'' element it is shown that there is a strict proportionality of Cd concentrations in the mushrooms and the corresponding soils, thus producing a constant transfer factor. Apart from this the uptake of copper into the mushrooms is promoted (growth of the transfer factor) by a larger Cd supply, whereas the other elements under investigation (even the classical antagonist Zn) are not significantly affected. Furthermore there is evidence that with increasing heavy metal concentration (Cd) first the fructification of the thallus is supported and moreover, that increasing age of this primary fungus corresponds with an increase of heavy metals in the mushrooms. (orig.)

  5. Survey of Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu Contamination in Sediment of Three Sites Anzali Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M khosravi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives:Anzali Wetland is one of the most important aquatic ecosystems of Iran which is located in south-west of the Caspian sea. This Wetland provides a suitable and non-market price habitat for valuable fish and aquatic animals which have an important role in the life cycle of this ecosystem. This study reports the results of some heavy metals contamination monitoring in superficial water of the Anzali Wetland, Iran.Materials and Methods: The samples were collected from three sites (east, center and west of Anzali Wetland, in each site three stations existed and each sample replicated three times.Results: The results showed high heavy metal levels in eastern site of wetland, where there were high levels of contamination. The mean of heavy metals concentration in sediment from Anzali Wetland were in order as Cd 157.023, Pb 3.646 and Hg 300.692 ng /g dried weight, Zn 186.953 and Cu 44.452 mg /g dried weight in eastern site. The concentration levels of heavy metals in three sites were in order as follows: Zn > Cu > Hg > Cd > Pb. Conclusion: Concentrations of heavy metals in eastern zone reflected metal loadings from anthropogenic sources located at and in the vicinity of the sampling sites.

  6. BIOSORPTIVE REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS (Cd+2, Pb+2 AND Cu+2 FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADHAVI G MULGUND,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The hazardous ill effects of heavy metals on the environment and public health is a matter of serious concern. Biosorption is emerging as a sustainable effective technology. The aim of this present study was to investigate the removal of heavy metals (Cd+2, Pb+2 and Cu+2 using Cassia angustifolia bark. The objective was to evaluate the biosorbent for its metal uptake and study its batch equilibrium. The batch mode was carried out at varying initial pH (5 to 9, emperature (300C to 450C, metal ion concentration (20mg to 140mg/L and contact time (5 min to 240 min and desorption studies from pH 1 to 11. The equilibrium data obtained fit well in Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results of the investigations show the efficacy of Cassia angustifolia bark as a low cost promising biosorbent for removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters.

  7. Determination of mobile form contents of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in soil extracts by combined stripping voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedeltcheva, T. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridsi Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: nedel@uctm.edu; Atanassova, M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridsi Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimitrov, J. [N. Pushkarov Institute of Soil Science and Agroecology, 7 Shosse Bankya St., 1080 Sofia (Bulgaria); Stanislavova, L. [N. Pushkarov Institute of Soil Science and Agroecology, 7 Shosse Bankya St., 1080 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-01-10

    The amount of mobile forms of Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu in extracts obtained by treating soil samples with ammonium nitrate were determined by an appropriate combination of anodic and cathodic stripping voltammetry with hanging mercury drop electrode. Every analysis required three mercury drops: on the first one, zinc was determined; on the second, cadmium and lead; on the third, copper was determined. Zinc, lead and cadmium were determined by conventional differential-pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. For copper determination, adsorptive differential-pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry with amalgamation using chloride ions as a complexing agent was applied. The standard deviation of the results was from 1 to 10% depending on the metal content in the sample. Voltammetric results were in good agreement with the AAS analysis. No microwave digestion of soil extracts was necessary.

  8. Assessing comparative terrestrial ecotoxicity of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn: The influence of aging and emission source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Holm, Peter E.; Fantke, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Metal exposure to terrestrial organisms is influenced by the reactivity of the solid-phase metal pool. This reactivity is thought to depend on the type of emission source, on aging mechanisms that are active in the soil, and on ambient conditions. Our work shows, that when controlling for soil p...... the influence of aging time on the reactivity of metals from anthropogenic sources in soils. Thus, for calculating comparative toxicity potentials of man-made metal contaminations in soils, we recommend using time-horizon independent accessibility factors derived from source-specific reactive fractions.......H or soil organic carbon, emission source occasionally has an effect on reactivity of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn emitted from various anthropogenic sources followed by aging in the soil from a few years to two centuries. The uncertainties in estimating the age prevent definitive conclusions about...

  9. CORRELATION OF THE PARTITIONING OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER FRACTIONS WITH THE DESORPTION OF CD, CU, NI, PB AND ZN FROM 18 DUTCH SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eighteen Dutch soils were extracted in aqueous solutions at varying pH. Extracts were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by ICP-AES. Extract dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was also concentrated onto a macroreticular resin and fractionation into three operationally defined fract...

  10. Heavy Metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn) in Meretrix meretrix Roding, Water and Sediments from Estuaries in Sabah, North Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd. Harun; Sidi, Jovita; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn) in tissues of Meretrix meretrix Roding (M. meretrix R.), water and sediments from two estuaries were determined. One estuary is located in an urban area of Kota Kinabalu (Likas estuary) and the other in a rural district of Kota Belud (Kota Belud estuary), where both are in Sabah, North of…

  11. Mid-twentieth century increases in anthropogenic Pb, Cd and Cu in central Asia set in hemispheric perspective using Tien Shan ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigholm, B.; Mayewski, P. A.; Aizen, V.; Kreutz, K.; Wake, C. P.; Aizen, E.; Kang, S.; Maasch, K. A.; Handley, M. J.; Sneed, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution major and trace element (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Ti, and V) ice core records from Inilchek glacier (5120 m above sea level) on the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau provide the first multi-decadal ice core record spanning the period 1908-1995 AD in central Tien Shan. The trace element records reveal pronounced temporal baseline trends and concentration maxima characteristic of post-1950 anthropogenic emissions. Examination of Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations, along with non-crustal calculation estimates (i.e. excess (ex) and enrichment factor (EF)), reveal that discernable anthropogenic inputs began during the 1950s and rapidly increased to the late-1970s and early 1980s, by factors up to of 5, 6 and 3, respectively, relative to a 1910-1950 means. Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations between the 1950s-1980s are reflective of large-scale Soviet industrial and agricultural development, including the growth of production and/or consumption of the non-ferrous metals, coal and phosphate fertilizers. NOAA HYSPLIT back-trajectory frequency analysis suggests pollutant sources originating primarily from southern Kazakhstan (e.g. Shymkent and Balkhash) and the Fergana Valley (located in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan). Inilchek ice core Pb, Cd and Cu reveals declines during the 1980s concurrent with Soviet economic declines, however, due to the rapid industrial and agricultural growth of western China, Pb, Cd and Cu trends increase during the 1990s reflecting a transition from primarily central Asian sources to emission sources from western China (e.g. Xinjiang Province).

  12. Investigation on Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd fractions in the natural surface coating samples and surficial sediments in the Songhua River, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Shu-hai; WANG Xiao-li; LI YU; CHEN Jie-jiang; YANG Jun-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Natural surface coating samples (NSCSs) from the surface of shingles and surficial sediments (SSs) in the Songhua River,China were employed to investigate the relationship between NSCSs and SSs in fractions of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd) using the modified sequential extraction procedure (MSEP). The results show that the differences between NSCSs and SSs in Fe fractions were insignificant and Fe was dominantly present as residual phase (76.22% for NSCSs and 80.88% for SSs) and Fe-oxides phase (20.33% for NSCSs and 16.15% for SSs). Significant variation of Mn distribution patterns between NSCSs and SSs was observed with Mn in NSCSs mainly present in Mn-oxides phase (48.27%) and that in SSs present as residual phase (45.44%). Zn, Cu,Pb and Cd were found dominantly in residual fractions (>48%), and next in solid oxides/hydroxides for Zn, Pb and Cd and in easily oxidizable solids/compounds form for Cu, respectively. The heavy metal distribution patterns implied that Fe/Mn oxides both in NSCSs and SSs were more important sinks for binding and adsorption of Zn, Pb and Cd than organic matter (OM), and inversely,higher affinity of Cu to OM than Fe/Mn oxides in NSCSs and SSs was obtained. Meanwhile, it was found that the distributions of heavy metals in NSCSs and SSs were similar to each other and the pseudo-total concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in NSCSs were greater than those in SSs, highlighting the more importance for NSCSs than SSs in controlling behaviours of heavy metals in aquatic environments.

  13. Determination of contamination levels of Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Mn caused by former lead mining gallery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakırdere, Sezgin; Bölücek, Cemal; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, levels of metal contamination caused by former lead mining area were figured out. For this purpose, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Mn were determined not only in sediment samples taken from different places of the mining area but also in some plants taken around the mining place. In the digestion of plant samples, dry ashing procedure was applied. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) was used in the determination of analytes of interest. All the parameters in digestion and detection procedures were optimized to obtain efficient digestion and high sensitivities for analytes. Standard addition and direct calibration methods were applied to find whether there was any matrix interference to affect the determination of analytes. Mn concentration was found to be the highest for each sample analyzed. Lead concentration was found to be between 41 and 249 mg/kg in soil/sediment samples and between 2.2 and 1003 mg/kg in plant samples. The highest contamination levels for all of the analytes with the exception of Cd were found in current sediment sample.

  14. A test of the stability of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn profiles over two decades in lake sediments near the Flin Flon Smelter, Manitoba, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percival, J.B.; Outridge, P.M., E-mail: outridge@nrcan.gc.ca

    2013-06-01

    Lake sediments are valuable archives of atmospheric metal deposition, but the stability of some element profiles may possibly be affected by diagenetic changes over time. In this extensive case study, the stability of sedimentary Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn profiles was assessed in dated sediment cores that were collected in 2004 from four smelter-affected lakes near Flin Flon, Manitoba, which had previously been cored in 1985. Metal profiles determined in 1985 were in most cases clearly reproduced in the corresponding sediment layers in 2004, although small-scale spatial heterogeneity in metal distribution complicated the temporal comparisons. Pre-smelter (i.e. pre-1930) increases in metal profiles were likely the result of long-range atmospheric metal pollution, coupled with particle mixing at the 1930s sediment surface. However, the close agreement between key inflection points in the metal profiles sampled two decades apart suggests that metals in most of the lakes, and Hg and Zn in the most contaminated lake (Meridian), were stable once the sediments were buried below the surface mixed layer. Cadmium, Cu and Pb profiles in Meridian Lake did not agree as well between studies, showing evidence of upward remobilization over time. Profiles of redox-indicator elements (Fe, Mn, Mo and U) suggested that the rate of Mn oxyhydroxide recycling within sediment was more rapid in Meridian Lake, which may have caused the Cd, Cu and Pb redistribution. - Highlights: • Sedimentary Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn profiles in four lakes were mostly unchanged over 19 years. • In one lake, Cd, Cu and Pb profiles were offset relative to the originals. • The offset could indicate diagenetic upcore dispersal of these metals.

  15. Sub-cellular partitioning of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the digestive gland of native Octopus vulgaris exposed to different metal concentrations (Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimundo, J. [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research - IPIMAR, Av. Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: jraimundo@ipimar.pt; Vale, C. [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research - IPIMAR, Av. Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisbon (Portugal); Duarte, R.; Moura, I. [REQUIMTE - CQFB, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Qta Torre, 2829-516 Monte da Caparica (Portugal)

    2008-02-15

    Concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb and their sub-cellular distributions were determined in composite samples of digestive glands of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris caught from two areas of the Portuguese coast characterised by contrasting metal contamination. Minor contents of Zn (1%), Cu (2%), Cd (6%) and Pb (7%) were found in the insoluble fraction, consisting of nuclei, mitochondria, lysosomes and microsome operationally separated from the whole digestive gland through a sequential centrifugation. A tendency for linear relationships between metal concentrations in nuclei, mitochondria, lysosomes and whole digestive gland was observed. These relationships suggest that despite low metal content organelles responded to the increasing accumulated metals, which means that detoxifying mechanism in cytosol was incomplete. Poorer correlations between microsome and whole digestive gland did not point to metal toxicity in the analysed compartments. However, the high accumulated Cd indicated that O. vulgaris is an important vehicle of this element to its predators in the coastal environment.

  16. Distribution and speciation of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in agricultural and non-agricultural soils near a stream upriver from the Pearl River, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution and chemical speciation of typical metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in agricultural and non-agricultural soils were investigated in the area of Nanpan River, upstream of the Pearl River. The investigated four metals showed higher concentrations in agricultural soils than in non-agricultural soils, and the site located in factory district contained metals much higher than the other sampling sites. These observations suggested that human activities, such as water irrigation, fertilizer and pesticide applications might have a major impact on the distribution of metals. Metal speciation analysis presented that Cu, Zn and Cd were dominated by the residual fraction, while Pb was dominated by the reducible fraction. Because of the low mobility of the metals in the investigated area, no remarkable difference could be observed between upstream and downstream separated by the factory site. -- Highlights: ► Agricultural soils contain higher metal concentrations than non-agricultural soils. ► The site located in the factory district has the highest metal concentration. ► Cu, Zn and Cd are dominated by residual fraction, and Pb by reducible fraction. ► Cd pollution should not be overlooked in soils upstream of Pearl River. -- The mobility of four investigated metals is low but Cd pollution should not be overlooked in soils upstream of Pearl River

  17. Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations in Ulva lactuca, Codium fragile, Jania rubens, and Dictyota dichotoma from Rabta Bay, Jijel (Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laib, Essaid; Leghouchi, Essaid

    2012-03-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were determined in algae samples collected from the Rabta Bay in the Mediterranean Sea, Algeria. The levels of heavy metals in the macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, Codium fragile (green algae), Jania rubens (red algae), and Dictyota dichotoma (brown algae) recorded high concentrations except for Cd. Moreover, Zn was the most predominant metal in the seaweeds. The obtained HM contents indicate that different species demonstrate various degree of metal accumulation and the obtained higher values in site 1 of the studied zone can be attributed to the discharge influence of two rivers (Mouttas and Larayeche Rivers), entering the Mediterranean Sea and local pollutant emissions. The abundance of heavy metal concentrations in the macroalgae samples was found in the order below: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd from the studied zone. The highest amounts of heavy metals in algae samples were Cd, Cu, and Pb in brown algae, and Cr and Zn in green and brown algae from the studied zone (Rabta Bay). PMID:21755430

  18. Immobilization of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) by the addition of rice straw derived biochar to a simulated polluted Ultisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Xu, Ren-kou; Jiang, Tian-yu; Li, Zhuo

    2012-08-30

    To develop new remediation methods for acidic soils polluted by heavy metals, the chemical fractions of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) in an Ultisol with and without rice straw biochar were compared and the effect of biochar incorporation on the mobility and bioavailability of these metals was investigated. In light of the decreasing zeta potential and increasing CEC, the incorporation of biochar made the negative soil surface charge more negative. Additionally, the soil pH increased markedly after the addition of biochar. These changes in soil properties were advantageous for heavy metal immobilization in the bulk soil. The acid soluble Cu(II) and Pb(II) decreased by 19.7-100.0% and 18.8-77.0%, respectively, as the amount of biochar added increased. The descending range of acid soluble Cd(II) was 5.6-14.1%, which was much lower than that of Cu(II) and Pb(II). When 5.0 mmol/kg of these heavy metals was added, the reducible Pb(II) for treatments containing 3% and 5% biochar was 2.0 and 3.0 times higher than that of samples without biochar, while the reducible Cu(II) increased by 61.6% and 132.6% for the corresponding treatments, respectively. When 3% and 5% biochar was added, the oxidizable portion of Pb(II) increased by 1.18 and 1.94 times, respectively, while the oxidizable portion of Cu(II) increased by 8.13 and 7.16 times, respectively, primarily due to the high adsorption affinity of functional groups of biochar to Cu(II). The residual heavy metal contents were low and changed little with the incorporation of biochar. PMID:22704774

  19. Effect of biochar on the extractability of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and enzyme activity in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing; Liu, Jingjing; McGrouther, Kim; Huang, Huagang; Lu, Kouping; Guo, Xi; He, Lizhi; Lin, Xiaoming; Che, Lei; Ye, Zhengqian; Wang, Hailong

    2016-01-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich solid material derived from the pyrolysis of agricultural and forest residual biomass. Previous studies have shown that biochar is suitable as an adsorbent for soil contaminants such as heavy metals and consequently reduces their bioavailability. However, the long-term effect of different biochars on metal extractability or soil health has not been assessed. Therefore, a 1-year incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of biochar produced from bamboo and rice straw (at temperatures ≥500 °C) on the heavy metal (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) extractability and enzyme activity (urease, catalase, and acid phosphatase) in a contaminated sandy loam paddy soil. Three rates (0, 1, and 5%) and two mesh sizes (impact on acid phosphatase activity. In conclusion, the rice straw biochar had greater potential as an amendment for reducing the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil than that of the bamboo biochar. The impact of biochar treatment on heavy metal extractability and enzyme activity varied with the biochar type, application rate, and particle size. PMID:25772863

  20. Remove of Heavy Metals(Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+) in Water Through Modified Diatomite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jia; WANG Hong-liang; L(U) Chun-xin; LIU Han-fei; GUO Zhi-xin; KANG Chun-li

    2013-01-01

    At present,heavy metal pollution has become a major environmental problem,influencing the survival of human and other creatures.Developing heavy metal ion adsorbents,which are environment friendly,of low cost and good performance is one of the effective means to solve heavy metal pollution.Rich low-grade diatomite mineral,as raw material,was modified with calcium carbonate to improve the adsorption properties of diatomite for heavy metal ions.The effects of dosage(m),pH,adsorbing time(t),temperature(T) and concentration of adsorbent(c) on the removal rate of heavy metal ions(Cu2+,Pb2+,Zn2+ and Cd2+) were studied.The results show that under the suitable conditions,T=15 ℃,c=1.5 mmol/L,m=10 g/L,t=60 min,in a weak acid environment,the removal effect of the four kinds of metal ions by modified diatomite is the best.

  1. Proficiency test PLANTS 8 - determination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn in dry carrot root powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proficiency test PLANTS 8: determination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn in dry carrot root powder has been described. The proficiency test has been provided by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology with cooperation with POLLAB-CHEM/EURACHEM-PL and REFMAT Society according to ISO/IEC Guide 43-1:1997 and IUPAC International Harmonized Protocol (2006). Testing material was prepared from home-grown carrots which were air dried, milled and sieved. Particle fraction below 0.5 mm was collected and bottled in 20 g portions. Homogeneity testing shown that the material was homogenized for sample mass at least 250 mg. Assigned (reference) values and their uncertainties were established on the basis of the results of analysis provided by 3 reference laboratories. The testing samples were send to 25 laboratories participating in the proficiency test. 24 laboratories had send results. The results supplied by the participants were statistically evaluated. Values of z-score, zeta-score and En numbers were used for the evaluation of the participating laboratory performance. (authors)

  2. Effect of biochar on the extractability of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and enzyme activity in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing; Liu, Jingjing; McGrouther, Kim; Huang, Huagang; Lu, Kouping; Guo, Xi; He, Lizhi; Lin, Xiaoming; Che, Lei; Ye, Zhengqian; Wang, Hailong

    2016-01-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich solid material derived from the pyrolysis of agricultural and forest residual biomass. Previous studies have shown that biochar is suitable as an adsorbent for soil contaminants such as heavy metals and consequently reduces their bioavailability. However, the long-term effect of different biochars on metal extractability or soil health has not been assessed. Therefore, a 1-year incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of biochar produced from bamboo and rice straw (at temperatures ≥500 °C) on the heavy metal (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) extractability and enzyme activity (urease, catalase, and acid phosphatase) in a contaminated sandy loam paddy soil. Three rates (0, 1, and 5%) and two mesh sizes (heavy metals, available phosphorus, and enzyme activity of soil samples were analyzed. The results demonstrated that rice straw biochar significantly (P heavy metals as biochar application rate increased. The heavy metal extractability was significantly (P heavy metals in soil than that of the bamboo biochar. The impact of biochar treatment on heavy metal extractability and enzyme activity varied with the biochar type, application rate, and particle size.

  3. Trace analysis of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in various materials using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling and sample preparation methods have been described. Digestion methods for different types of materials and acid purification systems have been developed. For trace analysis purposes cleaning methods for glassware etc. have been described. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltametric (DPASV) method has been worked out for the trace analysis of zn, cd, pb and Cu in different types of materials. Linearity of the method has been checked by drawing concentration versus currents (peak height) curves. Precision of the method has been checked by analysing a number of actual samples. of the method has been verified by analysing standards of U.S.A. Comparative studies have been done between Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric method and Atomic Absorption spectroscopic method. Problems of contamination and systematic errors during trace and ultra-trace analysis have been discussed. A variety of samples including soil, spinach, wheat flour, rice flour, dry milk, coriander, kidney stones, bladder stones etc. have been analysed and preliminary results have been reported. (author)

  4. Extratores para Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn em LATOSSOLOS tratados com biossólido e cultivados com milho Extractants for Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in biossolid-amanded Oxisols cultivated with corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa Martins dos Anjos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso de biossólidos (lodo de esgoto em áreas agrícolas cria uma demanda por informações sobre o extrator mais adequado para se prever disponibilidade de metais pesados, presentes nesse resíduo, para as espécies vegetais cultivadas nessas áreas. A eficiência dos extratores HCl 0,1 mol L-1, Mehlich 3 e DTPA 0,005 mol L-1 pH 7,3 e da água régia na previsão da fitodisponibilidade de metais pesados presentes em solos tratados com biossólido foi avaliada através de um experimento com milho cultivado em LATOSSOLO VERMELHO Distrófico (LVd e LATOSSOLO AMARELO Distrófico (LAd. As parcelas experimentais foram vasos com capacidade para 0,5 m³de terra, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, quatro tratamentos (LVd+lodo, LVd, LAd+lodo e LAd e quatro métodos de extração com quatro repetições. O biossólido foi aplicado antes do cultivo do milho, numa quantidade total de 388 Mg ha-1, base seca, parcelada em 5 vezes espaçadas de 2 meses cada. Antes de semear o milho foi feita a amostragem da terra a 0-0,20 m, que foi analisada para teor total dos metais presentes com água régia e teores trocáveis removidos pelos extratores: solução 0,1 mol L-1 de HCl, Mehlich 3; DTPA-TEA pH 7,3. As plantas foram separadas em folha diagnose, folhas ao final do ciclo, pendão, colmo, bainha, sabugo, palha e grãos. Apesar da quantidade de biossólido aplicada aos solos, os teores totais dos metais analisados não excederam os limites críticos estabelecidos pela United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA e pela Diretriz da Comunidade Européia. As correlações feitas entre teor de metais presentes nas várias partes das plantas e teores dos metais removidos pelos diferentes extratores evidenciaram que Mehlich 3 foi eficiente apenas na previsão da fitodisponibilidade de Cu e Zn. Nenhum dos extratores testados foi eficiente na previsão da disponibilidade de Cd, Cr, Ni e Pb para as plantas de milho.The use of biossolids

  5. Biochar prepared from castor oil cake at different temperatures: A voltammetric study applied for Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) ions preconcentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinke, Cristiane; Mangrich, Antonio Sálvio; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz H; Bergamini, Márcio F

    2016-11-15

    Biochar is a carbonaceous material similar produced by pyrolysis of biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. Pyrolysis temperature is an important parameter that can alters biochar characteristics (e.g. surface area, pore size distribution and surface functional groups) and affects it efficacy for adsorption of several probes. In this work, biochar samples have been prepared from castor oil cake using different temperatures of pyrolysis (200-600°C). For the first time, a voltammetric procedure based on carbon paste modified electrode (CPME) was used to investigate the effect of temperature of pyrolysis on the adsorptive characteristics of biochar for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions. Besides the electrochemical techniques, several characterizations have been performed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of biochar in function of the increase of the pyrolysis temperature. Results suggest that biochar pyrolized at 400°C (BC400) showed a better potential for ions adsorption. The CPME modified with BC400 showed better relative current signal with adsorption affinity: Pb(II)>Cd(II)>Cu(II). Kinetic studies revealed that the pseudo-second order model describes more accurately the adsorption process suggesting that the surface reactions control the adsorption rate. Values found for amount adsorbed were 15.94±0.09; 4.29±0.13 and 2.38±0.39μgg(-1) for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions, respectively.

  6. Mechanism of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions sorption from aqueous solutions by macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasović, Aleksandra B.; Ekmeščić, Bojana M.; Sandić, Zvjezdana P.; Ranđelović, Danijela V.; Mozetič, Miran; Vesel, Alenka; Onjia, Antonije E.

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions sorption from aqueous solutions by macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (PGME) functionalized by reaction of the pendant epoxy groups with diethylene triamine (PGME-deta) was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) were used for the determination of surface morphology of the copolymer particles. The sorption behavior of heavy metals Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions sorption was investigated in batch static experiments under non-competitive conditions at room temperature (298 K). The obtained results were fitted to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic model. The kinetics studies showed that Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) sorption obeys the pseudo-second-order model under all investigated operating conditions with evident influence of pore diffusion.

  7. Biochar prepared from castor oil cake at different temperatures: A voltammetric study applied for Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) ions preconcentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinke, Cristiane; Mangrich, Antonio Sálvio; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz H; Bergamini, Márcio F

    2016-11-15

    Biochar is a carbonaceous material similar produced by pyrolysis of biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. Pyrolysis temperature is an important parameter that can alters biochar characteristics (e.g. surface area, pore size distribution and surface functional groups) and affects it efficacy for adsorption of several probes. In this work, biochar samples have been prepared from castor oil cake using different temperatures of pyrolysis (200-600°C). For the first time, a voltammetric procedure based on carbon paste modified electrode (CPME) was used to investigate the effect of temperature of pyrolysis on the adsorptive characteristics of biochar for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions. Besides the electrochemical techniques, several characterizations have been performed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of biochar in function of the increase of the pyrolysis temperature. Results suggest that biochar pyrolized at 400°C (BC400) showed a better potential for ions adsorption. The CPME modified with BC400 showed better relative current signal with adsorption affinity: Pb(II)>Cd(II)>Cu(II). Kinetic studies revealed that the pseudo-second order model describes more accurately the adsorption process suggesting that the surface reactions control the adsorption rate. Values found for amount adsorbed were 15.94±0.09; 4.29±0.13 and 2.38±0.39μgg(-1) for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions, respectively. PMID:27469040

  8. Levels of Cd (II, Mn (II, Pb (II, Cu (II, and Zn (II in Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo from Sicily (Italy by Derivative Stripping Potentiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Licata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn in different organs (liver, kidney, muscle, lung, skin, and feathers of buzzards (Buteo buteo, utilized as a “biological indicator” for environmental contamination, from different areas of Sicily and to investigate the relationships between birds sex, age, and weight and metal levels in these samples. All samples of common buzzards were collected at the “Recovery Center of Wild Fauna” of Palermo, through the Zooprophilactic Institute. Potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA was used to determine the content of Cd(II, Cu(II, Mn(II, Pb(II, and Zn(II in bird tissues. For toxic metals, the highest levels of Pb were in liver and those of Cd in lung; Zn levels were higher than Cu and Mn in all tissues analyzed. The concentrations in liver, lung, kidney, and muscle could be considered as an indicative of chronic exposure to metals while the presence of metals in skin could be consequential to storing and elimination processes. The found concentrations of metals in the studied matrices required a highly sensitive method for their determination and a simple sample preparation procedure, and the proposed method was well suited for this purpose.

  9. Soluble/insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable fractionation of Cd, Pb and Cu in Antarctic snow and its relationship with metal fractionations in the aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annibaldi A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A chemical fractionation methodology for determination of the (water soluble and the insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable fractions of Cd, Pb and Cu in Antarctic snow was set-up and verified for the additivity of the two fractions detected. Molten samples were filtrated and the water-insoluble fraction was extracted by dilute ultrapure HCl (pH ~1.5. Metal determinations were carried out in the two fractions by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The total metal concentrations in samples collected in the 2000–2001 austral summer in a clean area (Faraglione Camp in the neighbourhood of the Mario Zucchelli Italian Station were of the order of Cd 10-20 pg g−1, Pb 20–40 pg g−1, Cu 60–120 pg g−1 with an approximate equidistribution between soluble and insoluble fractions. These fractionations compare well (and show a quite consistent temporal trend with those observed in the aerosol samples collected in the same area/period and confirm the close relationship between metal distributions in snow/ice and in the aerosol. At the station metal concentrations increase due to anthropic contribution and the distribution changes with Cd predominantly present in the soluble fraction (~80%, while Pb and Cu are more concentrated in the insoluble fraction, 70–80% and ~70%, respectively.

  10. Contents of metals Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu in Agricultural Soils of Zagreb and Its Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Romić

    1998-09-01

    The highest average cadmium content of 0.93 mg/kg Cd per designated regions was recorded in the youngest river valley along the Sava. Anomalous values were also encountered in the youngest valley along the Sava watercourse, where the average zinc content amounted to 87.08 mg/kg Zn, which are classified as highly contaminated soils. Higher copper values were determined in the hilly area of Mt. Medvednica and Pleistocene of sloping terrains, which seems to be related to the manner of land use (vineyards, gardens at private holdings.

  11. SWASV speciation of Cd, Pb and Cu for the determination of seawater contamination in the area of the Nicole shipwreck (Ancona coast, Central Adriatic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    The study reports for the first time on the heavy metal contamination of the waters surrounding a shipwreck lying on the sea floor. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry has been used for a survey of the total and dissolved Cd, Pb and Cu contents of the seawater at the site of the sinking of the Nicole M/V (Coastal Adriatic Sea, Italy). Results show that the hulk has a considerable impact as regards all three metals in the bottom water, especially for the particulate fraction concentrations, which increased by factors of ≈ 9 (Cd), ≈ 3 (Pb) and ≈ 5 (Cu). The contaminated plume extended downstream for about 2 miles. Much lower contamination was observed for dissolved bottom concentrations; nevertheless Pb (0.56 ± 0.03 nmol/L) is higher than the Italian legal limits established for 2015 and Cd (0.23 ± 0.03 nmol/L) is very close the limit of Cd will be exceeded if the hulk is not removed. PMID:21982428

  12. Influence of Al and the heavy metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd on development and efficacy of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza in tropical and subtropical plants. Einfluss von Al und den Schwermetallen Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb und Cd auf die Effizienz der VA-Mykorrhiza bei tropischen und subtropischen Pflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabig, B.

    1982-07-08

    In greenhouse experiments the influence of Al and the heavy metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd on the efficacy of VA-mycorrhizal fungi was tested with special regard to several soil pH levels and soil water regimes in different combinations. The most important results were: The inoculation led to a significantly better growth of all test plants in the presence of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd up to a specific amount of the soil-applied element; beyond this specific limit the efficacy of the mycorrhiza was more or less inhibited depending on the element. In correlation with the growth, the nearly always better P uptake of the inoculated plants was impaired only by the highest toxic amounts of the elements. In comparison with the uninoculated plants, all the inoculated plants showed higher P and Pb concentrations. The mycorrhizal plants generally had significantly higher concentrations of the elements Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Cd in the roots than the uninoculated plants. Generally even toxic levels of Fe in the soil did not lead to higher Fe concentrations in the plants. Even the highest amounts of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu did not cause microscopically visible injuries to the development of the mycorrhiza and did not impede the infection. Only the toxic levels of Pb led to a decrease of the infection rate of about 50%. Pb and Cd were the reason for morphological changes of the different developmental phases of the fungus. High amounts of Pb induced an increased formation of vesicles. The highest amounts of Cd were accompanied by the crowded occurrence of arbuscules.

  13. Seasonal Fluctuations In Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb Concentrations In Surface Microlayers And Subsurface Water Of Two City Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonowicz J. P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We owe the knowledge concerning the surface water microlayer to the wide research into marine environment and relatively scarce research done into inland city ponds ecosystems. The surface microlayer is a very thin, several hundred micrometers thick layer at the contact of water and atmosphere. This important form of air-water exchange ecotone, which constitutes the surface microlayer of water, is a specific environment as to its chemical and physical characteristics and is different from subsurface waters. It can absorb chemical substances like heavy metals, phytoneuston and bacteria in larger quantities in comparison to lower parts of the water. This characteristic feature results, among others, from the processes of transport at the contact of hydrosphere-atmosphere and also transport within the very area of surface water microlayer. The paper describes transport processes of six heavy metals: Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb from subsurface water to surface water microlayer and vice versa, analyzed in a one year cycle. The transport of chemical substances under consideration was described on a basis of experiments made during the period of one year at five city pounds in Słupsk (Polish Pomerania. During the research, samples of the surface water microlayer were collected by means of application of the Garrett mesh technique. At the same time, samples of subsurface water were collected and tested as to the content of the same parameters as the surface microlayer. Samples were sampled in month intervals. The concentration of aforementioned heavy metals was measured by mass spectrometry method and used Perkin Elmer Elan DRC aparature.

  14. Effect of heavy metals (Cu, Cd and Pb) on aspartate and alanine aminotransferase in Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasco, J.; Puppo, J. [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia, Campus Univ. Rio S. Pedro, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-02-01

    The accumulation of cadmium, copper and lead and their effects on aspartate and alanine aminotransferases in digestive gland, gills, foot and soft body in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum were examined. The animals were exposed to different concentrations: Cd (200-600 {mu}g{center_dot}l{sup -1}), Pb (350-700 {mu}g{center_dot}l{sup -1}) and Cu (10-20 {mu}g{center_dot}l{sup -1}) for 7 days. The highest concentrations were found in digestive gland for cadmium and copper, and in gills for lead, and the lowest values were observed in the foot. Aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST), in general, was not inhibited by cadmium, lead or copper during the exposure. Only in clams exposed to cadmium (600 {mu}g{center_dot}l{sup -1}, 7 days) and copper (20 {mu}g{center_dot}l{sup -1}, 5 days) were observed significant differences (P<0.05) in foot and gills, respectively, with respect to control. In the case of alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT), significant differences were observed for cadmium and lead in treated animals with respect to control. With regard to copper, a decrease in ALT was observed in gills and foot exposed to 20 {mu}g{center_dot}l{sup -1}. A significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed between ALT and metal accumulation for cadmium, copper and lead in gills. In the case of soft body, only cadmium and lead showed a significant correlation. In summary, R. philippinarum can be considered a bioindicator species for cadmium and lead accumulation and ALT could be useful as biomarker of sublethal stress for these metals in soft tissues and gills. Only gills can be considered an adequate target tissue for copper. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Effects of heavy metal ions (Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+) on DNA damage of the gills, hemocytes and hepatopancreas of marine crab, Charybdis japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Luqing; Liu, Na; Zhang, Hongxia; Wang, Jing; Miao, Jingjing

    2011-06-01

    There are rising concerns about the hazardous effects of heavy metals on the environment. In this study, comet assay and DNA alkaline unwinding assay were conducted on the tissues (gills, hepatopancreas, and hemocytes) of Charybdis japonica in order to illustrate genotoxicity of three heavy metal ions (Cu2+, Pb2+, and Cd2+) on the marine crabs C. japonica. The crabs were exposed to Cu2+ (10, 50, and 100 μg.L-1), Pb2+ (50, 250, and 500 μg L-1) and Cd2+ (5, 25, and 50 μg L-1), and the tissues were sampled at days 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 15. DNA alkaline unwinding assay was used for testing the DNA single strand break in gills and hepatopancreas and comet assay was employed for testing the DNA damage in hemocytes. The results showed that the DNA damage ( F-value) of gills in the crabs exposed to the three heavy metals was decreased gradually during the exposure periods and there was a dose-time response relationship in certain time, suggesting that the levels of DNA single strand break in all the experimental groups increased significantly compared to the controls. Changes of F-value in hepatopancreas of the crabs exposed to the three heavy metals were similar to those in gills except that the peak values were found in the 500 μg L-1 Pb2+ treatment group at day 3 and the 50 μg L-1 Cd2+ treatment group at day 9. The ranks of DNA damage in gills and hepatopancreas induced by the three heavy metal ions (50 μg L-1, day 15) were Cd2+ >Pb2+ >Cu2+ and Pb2+ >Cu2+ >Cd2+. The levels of DNA damage in gills were higher than those in hepatopancreas in the same experimental group. It can be concluded that indices of DNA damage can be used as the potential biomarkers of heavy metal pollution in marine environment.

  16. Effects of Heavy Metal Ions (Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+) on DNA Damage of the Gills, Hemocytes and Hepatopancreas of Marine Crab, Charybdis japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Luqing; LIU Na; ZHANG Hongxia; WANG Jing; MIAO Jingjing

    2011-01-01

    There are rising concerns about the hazardous effects of heavy metals on the environment. In this study, comet assay and DNA alkaline unwinding assay were conducted on the tissues (gills, hepatopancreas, and hemocytes) of Charybdis japonica in order to illustrate genotoxicity of three heavy metal ions (Cu2+, Pb2+, and Cd2+) on the marine crabs C. japonica. The crabs were exposed to Cu2+ (10, 50, and 100 μgL-1), Pb2+ (50, 250, and 500 μgL-1) and Cd2+ (5, 25, and 50μgL-1), and the tissues were sampled at days 0.5,1, 3, 6, 9, and 15. DNA alkaline unwinding assay was used for testing the DNA single strand break in gills and hepatopancreas and comet assay was employed for testing the DNA damage in hemocytes. The results showed that the DNA damage (F-value) of gills in the crabs exposed to the three heavy metals was decreased gradually during the exposure periods and there was a dose-time response relationship in certain time, suggesting that the levels of DNA single strand break in all the experimental groups increased significantly compared to the controls. Changes of F-value in hepatopancreas of the crabs exposed to the three heavy metals were similar to those in gills except that the peak values were found in the 500 μg L-1 Pb2+ treatment group at day 3 and the 50 μg L-1 Cd2+treatment group at day 9. The ranks of DNA damage in gills and hepatopancreas induced by the three heavy metal ions (50μgL-1,day 15) were Cd2+ >Pb2+ >Cu2+ and Pb2+ >Cu2+ >Cd2+. The levels of DNA damage in gills were higher than those in hepatopancreas in the same experimental group. It can be concluded that indices of DNA damage can be used as the potential biomarkers of heavy metal pollution in marine environment.

  17. Phytoremediation efficiency of pondweed (Potamogeton crispus in removing heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, As and Cd from water of Anzali wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Norouznia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based remediation (i.e. phytoremediation is one of the most significant eco-sustainable techniques to cope with devastating consequences of pollutants. In the present study, the potential of a wetland macrophyt (i.e. Potamogeton crispus for the phytoremediation of heavy metals (i.e. Cu, Cr, Pb, As and Cd in the Anzali wetland was evaluated. The results showed that P. crispus tends to accumulate notable amounts of Cu, Cr, Pb, As and Cd according to their assayed concentrations as follows: 8.2 µg g-1 dw, 0.97 µg g-1 dw, 6.04 µg g-1 dw, 2.52 µg g-1 dw and 0.34 µg g-1 dw, respectively. Further accurate perception of the phytoremediation efficiency were conducted using both bioconcentration factor and translocation factor. The average of the highest bioconcentration factors was presented in a descending order as: 2.9×103, 1.9×103, 1.17×103, 0.68×103 and 0.46×103 for the Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd and As, respectively. Based on the results, P. crispus presents high potential to absorb all the alluded metals except for As and partly Cd. Correspondingly, the mean values of translocation factor were reported in the range of 0.41 to 2.24. Eventually, relying on the observed findings, the results support the idea that P. crispus species would be employed as the prospective candidate for the phytoremediation processes in Anzali wetland.

  18. Cu(I), Ag(I), Cd(II), and Pb(II) binding to biomolecules studied by perturbed angular correlation of $\\gamma$-rays (PAC) spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Metal ions display diverse functions in biological systems and are essential components in both protein and nucleic acid structure and function, and in control of biochemical reaction paths and signalling. Similarly, metal ions may be used to control structure and function of synthetic biomolecules, and thus be a tool in the design of molecules with a desired function. In this project we address a variety of questions concerning both the function of metal ions in natural systems, in synthetic biomolecules, and the toxic effect of some metal ions. All projects involve other experimental techniques such as NMR, EXAFS, UV-Vis, fluorescence, and CD spectroscopies providing complementary data, as well as interpretation of the experimental data by quantum mechanical calculations of spectroscopic properties. The isotopes to be employed in the proposal are the following: $^{111m}$Cd, $^{111}$Ag, $^{199}$mHg, $^{204m}$Pb, $^{61}$Cu, $^{68m}$Cu

  19. Phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn from aqueous solution using Phragmites cummunis, Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ram; Yadav, Sangeeta

    2011-07-01

    A comparative bioaccumulation pattern and ultra structural changes were studied in Phragmites cummunis, Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus in mixed metals solution of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). P. cummunis was observed to be a shoot accumulator for Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. However, T. angustifolia was found to be a root accumulator for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb. In addition, C. esculentus also accumulated most of the tested heavy metals in the roots, while Mn and Fe were translocated up to leaves. Further, the long term metal treatment showed maximum accumulation of all heavy metals in P. cummunis followed by T. angustifolia and C. esculentus. Among heavy metals, Fe was accumulated maximum, i.e., >1000 microg g(-1) by all three plants. Simultaneously, the adverse effects on biochemical parameters were noted earlier in C. esculentus than T. angustifolia and P. cummunis. Ultra structural observation showed the cellular changes in wetland plants after longer exposure. Results revealed that P. cummunis and T. angustifolia had more potential for tested metals than C. esculentus. This study established that these wetland plants could be used for heavy metals phytoremediation from metal containing industrial wastewater. PMID:21972504

  20. Chemical speciation of Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Co, Ni and Cr in the suspended particulate matter off the Mejerda River Delta (Gulf of Tunis, Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helali, Mohamed Amine; Oueslati, Walid; Zaaboub, Noureddine; Added, Ayed; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    Fluxes of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and their associated metals were performed off the Mejerda River Delta during both the wet (March) and the dry (July) seasons in 2012, using sediment traps at study stations at depths of 10, 20 and 40 m. Fluxes nearest to the Mejerda outlet were more significant, especially during winter (36 g m-2 day-1), but dissipated further offshore, 24.5-6 g m-2 day-1 at the 20 m and 21.8-4.8 g m-2 day-1 at the 40 m stations. Many variations observed in seasonal and spatial metal fluxes are similar to those of SPM, in particular Pb and Zn, probably because they are associated with the mining activity characteristic of the Mejerda catchment. Chemical speciation reveals that most of the metals (20-100%) are bound to the residual fraction. The most toxic metals (Pb, Zn) are bound in part to the exchangeable fraction (20-50% for Pb and 5-15% for Zn) making them relatively bioavailable and therefore potentially toxic. While Cu and Cd fluxes are not always clearly established according to season, both metals are apparently sequestered deep in the sediment, bound especially to clays (40-80% for Cd and up to 100% for Cu).

  1. Determination of As, Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb in biological samples by modern electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardans, Jordi, E-mail: j.sardans@creaf.uab.ca [Ecophysiological and Global Change Unit CSIC-CREAF, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona (Spain); Montes, Fernando [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), C/ Senda del Rey 9. 28040 Madrid (Spain); Penuelas, Josep [Ecophysiological and Global Change Unit CSIC-CREAF, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    of this technique that reaches figures of merit equivalent to Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Herein is presented an overview of recent advances and applications of (ETAAS) for the determination of As, Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb in biological samples drawn from studies over the last decade.

  2. Analysis of Zn, Cd, As, Cu, Pb, and Fe in snails as bioindicators and soil samples near traffic road by ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massadeh, Adnan M; Alomary, Ahmed A; Mir, Sayeeda; Momani, Fouad A; Haddad, Hazem I; Hadad, Yazen A

    2016-07-01

    Snails are used as biological indicators of the environment pollution for heavy metals. Living snail samples were collected from different sites at the city of Irbid-Jordan and classified according to their morphological features including Helix pelasga, Eobania vermiculata, Xeropicta derbentina, Oychilus, Xerocrassa seetzenii, Xerocrassa simulata, and Pila. Zn, Cd, As, Cu, Pb, and Fe levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Results indicated that metal concentrations in all snail shell samples were with an average and range for Zn 22.4 (6.5-105.5) μg g(-1), Cd 7.8 (0.4-48.1) μg g(-1), As 25.9 (0.7-248.5) μg g(-1), Cu 15.1 (1.6-69.0) μg g(-1), Pb 0.4 (0.2-1.7) μg g(-1), and Fe 119.6 (14.0-1102.0) μg g(-1), whereas, in soil samples, the average and range for Zn 204.0 (12.0-709.0) μg g(-1), Cd 5.7 (0.2-39.5) μg g(-1), As 3.2 (1.8-5.2) μg g(-1), Cu 22.1 (2.3-77.4) μg g(-1), Pb 0.2 (0.1-0.3) μg g(-1), and Fe 242.4 (25.0-680.0) μg g(-1). PMID:27026544

  3. Evaluation of Exposure to Heavy Metals Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in Vegetables Grown in the Olericultures of Zanjan Province\\'s Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Tabande

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The contamination of soils and plants with heavy metals is a serious and growing problem. The present study aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals in soil and some agricultural products and the probability of risks due to their consumption. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed using random sampling at harvest time in 2014 on 205 samples of vegetable crops (Leek, chard, parsley, watermelon, melon, tomatoes, cucumber, potatoes, onion, garlic, radish, green peas, and broad bean and 129 samples of soils under cultivation. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in soil and plant samples were determined by an atomic absorption instrument and the data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: There were significant differences between the mean concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Zn for different vegetables (P<0.001, but no significant difference was observed for Cd. The highest mean levels of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn were detected in parsley, chard, broad bean, and leek respectively. However, there was no heavy metal pollution in the remainder of the vegetables and soil samples (with the exception of agricultural soils adjacent to the lead mine of Mahneshan area studied. Hazard probability (HQ of each element for cancerous diseases was less than unit and the intake of heavy metals was lower than the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that major accumulation of heavy metals was obtained in leafy vegetables. Therefore, much attention should be paid to consumption of leafy vegetables, especially vegetables grown in the surrounding industrial areas.

  4. Uncertainty-based calibration and prediction with a stormwater surface accumulation-washoff model based on coverage of sampled Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd field data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Ahlman, S.; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic conceptual and lumped accumulation wash-off model (SEWSYS) is uncertainty-calibrated with Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd field data from an intensive, detailed monitoring campaign. We use the generalized linear uncertainty estimation (GLUE) technique in combination with the Metropolis algorithm, which...... 95% model prediction bounds. A positive correlation between the dry deposition and the dry (wind) removal rates was revealed as well as a negative correlation between the wet removal (wash-off) rate and the ratio between the dry deposition and wind removal rates, which determines the maximum pool...

  5. Drinking water interlaboratory ring test. Part IV. Results of some cationic analytes. Al, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu and V; Circuito interlaboratorio Unichim sulle acque potabili. Parte IV. Risultati di alcuni cationi metallici. Al, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu e V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaterra, E.; Divo, C.; Bottazzini, N. [Unichim, Milan (Italy); Alava, F. [Bergamo Ambiente e Servizi, Bergamo (Italy); Bettinelli, M. [Electric Power Production Company, Piacenza (Italy); Bonfiglioli, F. [Azienda Mediterranea Gas e Acqua SpA, Genoa (Italy)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper results of statistical treatment of experimental data obtained in some cycles of an interlaboratory ring test of content of Al, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu and V in drinking water are reported. Means, variances and parameters of precision and accuracy of some analytical techniques and methods employed by laboratories participating to the ring test will be reported and discussed. [Italian] Nel presente lavoro vengono riportati i risultati dell'elaborazione statistica dei dati sperimentali ottenuti in alcuni cicli del circuito interlaboratorio e relativi ai seguenti cationi metallici: Al, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu e V. Vengono riportati e discussi i valori medi e la varianza ed infine i dati di accuratezza e precisione delle tecniche o metodi d'analisi impiegati dai laboratori partecipanti al circuito.

  6. Removal of Heavy Metals Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Fe3+ from Aqueous Solutions by using Xanthium Pensylvanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber SALEHZADEH

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The hazardous ill effects of heavy metals on the environment and public health is a matter of serious concern. Biosorption is emerging as a sustainable effective technology. Heavy metals in water resources are one of the most important environmental problems of countries. The intensification of industrial activity and environmental stress greatly contributes to the significant rise of heavy metal pollution in water resources making threats on terrestrial and aquatic life. The toxicity of metal pollution is slow and interminable, as these metal ions are non bio-degradable. The adsorption capacity of Xanthium Pensylvanicum towards metal ions such as Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Fe3+, was studied. The adsorption capacity was performed by batch experiments as a function of process parameters (such as sorption time and pH. Experimental results showed that the removal percentages increasing of metal ions at pH=4, initial concentration of metal ions 10 mg/L, and after 90 min of shaking was: Zn2+ < Cd2+ < Cu2+ < Pb2+ < Ni2+ < Fe3+ < Co2+.

  7. The effect of irrigation water including Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn on the physiological and biochemical parameters in eggplant genotypes tolerant or susceptible to some abiotic stress factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç KIRAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The eggplant genotypes (Burdur Merkez, Burdur Bucak, Kemer ve Giresun of which salt and drought tolerances were determined before by examining changes in some of the morphological and physiological characteristics were used as materials. In the studies carried out in controlled greenhouse conditions, eggplant plants were subjected to different levels heavy metal irrigation at 20 days after sowing (Control: 0 ppm; I. mixture: 0.2 ppm Cu+0.01 ppm Cd+5 ppm Pb+2 ppm Zn; II. mixture: 0.4 ppm Cu+0.02 ppm Cd+10 ppm Pb+4 ppm Zn. Young plants were harvested after forty days at heavy metal treatment and the fresh and dry shoot weight, fresh and dry root weight, shoot and root length, leaf areas, chlorophyll, malondi-aldehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione reductase (GR were determined. The eggplant plants were adversely affected by heavy metal applications. In parallel to increase the dose, heavy metal mixtures led to a reduction in values of fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, stem and root length, leaf area. MDA and antioxidative enzyme activities increased in plants irrigated with water containing a mixture of heavy metal. As a result of this study, tolerant Burdur Merkez and Burdur Bucak genotypes showed a better performance compared with the salt sensitive genotypes Giresun and Kemer. The plants are thought to use similar mechanisms for resistance to abiotic stresses such as drought and heavy metal stress.

  8. Effect of EDTA, EDDS, NTA and citric acid on electrokinetic remediation of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contaminated dredged marine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yue; Ammami, Mohamed-Tahar; Benamar, Ahmed; Mezazigh, Salim; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, electrokinetic (EK) remediation method has been widely considered to remove metal pollutants from contaminated dredged sediments. Chelating agents are used as electrolyte solutions to increase metal mobility. This study aims to investigate heavy metal (HM) (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) mobility by assessing the effect of different chelating agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) or citric acid (CA)) in enhancing EK remediation efficiency. The results show that, for the same concentration (0.1 mol L(-1)), EDTA is more suitable to enhance removal of Ni (52.8 %), Pb (60.1 %) and Zn (34.9 %). EDDS provides effectiveness to increase Cu removal efficiency (52 %), while EDTA and EDDS have a similar enhancement removal effect on As EK remediation (30.5∼31.3 %). CA is more suitable to enhance Cd removal (40.2 %). Similar Cr removal efficiency was provided by EK remediation tests (35.6∼43.5 %). In the migration of metal-chelate complexes being directed towards the anode, metals are accumulated in the middle sections of the sediment matrix for the tests performed with EDTA, NTA and CA. But, low accumulation of metal contamination in the sediment was observed in the test using EDDS. PMID:26782321

  9. Cd, Pb and Cu in spring waters of the Sibylline Mountains National Park (Central Italy, determined by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truzzi C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV was used to determine Cd, Pb and Cu in spring waters of the Sibylline Mountains National Park, Central Italy. Samples were collected from three different areas of the Park (Mount Bove North, Mount Bove South and Springs of River Nera during the period 2004-2011. Physical-chemical parameters were also determined to obtain a general characterization of the waters. Very low metal concentrations were observed (i.e., Cd 1.3±0.4 ng L-1, Pb 13.8±5.6 ng L-1, Cu 157±95 ng L-1, well below the legal limits and also below the medians of known Italian and European data. Comparing the three areas it was noted that waters from the area of the Nera Springs are the poorest in heavy metals and the richest in minerals, that conversely the waters of Mt. Bove North are the richest in heavy metals and the poorest in mineral salts, and finally that intermediate values both for heavy metals and mineral salts were observed for the waters of Mt. Bove South.

  10. Determination of trace heavy metals (Cd, As, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu) in some fish species from the coast of Tartous city by (AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the concentrations of six trace heavy metals (Cd, As, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu) in the flesh of four edible fish species including: Mugil, siganus Luridus, Siganus rivulatus and Sardine species, in addition to water samples for comparison. The samples were taken from three sites near to the sea-shore of Tartous city, on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean. The method used in this study depends on the determination of the above trace mentioned metals using (AAS) according to two techniques (Flame - AAS) and (ETA - AAS), after wet-digestion for the animal samples, and the two extraction methods (APDC - MIBK) and (APDC - CHCl3) for water samples. The study showed that the highest value was recorded in the case of Zn (29.44 μg/g, wet weight), and the lowest one was recorded in the case of Cd (0.082 μg/g, wet weight) in the flesh tissues of Mugil species. Recording standard deviation (SD), it was clear that the highest value was 1.145 μg/g for Zn, and lowest one was 0.001 μg/g for Cd in Mugil species. In order to get some information about the distribution of the studied elements, we studied the correlation coefficient. The statistical study showed a variation from a high positive relation, to low, and sometimes to negative ones. This gives a clear indication that the increasing or decreasing ratios in the concentration of the studied elements in the marine environment is related to the pollution resulting from the different sources of human activity. By comparing the results of this research with other results within and outside the Mediterranean basin, we observed a decrease in the concentration of (Cd, As, Pb, Cr, Cu) elements. and an increase in the concentration of Zn element. (Author)

  11. Biomonitoring of trace metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Zn in Mali Ston Bay (eastern Adriatic using the Mediterranean blue mussel (1998-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav ZVONARIĆ

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In Mali Ston Bay, located on the eastern Adriatic coast, mussels and oysters have traditionally been cultivated. However, previous studies showed that water and sediments from Mali Ston Bay contain elevated levels of some trace metals, which was attributed to natural processes of sedimentation and drainage. In order to assess the bioavailability of trace metals in the bay, and to assess the health risk of consumption of shellfish species from Mali Ston Bay, a passive monitoring program was carried out in the period from December 1998 to August 2005. Samples of the whole soft tissue were collected seasonally at 4 shellfish breeding farms and analyzed for essential (Cu, Zn and non-essential (Cd, Cr, THg, Pb metals. Mean concentrations of analyzed metals in the edible tissue of mussels (Cd: 1.15 mg kg-1 d.wt.; Cr: 1.65 mg kg-1 d.wt.; Cu: 5.6 mg kg-1 d.wt.; THg: 0.15 mg kg-1 d.wt.; Pb: 1.09 mg kg-1 d.wt.; Zn: 139 mg kg-1 d.wt. fell in the range of values usually found in low to moderately contaminated marine coastal areas. Examination of the spatial pattern of contaminants showed that there were no statistically significant differences among stations in Mali Ston Bay regarding trace metal content. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr and THg were significantly higher during the autumn-winter period, while concentrations of Pb and Zn did not depend on the sampling season. Among six analyzed metals, only concentrations of Cd and THg were significantly negatively correlated with the condition index of the mussels. Analysis of temporal trends during the 7 years of monitoring showed that metal concentrations had not changed with time. According to EU and WHO legislation, consumption of the edible tissue of the mussels was not harmful for humans since all the values were well below the permissible limits for fresh seafood. In addition, results of the evaluation of the risks to human health associated with consumption of the mussels containing trace metals suggest

  12. Sílica quimicamente modificada com os grupos p-anisidina, p-fenitidina e p-fenilenodiamina usada como adsorvente para Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ e Ni2+ em soluções aquosa e etanólica Silica chemically modified with p-anisidine, p-phenytidine and p-phenylenediamine groups used as adsorbent for Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ in aqueous and ethanol solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana B. C. Vilar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica gel was chemically modified with the aromatic amines p-anisidine, p-phenytidine and p-phenylenediamine, using grafting reactions. The resulting modified silicas were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms. The organic groups were covalently immobilized in a monolayer form. These modified silicas were investigated as adsorbents for Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ in aqueous and ethanol solutions. In a general way, the adsorption capacity values for all adsorbents presented the following sequence: Pb2+ >> Cu2+ @Cd2+ @ Ni2+. Adsorption studies for all adsorbents, in competitive medium, showed better selectivity for Cu2+ and Pb2+ in aqueous medium and for Pb2+ in ethanol solution. Desorption studies were carried out using HCl and HNO3 as eluents.

  13. Associations between standardized school performance tests and mixtures of Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co, and V in community soils of New Orleans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In New Orleans a strong inverse association was previously identified between community soil lead and 4th grade school performance. This study extends the association to zinc, cadmium, nickel, manganese, copper, chromium, cobalt, and vanadium in community soil and their comparative effects on 4th grade school performance. Adjusting for poverty, food security, racial composition, and teacher-student ratios, regression results show that soil metals variously reduce and compress student scores. Soil metals account for 22%–24% while food insecurity accounts for 29%–37% of variation in school performance. The impact on grade point averages were Ni > Co > Mn > Cu ∼Cr ∼ Cd > Zn > Pb, but metals are mixtures in soils. The quantities of soil metal mixtures vary widely across the city with the largest totals in the inner city and smallest totals in the outer city. School grade point averages are lowest where the soil metal mixtures and food insecurity are highest. - Highlights: ► Mixtures of metals vary; largest totals in the inner city and lowest in the outer city. ► An inverse association between soil Pb and 4th grade school performance is known. ► Assuming the same exposure pathway, multiple metals are compared to performance. ► Soil metals account for 22%–24% of variation in school test performance. ► Soil metal plus food insecurity accounts for 54% of explained variance. - Controlling for potential confounding variables, the accumulation of metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Mn, Cu, Cr, and Co) in neighborhood soils is significantly negatively associated with 4th grade school performance on standardized tests in New Orleans.

  14. Growth of nanocrystalline thin films of metal sulfides [CdS, ZnS, CuS and PbS] at the water–oil interface

    OpenAIRE

    P. John Thomas, Gemma L. Stansfield, Nathanael Komba, David J. H. Cant, Karthik Ramasamy, Enteisar Albrasi, Hanan Al-Chaghouri, Karen L. Syres, Paul O'Brien, Wendy R. Flavell, Egid Mubofu Federica Bondino and Elena Magnano

    2015-01-01

    Simple one pot reactions between thiobiuret complexes [M(SON(CNiPr2)2)2], (M = Cd, Zn, Pb or Cu) in toluene and aqueous Na2S lead to well-defined assemblies of nanocrystals. High quality thin films of CdS, ZnS, CuS and PbS nanoparticulates adhered to the interface are produced and are transferable to glass and other substrates. The effect of reaction parameters on the nature and properties of the deposits are examined. The films are characterized by high-resolution transmission electron micro...

  15. Effects of selected heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, and Cd) in the aquatic medium on the restoration potential and accumulation in the stem cuttings of the terrestrial plant, Talinum triangulare Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, K; Sivakumar, S; Senthilkumar, P; Prabha, D; Subbhuraam, C V; Song, Y C

    2009-10-01

    The heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd) accumulation capacity of the stem cuttings of the terrestrial, ornamental plant, Talinum triangulare was assessed in hydroponic medium. The stem cuttings of T. triangulare, grew well in distilled water regenerating roots and aerial parts. On exposure to various concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd, a concentration dependent decrease was observed in the number of leaves produced and roots regenerated and an increase in the number of days required for the initiation of roots. The number of leaves produced showed an increasing trend in almost all treatment concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd with an increase in the duration of experiment, whereas, with an increase in the treatment concentration of metals a significant (P triangulare was observed which was not persistent and disappeared after a few days. Decaying of stem was observed when exposed to Ni and Cd but not to Cu and Pb. Although, copper accumulation by T. triangulare at treatment concentration of 15 and 20 mg l(-1) exceeded 1,000 mg kg(-1) dry matter, necessary pot culture experiment is required before "T. triangulare" can be definitely classified as a Cu hyperaccumulator. PMID:19590954

  16. Determination of water-soluble and insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions of Cd, Pb and Cu in Antarctic aerosol by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry: distribution and summer seasonal evolution at Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annibaldi, A.; Truzzi, C.; Illuminati, S.; Bassotti, E.; Scarponi, G. [Polytechnic University of Marche - Ancona, Department of Marine Science, Ancona (Italy)

    2007-02-15

    Eight PM10 aerosol samples were collected in the vicinity of the ''Mario Zucchelli'' Italian Antarctic Station (formerly Terra Nova Bay Station) during the 2000-2001 austral summer using a high-volume sampler and precleaned cellulose filters. The aerosol mass was determined by differential weighing of filters carried out in a clean chemistry laboratory under controlled temperature and humidity. A two-step sequential extraction procedure was used to separate the water-soluble and the insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions. Cd, Pb and Cu were determined in the two fractions using an ultrasensitive square wave anodic stripping voltammetric (SWASV) procedure set up for and applied to aerosol samples for the first time. Total extractable metals showed maxima at midsummer for Cd and Pb and a less clear trend for Cu. In particular, particulate metal concentrations ranged as follows: Cd 0.84-9.2 {mu}g g{sup -1} (average 4.7 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Pb 13.2-81 {mu}g g{sup -1} (average 33 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Cu 126-628 {mu}g g{sup -1} (average 378 {mu}g g{sup -1}). In terms of atmospheric concentration, the values were: Cd 0.55-6.3 pg m{sup -3} (average 3.4 pg m{sup -3}), Pb 8.7-48 pg m{sup -3} (average 24 pg m{sup -3}), Cu 75-365 pg m{sup -3} (average 266 pg m{sup -3}). At the beginning of the season the three metals appear widely distributed in the insoluble (HCl-extractable) fraction (higher proportions for Cd and Pb, 90-100%, and lower for Cu, 70-90%) with maxima in the second half of December. The soluble fraction then increases, and at the end of the season Cd and Pb are approximately equidistributed between the two fractions, while for Cu the soluble fraction reaches its maximum level of 36%. Practically negligible contributions are estimated for crustal and sea-spray sources. Low but significant volcanic contributions are estimated for Cd and Pb ({proportional_to}10% and {proportional_to}5%, respectively), while there is an evident although not

  17. Determination of water-soluble and insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions of Cd, Pb and Cu in Antarctic aerosol by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry: distribution and summer seasonal evolution at Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, A; Truzzi, C; Illuminati, S; Bassotti, E; Scarponi, G

    2007-02-01

    Eight PM10 aerosol samples were collected in the vicinity of the "Mario Zucchelli" Italian Antarctic Station (formerly Terra Nova Bay Station) during the 2000-2001 austral summer using a high-volume sampler and precleaned cellulose filters. The aerosol mass was determined by differential weighing of filters carried out in a clean chemistry laboratory under controlled temperature and humidity. A two-step sequential extraction procedure was used to separate the water-soluble and the insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions. Cd, Pb and Cu were determined in the two fractions using an ultrasensitive square wave anodic stripping voltammetric (SWASV) procedure set up for and applied to aerosol samples for the first time. Total extractable metals showed maxima at midsummer for Cd and Pb and a less clear trend for Cu. In particular, particulate metal concentrations ranged as follows: Cd 0.84-9.2 microg g(-1) (average 4.7 microg g(-1)), Pb 13.2-81 microg g(-1) (average 33 microg g(-1)), Cu 126-628 microg g(-1) (average 378 microg g(-1)). In terms of atmospheric concentration, the values were: Cd 0.55-6.3 pg m(-3) (average 3.4 pg m(-3)), Pb 8.7-48 pg m(-3) (average 24 pg m(-3)), Cu 75-365 pg m(-3) (average 266 pg m(-3)). At the beginning of the season the three metals appear widely distributed in the insoluble (HCl-extractable) fraction (higher proportions for Cd and Pb, 90-100%, and lower for Cu, 70-90%) with maxima in the second half of December. The soluble fraction then increases, and at the end of the season Cd and Pb are approximately equidistributed between the two fractions, while for Cu the soluble fraction reaches its maximum level of 36%. Practically negligible contributions are estimated for crustal and sea-spray sources. Low but significant volcanic contributions are estimated for Cd and Pb (approximately 10% and approximately 5%, respectively), while there is an evident although not quantified marine biogenic source, at least for Cd. The estimated natural

  18. Atmospheric concentrations and size distributions of aircraft-sampled Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn over the southern bight of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injuk, J.; Otten, Ph.; Laane, R.; Maenhaut, W.; Van Grieken, R.

    In an effort to assess the atmospheric input of heavy metals to the Southern Bight of the North Sea, aircraft-based aerosol samplings in the lower troposphere were performed between September 1988 and October 1989. Total atmospheric particulate and size-differentiated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined as a function of altitude, wind direction, air-mass history and season. The obtained data are compared with results of ship-based measurements carried out previously and with literature values of Cu, Pb and Zn, for the marine troposphere of the southern North Sea. The results point out the high variability of the concentrations with the meterological conditions, as well as with time and location. The experimentally found particle size distribution are bimodal with a significant difference in fractions of small and large particles. These large aerosol particles have a direct and essential impact on the air-to-sea transfer of anthropogenic trace metals, in spite of their low numerical abundance and relatively low heavy metal content.

  19. Accumulation of Trace Metal Elements (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in Surface Sediment via Decomposed Seagrass Leaves: A Mesocosm Experiment Using Zostera marina L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Shinya; Konuma, Susumu; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the sediment of seagrass ecosystems was examined using mesocosm experiments containing Zostera marina (eelgrass) and reference pools. Lead was approximately 20-fold higher in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool than in eelgrass leaves and epiphytes on the eelgrass leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium were significantly lower in the surface sediment than in the leaves, with intermediate concentrations in epiphytes. Copper concentrations were similar in both the surface sediment and leaves but significantly lower in epiphytes. Carbon and nitrogen contents increased significantly with increasing δ13C in surface sediments of both the eelgrass and reference pools. Copper, Zn, Cd, and Pb also increased significantly with increasing δ13C in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool but not in the reference pool. By decomposition of eelgrass leaves with epiphytes, which was examined in the eelgrass pool, copper and lead concentrations increased more than 2-fold and approximately a 10-fold, whereas zinc and cadmium concentrations decreased. The high copper and lead concentrations in the surface sediment result from accumulation in decomposed, shed leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium remobilized from decomposed shed leaves but may remain at higher concentrations in the leaves than in the original sediments. The results of our mesocosm study demonstrate that whether the accumulation or remobilization of trace metals during the decomposition of seagrass leaves is trace metal dependent, and that the decomposed seagrass leaves can cause copper and lead accumulation in sediments in seagrass ecosystems. PMID:27336306

  20. Accumulation of Trace Metal Elements (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in Surface Sediment via Decomposed Seagrass Leaves: A Mesocosm Experiment Using Zostera marina L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Hosokawa

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the sediment of seagrass ecosystems was examined using mesocosm experiments containing Zostera marina (eelgrass and reference pools. Lead was approximately 20-fold higher in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool than in eelgrass leaves and epiphytes on the eelgrass leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium were significantly lower in the surface sediment than in the leaves, with intermediate concentrations in epiphytes. Copper concentrations were similar in both the surface sediment and leaves but significantly lower in epiphytes. Carbon and nitrogen contents increased significantly with increasing δ13C in surface sediments of both the eelgrass and reference pools. Copper, Zn, Cd, and Pb also increased significantly with increasing δ13C in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool but not in the reference pool. By decomposition of eelgrass leaves with epiphytes, which was examined in the eelgrass pool, copper and lead concentrations increased more than 2-fold and approximately a 10-fold, whereas zinc and cadmium concentrations decreased. The high copper and lead concentrations in the surface sediment result from accumulation in decomposed, shed leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium remobilized from decomposed shed leaves but may remain at higher concentrations in the leaves than in the original sediments. The results of our mesocosm study demonstrate that whether the accumulation or remobilization of trace metals during the decomposition of seagrass leaves is trace metal dependent, and that the decomposed seagrass leaves can cause copper and lead accumulation in sediments in seagrass ecosystems.

  1. Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Fe and Pb in wild grasses affected by the Aznalcóllar mine spill (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejón, P; Murillo, J M; Marañón, T; Cabrera, F; López, R

    2002-05-01

    The collapse of the tailing dam in the Aznalcóllar pyrite mine (SW Spain) occurred in April 1998 and affected approximately 4300 ha along the Agrio and Guadiamar valleys. An urgent soil cleaning up and remediation programme was started just after the accident. Eighteen months later, mineral nutrients and trace elements concentration in soil and two wild grasses--Cynodon dactylon and Sorghum halepense--have been studied. Three types of conditions are distinguished: (a) unaffected soils (control); (b) cleaned up and remediated soils (remediated); and (c) sludge-covered soils left in a fenced plot (non-remediated). As, Cd, Cu and Pb in grasses reached toxic levels for the food web in the non-remediated plot, while on remediated soils only Cd reached a toxic level in grass tissues. However, Pb and, to a lesser extent As and Fe, reached also toxic levels in unwashed plants (as they would be ingested by animals) in remediated soils. Both native grasses seem tolerant of trace elements pollution and suitable for stabilisation of spill-affected soils.

  2. Speciation and fractionation of heavy metals in soil experimentally contaminated with Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn together and effects on soil negative surface charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Speciation of heavy metals in soil subsamplesexperimentally loaded with Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in orthogonal designwas investigated by sequential extraction, and operationallydefined as water-soluble and exchangeable(SE), weakly specificadsorbed(WSA), Fe and Mn oxides-bound(OX) and organic-bound(ORG).The results show that speciation of heavy metals in the soilsubsamples depended on their kinds. About 90% of Cd and 75% of Znexisted in soil subsamples in the SE fraction. Lead and Cu existedin soil subsamples as SE, WSA and OX fractions simultaneously,although SE was still the major fraction. Organic-bound heavymetals were not clearly apparent in all the soil subsamples. Theconcentration of some heavy metal speciation in soil subsamplesshowed good correlation with ionic impulsion of soil, especiallyfor the SE fraction. Continuous saturation of soil subsamples with0.20 mol/L NH4Cl, which is the first step for determination of thenegative surface charge of soil by the ion retention method, resulted in desorption of certain heavy metals from the soil. Itwas found that the percentage desorption of heavy metals from soilsubsamples depended greatly on pH, the composition and originalheavy metal content of the soil subsamples. However, most of theheavy metals in the soil subsamples were still retained aftermultiple saturation. Compared with the parent soil, the negativesurface charge of soil subsamples loaded with heavy metals did notshow differ significantly from that of the parent one bystatistical analysis. Heavy metals existed in the soil subsamplesmainly as exchangeable and precipitated simultaneously.

  3. Evaluation of heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg) in water, sediments and water lily (Eichornia crassipes) from Jose Antonio Alzate dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water, sediments and water lily (Eichornia crassipes) from the Jose Antonio Alzate Dam were analyzed in order to determine concentrations of chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and mercury. Mercury, lead, chromium and iron were found in concentrations above permissible limits in water, and in high concentrations in sediments. Cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc never were found in concentrations above permissible limits in water. The highest concentrations of heavy metals in water lily were found in the root. Accumulation factors decreased in the following order: Zn> Cr> Fe> Ni> Cu> Pb> Hg and Cd. Statistical differences (α < 0.5) between the collection samples dates was observed. High correlations between metals concentrations in superficial water, sediment and water hyacinth were also observed. These correlations could indicate that the heavy metals studied here, are originated from a natural source such as sediments or from an industrial source. (Author)

  4. Time saving modified BCR sequential extraction procedure for the fraction of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in sediment samples of polluted lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mobility, availability and persistence of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in contaminated lake sediment samples were evaluated by means of sequential extraction scheme, proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference protocol (BCR). The metal content in the extracts was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The precision and accuracy of the proposed procedure were evaluated by using a certified reference material BCR 701. The maximum recoveries for heavy metals (HMs) were observed for all three steps of BCR protocol at 32 h total shaking period instead of previously reported 51 h, with p > 0.05. The lixiviation tests (DIN 38414-S4) were used to evaluate the leaching of HMs from sediment samples and it was observed that levels of water extractable HMs were low as compared to those values obtained by acid-soluble fraction of the BCR protocol

  5. Determination of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by Atomic Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma in Organs of the Specie Gambusia punctata (Poeciliidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research was to adequate the ICP-AES method to the quantification of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in brain, liver and gills of the specie Gambusia punctata, in order to know the level of exposure of the ecosystems San Juan and File in Santiago de Cuba province. To achieve the fitness for purpose of the method, limits of detection, reproducibility and accuracy were evaluated using reference certificated materials of fishes. The biological samples were classified according the ecosystem, length, sex and organ. It were dried, digested with mix of acids and the metals measured in the spectrometer. The results demonstrated that factors as length and sex have not influence in the bioaccumulation, whereas the gill was the organ where all the elements were bioaccumulated. Finally, due that the smallest concentrations of metals were in the File ecosystem, it could be used as an environmental reference

  6. Heavy metal (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Se) concentrations in muscle and bone of four commercial fish caught in the central Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2014-04-01

    Heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg and Se) concentrations in the muscle and bone of four fish species (Mullus barbatus, Merluccius merluccius, Micromesistius poutassou, and Scomber scombrus) from the central Adriatic Sea were measured and the relationships between fish size (length and weight) and metal concentrations in the tissues were investigated. Samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry with automatic dual viewing. In the muscle, results of linear regression analysis showed that, except for mercury, significant relationships between metal concentrations and fish size were negative. Only mercury levels were positively correlated with Atlantic mackerel size (p edible portion by European legislation, several samples exceeded these values, confirming the heavy metal presence in species caught near the Jabuka Pit. PMID:24242233

  7. Development, validation and accreditation of a method for the determination of Pb, Cd, Cu and As in seafood and fish feed samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psoma, A K; Pasias, I N; Rousis, N I; Barkonikos, K A; Thomaidis, N S

    2014-05-15

    A rapid, sensitive, accurate and precise method for the determination of Pb, Cd, As and Cu in seafood and fish feed samples by Simultaneous Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was developed in regard to Council Directive 333/2007EC and ISO/IEC 17025 (2005). Different approaches were investigated in order to shorten the analysis time, always taking into account the sensitivity. For method validation, precision (repeatability and reproducibility) and accuracy by addition recovery tests have been assessed as performance criteria. The expanded uncertainties based on the Eurachem/Citac Guidelines were calculated. The method was accredited by the Hellenic Accreditation System and it was applied for an 8 years study in seafood (n=202) and fish feeds (n=275) from the Greek market. The annual and seasonal variation of the elemental content and correlation among the elemental content in fish feeds and the respective fish samples were also accomplished. PMID:24423504

  8. Development and validation of a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopic method for ultra-trace determination of Cu, Mn, Cd and Pb metals in aqueous droplets after drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Nadir; Yalçın, Şerife

    2016-03-01

    The present study reports a fast and accurate methodology for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopic, LIBS, analysis of aqueous samples for environmental monitoring purposes. This methodology has two important attributes: one is the use of a 300nm oxide coated silicon wafer substrate (Si+SiO2) for the first time for manual injection of 0.5 microliter aqueous metal solutions, and two is the use of high energy laser pulses focused outside the minimum focus position of a plano convex lens at which relatively large laser beam spot covers the entire droplet area for plasma formation. Optimization of instrumental LIBS parameters like detector delay time, gate width and laser energy has been performed to maximize atomic emission signal of target analytes; Cu, Mn, Cd and Pb. Under the optimal conditions, calibration curves were constructed and enhancements in the LIBS emission signal were obtained compared to the results of similar studies given in the literature. The analytical capability of the LIBS technique in liquid analysis has been improved. Absolute detection limits of 1.3pg Cu, 3.3pg Mn, 79pg Cd and 48pg Pb in 0.5 microliter volume of droplets were obtained from single shot analysis of five sequential droplets. The applicability of the proposed methodology to real water samples was tested on the Certified Reference Material, Trace Metals in Drinking Water, CRM-TMDW and on ICP multi-element standard samples. The accuracy of the method was found at a level of minimum 92% with relative standard deviations of at most 20%. Results suggest that 300nm oxide coated silicon wafer has an excellent potential to be used as a substrate for direct analysis of contaminants in water supplies by LIBS and further research, development and engineering will increase the performance and applicability of the methodology. PMID:26717813

  9. Removal of divalent heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and arsenic(III) from aqueous solutions using scoria: kinetics and equilibria of sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jang-Soon; Yun, Seong-Taek; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Kim, Soon-Oh; Jo, Ho Young

    2010-02-15

    Kinetic and equilibrium sorption experiments were conducted on removal of divalent heavy metals (Pb(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II)) and trivalent arsenic (As(III)) from aqueous solutions by scoria (a vesicular pyroclastic rock with basaltic composition) from Jeju Island, Korea, in order to examine its potential use as an efficient sorbent. The removal efficiencies of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and As by the scoria (size=0.1-0.2mm, dose=60gL(-1)) were 94, 70, 63, 59, and 14%, respectively, after a reaction time of 24h under a sorbate concentration of 1mM and the solution pH of 5.0. A careful examination on ionic concentrations in sorption batches suggested that sorption behaviors of heavy metals onto scoria are mainly controlled by cation exchange. On the other hand, arsenic appeared to be sensitive to specific sorption onto hematite (a minor constituent of scoria). Equilibrium sorption tests indicated that the removal efficiency for heavy metals increases with increasing pH of aqueous solutions, which is resulted from precipitation as hydroxides. Similarly, multi-component systems containing heavy metals and arsenic showed that the arsenic removal increases with increasing pH of aqueous solutions, which can be attributed to coprecipitation with metal hydroxides. The empirically determined sorption kinetics were well fitted to a pseudo-second order model, while equilibrium sorption data for heavy metals and arsenic onto scoria were consistent with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, respectively. Natural scoria studied in this work is an efficient sorbent for concurrent removal of divalent heavy metals and arsenic.

  10. Assessment of heavy metals/metalloid (As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn) concentrations in edible fish species tissue in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, H M; Leung, A O W; Wang, H S; Ma, K K; Liang, Y; Ho, K C; Cheung, K C; Tohidi, F; Yung, K K L

    2014-01-15

    The major aim of this study was to investigate heavy metal content of edible fish in the PRD. Eleven species of fish (consisting of 711 individuals) [catfish (Clarias fuscus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri), snakehead (Channa asiatiea), black bass (Micropterus salmoides), mangrove snapper (Lutjanus griseus), star snapper (Lutjanu stellatus), snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)] were collected for the analyses of heavy metals. Overall concentrations (mg/kg, ww) in the fish muscles were: As (0.03-1.53), Pb (0.03-8.62), Cd (0.02-0.06), Ni (0.44-9.75), Zn (15.7-29.5), Cr (0.22-0.65), Cu (0.79-2.26), Mn (0.82-6.91). Significant level of Pb were found in tilapia at all locations. It is recommended that heavy metal concentrations in different fish species must be determined on a regular basis in the future so as to reduce human health risks from acute and chronic food intoxication. PMID:24239097

  11. Environmental behaviors and potential ecological risks of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in multimedia in an oilfield in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Wang, Dazhou; Li, Yu

    2016-07-01

    The environmental behaviors of five heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in a Chinese oilfield were investigated using a steady-state multimedia aquivalence (SMA) model. The modeling results showed good agreement with the actual measured values, with average residual errors of 0.69, 0.83, 0.35, 0.16, and 0.54 logarithmic units for air, water, soil, sediment, and vegetation compartments, respectively. Model results indicated that most heavy metals were buried in sediment, and that transfers between adjacent compartments were mainly deposition from the water to the sediment compartment (48.59 %) and from the air to the soil compartment (47.74 %) via atmospheric dry/wet deposition. Sediment and soil were the dominant sinks, accounting for 68.80 and 25.26 % of all the heavy metals in the multimedia system, respectively. The potential ecological risks from the five heavy metals in the sediment and soil compartments were assessed by the potential ecological risk index (PERI). The assessment results demonstrate that the heavy metals presented low levels of ecological risk in the sediment compartment, and that Cd was the most significant contributor to the integrated potential ecological risk in the oilfield. The SMA model provided useful simulations of the transport and fate of heavy metals and is a useful tool for ecological risk assessment and contaminated site management. PMID:27040543

  12. Qualitative analysis of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Zn, Fe, Mn, K, Hg, Pb y Cu, as constituents of Amatitlan Lake sediment by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of fifteen sampling points were analyzed. Molybdenum X-ray tube with secondary excitation assembly, SiLi detector and deconvolution software AXIL were employed; self-standardization method based upon incoherent ratio was used for quantitative analysis of some elements. Ca, P, S, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cr, Zn, Cu, Ni, Ga, As, Pb, Ge, Sr and Pb, were found. As, Pb and Cu concentrations lower than 109 mg/lt, 119 mg/lt, and 500mg/lt, respectively, were measured. Hg was not detected. (author)

  13. 茶树对铅、镉、铜的吸收累积特性研究%Study on Uptake and Accumulation of Pb, Cd and Cu in Tea Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘声传; 罗显扬; 赵志清; 俞云春; 赵华富; 魏杰; 吕军

    2011-01-01

    Five tea cultivais were sampled from the same site and five Camellia sinensis cv. Fuding-dabaicha populations from five different sites with different background concentrations of soil Pb, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cd, Cu contents in soils, and Pb, Cd, Cu concentrations, accumulation and transfer coefficients in old and young leaves were analyzed to investigate characteristics of lead ( Pb) , cadmium ( Cd) and copper (Cu ) uptake and accumulation in tea plant. The results showed that: (I) Under the same habitat, distribution order of Pb, Cd, Cu in five tea plants was lateral root > old leaves > young leaves, Pb, Cd, Cu contents among five tea cultivars had some difference. (ii) Pb, Cd, Cu accumulation and transfer coefficients were significantly different among five tea cultivars in the same site. Pb accumulation coefficients of old and young leaves were in a range of 0.12 -0.18 and 0.09 -0.11, respectively. Cd accumulation coefficients of old and young leaves were 1.59 -2.97 and 0.72 -1.31, respectively. Cu transfer coefficients of old and young leaves were in a range of 0.32-0.41 and 0.20-0. 28, respectively, (iii) Pb, Cd, Cu contents among different Camellia sinensis cv. Fuding-dabaicha populations growing in different habitats were significantly different. MT Camellia sinensis cv. Fuding-dabaicha population was developed in the edge of highway and suburb, its young leaves Pb, Cd contents, which was 3.46 and 0.37 mg/kg, respectively, were higher than these of XRL organic ecological tea plantation (1.50, 0.07 mg/kg,respectively). There was a certain relevance between soil physical and chemical properties and tea plant Pb, Cd, Cu contents. Heavy metal contents in unwashed and washed tea leaves were greatly different, Pb content of unwashed and washed old leaves in Camellia sinensis cv. Fuding-dabaicha was 8.59, 5.13 mg/kg, respectively. It was concluded that the ability of Pb, Cd, Cu uptake and accumulation had a certain difference in the different tea cultivars growing in the

  14. A comparison of Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Zn, Fe, Ni and Mn determined by acid extraction/ICP-OES and ex situ field portable X-ray fluorescence analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total concentrations of Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Zn, Fe, Ni and Mn were determined for 81 soil samples using two types of field portable X-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) system; dual isotope and X-ray tube. FPXRF metal concentrations were statistically compared with analytical results from aqua regia extractions followed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis. The ability of each FPXRF instrument to produce analytical results comparable to the reference method was assessed by linear regression. A high degree of linearity was found for Fe and Pb with the X-ray tube instrument and for Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Mn with the dual source instrument. FPXRF analyser performance improved with increased analysis time for Cu, Mn and Pb, whilst Fe, Zn, Cd, Ni and As showed no significant improvement. Particle size did not influence FPXRF analyser performance. Both the dual isotope and the X-ray tube FPXRF instruments are effective tools for rapid, quantitative assessment of soil metal contamination and for monitoring the efficacy of remediation strategies. - Portable X-ray fluorescence instruments can provide an accurate, rapid and cost-effective means of assessing soil contamination and for monitoring the efficacy of remediation strategies

  15. Influence of Ca/Mg ratio on phytoextraction properties of Salix viminalis I. The effectiveness of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn bioaccumulation and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Kozlowska, Monika; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Chadzinikolau, Tamara; Golinski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Phytoremediation and its efficiency--influenced by several factors-is prime concern in reduction of environment contamination with heavy metals. The aim of the study was to estimate in controlled conditions--in relation to the natural Ca/Mg ratio 4:1--the influence of different Ca/Mg ratios (1:1/4, 20:1, 1:10) on selected heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) accumulation efficiency shown by three morphological parts of Salix viminalis 'Cinamomea' (cane bark, shoots and roots). Accumulation of heavy metals in experimental conditions was significantly Ca/Mg ratio dependent, and occurred in the following order: 1:10 > 4:1 > 20:1 > 1:1/4. The highest accumulation under 0.5 mM solutions (as compared to 0.1 mM) was noted for copper and zinc, and the lowest for cadmium. Biometric parameters of Salix viminalis cuttings revealed the highest biomass productivity under 20:1 and 4:1 Ca/Mg ratios. In the case of shoot length increase, both metal concentration and kind of metal present in the solution were important. The results indicate that higher calcium ion concentration in solution (Ca/Mg 20:1) stimulates Salix viminalis growth by 3 fold when compared to other Ca/Mg ratio. It can be an important factor in remediation of the environment with this plant.

  16. Solid-liquid-solid extraction of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Cd, Ni and Pb) in aqueous systems of zeolite-sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results of kinetic and equilibrium studies of the removal of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Cd, Ni and Pb) from the sewage sludge using a new technique of solid-liquid-solid extraction with the adsorption-diffusion column filled by the zeolite. The metal extraction onto the zeolite from aqueous solution of the clinoptilolite and the sludge composition is characterized by three stages: intensive extraction, inversion and stabilization with the moderate extraction increase. Addition of 25% of the zeolite provides extraction efficiency of cadmium and lead of about 84%, chromium, copper and nickel of 66%, 61% and 50%, respectively. The estimated values of Gibbs free energy change ΔG show that the metals extraction by the clinoptilolite may be considered as a physical adsorption. The negative values of ΔG testify to an exothermic nature of the process. The difference between energetic potentials of the components is a driving force of the metal redistribution in the system 'clinoptilolite-water-sludge'

  17. The Uptake Mechanism of Cd(II), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) by Mycelia and Fruiting Bodies of Galerina vittiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Dilna; Balakrishnan, Raj Mohan; Shetty, Vidya K.

    2013-01-01

    Optimum concentrations of heavy metals like copper, cadmium, lead, chromium, and zinc in soil are essential in carrying out various cellular activities in minimum concentrations and hence help in sustaining all life forms, although higher concentration of these metals is lethal to most of the life forms. Galerina vittiformis, a macrofungus, was found to accumulate these heavy metals into its fleshy fruiting body in the order Pb(II) > Cd(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Cr(VI) from 50 mg/kg soil. It possesses various ranges of potential cellular mechanisms that may be involved in detoxification of heavy metals and thus increases its tolerance to heavy metal stress, mainly by producing organic acids and phytochelatins (PCs). These components help in repairing stress damaged proteins and compartmentalisation of metals to vacuoles. The stress tolerance mechanism can be deduced by various analytical tools like SEM-EDX, FTIR, and LC-MS. Production of two kinds of phytochelatins was observed in the organism in response to metal stress. PMID:24455671

  18. Investigation of heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Cd, and Cr) stabilization in river sediment by nano-zero-valent iron/activated carbon composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-fang; Zhang, Jinghui; Zhang, Xiaomao; Wang, Weiya; Li, Yuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Nano-zero-valent iron/activated carbon (nZVI/AC) composite was evaluated for its effectiveness in the stabilization of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Cr in dredged river sediment. Synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) were adopted to compare the effects of nZVI/AC dosage, particle size, time duration, and temperature on heavy metal leachability. The results show that leachability dropped considerably with the addition of nZVI/AC and powdered particles in the size of 0.075-0.18 mm was more effective in stabilization than granular ones. Stabilization effect was stable in long-term and robust against changes in temperature. Tessier sequential extraction revealed that heavy metals were associated with solid particle, inorganic or organic matters in sediment. The addition of nZVI/AC was able to convert relatively weakly bound heavy metals into more strongly bound species and thus reduce the bioavailability and toxicity. Also, the standard potential of heavy metals may decide the mechanism of stabilization process. PMID:26370818

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Zinc (Zn, Cadmium (Cd, Lead (Pb and Copper (Cu in Blood Using Differential- Pulse Anodic-Stripping Voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Jaiswal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The salts of Zinc (Zn, Cadmium (Cd, Lead (Pb, Copper (Cu, are of great toxicological importance and can causes poisoning. Therefore quantitative determination of traces of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, in blood is very essential. Routinely, inductive coupled plasma, atomic absorption spectrometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry were used for analysis. An attempt has been made to develop new method for simultaneous determination of traces of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, in blood done by differential-pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry. Blood was processed by wet digestion method using concentrated nitric acid and sulphuric acid. Determination of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, was made in acetate buffer (pH 4.6 with a sweep rate (scan rate of 60.0 mV/s and pulse amplitude 50 mV by Hanging Mercury Dropping Electrode (HMDE by standard addition method. The solution was stirred during pre-electrolysis at -1150 mV (vs. Ag/ AgCl for 90 s and the potential was scanned from - 1150m V to +100m V (vs. Ag/ AgCl. Under these conditions the limit of detection of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper were 1.0 μg/L, 1.0 μg/L, 0.1 μg/L, 1.0 μg/L and respectively

  20. The Uptake Mechanism of Cd(II, Cr(VI, Cu(II, Pb(II, and Zn(II by Mycelia and Fruiting Bodies of Galerina vittiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilna Damodaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimum concentrations of heavy metals like copper, cadmium, lead, chromium, and zinc in soil are essential in carrying out various cellular activities in minimum concentrations and hence help in sustaining all life forms, although higher concentration of these metals is lethal to most of the life forms. Galerina vittiformis, a macrofungus, was found to accumulate these heavy metals into its fleshy fruiting body in the order Pb(II > Cd(II > Cu(II > Zn(II > Cr(VI from 50 mg/kg soil. It possesses various ranges of potential cellular mechanisms that may be involved in detoxification of heavy metals and thus increases its tolerance to heavy metal stress, mainly by producing organic acids and phytochelatins (PCs. These components help in repairing stress damaged proteins and compartmentalisation of metals to vacuoles. The stress tolerance mechanism can be deduced by various analytical tools like SEM-EDX, FTIR, and LC-MS. Production of two kinds of phytochelatins was observed in the organism in response to metal stress.

  1. A transferable force field for CdS-CdSe-PbS-PbSe solid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Zhaochuan; Koster, Rik S.; Wang, Shuaiwei; Fang, Changming; Yalcin, Anil O.; Tichelaar, Frans D.; Zandbergen, Henny W.; van Huis, Marijn A.; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.

    2014-01-01

    A transferable force field for the PbSe-CdSe solid system using the partially charged rigid ion model has been successfully developed and was used to study the cation exchange in PbSe-CdSe heteronanocrystals [A. O. Yalcin et al., "Atomic resolution monitoring of cation exchange in CdSe-PbSe heterona

  2. Study on the distributions of Cd, Co, Sr, Zn, Ag, Cu, Pb, Mn and Ni in the eolian sands of the Gavkuni playa (southeast of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Pakzad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Heavy metals are continually introduced into hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. These potentially toxic elements can concentrate in sediments in aqueous ecosystems and they can act as pollution sources in particular conditions. Heavy metals mainly concentrate in fine sand particles because of more concentration of heavy minerals in this grain size. The Gavkhuni playa lake with an approximate area of 550 km2 is located at southeast of Isfahan, Iran. The Zayandehrud permanent river and several seasonal rivers flow into this playa. During quaternary, massive volume of sediments in sand and gravel sizes were carried into this area and deposited. These sediments are mainly deposited in the delta of Zayandehrud river (northwest of Gavkhuni playa and northwest of the sand dunes in margin of the Zayandehrud river particularly from Varzaneh to the playa. The megafans surrounding the playa can be partly origin of these sediments. The Gavkhuni playa lake is composed of three major flats namely sand, mud and salt flats. The salt flat forms the major part of the playa. Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary (mainly carbonates rocks outcrop in the drainage basin of the Gavkhuni playa lake. Schist, gneiss, limestone, shale and andesite are the dominant lithology in this basin. The main objective of this research is to determine the concentrations of Cd, Co, Sr, Zn, Ag, Cu, Pb, Mn and Ni in the eolian sand deposits, the factors influencing the distributions of these elements and also relationship between the heavy metals and the minerals (particularly heavy minerals containing these elements. Material & Methods The eolian sands (sand dunes and sand flats of the Gavkhuni playa were sampled in 15 sampling points from north to south of the playa. Grain size distribution of the sediments were determined through dry sieving method. Heavy minerals were separated and studied through microscopy of the prepared thin and polish sections. The concentration

  3. Long-term environmental exposure to metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn) activates the immune cell stress response in the common European sea star (Asterias rubens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matranga, V; Pinsino, A; Randazzo, D; Giallongo, A; Dubois, P

    2012-05-01

    The common sea star Asterias rubens represents a key-species of the North-Eastern Atlantic macro benthic community. The cells of their immune system, known as coelomocytes, are the first line of defence against environmental hazards. Here, we report the results of investigations on the immune cells response of sea stars exposed to marine environmental pollution for long periods. We show that levels of the heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70) in coelomocytes from A. rubens, which were collected during a field study in the Sǿrfjord (North Sea, SW coast of Norway) along a contamination gradient, are directly associated with the long-term accumulation of Cd, Cu heavy metals exclusively in the tegument. Conversely, Pb and Zn accumulation in the tegument did not relate to HSC70 levels and none of the metals were found accumulated in the pyloric coeca. In addition the coelomocytes from A. rubens, collected in high and low metal impacted stations were examined by a proteomic approach using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). By comparison of the proteomic maps, we observed that 31 protein spots differed in their relative abundance, indicating a gene expression response to the metal mixture exposure. All together, our results confirm that the echinoderm immune cells are a suitable model for the assessment of long-term exposure to environmental pollution, moreover that the increased level of HSC70 can be considered a signal of an acquired tolerance within a large spectrum of protein profile changes occurring in response to metal contamination. PMID:22000270

  4. Distribution characteristics of Zn, Pb,Cd, Cu in soil and crops around Xinzhuangzi Coal Mine waste rock pile%Zn,Pb,Cd,Cu在淮南新庄孜煤矿矸石山附近土壤和作物中分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴明; 董众兵; 刘桂建; 梅静梁

    2012-01-01

    采用电感耦合等离子体发射光谱仪(ICP-OES)对淮南新庄孜煤矿矸石山周边土壤、黄豆、水稻中Zn,Pb,Cd,Cu进行了测试,分析了其含量分布特征.结果表明:矿区土壤呈碱性,土壤中Zn,Pb含量在深度为20~40 cm最高,分别为43.08,15.61 mg·kg-1,但均低于淮南市土壤背景值,表层土壤(0~20 cm)中Cd含量(0.124mg·kg-1)最高,深部土壤(20~40 cm)中Cu含量(24.27mg·kg-1)最高,分别超淮南市土壤背景值106.76%,0.46%;土壤中Zn,Pb,Cd,Cu含量随土壤深度变化不显著,表层土壤中Zn,Pb含量均在距矸石山一定距离后达峰值,推测可能由煤矸石山产生的粉尘颗粒物随大气迁移造成.通过土壤中重金属含量对土壤中理化性质的逐步回归分析表明:总磷对土壤Zn,Cd含量影响较大,有机质对土壤Pb,Cu含量影响较大.Cd主要分布在黄豆和水稻的根部,Zn较易向黄豆和水稻地上部分迁移.黄豆和水稻地上部Zn富集系数较高,其叶、壳、籽中重金属富集能力大小为Zn>Cu>Cd>Pb.Pb在水稻籽实中达0.52 mg· kg-1(干重),超国家食品中铅限量卫生标准1.3倍,水稻籽实中较高的Pb含量可能对食用此稻米人群产生一定膳食风险.%Samples of soils and crops were collected around Xinzhungzi Coal Mine waste rock pile by theintercept method. The concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu in the soils and crops were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The results showed that the soil is alkaline, and the max concentrations of Zn, Pb in the soils are 43. 08 mg ? Kg"1 and 15. 61 mg ? Kg"1 at the depth of 20~40 cm, which are below the background values of Huainan soil. The concentrations of Cd and Cu in the soil with the depths of 0-20 cm and 20~40 cm, respectively, are the highest and 106. 76% and 0.46% higher than the background value of Huainan soil. The concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu are incorrelate with the depth of soil. The Zn and Pb in the

  5. Dissolved and labile concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho: Comparisons among chemical equilibrium models and implications for biotic ligand models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Blank, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate thermodynamic speciation calculations inherent in biotic ligand models, the speciation of dissolved Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in aquatic systems influenced by historical mining activities is examined using equilibrium computer models and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Several metal/organic-matter complexation models, including WHAM VI, NICA-Donnan, and Stockholm Humic model (SHM), are used in combination with inorganic speciation models to calculate the thermodynamic speciation of dissolved metals and concentrations of metal associated with biotic ligands (e.g., fish gills). Maximum dynamic metal concentrations, determined from total dissolved metal concentrations and thermodynamic speciation calculations, are compared with labile metal concentrations measured by DGT to assess which metal/organic-matter complexation model best describes metal speciation and, thereby, biotic ligand speciation, in the studied systems. Results indicate that the choice of model that defines metal/organic-matter interactions does not affect calculated concentrations of Cd and Zn associated with biotic ligands for geochemical conditions in the study area, whereas concentrations of Cu and Pb associated with biotic ligands depend on whether the speciation calculations use WHAM VI, NICA-Donnan, or SHM. Agreement between labile metal concentrations and dynamic metal concentrations occurs when WHAM VI is used to calculate Cu speciation and SHM is used to calculate Pb speciation. Additional work in systems that contain wide ranges in concentrations of multiple metals should incorporate analytical speciation methods, such as DGT, to constrain the speciation component of biotic ligand models. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. High pressure resistivity study of (Pb0.5,Cd0.5)Sr2(Y1-x,Cax) Cu2O7-δ/Ag2O superconducting composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resistivity study of (Pb0.5,Cd0.5)Sr2(Y1-x,Cax) Cu2O7-δ (x=0.3,0.4 and 0.5) superconductors under pressure at room temperature shows an initial drop in resistivity up to 2 GPa followed by a nearly constant value up to 8 GPa pressure. The steady state value of resistivity observed between 2-8 GPa pressure decreases with increasing calcium content. The superconducting composite formed with the addition of 10 mol. % Ag2O to (Pb,Cd)-1212 phase (XCa=0.3) exhibits metallic nature under pressure up to 8 GPa. But the high pressure resistivity behaviour of the superconducting composites with XCa=0.4 and 0.5 is found to be semiconducting. (author)

  7. Adsorption Studies on Aqueous Cd2 +, Pb2+, Cu2 + Ions by Thiol and Humic Acid Functionalized Fe3O4 Nanoparticles%巯基修饰和胡敏酸包裹纳米Fe3O4颗粒的制备及其对溶液中pb2+ Cd2+ Cu2+的吸附效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萌; 雷丽萍; 方敦煌; 徐照丽; 陈世宝

    2011-01-01

    采用改进的化学共沉淀法制备纳米Fe3O4颗粒,利用3-巯丙基三乙氧基硅烷(MPTES)和胡敏酸(HA)对所制备的纳米Fe3O4进行巯基修饰和胡敏酸包裹,通过红外光谱(IR)、X射线衍射分析(XRD)等方法对上述制备的纳米颗粒的性质进行了表征,同时对上述不同的纳米Fe3O4颗粒在恒温下对水体中金属离子(Pb2+、Cd2+、Cu2+)的吸附进行了研究.结果表明,所制备的功能化前后的纳米Fe3O4纯度较高,平均粒径约为20~30 nm,且分布均匀.不同纳米型Fe3O4颗粒对溶液中金属离子具有较好的吸附性能,其吸附等温线均可以用Langmuir方程进行较好的拟合;裸露的纳米Fe3O4颗粒对Pb2+最大吸附量(b)达到172.4 mg·g-1,经过胡敏酸包裹后的纳米Fe3O4颗粒对Cd2+、Cu2+的最大吸附量分别增加了75.8%和231.5%;对不同金属离子而言,裸露的和巯基修饰的纳米Fe3O4对3种重金属离子的吸附能力的强弱为pb2+>Cd2+>Cu2+,而经胡敏酸包裹后的顺序则为Pb2+>Cu2,Cd2+;与裸露的和巯基修饰的纳米Fe3O4相比,经HA包裹的纳米Fe3O4对Cd2+和Cu2+具有较高的吸附量和吸附亲和力参数,而对Pb2+的吸附无显著性差异.%The magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared using modified chemical co- precipitation, and corresponding thiolated and coating nanoparticles were also obtained via surface mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane(MPTES) modification and humic acid(HA). The properties and structure of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-Ray diffraction(XRD) and infrared spectroscopy(IR) etc. The application of the nanoparticles to the adsorption of aqueous Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ were also investigated in this study. The results showed that the average size of prepared nanoparticles were about 20-30 nm with homogeneous distribution; the nanoparticles could adsorb Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ in solution efficiently and the adsorption data were well fitted with the Langmuir isotherm. The sorption maxima of

  8. Evaluation of the air quality regarding total suspended particles and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) in the Hermosillo city, Sonora, Mexico, during a yearly period; Evaluacion de la calidad del aire respecto de particulas suspendidas totales y metales pesados (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) en la Ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, durante un periodo anual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz C, M. E.; Quintero N, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Instituto de Ingenieria, Campus Mexicali, Calle de la Normal s/n, y Blvd. Benito Juarez, Col. Insurgentes Este, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Gomez A, A.; Varela S, J., E-mail: martincruzcampas@hotmail.com [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Metalurgia, Blvd. Rosales y Luis Ensina s/n, Edificio 5B, Col. Centro, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, the air quality of the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico was assessed considering total suspended particulates (tsp) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) from June 2001 through May 2002 in three monitoring sites Centro (Mazon), Nor este (CESUES) and Noroeste (CBTIS). The filter-samples used for that purpose were provided by the Air Quality Evaluation and Improvement Program (PEMCA) of the municipality of Hermosillo. The sampling method was based on high volume sampling frequency set every 6 days with non-simultaneous sampling among the three sampling sites. Filters were dissolved for metal determination by acidic-extraction, and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results indicate that tsp concentrations at Centro and Noroeste sites were frequently higher than the maximum daily permissible level (260 {mu}g/m{sup 3}), while in the three sites the annual average was higher than the maximum annual permissible level (75 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) both established in the standard NOM-024-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994a). According to the Air Quality Standard Index (US EPA 1992a), used in Mexico by Air Quality Metropolitan Index (IMECA) the results indicate that the air quality in the city of Hermosillo regarding tsp was placed between no satisfactory and poor. In regard to heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr), concentrations detected were below the maximum permissible levels and/or criteria taking into account the standard NOM-026-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994b), the Who criterion (2000), the European Union criterion (Cec 2003), and the European Environmental Agency criteria (EEA 2004). Such findings would mean that airborne metals are of no concern; however, air quality is still classified as no satisfactory due to high particulate matter concentrations. Keeping air quality parameters monitoring is recommended in order to get extensive data for use in risk studies of air quality and health (morbidity/mortality), as well as topographic conditions

  9. Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetric determination of Cd, Pb, and Cu in a hydrofluoric acid solution of siliceous spicules of marine sponges (from the Ligurian Sea, Italy, and the Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truzzi, C.; Annibaldi, A.; Illuminati, S.; Bassotti, E.; Scarponi, G. [Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy). Department of Marine Science

    2008-09-15

    Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was set up and optimized for simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in siliceous spicules of marine sponges, directly in the hydrofluoric acid solution ({proportional_to}0.55 mol L{sup -1} HF, pH {proportional_to}1.9). A thin mercury-film electrode (TMFE) plated on to an HF-resistant epoxy-impregnated graphite rotating-disc support was used. The optimum experimental conditions, evaluated also in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, were as follows: deposition potential -1100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, KCl 3 mol L{sup -1}, deposition time 3-10 min, electrode rotation 3000 rpm, SW scan from -1100 mV to +100 mV, SW pulse amplitude 25 mV, frequency 100 Hz, {delta}E{sub step} 8 mV, t{sub step} 100 ms, t{sub wait} 60 ms, t{sub delay} 2 ms, t{sub meas} 3 ms. Under these conditions the metal peak potentials were Cd -654{+-}1 mV, Pb -458 {+-} 1 mV, Cu -198{+-}1 mV. The electrochemical behaviour was reversible for Pb, quasi-reversible for Cd, and kinetically controlled (possibly following chemical reaction) for Cu. The linearity of the response with concentration was verified up to {proportional_to}4 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cd and Pb and {proportional_to}20 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cu. The detection limits were 5.8 ng L{sup -1}, 3.6 ng L{sup -1}, and 4.3 ng L{sup -1} for Cd, Pb, and Cu, respectively, with t{sub d}=5 min. The method was applied for determination of the metals in spicules of two specimens of marine sponges (Demosponges) from the Portofino natural reserve (Ligurian Sea, Italy, Petrosia ficiformis) and Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica, Sphaerotylus antarcticus). The metal contents varied from tens of ng g{sup -1} to {proportional_to}1 {mu}g g{sup -1}, depending on the metal considered and with significant differences between the two sponge species. (orig.)

  10. Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetric determination of Cd, Pb, and Cu in a hydrofluoric acid solution of siliceous spicules of marine sponges (from the Ligurian Sea, Italy, and the Ross Sea, Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, C; Annibaldi, A; Illuminati, S; Bassotti, E; Scarponi, G

    2008-09-01

    Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was set up and optimized for simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in siliceous spicules of marine sponges, directly in the hydrofluoric acid solution (approximately 0.55 mol L(-1) HF, pH approximately 1.9). A thin mercury-film electrode (TMFE) plated on to an HF-resistant epoxy-impregnated graphite rotating-disc support was used. The optimum experimental conditions, evaluated also in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, were as follows: deposition potential -1100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, KCl 3 mol L(-1), deposition time 3-10 min, electrode rotation 3000 rpm, SW scan from -1100 mV to +100 mV, SW pulse amplitude 25 mV, frequency 100 Hz, DeltaE(step) 8 mV, t(step) 100 ms, t(wait) 60 ms, t(delay) 2 ms, t(meas) 3 ms. Under these conditions the metal peak potentials were Cd -654 +/- 1 mV, Pb -458 +/- 1 mV, Cu -198 +/- 1 mV. The electrochemical behaviour was reversible for Pb, quasi-reversible for Cd, and kinetically controlled (possibly following chemical reaction) for Cu. The linearity of the response with concentration was verified up to approximately 4 microg L(-1) for Cd and Pb and approximately 20 microg L(-1) for Cu. The detection limits were 5.8 ng L(-1), 3.6 ng L(-1), and 4.3 ng L(-1) for Cd, Pb, and Cu, respectively, with t(d) = 5 min. The method was applied for determination of the metals in spicules of two specimens of marine sponges (Demosponges) from the Portofino natural reserve (Ligurian Sea, Italy, Petrosia ficiformis) and Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica, Sphaerotylus antarcticus). The metal contents varied from tens of ng g(-1) to approximately 1 microg g(-1), depending on the metal considered and with significant differences between the two sponge species. PMID:18642105

  11. Determination of trace Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in diesel and gasoline by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after sample clean up with hollow fiber solid phase microextraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports a simple and efficient method for the determination of trace Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in diesel and gasoline samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after matrix removal and analyte pre-concentration using hollow fiber-solid phase microextraction (HF–SPME). The optimization of HF-SPME procedure was carried out using two-level full factorial and central composite designs. Four factors (variables), that are, sample solution pH, acceptor phase amount, extraction time and eluent concentration were optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the precision was ≤ 3% (C = 10 μg L−1, n = 15), limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 μg L−1 and 0.3–0.9 μg L−1, respectively, and the maximum preconcentration factor was 30. The HF-SPME method was applied for the determination of trace metals in real gasoline and diesel samples. - Highlights: • Hollow fiber solid phase microextraction of metal ions in diesel and gasoline • Use of hollow fiber-supported sol–gel combined with cation exchange resin • Optimization of HF-SPME using multivariate techniques • Determination of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn using ICP–MS • Relatively low LOD and LOQ

  12. Trace elements concentrations (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, As and Hg in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis and evaluation of mussel quality and possible human health risk from cultivated and wild sites of the southeastern Adriatic Sea, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Mihajlo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (L was collected from the fall 2005 to the winter 2009 from the six sites on the Montenegrin coastline. Two wild samples were collected from the open sea coastline, and two cultivated and two wild were from the Boka Kotorska Bay. The mussels soft tissue was analyzed for zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, arsenic (As and total mercury (Hg. Concentrations of these metals ranged from 135.5-210 for Zn, 6.2-14.5 for Cu, 4.0-11.5 for Pb, 1.7-2.1 for Cd, 5.8-12.4 for As and 0.11-0.51 for Hg, in mg kg-1 dry weight. The metals were found to be present in the samples at different levels, but not in concentrations higher than maximum residual levels prescribed by the European Union (EU and US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA regulations for seafood. This indicates that the consumption of wild or cultivated mussels from the studied area is safe in moderate quantities.

  13. Chemometric evaluation of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) and Pb (graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry) concentrations in lipstick samples intended to be used by adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Érica Ferreira; Augusto, Amanda dos Santos; Pereira-Filho, Edenir Rodrigues

    2016-04-01

    A method was developed for determining the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb in lipstick samples intended to be used by adults and children using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) after treatment with dilute HNO3 and hot block. The combination of fractional factorial design and Desirability function was used to evaluate the ICP OES operational parameters and the regression models using Central Composite and Doehlert designs were calculated to stablish the best working condition for all analytes. Seventeen lipstick samples manufactured in different countries with different colors and brands were analyzed. Some samples contained high concentrations of toxic elements, such as Cr and Pb, which are carcinogenic and cause allergic and eczematous dermatitis. The maximum concentration detected was higher than the permissible safe limits for human use, and the samples containing these high metal concentrations were intended for use by children. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a chemometrics tool for exploratory analysis to observe the similarities between samples relative to the metal concentrations (a correlation between Cd and Pb was observed). PMID:26838401

  14. Concentración de metales pesados (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb en la biota y sedimentos de una playa artificial, en la bahía San Jorge 23°S, norte de Chile Heavy metals concentration (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb, in biota and sediments of an artificial beach, in San Jorge bay 23°S, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Castro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el contenido de metales pesados (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb en la biota y el sedimento de una playa artificial (Paraíso y una playa natural (El Lenguado, ubicadas en la bahía San Jorge, norte de Chile. Los resultados fueron utilizados para comparar ambos sistemas, el grado de cumplimiento de la normativa ambiental nacional e internacional, y el efecto de la construcción de la playa artificial sobre el nivel de contaminación por metales existentes históricamente en esa zona. En cada playa se ubicaron estaciones equidistantes que abarcaron desde el intermareal hasta el submareal de las cuales fueron extraídos los organismos. Se tomaron muestras de sedimento en cada playa y se determinaron las pendientes con el método de Emery. El análisis granulométrico evidenció el predominio de arena media en playa El Lenguado, y arena media y fina en playa Paraíso. El contenido de materia orgánica fue mayor en El Lenguado. En playa Paraíso se determinaron cinco phylum/superclase agrupados en 19 taxa, mientras que en El Lenguado se encontraron cuatro phylum/superclase agrupados en cc taxa. El contenido de metales en sedimentos y en la mayoría de organismos presentó valores mayores en playa Paraíso. Estos resultados, junto a las normas de calidad chilenas y norteamericanas, sugieren un evidente deterioro en la calidad ambiental de playa Paraíso lo que se demostró por un incremento en las concentraciones de estos metales desde su construcción, los que sobrepasan los límites establecidos por ambas normas.It was evaluated the heavy metal content (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb in biota and sediment of an artificial beach (Paraíso and a natural beach (El Lenguado, both located in San Jorge bay, northern Chile. The results were used to compare both systems, the degree of fulfillment of national and international environmental regulations, and the effect of the construction of the artificial beach on the level of metal contamination historically existing in

  15. Concentrative phenomenon of relative content ratios of Cu, Pb and Zn in soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is discovered that there is the concentrative phenomenon of relative content ratios of Cu, Pb and Zn in soil by studying their parageneous association in soil, meterites and rocks with the relative content ratios. This not only is helpful to understand the trends of Cu, Cd and Zn enriched and dispersed in the evolution course of earth matter, but also provide evidence for geochemical self-organization that there may be in the process of Cu, Pb and Zn translation and distribution.

  16. Influence of the application renewal of glutamate and tartrate on Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn distribution between contaminated soil and Paulownia tomentosa in a pilot-scale assisted phytoremediation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumett, S; Fibbi, D; Azzarello, E; Mancuso, S; Mugnai, S; Petruzzelli, G; Del Bubba, M

    2011-01-01

    The influence of repeated applications of tartrate (TAR) and glutamate (GLU) at 50-mmol kg(-1) of soil on Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn distribution between a contaminated soil and Paulownia tomentosa was investigated. TAR and GLU were applied by a single or a double dosage, the latter carried out with an interval between the two applications of thirty days. The comparison of the differences in mean amounts of metals accumulated in the whole plant at the end of single and double TAR and GLU application experiments indicated the positive effect of repeated GLU applications on the accumulation of Cu, Pb, and Zn by Paulownia tomentosa as compared to untreated controls. A similar effect was not observed for the TAR treatments. When soil treated with either TAR or GLU was compared with untreated controls, no significant effect on heavy-metal concentrations in the soil solution was observed 30 days after treatment, suggesting the absence of an increase of the long-term leaching risk of heavy metals in aquifers and surface waters due to the ligand application. A cost analysis of the treatment is also reported. PMID:21598764

  17. The influence of metal speciation in combustion waste on the efficiency of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni and Cr bioleaching in a mixed culture of sulfur-oxidizing and biosurfactant-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowska, Ewa; Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Andrzejewska, Dorota

    2015-12-15

    Metal leachability from ash and combustion slag is related to the physico-chemical properties, including their speciation in the waste. Metals speciation is an important factor that influences the efficiency of metal bioleaching from combustion wastes in a mixed culture of acidophilic and biosurfactant-producing bacteria. It was observed that individual metals tended to occur in different fractions, which reflects their susceptibility to bioleaching. Cr and Ni were readily removed from wastes when present with a high fraction bound to carbonates. Cd and Pb where not effectively bioleached when present in high amounts in a fraction bound to organic matter. The best bioleaching results were obtained for power plant slag, which had a high metal content in the exchangeable, bound to carbonates and bound to Fe and Mg oxides fractions- the metal recovery percentage for Zn, Cu and Ni from this waste exceeded 90%. PMID:26073519

  18. Certification of the contents (mass fractions) of Cd, Pb, Se, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in wholemeal flour and lyophilized brown bread reference materials. Wholemeal flour - CRM no. 189; brown bread - CRM no. 191

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagstaffe, P.J.; Griepink, B.; Muntau, H.; Schramel, P.

    1987-01-01

    The report describes the preparation and certification of a wholemeal flour (CRM 189) and a lyophilised brown breas (CRM 191) for their contents (mass fractions) of elements of toxicological and nutritional importance: Cd, Pb, Se, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. Indicative values are also given for As, Ca, Cl, Cr, Hg, Mg, Na, Ni, P and K. Details are given of a preliminary intercomparison of methods for these elements in a wholemeal flour sample, homogeneity and stability studies on the two reference materials and the results and evaluation of the certification exercise which involved 21 European Laboratories. Summaries of the certification methods are also presented. The report concludes with a discussion of the most common sources of error in determining the elements of interest and the steps to be taken to control them. With 7 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. Spectroscopic properties of some new azo-azomethine ligands in the presence of Cu2+, Pb2+, Hg2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ and their antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghi, Zohreh

    2014-10-01

    Due to their potential applicability as selective receptors in optical sensors, two novel azo Schiff-base derivatives I and II are synthesized and characterized with FT-IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis techniques. The optical response of azo groups of I and II towards Ni2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Hg2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ metal ions is studied in DMSO by UV-vis spectroscopy. The absorption spectra of both compounds with cations show marked changes. In solution, azo Schiff-base I produces a cation induced 95 nm blue shift for Cu2+ ion from 555 nm to 460 nm with remarkable color change from red to yellow. Whereas no significant color change is observed upon addition of studied metal cations to the solution of ligand II or other metal ions to the solution of ligand I. Furthermore, Job's plot indicate 1:1 binding-stoichiometry for I with Cu2+ ion and Benesi-Hildebrand plot is used for the determination of its association constant. Therefore receptor I is highly specific for copper ions in DMSO solution. Finally, the study of antioxidant properties of I and II with DPPH method reveals high and significant activities.

  20. Evolution with time of 12 metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Ba, Pb, Bi and U) and of lead isotopes in the snows of Coats Land (Antarctica) since the 1830's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows that it is now possible to get reliable data on the occurrence of numerous heavy metals at ultra low levels in Antarctic snow, by combining ultra clean field sampling and laboratory sub-sampling procedures and the use of ultra sensitive analytical techniques such as ICP-SFMS and TIMS. It has allowed us to determine concentrations of twelve metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Ba, Pb, Bi et U) and lead isotopic composition in the ultra clean series of snow samples collected at Coats Land, in the Atlantic sector of Antarctica. This work presents a 150 years record of metal inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to Antarctica from the 1830's to the early 1990's. Lead atmospheric pollution begins as early as the end of the 19. century, peaks during the 1970's-1980's and then falls sharply during recent decades. Evolution in lead isotopic abundance shows that Pb inputs to Antarctica reflect a complex blend of contributions originating from the Southern part of South America and Australia. For Cr, Cu, Zn, Ag, Bi and U, concentrations in the snow show significant increases from 1950 to 1980. These enhancements which cannot be explained by variations in natural inputs, illustrate that atmospheric pollution for heavy metals linked with anthropogenic activities in the Southern Hemisphere countries such as for example ferrous and non-ferrous metal mining and smelting is really global. Study of the time period 1920-1990, has allowed us to detail short-term (intra and inter annual) heavy metals concentration's changes. The large short-term variability, observed in Coats Land snow, shows the complex patterns of metal inputs to Antarctica, associated for instance to changes in long-range transport processes from mid-latitude to polar zone and to variability in the different natural sources, such local volcanic activity, sea-salt spray or crustal dust inputs. (author)

  1. Pb Surfactant-Assisted Co Film Growth on Cu (111)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ming-Chun; QIAN Hai-Jie; LIU Feng-Qin; KRASH Ibrahim; LAI Wu-Yan; WU Si-Cheng

    2000-01-01

    Surfactant-assisted Co film epitaxy growth on Cu (111) using Pb as a surfactant was studied by means of Auger electron spectra and synchrotron radiation photoemission spectra. The results reveal that with increasing the Co thickness most of the Pb atoms always float on the surface. Compared with 0.7ML (monolayer) Pb, the Co film with 1.5 ML Pb surfactant has more layer-by-layer growth on Cu (111). The predeposited Pb layer can suppress the intralayer diffusion on the Cu (111) surface and effectively increase the Co island density at the initial stage of Co growth. On the contrary, a Pb-Co surface alloy was found during the Co film growth; this may hinder the interlayer diffusion of the deposited Co atoms, which is unfavorable to the layer-by-layer growth. The Pb-Co is also considered to be the main reason why some Pb atoms have been buried in the Co films.

  2. Voltammetric determination of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Se in milk and dairy products collected from Iran: An emphasis on permissible limits and risk assessment of exposure to heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Yasser; Ahmadi, Farhad; Fakhari, Farnoosh

    2016-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the concentrations of some heavy metals in dairy products, collected from five industrial regions in Iran (n = 250 samples) during winter and summer in 2013. The samples were analyzed using the differential pulse anodic and cathodic stripping voltammetry technique. The obtained ranges of mean Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn and Se were as follow: in raw milk 14.0, 1.11, 427, 571, 2.19 μg kg(-1), in pasteurized milk 9.59, 1.0, 378, 447, 1.78 μg kg(-1), in cheese 14.5, 1.25, 428, 586, 1.68 μg kg(-1), in yoghurt 7.54, 0.99, 399, 431, 1.23 μg kg(-1) and in doogh 7.2, 0.84, 320, 369, 0.99 μg kg(-1), respectively. In nearly all cases the concentrations of the metals were below the international permissible limits and do not pose a health concern for the consumption of milk and dairy products in Iran.

  3. Intraparticulate speciation analysis of soft nanoparticulate metal complexes. The impact of electric condensation on the binding of Cd²⁺/Pb²⁺/Cu²⁺ by humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, Raewyn M; van Leeuwen, Herman P

    2016-04-21

    In aqueous dispersions of soft, charged nanoparticles, the physicochemical conditions prevailing within the particle body generally differ substantially from those in the bulk medium. Accordingly it is necessary to define intrinsic descriptors that appropriately reflect the chemical speciation inside the particle's microenvironment. Herein the speciation of divalent metal ions within the body of negatively charged soft nanoparticulate complexants is elaborated for the example case of humic acid association with Cd(ii), Pb(ii) and Cu(ii). The electrostatic effects are described by a two-state model that accounts for counterion condensation in the intraparticulate double layer shell at the particle/medium interface and Donnan partitioning within the bulk of the particle body. Inner-sphere complex formation is defined by an intrinsic binding constant expressed in terms of local reactant concentrations as controlled by the pertinent electrostatic conditions. For the high particle charge density case (Debye length smaller than charged site separation), three distinct intraparticulate metal species are identified, namely free hydrated ions, electrostatically condensed ions, and inner-sphere metal-humic complexes. For all metal ions studied, the electrostatic contribution to the association of the metal ion with the oppositely charged particle is found to account for a substantial fraction of the total metal bound. PMID:27004844

  4. Chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles-sorbent for solid phase extraction of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerahov, Lubomir; Vasileva, Penka; Karadjova, Irina; Kurakalva, Rama Mohan; Aradhi, Keshav Krishna

    2016-08-20

    The present study describes the ecofriendly method for the preparation of chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) and application of this film as efficient sorbent for separation and enrichment of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II). The stable CS-AgNPs colloid was prepared by dispersing the AgNPs sol in chitosan solution at appropriate ratio and further used to obtain a cast film with very good stability under storage and good mechanical strength for easy handling in aqueous medium. The incorporation of AgNPs in the structure of CS film and interaction between the polymer matrix and nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The homogeneously embedded AgNPs (average diameter 29nm, TEM analysis) were clearly observed throughout the film by SEM. The CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film shows high sorption activity toward trace metals under optimized chemical conditions. The results suggest that the CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film can be feasibly used as a novel sorbent material for solid-phase extraction of metal pollutants from surface waters. PMID:27178907

  5. Adsorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) by dead Avena fatua biomass and the effect of these metals on their growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areco, María Mar; Saleh-Medina, Leila; Trinelli, María Alcira; Marco-Brown, Jose Luis; Dos Santos Afonso, María

    2013-10-01

    The biosorption of copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and lead(II) from aqueous solutions by dead Avena fatua biomass and the effect of these metals on the growth of this wild oat were investigated. Pseudo-first- and second-order and intra-particle diffusion models were applied to describe the kinetic data and to evaluate the rate constants. The adsorption kinetics of all the metals follows a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption capacity was determined, and the Freundlich and Langmuir models were applied. The experimental data obtained for all the metals are best described by the Langmuir model. A. fatua was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and zeta potential. The results obtained evidence the presence of Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) or Pb(II) on the surface of the weed. The growth of A. fatua was affected by the presence of all metals. The decrease in the growth rate with increasing metal concentration was more noticeable for zinc.

  6. Highly efficient simultaneous ultrasonic-assisted adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions by graphene oxide modified with 2,2'-dipyridylamine: Central composite design optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare-Dorabei, Rouholah; Ferdowsi, Somayeh Moazen; Barzin, Ahmad; Tadjarodi, Azadeh

    2016-09-01

    In present work, a graphene oxide chemically modified with 2,2'-dipyridylamine (GO-DPA), was synthesized by simple, fast and low-cost process for the simultaneous adsorption of four toxic heavy metals, Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II), from aqueous solutions. The synthesized adsorbent was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, XPS, SEM and AFM measurements. The effects of variables such as pH solution, initial ion concentrations, adsorbent dosage and sonicating time were investigated on adsorption efficiency by rotatable central composite design. The optimum conditions, specified as 8mg of adsorbent, 20mgL(-1) of each ion at pH 5 and short time of 4min led to the achievement of a high adsorption capacities. Ultrasonic power had important role in shortening the adsorption time of ions by enhancing the dispersion of adsorbent in solution. The adsorption kinetic studies and equilibrium isotherms for evaluating the mechanism of adsorption process showed a good fit to the pseudo-second order and Langmuir model, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities (Qm) of this adsorbent were 369.749, 257.201, 180.893 and 358.824mgg(-1) for lead, cadmium, nickel and copper ions, respectively. The removal performance of adsorbent on the real wastewater samples also showed the feasibility of adsorbent for applying in industrial purposes. PMID:27150770

  7. Chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles-sorbent for solid phase extraction of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerahov, Lubomir; Vasileva, Penka; Karadjova, Irina; Kurakalva, Rama Mohan; Aradhi, Keshav Krishna

    2016-08-20

    The present study describes the ecofriendly method for the preparation of chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) and application of this film as efficient sorbent for separation and enrichment of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II). The stable CS-AgNPs colloid was prepared by dispersing the AgNPs sol in chitosan solution at appropriate ratio and further used to obtain a cast film with very good stability under storage and good mechanical strength for easy handling in aqueous medium. The incorporation of AgNPs in the structure of CS film and interaction between the polymer matrix and nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The homogeneously embedded AgNPs (average diameter 29nm, TEM analysis) were clearly observed throughout the film by SEM. The CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film shows high sorption activity toward trace metals under optimized chemical conditions. The results suggest that the CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film can be feasibly used as a novel sorbent material for solid-phase extraction of metal pollutants from surface waters.

  8. Advance in Study of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd Hyperaccumulators%Pb、Zn、Cu、Cd的超富集植物研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何兰兰; 角媛梅; 王李鸿; 周鸿斌

    2009-01-01

    我国矿产资源丰富,矿区重金属污染十分严重,Pb、Zn、u、Cd四种重金属的污染在我国极其严重.利用超富集植物修复矿区重金属污染土壤,较传统方法而占是一种可靠经济安全的技术.综述了Pb.Zn、Cu、Cd四种重金属超富集植物,分析了可用于的我国重金属超富集植物的分布情况和生活环境,为土壤重金属污染的生态恢复提供参考.

  9. Ostwald ripening of Pb nanocrystalline phase in mechanically milled Al-Pb alloys and the influence of Cu additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coarsening behavior of nanosized Pb phase in both Al-10%Pb and Al-10%Pb-4.5%Cu alloys has been studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The coarsening of Pb nanophase in Al-Pb alloys still follows the classical ripening theory (the LSW theory) and the addition of Cu decreases the coarsening rate of Pb nanophase

  10. The Environment Indicative Function of Cu, Pb, Cd Heavy Metal Pollutants in Common Birds at Nanchang%南昌市常见鸟类对环境中Cu、Pb、Cd重金属污染物的指示作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹; 张军; 欧阳盼; 宋鹏飞; 倪才英

    2013-01-01

    鸟类是环境监测的代表性指示生物之一,为研究南昌市Cu、Pb、Cd的重金属污染状况,于2009年4~11月,在南昌市鸟类主要林栖地收集了6种鸟类(牛背鹭、燕子、白鹭、斑鸠、麻雀、白头鹎),用原子吸收法分别测定了这6种鸟类的心、肝、肺、胗、肌肉、绒羽和飞羽样品中Cu、Pb、Cd的含量.结果表明:3种重金属在这6种鸟体内的富集顺序是一致的,即Cu >Pb>Cd;但重金属的富集存在明显的种间差异,6种鸟类的飞羽对这3种重金属富集量的大小各不相同,且富集能力因组织和元素的种类不同而不同;肝脏是Cu和Cd富集的目标器官,肺是Pb富集的目标器官.相同组织中的重金属含量因鸟的年龄大小也有差异,普遍规律是:成鸟>幼鸟.经与其它地区比较,发现南昌市白鹭的飞羽对Cu、Cd的富集量低于法国Camargue生物圈保护区,而Pb的富集量高于厦门白鹭自然保护区、香港米埔自然保护区和法国Camar-gue生物圈保护区,说明南昌市的Pb污染较严重,而Cu、Cd的污染较轻.%The bird is one of the representative biological indicators in the environment monitoring.In order to research the content of heavy metal pollution levels about Cu,Pb and Cd in Nanchang,six kinds of bird samples including Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis),Swallow (Hirundines),Egrets (Egretta garzetta),Turtle Dove (Streptopelia turtur),Sparrow(Passer montanus) and Chinese Bulbul(Pycnonotus sinensis),and collected from main forests in Nanchang city from April to November,2011,are studied.Samples of hearts,livers,lungs,gizzards,muscles,down feathers and remigess were tested for residues of Cu,Pb and Cd by atomic absorption spectrometry analysis.Results showed that three heavy metals concentration ordered as CuPbCd in six kinds of birds.There were significant differences of interspecies among birds,involved the birds remigess in the three heavy metals,which concentration were different

  11. 微波消解-原子吸收法快速测定羽毛中的铜锌铬铅镉%Rapid determination of Cu,Zn, Cr,Pb and Cd in feather by microwave digestion-atomic absorption spectrometry method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎鲜茗; 周西林

    2013-01-01

    提出了微波消解原子吸收法测定改性羽毛中铜、锌、铬、铅、镉的分析方法.采用在密闭容器中,用HNO3和HClO4混酸做溶剂在微波状态下消解改性羽毛样品,样品溶解完毕泄压后,定容,用快速序列分析功能的原子吸收仪同时测定铜、锌、铬、铅、镉的含量,快速高效.同时考察了微波消解称样量、溶剂用量及共存离子对分析结果的影响,其标准样品的测定结果与标准值一致.本法适应于改性羽毛中铜、锌、铬、铅、镉的测定.%The contents of Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb and Cd in modified feather were determined by microwave digestion-atomic absorption spectrometry method. The feather was dissolved by mixture of HN03 and HClO4 under microwave. The contents of Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb and Cd were rapid determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after decompression and constant volume. The effects of sample weight by microwave digestion, solvents and coexisting ions on analyzed results were discussed. The results showed that the determination was in accord with standard which is available for determination of Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb and Cd in modified feather.

  12. Determination of Five Heavy Metals (Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Hg) in Folium Microcotis by Microwave Digestion with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry%微波消解/ICP-MS法测定布渣叶中5种重金属的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢鹏; 陈浩桉; 隆颖; 杨立伟; 叶文才; 江仁望

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assay the contents of 5 heavy metals of copper(Cu) , arsenic 1 (As) , cadmium(Cd), hydrargyrum (Hg), plumbum (Pb) in Folium Microcotis by microwave digestion with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). Methods With germanium(72Ge) , indium(115In) and bismuth(209Bi) as the internal standard substance, the contents of the 5 heavy metals of Cu, Pb, Hg, As and Cd were detected with ICP-MS simultaneously after the samples of Folium Microcotis was treated by microwave digestion. The national standard substance of orange leaves(GBW10020) was used to estimate the accuracy of method. Results For all of the analyzed heavy metals, the correlation coefficient of the calibration curves was over 0.9990, RSD were in the range of 1.1 %~11.6 %, and the recovery rates of the procedure were 97.9 %~108.9 %. Conclusion This method is accurate, convenient, and rapid with high sensitivity, and can be applied to assay the five heavy metals of Cu, Cd, Hg, Pb, As in Folium Microcotis.%目的 采用微波消解电感耦合等离子体质谱(ICP- MS)法测定布渣叶药材中铜(Cu)、铅(Pb)、汞(Hg)、砷(As)、镉(Cd)五种重金属的含量.方法布渣叶经微波消解后,以锗(72Ge)、铟(115In)、铋(209Bi)作为内标物质,用ICP- MS法同时测定样品中Cu、Pb、Hg、As、Cd五种重金属元素的含量.用国家一级标准物质柑橘叶(GBW 10020)评价方法的准确性.结果对于所测元素,校准曲线相关系数r>0.9990回收率为97.9%~108.9%,RSD值在1.1%~11.6%.结论该方法简便、快速、灵敏度高,适合于布渣叶中五种重金属的含量测定.

  13. Distribution and Consumption Risk Assessment of Cu, Pb and Cd in Six Freshwater Fishes from the Main Market in Hefei%合肥市场6种淡水鱼体内Cu、Pb和Cd的分布及食用风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏泽慧; 王兴明; 楼巧婷; 刘桂建

    2012-01-01

    重金属沿食物链传递并最终在人体中富集的事实已经得到越来越多的重视和研究.从合肥市场采集鲢鱼、鲈鱼、鳜鱼、鳊鱼、鲫鱼和草鱼,研究Cu、Pb和Cd在这6种鱼体内的分布和食用风险.结果表明:鲢鱼、鲈鱼、鳜鱼、鳊鱼、鲫鱼和草鱼的肌肉中w(Cu)、w(Pb)和w(Cd)均低于我国NY 5073-2006《无公害食品水产品中有毒有害物质限量》、GB 2762-2005《食品中污染物限量》及澳大利亚国家卫生和医学研究理事会制定的人体消费卫生标准,其总重金属食人健康风险数值也小于国际辐射防护委员会(ICRP)推荐的最大可接受水平5.0×10-5a-1,说明合肥市场上这6种淡水鱼的肌肉通过食入途径所产生的Cu、Pb和Cd健康风险均在可接受水平.%The distribution and consumption risk of Cu, Pb and Cd were investigated in six freshwater fishes - Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) , Bass ( Lateolabrax japonicus) , Mandarin Fish ( Siniperca chuatsi) , Bream ( Parabramis pekinensis) , Crucian Carp ( Carassius aumtus) and Crass Carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idelliu) - from the main market in Hefei. The results showed that concentrations of Cu, Pb and Cd in the muscles of all the fishes were lower than the standard values in the national NY 5073-2006 limited Quantity of Poisonous and Harmful Contents of the National Pollution-Free Aquatic Products, national standard GB 2762-2005 Limited Quantity of Contaminants in Foods, as well as those established by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council ( ICRP). The total consumption risk of the heavy metals in the six fishes was lower than 5. 0× 10-5 a01, as recommended by ICRP. The health risks of Cu, Pb and Cd in the muscles of the six fishes in the main market of Hefei were acceptable for people's consumption.

  14. Distribution of P, K, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in wood and bark age classes of willows and poplars used for phytoextraction on soils contaminated by risk elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárubová, Pavla; Hejcman, Michal; Vondráčková, Stanislava; Mrnka, Libor; Száková, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Fast-growing clones of Salix and Populus have been studied for remediation of soils contaminated by risk elements (RE) using short-rotation coppice plantations. Our aim was to assess biomass yield and distributions of elements in wood and bark of highly productive willow (S1--[Salix schwerinii × Salix viminalis] × S. viminalis, S2--Salix × smithiana clone S-218) and poplar (P1--Populus maximowiczii × Populus nigra, P2--P. nigra) clones with respect to aging. The field experiment was established in April 2008 on moderately Cd-, Pb- and Zn- contaminated soil. Shoots were harvested after four seasons (February 2012) and separated into annual classes of wood and bark. All tested clones grew on contaminated soils, with highest biomass production and lowest mortality exhibited by P1 and S2. Concentrations of elements, with exception of Ca and Pb, decreased with age and were higher in bark than in wood. The Salix clones were characterised by higher removal of Cd, Mn and Zn compared to the Populus clones. Despite generally higher RE content in young shoots, partly due to lower wood/bark ratios and higher RE concentrations in bark, the overall removal of RE was higher in older wood classes due to higher biomass yield. Thus, longer rotations seem to be more effective when phytoextraction strategy is considered. Of the four selected clones, S1 exhibited the best removal of Cd and Zn and is a good candidate for phytoextraction.

  15. Mosses as indicators of atmospheric pollution of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn and Zn) in the vicinity of coal-fired brick kilns in north-eastern suburbs of Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of toxic elements Cd, Pb and other heavy metals has been carried out Rawalpindi - Islamabad region using the moss monitoring technique. The carpet moss samples (Hypnum Cupressiforme) were collected over an area of 196 km2 around lignite/coal-fired brick kilns for regular periods of time during 1997-1999. The elements were extracted into solution with multiacid digestion and then analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The metal contents in moss samples from sites adjacent to coal-fired brick kilns was higher as compared to samples collected from the sites away from that sources. The results obtained by the 'BIOMONITORING' technique, for the first time in this area, are presented. (author)

  16. Biosorption of Cu(Ⅱ) and Pb(Ⅱ) by Auricularia polytricha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dan; GAO Jianwei; GAO Tingyan; YING Yigao; CHEN Hong

    2007-01-01

    For searching biological material for heavy metal removal of waste-water, using macrofungus Auricularia polytricha as biosorbent for Cu2+ and Pb2+ removal was investigated. After shaking and biosorbing Cu2+ and Pb2+ in solution by biosorbents, the filtrates were tested by AAS and the adsorbed quantity of Cu2+ and Pb2+ was calculated. The biosorbents were effective in removal of Cu2+ and Pb2+ on the biosorbents that showed a highest value around pH 5-6. The biosorption rate of Cu2+ and Pb2+on A. polytricha biomass decreased with increasing the initial concentration of Cu2+ and Pb2+ in the medium. The biosorption of Cu2+ and Pb2+ on the biomasses follows pseudo-second order kinetics. The determined maximum biosorption capacities presented by the fungus biomass were 3.34 and 13.03 mg·g -1 dry weight for Cu2+ and Pb2+, respectively by the biosorption equilibrium with Langmuir adsorption isotherm. According to the whole data analysis in each experiment of studying Cu2+ and Pb2+ biosorption including condition factors and adsorption isotherm, the adsorbed capacity of Pb2+ by A. polytricha biomass was bigger than Cu2+. The biosorption by A. polytricha was most effective when pH 5-6. The biosorbents are suitable for low Cu2+ and Pb2+ concentration waste-water, especially for Pb2+ removal.

  17. Noise properties of Pb/Cd-free thick film resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witold Stadler, Adam; Kolek, Andrzej; Zawiślak, Zbigniew; Mleczko, Krzysztof; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Rafał Kiełbasiński, Konrad; Młożniak, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Low-frequency noise spectroscopy has been used to examine noise properties of Pb/Cd-free RuO2- and CaRuO3-based thick films screen printed on alumina substrates. Experiments were performed in the temperature range 77-300 K and the frequency range 0.5-5000 Hz with multiterminal devices. The measured noise has been recognized as resistance noise that consists of background 1/f noise and components generated by several thermally activated noise sources (TANSs) of different activation energies. The total noise has been composed of the contributions generated in the resistive layer and in the resistive/conductive layers interface. These noise sources are non-uniformly distributed in the resistor volume. Noise intensity of new-resistive layers has been described by the noise parameter Cbulk. Pb/Cd-free layers turned out to be noisier than their Pb-containing counterparts; however, the removal of Pb and Cd from resistive composition is hardly responsible for the increase in the noise. In the case of RuO2 layers noise increases most likely due to larger grain size of RuO2 powder used to prepare resistive pastes. Information on the quality of the resistive-to-conductive layers interface occurred to be stored in the values of noise parameter Cint. Pb/Cd-free RuO2-based resistive pastes form well-behaved interfaces with various Ag-based conductive pastes. In contrast, CaRuO3-based paste forms bad contacts with AgPd terminations because the density of TANSs increases in the interface area.

  18. Noise properties of Pb/Cd-free thick film resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-frequency noise spectroscopy has been used to examine noise properties of Pb/Cd-free RuO2- and CaRuO3-based thick films screen printed on alumina substrates. Experiments were performed in the temperature range 77-300 K and the frequency range 0.5-5000 Hz with multiterminal devices. The measured noise has been recognized as resistance noise that consists of background 1/f noise and components generated by several thermally activated noise sources (TANSs) of different activation energies. The total noise has been composed of the contributions generated in the resistive layer and in the resistive/conductive layers interface. These noise sources are non-uniformly distributed in the resistor volume. Noise intensity of new-resistive layers has been described by the noise parameter Cbulk. Pb/Cd-free layers turned out to be noisier than their Pb-containing counterparts; however, the removal of Pb and Cd from resistive composition is hardly responsible for the increase in the noise. In the case of RuO2 layers noise increases most likely due to larger grain size of RuO2 powder used to prepare resistive pastes. Information on the quality of the resistive-to-conductive layers interface occurred to be stored in the values of noise parameter Cint. Pb/Cd-free RuO2-based resistive pastes form well-behaved interfaces with various Ag-based conductive pastes. In contrast, CaRuO3-based paste forms bad contacts with AgPd terminations because the density of TANSs increases in the interface area.

  19. Photoluminescence of Cu-doped CdTe and related stability issues in CdS/CdTe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecu, D. [University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606-3390 (United States); Compaan, A. D. [University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606-3390 (United States); Young, D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Jayamaha, U. [First Solar LLC., Perrysburg, Ohio 43551 (United States); Rose, D. H. [First Solar LLC., Perrysburg, Ohio 43551 (United States)

    2000-09-01

    We explore Cu electronic states in CdTe using photoluminescence as the main investigative method. Our results are consistent with some Cu atoms occupying substitutional positions on the Cd sublattice and with others forming Frenkel pairs of the type Cu{sub i}{sup +}-V{sub Cd}{sup -} involving an interstitial Cu and a Cd vacancy. In addition, we find that Cu-doped CdTe samples exhibit a significant ''aging'' behavior, attributable to the instability of Cu acceptor states as verified by our Hall measurements. The aging appears to be reversible by a 150-200 degree sign C anneal. Our results are used to explain efficiency degradation of some CdTe solar-cell devices which use Cu for the formation of a backcontact. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Scaling of Island Growth in Pb Overlayers on Cu(001)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei; Vidali, Gianfranco; Biham, Ofer

    1993-01-01

    The growth and ordering of a Pb layer deposited on Cu(001) at 150 K has been studied using atom beam scattering. At low coverage, ordered Pb islands with a large square unit cell and nearly hexagonal internal structure are formed. This is a high order commensurate phase with 30 atoms in the unit cell. From the measurement of the island diffraction peak profiles we find a power law for the mean island - size versus coverage with an exponent $n=0.54 \\pm 0.03$. A scaling behavior of growth is co...

  1. Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu ternary eutectic solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Yost, Frederick G.; Smith, John F.; Miller, Chad M.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    1996-06-18

    A Pb-free solder includes a ternary eutectic composition consisting essentially of about 93.6 weight % Sn-about 4.7 weight % Ag-about 1.7 weight % Cu having a eutectic melting temperature of about 217.degree. C. and variants of the ternary composition wherein the relative concentrations of Sn, Ag, and Cu deviate from the ternary eutectic composition to provide a controlled melting temperature range (liquid-solid "mushy" zone) relative to the eutectic melting temperature (e.g. up to 15.degree. C. above the eutectic melting temperature).

  2. Cu Migration in Polycrystalline CdTe Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Da [Arizona State University; Akis, Richard [Arizona State University; Brinkman, Daniel [Arizona State University; Sankin, Igor [First Solar; Fang, Tian [First Solar; Vasileska, Dragica [Arizona State University; Ringhofer, Christian [Arizona State University

    2014-03-12

    An impurity reaction-diffusion model is applied to Cu defects and related intrinsic defects in polycrystalline CdTe for a better understanding of Cu’s role in the cell level reliability of CdTe PV devices. The simulation yields transient Cu distributions in polycrystalline CdTe during solar cell processing and stressing. Preliminary results for Cu migration using available diffusivity and solubility data show that Cu accumulates near the back contact, a phenomena that is commonly observed in devices after back-contact processing or stress conditions.

  3. Adsorption and Desorption of Amine-type Cardanol-aldehyde Resin Toward Copper(Ⅱ), Lead(Ⅱ) and Cadmium(Ⅱ)%胺型腰果酚醛树脂对Cu2+ 、Pb2+、Cd2+的吸附与解吸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小英; 郑燕玉; 江松渊

    2013-01-01

    研究了胺型腰果酚醛树脂对Cu2+、Pb2+与Cd2+的吸附-解吸行为,并探讨了吸附热力学及动力学特征.结果表明,溶液pH为5.5时树脂的吸附量最大,等温吸附行为符合Langmuir方程;热力学数据显示树脂的吸附以自发的吸热的化学吸附为主过程;动力学特征可用Lagergren准二级方程描述.采用0.1 mol/L稀硝酸对吸附在树脂上的重金属离子进行洗脱,解吸率可达95%以上,且降温有利于提高解吸速率.%Adsorption and desorption behaviors of amine-type cardanol-aldehyde resin to Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+ were investigated, and the thermodynamics-kinetics of adsorption were also discussed. The results show that the adsorption capacities for heavy metal ions on resin were maximum at solution pH 5.5, and the equilibrium of adsorption was fitted to regression equation for Langmuir isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption was the spontaneous and endothermic process which was dominated by chemical adsorption. And the adsorption kinetics could be well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. When heavy metal ions adsorbed by resin were eluted with 0.1 mol/L dilute nitric acid, the degree of desorption was more than 95%. Furthermore temperature reducing was advantageous to desorption rate rising.

  4. Study on the relationship between speciation of heavy metals and their ecotoxicity. I. Toxicity of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn in seawater to three marine algae in the presence of different complexation agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Manping; Wang, Juying; Bao, Junbo

    1992-09-01

    Heavy metal is a main pollutant in the marine ecosystem, so study on the effect of heavy metal on phytoplankton is important. Algae ( Chaetoceros sp., Dunaliella sp., Dicrateria zhanjiangenis Hu. var. sp.) were laboratory cultured to observe the effect of heavy metals on their growth. The effect of different metal ion concentration, the detoxication effect of complexation agents and the growth of algae in different media and different nutrition levels were studied to evaluate the effect of metal speciation. It is proved that trace amount of heavy metals can stimulate the growth of algae cells but that high concentration is lethal. The sequence of toxicity is Cd2+>Zn2+>Pb2+. In ordinary nutrition conditions, the detoxication sequence of complexation agents to Chaetoceros sp. is EDTA >sodium salicylate>sodium oxalate >sodium citrate>sulfanilic acid>O-phenanthroline. This is in good conformity with the stability constant sequence of these agents with copper and good evidence that toxicity of metal ion is related to its activity and not to its total concentration.

  5. On the concentration and separation of the trace-elements fe, cu, zn, mn, pb, mo and co : Paper chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, P.C. van

    1961-01-01

    Paper chromatographic separations are described by which the minor constituents of biological ashes are separated either into: (Pb) - Mn - Co - (Pb) - Cu - Fe, Mo, Zn; or into: Cu, Mn, Co - Pb - Fe - Mo - Zn.

  6. New roles for icosahedral clusters in intermetallic phases: micelle-like segregation of Ca-Cd and Cu-Cd interactions in Ca10Cd27Cu2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, Amelia B; Harris, Nicholas A; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2013-11-20

    Despite significant progress in the structural characterization of the quasicrystalline state, the chemical origins of long- and short-range icosahedral order remain mysterious and a subject of debate. In this Article, we present the crystal structure of a new complex intermetallic phase, Ca10Cd27Cu2 (mC234.24), whose geometrical features offer clues to the driving forces underlying the icosahedral clusters that occur in Bergman-type quasicrystals. Ca10Cd27Cu2 adopts a C-centered monoclinic superstructure of the 1/1 Bergman approximant structure, in which [110] layers of Bergman clusters in the 1/1 structure are separated through the insertion of additional atoms (accompanied by substantial positional disorder). An examination of the coordination environments of Ca and Cu (in the ordered regions) reveals that the structure can be viewed as a combination of coordination polyhedra present in the nearest binary phases in the Ca-Cd-Cu compositional space. A notable feature is the separation of Ca-Cd and Cu-Cd interactions, with Bergman clusters emerging as Ca-Cd Friauf polyhedra (derived from the MgZn2-type CaCd2 phase) encapsulate a Cu-Cd icosahedron similar to those appearing in Cu2Cd5. DFT chemical pressure calculations on nearby binary phases point to the importance of this segregation of Ca-Cd and Cu-Cd interactions. The mismatch in atomic size between Cu and Cd leads to an inability to satisfy Ca-Cu and Ca-Cd interactions simultaneously in the Friauf polyhedra of the nearby Laves phase CaCd2. The relegation of the Cu atoms to icosahedra prevents this frustration while nucleating the formation of Bergman clusters. PMID:24147875

  7. Photoluminescence study of Cu diffusion in CdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecu, D.; Compaan, A.D. [Department of Physics, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio (United States)

    1999-03-01

    We report changes in the photoluminescence spectra associated with the diffusion of Cu in CdTe thin films used in CdTe/CdS solar cells. Films grown by vapor transport deposition and radio-frequency sputtering as well as single crystal CdTe were included in the study. The main effects of Cu diffusion appear to be the quenching of a donor-acceptor transition associated with Cd vacancies and the increase in intensity of a lower energy broad-band transition. The PL is subsequently used to explore the effects of electric fields on Cu diffusion. The role of Te as a diffusion barrier for Cu is investigated. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Study of Cu and Pb partitioning in mine tailings using the Tessier sequential extraction scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Mariana Lucia; Senila, Marin; Hoaghia, Maria Alexandra; Borodi, Gheorghe; Levei, Erika-Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The Cu and Pb partitioning in nonferrous mine tailings was investigated using the Tessier sequential extraction scheme. The contents of Cu and Pb found in the five operationally defined fractions were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The results showed different partitioning patterns for Cu and Pb in the studied tailings. The total Cu and Pb contents were higher in tailings from Brazesti than in those from Saliste, while the Cu contents in the first two fractions considered as mobile were comparable and the content of mobile Pb was the highest in Brazesti tailings. In the tailings from Saliste about 30% of Cu and 3% of Pb were found in exchangeable fraction, while in those from Brazesti no metals were found in the exchangeable fraction, but the percent of Cu and Pb found in the bound to carbonate fraction were high (20% and 26%, respectively). The highest Pb content was found in the residual fraction in Saliste tailings and in bound to Fe and Mn oxides fraction in Brazesti tailings, while the highest Cu content was found in the fraction bound to organic matter in Saliste tailings and in the residual fraction in Brazesti tailings. In case of tailings of Brazesti medium environmental risk was found both for Pb and Cu, while in case of Saliste tailings low risk for Pb and high risk for Cu were found.

  9. Study of Cu and Pb partitioning in mine tailings using the Tessier sequential extraction scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei, Mariana Lucia, E-mail: marianaluciaandrei@yahoo.com [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Babes-Bolyai University, Environmental Science and Engineering Faculty, 30 Fantanele, 400294, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Senila, Marin; Hoaghia, Maria Alexandra; Levei, Erika-Andrea [INCDO-INOE 2000, Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, 67 Donath, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Borodi, Gheorghe [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    The Cu and Pb partitioning in nonferrous mine tailings was investigated using the Tessier sequential extraction scheme. The contents of Cu and Pb found in the five operationally defined fractions were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The results showed different partitioning patterns for Cu and Pb in the studied tailings. The total Cu and Pb contents were higher in tailings from Brazesti than in those from Saliste, while the Cu contents in the first two fractions considered as mobile were comparable and the content of mobile Pb was the highest in Brazesti tailings. In the tailings from Saliste about 30% of Cu and 3% of Pb were found in exchangeable fraction, while in those from Brazesti no metals were found in the exchangeable fraction, but the percent of Cu and Pb found in the bound to carbonate fraction were high (20% and 26%, respectively). The highest Pb content was found in the residual fraction in Saliste tailings and in bound to Fe and Mn oxides fraction in Brazesti tailings, while the highest Cu content was found in the fraction bound to organic matter in Saliste tailings and in the residual fraction in Brazesti tailings. In case of tailings of Brazesti medium environmental risk was found both for Pb and Cu, while in case of Saliste tailings low risk for Pb and high risk for Cu were found.

  10. Study of Cu and Pb partitioning in mine tailings using the Tessier sequential extraction scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cu and Pb partitioning in nonferrous mine tailings was investigated using the Tessier sequential extraction scheme. The contents of Cu and Pb found in the five operationally defined fractions were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The results showed different partitioning patterns for Cu and Pb in the studied tailings. The total Cu and Pb contents were higher in tailings from Brazesti than in those from Saliste, while the Cu contents in the first two fractions considered as mobile were comparable and the content of mobile Pb was the highest in Brazesti tailings. In the tailings from Saliste about 30% of Cu and 3% of Pb were found in exchangeable fraction, while in those from Brazesti no metals were found in the exchangeable fraction, but the percent of Cu and Pb found in the bound to carbonate fraction were high (20% and 26%, respectively). The highest Pb content was found in the residual fraction in Saliste tailings and in bound to Fe and Mn oxides fraction in Brazesti tailings, while the highest Cu content was found in the fraction bound to organic matter in Saliste tailings and in the residual fraction in Brazesti tailings. In case of tailings of Brazesti medium environmental risk was found both for Pb and Cu, while in case of Saliste tailings low risk for Pb and high risk for Cu were found

  11. Photoluminescence of Cu-doped CdTe and related stability issues in CdS/CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, D.; Compaan, A. D.; Young, D.; Jayamaha, U.; Rose, D. H.

    2000-09-01

    We explore Cu electronic states in CdTe using photoluminescence as the main investigative method. Our results are consistent with some Cu atoms occupying substitutional positions on the Cd sublattice and with others forming Frenkel pairs of the type Cui+-VCd- involving an interstitial Cu and a Cd vacancy. In addition, we find that Cu-doped CdTe samples exhibit a significant "aging" behavior, attributable to the instability of Cu acceptor states as verified by our Hall measurements. The aging appears to be reversible by a 150-200 °C anneal. Our results are used to explain efficiency degradation of some CdTe solar-cell devices which use Cu for the formation of a backcontact.

  12. Optical properties of CuCdTeO thin films sputtered from CdTe-CuO composite targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective complex dielectric function (ε) of Cu and O containing CdTe thin films is reported in the spectral range of 0.05 to 6 eV. The films were fabricated by rf sputtering from targets comprised by a mixture of CdTe and CuO powders with nominal Cu and O concentrations in the range of 2–10 at.%. Low concentration levels improved the crystalline quality of the films. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmittance measurements were used to determine ε. The critical point energies E1, E1 + Δ1, and E2 of CdTe are red-shifted with the incorporation of Cu and O. Also, an absorption band is developed in the infrared range which is associated with a mixture of CdTe and low resistivity phases Cu2−xTe according to an effective medium analysis. The elemental distribution of the films was mapped by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy using scanning transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Incorporation of 2 to 10 at.% of Cu and O atoms in CdTe films • Improved crystalline quality with 2 and 3 at.% of Cu and O • Complex dielectric function of Cu and O containing CdTe thin films • Effective medium modeling of below band-gap absorption

  13. Synthesis of BiPbSrCaCuO superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hults, William L.; Kubat-Martin, Kimberly A.; Salazar, Kenneth V.; Phillips, David S.; Peterson, Dean E.

    1994-01-01

    A process and a precursor composition for preparing a lead-doped bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper oxide superconductor of the formula Bi.sub.a Pb.sub.b Sr.sub.c Ca.sub.d Cu.sub.e O.sub.f wherein a is from about 1.7 to about 1.9, b is from about 0.3 to about 0.45, c is from about 1.6 to about 2.2, d is from about 1.6 to about 2.2, e is from about 2.97 to about 3.2 and f is 10.+-.z by reacting a mixture of Bi.sub.4 Sr.sub.3 Ca.sub.3 Cu.sub.4 O.sub.16.+-.z, an alkaline earth metal cuprate, e.g., Sr.sub.9 Ca.sub.5 Cu.sub.24 O.sub.41, and an alkaline earth metal plumbate, e.g., Ca.sub.2-x Sr.sub.x PbO.sub.4 wherein x is about 0.5, is disclosed.

  14. Heavily Cu+-doped amorphous PbCl2 films and aggregation of Cu+ions due to crystallization observed by UV spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, S; Tanaka, N.(University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan); Saito, T.

    2000-01-01

    Heavily Cu+-doped amorphous PbCl2has been obtained by quench deposition of the mixture of PbCl2and CuCl. Upon crystallization, the large majority of Cu+ions aggregate to form CuCl precipitates embedded in the crystalline PbCl2matrix. The present experiment opens up the possibility of producing densely dispersed CuCl clusters in a controlled manner in PbCl2films.

  15. Electrical Characterization of Cu Composition Effects in CdS/CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells with a ZnTe:Cu Back Contact: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J. V.; Duenow, J. N.; Kuciauskas, D.; Kanevce, A.; Dhere, R. G.; Young, M. R.; Levi, D. H.

    2012-07-01

    We study the effects of Cu composition on the CdTe/ZnTe:Cu back contact and the bulk CdTe. For the back contact, its potential barrier decreases with Cu concentration while its saturation current density increases. For the bulk CdTe, the hole density increases with Cu concentration. We identify a Cu-related deep level at {approx}0.55 eV whose concentration is significant when the Cu concentration is high. The device performance, which initially increases with Cu concentration then decreases, reflects the interplay between the positive influences and negative influences (increasing deep levels in CdTe) of Cu.

  16. 陕西省主产区主栽品种猕猴桃果实中Cu、Zn、Mn、Pb、Cd含量检测%Determination of Cu,Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd content of kiwifruit fruit of the main cultivars in the major kiwifruit production area of Shaanxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金梅; 段爱莉; 高贵田; 王西锐; 孙翔宇; 谷留杰

    2012-01-01

    The metal elements Cu, Mn,Zn, Pb and Cd of four varieties of kiwifruit collected from ten main producing areas of kiwifruit production base Jn ShaanxJ province were detected and analyzed respectively using flame atomic absorption spectrometric method.The results showed that the detection rate of Cu,Zn and Mn was 100% and Pb was 13.64%, but Cd was not detected in Shaanxi kiwifruit. Moreover, the content of Zn exceeded the national standard among all the samples while the content of the rest was lower than the limited amount of the national standard for fruits. The content of those varieties was highly of difference from variant varieties to different producing areas.Zn content exceeded seriously in partial samples of producing area No,2 as well as in parts of Qinmei kiwifruit.Attentions should be paid to the pollution resulting from Zn.%目的:采集陕西省猕猴桃生产基地的10个主产区中的4个品种猕猴桃果实,对其金属元素含量进行检测分析。方法:采用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定Cu、Mn、Zn、Pb、Cd5种金属元素的含量,并与国家标准进行比对和评价。结果:10个产区4个品种的猕猴桃果实中Cu、Mn、Zn的检出率均为100%,Pb检出率为13.64%,Cd未检出,在所有检出样品中仅Zn超标,其余均低于国家水果污染物限量标准。不同产地,不同品种中5种元素含量均有一定差异,其中2亏产区部分样品以及部分秦美猕猴桃Zn超标较为严重,Zn的污染需引起有关部门的重视。

  17. Pb and Zn accumulation in a Cd-hyperaccumulator (Viola baoshanensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan; Liao, Bin; Wang, Sheng-Long; Zhang, Jun; Li, Jin-Tian

    2010-08-01

    Viola baoshanensis has been identified as a Cd-hyperaccumulator, however, its ability to accumulate Pb or Zn is less certain. Therefore, this study focused on determining whether or not V. baoshanensis can accumulate Pb or Zn, by means of field survey, hydroponic and pot experiments. In addition, we also tried to obtain further information on the Cd hyperaccumulating characteristics of this species. Under field conditions, V. baoshanensis accumulated on average 1090 mg Cd kg(-1), 1902 mg Pb kg(-1) and 3428 mg Zn kg(-1) in its shoots, respectively. In hydroponic and pot experiments, V. baoshanensis showed high tolerance to Cd, Pb, and Zn, as well as the ability to accumulate exceptionally high concentrations of the three elements in its shoots (> 2% Cd, > 1% Pb, and > 0.5% Zn on a dry matter basis). These results, taken together, suggested that V. baoshanensis is not only a Cd-hyperaccumulator, but also a strong accumulator of Pb and Zn. PMID:21166282

  18. Microstructure Evolution of Cu-Pb Monotectic Alloys Processed in Drop Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Rapid solidification of Cu-Pb monotectic alloys has been accomplished during free fall in a 3 m drop tube. Bothmacrosegregated and uniformly dispersed structures are observed in Cu-40 wt pct Pb alloy droplets, whereas dropletsof composition Cu-64 wt pct Pb exhibit only macrosegregation morphologies. The microstructures are stronglydependent on droplet size. The higher undercooling tends to facilitate liquid phase separation and results in moreextensive macrosegregation in smaller droplets. There exists a pronounced tendency for the Pb-rich liquid to occupythe surface of the droplets of both compositions, resulting from the quite lower surface tension of the Pb-rich phaseand causing a Pb-rich layer at the surface of the solidified droplet. The nucleation of monotectic cells in the Cu-40 wt pct Pb droplets with dispersed structures preferentially occurs at the droplet surface. A single nucleation eventtakes place more frequently as droplet size is reduced.

  19. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Nguyen, Tuan A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7), the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5), EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content) and local soil (weathered shale and schist), respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed), oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2), ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg)(CO3)2 and siderite (FeCO3), as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S, ZnS, (Zn,Cd)S)) may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal. PMID

  20. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Nguyen, Tuan A H

    2015-01-01

    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7), the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5), EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content) and local soil (weathered shale and schist), respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed), oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2), ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg)(CO3)2 and siderite (FeCO3), as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S, ZnS, (Zn,Cd)S)) may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal. PMID

  1. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longbin Huang

    Full Text Available Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu-lead (Pb-zinc (Zn mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7, the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5, EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content and local soil (weathered shale and schist, respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed, oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2, ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg(CO32 and siderite (FeCO3, as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,FeS, ZnS, (Zn,CdS may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal.

  2. Effect of Cd,Pb Stress on the Activated Oxygen Scavenging System in Tobacco Levves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严重玲; 洪业汤; 等

    1998-01-01

    The effect of Cd,Pb stress on the activated oxygen scavenging system indicates that the content of chlorophyll.chlorophyll a/b ratio and the activity of CAT gradually decrease,the activity of SOD increases first and then decreases,and the activity of POd Gradually in creases with incrasing concentrations of Cd and Pb,Between Cd and Pb there is synergism in the Activated oxygen scavenging system.The results show that the stress of Cd and Pb can affect the scavenging system of activated oxygen and result in imbalance of activated oxygen metabolism.

  3. Extracting Cu Diffusion Parameters in Polycrystalline CdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akis, Richard [Arizona State Univeristy; Brinkman, Daniel [Arizona State Univeristy; Sankin, Igor [First Solar; Fang, Tian [First Solar; Guo, Da [Arizona State Univeristy; Dragica, Vasileska [Arizona State Univeristy; Ringhofer, Christian [Arizona State University

    2014-06-13

    It is well known that Cu plays an important role in CdTe solar cell performance as a dopant. In this work, a finite-difference method is developed and used to simulate Cu diffusion in CdTe solar cells. In the simulations, which are done on a two-dimensional (2D) domain, the CdTe is assumed to be polycrystal-line, with the individual grains separated by grain boundaries. When used to fit experimental Cu concentration data, bulk and grain boundary diffusion coefficients and activation energies for CdTe can be extracted. In the past, diffusion coefficients have been typically obtained by fitting data to simple functional forms of limited validity. By doing full simulations, the simplifying assumptions used in those analytical models are avoided and diffusion parameters can thus be determined more accurately.

  4. Effects of Cd and Pb pollution on soil enzymatic activities and soil microbiota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shuqing; YANG Zhixin; WANG Xiaomin; ZHANG Xiaogui; GAO Rutai; LIU Xia

    2007-01-01

    Based on a representative sampling method and pot experiment with different concentrations of Cd and Pd,the enzymatic activities(urease,phosphatase,catalase,invertase),population of bacteria,fungus and actinomycete in the soil,the Cd and Pd pollution status of soil samples(from the wastewater-irrigated area of Baoding suburb)were appraised.Unitary linear and nonlinear curve-fitting optimization models were applied in the research,and the relationship between Pb and Cd causing pollution and enzymatic activities of the tested soils were discussed.The research may provide a theoretical basis for protecting the environment in the region of Baiyangdian Lake,Hebei province,prevent soil pollution,and ascertain biochemical indexes,which reflect soil heavy metal pollution levels.The research results indicated that:(1)there was obvious accumulation of Pb and Cd in the wastewater-irrigated area,also the accumulation in wastewater-irrigated soil is more than that in fresh water-irrigated soil,and accumulation on surface layer was more than that in the lower layer.Pb and Cd contents in the tested soils exceeded the standards of soil background values for some major cities at home and abroad and the world soil Cd and Pb contents range.This means that the tested soil had reached a lightly polluted level;(2)there existed an obvious negative correlation between soil enzymatic activities and Pb and Cd contents in wastewaterirrigated soil,where the soil urease and catalase activities decreased obviously with the increase of Pb and Cd contents in soil.Therefore,the urease and catalase can be considered as biochemical indexes that reflect the degree of soil Pb and Cd pollution;(3)the pot experiments indicated that the influence of Cd on soil enzymatic activities was greater than that of Pb.Generally,the effect of Cd on soil phosphatase,urease,catalase is more obvious than that on invertase,while Pb has a more obvious effect on invertase than Cd;(4)pot experiments of triple cropping

  5. Stabilizing CdTe/CdS solar cells with Cu-containing contacts to p-CdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, K.D.; Visoly-Fisher, I.; Hodes, G.; Cahen, D. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel)

    2001-10-02

    High efficiency CdTe/CdS thin-film solar cells require low resistance contacts to p-CdTe, which is frequently achieved by addition of Cu. Decreases in cell efficiency over time, however, have been associated with Cu from the contact. The question that is considered here is if Cu is really detrimental to cell performance? By performing a series of thermal stress tests the authors reach a far more optimistic conclusion than what has hitherto been assumed.f (orig.)

  6. Microwave digestion-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for the determination of Pb, As, Cd, Cu, Mg and other heavy metal elements in edible oil%微波消解-电感耦合等离子体法测定食用油中微量Pb、AS、Cd、Cu、等多种重金属元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小媛; 范柯; 蔡羽嘉

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To establish microwave digestion plus inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) method for the simultaneous online determination of Pb,As,Cd,Cu,Mg and other heavy metal elements in edible oil.Methods:The edible oil sample was pretreated by direct microwave digestion and acid digestion respectively,then ICP-AES instrument was used for the determination of sensitivity,precision and accuracy of Pb,As,Cd,Cu,Mg and other heavy metal elements in both groups.Then the resulis of the two groups were compared.Results:The minimum detectable concentration is not statistically significant between microwave digestion group and acid digestion group.The correlation coefficient is 0.9998.The relative standard deviation is from 0.61% to 2.2% and the recovery rate is between 93% and 102%.Conclusion:The method of microwave digestionplus inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) can simultaneously determine multi heavy metals concentrations in edible oil rapidly and sensitively with high accuracy and precision.It is applicable for the determination of large quantities of edible oil.%目的:建立一种用微波消解-电感耦合等离子体法(ICP-AES)同时在线测定食用油中Pb、As、Cd、Cu、Mg等多种重金属元素方法.方法:食用油类样品直接经微波消解前处理后用ICP-AES仪测定其中Pb、As、Cd、Cu、Mg等多元素含量,并与酸消解前处理法进行测定结果的灵敏度、精密度及准确度比较.结果:本方法测定最低检出浓度与酸消解处理法无显著性差异,相关系数r可达0.9998,相对标准偏差0.61%~2.2%,加标回收率93%~102%.结论:该方法能同时测定食用油中多种重金属元素含量,方法快速,灵敏,准确度高,精密度好,适用于大批量食用油实际样品的检测需求.

  7. Dispersion, speciation and adsorption treatment of heavy metals in the vicinity of the Shi-Heung Cu-Pb-Zn mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho Song; Chon, Hyo Taek [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-01

    In order to investigate the dispersion patterns and speciation of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd in soils, stream sediments and stream waters, geochemical studies of soil, stream sediment and stream water samples collected in the vicinity of the Shi-Heung Cu-Pb-Zn mine was carried out. Cation exchange capacity measurement, size analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis and batch test were performed to select applicable soil for adsorption treatment. The average content of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd in soils collected from tailings and ore dressing plant is 1084 ppm, 2292 ppm, 3512 ppm and, 29.2 ppm, respectively, and therefore, tailings and ore dressing plant site may be the major contamination sources in this study area. The mean content of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd in stream sediments is extremely high up to 794 ppm, 1633 ppm, 2946 ppm and 25.2 ppm, respectively. Tailing particles and heavy metal ions are dispersed along the tributary system. Results from the sequential extraction analysis indicate; (1) most of Cu is bound to organic matters and sulphides, (2) fraction of Pb is mainly bound to Fe and Mn oxides. Most of Zn is largely bound to Fe and Mn oxides and residual fraction. Ion exchangeable fraction of Cd is relatively higher than those of Cu, Pb and Zn. Batch test on soils collected from the kaolinite and/or pyrophyllite mines and from the control areas was carried out to select an applicable soil samples for adsorption treatment. The sample, S10, collected from the control area 2 (clay content 33.2%) shows the highest K{sub d} (distribution coefficient). Organic content in soils and several clay minerals shows relatively good correlation with K{sub d}. It means that applicable soils for adsorption treatment of heavy metals show high organic and clay content. (author). 37 refs., 9 tabs., 6 figs.

  8. The potential of Lumbricus rubellus as a bioaccumulator of excess Pb and Cd in organic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arifin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd are sources of serious problems in the environment due to their reactivity and toxicity. Lumbricus rubellus is an earthworm reared by people is expected to reduce Pb and Cd concentrations in the environments. The aim of this study was to explore the ability of Lumbricus rubellus in reducing excess of Pb and Cd in organic media generated from urban waste. Sixteen treatments (four levels of Pb concentration and four levels of Cd concentration were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. Each treatment was placed in a wooden pot of 20 cm x 20 cm x 25 cm, and supplied with 40 Lumbricus rubellus for 30 days. Results of this study showed that 20 and 40% of the earthworm could survive until day 30 in organic media contaminated with Pb and Cd, respectively. Pb accumulated in the earthworm bodies ranged from 0.03 to 211.42 mg/kg, while the Cd accumulated in the earthworm body ranged from 0.57 to 22.11 mg/kg. The bioaccumulation factor for Pb was 46.98%, while that of Cd was 53.83%t. The content of Pb in vermicompost ranged from 0.04 to 19.41 mg/kg, while that of Cd ranged from 0.01 to 1.58 mg/kg.

  9. Comparison of chelates for enhancing Ricinus communis L. phytoremediation of Cd and Pb contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanzhi; Guo, Qingjun; Yang, Junxing; Ma, Jie; Chen, Gang; Chen, Tongbin; Zhu, Guangxu; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Guangxin; Wang, Xin; Shao, Chunyan

    2016-11-01

    We studied chelate effects on castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) growth. These effects included Cd and Pb accumulation in plant tissues and the chemical behavior of Cd and Pb in the plant rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere. Tests were conducted in a glasshouse using the rhizobag method. Two castor bean cultivars (Zibo-3 and Zibo-9) were grown in soil contaminated with 3.53mg/kg Cd and 274mg/kg Pb. The soil was treated with citric acid (CA), ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) (5mmol/kg). EDDS-treated soil produced 28.8% and 59.4% greater biomass for Zibo-3 and Zibo-9 respectively. In contrast, CA and EDTA inhibited the growth of the two cultivars. Zibo-9 had greater tolerance than Zibo-3 to chelate toxicity. Based on Cd and Pb plant uptake, EDDS could substitute for EDTA for phytoremediation of Cd in soil. EDTA was the most effective of the three chelates for Pb phytoremediation but it is less suitable for field use due to toxicology environmental persistence. Acid extractable Cd and Pb in the rhizosphere or reducible Cd and Pb in the non-rhizosphere of soil were the main influences on Cd and Pb accumulation in castor bean.

  10. Colloidal PbSe/CdSe Heteronanocrystals. Atomic configuration, electronic structure and optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grodzinska, D.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the structural characterization and the opto-electronic properties of PbSe/CdSe core/shell QDs and on the structural and morphological evolution of PbSe/CdSe core/shell QDs upon thermal annealing under vacuum.

  11. Interactions of core–shell quantum dots with metal resistant bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans: Consequences for Cu and Pb removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaveykova, Vera I., E-mail: vera.slaveykova@unige.ch [Environmental Biogeochemistry and Ecotoxicology, Institute F.-A. Forel, Earth and Environment Science, Faculty of Sciences, University of Geneva, 10, route de Suisse, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Pinheiro, José Paulo [IBB/CBME, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of the Algarve, Gambelas Campus, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Floriani, Magali [IRSN/DEI/SECRE/LRE CEA Cadarache, 13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Garcia, Miguel [School of Life Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Station 15, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • QDs associate with C. metallidurans in time and concentration dependent manner. • 12.9 nm size QDs adhere to the bacterial surface and enter the periplasmic space. • QDs bound significantly Cu and Pb. • QDs increase Cu and Pb content in C. metallidurans during short term exposure. -- Abstract: In the present study we address the interactions of carboxyl-CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs), as a model of water dispersible engineered nanoparticles, and metal resistant bacteria Cupriavidus metallidurans, largely used in metal decontamination. The results demonstrate that QDs with average hydrodynamic size of 12.9 nm adhere to C. metallidurans. The percentage of bacterial cells displaying QD-fluorescence increased proportionally with contact time and QD concentration in bacterial medium demonstrating the association of QDs with the metal resistant bacteria. No evidence of QD internalization into bacterial cytoplasm was found by transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, however QD clusters of sizes between 20 and 50 nm were observed on the bacterial surface and in the bacterial periplasmic compartment; observations consistent with the losses of membrane integrity induced by QDs. The presence of 20 nM QDs induced about 2-fold increase in Cu and Pb uptake fluxes by C. metallidurans exposed to 500 nM Pb or Cu, respectively. Overall, the results of this work suggest that when present in mixture with Cu and Pb, low levels of QDs originating from possible incidental release or QD disposal could increase metal accumulation in metal resistant bacterium.

  12. Pb and Cd Contents in Soil, Water, and Trees at an Afforestation Site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Nancai; Chen, Bufeng; Liu, Shuguang

    2015-11-01

    Pb and Cd contents in 13 plantation tree species (leaf and branch components), soil, water (groundwater and river water) at a young (3-5 year-old) seashore afforestation stand were investigated in Nansha district, Guangzhou city in southern China. The results showed that (1) soil, rather than water or trees, had the highest content of both Pb (averagely 48.79 mg/kg) and Cd (0.50 mg/kg), demonstrating that soil might function as a major reservoir for extraneously derived heavy metals; (2) Pb content was higher in branches than in leaves, but Cd content appeared similar in both components, implying possibly different accumulation mechanisms in trees; (3) Pb and Cd appeared to accumulate differently among some tree taxa, whereas almost no significant difference was detected between introduced and indigenous species. The study indicated that trees were potentially useful to remediate sites contaminated with Pb and Cd in the urbanized areas.

  13. Microalloying with Cd of Antifriction Sn-Sb-Cu Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Cinca Ionel Lupinca; Constantin Marta; Attila Szabo

    2012-01-01

    In the case of bimetallic sliding linings with superior technological characteristics, the use of an antifriction ally is imposed an alloy of the type Sn-Sb-Cu, which possesses a high adherence to the steel stand and a high durability in exploitation. For this reason we use the microalloying of the antifriction alloy with cadmium. The microalloying with Cd of antifriction alloys Sn-Sb-Cu determines an increase of the adhesion property of the antifriction alloy on the steel ...

  14. Trace analysis of Ba, Cu, Sb and Pb in cotton for forensic applications by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray fluorescence measurements have been carried out for Ba, Cu, Sb and Pb in cotton cloth samples as synthetic gun shot residues (GSR). These elements are the main constituents of GSR. Characteristic x-rays of the above elements were excited using 59.6 and 22.2 keV γ-rays from Am241 and Cd109 radio-isotope sources of 100 milli curie strengths respectively. The limits of detection for the elements studied were less than 1 ppm. The RSD (n=10) calculated for Ba at 50 μg concentration level was 4.6%. The standard addition studies were calculated by spiking different concentrations of all the elements studied ranged from 88 to 101%. (author)

  15. Interaction of Pb and Cd in Soil—Water—Plant System and Its Mechanism: Ⅱ.Pb—Cd Interaction in Rhizosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHUAIMAN; LINQI; 等

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of Pb-Cd can be observed not only in the uptake process of elements by plants and in their influence on the growth,but also in rhizosphere.The changes in extractable Cd and Pb concentrations in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants ,root exudates from wheat and wheat plant and their complexing capacity,with Pa and Cd were investigated under different Pb and Cd treatments.Results showed that the concentration of extractable Cd in the rhizosphere of rice in red soil was markedly increased by Pb-Cd interaction,It increased by 56% in the treatment with Pb and Cd added against that in the treatment with only Cd added in soil . The considerable differences in both composition and amount of root exudate from wheat and rice were found among different treatments.Pb and Cd might be complexed by root exudates ,The concentrations of free Pb and Cd in the solution were increased markedly by adding root exudate from wheat and decreased by that from rice due to Pd-Cd interaction.The distribution patterns of Pb and Cd in roots were affected by Pb-Cd interaction,which accelerated transport of Pb into internal tissue and retarded accumulation of Cd in external tissue.

  16. Forest Gaps Inhibit Foliar Litter Pb and Cd Release in Winter and Inhibit Pb and Cd Accumulation in Growing Season in an Alpine Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie He

    Full Text Available The release of heavy metals (such as Pb and Cd from foliar litter play an important role in element cycling in alpine forest ecosystems. Although natural forest gaps could play important roles in the release of heavy metals from foliar litter by affecting the snow cover during the winter and solar irradiation during the growing season, few studies have examined these potential roles. The objectives of this study were to document changes in Pb and Cd dynamics during litter decomposition in the center of gaps and under closed canopies and to investigate the factors that controlled these changes during the winter and growing seasons.Senesced foliar litter from six dominant species, including Kangding willow (Salix paraplesia, Masters larch (Larix mastersiana, Mingjiang fir (Abies faxoniana, Alpine azalea (Rhododendron lapponicum, Red birch (Betula albosinensis and Mourning cypress (Sabina saltuaria, was placed in litterbags and incubated between the gap center and closed canopy conditions in an alpine forest in the eastern region of the Tibetan Plateau. The litterbags were sampled at the snow formation stage, snow coverage stage, snow melt stage and during the growing season. The Pb and Cd concentrations in the sampled foliar litter were determined by acid digestion (HNO3/HClO4.Over one year of decomposition, Pb accumulation and Cd release from the foliar litter occurred, regardless of the foliar litter species. However, Pb and Cd were both released from the foliar litter during the winter and accumulated during the growing season. Compared with the gap center and the canopy gap edge, the extended gap edge and the closed canopy showed higher Pb and Cd release rates in winter and higher Pb and Cd accumulation rates during the growing season, respectively. Statistical analyses indicate that the dynamics of Pb were significantly influenced by frequent freeze-thaw cycles in winter and appropriate hydrothermal conditions during the growing season, the

  17. Cd-Pb复合污染在土壤-水稻系统中生态效应的研究%Ecological Effect of Cd-Pb Combined Pollution on Soil-Rice System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新; 梁仁禄; 周启星

    2001-01-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to study laws of the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in the soil-rice system and their ecological effect on the system. Results show that in treatment Cd-Pb the crop was 5~7 cm shorter in plant height and 20% less in yield than that in CK. Normal growth of the crops in treatment Cd-Pb and treatment Cd-Pb-Cu-Zn-As was seriously affected.In terms of distribution of heavy metals in grains,the treatments were in the order of treatment Cd-Pb-Cu-Zn-As>treatment Cd-Pb>treatment single element.In treatment Cd-Pb the presence of Pb stimulates the plant to absorb Cd,whereas the presence of Cd inhibits the absorption of Pb by rice.Cd is more mobile than Pb and likely to migrate upwards while Pb tends to accumulate in the root of rice.%采用盆栽试验研究了重金属复合污染物在土壤-水稻系统中迁移、积累规律及生态效应。结果表明:Cd、Pb复合污染使水稻株高比对照的下降了5~7 cm,水稻减产20%,2元素交互作用特别是5元素复合作用影响了水稻的正常生长发育;不同处理中重金属在水稻籽实的分配比例依次为5元素>2元素>单元素;Cd-Pb 2元素交互作用时,Pb元素的存在促进了水稻对Cd元素的吸收,而Cd元素却抑制了水稻对Pb元素的吸收;Cd比Pb元素易向地上部迁移,Pb元素大部分积累于水稻根部。

  18. Luminescence properties of Pb2+- and Mn2+-activated CdI2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The luminescence properties of CdI2, CdI2:Pb2+, CdI2:Mn2+, and CdI2:(Pb2+,Mn2+) crystals have been studied at temperatures from 85 to 295 K under optical and X-ray excitation. Analysis of new and earlier spectroscopic data suggests that the 560-nm luminescence of CdI2:Pb2+ and CdI2:(Pb2+,Mn2+) crystals under excitation on the long-wavelength component of the A absorption band of Pb2+ centers is due to Pb2+-bound anion excitons. The 640- to 660-nm emission of these crystals is attributable to α centers. The manganese luminescence in the co-doped material originates from both intra-center Mn2+ excitations and a sensitized process due to energy transfer from the host and Pb2+-related centers. The mechanisms of recombination and energy transfer processes in cadmium iodide crystals co-doped with Pb2+ and Mn2+ are discussed

  19. Cu-doped CdS and its application in CdTe thin film solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yi [School of Automation, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hankou University, Wuhan, Hubei 430212 (China); Yang, Jun; Yang, Ruilong; Shen, Kai; Wang, Dezhao [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang, Deliang, E-mail: eedewang@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Cu is widely used in the back contact formation of CdTe thin film solar cells. However, Cu is easily to diffuse from the back contact into the CdTe absorber layer and even to the cell junction interface CdS/CdTe. This phenomenon is generally believed to be the main factor affecting the CdTe solar cell stability. In this study Cu was intentionally doped in CdS thin film to study its effect on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the CdS material. Upon Cu doping, the V{sub Cd{sup −}} and the surface-state-related photoluminescence emissions were dramatically decreased/quenched. The presence of Cu atom hindered the recrystallization/coalescence of the nano-sized grains in the as-deposited CdS film during the air and the CdCl{sub 2} annealing. CdTe thin film solar cell fabricated with Cu-doped CdS window layers demonstrated much decreased fill factor, which was induced by the increased space-charge recombination near the p-n junction and the worsened junction crystalline quality. Temperature dependent current-voltage curve measurement indicated that the doped Cu in the CdS window layer was not stable at both room and higher temperatures.

  20. Predictive GIS Model for Potential Mapping of Cu, Pb, Zn Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarik. B. Benomar; BIAN Fuling

    2006-01-01

    The geologic features indicative of Cu, Pb, Zn mineral deposits in a area are fractures (structure), and host rock sediments. Datasets used include Cu, Pb, Zn deposit points record, geological data, remote sensing imagery (Landsat TM5). The mineral potential of the study area is assessed by means of GIS based geodata integration techniques for generating predictive maps. GIS predictive model for Cu, Pb, Zn potential was carried out in this study area (Weixi) using weight of evidence. The weights of evidence modeling techniques is the data driven method in which the spatial associations of the indicative geologic features with the known mineral occurrences in the area are quantified, and weights statistically assigned to the geologic features. The best predictive map generated by this method defines 24% the area having potential for Cu, Pb, Zn mineralization further exploration work.

  1. Melting of Pb Nanocrystals Embedded in Al, Si, and Cu Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Zhu, Hongzhi

    2015-12-01

    Dispersions of nanoscale Pb particles embedded in Si, Al, and Cu matrices have been synthesized by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. The melting transitions of the embedded Pb nanocrystals with epitaxial particle/matrix interfaces were investigated by means of in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction. Due to different levels of lattice mismatch, the Pb nanoprecipitates experience a different elastic strain in different matrices. Further analysis on the lattice constants of the embedded Pb nanocrystals gives unambiguous evidence of the strain-related pressure effect, which is particle size and matrix dependent, on tuning of the melting behavior of the embedded Pb nanoparticles.

  2. Alleviating effects of exogenous NO on tomato seedlings under combined Cu and Cd stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Jun; Dong, Yu-Xiu; Wang, Juan; Cui, Xiu-Min

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of NO on the different origin and regulation of oxidative stress of Cu and/or Cd, tomato seedlings were treated with Cu, Cd, or Cu + Cd in a nutrient solution culture system. The main effect of Cu(2+) was a significant reduction in root activity and nitrate reductase (NR) activity, which was similar to that under 50 μM Cd treatment, but promoted Cu accumulation. The supply of Cu under Cd treatment decreased Cd concentration, while not altered Cu concentration by contrast with Cu treatment, which is suggestive of a replacement of Cu(2+) with Cd(2+) and effective decrease in the boiotoxicity of 50 μM Cd(2+) to tomato seedlings. However, NO alleviated the restriction to NR activity significantly and made the biomass of tomato seedlings recover under Cd treatment, and also increased root activity under Cu and Cu + Cd treatment. Exogenous NO markedly reduced the absorption and transportation of Cu but did not obviously change the translocation of Cd to the aboveground parts under Cu + Cd treatment. Both metals induced lipid peroxidation via the decreasing activation of antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant enzyme system worked differently under Cu, Cd, or Cu + Cd stress. The activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were higher under single Cd stress than under the control. Meanwhile, Cu + Cd treatment decreased the activities of POD, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX). Exogenous NO increased POD and SOD activities in the leaves and roots, and CAT activity in the roots under combined Cu and Cd stress. These results suggest that a different response and regulation mechanism that involves exogenous NO is present in tomato seedlings under Cu and Cd stress.

  3. Phase composition and structure of aluminum Al-Cu-Si-Sn-Pb alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, N. A.; Stolyarova, O. O.; Murav'eva, T. I.; Zagorskii, D. L.

    2016-06-01

    The structure and phase composition of cast and heat treated Al-Cu-Si-Sn-Pb alloys containing 6 wt % Sn, 2 wt % Pb, 0-4 wt % Cu, 0-10 wt % Si have been studied using calculations and experimental methods. Polythermal and isothermal sections are reported, which indicate the existence of two liquid phases. It was found that the low-melting phase is inhomogeneous and consists of individual leadand tin-based particles.

  4. Cu-doped CdS and its application in CdTe thin film solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu is widely used in the back contact formation of CdTe thin film solar cells. However, Cu is easily to diffuse from the back contact into the CdTe absorber layer and even to the cell junction interface CdS/CdTe. This phenomenon is generally believed to be the main factor affecting the CdTe solar cell stability. In this study Cu was intentionally doped in CdS thin film to study its effect on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the CdS material. Upon Cu doping, the VCd− and the surface-state-related photoluminescence emissions were dramatically decreased/quenched. The presence of Cu atom hindered the recrystallization/coalescence of the nano-sized grains in the as-deposited CdS film during the air and the CdCl2 annealing. CdTe thin film solar cell fabricated with Cu-doped CdS window layers demonstrated much decreased fill factor, which was induced by the increased space-charge recombination near the p-n junction and the worsened junction crystalline quality. Temperature dependent current-voltage curve measurement indicated that the doped Cu in the CdS window layer was not stable at both room and higher temperatures.

  5. Cu-doped CdS and its application in CdTe thin film solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Yang, Jun; Yang, Ruilong; Shen, Kai; Wang, Dezhao; Wang, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Cu is widely used in the back contact formation of CdTe thin film solar cells. However, Cu is easily to diffuse from the back contact into the CdTe absorber layer and even to the cell junction interface CdS/CdTe. This phenomenon is generally believed to be the main factor affecting the CdTe solar cell stability. In this study Cu was intentionally doped in CdS thin film to study its effect on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the CdS material. Upon Cu doping, the VCd- and the surface-state-related photoluminescence emissions were dramatically decreased/quenched. The presence of Cu atom hindered the recrystallization/coalescence of the nano-sized grains in the as-deposited CdS film during the air and the CdCl2 annealing. CdTe thin film solar cell fabricated with Cu-doped CdS window layers demonstrated much decreased fill factor, which was induced by the increased space-charge recombination near the p-n junction and the worsened junction crystalline quality. Temperature dependent current-voltage curve measurement indicated that the doped Cu in the CdS window layer was not stable at both room and higher temperatures.

  6. Cu-doped CdS and its application in CdTe thin film solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cu is widely used in the back contact formation of CdTe thin film solar cells. However, Cu is easily to diffuse from the back contact into the CdTe absorber layer and even to the cell junction interface CdS/CdTe. This phenomenon is generally believed to be the main factor affecting the CdTe solar cell stability. In this study Cu was intentionally doped in CdS thin film to study its effect on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the CdS material. Upon Cu doping, the VCd− and the surface-state-related photoluminescence emissions were dramatically decreased/quenched. The presence of Cu atom hindered the recrystallization/coalescence of the nano-sized grains in the as-deposited CdS film during the air and the CdCl2 annealing. CdTe thin film solar cell fabricated with Cu-doped CdS window layers demonstrated much decreased fill factor, which was induced by the increased space-charge recombination near the p-n junction and the worsened junction crystalline quality. Temperature dependent current-voltage curve measurement indicated that the doped Cu in the CdS window layer was not stable at both room and higher temperatures

  7. EMPIRICAL MODELS OF PB AND CD PARTITIONING USING DATA FROM 13 SOILS, SEDIMENTS AND AQUIFER MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are two of the most common toxicants found in contaminated environments. Because solubilization of these metallic elements from the solid phase can influence their fate, transport and bioavailability, the partitioning coefficient (Kd) for these metals ...

  8. ICP-MS Determination of Cr, Cd, Ni, Cu, Pb and Zn in Atmospheric Dust Fall%电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定大气降尘中铬、镉、镍、铜、铅和锌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭萌; 诸堃; 陈莲红; 魏春蓉

    2012-01-01

    用电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定大气降尘中铬、镉、镍、铜、铅和锌等有害元素的含量。试样于敞开的聚四氟乙烯坩埚中用氢氟酸和硝酸消解,运用干扰方程校正质谱干扰。方法的测定下限(10s)在0.039-0.87μg·g-1之间。通过分析1个地质标准物质(GBW 07404)对所提出方法的准确度和精密度做了考核,所得测定结果与标准物质的认定值相吻合,各元素测定结果的相对标准偏差(n=11)均小于5.0%。%A method of ICP-MS for the determination of harmful elements, i. e. , Cr, Cd, Ni, Cu, Pb and Zn in atmospheric dust fall was proposed. Samples were digested with HF and HNO3 in an open PTFE crucible. The mass spectrometry interferences were corrected by using interference equations. Lower limits of determination (10s) found for the 6 elements were in the range of 0. 039--0. 87μg·g-1. Accuracy and precision of the proposed method were tested by analyzing a geological CRM (GBW 07404), giving results in consistency with the certified values and values of RSD's (n=11) less than 5.0%.

  9. Engineering of electronic and optical properties of PbS thin films via Cu doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Baligh; Gassoumi, Abdelaziz; Dobryden, Illia; Natile, Marta Maria; Vomiero, Alberto; Turki, Najoua Kamoun

    2016-09-01

    Copper-doped PbS polycrystalline thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition by adding small amount of Cu (ysolution = [Cu2+]/[Pb2+]) between 0.5 and 2 at%. The composition, structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), UV-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectrophotometry and Hall effect measurements. The XRD studies showed that the undoped films have PbS face centered cubic structure with (111) preferential orientation, while preferential orientation changes to (200) plane with increasing Cu doping concentration. The AFM and SEM measurements indicated that the film surfaces consisted of nanosized grains with pyramidal shape. Optical band gap was blue shifted from 0.72 eV to 1.69 eV with the increase in Cu doping concentration. The film obtained with the [Cu2+]/[Pb2+] ratio equal to 1.5 at% Cu showed the minimum resistivity of 0.16 Ω cm at room temperature and optimum value of optical band gap close to 1.5 eV. 1.5 at% Cu-doped PbS thin films exhibit the best optical and electrical properties, suitable for solar cells applications.

  10. Adsorption behavior of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions on bauxite flotation tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-hua; LAN Ye; HUANG Chuan-bing

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions on bauxite flotation railings was investigated to demonstrate the adsorptivity of the bauxite flotation tailings. The adsorption percentage of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions as a function of adsorbent dosage, solution pH value and shaking time were determined by batch experiments. The maximum adsorption percentage of 99.93% for Pb2+ ions and 99.75% for Cd2+ ions were obtained by using bauxite flotation railings as adsorbent. The methods, such as zeta potentials, specific surface area measurements and the analysis of adsorption kinetics, were introduced to analyze the adsorption mechanisms of the Pb2+ ions on bauxite flotation tailings. The isoelectric point of bauxite flotation railings shifts from 3.6 to 5.6 in the presence of Pb2+ ions. The specific surface area of bauxite flotation tailings changes from 12.57 to 20.63 m2/g after the adsorption of Pb2+ ions. These results indicate that a specific adsorption of the cation species happens on the surface of bauxite flotation tailings. Adsorption data of Pb2+ ions on the surface of bauxite flotation tailings can be well described by Langmuir model, and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model provides the best correlation for the adsorption data of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions on bauxite flotation railings.

  11. Availability of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, And Cr) in agriculture from commercial fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacke, H; Gonçalves, A C; Schwantes, D; Nava, I A; Strey, L; Coelho, G F

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the availability of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr) to soil and maize plants fertilized with different sources and doses of zinc (Zn) in a Rhodic Eutrudox soil. For that purpose, concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Cr were evaluated in leaf tissue and grains of maize plants and in 0-20 and 20-40 cm soil layers after fertilization with four doses of Zn from eight different sources of fertilizer. There was no accumulation of Cd, Pb, and Cr in maize grain and Cd and Cr in leaf tissue of the plants; nevertheless, there was accumulation of Pb in leaf tissue, showing its availability throughout different sources of Zn and consequent uptake by plants. Regarding the soil, it was observed that fertilizer from the different sources made Cd, Pb, and Cr available at increasing amounts proportional to increased Zn doses. Under experimental conditions, fertilization with Zn increased concentrations of heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr in soil, further highlighting the importance of conducting more studies related to the application of mineral fertilizers for micronutrient supply and the availability of heavy metals.

  12. [In situ immobilization of Pb and Cd in orchard soil using soil ameliorants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Dan; Chen, Shun; Zhang, Xun; Liu, Wan-Ping; Yu, Jian

    2012-10-01

    In situ immobilization of Pb and Cd in soil of two gardens in Golden Orchard of Chongqing was studied using soil ameliorants, which included eight treatments: control, quicklime, superphosphate, organic manure, quicklime + superphosphate, quicklime + organic manure, superphosphate + organic manure, and quicklime + superphosphate + organic manure. The results showed that all ameliorant treatments could decrease soil acidity in both the loquat garden and peach garden except the superphosphate treatment. Compared with the control, the soil pH in the two gardens increased by 0. 93 and 0. 79 with quicklime treatment for 120 d, respectively. Ameliorant treatments could decrease the bioavailability of Pb and Cd in the soil, and thus reduce the contents of Pb and Cd in the fruits. The available Pb contents in the soil of loquat garden and peach garden significantly decreased after the 150 d treatment with quicklime and superphosphate, by 3.46% and 3.56%, respectively, and the Pb contents in loquat and peach decreased by 18.3% and 14.44%, respectively. The available Cd content in the soil of loquat garden decreased by 10. 95% after the 150 d treatment with quicklime. The available Cd content in the soil of peach garden decreased by 7.09% after the 150 d treatment with quicklime, superphosphate and organic manure. Ameliorant treatments could further decrease the Cd content in loquat, and the Cd contents in loquat and peach decreased by 30.91% and 24.62% with quicklime treatment, respectively. PMID:23233990

  13. Cu and Cd Adsorption on Carbon Aerogel and Xerogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotet L. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon aerogel (CA and xerogel (CX were proposed as new carbon adsorbent materials for Cu and Cd ions from contaminated water (synthetic water samples. These materials were prepared by a sol-gel process that involves a polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde in Na2CO3 catalysis, followed by a drying step, either in supercritical conditions of CO2 to aerogel obtaining or in normal conditions to xerogel obtaining, and a pyrolytic step. Nitrogen adsorption, AFM, SEM, TEM and XRD were used for morpho-structural adsorbent investigation. Cu and Cd ions adsorption experiments were carried out in batch conditions under magnetic stirring. Adsorbent quantity and grain size influence over the adsorption efficiency were considered. Adsorption results expressed as adsorption capacities showed that prepared CA is a better adsorbent than CX. Adsorption capacities up to 14.2 mg g-1 and 8.5 mg g-1 were obtained for Cd2+ and Cu2+ adsorption on CA, respectively.

  14. Investigations of Cu, Pb and Zn partitioning by sequential extraction in harbour sediments after electrodialytic remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2010-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation was used to remove Cu, Zn and Pb from three different contaminated harbour sediments. Electrodialytic experiments lasting 2 and 4 weeks were performed and 48-86% Cu, 74-90% Zn and 62-88% Pb were removed from the different sediments and the removal increased with longer...... remediation time. A three step sequential extraction scheme (BCR), with an extra residual step, was used to evaluate the heavy metal distribution in the sediments before and after electrodialytic remediation. Cu was mainly associated with the oxidisable phase of the sediment, both before and after remediation....... Zn and Pb were found in the exchangeable and reducible phases before remediation. Zn was still found in the exchangeable and reducible phases after remediation, whereas most Pb was removed from these phases during electrodialytic remediation....

  15. Sorption Potentials of Waste Tyre for Some Heavy Metals (Pb Cd) in Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Austin Kanayo ASIAGWU; Patrice-Anthony-Chudi OKOYE; Orji IFEOMA; Patrick Ejo OMUKU

    2009-01-01

    An investigation into the adsorption potential of activated and inactivated waste tyre powders for some heavy metals (Pb2+ and Cd2+) in their aqueous solution has been studied. The result indicated that inactivated waste tyre is a good non-conventional adsorbent for the removal of Cd from aqueous solution. A total of 93.3% of Cadmium contents was removed. The inactivated waste type proved a good adsorbent for the removal of Pb2+ 5g of 500mm activated tyre removed over 86.66% of Pb2+ from solu...

  16. Sorption Potentials of Waste Tyre for Some Heavy Metals (Pb Cd in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Kanayo ASIAGWU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the adsorption potential of activated and inactivated waste tyre powders for some heavy metals (Pb2+ and Cd2+ in their aqueous solution has been studied. The result indicated that inactivated waste tyre is a good non-conventional adsorbent for the removal of Cd from aqueous solution. A total of 93.3% of Cadmium contents was removed. The inactivated waste type proved a good adsorbent for the removal of Pb2+ 5g of 500mm activated tyre removed over 86.66% of Pb2+ from solution.

  17. Physical properties of electron beam evaporated CdTe and CdTe:Cu thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report on physical properties of pure and Cu doped cadmium telluride (CdTe) films deposited onto corning 7059 microscopic glass substrates by electron beam evaporation technique. X-ray diffraction study showed that all the deposited films belong to amorphous nature. The average transmittance of the films is varied between 77% and 90%. The optical energy band gap of pure CdTe film is 1.57 eV and it decreased to 1.47 eV upon 4 wt. % of Cu addition, which may be due to the extension of localized states in the band structure. The refractive index of the films was calculated using Swanepoel method. It was observed that the dispersion data obeyed the single oscillator of the Wemple-Didomenico model, from which the dispersion energy (Ed) parameters, dielectric constants, plasma frequency, and oscillator energy (Eo) of CdTe and CdTe:Cu films were calculated and discussed in detail with the light of possible mechanisms underlying the phenomena. The variation in intensity of photoluminescence band edge emission peak observed at 820 nm with Cu dopant is due to the change in surface state density. The observed trigonal lattice of Te peaks in the micro-Raman spectra confirms the p-type conductive nature of films, which was further corroborated by the Hall effect measurement. The lowest resistivity of 6.61 × 104 Ω cm was obtained for the CdTe:Cu (3 wt. %) film

  18. Biomonitoring potential of five sympatric Tillandsia species for evaluating urban metal pollution (Cd, Hg and Pb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    The present study quantifies non essential heavy metals highly toxic for biological systems (Pb, Hg and Cd) in five autochthonous epiphytic plants from Tillandsia genus (T. recurvata, T. meridionalis, T. duratii, T. tricholepis, T. loliacea) according to different traffic levels (reference, low, medium and high polluted sites) in Asunción (Paraguay). The three metals increased in polluted sites following Pb (till 62.99 ppm in T. tricholepis) > Cd (till 1.35 ppm in T. recurvata) > Hg (till 0.36 ppm in T. recurvata) and Pb and Cd levels were directly related to traffic flow. Although the species showed similar bioaccumulation pattern (namely, higher levels of metals in polluted sites), enrichment factors (maximum EF values 37.00, 18.16, and 11.90 for Pb, Hg, and Cd, respectively) reported T. tricholepis as the most relevant bioindicator due to its wide distribution and abundance in study sites, low metal content in control site and high metal contents in polluted sites, and significant correlations with traffic density of Pb and Cd. This study emphasizes the necessity of biomonitoring air pollution in areas out of air monitoring control such as Asunción, where the high levels of metal pollution especially Pb, may represent an increment of risk for the human population inhabiting this urban area.

  19. Aqueous CdPbS quantum dots for near-infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Giang H. T.; Y Shih, Wan; Tseng, S.-Ja; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2012-07-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconducting nanocrystals that have photoluminescent (PL) properties brighter than fluorescent molecules and do not photo-bleach, ideal for in vivo imaging of diseased tissues or monitoring of biological processes. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent light within the window of 700-1000 nm, which is separated from the major absorption peaks of hemoglobin and water, has the potential to be detected several millimeters under the surface with minimal interference from tissue autofluorescence. Here we report the synthesis and bioimaging demonstration of a new NIR QDs system, namely, CdPbS, made by an aqueous approach with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as the capping molecule. The aqueous-synthesized, MPA-capped CdPbS QDs exhibited an NIR emission in the range of 800-950 nm with xi ≥ 0.3, where xi denotes the initial Pb molar fraction during the synthesis. Optimal PL performance of the CdPbS QDs occurred at xi = 0.7, which was about 4 nm in size as determined by transmission electron microscopy, had a rock salt structure and a quantum yield of 12%. Imaging of CdPbS QDs was tested in membrane staining and transfection studies. Cells transfected with CdPbS QDs were shown to be visible underneath a slab of chicken muscle tissue of up to 0.7 mm in thickness without the use of multiple-photon microscopy.

  20. Aqueous CdPbS quantum dots for near-infrared imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconducting nanocrystals that have photoluminescent (PL) properties brighter than fluorescent molecules and do not photo-bleach, ideal for in vivo imaging of diseased tissues or monitoring of biological processes. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent light within the window of 700–1000 nm, which is separated from the major absorption peaks of hemoglobin and water, has the potential to be detected several millimeters under the surface with minimal interference from tissue autofluorescence. Here we report the synthesis and bioimaging demonstration of a new NIR QDs system, namely, CdPbS, made by an aqueous approach with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as the capping molecule. The aqueous-synthesized, MPA-capped CdPbS QDs exhibited an NIR emission in the range of 800–950 nm with xi ≥ 0.3, where xi denotes the initial Pb molar fraction during the synthesis. Optimal PL performance of the CdPbS QDs occurred at xi = 0.7, which was about 4 nm in size as determined by transmission electron microscopy, had a rock salt structure and a quantum yield of 12%. Imaging of CdPbS QDs was tested in membrane staining and transfection studies. Cells transfected with CdPbS QDs were shown to be visible underneath a slab of chicken muscle tissue of up to 0.7 mm in thickness without the use of multiple-photon microscopy. (paper)

  1. Multifunctional nanocomposites Fe3O4@SiO2-EDTA for Pb(II) and Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Fu, Ruiqi; Sun, Yue; Zhou, Xiaoxin; Baig, Shams Ali; Xu, Xinhua

    2016-04-01

    In this study, EDTA-functionalized Fe3O4 (Fe3O4@SiO2-EDTA) was prepared by silanization reaction between N-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) ethylenediamine triacetic acid (EDTA-silane) and hydroxyl groups for Pb(II) and Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions. Fe3O4@SiO2-EDTA composites were characterized using SEM, TEM, EDX, FTIR, XPS, TGA and saturated magnetization techniques. Maximum Pb(II) adsorption capacity was found to be 114.94 mg g-1 with SiO2/EDTA molar ratio of 2.5:1. The adsorption rate was significantly fast and the equilibrium was reached within 10 min. The optimum pH was recorded to be 5.0. The maximum adsorption capacity of the studied heavy metal ions calculated by Langmuir model followed the order: Cu(II) (0.58 mmol g-1) > Pb(II) (0.55 mmol g-1) ≈ Ni(II) (0.55 mmol g-1) > Cd(II) (0.45 mmol g-1). Moreover, Pb(II) and Cu(II) adsorption capacities were not significantly affected by co-existing cations and NOM. These results suggested that this adsorbent can be considered as a promising adsorbent to remove Pb(II) and Cu(II) from wastewaters.

  2. Toxicity of Pb and of Pb/Cd combination on the springtail Folsomia candida in natural soils: reproduction, growth and bioaccumulation as indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bur, T; Crouau, Y; Bianco, A; Gandois, L; Probst, A

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of Pb and Cd+Pb was assessed on the Collembola F. candida in two cultivated soils (SV and AU) with low organic matter (OM) content and circumneutral to basic pH, and an acid forested soil (EPC) with high OM content. Collembola reproduction and growth as well as metal content in Collembola body, in soil, exchangeable fraction and soil solutions, pH and DOC were investigated. Pb and Cd+Pb were the highest in exchangeable fraction and soil solution of the acidic soils. Soil solution pH decreased after metal spiking in every soil due to metal adsorption, which was similar for Cd and the highest in AU for Pb. With increasing Pb and Cd+Pb, the most important reproduction decrease was in EPC soil. The LOEC for reproduction after metal addition was 2400 (Pb) and 200/2400 (Cd/Pb), 1200 and 100/1200, 300 and 100/1200 μg g(-1) for AU, SV and EPC, respectively. The highest and the lowest Pb toxicity was observed for EPC and AU bulk soil, respectively. The metal in Collembola increased with increasing soil concentration, except in AU, but the decreasing BF(solution) with increasing concentrations indicates a limited metal transfer to Collembola or an increased metal removal. Loading high Pb concentrations decreases Cd absorption by the Collembola, but the reverse was not true. The highest Pb toxicity in EPC can be explained by pH and OM content. Because of metal complexation, OM might have a protective role but its ingestion by Collembola lead to higher toxicity. Metal bioavailability in Collembola differs from soil solution indicating that soil solution is not sufficient to evaluate toxicity in soil organisms. The toxicity as a whole decreased when metals were combined, except for Pb in AU, due to adsorption competition between Cd and Pb on clay particles and OM sites in AU and EPC soils, respectively. PMID:22113108

  3. Sorption selectivity of birnessite particle edges: a d-PDF analysis of Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) sorption by δ-MnO2 and ferrihydrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genuchten, Case M; Peña, Jasquelin

    2016-08-10

    Birnessite minerals (layer-type MnO2), which bear both internal (cation vacancies) and external (particle edges) metal sorption sites, are important sinks of contaminants in soils and sediments. Although the particle edges of birnessite minerals often dominate the total reactive surface area, especially in the case of nanoscale crystallites, the metal sorption reactivity of birnessite particle edges remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the sorption selectivity of birnessite particle edges by combining Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) adsorption isotherms at pH 5.5 with surface structural characterization by differential pair distribution function (d-PDF) analysis. We compared the sorption reactivity of δ-MnO2 to that of the nanomineral, 2-line ferrihydrite, which exhibits only external surface sites. Our results show that, whereas Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) both bind to birnessite layer vacancies, only Pb(ii) binds extensively to birnessite particle edges. For ferrihydrite, significant Pb(ii) adsorption to external sites was observed (roughly 20 mol%), whereas Cd(ii) sorption was negligible. These results are supported by bond valence calculations that show comparable degrees of saturation of oxygen atoms on birnessite and ferrihydrite particle edges. Therefore, we propose that the sorption selectivity of birnessite edges follows the same order of that reported previously for ferrihydrite: Ca(ii) < Cd(ii) < Ni(ii) < Zn(ii) < Cu(ii) < Pb(ii). PMID:27183472

  4. EXAFS in La2Cu1-xMxO4 (M = Cd,Ga)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the local structure in La2Cu0.9Ga0.1O4 and La2cu0.9Cd0.1 that has been studied by Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at the Cu, Ga and Cd K-edges. The results indicate that the Ga atoms, effective in suppressing Tc in La2CuO4 derived superconductors, induce structural distortions and seem not to be properly substituted at Cu sites. On the other hand, the Cd atoms, having a weak effect on Tc, substitute for Cu with small changes in the structure

  5. Photoluminescence properties of ZnS nanoparticles co-doped with Pb 2+ and Cu 2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Lü, Mengkai; Xü, Dong; Yuan, Duolong; Zhou, Guangjun

    2001-03-01

    Nanometer-scale ZnS, ZnS:Cu, ZnS:Pb, and ZnS co-doped with Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ have been synthesized using a chemical precipitation method. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the diameter of the particles is 2-4 nm. These nanocrystals can be doped with copper and lead during the synthesis without altering the X-ray diffraction pattern. However, doping has shifted the luminescence to 530 nm (Cu 2+-doped) and 500-550 nm (co-doped with Cu 2+ and Pb 2+). In the case of ZnS:Pb nanocrystals, a relatively broad emission band (color range from blue to yellow) has been observed and its excitation wavelength shows a red shift. The photoluminescence intensity increases as the ZnS nanoparticles co-doped with Pb 2+ and Cu 2+. The results strongly suggest that doped ZnS nanocrystals, especially two kinds of metals activated ZnS nanocrystals, form a new class of luminescent materials.

  6. Pb and Cd on growth, leaf ultrastructure and essential oil yield mint (Mentha arvensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Nery Jezler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of medicinal plants with heavy metals as Pb and Cd can affect the growth and the essential oil production of the plants and represent a risk to those who consume as medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of absorption and localization of Pb and Cd on growth, ultrastructural aspects of leaves and essential oil yield and composition of Mentha arvensis, applied on the soil with increasing concentrations (8, 16, 32, 64 and 128mg kg-1. There was a differential absorption of Pb and Cd by M. arvensis mainly concentrated in the roots. Pb was found in small amounts in the leaves while Cd largely exceeded the safety limit without symptoms of toxicity. The ultrastructural analysis revealed the metal accumulation on vesicles surrounding the mitochondria and the presence of electron dense deposits surrounding the mitochondria, nucleus and chloroplasts. Little changes caused by Pb and Cd application were not enough to affect the growth and essential oil yield and composition of M. arvensis

  7. APPLICATION OF THE ANNEXATION PRINCIPLE TO THE STUDYOF THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF TERNARY METALLICMELTS Cd-Pb-Sb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Zhang

    2001-01-01

    Based on the phase diagrams, measured activities and the annexation principle, the calculating models of mass action concentrations for Cd-Pb, Pb-Sb and Cd-Sb binary as well as Cd-Pb-Sb ternary metallic melts have been formulated. The results of calculation both agree with practice and obey the mass action law. This in turn testifies that the models formulated can reflect the structural reality of corresponding melts and the annexation principle is applicable to these melts.``

  8. Effects of Cd2+ and Pb2+ on the substrate biofilms in the integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jinlian; CHENG Shuiping; HE Feng; LIANG Wei; WU Zhenbin

    2008-01-01

    The effects of single Cd2+ and Pb2+ and combined Cd2+ and Pb2+ on dehydrogenase activity and polysaccharide content of the substrate biofilms in the integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) were studied. Dehydrogenase activities decreased linearly with the increasing concentrations of Cd2+ and Pb2+ at different times (6, 24, 72, and 120 h). The activities at both 6 and 24 h were significantly higher than that at 72 and 120 h in the case of single and combined treatments. The single Cd2+ and Pb2+ treatments significantly inhibited dehydrogenase activities at concentrations in excess of 20 μmol/L Cd2+ (equal to 2.24 mg/L Cd2+) and 80 μmol/L Pb2+ (equal to 16.56 mg/L Pb2+), respectively. The inhibitory effect of Cd2+ was much greater than that of Pb2+. At the same time, the combined treatment of Cd2+ and Pb2+ significantly inhibited dehydrogenase activities at all five concentrations studied and the lowest combined concentration was 1.25 μmol/L Cd2+ and 5 μmol/L Pb2+ (equal to 0.14 mg/L Cd2+ and 1.04 mg/L Pb2+). A synergistic effect of Cd2+ and Pb2+ was observed. On the other hand, polysaccharide contents varied unpredictably with the increasing concentrations of Cd2+ and Pb2+ and extended experimental time. There were no significant statistical differences within the range of concentration and time studied, whether singly or in combination. These results implied that the effects of heavy metals on biofilms should be a concern for the operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands.

  9. Pb, Cu botanogeochemical anomalies and toxic effects on plant cells in Pb-Zn (Sn) ore fields, Northeast Guangxi Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ci'an; LEI Liangqi; YANG Qijun

    2007-01-01

    In the Lingchuan-Daoping and Xinglu Pb-Zn ore fields in northern and eastern Guangxi Autonomous Region, Pb, Cu botanogeochemical anomalies may be ascribed to the excessive amounts of Pb and Cu taken up by the root system of plants, such as China fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Lamb. Hook), mason pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) and bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum). Under transmission electron microscope (TEM), the excess Pb, Cu in the leaf cells of the plants are present as high electron-density substances, which were precipitated in the leaf cells, causing phytotoxic effects by deforming and injuring cellular tissues. The sorts of toxic elements accumulating in the leaf cells are consistent with those of the botanogeochemically anomalous elements in the polluted soil where the plants grow. In addition, the plants may also be capable of resisting the invasion of excess Cu (and Pb) .

  10. Preliminary study of CdTe and CdTe:Cu thin films nanostructures deposited by using DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth and properties of CdTe and CdTe:Cu thin films nanostrucures deposited by using dc magnetron sputtering are reported. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphologies of the thin films. At growth conditions of 250 °C and 14 W, CdTe films did not yet evenly deposited. However, at growth temperature and plasma power of 325 °C and 43 W, both CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2%) have deposited on the substrates. In this condition, the morphology of the films indicate that the films have a grain-like nanostructures. Grain size diameter of about 200 nm begin to appear on top of the films. Energy Dispersive X-rays spectroscopy (EDX) was used to investigate chemical elements of the Cu doped CdTe film deposited. It was found that the film deposited consist of Cd, Te and Cu elements. XRD was used to investigate the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the thin films deposited. The results show that CdTe:Cu(2%) thin film has better crystallographic properties than CdTe thin film. The UV-Vis spectrometer was used to investigate the optical properties of thin films deposited. The transmittance spectra showed that transmittance of CdTe:Cu(2%) film is lower than CdTe film. It was found that the bandgap energy of CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2%) thin films of about 1.48 eV

  11. Bioleaching mechanism of Zn, Pb, In, Ag, Cd and As from Pb/Zn smelting slag by autotrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Huang, Qifei; Li, Ting; Xin, Baoping; Chen, Shi; Guo, Xingming; Liu, Changhao; Li, Yuping

    2015-08-15

    A few studies have focused on release of valuable/toxic metals from Pb/Zn smelting slag by heterotrophic bioleaching using expensive yeast extract as an energy source. The high leaching cost greatly limits the practical potential of the method. In this work, autotrophic bioleaching using cheap sulfur or/and pyrite as energy matter was firstly applied to tackle the smelting slag and the bioleaching mechanisms were explained. The results indicated autotrophic bioleaching can solubilize valuable/toxic metals from slag, yielding maximum extraction efficiencies of 90% for Zn, 86% for Cd and 71% for In, although the extraction efficiencies of Pb, As and Ag were poor. The bioleaching performance of Zn, Cd and Pb was independent of leaching system, and leaching mechanism was acid dissolution. A maximum efficiency of 25% for As was achieved by acid dissolution in sulfursulfur oxidizing bacteria (S-SOB), but the formation of FeAsO4 reduced extraction efficiency in mixed energy source - mixed culture (MS-MC). Combined works of acid dissolution and Fe(3+) oxidation in MS-MC was responsible for the highest extraction efficiency of 71% for In. Ag was present in the slag as refractory AgPb4(AsO4)3 and AgFe2S3, so extraction did not occur. PMID:25996622

  12. Microalloying with Cd of Antifriction Sn-Sb-Cu Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinca Ionel Lupinca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the case of bimetallic sliding linings with superior technological characteristics, the use of an antifriction ally is imposed an alloy of the type Sn-Sb-Cu, which possesses a high adherence to the steel stand and a high durability in exploitation. For this reason we use the microalloying of the antifriction alloy with cadmium. The microalloying with Cd of antifriction alloys Sn-Sb-Cu determines an increase of the adhesion property of the antifriction alloy on the steel stand. The steel stand is previously subjected to a process of degreasing with ZnCl2 and washing so that is can later be subjected to a thermal-chemical treatment of tinning.

  13. Synthesis and spectroscopic investigations of Cu- and Pb-doped colloidal ZnS nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Oliver; Osvet, Andres; Batentschuk, Miroslaw; Winnacker, Albrecht; Nann, Thomas

    2006-11-23

    A novel organometallic synthesis method for the preparation of colloidal ZnS nanoparticles is presented. This method enables the synthesis of undoped ZnS nanocrystals as well as doping with Cu, Pb, or both. The particles can be covered with an undoped layer of ZnS, forming core/shell-type particles with the ZnS:Pb, ZnS:Cu, or ZnS:Cu,Pb cores. The particles were characterized via TEM, XRD, dynamic light scattering, and optical spectroscopy. We investigated the extrinsic surface defects and their coverage with an additional ZnS layer in detail by temperature-dependent luminescence and luminescence lifetime spectroscopy. PMID:17107162

  14. Chemical bath deposition of CdS thin films doped with Zn and Cu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A I Oliva; J E Corona; R Patiño; A I Oliva-Avilés

    2014-04-01

    Zn- and Cu-doped CdS thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by the chemical bath technique. ZnCl2 and CuCl2 were incorporated as dopant agents into the conventional CdS chemical bath in order to promote the CdS doping process. The effect of the deposition time and the doping concentration on the physical properties of CdS films were investigated. The morphology, thickness, bandgap energy, crystalline structure and elemental composition of Zn- and Cu-doped CdS films were investigated and compared to the undoped CdS films properties. Both Zn- and Cu-doped CdS films presented a cubic crystalline structure with (1 1 1) as the preferential orientation. Lower values of the bandgap energy were observed for the doped CdS films as compared to those of the undoped CdS films. Zn-doped CdS films presented higher thickness and roughness values than those of Cu-doped CdS films. From the photoluminescence results, it is suggested that the inclusion of Zn and Cu into CdS crystalline structure promotes the formation of acceptor levels above the CdS valence band, resulting in lower bandgap energy values for the doped CdS films.

  15. PENINGKATAN KUALITAS FILM TIPIS CdTe SEBAGAI ABSORBER SEL SURYA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN DOPING TEMBAGA (Cu)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Marwoto; N.M. Darmaputra; Sugianto -; Othaman, Z.; E. Wibowo; S.Y. Astuti

    2012-01-01

    Film tipis CdTe dengan doping tembaga (Cu) berkonsenterasi 2% telah berhasil ditumbuhkan di atas substrat Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) dengan metode dc magnetron sputtering. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh doping Cu(2%) terhadap struktur morfologi, struktur kristal, fotoluminisensi dan resistivitas listrik film CdTe. Citra morfologi Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) dan hasil analisis struktur dengan X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) menunjukkan bahwa film CdTe:Cu(2%) mempunyai citra perm...

  16. Spatial distribution of Cd and Cu in soils in Shenyang Zhangshi Irrigation Area (SZIA), China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina SUN; Xiao-e YANG; Wen-qing WANG; Li MA; Su CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils, derived from sewage irrigation, mining and inappropriate utilization of various agrochemicals and pesticides, and so on, has been of wide concern in the last several decades. The Shenyang Zhangshi Irrigation Area (SZIA) in China is a representative area of heavy metal contamination of soils resulting from sewage irrigation for about 30 years. This study investigated the spatial distribution and temporal variation of soil cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) contamination in the SZIA. The soil samples were collected from the SZIA in 1990 and 2004; Cd and Cu in soils was analyzed and then the spatial distribution and temporal variation of Cd and Cu in soils were modeled using Kriging methods. The results show that long-term sewage irrigation had caused serious Cd and Cu contamination in soils. The mean and the maximum of soil Cd are markedly higher than the levels in second grade standard soil (LSGSS) in China, and the maximum of soil Cu is close to the LSGSS in China in 2004 and is more than the LSGSS in China in 1990. The contamination magnitude of soil Cd and the soil extent of Cd con- tamination had evidently increased since sewage irrigation ceased in 1992. The contamination magnitude of soil Cu and the soil extent of Cu contamination had evidently increased in topsoil, but obviously decresed in subsoil. The soil contamination of Cd and Cu was mainly related to Cd and Cu reactivation of contaminated sediments in Shenyang Xi River and the import of Cd and Cu during irrigation. The eluviation of Cd and Cu in contaminated topsoil with rainfall and irrigation water was another factor of temporal-spatial variability of Cd and Cu contamination in soils.

  17. Redistribution of Pb, Zn and Cu Fractions in Tailing Soils Treated with Different Extractants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yun-Guo; WANG Xian-Hai; ZENG Guang-Ming; LI Xin; ZHOU Chun-Hua; FAN Ting; LI Yong-Li; YUAN Xin-Zhong

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of EDTA, HNO3 and CaCl2 as extractants to remove Pb, Zn and Cufrom tailing soils without varying soil pH was investigated with distributions of Pb, Zn and Cu being determined before and after extraction using the sequential extraction procedure of the optimized European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). Results indicated that EDTA and HNO3 were both effective extracting agents. The extractability of extractants for Pb and Zn was in the order EDTA > HNO3 > CaCl2, while for Cu it was HNO3 > EDTA > CaCl2. After EDTA extraction, the proportion of Pb, Zn and Cu in the four fractions varied greatly, which was related to the strong extraction and complexation ability. Before and after extraction with HNO3 and CaCl2, the percentages of Pb, Zn and Cu in the reducible, oxidizable and residual fractions changed little compared to the acid-extractable fraction. The lability of metal in the soil andthe kinds of extractants were the factors controlling the effects of metal extraction.

  18. Speciation of Cd and Pb in dust emitted from sinter plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammut, M L; Noack, Y; Rose, J; Hazemann, J L; Proux, O; Depoux, M; Ziebel, A; Fiani, E

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have provided evidence of the impact of heavy metals in atmospheric emission. Sinter plants represent the first step in steel production, and are important emitters of Cd and Pb. The toxicity of these two metals depends above all on their speciation. Particles collected before and after the filtration system were analysed to determine the Cd- and Pb-bearing phases, using analytical tools such as XRF, EXAFS or ICP-AES and chemical leaching (sequential extractions adapted to steel dusts). Results show that Pb is associated with carbonate and Cd with chloride. These two types of speciation lead to high solubility under common environmental conditions, which may produce impacts on the environment and health.

  19. Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal from aqueous solutions by olive cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyurum, Sabriye [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Celal Bayar University, Manisa 45140 (Turkey)]. E-mail: sabriyedoyurum@yahoo.com; Celik, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Celal Bayar University, Manisa 45140 (Turkey)

    2006-11-02

    The removal of heavy metals from wastewater using olive cake as an adsorbent was investigated. The effect of the contact time, pH, temperature, and concentration of adsorbate on adsorption performance of olive cake for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions were examined by batch method. Adsorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) in aqueous solution onto olive cake was studied in single component. After establishing the optimum conditions, elution of these ions from the adsorbent surface was also examined. The optimum sorption conditions were determined for two elements. Maximum desorption of the Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions were found to be 95.92 and 53.97% by 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.2 M HCl, respectively. The morphological analysis of the olive cake was performed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  20. Simultaneous recovery of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn from diluted solutions by electroextraction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smara A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is mainly used in galvanoplasty and stabilisation of plastic materials. It accumulates continuously in soils. The analysis of soil samples gave concrete evidence of increase of concentration of this element during the past centunary [1]. Furthermore Cd and Pb attack selectively the kidneys and the liver with enzymatic troubles. The work has enabaled to put into evidence the contribution of the presence of resin to the conventional electrodialysis process. The optimal conditions for the elimination of Cd++, Zn++ and Pb++ ions were determined. These included influence of resin, imposed current density, flow rate of the feeding solution (diluat, different supporting electrolytes used during the electroextraction (HNO3, HCl and H2SO4 and concentration of the solution to be treated [2-3-4]. Furthermore the competition between the electroextraction of the metallic cations Cd++, Zn++and Pb++ was investigated for different mixtures.

  1. Chalcophile elements Hg, Cd, Pb, As in Lake Umbozero, Murmansk Region, Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauvalter, V.A.; Kashulin, N.A.; Lehto, J.;

    2009-01-01

    is affected by emissions and effluents from mining and metallurgical enterprises of the Murmansk Region, as well as air pollution of a global character. Surface and near-bottom maxima were found in the distributions of Pb and Cd in the water column. These two maxima appear to be associated with the cyclical...... growth of phytoplankton in surface water layers and with sedimentation of lifeless organisms and suspended particles in near-bottom layers. Average concentrations of Pb and Cd in the water column were more than the average value for water of lakes of the taiga zone. Pollution of Lake Umbozero led......Investigations of Lake Umbozero, the second largest and the deepest lake of the Murmansk Region, were carried out to detect and define biogeochemical patterns of distribution of the chalcophile elements (Hg, Cd, Pb, As) in water, sediments and organs and tissues of whitefishes. Lake Umbozero...

  2. Mogućnost uklanjanja olova iz industrijske Cu-Pb-Fe legure injektiranjem argonom

    OpenAIRE

    B. Oleksiak

    2009-01-01

    Mogućnost uklanjanja olova iz industrijske CU-Pb-Fe legure injektiranjem argonom. Članak daje rezultate istraživanja uklanjanja olova iz industrijske Cu-PB-Fe legure primjenom injektiranja argonom. Opiti su provedeni na pogonskoj leguri u Tvornici bakra "Glogow II". Kao temeljna oprema rabljena je pećna cijev, koja omogućava zagrijavanje uzorka iznad temperature 1773 K. Sva istraživanja su provedena na temperaturama 1473 K, 1523 K, 1573 K i strujom plina 5,55×10-6, 6,94×10-6, 8,33×10-6, 9,72×...

  3. Akumulasi Logam Berat (Cu Dan Pb) Pada Rhizophora Stylosa Berdasarkan Tingkat Pancang Dan Pohon

    OpenAIRE

    Siburian, Fitri

    2015-01-01

    Industrial activities, community and sea transport cause waste containing heavy metals that cause pollution to the mangrove ecosystem and degrade water quality.The purposes of this research were to analyzed the content of heavy metals Cu and Pb on roots, leaves, the bark of R. stylosa and to knew the ability of R. stylosa on accumulate heavy metals. The sample was located in Nelayan Village sub-district Medan Labuhan. Analysis of heavy metals Cu and Pb was carried out in a Laboratory Resear...

  4. Synthesis of highly phase pure (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, Stephen E.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Prorok, Barton C.; Lanagan, Michael T.; Maroni, Victor A.

    1994-01-01

    An article and method of manufacture of (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor. The superconductor is manufactured by preparing a first powdered mixture of bismuth oxide, lead oxide, strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. A second powdered mixture is then prepared of strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. The mixtures are calcined separately with the two mixtures then combined. The resulting combined mixture is then subjected to a powder in tube deformation and thermal processing to produce a substantially phase pure (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor.

  5. Interation of Pb and Cd in Soil—Water—Plant System and Its Mechanism:I.Pb—Cd Interatction in Red SoilPlant System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGCHUNRONG; CHENHUAIMAN

    1996-01-01

    A study on the effect of Pb-Cd interaction on plant growth and on the chemistry of elements in plants was conducted under greenhouse condition with red soil-wetland rice system in different growth stage.The results showed that Pb-Cd interactions on growth and metal uptake varied with different growth stages and chemical compounds added .The plant height and the root weght were markedly affected by Pb-Cd interication in the young stage but not in the ripening stage of rice at the treatments of PbCl2 and CdCl2 added.However,the weight of rice straw in the ripening stage was significantly affected by Pb-Cd interaction with the treatments of Pb(OAc)2 and CdCl2.The chemistry of elements in plants also depended on Pb-Cd interaction in varying degrees on account of different plant parts and growth stage.It seems that Pb-Cd interaction occurred not only in roots but also in other parts of wetland rice.

  6. Pb and Cd on growth, leaf ultrastructure and essential oil yield mint (Mentha arvensis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Nery Jezler; Pedro Antônio Oliveira Mangabeira; Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida; Raildo Mota de Jesus; Rosilene Aparecida de Oliveira; Delmira da Costa Silva; Larissa Correa do Bomfim Costa

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of medicinal plants with heavy metals as Pb and Cd can affect the growth and the essential oil production of the plants and represent a risk to those who consume as medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of absorption and localization of Pb and Cd on growth, ultrastructural aspects of leaves and essential oil yield and composition of Mentha arvensis, applied on the soil with increasing concentrations (8, 16, 32, 64 and 128mg kg-1). There was a differential absorption...

  7. [Expression of adhesion molecules on CD34+ cells of BM and PB stem cell samples during high-dose chemotherapy combined with transplantation of autologous PB stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Han, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Yuan-Kai; He, Xiao-Hui; Yang, Cheng; Ai, Bin

    2004-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the expressions of adhesion molecules such as CD54, CD49d and CD62L by CD34(+) cells sampled from different stages of bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) before/after G-CSF mobilization and after transplantation through the direct labeling with three colour-immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, and to explore the differences in expression of adhesion molecules on CD34(+) cells from different origins and their clinical significance. Mononuclear cells collected from BM and PB before mobilization, after collection of stem cells and hematopoietic recostruction of BM at the end of transplantation were marked with CD54-FITC, CD49d-FITC and CD62L-FITC separately, as well as CD34-PE and CD45PerCE. 3-color fluorescene analysis was carried out by FACS. The expression differences of CD34(+) and adhesion molecules between BM and APBSC were compared. The results showed that expression differences of CD54, CD49d and cd62Lon CD34(+) cells belore mobilization, after collection and reconstraction of transplantation were not statiscally significant, the difference of CD54, CD49d and CD62L on CD34(+) between 1st and 2nd collections of hematopoietic stem cells also were not statiscally significant. In the collected APBSC, the expression level of CD34(+) CD49d(+) was significantly lower than those in BM before mobilization (P = 0.001). It is concluded that the method of chemotherapy combined with G-CSF mobilization can down-regulate CD49d expression in BM CD34(+) cells, thus can mobilize and move theirs into peripheral blood. After the reconstitution by transplantation, the expression of CD49d on CD34(+) cells tends to normal, the clinical significance needs to be elucidated by accumulation of much more cases.

  8. ARXPS and DFT studies of thermally induced Pb surface segregation on Au/Cu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Völker, Edgar [Chemistry Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZD (United Kingdom); Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física, INQUIMAE-CONICET, Facultad Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires C1428EHA (Argentina); Williams, Federico J., E-mail: fwilliams@qi.fcen.uba.ar [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física, INQUIMAE-CONICET, Facultad Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires C1428EHA (Argentina); Jacob, Timo [Institute of Electrochemistry, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Schiffrin, David J. [Chemistry Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZD (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Surface segregation of Pb impurities in AuCu alloys was studied by ARXPS and DFT. • ARXPS show a 23% surface coverage by Pb atoms. • DFT calculations predict a ¼ ML coverage of Pb atoms in the first atomic layer. • The results show that bulk systems are affected while leaving nanoparticulate systems unaffected. -- Abstract: Surface segregation of Pb has been studied using angle resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) modelling in a polycrystalline Au{sub 0.85}Cu{sub 0.15} alloy. Au surface enrichment was found in the alloy surface, whereas Pb surface enrichment was detected after annealing. ARXPS depth profiles show a 23% surface coverage by Pb atoms. DFT calculations predict an approximate coverage of ¼ monolayer (ML) of Pb atoms in the first atomic layer, consistent with the experimental results. The results presented here are an example of the importance of low concentration of impurities in determining the surface composition of bulk alloys.

  9. ARXPS and DFT studies of thermally induced Pb surface segregation on Au/Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Surface segregation of Pb impurities in AuCu alloys was studied by ARXPS and DFT. • ARXPS show a 23% surface coverage by Pb atoms. • DFT calculations predict a ¼ ML coverage of Pb atoms in the first atomic layer. • The results show that bulk systems are affected while leaving nanoparticulate systems unaffected. -- Abstract: Surface segregation of Pb has been studied using angle resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) modelling in a polycrystalline Au0.85Cu0.15 alloy. Au surface enrichment was found in the alloy surface, whereas Pb surface enrichment was detected after annealing. ARXPS depth profiles show a 23% surface coverage by Pb atoms. DFT calculations predict an approximate coverage of ¼ monolayer (ML) of Pb atoms in the first atomic layer, consistent with the experimental results. The results presented here are an example of the importance of low concentration of impurities in determining the surface composition of bulk alloys

  10. A surface complexation and ion exchange model of Pb and Cd competitive sorption on natural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Susana; O'Day, Peggy A.; Vlassopoulos, Dimitri; García-González, Maria Teresa; Garrido, Fernando

    2009-02-01

    The bioavailability and fate of heavy metals in the environment are often controlled by sorption reactions on the reactive surfaces of soil minerals. We have developed a non-electrostatic equilibrium model (NEM) with both surface complexation and ion exchange reactions to describe the sorption of Pb and Cd in single- and binary-metal systems over a range of pH and metal concentration. Mineralogical and exchange properties of three different acidic soils were used to constrain surface reactions in the model and to estimate surface densities for sorption sites, rather than treating them as adjustable parameters. Soil heterogeneity was modeled with >FeOH and >SOH functional groups, representing Fe- and Al-oxyhydroxide minerals and phyllosilicate clay mineral edge sites, and two ion exchange sites (X - and Y -), representing clay mineral exchange. An optimization process was carried out using the entire experimental sorption data set to determine the binding constants for Pb and Cd surface complexation and ion exchange reactions. Modeling results showed that the adsorption of Pb and Cd was distributed between ion exchange sites at low pH values and specific adsorption sites at higher pH values, mainly associated with >FeOH sites. Modeling results confirmed the greater tendency of Cd to be retained on exchange sites compared to Pb, which had a higher affinity than Cd for specific adsorption on >FeOH sites. Lead retention on >FeOH occurred at lower pH than for Cd, suggesting that Pb sorbs to surface hydroxyl groups at pH values at which Cd interacts only with exchange sites. The results from the binary system (both Pb and Cd present) showed that Cd retained in >FeOH sites decreased significantly in the presence of Pb, while the occupancy of Pb in these sites did not change in the presence of Cd. As a consequence of this competition, Cd was shifted to ion exchange sites, where it competes with Pb and possibly Ca (from the background electrolyte). Sorption on >SOH

  11. Nanoscale morphology of multilayer PbTe/CdTe heterostructures and its effect on photoluminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study nanoscale morphology of PbTe/CdTe multilayer heterostuctures grown by molecular beam epitaxy on hybrid GaAs/CdTe (100) substrates. Nominally, the structures consist of 25 repetitions of subsequently deposited CdTe and PbTe layers with comparable thicknesses of 21 and 8 nm, respectively. However, the morphology of the resulting structures crucially depends on the growth temperature. The two-dimensional layered, superlattice-like character of the structures remains preserved only when grown at low substrate temperatures, such as 230 °C. The samples grown at the slightly elevated temperature of 270 °C undergo a morphological transformation to structures consisting of CdTe and PbTe pillars and columns oriented perpendicular to the substrate. Although the pillar-like objects are of various shapes and dimensions these structures exhibit exceptionally strong photoluminescence in the near infrared spectral region. At the higher growth temperature of 310 °C, PbTe and CdTe separate completely forming thick layers oriented longitudinally to the substrate plane. The observed topological transformations are driven by thermally activated atomic diffusion in the solid state phase. The solid state phase remains fucrystlly coherent during the processes. The observed topological transitions leading to the material separation in PbTe/CdTe system could be regarded as an analog of spinodal decomposition of an immiscible solid state solution and thus they can be qualitatively described by the Cahn–Hillard model as proposed by Groiss et al (2014 APL Mater. 2 012105). (paper)

  12. Adsorption characteristics of Cu(II) and Pb(II) onto expanded perlite from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ahmet; Tuzen, Mustafa; Citak, Demirhan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2007-09-01

    The adsorption characteristics of Cu(II) and Pb(II) onto expanded perlite (EP) from aqueous solution were investigated with respect to the changes in pH of solution, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature of solution. For the adsorption of both metal ions, the Langmuir isotherm model fitted to equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm model. Using the Langmuir model equation, the monolayer adsorption capacity of EP was found to be 8.62 and 13.39 mg/g for Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions, respectively. Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm model was also applied to the equilibrium data and the mean free energies of adsorption were found as 10.82 kJ/mol for Cu(II) and 9.12 kJ/mol for Pb(II) indicating that the adsorption of both metal ions onto EP was taken place by chemical ion-exchange. Thermodynamic functions, the change of free energy (DeltaG degrees ), enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ) and entropy (DeltaS degrees ) of adsorption were also calculated for each metal ions. These parameters showed that the adsorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions onto EP was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic at 20-50 degrees C. Experimental data were also evaluated in terms of kinetic characteristics of adsorption and it was found that adsorption process for both metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics.

  13. Leaching potential of pervious concrete and immobilization of Cu, Pb and Zn using pervious concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solpuker, U.; Sheets, J.; Kim, Y.; Schwartz, F. W.

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates the leaching potential of pervious concrete and its capacity for immobilizing Cu, Pb and Zn, which are common contaminants in urban runoff. Batch experiments showed that the leachability of Cu, Pb and Zn increased when pH pervious concrete might function to attenuate contaminant migration. A porous concrete block was sprayed with low pH water (pH = 4.3 ± 0.1) for 190 h. The effluent was highly alkaline (pH ~ 10 to 12). In the first 50 h, specific conductance and trace-metal were high but declined towards steady state values. PHREEQC modeling showed that mixing of interstitial alkaline matrix waters with capillary pore water was required in order to produce the observed water chemistry. The interstitial pore solutions seem responsible for the high pH values and relatively high concentrations of trace metals and major cations in the early stages of the experiment. Finally, pervious concrete was sprayed with a synthetic contaminated urban runoff (10 ppb Cu, Pb and Zn) with a pH of 4.3 ± 0.1 for 135 h. It was found that Pb immobilization was greater than either Cu or Zn. Zn is the most mobile among three and also has the highest variation in the observed degree of immobilization.

  14. Study on structure and properties of CuZn40Pb alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiţei, D. C.; Minciună, M. G.; Vizureanu, P.; Sandu, A. V.; Cimpoeşu, R.; Istrate, B.

    2016-06-01

    The paper shows aspects about the behavior of Cu-Zn-Pb alloys a subjected to the temperatures variation and corrosion resistance in saline medium (sea water). The chemical composition was determined by spectral analysis on optical spectrometer, type Foundry Masters. The experiments are completed by a microstructure analysis made on scanning electronic microscope.

  15. On The Utilization of (1-X)Cu-X Pb) Alloys for Gamma-Rays Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the study of the attenuation properties of gamma rays for [(1-X) Cu -X Pb] alloys where, x=10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% Pb waste by weight. Investigation has been performed by measuring the transmitted gamma ray spectra behind cylindrical samples of [(1-X) Cu - X Pb] alloys of different thicknesses. A collimated beam of gamma ray measured by using γ - ray spectrometer NaI(Tl) Scintillation detector with multichannel analyzer (MCA) cassy. Total mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of γ-ray have been evaluated and calculated using measured results and XCOM code respectively . Comparison between measured and calculated results shows a reasonable divergence at 0.511 MeV ,and 0.662 MeV γ-ray energies, in addition there is a convergence at 1.17 MeV, 1.274 MeV, and 1.3 MeV γ-ray energies

  16. Surface tension of Hg-M (M - Cd, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, Bi) system amalgams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature and concentration dependences of surface tension of liquid amalgams of Hg-M binary systems (M - Cd, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, Bi) were studied. The revealed correlation of surface tension and electric conductivity of amalgams was explained by peculiarities of mercury energy spectrum, changes of density on Fermi level, adsorption processes and changes of surface layer thickness. 19 refs.; 8 figs.; 4 tabs

  17. Biosorption kinetics of Cd (II, Cr (III and Pb (II in aqueous solutions by olive stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Calero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A by-product from olive oil production, olive stone, was investigated for the removal of Cd (II, Cr (III and Pb (II from aqueous solutions. The kinetics of biosorption are studied, analyzing the effect of the initial concentration of metal and temperature. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models have been used to represent the kinetics of the process and obtain the main kinetic parameters. The results show that the pseudo-second order model is the one that best describes the biosorption of the three metal ions for all the range of experimental conditions investigated. For the three metal ions, the maximum biosoption capacity and the initial biosorption rate increase when the initial metal concentration rises. However, the kinetic constant decreases when the initial metal concentration increases. The temperature effect on biosorption capacity for Cd (II and Cr (III is less significant; however, for Pb (II the effect of temperature is more important, especially when temperature rises from 25 to 40ºC. The biosorption capacity at mmol/g of olive stone changes in the following order: Cr>Cd>Pb. Thus, for an initial concentration of 220 mg/ℓ, a maximum sorption capacity of 0.079 mmol/g for Cr (III, 0.065 mmol/g for Cd (II and 0.028 mmol/g for Pb (II has been obtained.

  18. The Adsorption and Desorption of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) in Freeze-Thaw Treated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linhui; Ma, Jincai; Xu, Meng; Li, Xu; Tao, Jiahui; Wang, Guanzhu; Yu, Jitong; Guo, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption are important processes that influence the potential toxicity and bioavailability of heavy metals in soils. However, information regarding adsorption and desorption behavior of heavy metals in soils subjected to freeze-thaw cycles is poorly understood. In the current study, the effect of freeze-thaw cycles with different freezing temperature (-15, -25, -35°C) on soil properties was investigated. Then the adsorption and desorption behavior of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) in freeze-thaw treated soils was studied. The adsorption amounts of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) in freeze-thaw treated soils were smaller than those in unfrozen soils (p adsorption amounts of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) in soils treated with lower freezing temperatures were higher than those in soils treated with higher freezing temperatures. Desorption percentages of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) in unfrozen soils were smaller than those in freeze-thaw treated soils (p adsorption and desorption behavior of typical heavy metals in freeze-thaw treated soils located in seasonal frozen soils zone in northeast China.

  19. Comparison of prediction methods for the uptake of As, Cd and Pb in carrot and lettuce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Trapp, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Hough, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), and the Contaminated Land Exposure Assessment (CLEA) approach were tested. Experimental data were assembled from the BAPPET database and Danish background data of As, Cd and Pb...

  20. Evaluation of toxic trace metals Cd and Pb in Arabian Sea waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanzgiri, S.; Mesquita, A.; Kureishy, T.W.; SenGupta, R.

    An attempt has been made to present a picture of the distribution of toxic trace elements Cd and Pb in the Northern Arabian Sea by applying an improved analytical technique for the detection of dissolved forms of the metals at nanogram levels...

  1. Responses of membrane protection enzyme system of tobacco leaves on Hg, Cd and Pb stresses in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chong Ling; Lin, Peng; Wang, Xiao Rong

    2002-09-01

    Pot experiment was used to study the responses of membrane protection enzyme system of tobacco leaves on Hg, Cd and Pb stresses in soil. The results showed that POD activity gradually increased with increasing concetrations of Hg, Cd and Pb. CAT and SOD activity gradually decreased under three heavy metals common existing and SOD variation curve showed unimodal curve under single or two elements existing with increase of concentration of Hg, Cd and Pb. The effects of Hg, Cd and Pb in soil: three elemets together > two elements together > single element only. The effects resulted in an imbalance--activated oxygen produce and scavenge and physiological biochemical process disorder. There was a synergistic action for the effect of Hg, Cd and Pb in soil on membrane protection enzyme system in tobacco leaves.

  2. Comparison of serum Concentration of Se, Pb, Mg, Cu, Zn, between MS patients and healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Anahita; Mehrpour, Omid; Nikkhah, Karim; Bayat, Golnaz; Espandani, Mahsa; Golzari, Alireza; Jarahi, Lida; Foroughipour, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is defined as one of the inflammatory autoimmune disorders and is common. Its exact etiology is unclear. There are some evidences on the role of environmental factors in susceptible genetics. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible role of Selenium, Zinc, Copper, Lead and Magnesium metals in Multiple Sclerosis patients. Methods In the present analytical cross-sectional study, 56 individuals including 26 patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in the evaluation. The serum level of Se, Zn, Cu, Pb were quantified in graphite furnace conditions and flame conditions by utilizing an atomic absorption Perkin Elmer spectrophotometer 3030. The serum levels of Mg were measured by auto analyzer 1500 BT. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls by using independent-samples t-test for normal distribution and Mann-Whitney U test as a non-parametric test. All statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 11.0. Results As well as the Zn, Cu, and Se, there was no significant difference between MS patients and healthy individuals in Pb concentrations (p-value = 0.11, 0.14, 0.32, 0.20 respectively) but the level of Mg was significantly different (p= 0.001). Conclusion All serum concentrations of Zn, Pb, Se, Cu in both groups were in normal ranges and there was no difference in MS patients compared with the healthy group who were matched in genetics. Blood level of Mg was significantly lower in MS patients. But it should be noted that even with the low level of serum magnesium in MS patients, this value is still in the normal range.

  3. Cu2S as ohmic back contact for CdTe solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prepared a back contact for CdTe solar cells with Cu2S as primary contact. Cu2S was evaporated on CdCl2 treated CdTe solar cells in superstrate configuration. The CdTe and CdS layers were deposited by Closed Space Sublimation. Direct interface studies with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have revealed a strongly reactive interface between CdTe and Cu2S. A valence band offset of 0.4-0.6 eV has been determined. The performance of solar cells with Cu2S back contacts was studied in comparison to cells with an Au contact that deposited onto a CdCl2-treated CdTe surface that was chemically etched using a nitric-phosphoric etch. The solar cells were analyzed by current-voltage curves and external quantum efficiency measurements. After several post deposition annealing steps, 13% efficiency was reached with the Cu2S back contact, which was significantly higher than the ones obtained for the NP-etched back contacts. - Highlights: • A new back contact for CdTe solar out of Cu2S has been tested. • With a direct interface experiment the valence band offset was determined. • Post deposition heat treatment has been carried out for the solar cells. • 13% efficiency has been reached with the Cu2S back contact

  4. Dual emission in asymmetric ``giant'' PbS/CdS/CdS core/shell/shell quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiguang; Sirigu, Gianluca; Parisini, Andrea; Camellini, Andrea; Nicotra, Giuseppe; Rosei, Federico; Morandi, Vittorio; Zavelani-Rossi, Margherita; Vomiero, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Semiconducting nanocrystals optically active in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum enable exciting avenues in fundamental research and novel applications compatible with the infrared transparency windows of biosystems such as chemical and biological optical sensing, including nanoscale thermometry. In this context, quantum dots (QDs) with double color emission may represent ultra-accurate and self-calibrating nanosystems. We present the synthesis of giant core/shell/shell asymmetric QDs having a PbS/CdS zinc blende (Zb)/CdS wurtzite (Wz) structure with double color emission close to the near-infrared (NIR) region. We show that the double emission depends on the excitation condition and analyze the electron-hole distribution responsible for the independent and simultaneous radiative exciton recombination in the PbS core and in the CdS Wz shell, respectively. These results highlight the importance of the driving force leading to preferential crystal growth in asymmetric QDs, and provide a pathway for the rational control of the synthesis of double color emitting giant QDs, leading to the effective exploitation of visible/NIR transparency windows.Semiconducting nanocrystals optically active in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum enable exciting avenues in fundamental research and novel applications compatible with the infrared transparency windows of biosystems such as chemical and biological optical sensing, including nanoscale thermometry. In this context, quantum dots (QDs) with double color emission may represent ultra-accurate and self-calibrating nanosystems. We present the synthesis of giant core/shell/shell asymmetric QDs having a PbS/CdS zinc blende (Zb)/CdS wurtzite (Wz) structure with double color emission close to the near-infrared (NIR) region. We show that the double emission depends on the excitation condition and analyze the electron-hole distribution responsible for the independent and simultaneous radiative exciton

  5. Determination of Cd, Pb and As in sediments of the Sava River by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA MURKO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of nitric acid, palladium nitrate and a mixture of palladium and magnesium nitrate as matrix modifiers were estimated for the accurate and reproducible determination of cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and arsenic (As in sediments of the Sava River by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, ETAAS. Decomposition of the samples was done in a closed vessel microwave-assisted digestion system using nitric, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids, followed by the addition of boric acid to convert the fluorides into soluble complexes. The parameters for the determination of Cd, Pb and As in sediments were optimised for each individual element and for each matrix modifier. In addition, two sediment reference materials were also analysed. In determination of Cd and Pb, nitric acid was found to be the most appropriate matrix modifier. The accurate and reliable determination of Cd and Pb in sediments was possible also in the presence of boric acid. The use of a mixture of palladium and magnesium nitrate efficiently compensated for matrix effects and enabled the accurate and reliable determination of As in the sediments. Quantification of Cd and As was performed by calibration using acid matched standard solutions, while the standard addition method was applied for the quantification of Pb. The repeatability of the analytical procedure for the determination of Cd, Pb and As in sediments was ±5 % for Cd, ±4 % for Pb and ±2 % for As. The LOD values of the analytical procedure were found to be 0.05 mg/kg for Cd and 0.25 mg/kg for Pb and As, while the LOQ values were 0.16 mg/kg for Cd and 0.83 mg/kg for Pb and As. Finally, Cd, Pb and As were successfully determined in sediments of the Sava River in Slovenia.

  6. Effects of Sewage Sludge and Chemical Fertilizers on Pb and Cd Accumulation in Fenugreek (Trigonella gracum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Cheraghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reprocessing of sewage sludge to agricultural land is preferred to disposal through landfill or incineration due to its potentially beneficial effects on soil fertility from organic matter and plant nutrients, such as N and P, present in the sludge. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of sewage sludge and chemical fertilizers on Pb and Cd accumulation in fenugreek, Trigonella gracum. Methods: The experiment was carried out in earthen pots, 30 cm in diameter and 30 cm in depth. The study was done on five groups- control, S1: sewage sludge (50 tone/ha, S2: sew-age sludge (50 tone/ha+heavy metals [85 ppm of Cd(Cl2; 840 ppm of Pb(NO32], F1: chemi-cal fertilizer (250 kg/ha, and F2: chemical fertilizer (250 kg/ha+ heavy metals [85 ppm of Cd(Cl2; 840 ppm of Pb(NO32]- in three replicates. Results: The results showed that total Pb concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 2 mg/kg, with the maximum level in the sewage sludge treatment (S2 while Cd concentrations in the plant ranged from 0.07 to 1.1 mg/kg with the maximum content in the chemical fertilizer treatment (F2. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in vegetables were significantly higher than the permis-sible limits. Conclusion: This study highlights the potential risks involved in the cultivation and consump-tion of vegetables on plots irrigated with sewage sludge, a practice which may endanger the health of urban populations that consume these vegetables.

  7. Superconducting spin valve effect and triplet superconductivity in CoO$_x$/Fe1/Cu/Fe2/Cu/Pb multilayer

    OpenAIRE

    Leksin, P. V.; Garifyanov, N. N.; Kamashev, A. A.; Fominov, Ya. V.; Schumann, J.; Hess, C.; KATAEV V.; Buechner, B.; Garifullin, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    We report magnetic and superconducting properties of the modified spin valve system CoOx/Fe1/Cu/Fe2/Cu/Pb. Introduction of a Cu interlayer between Fe2 and Pb layers prevents material interdiffusion process, increases the Fe2/Pb interface transparency, stabilizes and enhances properties of the system. This allowed us to perform a comprehensive study of such heterostructures and to present theoretical description of the superconducting spin valve effect and of the manifestation of the long-rang...

  8. Accumulation dynamics and cellular locations of Pb, Zn and Cd in resident and transplanted Flavocetraria nivalis lichens near a former Pb-Zn mine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation dynamics and cellular locations of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) were studied in Flavocetraria nivalis lichens near the former Black Angel Pb-Zn Mine in West Greenland. Natural resident thalli were collected from four dust-contaminated sites near the mine. In addition, thalli...

  9. Heat treatment effects in Cu2S-CdS heterojunction photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbruch, A. L.; Bube, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    The dependence of the short-circuit current on photon energy, temperature, and the state of optical degradation (or enhancement) is determined in a study of the photovoltaic properties of Cu2S-CdS single-crystal heterojunctions. A coherent formulation is proposed for the relationship between enhancement and optical degradation and for their effects on the transport of a short-circuit photoexcited current and dark forward-bias current in a photovoltaic cell. Optical degradation in a Cu2S-CdS cell is shown to be identical to the optical degradation of lifetime in a homogeneous CdS:Cd:Cu crystal.

  10. First-principles study of roles of Cu and Cl in polycrystalline CdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cu and Cl treatments are important processes to achieve high efficiency polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells, thus it will be beneficial to understand the roles they play in both bulk CdTe and CdTe grain boundaries (GBs). Using first-principles calculations, we systematically study Cu and Cl-related defects in bulk CdTe. We find that Cl has only a limited effect on improving p-type doping and too much Cl can induce deep traps in bulk CdTe, whereas Cu can enhance p-type doping of bulk CdTe. In the presence of GBs, we find that, in general, Cl and Cu will prefer to stay at GBs, especially for those with Te-Te wrong bonds, in agreement with experimental observations

  11. First-principles study of roles of Cu and Cl in polycrystalline CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Hui; Yin, Wan-Jian; Park, Ji-Sang; Metzger, Wyatt; Wei, Su-Huai

    2016-01-01

    Cu and Cl treatments are important processes to achieve high efficiency polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells, thus it will be beneficial to understand the roles they play in both bulk CdTe and CdTe grain boundaries (GBs). Using first-principles calculations, we systematically study Cu and Cl-related defects in bulk CdTe. We find that Cl has only a limited effect on improving p-type doping and too much Cl can induce deep traps in bulk CdTe, whereas Cu can enhance p-type doping of bulk CdTe. In the presence of GBs, we find that, in general, Cl and Cu will prefer to stay at GBs, especially for those with Te-Te wrong bonds, in agreement with experimental observations.

  12. First-principles study of roles of Cu and Cl in polycrystalline CdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ji-Hui; Park, Ji-Sang; Metzger, Wyatt [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Yin, Wan-Jian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative, Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Wei, Su-Huai, E-mail: suhuaiwei@csrc.ac.cn [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2016-01-28

    Cu and Cl treatments are important processes to achieve high efficiency polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells, thus it will be beneficial to understand the roles they play in both bulk CdTe and CdTe grain boundaries (GBs). Using first-principles calculations, we systematically study Cu and Cl-related defects in bulk CdTe. We find that Cl has only a limited effect on improving p-type doping and too much Cl can induce deep traps in bulk CdTe, whereas Cu can enhance p-type doping of bulk CdTe. In the presence of GBs, we find that, in general, Cl and Cu will prefer to stay at GBs, especially for those with Te-Te wrong bonds, in agreement with experimental observations.

  13. Investigation of the Ho{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-Cu{sub 2}Se-PbSe and Er{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-Cu{sub 2}Se-PbSe systems at 870K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulay, L.D. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Volyn State University, Voli Aveune 13, 43009 Lutsk (Ukraine)]. E-mail: gulay@lab.univer.lutsk.ua; Olekseyuk, I.D. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Volyn State University, Voli Aveune 13, 43009 Lutsk (Ukraine); Wolcyrz, M. [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okolna Str. 2, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland); Stepien-Damm, J. [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okolna Str. 2, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland); Pietraszko, A. [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okolna Str. 2, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2006-06-08

    The interactions between the components in the Ho{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-Cu{sub 2}Se-PbSe and Er{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-Cu{sub 2}Se-PbSe systems at 870K were determined using X-ray single crystal and powder diffraction. The existence of the compounds with compositions RCuSe{sub 2}-R{sub 2/3}Cu{sub 2}Se{sub 2}(Er{sub 2/3}Cu{sub 2}S{sub 2} structure type, space group P3-bar , a=0.40563(1)nm, c=0.64542(3)nm, R{sub I}=0.0737 for HoCuSe{sub 2} and a=0.40407(1)nm, c=0.64420(3)nm, R{sub I}=0.0660 for ErCuSe{sub 2}) and RCu{sub 5}Se{sub 4} (unknown structure) was confirmed in the R{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-Cu{sub 2}Se (R=Ho, Er) sections. The existence of the compounds Ho{sub 6}Pb{sub 2}Se{sub 11} (Y{sub 6}Pb{sub 2}Se{sub 11} structure type, space group Cmcm, a=0.40561(2)nm, b=1.34018(6)nm, c=3.7525(1)nm) and Er{sub 2}PbSe{sub 4} (CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} structure type, space group Pnma, a=1.2554(2)nm, b=0.40778(5)nm, c=1.4885(2)nm, R{sub I}=0.0914) was confirmed in the R{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-PbSe (R=Ho, Er) sections. The existence of the compounds Ho{sub 3.33}CuPb{sub 1.5}Se{sub 7} (Lu{sub 3.33}CuPb{sub 1.5}Se{sub 7} structure type, space group Cm, a=1.35314(8)nm, b=0.40819(2)nm, c=1.25609(7)nm, {beta}=104.577(3){sup o}) and HoCuPbSe{sub 3} ({beta}-BaLaCuSe{sub 3} structure type, space group Pnma, a=1.0516(2)nm, b=0.40470(8)nm, c=1.3410(3)nm, R{sub 1}=0.0541) in the Ho{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-Cu{sub 2}Se-PbSe system was confirmed. The formation of the compounds Er{sub 5}CuPb{sub 3}Se{sub 11} (Er{sub 5}CuPb{sub 3}Se{sub 11} structure type, space group Cmcm, a=0.40688(2)nm, b=1.34607(7)nm, c=3.8040(2)nm), Er{sub 3.33}CuPb{sub 1.5}Se{sub 7} (Lu{sub 3.33}CuPb{sub 1.5}Se{sub 7} structure type, space group Cm, a=1.35018(7)nm, b=0.40693(2)nm, c=1.25433(6)nm, {beta}=104.492(2){sup o}) and ErCuPbSe{sub 3} ({beta}-BaLaCuSe{sub 3} structure type, space group Pnma, a=1.04846(8)nm, b=0.40424(3)nm, c=1.34143(7)nm) in the Er{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-Cu{sub 2}Se-PbSe system was confirmed.

  14. Advances in CuInSe sub 2 and CdTe thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafarmann, W.N.; Birkmire, R.W.; Farding, D.A.; McCandless, B.E.; Mondal, A.; Phillips, J.E.; Varrin, R.D. Jr. (Delaware Univ., Newark (USA). Inst. of Energy Conversion)

    1991-05-01

    Research on CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe thin film solar cells is discussed. CuInSe{sub 2} was deposited by selenization of Cu/In layers and was used to make a 10% efficient CuInSe{sub 2}/(CdZn)S cell. Characterization of the reaction mechanisms is described. The open-circuit voltage V{sub oc} of CuInSe{sub 2}/(CdZn)S cells is dominated by recombination in the space charge region, so increassing the band gap or decreasing the width of this region should increase V{sub oc}. Increasing the band gap with a thin Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2} layer at the CuInSe{sub 2} surface has demonstrated increased V{sub oc} with collection out to the CuInSe{sub 2} band gap. A post-deposition treatment and contacting process for evaporated CdS/CdTe cells was developed and high efficiency cells were made. Several steps in the process, including a CdCl{sub 2} coating, a 400deg C heat treatment, and a contact containing copper are critical. ZnTe films were deposited from an aqueous solution as a contact to CdTe. (orig.).

  15. First-Principles Study on Cd Doping in Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Satoshi; Wada, Takahiro

    2012-10-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the substitution energies of Cd atom for Cu, Zn, or Sn atom in indium-free photovoltaic semiconductors Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe), first-principles pseudopotential calculations using plane-wave basis functions were performed. The substitution energies of Cd atom in kesterite-type CZTS and CZTSe were calculated in consideration of the atomic chemical potentials of the constituent elements of Cu, Zn, Sn, and the doping atom of Cd. During the chemical bath deposition (CBD) of the CdS layer on the CZTS or CZTSe layer, Cu, Zn, and Cd atoms dissolved in the ammonia aqueous solution and formed [Cu(NH3)2]+, [Zn(NH3)4]2+, and [Cd(NH3)4]2+ complex ions. Therefore, the chemical potentials of Cu, Zn, and Cd atoms in [Cu(NH3)2]+, [Zn(NH3)4]2+, and [Cd(NH3)4]2+ complex ions were calculated. We found that the substitution energies of n-type CdCu and charge-neutral CdZn in CZTS and CZTSe are smaller than that of p-type CdSn. The substitution energies of CdCu in CZTS and CZTSe are smaller than that in chalcopyrite-type CuInSe2 (CIS). However, the substitution energies of CdCu, CdZn, and CdSn are positive values. The formation energy of charge-neutral Cd doping with the Cu vacancy (CdCu + VCu) pair is a negative value and greatly smaller than those of donor-type CdCu and neutral CdZn in CZTS and CZTSe. These results indicate that the charge-neutral (CdCu + VCu) vacancy pair is easily formed during the CBD of the CdS layer on the CZTS or CZTSe layer. A small amount of n-type CdCu and neutral CdZn would also be formed.

  16. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of YbCuPbSe{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulay, L.D. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland); Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Volyn State University, Voli Ave. 13, 43009 Lutsk (Ukraine); Kaczorowski, D. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland)]. E-mail: D.Kaczorowski@int.pan.wroc.pl; Pietraszko, A. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2006-03-09

    The crystal structure of the compound YbCuPbSe{sub 3} has been investigated by means of X-ray single crystal diffraction and refined down to R{sub 1}=0.0384, wR{sub 2}=0.0627. It is of the {beta}-BaLaCuSe{sub 3} type, space group Pnma, Pearson symbol oP24. The lattice parameters are: a=1.0407(2)nm, b=0.40350(8)nm and c=1.3401(3)nm. Characteristic units in the structure are chains of Yb-centered octahedra, Cu-centered tetrahedra and columns of Pb-centered trigonal prisms aligned along the y-axis. Magnetic measurements have revealed an almost trivalent state of Yb ions with pronounced crystal field effect at low temperatures. At 6K, the magnetic susceptibility of YbCuPbSe{sub 3} exhibits a broad maximum that presumably signals the onset of antiferromagnetic ordering.

  17. Assessment of the Bioavailability of Cu, Pb, and Zn through Petunia axillaris in Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Bondareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are potentially toxic to human life and the environment. Metal toxicity depends on chemical associations in soils. For this reason, determining the chemical form of a metal in soils is important to evaluate its mobility and the potential accumulation. The aim of this examination is to evaluate the accumulation potential of Petunia x hybrida as a flower crop for three metals, namely, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, and nickel (Ni. Trace metals (Zn, Cu, and Pb in the soils were partitioned by a sequential extraction procedure into H2O extractable (F1, 1 M CH3COONa extractable (F2. Chemical fractionation showed that F1 and F2 fraction of the metals were near 1% and residue was the dominant form for Zn, Cu, and Pb in all samples. Using fluorescence method allowed us to estimate condition of the plants by adding metals. As result of plant and soil analysis, we can conclude that Petunia has Cu, Zn, and Ni tolerance and accumulation. Therefore, Petunia has the potential to serve as a model species for developing herbaceous, ornamental plants for phytoremediation.

  18. A Diffusive Gradient-in-Thin-Film Technique for Evaluation of the Bioavailability of Cd in Soil Contaminated with Cd and Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifang Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of heavy metal contamination requires accurate information about the distribution of bioavailable fractions, and about exchange between the solid and solution phases. In this study, we employed diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT and traditional chemical extraction methods (soil solution, HOAc, EDTA, CaCl2, and NaOAc to determine the Cd bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of Pb. Two typical terrestrial species (wheat, Bainong AK58; maize, Zhengdan 958 were selected as the accumulation plants. The results showed that the added Pb may enhance the efficiency of Cd phytoextraction which is indicated by the increasing concentration of Cd accumulating in the plant tissues. The DGT-measured Cd concentrations and all the selected traditional extractants measured Cd concentrations all increased with increasing concentration of the addition Pb which were similar to the change trends of the accumulated Cd concentrations in plant tissues. Moreover, the Pearson regression coefficients between the different indicators obtained Cd concentrations and plants uptake Cd concentrations were further indicated significant correlations (p < 0.01. However, the values of Pearson regression coefficients showed the merits of DGT, CaCl2, and Csol over the other three methods. Consequently, the in situ measurement of DGT and the ex situ traditional methods could all reflect the inhibition effects between Cd and Pb. Due to the feature of dynamic measurements of DGT, it could be a robust tool to predict Cd bioavaiability in complex contaminated soil.

  19. A Diffusive Gradient-in-Thin-Film Technique for Evaluation of the Bioavailability of Cd in Soil Contaminated with Cd and Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peifang; Wang, Teng; Yao, Yu; Wang, Chao; Liu, Cui; Yuan, Ye

    2016-06-02

    Management of heavy metal contamination requires accurate information about the distribution of bioavailable fractions, and about exchange between the solid and solution phases. In this study, we employed diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) and traditional chemical extraction methods (soil solution, HOAc, EDTA, CaCl₂, and NaOAc) to determine the Cd bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of Pb. Two typical terrestrial species (wheat, Bainong AK58; maize, Zhengdan 958) were selected as the accumulation plants. The results showed that the added Pb may enhance the efficiency of Cd phytoextraction which is indicated by the increasing concentration of Cd accumulating in the plant tissues. The DGT-measured Cd concentrations and all the selected traditional extractants measured Cd concentrations all increased with increasing concentration of the addition Pb which were similar to the change trends of the accumulated Cd concentrations in plant tissues. Moreover, the Pearson regression coefficients between the different indicators obtained Cd concentrations and plants uptake Cd concentrations were further indicated significant correlations (p Cd and Pb. Due to the feature of dynamic measurements of DGT, it could be a robust tool to predict Cd bioavaiability in complex contaminated soil.

  20. Predicting As, Cd and Pb uptake by rice and vegetables using field data from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongzhen Zhang; Yongming Luo; Jing Song; Haibo Zhang; Jiaqi Xia; Qiguo Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Plant uptake factor (PUF), single-variable regression of natural log-transformed concentrations in rice grain/vegetables versus natural log-transformed concentrations in soil and multiple-variable regression with soil concentrations and pH, was derived, validated and compared based on the paired crop and soil data collected from studies regarding As, Cd and Pb contaminated croplands in China.Results showed that the median value of PUF did not present deterministic prediction. But after natural logarithm transformation, the PUF followed Gaussian distribution which could be useful in risk assessment. The single-variable regression models were significant for As, Cd and Pb uptake both by rice and vegetables; however, the standard errors of all the regressions were comparatively large.Soil pH as a variable was generally significant but it only contributed positively to model fit for Cd uptake. After model comparison and selection, the upper 95% prediction limits of the multiple regression model for Cd uptake by rice was recommended to calculate screening value of Cd for paddy soil based on the limit for Cd concentration in rice grain.

  1. Application of PbWO4 crystal scintillators in experiment to search for double beta decay of 116Cd

    CERN Document Server

    Danevich, F A; Kobychev, V V; Kropivyansky, B N; Nagorny, S S; Nikolaiko, A S; Poda, D V; Tretyak, V I; Yurchenko, S S; Grinyov, B V; Nagornaya, L L; Pirogov, E N; Ryzhikov, V D; Brudanin, V B; Fedorov, M; Korzhik, M; Lobko, A; Miussevitch, O; Solsky, I M

    2004-01-01

    PbWO4 crystal scintillators are discussed as an active shield and light-guides in 116Cd double beta decay experiment with CdWO4 scintillators. Scintillation properties and radioactive contamination of PbWO4 scintillators were investigated. Energy resolution of CdWO4 detector, coupled to PbWO4 crystal as a light-guide, was tested. Efficiency of PbWO4-based active shield to suppress background from the internal contamination of PbWO4 crystals was calculated. Using of lead tungstate crystal scintillators as high efficiency 4-pi active shield could allow to build sensitive double beta experiment with 116CdWO4 crystal scintillators.

  2. Interaction between Cd and Pb in the soil-plant system:a case study of an arid oasis soil-cole system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuanJun ZHAO; ZhongRen NAN; ZhaoWei WANG; YiMing YANG; Masayuki SHIMIZU

    2014-01-01

    The Hexi Corridor, our study area, is located in Northwest China and is also the most developed area of oasis farming in arid regions of Northwestern China. However, the rapid development of metallurgy and chemical industries in this region poses a great threat to the accumulation of heavy metals in crops. The objectives of this study are (1) to determine the influence of heavy metals on plant growth;(2) to assess the translocation capability of heavy metals in soil-plant system; and (3) to investigate the interaction between heavy metals. Pot experiments were conducted on cole (Brassica campestris L.) grown in the arid oasis soils singly and jointly treated with cad-mium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Nine treatments were applied into the pots. Under the same planting conditions, three scenarios of Cd, Pb and Cd-Pb were designed to compare the interaction between Cd and Pb. The results showed that the response of cole weights to Cd, Pb and Cd-Pb treatments was slight, while Cd and Pb uptakes in cole were more sensitive to the single effects of Cd and Pb concentration in soils from the lower treatment levels. Under the influence of the single Cd, Pb and joint Cd-Pb treatments, Cd concentrations were lower in the cole roots than in the shoots, while for Pb, the results were opposite. Comparison studies revealed that the interaction of Cd and Pb could weaken the cole’s ability to uptake, concentrate and translocate heavy metals in arid oasis soils.

  3. Effect of competing cations (Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb) adsorbed by natural zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    Zendelska, Afrodita; Golomeova, Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of the presence of competing cations on the individual adsorption of Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ from a solution containing a mixture of all these metal ions, by natural zeolite. In this work is shown compares the adsorption of each heavy metal ion from both single- and multi-component solutions. The amount adsorbed from multi-component solutions was affected significantly, except for Pb2+ where the difference between single and multi-compon...

  4. Photoluminescence characteristics of β-BaB2O4 nanoparticles co-doped with Cu2+ and Pb2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pb2+-doped and Cu2+, Pb2+ co-doped beta barium borate (β-BaB2O4) nanoparticles have been prepared by co-precipitation method. The photoluminescence spectra of the samples have been investigated in detail. A relatively strong and stable visible-light emission band of Pb2+-doped β-BaB2O4 sample centered at about 630 nm was observed. After doping with Cu2+, the luminescence intensities of the β-BaB2O4:Pb2+ have been greatly enhanced

  5. Analysis of Cu Diffusion in ZnTe-Based Contacts for Thin-Film CdS/CdTe Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanswamy, C. (Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Toledo); Gessert, T. A. and Asher, S. E. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    1998-10-27

    Ohmic contacts to thin-film CdS/CdTe photovoltaic devices have been formed using a two-layer contact interface of undoped ZnTe (ZnTe) and Cu-doped ZnTe (ZnTe:Cu), followed by Ni or Ti as an outer metallization. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) is used to study Cu diffusion within this back-contact structure, and also, to monitor Cu diffusion from the contact into the CdTe. When Ni metallization is used, the ZnTe:Cu layer becomes increasingly depleted of Cu, and Ni diffusion into the ZnTe:Cu increases as the contact deposition temperature increases from 100 C to 300 C. Cu depletion is not observed when Ni is replaced with Ti. Diffusion of Cu from the ZnTe:Cu layer into the ZnTe layer also increases with contact deposition temperature, and produces a buildup of Cu at the ZnTe/CdTe interface. High-mass resolution SIMS indicates that, although Cu levels in the CdTe remain low, Cu diffusion from the contact proceeds into the CdTe layer and toward the CdTe/CdS junction region.

  6. NMR and NQR studies on antiferromagnetism and superconductivity in Pb2Sr2(RE1-xCax)Cu3O8 (RE = Y, Eu and Gd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antiferromagnetic order at the Cu(2) site is confirmed in the insulating Pb2Sr2RECu3O8 (RE = Y, Eu and Gd) by Cu-nuclear magnetic resonance. In the Ca-doped superconducting samples, the Ca-concentration dependence of Cu-spectra and the temperature dependence of T1 of 63Cu(1), 63Cu(2) and 207Pb are investigated. In this paper, an anomalous modulation behavior of spin echo decay curves of Cu(1) is discussed

  7. Varying effect of biochar on Cd, Pb and As mobility in a multi-metal contaminated paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Daixia; Wang, Xin; Chen, Can; Peng, Bo; Tan, Changyin; Li, Hailong

    2016-06-01

    Cd, Pb and As stand as the most prominent contaminants prevailing in Chinese soils. In the present study, biochars derived from water hyacinth (BCW) and rice straw (BCR) were investigated regarding their applicability and durability in soil Cd, Pb, and As immobilization under acid precipitation. Total Cd, Pb, and As in both BCs were below the maximum allowed threshold according to biochar toxicity standard recommended by International Biochar Initiative. To evaluate BCs effect on Cd, Pb, As bioavailability and mobility, CaCl2, KH2PO4 and SPLP extractions were firstly carried out. In neutral extraction with CaCl2 and KH2PO4, significantly reduced Cd/Pb concentrations in CaCl2 extract along with elevated KH2PO4-extractable As were recorded with either BC at 2% or 5%. In SPLP with simulated acid rainwater as extractant, comparable Cd, Pb and As levels were determined in SPLP extract with 2% BCW, while slight to significant increase in SPLP-Cd, Pb or As was recorded with other treatments. Longer-term leaching column test further confirmed the high durability of 2% BCW in Cd immobilization under continuous acid exposure. In parallel, little increase in As concentrations in eluate was determined with 2% BCW compared to no-biochar control, indicating a lowered risk of As mobilization with acid input. However, remarkably higher Pb in leachate from both BCW-only control and 2% BCW-amended soils were noticed at the initial stage of acid leaching, indicating a higher acid-solubility of Pb minerals in BCW (most probably PbO) than in tested soil (PbO2, PbAs2O6). Taken together, BCW exhibited important potential for soil Cd sequestration with little effect on As mobilization under acid precipitation. But it may simultaneously load highly acid-soluble Pb minerals into soils, resulting in elevated Pb mobility upon acid exposure. Therefore, more stringent threshold for Pb content in biochar need to be put forward to secure biochar application in soils subject to anthropogenic

  8. Varying effect of biochar on Cd, Pb and As mobility in a multi-metal contaminated paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Daixia; Wang, Xin; Chen, Can; Peng, Bo; Tan, Changyin; Li, Hailong

    2016-06-01

    Cd, Pb and As stand as the most prominent contaminants prevailing in Chinese soils. In the present study, biochars derived from water hyacinth (BCW) and rice straw (BCR) were investigated regarding their applicability and durability in soil Cd, Pb, and As immobilization under acid precipitation. Total Cd, Pb, and As in both BCs were below the maximum allowed threshold according to biochar toxicity standard recommended by International Biochar Initiative. To evaluate BCs effect on Cd, Pb, As bioavailability and mobility, CaCl2, KH2PO4 and SPLP extractions were firstly carried out. In neutral extraction with CaCl2 and KH2PO4, significantly reduced Cd/Pb concentrations in CaCl2 extract along with elevated KH2PO4-extractable As were recorded with either BC at 2% or 5%. In SPLP with simulated acid rainwater as extractant, comparable Cd, Pb and As levels were determined in SPLP extract with 2% BCW, while slight to significant increase in SPLP-Cd, Pb or As was recorded with other treatments. Longer-term leaching column test further confirmed the high durability of 2% BCW in Cd immobilization under continuous acid exposure. In parallel, little increase in As concentrations in eluate was determined with 2% BCW compared to no-biochar control, indicating a lowered risk of As mobilization with acid input. However, remarkably higher Pb in leachate from both BCW-only control and 2% BCW-amended soils were noticed at the initial stage of acid leaching, indicating a higher acid-solubility of Pb minerals in BCW (most probably PbO) than in tested soil (PbO2, PbAs2O6). Taken together, BCW exhibited important potential for soil Cd sequestration with little effect on As mobilization under acid precipitation. But it may simultaneously load highly acid-soluble Pb minerals into soils, resulting in elevated Pb mobility upon acid exposure. Therefore, more stringent threshold for Pb content in biochar need to be put forward to secure biochar application in soils subject to anthropogenic

  9. Optical properties of 60B2O3–(40–)PbO–MCl2 and 50B2O3–(50–) PbO–MCl2 (M = Pb, Cd) glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shajo Sebastian; M Abdul Khadar

    2004-04-01

    Optical absorption and transmittance spectra of 60B2O3–(40–)PbO–MCl2 and 50B2O3–(50–) PbO–MCl2 (M = Pb, Cd) (10 ≤ ≤ 20) glasses of varying composition were recorded in the UV-visible region. Various optical parameters such as optical energy gap (opt), Urbach energy (e), refractive index (0), optical dielectric constant (∝), and ratio of carrier concentration to the effective mass (/*) were determined. The variation of optical energy gap with increase in the concentration of PbCl2 or CdCl2 is discussed.

  10. Dual emission in asymmetric "giant" PbS/CdS/CdS core/shell/shell quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiguang; Sirigu, Gianluca; Parisini, Andrea; Camellini, Andrea; Nicotra, Giuseppe; Rosei, Federico; Morandi, Vittorio; Zavelani-Rossi, Margherita; Vomiero, Alberto

    2016-02-21

    Semiconducting nanocrystals optically active in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum enable exciting avenues in fundamental research and novel applications compatible with the infrared transparency windows of biosystems such as chemical and biological optical sensing, including nanoscale thermometry. In this context, quantum dots (QDs) with double color emission may represent ultra-accurate and self-calibrating nanosystems. We present the synthesis of giant core/shell/shell asymmetric QDs having a PbS/CdS zinc blende (Zb)/CdS wurtzite (Wz) structure with double color emission close to the near-infrared (NIR) region. We show that the double emission depends on the excitation condition and analyze the electron-hole distribution responsible for the independent and simultaneous radiative exciton recombination in the PbS core and in the CdS Wz shell, respectively. These results highlight the importance of the driving force leading to preferential crystal growth in asymmetric QDs, and provide a pathway for the rational control of the synthesis of double color emitting giant QDs, leading to the effective exploitation of visible/NIR transparency windows. PMID:26837955

  11. A Study of Occurrences of Ag in Pb-Zn-Cu Ore Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A systematic study of occurrences of silver in 156 Pb-Zn-Cu ore deposits indicates that silver mainly occurs in nonferrous metal ore deposits in forms of association and paragenesis. It occurs mainly as independent minerals in nature and occasionally as ion adsorption, isomorphous or amorphous silver minerals. Nearly 190 silver minerals have been discovered in China. Their shapes, constituents, textures, grain sizes, embedded types, distribution patterns, mineral assemblages and metallogenic series suggest that these characteristics are closely related to geneses of deposits and dependent of ore-forming conditions. Pb, Zn and Cu sulphides are the main carrier minerals of silver. The partition of silver in ore is constrained by the mineralization intensity, grain size and embedded form of silver minerals and mineral assemblages.

  12. The effect of intermetallic compound morphology on Cu diffusion in Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder bump on the Ni/Cu Under-bump metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2005-01-01

    The eutectic Sn-Ag solder alloy is one of the candidates for the Pb-free solder, and Sn-Pb solder alloys are still widely used in today’s electronic packages. In this tudy, the interfacial reaction in the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder joints was investigated with an assembly of a solder/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structures. In the Sn-3.5Ag solder joints reflowed at 260°C, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder/Ni interface. For the Sn-37Pb solder reflowed at 225°C for one to ten cycles, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 IMC formed between the solder and the Ni/Cu under-bump metallization (UBM). Nevertheless, the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC was observed in joints reflowed at 245°C after five cycles and at 265°C after three cycles. With the aid of microstructure evolution, quantitative analysis, and elemental distribution between the solder and Ni/Cu UBM, it was revealed that Cu content in the solder near the solder/IMC interface played an important role in the formation of the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC. In addition, the diffusion behavior of Cu in eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solders with the Ni/Cu UBM were probed and discussed. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated by detailed quantitative analysis in an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1016-1017 atoms/cm2sec in both the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb systems.

  13. Stable isotope geochemistry of the Ulldemolins Pb-Zn-Cu deposit (SW Catalonian Coastal Ranges, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso, P.; Canet, C.; Melgarejo i Draper, Joan-Carles; Mata i Perelló, Josep M. (Josep Maria); Fallick, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Pb-Zn-Cu deposit of Ulldemolins occurs within the Carboniferous sedimentary series of the southernmost Catalonian Coastal Ranges. It consists of sulphide-bearing calc-silicate assemblages, with epidote, Ca-amphiboles and Ca-garnet, which develop selectively along a dolomicrite bed near the contact with a granite porphyry. Two mineralisation styles can be differentiated: a) banded and b) irregular. Fluid inclusions and stable isotope compositions of sulphur in sulphides (sphalerite, galena...

  14. Density Of The Copper-Rich Cu-Pb-Fe Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Sak T.; Kucharski M.

    2015-01-01

    Density of the copper-rich corner of the ternary Cu-Pb-Fe alloys was determined with the dilatometric method. Investigated alloys had constant copper content equal to 0.9, 0.8 and 0.7 mole fraction, and varied iron concentration up to 0.1 mole fraction. A model predicting the density of ternary solution from knowledge of density of pure component and the excess of molar volume for limiting binaries is proposed.

  15. Density Of The Copper-Rich Cu-Pb-Fe Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sak T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Density of the copper-rich corner of the ternary Cu-Pb-Fe alloys was determined with the dilatometric method. Investigated alloys had constant copper content equal to 0.9, 0.8 and 0.7 mole fraction, and varied iron concentration up to 0.1 mole fraction. A model predicting the density of ternary solution from knowledge of density of pure component and the excess of molar volume for limiting binaries is proposed.

  16. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Tuan A H Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines,...

  17. The Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Toxic Metals (Cd, Hg and Pb by Calixarenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Max Roundhill

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic metals (Cd, Hg and Pb are mostly present in the environment due to natural phenomenon and human activities as well. Exposure of these non-essential elements in the environment causes severe effects. They are known to cause problems in humans as well as in aquatic life. In this work, we demonstrate various studies regarding liquid-liquid extraction of selected ions with different functionalized calixarenes. This review article briefly discusses several molecular designs of calixarenes for divalent ion (Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ recognition; as well as the relationship between structure and selectivity of the macrocycles is elaborated. The article does not, however, attempt to cover all of the different approaches to these toxic metal ions extraction.

  18. Crystal and electronic structure of PbTe/CdTe nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankowski Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, the authors reported a theoretical study of structural and electronic properties of PbTe inclusions in CdTe matrix as well as CdTe nano-clusters in PbTe matrix. The structural properties are studied by ab initio methods. A tight-binding model is constructed to calculate the electron density of states (DOS of the systems. In contrast to the ab initio methods, the latter allows studying nanostructures with diameters comparable to the real ones. The calculations show that both kinds of inclusions lead to changes of the DOS of the carriers near the Fermi level, which may affect optical, electrical and thermoelectric properties of the material. These changes depend on the size, shape, and concentration of inclusions.

  19. DETERMINAÇÃO DE Cd E Pb EM AMOSTRAS DE GOMA XANTANA POR GF AAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander O. de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evaluation of a method for determination of Cd and Pb in xanthan gum samples by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF AAS using NH4H2PO4 as the chemical modifier. The sample preparation was performed using a reflux system adapted in the digestion tubes. With this system it was possible to increase the temperature of the digester block above the boiling point of the reaction medium, preventing loss of analyte and excessive evaporation of acids during heating. Samples were digested with HNO3 for 3 h in a digester block at 220 ºC. The limits of detection for Cd and Pb were 2.2 and 33.8 ng g-1, respectively. The RSDs for both analytes were, on average, lower than 5.0% and accuracy was verified by recovery tests, yielding values in the 83-100% range.

  20. Fine scale remobilisation of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Cd in contaminated marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tankere-Muller, Sophie; Zhang, Hao; Davison, William;

    2007-01-01

    to less than 0.3 μM. With both DET and DGT measurements, there were sharply defined maxima of Cu and Cd within 2 mm of the sediment water interface, consistent with their release from organic material as it is oxidised. There was a Co maximum about 5–8 mm lower than the Cu and Cd maxima, apparently...... that the localised mobilisation of metals was associated with recent diagenetic processes, rather than the depositional history. There were substantial fluxes of Cu and Cd to the overlying water. Even though there were steep gradients of Fe, Mn, Ni and Co within 1 cm of the sediment–water interface...

  1. Bioaccessibility of Cd and Pb in tailings from a zinc smelting in Brazil: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, F B; Penido, E S; Tappero, R; Sparks, D; Guilherme, L R G

    2016-10-01

    Soils and wastes enriched with heavy metals may present ecological and human health risks. A considerable number of mining areas exist in Brazil, where high levels of metals have been found. However, studies of bioaccessibility of metals in soils/tailings from these areas are scarce, despite their potential informational contribution concerning exposure risks of residents near these areas. This study evaluated tailings collected from four sites of a zinc smelting area located in Brazil with aims to: (1) evaluate the presence of metals of potential concern; (2) investigate Cd and Pb bioaccessibility; and (3) determine the desorption kinetics of Cd and Pb. High concentrations of total Cd and Pb (up to 1743 mg Cd kg(-1) and 8675 mg Pb kg(-1)) and great variability were found in the tailings, indicating the importance of adequate planning for their final disposal, in order to avoid contamination in the surrounding environment. Cadmium and Pb bioaccessibility percentages in the intestinal phase were less than 47 and 4 %, respectively, which represents significant fractions not available for absorption in the intestinal tract. However, this material has to be monitored since its bioaccessibility may increase with eventual physicochemical changes, releasing Cd and Pb. Desorption kinetics experiments revealed that Pb in the samples remained in less labile fractions, whereas Cd was found in more labile fractions, which is in accordance with the bioaccessibility results. PMID:26493831

  2. Determination of Cd, Cr and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; de Carvalho, Gabriel Gustinelli Arantes; Santos, Dario; Krug, Francisco José

    2014-07-01

    A validated method for quantitative determination of Cd, Cr, and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is presented. Laboratory samples were comminuted and homogenized by cryogenic or planetary ball milling, pressed into pellets and analyzed by LIBS. The experimental setup was designed by using a Q-switched Nd:YAG at 1064 nm with 10 Hz repetition rate, and the intensity signals from Cd II 214.441 nm, Cr II 267.716 nm and Pb II 220.353 nm emission lines were measured by using a spectrometer furnished with an intensified charge-coupled device. LIBS parameters (laser fluence, lens-to-sample distance, delay time, integration time gate, number of sites and number of laser pulses per site) were chosen after univariate experiments with a pellet of NIST SRM 695 (Trace Elements in Multi-Nutrient Fertilizer). Calibration and validation were carried out with 30 fertilizer samples from single superphosphate, triple superphosphate, monoammonium phosphate, and NPK mixtures. Good results were obtained by using 30 pulses of 50 J cm- 2 (750 μm spot size), 2.0 μs delay time and 5.0 μs integration time gate. No significant differences between Cd, Cr, and Pb mass fractions determined by the proposed LIBS method and by ICP OES after microwave-assisted acid digestion (AOAC 2006.03 Official Method) were found at 95% confidence level. The limits of detection of 1 mg kg- 1 Cd, 2 mg kg- 1 Cr and 15 mg kg- 1 Pb and the precision (coefficients of variation of results ranging from 2% to 15%) indicate that the proposed LIBS method can be recommended for the determination of these analytes in phosphate fertilizers.

  3. Effects of Sewage Sludge and Chemical Fertilizers on Pb and Cd Accumulation in Fenugreek (Trigonella gracum)

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Cheraghi; Soheil Sobhanardakani; Bahareh Lorestani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reprocessing of sewage sludge to agricultural land is preferred to disposal through landfill or incineration due to its potentially beneficial effects on soil fertility from organic matter and plant nutrients, such as N and P, present in the sludge. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of sewage sludge and chemical fertilizers on Pb and Cd accumulation in fenugreek, Trigonella gracum. Methods: The experiment was carried out in earthen pots, 30 cm in dia...

  4. [Immobilization remediation of Cd and Pb contaminated soil: remediation potential and soil environmental quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue-Bing; Wang, Peng-Chao; Xu, Ying-Ming; Sun, Yang; Qin, Xu; Zhao, Li-Jie; Wang, Lin; Liang, Xue-Feng

    2014-12-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the immobilization remediation effects of sepiolite on soils artificially combined contamination by Cd and Pb using a set of various pH and speciation of Cd and Pb in soil, heavy metal concentration in Oryza sativa L., and soil enzyme activity and microbial quantity. Results showed that the addition of sepiolite increased the soil pH, and the exchangeable fraction of heavy metals was converted into Fe-Mn oxide, organic and residual forms, the concentration of exchangeable form of Cd and Pb reduced by 1.4% - 72.9% and 11.8% - 51.4%, respectively, when compared with the control. The contents of heavy metals decreased with increasing sepiolite, with the maximal Cd reduction of 39.8%, 36.4%, 55.2% and 32.4%, respectively, and 22.1%, 54.6%, 43.5% and 17.8% for Pb, respectively, in the stems, leaves, brown rice and husk in contrast to CK. The addition of sepiolite could improve the soil environmental quality, the catalase and urease activities and the amount of bacteria and actinomycete were increased to some extents. Although the fungi number and invertase activity were inhibited compared with the control group, it was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The significant correlation between pH, available heavy metal content, urease and invertase activities and heavy metal concentration in the plants indicated that these parameters could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of stabilization remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. PMID:25826946

  5. Adsorption of Pb, Cd to Fe, Mn oxides in natural freshwater surface coatings developed in different seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG De-ming; YANG Fan; LI Yu; HUA Xiu-yi; L(U) Xiao-jun; ZHANG Jing-jing

    2005-01-01

    Metal oxides( Fe, Mn oxides) in natural surface coatings(biofilms and associated minerals) are believed to play a significant role in the fate and transport of trace metal in aquatic environments. Seasonal variation of Fe, Mn oxides and organic materials in surface coatings, which were developed periodically on glass slides in Nanhu Lake, Jilin Province, China over the time frame of three seasons,was investigated in order to understand the influence of metal oxides on Pb and Cd adsorption to heterogeneous surface coating materials(biofilm). Pb and Cd adsorption was measured under controlled laboratory conditions(mineral salts solution with defined speciation, ionic strength 0.05 mol/L, 25℃ and pH 6.0). The classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm was applied to estimate equilibrium coefficients of Pb and Cd adsorption to the surface coatings. In general, components in the surface coatings varied greatly with seasons altering and obtained higher concentrations in summer while the content of iron oxides always exceeded that of manganese oxides. Correlation analyses between the maximum adsorption of Pb and Cd and components in the surface coatings developed periodically indicated that Pb phase association with Mn oxides and Cd phase association with Fe oxides as well as Mn oxides were statistically significant. Effect of Mn oxides on Cd adsorption was confirmed in view of its higher content in the surface coatings. The importance of ferromanganese oxides for Pb and Cd adsorption to the natural surface coatings developed in different seasons was evidenced.

  6. Percentage of toxic trace elements; Pb, Cr and Cd in certain plastic toys, Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kavehzadeh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent investigations have detected the presence of significant levels of heavy metals (chromium, lead and cadmium in toys and other PVC products manufactured for children. In some countries, addition of compounds containing toxic metals to toys are limited or prohibited. Methods: To evaluate the safety of some of the plastic toys in the city of Isfahan with respect to toxic trace metals, pb, cr and cd, 75 samples of three types of toys were collected from the toy shop’s and were digested with acid with the two methods ISIRI and ASTM. The heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Variance analysis and T-test were used for data analysis. Results: The result of the study showed that the products tested contained lead, chromium and cadmium and the highest and lowest concentration were related to Pb and Cd, respectively. The statistical analysis of the samples showed that there are no significant differences between ASTM and ISIRI digestion methods. The study revealed that none of the heavy metals in the toy samples exceeded the recommended standard levels. Highest average concentration of Pb and Cd were related to toys with green color and the highest Cr concentration was related to yellow toys in this study. Conclusion: Extensive studies are required to evaluate the quality of the toys being used by children and the toxic trace elements should be eliminated from the plastic materials used for making toys.

  7. Distribution Characteristics, Concentrations, and Sources of Cd and Pb in Laoxiawan Channel Sediments from Zhuzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Abass, Olusegun-Kazeem; Wen, Xin-Yu; Huang, Huan-Fang; Qu, Cheng-Kai; Qi, Shi-Hua

    2016-06-01

    Twenty sediment cores encompassing surface (0-20 cm) and deeper (50-60 cm) sediment layers were retrieved from the 3000 m-long Laoxiawan Channel, which receives industrial effluents from Zhuzhou City (China). Analytical results showed that cadmium (Cd) concentrations ranged between 115.7-1126.7 and 108.8-2059.3 mg/kg while lead (Pb) values ranged between 234-3000 and 145-4292 mg/kg in the surface and bottom sediments, respectively. The results also indicated that high levels of Cd and Pb were present in the vicinity of the channel mouth and confluence area. Indices for potential ecological risk and geo-accumulation were used to evaluate the environmental effects and intensity of heavy metal pollution over time. High concentrations of Cd and Pb in the bottom sediments of Laoxiawan Channel were mainly associated with wastewater discharge (10(6) m(3)/year). Thus, the Laoxiawan Channel may be an important metal contaminant source for the Xiang River. PMID:27025765

  8. Modelling atmospheric bulk deposition of Pb, Zn and Cd near a former Pb-Zn mine in West Greenland using transplanted Flavocetraria nivalis lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Bach, Lis; Asmund, Gert

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric deposition of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) was investigated near the former Black Angel Pb-Zn mine in Maarmorilik, West Greenland during 2010-2011. Thalli of the lichen Flavocetraria nivalis were transplanted from an uncontaminated site into sites near the mine and collected the following year. At 20 of the total 21 sites, concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd were significantly elevated in lichens after 1 year of transplantation compared to initial concentrations. Elevated concentrations were observed within a distance of approx. 20 km from the mining area. Concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the mine and the relation was well described using a power function with a negative exponent (r(2)=0.90; 0.83 and 0.83 for Pb; Zn and Cd). To examine the relation between metal concentrations/uptake in lichen transplants and atmospheric bulk deposition, 10 Bergerhoff dust samplers were placed near lichen transplants and samplers and lichens were collected after a 7-weeks exposure period. A significant linear correlation was observed between metal concentrations in lichen transplants and atmospheric bulk metal deposition (r(2)=0.94; 0.88 and 0.89 for Pb; Zn and Cd). Combining the results and including an area distribution within a defined metal deposition area, the "annual" deposition of Pb, Zn and Cd as dust was estimated during the 2010-2011 snow-free period (∼5 months). The results reveal that 20 years after mine closure, 770 kg Pb, 3700 kg Zn and 24 kg Cd were still being deposited as dust per year (snow-free period only) within a distance of 20 km from the mine.

  9. Bioccumulation and toxicity of Cu and Cd in Vallisneria spiralis (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, S; Gupta, M; Chandra, P

    1994-10-01

    Accumulation of Cu and Cd by Vallisneria spiralis was studied under laboratory conditions. Plants showed ability to reduce 5 µg ml(-1) Cu background concentration to below 0.05 µg ml(-1) (m.p.l., WHO 1985) within 48 h. The Cd concentration of 1.0 µg ml(-1) was reduced to below m.p.l. (0.005 µg ml(-1)) in 168 h. Cysteine synthesis was more under Cd stress condition. Both the metals were toxic to the plants at higher concentrations; more in the case of Cd. PMID:24201704

  10. Influence of IMC in the Semisolid Behaviour of an Eutectic Sn-Pb/Cu Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merizalde, Carlos; Cabrera, José-María; Prado, José-Manuel

    2007-04-01

    A mixture of a liquid Sn-Pb alloy reinforced with solid Cu particles has been found to show thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviour. The presence of an intermetallic compound (IMC) between the Cu particles and the molten matrix has some very important consequences in the rheological behaviour of the slurry. The semisolid material is obtained mixing a sufficient amount of Cu particles with a liquid eutectic Sn-Pb alloy by mechanical stirring at a given temperature and time. The intermetallic compound is formed from the reaction of solid Cu and liquid Sn. This reaction results in some displacement in the phase diagram, affecting the liquid alloy composition, moving the liquidus temperature and therefore altering the balance of %wt solid- %wt liquid necessary to obtain the best thixotropic behaviour. In this work a model of the solid fraction of the slurry taking into account the IMC growth rate is presented. This model is also used to predict the processing window under which the material keeps the thixotropic behaviour.

  11. Tolerance and biosorption of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) by filamentous fungi isolated from a freshwater ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nur Liyana Iskandar; Nur Ain Izzati Mohd Zainudin; Soon Guan Tan

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are able to accumulate significant amount of metals from their environment.The potential of fungal biomass as agents for biosorption of heavy metals from contaminated sediments is currently receiving attention.In the present study, a total of 41 isolates of filamentous fungi obtained from the sediment of the Langat River, Selangor, Malaysia were screened for their tolerance and uptake capability of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb).The isolates were identified as Aspergillus niger, A.fumigatus, Trichoderma asperellum, Penicillium simplicissimum and P.janthinellum.A.niger and P simplicissimum, were able to survive at 1000 mg/L of Cu(Ⅱ)concentration on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) while for Pb, only A.niger survived at 5000 mg/L concentration.The results showed that A.niger, P.simplicissimum and T.asperellum have a better uptake capacity for Pb compared to Cu and the findings indicated promising biosorption of Cu and Pb by these filamentous fungi from aqueous solution.The present study was also determined the maximum removal of Cu(Ⅱ) and Pb(Ⅱ) that was performed by A.niger.The metal removal which occurred at Cu(Ⅱ) 200 mg/L was (20.910 ±0.581) mg/g and at 250 mg/L of Pb(Ⅱ) was (54.046 ± 0.328) mg/g.

  12. Heavy Metals Pollution and Pb Isotopic Signatures in Surface Sediments Collected from Bohai Bay, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Gao; Jin Lu; Hong Hao; Shuhua Yin; Xiao Yu; Qiwen Wang; Ke Sun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics and potential sources of heavy metals pollution, surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China, were analyzed for the selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The Geoaccumulation Index was used to assess the level of heavy metal pollution. Pb isotopic compositions in sediments were also measured to effectively identify the potential Pb sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 0.15, 79.73, 2...

  13. Processing Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors from amorphous state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C. K.; Freiman, S. W.; Wong-Ng, W.; Hwang, N. M.; Shapiro, A. J.; Hill, M. D.; Cook, L. P.; Shull, R. D.; Swartzendruber, L. J.; Bennett, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers produced superconducting ceramics of the Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system started from a glass. To form the glass, the mixed oxide powder was melted at 1200 C in air. The liquid was quenched rapidly by pouring it onto an aluminum plate and rapidly pressing with another plate. The quenched compound was in the form of black amorphous solid, whose x-ray powder pattern has no crystalline peaks. After heat treatment at high temperatures, the glass crystallized into a superconductor. The crystalline phases in the superconductor identified using x-ray diffraction patterns. These phases were that associated with the superconducting phases of T(sub c) = 80 K (Bi2Ca1Sr2Cu2Ox) and of T(sub c) = 110 K (Bi2Ca2Sr2Cu3Ox). The dc resistivity and the ac susceptibility of these superconductors were studied.

  14. Sensitive electrochemical sensor using a graphene–polyaniline nanocomposite for simultaneous detection of Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Detection limits for Zn, Pb, and Cd using ASV were 1, 0.1, and 0.1 μg L−1, respectively. • G/PANI-modification led to a 3× improvement in signal vs. unmodified electrodes. • ASV on a plastic substrate exhibited better sensitivity than on a paper substrate. • Zn, Pb, and Cd were measured in human serum using method of standard addition. - Abstract: This work describes the development of an electrochemical sensor for simultaneous detection of Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) using a graphene–polyaniline (G/PANI) nanocomposite electrode prepared by reverse-phase polymerization in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Two substrate materials (plastic film and filter paper) and two nanocomposite deposition methods (drop-casting and electrospraying) were investigated. Square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry currents were higher for plastic vs. paper substrates. Performance of the G/PANI nanocomposites was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The G/PANI-modified electrode exhibited high electrochemical conductivity, producing a three-fold increase in anodic peak current (vs. the unmodified electrode). The G/PANI-modified electrode also showed evidence of increased surface area under SEM. Square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry was used to measure Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) in the presence of Bi(III). A linear working range of 1–300 μg L−1 was established between anodic current and metal ion concentration with detection limits (S/N = 3) of 1.0 μg L−1 for Zn(II), and 0.1 μg L−1 for both Cd(II) and Pb(II). The G/PANI-modified electrode allowed selective determination of the target metals in the presence of common metal interferences including Mn(II), Cu(II), Fe(III), Fe(II), Co(III), and Ni(II). Repeat assays on the same device demonstrated good reproducibility (%RSD < 11) over 10 serial runs. Finally, this system was utilized for determining Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) in human serum using the

  15. Sensitive electrochemical sensor using a graphene–polyaniline nanocomposite for simultaneous detection of Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruecha, Nipapan [Program in Macromolecular Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Rodthongkum, Nadnudda [Metallurgy and Materials Science Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Soi Chula 12, Phayathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Cate, David M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Volckens, John [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Chailapakul, Orawon, E-mail: orawon@chula.ac.th [Electrochemistry and Optical Spectroscopy Research Unit (EOSRU), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Petroleum, Petrochemicals, Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Henry, Charles S., E-mail: chuck.henry@colostate.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Highlights: • Detection limits for Zn, Pb, and Cd using ASV were 1, 0.1, and 0.1 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. • G/PANI-modification led to a 3× improvement in signal vs. unmodified electrodes. • ASV on a plastic substrate exhibited better sensitivity than on a paper substrate. • Zn, Pb, and Cd were measured in human serum using method of standard addition. - Abstract: This work describes the development of an electrochemical sensor for simultaneous detection of Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) using a graphene–polyaniline (G/PANI) nanocomposite electrode prepared by reverse-phase polymerization in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Two substrate materials (plastic film and filter paper) and two nanocomposite deposition methods (drop-casting and electrospraying) were investigated. Square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry currents were higher for plastic vs. paper substrates. Performance of the G/PANI nanocomposites was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The G/PANI-modified electrode exhibited high electrochemical conductivity, producing a three-fold increase in anodic peak current (vs. the unmodified electrode). The G/PANI-modified electrode also showed evidence of increased surface area under SEM. Square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry was used to measure Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) in the presence of Bi(III). A linear working range of 1–300 μg L{sup −1} was established between anodic current and metal ion concentration with detection limits (S/N = 3) of 1.0 μg L{sup −1} for Zn(II), and 0.1 μg L{sup −1} for both Cd(II) and Pb(II). The G/PANI-modified electrode allowed selective determination of the target metals in the presence of common metal interferences including Mn(II), Cu(II), Fe(III), Fe(II), Co(III), and Ni(II). Repeat assays on the same device demonstrated good reproducibility (%RSD < 11) over 10 serial runs. Finally, this system was utilized for determining Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) in

  16. Cu induced morphology changes at Pb/Si (1 1 1) interface: Separation of “5 × 5”-Cu structure into individual domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of small amount of Cu onto 1 × 1-Pb/Si (1 1 1) and √3 × √3R30°-Pb/Si (1 1 1) coexisting phases was studied with variable temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy. The most significant features connected with the deposition of copper at room temperature appeared as tiny clusters randomly scattered over smooth 1 × 1-Pb islands. Behaviour of the clusters at room at low temperature assumed that Cu penetrates through inert 1 × 1-Pb layer and mixes up with silicon. Moderate thermal treatment of (Cu, Pb)/Si (1 1 1) system induced the formation of shallow depressions of variable shape and size that are embedded into 1 × 1-Pb phase. Tunnelling spectra taken over a particular depression showed the peaks typical for the copper silicides. Moreover, the temperature rise causes the formation of large objects of distinctive hexagonal shape on neighbouring √3 × √3R30°-Pb/Si (1 1 1) structure. Filled and empty state STM images of the hexagons differ strongly suggesting covalent bonding between constituent atoms. Detailed analysis of the hexagonal objects (and their agglomerates) reveals the specific features of quasi-commensurate 5 × 5-Cu structure.

  17. Au/Cu2Te/CdTe/CdS/TCO/Glass Solar Cells with CdIn2O4 Obtained by Sol-Gel as TCO

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Marín, J.; Torres Delgado, G.; M. A. Aguilar Frutis; Castanedo Pérez, R.; Zelaya Ángel, O.

    2014-01-01

    An Au/Cu2Te/CdTe/CdS/TCO/glass heterostructure based superstrate solar cells with 2.5 mm2 of area, where the CdTe layer was prepared by means of closed spaced sublimation (CSS) and the CdS by chemical bath, reached an efficiency η value of 12.1%. As transparent conductive oxide (TCO), a thin film of cadmium-indium oxide (CdIn2O4:CIO), obtained by sol-gel technique, was used. A systematic optimization of the thermal activation of the CdTe/CdS/CIO central part of the device with a CdCl2 vapor a...

  18. Determination of Cd, Cr and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; Gustinelli Arantes de Carvalho, Gabriel [NAPTISA Research Support Center “Technology and Innovation for a Sustainable Agriculture”, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000, Piracicaba SP (Brazil); Santos, Dario [Federal University of São Paulo, R. Prof. Artur Riedel 275, 09972-270, Diadema SP (Brazil); Krug, Francisco José, E-mail: fjkrug@cena.usp.br [NAPTISA Research Support Center “Technology and Innovation for a Sustainable Agriculture”, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000, Piracicaba SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    A validated method for quantitative determination of Cd, Cr, and Pb in phosphate fertilizers by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is presented. Laboratory samples were comminuted and homogenized by cryogenic or planetary ball milling, pressed into pellets and analyzed by LIBS. The experimental setup was designed by using a Q-switched Nd:YAG at 1064 nm with 10 Hz repetition rate, and the intensity signals from Cd II 214.441 nm, Cr II 267.716 nm and Pb II 220.353 nm emission lines were measured by using a spectrometer furnished with an intensified charge-coupled device. LIBS parameters (laser fluence, lens-to-sample distance, delay time, integration time gate, number of sites and number of laser pulses per site) were chosen after univariate experiments with a pellet of NIST SRM 695 (Trace Elements in Multi-Nutrient Fertilizer). Calibration and validation were carried out with 30 fertilizer samples from single superphosphate, triple superphosphate, monoammonium phosphate, and NPK mixtures. Good results were obtained by using 30 pulses of 50 J cm{sup −2} (750 μm spot size), 2.0 μs delay time and 5.0 μs integration time gate. No significant differences between Cd, Cr, and Pb mass fractions determined by the proposed LIBS method and by ICP OES after microwave-assisted acid digestion (AOAC 2006.03 Official Method) were found at 95% confidence level. The limits of detection of 1 mg kg{sup −1} Cd, 2 mg kg{sup −1} Cr and 15 mg kg{sup −1} Pb and the precision (coefficients of variation of results ranging from 2% to 15%) indicate that the proposed LIBS method can be recommended for the determination of these analytes in phosphate fertilizers. - Highlights: • First LIBS application for quantitative Cd, Cr and Pb determination in fertilizers. • LIBS method was validated for analysis of phosphate fertilizers pressed pellets. • LIBS sample throughput is remarkably better than already existing methods.

  19. Toxicity of Cu and Cd in Soils and Detoxication by Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUZONG-LIAN; WULIU-SONG; 等

    1991-01-01

    Results from laboratory experiments indicated that the concentrations and toxicities of both water-soluble and 0.1 M HCl-extractable Cu and Cd from soils were in the order of red soil> yellow brown earth> black earth.The toxicity of soil varied with the concentrations of metals.The form,concentration and toxicity of Cu and Cd in soils were determined by cation exchange capacity,content of organic matter and composition of clay minerals in the soil.Addition of CaCO3 could significantly decrease the concentration and toxicity of water-soluble and 0.1 M HCl-extractable Cu or Cd from the red soil,and could notably transform the Cu and Cd from the water-soluble or exchangeable form into the organic,free oxides-occluded or sulfic form.

  20. Cd, Pb and Hg Biomonitoring in Fish of the Mediterranean Region and Risk Estimations on Fish Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Elisavet A. Renieri; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Michalis Kiriakakis; Marco Vinceti; Eren Ozcagli; Wilks, Martin F.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) are toxic metals with increasing interest due to their tendency to bioaccumulate in fish tissue which may pose a threat to human health via fish consumption. This review of the recent literature on Cd, Pb, Hg levels summarizes data of fish biomonitoring studies in the Mediterranean Sea in order to determine potential risks due to dietary intake of metals. The analytical methods applied are described, with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Inductively ...

  1. Spectral analysis of Cu(2+): B(2)O(3)--ZnO--PbO glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, G; Buddhudu, S

    2005-11-01

    A new series of heavy metal oxide (PbO) based zinc borate glasses in the chemical composition of (95-x)B(2)O(3)-5ZnO-xPbO (x=10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mol%) have been prepared to verify their UV filtering performance. Both direct and indirect optical band gaps (E(opt)) have been evaluated for these glasses. For a reference glass of 45B(2)O(3)-5ZnO-50PbO, refractive indices at different wavelengths are measured and found the results satisfactorily correlated with the theoretical data upon the computation of Cauchy's constants of A=1.766029949, B=159531.024 nm(2) and C=-1.078 x 10(10) nm(4). Measurements concerning X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, differential scanning colorimeter (DSC) profiles have been carried out for this glass. The FT-IR profile has revealed that the glass has both BO(3) and BO(4) units. From DSC thermogram, glass transition temperature (T(g)), crystallization temperature (T(c)) and melting temperature (T(m)) have been located and from them, other related parameters of the glass have also been calculated. Visible absorption spectra of 45B(2)O(3)-5ZnO-(50-x)PbO-xCuO (x=0. 1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mol%) have revealed two absorption bands at around 400 nm ((2)B(1g)-->(2)E(g)) and 780 nm ((2)B(1g)-->(2)B(2g)) of Cu(2+) ions, respectively. Emission bands at 422 and 512 nm are found for the 1 mol % CuO doped glass with excitations at 306 and 332 nm. PMID:16257737

  2. Band offsets at the CdS/CuInSe[sub 2] heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, S.; Zunger, A. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States))

    1993-11-01

    The traditional explanation for the successful electron-hole separation in CdS/CuInSe[sub 2] solar cells rests on the assumption of a type-II band lineup: The conduction-band minimum is assumed to be on the CdS window while the valence-band maximum is assumed to be localized on the CuInSe[sub 2] absorber. This picture of negative conduction-band offset [Delta][ital E][sub [ital c

  3. Comparison of Pb, Cd Adsorption to Surface Coatings Developed in Natural Waters with that in Plant Effluents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG De-ming; LI Yu; HUA Xiu-yi; ZHANG Jing-jing

    2003-01-01

    The comparative studies of Pb and Cd adsorption to the surface coatings(Fe, Mn, Al oxides, organic materials, and associated minerals), which were developed on glass slides in five natural and two technical waters(plant effluents), were carried out under controlled laboratory conditions(mineral salts solution with defined speciation, ionic strength 0.05 mol/L, 25 ℃ and pH 6.0). The classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm was applied to estimating the equilibrium coefficients of Pb and Cd adsorption to the surface coatings. The results show that the maximum adsorption of Pb and Cd to the surface coatings mentioned above varied widely. There was a systemic increase in the maximum adsorption of Pb and Cd to the surface coatings with increasing the contents of Mn and Fe oxides in the surface coatings in significant correlation, respectively, not only highlighting the relative importance of the metal oxide fraction for Pb and Cd adsorption to the surface coatings developed in natural and technical water samples, but also implying the same adsorption mechanisms of Pb and Cd to the surface coatings developed both in natural and technical water samples.

  4. Stabilization of As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in soil using amendments--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Lagerkvist, Anders; Maurice, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The spread of contaminants in soil can be hindered by the soil stabilization technique. Contaminant immobilizing amendments decrease trace element leaching and their bioavailability by inducing various sorption processes: adsorption to mineral surfaces, formation of stable complexes with organic ligands, surface precipitation and ion exchange. Precipitation as salts and co-precipitation can also contribute to reducing contaminant mobility. The technique can be used in in situ and ex situ applications to reclaim and re-vegetate industrially devastated areas and mine-spoils, improve soil quality and reduce contaminant mobility by stabilizing agents and a beneficial use of industrial by-products. This study is an overview of data published during the last five years on the immobilization of one metalloid, As, and four heavy metals, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, in soils. The most extensively studied amendments for As immobilization are Fe containing materials. The immobilization of As occurs through adsorption on Fe oxides by replacing the surface hydroxyl groups with the As ions, as well as by the formation of amorphous Fe(III) arsenates and/or insoluble secondary oxidation minerals. Cr stabilization mainly deals with Cr reduction from its toxic and mobile hexavalent form Cr(VI) to stable in natural environments Cr(III). The reduction is accelerated in soil by the presence of organic matter and divalent iron. Clays, carbonates, phosphates and Fe oxides were the common amendments tested for Cu immobilization. The suggested mechanisms of Cu retention were precipitation of Cu carbonates and oxy-hydroxides, ion exchange and formation of ternary cation-anion complexes on the surface of Fe and Al oxy-hydroxides. Most of the studies on Pb stabilization were performed using various phosphorus-containing amendments, which reduce the Pb mobility by ionic exchange and precipitation of pyromorphite-type minerals. Zn can be successfully immobilized in soil by phosphorus amendments and clays.

  5. First principles study of transition metal (TM=Pb, Cu) oxides/sulfides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudle, Sean; Tao, Meng; Peng, Xihong

    2012-10-01

    Earth-abundant transition meal oxides/sulfides have inspired special research attention recently due to their potential applications in solar cells. A clear understanding of the fundamental properties of these materials, especially the electronic properties and their tunability via chemical doping, are critically important towards the applications. In this presentation, we report first principles density-functional theory (DFT) study on the electronic structures of Pb and Cu oxides/sulfides and their oxysulfides compositions. The band structure and bandgap can be systematically tuned by increasing S component in the metal oxides. For example, the DFT predicted bandgap for PbO is 1.72 eV. While the bandgaps for PbO0.937 S0.063, PbO0.875S0.125, and PbO0.75S0.25 are 1.64 eV, 1.43 eV, and 0.79 eV, respectively. For Cu2O, the standard DFT seriously underestimates the bandgap to be 0.49 eV, compared to the experimental value of 2.17 eV. Two methods, DFT+U and hybrid functional (HSE06), were implemented to overcome this problem. Our results showed that DFT+U method fails and the bandgap doesn't further open up by providing a U potential. The hybrid functional predicts the bandgap to be 2.00 eV, which is in a good agreement with the experimental value.

  6. Comparison of the Molecular Interaction Volume Model with the Wagner Formulae in the Zn-Pb-In and Zn-Sn-Cd-Pb Dilute Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongping TAO; Zhuo CHEN; Dunfang LI; Yifeng GAO; Qianghua SHEN

    2004-01-01

    The coordination numbers in the molecular interaction volume model (MIVM) can be calculated from the common physical quantities of pure liquid metals. A notable feature of the model lie in its capability to predict the thermodynamic properties of solutes in the Zn-Pb-ln and Zn-Sn-Cd-Pb dilute solutions using only the binary infinite dilute activity coefficients, and the predicted values are in good agreement with the experimental data of the dilute solutions.

  7. Influence of Cu2+ dopant in optical property of CdTe quantum dots and photoelectrochemical performance of CdTe:Cu2+/TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Geng, Yue; Zhou, Chunyan; Song, Jiahui; Zhou, Liya

    2016-05-01

    A novel one-step synthesis process was used to prepare CdTe:Cu2+/TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs). X-ray powder diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses confirmed that the obtained CdTe:Cu2+ quantum dots (QDs) possess cubic structures, which are approximately spherical, and a small particle size (2.95 nm). The photoluminescent and UV-visible absorption spectra of CdTe:Cu2+ QDs also display an obvious redshift, which was attributed to the replacement of Cd2+ with Cu2+. Compared with that of the TNTAs and CdTe/TNTAs, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of CdTe:5% Cu2+/TNTAs increased by 785.7% and 103.3%, respectively. The incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency of CdTe:5% Cu2+/TNTAs was 50.6%, which indicated the potential use of QDs in photochemical solar cells.

  8. Responses of different Chinese flowering cabbage (brassica parachinensis l.) cultivars to cadmium and lead exposure: screening for Cd + Pb pollution-safe cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Qiu; Yang, Zhongyi; Xin, Junliang; Yuan, Jiangang; Wang, Jianbing; Xin, Guorong [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yutao [Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2011-11-15

    To reduce the potential risks of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) entering the human food chain in vegetables, two pot experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) were carried out to screen for Cd and Pb pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.). The three Cd treatments in Exp. 1 (0.114, 0.667, and 1.127 mg kg{sup -1}) showed that Chinese flowering cabbage could easily take up Cd from polluted soils, and there were wide variations in Cd accumulation among different cultivars. The Cd accumulation trait at cultivar level was rather stable under different soil Cd treatments. In Exp. 2, seven cultivars that had been shown in Exp. 1 to be typical high or low accumulators of Cd were selected and six Cd + Pb joint exposure treatments were applied to them. The results showed that there were similar trends of accumulation between Cd and Pb for the tested cultivars, but Pb accumulation by the species was much poorer than that of Cd. It was worth noting that an increase in soil Pb levels significantly (p < 0.01) depressed shoot Cd accumulation. Six cultivars were selected as Cd + Pb PSCs. This study showed that it is feasible to apply a PSC strategy in Chinese flowering cabbage cultivation, to cope with the Cd and Pb contamination commonly found in agricultural soils. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Effects of heat treatment on diffusion of Cu atoms into CdTe single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, Y. L. [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Amherst, New York 14260 (United States); Huang, S. [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Amherst, New York 14260 (United States); Kim, S. [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Amherst, New York 14260 (United States); Kioseoglou, G. [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Amherst, New York 14260 (United States); Kao, Y. H. [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Amherst, New York 14260 (United States); Compaan, A. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Grecu, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Albin, D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2000-06-19

    Angular dependence of x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption fine structure techniques have been used to study the diffusion of Cu atoms into the photovoltaic material CdTe. Depth profile, effective valency, and local structure of Cu atoms in a Cu-doped single crystal of CdTe were investigated before and after a second heat treatment. Enhanced Cu diffusion into the CdTe single crystal was observed as a result of heating at a moderate temperature around 200 degree sign C, resulting in a redistribution of the Cu impurities through a broader depth profile. Some of the Cu atoms are believed either to form small complexes with Te or occupy interstitial sites in the host but accompanied by a large local lattice distortion while others substitute for Cd on the cation sites. The results thus demonstrate that these nondestructive x-ray characterization methods are useful for probing microstructural changes in CdTe photovoltaic materials/devices in which some Cu-containing compounds are used as back contacts. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  10. PENINGKATAN KUALITAS FILM TIPIS CdTe SEBAGAI ABSORBER SEL SURYA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN DOPING TEMBAGA (Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marwoto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Film tipis CdTe dengan doping tembaga (Cu berkonsenterasi 2% telah berhasil ditumbuhkan di atas substrat Indium Tin Oxide (ITO dengan metode dc magnetron sputtering. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh doping Cu(2% terhadap struktur morfologi, struktur kristal, fotoluminisensi dan resistivitas listrik film CdTe. Citra morfologi Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM dan hasil analisis struktur dengan X-Ray Diffraction (XRD menunjukkan bahwa film CdTe:Cu(2% mempunyai citra permukaan dan struktur kristal yang lebih sempurna dibandingkan film CdTe tanpa doping. Hasil analisis spektrometer fotoluminisensi menunjukkan bahwa film CdTe dan CdTe(2% mempunyai puncak fotoluminisensi pada tiga panjang gelombang yang identik yaitu 685 nm (1,81 eV, 725 nm (1,71 eV dan 740 nm (1,67 eV. Film CdTe dengan doping Cu(2% memiliki intensitas puncak fotoluminisensi yang lebih tajam pada pita energi 1,81 eV dibandingkan dengan film CdTe tanpa doping. Pengukuran arus dan tegangan (I-V menunjukkan bahwa pemberian doping Cu(2% dapat menurunkan resistivitas film dari 8,40x109 Ωcm menjadi 6,92x105 Ωcm. Sebagai absorber sel surya, kualitas film tipis CdTe telah berhasil ditingkatkan dengan pemberian doping Cu(2%.CdTe:Cu(2% thin film has been successfully grown on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO substrates by using dc magnetron sputtering. This study was carried out in order to investigate the effect of Cu(2% doping on the morphologycal structure, crystal structure, photoluminesence, and resistivity of CdTe thin film. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM  images and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD results showed that CdTe:Cu(2% thin film has morphologycal and crystal structures more perfect than undoped CdTe film. Photoluminesence spectroscopy results showed that CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2% thin films have luminesence peak at three identical wevelength regions i.e. 685 nm (1.81 eV, 725 nm (1.71 eV and 740 nm (1.67 eV however CdTe:Cu(2% film shows sharper photoluminescence peak at band

  11. Distribution of Cu and Pb in particle size fractions of urban soils from different city zones of Nanjing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huan-hua; LI Lian-qing; WU Xin-min; PAN Gen-xing

    2006-01-01

    Soil samples from 4 defined city zones of Nanjing were randomly collected at 0-5 cm and 5-20 cm intervals and size fractions of soil particles were separated from undisturbed bulk soils by low energy dispersion procedure. The total contents of Cu and Pb in the different particle size fractions of the urban soils were analyzed by HNO3-HF-HC1O4 digestion and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer determination. The total content of Cu and Pb in soil particle size fractions varied with their size and with city zones as well. Both the content and variation with the size fractions of Pb was bigger than of Cu supporting our previous finding that there was Pb pollution to different degrees in the urban soils although the two elements were generally enriched in clay-sized fraction.Contaminated Pb tended to be preferentially enriched in the size fraction of 2000-250 μm and clay-sized fraction. While the size fractions of the soils from newly developed and preserved area contained smaller amount of Cu and Pb, the partitioning of them in coarse and fine particle size fractions were insignificant compared to that from inner residence and commercial area. The very high Pb level over 150 mg/kg of the fine particle fractions from the soils of the inner city could be a cause of high blood Pb level reported of children from the city as acute exposure to Pb of fine particles of the urban soil might occur by soil ingestion and inhalation by young children. Thus, much attention should be paid to the partitioning of toxic metals in fine soil particles of the urban soils and countermeasures against high health risk of Pb exposure by soil ingestion and dust inhalation should be practiced against the health problem of blood Pb for young children from the cities.

  12. Determination of Cd and Pb in food slurries by GFAAS using cryogenic grinding for sample preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, D. Jr.; Barbosa, F. Jr.; Tomazelli, A.C.; Krug, F.J. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil); Nobrega, J.A. [Departamento de Quimica, UFSCar, Sao Carlos (Brazil); Arruda, M.A.Z. [Instituto de Quimica, UNICAMP, Campinas (Brazil)

    2002-06-01

    A simple method combining slurry sampling after cryogenic grinding and the use of a permanent modification of the integrated platform inside the transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA) was proposed for the determination of Cd and Pb in foods. Potentialities of the cryogenic grinding were evaluated for grinding different materials of difficult homogenization such as high fat and high fiber tissues. Animal and vegetal samples were cut into small pieces and ground in liquid nitrogen for 2 min. Slurries were prepared directly in the autosampler cup after cryogenic grinding by transferring an exact amount of homogeneous powdered material (5-20 mg) to the cup, followed by 1.00 mL of 0.2% (v/v) HNO{sub 3} containing 0.04% (v/v) Triton X-100 and sonication for 30 s, before transferring into the platform previously coated with 250 {mu}g W and 200 {mu}g Rh. Use of a tungsten carbide-rhodium permanent modifier combined with NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} conventional modifier improves tube lifetime and increases the pyrolysis temperature for Cd. Homogeneity tests, carried out by comparing the between- and within-batch precision for each kind of sample, showed no significant differences at the 95% confidence level, indicating good homogeneity for 5-20 mg masses. Detection limits were 3.3 ng g{sup -1} Cd and 75 ng g{sup -1} Pb for 1% m/v slurries. Results for determination of Cd and Pb in foods slurries were in agreement with those obtained with digested samples, since no statistical differences were found by the paired t-test at the 95% level. (orig.)

  13. Bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd on Broiler Chicken Fed in Difference Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dwiloka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to compute Pb and Cd bioaccumulation in different organs of broiler. Carcass, heart, liver, gizzard, intestine, and excreta. The data were obtained from broiler reared in the litter cage. Four treatments of feed were given to the broiler chicken, i.e.  T1 = X brand of commercial feed, T2 = Y brand of commercial feed, T3 = self-prepared feed without fish meal addition and T4 = self prepared feed without fish meal but contaminated with cadmium chloride (Cd.Cl2.4H2O. For each treatment, five broiler chicken were grouped each week (from week I up to week VI. Results of the first stage of this study was analyzed descriptively. A polinomial regression equation was used as an empirical model to describe the heavy metal bioaccumulation phenomenon in broiler carcasses. The quadratic equation  turned out to be the most suitable model for describing the bioaccumulation of heavy metal in broiler carcasses. From the simulation, it was found that  quadratic model fit to 61.31% and 54.17%  bioaccumulation data of Pb and Cd respectively. According to the model, initially metal concentrations declined since the first week and started to rebound at the fifth week, both in terms of chronological and physiological age. The patterns of Pb and Cd bioaccumulation in this study can be used as a reference to determine the proper slaughter period. It can be concluded that for reducing the risk of metal contamination the proper slaughter time of the broiler is before the fifth week.

  14. Recycling flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum for removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yubo; Li, Qiao; Sun, Xiuyun; Ren, Zhiyuan; He, Fei; Wang, Yalun; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-11-01

    The present study aims to verify the feasibility of directly reusing the flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum generated from coal-fired power plants to adsorptively remove Pb(II) and Cd(II) from wastewater. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test was conducted to evaluate the leachability of toxic heavy metals from FGD gypsum. The adsorption behaviors of FGD gypsum for Pb(II) and Cd(II) such as pH impact, sorption kinetics, sorption isotherms and sorption thermodynamics were studied in a series of batch experiments. The pH studies indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) had their best adsorption amounts both at the pH values from 5.0 to 7.0. The kinetic analysis displayed that the adsorption processes both followed the pseudo-second order model well, and the FGD gypsum provided a higher sorption rate for Pb(II). Equilibrium studies showed that the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) could be properly described by Langmuir isotherms model, and the predicted maximum adsorption capacities were even greater than some specially prepared adsorbents. The thermodynamic investigation confirmed that the removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous medium could carry out spontaneously, and the higher temperature favored the processes. The instrument analysis techniques were also employed to deeply understand the mechanism involved in Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal by FGD gypsum. Overall, good sorption performance together with cost-effective characteristic makes FGD gypsum potentially attractive material for the Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal in industrial wastewater. PMID:26162902

  15. Mineralogical data on angelaite, Cu2AgPbBiS4, from the Los Manantiales District, Chubut, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topa, D.; Paar, W.H.; Putz, H.;

    2010-01-01

    0.97Pb1.05Bi1.00S3.91. The ideal formula (on the basis of nine atoms) is Cu2AgPbBiS4, which requires Cu 16.31, Ag 13.84, Pb 26.58, Bi 26.81, S 16.45, total 100 wt.%. Angelaite is orthorhombic, with a 12.734(5), b 4.032(1), c 14.633(5) Å, V 751.8(5) Å3, space group Pnma and Z = 4. The calculated......Angelaite, ideally Cu2AgPbBiS4, occurs as a hypogene mineral in polymetallic ores at the Ángela groups of veins in the mining district of Los Manantiales, in the province of Chubut, Argentina. The new mineral species is predominantly associated with pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, hematite...

  16. Preparation, Processing and Tunneling in YBa2Cu3O7-δ-Pb Native-Barrier Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangi, Francesca; Dwir, Benjamin; James, Jonathan H.; Gauzzi, Andrea; Pavuna, Davor

    1993-06-01

    We have developed a procedure for the preparation of small (40× 40 μm2) window-type YBa2Cu3O7-δ-Pb junctions with YSZ insulator and native tunnel barrier. We present the patterning technique of the two electrodes based on photolithography and wet etching. The nature of the barrier is found to be semiconducting. The tunneling measurements show gap-like feature of YBa2Cu3O7-δ at 8.5 meV and some additional features related to Pb and YBa2Cu3O7-δ phonon spectra.

  17. Tunneling characteristics of YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ-Pb window-type Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangi, F.; Dwir, B.; Pavuna, D.

    1992-02-01

    We present the results of tunneling measurements done on window-type, native-barrier YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ-Pb junctions. We show features in the I-V curves which are related to the gap of YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ, as well as to the Pb and YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ phonon spectra. The nature of barrier in these structures is found to be semi-conducting. We can also see the asymmetry in the tunneling curves.

  18. Impact of atmospheric deposition of As, Cd and Pb on their concentration in carrot and celeriac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root crops, carrot and celeriac, were exposed to atmospheric deposition in a polluted versus reference area. An effect was observed on the As, Cd and Pb concentrations of the leaves and the storage organs. The concentrations in the whole storage organs correlated well with atmospheric deposition, which shows that they even could be used for biomonitoring. Nevertheless, leaves remain much more appropriate. The results revealed also a significant increase of the As and Cd concentration in the consumable part of the storage organs as a function of their atmospheric deposition. As such the experiments allowed deriving regression equations, useful for modeling the atmospheric impact of trace elements on the edible parts of root crops. For Pb, however, there was hardly any significant impact on the inner parts of the storage organs and as such the transfer of Pb in the food chain through root crops can be considered to be negligible. - Highlights: ► This paper is exploring new ideas on biomonitoring. ► Some airborne trace elements are transported to unexposed plant parts. ► Storage organs accumulate also airborne trace elements. ► Biomonitoring is useful to study the transfer of trace elements in the food chain. - Biomonitoring as a tool to study the impact of atmospherically deposited trace elements on the food chain.

  19. Colorimetric detection of Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions using calix[4]arene functionalized gold nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ravi Gunupuru; Debdeep Maity; Gopala R Bhadu; Ashish Chakraborty; Divesh N Srivastava; Parimal Paul

    2014-05-01

    Calixarene functionalized gold nanoparticles (CFAuNPs) have been prepared and characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic (TEM) techniques. To use this material as potential colorimetric sensor, the binding property of this new material has been investigated with a large number of metal ions. It exhibited sharp colour change from dark brown to green and blue, detectable by naked-eye, in the presence of Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions, respectively. It has also triggered substantial change in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of the functionalized gold nanoparticles, which in case of Pb(II) is due to the inter particle plasmon coupling arising from the metal-induced aggregation of the nanoparticles and for Cu(II), it is because of the formation of AuCu alloy due to anti-galvanic exchange. The size and aggregation of the nanoparticles are confirmed from HRTEM images, elemental analysis and the line profiling for both the metal ions have been done by STEM-EDX analysis.

  20. 氨基硫脲改性山竹壳对Cd2+、Pb2+的吸附%Adsorption of Cd2+ and Pb2+ on Mangosteen Shell Modified by Thiosemicarbazide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓东; 刘明华; 林春香

    2012-01-01

    New modified mangosteen (MS) adsorbent was prepared by using thiosemicarbazide and the adsorption behavior of Cd2+ and Pb2+ on mangosteen shell was studied. Results showed tha| pH 6.0 and shaking time 120 min were the optimal conditions for adsorption of Cd2+ and Pb2+. The adsorption capacity of adsorbent could be greatly improved after modified, with the maximum adsorption capacity of Cd2+ and Pb2+ up to 39.37 and 57.14 mg/g respectively. The adsorption process followed a pseudo-second order equation and the equilibrium isotherm was best described by the Langmuir model rather than the Freundlich model.%采用氨基硫脲改性山竹壳,制备新型的改性山竹壳吸附剂,研究其对Cd2+、Pb2+的吸附性能.结果表明,吸附Cd2+、Pb2+的适宜条件为:pH 6.0,吸附时间120 min.改性后山竹吸附剂对Cd2+、Pb2+的吸附容量能有了很大程度的提高,Cd2+、Pb2+最大吸附量分别达到3937、57.14mg/g.吸附过程可以很好地用准二级动力学方程描述,吸附等温线用Langmuir方程的拟合效果优于Freundlich方程.

  1. Soil enzymatic activities and microbial community structure with different application rates of Cd and Pb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHAN Sardar; CAO Qing; HESHAM Abd El-Latif; XIA Yue; HE Ji-zheng

    2007-01-01

    This study focused on the changes of soil microbial diversity and potential inhibitory effects of heavy metals on soil enzymatic activities at different application rates of Cd and Pb. The soil used for experiments was collected from Beijing and classified as endoaquepts. Pots containing 500 g of the soil with different Cd or/and Pb application rates were incubated for a period of 0, 2, 9, 12 weeks in a glasshouse and the soil samples were analyzed for individual enzymes, including catalase, alkaline phosphatase and dehydrogenase, and the changes of microbial community structure. Results showed that heavy metals slightly inhibited the enzymatic activities in all the samples spiked with heavy metals. The extent of inhibition increased significantly with increasing level of heavy metals, and varied with the incubation periods. The soil bacterial community structure, as determined by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis techniques, was different in the contaminated samples as compared to the control. The highest community change was observed in the samples amended with high level of Cd. Positive correlations were observed among the three enzymatic activities, but negative correlations were found between the amounts of the heavy metals and the enzymatic activities.

  2. Biosorption of divalent Pb, Cd and Zn on aragonite and calcite mollusk shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Yang; Lian Fei [Key Laboratory of Pollution Process and Environmental Criteria, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Urban Ecology Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhu Lingyan, E-mail: zhuly@nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Pollution Process and Environmental Criteria, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Urban Ecology Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2011-07-15

    The potential of using mollusk shell powder in aragonite (razor clam shells, RCS) and calcite phase (oyster shells, OS) to remove Pb{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} from contaminated water was investigated. Both biogenic sorbents displayed very high sorption capacities for the three metals except for Cd on OS. XRD, SEM and XPS results demonstrated that surface precipitation leading to crystal growth took place during sorption. Calcite OS displayed a remarkably higher sorption capacity to Pb than aragonite RCS, while the opposite was observed for Cd. However, both sorbents displayed similar sorption capacities to Zn. These could be due to the different extent of matching in crystal lattice between the metal bearing precipitate and the substrates. The initial pH of the solution, sorbent's dosage and grain size affected the removal efficiency of the heavy meals significantly, while the organic matter in mollusk shells affected the removal efficiency to a lesser extent. - Highlights: > Mollusk shells display high removal efficiency to heavy metals in contaminated water. > Surface precipitation leading to crystal growth takes place during the sorption. > Crystal structure similarity between precipitates and substrates affects the sorption. > pH, sorbent dosage and grain size of adsorbent affects the removal efficiency. > Organic matter in mollusk shells affects the removal efficiency to a less extent. - Mollusk shells display high sorption ability to heavy metals and crystal structure similarity between precipitates and substrates affects the sorption.

  3. Electrochemical processing of high- Bi(Pb)–Sr–Ca–CuO thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N V Desai; L A Ekal; D D Shivagan; S H Pawar

    2000-02-01

    Superconducting thin films of Bi(Pb)–Sr–Ca–CuO system were prepared by depositing the film onto silver substrate by d.c. electrodeposition technique with dimethyl sulphoxide bath in order to examine the effect of Pb addition to the BSCCO system. The films were deposited at the potential of – 0.8 V vs saturated calomel electrode (SCE) onto the silver substrate. The different preparative parameters such as deposition potential, deposition time were studied and optimized. These films were then oxidized electrochemically at room temperature in an alkaline (1 N KOH) solution, and also at 600°C temperature in an oxygen atmosphere. The films showed the superconducting behaviour, with values ranging between 85 K and 96 K, respectively.

  4. Spray Deposition of High Quality CuInSe2 and CdTe Films: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C. J.; van Hest, M.; Miedaner, A.; Leisch, J.; Hersh, P.; Nekuda, J.; Ginley, D. S.

    2008-05-01

    A number of different ink and deposition approaches have been used for the deposition of CuInSe2 (CIS), Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), and CdTe films. For CIS and CIGS, soluble precursors containing Cu, In, and Ga have been developed and used in two ways to produce CIS films. In the first, In-containing precursor films were sprayed on Mo-coated glass substrates and converted by rapid thermal processing (RTP) to In2Se3. Then a Cu-containing film was sprayed down on top of the In2Se3 and the stacked films were again thermally processed to give CIS. In the second approach, the Cu-, In-, and Ga-containing inks were combined in the proper ratio to produce a mixed Cu-In-Ga ink that was sprayed on substrates and thermally processed to give CIGS films directly. For CdTe deposition, ink consisting of CdTe nanoparticles dispersed in methanol was prepared and used to spray precursor films. Annealing these precursor films in the presence of CdCl2 produced large-grained CdTe films. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optimized spray and processing conditions are crucial to obtain dense, crystalline films.

  5. Genotype variations in accumulation of cadmium and lead in celery (Apium graveolens L.) and screening for low Cd and Pb accumulative cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun ZHANG; Jianbing WANG; Zhongyi YANG; Guorong XIN; Jiangang YUAN; Junliang XIN; Charlie HUANG

    2013-01-01

    To help reduce risks of heavy metal pollution, two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the variations, transfer potential, and stability of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) accumulations in celery (Apium graveolens L.) and to screen for low Cd and Pb accumulative cultivars. The maximum differences in shoot Cd concentration were 4.7-fold under low-Cd exposure and 3.3-fold under high-Cd exposure. These genotype variations in Cd accumulation are sufficiently large to help reduce Cd contamination risk in soil by using the Low-Cd-Accumulative genotypes. Cd accumulation of the Low-Cd-Accumulative genotypes is significantly positive correlated with Pb accumulation. Evidence obtained proves that Cd and Pb accumulations in celery are stable and genotype-dependent at the cultivar level. The presence of high-Pb contamination in soil promoted Cd accumulation in shoots of celery. Celery is considered a species with high risks in Cd pollution and low risks in Pb pollution. Among the tested cultivars, cv. Shuanggang- kangbing (SGKB) had the lowest shoot Cd and Pb accumulating abilities, and thus is the most important material for breeding of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) to minimize Cd and Pb accumulations in celery.

  6. Stability testing of ZnTe:N as a Cu-free back contact to CdTe/CdS solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, D. A.

    2000-03-01

    Most CdTe/CdS solar cell devices use Cu as a back contact, but recent studies have suggested Cu may cause instabilities in the device under some extreme conditions. We have used rf-sputter deposited ZnTe:N as an alternative back contact to CdTe/CdS solar cells. Identical CdTe/CdS solar cells were back-contacted with ZnTe:N or a standard Cu/Au contact. Sets of both types of cells were subjected to either 3000 hours of baking at 100 C in the dark, or 3000 hours of light-soaking at 1 sun. While initial efficiencies of the Cu cells were slightly higher than the ZnTe:N cells, the ZnTe:N cells performed much better after baking and equally as well after light-soaking as the Cu cells.

  7. Anodic stripping voltammetric determination of Zn, Pb and Cu traces in whisky samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbeira, P.J.S. [Departamento de Quimica - ICEx - UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Stradiotto, N.R. [Departamento de Quimica - FFCLRP - USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    1998-07-01

    The simultaneous ``in natura`` determination of trace Zn, Pb and Cu in whisky samples by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV), using a hanging mercury drop electrode, without previous treatment or addition of supporting electrolyte is described. The choice of an appropriate stripping voltammetric method and deposition potential minimizes the influence of the organic content and ensures a good reproducibility of the measurements. The reliability of the method was tested comparing the results with those of atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), with differences of about 10%. The method allows the determination of heavy metal ions in the {mu}g L{sup -1} range. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs.

  8. Variation of photon interaction parameters with energy for some Cu-Pb alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Tejbir, E-mail: dr.tejbir@gmail.com; Kaur, Sarpreet; Kaur, Parminder; Kaur, Harvinder [Department of Physics, Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Saheb-140406, Punjab (India); Singh, Parjit S. [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala-147002, Punjab (India)

    2015-08-28

    Various photon interaction parameters (mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and effective electron numbers) have been computed for different compositions of Cu-Pb alloys in the wide energy regime of 1 keV to 100 GeV. The mass attenuation coefficients have been computed using mixture rule with the help of WinXCom (mass attenuation coefficient database for elements). The variation of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron density has been analysed and discussed in terms of dominance of different photon interaction processes viz. Compton scattering, photoelectric effect and pair production.

  9. Kinetics of lead removal from the Cu-Pb-Fe alloy by barbotage with inert gases

    OpenAIRE

    B. Oleksiak; L. Blacha

    2011-01-01

    Discussion of the kinetics of lead removal from the Cu-Pb-Fe alloy by barbotage with argon and helium. The values of the mass penetration coefficient for the liquid and solid phase as well as the mass transfer coefficient were calculated for the temperatures of 1 473 K and 1 548 K, and for the gas flow rate of 5,55 • 10-6, 6,94 • 10-6, 8,33 • 10-6 and 9,72 • 10-6 m • s-1.

  10. Possibilities of removing lead from industrial Cu-Pb-Fe alloy with of argon barbortage

    OpenAIRE

    B. Oleksiak

    2009-01-01

    In this article results of research on removal of the lead from industrial Cu-Pb-Fe alloy by means of argon barbotage are presented. The examinations was performed on an industrial alloy from the “Glogow II” Copperworks. As a basic research equipment a pipe resistance furnace enabling heating of a sample up to 1773 K temperature was used. All researches were conducted at 1473 K, 1523 K, 1573 K temperature and with gas flow 5,55×10-6, 6,94×10-6, 8,33×10-6, 9,72×10-6 m3/s.

  11. Removal of lead from the industrial and synthetic Cu-Pb-Fe alloy with argon barbotage

    OpenAIRE

    B. Oleksiak; G. Siwiec

    2012-01-01

    Results of research on removal of lead from synthetic and industrial Cu-Pb-Fe alloy with argon barbotage are presented. For examinations was taken a synthetic alloy and industrial alloy coming “Glogow II” Copperworks. As basic research equipment was used a pipe resistance furnace enabling heating of samples up to 1 473 K. Examinations were made in 2 test series. The 1 series was performed on the synthetic alloy, while in 2 series was used an industrial alloy. All series were conducted at 1 47...

  12. Kinetics of lead removal from the Cu-Pb-Fe alloy by barbotage with inert gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Oleksiak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Discussion of the kinetics of lead removal from the Cu-Pb-Fe alloy by barbotage with argon and helium. The values of the mass penetration coefficient for the liquid and solid phase as well as the mass transfer coefficient were calculated for the temperatures of 1 473 K and 1 548 K, and for the gas flow rate of 5,55 • 10-6, 6,94 • 10-6, 8,33 • 10-6 and 9,72 • 10-6 m • s-1.

  13. The Role of Saturated Hydrocarbon in Enrichment of Cu, Pb, Znin Kupferschiefer, Southwestern Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to clarify the role of organic matter in the enrichment of base metal, 10 samples of the PermianKupferschiefer from southwestern Poland were analyzed by using microscopic and geochemical methods. The re-suts indicate that the solvent extracts have been depleted in the samples with high Cu, Pb, Zn contents. This de-pletion occurred preferably in saturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons served as hydrogen donor for ther-mochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). The GC traces of saturated hydrocarbon show that the depletion occurredmainly in long-chain n-alkanes.

  14. Comparative studies on Pb and Cd levels in parasites of terrestrial and aquatic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sures, B.; Taraschewski, H. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Zoologisches Institut-Okologie

    1995-12-31

    Several fish parasites (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Nematoda) and organs of their respective intermediate and final hosts were analyzed for heavy metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). Pb and Cd were also quantified in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica as well as in different organs of the large intestinal roundworm Ascaris suum. The levels of these heavy metals in the parasites were compared to those of muscle, liver, kidney and intestine of the respective definitive hosts cattle and swine obtained from a slaughter house. Most parasites accumulated significantly higher levels of metals than their final hosts. This was most conspicuous in acanthocephalans which contained up to 3 {times} 10{sup 3} fold more lead than the muscle of their fish hosts and up to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 4} more lead than the water surrounding the fish. In these helminths cadmium was enriched up to 400 fold compared to the muscle of the fish and up to 2.7 {times} 10{sup 4} compared to the water. In contrast to the accumulation capacity of adult acanthocephalans their larvae contained about 30 to 180 times less Pb and Cd. Thus, the predominant accumulation of both metals appears in the adult worms. The cestodes of fish and the liver flukes of cattle accumulated the metals up to 200 fold compared to the muscle of their hosts. The nematodes did not contain higher levels of the metals than their hosts. Thus, parasites, especially acanthocephalans, seem to be sensitive bioindicators of Pb and Cd in their environments.

  15. Elevated CO2 affects secondary metabolites in Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings in Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, Yonghua; Liu, Tuo; Huang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    Secondary metabolites play important roles in plant interactions with the environment. The co-occurrence of heavy metal contamination of soils and rising atmospheric CO2 has important effects on plant. It is important to explore the ways in which production of plant secondary metabolites is affected by heavy metals under elevated atmospheric CO2. We examined the effects of elevated CO2 on secondary metabolite contents in Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings grown in Cd- and lead (Pb)-contaminated soils. The increase in secondary metabolites was greater under Cd + Pb exposure than under exposure to individual metals regardless of elevated CO2 with the exception of condensed tannins in leaves and total alkaloids in stems. Except for phenolic compounds and condensed tannins, elevated CO2 was associated with increased secondary metabolite contents in leaves and stems of plants exposed to Cd, Pb, and Cd + Pb compared to plants exposed to ambient CO2 + metals. Changes in saponins in leaves and alkaloids in stems were greater than changes in the other secondary metabolites. Significant interactive effects of CO2, Cd, and Pb on secondary metabolites were observed. Saponins in leaves and alkaloids in stems were more sensitive than other secondary metabolites to elevated CO2 + Cd + Pb. Elevated CO2 could modulate plant protection and defense mechanisms in R. pseudoacacia seedlings exposed to heavy metals by altering the production of secondary metabolites. The increased Cd and Pb uptake under elevated CO2 suggested that R. pseudoacacia may be used in the phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils under global environmental scenarios. PMID:27376859

  16. Elevated CO2 affects secondary metabolites in Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings in Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, Yonghua; Liu, Tuo; Huang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    Secondary metabolites play important roles in plant interactions with the environment. The co-occurrence of heavy metal contamination of soils and rising atmospheric CO2 has important effects on plant. It is important to explore the ways in which production of plant secondary metabolites is affected by heavy metals under elevated atmospheric CO2. We examined the effects of elevated CO2 on secondary metabolite contents in Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings grown in Cd- and lead (Pb)-contaminated soils. The increase in secondary metabolites was greater under Cd + Pb exposure than under exposure to individual metals regardless of elevated CO2 with the exception of condensed tannins in leaves and total alkaloids in stems. Except for phenolic compounds and condensed tannins, elevated CO2 was associated with increased secondary metabolite contents in leaves and stems of plants exposed to Cd, Pb, and Cd + Pb compared to plants exposed to ambient CO2 + metals. Changes in saponins in leaves and alkaloids in stems were greater than changes in the other secondary metabolites. Significant interactive effects of CO2, Cd, and Pb on secondary metabolites were observed. Saponins in leaves and alkaloids in stems were more sensitive than other secondary metabolites to elevated CO2 + Cd + Pb. Elevated CO2 could modulate plant protection and defense mechanisms in R. pseudoacacia seedlings exposed to heavy metals by altering the production of secondary metabolites. The increased Cd and Pb uptake under elevated CO2 suggested that R. pseudoacacia may be used in the phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils under global environmental scenarios.

  17. Effect of Grain Position within a Panicle and Variety on As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb Concentrations in japonica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Two japonica rice varieties, a compact panicle (CP) Xiushui 63 and a loose panicle (LP) Xiushui 11 were grown in a slightly contaminated paddy field, to determine the effect of grain positions within a panicle and variety on grain As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb concentrations. There wasa significant difference in grain As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb concentrations among grain positions, and the extent of the difference was variety- and metal-specific; Xiushui 63 showed greater difference than Xiushui 11, and As, Cd, Cr and Pb being greater than Ni. The top grains (TG) of a panicle had higher As, Cd and Ni concentrations than the middle ones (MG), and the bottom ones (BG) contained the lowest. With regard to Cr and Pb, the case was opposite. Significantly positive correlations were found between grain weight and As, Cd, Ni concentrations, but there was a negative correlation between grain weight and Cr, and Pb concentrations. There was a remarkable variation in grain filling pattern among grains within a panicle, and between Xiushui 63 and Xiushui 11. In comparison with MG and TG, BG had the lowest grain filling rate and grain weight, leading to obvious difference in grain weight among grains within a panicle, and a greater difference for Xiushui 63 than for Xiushui 11. The regression analysis showed that grain As and Cd concentrations were positively correlated with the maximum grain filling rate (GRm),while negatively correlated with the required time for reaching the maximum grain filling rate (Tpoi). Concerning Cr and Pb, the case was just reverse. It is suggested that As and Cd accumulation in grains might be accompanied by the carbohydrate accumulations, while Cr and Pb accumulation displayed a different pattern.

  18. Levels Of Heavy Metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, And Cr) In Tissues Of Trachurus Trachurus

    OpenAIRE

    Enkeleda Ozuni; Luljeta Dhaskali; Jetmira Abeshi; Doriana Beqiraj

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out to monitor the concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome in different tissues of Trachurus trachurus (Horse mackerel). The concentration level of heavy metals was measured by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Concentrations of heavy metals in muscle tissue and liver of this animal ranged as follows: Hg 0.032-0.106; Cd nd-0.067 mg/kg wet weight; Pb and Cr resulted always below the detection level (nd) in all tissue samples. According to t...

  19. Electrochemical method for improving the spectral response of CdS/Cu 2S heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Camarero, E.; Arjona, F.; Fatas, E.

    The effect on the stoichiometry of a copper sulphide electrode of short-circuiting the Cu/Cu aq2+/Cu 2-δS/In galvanic cell for different times has been studied. This treatment has been carried out on the copper sulphide layer of CdS/Cu 2S solar cells prepared by different methods. The resulting changes of the spectral short circuit current and the I-V characteristics of the cells have been recorded. Remarkable increases in open circuit voltage, short circuit current, and fill factor have been observed as a consequence of any transformation that increases the proportion of copper in the copper sulphide films. Thus, this treatment could be a suitable method of improving the efficiency of CdS/Cu 2S solar cells.

  20. Physical Property Characterization of Pb2+-Doped CdS Nanofilms Deposited by Chemical-Bath Deposition at Low Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Reyes, J.; Contreras-Rascón, J. I.; Galván-Arellano, M.; Arias-Cerón, J. S.; Gutiérrez-Arias, J. E. M.; Flores-Mena, J. E.; Morín-Castillo, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    Pb2 +-doped CdS nanofilms are prepared using the growth technique chemical bath deposition (CBD) under optimum conditions lead acetate at the reservoir temperature of 20 ± 2 °C. The Pb2+ molar concentration was in the range 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.19.67, which was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The X-ray diffraction results show that the films are of PbS-CdS composites with individual CdS and PbS planes. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Raman scattering reveal that CdS-deposited films showed the zincblende (ZB) crystalline phase. The average grain size of the CdS films ranged from 1.21 to 6.67 nm that was determined by the Debye-Scherrer equation from ZB (111) direction, and it was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Raman scattering shows that the lattice dynamics is characteristic of bimodal behaviour and the multipeaks adjust of the first optical longitudinal mode for the Pb2+-doped CdS denotes the Raman shift of the characteristic peak in the range of 305-298 cm-1 of the CdS crystals, which is associated with the lead ion incorporation. The films exhibit three direct bandgaps, ~2.44 eV attributed to CdS; the other varies continuously from 1.67 to 1.99 eV and another disappears as Pb2+ molar fraction increases.

  1. Fabrication of CdS/CdTe solar cells with transparent p-type conductive BaCuSeF back contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Koichi; Sakakima, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Yohei; Hosono, Aikyo; Okamoto, Tamotsu; Wada, Takahiro

    2015-08-01

    BaCuSeF films were applied to CdS/CdTe solar cells as back electrodes. The interfaces between the CdTe and BaCuSeF layers in the CdS/CdTe solar cells with BaCuSeF back contact deposited at substrate temperatures (TS) of 200 and 300 °C were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). We clearly observed many dislocations in the CdTe layer in the CdS/CdTe solar cell with the BaCuSeF layer deposited at TS = 300 °C. We also observed a reaction layer of Cu2.72Te2 between the BaCuSeF and CdTe layers in both solar cells. We concluded that (1) the substrate temperature for the pulsed laser deposition of the BaCuSeF layer and (2) the interface between the CdTe and BaCuSeF layers are important factors for the performance of the CdTe solar cells. We obtained high conversion efficiency of 8.31% for a solar cell with a BaCuSeF layer deposited at TS = 200 °C on a CdTe surface etched in a NH3 aqueous solution. The highest conversion efficiency of 9.91% was obtained for a solar cell with a CdTe surface etched in a bromide-bromate solution.

  2. Simultaneous analysis of Cu and Pb as ABEDTA complexes in Rhizoma coptidis by capillary electrophoresis coupled with solid phase extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan YunMeng; Ying Qin Wei; Heng Lu; Xin Xin Liu; Jin Xin Liu

    2012-01-01

    A novel capillary electrophoresis method for simultaneous determination of Cu and Pb has been developed in this paper.Cu(Ⅱ)and Pb(Ⅱ) ions were reacted with ABEDTA to form complex to achieve an ideal sensitivity of heavy metal complexes.The digestion solution of Rhizoma coptidis drug sample was purified by neutral Al2O3 column chromatography and the chromatographic behavior of metal-L complexes was investigated.The calibration curve was linear in the range of 5-60 μg/mL for Cu2+ and 5-25 μg/mL for Pb2+ with the correlation coefficients 0.9970 and 0.9972 for each (n =5).The average recoveries were 86.2% for Pb and 90.1% for Cu,while the relative standard deviations were 5.1% and 3.6% respectively.The method was successfully applied to determine Cu and Pb in R.coptidis drug samples.

  3. Modeling Cu Migration in CdTe Solar Cells Under Device-Processing and Long-Term Stability Conditions: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeter, G.; Asher, S.

    2008-05-01

    An impurity migration model for systems with material interfaces is applied to Cu migration in CdTe solar cells. In the model, diffusion fluxes are calculated from the Cu chemical potential gradient. Inputs to the model include Cu diffusivities, solubilities, and segregation enthalpies in CdTe, CdS and contact materials. The model yields transient and equilibrium Cu distributions in CdTe devices during device processing and under field-deployed conditions. Preliminary results for Cu migration in CdTe photovoltaic devices using available diffusivity and solubility data from the literature show that Cu segregates in the CdS, a phenomenon that is commonly observed in devices after back-contact processing and/or stress conditions.

  4. Pathways toward higher performance CdS/CdTe devices: Te exposure of CdTe surface before ZnTe:Cu/Ti contacting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many studies of thin-film CdS/CdTe photovoltaic devices have suggested that performance may be improved by reducing recombination due to Te-vacancy (VTe), Te antisite (TeCd), or Te-interstitial (Tei) defects. Although formation of these intrinsic defects is likely influenced by CdTe deposition parameters, it may be also coupled to the formation of beneficial cadmium vacancy (VCd) defects. In this study, we expose the CdTe surface to Te vapor prior to ZnTe:Cu/Ti contact-interface formation with the goal of reducing VTe without significantly reducing VCd. Initial results show that when this modified contact is used on a CdCl2-treated CdS/CdTe device, poorer device performance results. This suggests two things: First, the amount of free-Te available during contact formation (either from chemical etching or CuxTe or ZnTe deposition) may be a more important parameter to device performance than previously appreciated. Second, if processes have been used to reduce the effect of VTe (e.g., oxygen and chlorine additions), adding even a small amount of Te may produce detrimental defects. - Highlights: ► Te exposure of CdS/CdTe back contact reduces device performance. ► Field strength and minority carrier lifetime reduced. ► Calculations suggest formation of Te on Cd antisite defect

  5. Au/Cu2Te/CdTe/CdS/TCO/Glass Solar Cells with CdIn2O4 Obtained by Sol-Gel as TCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Márquez Marín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An Au/Cu2Te/CdTe/CdS/TCO/glass heterostructure based superstrate solar cells with 2.5 mm2 of area, where the CdTe layer was prepared by means of closed spaced sublimation (CSS and the CdS by chemical bath, reached an efficiency η value of 12.1%. As transparent conductive oxide (TCO, a thin film of cadmium-indium oxide (CdIn2O4:CIO, obtained by sol-gel technique, was used. A systematic optimization of the thermal activation of the CdTe/CdS/CIO central part of the device with a CdCl2 vapor ambient made the conversion efficiency of the Au/Cu2Te/CdTe/CdS/CIO/glass heterostructure reaches 9.94% for the CdTe layer with thickness of 1.8 μm. This efficiency was reached only through an open circuit voltage VOC optimization. A maximum η of 12.1% was reached with the established procedure of optimization and when the CdTe layer thickness was increased to 3.1 ± 0.05 μm. The substitution of CIO by commercial ITO provoked in the cell a decrease of η from 12.1% to 7.2%, both devices prepared under the same conditions. Starting from these results, we can say that CIO was a better TCO than commercial ITO in our solar cell, with the advantage that CIO was obtained by sol-gel, which is a simple and economical technique.

  6. Effect of Ag additions on shock wave degradation of superconductivity in Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O and Y-Ba-Cu-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While it has been successfully demonstrated that Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O and YBa2Cu3Ox powders as well as mixtures of these powders along with silver and copper can be shock fabricated in metal or alloy matrices, it has been found that their superconducting properties are degraded by the shock wave. In shock fabricating Bi7Pb3Sr10Ca10Cu15Ox, it has been observed that at peak shock pressures of 4 GPa and above, the as-shocked material behaves as a semiconductor and there is no transition or superconducting onset in the resistance-temperature (R-T) signature. A transition was recently seen for the first time in Bi7Pb3Sr10Ca10Cu15Ox with plane wave shock loading at 1.5 GPa peak shock pressure. However, even at such a low peak pressure, the R-T signature showed signs of residual degradation: the normal state resistivity was semiconducting and it showed a two phase transition with a Tc(R=O) of about 77 K. The R-T signatures of these degraded samples could, however, be completely recovered on proper heat treatment (typically around 860 degrees C in flowing air for 90 hours). The results of the effect of the shock wave on Bi7Pb3Sr10Ca10Ci15Ox and YBa2Cu3Ox at different Ag doping levels is presented in this paper

  7. Impact of water pollution by Hg, Cd and Pb on nutritional status of children in the North West of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we describe and elucidate nutritional problems of the Gharb population of Morocco especially children relating to the environmental pollution. Indeed, the north west region of Morocco represent a zone where meet all sewages charged of heavy metals and other pollutants coming from different industries and human activities as well (agricultural, textiles, tanneries, paper-mills). We have chosen randomly about 400 children from 4 districts near downstream the Sebou river. Regarding the nutritional situation of the Gharb population, our survey indicated that stunting (27.9%), anaemia (28.7%), and weight deficiency (12.5%) are the most known nutritional problems. The main causes of these nutritional problems are poor nutritional intake as well as poor socio-economic situation. Otherwise, the objective of our study is to establish a relationship between these nutritional disorders and environmental pollution. This relationship deserves to be solved especially in this region. In this fact, we have studied the interaction between nutrition (micronutrients heavy metals: Fe, Zn, Cu) and toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Pb in blood and urine of children living in Gharb region of Morocco. A rapid and simple analytical procedure was used for the determination of Fe, Cu and Zn trace amounts in blood by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence technique. The accuracy of measurements has been investigated by using certified materials. Samples of blood and urines containing less than 50 ppb of heavy metals have been examined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentration of Cu in blood was found to be normal in all samples (at 1 ppm) which ruled out any interaction between this element and the others. On the other hand, amounts of Fe and Zn are very variables, suggesting an interaction between Fe and Zn. On the other hand, statistical treatment of data suggests that concentration of lead becomes important and interaction between this metal and iron can lead to

  8. Prosopis juliflora--a green solution to decontaminate heavy metal (Cu and Cd) contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, P; Prince, W S P M; Sivakumar, S; Subbhuraam, C V

    2005-09-01

    Soil and plant samples (root and shoot) of Prosopis juliflora were collected in the vicinity of metal based foundry units in Coimbatore and assessed for their heavy metal content (Cu and Cd) to ascertain the use of P. juliflora as a green solution to decontaminate soils contaminated with Cu and Cd. The results showed that Cu and Cd content was much higher in plant components compared to their extractable level in the soil. Furthermore, there exist a strong correlation between the distance of the sources of industrial units and accumulation of heavy metals in plants. Accumulation of Cd in roots is comparatively higher than that of shoots. However, in case of Cu no such clear trend is seen. Considering the accumulation efficiency and tolerance of P. juliflora to Cd and Cu, this plant can be explored further for the decontamination of metal polluted soils. On the other hand, in view of heavy metal accumulate the practice of providing foliage and pods as fodder for live stock should be avoided.

  9. All Screen-Printed CdS/CuInSe2 Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhaimi, S. A. AL; Bahammam, S.

    1990-08-01

    Thick film technology offers advantages of low cost, product amenability and automation. This technology has been successful in the manufacture of solar cells using CdS/CdTe heterojunctions. It enables the use of the same equipment in various processes involved in manufacturing solar cells. In the present work, n-CdS/p-CuInSe2 solar cells are prepared by screen printing and sintering pastes which contain the semiconductors. An efficiency of 8.75% is achieved. Electron affinity difference, saturation current and diode quality factor are measured. They are 0.49 eV, (0.9--1.8)× 10-7 A, 1.5 respectively. Microstructure and electrical properties of sintered CdS films containing 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt% CdCl2 are investigated. Optimum results are obtained for the CdS films containing 10 wt% CdCl2.

  10. Energy Parameters of Interfacial Layers in Composite Systems: Graphene – (Si, Cu, Fe, Co, Au, Ag, Al, Ru, Hf, Pb and Semiconductor (Si,Ge – (Fe, Co, Cu, Al, Au, Cr, W, Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Koman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the non-equilibrium thermodynamics relations and the surface physics phenomena we calculate adhesion and energy parameters to characterize the interfacial interactions in graphene – (Si, Cu, Fe, Co, Au, Ag, Al, Ru, Hf, Pb and semiconductor (Si, Ge – (Fe, Co, Cu, Al, Au, Cr, W, Pb systems. We analyze trends of the interfacial energy, interfacial tension, work of adhesion and the energy of adhesive bonds on the contacting element’s atomic number in the periodic table and on the electronegativity difference of interacting elements. Thus, this work provides theoretical basis for the development of new composite materials.

  11. Pollution of montane soil with Cu, Zn, As, Sb, Pb, and nitrate in Kanto, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Takejiro; Watanabe, Mirai; Koshikawa, Masami K; Murata, Tomoyoshi; Yamamura, Shigeki; Hayashi, Seiji

    2010-03-15

    Soil cores and rainwater were sampled under canopies of Cryptomeria japonica in four montane areas along an atmospheric depositional gradient in Kanto, Japan. Soil cores (30cm in depth) were divided into 2-cm or 4-cm segments for analysis. Vertical distributions of elemental enrichment ratios in soils were calculated as follows: (X/Al)(i)/(X/Al)(BG) (where the numerator and denominator are concentration ratios of element-X and Al in the i- and bottom segments of soil cores, respectively). The upper 14-cm soil layer showed higher levels of Cu, Zn, As, Sb, and Pb than the lower (14-30cm) soil layer. In the four areas, the average enrichment ratios in the upper 6-cm soil layer were as follows: Pb (4.93)>or=Sb (4.06)>or=As (3.04)>Zn (1.71)>or=Cu (1.56). Exogenous elements (kg/ha) accumulated in the upper 14-cm soil layer were as follows: Zn (26.0)>Pb (12.4)>Cu (4.48)>or=As (3.43)>or=Sb (0.49). These rank orders were consistent with those of elements in anthropogenic aerosols and polluted (roadside) air, respectively, indicating that air pollutants probably caused enrichment of these elements in the soil surface layer. Approximately half of the total concentrations of As, Sb, and Pb in the upper 14-cm soil layer were derived from exogenous (anthropogenic) sources. Sb showed the highest enrichment factor in anthropogenic aerosols, and shows similar deposition behavior to NO(3)(-), which is a typical acidic air pollutant. There was a strong correlation between Sb and NO(3)(-) concentrations in rainfall (e.g., in the throughfall under C. japonica: [NO(3)(-)]=21.1 [dissolved Sb], r=0.938, psoils, i.e., 16.7t/ha at Mt. Kinsyo (most polluted), 8.6t/ha at Mt. Tsukuba (moderately polluted), and 5.8t/ha at the Taga mountain system (least polluted). There are no visible ecological effects of these accumulated elements in the Kanto region at present. However, the concentrations of some elements are within a harmful range, according to the Ecological Soil Screening Levels

  12. Polyhydroxyl-aluminum pillaring improved adsorption capacities of Pb2+ and Cd2+ onto diatomite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱健; 王平; 雷明婧; 张伟丽

    2014-01-01

    In order to greatly improve adsorption capacity, the diatomite was pillared by polyhydroxyl-aluminum.A series of adsorption tests were conducted to obtain the optimum condition for pillared diatomite synthesis. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), surface area and porosity analyzer and micro-electrophoresis were used to determine pore structure and surface property.The pillared diatomite attaining the optimal adsorption densities (qe) of Pb2+ and Cd2+ was synthesized with the following conditions: Addition of pillaring solution containing Al3+-oligomers with a concentration range of 0.1-0.2 mol/L to a suspension containing Na+-diatomite to obtain the required Al/diatomite ratio of 10 mmol/g; synthesis temperature of 80 °C for 120 min; aging at a temperature of 105 °C for 16 h. The adsorption capacities of Pb2+ and Cd2+ on pillared diatomite increase by 23.79% and 27.36% compared with natural diatomite, respectively. The surface property of pillared diatomite is more favorable for ion adsorption than natural diatomite. The result suggests that diatomite can be modified by pillaring with polyhydroxyl-aluminum to improve its adsorption properties greatly.

  13. Subcellular localization of several heavy metals of Hg,Cd and Pb in human liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chunying; ZHANG Peiqun; CHAI Zhifang

    2005-01-01

    Liver, as an important metabolic and detoxicological organ of human body, can be used as a good bioindicator for evaluating body burden of environmental pollutants. Its elemental contents and their chemical forms are closely related to the status of human health and disease. In this paper, the liver samples collected from normal subjects were separated to different subcellular fractions of nuclei, mitochondria, lysosome, microsome and cytosol by differential centrifugation. Then their concentrations of heavy metals of As, Pb, Cd, and Hg were determined by atomic absorption and atomic fluorescent spectroscopy. Our results show no significant difference with literature ones when comparing their gross concentrations. In the case of their subcellular distribution, the Hg concentrations are higher in mitochondrial, microsomal and cytosolic fractions; the Cd concentrations are higher in cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions, while As highest in nuclear fraction. The highest concentration of Pb is found in microsomal fraction with similarity to Fe. Mercury in liver is mainly in the form of inorganic, and methylmercury ranged from 9% to 50% with the average value of 20.9%(13.3%. These results indicate that the cellular distribution and the accumulated target organelles are quite different among these heavy metals, which suggest their various pathways and toxic mechanism in vivo.

  14. Monte Carlo simulations of morphological transitions in PbTe/CdTe immiscible material systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mińkowski, Marcin; Załuska-Kotur, Magdalena A.; Turski, Łukasz A.; Karczewski, Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    The crystal growth of the immiscible PbTe/CdTe multilayer system is analyzed as an example of a self-organizing process. The immiscibility of the constituents leads to the observed morphological transformations such as an anisotropy driven formation of quantum dots and nanowires and to a phase separation at the highest temperatures. The proposed model accomplishes a bulk and surface diffusion together with an anisotropic mobility of the material components. We analyze its properties by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and show that it is able to reproduce all of the structures observed experimentally during the process of the PbTe/CdTe growth. We show that all of the dynamical processes studied play an important role in the creation of zero-, one-, two-, and, finally, three-dimensional structures. The shape of the structures that are grown is different for relatively thick multilayers, when the bulk diffusion cooperates with the anisotropic mobility, as compared to the annealed structures for which only the isotropic bulk diffusion decides about the process. Finally, it is different again for thin multilayers when the surface diffusion is the most decisive factor. We compare our results with the experimentally grown systems and show that the proposed model explains the diversity of observed structures.

  15. Unmixing of 137Cs, Pb, Zn, and Cd records in lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inverse Berger-Health model to unmix sedimentary records of particle-associated tracers, originally used for 18O records of particle-associated tracers, originally used for 18O records in deep-sea sediments, is extended to include radioactive materials, environmental pollutants, compaction of sediments, and error analysis. The method is applied to the fallout tracer 137Cs, and to Pb, Zn, and Cd in sediment cores from Lake Michigan. The reconstructued 137Cs input records from northern Lake Michigan. The reconstructed 137Cs input records from northern Lake Michigan are in good agreement with 137Cs fallout data. The unmixed influx records of Pb, Zn, and Cd show excellent agreement with input records reconstructed previously by a frequency domain method, thus supporting the validity of the approach. Assuming that tracer concentrations as well as sedimentation and mixing parameters are known with sufficient accuracy, and that the forward model is correct, the ultimate limitation of this or any other reconstruction method lies in the finite depths of the physical sampling intervals

  16. Optical and structural properties of CdS:Pb{sup 2+} nano crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, R.; Portillo, O; Chaltel, L.; Zamora, M.; Lazcano, M.; Hernandez, G. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Materials Science Laboratory, Apdo. Postal 1067, 72001 Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Chavez, M.; Juarez, H.; Pacio, M.; Rubio, E., E-mail: osporti@yahoo.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, CIDS-ICUAP, 72001 Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this work is to study the effects of doping on structural, morphological and optical properties of CdS thin films as a function of Pb{sup 2+} concentration. Thus, nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical bath and a thickness decrease of ∼575-200 nm range was observed. In Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, all the samples showed a sharp stretching mode observed at ∼1384 cm{sup -1} corresponding to the vibration mode of CO{sub 3}{sup -2}. X-ray diffraction studies show that the size of crystallites is in the ∼33-12 nm range. The peaks belonging to primary phase are identified at the 2θ = 26.5 grades and 2θ = 26.00 grades, corresponding to CdS and Pb S respectively. Thus, a shift in maximum intensity peak from 2θ = 26.4 to 28.2 grades is observed. Likewise peaks at 2θ = 13.57, 15.91 grades correspond to lead perchlorate thiourea. The optical, absorption, and transmission properties of the films were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, optical energy gap was found to range from 2.1 to 2.4 eV. Raman spectroscopy on doped films showed a shifting of these modes that can be attributed to strain, stress effects, defects, phonon confinement, and variation in phonon relaxation with grain size. (Author)

  17. Comparison Studies of Dielectric and AC Conduction of PbPc and CuPc Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sivamalar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The thin film of Lead Phthalocyanine (PbPc and Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc on glass are prepared by Vacuum deposition method. Deposition of PbPc and CuPc on pre-cleaned glass substrates under the pressure of 10-6 Torr are achieved by slowly varying current of 20 Volt. The rate of evaporation is properly controlled and maintained constant during all the evaporations. The thicknesses of the films are 150 nm, 300 nm and 450 nm on glass substrate. Dielectric and AC conduction studies of Lead Phthalocyanine and Cupper Phthalocyanine thin films have been studied. The variations of capacitance with frequency at different, permittivity with temperature, capacitance with temperature and ac conductance with frequency at different temperatures of PbPc and CuPc have been studied. The activation energies have been determined from the slope of 1000/T vs. log Gp curves at different frequencies (where Gp= -Eg/RT.

  18. Accumulation of atmospheric deposition of As, Cd and Pb by bush bean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was exposed to atmospheric deposition of As, Cd and Pb in a polluted and a reference area. The atmospheric deposition of these elements was significantly related to the concentrations in leaves, stems and pods at green harvest. Surprisingly there was also a clear relation for As and Pb in the seeds at dry harvest, even though these seeds were covered by the husks. Root uptake of accumulated atmospheric deposits was not likely in such a short term experiment, as confirmed by the fact that soil pore water analysis did not reveal significant differences in trace element concentrations in the different exposure areas. For biomonitoring purposes, the leaves of bush bean are the most suitable, but also washed or unwashed pods can be used. This means that the obtained relationships are suitable to estimate the transfer of airborne trace elements in the food chain via bush bean. - Highlights: • Atmospheric deposition of trace elements accumulates in bean leaves, stems and pods. • Also thoroughly washed green pods are suitable for biomonitoring. • Even the non-exposed bean seeds accumulate As and Pb deposits to some extend. • A migration of trace elements from the husks to the seeds is most likely. - In a polluted area, atmospheric deposition of trace elements on the above-ground plant parts is influencing their concentration, even in the seeds

  19. Fine scale characterization of surface/subsurface and nanosized debris particles on worn Cu-10 % Pb nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Amit S.; Biswas, Krishanu, E-mail: kbiswas@iitk.ac.in; Basu, Bikramjit [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (India)

    2013-05-15

    The identification of the damage mechanisms involved in the wear process demands the finer scale characterization of the surface, as well as the subsurface region of the wear scar region, and to this end, this article discusses the results obtained with Cu-10 wt% Pb-based metallic nanocomposites using a host of characterization techniques, including transmission electron microscopy and ion milling microscopy. Apart from finer scale characterization to understand deformation and cracking during the wear process, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of wear debris confirms the occurrence of oxidation of Pb phase to Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4}. In order to understand the role of oxides on friction and wear, sliding wear tests in argon were also carried out and such tests did not result in the formation of any tribo-oxides, as confirmed using electron probe microanalysis. Conclusively, oxidative wear is attributed as the dominant wear mechanism in ambient conditions for Cu-10 wt% Pb composite.

  20. Phase field simulation of monotectic transformation for liquid Ni-Cu-Pb alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO BingChi; WANG HaiPeng; WEI BingBo

    2009-01-01

    Based on the subregular solution model, the liquid phase separation of ternary (NixCu100-x)50Pb50monotectic alloys is simulated by the phase field method. It is found that if the surface segregation potential is not incorporated, the dynamic morphologies of alloy melt show a transition from disperse microstructure into bicontinuous microstructure with the increase of fluidity parameter. When the sur-face segregation potential is coupled, Pb-rich phase migrates preferentially to the surface of the liquid alloy, and the Ni-rich phase depends on the Pb-rich phase to nucleate. With the extension of the phase separation time, the surface layer is formed through coagulation and growth, and its thickness gradu-ally increases. The Ni-rich phase migrates to the central part, and finally a two-layer core-shell micro-structure is produced. The concentration in the surface layer fluctuates more conspicuously than that inside the bulk phase, which subsequently transfers from the surface to the interior by a wave. The fluid field near the liquid-liquid interface is strong at the beginning of phase separation, and reduces later on. The surface segregation is essential to the formation of the surface layer, concentration profile variation, fluid field distribution and phase separation morphology.

  1. Cu-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of a small watershed (Loire river basin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaulty, A. M.; Millot, R.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.

    2015-12-01

    Combating metal pollution in surface water is a major environmental, public health and economic issue. Knowledge of the behavior of metals, such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in sediments and dissolved load, is a key factor to improve the management of rivers. Recent advances in mass spectrometry related to the development of MC-ICPMS allow to analyze the isotopic composition of these elements, and previous studies show the effectiveness of isotopic analyses to determine the anthropogenic sources of pollution in environment. The goal of this study is to use the Cu-Zn-Pb multi-isotopic signature to track the pollutions in surface water, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in environment. More particularly we investigate the mechanisms of distribution between the dissolved load and particulate load, known to play an important role in the transport of metals through river systems. As case study, we chose a small watershed, poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is in a pristine area, while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. First a sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Then to simulate a lot of potential natural and anthropogenic modifications of environmental conditions, we made sequential extraction protocol using various reagents on the sediments. Isotopic analyzes were performed also on the various extracting solutions. Isotopic ratios were measured using a Neptune MC-ICPMS at the BRGM, after a protocol of purification for Zn and Cu. The results showed that, these isotopic systematics reveal important informations about the mechanists of mobilization and transport of metals through river systems. However experiments performed under laboratory conditions will be necessary

  2. 用双硫腙分光光度法同时测定Zn2+、Cd2+和Pb2+%Simultaneous Determination of Zn2+,Cd2+and Pb2+ by Dithizone Spectrophotometric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓红; 李广超

    2001-01-01

    The principle of CPA method for multiple components determination is introduced and applied to simultaneously determining Zn2+,Cd2+ and Pb2+ in mixed solution with dithizone spectrophotometric mehtod.A satisfied result is obtained.%介绍CPA法测定多种组分的原理,并应用该原理,对用双硫腙分光光度法同时测定混合样品中Zn2+、Cd2+和Pb2+的质量浓度进行了研究,取得了较为有意义的结果.

  3. 两种改性膨润土对Cd2+和Pb2+吸附性能的比较%The Comparison of Sorptive Capacity for Two Modified Bentonite in Removal of Cd2+ and Pb2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫晓余; 黄珂; 程培夏; 肖玉; 卢淼; 刘文英; 葛飞

    2012-01-01

    The bentonite was modified by microwave activation and high-temperature calcination and its adsorption of Cd2+ and Pb2+ was investigated. The experimental results show that when microwave time was 7 min, the added amount of bentonite was 20 g/L, pH of solution was 8, and the adsorption time was 40 minutes, the removal efficiency of Cd2+ and Pb2+ by bentonite modified with microwave activation was 99. 24% and 95. 29%. When the other conditions remain unchanged, calcination temperature was 450℃ , pH of the solution was 9, the removal efficiency of Cd2+ and Pb2+ by bentonite modified with high-temperature calcination can reach 99. 84% and 99. 93%. Furthermore, the cost of exhausted-energy in preparing the modified bentonite with microwave activation and high-temperature calcination was 0. 1 and 8. 8 RMB/kg modified bentonite. Considering the comprehensive economic cost, bentonite modified with microwave activation has more application prospects for treatment of heavy metal waste water including Cd2+ and Pb2+.%采用微波活化和高温焙烧两种方法对膨润土进行改性,比较两种改性膨润土对重金属Cd2+和Pb2+的吸附性能.实验结果表明:加入经微波活化7 min的改性膨润土20 g/L,当溶液pH为8,吸附时间为40 min时,Cd2+和Pb2+的去除率分别达到95.29%和99.24%;加入经450℃焙烧40min的改性膨润土20 g/L,当溶液pH为9,吸附时间为40min时,Cd2+和Pb2+的去除率分别可达99.84%和99.93%;微波活化改性和高温焙烧改性膨润土的能耗成本分别约为0.1和8.8元/kg土,综合经济成本考虑,微波活化改性膨润土处理舍Cd2+和Pb2+的重金属废水更具应用前景.

  4. Thermoelectric transport properties of PbTe-based composites incorporated with Cu2Se nano-inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoelectric transport properties of Lead telluride (PbTe)-based composites incorporated with Cuprous selenide (Cu2Se) nano-inclusions were investigated from 300 K to 800 K. Here, except for the transition from p-type to n-type conduction that occurs in pristine PbTe at ∼530 K due to the difference of mobility between thermally electron and hole at high temperature, another transition from p-type to n-type conduction at 300 K with an increasing proportion of Cu2Se could be due to the donor levels introduced by defects and unsaturated bonds at the interfaces. Moreover, by incorporating a small proportion (5 vol.%) of Cu2Se nanoparticles into the PbTe matrix to form nano-composites, both a reduction (∼55%) in lattice thermal conductivity and an enhanced electrical conductivity compared with that of pristine PbTe are obtained, which allows the thermoelectric power factor to reach a larger value (∼11.2 μW cm−1 K−2). Consequently, a maximum value ZT  =  0.91 is obtained at 760 K in the PbTe-5 vol.% Cu2Se sample. (paper)

  5. Interakcija modifikacijske zlitine AlTi5B1 s talino zlitine AlCu6PbBi:

    OpenAIRE

    Križman, Alojz; Spaić, Savo; Zupanič, Franc

    1996-01-01

    The course of melting and dissolution of the AlTi5B1 grain-refining alloy in the melt of AlCu6PbBi alloy has been investigated. The kind of possible nucleating agents has also been determined. The melting and the dissolution process begin preferentially in the regions of good contact between AlTi5B1 and AlCu6PbBi as well as in the regions where low-melting microstructural constituents are prsent in the grain refining alloy. During the dissolution titanium and boron are difusing from the grain...

  6. Role of polycrystallinity in CdTe and CuInSe sub 2 photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sites, J.R. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The polycrystalline nature of thin-film CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells continues to be a major factor in several individual losses that limit overall cell efficiency. This report describes progress in the quantitative separation of these losses, including both measurement and analysis procedures. It also applies these techniques to several individual cells to help document the overall progress with CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} cells. Notably, CdTe cells from Photon Energy have reduced window photocurrent losses to 1 mA/Cm{sup 2}; those from the University of South Florida have achieved a maximum power voltage of 693 mV; and CuInSe{sub 2} cells from International Solar Electric Technology have shown a hole density as high as 7 {times} 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3}, implying a significant reduction in compensation. 9 refs.

  7. Geopolymers for immobilization of Cr(6+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Provis, John L; Feng, Dingwu; van Deventer, Jannie S J

    2008-09-15

    Alkali activation of fly ash by sodium silicate solutions, forming geopolymeric binders, provides a potential means of treating wastes containing heavy metals. Here, the effects on geopolymer structure of contamination of geopolymers by Cr(VI), Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the forms of various nitrate and chromate salts are investigated. The addition of soluble salts results in a high extent of dispersal of contaminant ions throughout the geopolymer matrix, however very little change in geopolymer structure is observed when these materials are compared to their uncontaminated counterparts. Successful immobilization of these species will rely on chemical binding either into the geopolymer gel or into other low-solubility (silicate or aluminosilicate) phases. In the case of Pb, the results of this work tentatively support a previous identification of Pb(3)SiO(5) as a potential candidate phase for hosting Pb(II) within the geopolymer structure, although the data are not entirely conclusive. The addition of relatively low levels of heavy metal salts is seen to have little effect on the compressive strength of the geopolymeric material, and in some cases actually gives an increase in strength. Sparingly soluble salts may undergo some chemical conversion due to the highly alkaline conditions prevalent during geopolymerization, and in general are trapped in the geopolymer matrix by a simple physical encapsulation mechanism. Lead is in general very effectively immobilized in geopolymers, as is cadmium in all except the most acidic leaching environments. Hexavalent chromium is problematic, whether added as a highly soluble salt or in sparingly soluble form.

  8. One pot synthesis of Pb S/Cu{sub 2}S core-shell nanoparticles and their optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, T.; Gomez, I., E-mail: maria.gomez@uanl.edu.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Laboratorio de Materiales, Pedro de Alba, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    The synthesis of Pb S/Cu{sub 2}S core-shell nanoparticles with emission on the visible range and with improved luminescence properties was carried out by the colloidal solution-phase growth method by using simple stabilizers such as trisodium citrate and 3-mercaptopropionic acid. The core shell arrangement for particles with different crystalline structure was achieved, in addition this is the first report related to the synthesis Pb S/C{sub 2}S core-shell system. The data obtained from absorption spectra, Pl spectra, and HRTEM image provided direct proof of the formation of Pb S core with size around 11 nm and Cu{sub 2}S shell of 5 nm thickness. According to the UV-vis absorption and Pl spectrum the optical characteristics observed in the synthesized material correspond to a Pb S/Cu{sub 2}S system that has a higher confinement effect than the pure Pb S nanoparticles. The Q Y was improved in 15% from Pb S/C{sub 2}S nanoparticles. The estimated band (Homo-Lumo) alignment determined by C V measurements corresponds to a type-I core shell arrangement. The synthesized material was studied with different techniques. The size and dispersion of the particles were determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), photoluminescence and quantum yield, Dynamic Light Scattering method and X-ray diffraction with copper radiation (λ = 0.15418 nm). (Author)

  9. 基于GSH-CdTe/CdS量子点的荧光变化研究hsDNA与盐酸洛美沙星-Cu(Ⅱ)配合物的相互作用%Interaction of Herring Sperm DNA with Lomefloxacin Hydrochloride-Cu(Ⅱ) Based on Changes in the Fluorescence Intensity of GSH-CdTe/CdS Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈益忠; 刘绍璞; 殷鹏飞; 何佑秋

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH)-capped CdTe/CdS quantum dots(GSH-CdTe/CdS QDs) were synthesized in aqueous solution.The particle sizes and morphological characteristics of GSH-CdTe/CdS QDs were investigated by transmission electron microscopy(TEM).The results exhibits that the particle size of as-prepared QDs has a narrow size distribution and good dispersivity.In Tris-HCl buffer medium (pH =7.6),lomefloxacin hydrochloride-Cu (Ⅱ) coordination compound(LMFH-Cu2+) was adsorbed to the surfaces of GSH-CdTe/CdS QDs through electrostatic attraction and formed ground state complex,which resulted in the quenching of the fluorescence of GSH-CdTe/CdS QDs.Adding herring sperm DNA (hsDNA) to GSH-CdTe/CdS QDs-LMFH-Cu(Ⅱ) system led to the fluorescence intensity of GSH-CdTe/CdS QDs recover,which can be explained by that the addition of hsDNA to the system induced LMFH-Cu(Ⅱ) to dissociate from the surface of GSH-CdTe/CdS QDs and embed into its double helix structure.According to the fluorescence quenching and restoration for GSH-CdTe/CdS QDs,fluorescence reversible control of GSH-CdTe/CdS QDs was realized.Compared with the interaction between GSH-CdTe/CdS QDs and LMFH,the interaction of GSH-CdTe/CdS QDs-LMFH-Cu (Ⅱ)-hsDNA was studied by fluorescence (FL),resonance Rayleigh scattering(RRS) and ultraviolet-visible absorption (UV-Vis) spectra.Meanwhile,the interaction mechanism was discussed and corresponding model of interaction was built.%采用水相法合成了谷胱甘肽(GSH)修饰的CdTe/CdS量子点(GSH-CdTe/CdS QDs).透射电子显微镜表征结果表明,GSH-CdTe/CdS QDs的粒径分布均匀,分散性好.在Tris-HCl(pH=7.6)缓冲液中,由于静电引力作用,带正电的盐酸洛美沙星(LMFH)-Cu(Ⅱ)配合物[LMFH-Cu(Ⅱ)]吸附到带负电的GSH-CdTe/CdSQDs表面形成基态复合物,导致GSH-CdTe/CdS QDs的荧光猝灭.随后,向GSH-CdTe/CdS QDs-LMFH-Ca(Ⅱ)配合物体系中加入鲱鱼精DNA(hsDNA),hsDNA可诱导LMFH-Cu(Ⅱ)配合物从GSH-CdTe/CdS QDs表面脱落而嵌

  10. Experimental determination of nonequilibrium transport parameters reflecting the competitive sorption between Cu and Pb in slag-sand column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jaeshik; Kim, Young-Jin; Lee, Gwanghun; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2016-07-01

    Competitive sorption and resulting nonequilibrium transport of Cu and Pb were investigated using slag as a primary sorbent. A series of estimation models were applied based on the equilibrium, and nonequilibrium sorption respectively, and finally calibrated by incorporating the experimentally determined batch kinetic data. When applied individually, the behavior of metals in slag-sand column were well predicted by both equilibrium and nonequilibrium models in CXTFIT code. However, coexisting Cu and Pb exhibited competition for sorption sites, generating an irregular breakthrough curves such as overshoot (higher concentration in effluent than the feed concentration) of Cu and corresponding earlier peak of Pb followed by gradual re-rising. Although two-site nonequilibrium model further considers coupled hydrochemical process, desorption of the Cu from competition made the model prediction inaccurate. However, the parameter estimation could be improved by incorporating the experimentally determined mass transfer rate, ωexp from batch kinetics. Based on the calibrated model, the fraction of instantaneous retardation, βexp of Pb decreased from 0.41 in the single system to 0.30 in the binary system, indicating the shift from equilibrium to nonequilibrium state, where which of Cu increased from 0.39 to 0.94, representing the shift towards equilibrium. The modified results were also compared with five-step sequential extraction data, confirming that the shift of particular metal fractions from the competition triggered the nonequilibrium transport. PMID:27060642

  11. Thermophysical characteristics of Pb0.679Cd0.321F2 solid-solution crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, P. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Moiseev, N. V.; Buchinskaya, I. I.; Karimov, D. N.; Sorokin, N. I.; Sulyanova, E. A.; Sobolev, B. P.; Krutov, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal conductivity (at temperatures of 50-300 K) and specific heat (at 58-307 K) of Pb0.679Cd0.321F2 solid solution crystals with a fluorite structure, as well as the specific heat of crystals of fluorite modification β-PbF2 (in a temperature range of 79-311 K), have been experimentally investigated for the first time. The temperature dependences of the phonon mean free path in these crystals are determined.

  12. Nano-structured CuO-Cu2O Complex Thin Film for Application in CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Chieh; Chen, Cheng-Chiang; Liang, Kai-Chieh; Chang, Sheng Hsiung; Tseng, Zhong-Liang; Yeh, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Chin-Ti; Wu, Wen-Ti; Wu, Chun-Guey

    2016-09-01

    Nano-structured CuO-Cu2O complex thin film-based perovskite solar cells were fabricated on an indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass and studied. Copper (Cu) thin films with a purity of 99.995 % were deposited on an ITO-coated glass by magnetron reactive sputtering. To optimize the properties of the nano-structured CuO-Cu2O complex thin films, the deposited Cu thin films were thermally oxidized at various temperatures from 300 to 400 °C. A CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite absorber was fabricated on top of CuO-Cu2O complex thin film by a one-step spin-coating process with a toluene washing treatment. Following optimization, the maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeded 8.1 %. Therefore, the low-cost, solution-processed, stable nano-structured CuO-Cu2O complex thin film can be used as an alternative hole transport layer (HTL) in industrially produced perovskite solar cells.

  13. Nano-structured CuO-Cu2O Complex Thin Film for Application in CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Chieh; Chen, Cheng-Chiang; Liang, Kai-Chieh; Chang, Sheng Hsiung; Tseng, Zhong-Liang; Yeh, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Chin-Ti; Wu, Wen-Ti; Wu, Chun-Guey

    2016-12-01

    Nano-structured CuO-Cu2O complex thin film-based perovskite solar cells were fabricated on an indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass and studied. Copper (Cu) thin films with a purity of 99.995 % were deposited on an ITO-coated glass by magnetron reactive sputtering. To optimize the properties of the nano-structured CuO-Cu2O complex thin films, the deposited Cu thin films were thermally oxidized at various temperatures from 300 to 400 °C. A CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite absorber was fabricated on top of CuO-Cu2O complex thin film by a one-step spin-coating process with a toluene washing treatment. Following optimization, the maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeded 8.1 %. Therefore, the low-cost, solution-processed, stable nano-structured CuO-Cu2O complex thin film can be used as an alternative hole transport layer (HTL) in industrially produced perovskite solar cells. PMID:27637894

  14. Effect of copper valence on the glass structure and crystallization behavior of Bi-Pb-Cu-O glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi0.43Pb0.35Cu0.22Oy glasses with different Cu+ contents were prepared by melting at different temperatures. The glass structure consists of [BiO3[ and [BiO6[ units and the ratio of [BiO3[/[BiO6[ increases with increasing Cu+ content. The glass transition temperature, the first crystallization temperature peak, and the thermal stability of the glasses decreases with increasing Cu+ content. The value of the activation energy, Ea, varies as a function of the Cu+ content. The crystallization mechanism in the glasses is closely related to the glass structure, which is mainly affected by the Cu+ content. (orig.)

  15. Pb, Cu, and Zn distributions at humic acid-coated metal-oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingge; Michel, F. Marc; Choi, Yongseong; Eng, Peter J.; Levard, Clement; Siebner, Hagar; Gu, Baohua; Bargar, John R.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2016-09-01

    Mineral surfaces are often coated by natural organic matter (NOM), which has a major influence on metal-ion sorption and sequestration because of the abundance of binding sites in such coatings and the changes they cause in local nanoscale environments. The effects of NOM coatings on mineral surfaces are, however, still poorly understood at the molecular level due to the complexity of these systems. In this study, we have applied long-period X-ray standing wave-fluorescence yield (LP-XSW-FY) spectroscopy to measure the partitioning of naturally present Cu(II) (0.0226%), Zn(II) (0.009%), and Pb(II) (∼0.0004%) between Elliott Soil Humic Acid (ESHA) coatings and three model single-crystal metal-oxide substrates: α-Al2O3 (0 0 0 1), α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2), and α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1). The competitive sorption effects among these metal ions for binding sites in the ESHA coatings and on the metal-oxide surfaces were investigated as a function of reaction time, calcium content, and solution pH. Pb(II) ions present in the ESHA coatings were found to redistribute to reactive α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) and α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1) surfaces after 3 h of reaction (pH = 6.0, [Ca(II)] = 2 mM). Pb(II) partitioning onto these reactive metal-oxide surfaces increased with increasing reaction time (up to 7 d). In addition, the partitioning of Cu(II) and Zn(II) from the ESHA coating to the α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1) substrate increased slightly with reaction time (2.4% and 3.7% for Cu(II) and Zn(II), respectively, after 3 h and 6.4% and 7.7% for Cu(II) and Zn(II), respectively, after 72 h of reaction time). However, no changes in the partitioning of Cu(II) and Zn(II) onto the α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) surface were observed with increasing reaction time, suggesting that these ions strongly complex with functional groups in the ESHA coatings. Similar results were obtained for Cu(II) and Zn(II) on the ESHA-coated α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) surfaces in samples without the addition of calcium. However, the amounts of Pb

  16. Cooperative up-conversion in Eu3+,Yb3+-doped SiO2–PbO–PbF2–CdF2 oxyfluoride glass

    OpenAIRE

    P. A. Loiko; Rachkovskaya, G. E.; Zakharevich, G. B.; Kornienko, A. A.; Dunina, E. B.; A. S. Yasukevich; K. V. Yumashev

    2014-01-01

    Novel oxy fluoride glass doped with YbF3 and Eu2O3 is synthesized in the SiO2–PbO–PbF2–CdF2 system by melt quenching technique. Its physical properties, as well as the optical absorption of Eu3+ and Yb3+ ions are studied. Spectroscopic properties of Eu3+ ions are modeled within modified Judd–Ofelt theory, yielding absorption oscillator strength, luminescence branching ratios and radiative lifetime of 5D0 state. Intrinsic emission of Eu3+ ions under direct excitation in the UV, as well as up-c...

  17. Temperature dependence of volumetric electroluminescence intensity of ZnS-Cu crystals doped with Sm, Eu, Pb or Tm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current-brightness characteristic of volume luminescence of ZnS-Cu crystals doped with Sm, Eu and Pb become more sloping with the increasing temperature, while of the Tm-doped ZnS-Cu, on the contrary, rises more steeper. In every case this can be explained by the change of ionization rate with temperature on the basis of the earlier developed theory provided that the differences in numerical values of some parameters of these crystals are taken into account

  18. Spin-coating deposition of PbS and CdS thin films for solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Jayesh; Mighri, Frej [Laval University, CREPEC, Department of Chemical Engineering, Quebec, QC (Canada); Ajji, Abdellah [Ecole Polytechnique, CREPEC, Chemical Engineering Department, Montreal, QC (Canada); Tiwari, Devendra; Chaudhuri, Tapas K. [Charotar University of Science and Technology (CHARUSAT), Dr. K.C. Patel Research and Development Centre, Anand District, Gujarat (India)

    2014-12-15

    In this work, we describe a simple spin-coating deposition technique for lead sulphide (PbS) and cadmium sulphide (CdS) films from a methanolic metal-thiourea complex. The characterization of the films by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques revealed that pure cubic phase PbS and CdS layers were formed via this method. As shown by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy results, both films were homogeneous and presented a smooth surface. Optical properties showed that the energy band gap of PbS and CdS films were around 1.65 and 2.5 eV, respectively. The PbS film is p-type in nature with an electrical conductivity of around 0.8 S/cm. The hole concentration and mobility were 2.35 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and 2.16 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2}/V/s, respectively, as determined from Hall measurement. Both films were used to develop a thin film solar cell device of graphite/PbS/CdS/ITO/glass. Device characterization showed the power conversion efficiency of around 0.24 %. The corresponding open circuit voltage, short circuit current and fill factor were 0.570 V, 1.32 mA/cm{sup 2} and 0.32, respectively. (orig.)

  19. Superior Photocurrent of Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells Based on PbS : In/CdS Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongbo Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PbS : In and CdS quantum dots (QDs are sequentially assembled onto a nanocrystalline TiO2 film to prepare a PbS : In/CdS cosensitized photoelectrode for QD sensitized solar cells (QDSCs. The results show that PbS : In/CdS QDs have exhibited a significant effect in the light harvest and performance of the QDSC. In the cascade structure of the electrode, the reorganization of energy levels between PbS and TiO2 forms a stepwise structure of band-edge levels which is advantageous to the electron injection into TiO2. Energy conversion efficiency of 2.3% is achieved with the doped electrode, under the illumination of one sun (AM1.5, 100 mW cm2. Besides, a remarkable short circuit current density (up to 23 mA·cm−2 is achieved in the resulting PbS : In/CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cell, and the related mechanism is discussed.

  20. Investigation of the Pr{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-Cu{sub 2}Se-PbSe and Pr{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-Ag{sub 2}Se-PbSe systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchuk, O.V. [Department of Physical and Colloidal Chemistry, Volyn State University, Voli Ave 13, 43009 Lutsk (Ukraine); Gulay, L.D. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Volyn State University, Voli Ave 13, 43009 Lutsk (Ukraine)]. E-mail: gulay@lab.univer.lutsk.ua; Shemet, V.Ya. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Volyn State University, Voli Ave 13, 43009 Lutsk (Ukraine); Olekseyuk, I.D. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Volyn State University, Voli Ave 13, 43009 Lutsk (Ukraine)

    2006-06-08

    Phase diagram of the Cu{sub 2}Se-PbSe system was constructed using differential-thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and metallography. The eutectic reaction L-bar {beta}-Cu{sub 2}Se+PbSe takes place at 886K and corresponds to 46mol% PbSe. The peritectoid reaction {beta}-Cu{sub 2}Se+PbSe-bar {alpha}-Cu{sub 2}Se takes place at 420K. The formation of the PrCuSe{sub 2} compound (LaCuS{sub 2} structure type, space group P2{sub 1}/c) and the solid solution range Pr{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-Pr{sub 2}PbSe{sub 4} (Th{sub 3}P{sub 4} structure type, space group I4-bar 3d, a=0.89916(2)nm, R{sub I}=0.0682 for Pr{sub 2}PbSe{sub 4}) was confirmed using X-ray powder diffraction. The interactions between the components in the Pr{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-Cu{sub 2}Se-PbSe and Pr{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-Ag{sub 2}Se-PbSe systems at 870K were determined using X-ray powder diffraction. No quaternary compounds exist in these systems.

  1. Determination of heavy metals (Pd, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr) in sedimentary reference materials with IDMS: Total concentration and aqua regia soluble portion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, A.; Heumann, K.G.

    1988-12-01

    The total concentration and the aqua regia soluble portion of traces of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Cr are determined with isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) in three different types of sediments using a thermal quadrupole instrument (THQ). The results are compared with those obtained by other methods during a certification project to establish these sediments (BCR 277, BCR 280, BCR 320) as standard reference materials. The IDMS (THQ) results are in good agreement with the preliminary certification values and the results of two other laboratories, which applied IDMS using magnetic sector field mass spectrometers. Significant differences between the different analytical methods were found for the total Pb concentration, which could be explained by adsorption and coprecipitation effects during the chemical pretreatment of samples. Using aqua regia instead of HF/HNO/sub 3/ for the decomposition of sediments, only 65%-95% of the total Pb and 60%-90% of the total Cr could be dissolved. On the other hand, only a small or negligible portion of Zn, Cd, and Cu could not be dissolved by aqua regia. The IDMS values for the aqua regia soluble Cr portion are significantly higher compared to the results of other methods. This can be explained by adsorption effects.

  2. Biosorption behaviors of Cu2+,Zn2+, Cd2+ and mixture by waste activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Sheng-lian; YUAN Lin; CHAI Li-yuan; MIN Xiao-bo; WANG Yun-yan; FANG Yan; WANG Pu

    2006-01-01

    Biosorption of heavy metal ions, such as Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+, was carried out using waste activated sludge from municipal sewage treatment plant as adsorption material, and the effects of parameters, such as pH value, temperature, reaction time and sorption duration, were studied in detail. The results indicate that the removal rates of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ with low concentration are 96.47%, 80% and 90%, respectively, adsorbed by waste activated sludge. Little effect of dosage of activated sludge on the adsorption of Cu2+ and more effects on the adsorption of Zn2+ and Cd2+ are observed. Little effect oftemperature is observed, while pH value and adsorption time exert important influence on the sorption process. The adsorption behaviors of heavy metal ions all have parabolic relationships with pH value. The optimum pH value is between 6 and 10, and the optimum adsorption time is 1 h. In single heavy metal ion system, the sorption processes of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ are in accordance with Freundlich model, which indicates that it is suitable for the treatment of these three heavy metal ions using intermittent operation. In addition, the sorption capacity of the sludge for Cu2+ is preferential to the other two ions.

  3. Preparation of PbS-coated CdTe Nanocrystals through Sonochemical Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiconductor nanoparticles have attracted much attention in recent years owing to their unique properties depending on size, shape, and various material compositions. One of the most important materials among them is cadmium telluride (CdTe), which has direct band gap of 1.5 eV and an excitonic Bohr radius of 7.3 nm. Also, high photoluminescence (PL) quantum efficiency of CdTe nanoparticles makes them an interesting material for their uses such as light emitting devices, photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical devices, and biological labels. Many semiconductor quantum dots have been tried for their applications to develop cheap and high efficient solar cell, in which suitable band gap is essential to get high efficiency. However, the quantum dots were found to have some difficulty in securing a proper band gap for solar cell since as materials size gets smaller, the materials' band gap increases in general. In this regard, coating a low band gap material onto the QDs was adopted and Hens et al. reported PbTe-CdTe particles with a core-shell structure

  4. Modification of fibrous morphology in the Cd--CuCd3 and Mg--Mg2Si eutectics by ternary additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the microstructural changes caused by ternary additions to two directionally solidified eutectics, Cd-CuCd3 and Mg-Mg2Si, was carried out using the technique of selective sublimation to reveal the eutectic morphology. The mechanism by which the observed modification of the eutectic structure occurs is thought to be the same in both systems studied. By electron microprobe analysis, it was found that the third component, Zn or Pb, was present with much larger concentrations in the intermetallic phase than in the matrix phase. Thus, the third component is preferentially rejected by the matrix phase during freezing and the liquid adjacent to the matrix phase may become undercooled as a result. Branching of fibers and formation of plates are believed to be responses to this undercooling. The presence of some branched rods and plates in Mg-Mg2Si specimens without ternary additions is thought to be due to residual amounts (0.02 weight percent maximum) of lead present in the starting materials. The occurrence of a fiber to plate modification with the addition of a suitable ternary component in the eutectic systems studied indicates that some degree of control over the microstructure of such eutectics is possible with suitable alloying

  5. Quantum chemistry insight into Mg-substitution in chlorophyll by toxic heavy metals: Cd, Hg and Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechaieb, Rim; Ben Akacha, Azaiez; Gérard, Hélène

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we examined the structural, electronic and energetic data associated to the Mg-substitution in chlorophyll by three major toxic pollutants: Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+. We evidenced a highly versatile bonding of the cations with the pheophytin ligand, with a strong out-of-plane distortion for Hg and Pb. The binding energies ranged from slightly stronger than Mg2+ in the case of Hg2+ to much smaller for Pb2+. Nevertheless, our various approaches of free cations solvation allowed us to evidence that Mg-substitution should be possible for all title elements.

  6. Spatial and temporal variations in inhalable CuZnPb aerosols within the Mexico City pollution plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, T; Querol, X; Pey, J; Minguillón, M C; Pérez, N; Alastuey, A; Bernabé, R M; Blanco, S; Cárdenas, B; Eichinger, W; Salcido, A; Gibbons, W

    2008-03-01

    We report on the CuPbZn content of PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected from three sites (urban T0, suburban T1 and rural T2) during the Mexico City MILAGRO campaign of March 2006. Daytime city centre concentrations of summation operator CuZnPb(PM10) were much higher (T0 > 450 ng m(-3)) than at the suburban site (T1 inversion layer, but decreased at the rural site. Transient spikes in concentrations of different metals, e.g. a "copper event" at T0 (CuPM10 281 ng m(-3)) and "zinc event" at T1 (ZnPM10 1481 ng m(-3)) on the night of March 7-8, demonstrate how industrial pollution sources produce localised chemical inhomogeneities in the city atmosphere. Most metal aerosols are <2.5 microm and SEM study demonstrates the dominance of Fe, Ti, Ba, Cu, Pb and Zn (and lesser Sn, Mo, Sb, W, Ni, V, As, Bi) in metalliferous particles that have shapes including spherical condensates, efflorescent CuZnClS particles, cindery Zn, and Cu wire. Metal aerosol concentrations do not change in concert with PM10 mass, which is more influenced by wind resuspension than industrial emissions. Metalliferous particles can induce cell damage, and PM composition is probably more important than PM mass, with respect to negative health effects, so that better monitoring and control of industrial emissions would likely produce significant improvements in air quality.

  7. Immobilization of Pb and Cu in polluted soil by superphosphate, multi-walled carbon nanotube, rice straw and its derived biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Imtiaz, Muhammad; Huang, Guoyong; Chhajro, Muhammad Afzal; Liu, Yonghong; Fu, Qingling; Zhu, Jun; Ashraf, Muhammad; Zafar, Mohsin; Bashir, Saqib; Hu, Hongqing

    2016-08-01

    Lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) contamination in croplands pose severe health hazards and environmental concerns throughout soil-food chain transfer. In the present study, BCR, TCLP, CaCl2, and SBET techniques were employed to evaluate the simultaneous effectiveness of rice straw (RS) and its derived biochar (BC), multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), and single superphosphate (SSP) to immobilize the Pb and Cu in co-contaminated soil. The BCR sequential extraction results suggested that with increasing BC and SSP amount, the acid-soluble fractions decreased while oxidizable and residual proportions of Pb and Cu were increased significantly. Compared to SSP, the application of BC amendment substantially modified partitioning of Cu from easily exchangeable phase to less bioavailable residual bound fraction. The immobilized Pb and Cu were mainly transformed to reducible forms. The TCLP and CaCl2-extracted Pb and Cu were reduced significantly by the addition of BC compared to RS and MWCNT, whereas the bio-accessibility of Pb significantly reduced with RS addition. SSP showed better results for Pb immobilization while marginal for Cu in co-contaminated soil. Overall, the addition of BC offered the best results and could be effective in both Pb and Cu immobilization thereby reducing their mobility and bioavailability in the co-contaminated soil. PMID:27121017

  8. Adsorption Kinetics of Pb2+ and Cu2+ on Variable Charge Soils and Minerals:V.Effects of Temperature and Ionic Strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUGUO-SONG

    1994-01-01

    The study results of the effects of temperature and ionic strength on the adsorption kinetics of Pb2+ and Cu2+ by latosol,red soil and kaolinte coated with Mn oxide showed that Pb2+ and Cu2+ adsorption by all samples.as a whole,increased with raising temperature.Temperature also increased both values of Xm(the amount of ion adsorbed at equilibrium)and k(kinetics constant)of Pb2+ and Cu2+,The activation energies of Pb2+ adsorption were kaolin-Mn>redsoil>goethite and those of Cu2+ were latosol>redsoil>kaolin-Mn>goethite,For a given single sample the activation energy of Cu2+ was greater than that of Pb2+.Raising ionic strength decreased the adsorption of Pb2+ and Cu2+ by latosol,red soil and kaolinite coated with Mn oxide but increased Pb2+ and Cu2+ adsorption by goethite.The contrary results could be explained by the different changes in ion forms of Pb2+or Cu2+ and in surface charge characteristics of latosol,red soil,kaolin-Mn and goethite,Increasiung supporting electrolyte concentration increased Xm and k in goethite systems but decreased Xm and k in kaolin-Mn systems.All the time-dependent data fitted the surface second-order equation very well.

  9. Monitoring for Pb and Cd pollution using feral pigeons in rural, urban, and industrial environments of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Dong-Ha [Laboratory for Animal Ecology, School of Environment and Applied Chemistry, Kyunghee University (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Doo-Pyo [Science of Biology, Department of Biological Science, Honam University (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: dplee@honam.ac.kr

    2006-03-15

    This study was aimed at evaluating the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination status using resident pigeons from rural (island), central urban (Seoul), and four industrial complex areas in Korea with varying traffic density as well as atmospheric metal pollution records. We also discussed the results with respect to metal exposure trends in urban area after introduction of lead-free gasoline in Korea. Mean concentrations of Pb and Cd in bone and kidney of pigeons from Seoul were comparable to those from industrial complex areas and were about 15-20 times those at the reference site. This suggests that exposure to metals in the urban environment is as high as in the industrial areas. Lead and Cd concentrations in lungs of pigeons from Seoul were significantly higher by more than three times in 2000 than in 1991 (p < 0.01), whereas the residues in liver, kidney, and bone remained at a similar level, despite the introduction of unleaded gasoline in 1993. The Pb and Cd concentrations in tissues of pigeons did not decrease as atmospheric metal levels decreased. Ingestion may be more important than inhalation in exposing pigeons to Pb and Cd in this study.

  10. Cd(II and Pb(II complexes of the polyether ionophorous antibiotic salinomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe Makoto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural polyether ionophorous antibiotics are used for the treatment of coccidiosis in poultry and ruminants. They are effective agents against infections caused by Gram-positive microorganisms. On the other hand, it was found that some of these compounds selectively bind lead(II ions in in vivo experiments, despite so far no Pb(II-containing compounds of defined composition have been isolated and characterized. To assess the potential of polyether ionophores as possible antidotes in the agriculture, a detailed study on their in vitro complexation with toxic metal ions is required. In the present paper we report for the first time the preparation and the structure elucidation of salinomycin complexes with ions of cadmium(II and lead(II. Results New metal(II complexes of the polyether ionophorous antibiotic salinomycin with Cd(II and Pb(II ions were prepared and structurally characterized by IR, FAB-MS and NMR techniques. The spectroscopic information and elemental analysis data reveal that sodium salinomycin (SalNa undergoes a reaction with heavy metal(II ions to form [Cd(Sal2(H2O2] (1 and [Pb(Sal(NO3] (2, respectively. Abstraction of sodium ions from the cavity of the antibiotic is occurring during the complexation reaction. Salinomycin coordinates with cadmium(II ions as a bidentate monoanionic ligand through the deprotonated carboxylic moiety and one of the hydroxyl groups to yield 1. Two salinomycin anions occupy the equatorial plane of the Cd(II center, while two water molecules take the axial positions of the inner coordination sphere of the metal(II cation. Complex 2 consists of monoanionic salinomycin acting in polydentate coordination mode in a molar ratio of 1: 1 to the metal ion with one nitrate ion for charge compensation. Conclusion The formation of the salinomycin heavy metal(II complexes indicates a possible antidote activity of the ligand in case of chronic/acute intoxications likely to occur in the stock

  11. Heavy metal accumulations of 24 asparagus bean cultivars grown in soil contaminated with Cd alone and with multiple metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Yu, Hui; Wang, Junli; Fang, Wei; Yuan, Jiangang; Yang, Zhongyi

    2007-02-01

    Crops grown in heavy metal contaminated soils are an important avenue for these toxic pollutants entering the human food chain. Information on how crops respond to soil contaminations of single versus multiple metals is scarce and much needed. This study investigated the accumulation of Cd by 24 cultivars of asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquipedalis L., family Fabaceae) under a low level (0.8 mg kg-1) and a high level (11.8 mg kg-1) of Cd exposure in a garden experiment, and that in a field experiment with Cd, Pb, and Zn (1.2, 486, and 1114 mg kg-1, respectively) contaminated soil. Both experiments showed that there were highly significant variations among the tested cultivars in Cd accumulation by roots, stems, leaves, and fruits of asparagus bean. In the garden experiment, all cultivars under the low Cd exposure and 41.7% of the tested cultivars under the high Cd exposure bore fruits (pods) whose Cd concentrations were lower than 0.05 mg kg-1 fw and therefore were safe for consumption. In addition, the fruit Cd concentrations of cultivars with black seed coats were significantly lower than those with red or spotted seed coats. These results suggest that asparagus bean is a hypo-accumulator to Cd pollutant and the trait of Cd accumulation is genetic-dependent among cultivars. In the field experiment, correlation between fruit Cd and Pb concentrations was significantly positive (p pollution-safe-cultivars (PSC) in multi-metal polluted condition could refer to the PSCs selected under a high level exposure of a single heavy metal.

  12. Effects of Different Doping Ratio of Cu Doped CdS on QDSCs Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method for the preparation of quantum dot sensitized solar cells, to improve the performance of solar cells by doping quantum dots. We tested the UV-Vis absorption spectrum of undoped CdS QDSCs and Cu doped CdS QDSCs with different doping ratios. The doping ratios of copper were 1 : 100, 1 : 500, and 1 : 1000, respectively. The experimental results show that, under the same SILAR cycle number, Cu doped CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells have higher open circuit voltage, short circuit current density photoelectric conversion efficiency than undoped CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells. Refinement of Cu doping ratio are 1 : 10, 1 : 100, 1 : 200, 1 : 500, and 1 : 1000. When the proportion of Cu and CdS is 1 : 10, all the parameters of the QDSCs reach the minimum value, and, with the decrease of the proportion, the short circuit current density, open circuit voltage, and the photoelectric conversion efficiency are all increased. When proportion is 1 : 500, all parameters reach the maximum values. While with further reduction of the doping ratio of Cu, the parameters of QDSCs have a decline tendency. The results showed that, in a certain range, the lower the doping ratio of Cu, the better the performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cell.

  13. Influence of Cd impurity on the electronic properties of CuAlO2 delafossite: first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on first-principles band-structure calculations of the semiconducting CuAlO2 delafossite compound in the pure form and also with Cd impurity occupying either a Cu or Al position. The computational tool was a full-potential linear augmented plane-wave method, with the generalized gradient approximation accounting for the exchange and correlation effects. The changes caused by the presence of Cd are studied by the analysis of the electronic structure and the electric field gradient (EFG) in both Cd-doped and pure CuAlO2 systems. Good agreement between the calculated and measured EFGs at Cd substituting for Cu or Al atoms in CuAlO2 indicates that the calculations were able to correctly describe the ground state of the system containing the impurity. It is shown that a specific hybridization scheme, involving Cu (and Cd) s and dz2 orbitals and neighbouring O pz orbitals, takes place at the Cu sites in CuAlO2 as proposed earlier. The results of the calculations indicate that the Cd-doped system changes its electrical properties when Cd replaces Cu atoms (producing an n-type semiconductor), but not when it substitutes for Al atoms. (author)

  14. A facile synthesis and spectral characterization of Cu2+ doped CdO/ZnS nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facile two-step method is demonstrated for the preparation of Cu2+ doped CdO/ZnS nanocomposite. Systematic investigations like X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL) and magnetic studies are carried out for the prepared material. From powder XRD, the nanocomposites are comprised for cubic phase of both CdO and ZnS in a close contact with each other. The ground state wave function of dopant ions has been estimated from EPR studies. Optical and EPR data confirm that doped Cu2+ions occupy rhombically distorted octahedral sites with the host material. Due to doping, band gap has been changed and blue shifts occurred in PL. Magnetic measurements indicate a possible ferromagnetic response, associated to the exchange interaction between local spin-polarized electrons of Cu2+ ions and conductive electrons. - Graphical abstract: M–H curve of Cu2+ doped CdO–ZnS nanocomposites. The magnetic properties of Cu2+ doped CdO/ZnS nanocomposite has been investigated using vibrating sample magnetometer given as magnetization and hysteresis (M–H) curve. The magnetization curve with noticeable coercivity of M–H loop clearly indicate the existence of ferromagnetic ordering in Cu2+ doped CdO/ZnS nanocomposite at room temperature. According to the Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida (RKKY) theory, the exchange interaction between local spin-polarized electrons (such as the electrons of Cu2+ ions) and conductive electrons is the main cause that leads to the ferromagnetism. Coercivity (Hc) of the field is about 98 Oe, saturation magnetization (Ms) and remnant magnetization (Mr) of present sample is estimated to be 15.8×10−3 and 1.43×10−3 emu/g respectively. The ferromagnetism observed in the prepared material is not commencing with other impurities but expected to be intrinsic. - Highlights: • Cu2+ doped Cd

  15. Phytoavailability of Cd and Pb in crop straw biochar-amended soil is related to the heavy metal content of both biochar and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Huang, Dao-You; Ren, Xue-Fei; Zhu, Han-Hua; Wang, Shuai; Xu, Chao; He, Yan-Bing; Luo, Zun-Chang; Zhu, Qi-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Crop straw biochar incorporation may be a sustainable method of amending soil, but feedstock-related Cd and Pb content is a major concern. We investigated the effects of heavy metal-rich (RC) and -free biochar (FC) on the phytoavailability of Cd and Pb in two acidic metalliferous soils. Biochar significantly increased soil pH and improved plant growth. Pb in soil and plant tissues significantly decreased after biochar application, and a similar pattern was observed for Cd after FC application. RC significantly increased NH4NO3-extractable Cd in both lightly contaminated (YBS) and heavily contaminated soils (RS). The Cd content of plants grown on YBS increased, whereas it decreased on RS. The Cd and Pb input-output balance suggested that RC application to YBS might induce a soil Cd accumulation risk. Therefore, identifying heavy metal contamination in biochar is crucial before it is used as a soil amendment.

  16. Interaction Kinetics between Sn-Pb Solder Droplet and Au/Ni/Cu Pad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuquan LI; Chunqing WANG; Yanhong TIAN

    2006-01-01

    The interfacial phenomena of the Sn-Pb solder droplet on Au/Ni/Cu pad are investigated. A continuous AuSn2and needle-like AuSn4 are formed at the interface after the liquid state reaction (soldering). The interfacial reaction between the solder and Au layer continues during solid state aging with AuSn4 breaking off from the interface and felling into the solder. The kinetics of Au layer dissolution and diffusion into the solder during soldering and aging is analyzed to elucidate intermetallic formation mechanism at the solder/Au pad interface.The concentration of Au near the solder/pad interface is identified to increase and reach the solubility limit during the period of liquid state reaction. During solid state reaction, the thickening of Au-Sn compound is mainly controlled by element diffusion.

  17. Immobilisation of Cu, Pb and Zn in Scrap Metal Yard Soil Using Selected Waste Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamari, A; Putra, W P; Yusoff, S N M; Ishak, C F; Hashim, N; Mohamed, A; Isa, I M; Bakar, S A

    2015-12-01

    Immobilisation of heavy metals in a 30-year old active scrap metal yard soil using three waste materials, namely coconut tree sawdust (CTS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and eggshell (ES) was investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with amendments at application rates of 0 %, 1 % and 3 % (w/w). The effects of amendments on metal accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and soil metal bioavailability were studied in a pot experiment. All amendments increased biomass yield and reduced metal accumulation in the plant shoots. The bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The addition of ES, an alternative source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), has significantly increased soil pH and resulted in marked reduction in soil metal bioavailability. Therefore, CTS, SB and ES are promising low-cost immobilising agents to restore metal contaminated land. PMID:26395356

  18. Immobilisation of Cu, Pb and Zn in Scrap Metal Yard Soil Using Selected Waste Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamari, A; Putra, W P; Yusoff, S N M; Ishak, C F; Hashim, N; Mohamed, A; Isa, I M; Bakar, S A

    2015-12-01

    Immobilisation of heavy metals in a 30-year old active scrap metal yard soil using three waste materials, namely coconut tree sawdust (CTS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and eggshell (ES) was investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with amendments at application rates of 0 %, 1 % and 3 % (w/w). The effects of amendments on metal accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and soil metal bioavailability were studied in a pot experiment. All amendments increased biomass yield and reduced metal accumulation in the plant shoots. The bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The addition of ES, an alternative source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), has significantly increased soil pH and resulted in marked reduction in soil metal bioavailability. Therefore, CTS, SB and ES are promising low-cost immobilising agents to restore metal contaminated land.

  19. Structure and age of the Cerro de Pasco Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag deposit, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, E. S.

    1991-04-01

    The world-famous Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag deposit at Cerro de Pasco, Peru, consists of texturally massive pyrite, texturally massive sphalerite-galena-pyrite, and veins containing pyrite and enargite. Historically the deposit has been considered to be the hydrothermal product of the adjacent Miocene volcanic and intrusive complex (locally known as the “Vent”). However, both the texturally massive sulfides of the deposit and the pre-Miocene strata are cut by the Longitudinal fault, one of the largest faults in the district, but the Vent is not. Imbrication by the Longitudinal fault zone (duplex structures) has thickened the deposit so that it is amenable to open-pit mining. Dikes and pyrite-enargite veins pass from the Vent into the massive sulfides; fragments of massive pyrite occur in the Vent. Thus, no matter what their origin, the texturally massive sulfides are older and, therefore, genetically unrelated to the Vent.

  20. Levels Of Heavy Metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, And Cr In Tissues Of Trachurus Trachurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkeleda Ozuni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to monitor the concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome in different tissues of Trachurus trachurus (Horse mackerel. The concentration level of heavy metals was measured by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. Concentrations of heavy metals in muscle tissue and liver of this animal ranged as follows: Hg 0.032-0.106; Cd nd-0.067 mg/kg wet weight; Pb and Cr resulted always below the detection level (nd in all tissue samples. According to the results the concentration levels of heavy metals measured in the muscle tissue was lower than the maximum permitted level for human consumption set by EC and Albanian regulation. The results obtained from the study indicate that heavy metal levels are in acceptable limits, so this product can be used as food for human consumption.

  1. Chelation Study of Captopril with Cd2+ and Pb2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Joshaghani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protonation constants of Captopril, (1-(3-mercapto-2-(S-methyl-1-oxopropyl-S(L proline, (CPL and stabilities of its two divalent metal ions Cd(II and Pb(II were determined potentiometrically in two different metal to ligand ratio 1:1 and 1:2 systems and in water and methanol-water binary mixtures using the computer Best program. Two protonation constants were obtained which were assigned to the carboxylic and thiol groups. All protonation and stability constants increased with decreasing the dielectric constant on going from the pure water to the binary mixtures. An excellent similarity in stabilities of studied metal ions strongly suggests that both metal ions are coordinated by CPL in a same manner through the thiol group.

  2. Interaction between Cd and Pb in the soil-plant system: a case study of an arid oasis soil-cole system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuanJun; ZHAO; ZhongRen; NAN; ZhaoWei; WANG; YiMing; YANG; Masayuki; SHIMIZU

    2014-01-01

    The Hexi Corridor,our study area,is located in Northwest China and is also the most developed area of oasis farming in arid regions of Northwestern China.However,the rapid development of metallurgy and chemical industries in this region poses a great threat to the accumulation of heavy metals in crops.The objectives of this study are(1)to determine the influence of heavy metals on plant growth;(2)to assess the translocation capability of heavy metals in soil-plant system;and(3)to investigate the interaction between heavy metals.Pot experiments were conducted on cole(Brassica campestris L.)grown in the arid oasis soils singly and jointly treated with cadmium(Cd)and lead(Pb).Nine treatments were applied into the pots.Under the same planting conditions,three scenarios of Cd,Pb and Cd–Pb were designed to compare the interaction between Cd and Pb.The results showed that the response of cole weights to Cd,Pb and Cd–Pb treatments was slight,while Cd and Pb uptakes in cole were more sensitive to the single effects of Cd and Pb concentration in soils from the lower treatment levels.Under the influence of the single Cd,Pb and joint Cd–Pb treatments,Cd concentrations were lower in the cole roots than in the shoots,while for Pb,the results were opposite.Comparison studies revealed that the interaction of Cd and Pb could weaken the cole’s ability to uptake,concentrate and translocate heavy metals in arid oasis soils.

  3. Ectomycorrhizal Fungus-Induced Changes of Cu and Cd speciation in the rhizosphere of Chinese Pine Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yi; LI Ting; HUANG Zhi-Ji; FEI Ying-Heng

    2008-01-01

    To understand the role of ectomycorrhizas in improving the tolerance of its host to excessive heavy metals in soil, this study was conducted to exam the patterns of four fractions (the exchangeable, the carbonate-bound, the Fe-Mn oxide-bound and the organically bound) of both Cu and Cd in the rhizosphere of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) seedlings grown in excessive Cu and Cd environment. The results showed that the speciation of Cu and Cd in the rhizosphere was significantly influenced by inoculation of ectomycorrhizal fungus Boletus edulis. Compared to the rhizosphere, the content of exchangeable Cu slightly decreased in the mycorrhizosphere of the seedlings grown in 166 and 400 mg kg-1Cu contaminated soil, whereas the exchangeable Cd in the mycorrhizosphere decreased remarkably to only 33% and to 60% that of the rhizosphcre at 0.75 and 1.50 mg kg-1 Cd levels, respectively. These indicate the potential capacity of mycorrhizas to alleviate the damage of heavy metals to the host plants by reducing the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil. Distribution of the 4 tested fractions of Cu and Cd at different contamination levels showed that there was a strong tendency of changing from loosely associatcd fractions to strongly associated fractions in the mycorrhizosphere. The most stable Cd fraction, organically bound Cd, was significantly larger in the mycorrhizosphere than in the rhizosphere at different Cd contamination levels. This phenomenon was also observed for Cu but the difference was not statistically significant.

  4. 市售谷物中 PbCd 含量测定与风险评估%Determination of Pb and Cd contents in commercial cereals and their risk analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 刘恩岐; 巫永华; 张建萍; 陈尚龙

    2014-01-01

    The Pb and Cd contents in 12 kinds of cereal samples were determined by microwave digestion-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry,respectively.The pollution situations of the samples were assessed according to the national safety standards about the pollutant in cereal.The dietary expo-sure risk of Pb and Cd in cereal was assessed according to the maximum allowable intake of heavy metal pollutants (RfD value)recommended by USEPA (2000).The results showed that the exposure risk coef-ficient of Pb and Cd was less than 1 with the dietary patterns of eating single rice or two kinds of grain collocation.But all samples were slightly contaminated by Pb;maize,oat and wheat flour were slightly contaminated by Cd;while rice,pea,broad bean were around the warning line of Cd pollution.It is nec-essary to reinforce supervision of heavy metal pollution in agricultural products market.%采用微波消解—石墨炉原子吸收光谱法测定市售12种谷物(豆类)中的 Pb、Cd 含量,按照我国粮食污染物限量安全标准分析其污染水平,依据美国环境保护局推荐的重金属污染物最大允许摄入量(RfD 值)评估谷物中 Pb、Cd 污染的膳食暴露风险。结果显示,以单一大米及大米、小麦粉和其他谷物搭配的两种谷物膳食模式的 Pb、Cd 污染暴露风险指数均<1,不存在健康安全暴露风险;但12种谷物样品均存在轻度 Pb 污染风险,玉米、燕麦、小麦粉等样品存在轻度 Cd 污染风险,大米、豌豆和蚕豆等样品处于 Cd 污染警戒线,应加强对农产品销售市场重金属污染安全风险的监测。

  5. Enhanced desorption of PCB and trace metal elements (Pb and Cu) from contaminated soils by saponin and EDDS mixed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the simultaneous desorption of trace metal elements and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) from mixed contaminated soil with a novel combination of biosurfactant saponin and biodegradable chelant S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS). Results showed significant promotion and synergy on Pb, Cu and PCB desorption with the mixed solution of saponin and EDDS. The maximal desorption of Pb, Cu and PCB were achieved 99.8%, 85.7% and 45.7%, respectively, by addition of 10 mM EDDS and 3000 mg L−1 saponin. The marked interaction between EDDS and saponin contributed to the synergy performance. The sorption of EDDS and saponin on soil was inhibited by each other. EDDS could enhance the complexation of metals with the saponin micelles and the solubilization capabilities of saponin micelles for PCB. Our study suggests the combination of saponin and EDDS would be a promising alternative for remediation of co-contaminated soils caused by hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) and metals. -- Highlights: ► A novel combination of biosurfactant saponin and EDDS was used to simultaneously remove mixed contaminations from soil. ► Significant synergy on Pb, Cu and PCB desorption were achieved with EDDS/saponin. ► The marked interaction between EDDS and saponin contributed to the synergy performance. -- Significant synergistic effect on Pb, Cu and PCB desorption were achieved with the mixed solution of saponin and EDDS

  6. Growth of nucleation sites on Pb-doped Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8 + delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnemore, D. K.; Xu, Ming; Kouzoudis, D.; Bloomer, T.; Kramer, M. J.; McKernan, Stuart; Balachandran, U.; Haldar, Pradeep

    1996-01-01

    In the growth of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+δ from mixed powders of Pb-doped Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8+δ and other oxides, it has been discovered that a dense array of hillocks or mesas grow at the interface between a Ag overlay and Pb-doped Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8+δ grains during the ramp up to the reaction temperature. As viewed in an environmental scanning electron microscope, the Ag coated grains develop a texture that looks like ``chicken pox'' growing on the grains at about 700 °C. These hillocks are about 100 nm across and are spaced at about 500 to 1000 nm. If there is no Ag, this texture does not develop. Preliminary measurements indicate that the hillocks are a recrystallization of (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8+δ, and are definitely not a Pb rich phase.

  7. Removal of Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions using CMC based thermoresponsive nanocomposite hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezkahraman, Bengi [Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, Hitit University, Corum (Turkey); Acar, Isil; Emik, Serkan [Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, Istanbul University, Avcilar-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-07-15

    In this study, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) based thermoresponsive nanocomposite hydrogel was synthesized for the removal of Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions from aqueous solutions. To prepare nanocomposite hydrogel, graft copolymerization of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAm) and acrylic acid (AA) onto CMC was carried out in Na-montmorillonite (MMT)/water suspension media and ammonium persulfate (APS) used as initiator. The chemical structures of hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). Lower critical solution temperature (LCST), pH responsivity, swelling, and deswelling properties of the hydrogels were also examined. In addition competitive and non-competitive removal of Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} studies were carried out. According to heavy metal sorption studies results, removal capacities of nanocomposite hydrogel for both metal ions were found to be higher than those of pure hydrogel. The analyzed adsorption data showed that the adsorption process of Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} could be explained by pseudo-second order kinetic model. Moreover, according to competitive sorption studies, it is found to be that both hydrogels are more selective to Cu{sup 2+} ion rather than Pb{sup 2+}. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a full-scale hybrid constructed wetland receiving municipal sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, H.W.; Zhang, S.L.; Zhai, J.; He, Q.; Mels, A.R.; Ning, K.J.; Liu, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a hybrid constructed wetland (CW) that consists of both vertical baffled flow wetlands (VBFWs) and horizontal subsurface flow wetlands (HSSFs) with unique flow regimes and oxygen distribution. The heavy m

  9. Real-time observation of nanoscale topological transitions in epitaxial PbTe/CdTe heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groiss, H., E-mail: heiko.groiss@jku.at, E-mail: istvan.daruka@jku.at; Daruka, I., E-mail: heiko.groiss@jku.at, E-mail: istvan.daruka@jku.at; Springholz, G.; Schäffler, F. [Institute of Semiconductor and Solid State Physics, Johannes Kepler University, Linz 4040 (Austria); Koike, K.; Yano, M. [Nanomaterials Microdevices Research Center, Osaka Institute of Technology, Asahi-ku Ohmiya, Osaka 535-8585 (Japan); Hesser, G. [Center for Surface- and Nanoanalytics (ZONA), Johannes Kepler University, Linz 4040 (Austria); Zakharov, N.; Werner, P. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Halle 06120 (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    The almost completely immiscible PbTe/CdTe heterostructure has recently become a prototype system for self-organized quantum dot formation based on solid-state phase separation. Here, we study by real-time transmission electron microscopy the topological transformations of two-dimensional PbTe-epilayers into, first, a quasi-one-dimensional percolation network and subsequently into zero-dimensional quantum dots. Finally, the dot size distribution coarsens by Ostwald ripening. The whole transformation sequence occurs during all stages in the fully coherent solid state by bulk diffusion. A model based on the numerical solution of the Cahn-Hilliard equation reproduces all relevant morphological and dynamic aspects of the experiments, demonstrating that this standard continuum approach applies to coherent solids down to nanometer dimensions. As the Cahn-Hilliard equation does not depend on atomistic details, the observed morphological transformations are general features of the model. To confirm the topological nature of the observed shape transitions, we developed a parameter-free geometric model. This, together with the Cahn-Hilliard approach, is in qualitative agreement with the experiments.

  10. Real-time observation of nanoscale topological transitions in epitaxial PbTe/CdTe heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Groiss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The almost completely immiscible PbTe/CdTe heterostructure has recently become a prototype system for self-organized quantum dot formation based on solid-state phase separation. Here, we study by real-time transmission electron microscopy the topological transformations of two-dimensional PbTe-epilayers into, first, a quasi-one-dimensional percolation network and subsequently into zero-dimensional quantum dots. Finally, the dot size distribution coarsens by Ostwald ripening. The whole transformation sequence occurs during all stages in the fully coherent solid state by bulk diffusion. A model based on the numerical solution of the Cahn-Hilliard equation reproduces all relevant morphological and dynamic aspects of the experiments, demonstrating that this standard continuum approach applies to coherent solids down to nanometer dimensions. As the Cahn-Hilliard equation does not depend on atomistic details, the observed morphological transformations are general features of the model. To confirm the topological nature of the observed shape transitions, we developed a parameter-free geometric model. This, together with the Cahn-Hilliard approach, is in qualitative agreement with the experiments.

  11. Characterization and adsorption performance of Pb(II) on CuO nanorods synthesized by the hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arfaoui, Lobna; Kouass, Salah [Laboratoire des matériaux utiles, Institut National de Recherche et d' Analyse Physico-Chimique (INRAP) Sidi Thabet, 2020 Tunis (Tunisia); Dhaouadi, Hassouna, E-mail: dhaouadihassouna@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Matériaux Traitement et Analyse, Institut National de Recherche et d' Analyse Physico-Chimique (INRAP) Sidi Thabet, 2020 Tunis (Tunisia); Jebali, Raouf [Laboratoire des matériaux utiles, Institut National de Recherche et d' Analyse Physico-Chimique (INRAP) Sidi Thabet, 2020 Tunis (Tunisia); Touati, Fathi [Laboratoire Matériaux Traitement et Analyse, Institut National de Recherche et d' Analyse Physico-Chimique (INRAP) Sidi Thabet, 2020 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The nanorods of CuO were synthesized by a hydrothermal route without any surfactant. • X-ray diffraction showed monoclinic structure with space group C{sub 2/c}. • The nanorods show relatively high adsorption capacity for the removal of Pb(II). • The adsorption kinetics could be fitted well by the pseudo-second-order model. • The equilibrium data can be fitted well using the Langmuir isotherm model - Abstract: Copper oxide (CuO) nanorods were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The detailed structural, compositional and optical characterization of this material was also evaluated with XRD, FT-IR, EDS, and UV–vis spectroscopy, which confirmed that the obtained nanorods are well-crystallized CuO and possess good optical properties. SEM and TEM studies revealed that the as-synthesized CuO nanorods are uniform with an average diameter of 17 nm. The adsorption activity of the CuO nanostructures was studied. The adsorption results showed that the CuO nanorods are an effective and efficient adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) ions. The influence of various operational parameters such as the pH of the solution, the contact time and the initial concentrations were also studied and the results were discussed. The estimated maximum lead ion adsorption capacity of the CuO nanorods was found to be 188.67 mg g{sup −1} at an optimum pH of 6.

  12. Influences of Cu or Cd on the neurotoxicity induced by petroleum hydrocarbons in ragworm Perinereis aibuhitensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qianru; ZHOU Qixing; WANG Jing; SUN Shulan; HUA Tao; REN Liping

    2008-01-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) on ragworms are still vague.The relationships between toxicological indices (mortality and acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) activity) and concentrations of toxicants (Cu,Cd,and PHCs)were examined in the estuary keystone species Perinereis aibuhitensis in laboratory conditions.The results of single toxicant indicated that three toxicants had potentially physiological toxicity to P.aibuhitensis.The estimated 4-d and 10-d LC50 for Cu,Cd,and PHCs was derived from the relationships between mortality and toxicants concentrations.Notable changes in the morphological signs and symptoms of P.aibuhitensis exposed to PHCs were observed.The ACHE activity of P.aibuhitensis was more sensitive to the toxicity of PHCs than the others.The results of combined toxicants implied that the combined toxicity of Cu or Cd and PHCs to P.aibuhitensis was related to the concentration combination of toxicants.Compared to single PHCs treatment,the addition of Cu or Cd significantly mitigated the neurotoxicity of PHCs to ACHE activity in P.aibuhitensis,which showed an antagonistic effect.

  13. Electrodialytic extraction of Cd and Cu from sediment from Sisimiut Harbour, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland;

    2007-01-01

    A previous study showed that the sediment of Sisimiut Harbour, Greenland is polluted with Cu and Cd to an extent where toxicological effects must be expected. This study was aimed at evaluating the possibility for removing Cu and Cd from this sediment by an electrodialytic method and also...... to evaluate the removal rate of the two heavy metals. The sediment was suspended in distilled water during application of current. Both heavy metals were removed successfully. The Cu concentration was reduced from 97 to 16 mg/kg and the Cd concentration was reduced from 0.55 to 0.03 mg/kg after 28 days...... with an applied current density of 1.2 mA/cm2. However, it was seen that the removal rate decreased considerably after 3 days with an applied current density of 0.5 mA/cm2 and the major part of the two heavy metals was removed during the first 3 days (the Cu concentration was reduced with 74% and the Cd...

  14. Simultaneous removal of phenol, Cu and Cd from water with corn cob silica-alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jaehong; Lim, Jeong-Muk; Shea, Patrick J; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-05-15

    Phenol and heavy metals in petroleum waste are environmental and human health concerns, but physicochemical removal is often cost-prohibitive and can produce toxic secondary products and treatment residues. An environmentally benign alternative combines corn cob silica with alginate and immobilized bacteria into beads for treating contaminated water. The concentration of phenol was decreased >92% by Pseudomonas putida YNS1 on aliginate-silica beads (2%, w/v) after equilibrating for 96h with water containing 214mg phenol/L. GC-MS analysis indicated formation of benzoquinone and other polar products. Beads containing corn cob silica decreased Cu concentrations by 84-88% and Cd by 83-87% within 24h. In a mixture of 114mg phenol, 43mg Cu and 51mg Cd/L, phenol removal (93% within 96h) only occurred with beads containing the silica and bacterial strain. Beads containing corn cob silica removed >97% of the Cu and >99% of the Cd, critical for reducing toxicity to the bacteria. Beads with the immobilized strain removed phenol when zeolite was used instead of corn cob silica, but beads with silica were more effective for Cu and Cd removal. Results show the potential of corn cob silica combined with alginate and immobilized bacteria for removing phenol and heavy metals from contaminated water. PMID:24685529

  15. Rapid solidification and dendrite growth of ternary Fe-Sn-Ge and Cu-Pb-Ge monotectic alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The phase separation and dendrite growth characteristics of ternary Fe-43.9%Sn- 10%Ge and Cu-35.5%Pb-5%Ge monotectic alloys were studied systematically by the glass fluxing method under substantial undercooling conditions. The maximum undercoolings obtained in this work are 245 and 257 K, respectively, for these two alloys. All of the solidified samples exhibit serious macrosegregation, indicating that the homogenous alloy melt is separated into two liquid phases prior to rapid solidification. The solidification structures consist of four phases including α-Fe, (Sn), FeSn and FeSn2 in Fe-43.9%Sn-10%Ge ternary alloy, whereas only (Cu) and (Pb) solid solution phases in Cu-35.5%Pb-5%Ge alloy under different undercool- ings. In the process of rapid monotectic solidification, α-Fe and (Cu) phases grow in a dendritic mode, and the transition "dendrite→monotectic cell" happens when alloy undercoolings become sufficiently large. The dendrite growth velocities of α-Fe and (Cu) phases are found to increase with undercooling according to an exponential relation.

  16. Physical properties of nanostructured (PbSx(CuS1−x composite thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.U. Ubale

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured ternary semiconducting (PbSx(CuS1−x thin films were grown on glass substrates by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR technique at room temperature. The structural, morphological and optical characterizations of the films were carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV–Vis spectrophotometer respectively. The structural studies revealed that, (PbSx(CuS1−x films are nanocrystalline in nature and have mixed phase of cubic PbS and hexagonal CuS. The optical absorption measurements showed that band gap energy of (PbSx(CuS1−x can be engineered between 2.57 and 2.28 eV by varying compositional parameter ‘x’. The room temperature dc dark electrical resistivity of PbS film is found to be 28.85 Ωcm and it decreases when content of Cu in composite increases and becomes 0.05 Ωcm for pure CuS. The thermo-emf measurements showed that the as deposited (PbSx(CuS1−x films are of n-type. The water angle contact measurements of (PbSx(CuS1−x, revealed that, films are hydrophilic in nature and it could be advantageous in electrochemical application.

  17. Biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution using green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption characteristics of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution using the green alga (Ulva lactuca) biomass were investigated as a function of pH, biomass dosage, contact time, and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by U. lactuca biomass. Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The monolayer biosorption capacity of U. lactuca biomass for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions was found to be 34.7 mg/g and 29.2 mg/g, respectively. From the D-R isotherm model, the mean free energy was calculated as 10.4 kJ/mol for Pb(II) biosorption and 9.6 kJ/mol for Cd(II) biosorption, indicating that the biosorption of both metal ions was taken place by chemisorption. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔGo, ΔHo and ΔSo) showed that the biosorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions onto U. lactuca biomass was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under examined conditions. Experimental data were also tested in terms of biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics

  18. Ultrasound facilitates the synthesis of potassium hexatitanate and co-intercalation with PbS-CdS nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehati, S; Entezari, M H

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, ultrasonic irradiation was applied for the synthesis of K2Ti6O13 nanobelts and novel nanocomposite (PbS-CdS/Ti6O13) through ion exchanging and co-intercalation processes. Thirty minutes of ultrasonic irradiation caused the formation of pure, uniform potassium hexatitanate with smaller particle size. The incorporation of PbS and CdS nanoparticles into the layers and on the surface of titanate in the presence of ultrasound was done directly, without pre-treatment process and led to the preparation of new nanocomposite. The physicochemical properties of the layered K2Ti6O13 and PbS-CdS/Ti6O13 nanocomposite were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectra (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photoluminescence technique (PL). The results showed that the PbS-CdS/Ti6O13 possessed a higher interlayer spacing than that of K2Ti6O13, which indicated the formation of an intercalated nanomaterial. Besides that the absorption edge of titanate shifted to the visible light region owing to the incorporation of semiconductor guest molecules. These characteristics make these nanocomposites promising for use as photocatalysts. Besides that, other samples were synthesized by stirring method at the same conditions and their characteristics were compared with sono-synthesized samples. PMID:27150781

  19. Effect of incubation temperature and wet-dry cycle on the availabilities of Cd, Pb and Zn in soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Ji-tao; TIAN Bao-guo; WANG Hong-tao

    2006-01-01

    The effect of incubation temperature and wet-dry cycle on the availabilities of Cd, Pb and Zn was studied. Three soils with pH ranging from 3.8 to 7.3, organic carbon (OC) from 0.7% to 2.4%, and clay from 12.3% to 35.6% were selected. Soils were spiked with reagent grade Cd(NO3)2, Pb(NO3)2, and Zn(NO3)2 at concentrations of 30 mg Cd/kg soil, 300 mg Zn/kg soil and 2000 mg Pb/kg soil. The soils were incubated at 35, 60, 105℃, respectively and went through four wet-dry cycles. Metal availability in soils was estimated by soil extraction with 0.1 mol/L Ca(NO3)2. According to this study, the effect of the spiking temperature on the metal availabilities was different among the metals, soils and wet-dry cycles. Mostly, 35℃ was the first recommended spiking temperature for Cd and Pb while no spiking temperature was obviously better than others for Zn. Three wet-dry cycles was recommended regardless of the type of metals and incubation temperature.

  20. Possible double magnetic phase transition in Dy5CuPb3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, V. H.; Gulay, L. D.

    2006-03-01

    We have investigated the magnetic and transport properties of Dy5CuPb3 by magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, magnetoresistance and thermoelectric power measurements. The compound crystallises in the hexagonal Hf5CuSn3-type structure (space group P63/mcm) and probably undergoes two successive magnetic transitions at TC=45.0±0.5 K and TN=6.5±0.5 K. The experimental data are indicative of a ferri- and antiferromagnetic types of the transitions, respectively. We attribute the double magnetic phase transition and the reduction of the magnetisation values at low temperatures to associate with the two non-equivalent magnetic sublattices of the Dy ions. We observed a large magnetoresistance value of -24% at temperatures in between TN and TC. The investigated compound has a negative thermoelectric power of -17 μV/K at 300 K. We interpret the overall behaviour of the S(T)-curve to two different mechanisms: magnetic and charge carrier diffusion.

  1. Electrical and magnetic properties of variously annealed Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting thick films with the nominal composition of Bi1.9Pb0.4Sr1.9Ca2.1Cu3.2O10 were prepared by the screen-printing method, using an oxalate synthesis for making the paste, and different heat treatments for final samples. A large difference in the structural and superconducting properties between the unmelted and melted samples, and small deviations between the melted and variously annealed specimens were observed. In the first case, the structure is determined by randomly distributed small microcrystals, while in the second, by highly orientated big ones, which results in dissimilar electrical and magnetic features. Therefore the magnetic moment and superconducting material ratio are bigger in the unmelted samples, but in the melted ones, the superconductivity can be characterized by much higher electrical and magnetic parameters. In particular, the transport critical current has conspicuously greater values in the melted as compared to the unmelted samples. In some melted specimens a hyperdiamagnetic signal has been found up to 242 K, induced by the fine details of the preparation technique. The simplest possible reason for this is the diamagnetic Cu-O content in the samples. (orig.)

  2. Pb isotope investigations on Cu-Au deposits from Carajas Province, Amazonian craton, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Carajas Province is the most important mineral province of Brazil hosting deposits of iron, copper, gold, manganese, nickel and others. In the last years, discoveries of large Cu-Au deposits in Carajas Province have demonstrated the vocation of this region for such deposits, which are, in general, associated with volcanosedimentary sequences and, in some cases, with Archean and/or Paleoproterozoic granitic instrusions. The age and nature of the deposits, as well as the metal source, are still not well understood. Someone believe that these deposits are volcano-exhalant in nature (e.g. Ferreira Filho, 1985; Vieira et al., 1988; Almada and Villas, 1999), while others propose a hydrothermal source for the ore associated with granitic intrusions (e.g. Winter, 1994; Lindenmayer et al., 1998; Tallarico et al., 2000). This work presents a brief discussion about three Cu-Au deposits from Carajas Basin (Bahia, Aguas Claras, and Pojuca deposits) based on new Pb isotope data on zircon and sulfides carried out in the Para-Iso Laboratory of the University of Para, Brazil (au)

  3. Influence of Pb-rich phases of precursor powder on microstructural evolution in the silver-sheathed (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of Pb-rich phases of precursor powder on microstructural evolution during the first heat treatment of the silver-sheathed (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox ((Bi,Pb)-2223/Ag) superconducting tapes was studied by means of in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Three monofilament tapes were fabricated using precursor powders containing different Pb-rich phases. Sintering was carried out at a fixed temperature of 830 deg. C in 8.5% O2. The phase transitions, structure changes and texture evolution in (Bi,Pb)-2223/Ag tapes were carefully analyzed, and the evolution of different Pb-rich phases, such as Ca2PbO4 and Pb3Sr2.5Bi0.5Ca2CuOy (3321), was discussed. It was found that tapes fabricated using the precursor with the (Bi,Pb)-2212 phase exhibited higher (Bi,Pb)-2223 formation rate than tapes fabricated using the precursors with Pb-rich phases. Texture evolution indicates that texture of the (Bi,Pb)-2212 phase formed in the thermomechanical process depends strongly on the Pb-rich phases of the precursor powders, while the texture of the new formed (Bi,Pb)-2223 grains for all three tapes follows the texture of (Bi,Pb)-2212 grains, and the final (Bi,Pb)-2223 and (Bi,Pb)-2212 textures are approximately identical. A higher texture degree of (Bi,Pb)-2223 grains was achieved in tapes fabricated using the precursors with 3321 or Ca2PbO4 phases.

  4. Efficiency of Chitosan for the Removal of Pb (II, Fe (II and Cu (II Ions from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhanardakani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals have been recognized as harmful environmental pollutant known to produce highly toxic effects on different organs and systems of both humans and animals. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the adsorption potential of chitosan for the removal of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions from aqueous solutions. Methods: This study was conducted in laboratory scale. In this paper chitosan has been used as an adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II from aqueous solution. In batch tests, the effects of parameters like pH solution (1.0-8.0, initial metal concentrations (100-1000 mgL-1, contact time (5.0-150 min and adsorbent dose (1.0-7.0 g on the adsorption process were studied. Results: The results showed that the adsorption of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions on chitosan strongly depends on pH. The experimental isothermal data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich equations and it was found that the removal process followed the Langmuir isotherm and maximum adsorption capacity for the adsorption of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions by the chitosan were 55.5mg g−1, 71.4 mg g−1 and 59 mg g−1, respectively, under equilibrium conditions at 25±1 ºC. The adsorption process was found to be well described by the pseudo-second-order rate model. Conclusion: The obtained results showed that chitosan is a readily, available, economic adsorbent and was found suitable for removing Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions from aqueous solution.

  5. Linking biosensor responses to Cd, Cu and Zn partitioning in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soils bind heavy metals according to fundamental physico-chemical parameters. Bioassays, using bacterial biosensors, were performed in pore waters extracted from 19 contrasting soils individually amended with Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations related to the EU Sewage Sludge Directive. The biosensors were responsive to pore waters extracted from Zn amended soils but less so to those of Cu and showed no toxicity to pore water Cd at these environmentally relevant amended concentrations. Across the range of soils, the solid-solution heavy metal partitioning coefficient (K d) decreased (p d values. Gompertz functions of Cu and Zn, K d values against luminescence explained the relationship between heavy metals and biosensors. Consequently, biosensors provide a link between biologically defined hazard assessments of metals and standard soil-metal physico-chemical parameters for determining critical metal loadings in soils. - Biosensors link biological hazard assessments of metals in soils with physico-chemical partitioning

  6. Chemical reactions at CdS heterojunctions with CuInSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Angel; Rockett, Angus [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, 1304 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    The stability of the CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) heterojunction is critical to understanding the projected lifetime of CIS devices and the effect of processing conditions on the nanoscale chemistry of the heterojunction. This article reports the results of annealing heterojunctions between CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and single crystal and polycrystalline CIS films between 200 and 500 Degree-Sign C for 10 to 150 min. No atomic movement was observed by secondary ion mass spectrometry at temperatures of 300 Degree-Sign C and below. At 400 Degree-Sign C even for the shortest time studied, Cu and In were found throughout the region initially consisting of CdS only and Cd was found to have moved into the CIS. In the polycrystal, annealing at 500 Degree-Sign C resulted in movement of Cd throughout the CIS layer. No time dependence was observed in the 400 and 500 Degree-Sign C anneals indicating that a reaction had occurred forming a compound that was in thermodynamic equilibrium with the remaining CIS. Diffusion turns on rapidly between 300 and 400 Degree-Sign C, indicating a high activation energy for atomic movement ({approx}2.4 eV). The onset of diffusion is consistent with the onset of Cu diffusion in CIS.

  7. Synchrotron-radiation photoemission study of CdS/CuInSe sub 2 heterojunction formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.J.; Gebhard, S. (Solar Energy Research Institute, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO (USA)); Rockett, A. (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (USA)); Colavita, E. (Department of Physics, University of Calabria, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy)); Engelhardt, M.; Hoechst, H. (Synchrotron Radiation Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Stoughton, WI (USA))

    1990-10-15

    Synchrotron-radiation soft-x-ray photoemission spectroscopy was used to investigate the development of the electronic structure at the CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} heterojunction interface. CdS overlayers were deposited in steps on single-crystal {ital p}- and {ital n}-type CuInSe{sub 2} at 250 {degree}C. Results indicate that the CdS grows in registry with the substrate, initially in a two-dimensional growth mode followed by three-dimensional island growth as is corroborated by reflection high-energy electron-diffraction analysis. Photoemission measurements were acquired after each growth in order to observe changes in the valence-band electronic structure as well as changes in the In 4{ital d}, Se 3{ital d}, Cd 4{ital d}, and S 2{ital p} core lines. The results were used to correlate the interface chemistry with the electronic structure at these interfaces and to directly determine the CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} heterojunction valence-band discontinuity and the consequent heterojunction band diagram. These results show that the Katnani-Margaritondo method is unreliable in determining offsets for heterojunctions where significant Fermi-level pinning may occur and where the local structure and chemistry of the interface depends strongly on the specific heterojunction.

  8. Contents and leachability of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Sb, Zn, As) in soil at the Pantex firing range, Amarillo, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basunia, S; Landsberger, S

    2001-10-01

    Pantex firing range soil samples were analyzed for Pb, Cu, Sb, Zn, and As. One hundred ninety-seven samples were collected from the firing range and vicinity area. There was a lack of knowledge about the distribution of Pb in the firing range, so a random sampling with proportional allocation was chosen. Concentration levels of Pb and Cu in the firing range were found to be in the range of 11-4675 and 13-359 mg/kg, respectively. Concentration levels of Sb were found to be in the range of 1-517 mg/kg. However, the Zn and As concentration levels were close to average soil background levels. The Sn concentration level was expected to be higher in the Pantex firing range soil samples. However, it was found to be below the neutron activation analysis (NAA) detection limit of 75 mg/kg. Enrichment factor analysis showed that Pb and Sb were highly enriched in the firing range with average magnitudes of 55 and 90, respectively. Cu was enriched approximately 6 times more than the usual soil concentration levels. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was carried out on size-fractionated homogeneous soil samples. The concentration levels of Pb in leachates were found to be approximately 12 times higher than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory concentration level of 5 mg/L. Sequential extraction (SE) was also performed to characterize Pb and other trace elements into five different fractions. The highest Pb fraction was found with organic matter in the soil. PMID:11686247

  9. Compositional Change of the Au-Cu2Te Contact for Thin-Film CdS/CdTe Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Seiji; Sonomura, Hajimu

    1990-03-01

    The stability of thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cells with evaporated Au-Cu2Te contacts to the CdTe film has been investigated. A decrease in conversion efficiency due to an increase in series resistance was observed in the solar cells stored in air at room temperature for 120 days. The increase in series resistance is caused by an increase in contact resistance resulting from the compositional change in the Au-Cu2Te contact to the CdTe film.

  10. Enhanced photocurrent ZnO/CdS/CuInSe/sub 2/ solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, R.R.

    1986-02-01

    The short-wavelength spectral response of a thin film CuInSe/sub 2/ device is improved by a thin (less than 500 A) undoped CdS layer and a 1 micron ZnO conducting window layer. The ZnO acts as an antireflection coating and permits photons of wavelength above 360 nm to be absorbed in the CuInSe/sub 2/. A 25-percent photocurrent enhancement is measured for comparable devices. Total area efficiencies over 9 percent are achieved under AM 1.5 illumination. Current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, and spectral response data are discussed. The data indicate that device properties are similar to devices with (In)CdS window layers. A reverse bias breakdown with long time constants is observed. Deep states in the thin CdS layer may be responsible.

  11. Enhanced photocurrent ZnO/CdS/CuInSe/sub 2/ solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, R.R.

    1986-01-15

    The short-wavelength spectral response of a thin film CuInSe/sub 2/ device is improved by a thin (<500 A) undoped CdS layer and a 1 ..mu..m ZnO conducting window layer. The ZnO acts as an antireflection coating and permits photons of wavelength above 360 nm to be absorbed in the CuInSe/sub 2/. A 25% photocurrent enhancement is measured for comparable devices. Total area efficiencies over 9% are achieved under AM 1.5 illumination. Current-voltage, capacitance-voltage and spectral response data are discussed and indicate that device properties are similar to devices with (In) CdS window layers. A reverse bias breakdown with long time constants is observed. Deep states in the thin CdS layer may be responsible.

  12. Thin film CdS/Cu/sub 2/S solar cells by chemical spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, J.F.

    1976-12-15

    This project involves further work on a process developed to make very thin film CdS/Cu/sub 2/S solar cells. The process is adapted to the float glass process and consists of spraying suitable chemicals on a moving ribbon of glass which floats on a bath of molten metal. The spraying produces the necessary thin films (with suitable optical and electrical properties) of SnO/sub 2/, CdS and Cu/sub 2/S. The CdS films produced are two to three microns thick, thus conserving the use of cadmium. The estimated cost per peak watt is approximately 7 cents (1975 costs) at 5 percent efficiency and an output of 37.6 x 10/sup 6/ square meters annually. The cells are blackwall cells. A float glass plant modified for the process is shown schematically. Research progress is described.

  13. A facile synthesis and spectral characterization of Cu2+ doped CdO/ZnS nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce Stella, R.; Thirumala Rao, G.; Babu, B.; Pushpa Manjari, V.; Reddy, Ch. Venkata; Shim, Jaesool; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.

    2015-06-01

    A facile two-step method is demonstrated for the preparation of Cu2+ doped CdO/ZnS nanocomposite. Systematic investigations like X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL) and magnetic studies are carried out for the prepared material. From powder XRD, the nanocomposites are comprised for cubic phase of both CdO and ZnS in a close contact with each other. The ground state wave function of dopant ions has been estimated from EPR studies. Optical and EPR data confirm that doped Cu2+ions occupy rhombically distorted octahedral sites with the host material. Due to doping, band gap has been changed and blue shifts occurred in PL. Magnetic measurements indicate a possible ferromagnetic response, associated to the exchange interaction between local spin-polarized electrons of Cu2+ ions and conductive electrons. The magnetic properties of Cu2+ doped CdO/ZnS nanocomposite has been investigated using vibrating sample magnetometer given as magnetization and hysteresis (M-H) curve. The magnetization curve with noticeable coercivity of M-H loop clearly indicate the existence of ferromagnetic ordering in Cu2+ doped CdO/ZnS nanocomposite at room temperature. According to the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) theory, the exchange interaction between local spin-polarized electrons (such as the electrons of Cu2+ ions) and conductive electrons is the main cause that leads to the ferromagnetism. Coercivity (Hc) of the field is about 98 Oe, saturationmagnetization (Ms) and remnant magnetization (Mr) of present sample is estimated to be 15.8×10-3 and 1.43×10-3 emu/g respectively. The ferromagnetism observed in the prepared material is not commencing with other impurities but expected to be intrinsic.

  14. Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb distribution in biosolid pellets used as soil amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, Manuel M.; Rincón-Mora, Beatriz; Belén Almendro-Candel, María; Navarro Pedreño, Jose; Gómez Lucas, Ignacio; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria; Pardo, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The application of biosolids to a soil is a method that offers important benefits (Navarro et al. 2003). The transport and application costs are quite low (mostly if they are dehydrated biosolids or pellets) if soils are located near a wastewater treatment plant. It is possible to recycle nutrients (N, P, and K) and organic matter by improving the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and by reducing the fertilizer costs. However, the use of biosolids may also has several problems, such as the presence of quantities of metals that could be toxic for plants or could contaminate ground-waters after being leached. Heavy metals are one of the most serious environmental pollutants because of its high toxicity, abundance and easy accumulation by plant (Soriano-Disla et al. 2014; Rosen and Chen 2014). Contamination of soils by potentially toxic elements (e.g. Cd, Ni, Cr, Pb) from amendments of biosolids is subject to rigorous controls within the European Union. The present study was designed to examine the partition of selected heavy metals in biosolid pellets, and also to relate the distribution patterns of these metals. Samples were collected from the treatment of urban wastewater at the drying grounds of a wastewater processing plant. The samples correspond to biosolids with humidities below 20% and are representative of the three horizons within the pile: the isolation surface (H1), the mesophilous area (H2), and the thermophilous area (H3). Biosolid aggregates were placed in a pellet press and then compacted. Total content of metals was determined following microwave digestion and analysed by ICP/MS. Triplicate samples were weighed in polycarbonate centrifuge tubes and sequentially extracted. The distribution of chemical forms of Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb in the biosolids was studied using a sequential extraction procedure that fractionates the metal into soluble-exchangeable, specifically sorbed-carbonate bound, oxidizable, reducible, and residual forms. The

  15. Distribution of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn in redox features of mine-waste impacted wetland soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strawn, Daniel G.; Hickey, Patrick J.; McDaniel, Paul A.; Baker, Leslie L. [Idaho Univ., Moscow (United States). Soil and Land Resources Div.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Wetland soils of the Coeur d'Alene (CdA) River Basin of northern Idaho, USA are contaminated with toxic elements released during mining activities. In this paper, we report results from a multi-scale investigation of total As, Cd, Pb, and Zn distributions along a transect of these contaminated soils. Materials and methods: Four sites along an 80-m transect were established at the Black Rock Slough wetland in CdA River Basin. The elevation difference between the upslope and lowland site was 1.1 m. Soils were sampled from three depths, down to 45 cm. Redoximorphic features were isolated from the soils and categorized into five types of cemented particles, and Fe-enriched and depleted soil masses. Soils and isolated soil separates were analyzed for total elemental concentration. Results and discussion: Within soil profiles, contaminants are enriched in surface horizons as compared to the original depositional profiles. Enrichment was more dramatic in the upland sites than the lowland sites. Fe-enriched masses that ranged in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters were also enriched in As, Pb, and Zn. At the smallest scale investigated, five different soil aggregate types ranging in size from 1 to 2 mm in diameter had distinct contaminant associations: Fe-cemented aggregates were elevated in As and Zn; Mn-cemented aggregates had more than five times as much Pb as the bulk soil; root channels were elevated in As; and charcoal particles were elevated in all contaminants, particularly Pb and Cd. Conclusions: Results show that in wetland soils pedogenic processes differentially distribute contaminants amongst the redoximorphic features. The distribution is affected by landscape position and water table influence. At the pedon scale, there is an enrichment of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn in surface horizons, suggesting that upward flux of contaminants is occurring. This contaminant redistribution should be considered in design of management and remediation

  16. Sorption processes and XRD analysis of a natural zeolite exchanged with Pb2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the Pb2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ adsorption capacity of a natural zeolite was evaluated in batch tests at a constant pH of 5.5 by polluting this mineral with solutions containing increasing concentrations of the three cations to obtain adsorption isotherms. In addition X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the changes of zeolite structure caused by the exchange with cations of different ionic radius. The zeolite adsorption capacity for the three cations was Zn > Pb > Cd. Moreover a sequential extraction procedure [H2O, 0.05 M Ca(NO3)2 and 0.02 M EDTA] was applied to zeolite samples used in the adsorption experiments to determine the chemical form of the cations bound to the sorbent. Using this approach it was shown that low concentrations of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ were present as water-soluble and exchangeable fractions (27% of the Me adsorbed). The XRD pattern of zeolite, analysed according to the Rietveld method, showed that the main mineralogical phase involved in the adsorption process was clinoptilolite. Besides structure information showed that the incorporation of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+, into the zeolite frameworks changed slightly but appreciably the lattice parameters. XRD analysis also showed the occurrence of some isomorphic substitution phenomena where the Al3+ ions of the clinoptilolite framework were replaced by exchanged Pb2+ cations in the course of the ion exchange reaction. This mechanism was instead less evident in the patterns of the samples doped with Cd2+ and Zn2+ cations

  17. Assessment of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb levels in beach and dune sands from Havana resorts, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O

    2015-11-15

    Concentrations of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in beach and dune sands from thirteen Havana (Cuba) resorts were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Determined mean metal contents (in mg·kg(-1)) in beach sand samples were 28±12 for Ni, 35±12 for Cu, 31±11 for Zn and 6.0±1.8 for Pb, while for dune sands were 30±15, 38±22, 37±15 and 6.8±2.9, respectively. Metal-to-iron normalization shows moderately severe and severe enrichment by Cu. The comparison with sediment quality guidelines shows that dune sands from various resorts must be considered as heavily polluted by Cu and Ni. Almost in every resort, the Ni and Cu contents exceed their corresponding TEL values and, in some resorts, the Ni PEL value. The comparison with a Havana topsoil study indicates the possible Ni and Cu natural origin.

  18. Determination of Cd and Pb in fruit juice, bottled tea, condiments and dried fish samples using ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica Angeline Dimaya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Metals like cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb are introduced in the environment through natural processes and anthropogenic activities and may end up being present in food, where these metals may pose health risks. A method suitable for the simultaneous determination of Cd and Pb in various matrices of foodstuffs was validated and applied to different samples including fruit juice, bottled iced tea, several types of condiments, and in edible tissues of dried f ish locally produced in the Philippines. Fruit juice and bottled iced tea samples were filtered prior to quantif ication of metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Condiments and dried f ish samples were mineralized using microwave-assisted nitric acid digestion before subsequent metal detection with ICP-MS. The method was validated usingcer tif ied reference materials DORM 3 and NIST 1643e, and evaluation of recovery of spiked samples. The method was linear in the concentration range 0.01 to 500μg L-1 with correlation coeff icients of 0.999 for both analytes. The estimated detection limits were 0.060 μgL-1 and 0.186 μgL-1 for Cd and Pb, respectively. The determined levels of Cdin fruit juice were in the range 0.06 ± 0.01 to 0.67 ± 0.01 μgL-1, and Pb was detected in only one sample at 0.37 ± 0.02μgL-1. For the bottled iced tea samples, Cd was detected in only one sample (0.13 ± 0.02 μgL-1 while none of the samples had detectable Pb concentration. For the condiments, the determined Cd levels were in the range 0.83 ± 0.06 to 306.13 ± 2.52μgL-1, whereas, the determined Pb levels were in the range 2.14 ± 0.38 to 67.45 ± 7.76μgL-1. For the dried fish samples, the Cd levels determined were in the range 2.00 ± 0.21 to 231.67 ± 5.32 μg kg-1 and that for Pb were in the range 2.38 ± 0.70 to 113.29 ± 2.25 μg kg-1. These determined levels in different foodstuffs highlight the need for routine monitoring of these contaminants.

  19. Characterization of cadmium biosorption by Exiguobacterium sp. isolated from farmland soil near Cu-Pb-Zn mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2016-06-01

    Bacteria have the ability to bind heavy metals on their cell wall. Biosorption is a passive and energy-independent mechanism to adsorb heavy metals. The efficiency of heavy metal biosorption can vary depending on several factors such as the growth phase of bacteria, solution pH, and existence of competitive heavy metals. In this study, Exiguobacterium sp. isolated from farmland soil near a mine site were used, and optimal conditions for Cd biosorption in solution were investigated. As bacterial growth progressed, Cd biosorption increased, which is attributed to changes in the structure and composition of the cell wall during bacterial growth. The biosorption process was rapid and was completed within 30 min. Cadmium biosorption was highest at pH 7 due to the dissociation of hydrogen ions and the increase of negative charges with increasing pH. In the mixed metal solution of Cd, Pb, and Zn, the amount of biosorption was in the order of Pb>Cd>Zn while in a single metal solution, the order was Cd≥Pb>Zn. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cd by the isolated bacteria was 15.6 mg/g biomass, which was calculated from the Langmuir isotherm model. Different adsorption efficiencies under various environmental conditions indicate that, to control metal mobility, the conditions for biosorption should be optimized before applying bacteria. The results showed that the isolated bacteria can be used to immobilize metals in metal-contaminated wastewater.

  20. Characterization of cadmium biosorption by Exiguobacterium sp. isolated from farmland soil near Cu-Pb-Zn mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2016-06-01

    Bacteria have the ability to bind heavy metals on their cell wall. Biosorption is a passive and energy-independent mechanism to adsorb heavy metals. The efficiency of heavy metal biosorption can vary depending on several factors such as the growth phase of bacteria, solution pH, and existence of competitive heavy metals. In this study, Exiguobacterium sp. isolated from farmland soil near a mine site were used, and optimal conditions for Cd biosorption in solution were investigated. As bacterial growth progressed, Cd biosorption increased, which is attributed to changes in the structure and composition of the cell wall during bacterial growth. The biosorption process was rapid and was completed within 30 min. Cadmium biosorption was highest at pH 7 due to the dissociation of hydrogen ions and the increase of negative charges with increasing pH. In the mixed metal solution of Cd, Pb, and Zn, the amount of biosorption was in the order of Pb>Cd>Zn while in a single metal solution, the order was Cd≥Pb>Zn. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cd by the isolated bacteria was 15.6 mg/g biomass, which was calculated from the Langmuir isotherm model. Different adsorption efficiencies under various environmental conditions indicate that, to control metal mobility, the conditions for biosorption should be optimized before applying bacteria. The results showed that the isolated bacteria can be used to immobilize metals in metal-contaminated wastewater. PMID:26951224

  1. CuO nanostructures grown by the SILAR method: Influence of Pb-doping on the morphological, structural and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayansal, F., E-mail: fbayansal@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Gülen, Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Marmara University, İstanbul (Turkey); Şahin, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Kahraman, S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Çetinkara, H.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • CuO nanostructures with Pb-doping by the SILAR method is reported for the first time. • CuO nanostructures of different morphologies were grown by different Pb ratios. • E{sub g} values of the films can be altered by changing Pb doping concentrations. - Abstract: CuO nanostructures with and without Pb were synthesized by the Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction method. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the morphology of the film surface was changed from plate-like to coral-like nanostructures with increasing Pb concentration. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed the monoclinic crystal structure with preferential planes of (1{sup ¯}11) and (1 1 1). Furthermore, ultraviolet–visible spectra showed that the band gap of the films was tailored by Pb doping.

  2. CuO nanostructures grown by the SILAR method: Influence of Pb-doping on the morphological, structural and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CuO nanostructures with Pb-doping by the SILAR method is reported for the first time. • CuO nanostructures of different morphologies were grown by different Pb ratios. • Eg values of the films can be altered by changing Pb doping concentrations. - Abstract: CuO nanostructures with and without Pb were synthesized by the Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction method. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the morphology of the film surface was changed from plate-like to coral-like nanostructures with increasing Pb concentration. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed the monoclinic crystal structure with preferential planes of (1¯11) and (1 1 1). Furthermore, ultraviolet–visible spectra showed that the band gap of the films was tailored by Pb doping

  3. Atmospheric Deposition-Carried Pb,Zn,and Cd from a Zinc Smelter and Their Effect on Soil Microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuan-Gen; JIN Zhi-Sheng; BI Xiang-Yang; LI Fei-Li; SUN Li; LIU Jie; FU Zhi-You

    2009-01-01

    Dust emissions from smelters,as a major contributor to heavy metal contamination in soils,could severely influence soil quality.Downwind surface soils within 1.5 km of a zinc smelter,which was active for 10 years but ceased in 2000,in Magu Town,Guizhou Province,China were selected to examine Pb,Zn,and Cd concentrations and their fractionation along a distance gradient from a zinc smelter,and to study the possible effects of Pb,Zn,and Cd accumulation on soil microorganisms by comparing with a reference soil located at a downwind distance of 10 km from the zinc smelter.Soils within 1.5 km of the zinc smelter accumulated high levels of heavy metals Zn (508 mg kg-1),Pb (95.6 mg kg-1),and Cd (5.98 mg kg-2) with low ratios of Zn/Cd (59.1-115) and Pb/Cd (12.4-23.4).Composite pollution indices (CPIs) of surface soils (2.52-15.2) were 3 to 13 times higher than the reference soils.In metal accumulated soils,exchangeable plus carbonate-bound fractions accounted for more than 10% of the total Zn,Pb,and Cd.The saturation degree of metals (SDM) in soils within 1.5 km of the smelter (averaging 1.25) was six times higher than that of the reference soils (0.209).A smaller soil microbial biomass was found more frequently in metal accumulated soils (85.1-438 μg C g-1) than in reference soils (497 μg C g-1),and a negative correlation (P < 0.01) of soil microbial biomass carbon to organic carbon ratio (Cmic/Corg) with SDM was observed.Microbial consumption of carbon sources was more rapid in contaminated soils than in reference soils,and a shift in the substrate utilization pattern was apparent and was negatively correlated with SDM (R =-0.773,P < 0.01).Consequently,dust deposited Pb,Zn,and Cd in soils from zinc smelting were readily mobilized,and were detrimental to soil quality mainly in respect of microbial biomass.

  4. Compositional and electrical analysis of the multilayers of a CdS/CuInSe/sub 2/ solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noufi, R.; Dick, J.

    1985-11-15

    The compositional profiles and the electrical properties of the bilayers of CdS and CuInSe/sub 2/ films in CdS/CuInSe/sub 2/ solar cells are presented and compared with those of the individual layers alone. The CuInSe/sub 2/ bilayer shows that the two individual layers have mixed, except for the last-to-deposit 0.2--0.4 ..mu..m, which is semi-insulating and copper poor. This bilayer remains p type and highly resistive during the cell processing steps. The CdS bilayer consists of an almost stoichiometric layer close to the junction and a top In-doped low-resistivity layer. The CdS/CuInSe/sub 2/ may possibly operate as a P-S-N device, where the S layer is defined largely by a semi-insulating CuInSe/sub 2/ layer.

  5. [Study on Contents and Budgets of Cu, Zn and Cd in an Arable Soil Using AAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Jiang, Chun-ming; Ma, Qiang; Zhou, Hua; Xu, Yong-gang; Yu, Wan-tai

    2015-12-01

    Based on a long-term experiment in Shenyang Experimental Station, the effect of manure application on the contents and budgets of Cu, Zn and Cd in the arable soil was studied. The experiment included four treatments: no mature addition (CK), mature addition 10 t · ha⁻¹ year⁻¹(M1), 25 t · ha⁻¹ year⁻¹ (M2), and 50 t · ha⁻¹ year⁻¹(M3). The result showed that Cu, Zn and Cd in soil were accumulated with manure application and prolongation of experiment, and the accumulative magnitude increased with increasing of manure application. The average annual growth rates of the heavy metals in the four treatments (CK, M1, M2, M3) were 2.83%, 6.56%, 7.54%, 8.96%; 0.03%, 3.44%, 4.53%, 6.64% and 1.51%, 8.01%, 10. 27%, 16. 08% for Cu, Zn and Cd, respectively. After six years of the experiment, the content of Cd in the M3 treatment was quite close to the threshold of Chinese Soil Quality Standard Grade III (1 mg · kg⁻¹, GB15618-1995). After 12 years of the experiment, the contents of Cu in the mature-amended treatments fell in the Chinese Soil Quality Standard Grade III, which should be paid more attention. Although the heavy metals in soil were gradually accumulated, the Cu, Zn and Cd levels in crop grain were still below the National Food Contamination Standards (GB2762-2005; GB13106-91; GB15199-94), indicating the contents of heavy metals in crop produced from contaminated soil might not exceed the corresponding standards. The contents of Cu, Zn and Cd in the straw were much greater than those in the grain. The removal of heavy metal by crop was in the order of M3 > M2 > M1 > CK. The average amounts of Cu, Zn and Cd annually removed from the soil in the four treatments (CK, M1, M2 and M3) were 35.68, 47.80, 63.65, 69.64; 249.14, 375.22, 375.16, 444.44, and 0.83, 1.39, 1.64, 1.66 g · ha⁻¹, respectively. The contents of heavy metals in organic manure varied in different years: the contents of Cu and Zn increased year by year, while Cd presented a

  6. Preparation, processing and tunneling in YBa2Cu3O(7-[delta])-Pb native-barrier structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frangi, F.; Dwir, B.; James, J. H.; Gauzzi, A.; Pavuna, D. (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland). Institute of Micro- and Optoelectonics)

    1993-06-15

    In this study, a procedure for the preparation of small (40[times]40[mu]m[sup 2]) window-type YBa2Cu3O(7-[delta])-Pb junctions with YSZ (yttrium-stabilized zirconium-oxide) insulator and native tunnel barrier has been developed. This paper presents the patterning technique of the two electrodes based on photolithography and wet etching. From the device characteristics, the nature of the barrier was found to be semiconducting. The tunneling I-V curves showed a behavior dominated by the Pb gap at 1.3 meV below 7.2 K. The dI/dV curve also showed an additional feature at 5.3 meV, which disappeared above Tc of Pb, and was attributed to longitudinal Pb phonons. Furthermore, another structure at 8.5 meV that persisted at temperatures above the critical temperature of Pb was attributed to the YBa2Cu3O(7-[delta]) gap. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Rapid and nondestructive measurement of labile Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and As in DGT by using field portable-XRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Williams, Paul N; Zhang, Hao

    2013-09-01

    The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is often employed to quantify labile metals in situ; however, it is a challenge to perform the measurements in-field. This study evaluated the capability of field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) to swiftly generate elemental speciation information with DGT. Biologically available metal ions in environmental samples passively preconcentrate in the thin films of DGT devices, providing an ideal and uniform matrix for XRF nondestructive detection. Strong correlation coefficients (r > 0.992 for Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and As) were obtained for all elements during calibration. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) for the investigated elements of FP-XRF on DGT devices are 2.74 for Mn, 4.89 for Cu, 2.89 for Zn, 2.55 for Pb, and 0.48 for As (unit: μg cm(-2)). When Pb and As co-existed in the solution trials, As did not interfere with Pb detection when using Chelex-DGT. However, there was a significant enhancement of the Pb reading attributed to As when ferrihydrite binding gels were tested, consistent with Fe-oxyhydroxide surfaces absorbing large quantities of As. This study demonstrates the value of the FP-XRF technique to rapidly and nondestructively detect the metals accumulated in DGT devices, providing a new and simple diagnostic tool for on-site environmental monitoring of labile metals/metalloids. PMID:23912422

  8. The influence of temperature on creep behavior of Cu particle enhanced SnPb based composite soldered joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Yanfu; Yan Hongxing; Chen Fuxiao; Zhang Keke; Zhu Jinhong

    2007-01-01

    Creep property of solder alloys is one of the important factors to affect the reliability of soldered joints in SMT(surface mount technology). Particle-enhancement is a way to improve the properties of solder alloys and has caused much more attention than before. Temperatures applied to soldered joints are one of the primary factors of affecting creep properties of particle enhancement composite soldered joints. In this paper single shear lap creep specimens with a 1 mm2 cross-sectional area were fabricated using Cu particle enhancement 63Sn37Pb based composite soldered joints and 63Sn37Pb eutectic soldered joints to examine the influence of temperature on creep behavior of soldered joints. Results indicated that the creep resistance of soldered joints of Cu particle enhancement 63Sn37Pb based composite soldered joint was generally superior to that of the conventional 63Sn37Pb soldered joint. At the same time, creep rupture life of the composite soldered joint was declined with increasing temperature and drop faster than that of the conventional 63Sn37Pb eutectic soldered joint.

  9. Thermally-restorable optical degradation and the mechanism of current transport in Cu2S-CdS photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbruch, A. L.; Bube, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    The photovoltaic properties of single-crystal Cu2S-CdS heterojunctions have been investigated as a function of heat treatment by detailed measurements of the dependence of short-circuit current on photon energy, temperature, and the state of optical degradation or enhancement. A coherent picture is formulated for the relationship between enhancement and optical degradation, and their effect on the transport of short-circuit photoexcited current and dark, forward-bias current in the cell. Optical degradation in the Cu2S-CdS cell is shown to be closely identical to optical degradation of lifetime in a homogeneous CdS:Cd:Cu crystal, indicating that the CdS:Cu layer near the junction interface controls carrier transport in the cell. It is proposed that both the photoexcited short-circuit current and the dark, forward-bias current are controlled by a tunneling-recombination process through interface states.

  10. Applying Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin models in Cu and Pb soil sorption experiments Uso de los modelos de Freundlich, Langmuir y Temkin en experimentos de sorción de Cu y Pb en suelos Aplicação dos modelos de Freundlich, Langmuir e Temkin em ensaios de sorção de Cu e Pb no solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Vega

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available

    In acid soils, inputs of Cu and Pb of various origins create a high risk of environmental pollution. For this reason, batch experiments on Cu and Pb sorption and desorption in various horizons of three acid soils were performed on soil pH with 0.01 M NaNO3 as background electrolyte. The objectives were to evaluate Cu and Pb sorption and retention capacity through the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin equations parameters fitted to the sorption/desorption data; to determine the coherence of the implications of these parameters; and to estimate the role of various soil characteristics in the Cu and Pb immobilization soil capacity. The results confirmed the suitability of the models parameters for studying Cu and Pb sorption and retention by acid soils. The greatest maximum sorption and retention capacities, indicated by the Langmuir parameter ßL, corresponded to the lowest energy values required for fixation, indicated by the Temkin parameter b’. Together with the Freundlich parameter KF, which indicates sorption and retention capacity, they made it possible to infer that the acid soil component that most influences Cu and Pb immobilization was the organic matter, followed by the Al-oxide content. High organic matter and Al-oxide contents, especially the former, gave rise to a lower energy requirement for the immobilization of metal cations, since they increased the soils’ sorption and retention capacities. Al3+, the dominant cation in the exchange complex in the horizons studied, and K+ are responsible for the influence of CECe on Cu and Pb immobilization in the acid soils studied.

    El aporte de Cu y Pb a través de diversas fuentes a suelos ácidos supone un alto riesgo de contaminación medioambiental. Por ello, usando el método batch y con NaNO3 0,01 M como electrolito de fondo, se llevaron a cabo, al

  11. Characteristics analyses of growth and metal ions accumulation of Iris sanguinea under single and combination stresses of Pb and Cd%Pb和Cd单一及复合胁迫条件下溪荪(Iris sanguinea)生长及金属离子积累特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸿燕; 黄苏珍; 原海燕; 陈晓萱; 马万荣

    2011-01-01

    采用水培法,对Pb和Cd单一及复合胁迫(500 mg·L-1Pb、25 mg·L-1 Cd、500 mg·L-1pb-25 mg·L-1Cd)条件下溪荪(Iris sanguinea Donn ex Horn.)幼苗不同部分的生长及Pb、Cd、Zn、Cu、K和Na积累状况进行了研究.结果显示:在Pb单一胁迫条件下,溪荪幼苗地下部分干质量较对照降低了18.2%,地上部分干质量和耐性指数均与对照无显著差异;在Cd单一胁迫条件下,地下部分与地上部分的干质量较对照分别降低了16.4%和14.1%,耐性指数降低了7%;在Pb-Cd复合胁迫条件下,溪荪幼苗不同部分的干质量以及耐性指数均与对照无显著差异.在Pb单一及Pb-Cd复合胁迫条件下,幼苗不同部分的Pb含量均明显高于对照,Pb单一胁迫处理组幼苗地上部分和地下部分的Pb含量分别比Pb-Cd复合胁迫处理组高19.8%和16.0%.在Cd单一及Pb-Cd复合胁迫条件下,幼苗不同部分的Cd含量均明显高于对照,Pb-Cd复合胁迫处理组幼苗地上部分和地下部分的Cd含量分别为Cd单一胁迫处理组的2.02和5.74倍.经Pb和Cd单一及复合胁迫后,幼苗不同部分的Zn、Cu和Na含量均明显高于对照,而K含量则低于对照;地上部分的Zn、K和Na含量均高于地下部分,但Cu含量在幼苗不同部分的变化趋势则有所不同.比较结果表明:Pb-Cd复合胁迫对溪荪幼苗的Pb积累有促进作用、对Cd积累有抑制作用,表现出拮抗作用;溪荪对Pb胁迫的耐性相对更强,对Pb和Cd及其他金属元素有一定的积累能力,可用于Pb污染环境尤其是湿地Pb污染环境的修复.%The status of growth and accumulations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, K and Na in different parts of Iris sanguinea Donn ex Horn, under single and combination stresses of Pb and Cd (500 mg · L"1 Pb, 25 mg · L~' Cd, 500 mg · L"'Pb-25 mg · L"'Cd) were studied by water culture method. The results show that dry weight of under-ground part under Pb single stress decreases by 18. 2% compared with the

  12. Swift heavy ion irradiation effect on Cu-doped CdS nanocrystals embedded in PMMA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shweta Agrawal; Subodh Srivastava; Sumit Kumar; S S Sharma; B Tripathi; M Singh; Y K Vijay

    2009-12-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have received much interest for their optical and electronic properties. When these NCs dispersed in polymer matrix, brightness of the light emission is enhanced due to their quantum dot size. The CdCuS NCs have been synthesized by chemical route method and then dispersed in PMMA matrix. These nanocomposite polymer films were irradiated by swift heavy ion (SHI) (100 MeV, Si+7 ions beam) at different fluences of 1 × 1010 and 1 × 1012 ions/cm2 and then compared their structural and optical properties by XRD, atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence, and UV-Vis spectroscopy before and after irradiation. The XRD spectra showed a broad hump around 2 ≈ 11.83° due to amorphous PMMA and other peaks corresponding to hexagonal structure of CdS nanocrystals in PMMA matrix. The photoluminescence spectra shows a broad peak at 530 nm corresponding to green emission due to Cu impurities in CdS. The UV-Vis measurement showed red shift in optical absorption and bandgap changed from 4.38–3.60 eV as the irradiation fluency increased with respect to pristine CdCuS nanocomposite polymer film.

  13. Effect of Heavy Metals (Cd, Cu) on the Gametophytes of Laminaria japonica Aresch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nai-Hao YE; Guang-Ce WANG; Cheng-Kui TSENG

    2005-01-01

    Effects of various concentrations of two heavy metals, namely Cd and Cu, on gametophytes of Laminariajaponica Aresch were determined by recording morphological changes of gametophytes, determining pH values and the heavy metal content of the culture solution, calculating the germination rate of sporophytes, and observing heavy metal (Cd) distribution using a fluorescence microscope. The results showed that heavy metals damaged the gametophytes, and were even lethal, and that the higher the concentration of heavy metal ions, the greater the injury to gametophytes. Gametophytes could not survive in culture solutions containing more than 100 mg/L Cd and 50 mg/L Cu and were only able to survive in culture solution containing a mixture of Cd and Cu up to a concentration of 10 mg/L, which indicates that gametophytes have a higher tolerance to Cd than Cu and that multiple heavy metal ions in solution markedly aggravate the damage to gametophytes compared with individual heavy metal ions. With increases in the concentration of the heavy metal, the burgeoning rate of sporophytes decreased acutely, and solutions containing multiple heavy metal ions caused even more marked harm to sporophytes than solutions containing a single heavy metal ion, because most sporophytes died in mixed solutions. The pH value of the culture medium dropped immediately at the beginning (the first day) of treatment, increased over the following days, and then decreased again. The pH of culture media containing multiple heavy metal ions showed greater variation than media containing a single heavy metal ion, with the extent of the decrease in pH of culture media containing multiple ions being greatest during the last period of the experiment. With increases in the concentration of heavy metals, the capacity of gametophytes to accumulate these ions increased. The blue fluorescent light emitted by the Cd- and Cd-binding protein complex existing in gametophytes in media containing different

  14. XPS analysis of CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, Yasunori; Nakada, Tokio; Kunioka, Akio [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-13

    CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) heterojunctions were investigated by XPS analysis. An In-excess layer which may form an ordered vacancy compound (OVC) was present at the as-deposited CIS surface and it remained after chemical bath deposition of a CdS layer. The In-excess layer was removed by preferential etching with NH{sub 3} aqueous solution. This result implies that the surface of the as-deposited CIS film was converted from the OVC with n-type conductivity into the CIS with p-type by NH{sub 3} treatment. The conduction band offsets at the CdS/p-CIS and CdS/n-OVC were determined to be 1.0 and 0.3 eV, respectively. The CIS solar cells fabricated with n-OVC surface layer exhibited higher cell efficiencies than those fabricated with p-CIS surface layer

  15. Polycrystalline semiconductor heterojunction modeling (CdS/CuInSe/sub 2/)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeer, K.W.

    1986-01-15

    The solution curves of the complete set of transport, continuity and Poisson equations for the CdS/CuInSe/sub 2/ solar cell are analyzed. They show high saturation currents, however, combined with low open-circuit voltage and fill factors. The losses responsible for the low open-circuit voltage are caused by high junction recombination near V/sub oc/ due to the strong optical absorption close to the junction interface in the direct band gap CuInSe/sub 2/ with little light penetrating towards the back electrode. A consequently stepwise parameter variation identifies the importance of an increase in minority carrier life and acceptor density in the CuInSe/sub 2/ which, when combined, improves V/sub oc/ from 350 to more than 500 mV. A shift of the junction away from the CdS/CuInSe/sub 2/ interface into the CuInSe/sub 2/ shows a reduction in the field at the hetero-interface which results in marked losses in short-circuit currents when the interface recombination velocity exceeds about 10/sup 5/ cm s/sup -1/. The results of the computation demonstrate the sensitivity of the cell design to several factors including doping, recombination center distribution and boundary conditions to interlayers between the active device part and the electrodes.

  16. Assessment of Cu, Pb and Hg Contamination in Bottom Sediments Of Surface Water in XuZhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓; 韩宝平; 朱雪强

    2004-01-01

    Pollution of heavy metals Cu,Pb and Hg is assessed using geo-accumulation index in this paper. The result shows that the bottom sediments of surface water in Xuzhou is polluted by these heavy metals to deferent degrees, of which the Jinma River is the most serious, and then the Kuihe River, the abandoned Yellow River, and the Jinghang Canal. The Yunlong Lake has also been polluted by Hg. The three kinds of heavy metals in the order of concentration is Hg>Cu>Pb. The pollution degree and the type of element is closely related with industrial structure in Xuzhou.

  17. Effects of grinding and shaking on Cd, Pb and Zn distribution in anthropogenically impacted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterlot, Christophe; Bidar, Géraldine; Pruvot, Christelle; Douay, Francis

    2012-08-30

    The effects of grinding size and shaking process on the results of Cd (cadmium), Pb (lead) and Zn (zinc) distribution measurements three agricultural and three kitchen garden soils highly contaminated by past atmospheric fallout of two lead and zinc smelters in northern France were studied. The physico-chemical parameters and pseudo-total concentration of metals within these soils were determined. The fractionation of metals was performed in triplicate, using the procedure recommended by the Standards, Measurements and Testing program (SM&T), on each air-dried soil sample, ground to pass through 2-mm, 0.315-mm and 0.250-mm sieves and using a reciprocating or rotary shaker. The samples were analysed by flame or electrothermal absorption atomic spectrometry using a self-reversal background system. For both shaking processes, the grinding size had no effect on the fractionation of metals in contaminated agricultural soils. In contrast, using a reciprocating shaker, the fractionation of metals in the kitchen garden samples sieved at sieves. Therefore changes (use of a 50 mL graduated polypropylene centrifuge tube, evaporation of the solution to a fixed volume in step 3 and the use of an automatic shaking heating bath) were made to the initial procedure and a rotary shaker was used to improve the suspension of the soil samples during extraction. For all grinding sizes, the fractionation of the three metals contained in the contaminated kitchen garden soil samples was successfully achieved. Nevertheless, some discrepancies from samples sieved at grinding size. From an analytical point of view, precision and trueness were improved after optimisation of the procedure for all sequential extraction procedure steps. The best results were obtained for samples sieved at <0.250 mm. Similar trends were obtained using the CRM BCR(®)-701 certified material. All the results showed that optimisation of the sequential extraction procedure could be adopted for the Cd-, Pb- and Zn

  18. Heavy metal content (Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb) in soil amendment with a low polluted biosolid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Lucas, Ignacio; Lag Brotons, Alfonso; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Belén Almendro-Candel, Maria; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria

    2016-04-01

    The progressively higher water quality standards in Europe has led to the generation of large quantities of sewage sludge derived from wastewater treatment (Fytili and Zabaniotou 2008). Composting is an effective method to minimize these risks, as pathogens are biodegraded and heavy metals are stabilized as a result of organic matter transformations (Barker and Bryson 2002; Noble and Roberts 2004). Most of the studies about sewage sludge pollution are centred in medium and high polluted wastes. However, the aim of this study was to assess the effects on soil heavy metal content of a low polluted sewage sludge compost in order to identify an optimal application rate based in heavy metal concentration under a period of cultivation of a Mediterranean horticultural plant (Cynara carducnculus). The experiment was done between January to June: rainfall was 71 mm, the volume of water supplied every week was 10.5 mm, mean air temperatures was 14.2, 20.4 (maximum), and 9.2◦C (minimum). The soil was a clay-loam anthrosol (WRB 2006). The experimental plot (60 m2) was divided into five subplots with five treatments corresponding to 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 kg compost/m2. Three top-soil (first 20 cm) samples from each treatment were taken (January, April and June) and these parameters were analysed: pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter and total content of heavy metals (microwave acid digestion followed by AAS-spectrometry determination). The results show that sewage sludge compost treatments increase the organic matter content and salinity (electrical conductivity of the soils) and diminish the pH. Cd and Ni total content in top-soil was affected and both slightly reduce their concentration. Pb and Cr show minor changes. In general, the application of this low polluted compost may affect the mobility of Cd and Ni due to the pH modification and the water added by irrigation along time but Pb and Cr remain their content in the top-soil. References Barker, A.V., and G.M. Bryson

  19. Effect of Cd and Sn Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Si-Cu-Mg Cast Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rong-de; LI Run-xia; YU Li; HU Zhuang-qi

    2004-01-01

    The present work has investigated the effect of trace elements Cd and Sn on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Si-Cu-Mg cast alloy. With the increase of Cd addition the strength of alloy rises at first and then drops. The optimal amount of Cd and Sn addition for Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy is about 0.27% and 0.1% respectively. Due to the formation of some coarse Cd-rich phases and pure Cd particles the mechanical properties of alloy decrease when Cd amount exceeds0.27%. When more than 0.1% Sn added, some Sn atoms form low-melting eutectic compound at grain boundary, and then cause over-burning in alloy when solution treated, which may deteriorate properties of alloy, especially ductility of alloy.On the other hand, the addition of Cd and Sn remarkably increases the peak hardness and reduces the time to reach aging peak in Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy. The action of Cd/Sn in quaternary Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy is effectively the same as that occur in binary Al-Cu alloy that the enhanced hardening associated with Cd / Sn addition is due to the promotion of the θ' phase.

  20. Defect levels in CdS/CuInSe/sub 2/ thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, V.; Noufi, R.; Powell, R.C.

    1988-02-15

    Thermally stimulated capacitance spectroscopy has been employed to study the defect levels in high-efficiency, CdS/CuInSe/sub 2/ thin-film solar cells. Voltage bias changes were used to probe the majority-carrier traps and light bias was employed, for the first time, to reveal minority-carrier traps. The light bias thermally stimulated capacitance has shown the presence of a distribution of electron trapping levels in CuInSe/sub 2/. The capacitance under steady illumination shows that the traps produce a large photocapacitance. The implications of these observations in terms of device performance is discussed.

  1. The properties of CdTe solar cells with ZnTe/ZnTe: Cu buffer layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Huijin; Zheng Jiagui; Feng Lianghuan; Yan Qiang; Lei Zhi; Wu Lili; Zhang Jingquan; Li Wei; Li Bing

    2008-01-01

    CdS/CdTe solar cells with ZnTe/ZnTe:Cu buffer layers were fabricated and studied. The energy band structure of it was analyzed. The C-V, I-V characteristics and the spectral response show that the ZnTe/ZnTe:Cu buffer layers improve the back contact characteristic properties, the diode characteristics of the forward junction and the short-wave spectral response of the CdTe solar cells. The ZnTe/ZnTe:Cu buffer layers affect the solar cell conversion efficiency and its fill factor.

  2. Structural and optical properties of Cu-doped CdTe films with hexagonal phase grown by pulsed laser deposition

    OpenAIRE

    F. de Moure-Flores; J. G. Quiñones-Galván; A. Guillén-Cervantes; Santoyo-Salazar, J.; A. Hernández-Hernández; Olvera, M. de la L.; M. Zapata-Torres; Meléndez-Lira, M.

    2012-01-01

    Cu-dop